Ethnography and philology of the Hidatsa Indians.: By Washington Matthews.
Matthews, Washington, 1843-1905.


Page  ii — I 7~' . I

Page  iii PREFATORY NOTE. UNITED STATES GEOLOGICAL AND GEOGRAPHICAL SURVEY OF TIlE TERRITORIES, Washington, D. C., June 10, 1877. During the year 1854, while engaged in exploring the then almost unknown country along the Upper Missouri and its tributaries, the writer of this note commenced the work of collecting vocabularies of the languages and other ethnological data respecting the Indians of the Northwest. Ile continued this work at intervals during a period of about six years, and the materials thus accumulated were finally published in 1862 in the "Transactions" of the American Philosophical Society of Philadelphia, under the title of "Contributions to the Ethnography and Phirology of the Indian Tribes of the Missouri Valley". A brief sketch of the llidatsa Indians, and an incomplete vocabulary of their language, was included in that work. The author of the present volume, Dr. Washington Matthews, assistant surgeon United States Army, spent some years among these Indians while stationed at a military post in performance of his official duties as a medical officer of the Army. During this period he paid great attention to the same subject, observing the manners, customs, and other characteristics of these Indians, and making a close and careful study of their language. In this way were secured the materials upon which, elaborated with the utmost care and with conspicuous ability, the present important memoir is based. Dr. Matthews's earlier studies of the suibject resulted in a HlidatsaEnglish and English-Hidatsa vocabulary, prefaced by anl essay on the grammatical structure of the language. A small edition (100 copies) was printed by Mr. J. G. Shea as one of his series of American Linguaistics. At the request of the writer,-who earnestly desired to push to completion the work he had long since undertaken, but was compelled by pressure of other engagements to suspend, Dr. Matthews spent much time in entirely remodeling and greatly enlarging the scope of his paper, to include the ethnography as well as the philology of the tribe. His final result is herewith presented. Besides revising and addling much new matter to the vocabularies, Dr. Matthews has here made those other important additions, without which the article could hardly have been considered monograplhic. The whole of the "'ethnography " and " philology " are new. The manner in which the work has been accomplished reflects great credit upon the author and upon the Medical corps of the Army, whose capacity for scientific work Dr. Matthews honorably illustrates in his own person. Of the value of the work as a contribution to American Ethnology, little need III A, ,.- 11, V-, (7

Page  iv PREFATORY NOTE. be said; I regard it as the most important memoir on our aboriginal Indian languages which has appeared since the Dakota grammar and dictionary, by Rev. S. R. Riggs, was published by the Smithsonian Institution. It was originally intended to publish this treatise as a portion of a general work on Indian ethnography now in course of preparation by the undersigned. The delay in its appearance which such course would entail, and the great merit of the work here accomplished, render it desirable, in justice both to the author and to the subject, that it should appear as a separate publication. As circumstances rendered it impossible for the author to attend personally to the work during its passage through the press, the duty of superintending its publication devolved upon Dr. Elliott Coues, U. S. A., to whom the thanks of the Survey are due for the careful manner in which he has accomplished the task. F. V. HAYDEN, United States Geologist. IV

Page  v TABLE OF CONTENTS. -ETH NOGRAPHY. PART I. age. .1 1 1 $ 8 9 9 10 11 12 15 16 17 18 23 27 28 VILLAGE AT FORT BERTHOLD.........................................-.... Location.................................................................... Dwellings................................................................... Drying frames-...................................................... Caches -.........................................................-.. Cemetery; burial-......-........................................ Places of worship... —-------------------------------------------—. Fortifications-...........,..........................................0 Farms and farming................................................... Inhabitants of the village_.................................................. Amahami..........................-.............................. Population........................................................ Conversation................................................................ Arts-.................................................................... Food, etc................................................................... Inter-tribal trade..................................................... Intercourse with whites..................................................... PART II. THE HIDATSA TRIBE -...........................................-........33 Names of the tribe-................................................33 History.-........................................................3. Character............................................. —................. Appearance........................4........................................ Ceremonies-......................................... —...........4. Mythology and superstitions..........................................47 Marriage, etc-......................................................2 Names............................................................ Relationship ---------------------------------------------------------------- Hunting -.......................................................-......... Warfare-.........................................................60 Stories...................................................................... Divisions of time-.......................................7. PHILOLOGY. Classification of the Hidatsa language-.....-. —..-.... —....-................... Relations of Dakota to Hidatsa.. - -...... —........-......... — -..-......... Relations of Crow to Hidatsa.................................................. Some difficulties in the study of the Hidatsa.. - - -....-.-... —................ Sonant character..-. —... —...-.-.-.. —-....-...- -..-.-... ——... — -.4....... V 33 33 36 40 42 45 47 52 54 55 57 60 62 70 75 75 77 80 84

Page  vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. Page. HIDATSA GRAMMAR: LETTERS.................................................................... 89 Essential letters........................................................... 89 Non-essential letters...............e.,.,,,................. 90 Remarks.................................................................. 90 SYLLABLES ------—.. —----------------— 91 WORDS.................................................................. -------------- -- 92 Nouns.................................................................... 92 Noun8 - -------------------------— 92 Primitive nouns......,.....- -......,',,,92 Derivative nouns........................................................ 93 Diminutives.....................................................-.-. -------— 95 Compound nouns..................................... 95 Properties of nouns...................................................... 95 Proper nouns..............,,.,,.,,.,,...,,,...,,,,,,,...........,,,97 Syntax of nouns................... 98 Pronouns —-------------------------------—............ —-98 Personal pronouns...................................................... 98 Relative pronouns............................... 101 Interrogative pronouns.................................................. 101 Demonstrative pronouns................................................. 101 Syntax of pronouns...................................................... 100 Vebs..................................................................... 102 Verbal roots............................................................ 103 Prefixes and suffixes..................................................... 103 Properties of verbs...................................................... 106 Conjugation of verbs......-...-.......... 108 Unconjugated verbs —--------......... —.......,..........,115 Irrengulrandectied verbs.............................................................. 115 Irregular and defective verbs —--------. 115 Compound verbs ------—...... —..... —116 Syntax of verbs......................................................... 116 Adjecth,es.......... -.... -. -. —.....-.-......-.......-.116 Numerals...-...... 116 Syntax of adjectives................. —----------------------------------------—. 118 Adverbs.......................... 119 Prepositions.............................................................. 120 CosjUnCtions —--------------------— 121 CoInterjeunctions............................................................... 121 Interjections............................................................... 121 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. 125 LOCAL NAMES.............................................................. 210 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY........-.................... 215 VI

Page  1 ETHN()GRANP -fil. -1

Page  2 0

Page  3 ETHNOGRAPH Ye PART I. THE VILLAGE AT FORT BERTHOLD, AND ITS INHABITANTS. ~ 1. The Hidatsa, MAinnetaree, or Grosventre Indians, are one of the three tribes which at present inhabit the pernmanent village at Fort Berthold, Dakota Territory, and hunt on the waters of the Upper Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers, in Northwestern Dakota and Eastern Montana. The history of this tribe is so intimately connected with that of the politically-allied tribes of the Aricarees and Mandans that we cannot well give an account of one without making some mention of the others. In this first part of the Ethnography, all the tribes are included. ~ 2. LOCATION.-An arid prairie-terrace, some four miles wide, stretching southward to the Missouri from the base of bluffs which form the edge of a higher plain, becomes gradually narrower as it approaches the river, and terminates in a steep bluff of soft rock and lignite which overhangs the river. On the southern extremity of this terrace, near the brow of the bluff, stand the Indian village, and what remains, since a recent fire, of the old trading-post of Fort Berthold. This is on the left bank of the Missouri, in latitude 47~ 34' north, and longitude 101~ 48' west, nearly. About five years ago, a large reservation was declared for them in Dakota and Montana, along the Missouri and Yellowstone Rivers. Fort Berthold is in the northeast corner of this reservation. ~ 3. DWELLINGS. -The village consists of a number of

Page  4 ETHINOGRAPIIY OF THE IIDADATSA INDIANSF. houses* built very closely together, without any attempt at regularity of position. The doors face in every possible direction; and there is great uniformity in the appearance of the lodges; so it is a very difficult matter to find one's way among them. Oldi-style lodges.-Most of the houses of the village were in 1865 peculiar, large, earth-covered lodges, such as were built by various tribes of Indians of the plains, in the valley of the Missouri, and so often, with varying accurac, described by travelers.+ Eachl one of these lodges consists of a wooden frame, covered with willows, hay, and earth. A hole in the top, which lets in the light and lets out the smoke, and a doorway on one side, are the only apertures in the building. The door is made of raw-hide stretched on a frame, or of puncheons, and it is protected by a narrow shed or entry from six to ten feet long. Over the smoke-holes of many of the lodges are placed frames of wicker-work, on which skins are spread to the windward in stormy weather to keep the lodges fromi getting smoky. Sometimes bull-boats are used for this purpose. On the site of a proposed lodge, they often dig down a foot or more, in order to find earth compact enough to form a good floor; so, in some l odgles, the floors are lower than the general surface of the ground on which'the village stands. The floor is of earth III the fall of 1872, Dr. C. E. McCllesniey, tlihenii physician at the Bertlholl agency, counted; with great care, th b,ihlilgs in the village, anxl, ii a letter, gave iiie the following results: — Old-style (round) lodges of Rees........................................ 43 Log-cabins of Rees......................................... 28 Total number of houses of Rees......................................... 71 Oh1l-style lodges of Grosventres and Mandans................. 35 Log-cabins of Grosveiitres and Manda-s -------------—................................ 69 Total number of houses of Gi'osventres anlga Maiidans -. —------------- --- Total number of houses of Gi-osventres and Maiidans -......... - 104 Total of houses in village............................................ 175 He remarks:-" I could not separate the Grosventres frol[I the Mnda')d-s, owing to the stupidity of the interpreter. If anything, this number is under, certainly not over; l)ut it does not vary more than ten."-Soine five or six houses, occupied by white men wi,h Indianl families, were probably not included in this enumeration. t Lewis and Clarke, pp. 73, 78.-Gass, pp. 72, 73.-Maximili-an, p. 343.-De Smnet, pp. 76-77, and others.-Comnpare with descriptions of Kanzas, Omaha, and Pawnee lodg_es in Long'l expedition, pp. 120, 200, 436. 4

Page  5 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HI])ATSA INDIANS. and has in its center a circular depression, for a fire-place, about a foot deep, and three or four feet wide, with an edging of flat rocks. These dwellings, being from thirty to forty feet in diaenuter, from ten to fifteen feet high in the center, and from five to seven feet high at the e aves, are quite commodious. The labor of constructing them is performed mostly by the women; but, in lifting and setting the heavier beams, the men assist. If, with the aid of steel axes obtained from the whites, the task of building such a house is no easy one at. this day, how difficult it must have been a century ago, when the stone ax was their best implement, and when the larger logs had to be burned through in order that pieces of suitable length might be obtaimed! The frame of a lodge is thus made: A number of stout posts, from ten to fifteen, according, to the size of the lodge, and rising to the height of about five feet above the surface of the earth, are set about ten feet apart in a circle. On the tops of thems posts, soli bl zns are laid, extending from one to another. Then, toward the center of the lodge, four more posts are erected, of much greater diameter than the outer posts, and rising to the height of ten or more feet above the ground. These four posts stand in the corners of a square of about fifteen feet, and their tops are connected with four heavy logs or beams laid horizontally. From the four central beams to the smaller external beams, long poles, as rafters, are stretched at an angcle of about 30~ with the horizon; and from the outer beams to the earth a number of shorter poles are laid at an angle of about 45~. Finally, a number of saplings or rails are laid horizontally to cover the space between the four central beams, leaving only a hole for the combined skylight and chimney. This frame is then covered withl willows, hay, and earth, as before mentioned; the covering being of equal depth over all parts of the frame. Earlier writers speak of the suppDrting-posts of the lodge as being forked. Nowadays, they seldom take the trouble to obtain forked sticks for this purpose. From the above description, it will be seen that the outline of a vertical section, or of the elevation of such a lodge, is necessarily an irregular hexagon, while that of its ~round-plan is 5.

Page  6 ETHNOGRAPIHY OF TIlE IIIDATSA INDIANS. polygonal, the angles being equal in number to the shorter uprights. Prince Maximilian's artist usually sketches the lodge very correctly; but Mr. Catlin invariably gives an incorrect representation of its exterior. Wherever he depicts a Mandan, Arickaree, or Minnetaree lodge, he makes it appear as an almost exact hemisphere, and always omits the entry. It would seem that, in filling in his sketches, he adopted the hemisphere as a convenient symbol for a lodge. The authors referred toby name in the foot-note on page- speak of the entry or passage.* A partition of puncheons, poles, or hurdles is often raised between the fire-place and the door, particularly in cold weather, to shelter the group around the fire-place when the door is opened. Mats, hurdles, hair-pillows, and buffalo-robes laid on the ground constitute the seats. Curtained bedsteads are arranged around the circumference of the lodge, between the shorter uprights. Arms, implements, household-utensils, medicinebags, etc., are hung from pegs on the various suLpporting-posts of the lodge. A wooden mortar, wherein corn and mneat are pounded, is set in the earthen floor. The space between the outer row of supporting-posts and the outer wall is called 'atuti', or bottom of the lodge, and in it stored bull-boats, skinlodges and various other articles; here, too, we usually find the sudatory. ValuLable horses are often housed at night in these lodges, in a pen near the door; but the residents of the loghouses, to be described hereafter, keep horses in separate sheds outside. Log-houses.-Every winter, until 1866, the Indians left their permanent village, and, moving some distance up the Missouri Valley, built temporary quarters, usually in the center of heavy forests and in the neighborhood of buffalo. The chief objects of this movement were that they might have fuel c(,nvenient, and not exhaust the supply of wood in the neighborhood of the permanent village. It was also advisable that, during a portion of the year at least, they should inot harass the game near home. The houses of the winter-villages resem * Perhaps it would be well to illustrate this with a copy of plate 47, vol. 1, of Catlin, and a copy of the figure on p. 343 of Maximilian. 6

Page  7 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. bled much the log-cabins of our own western pioneers. They were neatly built, very warm, had regular fire-places and chimneys built of sticks and mud, and square holes in the roofs for the admission of light. Ten years ago, there were some cabins of this description in the permanent village at Fort Berthold; every year since, they are becoming gradually more numerous and threaten to eventually supplant the original earthcovered lodges. By reference to th6 note on page 4, it will be seen that, in 1872, the former outnumbered the latter by about nineteen. Skin-lodges.-The practice of building winter-quarters is now abandoned. As game has recently become very scarce in their country, they are obliged to travel immense distances, and almost constantly, when they go out on their winter-hunts. Requiring, therefore, movable habitations, they take with- them, onl their journeys, the ordinary skin-lodges, or "4tepees", such as are used by the Dakotas, Assiniboines, and other nomadic tribes in this region. Such lodges, too, they have always used on their summer-hunts, and on all long journeys except with warparties. The skin-lodges of the prairie Indians have been so often described and depicted that any further reference to them in this paper would be unnecessary. It is enough to say that the tribes here considered, construct them in the same manner as do their neighbors, often ornamenting them with paintings, quill-embroideries, and other decorations. Itiunting-lodyes.- In one of his "Solitary Rambles", Palliser found, on the Turtle Mountain, four days journey from Fort Berthold, in the spring of 1858, a Minnetaree hunting-lodge of which he says:-"They had built a triangular lodge of long wooden poles, like hop-poles, piling them in the shape of a cone, and so closely as to render the hut bullet-proof, a necessary precaution, as they could never venture there save in fear of their lives, the position lying in the regular pass of the Sioux, when they go to war with either them or the Crows. We took possession of the hut, not sorry to feel ourselves in a bulletproof shelter, in a place where, I must admit, we ran some risk of being surprised by an Indian war-party."* *p.266. 7

Page  8 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. In the winter of 1871, while hunting with a party of In dians from the Berthold village, in the bad-lands of the Little Missouri, I spent three nights in a lodge of exactly the same kind, which was quite old, and had often served as the tempo rary shelter of Hidatsa hunting-parties. It stood in an excel lent but dangerous game-region, some four or five days journey from Fort Berthold, and was built for the convenience of parties composed only of men who found it advisable to visit that neighborhood without tellnts or other incumbrances. There are probably other lodges of this kind in the country around Berthold, but I have seen only this one. 4. DRYING-FRAMES, corn-scaffolds, or, as some call them, "gridirons", stand in various parts of the village, and arequite numerous. They must resemble much the drying-frames of the agricultural tribes of the far east and south, if we are to judge by the descriptions given. They seem to differ in shape from those of the Omahas-of which the writer has seen photographs, but not the originals-by having the supporting-posts longer, and rising above the floor. They are made by setting in the ground some six or eight saplings, which rise to the height of twelve or fifteen feet. To these, at the height of seven or eight feet, cross-pieces are lashed; and on the latter a floor of poles or willow hurdles is laid; smaller poles are lashed to the tops of thie upright supports. Corn and other vegetables, meat, robes, etc., are dried on these frames; and -the labor of preparing and cleaning corn is done on the hurdlefloor, or on the ground underneath. 5. CACHES. The numerous caches, or pits, for storing grain, are noteworthy objects in the village. In sumlnmer, when they are not in use, they are often left open, or are carelessly covered, and may entrap the unwary stroller. When these Indians have harvested their crops, and before they start on their winterhunt, they dig their caches, or clear' out those dug in previous years. A cache is a cellar, usually round, with a small opening above, barely large enough to allow a person to descend; when finished, it looks much like an ordinary round cistern. Reserving a small portion of corn, dried squash, etc., for winter use, they deposit the remainder in these subterranean store 8

Page  9 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. houses, along with household-utensils and other articles of value which they wish to leave behind. They then fill up the orifices with earth, which they trample down and rake over; thus obliterating every trace of the excavation. Some caches are made under the floors of the houses, others outside, in various parts of the village-grounds; in each case, the distance and direction from some door, post, bedstead, fire-place, or other object is noted, so that the stores may be found on the return of the owners in the spring. Should an enemy enter the village while it is temporarily deserted, the goods are safe from fire and theft. This method of secreting property has long been in use among many tribes, has been adopted by whites living on the plains, and is referred to in the works of many travelers. ~ 6. CEMETIERY.-BURIALS.-On the prairie, a shlort distance behind the village, are scattered around'the scaffolds and the graves whereon and wherein are deposited the dead. Formerly, all who died in the village were placed on scaffolds, as is the custom with most of the Missouri Valley tribes; but the practice of burying in the ground, after the manner of the Europeans and Arickarees, is gradually becoming more common; and every year the scaffolds decrease, and the graves increase in number. When at a distance from their village on their hunts, if encamped in the neighborhood of timber, they lay the corpses in the branches of the trees instead of building scaffolds. ~ 7. PLACEs OF wonsuIP.-There are, in the village, two open spaces, which, although of irregular shape, may b~e called squares; one of these is in the Mandan, the other in the Arickaree quarter. Beside each square stands a large round "medicine-lodge ", or temple, built as described in the second paragraph of ~ 3, which is used for purposes that, in a general way, are called religious. In the center of the Mandan square is a small circular palisade, about six feet high and four feet in diameter, made of neatly-hewn puncheons set closely together. It has somewhat the appearance of a large barrel, and is emblematic of the ark in which, according to Mandan mythology, the sole survivor 9

Page  10 ETItNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. of the Deluge was saved. The square, the medicine-lodge, with its four poles in front, surmounted by sacrificial effigies, and the ark, as they may be seen at Fort Berthold to-day, seem to be the almost exact counterparts of those which were seen in the old Mandan village at Fort Clarke, in 1832 and 1833, by George Catlin and the Prince of New-Wied, if we are to judge by the drawings they have given us. Within the temple and around the ark, the Mandans still perform the ceremony of the Okeepa, which Catlin so accurately describes. The awful severities of the rite have, however, been somewhat mitigated since his day. The medicine-lodge of the Arickarees is larger than that of the Mandans, and is used for,a greater variety of ceremonies. Some of these performances, consisting of ingenious tricks of jugglery and dances, representative of various hunts, we might be inclined to call theatrical rather than religious. Probably these Indians consider them both worshipful and entertaining. It is often hard to tell how much of a religious ceremony is intended to propitiate the unknown powers, and how much to please the spectators. The Grosventres, or Hidatsas, have no house especially devoted to their "medicine". Some of their minor rites are performed in ordinary dwellings, in temporary houses, or in the open air. Their most important ceremony is conducted in a structure of willows erected for the occasion around a tall forked log. After the ceremony (described in S 22), the log, or pole, is left standing until the forces of nature throw it down. Several of these logs, in various stages of decay, may be seen on the prairie between the village and the cemetery. 8. FORTIFICATIONS.-Many travelers have described their towns as being fortified,* sometimes with walls, but usually with ditches and stockades, or with stockades alone. The latter system of defense was in use at the village of Fort Berthold until the winter of 1865, when they cut down the palisades for fire-wood; and they have never since restored them. The presence of United States troops in their neigh * Lewis and Claike, pp.69, 70, 72, 73, 74, 85, 84, etc.-Maximilian, p. 342.-Catlin, N. A. Indians, pp. 73, 204. 10

Page  11 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. borhood, and the growsing weakness of the Dakotas, were probably the causes which led them to discontinue their fortifications. ~ 9. FARMS AND FARMING.-From the base of the prairieterrace described in ~ 2, the bottomlands of the Missouri extend to the east and to the west, up and down the river. In the neighborhood of the village, they are covered partly with forest-trees, willows, and low brush, but chiefly with the little fields or gardens of these tribes. Five years ago, all the land cultivated around the village consisted of little patches, irregular in form and of various sizes, which were cleared out among the willows. The patches were sometimes separated from one another by trifling willowfences; but the boundaries were more commonly made by leaving the weeds and willows uncut, or small strips of ground uncultivated, between the fields. Every w6man in the village capable of working had her own piece of ground, which she cultivated with a hoe; but some of the more enterprising paid the traders in buffalo-robes to plow their land. They raised the plants which nearly all the agricultural tribes of the temperate regions cultivated *at the time of the discovery of Anierica-corn, squashes, beans, and tobacco. They also improved the growth of the wild sunflower, the seeds of which they eat. Their system of tillage was rude. They knew nothing of the value of manuring the soil, changing the seed, or alternating the crops. Perhaps they had little need of such knowledge; for when the soil was worn out, they abandoned it; and there was no stint of land in the wilderness. Sometimes, after a few years of rest, they would resume the cultivation of a worn field that was quite near the village, for proximity lent some value to the land; but they had no regular system of fallowing. They often planted a dozen grains of corn or more to the hill, and did not hoe very thoroughly. Withini the last few years, there has been an improvement in their farming. The bottom to the west of the village is still divided up and cultivated in the old way; but the bottom to the east and a part of the upland have been broken up by the Indian agency, fenced, and converted into a large field. A 11

Page  12 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. portion of this field is cultivated (chiefly by hired Indians) for the benefit of tile agency, and the rest'has been divided into si1all tracts each to be cultivated by a separate family foriits own benefit. Potatoes, turnips, and other vegetables have been introduced. Thie men apply themselves willingly to the labors of the field; and the number of working men is constantly increasing. The Arickarees and Mandans have doubtlessly tilled the sail for many centuries. Their accounts of the origin of corn are mminled with their earliest nmyths and traditions. There are somua reasons for believing that the Arickarees represent an older race of farmers than the Mandans; for their religiouts ceremonnies connected with planting are the more numerous, and they honor the corn with a species of worship. In every Arickaree lodge, there is a large ear of corn, which has lasted for generations, sticking out of the mouth of a medicine-bag. At their feasts, they make offerings to the corn by rubbing a piece of meat on it, while they pray to it for plentiful harvests, and address it by the name of "mother". The Hidatsas claimn to have had no knowleldge of corn until they first ate it firom thie trench-ers of the Mandans; ana they have no important ceremonies connected with the harvesting, yet they cultivated it loni- before the advent of the white man. In favorable years, they had good harvests, and were able to sell corn to other Indians and to their traders, besides keeping all they wanted for their own use. But they are not always thus fortunate for the soil of their country, even that on the Missouri bottoms, is not very rich; the summer season is short, with early and late frosts; the climate is dry; long droughts often prevail, to guard aga,inst which they have no systemn of irrigationi; and, lastly, the grasshoppers-the plague of the Missouri Valley farmer have often devoured the crops that had escaped all other enemies, and left the Indian with little more tllan seed enough for the coming spring.. ~ 10. INHABITAN'rS OF THE VILLAGE.-W[hen Lewis and Clarlke ascended the Missouri, in 1804, they found four tribes of agricultural Indians, numerous and prosperous, inhabiting the Upper Missouri Valley, west of the Dakota nation. