Journal of Alfred Ely, a prisoner of war in Richmond. Edited by Charles Lanman.
Ely, Alfred, 1815-1892., Lanman, Charles, ed. 1819-1895,

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  1 JOU RNAL OF A L F RE D ELY, P rimDner o9 Mar in ichmntnd. EDITED BY CHARLES LANMAN. NEW YORK: D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 443 & 445 BROADWAY. M.DCCC.LXII.

Page  2 ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S62, By CHARLES LANMAN, In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the District of Columbia.

Page  3 INTRODUCTION. ON the 18th of July, 1861, an encounter had occurred in Virginia between some of the Union troops and a portion of the rebel army, in which the Thirteenth Regiment of New York Volunteers participated. Coming, as those men did, chiefly from the Congressional District represented by the Hon. Alfred Ely, and as rumors had reached him that some of the soldiers in whom he felt a deep interest had been either killed or wounded in the action, he felt it to be his duty to visit the regiment and ascertain their exact condition. Under these circumstances, and to a certain extent induced by a common feeling of curiosity to witness the movements of an army in the field, he was with others induced to visit the scene of an expected combat. If the object which he contemplated should incur censure from any quarter, it cannot be questioned that he severely expiated the error.

Page  4 4 INTRODUCTION. As a non-combatant, participating to no extent in the military' operations, and accidentally becoming a spectator of the momentous scene at Bull Run, he found himself, before the day had closed, a prisoner of war. In company with many of our gallant officers and men, who had the misfortune to be captured on that occasion, some of whom bore honorable wounds, he was carried to the head-quarters of the rebel general, "thence transported to Richmond, and there confined in a prison for five weary months. During that time he saw much to interest his feelings in behalf of his brave and patriotic associates, and not a little to illustrate the character of the people under whose control it was their misfortune to be thrown. At an early period of this durance, Mr. Ely was impelled, by a variety of motives, to keep a Journal of the events which transpired in and about his prison. Deprived of his accustomed employments, he found in this occupation some relief from ennui, and anticipated the period when, released from his captivity, the chronicle of these days and their experiences would afford him pleasure in the retrospect. It was with this view, therefore, that he commenced and continued his record. It never occurred to him to prepare a work for publication. Indeed, the restraint of a prison precluded the possibility of attempting any thing beyond a simple memorandum of daily events, and the performance of even this simple task was subjected to

Page  5 INTRODUCTION. 5 many difficulties and interruptions. The nature and extent of these difficulties will appear in the following pages. On his release from confinement and return to his friends, Mr. Ely found himself incessantly interrogated as to the events which had occurred, the treatment he had experienced, and the individuals with whom he had intercourse. His Journal supplied ample responses to these various inquiries; and those to whom it was submitted concurring in urging him to publish it, he was induced to give his consent, believing that the unvarnished record of his prison life would be acceptable, not only to his friends, but to many others in the North having relatives in the South enduring a similar fate to his, and that his reminiscences might throw some light on the hidden history of the Great Rebellion. Under these circumstances he concluded to place the Journal at the disposal of the Editor, with the understanding that all passages of a strictly private or domestic character should be excluded. With these few exceptions the Journal now appears in precisely the shape in which it was originally written. The only editorial labor in the matter has been to arrange the foot notes, which will be found to run through the entire volume;-and as to the list of prisoners, which appears in the Appendix, it is proper to say that it was compiled by Mr. Ely with great care,

Page  6 6 INTRODUCTION. and is the most complete and authentic one on record. The portrait which illustrates the volume was inserted at the Editor's suggestion, and the vignette of the prison was engraved from a drawing taken in Richmond. C. L. GEORGETOWN, D. C., larch 7, 1862.

Page  7 JOURNAL. ON Saturday, July 20, 1861, participating with many others in the anxieties of the day, and curious to witness what should occur, I applied to General Winfield Scott,'in Washington, for a passport to visit our troops, then encamped at Fairfax Court House and Centreville, near what is known as "Bull Run," where it was expected a battle would take place on the following day. The General made several inquiries relating to my birthplace and parentage, and I told him that we had met before. I alluded to the circumstance that many years ago he landed at my father's place on Connecticut River, with his wife and military suite, upon which occasion he sent to the New London Fort a small lad to inform the captain of the fort of his arrival at Lyme, and requesting that suitable carriages might be sent out to convey him to New London. The General re

Page  8 8 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, plied that he "remembered the circumstance well," and was surprised to learn that "I was the lad" to whom reference had been made. I mentioned some other personal recollections, of subsequent date, connected with his visits to Rochester, in New York, my present place of residence, and none of them seemed to have escaped his mind. I remarked to him that the American people were looking to him at this moment with great anxiety, and, alluding to the approaching battle, inquired how many men General Beauregard had at Manassas. He replied, about thirty-eight thousand-not to exceed forty thousand-and that General McDowell's plans and movements had been talked over with him, and well considered. On being asked how many.troops we had, he gave me this significant reply: "Enough. General McDowell will win." Having detained the General as long as I thought proper, I rose to depart, and he handed me the desired passport. Hon. La Fayette S. Foster, United States Senator from Connecticut, and myself had made arrangements to visit the battle-ground together, in the same carriage; and it was decided that I should take with me Mr. Seth Green, then in Washington, and sutler of the 13th Regiment New York State Volunteers, and that Lieut. Ash, U. S. A., and Mr. Julius Bing, an Italian gentleman, should accompany us. We were to depart

Page  9 A PRISONER OF WAR. 9 early on the following morning; and having hired a carriage, at twenty-five dollars for the trip, I retired to my rooms. During the evening a number of gentlemen happened to pay me a visit, and while one or two of them warned me of the dangers of the trip I had proposed to make, the prevailing opinion seemed to be that there was no danger. At a late hour I retired to my bed, whilst my friend, Mr. Green, made himself comfortable for the night on the sofa in my front parlor. We left Washington at five o'clock A. M., in a double carriage drawn by fine horses, with our provisions for the day laid in, and our company apparently in fine spirits. After crossing the Long Bridge, and catching a glimpse of Wm. H. Russell, Esq., of London, travelling in the same direction, we met with few interruptions from our pickets, and nothing of special interest took place on the route, until after our arrival at Fairfax Court House-which we thought was at least twenty miles from Washington-and where we arrived a little after noon. We halted there for three-quarters of an hour, and looked at the Federal troops, then in possession of the place. It is a small village, containing less than six hundred inhabitants; all the buildings, dwelling-houses, and the general exterior indicated just what it was-a miserably poor and dilapidated place. 1*

Page  10 10 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, It is, however, the shire-town of Fairfax County, Virginia, where are located the county buildings, the Court House, and different clerks' offices, all built of brick, plain, and apparently quite ancient, and all of them then occupied by the Federal troops. With Senator Foster I visited the Court House, and found its interior a real curiosity. It is said to be the building in which General Washington received his first commission; a local tradition, however, states that this ceremony was performed in an old dwelling-house near by, in the village. The interior of the court-room was from fortyfive to fifty feet in length, and from thirty to thirty-five in width. At one end was a raised platform against the wall, stretching to either side of the building, about four feet wide, with a rail in.front. In advance of this was a plank, forming, as we supposed, the Judge's bench, or the woolsack. Beneath this bench was the lawyers' bar, formed by a platfbrm raised some eighteen inches from the main floor, and also surrounded by a railing; the inclosure being twelve feet across, and entered by a gate. At the right of the bench was the witness-box, octagonal in shape, and also entered by a gate; a gallery faced the bench, capable of holding perhaps fifty spectators, in the rear of which were two rooms, used as jury rooms, and scarcely large enough to hold a

Page  11 A PRISONER OF WAR. 11 full panel. Before leaving the court-room, Mr. Foster and myself franked some letters for the troops to send to their friends. While at this place, the Hon. A. H. Rice and Hon. Charles Delano, members of Congress from Massachusetts, rode up in a carriage on their way to the battle-ground. Shortly afterwards our party reentered our carriage and proceeded to Centreville, a small settlement some four miles distant, where our troops had been concentrating for some days, in anticipation of the conflict that was expected to take place on that day. We arrived there and halted at about half-past one, or perhaps two o'clock, on an eminence from which we could see a great distance, and especially the Bull Run ridge of hills, in front of which the battle was already raging, although the thick woods hid from our view all the troops, and every thing having the appearance of war. The smoke, however, was plainly seen, and the deeptoned roar of the artillery distinctly heard. Here our party again alighted from the carriage, in the midst of a great number of similar vehicles, which had brought out many people from Washington; citizens, Representatives, and Senators; among whom, immediately around me, I recognized Hon. Henry Wilson, Hon. J. A. Gurley, and a reporter of the New York press. The head-quarters of Colonel Dixon S. Miles,

Page  12 12 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, of the U. S. Army, who was in charge, as it has since appeared, of the reserved corps of the Federal forces, were but a short distance from our halting-place across a cornfield, some sixty rods off, perhaps. Senator Foster invited me to call upon the colonel with him, and we rode at once to his quarters. We found him in a small house by the roadside, and as we entered he was reclining in the middle of the floor in conversation with several gentlemen around him, but the reporter of a New York journal was the only person whom I recognized. The colonel saluted us very cordially, and some desultory conversation ensued, but I cannot recall any of it on account of the confusion that prevailed. I had never before seen Colonel Miles, and therefore do not feel myself competent to form an absolute judgment, but the impression made at the time upon my mind, as well as upon others, certainly was, that the colonel was under the influence of unnatural stimulants. We remained about half an hour, then resumed our seats in the carriage, and drove along the road in the direction of Bull Run until we arrived at a small brook crossing the road, when an army-wagon, coming in contact with one of our wheels, so disabled it that it was necessary to have it repaired before we could proceed. Senator Foster here left the carriage, and I went

Page  13 A PRISONER OF WAR. 13 with the driver to a neighboring blacksmithshop, where the necessary repairs were made. This was the last I saw of the Senator; but it subsequently appeared that he arrived safe in Washington on the 22d day of July.* While at the shop, Calvin IIuson, Jr., and D. D. S. Brown, Esqs., of Rochester, N. Y., came to the carriage. They had left Washington the day before, and were then on their way to their own carriage, intending to return to Washington. They, however, changed their plan, and, getting into my carriage, we drove some little distance further towards Bull Run, and halted in front of a small house, where other persons and carriages were assembled. Among those whom I there recognized, were Mr. Tracy, one of the proprietors of the Rochester Evening Expretss, Mr. Green, who had come out in company with me, and Mr. Hor"* The Editor inserts the following at the request of Mr. Ely:"Senator Foster, after the accident to our carriage, proceeded on foot till he came to the house on the northerly side of the road, (Warrenton Turnpike,) leading across Bull Run, which was occupied as a hospital. He remained there assisting our surgeons in dressing the wounded, who were brought there in considerable numbers, till the retreat of our troops became a rout, when he left and returned to Centreville on foot, closely pursued a portion of the way by the rebel cavalry. He rode back to Washington that night from Fairfax Court House in Gen. Meigs's carriage, and was in his seat in the Senate on Monday morning. Expecting my return, he let our carriage remain near the hospital, where I had left it, that I might have the means of escape. Happily that escaped capture.

Page  14 14 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ace Bryan, connected with the 13th Regiment N. Y. Volunteers. As well as I can recollect, this was about four o'clock P. M. After spending perhaps fifteen minutes in the carriage conversing with Mr. Huson and other gentlemen standing. near by, I got out, and instructed my driver to remain where he was until I returned. I strolled down the road near to the scene of battle, accompanied by Mr. Bryan. When we had gone some seventy-five rods, he declined to go further, and, from fear or prudential motives, turned back and left me alone. A large number of persons were standing in the road and in the fields, and also a company of troops near the place where I halted, in the middle of the road. The striking of a rifle-ball near where I was standing admonished me of the danger of my position. I immediately left the road, and advanced into the lot on the right, about two rods, and took shelter behind the trunk of a large tree, where I found other persons who had sought a similar refuge. I am unable to state the length of my stay under the tree, but I recollect that a cannon-ball or shell came crashing through its branches, scattering the leaves, and adding much to my alarm. It is certain, however, that I must have remained here much longer than I realized, from fear of being shot if I moved. I was in the immediate vicinity of a clump of woods, which

Page  15 A PRISONER OF WAR. 15 was so dense that no one could be distinguished in it beyond a very small distance. It was while under the tree above mentioned that a company of infantry issued from the woods, marching in great haste, " double quick," with a military officer on horseback leading in advance. On arriving within about ten rods of the spot where I was standing, the company halted. Two officers then came forward to the tree and inquired who I was, and I told them my name was "Alfred Ely." "What State are you from? " " From the State of New York," I replied. " Are you connected in any way with the Government?" " Yes." "In what way, sir? "/ " A Representative in Congress." One of the officers, a captain, immediately seized me.by the arm, and said that I was their prisoner, and took from me the pistol which I had that morning borrowed of Mr. Seth Green. He took nothing else. The officer repeatedly assured me that I should not be harmed, and behaved with kindness and courtesy. He took me to the colonel, sitting on horseback, and introduced me in these words: " Colonel, this is Mr. Ely, Representative in Congress from New York," to which the colonel, in a most angry tone, replied, drawing his pistol, and pointing it directly at my head, " G-d d —n your white-livered soul! I'll blow your brains out on the spot." The captain and another officer

Page  16 16 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, rushed before the colonel, and prevented him from carrying out his threat, the former exclaiming: " Colonel, colonel, you must not shoot that pistol, he is our prisoner." The colonel immediately rode away, when the captain stated to me that he was ashamed of his colonel; that he was very much excited, and had been drinking. / The colonel alluded to above turned out to be Colonel E. B. C. Cash, of South Carolina, in command of a regiment from that State; the name of the more humane officer was Adjutant W. S. Mullins. I was conducted, in company with about six hundred officers and men, all prisoners of war, on foot, that evening to Manassas, a distance of about seven miles from where I was arrested,-over the dustiest road that it was ever my fortune to travel. The dust, so dense that it might almost be cut with a knife, the weather dry, and no water to be had, my mouth became so parched that it seemed impossible for me to move my tongue. On the march, by the side of the road, a few of the soldiers' canteens were partly filled from dirty pools of water, and from one I took a draught which relieved me very considerably. We arrived at Manassas about nine o'clock in the evening, and were marched into an open space of ground, where we halted. There were at least one thousand persons, as near as I could

Page  17 A PRISONER OF WAR. 17 judge by the lights shining from the Confederate camps. They were lying upon the ground, surrounded by guards, thickly posted, and near by was a house, said to be General Beauregard's head-quarters. About the time of our arrival it commenced raining, and in that place, without shelter, we were to remain the entire night, exposed (to all appearance) to a pelting storm. Fortunately, however, for me, as I was about looking for a place to lie down, on the bare ground, as my only alternative, an- officer came inside the guards and called out for " Representative Ely," to which I at once responded. He addressed me by saying that " General Beauregard requested me to proceed to the officers' quarters," and I immediately followed the officer. On my way to the place, I passed by the head-quarters of General Beauregard, where were several officers upon the piazza of the small house, apparently busy in conversation, surrounding a table, upon which, in the dim light, I perceived some papers. I could not, of course, distinguish any of the faces, but to my utter astonishment I caught the voice of Hon. W. Porcher Miles, late Representative in the United States Congress from South Carolina. On approaching the house I spoke to Mr. Miles in a respectful and courteous manner, and both extending our hands, I saw that he did not

Page  18 18 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, recognize me; whereupon I said to him, " Do you not know me?" He replied, " I do not recollect you." I then told him to look again, and remarked that I had served with him in the last Congress, and gave him my name. The honorable gentleman seemed to manifest, upon this announcement, a sudden coolness and indignation, and remarked that he did not "feel that warm cordiality (which I seemed to exhibit) toward one who was engaged in an attempt to subjugate the South or his Government." He then left me, stepped a few paces off, and whispered to a military officer, communicating the fact, as I presumed, that they had captured a member of Congress. I.have since learned that among the persons on the piazza was Jefferson Davis, (who had arrived at Manassas at four o'clock,) General Beauregard, and Hon. William Smith. I then proceeded, with my guard, to the " officers' quarters," which consisted of a miserable old barn, which was already crowded with officers stretched out upon the floor, and so numerous were they that there was scarcely.space enough for me to assume a like position. It was all dark, excepting the light shed from a common tin lantern in the hands of the guard, and I could not distinguish one person from another. Here upon the filthy floor, without blanket or covering, and no other

Page  19 A PRISONER OF WAR. 19 than a light linen coat upon my back, I passed the night. And such a night!! The morning light disclosed to view officers of our army of every grade in the volunteer service, and a few regulars. Having been taken from different regiments on the field, they were mostly strangers to each other, and silence prevailed after they rose. I was the only prisoner in citizen's dress, and unknown, as I supposed, to every person present. The only officer whose name I heard repeated was that of Col. Corcoran, a tall, handsome-looking officer, lying upon the floor a few paces from me, whose fatigue and wounds, received the day before, had too much weakened him to stand upon his feet. It was a subject of conjecture only where we were to be.sent. It had rained all night, was still raining, and the morning was gloomy indeed. One person that I recollect, however, was as good as a joke. He was a very busy and loud-talking negro, who flourished the tail of a dead horse, which had been shot from under General Beauregard-whose servant the man was-and who remarked that "Massa Bogard very smart man-he catch all de Yankees!" At nine o'clock I was called upon by Major M. W. Clusky, who had been Postmaster of the House of Representatives during the Thirty-fifth Congress, and whose acquaintance I had made in Washington, when I first took my seat as a Rep.

Page  20 20 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, resentative. He had been also 'a candidate -for reelection, but was defeated. He introduced to me a Colonel Bate, and Rev. Joseph Cross, Chaplain of a Tennessee regiment. He volunteered to speak to General Beauregard and Jefferson Davis, then at Manassas Junction, in regard to my release, stating all the circumstances of my seizure; but I am not aware that he did so. Soon after this interview a military officer from Louisiana, who turned out to be Major Prados, from New Orleans, came to the barn and ordered the officers to form in double file, according to their respective rank, and be in readiness to march. We were taken through the rain and mud to the Virginia Central Railroad cars, which were soon to depar.t for Richmond, Virginia, where by this time we inferred we were to be sent, and held as prisoners of war until otherwise disposed of. The rain came down in torrents, and we remained in the cars until four o'clock P. A., waiting for a portion of the privates taken pris, oners, the wounded and sick, to be taken on board. The train soon afterwards left the Junc. tion with about six hundred men, including the captured officers. The Louisiana major in charge did what was in his power to make us comfortable, and we passed a resolution of thanks to him in the cars for his kind and obliging attentions to our wants while on our way to Richmond. We

Page  21 A PRISONER OF WAR. 21 travelled all night, and reached Gordonsville about ten o'clock on the following morning. The cars were detained some time at Gordonsville, where the major provided ample refreshments for all the officers, who were, with one or two exceptions, collected in one car. That the men were also supplied with food, I take for granted. No man was permitted to leave the car, both doors being strongly guarded by soldiers with muskets and bayonets, and yet we were allowed to purchase what we could of juvenile peddlers and women, who assembled around the cars at the various stations on our way. It was evident from the crowds of people who gathered around the train at every station, and from the appearance of the inhabitants in front of farm-houses and along the road, that the prisoners of war were expected to pass, and a sort of wild curiosity was manifested to get a peep at the "Yankees" through the car windows. The only places of note through which we passed from Manassas Junction to Richmond City were Culpepper C. H., Orange C. H., Gordonsville, Louisa Junction, and Taylorville, at all of which we halted. At the latter place, some of the guards permitted a prisoner, one of the privates, to get out of the car for some purpose, and on this being discovered by Major Prados, he drew his pistol and threatened to shoot the guard

Page  22 22 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, who should permit any other prisoner to leave the car for any purpose whatever. It was intimated in the cars that the prisoners would be met by an uncontrollable mob on their arrival at Richmond, and our lives endangered; but Major Prados assured us that he had with him a guard of one hundred and fifty men, and that we had nothing to fear. It proved to be even so, for on our arrival at Richmond, at nine o'clock P. M., there was no disturbance and no assemblage of people.* It was a bright moonlight night, and after remaining at the station for an hour, we were marched through different streets, a distance of over a mile, to a large brick building "* As many of the readers of this volume may not recollect the precise character which Richmond bears among American cities, the following particulars are submitted for their benefit: It is the capital and largest city of Virginia, beautifully situated at the head of tide water navigation on the James River, is a port of entry, and, according to the census of 1860, has a population of nearly thirtyeight thousand inhabitants, though the numbers have greatly increased during the past year. Railroads centre there from the four quarters of the compass, and it is distant from Washington, by railroad, one hundred and thirty miles. Its chief articles of export are wheat, flour, and tobacco; its flouring mills having obtained an unusual reputation, and its tobacco warehouses or factories numbering no less than forty. The public buildings are numerous, and several of them handsome, the State Capitol being quite a splendid affair. It was founded in 1742, and became the capital of the State in 1780. It has three incorporated banks, seventeen journals and periodicals, four or five colleges and literary institutions, and thirty churches. The rebel Congress first met here July 20, 1861, having been removed from Montgomery, Alabama.

Page  23 A PRISONER OF WAR. 23 on Main street, previously used as a tobacco factory. We were taken into the second and third stories of this building. Both floors were soon crowded with prisoners, lying down and standing up, and so closely huddled were they that there was scarcely room left for the officers to lie down, even if so disposed. This disposition of the officers was so different from what had been promised by the officer in charge, that it created great chagrin and disappointment. Major Prados had assured us that, on our arrival, he would take us to the Secretary of War, and that we should be allowed the liberty of the city, upon our parole of honor. We slept upon the floor that night, and slept soundly.* July 24.-I arose at an early hour this morning, surrounded by, to me, an entirely new scene, "* For the want of a better place, it may be stated that the affair of Bull Run will undoubtedly be remembered by historians as a drawn battle. It has been proven that at one time each army thought itself defeated, and it is certain that at about two o'clock the Federal troops were victorious. The Union army, according to official reports, numbered eighteen thousand men, and was commanded by General McDowell; while the rebel army, according to Beauregard's report, consisted of twenty-nine thousand men, commanded by Generals Johnston, Lee, and Beauregard. Union loss, four hundred and seventy-nine killed, one thousand and eleven wounded, and twelve hundred and sixteen taken prisoners; Rebel loss acknowledged, three hundred and ninety-three killed, and the wounded, according to Dr. A. Powell, numbering between three and four thousand.

Page  24 24 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and with decidedly some new ideas. A prisoner of war, with six hundred others under the same roof, of all ranks, professions, and stations in life! Soon we were treated to breakfast-about a drayload of bread, half that quantity of boiled beef, and several large cauldrons of coffee. There were about three hundred men on the floor with me; and on the arrival of breakfast, a looker-on would have been reminded of the feeding of a drove of swine. Soon after breakfast, General John H. Winder, formerly of the United States Army, occupying the position, as I was informed, of Brigadier-General in the Confederate army, called upon us, and apologized for our uncomfortable quarters by stating that our arrival was unexpected, and therefore he was unprepared; but that a separate apartment for the officers, in another building, was nearly ready, and we should be removed to it in the afternoon. General Winder has a striking and commanding personal appearance; and his prompt and rapid movements, set off with a military air, attract your attention at once. He resides in Richmond, and is now the commanding General of that post. In his charge, alSo, are' all the prisoners brought to Richmond by the Confederate forces. The building in which we are assembled is

Page  25 A PRISONER OF WAR. 25 guarded on all sides by a strong force, night and day, and we had been in confinement but a short time, when one of the guards, in rear of the building, fired a musket-ball through a window of the third story, at a prisoner who happened to be looking out at the moment. The ball lodged in a joist in the upper floor, which prevented it from penetrating through the floor, possibly into the body of some innocent man. Like acts of brutality had been perpetrated before, as I understood; and Col. Michael Corcoran, of the 69th Regiment New.York State Militia, one of the prisoners, and myself, called the General's attention to the circumstance, and pointed out the ball marks. He said it should not be repeated. To-day, at the request of the prisoners, I prepared a petition to Abraham Lincoln, President of the United States, stating, in substance, that about forty officers, whose names were signed to the petition, together with some six hundred privates, in the military service of the United States, were prisoners of war, in close confinement at Richmond, Virginia, and requested that immediate steps might be taken by our Governmentby exchange or otherwise-to effect their immediate release. All the officers signed the petition, as well as myself, and it was forwarded to. the President. At four o'clock this afternoon, I was called 2

Page  26 26 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, upon by Hon. L. M. Keitt and Hon. W. W. Boyce, of. South Carolina, and Hon. Roger M. Pryor and Hon. Thomas S. Bocock, of Virginia, all members with myself of the Thirty-sixth Congress, and all now members of the so-called Confederate Congress, now sitting in Richmond. They informed me that they had but just learned that I was in Richmond, a prisoner, and had called to say that they would go back and see that I was released; Mr. Boyce remarked that I should go into quarters with them. I felt much pleased with the visit paid me by these gentlemen, and the courtesy and kindness they exhibited toward me. They were apparently in earnest when they assured me of their efforts to secure my release. They assured other gentlemen, who informed me of the fact, that they intended to get me a parole, which would give me the liberty of the city at least. I have reason to believe they made that effort, and that the question was considered in Cabinet Council on their return to head-quarters. Not having heard from either of these gentlemen since their visit, I infer, of course, that they were unsuccessful. There were several other gentlemen who called upon me to-day, among whom was Mr. J. B. Ezell, formerly connected with one of the departments in Washington, and now employed in the General Post-Office Department of the rebel

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] TTn I PRISON AT RICHIMOND.

Page  27 A PRISONER OF WAR. 27 States at Richmond. He volunteered to do any thing in his power to assist me, and left me with a commission to purchase for my use a thin dark frock-coat and a shirt, as the thin white linen coat and shirt that I had on-all I had with me -had become horribly soiled. After the departure of these gentlemen, my fellow-prisoners gathered around to congratulate me on my speedy release, and I confess that I experienced at that time a thrill of joy such as I have seldom felt. Late this afternoon, we (I mean the officers and myself) were removed into our new quarters -an adjoining building, which is also a tobacco factory, and the lower floor, about seventy feet long by thirty feet wide, is our apartment. It is divided midway by a row of tobacco presses, the space on one side being exclusively our quarters, while the other half is occupied by the guards, especially to sleep in at night, and is constantly resounding with a great noise from the stacking of guns, and the tramp of the soldiery. The two stories above us are occupied by Union soldiers, (prisoners,) but they have no access to our apartment. The building fronts on Main street. All the windows, both in front and rear of the first and second stories, are secured by seven round iron bars, reaching from the lower to the upper sills. The rear half of the floor is occupied by us, and overlooks the James River, which is directly

Page  28 28 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, in view, except as the prospect is interrupted by buildings and trees. This room is not supplied by even a chair or bench to sit upon, and is destitute of every article of furniture. We are all to sleep upon the floor, without any exception. Upon our entrance to these new quarters, which we understand to be a kind of permanency, I think it well to record the names and rank of my unhappy associates, that I may at some future period of my life refer to them, if so fortunate as ever again to be restored to the freedom of an American citizen. This record I will reserve for my early duty to-morrow morning. July 25.-The officers captured at the battle of Manassas or Bull Run, on Sunday, July 21, 1861, and now prisoners of war at Richmond, are as follows: Col. MICHAEL COROORAN, 69th Regt. New York Militia. Capt. J. P. McIvoR, 69th Regt. New York Militia. Capt. M. GRIFFIN, 8th Regt. New York Militia. Capt. JOHi DOWNEY, 11th Regt. New York Zouaves. Capt. WILLIAM MANSON, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Capt. J. A. FARRISH, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Capt. J. B. DREW, 2d Regt. Vermont Volunteers. Capt. S. D. GOLYER, 4th Regt. Michigan Volunteers. Capt. W. L. BOWEas, Quartermaster 1st Rhode Island Volunteers. Lieut. EDMUND CONOLLY, 69th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. JOHN BAGLEY, 69th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. JAMES GANNON, 69th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. S. R. KNIGHT, 1st Regt. Rhode Island Volunteers. Lieut. W. H. RAYNOR, 1st Regt. Ohio Volunteers. Lieut. R. A. GOODENOUGH, 14th Regt. New York Militia.

Page  29 A PRISONER OF WAR. 29 Lieut. W. H. CLARK, 4h Regt. Maine Volunteers. Lieut. J. B. GLOVER, 4th Regt. Maine Volunteers. Lieut. G. W. CALEFF, 11th Regt. Massachusetts Volunteers. Lieut. J. K. SKINNER, 2d Regt. Maine Volunteers. Lieut. GEO. B. KENNISTON, 5th Regt. Maine Volunteers. Lieut. M. A. PARKS, 1st Regt. Michigan Volunteers. Lieut. JOHN WHITE, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. WALTER B. IVES, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. ROBERT CAMPBELL, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. CHARLES J. MURPHY, 38th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. S. B. PRESTON, 4th Regt. Michigan Volunteers. Lieut. A. M. UNDERHILL, 11th Regt. New York Militia. Lieut. J. B. HUTCHINSON, 15th Regt. Pennsylvania Volunteers. Lieut. ISAAC M. CHURCH, 2d Regt. Rhode Island Volunteers. Lieut. A. E. WELCH, 1st Regt. Minnesota Volunteers. Lieut. CHARLES WALTERS, 1st Regt. Connecticut Volunteers. Lieut. D. S. GORDON, 2d Dragoons U. S. Army, Aide to Col. Keyes. Surgeon ALFRED POWELL, 2d Regt. New York Militia. Surgeon W. A. CONNELLY, 2d Regt. New York Militia. Surgeon JAMES HARRIS, 2d Regt. Rhode Island Volunteers. Surgeon ANDREW MCLETCHIE, 79th Regt. New York Militia. Surgeon STEPHEN GRISWOLD, 38th Regt. N. Y. Life Guard. Surgeon B. J. BUCKSTEN, 5th Regt. Maine Volunteers. Surgeon LEBOUTILLIER, 1st Regt. Minnesota Volunteers. Chaplain GEORGE W. DODGE, 11th Regt. New York Militia. Chaplain HIRAM EDDY, 2d Regt. Connecticut Volunteers. ALFRED ELY, Representative in Congress from New York. We were called on to-day by a large number of the citizens of Richmond, and, judging from the number of carriages I saw drive to the door, most of the visitors could not have succeeded in getting access, as no one could obtain admittance without a pass from General Winder. Hon. Mr. Farrar and Hon. W. S. Barry, members of the rebel Congress from Mississippi, and

Page  30 30 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Hon W. R. Staples, member of the same from Virginia, were among the number who called. They expressed much heartfelt sympathy for my situation, and took occasion to remark that they intended to join with Messrs. Bocock, Boyce, Keitt, and Pryor, in their efforts to secure my discharge. The interview was marked by unusual courtesy and dignity on their part. This afternoon, Robert Tyler, son of the late President, had a long conversation with me, mostly upon the various topics connected with the war. He deplored the unhappy civil conflict, and enlarged upon its destructive consequences to both sections of the Union. He assured me that the North entirely misunderstood the spirit and sentiment of the South; that there was no Union feeling underlying that of secession, as was supposed in the North; and that twenty-two counties in Western Virginia, and a small portion of Tennessee, were the only disaffected sections in all the teceded States. Subjugation of the South, he said, was absurd; they might be killed, but not conquered. The troops of the Southern army were composed of planters and their sons, the men of wealth and position in society, and they " had come to die." Such, he declared, was the determination of the South, and separation of the States was inevitable. Mr. Tyler has all the blandness and courtesy of a Southern gentleman,

Page  31 A PRISONER OF WAR. 31 with great conversational powers; and is gifted, pleasing, and agreeable. He was the private secretary of his father when President. He tendered to me every assistance in his power, and expressed the opinion that his Government would not feel disposed to detain mie. I was also called upon to-day by a delegation of gentlemen from Georgia, whose names I am unable to remember; with them were several ladies, with whom I had a merry and jovial conversation. I entertained them with the incidents of my arrest, and it seemed to be treated by them jocosely rather than as a matter about which I might apprehend danger or long detention. Of course, all this encouraged my expectations, and made me buoyant and hopeful. One of the ladies very prettily remarked, as the company was about leaving, that " the next time she had the pleasure of calling upon me, she hoped to find me fighting for the South." / July 26.-I slept soundly last night, and. woke only once from a dream of my wife and children, and the disappointment in not seeing them for a time overcame my feelings. The world and all its honors would have been too little to give at the moment for the sight, even, of my beloved home and family. But, alas! I am a prisoner of war, and that, too, in my own native land! lWithin these walls I am the victim of an un

Page  32 32 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, happy civil discord in the nation of American freemen, the happiest, freest, and most prosperous people on earth. How much time have I spent, how many celebrations attended, and orations delivered upon the anniversaries of American independence; and where, now, is our boasted Union? Shall the inspiring sentiment of Webster, "Liberty and Union, one and inseparable, now and forever," no longer be the patriotic watchword of American youth? / But to proceed with the incidents of the day. Many visitors have called upon me to-day, and chiefly, I think, to gratify an idle curiosity, until the annoyance has become so great, that I requested of the officer in charge that no more might be admitted, so far as I was concerned. I omitted in my record yesterday to state that the officers formed themselves into an association, called "The Richmond Prison Association," for mutual improvement and amusement, and elected the following officers: ALFRED ELY, President. R. AusTIN GOODENOUGH, Secretary. M. CORCORAN, Treasurer. CHARLES WALTERS, Assistant Treasurer. The Association held its first meeting at once, and the speeches, toasts, and songs pretty

Page  33 A PRISONER OF WAR. 33 clearly indicated the intelligent and educated character of its members.* "* Although the outside accounts of what took place within the walls of the prison were almost invariably full of falsehoods, some of them were amusing. Here is one, for example, which was communicated to the Charleston Courier, under date of August 19, 1861: " Among their amusements are those of card-playing, psalmsinging, cursing, and debating. The latter is almost nightly the occupation of the officers. Ely acts as the moderator of the meeting, or occasionally takes a hand himself. Huson, his congressional competitor-a jolly, good-natured soul, by the way, fat, funny, interesting-is the leading speaker, and the smaller guns predominate in the intellectual battery according to their various calibres. The subjects are any thing and every thing you can imagine, ranging on the gamut from the solemn to the ridiculous. Their subject last evening was derived from the following simple incident: A newsboy who had been in the habit of selling his papers at three, suddenly ran his price up to five cents, and on making his accustomed sale in the morning to one of the prisoners, the latter first refused to 'come down.' The young vender was equally inexorable, and finally carried his point, and received the amount of his demand. This rise in stocks was reported to the Yankee conclave, whereupon the question was raised whether it was right for the man to jew the boy, or the boy to jew the man. The discussion thus commenced in the social circle was carried to the debating society, and after the usual pros and cons, it was finally decided by the Hon. Speaker Ely, that, the boy being the sole and undisputed owner of the property, and the said property not being contraband of war, and no concatenation of circumstances having arisen to obstruct the right thereby vested in the original possessor of the aforesaid vehicle of information, the right was undoubtedly inherent in the adolescent merchant to determine for himself the incipient value of his goods, and to charge for the same accordingly, ad valorem duties to the contrary notwithstanding. Exception was taken to the ruling of the Chair, and Mr. Huson proceeded to quote Shakspeare and Byron and Tom Moore in support of his position. Others followed in the senatorial burlesque, quoting, amid shouts of laughter, 2*

Page  34 34 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, To-day our company was increased by the following additional prisoners: WILLIAM E. WOODRUFF, Colonel 2d Kentucky Volunteers. GEORGE W. NEFF, Lieut.-Colonel " " GEORGE AUSTIN, Captain " " J. R. HUED, Captain " " CHARLES DE VILLIERS, Colonel 11th Ohio Volunteers. These officers belonged to General J. D. Cox's Brigade, and were taken by General Henry A. Wise, on the Kanawha River, on the 17th inst. I omitted to mention that Arnold Harris, a citizen of Washington, and Henry Magraw, a citizen of Pennsylvania, arrived at these quarters last evening as prisoners of war. They were sent this morning to Henrico County jail, and are now held as spies by the rebel Government. They came in search of the body of Colonel Cameron, a brother of the Secretary of War, who fell upon the field of battle. They approached the rebel lines with a flag of truce, entertaining the opinion, no doubt, that 'the Commanding General would permit them to recover the remains of a fallen officer, by going upon the field for that purpose, but they made a grand mistake. They were taken prisoners, and their humane visit cruscraps of Latin, French, and Irish, telling stories, and even singing songs, until bed-time arrived, when the party retired to their blankets. There's a sweet for every bitter, the poet says, and the prisoners are doing all they can to extract it."

Page  35 A PRISONER OF WAR. 35 elly interpreted into the meanest of all missions, that of spies. The famous Mr. Wigfall, late a Senator in Congress, from Texas, was at the prisoners' quarters this morning, apparently to call upon Mr. Arnold Harris; he had been solicited to procure the release of the Washingtonian, and promised to do what he could. I have frequently seen this gentleman in the Senate, but never before to-day held any conversation with him, and on this occasion it was entirely accidental, and without any formal introduction. It seems that he is colonel of a battalion, encamped at present about four miles from Richmond. He conversed freely with me upon the results of the late battle, and at last spoke indignantly of the conduct of our Government in neglecting to bury our dead upon the field of battle, and of the treatment of the prisoners on board the privateer schooner " Savannah," and the honorable gentleman took occasion to assure me that it was the intention of the " Confederate" Government to hang me especially, if the Savannah prisoners were convicted. This was indeed consoling intelligence, and coming from a distinguished Senator, it occurred to me that he might possibly speak the sentiments of his Government in respect to my fate. July 27.-Saturday has come and gone and no particular incident has occurred that justifies

Page  36 36 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, the employment of the pen, beyond noticing the fact that the Richmond Prison Association met as usual this evening, and were entertained by music from several gentlemen, and by a beautiful recitation called "Isabel," from Lieutenant Campbell, of the 19th Regiment, New York Militia. July 28.-This is Sunday, and one week has elapsed since the day of my arrest. I am forcibly reminded at this time of an admonition so frequently given to me in the past, by my wife, that work or amusement indulged in upon the Sabbath, must, sooner or later, result in disaster. The full force of this warning, oftentimes and affectionately repeated to me, I now feel with crushing weight. My visit to Centreville was made on Sunday. An all-wise Providence punishes me for a violation of His commandment,a sequence as direct as it is just. Divine service was held to-day in the apartment of the private soldiers, and the officers were invited and permitted to attend. An impressive and most solemn prayer was made by Rev. Hiram Eddy, Chaplain of the 2d Connecticut Regiment, and a sermon preached by Rev. George W. Dodge, Chaplain of the 11th New York Volunteers. Immediately after the service, I was called on by Governor John Letcher, of Virginia, and Hon. George W. Jones, of Tennessee, and several other

Page  37 A PRISONER OF WAR. 37 distinguished gentlemen, whom, in the confusion of introduction, I cannot recall by name. They were all exceedingly dignified and courteous during the interview, and displayed no feeling of animosity or reproach. Their conversation bore the tone of regret that the two great sections of the Union were now unhappily involved in civil conflict; but they were at the same time firm in the expression of their opinion that the " Confederate" States would achieve a final and complete separation from the Union. Much other talk ensued upon general topics, when the distinguished visitors left; but with what impressions of the M. C. from New York, I am unable to conjecture. It could not have been less affectionate than that of their predecessor from Texas. In my record of yesterday I omitted an important event. About eleven o'clock A. X., who should arrive at the prisoners' quarters, to my great surprise, but Calvin Huson, Jr., Esq., of Rochester. My instant inquiry of him was-"Are you a prisoner of war? " when he bowed an affirmative answer. He related to me, immediately, the facts attending his arrest, and they were as follows: Mr. Huson was in my carriage when I left it on the 21st in company with D. D. S. Brown, and it appears that soon after my departure, Mr. Brown started on his way to reach his own car

Page  38 38 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, riage, with a view of starting homewards. My own driver, alarmed at this circumstance or some other, insisted upon going also, saying that he did not intend to remain there alone. Mr. Huson urged him not to drive away without me, and offering to stay with him, they remained nearly half an hour, until a company of rebel cavalry appeared, when the driver started on with his carriage, and Mr. Huson made his way into the neighboring fields. In a state of exhaustion he finally reached the farm-house of Mr. Albert Flagler, with whom he tarried until Tuesday morning, when he was arrested by the rebel pickets. Mr. Huson was brought from Manassas to Richmond as a prisoner of war, and accompanied on his way by the Hon. J. A. Orr, member of the "Confederate" Congress, from Mississippi, and brother of the late.Speaker of the House of Representatives, who, on their arrival, invited Mr. Huson to go with him to the best hotel in the city, to remain overnight, which he did. That evening and the following morning he was introduced to a large number of gentlemen, members of the rebel Congress, and others occupying prominent positions in the said Congress, by all of whom he was treated with courtesy and consideration. On Saturday morning, lest he might embarrass his friends, Mr. Huson insisted

Page  39 A PRISONER OF WAR. 39 upon being taken to the Federal prison, and therefore came with several distinguished persons as an escort, among whom were Judge Jenkins, from Louisiana, Judge Harris, of Mississippi, Hon. Mr. Boyce, of South Carolina, Mr. J. A. Orr, from Mississippi, Mr. Spratt, editor of the Charleston Mercury, and Mr. Defontaine, editor of the Charleston Courier. The most of these gentlemen were introduced to me, and after a short conversation they took their departure. When Mr. Huson was first arrested, the officers and Mr. Orr, who was accidentally near, supposed him to be a United States Senator, or connected in some other capacity with the General Government, and it was not until many questions were asked and answered that they credited his statement that he was a private citizen. A great number of queries were also put to Mr. Huson in respect to the situation of our army, and the locality of several commanding generals, all of which were answered, so far as he had any information on the subject. About half-past one o'clock on the day of his arrest, Mr. Huson, attended by a general, went over the battle-field, where, as he says, he saw all the unburied dead of the Federal army, and they did not exceed three hundred in his judgment. The Confederate dead, at this time, were all, or nearly so, buried, and greatly exceeded in number those of their

Page  40 40 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, adversaries. All the dead lying unburied presented a frightful and most ghastly spectacle: their bodies swollen to nearly twice their natural size, their faces black, and the bodies lying upon their backs. Another touching sight was noticed byi Mr. Huson. In walking over that field of the slain, he discovered one person, who, from all appearance, had been dead as long as his ill-fated' associates, lying upon his back, with both eyes fully open, and gazing intently upon a daguerreotype likeness of a lady, held in one hand. Poor mortal! In his last moment, in the agony of expiring nature, he was clutching the image of his beloved wife, and relinquished not his grasp, even though life itself was gone. July,29.-The society of Mr. Huson, I confess, relieves the dreary monotony of unoccupied time, as he is the only person among the prison, ers with whom I had any previous acquaintance. Nothing of special interest has happened to-day, except the arrival of the Rev. John F. Mines, an Episcopal clergyman from Bath, in the State of Maine. He was chaplain in the 2d Volunteer Regiment from that State, and was taken a prisoner of war at Bull Run, whence he could easily have escaped, but remained behind to comfort and administer to the wants of the sick and wounded. The "Richmond Prison Association " held a

Page  41 A PRISONER OF WAR. 41 meeting, as usual, and its proceedings and entertainments were the same as on former occasions. July 30.-Mr. Huson is quite sick to-day, and, in fact, has been so since his arrival. July 31.-The last day of July has come, and I am still a prisoner. /The officers have generally formed themselves into messes, and each mess will now take their meals together, and contribute by a common fund to purchase such articles as they choose, beyond the regular rations of the Government. My own mess consists of Colonel Corcoran, Captain Griffin, Captain Downey, Captain McIvor, Lieutenant Bagley, Lieutenant Connelly, Lieutenant Gannon, and myself. Most of the officers above mentioned, belong to the 69th Regiment of New York Militia. / August 1.-The United States House of Representatives passed a resolution to-day, offered by my colleague, Hon. Robert E. Fenton, with a preamble as follows: " Whereas it is currently reported that the forces now in rebellion against the Government have certain persons in their hands, one of whom is Hon. Alfred Ely, a member of this House; therefore, " Besolved, That the President be requested

Page  42 42 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, to furnish this House with any information on the subject that may have reached him."* What information the President could have of my arrest as a prisoner of war, I cannot ima"* The reply of the President to the above resolution is as follows: " To the House of Representatives: " In answer to the resolution of the House of Representatives of yesterday, requesting information regarding the imprisonment of loyal citizens of the United States by the forces now in rebellion against this Government, I transmit a report from the Secretary of State, and the copy of a telegraphic despatch by which it was accompanied. "ABRAHAM LINCOLN. "WASHINGTON, August 2, 1861." "DEPARTMENT OF STATE, WASHINGTON, August 2, 1861. "The Secretary of State, to whom was referred the resolution of the House of Representatives of yesterday, requesting the President to furnish to that House any information he may have in his possession on the subject of the forces now in rebellion against the Government having in imprisonment loyal citizens of the United States, and, among others, the Hon. Alfred Ely, one of the members of the House of Representatives from the State of New York, has the honor to report to the President that the only information possessed by this Department on the subject is contained in a telegraphic despatch, a copy of which is annexed. "1 Respectfully submitted, WILLIAM H. SEWARD. " The PRESIDENT." "UNITED STATES MILITARY TELEGRAPH. "Received August 1, 1861; from Richmond, Va., July 31, 1861. " T0o Hon. WILLIAM H. SEWARD: "I am here a prisoner; Ely, Arnold Harris, and McGraw are also here. C. HUSON, JB."

Page  43 A PRISONER OF WAR. 43 gine, unless the memorial signed by all the officers, and forwarded to the President about the 27th ultimo, had reached him at Washington, which could hardly be possible. He would not communicate any floating rumors he may have heard on the subject. What return, therefore, was made by the Executive in response to the House resolution, I am not advised. The newspapers in Richmond have noticed me by an article in the Dispatch of the 29th ultimo. It simply states that I represent one of the ultra Black Republican districts in New York State; that from information derived from gentlemen now attending the Bank Convention in Richmond, I had been very active in organizing " wide-awake clubs " in the last campaign; that, if released, I gave assurance that I would procure the release of the Savannah privateersmen; and closes with the comment that the " C. S. A." may deem it advisable for Mr. Ely to procure their release first, then the Government may exchange man for man, myself among the number. The Richmond Examiner of this morning has a very severe article in regard to myself, and comments with much bitterness on Senator Henry Wilson and Hon. Owen Lovejoy, for being at Manassas. August 2.-This day has passed without the

Page  44 44 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, occurrence of any particular event, and I cannot say that I regret it. August 3.-The day has been extremely hot, and the chief business of all parties has been to keep quiet and cool, and beyond this nothing of importance has transpired. The "Association" had a meeting this evening, discussed several subjects, and listened to several recitations from the members. August 4.-There has been only the usual routine of prison method to-day of spending unoccupied time, and no items of interest to chronicle. Indeed, I do not aim to record, with any degree of minuteness, all the passing events, even though they may be of interest. The " Association " held another meeting today, and Mr. Huson was invited to address the members, but he was too much indisposed to comply. August 5.-To-day, Lieutenant Todd, who, by the way, is a half-brother of President Lincoln's wife, and at present in the immediate charge of the prisoners, ordered all the servants belonging to the different messes out of the quarters. It was supposed to be for the reason that through them some of the officers obtained ardent spirits, and because of a disturbance created this morning by Dr. Lyman H. Stone, a surgeon in the United States Army, who was arrested

Page  45 A PRISONER OF WAR. 45 at Manassas, and brought here on the 29th ultimo. Dr. Stone is a highly educated gentleman, unaccustomed to excessive indulgence in liquor, but it was supposed that the excitement of the battle, and the circumstances of his arrest, caused him to drink too freely. He started, after dinner, and seized the tables, overturning several, dishes and all, and then laid hold of one or two officers so roughly, that it was manifest he was in a state of frenzy. At last the disturbance became so great, that one of the lieutenants rushed into the room with great fury, and seeing Dr. Stone clenched with one of the officers, and supposing a fight was going on, cocked his revolver and demanded that the fight should cease. It was stopped, and Dr. Stone was taken out of the prison to a brick building in the rear, and put in irons.* "* There was of course nothing wrong in what Lieutenant Todd did in the above connection, but the outrages subsequently committed by him upon the prisoners are spoken of on all hands in the most severe terms. The testimony of Corporal Merrill on this point is as follows:-" Lieutenant.Todd was singularly vicious and brutal in his treatment of the prisoners, and seldom entered the prison without grossly insulting some of the prisoners. He invariably entered with a drawn sword in his hand, and his voice and manners, as he addressed the prisoners, always indicated a desire to commit some cruel wrong. Upon one occasion, with the flat edge of his weapon, he severely struck in the face an invalid soldier, who had not obeyed the order to fall in for roll-call with sufficient alacrity. At another time one of the guard, in the presence and with the sanction of Todd, struck a prisoner upon the head

Page  46 46 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, August 6.-The Examiner this morning contained the correspondence of Arnold Harris and Henry Magraw with General Beauregard, in relation to their mission for recovering the body of Colonel Cameron, who fell in the late battle. Both of the Federals are still in jail, under the imputation of being spies. The same paper also states that Hon. Benjamin Wood has tendered his services for the release of Colonel Corcoran and Congressman Ely, and offers to come to Richmond for that purpose. The editor says, "Let him bring Horace Greeley and Henry Wilson in exchange." Mr. Fenton's resolution in the House is also freely commented upon. August?.-The day has been excessively hot, the mercury rising to ninety-six in the shade. The officers have been lazily playing whist, chess, dominoes, promenading their quarters, and spending the time as amusingly as possible. There is nothing of interest to record to-day, not even in the newspapers. Oh, yes! The Examiner contains an interesting letter from Mr. Thurlow Weed to his paper, reviewing the cause with the butt-end of his musket." It has been asserted that he sanctioned the shooting of some of the prisoners who were killed by the guards, but there appears to be no testimony to that effect. It is due to the truth of history to insert the above statement, but it is probable that the subject will hereafter be very fully ventilated by many persons, who can never forget or forgive the treatment they received at the hands of this Lieutenant Todd.

Page  47 A PRISONER OF WA4R. 47 of the recent defeat at Manassas, and rebuking the haste of such men as Mr. Horace Greeley in his cry of " On to Richmond," unprepared as was the army. He makes a gross attack upon the Postmaster-General, Montgomery Blair, and his brother, Hon. F. P. Blair, from Missouri. He speaks of the Cabinet being a unit in concurring with General Scott in all the measures of the war, with one exception, meaning Mr. Blair. August 8.-To-day a young man, (the son of one of my constituents, residing at Spencerport, Monroe County,) by the name of John B. Nichols, and a member of Captain Lewis' Company, 13th Regiment New York Volunteers, Colonel Quinby, died in the hospital, directly opposite our quarters. Mr. Nichols was wounded in one of his legs at the late battle at Manassas. It became necessary to amputate his leg, and it was done; but his life could not be saved-he died soon after the operation. These facts communicated to me by Mr. W. Henry Joslyn, of Brockport, orderly sergeant in the same company, I deemed it my duty to look after his burial, and to see that his location was designated in such a manner that his afflicted parents might recover his body hereafter, if they desired. Accordingly, at my request, the officer in charge, Lieutenant Marks, had him buried in the " City" burial-ground, and a permanent plank

Page  48 48 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, placed at the head of his grave, with the following inscription plainly painted on the board: "John B. Nichols, Spencerport, N. Y. Died August 8, 1861." Mr. Nichols was carefully attended by the physicians and surgeons of the hospital, and tenderly nursed and cared for by Mr. Joslyn and Mr. Baldwin, who sat up with him several nights before his death. I have written to his father, advising him of his son's death, his burial, and all the attending circumstances, so far as I am acquainted with them. From Sergeant Joslyn I obtained the names of all the prisoners belonging to the 13th Regiment, now in Richmond, so far as he knew them, and they are as follows.* August 9.-The Charleston iMercury of a recent date, which came into my hands to-day, contains an article, reproduced in the Richmond Examiner, headed "_Blood for Blood," and signed " Fair Play." It is said to have been written by a distinguished gentleman of Charleston, than whom there is none more respected, borne down with long service, his head silvered with the snows of near seventy winters, and who is said to have expressed the burning feeling of the entire community, in another article addressed to the * The names here alluded to are embodied in the complete list, forming the Appendix to this volume, and are therefore omitted on this page.

Page  49 A PRISONER OF WAR. 49 ear of the authorities at Richmond, which also bears the fascinating caption above named, of "Blood for Blood." The article first alluded to comments on our treatment of the privateers of the Savannah, and, among other things, says: "Who encouraged our ' militia of the sea'-our ' floating partisans'-to those 'marine deeds' that now harass the foe? Are these brave men no longer citizens of this Confederacy, because, under the President's commission, they have ventured on the most hazardous enterprise against ail usurper and despot? Shall we waft until the crew of the Savannah rebuke us from the grave? The crew of the Savannah hail from Charleston. They have mothers and sisters who are daily weeping over their cruel destiny, and they have fathers and brothers who are impatiently asking why are they forlorn and cast aside? Let the muster-roll of the Savannah be obtained, and let two prisoners (at least) for our one be forwarded from Richmond to Charleston jail. We have no yellow fever now, and the extra humanitarians need not shudder! We say, let these gentlemen be forthcoming, and Mr. Ely be among the number." Surely such sentiments as these require no comments from me. August 10.-This morning a savage article from a North Carolina paper, makes its appearance in the Examiner, under the caption, "We 3

Page  50 50 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, are too generous." It says, among other things: "C While these fifteen of the chivalrous citizens of South Carolina, the crew of the Savannah, who were taken prisoners by the Yankees while pursuing a legitimate business, under a commission from President Davis, are bound down with irons, and confined in loathsome dungeons in New York, it is not right that the officers and Congressmen taken at Manassas should receive any better treatment. Let the Hon. Mr. Ely be ironed and sent to Fort Sumter, and there kept in a dungeon till the Captaii of the Savannah is released." August 11. —The third Sabbath since my arrest near Manassas has come, and no prospect or intimation, thus far, indicates any time for our release. The officers are becoming restless under their confinement, and cannot understand or account *for the apparent indifference and neglect of our Government, in regard to their condition. They insist that an exchange of prisoners should take place, and that immediately. They hear nothing from our Government in any form, but rumor; and newspapers state that it declines to exchange prisoners of war, on the ground that the act itself would have the effect to recognize the "Confederate States" as a belligerent power. If this is the real ground, is it not too late to take the position? It is well known that one of our own Generals (McClellan) has already taken as

Page  51 A PRISONER OF WAR. 51 prisoners at Cheat Mountain, in Western Virginia, a large number of officers and privates, and that he released them on their parole until an exchange of prisoners should take place. If this act is binding upon the Government, does it not, per se, concede them to be belligerents to the same extent as if an actual exchange, man for man, rank for rank, had been made? Such is clearly the case, it seems to me. Suppose it be said, that this exchange has the effect of a recognition of the socalled Confederate States, in phraseology or name merely, as a separate and independent power in arms against the United States, and refutes all idea of its being a mere rebellion, as the United States maintain, would even this justify the violation of one of the cardinal principles of civilized warfare? Should the very men who fight the battles of the country, and are unfortunately taken prisoners, be subjected to the hazard of a second death by confinement in prison? I apprehend not. I venture to assert that the mere act of an exchange of prisoners does not necessarily concede the enemy to maintain the high character of a belligerent, and is'in no sense a recognition of them as a separate or independent power, as they are widely different propositions. No divine service has been had to-day. August 12.-The Dispatch of this morning informs the public that "the New York Tribune

Page  52 52 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, says Mrs. Jefferson Davis is exerting her influence at Richmond to procure the release of Hon. Alfred B. Ely, who is among the prisoners there." The Examiner of to-day charges me with having addressed a note to Abraham Lincoln, at Washington, and adds: " How this communication was effected, does not appear; and what its con. tents were, are generally the subjects of mystery to the Northern papers, which, besides referring to it as stating that Mr. Ely was a prisoner at Richmond, add nothing further than that it was laid before the House of Representatives at Washington, enclosed with a message from President Lincoln." This communication is said to be dated on the first day of August, and the impression sought to be given by this article in its comments is, that I had communicated with the President of the United States surreptitiously, and without submitting that communication to the authorities at Richmond before sending it, in disobedience to their orders. I took occasion immediately to contradict this insinuation, by addressing a line to that effect, to General Winder. No doubt the author of that article had learned in some manner that a communication had been received by the President from the Richmond prisoners, myself among the number, and may have heard that I drafted the

Page  53 A PRISONER OF WAR. 53 paper. This was true. The document, however, was simply a petition signed by the officers and civilians, on the day after our arrival at Richmond, addressed to the President of the United States, urging upon him the propriety of adopting measures, by exchange or otherwise, for our speedy release. This is the same document referred to by me under date of the 24th ultimo, and was duly submitted to Brigadier-General Winder, who stated that it must be submitted also to the Secretary of War before it could be forwarded. August 13.-The Southern papers call us all, without distinction of birth or nationality, " Yankee prisoners." General Winder called this morning to see me, and said he received my letter in regard to the article in the Examiner, and remarked jocosely that he thought my " skin was thick enough not to pay any attention to newspaper articles." He seemed unusually pleasant, and inquired how we got along, &c. He remarked, on looking about the quarters, that Mr. Huson did not lose much flesh, and wondered how Secretary Seward could get along, as Mr. Huson was his private secretary. I instantly replied, " General, that is a mistake, he is not the private secretary of Mr.

Page  54 54 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Seward." "Oh yes, he is, we have ascertained that," was his answer. The Examiner reproduces this morning a letter, or, rather, a statement, from the New York Tribune, made by Mr. Julius Bing, a German by birth, a British subject by naturalization, and a litterateur by profession. This statement is dated at Washington, Thursday, August 1, 1861, and says: " Mr. Bing went over to Bull Run on the morning of the battle, in a carriage with Senator Foster, of Connecticut, and Representative Ely, of New York. In the m14e of the retreat, he became separated from his companions, and was making his way through the woods, when he came suddenly upon a party of rebel soldiers, who took him prisoner." In another part of the statement he again refers to me by saying, "Hon. Alfred Ely is well treated, and may be released." The statement of Mr. Bing occupies an entire column of the Examiner, and is replete with errors. I quote from it only such paragraphs as relate to myself, more particularly, to remark that this gentleman, at the solicitation of Senator Foster, was permitted to take a seat in our carriage, an entire stranger-to me before. I supposed from his conversation on our drive, that he was an Italian by birth, but knew nothing of him or his history.

Page  55 A PRISONER OF WAR. 55 We parted with him on the top of the hill at Centreville, where our carriage first halted, and I saw nothing of him afterward; but supposed he had returned safely to Washington, until my attention was called to his statement in this morning's paper. There -has been an unusual crowd of visitors to call upon me to-day, and some of my fellowprisoners suggest that I be caged and a visiting fee charged; I think I am pretty well caged already. A delegation of gentlemen from the State of Tennessee, among whom was the officer who arrested and brought to Richmond the Hon. T. A. R. Nelson, late a member of Congress from that State, held a conversation of some length with me this morning. It was of a general character, relating chiefly to the exchange of prisoners, and the ground of refusal taken by our Government. In the afternoon a party of gentlemen from Florida detained me and others by the longest interview I have granted to any persons since my imprisonment. One gentleman especially seemed desirous to draw me into the discussion of politics. I do not know whether designedly or not, but I regret that I allowed myself to talk on the subject at all, for it may be that all I say is misconstrued and distorted. One of the gentlemen said he called on me to ascertain if I was ac

Page  56 56 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, quainted with an English family at Rochester, living, he thought, on North street, by the name of Robinson, and.stated that a daughter of Mr. Robinson was a governess in his fanily in Florida, and was acquainted with my little daughter "Carrie." I could not recollect any such person. John B. Ashmore, M. C. of the 36th Congress, called upon me late this afternoon, and remained with me quite a long time. He resides in South Carolina, and represented his district in Congress from that State. He had only arrived in town yesterday, on business, and intended to leave tomorrow morning. He proposed to have an interview with Jefferson Davis this evening, and would say a kind word to him in my behalf. This was really the most heartfelt and sympathizing call I have received since' my imprisonment, and I thanked him with the warmest cordiality. To-day I wrote Mrs. Ely, and have done so as frequently as I have had opportunity; by night and day do I think of her and my dear children, and know well the keenness of their sorrow at my imprisonment, and I greatly fear its effects upon her nervous sensibility, and am grieved when I think of the sleepless nights which my imprudence must have occasioned her. Oh, could I but help myself! Could I fly to my blessed home and family, and relieve them this night from the agony of suspense as to my safety

Page  57 A PRISONER OF WAR. and return, what joy unspeakable would fill my heart! But I am weeping over this page, and will not indulge longer in these.unhappy thoughts. August 14.-Being excluded pretty much from the " outer world," and from the reading of all newspapers excepting those published in. this city, these have become intensely interesting to us, and are seized in the early morning on the arrival of the newsboys, and read by many even before they rise from their cots; and, as I have been the subject of so many comments in the Southern journals, when I take up a paper I expect to find myself gloriously abused in its pages. This morning one of the officers, reading the Examiner before I got off from my cot, sung out at the top of his voice, " Ely, you have got another thump." It was from a letter in that paper, prefaced by some remarks, under the following caption: "A CLERGYMAN AT THE BATTLE OF MANASSAS;-HE MEETS WITH HON. MR. ELY. "Reverend Joseph Cross, chaplain of Colonel Bates' Tennessee Regiment, writes to the Christian Advocate some interesting letters from the seat of war. We extract the following from his last: "I saw a dense crowd and walked toward it; within were many prisoners, sitting, lying, walk3*

Page  58 58 8OURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ing about; some sad, and others sullen; some evidently uneasy, others apparently quite indifferent, and here and there affecting jocularity. There were several of Wilson's cut-throat gang, and three of 'Ellsworth's Zouaves.' The latter said. they did not know whether another of their number had escaped death, but believed themselves the only survivors. "There was a little man, with a wicked wolfish look, as restless as a hyena in a cage. It was the Honorable Alfred Ely, member of Congress from Rochester, New York. Our Captain, Clusky, having been acquainted with him in Washington, stepped up and took his hand. Most piteously the prisoner implored the interposition in his behalf of a man whom, a few hours before, he would gladly have seen slaughtered. Captain Clusky introduced him to our gallant colonel. "'Your servant, Colonel Bates,' said the prisoner, bowing obsequiously, 'I am glad to meet you; you see I am in a bad fix.' "' (Yes, sir,' said the colonel, 'you are, for a member of Congress, in a very bad fix.' 'But you see,' rejoined the honorable gentleman, throwing open the breast of his coat,' I am unarmed, nothing but a penknife, no uniform; merely a spectator, came out with Senator Foster to see the battle; but unfortunately ventured too far, and was taken.'

Page  59 A PRISONER OF WAR. 59 "' Mr. Ely,' replied the colonel, 'a battle-field is no place for a civilian. You are a member of Congress, sir, and the representative of at least ninety thousand people, and do you think yourself a cipher in a scene like this? No, sir; the moral influence of your presence was worth a hundred soldiers to our enemies. Are you not a lawyer, Mr. Ely ' 'Yes, sir,' said Mr. Ely,' I am a lawyer.' " ' Then, sir,' Col. B. continued, ' you know that, by your presence, you are aiding and abetting this cruel and bloody assault upon us. It is a principle of law which you are accustomed to recognize elsewhere, and which you are obliged to acknowledge here.' He assented, with a sheepish look, and continued his absurd apology, which the colonel thus cut short: " 'Mr. Ely, we are glad to see you here; we want you with us, and cannot consent to part with you soon. There are men at Washington for whom we may be willing to exchange you hereafter, if, indeed, you should not be hanged, as you deserve.'" Such is the extract of a clergyman's letter to a Christian journal, after describing several sad spectacles which the reverend gentleman alleges to have witnessed at Manassas. It only remains for me to deny, in the most positive terms, the whole of this statement, and to express my sur

Page  60 60 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, prise that a man, professing to be a follower of the Saviour of the world, should be guilty of such gross and miserable falsehoods. The wickedness which must harbor in the heart of a man who could thus wilfully utter such malicious untruths against any fellow-being, cannot be too severely condemned, and I give his assault in full, simply to exhibit the character of the hatred and folly, of which this is a specimen,. which seem to animate the Southern people in their efforts to destroy the Union. To-day, to my great joy, I received a letter from my wife-and, to my astonishment, written to me from Washington, dated August 1st. It has been thirteen days on the way. My son Joseph is with his mother. Her letter indicates her great grief at my misfortune, and states that she could not ascertain, before her arrival at Washington, whether I was living or not. Her letter is evidently written under restraint, with the knowledge that it would be read by the authorities at Richmond before it was delivered to me. She says that she will remain in Washington a few days, and, unless she hears from me, will then return home. Thirteen days have already elapsed, and I suppose she has now gone to Rochester. I shall be tempted to read her letter regularly every day, until I receive a second one from her.

Page  61 A PRISONER OF WAR. 61 Upon the envelope of her letter, in pencil, was written: " Rec'd, with a note from Mrs. Ely, requesting its immediate delivery." (Signed) "J. D." * The Examiner has, this morning, under the telegraphic head, the following: " TO PRESIDENT LINCOLN, FROM. HON. MR. ELY. " Washington, August 14.-Congressman Ely has sent a letter to Lincoln, in which, it is understood, he decidedly favors the recognition of the Confederacy, in so far as an exchange of prisoners is concerned." August 15.-This day has been spent without incident, so far as the distinguished guests of the Richmond prison are concerned. One feature, however, of this morning's papers is to be noticed: Not one word about " Hon. Alfred Ely" appears. I wrote my wife to-day, by private opportunity. The weather has suddenly become cool, and it is necessary that I should have some warm covering at night. I have heretofore had nothing over me, and have slept in my clothes. Quartermaster Murphy has kindly loaned me one of his "* During this visit of Mrs. Ely to Washington, she remarked to a friend, that she had written a letter to Mr. Jefferson Davis respecting her husband, enclosing one for him at the same time, and from that circumstance it is safe to infer that the initials mean Jefferson Davis. If so, it is due to him that he should have the credit of even this trifling act of official condescension.

Page  62 62 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, red blankets, which will make me more comfortable. August 16.-The Dispatch this morning has the same telegraphic news alluded to yesterday, from Washington, but styles President Lincoln, my late master. I received a letter to-day from A. J. Wellman, Esq., a banker at Friendship, Alleghany Co., New York, inquiring about the safety of his brother, J. G. Wellman, a private in the 27th Regiment N. Y. S. M., under Col. Slocum. I found him at the Prison Hospital, wounded in the calf of the right leg, but now getting well. I replied to the letter at once, giving the desired information. The young wounded soldier seemed revived upon receiving tidings from home. Mr. Wellman, in his letter, mentions having seen Mrs. Ely and my son at Washington, last week, very well, but very anxious about me. August 17.-The crowd of visitors had become so numerous that I have requested the General Commandant to discriminate and curtail the passes to the prison. No visitors have been at our quarters to-day. The public journals have made me so conspicuous that every stranger coming to Richmond seems to seek an interview with the " Yankee prisoner." Indeed, if fond of such notoriety I might almost be a " lion" in this renowned city. The commissary this morn

Page  63 A PRISONER OF WAR. 63 ing remarked that he could make one hundred dollars per day from admission fees to see me, by citizens and strangers. A Yankee Congressman, how attractive! Barring the music, this cage of American citizens reminds me of Barnum's Museum; instead, however, of seeing " What is it? " some of us feel inclined to say, "was there ever any thing like it" in a Christian land? Yesterday a gentleman from uptown offered five dollars for a sight. Our outside doors and sidewalks are so constantly crowded with visitors that it is with difficulty the guard can keep them at a distance. A company of gentlemen yesterday afternoon, who could not gain admission, desired that the guard would point out Mr. Ely as he passed the door. Presently, Capt. Drew, of Vermont, was passing in sight of those gentlemen, and some of the officers who heard this request, pointed to Capt. Drew as the person they desired to see, and he was cordially saluted by the admiring crowd outside. I informed the captain that he was at liberty to continue this personification, as it would greatly relieve me. This evening, while at supper, our good. natured commissary came rushing through the prison wrapped in two beautiful white blankets, and proclaimed that these robes belonged to Jef. Davis once, but he had sent them to Mr.

Page  64 64 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Ely. The blankets were very acceptable and much needed by me. I am not able to answer for the truth of the commissary's statement, but very much question it. It is enough for me to know, that I own the blankets. I intend this night, for the first time in four weeks, to sleep " separate and apart" from my pantaloons. August 18.-Time, very unexpectedly to me, has passed quite rapidly since my arrest four weeks ago at Manassas. It is a fit day to reflect upon my misfortune. I intend it shall not pass without attending divine service. The evening has been properly spent; regular church service by the Rev. Mr. Mines, and a sermon preached by the Rev. Mr. Church, of Rhode Island. The prison quarters have all day been surrounded 'by a crowd of visitors, but no one was permitted to enter. August 19.-The correspondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer says: " The case of Mr. Ely.I am able to state that the story of Mr. Ely's having been employed in ditching or other menial employment, is entirely untrue. He has been uniformly well treated, and has fared sumptuously every day. Surgeon Norval, of the 79th New York Regiment, brought a letter from him to President Lincoln," &c., &c., &c. The papers announce this morning that Hon. A. R. Boteler, late a representative in the United

Page  65 A PRISONER OF WTAR. 65 States Congress, was arrested last Tuesday morning at his house by two hundred Yankees, and taken across the Potomac to General Banks' quarters, by whom he was courteously treated and immediately discharged. The Maryland papers have various reports concerning his arrest. One says " that he was captured and was to be held in exchange for Mr. Ely; that is an exchange, however, that will not work, as Mr. B. is not now a member of Congress, while Mr. E. is." Another paper, Winchester (Va.) Republican, in giving a detailed account of the arrest says, among other things: " What their object in this arrest can be, no one can surmise, unless it be to hold him as a hostage for the delivery of Congressman Ely, taken at the battle of Manassas. But this can hardly be the case, as Ely was captured as an enemy in arms on the field of battle, whilst Mr. Boteler is but a private gentleman, a member of the Legislature, it is true, but can in no way be considered a prisoner of war or treated as such." The Washington papers stated some days since that Mr. Faulkner, late United States Minister to France, had been arrested in Washington, and is now a prisoner of war. The telegraphic report to the Dispatch, says: "It is stated that Minister Faulkner was arrested

Page  66 66 JOURNAL OF ATLFREBD ELY, as a hostage for Messrs. Ely, McGraw, and others. No non-combatants are prisoners." Some poet or poetess has perpetrated the following lines " upon the stampede of Members of Congress and others from the battle-field near Manassas." "THE RACES. "TUNE, ' Maid of Mionterey. "The great Manassas races, the greatest of the year, With eighty thousand cases of panic-stricken fear, Were run one Sabbath evening, and the succeeding night, With speed beyond believing, impelled by dread of fight. "Their cannon were deserted-their guns were thrown away, And, as by all asserted, they ran till break of day; Left wounded, dead and dying, all strow'd upon the ground, And never stopp'd their flying till Washington they found. "A certain Mister Ely, a member of the hump, Who ran awhile too freely, then hid behind a stump, Came but to see the battle, nor dreamed of such a rout, Shook till his teeth did rattle, when Mullins pulled him out. "Another legislator, and Gurly was his name, Who ran a little later, but not with better fame, Seized on another's bridle, as he drove on to town, But 'twas no time to idle, the driver knocked him down. "The Generals and the Colonels were foremost in the run; Scared by the ' mask'd infernals,' they fled for Arlington, Leaving their men behind them, to come as best they could, Or let the rebels find them, or slay them if they would. "The cavalry rode freely, went dashing over men, But not so fast as Greeley, as one is less than ten; The Long Bridge they were crossing, a little after night, And every thing went tossing, that intercepted flight.

Page  67 A PRISONER OF WAR. 467 "At Centreville the rally was but a moment long, A rebel picket sally (about a hundred strong) Was made with much shouting, twelve furlongs back behind, Which issued in the routing of every sort and kind. "The stand at Fairfax lasted a little longer still, But here again was blasted their little stock of will; They scampered off affrighted, and scarcely looked behind, "With every prospect blighted, and all of hope resigned. "The ' Kangaroo' was waiting to hear of battle gained, With infernal wine inflated, with black dishonor stained, Then sunk below cold zero, where mercury grows hard, A bogus western hero, whom all should now discard." The author signs the aforesaid poetry "Viator," and hails from Timmonsville, Darlington, South Carolina. This is the second time in my life that I have risen to the consideration of poetical notice. Let no unkind historian say, that I have gone down the tide of time "unnoticed and unsung." August 20.-The old commissary came from town this afternoon and tells us that he will give Jefferson Davis one thousand dollars a year for the prisoners' quarters with the right to charge two shillings' admission fee to exhibit Congressman Ely-one Tennesseean having offered him twenty-five dollars to admit him, with the privi. lege of conversation for half an hour. All passes are cut off, which is certainly an improvement to our comfort. General Winder and several military gentle

Page  68 68 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, men called upon the officers to-day, but nothing "was said in regard to an exchange of prisoners. This question does not attract the attention of our Government with the solicitude that belongs to its importance. The release of the Savannah privateers, now in the Tombs under indictment for piracy, is insisted upon by the " Confederate Government," upon like terms as other prisoners of war. Our Government claims that they are pirates and amenable to our laws a7 such. I apprehend that public sentiment will very soon urge upon Mr. Lincoln the necessity of an exchange. I have already referred to this subject, and I have seen no reason to change views heretofore expressed. Prisoners of war must be exchanged whatever may be the direct or implied consequences. August 21.-The weather has been mild and balmy to-day; and liberty vouchsafed to us, is all that is wanting to complete our happiness. Several new prisoners who were wounded at the battle of Manassas, and taken to the hospital, on their arrival here, have so far recovered as to be brought to the officers' quarters this morning.* / * Although it was for a long time a very difficult matter for the Union prisoners in Richmond to have themselves exchanged for rebel prisoners in the North, the exchanges that took place between

Page  69 A PRISONER OF WAR. 69 The Examiner of to-day says: " Some'Northern papers, aside from the report of the occupation of Mr. Ely in ditching, are anxiously exercised about his real condition. One the hospitals and prisons in Richmond were frequent. The necessity for these was generally imperative, but which of the two parties had the best time, would be hard to decide. That the soldiers who were confined in the upper stories of the prison, had not even the most common necessaries of life, is proven by the following note written by one of them to his friend in the hospital. TOBACCO WAREHOUSE, Aug. 25, 1861. DEAR -: Have you got or can you get me a shirt or two, and a pair of drawers? I am almost entirely naked. The shirt I have on, I have worn for nearly three weeks. It was very much torn when I put it on, and now it is all in ribbons. My woollen shirt, drawers, and a pair of stockings are somewhere in the hospital. I don't suppose you can find them, but if you possibly can, do send at least a shirt, if no more. If you can't, heaven only knows what will become of me. I am very much in need of a towel also. My wound is getting along well-indeed I am getting stronger. There are quite a number of our regiment here, but none from our company. Please give my kindest regard to Sister Rose, and tell her I most heartily wish myself back under her care. P. S.-If you can get a piece of corn bread, send that along too. "We don't see any of that article in these parts. Another prisoner, who was for a time among the "high livers," informs us that the condition above described was characteristic of a large proportion of the prisoners; yet there were many whose privations were even worse. The prison discipline, according to his experience, was as follows:-Between six and seven they were aroused by roll-call. Between eight and nine they received their morning rations, consisting of bread, beef, and water. The individual allowance was in quantity about one-half what a well man would naturally'require. Their second and only other ration was

Page  70 70 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, of the papers seeks to relieve this anxiety by mentioning the interesting circumstance that a letter from him was written to his wife in a bold andfirm hand, as an evidence of the maintenance of his usual bodily faculties. Mr. Ely himself contradicts these unwholesome reports in his letter to President Lincoln. The New Orleans Delta says, that when Messrs. Pryor, Keitt, Boyce, and Bocock called upon Mr. Ely he melted into tears and threw his arms around Keitt's neck." My interview with these gentlemen was held in the presence of at least, three hundred persons, and was of the most courteous character; and I know all these gentlemen too well to believe for one moment that either would countenance the circulation of a report like the above, which has no foundation in truth. August 22.-This day has been one of unusual gloom to me; thoughts of home and my business have oppressed me. The fact that I am a subject of so much public attraction and comment does not relieve me, as others about me think it should. Still it is not a dishonorable notoriety, one which received between four and five in the afternoon, and consisted of bread and soup, (the beef dispensed in the morning being taken from the " slops" of the day previous.) This was the standard bill of fare. The prisoners, sick and well, were compelled to accept "it or-go without. A few of their number had blankets, and some of these were exchanged for edibles which could.not be procured in any other way.

Page  71 A PRISONER OF WAR. 71 follows the commission of crime, and I am thankful to God for that; I could not endure my incarceration if it were so. I am a prisoner on account of my public position, and a victim for entertaining sentiments in common with twenty millions of freemen. [Many persons will perpetrate dishonorable acts for the sake of notoriety; and it too frequently happens that they have been successful in acquiring fame arising out of incidents contemptible in themselves. Members of Congress, more frequently than other public characters, perhaps, illustrate this truth. A mere challenge to mortal combat in a duel, or its counterpart acceptance, even though embarrassed by conditions so cowardly that they defeat the conflict, have been sufficient to immortalize a coward and nationalize his bravery. The mighty swell raised by the press sweeps over the nation with its wave of public sentiment, and a lucky wight he is who rides successfully upon its billows; so does it deal with the reputation of men, that obscurity would be the lot of thousands in their country's history except for the press. I have been led to these remarks by the position I now so unwillingly occupy. The newspapers, North and South, have contributed to introduce me to public consideration as a prisoner of war, more extensively, if not more favorably, than

Page  72 72 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, any ordinary services in the halls of Congress would likely have secured. Be the result what it may, it arises from the misfortune of my situation, and the world knows that it is one no human being would envy. Many distinguished visitors have sought access to-day, but have been refused. The good old commissary, by particular request, desired to introduce me to some personal friends of his from the city of Natchez, Mississippi, and I consented. Rev. C. K. Marshall, D. D., a gentleman of fine appearance and address, is, I am informed, a divine of remarkable power and eloquence. W. C. Sneedes, Esq., of Vicksburg, who is a lawyer of celebrity in Mississippi, and I think one of the common law reporters for that State, presented me with his letter, in pamphlet form, in vindication of the " Southern Confederacy," addressed to H. H. E., Esq., of New York City, which Le desired me to read. I assured him I would do so. The other gentleman was Mr. McAffee, of Natchez, who is now a candidate for the office of Governor of that State. I was highly pleased with this interview-with the pleasing courtesy and dignity of their conversation, unmingled with any expression of false sympathy for my situation. At four o'clock this afternoon, an officer of the " Confederate Army," with the rank of First

Page  73 A PRISONER OF WAR. 13 Lieutenant, desired to see me, and he was admitted. He introduced himself as Mr. W. B. Brockett, Lieutenant in a Louisiana regiment, and a relative of Mrs. Emily J. Moulder, of Washington CityI think a cousin. I greeted the gentleman with unusual cordiality on account of his Washington relatives, and talked with great freedom about the unhappy difficulties of the country. He was a gentleman of military bearing and polite conversation, and soon sought to apologize for his introduction, as a stranger, by narrating the following incident. He said that, happening to go into the office of the "'Secretary of War," in Richmond, where all our letters are first sent for examination, he accidentally saw a letter addressed to the abovenamed lady, and, although he did not say so, I inferred that his curiosity had led him to peruse it. He informed me that he had been in Richmond about two months, and was now ready to move forward to the battle-field at Manassas. This afternoon a large number of visitors have been admitted, but I declined to see or converse with but few. One person called upon me just at twilight, whom I was pleased to see. It was Mr. Branch, of the firm of Thomas Branch & Sons, of Petersburg, Va. He brought me a letter to read, addressed to their firm from Thayer, Brig4

Page  74 74 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ham & Field, of Boston, and written by Barnum W. Field of that firm, who is a cousin of my wife. The letter certainly was of the most friendly and sympathizing character. He calls upon these gentlemen to visit Richmond and see me, and to loan me what money I required to make me comfortable in every particular. He proceeds to say, that my wife and children are in great distress at my situation, and in very flattering language describes my social position and even my political status. He alluded to his uncle, Joseph Field, as former Mayor of Rochester, and once the Democratic candidate for Congress from my Congressional District. Mr. Branch offered me all-the money I wanted, and told me to draw upon their firm for whatever else I needed. I thanked hint in as kind a manner as I could for his proffered assistance and his politeness, but declined taking money from him, although I had not at the time a single cent. He urged me so strongly, that I finally consented to borrow a sum sufficient for my present necessities. He left me after a long interview of a truly interesting character; and the officer of the day, who was present, participated in the lively and pleasant conversation between us. Auqgust 24.-I have to-day written to my wife, and, at the suggestion of Mr. Branch yesterday, I have sent the letter to their mercantile house

Page  75 A PRISONER OF WAR. at Petersburg, to forward to Rochester. I also wrote a letter to those gentlemen, thanking them for the kind manner in which they had interested themselves in my behalf, and requested them to forward the letter. I delivered it to General Winder, who said it should be sent immediately, and paid him five cents postage. It affords me sincere pleasure to have it in my power to acknowledge the several acts of generous kindness occasionally extended to me during my sojourn at Richmond, the courteous deport. ment which to persons situated as we were afforded us so much consolation amid our sufferings, and which we sometimes received from parties upon whom we had no other claim than that of human beings in distress, appealing to the sympathies of their more fortunate fellow-creatures. My experience has led me to the belief, that, amid all the frenzy and bitterness of animosity which some facts force us to believe pervade a large proportion of the people of the South toward the North, there exist many and bright examples among them of true Christian, high-minded gentlemen, and men imbued with the loftiest qualities which ought to characterize men. It has sometimes occurred to me, in dwelling upon the reminiscence of such acts of kindness, extended to me.by those to whom I was an entire stranger, that beneath this outward manifestation of generous sympathy,

Page  76 76 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, there really existed an under current of genuine loyalty, of fond recollections of the times when a fraternal affection bound together the different sections of our then happy land, which, while cherishing local attachments, discarded all geographical animosities and jealousies. It may, perhaps, be found true, that in numerous instances there might be discovered in unison both these springs of action. A communication from Mr. Walker, " Secretary of War of the C. S. A.," was sent to me today by the privates, to whom it was addressed, that the officers might consult as to what action should be taken upon it. The letter is addressed to Dr. Hagadorn and some fifty privates, on the subject of exchange of prisoners. It takes no new ground. Assuredly it is time that this question should receive the decided action of our Government. August 25.-To-day I wrote a letter to my son, and paid fifty cents to the postmaster, to insure its carriage. Col. Summer, of a Florida regiment, and some other gentlemen from the same State, called to see me this morning, and he stated that Mr. Mullins and Mr. Harrington, of the South Carolina regiment, who arrested me, were intimate friends of his..He remarked that Colonel Cash talked pretty roughly to me on that occasion. His language indicated, as it appeared to me, that he

Page  77 A PRISONER OF WAR. 77 sought to apologize somewhat for the treatment I had experienced from the colonel on the field of battle; but he did not, perhaps, so intend it. I will say that Col. Summer is a very elegant gentleman, and adverted to my situation with that kindness which is proof of his qualities in that respect, and I estimate his character accordingly. He expressed a desire that the " C. S. A. Government" would exchange me for some gentleman now held as a prisoner by our Government, but did not name the person. I replied that I was quite willing that it should be done. SThe prison to-day has been crowded, on the outside, with men, women, and children, gazing upon the " Yankees." The street has been filled with fashionable carriages, stopping in front of our quarters; and the occupants appeared to be genteel people; at the same time, such visits for mere curiosity, especially for ladies, do not prove either delicacy or refinement. A splendid carriage halted at the door, containing a military officer and a fashionably dressed lady, who, it was said, was Miss Butt, an authoress, from Norfolk, Virginia. Some artist, with his paper and pencil in hand, is at the door among the crowd, endeavoring to catch a glimpse at me, if I should promenade in front of the door and windows, to draw my portrait; and it would not surprise me if

Page  78 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, a poor prisoner like myself, should embellish an illustrated paper. The commissary came into the prison to-day, and said that a stranger had come from Pocahontas, Tenn., a distance of one thousand miles, to see Mr. Ely, and wanted to be able to say to his neighbors, on his return home, that he had seen the Yankee Congressman. I at first refused to gratify the old man, but some of the officers desired me to indulge his curiosity. They further urged me to put on a broad-brimmed white hat, and an old black coat, ragged and torn, and to pass carelessly in front of the door. The commissary then returned to the excited Southerner, in order to point out the Congressman when he should pass the door. After being thus equipped, I went to the door, and, with an air of indifference, looked out into the street, whereupon the commissary remarked in a quick tone of voice, as he pointed to me, " that's him." The old man strained every nerve to see the object of his search, and after gazing for a while, was heard to exclaim, " Hell and blazes! is that the feller I cum so far to see. Well, well, I'm satisfied." I trust that no one will believe me vain enough to misconstrue all this inordinate curiosity to see me into any respect for me personally, or on account of any renown in public service. Nor am I so dull as not to appreciate

Page  79 A PRISONER OF WAR. the wide distinction between reputation and mere notoriety. I am strictly a political prisoner; and it may be, as it certainly has been, said that my votes and speeches in the council of the nation are crimes against the " Confederate States;" and if so, it is too late to repair the injury that has been done, even if I were so disposed. This view of the case has been assumed by all the South, from Richmond to New Orleans, and most unmercifully have they denied me all quarter or extenuation. To the newspapers, therefore, may be traced the celebrity which has grown out of my imprisonment. This fly-leaf closes my journal for the day; and I am happy to terminate it with the evidence on its page that to-day, being the Sabbath, services after the Episcopal form were held, and a short sermon was preached by Rev. John F. Mines.* August 26.-Little did I anticipate, even within a brief period, that I should on this day find myself a prisoner of war, occupied in writing an account of my imprisonment within the walls which confine me. I did hope long before this that some steps would be taken by the United States Government for our release. But we are disappointed, and remain prisoners yet. To be idle, I "* This closes one of five pocket blank-books in which the journal was written.

Page  80 80 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, cannot; so I shall continue to write on, and make a faithful record of such events as really occur within the commonwealth of the Richmond prison. The famous Mr. Haxhall, the Richmond miller, called to see me to-day. The " Haxhall Flour" is world-renowned. He informed me that his mill contained thirty runs of burr stone, and he manufactured flour, chiefly for Brazil and other Southern markets. The wheat raised in the North, upon limestone soil, made into flour, does not answer for a Southern climate, because it sours. This gentleman had very much to say touching our national troubles, and, although a Union man before Lincoln's Proclamation was made, calling for seventy-five thousand men, he was now for final separation. He stated many extravagancies indulged in by Southern citizens, in respect to the number and conduct of our troops, and condemned in severe terms the arrests of Southern citizens, recently made by the United States Government. Like most of the gentlemen who have conversed with me, he took occasion to assure me, that secession and separation was an undivided sentiment throughout the entire South; that while the South would, of course, suffer greatly in all its various interests, the suffering would be infinitely greater in the North; that the war in no way interrupted agricultural

Page  81 A PRISONER OF WAR. 81 pursuits, because in peace or war the entire labor was performed by slaves, and the South subsisted mainly on its agricultural productions; but in the North it was different: the farmers' sons and the mechanics made up the Northern army, and those great interests must decline while so many were withdrawn from those vocations. There is much force in this argument, but it should be remembered that the North has twenty millions from which to select her army, while the South, now in actual rebellion, has less than eight millions, including the slave population; so that it could very well be said that an army of five hundred thousand could be levied without detriment to any industrial interest of the North, or even be missed from the remaining millions. One fact is undeniable: the Southern troops are, to a very considerable extent, composed of the wealthy as well as of the poor citizens; the planter and the planter's son, the cotton and tobacco growers and their sons, are not unfrequently in the ranks of the same company, all defending (as they say) the liberties of the Confederacy. I have had much intercourse with the officers, and some with the soldiers in the ranks, and I can bear witness to striking instances of great wealth and liberal and professional education in the mere soldier. The inference is plain -every man at the South is expected to bear 4*

Page  82 82 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, arms, whatever be his condition in life. Their teaching is, that this is a war of subjugation, repugnant to the spirit of a free people, in conflict with the right of self-government, and involves in the contest their peculiar institutions, their firesides, and homes. It cannot be otherwise than that a people entertaining these views, however erroneous in fact, will fight long and bravely, even to the very verge of extermination. It is equally plain that Southern troops are of the composition indicated above, from a necessity of the case. There is not, as in the North, a middle class of population. It is the planter, the master-the slave comes next. I did not intend to be led into any reflections of this character, or to discuss the merits of a conflict which, if successful, would blot out forever from civilization its last hopes of successful experiment in self-government. That the great rebellion will be successful I cannot for a moment consider possible. August 27.-My time has been almost entirely consumed by gentlemen calling to-day to see me. A South Carolinian, by the name of Mullins, sent for me this morning to visit the office of Commandant Gibbs, to make some inquiry. I soon ascertained his business. He stated that he wished to see me, not from motives of curiosity-but his brother was one of

Page  83 A PRISONER OF WAR. 83 the officers in the South Carolina regiment who arrested me; that the South Carolina papers, and other Southern journals, had published my name as Alfred B. Ely, and this Mr. Ely having been a school teacher of his, he was concerned to know if I was the same person. He discovered his mistake, and after informing him that there was a person in Boston by that name, I retired. I had no sooner returned to my quarters, than I was sent for by Governor Winslow of North Carolina, and Alexander Bryant, and an officer of the Confederate Army. I returned again, and met my esteemed friend Warren Winslow, who was a member of the Thirty-sixth Congress with me; the other gentlemen were strangers, with whom I had but a few words of general character. Gov. Winslow tendered me his services, to do for me any favor in his power, but thought it improbable that his Government would allow me my parole, under the circumstances;-a request, by the way, which I had never made. It seemed from his conversation, that he had been very actively engaged in preparations for the war; and one of the gentlemen remarked, in the course of the interview, that the Governor had been the means of sending into the field thirty thousand men from the State of North Carolina. The Governor is strictly a politician, a man of ability, and apparently of great fairness and can

Page  84 84 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, dor. He had almost unbounded sway among Southern men in the U. S. House of Representatives, and was regarded as one of the able men to whom leading politicians of the Southern school looked for counsel in their contest with the North. Colonel Summers, of a Florida regiment, who called upon me with other gentlemen, on Sunday last, was to-day the officer in command, and he took occasion to introduce a large number of his friends, chiefly officers of the army. He himself being so much of a gentleman, I endeavored to treat all his friends in a corresponding manner, who came so well endorsed. It is out of my power to retain the names of the many persons who visit me, and although it would add much to my writing, I would do so if it were possible. A new captive officer arrived this afternoonCaptain Roswell A. Fish, of the 32d New York Volunteers, captured on Saturday last. He was sent out with a body of troops to station pickets, and went forward with two of his men to reconnoitre, and was surprised by Confederate troops, who fired upon them, killing both his men and taking him prisoner. August 28.-Happily to-day there is very little for my Journal-a single incident and I am done. The Honorable George Eustis, Jr., late mem

Page  85 A PRISONER OF WAR. 85 ber of U. S. Congress from Louisiana, and son-inlaw of W. W. Corcoran, Esq., the famous Washington banker, called with his brother to see me this afternoon, under the impression, as he said, that I was in Congress when he was a member. I remember this gentleman, from the circumstance of having travelled from Washington to New York, immediately after the close of the Thirty-fiftli Congress, in company with himself, Mr. Corcoran and daughter, only a few days prior to his marriage with that lady. He is a mild and.complacent gentleman, southern in his deportment, and exceedingly affable in conversation. He spoke confidently that the English and French Governments would raise the blockade of South. ern ports, and mentioned the receipt of private letters, among other things, as evidence of their intention. It is reported that the British ship " Alliance" has run the blockade, and arrived at Beaufort, on the coast of North Carolina; this place is a small harbor in the neck of Cape Lookout. Is this breach of the blockading line sufficient evidence of its inefficiency to warrant neutral powers to disregard it? I think it has been so stated recently by Lord Palmerston in the "House of Lords." The American Minister is reported to have advised our Government, by the last steam

Page  86 86 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, er, that " the acknowledgment of the Southern Confederacy was only a question of time." I have been suspicious for many weeks past, that it was the purpose of the English Government, and probably the French also, to interfere in our national troubles, in this form, whenever an apology could be furnished; and it seems evident to me that the tone of the English Press indicates this result. England, however, will not take this step without the concurrence of France. August 29.-There has been quite an interesting event in front of our quarters this afternoon, which, at the instance of the officer himself, whose name I take the liberty to use in this connection, I will relate. Miss Martha Haines Butt, the authoress from Norfolk, Virginia, to whom allusion was made upon her former visit to the prison, a few days since, again halted this afternoon opposite our quarters in a splendid coach. She was, as before, elegantly attired, and accompanied by a military officer. It was evident that she had come to see one of the prisoners, and it was quickly discovered that Capt. Roswell A. Fish, who arrived only a day or two since, was the fortunate object of this compliment. He manifested a frenzy to get by the sentinels at the door to reach her carriage, but it was of no avail; he could not pass, even though she beckoned most daintily for him. He seized a piece of paper,

Page  87 A PRISONER OF WAR. 87 and hastily scratched a few words and sent it to the carriage by the guard. It was amusing to watch the countenances of the military assemblage at the windows and doors, as they beheld with utter silence the avidity with which she opened the note; quick as thought she seized a pencil from the officer by her side, and began to write. By this time the corporal of the guard arrived and relieved the agony of the captain by allowing him to pass from the sentinel to the carriage, when the parties very gracefully saluted each other. It was an interview-so very polite and attractive, that it was a relief to the dull and sombre thoughts engendered by the monotony of an imprisonment, and carried back the heart of many a spectator to the blissful period of his own early attachments. But, to the point: the dear captain, surrounded by an impudent guard, was compelled to close the interview, so intently watched by his prison associates, and he did this by a kiss of her hand, so bewitchingly bestowed that the young officer was greeted by one universal shout on returning to his quarters. The young lady, as the officers say, responded by an instant application of the smitten hand to her heart. I was amazed to learn in conversation with the gallant captain this evening, that on this very day he was to have been married, and that on the day of his capture the colonel of his

Page  88 88 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, regiment had gone to Washington to obtain a furlough for him for that purpose. In view of the scene just witnessed, I inferred very naturally that the lady in question was the bride to be, but in reply to my inquiry he said, " No, oh no, no! " She is merely a watering-place acquaintance formed at Saratoga, which had been continued by accidental meetings in Washington, and various acts of mutual good understanding and politeness ever since. At the famous Napier Ball he was her gallant, and upon her visit to Richmond she discovered accidentally, by the papers, that her friend was a prisoner of war. True to the natural impulses of her heart for the unfortunate, this young Virginia lady seeks the confinement of her friend, and bestows upon him that sympathy and consolation which spring only from the tender instincts of a woman's heart. Seeing the rough interior arrangement of the prison, the absence of almost every domestic convenience and comfort, and reflecting as she did upon the condition of the young officer, is it more than natural that she returned to her hotel, probably sad with her reflections? She knew well of the surveillance existing, and the danger of attempting to send written communications to this modern Bastile, without express military authority, and yet, brave as it was hazardous, she despatched to him by some safe messenger, the same even

Page  89 A PRISONER OF WAR. ing, a note of deep and touching solicitude. The young officer can afford for this night, at least, to forget the misery of his condition and lie down to pleasant dreams, even though " her heart bleeds that he has no pillow on which to lay his head." I should mention that this lady, who has occupied my pen for an unusual space, is the authoress of " Leisure Moments," so highly spoken of by the editorial fraternity and others, and now in process of publication by E. D. Long & Co., of New York. I have no knowledge, personally, of its merits; but the Home Journal, in alluding to the work, says, among other compliments to the authoress, " that her volume is written in a sketchy, animated tone, at once captivating and exciting." I shall take much interest in perusing the work when given to the public, and now for the present bid adieu to the young Virginia authoress. August 30.-The only incident worthy of mention in this record to-day is the call of the Hon. John T. Harris, of Virginia, late member of the U. S. Congress. He was accompanied by another gentleman from the same State, whose name I have forgotten. Mr. H. scarcely recognized me, and I was equally in doubt of his identity; and, as a reason for this, it may be stated that when in Congress both of us wore long, shaggy heads of hair, which now had been cropped in

Page  90 90 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, the late style. He did not detain me long, and I was indebted to his own good sense of propriety, or my own disagreeable deportment towards him, for his brief stay, as I did not feel talkative this morning. August 31.-That forty-two days have elapsed since my arrest near the battle-field is scarcely credible, and yet this is the sixth Sunday, and the fact is patent. Had any sensible person presumed to predict, on my advent into Richmond, that my imprisonment would have been thus protracted, I should certainly have thought him unfriendly to my peace and contentedness. How wisely has Providence concealed all the future from man! He "never is, but always to be blessed." Day after day have I watched every movement and weighed every circumstance, however trivial, which indicated the least prospect of relief; but my heart is saddened as I look in fancy to my home, once so cheerful and happy with my wife and children, and am obliged to record the unpleasant conviction that my discharge is obscured in darker clouds of discouragement than ever. Whether in derision or by way of compliment I know not, probably the former, the Richmond Dispatch, of yesterday, in connection with a severe comment upon the character and conduct of one of the U. S. surgeons, is pleased to style me

Page  91 A PRISONER OF WAR. 91 " the lion-hearted and illustrious Ely." I am at a loss to know why this editor has alluded to me as the lion-liearted, unless it be that I have borne my imprisoment without a murmur, without asking the smallest favor, or intimating in any official quarter that my parole would be even acceptable. The truth is, I never have regarded my parole as desirable, if I were to be detained in Richmond. Already have the public papers given me a notoriety that has crowded the side-walks with the idle and curious, and our apartments, to those who could gain admission, with a multitude of daily visitors which have become tiresome, and oftentimes disagreeable. While all this is true, my prison-house has the merit, at least, with its guards and bayonets, of being a place of personal security. My parole of honor, if granted to me, giving me the liberties of the city limits, would have made me the guest of some prominent city hotel, where, in the present excited state of the public prejudice against a Northern man, especially a Republican, holding a prominent position, my annoyances would have been increased, and probably my safety endangered. The feeling of animosity against the people of the North is to me unaccountable, when I reflect how closely have been all our relations of commerce and society, and how many a citizen of this capital, when inquiry is made, speaks of his birth

Page  92 92 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, place, parentage, his brothers and sisters, and whole groups of relatives, residing in the Northern and Western States. One can conceive of bitterness and hatred against his fellow-man, engendered by acts of cruelty or personal injury; but when one section of a great nation, bound to the other by every tie that makes society dear, imbibes resentments that characterize individual wrongs, the explanation is not so obvious. To-day a patriarchal citizen, whose long locks, extending over his shoulders and whitened by the snows of more than seventy winters, respectful in his demeanor and intelligent in conversation, called upon the prisoners, and stated, among other matters, that he resided in Charleston, South Carolina, and was the person who fired the first gun at Fort Sumter. The gentleman was the Reverend Edward Ruffin. He did not meet with a cordial reception among the officers after such an avowal; they were not disposed to cheer a minister of the Gospel in his exultant boast of being the first to shoot down the flag of his country. September 1.-To-day, according to previous arrangement, we had Divine service in the forenoon and evening, Rev. Mr. Dodge officiating in the morning, and Rev. Mr. Mines in the evening. This is our only Sabbath, thus far, that has been occupied with two services. September 2.-The Fall has really come, and

Page  93 A PRISONER OF WAR. 93 I am still in Richmond. What has occurred at my home, what has become of my business, and what befallen my lawsuits, in which I am personally interested, are questions I constantly ask myself, and they make me restless and discontented; but I will not repine. Could I but know that my wife and children are well, it would afford me great relief; then let me dismiss the subject with my prayers to God that all is well with them. We occasionally obtain a New York paper, but not without great difficulty, and then it is from twelve to twenty days old; but even this is acceptable. The New York Herald of the seventeenth of August was procured to-day, and I had the pain of perusing in its columns an account of my capture, headed " Rebel Accounts of the Capture of the Hon. Alfred Ely." That portion of the accqunt by Rev. Joseph Cross, Chaplain of the Walker Legion, published in the Nashville Christian Advocate, is already copied into my.Journal, under date of August 14th. The latter portion, taken from the iMontgomery Confederation, I had not before seen. It is rich and racy; and that it may not be lost, I here insert the extract: "From the M1ontgomery Confederation. "At half-past three o'clock the stampede be

Page  94 94 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, came fearful, and the gloom among Wilson and Co. was awful. They immediately jumped into their carriages, and put for Washington at a rapid rate. The Hon. Mr. Ely, with a friend, catching the contagion, and believing the enemy to be near at hand, jumped into a buggy, and pushed forward to Washington at a double-quick. Three miles from Centreville, the starting-point, the buggy broke down, and its contents were left a prey to our forces. Ely heard, at this time, the terrible tramping of the cavalry, and jumped behind a tree to secrete himself, while his friend put to the woods, and was seen no more. " Presently a horseman dashed on, and seeing a man behind a tree, loudly called out, ' Who are you, sir?' 'Mr. Ely,' answered the man, immediately. 'Well, who the hell is Mr. Ely?' said the horseman. 'Mr. Ely, Member of Congress from the Rochester District of New York,' said the man. 'The hell you say! Say that over again, old fellow! ' ejaculated the horseman. ' I am, sir, the Hon. Mr. Ely, the Member of the National Congress from the Rochester District, New York.' 'Well,' said the horseman, ' I'll be d-d if I hav'n't caught you at last! I have been looking for you the whole day, and it is d-d strange that I have just found you out. So, pulling out his pistol, and pointing it right at the Congressman's head, he said: 'Mr. Ely,

Page  95 A PRISONER OF WAR. 95 put your foot in my stirrup, and get up behind me-I am going to take you to Richmond.' Ely did as requested, and away went the horseman to the quarters of General Beauregard, and with a live Yankee Congressman behind him, whom he had captured." The detail of my capture is accurately stated under date of July 22d. September 3.-The story is current among the officers this morning, that Col. Devilliers, one of the prisoners of war, who has been acting as one of the surgeons for the wounded prisoners, has escaped. I regret that any one should attempt to escape, as it tends to destroy the confidence of those officers who have charge of the prisoners, and they become more strict in consequence, and will be likely to cut off the privilege of allowing one or more officers to go out daily to* purchase a variety of little comforts which we need. ) Such has been the effect, as I anticipated; no one is allowed to go into the city to-day; the newspapers are forbidden to come to the quarters, milk and vegetables are entirely denied us, and what next is to follow God only knows. I care nothing for all this, excepting the exclusion of the newspapers; those are the only sky-lights into the world, as we are now situated. The idea of being shut out entirely from all sub

Page  96 96 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, lunary scenes is quite too much to endure pa. tiently, in a land of boasted civilization. If I am unable to get access to them to-day, I will make a formal complaint to General Winder, the commanding officer. I do not believe he is aware that the officer of the day has prohibited access to the newspapers, and will at once revoke an act of such petty tyranny. At all events, let us know from the commanding officer whether it is the act of their Government. I desire to say here, that Brigadier-General John H. Winder has treated me with the utmost kindness and respect, and his demeanor and general courtesy of manner, when he visits the officers, indicate a strict disciplinarian, it is true; but a person at the same time of humane feelings, and not disposed to exercise his power beyond its proper limits. He is withal a handsome officer, and would be noticed by the common observer as a man of marki; if he should continue, to the close of my confinement, in his present course of civility, it will be my dutiful pleasure to speak of him on some future public occasion, in a manner which his merits deserve. September 4.-General Winder has again allowed us the papers; it was an act of the subordinates, that kept them away from us. The officers had a hearty laugh this morning, over an article in the Dispatch, taken from

Page  97 A PRISONER OF WAR. 97 the Worcester Spy, (Mass.) It is the following: "COLD COMFORT FOR A PRISONER. "The Worcester Spy is bitter in its sarcasm; it says: "'Congressman Ely is evidently not at all in danger of becoming eminent for greatness of character. He went to witness the battle of Bull Run, where he bothered the soldiers like other curious and self-important civilians. Fortunately he was caught by the Confederates, and now he evidently thinks the whole policy of the Government should be shaped with a view to his release. Let him stay at Richmond, and if an exchange of prisoners ever should take place, let him be the last individual for whom a negotiation is undertaken.'" This scurrilous sheet is properly named, and no comment is required. This, too, reminds me of an article said to be published in the North Carolina State Gazette, under the caption of "A small Man with a big Head," which I have not seen, but am informed that it is worth a perusal, and I should much like to see it. The paper is published at Raleigh. So much has been circulated by the press throughout the United States in relation to the circumstances of my capture, that it was impossible for me to see or know all; 5

Page  98 98 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, but, shut out as I am from all papers but those of this city, I could see only a very small portion. There has been no important circumstance to note to-day. September 5.-I have passed through this entire day, and my mind is too barren and stupid to summon to my recollection a single event important enough to deserve the consumption of ink and paper. My wife and children, if they ever read this diary, will be curious to know what portion of domestic duties in this hotel are assigned to me to perform. Curious, because they know full well that I have heretofore been a mere novice in discharging any household service. Well, as my wife has no opportunity to witness my routine of domestic toil, (I should blush if she did,) I will do the best I can to tell the story. The first two weeks of my sojourn in this establishment, my landlord, the Confederate States, was not very polite; in other words, his apartments were not so well furnished as might have been expected for so much patronage. I think it can be proved. For instance, during the above period I had the naked floor for my bed, without any covering-whatever, and no pillow excepting an oval block of wood, which grew tolerably soft as our acquaintance increased. It will follow as necessary logic that my chamber duties were

Page  99 A PRISONER OF WAR. 99 rather light, as I had nothing to do but to get up, shake myself, and my bed and toilet were complete. I should make a single exception-my boots I invariably black-balled, as one of the first acts of my morning duty; and if my visitors had looked only to my boots, they would have been favorably impressed with my shining qualities; but the trouble was, they surveyed my apparel from my boots upward, and then if they made an average estimate I could have nothing to expect from the verdict which would flatter me. But after the lapse of the said two weeks I rose by my own exertions, and my own loose change, to the luxury of a cot, costing twenty shillings, and on that I reposed until the commissary brought me the blankets, (said to have been sent by Jefferson Davis,) and five yards and a half of bleached sheeting, one yard wide, out of which I made myself a pair of sheets; my bed was then complete, and indeed very comfortable, excepting the pillow, for which I used my pantaloons. We retire about nine o'clock, the guard insisting that they are ordered to shut off the gas at that early hour; they have one light left, however, through the night, by which to relieve guard, under the glimmerings of which I, with some others, sometimes sit up longer; but when really on board of my cot, I sail into the gulf-stream of oblivion, without a single ripple to disturb my voy

Page  100 100 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, age, until some officer in an adjoining cot cries out the arrival of the milk or daily papers, about five o'clock in the morning. My duties then begin, by shaking my cot, blankets, and sheets very thoroughly, and which, with the precision of some trim spinster, I fold into a small compass to fit inside my cot, and snugly strap all together, and stand it by the side of the wall. The bath tub comes next in order; and it is worthy of remark, that although I have a bathingroom in my own house, I have bathed more regularly during my stay here than I have in ten years with all the conveniences at home. I find it,a great luxury and most beneficial to the health. I begin to think of ill-treatment, if I am deprived of the privilege. My coarse crash towel and soap are among the last articles employed before breakfast. I have taken the utmost precaution to keep cleanly while here, as these habits are our security against different diseases prevailing at the sickly season in this climate. The Richmond Prison Association, by its Sanitary Committee, have established rules and regulations touching the general health of the officers, which by strict observance have, by Divine Providence, thus far protected us from the ravages of fever and other prevailing diseases. Our mess, consisting of eight persons in all, sit down to breakfast, prepared mostly by our servant,

Page  101 A PRISONER OF WAR. 101 who is a private in one of the New York regiments; the food is-boiled beef, bread, and coffee, as the only rations furnished by the Government; but our own private funds supply us with vegetables, milk, tea, and such other delicacies as we choose to purchase.* Our table consists of a rough bench, about twelve feet long, made of oak boards, no table-cloth, and seats made of boards, supported by blocks of wood at either end. Each person is supplied with a tin cup and plate, but no knives, forks or spoons, excepting such as are supplied by "* According to some notes furnished by Corporal Merrell, meals were regularly served in prison three times a day, and in general the food was palatable, and, though including few luxuries, was expensive. The standard bill of fare consisted of beef steak and bread, (which were furnished by the Confederacy,) and coffee, adulterated with corn, which cost one dollar and a quarter per pound. Among the articles paid for by the prisoners were sweet potatoes at one dollar and a half per bushel,-sugar at fifty cents, and butter at seventy-five per pound. Eggs were scarce, at five cents each, nutmegs at ten cents each, molasses twenty-five cents per quart, and whiskey (for medical purposes) at fifty cents per pint. The tariff of outside prices for certain articles was as follows:-Salt per sack twenty-six dollars; boots per pair twenty to twenty-six dollars; clothing of all kinds was fabulously high; ordinary note paper brought ten cents the sheet, and a yellow envelope brought the same. The scarcity of lint or plaster was the most serious want experienced by the hospital surgeons;-at one time the supply was wholly cut off, and the wounds of the poor soldiers were for a time left undressed. " Tell your master, Lincoln, to raise the blockade, and then we will tend to you," was the frequent remark. "We hav'n't lint enough," said they, "for our own wounded, and they must be served first."

Page  102 102 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ourselves. The table furniture will not be deemed extravagant for such an hotel as this; and as we cannot change our landlord or his accommodations without his consent, we have made up our minds to be at peace. My towels I wash myself; my blue streaked, sixteen-cent pocket-handkerchief I undertook to baptize in the same way, after an uninterrupted nasal use of four long weeks, when, to my dismay, my hands, and wristbands of my coat and shirt, had more indigo upon them than all the waters of Damascus could make clean. What a scrape! only one shirt, with wristbands blue as an indigo bag. This was my first attempt at washing, and like all wash-days it was blue. My extra shirt is being washed by an old slave, a good old creature, who is one of a hundred others owned by a widow lady at Richmond! she comes twice a week to bring and procure clothes from the officers to wash; she is very neat in dress and in her person, and all are very glad when "Susannah " is announced. She is also employed to bring private dinners to some of the officers, which she prepares at home, and for which she gets well compensated. After breakfast, the officers employ themselves in a variety of ways-some playing whist; others gamble upon a small scale, pitching cents, boxing with stuffed buckskin gloves, promenading the

Page  103 A PRISONER OF WAR. 103 long range of our quarters, talking, singing, &c., so that the time may hang less heavily. Dinner is announced, and sometimes the wonder is, what has become of the morning. Col. Corcoran, at the top of his military voice of command, will call out, " Attention, Members of Congress and Officers of the line-march to dinner!" The ceremony of "taking tea" has much the same routine, and the day has lapsed into the evening hour, which is altogether the most lively and cheerful portion of the twenty-four. Conversation is more brisk, wit more brilliant, and repartee keener by far. Before closing this diary, it is my intention to describe, as well as I may be able, some incidents relating to officers associated with my prison life; but I will postpone this for the present. At an early hour, about nine o'clock as I have already said, many of the officers begin to prepare for bed; and it would amuse a spectator to witness the operations of those who probably never before made a bed. For my own part, I have become very skilful in this particular, and even my wife would concede this, if she could but take a peep at my cot with its smooth clean sheets, and red and white blankets so neatly covering all. Septenmber 6.- Scarcely does a day transpire without the occurrence of some event, although trifling, that is not worthy of a passing notice;

Page  104 104 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, but I shall not deny that this day is an exception. September '7.-The Northern Associated Press telegraphs to the New York papers as follows: " Congressman Ely is still at Richmond, and he takes his turn at cooking and carrying water for the prisoners. "Colonel Corcoran, of the 69th New York Regiment, was lately put in irons for several hours for refusing to answer to his name on the roll." These falsehoods are manufactured by our friends at the North, to impress our people with the idea that the Federal prisoners are treated with indignity and hardship. So far as labor of any kind is concerned, no private, officer, or civilian has ever been compelled to do any service of any nature whatever since the first day of our imprisonment here, and has performed none, excepting such as he desired and asked the privilege of doing. Many of the privates have been engaged in the cooking department, as a matter of choice merely; it enabled those who were fortunate enough to obtain the privilege, to be out in the open air, and likewise to secure plenty of food and the best selection. General Winder has very politely sent me a bundle of newspapers to-day; they were from different sections of the country, and were greed

Page  105 A PRISONER OF WAR. 105 ily seized by the officers, and our quarters very soon presented the appearance of a reading room.* But the papers were of no value to me just at the moment, for accompanying the bundle was a letter from Mrs. Ely, dated at Rochester on the 29th of August, in which there was much news of great importance; and it being the first letter I had received from her from Rochester since my capture, it made me light-hearted and buoyant. The photograph likeness of my little daughter Carrie, attached to the letter, was a matter of public exhibition. The officers rushed about me to know what news my wife had written, and to gaze upon the likeness. Around the quarters the photograph was circulated, among the officers, "* Touching the mail facilities with which the Union prisoners were favored, the following facts are worth mentioning: At one time some three hundred letters, addressed to the prisoners, had accumulated at the post-office, and were withheld from their owners nearly a fortnight. As soon as the Union officers ascertained this fact, they instituted an inquiry in regard to it, and were informed that the authorities declined to deliver them until the postage was paid; and as they believed that but few of the privates had any pecuniary means, they had determined to keep them. Upon this explanation, the Union officers directed that the letters should be immediately delivered, as they would pay the postage, which amounted to twenty-five dollars. The Richmond authorities invariably exacted seven cents per letter on delivery at the prison, notwithstanding that the five cents Confederate postage was prepaid by the writers in an enclosure to General Wool. 5*

Page  106 106 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, whose complimentary remarks, I confess, amply satisfied my parental pride. The officers congratulated me upon the marked change in my feelings, and the cheerfulness with which I talked about items of news contained in my letter. To use a very common, but not well understood phrase, my letter was a " big thing." Yes, a letter here, no matter to whom or from whom it may be, is almost public property, since every person inquires what is the news, what did she say about this, that, and the other? September 8.-The seventh Sabbath has come and gone since my arrest, and it has been spent in attending Divine service, performed by the chaplains in the morning and evening. The religious exercises performed on Sunday and Wednesday evenings, now regulated by the Association, have evidently an effect upon the decent, good order of the officers, and the decorum so essential in a position like this. The wickedness engendered in the camp is proverbial; say what you will, however, the influences of religious example, the earnestness of sincere godliness, soften the roughest heart, and break up its wicked inclinations. September 9.-It has been apparent for some days that the authorities at Richmond, in charge of the Federal prisoners, had become alarmed, fearing that an outbreak was contemplated on

Page  107 A PRISONER OF WAR. 101 the part of the officers; and this morning, at an early hour, all the officers and civilians were ordered into line. This done, the officer of the day, Captain Gibbs, attended by two Lieutenants with side-arms, and a detective police officer, (said to be from Baltimore,) holding a bowieknife, stepped in front of the ranks, and said: " Gentlemen, information has been received that the officers have concealed arms in this building, and I am ordered to search the officers, and, although an unpleasant duty, still I must obey the order; but, if the officers please, it shall be done with as little annoyance as possible." Every officer, of course, cheerfully insisted upon, rather than submitted to, the search of his person and baggage, and the utmost decorum and silence prevailed until it was accomplished. The result proved that no person had any weapon, excepting, perhaps, a pocket penknife; we were then permitted to break ranks and disperse. The whole performance was gone through with in an unexceptionable manner; and, I think, to disabuse the minds of the Confederate officers of unfounded suspicions, the prisoners were glad of the occurrence. It was, however, a matter of great surprise to us, when told that a search was to be made, that any suspicion of concealed arms had existed, for it is due to truth and the high character of the officers to say, that no uprising

Page  108 108 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, or use of arms, or general escape, was ever contemplated or talked about among them. It turned out that this suspicion had sufficient foundation to justify any prudent officer in instituting this search some scoundrel having addressed an anonymous letter to General Winder charging it upon us. My own view of this examination led me to suggest that it was susceptible of another interpretation, and might be an indication of our speedy removal to some distant fortress. September 10.-At an early hour this morning it was announced that forty officers and a certain number of privates were to be sent to " Castle Pinckney," an old fort in Charleston harbor, as I anticipated yesterday, in the three P. M. train this day. The whole crowd of officers were thrown into confusion, and speculations sprang up at once as to who were to be the subjects of this movement. The idea of going did not meet with a single agreeable response, until it was finally ascertained who in fact were designated for the trip. At nine o'clock the orderly sergeant came in and ordered us to form a line for roll-call, which he followed up by stating that the following-named officers (reading from his roll) would be prepared to leave at one P. M. for " Castle Pinckney," in Charleston, S. C. The anxious countenances and almost trepida

Page  109 A PRISONER OF WAR. 109 tion so visible among the officers, as they listened in breathless silence to hear if their names were called, was indeed painful. The following list from the Examiner, corrected by me, contains the names of the officers sent to Charleston, with the complimentary notice of the editor upon their departure. I' Yankee prisoners sent South.-One hundred and fifty-six Yankee prisoners, selected chiefly from among those members of the New York, Massachusetts, and Michigan Regiments, who had evinced the most insolent and insubordinate disposition, were yesterday afternoon despatched by railroad to Castle Pinckney, a small fortification in Charleston harbor, for safe keeping. /It is thought that the invigorating sea-breezes and the genial climate of 'Dixie's Land' will have the effect not only of improving the health, but the temper of the captive Bull-runners. Included in the number stated above, are the following officers, several of whom are recovering from the wounds received at the battle of Stone Bridge: Col. ConcoEAN, New York 69th Regt. Militia. Col. O. B. WILCOX, Michigan 1st Regt. Volunteers. Col. W. E. WOODRUFF, Kentucky 2d Regt. Volunteers. Lieut.-Col. G. W. NEFF, Kentucky 2d Regt. Volunteers. Maj. J. W. POTTER, New York 38th Regt. Volunteers. Rev. G. W. DODGE, Chaplain, New York 11th Regt. Volunteers. Rev. H. EDDY, Chaplain, Connecticut 2d Regt. Volunteers. Dr. C. 0. GREY, U. S. Army.

Page  110 110 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Dr. L. H. STONE, U. S. Army. Dr. JOHN MCGREGOR, Connecticut 3d Regt. Volunteers. Capt. GEORGE AUSTIN, Kentucky 2d Regt. Volunteers. Capt. MORTIMER GRIFFIN, New York 8th Regt. S. M. Capt. JOHN W. SPRAGUE, Ohio 7th Regt. Volunteers. Capt. I. H. DOWNEY, New York 11th Regt. Volunteers. Capt. ROSWELL A. Fisi, New York 32d Regt. Volunteers. Capt. JAs. T. FAmIsH, New York 79th Regt. Volunteers. Capt. J. W. DREW, Vermont 2d Regt. Volunteers. Capt. SHURTLIFF, Ohio 7th Regt, Volunteers. Capt. L. GORDON, Massachusetts 11th Regt. Volunteers. Capt. WHITTINGTON. Capt. JENKINS. Lieut. CHARLES WALTERS, Connecticut 3d Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. Toy, New York 25th Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. THOMAs HAMBLIN, (son of the actor by that name,) New York 38th Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. UNDERHILL, New York 11th Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. WORCESTER, New York 71st Regt.-Militia. Lieut. J. H. DEMPSEY, New York 2d Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. WILcox, Ohio 7th Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. D. S. GORDON, 2d Dragoons, U. S. Army. Lieut. J. F. KENT, U. S. Army. Lieut. G. H. CALEFF, Massachusetts 11th Regt. Volunteers. Lieut. E. CONOLLY, New York.69th Regt. Volunteers. " Captain Ricketts, U. S. Army, was to have accompanied the party, but is not sufficiently recovered from his wounds to undertake the journey.* * Soon after the wife of this officer was informed that he had been wounded, and was in a Richmond hospital, she pleaded for permission to join him, and after experiencing gross insults from the rebel soldiers, and many other obstacles, she succeeded in her mission, and was continually by his side until he got well and was released. She also acted as an angel of mercy towards many of the wounded prisoners besides her husband.

Page  111 A PRISONER OF WAR. 111 "The prisoners were marched from the tobacco factories, in which they had been confined, to the depot of the Petersburg Railroad, in double files, guarded by a detachment of fifty men from the Jeff. Davis Douisiana Battalion, commanded by Lieut. W. B. Brockett, C. S. A., who are to accompany them the entire distance to Charleston. Twenty-five men of the detachment, detailed from the Madison (La.) Infantry, marched ahead of the prisoners, the rear being brought up by twentyfive men of the Natchez (Miss.) Rifles. "The party embarked in three cars specially provided for their accommodation, each car being guarded by fifteen Southern soldiers fully armed. The Yankees generally seemed quite despondent at their change of location, but few of their number venturing to cheat their depression with a smile. They were followed to the depot by a very large crowd, who nevertheless entirely refrained from the utterance of any remark which should wound the feelings of the prisoners." When the hour arrived for the departure of our fellow-prisoners, the scene was interesting, and in some instances very affecting. Associations formed in misfortune are said to be the strongest: for fifty days had we been confined in the same room, in constant intercourse, interchanging thoughts and sympathies with each other. Each one knew the history of the other, political, social,

Page  112 112 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and military, and it is remarkable that during this entire period of time no unpleasant personal difference had occurred, excepting in a single trifling instance. The officers shook hands, and'bid an affectionate farewell to us, their remaining associates; they formed in line directly in front of our quarters, and halted until joined by the privates taken from the other prisons, who were ordered to the same old fort. " Good-by," " Good-by," rang along the long file of officers as they stood facing us, with manly forms and brave hearts; until suddenly checked by the shrill voice of the captain at the head of the column, who gave the order to " march." What were the real motives which prompted, or the effects which were anticipated to result from this procedure, have never been disclosed to the public, so far as I am informed. The ostensible ground in the article from the Examiner, above quoted, has as little foundation in truth, as the expectation of the result which was anticipated has of wit. These gentlemen had on no occasion, or under any circumstances, manifested any thing of insolence or insubordination in their language or deportment under all the vexations to which they had been exposed. Their conduct had been uniformly gentlemanly and forbearing.

Page  113 A PRISONER OF WAR. 113 The anticipation that "the invigorating sea, breezes and genial climate of Dixie's land would have the effect of improving the health and the temper of the Bull-runners" indicates a feeling as honorable and gentlemanlike, as the whole phraseology does of witty and pointed sarcasm. Thus was terminated by far the most exciting event which I have been called upon to notice. The day has nearly gone, the excitement and fatigue drive me to an early rest, and I leave my pen for my cot. September 11.-Our quarters to-day, since the instalment taken from our numbers yesterday, and the almost painful quiet that has ensued, remind me of some lonely country dwelling, desolated by the hand of death, after many of its afflicted inmates had passed to the tomb. Among the officers who have gone to Charleston were a number of splendid singers, upon whom we had chiefly depended for our entertainment in the musical department. Every colonel, the only major, and most of the captains are gone, leaving behind officers inferior in rank. Although there may be a benefit derived from this reduction of numbers, we have lost immensely in the quality of our company. Most of the zealous and more active members of the Association are among the number gone;

Page  114 114 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, so another meeting of the organization is rendered quite uncertain. To-day I saw for the first time, in a St. Louis paper, the speculation of a Washington correspondent of the Philadelphia Inquirer, under date of August 15, 1861, and here it follows: "WHAT IS TO BE DONE WITH THE PIRATES? "This question is now seriously discussed in the Cabinet without any definite answer being arrived at. It is supposed that, in the next four weeks, our newly-set-out fleet will have captured at least four hundred Southern sailors; who, according to the doctrine enunciated by the Executive, must be regarded as pirates, and executed as such. But you are aware that the subject is full of difficulty. At the time General McClellan took so many prisoners, with Col. Pegram, I wrote you that the War Department had sent him orders to release them all. This order, of course, he obeyed. I stated at the time, that the Administration had decided not to hang any of the sailors taken on board of Southern privateers. This was true at the time. The decision was made, not from any feeling of clemency towards the captured sailors, but from motives of policy. No instance of hanging has yet taken place on either side; and the Administration felt unwill

Page  115 A PRISONER OF WAR. 115 ing to begin a course of policy which might be followed on the other side. "The result of the inauguration of such a policy would be the indiscriminate murder of hundreds of prisoners in the hands of the rebels, including many valuable citizens, and the enactment of scenes of horror unequalled by those of the French Revolution. The Administration, therefore, decided, as I have said, not to hang any of the pirates. But within a day or two the question has been again raised in the Cabinet. At least one member of that body is in favor, as he expresses it, of 'discarding all squeamish nonsense, and of hanging every rebel found in arms against the Government, whether taken on sea or land.' This is undoubtedly the course that ought to be taken, if the Government regards this matter simply as an 'insurrection.' This is the view taken of it by President Lincoln; and he, too, although he deplores the necessity of such dreadful measures, 's in favor of such a course as will show to the world that we are in earnest in this matter, and that traitors found in arms against the Government must expect and receive a traitor's doom. "But the Secretary of State is in favor of a milder, and, as he thinks, of a wiser course of policy. He admits that, by the strict rules of laws, the Southern privateersmen are pirates, and to hang them might be justifiable; but, he says,

Page  116 116 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, necessity has led us to disregard former constitu. tional provisions since the commencement of this strife. In this instance, the same necessity would seem to dictate a relaxation of the strict rule of law. If we hang these men, the rebels will hang Mr. Ely, Col. Corcoran, and Col. Wilcox; and then we, in retaliation, will hang Mr. Faulkner and the prisoners at Fort Lafayette. Thus there will be no end to horrors. To avoid this, Mfr. Seward favors a more lenient course than he would recommend under ordinary circumstances. His opinion has great weight with the President, but the matter is by no means yet decided. The other members of the Cabinet are divided in sentiment on the subject. Mr. Welles sides with Mr. Seward, and the Secretary of War holds about the same views, only he objects to any further release of prisoners, as in the case of Col. Pegram's men..Mr. Bates and.Mr. Blair both go for extreme measure8, regardless of consequence8; and iMr. Smith also entertains the same miewe." The preceding article needs no comment, excepting that, at the time it was penned, very little was known, I imagine, of the views of the Cabinet upon the subject to which it refers. And even now, that nearly a month has passed, I apprehend that what policy is to be pursued remains a mat

Page  117 A PRISONER OF WAR. 117 ter of doubt and uncertainty. I am entirely resigned to remain here as a prisoner of war, so long as it is supposed by the Administration that an exchange of prisoners will be a detriment to our welfare as a nation, either at home or abroad. I have never been able to see, however, that the subject involve8 any such consequences. September 12.-This morning we are notified that, henceforth, we can no longer be furnished with cofee or sugar; the first is now selling at fifty cents a pound in Richmond, and the last at sixteen cents, and not to be procured even at that price. This deprivation is not the result of any malice or disposition to punish us, but because the articles cannot be obtained. The blockade, of course, is the cause of this scarcity, although still pronounced to be wholly ineffectual. This morning the officer of the day handed me a letter, written by Mrs. E. H. Silliman, a niece of mine, at Camden, Arkansas, from which it appears that she has been deceived by the unaccountable falsehoods about my conduct published in the Southern papers, and believes me to be acting a very unmanly and undignified part in my condition as a prisoner of war. She says every thing I do or say is published in the papers, and speaks in glowing terms of "President Davis." She has certainly been imposed upon by the

Page  118 118 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, press, and may find out that her so-called President has been equally the subject of misrepresentation, though of an opposite character. The writer was a small child when I saw her last, at my father's house in Lyme, Connecticut. She is a daughter of my brother Frederick, who died many years since. She grew up to womanhood and married Mr. Silliman, in the place, 1 think, where they now live. Her husband came originally from Chester, Connecticut, a small village on the Connecticut River, in the county of Middlesex, a few miles only from my birthplace. The letter is characteristic of her as a child, as I very well remember. She was very affectionate, and the idol of her father and mother, and, at the same time, excessively proud-if the term may be applied to a child. I have replied to her letter, relieving her, I hope, of the mortification she professes to feel from the unmanliness of my behavior, and have stated to her that all these newspaper articles about my grief and lamentations are entirely fabulous. The entire Southern press has been untiring in publishing false and scandalous, as well as ridiculous statements in regard to me; and this remark, I regret to say, is not entirely inapplicable to some of our own Northern papers. The above letter of my niece indicates the impression created by these unholy perversions of truth. God forgive him, who

Page  119 A PRISONER OF WAR. 119 seeks to destroy the innocenf with the "leprous distilment of pernicious rumor." September 13.-The only interesting item for to-day is the purchase of a checkered calico shirt for ten shillings, New York currency; it is a pretty good fit, and very much needed. My funds were entirely gone, and I borrowed five dollars of Mr. Flagler, an estimable old gentleman among the prisoners, who resides at Centreville, and was arrested simply because he furnished food to some famishing soldiers of our army. About ten or twelve days since I addressed a letter to Thomas Branch & Sons, Petersburg, Virginia, asking a loan of money, in addition to that already lent me. I enclosed to them a draft on Thayer, Brigham & Field, of Boston, for the additional sum I desired, and also enclosed to the latter my check for the same amount on the "Rochester City Bank," to the order of Thayer, Brigham & Field, with instructions to forward it to them-the amount of my draft. Thus far I have heard nothing from them. A large bundle of newspapers, from different sections of the country, was sent to me to-day, addressed " A. Ely and others, Richmond,Va., care of War Department." They were a great treat to the officers. I do not know from whose considerate hand they came. One of the newspapers, the St. Louis Republican, contains a list of

Page  120 120 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Federal prisoners in Richmond, followed by an account of "the Richmond Prison Association," which we organized, and which I have before described, and alludes to the general manner in which we entertain ourselves here. This article long since appeared in the Richmond Examiner, and its remarks at the time should not be omitted, viz.: "This delightful pastime is in striking contrast to the indulgencies granted our prisonersmanacles and bread and water." September 14.-There was an extraordinary movement of Southern troops passing our quarters at an early hour this morning-infantry, cavalry, army wagons containing baggage, camp equipage, &c., &c., and it is rumored that a battle is in progress at Yorktown; but nothing definite can be ascertained. Quartermaster Murphy, Captain Hurd, and Lieutenant Raynor, who escaped on the fourth instant, are said to have been caught and detained at Manassas. September 15.-Yesterday I wrote to my wife, my son, at Trinity College, and to my law-partner. These letters went by way of Norfolk, and from there by flag of truce to Fortress Monroe. The bearer was George Washington Edge, Master of the ship John Carver, of Bath, Maine; he sailed from Philadelphia, laden with coal for the

Page  121 A PRISONER OF WAR. 121 United States Government, bound to the mouth of the Mississippi and Key West to supply the blockading squadron with this article. In latitude 29~ 30', and longitude 6~ 50', E. S. E. from Charleston about 750 miles, he was saluted by a cannon-ball shot across the bow of the ship from a distant clipper-built brig, which turned out to be the celebrated privateer Jeff. Davis. There was a light breeze at the time, and being unarmed she had no alternative but to heave about, and await the result. Soon a small boat, filled with armed men; boarded the ship and demanded her newspapers, which the captain gave them; they determined not to take the ship, as the cargo was of no particular value to them. After opening the officers' chests and captain's baggage, and taking some dried fruits and liquors, private stores of the captain, they left the ship and rowed away to the privateer. The captain then increased sail on his ship, but it was almost a dead calm. It was not long, however, before the small boat with men from the privateer returned to the ship, and announced their purpose to take and scuttle her, and imprison the officers and men. They alleged as a reason for this, that they had read in one of the newspapers given them, an account of a negro-cook, belonging to some schooner taken as a prize by another privateer, who had killed while* asleep the prize crew, 6

Page  122 122 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and took the vessel into New York harbor, and they intended to avenge this act. They took all the crew of the ship on board the small boat, and after scuttling, set fire to her in the cabin and the forecastle, all sail standing. Upon returning to the privateer they placed the officers and crew of the ship in separate localities on the privateer, and all were closely watched. The second day suspicions, real or pretended, were made an excuse for putting the captain and all the crew in irons. The captain was first called down into the cabin alone, and with pistols and cutlasses pointed at his breast, he was manacled; the first mate was then called, who experienced the same treatment, but not without a murmur; -he told the captain of the privateer that he might consider himself highly honored in putting a gentleman in irons. The privateer captain replied that " he was bound to protect his own life." It seems he became apprehensive that the ship's crew might rise and overpower the privateer. The crew were all ironed and placed in different sections of the brig between decks; no conversation after this was permitted. In this condition they continued for a week, until the privateer made St. Augustine, Florida, in a furious gale. The privateer placed the mate (while in irons) and Capt. Edge in a small yawl boat, with three other men, to land them on the beach. The sea

Page  123 A PRISONER OF WAR. 1238 was tremendous; there was no hope scarcely that they could live to reach the shore in the wild surf, in so small a boat, and death stared them in the face; the sailors in charge of the boat wept aloud before they cast off from the brig. After parting from the brig, the mate uplifted his manacled hands and threatened the boatman with death if he did not release him from his chains, and it was done. Capt. Edge and his mate then took command of the boat, and by skilful management succeeded in reaching the shore, embosomed in a surf, frightful even to the most experienced seamen. The captain, mate, and nine of the crew were sent to Richmond for further orders, and on their arrival were sent home in the manner mentioned as above. The ship John Carver was new, or nearly so, of nine hundred tons burthen, valued at sixty thousand dollars, and the cargo at twenty-two thousand. The "Jeff. Davis " was an old slaver brig, refitted into a privateer, and her name changed from "Echo" to her present distinguished cognomen. She was lost in the gale above referred to, and report says that some of her crew were instrumental in her destruction. Septembe? 16.-The commissary, Jackson Warner, tendered me the loan of fifty dollars to-day, and not having heard from Thos. Branch

Page  124 124 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, & Sons, of Petersburg, in response to my application for funds, I gladly accepted it. My check, for fifty dollars on " Rochester City Bank," I made payable to the order of Capt. George W. Edge, and delivered it to Mr. Warner, who stated to me that he wished to send it to his son Wm. H. Warner, in the North, and desireJ it for safety to be made payable, to the order of Capt. Edge, who leaves for Washington in the morning, and on his arrival he could endorse it and send it to his son. Really, I feel quite rich, after paying my debts here, including five dollars to Mr. Flagler, three dollars and a half to the commissary, six dollars for two white blankets, and five and a half yards of bleached cotton sheeting, at sixteen cents, which leaves me on hand thirty-four dollars and sixty-two cents, unappropriated. I purchased to-day a pair of satinet pantaloons, for which I paid four dollars. My only pair, in which I was arrested, I have worn without change ever since, and they had become ridiculously ragged and soiled. Mr. Huson has been unwell for several days, and he is evidently losing strength; his confinement I fear is impairing his constitution, and he should not remain here any longer. A blue day this all around, excepting the cash. September 17.-This afternoon General Win

Page  125 A PRISONER OF WAR. 125 der called to see us, and as usual was-very affable and courteous. He intimated that it was his intention to send away more of the prisoners soon, which I have apprehended for some days would be the case. It is the policy of those in power here, to distribute the prisoners among the different seceded States. Those already sent to Castle Pinckney will be followed by the next squad to Fort Jackson or Baton Rouge. I appealed to General Winder, in my conversation with him yesterday, to release my friend Mr. Huson, whatever might be my own fate; telling him that my imprisonment was chiefly, as I supposed, on account of my public position, but that no excuse of that character was applicable to him. The General accordingly appointed nine o'clock to-morrow morning to give him an opportunity to apply for his discharge. I feel the deepest interest to secure his release, at this time, that he may return with our surgeons who are about to be sent home; nothing whatever can be alleged against him, and his health is giving way under the severities of confinement. The surgeons belonging to the United States Army, and employed here in taking care of the sick and wounded at Richmond, are to be sent home on parole of honor, such having been the arrangement made with them by General Beauregard at Manassas. Surgeons and chaplains, by

Page  126 126 JOURNAL OF ALFRED.ELY, the rules of war, are not liable to arrest as prisoners of war; but I have seen enough already to know that rules in war are as flexible as the exigency or military necessity demands. Since mingling with so many military officers, in constant discussion upon military matters, marches, counter-marches, retreats and advances, flanking and outflanking, opening and storming batteries, &c., I have become somewhat familiar with military phrases, the technical signification of which I was heretofore entirely ignorant of. The science of arms has many attractions, particularly to the young. In active service, it is doubtless the most rapid manner of acquiring popular distinction. One successful battle, led on by a general or colonel, establishes his fame, and emblazons his name far and wide. The people fondle the brave and heroic, and despise the coward. Calvin Huson, jr., had an interview with General Winder on the question of his release this morning. The decision not made yet, but success is probable. Judah P. Benjamin, from Louisiana, is now the acting Secretary of War in this bogus Confederacy, S. H. Walker having resigned. This gentleman has a most intimate and influential friend in New York; and through this channel, I think, an effort might be made to secure my

Page  127 A PRISONER OF WAR. 127 release, as that friend is on good terms with me, and I feel confident that he could assist me. General Winder has just called with some North Carolina gentlemen, to whom he introduced me. One of them was Mr. Pettigrew; the others not recollected. Mr. P. remarked that he was a member of the Secession Convention of North Carolina, and signed the Ordinance of Secession and no act of is life will he look back upon with so much satisfaction; that no one in his State "but the lowest rough scuffs entertained Union sentiments. The men of character and influence throughout the State were secessionists. All his property, including one hundred negroes, and, if necessary, his life also, should be expended in defence of the South. The North must first exterminate the South before they could subjugate them. Reconstruction of the Union, on any terms, was impossible. Such, and other similar remarks, addressed to me during the interview, I listened to in respectful silence. It has not been my practice to talk back,.situated as I am, when politics are introduced by gentlemen calling to see me; and, indeed, I do not esteem it the highest type of a gentleman to introduce and force upon one in my situation, the discussion of questions, which have already involved the country in a mighty war, and in which the expression of his opinions

Page  128 128 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, by one who is a prisoner to a hostile force, must either be prudently avoided or he be subjected to the most serious consequences if he express them. While on various occasions I have been exposed to the embarrassing difficulties thus alluded to, I have repeatedly been brought into intercourse with Southern gentlemen, who prop. erly appreciated my position; avoided any allusion, or only of a remote kind, to subjects the discussion of which must be disagreeable or offensive, and from whose conversation I derived both instruction and pleasure. From these individuals, well informed as to their minds and courteous in their deportment, I have learned much of the character of the people of the South as well as of the country which they occupy, and have been compelled to modify many of my preconceived opinions, and, I trust, to surrender some of my ancient prejudices. September 19.-Our monotonous routine was this day somewhat relieved by an accession to the number of prisoners, by the arrival of sixtyeight, who had been captured in Western Virginia. Among the officers were Captain Ralph Hunt, 1st Kentucky Regiment; Captain James Bense, 6th Ohio-Lieut. Gilman and F. S. Shaffer of the same, and W. B. Fletcher, surgeon, 6th Indiana. We learn that several more of the officers and two hundred and fifty privates are

Page  129 A PRISONER OF WAR. 129 to be sent to-morrow to Louisiana-to New Orleans or Baton Rouge. This morning I drew up a petition, which was signed by all the officers, and addressed to General John H. Winder, asking for the release of Mr. Calvin Huson, jr. It was transmitted by the hands of the commissary. We had entertained the hope that, under the circumstances, this gentleman might receive his discharge, and be permitted to accompany the surgeons who were to be released and sent to Old Point in the morning. No answer, however, was received to our communication during the day. Another interesting duty occupied a portion of the day. I have written a letter of three pages to my wife. I gave to her every consolation which the case allowed, urging her to exercise all the patience in her power, and assuring her of my return, to our home bye and Bye. This letter goes by the surgeons to Washington. In compliance also with the particular request of Captain J. B. Drew, of the 2d Vermont Regiment, who was one of the officers who had been sent to Castle Pinckney, I wrote to Lucy Lovell, Burlington, Vermont, informing her of the captain's removal to that place. September 20.-The surge6ns do not leave till to-morrow morning. There has been a general dearth of news to-day. I am whiling away the 6*

Page  130 130 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, time by reading the " Diary of a Medical Stu-. dent," by Warren, author of "Diary of a Physician," "Ten Thousand a Year," &c., and shall soon complete it. The nights and mornings begin to assume the chilliness of the autumnal season, and in the mornings a dense fog seems to hang over the town, but clears away quite early. The city railway passes our quarters, which affords some variety to the prisoners. September 21.-One of the most thrilling stories in "The Medical Student" is. that of " Southron, the Atheist;" the recital is most vivid and affecting. Oh! the power of the pen, wielded by a genius! This morning the surgeons left for Norfolk. Two hundred and fifty prisoners were sent to New Orleans, and three officers of volunteers: Captain McIvor, 69th N. Y. S. M., Lieut. Welch, 1st Minnesota, and Lieut. Hutchinson, 15th Pennsylvania. The troops sent away to-day were taken from the second and third stories of this building, and for once since our stay here, a little quiet prevails over our heads. An atrocious act of barbarity occurred to-day, which is the first of the kind in the history of our confinement as prisoners of war in Richmond.

Page  131 A PRISONER OF WAR. 131 Among many other trifling, not to say senseless, regulations adopted by the officers on guard here, more particularly in respect to the privates, is one requiring that the soldiers should keep away from the windows, and not look out, and in many previous instances they have been fired at by the guards stationed in the rear of the buildings where they have been confined; and musket-balls have penetrated the windows, the men narrowly escaping, whenever from inadvertence this rule happened to be disobeyed. No serious injury, until to-day, has taken place-the prisoners thus far having escaped the balls of the fiendish sentinels, frequently fired at them from the outside. A young and intelligent man, corporal in the 79th New York Regiment, while engaged in shaking his blanket out of the third story window, was shot through the breast by a musket-ball, fired by one of the Georgia Regiment. Poor fellow! he lived but a few minutes, and was immediately taken to the dead-house, in rear of our quarters, and put into a coffin, before the body could possibly have had the decent respect of becoming cold, and the lid was screwed down in most reckless haste.* "* The outrage here alluded to was described by a Richmond journal, in the subjoined language: " One of the Yankee prisoners confined in Liggon's factory, was shot by a sentry, about half-past nine o'clock on Saturday, under the following circumstances:-The

Page  132 132 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, This act of savage barbarity towards a defenceless being in a prison, already worn down by the severity of a long confinement, and guilty of no offence but that of shaking his blanket at the window, calls out the deepest indignation. I do not believe that this cruelty can be known by General Winder or the Secretary of War. The guard had received orders not to permit the prisoners to put their heads out of the windows. The party shot had done this repeatedly, and had been cautioned that it was against orders. The last caution was followed by the application of a vile epithet to the guard, and the obtrusion of half the body of the prisoner from the window. The discharge of the sentry's gun followed, and the death of the offending party immediately ensued. The name of the prisoner was Wm. C. Beck, a member of the 10th company, 79th New York Regiment." The testimony of a fellow-soldier touching this affair was, that the man was killed while hanging up his blanket on the inside of the window to dry;-the ball entered his forehead and he fell instantly dead. Another man thus murdered was Private R. Gleason. Two others met a similar fate, but their names are not known. Four other soldiers are known to have been wounded in a similar manner, and another one killed. The prisoners were occasionally permitted to visit, in couples, an outhouse in the prisonyard, and as Private C. W. Tibbetts and a companion were going thither, " with the consent of the guard," a sentinel on the opposite side deliberately raised his gun and fired at them;-Tibbetts was killed, and his companion wounded in the arm. Both of those murdered, it is said, were buried in the Negro graveyard. Lieutenant Hart informs the Editor that on the morning after one of these murders, a Richmond paper noticed the circumstance in the following words:-" Died on yesterday (Sunday) a Yankee prisoner, from concussion of the brain, brought on by a sudden fit of expectoration." The man was in reality shot between the eyes, put in his coffin all covered with blood, and before the body was cold, was carried by negroes in a wagon to the negro graveyard.

Page  133 A PRISONER OF WAR. 133 officer of the day has just called the roll for Saturday night, and I must lay down my pen, to indulge in thoughts of my far-off home. September 22.-The ninth week has now arrived since my arrest, and yet no more prospect for my release, or scarcely as much perhaps, as during the first of my sojourn here. The idea of an exchange of prisoners by our Government seems to be ignored altogether, and equally abandoned or suspended by the " Confederates" as I infer; otherwise they would not have sent the Federal prisoners to Charleston and New Orleans. It would seem a harsh and wanton act of cruelty to send those prisoners, after a confinement of two months, thickly huddled together in a state of much destitution, and entirely out of money, into the extreme South, there to eke out an imprisonment, none can tell how long, in some dilapidated fort or jail until the U. S. Government gets time to determine whether these brave fellows taken on the field of battle, fighting to uphold the flag of our country, are really worth the trouble of exchange or not. I sat at the door as they came down the stairway-some with blankets, haversacks, or articles of this sort, but most of them with no other clothing but shirts and pantaloons, just as they were clad when taken on the field of battle. All, however, wore cheerful countenances that seemed to

Page  134 134 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, say, " we have enlisted in this war, and are ready to brave its consequences and hardships as well in one place as in another." True enough, go they must, and go they did, saluting the officers as they descended to our quarters, in passing out. My feelings were deeply touched on witnessing the subdued manliness and bearing with which they took up their line of march towards the place of their departure. To change the theme a little abruptly, I will note, that the officers insist that I shall step to the door to see some person who says he has travelled fifteen miles in order to get one look at me, and will give ten dollars if I will but grant him that privilege. I declined, and a gentleman asked my permission to allow some one to personate me in order to get the promised fee, which I also declined. I learn that this deception has been in several instances practised by some of the roguish officers, but never with my consent or knowledge. Of course in every such instance, the individual has gone away with an erroneous impression of the personal appearance of the " Yankee Congressman.7"* * One of Mr. Ely's fellow-prisoners, Corporal W. R. Merrell, in a letter addressed to a friend gives us the following:-Some of the Union officers would insist upon " stirring up the animals," that we might make sport for the Philistines. Mr. Ely was designated as the elephant, but as he had lost his trunk at Bull Run he had

Page  135 A PRISONER OF WAAR. 135 Last night it was cold, and with all our windows closed, and our blankets on our cots, we slept cold; and I could not but be reminded of the poor soldiers in the tents, who were but half clothed and lying perhaps upon the bare ground. The Examiner contains an article this morning, taken from the New York World, on the subject of an exchange of prisoners, advocating it in strong and forcible arguments. Indeed, the principal public journals in the North are unanimous in advocating this humane policy; but the Administration still holds out, if not in opposition to it, yet as a subject open to protracted deliberation. Could the President and his Cabinet mingle with the prisoners at Richmond. or Charleston for a single day, and know their destitution, and hear the sentiments engendered by this apparent neglect of them in their imprisonment, all technical difficulties would be waived, and an exchange would not be far distant. We, the victims of this policy, cannot but think that the course pursued by the Government is neither wise nor humane; and the language of many able men, and of the no disposition to appear on exhibition before the deriding savages, notwithstanding frequent bids among the chivalric gentry:" Where's the little man with the big head? I reckon I'd like to see him, and I'll give you ten dollars if you will show him up." The prison exchequer was low, but Mr. Ely entertained too mild an appreciation of Confederate currency to yield to the temptations which beset him.

Page  136 136 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, leading journals of the country, indicates that our opinions have not been altogether biassed by personal considerations. Of all the days which I have spent in the Richmond tobacco factory as a prisoner, this has been the most desolate, the longest, and the bluest. My feelings are approaching to despair at what appears my unreasonable detention; and my health, though still good, will not, I fear, continue so. Day after day I have endeavored to console myself with the idea that something would soon be done by our Government for our release; but I am disappointed, and no hope seems left. The month of October is already close at hand; my family and private affairs demand my attention at home, and I cannot but feel distracted and restless at times; and on such occasions as the present, any thing like consolation offered would seem quite unavailing. September 24.-This morning having learned that one of the citizen prisoners, Mr. Eister, was to go to Norfolk to-morrow, I have again written to my family, and also one or two letters to Washington. Were it not for the occasional return of prisoners under flags of truce, it would be difficult to send any letters north of the Potomac; all communication in other directions being entirely interdicted. This afternoon Mr. Branch and three ladies

Page  137 A PRISONER OF WAR. 137 rode up to the prison quarters, and sent in some money to me. I went to the door and saluted my visitors, and addressed Mr. B. a note df thanks, while sitting in his carriage, for his kindness to me. This is Barnum Field's friend, who called upon me many days since and loaned me money, and the same person to whom I had sent the draft on Boston, &c., before alluded to. In my note I told him that if he had received those papers he might destroy them, as I did not need more than the sum I had borrowed from him, which I would return to him on my arrival home. He replied that the papers had been received, but he had been absent, and for that reason they had not been attended to; but he would write me on his return home. Soon after the carriage drove off, Mr. B. and the ladies bowing as they left the place. Calvin Huson, jr., has been very sick in bed nearly all day, and I confess his situation alarms me, as it has assumed a critical aspect. The hospital physician attends him, and has administered very faithfully to his case. All the officers feel much sympathy for him, and are very attentive to his wants. I have declined to see any more visitors today, on account of my engagement in preparing letters to Mrs. Ely and others, which I scarcely got in readiness before the messenger cried out, " Letters! letters! letters!"

Page  138 138 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, September 25.-A large number of privates, said to be two hundred and fifty, were sent South this afternoon. Last evening forty-seven prisoners from Western Virginia arrived in Richmond, and the Examiner announces their advent in the annexed complimentary notice: " ARRIVAL OF HESSIAN PRISONERS. 'The Central cars that arrived last evening brought an instalment of forty-seven. Hessians, including a Captain Cox and others, recently captured by the First Virginia Cavalry, under Col. J. L. Davis, on Cole River, in Boone County. Capt. Cox and a companion (an officer) seemed to have established themselves on a footing of familiar intercourse with their custodians, and were kept apart from the men-a motley, truculent set of niiserable-looking scoundrels. In the crowd were one or two 'Union' men. No one could see them without being convinced immediately that a much stronger affair than the late Republic would have ultimately fallen to pieces when advocated by such cut-throat-looking fellows. The prisoners were carried to one of the depots on Main street." [ This afternoon a most pitiable spectacle was presented to the citizens of Richmond, which, I hope for the sake of humanity, will not find many counterparts in the history through which

Page  139 A PRISONER OF WAR. 139 we are now passing. A strong guard marched to the prison some 4fifteen citizens of Western Virginia, several of them very old men-one aged 75 years, poorly clad, and looking most forlorn and desolate, and ready, it would seem from all appearance, soon to bid adieu to earthly toil.* Poor old creature! I was told that in his homely little farm-house among the mountains in Western Virginia, where he had quietly lived for more than half a century, protected in all his rights, and rehearsing to his children and grandchildren year after year, with all the rapture of his youthful zeal, the part he bore in the war of 1812, in defence of the Stars and Stripes, he had dared to say that he loved the good old flag still. "* That the Rebel Government was occasionally as severe upon its own disloyal or unruly citizens, as upon the Union prisoners, the subjoined particulars will prove. To such a strait was the " Confederacy" reduced for prison accommodations, (for almost every unoccupied house had been converted into a hospital for the sick and wounded from Manassas,) that they caused a Colonel Adler of the " Wise Legion " to be confined for a time in one of the prisons. He had refused to obey some order from his General, and been sentenced to be shot; and, while awaiting his execution, was thus imprisoned with the Union men. He tried to kill himself with his sword, to avoid 'the coming disgrace, but was not successful. He excited the sympathy of the Union officers, who treated him with kindness; but this friendly treatment was observed by the Rebel officers, and the Colonel was removed to the Common Jail, probably from fear that he might make revelations detrimental to the Rebel cause.

Page  140 140 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, For this offence, as I was assured, he was arrested and brought several hundred miles to this city; and here he is now imprisoned simply because he was not willing to renounce, in his declining years, the Government which his long life had taught him to revere. September 26.-Thus far I have been imprisoned, without making a personal effort to get discharged, but to-day I feel impelled by a sense of duty to my family, to make an effort, since it appears that no exchange is contemplated. I therefore addressed the following communication to the Acting Secretary of War: "PrISONERS' QUARTERS, " RICHMOND, VA., September 26, 1861. "SIR: I have been a prisoner of war at Richmond in close confinement for more than two months, without asking the privilege of leaving my quarters once. " So far as I am aware, there are no charges against me, unless it be that I am a member of the United States Congress. If, however, I am mistaken in this regard, I desire to ask the reasonable courtesy of a hearing before yourself, or such other officer as you may please to designate for that purpose. "I am, sir, with great respect, "L ALFRED ELY. "Hon. I. P. BENJAMIN, " Acting Secretary of War."

Page  141 A PRISONER OF WAR. 141 The hour is so late that I am unable to send this letter this evening. I shall be disappointed if any thing beneficial grows out of it; but be that as it may, it will relieve me from the imputation of neglect in endeavoring to assist myself, and I will try to ascertain for my own satisfaction whether the " Confederacy " intend to arrest citizens without cause, and then deny them the privilege of a hearing. An intelligent officer remarked to me to-day, by way of accounting for the refusal of our Government to exchange prisoners, that they might imagine that the example of our long imprisonment would stimulate our troops in battle, to fight to the death, rather than surrender and be punished by a tedious imprisonment. I trust the American soldier needs no such stimulant to excite him to the performance of his duty. September 27.-My communication to the Acting Secretary of War was despatched to him this morning by Captain Jackson Warner, the commissary. If it meets with any consideration from the department to which it is addressed I shall feel gratified; it is, however, more than I. expect. September 28.-The Rev. J. L ---B --- is among the number of clerical gentlemen at Richmond who have occasionally visited our quarters, and he has done so more frequently than any other of his professional brethren. Far

Page  142 142 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, be it from me to speak in terms of disrespect of the clergy. Most of those who have done us the honor to visit us, have conducted their intercourse in a manner which indicated a just appreciation of our relative situations for the time being. Their kindness and delicacy have prompted them to abstain from offensive inquiries or remarks, and to advance other topics of discussion than politics, the defeat at Manassas, the invasion of Virginia, and other points calculated to excite feeling. It has indeed been gratifying to the officers generally that these clergymen have acted with all the proprieties which belonged to their sacred calling, with one exception and one only. I refer to the Rev. Dr. B-, and the exception in his case should apply to all the occasions when he has visited the officers, and not merely to a single instance. This gentleman is pastor of one of the religious societies in the city of Richmond, but is a native of New York, and formerly resided in Philadelphia. He has a short, thick-set, burly figure, wears a white cravat, and uses a cane, upon which, while standing, he reclines, and with a sort of upturned posture of his head, and an expression of countenance which seems to exult over the misfortunes of the fallen, he enters readily into conversation.

Page  143 A PRISONER OF WAR. 143 He covers up his malignity towards the North, as well as he is able, under the guise of his sacred calling, with expressions of the deepest sympathy, made intense by a sort of heavenly smile. He opens his sacerdotal budget of venom, and discourses upon the political errors of our people, and cites with much flippancy individual instances of the cruelties of our army. He thinks that the sad spectacle of civil war, the hundreds weltering in their gore, the agonies in the hospitals, filled with the wounded and dying victims, the destruction of Christian brotherhood and sacred ties of family, and the overthrow of civilization itself, are the legitimate consequences of this unholy invasion by Northern vandals. So says this infatuated priest. He smiles, and simpers, and deplores our unhappy condition as prisoners of war, and, by way of administering spiritual consolation, has distributed among the disconsolate a large quantity of tracts upon the beauties of Southern rebellion. The last visit of this pious divine was made but a few days ago; and although the officers have, in every way, during his visits, tried to manifest their contempt for him, still he continues to intrude his unwelcome company upon us. No one took notice of him upon his last advent, and yet he forced his attention upon two or three gentlemen, and expressed his huge horror that Abe

Page  144 144 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Lincoln had arrested some of the members of the Maryland Legislature. ' King Bomba," said he, " did not do worse." Suffice it to say that he is most heartily despised by every officer here, and it would not be surprising if, upon their return home, some of them paid their respects to the reverend gentleman through the public press, in a style that would not be very complimentary to his spiritual labors at the prison. September 29.-No especial incident has occurred to-day. Being Sunday, it was well observed. The Rev. John F. Mines officiated in the morning, among the Volunteers on the first and second floors, and the Rev. Mr. Church before the officers in our quarters in the evening, As I am in the way of referring to the clergy at this time, it gives me great pleasure to speak of the Rev. Mr. Mines, of Grace Church, Bath, Maine, and Chaplain of the Second Maine Regiment Volunteers. This gentleman was born in the city of Paris, France-is a graduate of Trinity College, of Hartford, Connecticut-is about twenty-six years of age, very youthful in appearance, and about the medium height. His wife was, I believe, originally from Hartford, and, with two children, is awaiting his return in that city. He is of a pleasant and cheerful turn of mind, always polite in his intercourse, and of agreeable manners; and this, united with a fund of ready

Page  145 A PRISONER OF WAR. 145 wit, makes him a most attractive and instructive companion. Being of the Episcopal Church, he reads the Church service in a very clear and articulate manner, and much after the style of Bishop Whitehouse. His sermons are afiimated, and delivered in a spirit of earnest simplicity, which, in my humble judgment, is the acme of pulpit eloquence. I will venture to prophesy that, at no distant day, this young divine will be esteemed among the ablest and most eloquent heads of our Church. September 30. —I was not disappointed in the result of my letter to Mr. Benjamin, on the 26th inst., and give his reply, which has been promptly made " CONFEDERATE STATES OF AMERICA, WAR DEPARTMENT, Richmond, September 28, 1861. "ALFRED ELY, ESQ., "Prisoners' Quarters, Richmond, Va. " SR: In reply to your letter of the 26th inst., I am directed by the Secretary of War to say that there is no charge against you, and therefore no reason why your request for a hearing should be granted. You are simply held as a prisoner of war. "Respectfully, "A. T. BLEDSOE, "Chief Bureau of War." I should like to be informed by Mr. Judah P.

Page  146 146 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Benjamin, who is a distinguished lawyer, upon what principle of international law, or law of war, I can be held as a prisoner of war. Under the usages which have long prevailed among civilized nations, individuals altogether unconnected with the military service, unarmed, and whose occupations are altogether of a civil kind, are not considered subject to the same restraint as those who are captured in hostile array. I am thus given to understand that it is the purpose of the "Confederate Powers" to retain me as a prisoner of war until all other prisoners are exchanged or paroled. The prospect is by no means consolatory; but whatever my fate may be, I have manliness enough to meet it. October 1.-Time in its unceasing roll has brought me down to October's frosty morn, and here I am still, engaged in dotting down the inside events of prison life, and such few incidents as come to me from the outside world. This morning the Richmond Enquirer comes out with an article in a strain of commiseration wholly gratuitous " Poor Ely.-Prison life agrees with the Hon. Alfred Ely, M. C., of New York. Three weeks ago we saw the living portrait of the captive Congressman in a frame-work of prison bars, and we thought of him as the man in the play thought of Richard

Page  147 A PRISONER OF WAR. 147 ye Third, that he 'had not that cheer and alacrity of mind which he was wont to have.' The Honorable did not then appear to have been in good condition, either; he was quite wan, and as thin as a Yankee. We looked upon the same picture with its former surroundings a day or two ago, and feel compelled, by the importance of the information, to chronicle the fact that the luckless Representative of Rochester has considerably improved in health, looks, and spirits. He has actually grown fat, and was as merry on the occasion of our visit as a cricket, which is, we believe, the highest recognized type of unbounded merriment. " Congressman Ely is not, however, entirely contented. His chief and frequent complaint is of an unwholesome odor, which he has detected in the prison, from which we infer that, despite the great vigilance and watchful care of the prison officers, the captive Yankees are sometimes neglectful of their compulsory habits of personal cleanliness. The Hon. M. C. has another leetle sort of discontent. He doesn't think he has been fairly treated by the United States, and he does think that Republics are ungrateful. He is inclined to regard'it as especially and peculiarly hard that Abe Lincoln should permit one to linger in captivity, who voted, without so much as a moment's hesitation, for every measure proposed by the Administration to 'crush out this rebel

Page  148 148 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, lion,' while his release could be obtained by simply recognizing the Southern Confederacy, or by admitting that they are belligerents. This case is certainly one of great hardship. Poor Ely!" This article was written by Mr. Tayleure, associate editor of the Enquirer, who was formerly one of the newspaper reporters in the United States House of Representatives. He called to see me with the editor of the Examiner. Tayleure I recollect slightly as one of the reporters in the House, but had no particular acquaintance with him. He is a young man, I should infer, of some writing ability. We had a talk and a good laugh over his remarkable notice! Mr. Huson is very sick with fever, and seems to grow worse daily; he is greatly reduced in flesh, and it is about time to think seriously of the result. I have made application repeatedly to General Winder and Dr. Higginbotham, hospital surgeon, to permit him to return home with the wounded, who are to leave in the steamboat for Fortress Monroe on Sunday next. The result of these applications has not yet been favorable. I have been attentive to his wants, and have endeavored to make him as; comfortable as possible. October 2.-Sometime last month a little incident occurred which I forgot to chronicle at the time, and I will do it here:

Page  149 A PRISONER OF WAER. 149 Two gentlemen appeared in front of our quarters, and finding themselves unable to get in to see us, they wrote me a note after learning that I had declined to see them, thus: "We intend no disrespect to Mr. Ely, but would have been most happy to have called upon him, if permitted. One of us is from the loins of one of Connecticut's noblest statesmen, James Hilhouse. "Yours, &c., " MR. NoRmns." This note was passed into the window to one of the officers, and handed to me, and was intended as an apology for the request they made for my appearance at the door, when they found it impossible to get inside. Still I declined the proffered interview. October 3.-This morning we had some sport. After breakfast one of the officers came to my table and requested my presence in the front portion of the building. I found all the officers assembled, and one mounted upon a rostrum. In his right hand he held a rough hewn oaken szord, and in the other a piece of unstranded manilla rope, which represented a sash. He commenced immediately to address me in a strain of commingled eloquence and waggery, which made " Lig

Page  150 150 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, gon's tobacco factory" resound with peals of laughter, when he presented me with the two articles. I replied, of course, in a like humorous strain, thanking the association for so valuable a token of their esteem and consideration, and the whole affair was almost worthy of a. reality. The speeches were reported by Captain Ralph Hunt, but they are too lengthy for me to give them any thing but a passing notice. The editors of the different Richmond papers learning of the affair came down to the quarters, and wanted the speeches for publication, but on consideration I declined, or rather neglected to give them. They, however, noticed the matter, and the following is from the Dispatch: Humor of "Prison Life.-" A few days ago a number of the fellow-prisoners of Congressman Ely, in this city, desirous of bestowing upon that ex-honorable some token of personal respect and veneration, procured a wooden sword, to which they attached a rope sash, and presented the trappings of war to him with due form and ceremony. The recipient of the unexpected honor is said to have been quite overpowered by the demonstration; but soon recovering his mental equilibrium, he mounted ' the stump,' and made a speech in which there was a good deal of fun, and

Page  151 A PRISONER OF WAR. 151 a lingering shadow of the American flag, but nary trace of Black Republicanism, so far as we can learn. The affair passed off with eclat, and the whole party subsequently partook of the usual hospitalities of the prison. The committee appointed to request a copy of the speech for publication have not yet reported." The commissary has called, and desires to take my sword and sash to the Dispatch office. He wants to put them on exhibition.* I regret to note that Mr. Huson is still very sick indeed, and is most anxious to return home on Sunday, but I am in great doubt whether it will be allowed-the chances are rather against it, so far as I can learn. October 4.-There is nothing to-day of any importance. Mr. Huson growing worse, and re"* The following statement is re-produced for the benefit exclusively of the gentleman concerned, and for the information of the public. The editor of the Dispatch visited the upper quarters of the prison in disguise, and regaled the prisoners with plug tobacco and cigars, and professed the deepest sympathy. The day following he spread before his readers an account of what he had seen and had been told him in a kind of confidence; and he took occasion to denounce them in the most unsparing terms. 1" Tray, Blanche, and Sweetheart" joined in this chivalric howl, and for a season little else was advocated by the Richmond press than a proposition to remove the "lazy Yankees " to the coal mines, as soon as their wounds were healed, and compel them to work for their living. The editor of the Dispatch renewed his visit, but was recognized, and treated accordingly.

Page  152 152 JOUINAL OF ALFRED ELY, quiring watchers night and day, they were duly provided for him. October 5.-Mr. Huson growing worse, was delirious last night and very restless. He has a raging fever, and the remarks among the officers are that he will not recover. I think myself that the chances are growing less; every possible attention is paid to him. Divine service was performed by the Rev. Mr. Church this evening. October 6.-The Surgeon-general has finally declined to send Mr. Huson'home with the wounded, and he feels grievously disappointed. The.Enquirer thus notices him this morning: " A Prominent Civilian Prisoner.-Among the prisoners of war in Tobacco Warehouse, Prison No. 1, at Rockett's, is Calvin Huson, jr., of Rochester, N. Y., who was captured near the battlefield of Bull Run, in the carriage of Congressman Ely, also a prisoner in the same warehouse. Mr. Huson was the opponent of Mr. Ely for the position of Representative of the Rochester District in Congress, and was defeated by the latter after an animated contest. He is a lawyer of some distinction, and was formerly District Attorney of the city of Rochester. He is said to have been present upon the battle-field, through motives of humanity to certain members of the regiment from

Page  153 A PRISONER OF WAR. 153 the district in which he resides. Huson is now quite ill of typhoid fever, and has been so for several weeks past. He is kindly cared for, both by our surgeons and by Mr. Ely, who is his constant attendant." The preceding notice of Mr. Huson grew out of my conversation with the editors of the newspapers, to whom I communicated the fact of his illness, and some matters connected with his personal history. It was read to him in his sick-bed this morning. Dr. Higginbotham stated to Mr. Huson that he was too sick to allow of his going home to-day, even if the Surgeon-general would have assented. Divine service was performed this evening by the Rev. John F. Mines. October 7.-About two months and a half have elapsed, and here am I still detained, a prisoner of war, with no abatement of the prospect of a continued stay. I have ventured a small wager with Lieutenants Park, Glover, and Merrill, and Captain Hunt, that our release would take place by the twentyfifth of this month. There is nothing in the way of definite information to encourage this prospect, and if I should lose the wager, it will at least have had the good effect of keeping up the lively 7*

Page  154 154 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, hopes of my associates, some of whom are getting despondent. The day is rainy, and exceedingly gloomy and unpleasant; still, it has some cheerful incidents. This morning some gentlemen and ladies rode down in coaches to our quarters-among the number, a Mississippi cotton planter and his entire family of sons and daughters. Captain Gibbs came for me, and said they were anxious to see me if I was willing; and thinking it would be an agreeable interview, I complied. Certainly I was not disappointed. Mr. and Mrs. Hunt, especially, were very agreeable. We had a long conversation, and I may say an interesting one. This gentleman resides within a few miles of the city of Natchez, and is said to be very wealthy. He was frank enough to remark that he had read and heard so much of my capture, that, on his arrival, his curiosity and that of his wife led them to call upon me. We separated with mutual feelings of good will, and expressed equal gratification at our interview. Again I was sent for by several Southern gentlemen, most of them military officers, who were very polite, and exceedingly cautious to say nothing that might be offensive to me on the subject of the war. They did not converse as if all tJhe right of this military struggle was with the South, or seem de

Page  155 A PRISONER OF WAR. 155 sirous of eliciting my opinions upon the different topics connected with it. One of the officers, from Tennessee, who had before visited me, and seemed to appreciate my candor in reviewing the events of the war, presented me with a wee little jug of most excellent brandy, wrapped in a paper, evidently procured for the purpose. It was very acceptable, and of course I was not slow in manifesting my thanks for his kindness. I regret that I have forgotten the name and address of this gentleman. He was a fine-looking officer, and he knew how to listen-a rare quality, by the way. One could not fail to discover that he had an appreciative mind. About noon to-day a carriage drove up to the door, with ladies and gentlemen, and while at dinner Captain Gibbs came in, holding up a beautiful bouquet, and stated that he was delegated to present it to Mr. Ely from ladies, but declined to give the officers and myself the names of the donors. I desired the Captain to tender my most cordial thanks to the ladies for the refreshing compliment. The donor, however, I suspect, was Mrs. Hunt, who was at the prison in the morning with her husband. Mr. Huson is very much worse to-day. This seems evident to me, and I intend to renew my efforts to get him removed to some private dwelling. The commissary assures me that he will go up

Page  156 156 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, to General Winder and recommend his removal. I feel much distressed in regard to his illness. He was taken sick on the tenth day of September, twenty-seven days ago, and it is time to be alarmed. Dr. Higginbotham, however, constantly insists that he is getting better, but I cannot perceive it. He suffers intensely; and it seems to me that no person could endure such suffering for any length of time. I have procured two different nurses for him, the last a most excellent one, and some days since the commissary furnished him with sheets, pillows, and cases, which he took from his own bed, and he is as comfortable in this particular as he possibly can be here. He has manifested much desire for me to sit by his bed-side and talk, and tell him the news. I did this always, and often until I thought it fatigued him. Other gentlemen have done the same, and all have manifested deep sympathy for his situation, and do every thing in their power to relieve his suffering. I have asked him to-day if he would not like to be removed to some private house; I had not before informed him of my efforts to accomplish this end, as I was not sure I could do it. He gave his consent, and I then told him what I was doing, and that I should know definitely in the morning. Mr. Warner assured me that he would not fail to attend to it.

Page  157 A PRISONER OF WAR. 157 October 8.-Mr. Huson is said by some of the officers to look better this morning, but a different opinion prevails with. others. He is sinking, sinking, sinking; this is most evident to me. Oh, if I can only get him out of this prison to-day, it seems as if I would be willing to stay here myself an indefinite time. It is the only thing that will save his life. He asked me almost the first thing this morning, if I had heard any thing more of his removal to a private house, and I replied that it was yet too early. He seems less inclined to talk, and less able to do so to-day. I am waiting with great anxiety to ascertain the result of my application to the Acting Secretary of War as to his removal. This evening just before tea, Captain Gibbs came into the quarters, and desired me to step into his office. On going in he exhibited to me a paper, and said it was an order from the "Secretary of War," directing the removal of Mr. H. as I had requested; and that, as it would be attended with some expense, it was necessary to know whether Mr. H. had funds with him to defray it. - I assured him that I would take the responsibility of attending to the matter myself. All this I communicated to Mr. Huson, and he seemed to revive at the prospect before him. We talked a great deal about different matters, and particularly as to what articles he had hung

Page  158 158 JOtURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, up over and about his bed, which he wanted to take with him to his boarding-house. His nurse now awoke, and I left Mr. H. with instructions to the man not to sleep or leave him for a moment, and to call me if any change took place. October 9.-Mr. Huson remains about the same, but had a very restless night, slept but little, and tells me that it was the worst night he had spent. His countenance, however, looks brighter, but his tongue continues, as it has been for many days, very much swollen and white with deep ridges. He talked but little, but stated that he thought, " on the average," as he styled it, he was a little better. I have packed together all his things, as the commissary has just informed me they had procured for him a boarding-place in the family of Mrs. John Van Lew, a wealthy person, living in one of the finest mansions in Richmond. He was removed from his cot bed under the direction of the physician and Captain Warner, and surrounded by all the United States officers here, to a litter which was placed beside the cot, and after being carefully protected by the requisite blankets, he was borne through the streets in the most comfortable manner to Mrs. Van Lew's residence upon Church Hill. While all the officers felt sad to part with him

Page  159 A PRISONER OF WAR. 159 in this condition, they rejoiced for his sake that he was to go away from the painful noise and disturbance necessarily created by forty or fifty officers, quartered in the same room with himself, to the comforts of a private dwelling, and the tender care which ladies know best how to bestow. My own feelings I must confess were most melancholy at his departure. When he arrived here he was healthy and robust in appearance, and it seemed scarcely possible he could be stricken down and become so helpless and emaciated in so short a time. The Captain of the Post requested him to execute his written parole, not to depart from the city of Richmond on his recovery, without the consent of the " Confederate Government," which he signed in bed, and it was the last time he ever wrote his name.* I procureA the parole of the nurse, Mr. Francis E. Clark, and sent him to the house, to con"* The exaction of a written parole under such circumstances will impress the public mind with pain and astonishment; but after all, is it not in perfect keeping with the conduct of the guards in shooting inoffensive prisoners, as already stated in this Journal, and also with the manifesto lately issued by certain dignitaries of the "Confederacy," that the women of the South must burn their dwellings, and destroy all their property, rather than have them exposed to the advancing army of the Union? It does seem as if the folly and madness of the hour in the Rebel States had never been surpassed by the most savage nations of antiquity.

Page  160 160 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, tinue his duties, as he had proved in prison so faithful and attentive. This afternoon before Mr. H. left I asked him, if I had an opportunity to write home, what I should say in respect to his illness; he desired me to say simply that he was sick but getting better. I told him I would do so. Before this I had written two -letters to Mrs. Ely, stating that Mr. Huson was ill, and in the last I said that he had been in his bed for two or three weeks, and was still dangerously sick; that she had better call upon Mrs. Huson and say that her husband was sick, but not to alarm her by telling her fully all I had written. Of course, I had not communicated this to Mr. Huson. October 10.-This morning Dr. Higginbotham and Mr. Warner, the commissary, both informed me that Mr. Huson was decidedly better, and I felt encouraged, and hoped that with the careful nursing and quietude he was now enjoying he might recover. This evening Mr. Warner reported to me that he had just come from Mrs. Van Lew's, and that Mr. Huson was better, and had remarked that he would give one hundred dollars if his family could see for one moment how comfortably situated he was, and the care the ladies took of him. I am now more encouraged than ever to think that he will get well. October 11.-Dr. Higginbotham reports this

Page  161 A PRISONER OF WAR. 161 morning that Mr. Huson remains about the same, not any better as he thinks. The statement of the doctor I believe is an admission that he is in more danger, for heretofore he has spoken so confidently of his improvement. I have heard from Mr. H. from several different sources through the day; and the summary of it all is, that he is no better, and it looks unfavorable; many of the officers express their doubts as to his recovery. This evening, the officers and myself have discussed the propriety of telegraphing the fact of his illness to Mrs. Huson, but it was opposed by many of the gentlemen on the ground that it was impossible for his family to come to Richmond, and it certainly would do no good. It was also finally ascertained that it was impossible to send a despatch either by way of Louisville, Kentucky, or by way of New Orleans at this time, as all communication through these channels had been cut off. This of course put an end to the matter. October 12.-Mr. Huson no better; the physicians do not speak very confidently this morning about him. I am sure that his case is growing more doubtful, and I will endeavor to obtain permission to visit him in the course of the day. The commissary, who has always spoken so confidently, as well as feelingly about his recovery,

Page  162 162 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, has a hesitancy of expression in regard to him this evening, which confirms my suspicions that he cannot get well, unless an immediate change for the better takes place. What, oh, what must be the feeling of his wife and little family if death should overtake him here, many hundred miles.from his home and friends? If I could but communicate with them, even though they could not reach Richmond, it would at least be some satisfaction, to them to know in the future that they had been apprised at least of his sickness,-but this is impossible. Mr. Warner came in this morning looking downcast about Mr. H. This excellent man and faithful officer has been as devoted to Mr. H. as a brother could have been. The tears ran down his cheeks this evening in his interview with me, he was so rejoiced at the idea of his being in his comfortable quarters at Mrs. Van Lew's. I think Mr. Warner himself begins to doubt his recovery, but does not say so. October 13.-I confess that I was almost afraid to hear from Mr. H. this morning, but the report does not seem to indicate any marked change from yesterday. Later-I have just been informed that the doctor thinks him no worse; explains the fact that they sent for the physicians, by saying that the ladies became frightened at the hard breathing of Mr. Huson. I will go and

Page  163 A PRISONER OF WAR. 163 see him to-morrow, even if they all say he is better. Captain Gibbs will, no doubt,.walk up with me. October 14.-This morning while at breakfast, one of the Lieutenants called me to see a lady at the door in a carriage, and I went immediately. The Lieutenant introduced me to Miss Van Lew, whom I at once recognized as the same lady who had visited our quarters on the second day after my arrival, and she informed me that Mr. Huson was at her mother's house. I discovered that she was in tears, and she instantly spoke, and said, " she had bad news to tell me." Mr. Huson is not dead! said I. " No," she replied, but she did not think it possible for him to live; he was insensible and had been so most of the night, and she desired me to come up to her house. She immediately rode away, and I returned to my quarters to prepare to go. I waited about twenty minutes for Captain Gibbs to accompany me, and as I was going from the door, a messenger came down from Mrs. Van Lew's with the mournful announcement that Mr. Huson Ivas DEAD! On my arrival at the house, I was conducted to his room, and lo! before me lay the lifeless form of my friend, cold in death. Mrs. Van Lew, and daughter, Francis E. Clark, the nurse, Captain G. C. Gibbs, C. S. A., and myself, were present.

Page  164 164 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, We remained in the room all standing over the body for a few minutes. Some conversation ensued in regard to his family, and the number of his children, and other similar matters, when we retired from the room to a different apartment. I remained until dark at the house assisting and advising in regard to the details of the funeral and burial, which seemed proper for me to arrange, being his nearest friend in a "strange land." It was arranged with Mr. Belden, the undertaker, that the funeral should take place at four o'clock to-morrow afternoon, and that several of the most prominent officers of the United States army, who were prisoners of war, and friends of Mr. Huson, might be present, if possible, at the ceremonies. At the suggestion of the ladies, at twelve o'clock to-day a photographist came to the house to take a likeness of Mr. H. under the impression that his family might possibly have no portrait of him. But, on the arrival of the artist, the body had become so changed that it was thought better not to attempt it in his present condition, as it could afford no satisfaction to his family and relations. When the subject was mentioned to me, I remembered well that, at the trial of John B. Rob

Page  165 A PRISONER OF WAR. 165 inson at Rochester, the photographs of all the counsel engaged in that celebrated case were taken, and Mr. Huson, then Prosecuting Attorney of the County, was among them; and all these likenesses were placed in the photographic gallery of the artist who took them, in the right wing in "Reynolds' Arcade." The family, I knew very well, could obtain this in case they had no other, which I did not think was at all probable. I directed the undertaker to procure a metallic coffin, so that his body could at any time be removed, as in all probability his family might wish this done at some future day. The funeral ceremonies were to be performed by an Episcopal clergyman from this city, or by a Rector of that church, now one of our associate prisoners of war and a friend of Mr. Huson, as I might choose. I will here mention a few facts in relation to the " Van Lew" family, which somewhat embarrass them, as well as myself, in the desire to have many persons at the funeral. No person, scarcely, is safe in Richmond who is suspected of entertaining Union sentiments, and this family have already been subjected to much obloquy and harsh comment in the Richmond papers, for the sympathy and kindness manifested by some members of the family towards the " Yankee prisoners," (as we are called here;) and in this reign of terror and

Page  166 166 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, proscription they have become alarmed for the safety of their property as well as of their persons. In this state of affairs, and despite the frequent warnings of friends and near neighbors, the love for the United States Government, and the Christian philanthropy of this most excellent and pious family, are displayed in deeds of private charity to Unionists upon every befitting occasion. The public papers have already made known that Mr. Huson was a Yankee prisoner of war and a " prominent civilian," and the family had more than once listened to unpleasant remarks, during the first two days of his stay at their house, for giving " aid and comfort" to a " Black Republican enemy." Under these circumstances it was not thought altogether safe to convene a large funeral assemblage; indeed, the " Confederate officers" who were intimate friends of the family, expressed much disapprobation of any unnecessary publicity on the occasion. It was thought possible by Captain Gibbs that he might be compelled to detail a guard for the protection of the burial service; but to avoid this unpleasant necessity, he urged upon the family to invite no friends or neighbors, and avoid the display of a funeral train. With this admonition, every preparation was made quietly for the funeral to-morrow.

Page  167 A PRISONER OF WAR. 167 October 15.-The Richmond Enquirer of this morning contains a notice of Mr. Huson's death. I arrived at Mrs. Van Lew's residence this morning, and found that it was contemplated to lay out the body in a black broadcloth suit, and it was purchased for that purpose; but the undertaker advised against it, saying that if the body was to be removed, it was better to have the garments as light as possible, and more appropriate ones were therefore procured. His body was placed in a metallic case and enclosed in a handsome walnut-wood coffin. It was removed to the large parlor of the house-and at the appointed hour the hearse and four carriages arrived at the door. The family of Mrs. Van Lew, Miss Carrington, the Rev. John F. Mines, of Bath, Maine, Lieutenant Bradford, "C. S. A.," the undertaker, and myself were the attendants. The rector commenced by reading the 15th chapter of 1st Corinthians, followed by the impressive burial service of the Episcopal church. The body was then placed in the hearse, and the carriages, filled with the persons before named, moved forward to the burial-ground known as " Church Hill Cemetery." It is very extensive, in an elevated portion of the city, and is the resting-place of John Marshall, Patrick Henry, and many other distinguished dead.* "* An incident has come to the knowledge of the Editor, con

Page  168 168 JOURITAL OF ALFRED ELY, The Rector read the usual burial service at the grave, and the coffin was lowered, enclosed in a permanent wooden box. We remained until the grave was covered over, as we were told such was the practice here; and when done Miss Van Lew placed a bunch of roses upon the exile's grave. Thus ended the last obsequies of my friend Calvin Huson, and sad indeed have they been. He lies in his lonely tomb, as yet unmoistened by the tears of a single relative. The stricken wife and affectionate children are yet to endure the bitter anguish of this dreadful blow! 'Tis but a few short weeks since he left a happy home and family in the lively hope of a speedy return, and little did any anticipate that itwas his final adieu. He was in vigorous health when he left, but has been cut down in the midst of a useful life and in the prime of manhood. nected with this event, which is worth mentioning. While Captain Gibbs was at one of the city hotels, a discussion occurred there between some gentlemen touching the possible escape of Mr. Ely. One of them had asserted that he believed this prisoner would improve the first opportunity to get away, whereupon Captain Gibbs declared as follows: " No, gentlemen, he's not the man to do that thing. When he was about to go to the grave, and I said to him, I presumed it would be all right, Mr. Ely made this remark:'You know, Captain Gibbs, that I have never asked the authorities for my parole, and I wish you to understand that there is not money enough in your "Confederacy " to tempt me to leave Virginia, except as a man of honor.' " It is due to the Captain of the Post, that this handsome conduct on his part should be made known.

Page  169 A PRISONER OF WAR. 169 The profession of his adoption and the church of his faith will mourn the loss of one of their chief ornaments. On my return from the funeral this evening, I ascertained that Dr. Ferguson of New York city, a wounded surgeon of the United States army, had been released, and was to leave Richmond in the early morning train in company with his mother. As he was not allowed to take any letters, I thought it best to send a telegraphic despatch to Rochester announcing the death of Mr. Huson, and to address it to some person who would be likely to be prudent in imparting the distressing intelligence to Mrs. Huson. I forwarded to the hotel the following, enclosed in a note to Dr. Ferguson, requesting him to send it to Rochester as soon as he reached an office upon the opposite side of the Potomac: "I RICMOND, VA., October 14th, 1861. "SAMUIEL P. ALLEN, Rochester, N. Y.: " Calvin Huson, Jr., died in Richmond this morning of typhoid fever. Inform Mrs. Huson. Will write her particulars. " ALFRED ELY." I was informed by the messenger who took the despatch that it would go to Dr. Ferguson, as I trust it may on account of the uncertainty as to the sending of a letter to Mrs. Huson. 8

Page  170 170 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, On my return from the funeral, Captain Gibbs handed me two letters, addressed to Mr. Huson, which I ascertained to be from his wife, and I read them both. They are the anly letters received from her since the arrival of Mr. Huson in Richmond, and they, alas! have come too late, These letters are dated September 29th and October 8th, 1861, and arrived at Richmond to-day. In the evening I addressed Mrs. Huson the following letter containing the particulars of her husband's death: "RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, October 15, 1861. " MRS. CALVIN HUSON, JR.: "DEAR MADAM:-I have on different occasions, in writing to Mrs. Ely, mentioned the illness of your husband, and had earnestly hoped he would have been able soon to report his entire restoration himself, and so, indeed, were all his friends here; but it becomes my painful duty, at last, to communicate to you the sad intelligence that he is no more. " Mr. Huson died at eight o'clock yesterday morning, of typhoid fever, at the residence of Mrs. John Van Lew, in this city. From near the outset of my own detention at Richmond, as prisoner of war, he had been my constant companion, occupying the same quarters with myself and the United States Army officers, until within a few days of his decease.

Page  171 A PRISONER OF WALR. 171 "Mr. Huson and myself first met near the battle ground at Manassas on the 21st of July, then in company with D. D. S. Brown. & ^ 2f f ^ "He remained in my carriage, as he informed me, until he discovered the enemy approaching, when he fled to the fields; and after great exertion, and the peril of being shot down by cavalry sweeping by him, he succeeded at last, late in the same afternoon, in reaching a farmer's house at Centreville, where he ascertained that his conveyance, which brought him from Washington, had just left, and though then not out of sight, was fleeing in great haste in the general rout which took place on that occasion. Unable from exhaustion to proceed, he remained at this house through the night, when a drenching rain set in, which continued throughout the following day. On this account, and for the further reason that he was informed that our troops were still in possession of Centreville, he concluded to remain secure, as he supposed he was, until Tuesday morning, when unfortunately the house was surrounded by Confederate pickets at an early hour, by whom he and others were taken prisoners and sent to the head-quarters of General Beauregard at Manassas. "After several days' detention at this place,

Page  172 172 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, with other prisoners, he was transferred to Richmond, and arrived here on the 27th of July, when we next met, and when I first learned to my surprise that he'had been taken prisoner. "Soon after his arrival here he was taken sick, owing mainly, it was supposed, to confinement and change of diet, and he so continued for some ten days, suffering severely a portion of the time. He, however, recovered entirely from this illness, and for several weeks apparently enjoyed his usual health, taking part in all the discussions and amusements adopted by the officers to pass away time, until the 10th day of September, when he complained of being unwell, and was noticed by many of the officers to be somewhat desponding in spirits. S% * *5 * "When he inclined to keep his bed, and it became necessary to administer medicine regularly, under the instruction of the physicians, I provided for him a faithful nurse, and frequently two of a night, who left him neither night nor day; and he was, moreover, surrounded by gentlemen to whom he had become attached by association here, who manifested throughout his illness the most earnest sympathy for his welfare and every comfort. "The fourth week of his sickness wore away

Page  173 A PRISONER OF WA.R 173 without much apparent change, and yet it was evident to myself that he was failing; and acting upon this conviction, I applied to the Secretary of War to allow him to be removed to some private family in this city, who could bestow upon him the variety of little comforts so essential to the sick-bed, and avoid the annoyance he was subject to at our own quarters. In this I succeeded, and only regret it was not sooner done. Mr. Huson seemed delighted with this arrangement, and on the 9th of October he was removed to the house of Mrs. John Van Lew, a kind and most excellent family, and among the wealthiest in Richmond. "Here, with nurses and physicians, he received that tender care and attention, which, as he himself remarked, could not be exceeded even by the kindness of a mother and sister. It was most gratifying to his friends that he was so fortunate as to be received into such a family, and great encouragement was felt that he would now begin to amend under his attentive nursing; and, indeed, for the first two days he was pronounced much better-more cheerful, and inclined to converse more freely. He remarked to one of the daughters of this benevolent and Christian family, by way of expressing his gratitude for so much kindness and attention, that he could but wish 'that Mrs. Huson might look into his apart

Page  174 174 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ments for a moment and see how comfortable he was.' Twenty-four hours only before his death the physician for the first time expressed doubts to me of his recovery, when his friends advised me to communicate with his family; but unfortunately at that time, and for weeks previously, every means of communication was cut off, and it was impossible. " On the morning of the 14th an unfavorable change took place in his symptoms. The physicians were immediately summoned, and a messenger sent for me. Before I arrived at the house, however, he had expired, then about eight o'clock in the morning. "The limits of a mere letter compel me to omit much of detail which belongs to the sad narrative of your husband's illness; but I indulge the hope (now long deferred)'that I may soon be enabled to recite them personally to you. "In preparation for his burial, and anticipating that his friends would at some time desire his removal, I assumed the responsibility of causing his remains to be placed in a metallic case, enclosed in a very handsome walnut-wood coffin. " The funeral-from which I have just returned -took place this afternoon, at the residence of Mrs. Van Lew; the ceremonies at the house and burial service being performed by Rev. John F. Mines, Rector of Grace Church, Bath, in the dio

Page  175 A PRISONER OF WAR. 175 cese of Maine, a friend of your husband, and a prisoner of war. " He is buried in Church Hill Cemetery, upon the family lot of Mrs. Van Lew, and near by the resting-place of Chief-Justice Marshall. "The Richmond Enquirer, in the progress of your husband's illness, referred to the subject in the following notice: "' A prominent Civilian Prisoner.-Among the prisoners of war in the tobacco warehouse, prison No.1, at Rocketts, is Calvin Huson, jr., of Rochester, N. Y., who was captured near the battlefield of Bull Run, in the carriage of Congressman Ely, also a prisoner in the same warehouse. "1' Mr. Huson was the opponent of Mr. Ely for the position of representative of the Rochester District in Congress, and was defeated by the latter after an animated contest. He is a lawyer of some distinction, and was formerly District Attorney of the city of Rochester. He is said to have been present on the battle-field through motives of humanity to certain members of the regiment of the district in which he resides. Huson is now quite ill with the typhoid fever, and has been so for several weeks. He is kindly cared for both by our surgeons and Mr. Ely, who is his constant attendant.' " In the same paper, on the day of his burial, likewise appeared another publication, which, though inaccurate, is also enclosed:

Page  176 176 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ""' Death of a Distinguished Civilian.-Calvin Huson, Esq., one of the civilians captured at the battle of Manassas, died yesterday morning of typhoid fever, at the residence of one of our citizens, to which he was carried several days ago, with the consent of General Winder. Mr. Huson has been ill since early in September, and received every necessary attention, not only from the prison authorities, but from Mr. Ely, also a prisoner, whose competitor he was as the Democratic candidate for the United States Congress from the Rochester District. Mr. Huson was formerly prosecuting attorney for Rochester, and married a niece of William H. Seward. His remains will be interred at Hollywood Cemetery this afternoon.' "The army officers of the United States, near seventyfive in number, composing the 'Richmond Prison Association,' of which Mr. Huson was a member, and in which he had taken no ordinary interest during our captivity, assembled at once to express in becoming terms a just tribute to his worth and memory; and in transmitting to you this evidence of affectionate esteem for him whom you so much loved, as embodied in the resolutions which follow, I am instructed to assure you, my dear madam, that they but feebly indicate the character of that

Page  177 A PRISONEIR OF WAR. 177 deep sympathy realized by brave and manly hearts in the loss of the husband and father. " The kind attention bestowed upon your husband by the family of Mrs. Van Lew, was duly acknowledged by resolutions which I forwarded to them, as directed by the Association. " Many of the gentlemen comprising the Association are Masons; and I have been shown today a copy of the action taken by the members of that order, in token of respect for their bereaved brother, which will be sent to you by other parties, and transmitted to various lodges in the North. "The personal effects belonging to your husband have been delivered to me by the family of Mrs. Van Lew, of which a careful inventory has been taken, and I will avail myself of the first opportunity to place them in your possession. "Two of your letters, I regret to say, addressed to him, and I believe the only ones which reached him at Richmond, arrived too late for his perusal. They were handed to me on my return from the funeral, and are in my charge. "I have endeavored thus to sketch, imperfectly I am aware, but as faithfully as I was able, the history of your husband's illness and death; and I confess it has been all the more painful to me when I reflect that possibly at this moment you have not even learned of his illness. 8*

Page  178 178 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, " That I might hasten to give the earliest possible intelligence in my power, I have intrusted to Dr. Ferguson of New York, a wounded surgeon of our army, who goes home to-morrow morning under a flag of truce, by way of Nor. folk, but not allowed to take letters, a telegraphic despatch addressed to Samuel P. Allen, Esq., of the Democrat, announcing Mr. Huson's death, with the request to communicate with you, which I trust may have reached Rochester. " When this letter may arrive is altogether uncertain; but it will go, at all events, by the next flag of truce from Richmond. "In closing my letter, I would avoid all reference to my own sad feelings, if it could possibly add a feather to the crushing weight of your own. But, my dear madam, my own heart is too full! It breaks forth to tell its own loss in the towering magnitude of your own. In the fierceness of political strife and professional competition, your husband and the writer had frequently been opponents, but never before this had we really been acquainted. "Thrown together in close companionship for seventy-five days before his decease, by an event unforeseen as it was unfortunate to both, it was natural that our daily intercourse amid strangers, in a distant city, should have led to that attachment and mutual friendship which, had he sur

Page  179 A PRISONER OF WAR. 179 vived, would have withstood the wildest strife of the future. " Here, in a Confederate prison, in the privacy of unreserved confidence, I learned, for the first, more fully to admire and appreciate the nobleness of his character, his varied learning, and the graces of his Christian virtues; and when called to follow him 'through the dark valley and shadow of death,' I ask only to leave a record such as his. " Though not in my power to be present in the closing hours of his life, I have reason to know, from the lips of those who were, that his last end was peace;-that he went down the 'dark valley' leaning upon Him who is the dying Christian's rod and staff. And now, could I do more than to add my deep, deepest sympathies for your severe affliction, it would be to appeal in the earnestness of my prayers to Him who ' doeth all things well,' mercifully to assuage the anguish of your grief, and to heal, as He alone can do, the bruised hearts of the stricken wife and her little ones. " With this letter as a partial expression of my attachment to your late husband, and an appreciation of your own great loss, I remain, most truly and sincerely, your friend, " ALFRED ELY."

Page  180 180 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, "REV. MR. MINES TO MRS. HUSON.* "RICHMOND PRISON, November 5th, 1861. "t MRS. CALVIN HTUSON, Jr.: "DEAR MADAM:-I am thankful that it is not my duty to convey intelligence of the sad blow that has desolated your home. Mine is the more grateful one of endeavoring, by the little that human sympathy can do, to alleviate the sorrows of your bereaved hearts. " I have been appointed by my brethren in the Masonic Order, who were prisoners here with your husband, to transmit to you our resolutions of respect and sympathy. "It would also seem right from the nature of my sacred office, that I should write at this time. I am a Presbyter of the Church, late Rector of Grace Church, Bath, Maine, and Chaplain of the 2d Regiment from that State, taken prisoner at the same time with your husband, and kept in the same prison. Here we met for the first time, and being of the same ' household of faith,' we were naturally drawn together. From this intercourse I conceived a respect and esteem for him which lasted with his life. I found him an ardent churchman, well read in the Scriptures and in our history, a man of strong faith and principles, * The Editor would state, that, although Mr. Mines' letter was written some weeks after that by Mr. Ely, he has thought it advisable to insert it in this place, so as to make the story complete.

Page  181 A PRISONER OF, WAR. 181 and one who did not fear the approach of death. I could not be with him in his last hours, as he was removed from our prison to the house of a kind resident of this city; but I know, from their lips, that his end was peace. A little prayerbook that I had procured for him was his constant companion; and prayer made him strong to vanquish the terrors of death. He went down through the dark valley leaning on Him who is the dying Christian's rod and staff. " The day of his burial was a serene October day. The leaves were growing sere, and were beginning to fall; but the sun was bright with the promise of Spring's resurrection. It seemed a fitting time to commit to the earth the body of one who had died looking for a joyful resurrection in Christ Jesus. "At the house I read the 15th chapter of 1st Corinthians, with its glorious promises of another life, together with the prayers of our Church for the afflicted and bereaved. " At the grave I read our burial service, and committed the body of our deceased brother to the ground, in the faith of the general resurrection of the great day when we shall meet him. "I stood beside.your husband's grave with mingled emotions-sorrowing, but not for him'sorrowing most of all for this, that we should see his face no more.' The future seemed so dark

Page  182 182 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, that I could not grieve that he was at rest-that God had made the prisoner free. How could I sorrow, when I had just read above his ashes those words of triumph, ' 0 grave! where is thy victory?' I turned away with tears, but not for him. My thoughts turned to those who were listening eagerly for the approach of the father and husband, whom they must now be preparing to meet in heaven. "A comparative stranger, it is not mine to meddle with the bitterness of your grief, farther than to pray that the Almighty will mercifully assuage your anguish. He doeth all things well. He gave, and He hath taken away. Happy are those hearts which, bound down by grief, can yet say,' Blessed be the name of the Lord.' To His care I have myself committed my wife and little ones; and He has promised, 'I will never leave thee nor forsake thee.' What can any.words of mine add to God's promise? And remember that it is written, ' He is faithful who hath promised.' " Let me here state that, during the illness of Mr. Huson, Mr. Ely's kind attentions were unremitting. Every thing was done by him that could be suggested; and he it was who procured for your husband the quiet home in which his last days were passed. " Accompanying this letter you will find the resolutions passed at a meeting of the Masonic

Page  183 A PRISONER OF WAB. 183 Fraternity. May God Almighty bless them in helping to assuage the sorrows of your bruised hearts. " With sentiments of esteem and respect, I am, my dear madam, your servant, for Christ's sake, "JoHN F. MINES, "Late Rector of Grace Church, Bath, Maine." " F. A. M. " Whereas, The members of the fraternity of Free and Accepted Masons who are prisoners of war in the city of Richmond, Va., have heard with deep regret of the death of Calvin Huson, jr., #Esq., a Royal-Arch Mason of distinguished standing in the city of Rochester, N. Y., and late their fellow-prisoner; therefore, ". Resolved, That we convey to the wife and family of the deceased our sincere sympathy in their bereavement; feeling that, as they have lost the devoted husband and father, so we mourn one who was an able man, a warm-hearted brother, and an ornament to our Order. " Resolved, That it is our duty to send our testimony to the brethren who were connected with the Lodge and Chapter of our -deceased brother, as to our appreciation of his noble qualities of head and heart. "Resolved, That the Rev. Bro. Mines be requested to transmit these resolutions to the family of the deceased, and to our brethren at home,

Page  184 184 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, with the request that.they be published as a tes. timony on our part to the high esteem in which Brother Huson was held. " Comp. JOHN F. MINES, "Grand Chaplain of G. L. of Maine, Chairman, " Comp. M. A. PARKS, "Excelsior Chapter No. 2 Michigan, Secretary. "RICHMOND, VIRGINIA, Oct. 19th, 1861." Before leaving this melancholy topic, it is due to the humane conduct of the Van Lew family to say a word. Mrs. John Van Lew is a widow lady residing on Church Hill in the city of Rich-. mond, and has one married son, and an unmarried daughter, residing with her. John Van Lew, the father, died in 1843;.he was an old and respectable merchant, and the first who established an exclusive hardware store in Richmond. He left a large estate, in real and personal property, including several slaves, yet retained in the family. The homestead, now occupied by them, is one of the most beautiful mansions in the city. Upon the same street and nearly opposite, stands the small white wooden church known as St. John's, wherein the immortal Patrick Henry, at the commencement of the Revolution, made his celebrated speech, in which he said " Give me liberty, or give me death."

Page  185 A PRISONER OF WAR. 185 What would the eloquent patriot now say, if he could awake from his tomb and behold his beloved country convulsed with the horrors of a civil war? One can well imagine, that he would stand aghast to find that the very spot consecrated to liberty by his burning eloquence, was now the centre of a Confederate rebellion, based upon the much perverted doctrine of State rights. His bones would rustle in his winding-sheet if he could know that his own native State was now the battle ground of men congregated to destroy the Union established by Virginia's bravest sons. Upon the bosom of that misguided Commonwealth are now borne the contending armies of North and South, outnumbering the hosts of Judea, in a conflict which is convulsing the Republic to its foundation. How little has she heeded the warnings of this her once beloved patriot, who, during his last political campaign, gave his dying.testimony, as it were, to his firm advocacy of the rights of " we the people," and not " we the States," by pronouncing that Virginia was to the Union, what the county of Charlotte was to her. This was uttered in a speech delivered in 1799, wherein he seems to have predicted the civil war now desolating our land, when he said: " The late proceedings of the Virginia Assem

Page  186 186 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, bly had filled him with apprehension and alarm; they had planted thorns upon his pillow; that the State had quitted the sphere in which she had been placed by the Federal Government, which would beget their enforcement by military power; that this would probably produce civil war and foreign alliances; and foreign alliances must necessarily result in subjugation to the Powers called in.' When I reflect that this effort to destroy the nation is lifting the hand against the Father of our country, may I not hope, in the language of Patrick Henry, that in this "parricidal attempt the steel will drop from the nerveless arm" of those who are now battling to blast what Washington declared to be of the greatest interest to every true American, " the consolidation of our Union, in which is involved our prosperity, felicity, and perhaps our national existence? " But to return to the little patriotic band gathered in the vicinity of the place where his patriotism was breathed forth; and in fancy we may suppose a pent-up atmosphere of Union sentiment to have lingered around the spot, to be imbibed by the kind people who, it would seem, had almost been forgotten by me in recalling the past. Upon hearing of the illness of Mr. Huson, Mrs. Van Lew had proposed to receive him at their house, and in doing so they bestowed upon

Page  187 A PRISONER OF WAR. 187 him the most careful attention, which was fully appreciated by the sufferer, who remarked that " they would kill him with kindness." Could he have been surrounded by his own family in his last days, it would of course have been a great consolation to all; but so far as attention and careful nursing soothe the sick bed, his own family circle could have done no more. These kind friends thoughtfully retained locks of his hair for his family. Mr. Huson was buried upon their own family lot, and what more could have been done by these genuine Samaritans I am unable to suggest. October 16.-It may not be amiss to introduce into my journal a copy of the letter which I wrote this morning to Miss Van Lew, thanking her in behalf of the family of Mr. Huson, for their kind attention to Mr. Huson. I wrote it upon hearing of the illness of Mrs. Van Lew: ".EICHMOND, VA., October 16, 1861. " Miss VAN LEW: "I am apprehensive that the excitement at your house during the last few days is the real cause of your mother's illness, and I would like much to hear how she is to-day. " Your kindness to Mr. Huson in his last illness can only be rewarded by Him who so mercifully directed him to your hands. I beg you to accept my own poor but heartfelt thanks and those of

Page  188 188, JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, his bereaved family, for all your tender care and attention, God will bless and prosper you. " At your own convenience will you please furnish me with the outlay to which you have been subjected on your part, and I will refund to you the amount. "Very truly and sincerely, your friend, "1 ALFRED ELY." The following diagnosis of Mr. Huson's disease was procured by me from Dr. E. G. Higginbotham, his attending physician: " C. S. PRIsoN HOSPITAL, (Copy.) " RICHMOND, October 25, 1861. "I certify that C. Huson, jr., of Rochester, N. Y., incarcerated in this prison, was attacked with continued fever on 10th Sept., which soon assumed typhoid symptoms, and of which he died on the 14th October. "The immediate cause of his death was perforation of the intestines from ulceration. Some time previous to his death he was removed to a private house, where every attention was extended to him. " EDw. G..HIGGINBOTHAM, " Surgeon and Medical.Director C. S. Prison Hospital." October 17.-My notes for -the last few days

Page  189 A PRISONER OF WAR. 189 have been mostly devoted to the incidents connected with Mr. Huson'q illness and death. The " Richmond Prison Association," of which Mr. H. was a member, resolved to call a meeting this evening, to express their respect for the deceased, and sympathy for his bereaved family. A number of young ladies and gentlemen called to see me at Captain Gibbs' quarters today, and an officer called, and graciously asked if I was willing to go out and see them, with which I complied. We had a very agreeable conversation, and separated with the assurance on the part of the ladies, that they should come again in a day or two. Among the names which I remember, was that of Miss Coleman, of Macon, Georgia. On my return to quarters, a black man came in with a splendid bouquet of flowers, and a sumptuous dinner of chickens, jelly, biscuit, &c., &c., and said, "Massa, Ladies send best compliments to you wid dese tings; " but the darkey did not disclose the donors' names. I inferred that he had been instructed not to do so. The dinner, however, was delicious, and I had the pleasure of sharing it with my beloved friend, Rev. Mr. Mines. October 18.-The "Richmond Prison Association" held a very interesting and affecting

Page  190 190 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, meeting last evening, and several speeches were made, which indicated deep feelings of sorrow for the loss of Mr. H. Many of the members wept during the proceedings, and particularly on hearing the letters received from his wife after his death, which I took the liberty to read. The following proceedings took place:The Association having been called to order by the President, On motion of Captain Manson, of New York, it was ordered that the Chairman appoint a Committee of three members to draft, and present to the meeting, appropriate resolutions.. The Chair appointed Captain Manson, of New York, Captain Cox, of Ohio, and Lieutenant Dickinson, of Connecticut, such a Committee. Captain Manson declined to serve. The Chair appointed Lieutenant Ives, of New York, in his stead. The Committee subsequently reported the following preamble and resolutions: " Whereas it has pleased Divine Providence, in his inscrutable wisdom, to remove out of this world, the soul of our deceased friend, Calvin Huson, jr., Esq., late our fellow-prisoner of war, at Richmond; " Therefore, Resolved, that this Association lament, with feelings of deep emotion, the death of our late friend and associate, Calvin Huson, jr.,

Page  191 A PRISONER OF WAR. 191 Esq., of Rochester, New York; that our companionship with the deceased had endeared us to him with sentiments of exalted respect, due to the scholar, the jurist, and the excellencies of a Christian character, and in his loss, the Bar, the Church, and Society at large, will find reason to deplore this afflicting dispensation. "Resolved, That the Members of this Association tender to the family of the deceased the assurance of their deep sympathy in this painful bereavement. "_Resoved, That the Hon. Alfred Ely be requested to communicate these Resolutions to the family of the deceased, and cause them to be published in such papers in the North, as he may deem advisable." October 19.-No particular event has occurred to-day, except the calls of certain gentlemen whom Captain Gibbs requested me to see, as a compliment to himself. The persons who first called were from Florida, and intimate friends of our worthy captain. We had but -little conversation, as we were interrupted. In the afternoon some lady sent me a fine parcel of fresh figs, grown in Richmond; and Captain Gibbs gave me the compliments of the donor, without the name; but I was nevertheless

Page  192 192 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, grateful to my benefactor, who, I presumed, was some friendly Union person. It has been a dull, gloomy day, and my feelings are in unison with it. October 20.-Divine service has been attended by the officers to-day. It was conducted by the Rev. Mr. Church in the morning, and Rev. Mr. Mines in the evening. This afternoon the Confederate surgeon, or, as he is called, the Medical Director of the Post, Dr. Higginbotham, called for me to visit the different hospitals under his supervision. I was absent nearly two hours. His wards and their appointments are all in a very neat and perfect state, and the wounded patients all seem comfortable, so far as my limited observation could discover. This was my first visit to any hospital, and to a novice in such matters all appeared to be conducted properly. It is clear that the care and responsibility of providing for several hundred wounded prisoners, lacerated by balls, the amputation of limbs and their various treatment, must be, to a conscientious surgeon, fearful enough. On our arrival at Richmond, after the battle at Manassas, we found the above-named surgeon in charge of the " Confederate " prison hospitals; and that battle, so disastrous to the Federal forces, gave the field to the Confederates, and conse

Page  193 A PRISONER OF WAR. 193 quently filled the hospitals at Richmond with the wounded of both armies. It is believed that there must have been at least four thousand rebels wounded at that battle, though they were not all brought to Richmond. To give some idea of the immense labor and the number of patients treated by this gentleman within a given period, at the hospitals under his immediate charge, I will quote a portion of a statement made by a correspondent in the"' Richmond Enquirer: " "Five hundred prisoners have been treated here from.June 28th to September 27th. Of these, three hundred wounded experienced a mortality of -096, and 200 sick, not wounded, lost a percentage of 06; the two categories together '082, being 41 deaths, of which 12 were from sickness without wounds. Probably as favorable a result as care and discipline, unaided by feminine providence, could guarantee under the circumstances." The bath tubs in the hospitals are particularly neat and convenient. The relays of nurses are thoroughly organized, and vigilant care maintained for the sick. Hospital Number One, which is the headquarters of the Confederate surgeon, where his depot of medicine is located, is said, by medical men about us, to be truly a model establishment. 9

Page  194 194 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Whatever opinion I might express in reference to Dr. Higginbotham as a surgeon, would, of course, be of little value among doctorswho " disagree;" but I can do no less than to state that, from opinions frequently expressed by our own able surgeons and officers, they did, at least, give him full credit for his prudence and surgical skill. I The chief organization of the prison hospitals under Dr H., however, was the work of the Federal surgeons, who were captured at Bull Run and taken to Richmond as prisoners. On their arrival they were paroled, and immediately entered upon their duties of taking care of our own sick and wounded, who were then arriving at Richmond by every train in considerable numbers. They found the tobacco buildings, which were to be occupied as hospitals, destitute of every convenience, and unfit, in every respect, for the purpose. Our surgeons applied themselves to the cleanliness of the buildings, and introducing such comforts as our wounded afterwards enjoyed. It would be difficult to over-estimate the labor performed by this able corps of surgeons, whose imprisonment, although severe and irksome to themselves, and without precedent in the laws of war, was nevertheless providential to our sick and wounded. I It was no small comfort to the lacerated sol

Page  195 A PRISONER OF WAR. 195 dier to feel that he was in charge of his own friendly surgeon, and not of him who would have preferred, perhaps, that his agonies had ceased upon the field. Many are the limbs, and not few the lives, I apprehend, which are being preserved by the untiring zeal of these faithful men. The army may well be proud of such officers, and the Government can afford to be grateful for their conduct in the discharge of their painful duties. October 21.-This has been another blue Monday, and why it is that this day, ever since my arrival, has generally been one of sadness and gloom, is inexplicable to me. I omitted to mention, on Saturday evening, the arrival of three additional prisoners of war, taken on shipboard. One of them was. ActingLieut. Wm. A. Abbot, of Andover, Massachusetts, who was in charge of the prize schooner George T. Baker, bound to New York, and on the 8th of August was captured by the privateer York, and brought to Norfolk, where he remained in jail until removed to Richmond. Another, Isaac W. Hart, of Attica, Indiana, quartermaster of the 20th Regiment from that State, was on board of the propeller Fanny, laden with stores for the troops, and bound for Chicomocomico, and was captured by " Commodore " Lynch, in charge of a squadron of three vessels. Lieut. Francis M. Peacock (Macao, China) was in command of the Fan

Page  196 196 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ny when she was captured. This gentleman is entitled to a passing remark. His father was a native of Albany, N. Y., and formerly followed the sea; he finally engaged in commercial business at Macao, in China, and the.son who is the subject of these remarks was born there. Francis M. is about twenty-nine years of age. Three years he commanded a Siamese war cruiser, and in 1856 he accompanied the Siamese embassy to England. His father was connected with the Coolie trade, and early in February last shipped a cargo of this human freight to Havana, in charge of his son as supercargo. Before his departure the father instructed him to enlist in the United States army, if he ascertained, on his arrival in Cuba, that war had broken out. But eight days before he sailed his father died, leaving him a large inheritance. He nevertheless started on his voyage, and arrived in Havana after a passage of nearly four months. Having disposed of his cargo and arranged his business, he came to New York with full knowledge that war had broken out, and enlisted in Colonel Bartlett's Naval Brigade, under a promise of a commission. This brigade finally failed in completing its organization, and he again enlisted, on the 26th of May, in "Hawkins' Zouaves," and went upon the expedition under Commodore Stringham which captured Fort Hatteras.

Page  197 A PRISONER OF WAR. 197 Soon afterwards he was sent in command of the " Fanny," as before stated, and was captured in the manner I have detailed. He is both a Yankee and a Chinaman, a pretty good type of either nation when he chooses to represent the different nationalities. He is much toasted among the prisoners, and contributes no little to our amusement by his vivacity of spirits. He came a greater distance than either Lafayette or Kosciusko to aid the Republic in the hour of her need, and he will be immortalized if he leave upon her history as many deeds of noble daring. October 22.-Nothing of importance has occurred to-day, and I have no energy to write, even had our dull monotony been relieved by any novel incident. Some kind-hearted lady to-day sent my friend, Mr. Mines, a jar of delicious pickled tomatoes. She has kindly notified me that I have a contingent interest therein, which he will respect till " nary " pickle is left. October 23.-Really I have been most of the day unmolested by visitors, and the quiet has been pleasant. There is apparently a disposition on the part of some of the officers of the post to see me released, which I hope may lead to a favorable termination. I have no particular reason to hope for success at present, however, and I will be silent about it.

Page  198 198 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, October 24.-There have been several visitors to-day, among them the late Vice-President John C. Breckinridge and Hon. James Lyons, Confederate Commissioner at Richmond. Mr. Lyons was a stranger to me, and soon left the room, leaving Mr. Breckinridge and myself alone. I was quite well acquainted with Mr. Breckinridge while in Washington, as his rooms were adjoining mine on Fourteenth street. No gentleman has greeted me here with more apparent heartfelt cordiality than himself. He listened with great interest to my narrative of the events of my capture, and the incidents connected with my stay here. He spoke with much feeling upon the deplorable state of public affairs and the war, and remarked that our positions, in some respects, were not dissimilar: "I a fugitive," said he, " driven from my home, and you a prisoner of war." He volunteered to say that he should take the liberty to suggest to the " Secretary of War,' Mr. Benjamin, to allow me to go home, whenever there would be any released prisoners sent, as he supposed there would be soon. Of course, I thanked him for his kind proposition, when he added that " it all might amount to nothing, in consequence of the course taken by my Government on the subject of an exchange of prisoners." The conversation continued at least

Page  199 A PRISONER OF WAR. 199 half an hour, when he retired with the expression of a hope for my early restoration to my home and family. I accompanied him to his carriage in the street, and we separated. This visit of the late Vice-President to see me, produced a great deal of sensation among the officers, very few of whom had ever seen him before. It is thought that his influence will do more to urge the propriety of my discharge than any thing that has yet been done. October 25.-Early this evening the PostmasterGeneral, the Hon. John H. Reagan, from Texas, who served with me in the 36th Congress, Hum"phrey Marshall, of Kentucky, and William Preston, of the same State, late United States Minister to Spain, called to see me-the two first-named gentlemen I knew well in Washington, but I had never before seen Mr. Preston. Our conversation was entirely of a general character, upon the subject of the war. Yesterday the prisoners taken at the battle of Leesburg, on the 21st inst., arrived at Richmond, there being twenty-four commissioned officers, and six hundred and fifty-seven privates. The following are the. names of the officers, and their respective commands: Col. W. RAYMOND LEE, Boston, 20th Massachusetts Regt. Vol. Col. M. COGGSWELL, U. S. A., New York, Tammany Regt. Major P. J. RErVEE, Boston, 20th Massachusetts Regt.

Page  200 200 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, Adjutant CHARLES L. PIERSON, Salem, 20th Massachusetts Regt. Surgeon E. H. R. REVERE, Boston, do. Capt. FRANOIS J. KEFFER, Philadelphia, 1st California Regt. Capt. JOHN M. STUDLEY, Worcester, Mass., 15th Mass. Regt. Capt. HENRY BOWMAN, Clinton, Mass., do. Capt. CLARK SIMONDS, Fitchburg, Mass., do. Capt. JOHN MARKOE, Philadelphia, 1st California Regt. Capt. TIMOTHY O'MEARA, New York, Tammany Regt. Capt. GEORGE W. LocKWOOD, Leominster, Mass., 15th Mass. Regt. Lieut. GEORGE B. PEERY, Boston, 20th Massachusetts Regt. Lieut. SAMUEL GIBERSON, New York, Tammany Regt. Lieut. J. E. GREEN, North Brookfield, Mass., 15th Mass. Regt. Lieut. WILLIAM C. HARRIs, Philadelphia, 1st California Regt. Lieut. W. H. KERNES, Philadelphia, do. Lieut. GEORGE W. KENNEY, Philadelphia, do. Lieut. CHAILES MCPHERSON, Tammany Regt. Lieut. J. HARRIS HOOPER, 15tlf Massachusetts Regt. Vol. Second Lieut. BERNARD B. VASSAL, Oxford, Mass., 15th Mass. Regt. Second Lieut. FRANK A. PARKER, Philadelphia, 1st California Regt. Second Lieut. CHARLES M. HOOPER, Philadelphia, do. Second Lieut. HENRY VAN VOAST, New Brunswick, N. J., Tammany Regt. The above-named officers are all in our quarters with those who have been here from the first. They constitute a splendid collection of men, in a military point of view, and several are graduates of West Point and other distinguished institutions of the country. This battle at Leesburg, when the history of the war is written, will stand forth as one of the severest and most bloody of the contest. Our forces, with only 1,600 strong, stood the fire of more than twice their number hidden in thick woods and bushes, surrounding them in a cres

Page  201 A PRISONER OF WAR. 201 cent form, from morning until dark, and until our troops were cut to pieces. General Baker had fallen, and only fragments of different companies were left standing upon the field, surrounded by their fallen comrades. Our troops crossed the Potomac from a small island in the middle of the river, situated about fifty rods from the Virginia shore, in a scow boat holding about forty men, and it is easy to see the slow progress of this transit, and when defeat overtook them, their retreat was substantially cut off. Indeed, when they arrived at the river, the boat was immediately sunk by the rush of soldiers into "it, causing the destruction of the wounded men on it, as well as all the others who had reached it. A large number were drowned, but how many is not definitely ascertained. This impossibility of retreat accounts for the great number of prisoners taken. There is a little incident worth recording, as containing nearly the last words ever spoken by the gallant Col. Baker. When Col. Cogswell arrived upon the field, having brought over one piece of artillery, Col. Baker approached him, as it were, to welcome him, and taking him by both hands and shaking them most heartily, said, " Colonel, one blast from your bugle horn is worth a thousand soldiere." 9*

Page  202 202 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, October 26.-I had a vivid dream last night, which, for the amusement of Mrs. Ely, and to show her what a scrape I was in on her account, I will record. It is of a military character, and not strange to have been manufactured in the brain of a prisoner of war, and as "dreams are said to go by contraries," I have no hesitancy in relating it. To make it intelligible, I must, however, begin by saying that there is at this military post a Lieutenant in the Confederate army named Booker, an officer with whom I am well acquainted, a brilliant and handsome fellow. Well, I dreamed, not " that I dwelt in marble halls," but that the Confederate authorities, upon my DISCHARGE as a prisoner of war, (from this, I know it to be a dream,) directed this officer'to escort me to my home at Rochester, as my bodyguard. On our way there he took occasion to speak of my wife, and to say that he had formed a high opinion of her during his stay in Richmond, and that it would not be strange if, upon his arrival at my house he should supplant me in her favor altogether. Wondering what chance he had had of making her acquaintance while in Richmond, it occurred to me that all the letters which she had addressed to me while there had passed through his hands, as officer of the post, with the privilege

Page  203 A PRISONER OF WAR. 203 of reading them all, and the idea that it might be the means of my ruin so appealed to my bump of combativeness that I hurled at him a volley of invectives, accompanying it with violent gesticulations of anger. I woke all my companions sleeping around me, who laughed at me most heartily. October 27.-Sunday morning. At an early hour the officers received a call from General Winder, whom, always polite, I fancied a little more so than usual this morning. While he was in conversation with some of the officers, Captain Gibbs called me aside and said that I had a good friend in the General, that they had been talking about my release, and had come to the conclusion " that it was right to let me go." This was, of course, the sweetest music I had listened to since the 21st of July last, and I was much rejoiced at such an announcement. He spoke of giving me my parole of the city in any event, and I replied that I did not wish this; it was my desire to go home to my family and business, both of which demanded my return. The conversation here closed, and I will be patient to hear the result. The only person from whom I apprehend opposition in this matter is Judah P. Benjamin, "Acting Secretary of

Page  204 204 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, War," and this fear is founded upon what I know of his character and disposition. The entire body of officers have been, for a long time, exceedingly anxious for me to obtain my discharge and proceed to Washington, entertaining the belief that my influence at the seat of Government would promote an exchange of prisoners. Divine service was held this evening by Rev. Mr. Mines. October 28.-This, Blue Monday, has been fully up to its predecessors since my imprisonment; in fact, I have felt more depressed and desponding to-day than ever, so much so that it was a matter of observation with the officers, who inquired if I was not ill. One must be exiled from home awhile to appreciate what are its blessings and comforts, and to know how essential are its sacred ties to the well-being of man. Had I the gift of poesy I could pen a tribute to " Home, sweet Home," which would most likely be overwrought with feelings like the present. * * ^ 2 & 5& My wife says, in one of her letters, by way of encouragement to me that "good often comes of apparent evil;" by which, I suppose, she means that my hard fate may, in some way unknown to myself, be a blessing in disguise.

Page  205 A PRISONER OF WAR. 205 This is certainly extracting consolation from misery in a strange way, it is true; but, nevertheless, all this is in keeping with Monday. I shall have to consult a clairvoyant to know what gets into Monday, that it is so full of melancholy to me. Is it not owing to the relaxation of Sunday feelings-the recurrence to the weekly engagements seeming, by contrast, more irksome? This reflection will, at least, satisfy my mind for the present on this questionable topic; although I must say that, so far as any relaxation or excitement is concerned, all days in prison are alike to me. There is one here whom I notice as always cheerful, and in this respect might perhaps be a model to us all. I refer to Lieut. Samuel Irwin, of New York, at one time the intimate friend of "A1 wful Gardner," the celebrated prize-fighter of Newark City. I believe he was a convert of the great revival of two or three years ago, and has certainly given evidence of his sincerity since beinbg here. Every morning and evening witnesses him occupying a secluded spot, where, alone, he kneels and pays his heartfelt devotions. He appears ever contented and happy, seeming to trust confidently in Him who can make even the prisoner's heart to " sing for joy." Upon opening his Bible every morning, it is his habit to say, " Well, I will see what my Maker says today."

Page  206 206 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, October 29.-There is a rumor to-day that CoL Corcoran, now a prisoner of war at Charleston, has been shot by a sentinel from the ramparts of Castle Pinckney, but it can be traced to no reliable source. October 30.-Many gentlemen were here today, but I have not troubled myself to remember their names, or to take any note of their conversation. The " Richmond Prison Association " met this evening, and the occasion was the most dignified and interesting since its organization. The main object of the meeting was to introduce to membership the new officers captured at Ball's Bluff, on the 21st inst. Edward Taylor, Esq., of Cincinnati, introduced in a befitting 'speech Col. W. Raymond Lee and the officers under his command, who all stood in front of the Chair during the address. Col. Lee replied in a dignified and handsome manner, and alluded to the cordial greeting and friendship with which he and his associates had been received since their arrival. Col. M. Cogswell and his fellow-officers next arose, and were introduced by the Rev. Mr. Mines with a speech, to which Col. Cogswell replied in a tone of much eloquence and grace. Lieut. Dickinson introduced Captain Bowman and the other officers of the 15th Massachusetts in a brief speech, to which Capt B. re

Page  207 A PRISONER OF WAR. 207 sponded. Lieut. Church introduced Capt. Markoe and officers of the California Regiment, to which the captain and Captain Keffer replied. Dr. Wi. B. Fletcher, surgeon in the 6th In. diana, introduced the naval officers present, applauding that branch of our Government service, to which Quartermaster Isaac W. Hart, in appropriate terms, responded. Captain Thomas Cox introduced Lieut. Francis M. Peacock, of Macao, China, in an amusing speech, creating great merriment, and drew a parallel between Peacock and the more ancient friends of the Republic, Lafayette and Kosciusko. The lieutenant, unaccustomed to public speaking, was somewhat embarrassed by the Ciceronian style of his introduction, and responded by endeavoring to recite a speech written for the occasion, which, in the confusion of his mind, he had tptally forgotten. He closed up the performance by narrating, in a droll style, the incidents of his capture on board of the United States transport "Fanny," when the whole Association became convulsed in laughter. Captain Cox then mounted the rostrum, and recited some humorous poetry, hitting off in rhyme the different trades and professions of life, to the infinite amusement of all. The Association then adjourned. October 31.-The last day of October, and here I am!

Page  208 208 JOTUNAL OF ALFRED ELY, November 1.-Nothing worth relating to-day, unless it be the fact that, among the outside visitors upon the walk, was a tall pitch pine scraper from the regions of North Carolina, who, after taking great pains to catch a glimpse at me, was heard to pay the following compliment: " Well, he may be a smart fellow, but I'll be d-d if he looks like it." November 2.-This evening I had quite a merry time in Captain Gibbs' office, who seemed pleased to entertain me, and to converse on different topics. While there, in came a gentleman connected with the " Confederate States " Treasury, and, sitting at Capt. Gibbs' desk, he wrote my name on a blank card with a metallic pencil made at Springfield, Massachusetts; it was elegantly executed. It is understood that more officers and privates are to be sent to Columbia, South Carolina, early next week. One hundred and fifty have already been sent there..November 3.-Divine service was held this evening, as usual, by Rev. Mr. Mines. November 4.-To-day the commissary informs me that John 0. Breckinridge is again in town. I have never yet heard from him in reply to my note written the day after his visit to me, but suppose there is no intention on the part of the Government here to release me, so long as the United States hold so many of their valuable men

Page  209 A PRISONER OF WAR. 209 at Fort Lafayette. I must, therefore, " bide my time." Novembeir 5.-Day after day rolls by in the same monotonous routine, until I have nothing left of interest to record. Micawber-like, we are in daily expectation that " something will turn up," but it don't come. The daily newspapers are of little interest about this time, and to avoid getting spiritless and desponding, we continue to resort to all the means in our power to afford us entertainment. Rev. Mr. Church and myself have commenced the practice of walking the long room in which we are confined, an hour each evening, after tea, merely for exercise. November 6.-The newspapers announce, this morning, that 500 letters have, arrived at the post-office at Richmond for the Yankee prisoners, among which, I am advised by the penny post, are three addressed to me. I hope they may all be from Mrs. Ely. November 7.-We are anxiously waiting for the departure of a flag of truce, to enable us to forward our letters. The last flag was more than three weeks since. November 8.-The officers are writing letters in great numbers, to send north, upon some intimation that a flag of truce is about to leave. The letters for the Yankees have not made their ap

Page  210 210 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, pearance, and are said to be detained at the office because the postage is not paid. I am exceedingly anxious to receive mine, as I have not heard from home since the 26th of September; but if there should be any unpleasant news communicated in them, it will only add to my distress of mind. The truth is, I fear sometimes to hear from home, lest that something may have occurred in my absence which would increase my anxiety. Mrs. Ely, I suspect, however, would withhold every thing which would be likely to make me unhappy. November 9.-The news of the trial of the Savannah privateer, and the conviction of Smith, in Philadelphia, one of the number, for piracy, have created some excitement among the officers, Jefferson Davis having, in July last, in his Message to the " Confederate Congress " proposed that, if these privateers were sacrificed, the act should be retaliated on the Federal prisoners. November 10. —The most exciting and painful scene occurred to-day among the officers which I have )vitnessed since my imprisonment. " Future events cast their shadows before." No longer ago than yesterday, I casually referred in my journal to the privateers in the hands of the United States, and the Message of Jefferson Davis, and to-day he inaugurated a movement to carry his threat into execution.

Page  211 A PRISONER OF WAR. 211 This morning, Brigadier-General Winder, accompanied by his military staff, entered the officers' quarters, and occupying a conspicuous position, requested the Federal officeis to assemble, which they did, about seventy-five in number, all standing around the General and his staff. He addressed the officers by stating that "he had been directed by the Secretary of War to execute the order he held in his hand, which he would now proceed to read. The order is as follows: C. S. A. WAR DEPARTMENT, RICHMOND, NOV. 9, 1861. SIR: You are hereby instructed to choose, by lot, from among the prisoners of war, of highest rank, one who is to be confined in a cell appropriated to convicted felons, and who is to be treated in all respects as if such convict, and to be held for execution in the same manner as may be adopted by the enemy for the execution of the prisoner of war Smith, recently condemned to death in Philadelphia. You will also select thirteen other prisoners of war, the highest in rank of those captured by our forces, to be confined in the cells reserved for prisoners accused of infamous crimes, and will treat them as such so long as the enemy shall continue so to treat the like number of prisoners

Page  212 212 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, of war captured by them at sea, and now held for trial in New York as pirates. As these measures are intended to repress the infamous attempt now made by the enemy to commit judicial murder on prisoners of war, you will execute them strictly, as the mode best calculated to prevent the commission of so heinous a crime. Your obedient Servant, (Signed) J. P. BENJAMIN, Acting-Secretary of War. To Brig.-Gen. JOHN H. WINDER. After the reading of the order, he delivered to Colonel W. Raymond Lee, of the 20th Massachusetts Regiment, six slips of paper, upon which were written the names of the six Federal colonels now held as prisoners of war by the Confederates, and requested him to open each, and see that the names of the colonels were all upon the papers. Colonel Lee, for the moment, declined, but General Winder persisting, he did so. When he read the name on each paper, he folded and placed it in a tin case nearly a foot in depth, and only large enough to admit the hand. After shaking up the ballots, General Winder requested me to draw from the case a ballot, and the colonel whose name was upon it would be the one who should stand as a hostage for the

Page  213 A PRISONER OF WAR. 213 privateer Smith, now condemned to death in Philadelphia. This I declined to do, except at the instance and request of the officers. This unpleasant duty, so suddenly imposed upon me in presence of the deeply interested array of military men, produced a most thrilling feeling of regret and pain; and IL would gladly have been spared the unwelcome task. And why not, called upon as I was to draw lots for one from among the six brave and gallant officers who had fought the battles of his country, and who would have to be removed from his comparatively comfortable quarters to a felon's dungeon, there to suffer and stand as a pledge to die in case of the execution of a condemned pirate? Our own officers consenting, however, I proceeded to draw the lot, when it fell upon Colonel Michael Corcoran, now in Castle Pinckney as a prisoner of war. The colonel was my messmate and intimate friend before he was transferred from Richmond to South Carolina, and how was- my regret increased at finding that I had been the innocent cause of thus adding to his misfortune! I was selected for this painful duty, it would seem, because, not being a military man, I was considered the most appropriate person to do it. Next came the selection of the thirteen to stand as hostages for the Savannah privateers,

Page  214 214 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and as there were only ten field-officers left in the hands of the Confederates, it became necessary to draw lots for three captains out of the whole number, then fifteen, in their hands, which in like manner were drawn from the tin case, after the name of each captain had been deposited in it. I drew as before, and the lots fell upon Capts. J. B. Ricketts, J. W. Rockwood, and H. W. McQuade. Close by my side was standing Captain Thomas Cox, of Ohio, who, when the ballot was drawn with Captain McQuade's name upon it, stepped forward and said, " General Winder, place my name upon your list in the place of Captain McQuade." The General replied, "I have no authority to do so, sir." This noble act on the part of Captain Cox won for him the applause of his fellow-officers, and entitles him to be remembered by the suffering soldier. Two of those selected were invalids. The first-mentioned captain, J. B. Ricketts, was at the general hospital, with his wife, having been badly wounded at the battle of Manassas, and unable to be removed. The famous "Ricketts' Battery" bears the name of this gallant officer, and his wife is said to be a most interesting and amiable lady. Her untiring devotion to her wounded husband at Richmond has won the admiration even of unfriendly

Page  215 A PRISONER OF WAR. 215 visitors at the hospitals, where she has chosen to remain for months, an exile and a prisoner with him. Captain McQuade is also at one of the hospitals, slowly recovering from a wound received at Manassas, which caused the amputation of his leg.* November 11.-General Winder made his appearance again to-day, and stated that he was directed by the Secretary of War to exempt from the hostages all wounded officers, and it would be necessary to draw other names in place of Captains Ricketts and McQuade. Another drawing accordingly took place, Captain Thomas Cox, of Ohio, being selected to draw the lots, which resulted in the selection of Captains Bowman and Keffer. The list of thirteen now stood as follows: Colonels Lee, Wilcox, Cogswell, Wood,* and Wood"* This brave officer has since died in the hospital, the sad event having taken place after he had been released at the request of Mr. Ely, and was about to return home. t The subjoined sketch of Colonel Lee was prepared by George S. Hillard, Esq., of Boston, and it is a subject of regret to the Editor, that he has not been able to obtain similar information respecting other officers whio were associated with Mr. Ely in the prisons of Richmond: Colonel William Raymond Lee was born in Salem, Massachusetts, in 1807. He comes of a patriotic stock on both sides of the house. His paternal grandfather, whose name he inherited, entered the army as Colonel of Glover's regiment, at the commencement of the Revolutionary War. He was present at most of the principal battles of that war. His mother's grandfather, Jeremiah Lee, of Marblehead, was one of the Committee of Public Safety in 1776.

Page  216 216 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ruff; Lieutenant-Colonels Bowman and Neff; Majors Potter, Revere, and Vodges; Captains Rock"wood, Bowman, and Keffer. November 12.-The officers selected here as hostHe was roused in the night by the approach of the British soldiers, and had just time to escape by a back window; he lay concealed in a corn-field all night, and in consequence of the exposure, took a cold, which was the cause of his death. His maternal grandfather, Nathaniel Tracy, was one of the wealthy merchants of Newburyport. At the beginning of the Revolution the privateers owned by him, took several hundred thousand dollars' worth of military stores. As our soldiers were in great want of them, he, with more generosity than prudence, made them over to the Government without the proper securities in return, and was consequently never paid for them. Colonel Lee entered West Point at the age of sixteen, and was graduated in due course, but did not embrace the military profession. He became a civil engineer, and in that capacity was sent to Texas by a company of gentlemen of Boston, who supposed themselves to be possessed of a large tract of land in that region. Their right, however, was disputed by the Mexican Government, and Colonel Lee was taken prisoner, and detained in custody for several months. Upon his release he resumed the exercise of his profession. He was for many years Superintendent of the Boston and Providence Railroad. Resigning that office a few years since, he devoted himself to the general duties of his profession, in Boston and its vicinity, especially in matters connected with railroads. As soon as the Rebellion broke out, in the Spring of 1861, Colonel Lee, who had never lost his interest in the profession for which he was trained, offered his services to the Government. In the latter part of June he received orders to raise a regiment. These were promptly obeyed; and on the second of September he proceeded to Washington with his regiment, the Twentieth of the Massachusetts Volunteers. He was immediately sent to the advance post on the Upper Potomac, where he remained until the

Page  217 A PRISONER OF WAR, 217 ages are to be removed to Henrico County Jail, in Richmond, so soon as the rooms to which they are to be taken can be prepared. Those at Charleston, we suppose, will be put into the jail in that city. 21st of October. His history since that time is too well known to the whole country to need to be here recounted. While this volume was passing through the press, the following notice of Colonel Wilcox was received from the Hon. R. E. Trowbridge, and again I express my regret that other appeals for information, respecting other officers, have not met with a similar response: Colonel Wilcox was born in Detroit, Michigan, about the year 1826; entered the Academy at West Point in 1842, and graduated in 1846. He took an active part in the war with Mexico, as a Lieutenant of Artillery, and remained in the United States service until about six years ago, when he resigned, and entered upon the practice of the law, to the study of which he had already devoted much of his time in a quiet way. While practising the legal profession at Detroit, as the partner of his brother, E. N. Wilcox, Esq., he took a lively interest in reorganizing the military system of Michigan; and immediately on the breaking out of the Rebellion, offered his sword to the Governor of his State. He was appointed at once to the command of the First Regiment raised in the State, and the only one formed for the three months' campaign, and on reporting himself to Washington, with his followers, lie found that his regiment was the first brought to that city from the West. He was early assigned to the responsible duty of commanding the force. which took possession of the sacred soil of Virginia, near Washington, was in command at Alexandria until the battle of Bull Run, was wounded and taken prisoner in that battle, since which time he has had the entire freedom of a hospital or prison in the rebellious States. The only facts which it has been in my power to obtain respecting Colonel Milton Cogswell are as follows:He was born in Noblesville, Hamilton County, Indiana; he 10

Page  218 218 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, The officers selected from among us behave most gallantly. They will not shrink from their fate, whatever it may be. I think they may be retained a while as hostages, but cannot apprehend any danger as to their ultimate safety. Our Government will never permit the privateersmen to be prosecuted to conviction; and even should that be done, will never execute them. graduated at West Point in 1849, and was appointed a Second Lieutenant in the Fourth Infantry, U. S. A.; soon attained the command of Company A, Eighth Infantry; had considerable military experience in Texas and Mexico; and it was while leading on the famous Tammany Regiment at Ball's Bluff, as its colonel, that he was captured as a prisoner of war. Colonel Alfred M. Wood was born at Hempstead, Long Island, April 19, 1828; in his seventeenth year he turned his attention to mercantile pursuits, and on relinquishing them in 1853, he was elected by the Democratic party tax-collector for the city of Brooklyn. That office he continued to hold by re-election until 1861, when he was returned as an Alderman in the City Council, and became President of the Board. His military experience commenced by his becoming a member of the Brooklyn City Guards in 1850, continuing an active member until 1852, when he was appointed Paymaster on Brigadier General H. B. Duryea's Staff, with the rank of Captain. In 1854 he was elected Major of the 14th Regiment New York State Militia, which he held until 1856, when "he was elected Lieutenant-Colonel. In 1858 he was promoted to the rank of Colonel, and as such, led his regiment at Manassas, was wounded in that battle, and taken prisoner; was confined by his wounds at Charlottesville, until he was removed to Richmond, substantially recovered; was then drawn as one of the hostages, and placed in Henrico County Jail, with other officers, until released. With regard to his tastes it may be added that Colonel Wood is a lover of books, and has devoted much of his leisure time to the pursuits of agriculture.

Page  219 A PRISONER OF WAR. 219 Whatever may befall those men, however, it can furnish no apology for the conduct of the rebel Government towards our officers taken prisoners on the battle-field. The privateersmen were charged with a crime defined and made punishable under an Act of Congress, not passed to suit present exigencies, but long standing on the Statute Books, enacted when the present secessionists constituted a controlling part of the Legislature. These officers are thus treated under the simple authority of the rebel Executive, with no statute to authorize it, no offence charged, and no trials. When the mandate shall reach Col. Corcoran for his removal to close confinement in Charleston jail, and he is told that he is a hostage for the life of a miserable pirate, the contemptuous smile will steal over his countenance, and he will again repeat, " Gentlemen, our turn by-and-by." The Colonel was unknown to me until we reached Richmond together as prisoners of war. Our intimacy before his departure South inclines me, as we are now separated, to note what I happen to know respecting his antecedents. His father was an officer in the British service, and he was born in Carrowkeel, Sligo County, Ireland, in 1827, received a limited education, and had some three years' experience in the force known as the Irish Constabulary.

Page  220 220 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, In 1849 he emigrated to this country and settled in the city of New York, where many of his friends were already established in business. Here he became the proprietor of a famous hotel called " Hibernia Hall," but devoted all his leisure time to the study and the practice of military affairs. In 1851 he entered the raniks of the 69th Regiment of New York Militia, passed rapidly from the position of orderly sergeant to that of captain, and in 1858 he was elected colonel of the regiment. Though always popular with his men, the circumstance that first gave him more than a local reputation was his refusal to order an extra parade in honor of the Prince of Wales, when that young nobleman was in this country. That the Colonel simply did what he thought to be his duty on that occasion, and was zealously supported by his regiment, was quite enough to content him; and though much abused at the time for the firmness with which he maintained his position, he was sustained by the court-martial before which he was tried for disobedience of orders. As a testimonial of appreciation of his conduct in that affair, he was presented with a sword of honor, and his regiment with an Irish flag, by a large number of prominent citizens. On the breaking out of the Rebellion Colonel Corcoran and his regiment were among the first

Page  221 A PRISONER OF WAR. 221 to respond to the call of the General Government; and the energy that he infused into his men during the trials of their march from Annapolis to Washington-the deportment of his command during the fortnight that they were stationed at the Roman Catholic College in Georgetown, D. C.-the skill which he manifested, and the immense labor performed by his regiment in erecting the handsome fortification that bears his name on the Potomac, were matters of frequent applause and admiration from the press. His heroic conduct, and that of his noble regiment, on the battle-field at Bull Run, will be a leading theme with future historians. It was his misfortune, on that fatal day, to be taken as a prisoner of war; and from that time until he was taken to Castle Pinckney we have been constantly together, messed at the same table, and he was one to whom I had become most warmly attached. Though born to be free and exercise command, he bore his captivity here with manly fortitude and without a murmur, and by his deportment towards all his fellow-prisoners, won their entire respect and affection. In personal appearance, Colonel Corcoran is tall and slender, and has a remarkably fair complexion; and though apparently of a delicate constitution, he is susceptible of enduring great fa

Page  222 222 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, tigue. In his deportment, he is silent without being indifferent; reserved, but hospitable; earnest, firm, laborious, and always animated by a feeling of the loftiest integrity. When he was free, and at the head of his regiment, there were at least one thousand good substantial men who were ready to follow him into the very jaws of death; but his recent sufferings as a captive will endear his name to the true patriots throughout the whole land.* * By way of showing what kind of a heart Colonel Corcoran possesses, the editor would quote two or three disconnected passages from a published letter which he wrote while confined in Castle Pinckney, especially as they throw some additional light on prison life in the Southern States. It is only necessary to premise that the Colonel is a devoted member of the Roman Catholic Church: * * * " In my last I mentioned that the people of Charleston had treated us with considerable courtesy on the occasion of our arrival in and departure from that city, but neglected to state another favorable change in our treatment here. The officers have the liberty of the island on which the castle is situated, from reveille to retreat, and are allowed on the ramparts until tattoo. The rank and file are allowed the liberty of the interior yard during the aforesaid hours. This is quite a change from Virginia hospitality, where we had not been permitted one moment for air or exercise during the fifty days of our detention in the ever-memorable tobacco factory, and without bedding of any kind. - " The Bishop of this place visited me and spoke in that mild, gentlemanly, and Christian spirit for which all our clergy everywhere, and under all circumstances, have been so truly characterized. He handed me all the funds in his possession, and of which I stood in the greatest need, and appointed to come here last Thursday to celebrate Mass and attend to the religious necessities

Page  223 A PRISONER OF WAR. 223 November 13.-Yesterday I received four letters, and as I desired, they were all from my family. The latest date was 25th of October. These letters have gratified me exceedingly. I confess of the prisons; but the day proved.so wet and stormy that it was impossible, without imminent danger, to cross over from the city, but we expect him at his earliest convenience. This is the first time that any apparent interest has been taken in -our spiritual welfare." "* * * " The good sisters of our faith residing in Richmond, (who, thank God, can rise above all national or sectional strife and contention of the world, with their usual and self-sacrificing and Christian disposition to render aid and comfort to the afflicted,) attended to such of our wounded as were at the general hospital; and our officers and men who were there, and who represent all classes of religion, are unanimous in their praise of the care and attention bestowed in dressing and cleaning the wounded, and many attribute their recovery to their untiring exertions." * * * "The prisoners here, who left Richmond on the 13th ult., consist of 34 officers and 120 non-commissioned officers and privates; among the former are three colonels, a lieutenant-colonel, and a major. " This place is already well known, therefore needs no description. The casemates are occupied as quarters. As no visitors are allowed here, we are not so subjected to the idle and offensive curiosity of spectators as was the case at Richmond, where crowds were permitted to assemble in front of our prison, to stare at us all day whenever we went to catch a breath of air at the windows, when the more favored individuals obtained passes to enter, and in many cases took occasion to ask all kinds of questions. Indeed, the people of Charleston presented a striking contrast in gentlemanly behavior towards us on our arrival and departure; although large crowds were present on both occasions, not a single offensive word was spoken or act committed. " We are all here in great need of clothing, and in many cases without a single cent to procure any of the different things essen

Page  224 224 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, that my spirits for several days past have needed just such exhilaration as these cheerful letters have afforded me. They inform me of much that I am rejoiced to hear, and quiet my apprehensions as to the evil results of my absence. I also received a letter from H. H. Sperry, Esq., dated at Henrietta, October 25th, in which he remarks that he has written several letters, and would have written more could he have known that one had reached me. tially necessary. I received some funds from a relative in Richmond, which have been expended, and Lieutenant Connolly and myself are among the bankrupts for some days past. I am well satisfied there are some in Charleston who would divide their last dollar with me, but I cannot accept it, as there appears to be no possible way of repaying, perhaps for years. Indeed, some gentlemen were so kind as to make inquiry if I needed any thing, to which I replied in the negative; and while at Richmond I received a communication from a gentleman from Montgomery, Ala., who is said to be one of the wealthiest gentlemen in that city, stating that he was most desirous of supplying me with any thing I required. " I am quite satisfied to remain here as long as it may be considered necessary to serve the purposes of my Government or our people; but I am exceedingly anxious that the rank and file of the different regiments should be seen to as soon as possible. The poor fellows are all most earnestly devoted to the best interests of their country, and are suffering much from want of proper clothing or any changes of under garments. Many are without shoes, coats, or bed covering, which is a cheerless prospect with the near approach of cold weather; and, above all things, their poor families, in many cases, must certainly suffer from want of the assistance they could render if at liberty, and many are of the three months' volunteers, who made no provision for absence beyond that time,"

Page  225 A PRISONER OF WAR. 2,25 Much political information, state and local, is contained in these letters, which is the first tidings I have received on the subject of our campaignjust as well for me. November 11.-This morning the officers to be held as hostages were conducted from our quarters to the County Jail, and are all confined in one small room, about twelve by sixteen feet. It produced feelings not a little painful among the officers left behind to see their friends marched off to a common jail, and there to remain for an indefinite time, and with the apprehension of being ultimately released only to suffer an ignominious death. This evening I received another letter from home, dated Nov. 4th, which is the quickest time in which any letter has been sent me from Rochester. This day is observed throughout the Confederate States as a day of general fasting and prayer for the success of the rebel arms. Jefferson Davis' messenger came here to-day, and was introduced to me by Lieut. Bradford. His conversation was of no importance; he volunteered some remarks about Mr. Davis, his health, &c., which to me were not matters of much interest. November 15.-It is now well settled that the officers and privates are to be sent to Tuscaloosa, Alabama, and to Salisbury, North Carolina, but 10*

Page  226 226 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, how soon I have not ascertained. General Winder informed me a few days since, in answer to my inquiries, that he should not remove me from Richmond. I would prefer to remain here if I am still to be a prisoner of war, rather than to go to either of the above-named places. The scene of preparation for departure from the rooms above us was touching indeed. When morning dawned, the men emptied their ticks of the straw, tied them over their shoulders, gathered up what little traps they had, and formed into line. Many of them were without shoes, some without stockings; and not a few were compelled to substitute their drawers for pantaloons; but before leaving the prison they sang " Hail Columbia" and the " Star-spangled Banner," gave three hearty cheers for the Union, and with tears on many a cheek, the noble fellows started on their journey of fifteen hundred miles further into the country of their enemies. November 16.-The Richmond Prison Association held a meeting this evening, when Captain Todd, of the Lincoln Cavalry, recently captured and sent here from the Potomac, was introduced to membership in a speech made by Quartermaster Hart, of Indiana, to which Captain Todd replied briefly. The proceedings of the meeting, I regret to say, for the first time since its organization, were not entirely harmonious, which I will explain.

Page  227 A PRISONER OF WAR. 227 The officers had discussed among themselves on previous occasions the propriety of permitting no more escapes from their number, inasmuch as upon every such occurrence the Confederate officers in charge watched us more closely, and exhibited their increased malice by depriving us of the slight privileges we were allowed, and which were so necessary for our comfort. It was conceded by all, however, that every prisoner had full right to escape if he chose to take the risk, and any exposure of his plan would have been condemned as an act so mean and dishonorable that the accuser's future stay among us would have been uncomfortable, if not unsafe. Soon after the arrival of the Ball's Bluff prisoners, Captain Bense, of Cincinnati, and Lieut. Merrill, U. S. A., escaped from the prison- a purpose, it seems, they had long cherished. Several of their friends, on the same evening after their departure, had heard that at some time the Association had passed a resolution by which the members resolved to expose escapes contemplated by officers; and lest this information might be given before the captain and lieutenant had had time to get so far in their flight as to be tolerably secure from arrest, they took occasion to forewarn certain older officers of the Association of the consequences of any such disclosure. The passage of any such resolution, or the intention to in

Page  228 228 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, form upon any officer wanting to escape, was fully denied, and the matter, as was supposed, satisfactorily ended. Unfortunately, the captain and lieutenant were re-captured on the second night after their escape, and brought back and put in irons. They were both present at this meeting when the subject was brought up by Lieut. Merrill, who charged the Association substantially with passing the resolution of becoming an informer. This brought several of the older officers of the Association upon their feet, who denounced the charge as unfounded and calumnious; that no resolution of that character, or any discussion on the subject had ever occurred in the Association. The President (myself) stated the facts, as he understood them, in this matter, confirming the statements of the older officers of their ignorance of any such resolution, and the discussion was terminated by the passage of a resolution unanimously never again to debate the question in the meetings. November 17.-Sunday morning, cold and un.. pleasant; every thing and everybody look gloomy It is rumored that the Confederate Commissioners to England and France, Messrs. Mason and Slidell, have been captured. Divine service performed this evening by Rev. John F. Mines.

Page  229 A PRISONER OF WAR. 229 November 18.-The newspapers of the city concede that Messrs. Mason and Slidell have been captured on board of a British mail steamer by the United States steam frigate, San Jacinto, Commodore Wilkes, and brought to Fortress Monroe. Hon. Mr. Eustis, late United States M. C. of Louisiana, and Mr. McFarland, private secretaries of the commissioners, are also captured. The wives of the parties, the papers state, are allowed to proceed on their voyage. Will the capture of those two leading Secessionists complicate the exchange of prisoners, especially as regards those confined on political grounds alone? The entire North will shout over the arrest, and the public indignation and hatred against them are such, that the Government will be slow to release them; and my friends here will have it that so long as they are held, I cannot hope to be released. But for my part I cannot see the point. The exchange of political prisoners surely has no reference to rank, and they will be held by our Government without reference to myself, and so vice versa. November 19.-To-day, the Message of Jefferson Davis to the Confederate Congress now in session.at Richmond, was delivered, and as it was short, I have read it. It recites the success of the Confederate arms since the commencement of the war, and speaks in exalted terms of the bravery of their army. He alludes to the arrest of Slidell

Page  230 230 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and Mason as a violation on the part of the United States Government, of the British flag, and claims that it is no less than an attempt to exercise general jurisdiction over the seas; that we had no more right to take these men from the deck of a British vessel than to arrest them in the streets of London. It strikes me that this is correct doctrine upon principles of international law. But the circumstances attending their arrest must first be ascertained before principles of law can be applied. So far as I can now gather the facts and circumstances of the arrest, it is clear to my mind that Mr. Davis' position is correct. The deck of a vessel in theory constitutes a part of the soil of the nation to which it belongs. An unwarrantable arrest upon the one would be equally an aggression as if made upon the other. It has been suggested that this particular occurrence may have all taken place through an understanding between the rebels and the British Government. If this be established, it of course gives to the affair another aspect. Much solicitude is felt here about the effect of this transaction upon Great Britain. November 20.-The sergeant gave notice to the officers to-day that a portion of their number are to be sent south on Saturday of this week, and requested that those who preferred to go to

Page  231 A PRISONER OF WAR. 231 Tuscaloosa, Alabama, instead of Salisbury, N. C., should signify their wish to him. But a very small number are disposed to volunteer, and in addition to the few who did, the sergeant selected enough from our number to make twenty-five; but afterwards, however, some were excused. The contemplated journey creates much talk and excitement among us. November 21.-The officers who leave for Tuscaloosa are as follows:Captains Thomas Cox, jr., James Bense, Timothy O'Meara; Lieutenants E. W. Hale, F. M. Peacock, F. T. Sheefer, Charles Gillman, Isaac M. Church, James Gannon, S. R. Knight, George B. Kenniston, S. B. Preston, William H. Clarke, John Bagley, Frank A. Parker; Capt. William L. Bowers, Lieutenants John K. Skinner, Samuel Irwin, S. R. Kittridge, James Farran. Besides these officers one hundred and fifty privates are also to leave to-morrow at 12 o'clock. Francis M. Peacock proposes to clothe me with a power of attorney to transact some important business for him in the city of New York, as he is to be sent further south. I have agreed to attend to it, if I should be first liberated. This evening we had a jolly meeting of "The Association" in honor of the officers who leave us to-morrow for Tuscaloosa. The Lieutenants of the post were present, and partook of the spirit

Page  232 232 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ual hospitalities of the occasion, and all the proceedings of the meeting went on harmoniously, the Lieutenants enjoying the toasts and speeches equally with us, until near the close of the meeting, when Captain Timothy O'Meara rose, and made a speech condemning the acts of the rebel Government, in such terms as of course highly offended the Confederate officers. Lieutenant Booker called me aside after the meeting broke up, and expressed his indignation at the insult in strong language, and censured me, as president, for not calling the Captain to order for his offensive remarks. The speaker simply sustained the " Stars and Stripes," and the principles on which our Governnent stood, and whatever he said in condemnation of the " Confederates" was rather to be inferred from what he said in favor of his own Government. While his remarks were strictly in order, and would have been so ruled had the question been raised, still, in the presence of our invited guests, who entertained contrary sentiments and were extremely sensitive upon such matters, it must be conceded that his remarks were ill-timed and discourteous. Francis M. Peacock has to-day executed and delivered to me his power of attorney, to take into my possession his funds deposited in the hands of different parties in the city of New York, amounting to many thousand dollars, and to in

Page  233 A PRISONER OF WAR. 233 vest those funds for his benefit until he may call for them. This gentleman left with the other officers for Tuscaloosa to-day. November 22.-The departure of twenty officers from our number to-day has produced a sensation of loneliness among those who remain, and only increases our desire of release. Still my patience is by no means exhausted: I am still in excellent health and spirits, and for the latter blessing I am indebted, in a very great degree, to the comforting letters that I receive from home. A letter dated the 12th instant reached me to-day, and contains much good news and many words of encouragement. * t * It states, but on what authority I cannot tell, that " our Government has at last consented to an exchange of prisoners." This I am afraid is founded upon mere newspaper reports. * * * I further learn from the letter that Mrs. Huson received my first despatch respecting her husband within the week it was written, and that she was anxiously awaiting the arrival of my letter descriptive of his death. November 23.-The Whig of to-day contains an article from the Charleeston 1Mercury, in which that journal takes the ground, substantially, that the General Government, upon principles of national law, had the right to capture Mason and Slidell on board of the British steamer. This

Page  234 234 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, concession by the Southern press must put an end to all hopes of any trouble growing out of, this affair to the United States. Vattel, Sir William Scott, Chitty, Phillimore, Wheaton, and Kent, all concur not only that we had the right, to take the "commissioners," and all their despatches, but the vessel and cargo of the neutral nation also. What will be done with these men? To Fort Warren I have no doubt they will be sent, but they are now said to be at Fortress Monroe. At about ten o'clock to-day two preachers of the Quaker denomination called at our quarters and asked permission to see me. The elder of the two then requested that all the prisoneis might be assembled together and remain quiet for a short time, which was done. They then made a few kind remarks, asserting among other things that they had not come for the purpose of talking harshly to the prisoners, but as friemds; that though it was natural for man to fight, yet if the doctrine of the Saviour had been observed, there would have been no necessity for the existing war. The younger of the two then turned to the other and said, " Father, shall I pray for them?" which he did. I am told that they visited in the same manner all the rooms of the several prisons. November 24.-Another Lord's day has come

Page  235 A PRISONER OF WAR. 235 and gone. The evening was devoted to Divine service, performed as usual by the Rev. Mr. Mines. November 25.-No evidence reaches me as yet that the Government at Washington intends to do any thing for us in Richmond. The policy of the Administration, indeed, would seem to be averse to any action. It is well, perhaps; they are in a situation to know what is for the best interest of the country, and I am content to abide by the decision, whatever it may be. Others have endured confinement longer than I, and it was Silvio Pellico, I think, who said, after ten years' imprisonment, that he had come out purified. If I need it, may such be the advantage derived from mine. November 26.-Yesterday the editors of the Dispatch and Examiner were at Captain Gibbs' office, when we had a gay and lively chat as usual, but those fellows take unwarrantable liberties to publish all sorts of stuff. I shall in future be more guarded in my conversation with them and others of their class. At the conclusion of a notice which one of these high-blooded gentlemen has printed to-day, devoted to me, occurs the following squib: "Mr. Ely's good humor, which is the life of the prison, never deserts him; but it is evident that he is growing restive at the utter indif

Page  236 236 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ference displayed by Old Abe for his temporal welfare. Mr. Calvin Huson, who was beaten by him for Congress, and who lately died in this city, was a nephew of Wm. H. Seward, and came on with the " Grand Army"' to be civil Governor of Virginia under Old Abe, an arrangement slightly knocked in the head by the result of the battle of Manassas. We did not learn this last item from Mr. Ely, though we have no doubt of its truth." As to my "getting restive," I think an imprisonment of more than four months is sufficient to justify that feeling in any person; and although the editor had no evidence of the fact from any thing I had said in conversation, it is nevertheless true enough. November 27.-The incidents of the day are so very uninteresting that I can find nothing worthy of note. It is said, however, that a flag of truce is to go down to Fortress Monroe, by which letters may be forwarded North. W. A. Abbott, of the Navy, is to be released, and will take the letters. I have written to each member of my family a long letter, filled, as usual, with incidents of prison-life, and the hopes and apprehensions so natural to a captive. To Senator Foster, and other friends, I have also written, making some suggestions to the former in reference to my imprisonment, and the desirableness

Page  237 A PRISONER OF WAR. of a release from Southern hospitality and protection.* November 28.-The United States Congress will meet on Monday next; but, in the present unpropitious state of things, good care will prob"* Circumstances sometimes occurred which tended very much to quicken my desire for a removal, as soon as convenient, to a region where the life, at least, of a prisoner is secure from the ruffianly assaults of men less gentle and honorable than the officers who guard us. On one occasion I very narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of one whose furious malice was indignantly rebuked, and his purposes frustrated, by the energy of a rebel officer. This incident I will here relate: Dr. Higginbotham, the med, ical director of the post, called on me one day with an invitation to visit the hospitals, in order that I might have an opportunity of seeing the arrangements there made for the care of the wounded, and noticing minutely the various means provided for their comfort, and the discipline so strictly observed in those establishments. With this invitation I immediately complied. After leaving the officers' quarters, we proceeded towards the hospitals, doing nothing to attract observation from those whom we happened to pass. We had not gone far, however, before I was recognized by one of those hot-blooded Southerners who think that brutal conduct is indicative of greatness of soul, and vulgar language the true sign of a gentlemanly nature. On making the discovery, this high-bred Southerner exclaimed: " There goes that - Abolitionist, Ely! I'll kill him, by --- " and, in order to verify his words, he drew a revolver, and by rapid strides endeavored to get near enough to make a good shot. It was exceedingly fortunate for me that the officer of the post, Captain Gibbs, overheard the threatening words of the brave gentleman, and took care on the instant to interrupt him in his march, and render the revolver harmless. His arrest immediately followed, and my life was saved. Of this attempt at open murder I was unaware at the time, but it was communicated to me three days afterwards.

Page  238 238 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ably be taken by the powers which ought not to be, that one seat shall miss its accustomed occupant. Of course, I have substantial reasons for regretting this, being continually admonished by the presence of Confederate sentinels, if not by the unyielding temperament of their superiors, that it is more profitable to dream of "On to Washington!" than to hope for its speedy realization. It is some considerable comfort, however, to be allowed the privilege, if not the right, of communicating so frequently with one's friends in the North-a privilege which of late has grown into an established usage. Hardly a flag of truce arrives that does not bring with it a number of welcome letters from home and family, all fragrant with affection, and written where the kindly air is not tainted with the deathly miasma of rebellion. November 29.-The newspapers of this morning report that Messrs. Mason and Slidell have been taken by Commodore Wilkes, of the San Jacinto, and conveyed to Fort Warren, in Boston harbor. Such an announcement was not unanticipated, for I had so prophesied some days ago. Strange, most truly, are the fortunes of war, especially a war between the energy of the North and the dogged perseverance of the South.

Page  239 A PRISONER OF WAR. 239 It is but a few weeks since these men, who have borne sway in the councils of the American people, were commissioned by the Rebel Government to represent their " Confederacy" at St. James' and St. Cloud, as Ministers Plenipotentiary. "How are the mighty fallen from their seats! " and most unexpectedly become the inmates of a prison rather than the guests of a palace." [At this point I find it necessary to offer a few words of explanation in reference to the remaining portion of the narrative. My daily journal was suspended after the above date of November 29-although my confinement in Richmond continued until the 25th of December. The causes which led to this need not be particularly stated; but it will be readily understood that, as the interval was one in which several important public events occurred, giving rise to a thousand rumors of an uncertain and disturbing character, relative to the bearing which those events might have on the fortunes of the prisoners, my custom of writing fell into neglect, and no further record was made, except in my memory. After my re"* The particulars of the capture, imprisonment, and subsequent release of these two individuals, with their secretaries, are so fresh in the public mind, that any further notice of them in this place is not deemed necessary.

Page  240 240 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, lease, an unexpected request was made for the publication of my Journal, with which I was indisposed at first to comply, on the ground that I should thereby be compelled to write out, in full, the story of my later days in prison, and of my release and return to Washington. This would have been a task for which little time was afforded by my public duties; but I finally consented to devote such occasional hours of leisure as I could command to a brief narration of the circumstances preceding and attending my release, with a further illustration of several matters slightly touched upon in the Diary, as well as the record of some incidents which had been altogether overlooked. The material thus supplied, though not actually written in the prison, has served, in the hands of a literary friend, to form a proper, and, I hope, a not uninteresting continuation of the narrative, thus rendering the volume complete.] So far' as the irksomeness of prison life was concerned, the closing weeks of my confinement were quite equal to those which preceded them. As was the case with my companions, I could not but hope that there would soon be a change in our condition; but as the long, dull, weary days rolled over, it was evident that few of our number could be hilarious without something of an effort. It was apparent, also, that want of exercise,

Page  241 A PRISONER OF WAR. 241 and a habit of constantly brooding upon the condition of our beloved country, were having a baneful influence on the bodily health of all the prisoners. Among those, however, who by their cheerful conversation did much to drive dull care away, there was not one, perhaps, who accomplished more than Lieut. Isaac W. Hart, of Indiana. He was ever ready for a harmless frolic, but when it became necessary to look our troubles directly in the face, he was not behind any in manifesting genuine pluck. He told a good story and sung a good song, and one of the latter, composed by himself, was frequently sung with eclat by the members of the Prison Association at their meetings. It was entitled "The Prisoner's Song," and the following is an accurate copy: Come, fellow-prisoners, let's join in a song; Our stay in the prison, it won't be long; CHORUS-Roll on, roll on, sweet moments, roll on, And let the poor prisoner go home, go home. Our friends at home have made a demand To have returned this patriot band. [CHonus, repeated.] The public press they are bound to'obey, For from the people they receive their pay. [CHORUS, repeated.] Congressman Ely is first on the list; He'll soon be there, our friends to assist. [CHORUS, repeated.] 11

Page  242 242 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, And give to his mind its widest range, To "spread himself" on the theme of exchange. [CHORUS, repeated.] This is the way I long have sought, And mourned because I found it not. [CHORUS, repeated.] If you get there before I do, Look out for me, for I'm coming too. [CHORus, repeated.] For now that the thing has got a start, They have concluded to send old Hart. Roll on, roll on, sweet moments, roll on, And let the poor prisoner go home, go home. This song was sung-generally in the evening hours-with the highest zest by its author, and when the chorus was repeated, the officers joined in with great enthusiasm.* * The warm-hearted feelings of the Lieutenant towards his fellow-prisoners were displayed not only in contributing to their amusement, but in efforts to excite in the loyal States such public sympathy as would tend to the relief of those in confinement. As an illustration of this, I have been induced to insert, though with some reluctance, for obvious reasons, the following communication, written by Lieutenant Hart for a Washington paper: OUR SOLDIERS AT RICHMOND. RICHMOND, VA., Dec. 11, 1861. Editor of the Star, Washington, D. C.: The object of this communication is to call the attention of your numerous readers to the condition of the Federal prisoners at this point, for every sympathetic emotion is called up when we behold from day to day their perfect destitution and suffering. I have been frequently inquired of by the pale and sickly, half-clad, heart

Page  243 A PRISONER OF WAR. 243 While on the subject of amusements, and the various and sometimes ingenious devices to which broken soldier away from home, and in prison in an enemy's land, "1 When will our Government send us some clothing and blankets? Do you know, Lieutenant? " And then I have heard them despondingly add: "If our parents knew how we suffer here, they would send to our relief; but we suppose they think the Government will see to it; " and looking at their rags, they would in some instances say, " I was not accustomed to these things at my father's house; " and I have seen the tears trickle down their cheeks. It was by these oft-repeated scenes, (so feebly described,) that the noble-hearted Ely was prompted to make the proposition which I clip from the Enquirer of this morning, (which please find enclosed.) The notice states that the soldiers refused it, because they love their country, and as they had volunteered in her service, they still believed that she would come to their relief. Still they suffer on. I use the term " half-clad," and it is not an exaggeration. I have seen them without shoes, socks, shirts, coats, hats, or caps, and in some instances only drawers for pants. Dirty, and pale from long confinement, I have seen hundreds of them started south to other quarters, exposed to the gaze of curious and excited crowds, and receiving the mild appellation of " Hessians." Now, as generous as the proposition of the Hon. Mr. Ely was, it would have gone but a small way in meeting the demands of the present number of prisoners here. The Confederate soldiers are supplied, by home contributions, with all their necessaries. To refer to Mr. Ely once more, I wish he was at his post in the House of Congress this day; for I feel confident that he could present the case in its proper light, and in such a manner as would cause the whole heart of the population to throb in sympathy with the poor prisoners, and institute a system of exchange at once, which, looking from this stand-point, every principle of justice and humanity seems to-demand. The first prisoners sent by the Confederates (seventy) were promptly exchanged by our Government. Last week five were sent by the Federal Government, and were promptly responded to by the Confederate Government. Now, sir, this principle, applied and carried out, would exchange every

Page  244 244 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, the prisoners resorted, for the purpose of relieving the monotonous course of their daily life, I may add some considerable, and perhaps amusing, information to the record already made (pp. 149 -151 ante) of the presentation to me of a wooden sword, and a sash of rope. Concerning this ludicrous affair, several notices have appeared in the public prints, one of which I have given. These, though tolerably correct in describing the formidable weapon as " a wooden sword of considerable dimensions and comely shape," are less particular in setting forth the formalities under which I became the recipient of so unexpected and distinguished a mark of honor. To supply this defect, I have been kindly allowed to transcribe the followman of us at once. And once more, three thousand men have their eyes turned to the Government, and they have also numerous friends at home, all looking and praying for that period to arrive. Shall they look in vain much longer? May all that is holy, good, or patriotic, forbid it! And that God's blessing may descend upon every heart that acts justly, is the prayer of one of the prisoners at Richmond, to which all the rest respond, Amen. Yours respectfully, J. W. HArT. Extract from the Richmond Enquirer. "The Yankee prisoners of war in this city are beginning to feel the want of proper clothing. Congressman Ely has very generously offered, we learn, to expend five thousand dollars of his private means, which are quite ample, in order to purchase the necessary clothing; but his fellow-prisoners decline to permit him to do that which their Government should long since have recognized as a binding duty."

Page  245 A PRISONER OF WAR. 245 ing statement from the prison-journal of Capt. Ralph Hunt, Co. C, 1st. Reg. Ky. Vol., with a few corrections. * " Thursday Oct. 3d, 1861.-This morning Lt. Wallace made a wooden sword, which Capt. Cox presented to the Hon. Alfred Ely, M. C., from the Rochester District, State of New York. Capt. Cox spoke as follows: "' Hon. Alfred Ely, Member of Congress from the Rochester District, State of New York, spectator at the battle of Bull Run, President of the Richmond Prison Association, etc., Sir: I have been selected by the members of this Association to present to you this sword, as a small token of their regard and esteem for you as an individual, and as a slight reward for your gallant services in protecting the rear of our retreating army at the memorable battle of Bull Run. And, sir, I will take this occasion to say, that in the selection of myself for this duty, the Association have been extremely fortunate; for whether selected to wield this weapon against my country's foe, or present it to a friend, I acknowledge few equalsno superior. (Immense applause.) "'Sir, in presenting to you this sword, the members of the Association are satisfied that it will ever be used by you in times of peace,.in defence of this glorious Union. (Laughter.) Although not of as fine material, nor as neatly

Page  246 246 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, made, nor as gorgeously ornamented, as some swords you have seen, yet this Association believes, for all the purposes for which you will ever use a sword, this will answer as well as any other. (Applause and laughter.) You will perceive, sir, from the peculiar shape of this beautiful blade, that it is well adapted to fighting from behind a tree, which we all know is your favorite position.' (Applause.) " Capt. Cox here alluded to the Hon. gentleman's Congressional career; but owing to the noise and confusion the reporter was unable to catch his words. Then drawing forth a sash, made from an old hempen rope, Capt. Cox continued,' And, sir, accompanying the sword is this superb sash-the only one of the kind in the Union. It was made expressly for you and for this occasion, and well typifies the taste of the sunny South. Although it is formed of different material, and may not appear as beautiful as some, yet I assure you it is a very substantial one. And, believing you to be a man of destiny, I think it indicative of the fate that awaits you, "' For 'tis so, whether you believe it or not, Who is born to be hanged, will never be shot.' And, from your having passed through the battle of Bull Run unscathed, and from the immense number of shots known to have been fired on that

Page  247 A PRISONER OF WAR. 247 occasion, it is evident to any man of the commonest understanding, that you were not born to be shot. Sir, accept this weapon; regard it as a priceless treasure; bequeath it to your children as a rich legacy, that your children's children may exhibit it to the wondering gaze of posterity, as a weapon earned by their ancestor in the most memorable and incomprehensible battle in all their nation's history.' (Applause.) " Mr. Ely received the sword and sash with an air of becoming dignity and gravity, and replied in substance as follows: " ' Capt. Cox, and Gentlemen of the Richmond Prison Association: I rise to address you, on this momentous occasion, under the influence of very extraordinary feelings and singular emotions about the region of the heart. And if my accustomed eloquence should now fail me, surrounded as I am by a group of brave and generous warriors, whose sense of justice has urged them to acknowledge and reward, in a most munificent and appropriate manner, my prowess on the battle-field, I must beg the indulgence which has been extended to all fluent but bashful orators, from Demosthenes downward to our own illustrious age. "' I beg leave to thank you, most worthy Captain, for having so sensibly and appreciatingly alluded to my cool but resolute conduct on a very trying occasion, when (as I may modestly say)

Page  248 248 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, I stood my ground, though thousands of men and horses took to their heels, and left me, alone, sir, to demand the surrender of the whole Confederate army. ' And, through you, I wish to convey to the members of this august Association, my grateful acknowledgments for this valuable, unique, and highly suggestive token of the regard they have for me-a regard which, I confess, is very much heightened by my own deep sense of its justice. You assure me, sir, of their confident belief that I shall be ready at all times, more especially in time of peace, to wield this noble sword in defence of our glorious Union. Such confidence they shall never have reason to regret and withdraw. My past career will justify me in boldly asserting this. For, though it would be unbecoming in me to claim unmerited honors, yet I will say that, as a courageous civilian, I endured at the battle of Bull Run a mental conflict, enough to kill outright any ordinary man-such a conflict, sir, as made the mere physical matters of fighting and bleeding look very tame and insignificant in the comparison; though, as I admit, the bias of a soldier's mind might incline him to think differently. If this sword, sir, had been in my grasp at that time, I should have used it as the means of expressing my feelings in a striking manner; and I am certain that I should not only have astonished the enemy but have routed him,

Page  249 A PRISONER OF WAR. 249 or brought him to terms. At any rate, I assure you, my trusty weapon shall be kept unsheathed during the war; and for all time to come I will fight with it under the glorious star-spangled banner, and never allow it to be brandished under any other. "' The gentleman, however, in referring to the peculiar shape of this sword, which, you observe, is that of a scythe, said-somewhat ironically, if not with a touch of sarcasm-that it was well adapted to fighting from behind a tree; alluding, I suppose, to the mode in which I prudently sheltered myself from the shot and shell of the enemy at Bull Run. Now, as to that matter, it was my ambition, proved by my most active exertions, to follow the example of the immortal Jackson, and many other men as brave and distinguished as myself, in appropriating to my use the most convenient and secure barricade which the ground afforded. My friend, surely, did not mean to insinuate that I took to the tree through cowardice; for this would be a reflection on the valor and discretion of some of the grandest of heroes, as well as a most pugnacious thrust at my own wellknown bravery. If he did, however, mean to touch my sacred honor, I can only wonder at his daring; for I might well believe that few men living would venture on so dangerous a thing as an assault on me, while holding in my hand so 11*

Page  250 250 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, terrible an instrument of vengeance as this Yankee sword. If the gentleman, then, was in earnest, (as I really hope he was not,) I shall be obliged to deal with him promptly according to the rules made and provided for such cases.' (Tremendous sensation, and voices calling for pistols and coffee for two.) " Captain Cox here very handsomely explained, saying: 'I am sorry the gentleman has so construed my remarks concerning the tree, the crooked sword, and his very sensible regard to the instinct of self-preservation. I certainly meant nothing objurgatory-nothing to invite an attack from that awful sword; on the contrary, I admire the gentleman's prudence and discretion as shown at Bull Run; for he held possession of the battlefield after our sixteen thousand men had fled; and owing to his unacquaintance with the laws of war relating to panics, he scorned to retreat to Washington, and with no other weapons than those which nature had furnished him, he placed himself 'inposition,' behind a good-sized tree, and there stood as a true hero, until, being outflanked by superior numbers, he was compelled of course to surrender. Far, very far be it from me to reflect on the gentleman's courage. On the contrary, I will say that, as a redoubtable Congressman, his case is unparalleled in our country's history.' (Cries of' That's so.')

Page  251 A PRISONER OF WAR. 251 " Mr. Ely resumed: 'I am sincerely glad, for his sake, and particularly for my own, to hear the gentleman's explanation; inasmuch as I have myself a great aversion to getting hurt; and on the other side, having never yet killed anybody, I have no desire to begin by annihilating so accomplished a tactician. But, after all, I think that his remark, under the light cast upon it by the laws of grammar, good-fellowship, and gunpowder, admitted of a construction which I, as a warlike lawyer, duly equipped for action, could hardly pass without notice. For, gentlemen, I hold these truths to be self-evident, that my devotion belongs to my God, my services to my country, and my honor to myself; and this honor shall surely go along with this sword, the one untarnished and the other unvarnished, down to the latest posterity of my grandchildren. "' But, aside from this, there was also an allusion, in the presentation of the sash, which occasioned me a very unpleasant sensation in the neck. The gentleman was kind enough to suggest that this article being made of hemp _was indicative of the high and conspicuous position which I was some day to attain. This notion of his seems, however, to be grounded on the idea that I should obtain the promotion in question, under the special favor of the Confederate Government, inasmuch as, in the loyal States, I could have no expectation of

Page  252 252 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, any thing of the kind. Now, as I should be very unwilling to accept such a distinction, if it were offered me by any Government in the world, the gentleman's anticipations are not likely to be verified. But this much I promise, viz.: that I will lay up this hempen sash, and gladly loan it whenever an occasion offers for the rewarding of those who have so abominably afflicted us. In the mean time, I beg you all to believe, that I, Congressman Ely, am not the man to shrink from duty, whatever may be the valor of the enemy, or the state of the weather. Armed with this faithful sword, I fear neither friend nor foe-not even the Confederate ladies themselves. And in years to come, long after we have cured the South of its present insanity, our children, I hope, will have many a tale to tell of the potent effect which followed the very sight of this warlike instrument, in subduing by terror a people who could not be conquered by reason.' (Applause.)" Such were the innocent, harmless, and mirthful expedients by which a large body of men, including several who had been highly educated and accustomed to all the refinements of social life, sought to alleviate, in some measure, the hardships they were obliged to endure while confined within the cheerless walls of a Southern prison. If time would permit, I could easily fill a number of pages with similar details of fun,

Page  253 A PRISONER OF WAR. 253 frolic, amusing pastimes, and " witty inventions" of all sorts, in word and action. During the time of my confinement at Richmond, there were several escapes of prisoners, both officers and private soldiers, some of which presented features of such singular adroitness in out-manoeuvring the authorities, and evading the vigilance of sentinels and policemen, as to occasion much merriment when the news of those adventures reached us. Among them, the escape of Colonel De Villiers was so remarkable for skilful contrivance, and success in defeating all the efforts made for his detection, that a short account of it may here be introduced as a not inappropriate appendage to the story of prison amusements. Colonel Charles A. De Villiers of the Jlth Ohio Regiment, was taken prisoner on the Kanawha River by General Wise, on the 17th of July, 1861, with other officers of General Cox's brigade. On his arrival at Richmond, the Colonel was evidently much distressed, keenly feeling the mortification arising from his imprisonment; and being of an exceedingly nervous temperament, he was subject, at times, to great depression of spirits. This, however, soon wore away, and we found ourselves under great obligations to him for exhibitions of the most difficult feats of the soldier's drill, of which he was a complete

Page  254 254 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, master. He was, indeed, a bundle of nerves, almost without flesh, weighing not more than 110 pounds; and his exercises with the musket and the broad-sword, as displayed in the prison, entitled him to the full credit of being the master under whose teaching the lamented Ellsworth acquired his proficiency in Zouave drill and military discipline. Being somewhat acquainted with the practice of surgery, he was detailed by the Confederate surgeons of the post, to assist in taking charge of the sick and wounded prisoners at the hospitals. Like other Federal surgeons acting in the same capacity, he enjoyed the freedom of the city, upon his parole of honor, until about the 3d day of September, when, for some reason not fully understood by our officers at the time, he was deprived of his parole, and returned to close confinement in the officers' quarters. One Sunday morning after his return to the prison, for the purpose, as we supposed, of raising money, he sold at auction to the officers in the prison, several articles of his military clothing. On the same evening he escaped from the prison; but in what manner, or through what device, I have never learned. I conclude, however, that his departure could not have been unknown to some of the officers, from the fact that his name was responded to by some one of the officers, at

Page  255 A PRISONER OF WAE. 255 roll-call, for three successive mornings; and for this reason his escape was not suspected by the Confederate officers, until the Colonel had been four days on his way. It was conjectured, from circumstances known to some of the officers, that the Colonel had fled in the disguise of a Confederate officer; that he was assisted by two rebel officers in his escape, who supplied him with a fleet horse, which they stationed on the outside of the town, where it was understood they were to meet the Colonel, and who were to provide him with pistols, carbine, food, etc., necessary to pursue his journey, which had, of course, to be made in the night hours. When his escape became known, great efforts were made by the rebel officers to recapture him, if possible; and officers and scouts were sent in all directions in pursuit; but weeks rolled away and no tidings were heard of the gallant Colonel. At this time, the vigilance exercised through. out Virginia, among civilians as well as the military, made it almost impossible to get across the country in the direction of the Potomac, and little doubt was entertained by his fellow-officers that the Colonel would be recaptured, and brought back to prison, in case he attempted to escape in that direction. His fate, however, was not known at Richmond until his arrival at Washington was

Page  256 256 JOtRNtAL OF ALFRED ELY, announced in the papers, and his appointment as a Brigadier-General nearly two months afterwards. The General, as it turned out, when he left the prison, bent his course towards Norfolk, which city, though but about one hundred miles distant from Richmond, he only reached after six weeks travel, performed in short stages by night, through the swamps and marshes which intervene between the two cities, subsisting in the mean time on berries and shrubs, and exposed to hardships such as only an experienced soldier could ever survive. Having arrived at Norfolk, he managed to disguise himself as a mendicant Frenchman, aged, very infirm, and nearly blind; and thus he gained admittance to a hospital in that city. In some way he procured a pair of green goggles, with which, and a pack on his back, and stooping, and resting on a rough cane, the poor old Frenchman became an object of commiseration. In this condition he freely went where he chose about the city, speaking only in the French language; and finally made an application to the rebel General in command, for permission to go to Fortress Monroe under the flag of truce, that he might embark for his dear old home in France. The piteous story of the venerable Frenchman, and his urgency to return to his home, which he had 'left before the rebellion broke out, and the

Page  257 A PRISONER OF WAR. 257 accomodating spirit of the Confederates manifested to the French, as well as to the English, at that time, induced the rebel General, from charitable motives, after two weeks' delay, and persistent application on the part of De Villiers, to allow him to go on board the truce-boat. When the boat met the Federal steamer, the infirm old Frenchman (at the venerable age of thirty-five) was assisted on board by the compassionate officers from Norfolk, who bid him an affectionate adieu. But no sooner had he reached the deck of the Union boat, than he coolly cast off his pack, green goggles, and all; and, after thanking the officers for their politeness, shouted, with an air of youthful animation, a loud huzza for the Stars and Stripes, and gave the Confederates the pleasing information that they had just parted with Colonel De Villiers, of the 11th Ohio.Regiment. On the 25th of November I remarked in the diary: " No evidence reaches me, as yet, that the Government at Washington intends to do any thing for us at Richmond." But, about that time, rumors were afloat, and reached the prison through the newspapers, that a project was on foot, which, if successful, would issue in my exchange for the Hon. Charles J. Faulkner, late minister of the United States to France. Mr. Faulkner, immediately on his return to the United States, had

Page  258 258 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY2 proceeded to Washington, for the purpose of terminating his official connection with the Government, and presenting his accounts and other papers. While in that city he was arrested for disloyal conduct, and sent to prison. Subsequently he was removed to Fort Lafayette, and finally to Fort Warren, in Boston Harbor.* A few days before my release, I was visited by Messrs. Bocock and Boyce, who stated that they intended to use their efforts to get me exchanged for Mr. Faulkner. I judged from this that there might, probably, be some foundation for the reports in circulation; and my hopes were confirmed on the following day, when the Richmond papers announced that Mr. Faulkner had actually been released, on his parole, for thirty days, on condition that he should proceed to Richmond, and procure, if practicable, my liberation, as the price of his own. I found some "* The antecedents of Mr. Faulkner, as a public man, may be briefly given as follows:-He was born in Berkley County, Virginia, in 1805; received a collegiate education; studied law and came to the bar in 1829; served four or five years in the State Legislature; was a commissioner to report on the boundary line between Virginia and Maryland; in 1850, was a member of the Convention to revise the Constitution of Virginia; and was a Representative in Congress from Virginia, from 1851 to 1859. By President Buchanan he was appointed Minister Plenipotentiary to France, and on his return to the United States in 1861, was suspected of being in league with the Great Rebellion, and for that reason was arrested as a prisoner of state, and imprisoned.

Page  259 A PRISONER OF WAR. 259 difficulty, at first, in crediting the news, inasmuch as it seemed to me that Messrs. Bocock and Boyce must have been aware of it, if true, when conversing with me so lately; and would not, probably, have been silent in regard to so- important a fact. But as each additional day's intelligence announced the progress of Mr. Faulkner to the South, I became convinced that my release was really not very far distant. In the early part of December, then, as proved to be true, Mr. Faulkner was permitted by the Federal Government to leave Fort Warren on parole, and proceed to Richmond, for the purpose of negotiating with the rebel authorities, and endeavoring to effect the exchange alluded to. In the event of failure, Mr. Faulkner was to return to Fort Warren within the period of thirty days from the time when he left it. On the 10th of December he reached New York, and proceeded somewhat leisurely to Richmond, where he arrived from Norfolk, at 7 o'clock on Thursday evening, December 19th, having been sent to the latter city under a flag of truce from Fortress Monroe. Mr. Faulkner was met at the depot in Richmond, by Governor Letcher, Mayor Mayo, and a large body of people, estimated at the number of 30,000, and was immediately taken to the city hall " in a carriage drawn by four gray horses." It would appear that the rebel capital

Page  260 260 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, was, for the time, a scene of joy and merriment; for, as we were told, the streets were gay with. flags, and the procession moved on amid shouts and cheering. At the city hall a public reception took place, at which Governor Letcher made a most complimentary and chivalrous speech, declaring in it that " the Confederate States could well afford to exchange Ely for Faulkner," the latter personage being " worth a whole regiment of Elys." The papers state that Governor Letcher also rather amusingly remarked in this speech, that he and Mr. John R. Edmonds were together when the English news arrived about the affair of Mason and Slidell; and that they had agreed to pray " that Lincoln might have backbone-that if he had, as Mr. Faulkner reported was the case, Boston, Philadelphia, and New York, were likely to be well bombarded." After this, it appears that Mayor Mayo, with unusual animation, " concluded, by generally endorsing Governor Letcher's prayer for Mr. Lincoln's 'backbone,' and with the recommendation that Lincoln, Seward, and the whole concern should take a little more brandy cocktails."-Richmond.Daily Examiner. I may be pardoned, perhaps, for mentioning here, that on the evening before I left Richmond, in a very pleasant interview with Governor

Page  261 A PRISONER OF WAR. 261 Letcher, I reminded him, in a jocular way, of his famous assertion, by saying: " Governor, you told the people that you could well afford to release me for a Faulkner, who was worth a whole regiment of Elys. Now, Governor, I want 999 Yankees to go home with me; and you cannot, surely, allow me to doubt that you are willing to do the fair thing." " Oh! " said the Governor, "that will do to talk about; but, Mr. Ely, you can't have it clone." From this, I concluded that the Governor had changed his mind very suddenly about the relative value of Faulkners and Elys. On Friday, December 20th, the day after Mr. Faulkner's arrival at Richmond, he called upon me in the afternoon. We had a pleasant interview, and I received from him the first really definite information.concerning my coming liberation. He announced that he had been favored with an interview with Jefferson Davis "and his Cabinet; and was happy to have it in his power to state that they had decided upon my release.* "* Some opposition was manifested to the release, by some of the Southern people, on various technical grounds, and the papers took it up. One of them remarks as follows: Hon. Charles James Faulkner, and Hon. Alfred Ely-one a quasi prisoner, and the other a real one-had a very pleasant interview yesterday at the Confederate States Military Prison, where Mr. Faulkner called to see Mr. Ely. We are told that there was great rejoicing in the prison, but whether it was confined to the breast of Mr. Ely, or shared by his fellow-captives, we were not informed. The circumstances that induced the Lincoln Government to allow

Page  262 262 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, On the following day, Saturday, December 21st, General Winder came to the prison; and, as he entered the room with considerably more formality and dignity than usual, I had reason to surmise that he was the bearer of some important intelligence. There followed a few moments of suspense, sensibly affecting my fellow-prisoners as well as myself. The kind-hearted General then announced to me that I was once more a free man, and presented to me the documents authorizing my immediate discharge from confinement. He added that he should now be happy to see me at his own house; and after the interchange of a few pleasant words, he retired from the room, leaving me in a state of happy reflection, which I Mr. Faulkner, whom they had arrested without warrant of law, and without a shadow of pretext to justify so flagrant a breach of individual right, to come here are known. The condition exacted was, that he should procure the liberation of Mr. Ely in exchange for his own, or return and submit himself to the rigors of a captivity, as hard as it is unjust. So far as Mr. Ely is individually concerned, he has proved himself a man of kindly disposition and amiable impulses since here, and on his own account we could find no objection to his being returned to the " bosom of his family " if he would stay there, and not attempt to influence the minds of the fanatics of the North by his harangues. We would not disparage his claims to the most favorable consideration of our Government; but, though a non-combatant, he certainly made his appearance on the field of Manassas to gloat over the prospective defeat and humiliation of the Confederate soldiers. We learned last night that the Government had consented to exchange Mr. Ely for Mr. Faulkner; so, it is reasonable to suppose that that eminent patriot will shake the " rebel" dust of Richmond from off his feet.

Page  263 A PRISONER OF WAR. 263 will not attempt to describe. On the same day, my release was made generally known by means of the Richmond papers. About sundown, Mr. Faulkner called again at the prison, bringing with him Governor Letcher's carriage. The object was to afford me an agreeable opportunity for the use of the liberty to which I had just become entitled. After the usual congratulations, we proceeded to the Governor's mansion, enjoyed an excellent dinner, indulged in lively conversation, and parted with a mutual expression of personal good feeling. A meeting of the Prison Association, of which I was the President, was immediately convened upon my release, affording me an opportunity for bidding an affectionate farewell to my associates in captivity, in an address recounting the experiences of the past, with our mutual sufferings and pleasures, and for assuring them of my deep sense of the kindliness of spirit and generosity of heart, which had marked all their conduct towards me during the five long months of our imprisonment. On Wednesday, December 25th, a Christmas day long to be remembered, and in a very special sense a " merry " one, I bid an unreluctant adieu to Richmond at the early hour of 5 A. M., and took passage on the railroad train for Petersburg, in the same State.

Page  264 264 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, It was my wish to remain in Richmond through Christmas day, and I so intimated to General Winder, upon applying for my passport to Norfolk on the previous day. But the General, after pausing for a moment, very significantly said that he had seen and conversed, with the Secretary of War; and in consequence of suggestions made by him, would advise me to leave in the morning train. He undoubtedly regarded me as too dangerous a customer to be allowed to tarry long in the Confederate States; and probably thought that the sooner my departure was effected the less knowledge I should acquire of the fortifications about Richmond, and of the real state of public sentiment existing in the minds of the people, especially as there seemed to be not a little evidence of the revival of loyal feelings among a large class of the population. No annoyance was experienced on the journey to Petersburg; but on approaching the depot in that city, I was much surprised, if not alarmed, on finding a crowd of curious mortals assembled, sufficiently large to satisfy the ambitious desires of a Japanese Prince. This eager multitude, I afterwards learned, had been drawn together by an announcement in the morning papers of my expected arrival; and I could not but think that if a Southerner is a match for five Yankees, the situation of one such might become highly disa

Page  265 A PRISONER OF WAR. 265 greeable in the hands of so vast an assemblage. But by the polite and judicious conduct of Mr. Bernard W. Sage, of Louisiana, a gentleman connected with the Confederate Government, all intrusion, offence, and personal injury were effectually prevented; and I was permitted, after enjoying an unmolested breakfast, to proceed directly on to Norfolk. / When I arrived at Norfolk, I called immediately upon General Huger, and delivered a letter addressed to him from General Winder. From General Huger I received the most courteous treatment, and was introduced by him to the members of his Staff, and to Colonel Mulligan, his Provost Marshal./ He then inquired whether I was desirous of proceeding to Fortress Monroe at once; to which I replied that I was, if this could be done without putting him to inconvenience. Orders were then sent by him to the commander of a steamer, to be in readiness to convey me, without delay, to the Union truce-boat from Fortress Monroe. I was also placed under the special charge of Colonel Mulligan, and safely conducted to the boat. I then remarked to the General that I supposed it would be considered necessary, before my embarkation, to submit my baggage, which consisted of a trunk and two carpet-bags, to the customary process of examination. He replied "Yes, we shall 12

Page  266 266 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, do that for form's sake, and my Provost Marshal will attend to it on the dock." At his suggestion, I went to the Atlantic Hotel, near by, in company with my escort from Richmond, to remain until notified that the boat was in readiness to leave. At the Hotel, inside and out, was a large crowd assembled, as at Petersburg, for the purpose of seeing, with their own eyes, the Yankee Congressman, who, five months before, had been caught near the woods at Manassas. Among them I observed a great number of Confederate officers, who soon gathered around me. Several of these I immediately recognized, as they had called upon me at the prison in Richmond. Much anxiety was manifested to hear me speak on topics relating to the war, and to gather my views as to its final issue; but no indignity or offence of the slightest kind was offered me on the occasion; and indeed, from several observations made by some of the gentlemen about me, it was evident that it would have been a dangerous experiment for any person present to have attempted it. After much merriment and jocular conversation in the hours spent at the Hotel, a messenger from General Huger summoned me to the boat, to which I went directly, having first bid adieu to my friend Mr. Sage of Louisiana, and the crowd en masse at the Hotel.

Page  267 A PRISONER OF WAR. 267 On my arrival at the dock, I found the Provost Marshal, i detective Police officer from Richmond, whom I well knew as being in the service of General Winder, and two other gentlemen apparently connected in some way with the business in hand. The Provost Marshal addressed me by saying that he should be "under the painful necessity " of demanding the keys of my baggage; to which I instantly responded by delivering them to him. My baggage was then ordered by him to be taken to a small building some distance from the pier, which we all entered, and then the key of the door was turned. My bunch of keys was then returned to me, with the request that I would myself unlock the trunk. This I did, and removed from it the several articles of clothing, books, papers, etc., with which it was filled, including, among these, my Journal. The Marshal then, with a pocket foot-rule, measured the outside, and also the inside of the trunk, with a particular reference to the bottom. He then remarked to me, " Mr. Ely, there is a false bottom in this trunk." To this charge I made no direct reply, but quietly said, " Well, this is a point we will not now discuss, as I suppose you can easily ascertain for yourself whether your impressions are correct or not." He then introduced me to the two Norfolk gentlemen, who, he said, had been requested by him to assist in making this search,

Page  268 268 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, as they were somewhat familiar with business of that kind. One of them then drew a gimblet from his pocket, and after boring a hole through the bottom of the trunk, drew out the instrument, and said with an air manifesting much surprise, "Colonel, there is no false bottom here." In like manner he bored through the top, with a similar result. The Provost Marshal, evidently not a little chagrined and mortified at his mistake, now took occasion to state, in an apologetic tone, that he had received information from a source in Richmond of unquestionable authority, that the trunk contained a false or double bottom; and moreover, that the individual who made it, had been arrested for the offence, and was then in prison in that city. He proceeded to say, that he was most happy to find himself misinformed; and that my conduct since I had been a prisoner of war at Richmond, did not justify the belief that I would attempt to practice a deception on the Confederate Government, to enable me to take away written or private information, and documents, which I knew to be expressly prohibited not only to prisoners of war, but to all others passing within the lines of the Federal Government. Except for the positive information alluded to, he said that no search whatever would have been instituted; and he desired me to regard what had taken place, as

Page  269 A PRISONER OF WAR. 269 a simple discharge of his duty, as required under the circumstances, and in no respect intended as a personal indignity to myself. It is proper here to say, that the trunk was originally made with the false bottom in question; and I had once thought that a secure place might thus be found in it for several small books containing my Journal. But, on further reflection, I determined to act fairly and openly in the matter, even though the temptation was strong to avail myself of an adroit method of preserving my harmless books. Accordingly, I had the false bottom taken out of the trunk, thereby restoring it to the ordinary form, without the knowledge of the maker, who proved to be also the informer. After the examination, I remarked to the officers, that there were many letters in my trunk, handed to me by citizens of Richmond, to convey to the North; which letters had been too late for the general examination at General Winder's office, (2,000, or more,) designed for the mail-bags. I also said that these letters, and every other article in my trunk, were entirely at his disposal for inspection; and that the manuscript of incidents in prison, contained in several small books, was brought away by me under express permission obtained from General Winder. The Marshal declined to proceed further with the examination,

Page  270 270 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, and politely assisted me in repacking the contents of my trunk. He remarked that he should at once make a report of the facts to the authorities at Richmond, by which they would probably make the discovery that they had been sold. All being now ready for departure, I bid farewell to the officers who had unwittingly afforded me a scene of amusement long to be remembered, and went on board the boat. Leaving the pier and all rebeldom behind, we now steamed down Elizabeth River towards Hampton Roads; and when I caught sight of the Union boat approaching from Fortress Monroe, and nearing Sewall's Point-the place of meeting-with the Federal Stars and Stripes flying at the mast-head, my feelings, so long subdued, were no longer capable of restraint. At any risk, and even on the deck of a rebel steamer, I clapped my hands for joy, and cried out, " God be blessed, that I am allowed once more to see that glorious banner! " It was well for me that Captain Preston, the commander, to whom I had been introduced before leaving the pier, was a man with a feeling heart, and frank enough to grant that, in my circumstances, he could not blame me much for giving expression to such a sentiment. The two steamers were soon alongside of each other, and I re-embarked.on board the Federal boat with sensations of delight such as I had

Page  271 A PRISONER OF WAR. 211 never before experienced, and which I will not attempt to describe. The boat steamed away for the Fortress, which I had never before seen, and we were soon landed at the dock. I immediately called on General Wool, who received me with a hearty welcome, and many congratulations on my return from captivity; and, after a somewhat lengthy interview, in which he engaged in an earnest conversation upon different topics connected with the war, and especially the magnitude of the Southern forces at Richmond and other localities, I was summoned on board of the Baltimore boat to take my departure. The General, however, not having finished his interview, and wishing to entrust to me several important communications to distinguished officials at Washington, directed the steamboat to remain until I was prepared to leave. The boat having been thus detained for nearly an hour, I at last took the veteran old General by the hand to bid him good-bye, when he remarked that he was rejoiced once more to see me in safety in this loyal part of the country; and that I had now additional reasons for doing my best to preserve that country, by a faithful discharge of my public duties on the floor of Congress. On board of the Baltimore boat we had few

Page  272 272 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, passengers, but I was invited into the Captain's office, where I spent an agreeable evening with him and his friends, until I retired to my state room. SI awoke at an early hour in the morning, and finding the machinery of the boat at rest, I inferred that we were already at the Baltimore dock, which proved to be the case. Leaving my state-room, I was at once besieged by newspaper reporters, eager for me to impart my Southern experience, and any news of interest from the Rebel States. /I was then conducted to a carriage, and taken to the Eutaw House, where I was visited by large numbers of citizens, and urged by a Committee to address the people of Baltimore before my departure for Washington. This request I declined, not feeling myself able to address a large assembly, enervated as I was by long confinement. My estimable friend, Mr. Colman, of the Eutaw House, insisted that I should, at least, remain in Baltimore through the day and evening, which was quite agreeable, in view of the fatigue occasioned by so many visits and salutations. A dinner of unusual elegance was prepared by Mr. C., at which a private party, including Mrs. Colman and her two accomplished daughters, were present, and the hours were enlivened by such agreeable, and I may say sympathizing, inter. change of sentiments for my prison troubles, as

Page  273 A PRISONER OF WAR. 273 could only have been equalled had I been in the midst of intimate relatives. I left Baltimore at 4 p. M., on the 27th of December, for Washington, where I arrived about 7 o'clock in the evening, and proceeded to Willard's hotel. An immense crowd of people thronged every avenue to the house, and I could hardly believe that such an assembly would have convened to greet the return of even the most aristocratic prisoner, much less that of an individual so humble as myself. Around me were Senators and Representatives, (many of whom I last saw on the battle-field,) ladies, citizens of Washington, and strangers, manifesting a degree of sympathy and warmth of congratulation upon my restoration to liberty, and return to my public duties, which filled my heart with thankfulness to God that I was once more a free man, receiving the kind welcome of my friends, in the capital of my own country. The calls of the people in the avenue in front of the hotel for my appearance, and the music, from more than one band in their midst, playing "Home, sweet home," gave me an opportunity to make a brief address from the balcony, in acknowledgment of a compliment whicd was not only unexpected, but also far more generous and flattering than I could have claimed or imagined. With my return to Washington my record 12*

Page  274 214 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, of events is brought to a proper termination; but I may not inappropriately add a few thoughts which passed through my mind on a retrospect of the whole narrative. It has been said that the uses of adversity are "sweet;" and I have no intention, at present, to dispute about the truth of such an apothegm. But, whether adversity itself has any elements deserving a similar panegyric, is a question which, in my opinion, the Richmond prisoners would be apt to settle without much debate. For my own part, I incline to the views of the metaphysicians, in allowing that pain is sometimes a necessary preliminary to the enjoyment of profit: and, for this reason, the many dreary months of my imprisonment may possibly be remembered hereafter with less regret, as time develops the new and very practical impressions then made on my mind. Among other things, I found that to visit battle-fields as a mere pastime, or with the view of gratifying a panting curiosity, or for the sake of listening to the roar of shotted artillery, and the shrill music of flying shells, (which motives, however, were not exactly mine,) is neither a safe thing in itself, nor a justifiable use of the passion which Americans are said to possess for public

Page  275 A PRISONER OF WAR. 275 spectacles. Though I was on the field, yet I saw little of the strife; nevertheless, the revelations of what then occurred, have been such that Bull Run now looms up in my mind with a very frightful aspect, and in all the magnitude of its horrors. The dead and the dying, the shattered limbs and flowing blood of the wounded, the miseries of desolated homes, the mourning of widowed mothers and fatherless children, and the crushing agony suddenly cast into the hearts of thousands in every corner of the land, are so vividly pictured on my imagination by the official reports, and by the confusion and terror of which I was a witness, as to make it a marvel that, without much reflection, I could have exposed myself even to the chance of looking upon the actual scene of conflict from which all this misery issued. Still, without any desire to exculpate myself from whatever blame may justly attach itself to such an error, I must be allowed, for my own vindication, to say, with all conscientiousness, that my visit to the battle-field, though apparently to witness the fight, had other objects also, and undoubtedly was not censurable in every aspect in which it may be viewed; inasmuch as it was my intention to offer and render to the wounded (especially those of the Rochester regiment, if any there were) such unprofessional and benevolent services as were in the power of a friendly civilian to per

Page  276 276 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, form, even though this might not, in all probability, be unattended by a good deal of personal exposure, inconvenience, and suffering-to say nothing of the risk of capture by the enemy. On one point alone do I feel cause for deep regret. My visit to the field being entirely a voluntary one, and not in response to a call of actual duty, I might have declined it, in consideration of the sacredness of the Lord's day on which it occurred. But, having noticed this already in the early part of the diary, and made the proper acknowledgments, so far as my fellow-Christians are concerned, I have now only to confess again the justice of the retribution, and to add that I have no disposition to repeat the error, nor to renew my intimacy on such terms with the Confederates, nor to test any further their gentleness and chivalry by my own experience. It may also not be amiss for me to say, for the benefit of my over-curious and ardent fellowcitizens who are in the pursuit of knowledge, that if a civilian should desire to become acquainted with the mysteries of war, or the military virtues of Southerners as displayed in an engagement, it will be, on the whole, less uncomfortable to his feelings to study such things somewhere north of the Potomac, than to hire a buggy, and run the chance of a personal inspection of the doings of combatants on the " sacred soil " of a disloyal State. It

Page  277 A PRISONER OF WAR. 277 is true enough that experience, in matters affecting either body or soul, is a capital teacher; and one's own experience is supposed to have a special value arising from the fact that we have unlimited confidence in the acuteness of our own powers of discernment and observation. But personal experience concerning things outside of us, is sometimes an ugly thing, and costs more than the worth of the knowledge we thus acquire; as in the case of information conveyed through skin and bone by means of a Minie ball or a fragment of a bursting shell, which unwelcome messengers doubtless excite such curious sensations as were never felt before, but are apt, nevertheless, to raise the exceedingly pertinent question, whether the loss of a limb, or even a nose or an ear, or the spoiling of one's beauty in other respects, is a fair price to pay for a knowledge of the process by which the thing was so neatly and artistically dote. I frankly confess that, at the time of my capture, I was not very well acquainted with the distinctive marks, looks, and habits of Southern soldiers; but all these were presented to my mind with remarkable force, when Colonel Cash threatened to dislodge my brains with his pistol, and when I was informed that I had entered upon my novel career as a prisoner of war. The cost of this first item of intelligence was, in my judg

Page  278 278 JOURNAL OF ALFRED ELY, ment, out of all proportion with the benefit received; and when to this were added the sufferings, privations, indignities, and discomforts following my matriculation in that memorable school of learning, the tobacco warehouse at Richmond, I came to the conclusion-though it may seem a selfish one-that a wise man will oftentimes be thoughtful and shrewd enough to avail himself of the past experience of other people, when his own is likely to prove too pungent to be agreeable. And there is another thing yet which I wish to say to my readers, by way of caution, if they should ever feel inclined to visit Yorktown, or any other stronghold of the enemy. In my boyish days a good deal was told me about a certain fox, in old times, who would never leap into a pit, which in any respect looked forbidding, till he had first of all determined, by a careful investigation of the premises, and a look at its depth and the structure of its walls, that there was a tolerable certainty of getting out again without sustaining loss or serious damage. But it is an unfortunate trait of youthful minds, that the charm of the story takes deeper hold on the memory, than the moral which it is designed to enforce. Now, it was evidently for want of a little more of the prudent precaution thus commended

Page  279 A PRISONER OF WAR. 279 to mankind in general by the example of the venerable fox, that I rushed, like many others as wise as myself, into a place not at all remarkable for its safety; imagining, very innocently, that a retreat would be quite as easy as an advance, and that a Connecticut man, by his very blood and birthright, and well-established fame for wakefulness, must be superior to all the wit and strategy of foes who had never been schooled in the dexterous habits, nor acquired the acuteness and prevision so common to Northern minds. The mistake was discovered in less time than it took to rectify it, as this brief history of my captivity will sufficiently testify. But, being now a free agent once more, I shall take the best care to profit by the lesson; and as General McClellan has affirmed, on purely military grounds, that there shall be no more Bull Run defeats, so, on purely prudential considerations, I will now venture to make the parallel assertion, that no further capture of Congressmen on rebel soil may be hoped for by those who once so magnanimously bore away an unarmed and unresisting civilian, threatened him with an ignominious death, and kept him lodged for five months within the wretched confines of a Confederate prison.

Page  280

Page  281 APPENDIX. THE subjoined list of Union officers and soldiers who have been, and are now, imprisoned in the Southern States, was prepared with great care by the Hon. Alfred Ely. It gives the name, rank, company, regiment, and place of confinement of each person. As an appropriate introduction to the list of names, the only complete and authentic one in existence, the following letter is submitted and will be read with interest. RIcuMOND, Nov. 25, 1861. HoN. THADDEUS STEVENS, House of Representatives: DEAR SIR: It is publicly known that I was arrested by the Confederate troops near Manassas, on the 21st July last, and brought to Richmond as a prisoner of war, where I have been detained in close confinement ever since. Throughout my imprisonment, now exceeding four months, I have endeavored to deport myself in such manner as neither my friends nor my own Government would have cause to regret. My object in troubling you at this time, however, as you are about entering upon your laborious duties in the House, is

Page  282 282 APPENDIX. not one of personal consideration to myself, but to call your attention to the condition of our private soldiers now held as prisoners of war. The Confederates have now in their possession and in actual imprisonment, 2,961 officers, non-commissioned officers, and privates, aside from those on parole, as I learn from reliable sources; 1,710 of these officers and privates are still at Richmond, confined in loathsome tobacco factories converted into prisons, and the remainder have been distributed to different localities in North and South Carolina, Louisiana, and Alabama. Included among this number are several hundred three months' troops, whose term of enlistment had in fact expired before the battle of Bull Run, who left their homes and families upon the first call of their country, to defend the Capitol and the flag. These men have been imprisoned already more than four months, in the confident hope that some arrangement would be made to secure their release, or provide, at least, for their destitute condition. They have suffered like true soldiers, with a patient self-sacrifice of almost every personal comfort, until the poor fellows are nearly disheartened. Could you have witnessed with me to-day five hundred of these troops as they were preparing to depart for Tuscaloosa, in Alabama, there still to be imprisoned, I think, sir, it would have roused the sympathies of your generous nature. A large portion of these men were, as you are no doubt aware, taken prisoners in midsummer, when the weather was exceedingly hot, and dressed in clothing suitable to the season; and not only that, but great numbers had thrown off their coats on going into battle, and were brought here in their shirtsleeves. They have had no change of clothing for months. I have seen them without shoes, socks, shirts, coats, hats or caps,

Page  283 APPENDIX. 283 and in several instances with only drawers for pants-pale and haggard from long confinement. In this condition hundreds have been sent South to other prisons, exposed to the gaze of the curious and excited crowds. Separated as they have been fromi their friends, and embarrassed by the uncertainty and danger of transmitting means in the present state of affairs, they have been substantially cut off from all private resources for relief. The winter is already upon them, and the necessity for clothing and blankets, especially for the prisoners in this latitude, appeals but too earnestly to a generous Government in whose defence they have taken up arms. If no measures are contemplated which are likely soon to lead to the release of prisoners, these men should be supplied with needful clothing without delay; and I know the Administration too well to believe for a moment that it will suffer these brave men, after fighting the battles of their country, and falling unfortunately into the enemy's hands, to continue incarcerated in Southern States destitute of the comforts of life. The officers of the United States Army, my associates and prisoners of war, at whose request I address this communication to you, are unacquainted with the views of the Government upon the subject of an exchange of prisoners, now somewhat strongly urged in different sections of the North; but whatever they may be, they feel assured, with myself, that they will not be unduly neglected by their Government, and are content, with myself, to remain in imprisonment so long as it promotes the best interests of our country. Very truly, your friend, ALFRED ELY,

Page  284 284 APPENDIX. COMMISSIONED OFFICERS. Colonel MICHAEL CORCORAN, (Hostage,) 69th N. Y., Colonel W. RAYMOND LEE, do. 20th Mass., Colonel 0. B. WILCOX, do. 1st Mich., Colonel M. COGSWELL, do. 42d N. Y., Colonel W. E. WOODRUFF, do. 2d Ky., Colonel A. M. WooD, do. 14th N. Y., Colonel CHARLES A. DE VILLIERS, 11th Ohio, Lieutenant-Colonel S. BOWMAN, Charleston. Richmond. Charleston. Richmond. Charleston. Richmond. Escaped. Charleston. Lieutenant-Colonel G. W. NEFF, do. 2d Ky., u Major PAUL J. REVERE, do. 20th Mass., Richmond. Major J. D. POTTER, " do. 38th N. Y. S. V., Charleston. Captain FRANCIS J. KEIFER, do. 1st Cal., Richmond. Captain J. McIvoR, Company I, 69th N. Y. S. M., New Orleans. Captain WILLIAM MANSON, Company A, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Captain JOHN MARKOE, Company A, 1st Cal., Released. Captain HUGH McQiADE, 38th Regiment N. Y. S. V., Dead. Captain GEORGE AUSTIN,.Company B, 2d Ky., Charleston. Captain and Q. M. W. D. BOWERS, 1st R. I., Alabama. Captain HENRY BOWMAN, Comp'y C, 15th Mass. (Hostage,) Rich'd. Captain J. BYNSE, Company J, 6th Ohio, Alabama. Captain THOMAS Cox, Company J, 1st Ky., Richmond. Captain J. B. DREW, Company G, 2d Vt., Charleston. Captain DE GOLYER, 1st Mich., Escaped. Captain JAMES T. FARRISH, Company B, 79th N. Y., Charleston. Captain R. A. FISH, Company E, 32d N. Y., " Captain WILLIAM FAY, Company B, 25th N. Y., Captain J. H. DOWNEY, Company D, 11th N. Y., " Captain G. W. ROCKWOOD, (Hostage,) 15th Mass., Richmond. Captain JOHN W. SPRAGUE, Company E, 7th.Ohio, Charleston. Captain SHURTLIFF, Company C, 7th Ohio, i Captain SHILLINGLAW, Company J, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Captain J. M. STUDLEY, Company C, 15th Mass., Released. Captain C. S. SIMMONDS, Company B, 15th Mass., " Captain H. B. TODD, Company B, Lincoln Cavalry, 4 Captain REUBEN WILLIAMS, Company E, 12th Ind., " Captain THOMAS WILKENSON, Company J, 5th N. Y., " Captain L. GORDON, Company F, 11th Mass., Charleston. Captain M. GRIFFIN, Company E, 8th N. Y., 4

Page  285 APPENDIX. 285 Captain RALPH HlUNT, Company C, 1st Ky., Richmond. Captain G. H. KELLY, N. Carolina. Captain L. HOLMES, Bark Glen. Captain J. R. HURD, Company F, 2d Ky., Escaped. Surgeon J. H. STEWART, Ist Minn. Vols. Surgeon Doctor BUXTON, 5th Me. Vols. Surgeon FOSTER SWIFT, 8th N. Y. S. M. Surgeon L. H. STONE, U. S. A. Charleston. Assistant Surgeon C. C. GREY, U. S. A. Assistant Surgeon G. F. FERGUSON, 2d Regiment N. Y. S. M. Assistant Surgeon JAMES HARRIS, 1st Rhode Island. Assistant Surgeon E. H. REVERE, 20th Mass., Richmond. Assistant Surgeon R. H. OOODENOUGH, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Assistant Surgeon W. A. FLETCHER, 6th Ind., " Assistant Surgeon S. GRISWOLD, 38th N. Y., Charleston-Dead. Assistaht Surgeon C. W. LE BOUTILLIER, 1st Minn. Assistant Surgeon C. E. CONNELLY, 2d N. Y., Richmond. Assistant Surgeon ANDREW MCLETCHIE, Assistant Surgeon J. McGREGOR, 1st Conn., Assistant Surgeon W. F. SWALM, 14th N. Y. S. M., 4 Assistant Surgeon JAMES NORVEL, N. Y., Assistant Surgeon Doctor HUGGINS, 5th Maine, Assistant Surgeon Doctor STERNBURG, 3d Infantry U. S. A. Assistant Surgeon Doctor DEGRAW, 8th N. Y. S. M. Assistant Surgeon G. S. WINSTON, 8th N. Y. S. M. Doctor PENGNEART, 71st N. Y. S. M. Sergeant Major 9th Zouaves of New York, Alabama. First Lieut. S. R. KNIGHT, Company D, 1st 1. I., " First Lieut. G. B. KENNISTON, Company D, 4th Me., ( First Lieut. W. E. MERRILL, Engineer Corps, U. S. A., Richmond. First Lieut. CHARLES MCPHERSON, Company C, 42d N. Y. First Lieut. S. B. PRESTON, Company F, 1st Mich., Alabama. First Lieut. CHARLES PEARSON, Adjutant 30th Mass., Richmond. First Lieut. GEO. B. PERRi, Company D, 30th Mass., Released. "First Lieut. J. B. GLOVER, Company C, 4th Maine, i First Lieut. Jon GILLMAN, Company C, 6th Ohio, Alabama. First Lieut. SAMUEL GIBERSON, Company A, 42d N. Y., 4" First Lieut. J. E. GREEN, Company C, 15th Mass., * " First Lieut. WALTER IVES, Company D, 79th N. Y., " First Lieut. I. W. HAT, Quartermaster, 20th Indiana, "

Page  286 286 APPENDIX. First Lieut. CHARLES N. HOOPER, Company H, 1st Cal., Rich'd. First Lieut. W. C. HARRIS, Company H, 1st Cal., " First Lieut. J. F. KENT, Company B, 3d Inft. U. S., Charleston. First Lieut. JoHN BAGLEY, Company E, 69th N. Y., Alabama. First Lieut. W. H. CLARK, Company C, 2d Maine, Richmond. First Lieut. ROBT. CAMPBELL, Company K, '9th N. Y., " First Lieut. WM. DICKINSON, Company A, 3d Inft. U. S., " First Lieut. J. H. SKINNER, Company C, 2d Maine, Alabama. First Lieut. CHAILES WALTER, Comp'y D, 1st Conn., Charleston. First Lieut. WILCOx, Company E, 7th Ohio, " First Lieut. JOHN WHYTE, Company R, 79th N. Y., Released. Quartermaster C. J. MURPHY, 38th N. Y., 1st Lieut., Escaped. Second Lieut. W. H. RAYNOR, Comp'y G, 1st Ohio, Escaped. Second Lieut. HENRY URIAH, Comp'y C, 20th Ind., Columbia. Second Lieut. HENRY VAN VOAST, Comp'y E, 42d N. Y., Rich'd. Second Lieut. H. E. WELSH, Comp'y F, 1st Maine, N. Orleans. Second Lieut. G. H. WALLACE, Comp'y B, 42d N. Y., Richmond. Second Lieut. JAS. M. ANDREWS, Comp'y F, 30th N. Y., " Second Lieut. CHAS. H. BURD, Company F, 4th Maine, " Second Lieut. WM. BOOTH, Company C, 2d Wis.,," Second Lieut. G. H. CALEFF, Company H, 11th Mass., Charleston. Second Lieut. E. CONNOLY, Company C, 69th N. Y., " Second Lieut. J. M. CHURCH, Company E, 2d R. I., Richmond. Second Lieut. J. H. DEMPSEY, Company H, 2d N. Y., Charleston. Second Lieut. JAMES FANAN, Company D, 1st Ky., Alabama. Second Lieut. D. S. GORDON, 2d Dragoons, U. S. A., Charleston. Second Lieut. JAMES GANNON, Comp'y G, 69th N. Y., Alabama. Second Lieut. J. H. GREMMAN, Comp'y H, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Second Lieut. J. B. HUTCHINSON, Comp'y I, 15th Penn., N. Orleans. Second Lieut. SAMUEL IRWIN, Comp'y A, 2d N. Y., Alabama. Second Lieut. THos. HAMBLIN, Comp'y G, 38th N. Y., Charleston. Second Lieut. OSCAR HESENGER, N. Carolina. Second Lieut. B. F. HANcoCK, Comp'y I, 19th Ind., Richmond. Second Lieut. E. H. HALE, U. S. Navy, Alabama. Second Lieut. H. K. HOOPER, Comply K, 15th Mass., Richmond. Second Lieut. S. KITTRIDGE, Comp'y D, 2d Maine, Alabama. Second Lieut. W. H. KERNS, Comp'y C, 1st Cal., Richmond. Second Lieut. GEO. W. KENNY, Comp'y C, 1st Cal., " Second Lieut. FRED. MASSLACK, N. Carolina. Second Lieut. M. A. PARKS, Comp'y H, 1st Mich., Richmond.

Page  287 APPENDIX. 281 "Second Lieut. F. A. PARKER, Comp'y A, 1st Cal., Alabama. Second Lieut. (Deserted)* CHAS. VON GELSA, CO. B, 1st Regt. Sickles' Brigade. Second Lieut. (Deserted)* BARRON YoN FLAXENHOUSEN, Company H, 45th N. Y. Chaplain J. F. MINES, 2d Maine, Richmond. Chaplain H. EDDY, 2d Conn., Charleston. Chaplain G. H. DODGE, 11th N. Y., NON-COMMISSIONED OFFICERS AND PRIVATES. Andrews G. M., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., Dead. Anderson G. W., private, Company H, 4th Me., Aho A., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., N. Orleans. Agard G. W., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., " Akerman A., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Adams James, private, Company G, 3d U. S., Ashelman P., private, Company I, 11th Penn., Aborn G. W., sergeant, Company I, 5th Mass., ' Andree A., private, Dragoon, 5th Ill., i Allen H., private, Company H, 2d N. H., Alberts George, private, Company G, 36th N. Y., Arnold E. B., private, Company F, 3d Conn., Allen 0. L., private, Company K, 2d N. 1H., Adam George, N. Carolina. Alcock A. 0., sergeant, Company A, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Armstrong H. F., private, Company G, 79th N. Y., " Archer J., jr., private, Company G, 1st Mich., " Arndt J., private, Company A, 1st Mich., c Abbott W. A., mast. mate, schr. Baker, Richmond. Adkins J. W., private, Company H, 12th Ohio, t Angier Charles, private, Company K, 5th Mass., Andrews J., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., Columbia. Allen 0. L., private, Company K, 2d N. H., " Anderson John F., private, Company F, 2d Wis., " Aldrich D. B., private, Company F, 13th N. Y., Richmond. Aplin William, private, Company H, 27th N. Y., " * Now in the Confederate Service.

Page  288 288 APPENDIX. Abbott Albert, citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Adams R., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., " Adams Lyman, private, Company E, 2d Mass., t Alexander James, private, Company E, 2d Mass., " Albrecht John, sailor, ship Jarvis, Allerman F., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Albee H. C., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Andrews John H., private, Company H, 20th Indiana, Columbia. Ashley Rufus, sailor, U. S. N., Richmond. Anderson C; W., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Columbia. Aubry G. W., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Ault H., citizen, Virginia, 4 Adams R. C., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., ( Arokland George, private, Company D, 1st Cal., t Ashmore Joseph, private, Company G, 1st Cal., 9 Armstrong, J.. F., private, Company L, 1st Cal., 9 Ashbore Theodore, private, Company P, 1st Cal., " Archerd C. F., private, Company P, 1st Cal., 9 Alger W., private, Company D, 15th Mass., " Andrews W. H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., (4 Atgood L. S., private, Company A, 15th Mass., 4 Adams C. H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., 4 Amidon W. H., private, Company E, 15th Mass., 4 Ackerdy John, private, Company E, 15th Mass., 4 Adams W. L., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Adams H. 0., private, Company G, 15th Mass., " Aiken Alexander, private, Company D, 20th Mass., " Allen F. S., private, Company G, 20th Mass., c Armstrong Thomas, sergeant, Company H, 20th Mass., ( Alley J. H., sergeant, Company H, 20th Mass., " Alley M., sergeant, Company H, 20th Mass., 4 Allbright H., sergeant, Company H, 20th Mass., 9 Aborn W., private, Company D, 2d R. I., c Anderson J. W.,. private, Company G, 2d Wis., ( Adler Colonel, Floyd's Brigade, treason, County Jail. Athwood George, private, Company D, 2d R. I., Richmond. Alderson John, private, Company K, 1st Maine, 9 Ashley George, private, Company I, 2d N. Y., C Armstrong S., citizen, Fayette Co., Va., 66

Page  289 APPENDIX. 289 Armstrong Thomas, citizen, Fayette Co., Va., Richmond. Artegan L., private, Company C, 30th. Y., " Bradley John, private, 14th N. Y., Dead. Bate Benj. J., Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., Brown A. H., corporal, Company G, 3d Me., < Bailey A. B., private, Company G, 2d N. H., Buck N. C., corporal, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., ( Brooks David S., private, Company K, 2d N. H., " Brown Thomas, private, Company A, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Blake Pat., private, Company C, 69th N. Y., " Blauvelt Jacob, private, Company A, 2d N. Y., c Beard George W., private, 1st Company, 12th Ohio, < Basine Chas., private, 1st Company, 7th Ohio, " Burns J. M., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Brookins Thomas, private, Company E, 2d N. Y., Brown Thomas, nuise, Company A, 1st Minnesota,; Bliss G. W., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Blyderburgh G. W., private, Company B, 14th N. Y., " Bates W. C., private, Company G, 5th Mass., Briggs H. F., private, Company D, 5th Mass., " Buzzell H., hospital steward, 5th Maine, ( Barnes W., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., Butler G., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., Burdin C. H., private, Company I, 3d Maine, u Burroughs C., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, < Bartlett W. F., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, < Bask John, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Blackesley L. M., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Biggs W., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Butler J., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Bodel F., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Burt Thomas, private, Company A, 7th Ohio, Bandle George, private, Company A, 7th Ohio, Boles L., private, Company G, 7th Ohio, ( Beel S., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, ( Bixbee H., corporal, Company H, 1st N. J., Barger W. J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Baird W. D., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Burns J. 0., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " 13

Page  290 290 APPENDIX. Bedlyon A., private, Company J, 15th Penn., N. Orleans. Barry J. H., private, Company J, 2d N. H., " Barry W., private, Company A, Cav. U. S., " Burritt J., private, Company K, Art. U. S., " Burmingham W., private, Company G, 8th U. S.,, Brady John, private, Company A, 79th N. Y., " Brown H., private, Company E, 2d Art. U. S., 4 Brown C., private, Company E, 2d Art. U. S., ( Burnham A. W., private, Company E, 2d Art. U. S., " Bunch H. C., private, Company K, Dragoons U. S., i Bronson A. E., private, Company I, 3d Conn., " Blue C. S., private, Company A, 3d Conn., " Buchanan A., private, Company H, 3d U. S., " Burke P., private, Company H, 3d U.' S., " Barker Thos. E., corporal, Company B, 2d N. H., " Barker J. H., private, Company G, 2d N. H., ' Bowers A. C., corporal, Company B, 38th N. Y., " Boutwell George, private, Company K, 38th N. Y., " Beckler F., private, Company C, 2d Wis., " Beers R., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Bersett Charles, corporal, Company I, 7th Ohio, (t Bohm Ed., sergeant, Company K, 7th Ohio, i Boyle Daniel, private, Company B, 7th Ohio, " Beckleman J., private, Company F, 1st Ky., " Barry C. W., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., t Birch Joseph, private, Company E, 11th Mass., " Blakesly R. W., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Blatt Fred., private, Company -- - Bryant A., private, Company K, 5th Maine, < Brown F., private, Company K, 5th Maine, " Burley Josiah, private, Company C, 2d N. H., Home. Barry T., private, Company I, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Butler J. T., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., " Bragdon W., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., ( Beaumont John, private, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., ( Bishop E. A., private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., Briody Richard, private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y.,. t Burne Charles S., private, 3d Company, 79th N. Y., Home. Butler Joseph, private, Company G, 27th N. Y., "

Page  291 APPENDIX. 291 Bold R., private, Company B, 14th N. Y., New Fairground. Beilby G. W., private, Company C, 13th N. Y., Richmond. Backer J. N., private, Company G, 1st Mich., Charleston. Backer G. W., private, Company H, 1st Mich., " Backer M., private, Company H, 1st Mich., Blanchard H., private, Company K, 1st Mich., Badgely J., private, Company B, 1st Mich., Brink H., private, Company F, 1st Mich., Bolio F. T., private, Company A, 1st Mich., ' Brown N., private, Company H, 1st Minn., Home. Butler John, private, Company C, 2d U. S., " Bickford E. C., sergeant, Company I, 2d Maine, Alabama. Bickford R. G., private, Company F, 4th Maine, Richmond. Baxter H. N., Q. M., U. S. N., Brennan Michael, corporal, Company G, 69th N. Y., c Blaisdell H. M., private, Company H, 4th Maine, " Brown J. H., private, Company J, 69th N. Y., ( Burness H., private, Company E, 25th Ohio, Bloch John, private, Company I, 1st Ky., Brickmail Fred., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Bradshaw A., sergeant, Company G, 11th Mass., Bowers J., private, Company E, 2d U. S., Babcock C., private, Company K, 5th Mass., Brooks J., private, Light Batt., 3d R. I., Bessee L. A., private, Company D, 2d R. I., Beck G. A., private, Company H, 2d Wis., Bolton J., private, Company B, 2d Vt., Columbia. Blanchard D., private, Company H, 11th Mass., Richmond. Bishop W. G., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., " Blonk B. L., sergeant, Company A, 8th N. Y., c Barns J. J., corporal, Company F, 1st Mich., ( Blondel E. P., corporal, Company F, 1st Mich., " Benedict A. L., private, Company I, 3d Conn., ( Bigelow A., private, Company G, 1st Conn., " Braman'W. R., private, Company K, 3d U. S., < Bradford Wm., private, Company D, U. S. M., t Blackman H. P., private, Company G, 13th N. Y., ( Bolton George A., private, Company E, 69th N.Y., ( Burns John, private, Company A, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans.

Page  292 292 APPENDIX. Barrett J., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, Richmond. Black William, private, Company H, 79th N. Y., Columbia. Brown Charles, private, Company I, 13th Ind., Richmond. Bauer Jacob, private, Company I, 13th Ind., " Bruner Adolph, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Buddenbone H., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Bruner G., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Brahm T., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Boyer M., private, Company I, 13th Ind., Butterfield A. S., private, Company I, 13th Ind., 9 Ballard Albert D., private, Company H, 3d Maine, i Burr S., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., " Black H., private, Company G, 2d Me., " Banks J., private, Company G, 2d Me., 4 Bennet G. W., private, Company I, 14th N. Y., 9 Burgdorf H., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., c Bitka C., private, Company H, 1st Minn., " Bowen A. M., private, Company A, 1st R. I., Barnes D. W., private, Company B, 1st R. I., Bailey J. A., private, Company G, 2d Maine, " Beames F. J., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., " Brown F. A., private, Company A, 1st Minn., 4 Becker William, private, Company A, 1st Maine, 4 Brissett Ed., private, Company C, 1st Minn., 4 Blaney Augustus, private, Company I, Batt. Mass., 1 Ballard L., private, Company H, 5th Maine, " Bell John, sailor, United S. Navy, i Bailey James, sailor, United S. Navy, i Burns R., nurse, Company B, 2d Wis., " Bean A., private, Company D, 2d Wis., " Breme F., private, Company I, 2d Wis., " Boyden J., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., " Briggs T. I., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., " Boyd H. P., private, Company IT, 27th N. Y., " Breckenreed H. L., private, Company B, 2d Vt., " Bourman J. B., citizen, Virginia, Benson Albt., private, Company A, 4th Mich., " Brokins C. R., private, Company G, 4th Maine, Barrett John, private, Company A, U. S. M.,

Page  293 APPENDIX. 293 Breese W. H., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., Richmond. Ballentine J., private, Company F, 13th N. Y., Brown J. J., private, Company D, 13th N. Y., Brener H., private, Company F, 1st Mich., Bashford A. P., private, Company F, 1st R. I., Beeny G., private, Company F, 8th N. Y., Bailey F., private, Company I, 2d N.Y., Biggs W., private, Company H, 27th N. Y., Beelman George, private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Barrow J., corporal, Company F, 1st Minn., Barry J., private, Company K, 2d R. I., Bell J. S., private, Company D, 2d Wis., Baldwin W. H., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Bean Charles, private, Company C, 2d R. I., Bradford Alton, corporal, Company H, 2d R. L, Best E. S., private, Company G, 2d Wis., Baldwin O. S., private, Company G, 13th N. Y., Burt J. B., corporal, Company C, 2d R. I., Brown Alex., citizen, Virginia, Brown John, citizen, Virginia, Brown Thomas, citizen, Virginia, Brotherton W. I., citizen, Penn., Bishop D., citizen, Va., Baird James, private, Company I, 13th N. Y. Buchanan R., citizen, Virginia, Beetman Benj., citizen, Virginia, Beetman Adam, citizen, Virginia, Beetman John, citizen, Virginia, Beetman William, citizen, Virginia, Bond:Benj., citizen, Virginia, Burgdall John, citizen, Virginia, Birch E., citizen, Virginia, Beith James, private, Company I, 9th N. Y., Columbia. Bartlett T. M., sergeant, Company I, 20th Indiana, Richmond. Baum N., private, Company I, 20th Indiana, 9 Bernhard Paul, private Company I, 20th Indiana, Brady Nathan., cook, Company D, 20th Indiana, Birrenger John, private, Company I, 20th Indiana, Barnes William, sailor, Schooner Orion, U. S. N.,

Page  294 294 APPENDIX. Bennett L. L., private, Company H, 20th Indiana, Richmond. Bowers J. W., private, Company F, 71st N. Y., Columbia. Bryan Christ., private, Company C, 13th Ohio, 44 Brossy Lewis, private, Company A, 11th N. Y., " Brewster James, private, Company D, 13th N. Y., " Bowers G. H., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., Richmond. Barnes J. C., private, Company F, 2d R.I., " Barrett Levi, private, Company A, 27th N. Y., Columbia. Burns Robt., private, Company K, 79th N. Y., " Backer Richd., private, Company B, 11th N. Y., " Barrett Daniel, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Richmond. Bilrns Pat, private, Company G, 1st Cal., Baxter John, private, Company D, 20th Mass., 6 Bretton George, private, Company E, 20th Mass., Barker J. S., private, Company I, 20th Mass., Barry Edward, private, Company G, 20th Mass., ( Brower, W. H. H., private, Company F, 20th Mass., Bemis Charles H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., t Bemis H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., < Baker C., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., t Bryne W., corporal, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Brawnon M., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Bauer August., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Byron J., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Brown G. A., private, Company A, 1st Cal., u Brown C. K., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " Bendel J., private, Company C, 1st Cal., ( Burroughs J., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Brett E., private, Company D, 1st Cal.,. Batt W., private, Company D, 1st Cal., )ied. Blair John, private, Company H, 1st Cal., Richmond. Bradley W., private, Company H, 1st Cal., ( Boyer Noah, private, Company L, 1st Cal., Backer G. W., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Brawchett J. B., private, Company N,lst Cal., Barnes A. M., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Brown G. L., private, Company P, 1st Cal., Bennett S. E., corporal, Company P, 1st Cal., u Black John, private, Company P, 1st Cal., <

Page  295 APPENDIX. 295 Bell John, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Richmond. Benzy C. B., private, Company D, 15th Mass., 4 Brandt C. W., private, Company K, 15th Mass.,, Burham W. H., private, Company K, 15th Mass., a Burns J. B., private, Company B, 15th Mass., t Brigham J. D., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., " Bonny J. A., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., ( Beaman Moses, private, Company C, 15th Mass., " Burtlett C. H., private, Company E, 15th Mass., 4 Belcher W. A., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Belcher J. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Blackmers S. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Bannister T. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Bonner S., private, Company G, 15th Mass., " Ball L. D., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Bosworth W. M., private, Company J, 15th Mass., Butler Henry, private, Company J, 15th Mass., " Ballow P., private, Company J, 15th Mass., Brown A., private, Company A, 20th Mass., Barlow E. T., private, Company F, 4th Maine, " Bond Edwin, private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Beal George, private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., " Brown Joshua, private, 2d R. I. Batt., " Brennan Pat., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., " Brown R., sergeant, Company B, 11th N. Y., " Banker Jos., private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., " Blakely John, private, Company F, 11th Mass., Browning J. W., private, Company G, 18th N. Y., " BrinkerhoffJohn, private, Company C, 1st Mich., Brink M., private, Company D, 79th N. Y., Brown W. 0., teamster, 2d Vt., Bishop John W., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., Barton George W., private, Company C, 2d Maine, Butt George W., citizen, Virginia, N. Orleans. Buchanon R., citizen, Virginia, " c Brown H., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., Richmond. Beckman Michl., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., 4 Bays Isaac, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., " Bayliss George, citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., "

Page  296 296 APPENDIX. Briggs L., private, Company B, 26th N. Y., Cobb J. N., private, 2d R. I., Campbell J. A., private, 14th N. Y., Chase Chas. H., private, 2d N. H., Clewlay G. M., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Cassidy D. M., private, Company K, 69th N. Y., Costigan J., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., Conner S., private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Coles Ed., private, Company A, 71st N. Y., Chapman C. J., private, Company B, 1st Mich., Colley Charles, sergeant, Company A, 14th N. Y., Carrigan A. J., private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., Conway J., private, Company E, 13th N. Y., Chields G. F., private, Company K, 5th Mass., Cate S. A., private, Company D, 5th Mass., Chapman R., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Cleaves A. G., private, Company H, 2d Maine, Carroll Charles, private, Company D, 7th Ohio, Curtis J. F., private, Company G, 7th Ohio, Cherry W., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Claghorn H. D., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Clifford D., private, Company C, 2d U. S., Craff J. E., private, Company A, 11th Mass., Clark F. D., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., Conoham M., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Carver W., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Clink Fred., private, Company I, 15th Penn, Cunningham G. W., private, Company H, 4th Maine, Casserly F., private, Company G, 38th N. Y Cook IL A., private, Company D, U. S. M., Cannon M., private, Company C, U. S. M., Clark Henry, private, Company C, U. S. M., Carby L., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Cassidy Joseph, private, Company C, 3d Cav. U. S., Cooper S. A., private, Company F, 2d Conn., Cole S. M., corporal, Company C, 7th Ohio, Carroll Charles, private, Company I, 1st Md., Chase E. H., sergeant, Caustin M. C., Richmond. Dead. N. Orleans. 96 cc It cc

Page  297 APPENDIX. 297 Clark E. L., private, Company G, 5th Maine, Charleston. Carmody A. F., nurse, Company B, 11th N. Y., Connely Pat., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Carroll Thomas, private, Company K, 11th N. Y., Campbell John, sergeant, Company F, 11th N. Y., Home. Cradick A., ord. sergeant, 4th Company, 79th N. Y., Charleston. Collins Jeremiah, private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y Connelly W. H., sergeant, 3d Company, 2d N. Y., Home. Craig A., private, Company G, 4th Mich., Charleston. Cross E. A., private, Company G, 4th Mich., " Cornoval E., citizen, Virginia, Home. Clark R. N., citizen, Florida, Chevalier Ed., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., Richmond. Colbath L. W., private, Company E, 2d N. H., Caravin M., private, Company I, 12th Ohio, Coleman M., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., 4 Calvert G., private, Company D, 1st Ky., 4 Conklin W. H., private, Company I, 1st Ky., 4 Clifford J., private, (Confederate,) 27th Va., deserter, 4 Cunningham R., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Cavanaugh J., corporal, Company D, 13th N. Y., Conro H. W., private, Company G, 2d N. Y., Clague J. T., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., c Conant M., private, Company F, 11th Mass., 4 Clase Ed., private, Company I, 88th N. Y., " Conner D., private, Company G, 3d Conn., " Conell John, private, Company K, 2d U. S., Cooper Thomas, citizen, D. C., Cook P., private, Company I, 11th N. Y., " Coombe C. C., private, Company C, 1st Minn., Clay George, private, Company B, 2d N. H., 6 Callingham Michl., private, Company G, 8th Inf. U. S., t Carroll J. W., private, Company B, 3d Inf. U. S., Coon James, private, Company D, 27th N. Y., 4 Clark F. L., private, Company G, 11th Mass., Crossley Augustus, private, Company G, 3d Maine, Crossley Atwood, private, Company G, 3d Maine, 4 Colshear Thomas, private, Company I, 13th Indiana, Carson James, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, 18*

Page  298 298 APPENDIX. Coy John private, Company F, 2d Maine, Richmond. Corning H. V., private, Company F, 2d Mass., " Clark Charles J., private, Company C, 1st Minn., " Cook George W., citizen, Virginia, Closer J., private, Company H, 1st Minn., Connelly Wm., private, Company H, 1st Minn., Connell J. R., citizen, Virginia, " Cobb Calvin, sailor, U. S. N., " Clapp E. P., sailor, U. S. N., Chamberlain, private, Company A, 27th N. Y., " Carroll A. H., private, Company B, 27th N. Y., Crosier A., private, Company B, 18th N. Y., Crigean John, private, Company G, 2d N. Y., " Copley Alfred, private, Company C, 14th N. Y., " Coburn J. A., private, Company K, 38th N. Y., Crymble Stephen, private, Company G, 79th N. Y., " Campbell Alexander, private, West Pt. Batt. U. S., t Cumesky J. W., corporal, Color Guard, 11th N. Y., 4 Carroll James, private, Company I, 2d Maine, Conoly John, private, Company D, 5th Maine, " Crandle J., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., Crossley Wm., private, Company C, 2d R. I., " Clark John, private, Company B, 1st R. I., " Conrad L., citizen, Virginia, Cabbage B., citizen, Virginia, " Cabbage G., citizen, Virginia, " Connell W., citizen, Virginia, Clark J., citizen, D. C., " Clark Wm., private, Company K, 3d N. J., (deserter,) Co. Jail, Rich. Corron J. M., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Conwell Wm., citizen, Virginia, " Cook Floyd, citizen, Virginia, 4 Cox John, citizen, Virginia, " Coughman Nerill, citizen, Virginia, " Cunningham W. H., private, Company C, 69th N. Y., Columbia. Carson John, private, Company I, 69th N. Y., " Clarke G. W., private, Company C, 20th Indiana, Casper Michl., private, Company K, 20th Indiana, Richmond. Comigore John, private, Company F, 20th Indiana, Columbia.

Page  299 APPENDIX. 299 Chaffer Joseph, cook, Company I, 20th Indiana, Columbia. Comley Charles H., sergeant-major, 20th Indiana, Richmond. Clayton James, private, Company H, 20th Indiana, Columbia. Coughlin Dennis, sailor, U. S. N., Carr Thomas C, private, Company C, 16th Va., " Cannon Dennis, private, Company C, 4th Maine, Richmond. Calhoun J. C., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Cahill Pat., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Cannyar C. B., private, Company H,1lst California, " Cogans James, sergeant, Company D, 20th Mass., " Christaly Charles, private, Company C, 20th Mass., t Chanery J. P., private, Company C, 15th Mass., b' Corrin R. E., private, Company I, 15th Mass., t Coyle Pat., private, Company N, 15th Mass., c Cobin Otis, private, Company E, 15th Mass., " Conroy Thomas, private, Company E, 15th Mass., " Crawford Robt., sergeant, Company C, 15th Mass., Carnall Charles, private, Company B, 3d R.., Craig John, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Church W., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Campbell F., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Crosier A., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Cunningham M., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., 4 Collins M., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., t Carney T., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Callager D., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Cleary Ed., private, Company A, 42d N. Y., Cox W. H., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Carson J. W., private, Company A., 1st Cal., Carson Thomas, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Clemant M., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Cochrane G. W., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Carpenter F. W., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Carpenter E. G., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Collough W., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Chapman J. M., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Cramer Anthony, private, Company C, 1st Cal., A Chields J., private, Company D, 1st Cal., Cheeseman C. E., private, Company H, 1st Cal., 4

Page  300 300 APPENDIX. Clear W. H., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Richmond. Cline J. F., sergeant, Company N, 1st Cal., " Calloway E. L., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Clopp J. E., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Clymer W., private, Company N, 1st Cal., " Coltigan H., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Curtis Stephen, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Chapman A., private, Cavalry, 1st Penn., Cook W. A., orderly sergeant, Company C, 15th Mass., " Cooper R. K., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Cobb Daniel, private, Company E, 15th Mass., Conroy W., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Carwell C. L., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Clancy John, private, Company H, 15th Mass., Converse W. F., private, Company I, 15th Mass., ' Cummings L. H., private, Company I, 15th Mass., t Cassidy Thomas, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Clapp H. H., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Curtis Charles J, corporal, Company D, 20th Mass., Chapman Thos., private, Company G, 20th Mass., Chase E. D., private, Company G, 20th Mass., Clark James, private, Company H, 20th Mass., Corbett John W., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Colagin H. A., private, Company F, 4th Maine, Curtis Andrew, jr., private, Company C, 2d Wis., Carson N. A., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Crandel Dennis, private, Company H, 1st Minn., Clark J. N., private, Company H, 11th Mass., ' Clark W. H., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Clune John, private, Company G, 8th N. Y., Cannon J., private, Company I, 1st Minn., ( Christian L., private, Company I, 1st Art. U. S., " Carslile James, private, Company B, 79th N. Y., Dead. Chandler Samuel E., private, Company H, 5th Mass., Richmond. Colgan James, private, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., " Cotter J., Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Carr Tim., Engineer Corps, Company C, 69th N. Y., Richmond. Cleary M., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Cunningham J., private, Company G, 8th Inft. U. S., Dead.

Page  301 APPENDIX. 301 Corell E. C., private, Company G, 5th Maine, N. Orleans. Cummings P., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., Richmond. Case G. A., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., " Coombs Lewis, citizen, Rolla Co., Ya., Coombs Jerry, citizen, Rolla Co., Ya., Clay G., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Clay Charles, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Cauntley George, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Clay R., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., " Cooney Pat., corporal, Company F, 30th N. Y., " Conner D., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., Clark C. T., private, Company A, 1st Minn., " Chapman Charles L., Sec., Company B, 7th Ohio, Durand Charles, private, Company K, 12th N. Y., Dead. Duffee J. D., private, Company K, 1st Minn., Dietz Jacob, private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Disney George M., private, Company I, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Duffee A., private, Company I, 69th N. Y., Dunbar F., private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Donalson George, corporal, Company G, 69th N. Y., Drew C. C., sergeant, Company B, 3d Maine, Delano H., private, Company F, 4th Maine, Dickens J. W., private, Company E, 71st N. Y., Davis E. M., sergeant, Company C, 27th N. Y., Dorr C. W., private, Company F, 11th Mass., Donalson J. E., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., Downing G. W., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Dodge A., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, Dupes J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Day Samuel, private, Company I, 15th Penn., Dow D. W., private, Company I, 5th Mass., Dietrick J., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Desmond W., private, Company E, 2d U. S., N. Orleans. Dillon J., private, Company D, 2d U. S., " Donahue M., private, Company D, 38th N. Y., 4 Davis J., private, Company C, 2d N. H., " Dow G. W., private, Company F, 2d N. H., Donovan F., private, Company E, 11th Mass., " Davis James, private, Company C, 2d Maine, "

Page  302 302 APPENDIX. Davis William, citizen, Virginia, N. Orleans. Diggen Michael, private, Company A, 11th Mass., Dougherty D., private, Company G, 9th Ohio, Columbia. Demott C. W., sergeant, Company I, 20th Indiana, Dangerfield W. H., corporal, Company A, 20th Indiana, " Drury John, private, Company I, 20th Indiana, Decker J. R., private, Company K, 11th N. Y., Dunn Crawford, corporal, Company H, 5th Maine, Home. Davis A. W., private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., Charleston. Dale Walter, private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., Demerast W. P., private, Company F, 71st N. Y., Home. Dubois A., private, Company D, 1st Mich., Charleston. Drury G. D., private, Company C, 1st Mich., " Dane J. H., citizen, Virginia, Home. Dane G., citizen, Virginia, Donohue 0., private, Company F, 69th N. Y., Richmond. De Witt W. W., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., i De Goy John, private, Company E, 2d infantry U. S., Dick D. S., corporal, Company D, 1st Ky., Desmond M., private, Company G, 1st Mass., c Dalton F., private, Company F, 69th N. Y., Donnelly John, private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Dunnigan H. F., private, Company H, 38th N. Y., Dexter Frank, sergeant, Company A, 2d Wis., Donohue James, private, Company K, 27th N. Y., ( Dugan F. M., private, Company K, 12th Ohio, Donovan John, private, Company B, 2d Wis., " Drehr Joseph, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Dakin W., private, Company B, 14th N. Y., Duff Samuel C., corporal, Company C, 1st Ky., Degraff J. H., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., Duffee William, private, Company H, 20th Mass., Divinger G. W., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., Davenport Charles E., private, Company E, 14th N. Y., Dooley W. H. H., private, Company A, 1st Minn., Deveraux W. J., private, Company K, 2d Maine, Dillingham A., private, Company B, 2d Maine, Dunn R., private, Company I, 69th N. Y., Dwelly G. W., private, Company I, 4th Maine,

Page  303 APPENDIX. 303 Darby Fred., private, Company D, 12th N. Y., Richmond. Dilly G. W., private, Company I, 2d Wis., " Dwinnell Chas. A., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., " Durand Fred., private, Company C, 21st N. Y., Denham Thomas, sergeant, 2d Company, 79th N. Y., " Degan Ed., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., Daisey Thomas, private, Company G, 71st N. Y., Dolley W. A., citizen, Virginia, Dean H., citizen, Virginia, Donnigan T., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., t Dougherty J. H., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Dobbins Thomas, sergeant, Company E, 42d N. Y., " Dunham William, private, Company E, 42d N. Y., Dugan Thomas, private, Company A, 42d N. Y., Doran M., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Dolan B. T., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Dougherty G. W., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Dunlevy Henry, private, Company C, 1st Cal., Donalson F. A., orderly-sergeant, Company H, 1st Cal., Dougherty Charles, private, Company H, 1st Cal., Dunfield C. T., private, Company P, 1st Cal., " Daulin D., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Dilman S., private, Company A, 42d N. Y., " Donivan Michael, private, Company E, 42d N. Y., Diggeman William, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Dougherty Henry, private, Company L, 1st Cal.,. Devine James, private, Company L, 1st Cal., Donnison Thomas, private, Company A., 20th Mass., Dunn Lewis, private, Company A, 20th Mass., Day John, private, Company D, 20th Mass., Devall John H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Donnelly Arthur, private, Company C, 15th Mass., Daniel T., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Richmond. Dauson H., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Dockham Thos. M., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Davis U. N., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Duffee James, private, Company E, 15th Mass., Davis G. B., private, Company E, 15th Mass., 4 Dillam C. M., private, Company F, 15th Mass., "

Page  304 304 APPENDIX. Deane C. A., corporal, Company F, 15th Mass., Richmond. Davis Charles, corporal, Company G, 15th Mass., Dugan M., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Duffin Richard, private, Company D, 20th. Mass., Dupie T. N., private, Company D, 20th Mass., Durry H. A., sergeant, Company D, 20th Mass., Davis George, corporal, Company G, 15th Mass., Dougherty Pat., private, Company E, 20th Mass., Duffee U., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Donelly James, private, Company A, 1st N. J., Dillon M. J., private, Company H, 13th N. Y., " Davidson Rob., private, Company I, 79th N. Y., " Dunne P. R., private engineer corps, 69th N. Y., " Demarest Charles, private, Company A, 27th N. Y., Alabama. Dunn John, private, Company E, 11th N. Y., Richmond. Duncanson R., private, Company H, U. S. N., Denny James, private, Company H, 8th N. Y., " Dowling M., private, Company F, 38th N. Y., Duke J. H., citizen, Virginia, Dunn J. W., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., N. Orleans. Dills John, citizen, Kentucky, Richmond. Dickens John, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Dickens William, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., " Deihl Henry, private, Company K, De Kalb Regt., N. Y. " Dutton James, private, Boon Rifles, Alabama, deserter, " Dentey Samuel, citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., " Dickey J. C., private, Company F, 12th Indiana, " Douthel John, citizen, Virginia, Douthel William, citizen, Virginia, " Dunkel James, private, Company A, 9th Virginia, Eraus C. H., private, Company E, 3d U. S., Died. Earle Robt., private, Company A, 4th N. Y., N. Orleans. Earnest C., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Egern J., private, Company B, 16th N. Y., Edwards J. H., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Eraus E., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Edward G., corporal, Company G, 9th N. Y., Columbia. Edsall W. H., private, Company G, 9th N. Y., " Everett R., private, 4th Company, 79th N. Y.,

Page  305 APPENDIX. 305 Enris John, private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., Eivers Charles, private, Company F, 1st Mich., Edwards J. M., sergeant, Company K, 1st Mich., Eyster, J. A., citizen, Va., Ely Alfred, citizen, Rochester, N. Y., Encking J. P., private, Company E, 3d Wis., Emerson J. C., waiter, Company B, 2d N. H., Erne John, private, Company H, 24th Ohio, Emmerson George, Edgar W. K., private, Company G, 11th Mass., Egenolf P., citizen, N. Y., Emmerson T. A., private, Company C, 2d N. H., Edes W., private, Company H, 11th Mass., Ellis P. C., private, Company I, 1st Minn., Eaton, G. S., private, Company K, 1st Minn., Ellis W., private, Company A, 4th Maine., Emory R., private, Company D, 2d Maine., Evarson O. G., private, Company K, 2d Wis., Eldridge J., private, Company B, 13th N. Y., Eagan H. W., private, Company A, 1st Mich., Emmerson H. H., private, Company D, 2d N. H., Eastman M., private, Company I, 2d N. H., Eades Stephen, citizen, Va., Early W., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Emerick D., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Ellis G. W., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Eagon Mich., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Earl Anthony, private, Company D, 15th Mass., Eagerly H., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Ellis R. A., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Eaton C. G., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Emmerson W. H., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Eickenstein, sergeant, Company E, 20th Mass., Emery Levi, private, Company I, 1st Minn., Edgar J. M., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Edgar John E., citizen, Va., Edmonson H., sergeant, Company I, 15th Penn., Elms Clarence, private, Company F, 30th N. Y., Eachus Henry, private, Company A, 9th Va., Charleston. 66 Alabama. N. Carolina. Richmond. it 64 64 64 it tc (I "( "(( "( "( "( "C "( "it

Page  306 306 APPENDIX. Eggers J., private, Company A, 9th Va., Richmond. Earles David, private, Company A, 9th Va., " Farmer A. E., private, 11th Mass., Dead. Faucett Wm., corporal, Company B, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Foss A. B., private, Company G, 3d Maine, " French James, private, Company F, 11th Mass., " Foss M., private, Company H, 3d Maine, " Fox Z., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Finch J. W., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Finzy A., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Friedenberg N., private, Company I, 7th Ohio, Farmer P., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Flemming Thomas, corporal, Company B, 16th Penn., " Fitts John L., private, Company B, 2d N. H., Finley D., sailor, U. S. N., Fannigan F., private, Company C, 11th Mass., " Foley Edward, private, Company C, U. S. M., Flostroy Alfred, private, Company F, 11th Mass., Columbia. Farley James, private, Company F, 2d Ky., " Farland C. O., private, Company B, 4th Maine, Home. Ferguson, hos. steward, Company I, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Finn Pat., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., Home. Flemming W. H., private, Company K, 1st Mich., Charleston. Farras N. M., private, Company A, 1st Mich., " Fesh William, N. Carolina. Flagler A., citizen, Va., Richmond. Foley 0., nurse, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Farley L., private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Fitzgerald Michael, private, Company D, 1st Ky., Alabama. Field Edward, private, Company G, Mass., " Folger G. W., private, Company C, 2d Maine, Richmond, Fosdick Greenfield, private, Company A, 11th N. Y., Foster Edward, private, Company C, 11th Mass., Forbes Frank, private, Company I, 4th Maine, " Frames James, private, Company B, 2d Wis., Fairfield Charles, private, Company D, 88th N. Y., " Francis Andrew, private, Company I, 13th Indiana, " Fisher Charles, private, Company I, 13th Indiana, N. Fairground. Finley R. F., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Richmond.

Page  307 APPENDIX. 307 Fallbush C., corporal, Company I, 6th Ohio, Richmond. Fravi H., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Farrell D., private, Company A, 37th N. Y., Fanistal W. A., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Faney S. E., private, Company E, 2d Maine, Frasier B., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Flaning F., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., Flarity P., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., Flinn R., Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., Fox B., sailor, U. S. N., Fox D. B., sailor, U. S. N., Fowler J. C., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., Foster Edward, private, Company E, 5th Mass., Foulding Wm.,-private, Company F, 38th N. Y., Farmer G. W., private, Company I, 2d N. J., Fox William, citizen, Virginia, Fox George, citizen, Virginia, Flannigan R. A., citizen, Virginia, Flood E., private, Company A, 42d N. Y., Flattery Pat., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Fisher John, private, Company D, 1st Cal., ( Fleck R. I., sergeant, Company H, 1st Cal., Ford Edward, private, Company H, 1st Cal., Frank Henry, corporal, Company N, 1st Cal., Frye S. F., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Fox William, private, Company C, 20th Mass., Fairbanks A. W., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Ford Henry, private, Company K, 15th Mass., Frost S. M., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Fagin Felix, sergeant, Company C, 15th Mass., ( Fuller H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Ford W. H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Freeman W. H., sergeant, Company K, 15th Mass., Fitzsimmons A., private Company K, 15th.Mass., Farrar D., private, Company K, 15th Mass., Fuller A., sergeant, Company C, 15th Mass., Fellows J. C., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Fipps L., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Foster A. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass.,

Page  308 308 APPENDIX. Flossom J., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Richmond. Farley Daniel, private, Company H, 20th Mass., 6 Flinn John, private, Company H, 20th Mass., Foster Charles, private, Company H, 20th Mass., " Fairbanks H. A., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Farlow John, private, Company D, 11th N. Y., Freeman Charles, fifer, 2d Maine, Home. Fenton A., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Richmond. Fuller C. G., private, Company G, 1st Mass., Fitzgerrald John, private, Company E, 69th N. Y., Francis L., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., " Fife R. 0., corporal, Company C, 2d Maine, t Faueker John F., private, Company F, 3d Conn., Faucill W., sergeant, Company C, 79th N. Y., < Fletcher John, citizen, Va., 4 Fairchild C., corporal, Company D, 27th N. Y., 9 Fitchit R. H., private, Company E, 69th N. Y., 4 Friebman D., bugler, 2d Ohio, 4 Farland George, citizen, Va., i Foster John W., private, Company H, 15th Mass., c Fagan Pat., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Ferdon Charles, corporal, Company E, 30th N. Y., Ferguson William, citizen, Ky., Franz Charles, corporal, Company G, Sickles' 1st Reg't, N. Y., deserter, Frazier P., private, Company B, 30th N. Y., Flinn C. C., private, Company C, 13th N. Y., 7 Felen R. C., private, Company A, 9th Va., 7 Fellinger Samuel, private, Company A, 9th Va., Filyer J., private, Company A, 9th Va., Fuller W., private, Company A, 9th Va., Garrison J. P., private, Company A, 1st Minn., Dead. Gowing John, private, 2d Vt., Gowen S. B., private, Company C, 4th Maine. Gerrald Simeon, citizen, Va., I Gleason Richard, private, Company A, 11th N. Y., (murdered by a sentinel,), Griffeny J., private, Company A, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Grenauer P., private, Company H, 2d N. Y

Page  309 APPENDIX. 309 Greyer, H., private, Company E, 3d Va., N. Orleans. Gilmore J. D., private, Company F, 1st Conn., " Goodwin C. M., private, Company K, 5th Maine, Gill S., fifer, Company D, 7th Ohio, Greenvill.J., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Gartride J., sailor, U. S. Navy, Gillman J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Geddes J., private, Company K, 6th Ohio, Grout G. A., private, Company K, 2d N. H., Galfin C. C., private, Company K, 3d Conn., Gray J., private, Company D, 4th Maine, Goodell J. C., private, Company C, 3d Vt., Gross C. M., private, Company G, 20th Ind., Columbia. Glover Francis M., private, Company D, 20th Ind., " Gerber George W., (capt.'s boy,) 20th Ind., c Goldsmith H., private, Company C, 2d Batt., N. J., ( Girvan William, private, Company F, 11th N. Y., t Garragherty P. B., private, Company F, 11th N. Y., Gumbelton John, private, Company I, 38th N. Y., i Graham J., private, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., " Grummage J., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., Gray Wm., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., Guildersleeve J., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., Home. Goldsmith G., private, Company F, 1st Mich., Gregg J., sergeant, Company B, 1st Mich., 4 Gray C. C., sergeant, U. S. A., Gleason Dennis, private, Company C, 1st N. Y., N. Fairground. Gorman John, N. Carolina. Greenauer John, private, Company H, 2d Ohio, Richmond. Goulding J. J., corporal, Company C, 20th Mass., Gayner J., private, Engine Corps, 69th N. Y., Alabama. Gage W. W. private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Graves C., private, Company E., 2d Wis, Alabama. Graham T., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Gray J. H., private, Company D, 1st Ky., Alabama. Gifford D., private, Company D, 1st Ky., Good Martin, private, Company I, 1st Ky., " Gillis W. D., corporal, Company A, 27th N. Y., " Green George, private, Company H, 71st N. Y., 4

Page  310 310 APPENDIX. Grage H., corporal, 3d Infantry, U. S., Alabama. Green W. A., private, Company F, 8th N. Y " Gressy Joe, private, Company A, 3d Maine, " Griffith J. M., private, Company A, 2d Ohio, Richmond. Gillan J., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., " Gaskwell H. A., private, Company H, 2d Maine, " Gibbs Wm., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Grallage H. D., sergeant, Company I, 13th Indiana, " Green E., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Grass H., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, c Gibson H. S., corporal, Company I, 6th Ohio, c Goodwin Samuel, sergeant, Company I, 19th Indiana, i Gerard C., private, Company I, 11th N. Y., i Graves S., private, Company K, 2d N. J., 4 Gates S. D., private, Company K, 2d Maine, " Gifford W. F., private, Company B, 2d Maine, " Garges N., citizen, Virginia, 4 Garges R. M., citizen, Virginia, 4 Gaus Augustus, private, Company C, 38th N. Y., " Goodwin T. F., private, Company H, 3d Maine, " Graham S., private, Company E, 2d Wis., i Gregory V., sergeant, Company J, 2d Wis., " Garbuck A, private, Company F, 71st N. Y., 4 Grant A., private, Company H, 2d Ohio, '4 Graves A. L., private, Company C, 2d Vt., " Gifford W., private, Company B, 2d Vt., t Grinnell C., private, Company K, 2d Vt., " Gross George, citizen, Virginia, Garbutt H. J., private, Company F, 13th N. Y., 7 Gillette James, private, Engineer Corps, 71st N. Y., " Gaskill A. B., sergeant, Company K, 2d Wis., c Griggs J. H., private, Company B, 5th Mass., L Golschling F., private, Company G, 11th Mass., CC Geer S., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., 7 Gerrald Floyd, citizen, Virginia, ' Gerrald Parris, citizen, Virginia, " Gerrald Irwin, citizen, Virginia, " Gerrald Jackson, citizen, Virginia, c Gish A. B., citizen, Virginia, <9

Page  311 APPENDIX. 311 Getz Noah, citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Goswell S. N., citizen, Virginia, " Gerrold John, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Greeble Ira, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Gray J., alias Carl Bowers, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Gilchrist H., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Gerrin J., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " Grilley Francis, private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " Greenwood R., private, Company A, 1st Cal., " Geer J. B., private, Company D, 1st Cal., " Greerhalsh J., private, Company D, 1st Cal., " Gill Andrew, private, Company G, 1st Cal., Grerley K. G., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Garner William, private, Company L, 1st Cal., Graham Thomas M., private, Company L, 1st Cal., ( Goslin Henry, private, Company L, 1st Cal., Garroll M., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Gordon Joseph, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Gillen J., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " Graham William, private, Company D, 20th Mass., " Gilbert Gilbert, private, Company A, 20th Mass., Griffin David, private, Company C, 20th Mass., t Gilchrist G., private, Company B, 15th Mass., ( Gotlard L. D., sergeant, Company D, 15th Mass., ( Garmidge Charles, private, Company K, 15th Mass., u Greenwood H., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Grok Henry, private, Company I, 15th Mass., ( Grissler F. A., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Griffin S., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Glacken Thomas, private, Company G, 15th Mass., Gardiner R. H., private, Company H, 15th Mass., Gray George, private, Company I, 1st Art., U. S., Gray George W., private, Company H, Ist Mass., Green F., corporal, Company H, 2d R. I., Gould T. C., private, Company D, 38th N. Y., Gilber Hugh, private, Company B, 11th Mass., Gillman J. C., private, Company D, 2d Maine, Dead. Grobitz Augustus, private, Company E, 15th Mass., Richmond. Gibson W. L., drummer, 9th Virginia, "

Page  312 312 APPENDIX. Hale H. P., private, 11th N. Y., Dead. Hunter Horace, private, 3d N. Y., " Hamilton John, corporal, Company D, 2d Wis., " Hunt A. M., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., " Huson C., citizen, Rochester, N. Y., " Henderson E., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. ifugh S., private, Company I, 12th Ohio, " Haywood J. V., private, Company A, 1st Mass., Holmes Edward, private, Company G, 1st N. J., Hess H. H., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., 7 Hendrickson C. A., private, Company G, 3d Maine, Hughes M., private, Company D, 11th Mass, Hall F. W., sergeant, Company E, 4th Maine, Howland A. B., corporal, Company C, 14th N. Y., Hubbs C. M., private, Company F, 1st Minn., Howard J. A., private, West Point Battery, N. Y., Hosmer C., sergeant, Company G, 5th Mass., Hubbell A., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Hann John, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Huntoon H., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Haskell C, private, Company D, 7th Ohio, Hettick J., private, Company G, 7th, Ohio, Hubbard N. K., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, Haskins J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Hess A., corporal, Company I, 15th Penn., Hoffman S. M., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Hall A. L., private, Company I, 2d N. H., Hyte Nathaniel, private, Company I, 15th Penn., Hewett S. W., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., c Hewett Charles H., private, Company D, 11th Mass., Hern Thomas, private, Company D, 1st Maine, Hoyt J. M., waiter, 5th Maine, Holland A., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., Hughes M., private, Company D, 3d U. S. Inft., Halliday Chas. R., private, Company D, 5th U. S. Inft., Hepp George, private, Company E, 2d U. S., Haller George, private, Company E, 2d U. S., Herdinott A. H., private, Company E, 1st Conn., Harvey M., private, Company E, 2d Conn.,

Page  313 APPENDIX. 313 Hart George, private, Company A, U. S. M., N. Orleans. Hall J., sergeant, Company D, 2d N. H., " Hilliard H., private, Company F, 38th N. Y., " House George, private, Company D, 18th N. Y., 4 Hayllen Henry, private, Company D, 18th N. Y., 4 Howard H., private, Company C, 18th N. Y., 4 Havens J. R., private, Company C, 9th N. Y., 1 Helson John, private, Company C, 20th InQiana, c Hyte Hiram, private, Company I, 20th Indiana, Hinds Van, private, Company K, 20th Indiana, " Hoffman John H., private, Company D, 20th Indiana, " Hines Henry, private, Company K, 20th Indiana, " Hart John, Union Coast Guard, N. Y., House John F., private, Company G, 2d Wis., ( Hughes Thomas, private, Company K, 69th N. Y., ( Hall D., sailor, U. S. N., Heinbach J., private, Company D, 1st Ky., C Haskell F., private, Company K, 5th Maine, Charleston. Hannan W., private, Company G, 1st Art. U. S., N. Fairground. Hartwell A. L., private, Company C, 16th Mass., " Hopkins J., private, Company F, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Hylands J., private, Company G, 79th N. Y., t Hayley J., private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., " Huntoon W., private, Company E, 71st N. Y., Home. Haynes Q., private, Company K, 1st Mich., Charleston. Harvey Chas. H., private, Company C, 1st Mich., " Hutchinson H., private, Company A, 1st Mich., " Harris C. N., sergeant, Company F, 1st Minn., Home. Hubert A. H., private, Company H, 1st Minn., " Hurd W. L., mate, bark Glen, " Hartshorn W., private, N. Carolina. Hanck Jacob, private, Haifz John, private, Hodge W., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Howard A., teamster, 2d N. Y., 4 Hutchings Walter, private, Company B, 2d N. Y., " Hartmeyer Lewis, sergeant, Company A, 1st Mich., " Homer Robert, private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., " Heins Edward, corporal, Company I, 1st Ky., Alabama. 14

Page  314 314 APPENDIX. Hillman F., private, Company D, 1st Ky., Alabama. Healy Robert, sergeant, Company D, 1st Ky., " Hunt Charles, private, Company D, 1st Ky., t Harrun Isaac, corporal, Company C, 8th Ohio, 6 Hussy John, private, Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., " Halstead J. T., private, Company C, 1st Minn., Richmond. Hobuck John, private, Company K, 2d Wis., 4 Hoburn J., private, Company C, 11th Mass., Heath S. M., private, Company E, 2d N. H., Hanks Eph., private, Company B, 26th N. Y., Hurd John, private, Company C, 38th N. Y., Harrison Henry, private, Company A, 11th Mass., Hamilton T. V., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., " Hurdley John, citizen, Canada, Hathaway G. W., private, U. S. N., Hart Samuel, private, Company E, 38th N. Y., " Horton Josiah, sailor, U. S. N., " Hamlin W., private, Company D, 5th Maine, ' Healey Hugh, private, Company I, 2d R. I., " Haff Otto, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Harmeyer Henry, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Hummel D., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Hanley J. M., sergeant, Company I, 6th Ohio, Hubbel 0., private, Company I, 19th Indiana, Hause F., private, Company C, 1st Kentucky, Humphrey W., corporal, Company C, Kentucky Cavalry, " Horan P., private, Company H, 5th Maine, Hask W., private, Company H, 25th N. Y., Haslett --, private, Company D, 5th Maine, " Hurd S. L., private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Holms -, private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., Hutchinson H., private, Company A, 1st Mich., Holms Harry, sergeant, Company D, 14th Brooklyn, " Houscomb A. D., private, Company C, 2d Maine, i Houston S. W., sailor, U. S. N., Horton L. A., sailor, U. S. N., 7 Hopkins J. M., private, Company B, 2d Wis., " Henry A., private, Company F, 2d Wis., 4 Holdridge D. C., private, Company H, 2d Wis., t4

Page  315 APPENDIX. 315 Hagadorn S. H., corporal, Company K, 2d Wis., Richmond. Hogan J., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., t Hunt A. H., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Hall W., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Hagadorn Stephen, citizen, N. Y., Hawks Joseph, citizen, Virginia, Haskell L. R., private, Company C, 2d Maine, ( Hoelsland H., private, Company F, 1st Minn., Haskell H. R., private, Company D, 4th Maine, Hunt Charles H., private, Company H, 27th N. Y., Haskins A., private, Company B, 1st N. J., Heath W., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Higginbotham Charles, citizen, Virginia, Hunt George, citizen, Virginia, Hall G., citizen, Virginia, Hall A. R., citizen, Virginia, Hall Henry, citizen, Virginia, " Hemstead C., citizen, Virginia, " Holt J., citizen, Virginia, t Hinkle F., citizen, Virginia, Hamilton A., citizen, Virginia, Hogan John, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Hopkins S. M., private, Company K, 1st Cal., Hibbs G. W., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Heald Joseph, private, Company K, 1st Cal., A Hill Fred., private, Company C, 20th Mass., Hill W. F., private, Company I, 20th Mass., Halbut C. H., private, Company C, 20th Mass., Hatch F. E., private, Company A, 20th Mass., " Hast John, private, Company H, 20th Mass., < Heim Joseph, private, Company C, 20th Mass., Hyat George, private, Comp'any C, 42d N. Y., Hatcher J., privafe, Company C, 42d N. Y., Hawkins M., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., < Hauley V., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Hartung -, private, Company K, 42d N. Y., < Heidenof A., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Hughes Frank, corporal, Company A, 42d N. Y., Hicks C., private, Company C, 42d N. Y.,

Page  316 316 APPENDIX. Harding H. A., orderly sergeant, Company 0, 1st Cal., Richmond. Huffy J. C., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Herton G. W., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Harris W. B., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Hart G., private, Company D, 1st Cal., Hooley Samuel, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Heat John, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Hum Pat., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Hagan J., private, Company H, 1st Cal., 4 Haffety Stephen, private, Company H, 1st Cal., Hannon Thomas, private, Company L, 1st Cal., Huntly J., sergeant, Company N, 1st Cal., Hughes J. L., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Hucy H. L., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Harris J., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Hussen G. W., private, Company D, 1st Cal., Harrus W., private, Company P, 1st Cal., Houston John, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Haflets W. 0., private, Company P, 1st Cal., Hastings C. C., private, Company D, 15th Mass., " Hufton H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Hewry H., private, Company D. 15th Mass., Hickson R., private, Company K, 15th Mass., Hosmer, G. C., private, Company B, 15th Mass.,,4 Howard N. P., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Hohnan W. W., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Hosmer H. J., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Houghkins J., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., Hamilton J. W., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Howard J. 0., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Howard J., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Hill C. L., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Hewett E. H., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Healy John, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Healey Pat., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Hatfield S., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Holland J., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Hartford Thomas, private, Company A, 20th Mass., Heely Jeremiah, private, Company A, 20th Mass.,

Page  317 APPENDIX. 317 Heath Henry, private, Company A, 20th Mass., Richmond. Hays J. B., private, Company C, 20th Mass., Haskins Richard, corporal, Company D, 20th Mass., Harlow R., corporal, Company G, 20th Mass., c Hart Timothy, private, Company H, 20th Mass., 4 Herd Nelson, private, Company G, 2d N. H., Hyde Alfred A., private, Company A, 71st N. Y., 4 Huthel J. J., private, Company F, 1st Mich., Himes H. F., private, Company K, 2d N. J., Hirley 0. B., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., c Herbert Thomas, private, Company K, 69th N. Y., " Hohues D., private, Company C, 1st Mich., Holden H. A., private, Company G, 2d Maine, c Heaton J. S., private, Company A, 2d N. H., Haynes E., private, Company F, 11th Mass., " Hoefer Fred., hospital nurse, 38th N. Y., Heath Nathaniel, private, Company A,2d Wis., t Hart James H., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., " Holden "V., private, Company D, 2d N. H., Hamilton James, private, 8th Company, 13th La., deserter, " Hedge Henry, private, Company G, 38th N. Y., - Hoppy Ed., private, Company D, 2d Art. U. S., Hopkins Albert, private, Company G., 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Haig James, private, 2d Company, 79th N. Y., Charleston. Hays James, citizen,' Va., Richmond. Hutt C., private, Company E, 2d Ohio, N. Orleans. Haynes D. C., corporal, Company B, 2d N. H., Dead. Halbert H. L., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Hebbig T., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Horn Thos., private, Company K, 15th Mass., Richmond. Heckert F. W., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Hughes E. C., citizen, Muscatine, Iowa, Honaker John, citizen, Fayette Co., Va., Hall P., citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., Hall E., citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., Hall Isaac, citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., t Hooten G., private, Company B, 30th N. Y., 7 Hattigan A., private, Company E, 9th Va., i Howard Wesley, private, Company A., 9th Va., 6

Page  318 318 APPENDIX. Harrison 0., citizen, Va., Richmond. Hillburn S. 0., private, Company A, 9th Va., Huggins J. A., private, Company A, 9th Va., ( Holland John H., private, Company A, 9th Va., " THall James, private, Company A, 9th Va., Hinchman W., citizen, Va., Higgins Reuben, private, Company A, 9th Va., Hayliss, citizen, Va., 4 Jaeques H., private, 2d R. I., Dead. Johnson J. R., private, 27th N. Y., Jones James, citizen, Va., " Iddings Thomas, private, Company I, 12th Ohio, N. Orleans. Joyce W., private, Company B, 69th N. Y., C Jones John, private, Compafiy B, 3d Maine, " Ingraham John, private, Company H, 2d N. Y., " Iruley J. P., corporal, Company E, 71st N. Y., 4 Jelby John, private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Jackson M., private, Company H, 4th Maine, 6 Jamieson J. W., private, Company F, 1st Minn.,, Johnson A., private, Company F, 5th Maine, < Johnson Samuel, private, Company I, 7th Ohio, Johnson D. J., private, Company I, 7th Ohio, l Jenkins B., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, < Jaquith D., private, Company A, 2d Maine, < Jacobs H. C., private, Company H, 11th Mass., Jenkins J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Jackson J., private, Company I, 88th N. Y., Joy S. M., private, Company H, 2d N. H., Jones Chas. L., private, Company D, 2d N. H., 1 Ingles Robt., private, Company C, 20th Ind Columbia. Jones John, private, Company I, 20th Ind., Jones Charles E., private, Company E, 20th Ind., c Johnson H. B., private, Company I, 20th Ind., Jackson John D., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., Iven Thos., private, Company A, 9th Mass., Imons W., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Jakes H., private, Company B, 14th N. Y., Home. Ingersoll J., private, Company A, 1st Mich., Charleston. Johnson W., private, Company D, 1st Mich., 4

Page  319 APPENDIX. 319 Jenkins Thomas, private, North Carolina. Jenks L. D., private, Company D, 1st N. J., Alabama. Jones Daniel, private, Company A, 2d Wis., Richmond. Jackson S. P., private, Company B, 2d Wis., " Jacobs Robt., private, 4th Company, 79th N. Y., 4 Irwin P. C., private, Company G, 2d Mich., " Jacobs Zachariah, private, Company K, 1st N. J., ( Jewett O. T., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., Jones J., private, Company D, 2d Wis., 4 Johnson W., private, Company K, 12th N. Y., ( Judson H., private, Company K, 1st Conn., i Jenks J. H., sergeant, Company E, 25th N. Y., i Jorgan W., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Jagen Wm., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Jones D., private, Company C, 26th N. Y., " Jones E. R., citizen, Virginia, " Jamison W., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Joyce J. C., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " James Thomas, private, Company A, 42d N. Y., 4 Jones Spencer, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Ispording W., private, Company N, 1st Cal., " Johnson John, private, Company D, 1st Cal., " Johnson D. W., private, Company E, 20th Mass., " Jamison Daniel, private, Company D, 15th Mass., i Johnson A., private, Company A, 15th Mass., 4 Jaquith A. L., private, Company C, 15th Mass., " Irirn W., private, Company D, 20th Mass., " Johnson A., private, Company E, 20th Mass., Irison Thomas C., corporal, Company H, 2d N. Y., Ingrahan John, private, Company H, 1st Mich., Ingalls Charles, private, Company H, 1st Mich., Alabama. Johnson John, private, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., Richmond. James Thomas, private, Company G, 11th Mass., 44 Jennings Isaac, waiter, Company E, 1st Conn., N. Orleans. Jones W., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Jennings J. B., corporal, Company B, 2d Conn., N. Orleans. Jeffres Frank, sergeant, Company F, 2d R. I., Richmond. Joslyn W. H., private, Company D, 13th N. Y., N. Orleans. Isham G. W., private, Company G, 2d N. Y., "

Page  320 320 APPENDIX Johnson L. T., private, Company A, 3d Conn., Johnson L. H., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett Harrison, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett Sith, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett Irwin, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett J., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett Jessie, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett D. W., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jarrett Oliver, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Jackson M., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Johnson E. A., private, Company B, N. Y. Cav., Johnson G. W., 0. sergeant, Company A, 9th Va., Johnson D. W., private, Company A, 9th Va., Johnson George W., private, Company A, 9th Va., Jenkins T. J., private, Company A, 9th Va., Kables, private, 2d Vt., King C., private, Company I, 69th N. Y., Kenny F. H., sergeant, Company A, 2d N. Y., Kerr A., corporal, Company F, 11th Mass., Kendall, corporal, Company H, 5th Maine, Kilroy J., private, Company G, 11th Mass., Kingsbury L. B., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Kohhman A., sergeant, Company K, 7th Ohio, Kelly Robt., private, Company D, 11th N. Y., Keen John, private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Kelly Jos., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Kassler J., private, Company D., U. S. Marine, Kiddle W., private, Company D, 2d N. H., Keu Thos., private, Company I, 88th N. Y., Kennedy J., private, Company K, 3d Conn, Knowlton Chas., private, Company H, 11th Mass., Kelsey J., private, Company E, 38th N. Y., Kennedy E., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Keaduch George, private, Ky., Kelehun T. E., sergeant, Company E, 7th Ohio, Keefer C. W., corporal, Company K, 20th Ind., Kelly N., private, Company K, 20th Ind., Keenes T. C., private, Company H, 20th Ind., Kennard M. C., sergeant, Company D, 20th Ind., N. Orleans. Richmond. "a '4 "a it "u '4 '4 Dead. N. Orleans. a 't '4 '4 4' "a 'c '14 4' 'i '4 '4 44 "0 C4. it. Columbia. '4. '4 '4 "u "C( "( "u "i "Couba "( "^ (&ad

Page  321 APPENDIX. 321 Kiddy Pat., private, Company I, 25th Ind., Columbia. Kaughman Michael, private, Company A, 1st Mich., " Keating Michael, private, Company E, 69th N Y., i Kaughman Michael, Louisiana, 9 Kerr Charles, private, Company A, 9th Ohio, c Krone H., private, Company B, 1st Minn., c Kane Stephen, sergeant, Company D, 5th Wis., Home. Kelly Michael, private, Company D, 2d Wis., N. Fairground. Kefer L., private, Company A, 1st Minn., " Kleila W., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., Home. Kelly J., private, Company F, 1st Mich., Charleston. Kennedy J. G., corporal, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., " Kelly William, N. Carolina. Kleichman Frank, " Kane J., private, 10th Company, 69th N. Y., Alabama. Kern Wm., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Kellogg C. H., private, Company D, 34th N. Y., " Kestenhole Chas., private, Company D, 1st Ky., " Kinsley Jerry, private, Company I, 1st Ky., 4 Kelly A., private, Company I, 8th Ohio, 4 Kerr A., private, Company B, 69th N. Y., " Keller A., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., Richmond. Keller G. G., private, Company C, 2d Maine, ( Kelly Wm., wagoner, 5th Maine, " Kistler T. N., corporal, Company A, 13th Ind., C King J. W., private, Company B, 2d Maine, ' Kane J., private, Company F., 69th N. Y., Keating J., private, Company A, 14th N. Y., Kendrick M. L., citizen, Va., Kilbrun L. M., private, Company E, 3d Conn., Knight Jonathan, private, Company H, 4th Maine, Kelly Peter, private, Company H, 13th N. Y., Kelly W., private, Company K, 13th N. Y., Kilduff J., private, Company A, 11th Mass., King 0. L., corporal, Company D, 1st Minn., Kenny M., private, Company I, 1st Minn., " Kurtz L. B., citizen, Va., t Kuntz J., citizen, Va., Keplinger J., citizen, Va., 14*

Page  322 322 APPENDIX. Kempsey John, citizen, Va.., Richmond. Kincade James, citizen, Va., Kirtz Jasper, citizen, Va., Kirtz Melville, citizen, Va., " Keeman F., private, Company E, 44th N. Y., Kilpatrick W., private, Company E, 44th N. Y., Koch Jos., R., private, Company N, 44th N. Y., Kolhurid G., private, Company N, 44th N. Y., Keames H., private, Company N, 44th N. Y., Kinlock S., private, Company P, 44th N. Y., Kempton M. V., private, Company I, 30th Mass., " Kingsburry John, private, Company A, 15th Mass., Kenny C. A., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Knight D. W., corporal, Company F, 15th Mass., Kelly C., private, Company I, 15th Mass,, Kelly L. H., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Kelly Albert, private, Company I, 20th Mass., Kelly Michael, private, Company A, 14th N. Y., Kaiser Henry, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Dead. King L., musician, 2d R. I., Richmond. King S. W., private, Company F, 1st R. I., Kelly F., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., Kelly E. H., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., Ketchum R. C., private Company B, 13th N. Y., King M., citizen, Va. Kidwell Floyd, citizen, Va., Kenry W., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Kenry Cornelius, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Kenry Columbus, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Kenry Joseph, citizen, Kanawha Co., Va. Kelly W. A., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Kelly J. C., citizen, P. W. Co., Va., Kennedy T., private, Company F, 12th Ind., Kite Thomas, citizen, Va. Lowery Francis, private, Company G, 14th N. Y., Dead. Leonard John, private, Company I, 2d Vt., Lougan P., private, Company C, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Leport A. R., private, Company B, 2d N. Y., Landis F. J., private, Company F, 11th Ind.,

Page  323 APPENDIX. 323 Lougan T., private, Company F, 5th Maine, N. Orleans. Logem L. C., private, Company G, 7th Ohio, Lorkins F., private, Company I, 7th Ohio, Luvellum M., private, Company I, 7th Ohio, Latimer John, corporal, Company G, 8th N. Y., 6 Lane J., private, Company B, U. S., Leonard L., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., c Leathers A. D., private, Company D, 2d N. H., Lamb E., private, Company G, 2d Conn., " Leiprant Charles, private, Company K, 1st Ky., Lenagan T. J., private, Company B, 2d N. Y., Lawrence John R., sailor, schooner Union, Mass., Columbia. Loyd William, private, Company C, 13th Ohio, Lewam F. T., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., l Lowe W. R., private, Company K, 69th N. Y., Charleston. Lanna A. T., private, Company H, 69th N. Y., Lyon E., private, Company H, 69th N. Y., " Lang J., private, Company C, 1st Mich., Lincoln Charles E., private, Company K, 1st Minn., Latham G. W., citizen, Va., Home. Leaford Henry, North Carolina. Lucas G. G., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Lowe, private, Company A, 79th N. Y., i Lemon J., private, Company B, 24th Ohio, Lloyd G. W., private, Company D, 1st Ky.,, Alabama. Little Joseph, private, Company D, 1st Ky., Long S. T., private, Company D, 1st Mass., Langdon J., private, Company I, 1st Art. U. S., Lowe Isaac, private, Company I, 5th Mass., Lake D., private, Company G, 2d R. I., 9 Levarez Leon, private, Company I, 2d N. Y., Richmond. Lipman J. W. B., private, Company E, 11th Mass., Launsbery D. A., private, Company I, 1st Mich., Linen R., private, Company G, 8th N. Y., Lowe W., private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Lane Hiram, private, Company H, 1st Mich., Lee J. M., private, Company G, 1st Minn., Luce William, private, Company K, 2d Maine, Lacy Fred., private, Company F, 2d Wis.,

Page  324 324 APPENDIX. Lewis C. H., fifer, Company H, 2d Vermont, Richmond. Livingston Isaac, private, Company C, 4th Mich., " Lorn G. W., private, Company D, 2d Maine, Little G., private, Company G, 6th Ohio, Lorkin G. S., private, Company G, 6th Ohio, Leighton E., private, Company G, 13th Indiana, Leise Jacob, private, Company G, 6th Ohio, Langurhun W., corporal, Company B, 6th Ohio, Lang F. W., corporal, Company B, 6th Ohio, " Lowe George, corporal, Company B, 13th Indiana, Landis J., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Lawrence.D. P., citizen, Virginia, " Lewis H. C., citizen, Virginia, Dead. Linsey Edward, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Richmond. Lynch Pat., sergeant, Company E, 42d N. Y., Linch M., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., Lechler W. H., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Lewis J., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Lescher Robert, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Lehman C. A., corporal, Company L, 1st Cal., Little H. F., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Lester A. W., private, Company L, Ist Cal., Loller John, private, Company N, 1st Cal., Lather H., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Lobb -, private, Company P, 1st Cal., C4 Lecker Francis, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Lyon James, private, Company P, 40th N. Y., Lank William, private, Company C, 20th Mass., Lowell James, private, Company I, 20th Mass., Lamb C. A., sergeant, Company A, 15th Mass., Leary Cornelius, private, Company E, 20th Mass, Livermore E. S., private, Company G, 15th Mass., Laruty A. J., private, Company I, 20th Mass., Lucas George, private, Company D, 20th Mass., Lewis Daniel, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Leonard John W., private, Company K, 2d N. Y., Lewis George W., private, Company G, 20th Mass., Laughland James, private, Company K, 79th N. Y., Leary J. M., sergeant, Company I, 11th N. Y.,

Page  325 APPENDIX. 325 Lewis Oliver, private, Rickett's Batt., R. I., Richmond. Lanning W. L., corporal, Company C, 30th N. Y., " Ludden W. A., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Lyon Nathaniel, private, Company H, 14th N. Y., ( Litchfield Albert, private, Company B, 15th Mass., " Lane J. N., private, Company A, 9th Va., " McNoy Charles, corporal, 79th N. Y., Dead. Miller B., private, 11th N. Y., " McDonald Charles, private, 2d Company, 79th N. Y., i Murray Paul, private, Company G, 8th U. S., " McClung J. H., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., cc Murphy J., color-sergeant, Company A, 69th N. Y. N. Orleans. McKeon J. N., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., " Moore William, private, Company B, 69th N. Y., " McNeal J., private, Company B, 69th N. Y., " McGrath E., private, Company H, 69th N. Y., ( McGuire Thomas, private, Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., " McCurdy D., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Munroe John, private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Mount William, private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " McFarlane J., private, Company E, 2d N. Y., " McCormack P., private, Company E, 2d N. Y., " McCormick J., private, Company K, 38th N. Y., Murphy J., private, Company E, 2d N. Y., McGuire J., private, Company F, 2d N. Y., " McNatly D., sergeant, Company F, 2d N. Y., " McGovern C. G., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Morrow A., private, Company C, 2d N. Y., ( Mason George, private, Company G, 2d N. Y., Maiken T., McGlaughlin J., private, Company E, 1st Ohio, t McCabe George, private, Company I, 2d Ohio, " McCarty John, private, Company D, 11th Mass., " Morgan T., private, Company G, 3d Maine, " Morrison O. K., sergeant, Company F, 3d Maine, " Morris J. E., private, Company I, 1st Ohio, " McTiernon J., sergeant, Company G, 2d N. Y., " Martin H., teamster, 5th Mass., Mullery Thomas, private, Company C, 7th Ohio,

Page  326 326 APPENDIt. Mack C. F., corporal, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Moler J. A., private, Company H, 7th Ohio, Miller John, private, Company K, 7th Ohio, McCabe J., private, Company B, 7th Ohio, " Mills F., private, Company C, 2d U. S., McKinnon R., private, Company K, 2d Wis., Morgan T. E., private, Company I, 15th Penn., Morgan E., private, Company I, 15th Penn., McSweeny B., private, Company B, 5th Mass., Murray Christopher, private, Company C, 2d Conn., McManus John, private, Company H, 3d Conn., McLaughlin M., private, Company H, 3d U. S., ) Murphy Patrick, private, Company H, 3d U. S., Murphy R., private, Company D, 3d U. S., Moor H., private, Company B, 2d N. H., < Martin D., private, Company C, 2d N. H., Morse J. R., fifer, Company E, 2d N. H., Morse George, private, 10th Company, 79th N. Y., McCoy H., private, Company A, U. S. M., McGuire Thomas, private, Company D, 2d U. S. M., Murphy Samuel, corporal, Company I, 9th Mass., Martin B., private, Company D, 3d Maine, Miers J. B., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, ( Massa J., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Merkel M., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Mowery, sergeant, Company C, 7th Ohio, " More George, private, Company I, 1st Cal., Mosin H., private, Company I, 1st Cal., McConnel, private, Company I, 1st Cal., Meeks J. R., private, Company H, 20th Ind., Columbia. Muster John, private, Company I, 20th Ind., Maddox James, private, Company F, 20th Ind., Mayo Benj., sailor, U. S. N., Murphy Timothy, sailor, U. S. N., Mahan James, private, Company A, 11th Ohio, Moore William, private, Company K, 1st Mich., Mahoney Dennis, private Company I, 2d Maine, McCauley James, private, Company K, 2d Conn., 4 Martin W. H., private, Company K, 2d Wis.,

Page  327 APPENDIX. McGraw James, private, Company K, 13th N. Y., Columbia. Murrish John, private, Company C, 13th N. Y., " Morrison William, private, Company H, 13th N. Y., " Mitchel A. B., private, Company D, 25th N. Y., 4 McRae William, private, Company A, 2d Wis., " Maier Adolph, private, Company G, 14th Ind., 4 McGlinn John, private, Company A, 11th Mass., Home. McGregor John, sergeant, Company A, 3d Conn., Charleston. Maloney John, private, Company B, 11th N. Y., Home. McGeehen, private, Company B, 11th N. Y., Charleston. McArthur A., private, Company D, 79th N. Y., " McCormick Thomas, private, 11th Company, 79th N. Y., " McKim R., private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., " McGregor A., private, 6th Company, 79th N. Y., McQuatt D., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., Muir I., private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., " McCartney, corporal, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., Mould M. R., private, Company I, 71st N. Y., - Home. Moore Charles B., sergeant, Company I, 1st Mich., Charleston. Martin M., private, Company D, 1st Mich., Marx W. V., private, Company I, 1st Mich., " Milne J. 0., private, Company I, 1st Minn., Home. Metzke W., color sergeant, Company B, 1st Mich., Charleston. Murphy Edward, N. Carolina. Munroe A. G., McQuide H., sergeant, Company E, 27th N. Y., Richmond. Mageon L. L., 2 Metzke George, c Marfing James, private, Company A, 14th N. Y., Alabama. McNelly James, private, Company C, 1st Minn., 4 Mooney D., private, Company E, 2d N. Y., 4 McGuiness, private, Company B, 69th N. Y., 4 Montgomery Thomas, private, Company A, 69th N. Y., " Miller Charles, private, Company C, DeKalb regiment, N. Y., N. Fairground. Meddo E., private, Company C, DeKalb regiment, N. Y., Alabama. Masseck R., private, Company E, DeKalb regiment, N. Y., Richmond.

Page  328 328 APPENDIX. Milligan M., corporal, Company I, 1st Ky., Alabama. Mosberger J., private, Company H, 69th N. Y., McDonald, private, Company D, 1st Ky., t Mulley M., private, Company D, 1st Ky., McEllroy S., private, Company D, 1st Ky., McNickle Thomas, private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Moore G. T., private, Company G, 1st Mass., Marshall C. J., corporal, Company K, 2d N. Y., McManus L., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., McCarrick J., private, Company C, 69th N. Y., McGrath John, private, Company D, 11th N. Y., " McGlen James, private, Company H, llth N. Y., Richmond. McGlenn James, private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Alabama. McConner, private, Company E, 11th N. Y., March E. L., private, Company E, 38th N. Y., Moulton W. R., corporal, Company D, 3d Conn., Richmond. Mathews D., private, Company I, 4th Maine, i Maier Jos., private, Company C, 88th N. Y., McManus P., private, Company E, 14th N. Y., Maddox George, private, Company D, 1st Minn., Marten Thomas, private, Company E, 69th N. Y., Millay Israel, private, Company E, 14th N. Y., Montgomery T. J., private, Company A, 1st Mich., 4 McKinny W., citizen, Va., 6 March E. C., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., Marks I. A., private, Company I, 15th Penn., More John, private, Company H, 21st N. Y., Mansfield W., private, Company H, 11th Mass., t Marten B., private, Company G, 2d Vt., Mitchell W., private, Company F, 79th N. Y., McClane W. B., sergeant, Company I, 6th Ohio, McDonough Thomas, private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Miller E., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Mileham M., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Marshall J., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Murphy T. S., private, Company G, 37th N. Y., Mindanus H., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Morris Charles L., private, Company B, 2d N. Y., Millette O. F., private, Company H, 2d Maine,

Page  329 APPENDIX. 329 McFaggart, private, Company I, 2d Minn., Richmond. Much J., private, Company A., 14th N. Y., 4 Merritt C. W., private, Company F, 1st Minn., 4 McCabe J., private, Company K, 2d R. I., " Mills Charles W., private, Company F, 1st Me., t Marston Josiah, private, Company G, 4th Me., 4 Munroe R. H., private, Company D, 2d Me., 4 Marshall G. F., private, Company D, 2d Wis., 4 Murry H., private, Company D, 2d Wis., Millen Thomas, sailor, U. S. N., I McAulay J. N., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., Murray J., private, Company D, 2d Vt., 4 Marlin G. W., private, Company E, 2d Vt., 46 Murphy W. E., corporal, Company A, 2d Vt., 4 Morron T. W., private, Company I, 3d Me., 6 McKinley H., private, Company K, 18th N. Y., Merritt John, private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Miller F., private, Company F, 1st Minn. Mudge G. L., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., Mudge V., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., McGettrick M., private, Company E, 27th N. Y., 7 Mills L., private, Company H, 38th N. Y., 7 McCabe I., private, Company C, 2d R. I., Mitchell J., private, Company F, 11th Mass., C Malroney John, private, Company C, 69th N. Y., " McGrath J., private, Company H, 69th N. Y., 4 Murray J. H., private, Company I, 27th N. Y.,; Moran John, private, Company H, 11th N. Y., 4 McGram, Michael, private, Company B, 38th N. Y., 4 McPhillipps, J., private, Company I, 3d U. S. 4 Mergens J. B., private, Company C, 1st Minn., c McGill Pat., private, Company G, 69th N. Y., i Monohue Michael, private, Company B, 2d R. I., c Mace M., citizen, Va., c McDonald J., citizen, Va., 4 McLaughlin, citizen, Va, 1 Miller R. L., citizen, Va., 4 McCarty D., citizen, Va., C McNeily Samuel, citizen, Va., 9

Page  330 330 APPENDIX. Moral Cain, citizen, Va., Richmond. Moral John, citizen, Va., Mangold W. George, citizen, Va., McCarty J., private, Company A, 42d N. Y., Moriarty John, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., May W. B., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Mayo W.. private, Company A, 1st Cal., McCainy Stephen, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Moore G. C., private, Company P, 1st Cal., Murphy John; private, Company D, 20th Mass., Murphy Dan., private, Company A, 20th Mass., i Mooday J. L., private, Company B, 15th Mass., " Maynard William, private, Company B, 15th Mass., 6 McGovern D., private, Company H, 15th Mass., Matteson N. F., private, Company D, 3d N. J., " McKenzie C. M., private, Company K, 15th Mass., " "May Thomas W., private, Company H, 2d R. I., MeTagem, private, Company B, 69th N. Y., Marston Isaac, private, Company F, 49th N. Y., " McCurdy Samuel, private, Company G, 15th Mass., " Moore James, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., i McMoneagle R., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., 4 McLaughlin A., private; Company C, 42d N. Y., c McConville C., sergeant, Company E, 42d N. Y., i Murphy T., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " McLaughlin 0., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., 7 Mahon W., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., 7 McNeilly E., corporal, Company E, 42d N. Y., 9 Monegan J. J., sergeant, Company K, 42d N. Y., 7 McMarra P., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., c Murray T., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., CC McManus P., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., McGeva J., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Mahoney D., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., McCabe Owen, private, Company E, 42d N. Y., McDonough M., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " Moore Patrick, private, Company H, 42d N. Y., 4 Mohtain J. L., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., McCormick A., sergeant, Company A, 1st Cal.,,

Page  331 APPENDIX. 331 Meyers G. W. F., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., Richmond. Morris George W., private, Company A, 1st Cal., t Morris A. L., corporal, Company C, 1st Cal., Massey G. L., private, Company C, 1st Cal., McClery A. T., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " Miller T. W., private, Company C, 1st Cal., t Mallock W., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " McBride J., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Miller Freeman, corporal, Company H, 1st Cal.,, Margerum Richard, corporal, Company H, 1st Cal., McDonald S., corporal, Company H, 1st Cal., McMenanim J., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Martin Peter, private, Company H, 1st Cal., " McCuen John, private, Company L, 1st Cal., " McGan Joseph, private, Company L, 1st Cal., McKay Thomas, private, Company L, 1st Cal., " Myers G. H., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Mastem John, private, Company N, 1st Cal., Mitchell Theodore, private, Company N, 1st Cal., McGere W. J., sergeant, Company K, 1st Cal., Mann W. G., private, Company F, 1st Cal., McNight J., private, Company P, 1st Cal., 4 Milliard N. L., private, Company P, 1st Cal., t McQuade James, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Mullen George, private, Company P, 1st Cal., 9 McBay Thomas, private, Company H, 42d N. Y., " McCabe J., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., 4 McGahey Patrick, private, Company K, 15th Mass., 4 McBride M., private, Company K, 15th Mass., i Morse J. E., private, Company B, 15th Mass., c Moss O. G., private, Company B, 15th Mass., " May T., private, Company A, 15th Mass., ( McIntire 0. M., private, Company E, 15th Mass., ( Moyneliam O. M., private, Company E, 15th Mass., 4 McKenzie E. F., private, Company E, 15th Mass., ( Moore N. G., private, Company G, 15th Mass., 4 Mint F., private, Company C, 20th Mass., " Moegle Christopher, private, Company C, 20th Mass., McQuestion C., private, Company D, 20th Mass.,

Page  332 332 APPENDIX. Mellen E. A., sergeant, Company G, 20th Mass., Richmond. Mash Thomas F., private, Company H, 20th Mass., McDonald Thomas, corporal, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., Metcalf L. H., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., c McLauren William, private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., McCobb Chas. S., hospital steward, 4th Maine, McIntire B., private, Company K, 47th N. Y., N. Orleans. Morron Dennis, private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Marr C. C., private, Company C, 1st Minn., Meghan J. F., private, Company I, 2d N. Y., Maxwell William, private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Middleton Styles, private, Company E, 14th N. Y., u Madison O. S., private, Company A, 14th R. I., u Murphy Peter, private, Company B, 69th N. Y., " Maddox E., private, Company I, 4th Maine, Morgan J., private, Company K, 11th N. Y., Mansfield W. L., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., < McLeary J., private, Company G, 79th N. Y., McFarlane John, private, Company A, 2d N. Y., McCluskey Thos., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., McKeene J. A., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., Millette W. H., hospital steward, 38th N. Y., McGaire P., hospital steward, 38th N. Y., McCabe H. D., citizen, Virginia, Home. Moody Charles, citizen, Virginia, Richmond. McKerny John, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Moore Pat., corporal, Company E, 15th Mass., Massey J., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., c Miller Pat., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Mould J. J., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Moulds Isaac, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., c Miller Lewis, private, Company B, Lincoln Cav., N. Y., " Matten L., private, Company H, 30th N. Y., Merrick W., private, Company H, 30th N. Y., " McCormick W., private, Company I, 30th N. Y., i Morris D., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., Morison James, private, Company K, 30th N. Y., Morris L., teamster, Penn., t McCenley Dan., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., 4

Page  333 APPENDIX. 333 McDonough Thos., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Murphy Dennis, private, Company H, 38th N. Y., " Massey G. P., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Massey Wm., citizen, Ohio, Morris J., private, Company A, 9th Va., < Morey Frank, citizen, Virginia, Marken E. W., private, Company A, 9th Va., " McClure W. V., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Massie Loudon, private, Company A, 9th Va., " McVickers Henry, private, Company A, 9th Va., 4 McDonal Wm., private, Company M, 3d Penn. Cav., " McFarland Andrew, private, Company F, 3d Penn. Cav., " Moore Hugh, private, Company M, 3d Penn. Cay., McLangdon James, private, Company F, 3d Penn. Cav., " Marsh R. C., teamster, 8th Ohio, Milstea Nath., citizen, Virginia, " "Magruder Felix, citizen, Virginia, " Marston Thos., citizen, Virginia, " Nichols J. H., private, 13th N. Y., Dead. Nugent G., private, Company B, 69th N. Y., N. Orleans. Neaton G. C., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Noble F. A., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Nuemullen P., private, Company I, 2d Ohio, " Nilen Michael, private, Company E, 2d U. S., " Neagle Wm., private, Company F, 20th Indiana, Columbia. Newell John, private, Company F, 2d R. I., " Nason D. B., private, Company A, 2d Maine, c Nosida C., private, Company A, 3d U. S., " Noel W. B., private, Company E, 1st Mich., Charleston. Neal Chas. H., private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., " North Chas., private, Indiana Cav., Alabama. Nutly W., private, Company C, 69th N. Y., " Neuman Carl, citizen, New York, Richmond. Newell R. J., private, Company I, 11th Mass., Alabama. Norton J. N., corporal, Company C, 26th N. Y., " Nicholas George, citizen, Mississippi, Richmond. Nellis G. G., private, Company B, 1st Minn., " Nash C. E., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., " Nash E. H., sailor, U. S. N., 6

Page  334 334 APPENDIX. Nash Jas. E., sailor. U. S. N., Richmond. Noble Gorham, private, Company F, 71st N. Y., " Newcomb J. B., citizen, Virginia, Dead. Neagle J., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Richmond. Niles H. L., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., " Nighon P., private, Company A, 1st Cal., " Nail J. F., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Nicholis J. L., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " Neal C. S. M., private, Company N, 1st Cal., " Nichols A. J., private, Company A, 1st N. Y.,?' Nichold John, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Nichols J. N., private, Company N, 20th Mass.,, Nitting M. L., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Noyes G. G., sergeant, Company D, 15th Mass., t Newton G. F., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Norcrose J. M., corporal, Company E, 15th Mass., Nichols W. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Negus V., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Numan John, private, Company G, 20th Mass., Noyes A. J., private, Company A, 2d Vt., " Noyes W. S., hos. steward, 5th Maine, Nother, private, Company D, 11th N. Y., t Neff Addison, citizen, Virginia, Nelson Wm., citizen, Virginia, " Nelkin Saml. citizen, N. Orleans, Nichols James, private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Norrob Chas. H., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Newman, private, 1st Cav., Va., Null Geo., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Neal R. E., private, Company A. 9th Va., " Noyes Leonard, assinde " dulla" Key W.,. " Oxford W. F., private, 2d N. H., Dead. Osborn Albert, private, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Oxford Elias, private, Company H, 20th Ind., Columbia. Obelias A., private, Company C, 20th Ind. " O'Brien H., private, Company K, 12th N. Y., " Oliver Judson, private, Company I, 27th N. Y., Otto F., private, Company B, U. S. M., N. Fairground. O'Brien Thos., private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Charleston.

Page  335 APPENDIX. 335 O'Meara Tim., captain, Company E, 42d N. Y., Alabama. Ostrander J., private, Company F, 1st Minn., 9 O'Brien G., private, Company K, 3d Conn., Richmond. O'Brien Daniel, citizen, Va., " Owens W. A., private, Company I, 2d Wis., c O'Brien T., private, Company D, 1st Ky., Alabama. Oysterboy J., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Ohirte Martin, private, Company G, 5th Mass., Richmond. O'Brien D, private, Company G, 2d Wis., " Overman J. N., citizen, Va., O'Brien Miles, citizen, Va., (t O'Brien John, citizen, Va., " O'Dell P. L., citizen, Va., Home. Oures Silas, citizen, Va., Richmond. O'Neill D., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., ( O'Harran Hugh, private, Company D, 20th Mass., c O'Dell G., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., 4 Olney E., private, Company K, 15th Mass., it Omsbey H. A., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Osland Sam. E., private, Company G, 15th Mass., O'Conner Thos., private, Company I, 15th Mass., O'Connel J. J., private, Company D, 30th N. Y., O'Neill Cornelius, private, Company G, 30th N. Y., Olney L. C., private, Company D, 3d R. I., O'Neilly D., private, Company F, 69th N. Y., O'Brien John, private, Company E, 38th N.Y., County Jail. Ottinger Charles, private, Company K, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. O'Brien John, sergeant, Company B, Lincoln Cav., Alabama. Oliver, private, Company C, 13th Ind., Ricimond. Olden Horace, citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., " Pennott Albert, private, 1st R. I., Dead. Prescott Charles R., corporal, 14th N. Y., " Parmenter W. W., sergeant, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Platt C. W., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., " Pinto E, corporal, Company B, 8th N. Y., " Paight Joseph, private, Company F, 3d Conn., 4 Panton John, private, hostler, 2d N. Y., " Palmer E. C., corporal, Company H, 7th Ohio, " Payn C. W., private, Company E, 2d Conn., i

Page  336 336 APPENDIX. Polleys J., private, Company F, 5th Maine, Packard Wm., private, Company E, 4th Maine, Perry H., private, Company.B, 2d N. H., Price John, sergeant, U. S., Pearce H., private, Company I, 1st Md., Page J. W. H., private, Company C, 9th N. Y., Parsons F. F. B., private, Company II, 20th Ind., Parker J. M., private, Company E, 20th Ind., Plasatt Henry, private, Company I, 20th Ind., Robert Washington, private, Company D, 20th Ind., Peter James, private, Company C, 10th Ohio, Peck V. W., private, Company D, 13th Ohio, Phelan Win., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., Perrin H. G., hos. steward, Company A, 11th N. Y., Pollock R., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., Powell Alfred, sergeant, 3d N. Y., Pease F., private, Company B, 1st Mich., Pomeroy P., private, Company K, 1st Mich., Palmer C. H., private, Company G, 1st Mich., Phillips G. S., private, Company H, 1st Mich., Porter N., private, Company D, 1st Mich., Price James, Pollard H. M., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Pollard J., private, Company G, 1st R. I., Pillsburry, private, Company H, 3d Maine, Perkins Wm., private, Company D, 1st Ky., Patterson Samuel, private, Company H, 79th N. Y., Perry Robt., private, Company H, 79th N. Y., PavitC1. W., private, Company E, 71st N. Y., Porter Wm., private, Company G, 1st Minn., Powers L., private, Company I, 27th N'. Y., Perry L. S., private, Company E, 2d Wis., Paden Vincent, citizen, Va., Patch D. R., private, Company G, 5th Mass., Parker H. C., private, Company A, 2d Wis., Pratt Benneal, corporal, Company A, 28th Penn., Perry C. F., hospital nurse, 4th Me., Pratt IH., private, Company H, 5th Me., Perkins J. D., private, Company B, 2d Me., N. Orleans. Columbia. Charleston. Home. Charleston. N. Carolina. Richmond. Alabama. 4C County Jail. Alabama. 4c Dead. Alabama. "46

Page  337 APPENDIX. 337 Perkins H. D., private1 Company G, 1st R. I., Palmer J. H., private, Company D, 2d Wis., Perry W. A., sergeant, Com'pany G, 25th N. Y., Perkins H. L., private, Company I, 2d Maine, Pleffler George, private, Company A, 1st Minn., Paris A. W., private, Company H, 2d Vt., Pitcher S. R., private, Company E, 2d Wis., Potter C. B., private, Company B, 18th N. Y., Palmer M. F., wagon-master, 8th Penn., Palmer W. P., corporal, Company I, 15th Penn., Pepper A. W., private, Company F, 13th N. Y., Pigott W., private, 4th Company, 18th N. Y., Pigott Geo., private, 4th Company, 13th N. Y., Proctor H. F., private, Company C, 1st Ohio, Pleiterer F., private, Company B, 3d U. S., Powell E., citizen, Virginia, Peacock Albert, citizen, Virginia, Peters L., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Pardie H., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Pegash B., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., Patterson A., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Palmer Thos., corporal, Company D, 1st Cal., Ploss Wm., private, Company G, 1st Cal., Palmer Thos., private, 4th Company, 1st Cal., Perkins John, private, Company N, 1st Cal., Paynter Isaac, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Pohnaer Ford, private, Company P, 1st Cal., Price S. J., private, Company P, 1st Cal., Price George K, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Parker H. T., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Putton M., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Pousland Thos. J., sergeant, 20th Mass., Pritchard J. H., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Pelton A. A., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Peacock A., private, Company K, 15th Mass., Preitt J., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Putman A. J., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., Preston R., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Pryer J. H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., 15 Alabama. cC N. Fairground. Alabama. it Richmond. Alabama. <( "a Richmond. C6 "i "( "(

Page  338 338 APPENDIX. Parmenter E. L., corporal, Company I, 15th Mass., Richmond. Palmer W. H., private, Company I, 15th Mass., " Place J. H., private, Company D, 20th Mass., c Partridge A. H., private, Company D, 20th Mass., 4 Powers John, private, Company G, 20th Mass., 4 Powers W., private, Company H, 20th Mass., * Perkins B. T., private, Company A, U. S. Marines, Parker Thos. S., private, Company G, 1st Minn., Pratt James, private, Company C, 2d N. Y., Porter Chas., sailor, U. S. N., ( Preston Chas., private, Company H, 3d Maine, t Peters Jeremiah, private, Company E, 69th N. Y., Padbury John, sergeant, Company C, 79th N. Y., Pratt M., private, Company C, 2d Vt., Home. Parker Alex., private, Company C, 'th Ohio, N. Orleans. Pack Geo., citizen, Wayne Co., Va., Richmond. Pack Saml., citizen, Kanawha Co., Va., Porter Thos. F., citizen, Wayne Co., Va., ( Porter T., private, Company G, 30th N. Y., < Peck W., private, Company G, 30th N. Y., " Porter W., private, Company G, 30th N. Y., Plaskett Jas., citizen, Virginia, Plyborn Lewis, private, Company B, 9th Va., " Peterman R., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Powell W. E., private, Company A, 9th Va., Paine H. B., private, Company B, 9th Va., < Paine W. W., private, Company B, 9th Va., Pollock G., citizen, Va., ( Porter Lewis, private, Company A, 9th Va., Peyton Charles, private, Company A, 9th Va., Palmerston J. L., private, Company D, 11th Ohio, Pool Robert, private, Company C, 11th Ohio, Pettett Clinton, private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Piper Charles, private, Company M, 3d Penn. Cav., Parcells James A., private, Company F, 3d Penn. Cav., " Phillipps John, private, Company F, 3d Penn. Cav., " Pancost Saml., citizen, Hampshire Co., Va., " Perry Danl., private, Company B, 32d N. Y., ( Price George S., private, Company B, 32d N. Y.,

Page  339 APPENDIX, 339 Payne Uriah, private, Company A, 9th Virginia, Richmond. Quinn Richard, private, Company I, 8th Ohio, N. Orleans. Quinn C. C., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, t Quinn B., private, Company E, 69th N. Y., Alabama. Quimby G. W., private, Company D, 4th Ohio, i' Quigg John, private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., " Quigley E., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Richmond. Quinley John, private, Company C, 20th Mass., " Quinn J., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., " Quinn Michael,. private, Company H, 42d N. Y., t Quinan Michael, private, Company H, 42d N. Y., " Quinell Pat., private, Company G, 20th Mass., t Rodgers M., citizen, Va., County Jail, tC Russell Stephen, private, 3d Maine, " Rodman Isaac, private, Company E, 3d N. J., " Reed E. L., private, Company H, 2d Wis., 4 Root E. C., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, ~ N. Orleans. Reynold S., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., " Rodgers G. H., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., 9 Robertson A., sergeant, Company E, 4th Maine, t Redmond J., corporal, Company C, 2d Vt., it Robinson Geo. C., private, Company B, 7th Ohio, Rafferty J. C., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, it Rubicon F. A., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, " Rear S., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, " Rank A. P., sergeant, 1st Company, 15th Penn., " Roush W., private, 1st Company, 15th Penn., t Reynolds G. W., private, Ist Company, 15th Penn., Richardson W., private, Company G, 5th Maine, 4 Rice W. S., sergeant, Company K, 5th Maine, " Renne E., private, Company C, 1st Minn., ( Renouf Charles, private, Company C, 14th N. Y., Rallan T., private, Company B, U. S., Rich W. E., corporal, Company A, 2d Conn., Robertson A. B., private, Company I, 1st N. H., Ridge Charles, private, Company K, 2d N. H., 6 Rhoder Henry, private, Company C, 2d Wis., 4 Rief C. W., private, Company B, 1st Kentucky, 4 Reading G., private, Company I, 27th N. Y., a

Page  340 340 APPENDIX. Robinson J. H., private, Company C, 3d Vermont, N. Orleans. Rose Nathan, private, Company I, 2d Vermont, Rowan T. S., private, Company C, 9th N. Y., Columbia. Rice Jacob, private, Company I, 20th Indiana, " Ruff L., private, Company E, 20th Indiana, Rieley L. H., private, Company E, 20th Indiana, Raumage W. T., private, Company A, 6th Ohio, c Ryan James, private, Company E, 69th N. Y., 4 Ruhland Lewis, private, Company D, 3d U. S., " Richardson L. H., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Reed E. A., private, Company E, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Russell D., private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., Reyland T., private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., Reynolds John,' private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., Rockafellow H., sergeant, Company H, 71st N. Y., Home. Russell A. N., private, Company B, 1st Mich., Charleston. Reynolds W. N., private, Company E, 1st Mich., Rainor T., private, Company G, 1st Mich. Randolph W. G., private, Company C, 1st Minni, Home. Robb George, private, Company D, 2d Art. U. S., 'c Roach W., private, Company D, 2d Art. U. S., Deserter, Richmond. Rosevalley M. L., surgeon, C. S. A., County Jail, " Rossberg G., N. Carolina. Ross J., private, Company K, 2d Wis., Alabama. Reed J. R., private, Company H, 2d Wis., ' Rodgers J., private, Company A, 13th Indiana, Rosenmyer F., private, Company I, 1st Kentucky, Radway Alonzo, private, Company I, 1st Kentucky, 4 Ropp Charles, private, Company I, 1st Kentucky, Robinson G., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., Rodgers James, private, Company F, 11th N. Y., " Rich Charles, private, Company K, 7th Ohio, Reander T., private, Company F, 13th N. Y., " Ruhlman Charles, private, Company C, 7th Ohio, i Richardson R., private, Company C, 1st Minn., 4 Robinson W. S., private, Company E, 3d Maine, Raser M., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., Riely P., private, Company B, 3d U. S., 4 Read T. F., private, Company A, 2d Maine, Richmond.

Page  341 APPENDIX. 341 Reich John, private, Company K, 1st Mich., Alabama. Raymond A., private, Company K, 13th N. Y., 4 Rodgers D., private, Company H, 1st N. J., " Rosenblatt, private, Company B, 2d N. Y., " Richmond F., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Ryan W. B., musician, 2d R. I., Rodgers L. F., sergeant, Company F, 2d R. I., " Rhodes George, private, Company C, 1st Mich., Rosenthal Steph., corporal, Maine, Richie Martin, private, Company A, 3d N. Y., Richmond. Russell J., private, Company G, 1st Minn., Alabama. Reynolds J., private, Company D, 3d Mich., Richmond. Robinson W. B., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., " Ross W., private, Company H, 38th N. Y., Rogers G., private, Company A, 5th Maine, Alabama. Rosenbeck F. S., private, Company H, 2d Maine, " Rowley E. W., private, Company K, 1st Minn., " Rott A., private, Company I, 13th Indiana, " Ryan F., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, u Rea J. L., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, " Rice Thomas, private, Company I, 2d Maine, 4 Richmond H. H., private, Company C, 36th.. Y., " Ramsay S., citizen, Virginia, Released. Roley B., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Roley B., citizen, Virginia, 4 Rigby James, private, Company E, 11th Mass.. " Riely P., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Robinson E., corporal, Company A, 1st Cal., " Rogers John, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Roberts W. H., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Riely John, corporal, Company H, 1st Cal., c Russell J. H., private, Company H, 1st Cal., " Ruoff G. F., private, Company L, 1st Cal., " Readow Charles, private, Company L, 1st Cal., " Reeks S. B., private, Company L, 1st Cal., " Rely R., corporal, Company P, 1st Cal., " Reamer W., private, Company P, 1st Cal., " Reinhard G. W., private, Company P, 1st Cal., < Runyan H. B., private, Company P, 1st Cal., 4

Page  342 342 APPENDIX. Reddy Jeremiah, private, Company B, 30th N. Y., Richmond. Roberts W., private, Company L, 1st Cal., ( Raybolt L. B., private, Company A, 1st Cal., " Rawlings V., private, Company A, 20th Mass., Rhochon John, private, Company C, 20th Mass., 4 Rice Albert, private, Company C, 20th Mass., " Robert Fred., private, Company C, 20th Mass., 6 Russell James, private, Company A, 20th Mass., " Rugg Henry T., private, Company A, 15th Mass., C Ross Thomas B., private, -Company A, 15th Mass., 4 Reed John, private, Company L, 1st Cal., c Richmond Duncan, private, Company C, 11th N. Y., 4 Robins T. M., corporal, Company A, 15th Mass., 9 Roach J., private, Company A, 15th Mass., t Rindge D. F., private, Company E, 15th Mass., c Rice E. A., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Ricky David, private, Company F, 15th Mass., 4 Rockwood C. H., private, Company G, 15th Mass., " Raeich H., private, Company I, 15th Mass., " Raymond H. T., private, Company I, 15th Mass., 4 Reeves S. R., sergeant, Company D, 20th Mass., c Reed W. 0., private, Company D, 20th Mass., Rumble John, private, Company D, 20th Mass., ' Reed W. R., sergeant, Company H, 20th Mass., Rumney J. T., private, Company H, 20th Mass., Richards T. C., private, Company H, 20th Mass., u Rudigen Charles, private, Company C, 38th N. Y., < Revariz William, private, Company D., 14th N. Y., Rounds E. C., private, Company F, 2d R. I., Alabama. Reynolds B., private, Company A, 69th N. Y., 4 Rosenberg George, private, Company A, 13th N. Y., " Rodman C., citizen, R. I., Rice T. L., private, Company A, 2d N. Y., Reed James, sergeant, Company E, 79th N. Y., " Rice C. B., corporal, Company C, 2d Vt., Randold William, citizen, Va., Ragan Andrew, private, Company E, 20th Mass., Rowland N., private, Company E, 20th N. Y., a Rily T., private, Company K, 20th N. Y.,

Page  343 APPENDIX. 343 Rich E., private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Alabama. Roller George, private, Company H, 14th N. Y., 6 Reamlaugh A. S., private, Company C, 1st Cal., " Reynolds Levi, private, Company F, 12th Ind., Ross Thomas, sergeant-major, 9th Va., ( Ray E. T., private, Company B, 9th Va., Ray T., private, Company B, 9th Va., Richmond. Rouse J. H., citizen, Va., ' Home. Rich Theodore, private, Company H, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Reed Joshua, private, Company F, 3d Penn., Runnels Charles, citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., Home. Riley James, private, Company C, 7th La., C. S. A., deserter, Richmond. Robbins S. G., private, Company E, 12th Ind., " Rickhout R. S., corporal, Company E, 12th Ind., c Reeves Samuel, citizen, Occoquan, Va., 4 Smith William, private, 71st N. Y., Dead. Smith T. B., private, 2d N. Y., Smith H., private, 11th N. Y., 2 Sallee T. F., private, 1st Maine,t Slack F., private, 1st Conn., i Stiles E. R., sergeant, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Sullivan T., private, Company I, 69th N. Y., " Steand H. W., private, Company B, 2d N. Y., 4 Stetson T. T., private, Company C, 4th Me., " Simmonds T. M., private, Company B, 27th N. Y., ( Smith E. C., private, Company I, 38th N. Y., " Spader A. B., private, Company F, 1st Ohio, C Sullivan D., private, Company F, 1st Ohio, 4 Steward H. N., sergeant, Company E, 14th N. Y., " Stowe H., teamster, Company E, 11th Mass., t Sheppard T. B., private, Company F, 38th N. Y., " Schiblin S., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., 4 Shanley W., private, Company H, 5th Mass., 4 Schleino W., private, Company H, 3d Conn., ( Stinson H. M., private, Company H, 5th Maine, " Sylvester G. W., private, Company A, 4th Maine, t Story H. B., private, Company B, 4th Maine, t Stout T. B., private, Company H, 27th N. Y., 4

Page  344 344 APPENDIX. Seaman Thomas, private, Company G, 1st R. I., N. Orleans. Simmonds S. B., private, Company F, 1st R. I., Sawyer W., private, Company B, 1st Conn.,, Silvestra S., private, Company A, 4th Maine, t Sanger T., private, Company C, 3d Maine, i Sweeny B., private, Company I, 3'8th N. Y., 4 Sweet George, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, i Shatto John, private, Company C, 7th Ohio, 4 Shelby J., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, 4 Snider T., private, Company I, 7th Ohio, 9 Scoville A., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, 4 Smith John, private, Company K, 7th Ohio, " Schaitz A., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, i Stahl Charles, private, Company K, 7th Ohio, < Smith J. R., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, a Smith A. E., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, < Stillwell F., private, Company E, 7th Ohio, a Smith S. H., private, Company D, 7th Ohio, ( Smith John, private, Company D, 7th Ohio, i Siebart D. C., private, Company I, 15th Penn.,,c Seymour W., private, Company C, 2d U. S., t Starkey H. P., private, Company I, 15th Penn., C Sayler A., private, Company A, 15th Penn., " Sebastion C. W., private, Company A, 2d N. H., ( -Slemons John, private, Company E, U. S. M., t Sawyer George, private, Company K, 2d N. H.,. Steward T., private, Company G, 12th Ohio, Smith E., private, Company K, 2d U. S., Sprague Allen, private, Company E, 3d Me., Schoffer, P., private, Company B, 26th Ohio, Schultz V., private, Company B, 11th N. Y., ( Shiveller E., private, Company B, 11th N. Y., Staltenhump W., private, Company B, 1st Ky., St. Clair W. H., private, Company H, 13th Ohio, Sparkes J. W., private, Company I, 20th Ind., Columbia. Smith J. B., private, Company K, 20th Ind., 4 Sackett F. B., private, Company H, 20th Ind., " Shoop Jacob, private, Company H, 20th Ind., ( Stickly William, private, Company C, 20th Ind., 4

Page  345 APPENDIX. 345 Shneider E., private, Company H, 20th Ind., Columbia. Shrack C., private, Company H, 20th Ind., Spoonmore Thomas H., private, Company F, 15th Ind., " Stephens, R. F., private, Company F, 2d N. H., Stinson James, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, " Stacy John, private, Company C, 11th N. Y., Shea John, private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Smith W., citizen, Va., Charleston. Smyth F., citizen, Va., County Jail, Richmond. Soldger -, private, Company E, 2d U. S., N. Fairground, t Stitz J., private, Company G, 1st Mich., Charleston. Simmons Fred., private, Company I, 1st Mich., " Stewart Gee. C., bugler, 1st Mich., t Serials T. D., private, Company C, 1st Mich., ( Swaitman D., private, Company E, 1st Mich., i Starkweather J. H., private, Company A, 1st Mich., " Steward W., corporal, Company G, 14th N. Y., N. Fairground. Swift O. H., private, Company A, 8th N. Y., Home. Stephenson Wm., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., " Sandell E., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Scott J., private, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., c Southerland R., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., " Stewart Robt., private, 2d Company, 79th N. Y., Scotts S., private, 3d Company, 79th N. Y., Streeter Gee., private, Company H, 2d Vt., Home. Sullivan D. C., corporal, Company K, 2d N. J., ( Shurtleff A. F., corporal, Company D, 1st R. I., " Stephenson Wm., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., " Sullivan E., N. Orleans. Serilan Thos. J., " Spade Chris., " Southale F., " Schieffer F. L., private, Company F, 6th Ohio, Richmond. Sweeny Ed., private, Engineer Corps, 69th N. Y., " Severance W., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Alabama. Strump A. F., private, Company E, 25th Ohio, " Shoking John, private, Company D, 1st Ky., " Shatzman J., private, Company D, 1st Ky., 15*

Page  346 346 APPENDIX. Shlatterbock C., private, Company I, 15th Indiana, Alabama. Searles W. A., sergeant, Company I, 1st Mass., Stinson E. K., private, Company f, 1st Mass., Speed Joseph, private, Company H, 2d Mo., Shorton D., private, Company B, 69th N. Y., j Shipper D. G., private, Company B, 2d R. I., Strasenah, private, Company C, 31st N. Y., Savage Wm., private, Company I, 2d N. Y., " Schnittka H., private, Company E, 2d Ohio, Stiver M., private, Company E, 14th N. Y., ( Schemmilfleming J., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., " Slember J. C., private, Company F, 71st N. Y.,. Smith G. W., private, Company H, 71st N. Y., Sands T. H. H., private, Company F, 71st N. Y., Straight W. C., sergeant, Company I, 38th N. Y., Steveman John, private, Company I, 15th N. Y., Scharf Albt., private, Company C, 38th N. Y., Spamer J., private, Company C, 11th Mass., < Smith Cyrus, private, Company C, 1st Minn., Stroud Horace, private, Company E, 2d Wis., Schartz Augustus, private, Company C, 2d U. S., " Sullivan Thos., private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Sweeny Edward, private, Company G, 38th N. Y., I Swiss T. W., private, Company D, 25th Ohio, Alabama. Stiver J. E., private, Company I, 13th Indiana, " Smith John, private, Company I, 13th Indiana, C Seiburt M., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Richmond. Smith O. M., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Alabama. Schrentzer 0., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, 4 Smith Lewis, private, Company E, 41st N. Y., Smith W., private, Company I, 1st Mich., 6 Smith C. D., private, Company C, 1st R. I., Richmond. Smith A. F., private, Company F, 2d R. I., Alabama. Stitson G. A., forage master, 2d R. I., ( Scribner 11. H., private, Company H, 2d Maine, Richmond. Spaulding F. F., private, Company C, 2d Maine, Alabama. Swikart N., private, Company A, 1st Ohio, " Schafto R. H., private, Company B, 8th N. Y., Richmond. Squires Chauncy, private, Company G, 1st Minn., Alabama.

Page  347 APPENDIX. 347 Smith W. P., private, Company I, 2d Wis., Richmond. Starr P., private, Company B, 27th N. Y., 4 Stall H. B., sergeant, Company A, 18th N. Y.,. " Streeter P. A., private, Company C, 2d Vt., 4 Stickney D. K., private, Company D, 2d Vt., C Schaffer G. W., corporal, Company F, 13th Ohio, " Shaw Charles, private, Company H, 18th N. Y., " Shirod L. W., private, Company C, 1st R. I., Alabama. Shaw T. A., private, Company G, 5th Mass., " Small David, private, Company I, 11th N. Y., 4 Smith Thos., private, Company A, 27th N. Y., c Sumner W., private, Company K, 38th N. Y., Richmond. Slemer G., corporal, U. S. M., Alabama. Smith George R., private, Company D, 88th N. Y., t Storey D., private, Company C, 2d Wis., Richmond. Stinson T., private, Company E, 2d Wis., Alabama. Shears D., citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Smith T. M., citizen, Virginia, 4 Stanson A. C., citizen, Virginia, 4 Short Samuel, citizen, Virgini? Released. Stiles John, citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Stiles Wm., citizen, Virginia, 4 Stiles Joel, citizen, Virginia, Dead. Stiles Polcarper, citizen, Virginia, Richmond. Stiles Joshua, citizen, Virginia, " Scalby Daniel, citizen, Virginia, <4 Sullivan T., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., tC Sullivan E., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., 9 Sullivan E., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Somerville Thos., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Soreing L., private, Company E, 42d N. Y., t Sullivan 0., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Schlessinger A., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Sykes George, private, Company A, 42d N. Y., 7 Smith T. G., private, Company H, 42d N. Y., t Staal G., private, Company A, 1st Cal., < Stackhirer Thomas, private, Company A, 1st Cal., " Snider G. C., private, Company C, 1st Cal., t Siminons J. I., private, Company C, 1st Cal., "

Page  348 348 APPENDIX. Stokes John, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Richmond. Standing Richard, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Snider Oliver,, private, Company D, 1st Cal., Songster W., private, Company H, 1st Cal., " Scott W. T., private, Company C, 1st Cal., 4 Smith S., private, Company C, 1st Cal., Schornmaster H., corporal, Company L, 1st Cal., " Skimitt W. J., corporal, Company L, 1st Cal., Street C. B., corporal, Comapany N, 1st Cal., Simmons A. H., corporal, Company N, 1st Cal., Swiger George, private, Company N, 1st Cal., Sheekan J. C., private, Company I, 1st Cal., Seymour Joseph, private, Company I, 1st Cal., Sullivan W., private, Company I, 1st Cal., Spellbrinke A. T., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Smyth Charles, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., " Schath Frederick, private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Sleak W., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Schurtz E. P., private, Company I, 1st Cal., " Stokes Thomas, private, Company A, 1st Cal., " Schaffer W. H., sergeant, Company A, 1st Cal., 46 Simpson John, private, Company L, 1st Cal., " Slonacker W. H., sergeant, Company H, 1st Cal., " Smith W. H., private, Company A, 20th Mass., " Smith James, private, Company D, 20th Mass., 4 Schniter George, private, Company D, 20th Mass., 4 Smith John, private, Company C, 15th Mass., Sullivan T. 0., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., 4 Smith Alfred F., private, Company D, 15th Mass., " Smith C. N., corporal, Company D, 15th Mass., " Stone L. A., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Stevens C. A., private, Company B, 15th Mass., 4 Sullivan J., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Smith B., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Slayton H., private,-Company F, 15th Mass., Stone F. P., sergeant, Company G, 15th Mass., " Stephens Thomas, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Sandback Joseph, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Sawyer W. B., private, Company C, 15th Mass.,,

Page  349 APPENDIX. 849 Shaw H., private, Company A, 20th Mass., Richmond. Schlecker T., private, Company C, 20th Mass., " Simster W. H., private, Company D, 20th Mass., Smith George, private, Company E, 20th Mass., ^ Skinner E., private, Company I, 20th Mass., * Shotoff B., private, Company E, 1st Cavalry, U. S., Shears 0. W., hospital steward, 1st Maine, < Steabel M., private, Company K, 11th N. Y., Sherelew Joseph, private, Company F, 11th Mass., " Seamen Henry, private, Company D, 2d Wis., " Sweat C., private, Company A, 1st Minn., ( Schneider W., private, Company A, 1st Maine, 4 Stevenson W., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., 9 Steward William, private, Company C, U. S. Marines, " Shaw F., private, Company G, 4th Maine, ( Stafford H., private, Company G, 1st R. I., Snow R., private, Company E, 1st Maine, Alabama. Southard J., private, Company D, 2d Wis., Richmond. Stesen C., private, Company F, 2d N. H., " Smith Hubbard, corporal, Company A, 1st Mich., 4 Shatto George, private, Company D, 4th Maine, Alabama. Surupson William, private, Company D, 27th N. Y., Richmond. Shaughnessy Edward, private, Company D, 69th N. Y., " Scott W. H., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, N. Orleans. Smith A. B., private, Company G, 14th N. Y., Richmond. Stover Francis, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., ( Stover Samson, citizen, Rolla Co., Va., ( Stover Richard, citizen, Boone Co., Va., " Stevenson R. K., citizen, Cabel Co., Va., c Scuroborough Isaac, citizen, Fayette Co., Va., 6 Shary William, private, Company H, 26th N. Y., 6 Smith H., private, Company I, 30th N. Y., 4 Stafford H., private, Company G, 30th N. Y., t Simmons H., private, Company I, 80th N. Y., 4 Staunton Cole, private, Company E, 80th N. Y., c Stale J., private, Company E, 30th N. Y., "i Stickles H. S., private, Company K, 30th N. Y., " Stout R. K., private, Company C, 13th Ind., 4 Swikart G., corporal, Company F, 12th Ind., 6

Page  350 350 APPENDIX. ~Shoemale Benjamin, private, Company A, 9th Va., Richmond. Smith Hamilton, citizen, Va., 6 Shoemale W., private, Company H, 9th Va., C Stevens Henry, private, Company B, 9th Va., 6, Scites Thomas, private, Company A, 9th Va., 66 Swansenger L., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Stewart J. B., corporal, Company A, 11th Ohio, 6 Shawar Pat., private, Company M, 3d Cavalry, Penn., Sheppard Samuel, private, Company F, 3d Cavalry, Penn., " Sullivan Daniel, private, Company M, 3d Cavalry, Penn., " Sullivan J., private, 17th Va., C. S. A., Schraw Henry, private, Company A, 45th N. Y., Smellinger Michael, private, Company A, 45th N. 1., Stevenson W. H., private, Company K, 8th La., C. S. A., " Smith Charles, Lieutenant's son, Company F, 5th N. Y., " Solger Henry, private, Company E, 2d Art., U. S., traitor, " Scott James A., corporal, Company B, 10th Penn., " Spor Mathias, private, 5th Wis., " Smith, sailor, Bark Ellen, Thomas E. M., private, Company D, 1st Maine, Dead. Tobias Samuel, private, Company I, 19th N. Y., ( Trowbridge C. E., private, Company H, 2d Wis., " Truxal J., private, Company D, 25th Ohio, " Tape Robert, private, Company E, 2d N. Y., N. Orleans. Thornton Robert, private, Company E, 11th Mass., " Tabee M., private, Company H, 3d Maine, 6C Thompson G. W., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Thomas R., private, Compahy C, 23d Ohio, 4 Thompson D. A., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Thomas Joseph, private, Company I, 15th Penn., t Thukusa G. W., private, Company I, 15th Penn., & Teir S. M., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Tattersall E., private, Company F, 2d U. S., " Tibbett F. L., private, Company B, 5th Mass., " Tucker F., private, Company C, 2d N. H., " Toda W., private, Company K, 38th N. Y., i Trunt J., private, Company H, 13th Ohio, t6 Thalin A., private, Company C, 26th Ohio, " Turner J. J., corporal, Company C, 9th N. Y., Columbia.

Page  351 APPENDIX. 851 Tuttle E., private, Company H, 9th N. Y., Columbia. Tuttle J. H., private, Company I, 1st Minn., " Trotta Frank, private, Company H, 9th N. Y., 4 Tracher E., private, Company I, 1st Minn., 4 Ticknal Augustus, private, Company D, 14th N. Y., 4 Trevatt R., private, Company I, 4th Maine, 4 Thompson Peter, private, Company I, 27th N. Y., 4 Trush John F., private, Company O, 1st R. I., I Teliza John, private, Company G, 1st N. Y., N. Fairground. Tuttle J. G., private, Company B, 1st Mich., Charleston. Trash T. N., private, Company G, 1st Mich., " Trumond C. S., private, Company G, 1st Mich., Taylor B., private, Company G, 38th N. Y, Home. Thomas T., private, Company I, 79th N. Y., Charleston. Tryan D. H., private, 8th Company, 79th N. Y., " Tamillyn A., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., " Taylor J. F., private, Company D, 11th N. Y., Taylor J. H., private, Company C, 11th N. Y., " Telghun Henry, private, North Carolina. Taylor Edward, citizen, Ohio, Richmond. Tuttle Christopher, corporal, Company I, 1st Ky., Alabama. Tole L. W., private, Company I, 5th Maine, " Tyack Solomon, private, Company I, 11th N. Y., " Thompson D. A., private, Company C, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Thompkins E., private, Company G, 71st N. Y., Alabama. Thompkins B. D., private, Company C, 71st N. Y., Thiery H., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Turner Charles, private, Company B, 1st Minn.,, Tuttle L. B., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Thoburn Wm., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Thorp G. W., private, Company F, 19th Ind., a Thuman H., private, Company F, 47th Ohio, " Tennison H., citizen, Va., Richmond. Thompson A., musician, 11th Mass., it Torey J., private, Company I, 11th Mass., t Tyler John, private, Company D, 38th N. Y., " Taylor W., fifer, Company E, 2d Wis., " Tucker C., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., 4 Taylor B., private, Company F, 2d Vt., r6

Page  352 852 APPENDIX. Tibbetts C. W., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., murdered by the sentinel, Dead. Tucker W. H., corporal, Company I, 2d N. Y., Richmond. Trail W., private, Company D, 27th N. Y., 4 Tripp Ira, steward, 8th Penn., c Theabern T. A., private, Company D, 69th N. Y., Alabama. Tweedie A., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., Thornton W., private, Company D, 1st Mich., Thornton G., citizen, Va., Richmond. Turner J., citizen, Va., 4 Turner T. B., citizen, Va., u Turner T. D., citizen, Va., Turner J. L., citizen, Va., Turner W. R., citizen, Va., Tyndale R. E., private, Company C, 1st Cal., 4 Thurgland H., private, Company C, 1st Cal., c Tetler James, private, Company D, 20th Mass., C Thomson W., private, Company E, 20th Mass., " Tapp Benjamin, private, Company I, 15th Mass., 4 Thomson D., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., 4 Taylor J. B., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Thompson J. B., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Taylor W. A., private, Company C, 15th Mass., Thayer R., private, Company I, 15th Mass., Tousey, private, Company A, 20th Mass., Talcott R. H. L., sergeant, Company D, 20th Mass., Tibbetts H., private, Company H, 2d N. Y., Taylor James, private, Company K, 2d Wis., Ten Eyck M. H., private, Company E, 14th N. Y., Ten Eyck C., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., Trim J., private, Company H, 4th Maine, N. Orleans. Townsend, corporal, Company I, 43d N. Y., Alabama. Trowbridge Peter, waiter, Tillman, corporal, Company K, De Kalb reg't, N. Y., Richmond. Tuoffer C., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., 4 Thomas Sanford, citizen, Va., C Thomas M., citizen, Va., " Tale G. W., private, Company, A, 9th Va., c Tambett John, private, Company A, 9th Va., t

Page  353 APPENDIX. 353 Teet J. W., private, Company A, 9th Va., Richmond. Teen W. J., private, Company A, 9th Va., " Tappy F. J., private, Company D, 1st Art. U. S., deserter, Released. Tricker Isaac, private, Company C, 1st Minn., Richmond. Underhill A. M., private, Company G, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Upham W. H., private, Company F., 2d Wis., Richmond. Upham Charles W., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Dead. Underwood P. F., private, Company H, 15th Mass., Richmond. Vanderhoof Charles, private, Company F, 2d N. Y., N. Orleans. Vanolkenberg W. S., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Vogully Wm., corporal, Company I, 9th Mass., Vanbel H. C., private, U. S., Columbia. Van Horn A, private, Company H, 20th Ind., Van Fleet Thos., private, Company I, 1st Ky., Vought J., 1st U. S. A., Discharged. Veneables Charles E., private, Company B, 8th N. Y., Home. Vanhorn L. F., private, Company B, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Vanness C., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., Richmond. Vassal B. B., lieutenant, Company H, 15th Mass., 4 Van Horn W., private, Company D, 14th N. Y., Alabama. Vandeger Sam., private, Company I, 88th N. Y., Richmond. Vandresser H., private, Company K, 27th N. Y., " Vanalstine W., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., " Vedder C., private, Company H, 13th N. Y., Alabama. Vanarner H., private, Company K, 88th N. Y., Richmond. Vanhouser W., private, 5th Company, 79th N. Y., t Vaughn Bushrod, private, Company D, 71st N. Y., 1 Van Aiken, private, Company A, 1st Cal., Vance John, private, Company G, 1st Cal., 9 Vana John, Company G, 1st Cal., Veach C. M., citizen, Virginia, Vanmeter Solomon, citizen, Virginia, Vissor J., citizen, Virginia, Vibbart H., private, Company F, 15th Mass., " Vogel H., corporal, Company C, 20th Mass., Van Buskirk Clinton, citizen, Kentucky, Vandergreen, corporal, Company I, 30th N. Y., Veal Nathan, private, Company E, 15th Mass., Vittelo A., private, Company A, 9th Va., 2

Page  354 354 APPENDIX. Vanhost Henry, private, Company D, 63d Penn., Richmond. Yater Gutleff, private, Company A, 45th N. Y., 46 White A. T., private, 1st R. I., Dead. Williams John, private, 13th N. Y., ( Wild S., 11th Mass., Wilpin Charles, private, Company A, 71st N. Y., N. Orleans. Warren L., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, " Wills S., private, Company E, 27th N. Y., " Wise George W., private, Company E, 1st Ohio, " Whitcomb W., private, Company C, 1st Mass., Willey S., private, Company H, 11th Mass., " Woodcock M. L., private, Company C, 4th Maine, Woolsencraft, private, Company C, 14th N. Y., Winslow L. F., private, Company B, 5th Maine, Welch J., private, Company B, 3d Maine, Wilcoxen F. F., sergeant, Company E, 7th Ohio, u Wheeler W. W., private, Company C, 7th Ohio, Wilderson R., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, Wolf T., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, " Williams F., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, i Waley M. H., private, Company A, 7th Ohio, " Wood H., musician, Company D, 7th Ohio, " Wright R. H., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., " Wheeler T. F., private, Company A, 2d N. H., " White M., private, Company A, 2d U. S., t West G. W., private, Company I, 15th Penn., t Williams J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., " Woolag J., private, Company I, 15th Penn., 4 Walter T. W., private, Company I, 15th Penn., i Wilson T., private, Company I, 15th Penn., t Weeler H. L., private, Company C, 5th Mass., t Wheeler E. J., private, Company C, 5th Mass., Wardwell C. F., private, Company G, 5th Mass., Wise S., private, Company K, 1st Wis., Whiteman J. II., private, Company., 2d N. H., t Weed George, private, Company A, 3d Conn., ( Wright C., private, Company G, 3d U. S., Wallrode L., private, Company H, 2d N. H., Wood A. S., private, Company A, U. S., "

Page  355 APPENDIX. 355 Williams T. D., private, Company C, 3d Penn., N. Orleans. Williams G., private, Company E, U. S., " Wing C., private, Company B, 26th N. Y., " Winslow Paul, private, Company B, 26th N. Y., 4 Wesenbeck Henry, private, Company K, 7th Ohio,- 4 Wallace H. M., private, Company B, 26th Ohio, ( Williams G. W., private, Company B, 7th Ohio, " Ward George W., private, Company D, 2d Ohio, 4 Wade G. B., private, Company H, 11th Mass., " Wendell W. P., private, Company H, 20th Indiana, Columbia. Wilkinson H. C., private, Company F, 20th Indiana, Walson H., sutler's clerk, 20th Indiana, " Wilson John, private, Company I, 15th Indiana, Wolfkill N. K., private, Company C, 13th Ohio, ( Ward Isaac, private, Company C, 13th Ohio, Wilson Ira, private, Company C, 11th N. Y., t Walsh Robt., private, Company A, 11th Ohio, " Wyman Thos., private, Company C, 2d U. S., " Walker Ed., private, Company H, 11th N. Y., 4 Washburn H. B., private, Company H, 4th Maine, i Woodburg W. A., private, Company H, 2d Vt., Home. Wise T. T., private, Company F, 11th N. Y., Charleston. Wherry R., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., " Wate Chas. L., private, 7th Company, 79th N. Y., ( Wilson N. H., sergeant, Company F, 2d N. Y., Home. Wellman T. J., sergeant, Company A, 71st N. Y., 4 Warner T. F., private, Company C, 13th N. Y., 4 Wiseman T., teamster, 1st Mich., Charleston. Whitcomb C. W., sergeant, Company C, 1st Mich., 4 Walker N., sergeant, Company C, 1st Mich., t Wirts T. H., private, Company F, 4th Mich., " Widgeon L. L., surgeon, C. S. A., County Jail. Wilson Henry, N. Carolina. Welsh George, Wade W. S., private, Company G, 2d Maine, Richmond. Willis W. H., sergeant, 1st Art. U. S., " White Charles, private, Company I, 12th Ohio, ( Williams L. H., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., Alabama. Wilkens F. N., private, Company E, 11th N. Y.,

Page  356 356 APPENDIX. "Wice W., private, Company B, 38th N. Y., Alabama. Welch L. R., private, Company D, 8th Ohio, " Wiggens L., private, Company E, 14th N. Y., " West H., private, Company D, 2d N. H., Wilcoxen 0., private, Company D, 2d Wis., t "Wallace Rich., private, Company G, 69th N. Y., Richmond. Walker W. H., private, Company H, 2d N. H., Alabama. Water P., private, Company K, 38th N. Y., Wright H. C., private, Company A, 1st Minn., < White H. W., private, Company H, 5th Maine, White M., private, Company H, 3d U. S., ' ichmond. Withim T. W., private, Company F, 2d Maine, Alabama. Whelan John, private, Company F, 11th Mass., Whitonsky J., private, Company K, 1st Ohio, Welsh Wm., private, Company H, 27th N. Y., Welen S., private, Company I, 8th Ohio, Welan W. C., private, Company I, 8th Ohio, " Wilson F., private, Company I, 8th Ohio, Wigand C., private, Company I, 13th Indiana, Williams T., corporal, Company I, 6th Ohio, Warner W., private, Company I, 13th Indiana, Weazel W., private, Company I, 6th Ohio, Whitcomb O. W., private, Company E, 2d Maine, " Workmeister J., private, Company E, 41st N. Y., Worthington L., private, Company C, Ky. Cav., Worn Sol., private, Company G, 27th N. Y., Richmond. Willis T., private, Company D, 5th Me., Alabama. Warner J. F., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., Weise J. H., private, Company C, 14th N. Y., White John, private, Company H, 1st Minn., Watrous E., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Whitmore P. B., sailor, U. S. N., Wallace W. B., sailor, U. S. N., Welsh R., private, Company A, 2d Wis., Weed H. C., private, Company E, 2d Wis., Warner E. H., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., Wheeler J. R., private, Company C, 2d Art. U. S. Williams E. J., private, Company F, 5th Mass., Richmond. Webster M., corporal, Company I, 19th N. Y., Alabama. Wilkinson J. F., privatf Company G, 2d R. I.,

Page  357 APPENDIX. Walker Thomas, private, 9th Company, 79th N. Y., Alabama. Warren R., private, Company H, 11th Mass., 4 Wilkinson J. F., private, Company B, 2d Conn., c Whitacker D. W., private, Company F, 71st N. Y., Richmond. "Wilder Anthony, private, Company E, 38th N. Y., Alabama. Workman Wm., citizen, Va., Richmond. Wall Harrison, citizen, Va., " Wood W. B., citizen, Va., Released. Wood J. B., citizen, Va., 4 Watrous D. W., citizen, Va., " Walker G. W., citizen, Penn., Richmond. Williams Alex., citizen, Va., Released. Wilson Arthur, citizen, Va., Richmond. White Robert, citizen, Va., Released. Waltz T., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., Richmond. Wigham C., private, Company C, 42d N. Y., (, Wert Peter, private, Company K, 42d N. Y., 4 Welsh W. T., private, Company K, 42d N. Y.,,t Wallace W., private, Company K, 42d N. Y., " Wilson John, private, Company A, 42d N. Y.,) Wright Thomas, private, Company G, 42d N. Y., 4 Wiser George, corporal, Company A, 42d N. Y., 9 Wallin George F., private, Company C, 1st Cal., i Wilkerson W., private, Company H, 1st Cal., Whitehouse Thomas, private, Company H, 1st Cal., Willman H. A., private, Company H, 1st Cal., t Walk Fred., private, Company L, 1st Cal., Weingateman C., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Walk J. M., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Wingate W., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Weaver H. C., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Wild Charles, private, Company N, 1st Cal., Wharterby W. H., private, Company N, 1st Cal., Wheyson Thomas F., private, Company A, 1st Cal., Wallace Joseph, private, Company G, 1st Cal., 9 Wise John, sergeant, Company P, 1st Cal., 9 Wipple Jacob, private, Company C, 20th Mass., 9 White J. E., private, Company D, 15th Mass., 9 Watson G. H,, private, Company A, 15th Mass., 4

Page  358 358 APPENDIX. Wood George, private, Company A, 15th Mass., Richmond. Wenler H., private, Company D, 15th Mass., Whitmore H. F., private, Company B, 15th Mass., Wilder C. H., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Whitney W. B., private, Company A, 15th Mass., Wallace D. 0., corporal, Company C, 15th Mass., Woodward Theodore, private, Company C, 15th Mass., Dead. Ward Artemus D., private, Company F, 15th Mass., Richmond. Wingate G. W., corporal, Company G, 15th Mass., Williams T. S., private, Company H, 15th Mass., Walker George, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Ward Hiram, private, Company I, 15th Mass., Weston R. W., sergeant, Company A, 20th Mass., Woodman Daniel, private, Company H, 20th Mass., Waldron Alfred B., private, Company H, 1st R.., Alabama. Weatherby F., private, Company C, 2d N. H., Dead. Ward Daniel, private, 3d Company, 79th N. Y., Richmond. Wait John, private, 3d Company, 79th N. Y., " Wilson John, corporal, Company F, 11th N. Y., " Williamson N. F., private, Company F, 14th N. Y., Walsh M. G., private, Company F, 69th N. Y., Williams H. H., sergeant, 1st Minn., Webber Charles, private, Company E, 7th Ohio, Richmond Hospital. Wood D. B., private, Company K, 5th Me., Richmond. Wilmer Eugene, private, Company C, 1st Minn., Webster A. H., private, Company E, 79th N. Y., ' Winferto George, private, Company C, 2d Ohio, Weatherill E., corporal, 1st Company, 79th N. Y., Dead. Walkuh, citizen, Va., Wright K. M., private, Company E, 20th N. Y., Richmond. Wheeler P. H., private, Company I, 23d N. Y., Alabama. Wills Wm. citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Released. Wills S. J., citizen, Rolla Co., Va., Richmond. Witcher Daniel, citizen, Wayne Co., Va., Williams Isaac, citizen, Fayette Co., Va., Released. Webster F., sergeant, Company A, 30th N. Y., Richmond. White W. B., corporal, Company E, 30th N. Y., Wheeler R., private, Company B, 30th N. Y., Weston Wm., citizen, Va., Released.

Page  359 APPENDIX. 359 Williams John H., private, Company E, 15th Mass., Richmond. Waite Samuel, private, 1st Cav. Va., c Wood J. E., First Lieutenant, Company A, 9th Va., t Ward Daniel, private, Company A, 9th Va., " Wilson Solomon, private, Company A, 9th Va., " Winal Henry, citizen, Va., Released. Wharter John H., private, Company A, 9th Va., Richmond. Wright James, private, Company A, 9th Va., " White A. G., citizen, Va., Released. Woohern Daniel, private, Company A, 9th Va., Richmond. William George, private, Company A, 2d N. Y., ( Walker H., sergeant, Company F, 2d Penn., Willis J. M., sergeant, Company M, 2d Penn. Cav., i Wing James, corporal, Company M, 2d Penn. Cav., i Wright Robert, private, Company F, 2d Penn. Cav., 9 Williams William H., citizen, Fairfax Co., Va., cc Westcott H. S., corporal, Company E, 12th Indiana, Ward Wm., C. S. A.,. Waldron Thomas, citizen, Occoquan, Va., 1 Willis J. H., sergeant, 1st Art. N. Y., Williamson W. H., private, Company A, 2d Art. N. Y., " Washburn A. D., mate, brig Ellinore, Yittle T. A., private, Company I, 13th Penn., Dead. Yeager William, private, Company I, 13th Penn., " Young C. F., private, Company C, 27th N. Y., N. Orleans. Yitzman A., private, Company K, 7th Ohio, " Yenman Michael, private, Company H, 1st Minn., Young D., private, Company D, 1st R. I., Alabama. Yeager M., private, Company I, 1st R. L, 'c Yimmanian John, private, Company D, 6th Ohio, i Young A. J., private, Company H, 1st Minn., Richmond. Yates J. H., private, Company F, 27th N. Y., ) Yeager A. C., corporal, Company C, 1st Cal., c Young E., private, Company C, 1st Cal., c Yepper J. H., private, Company D, 1st Cal., c Yepp Thomas, private, Company D, 1st Cal., c Yannage Francis, private, Company C, 20th Mass.,, Yates G., private, Company C, 1st Cal., 44 Lane M., private, Company D, 1st Cal., I

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered]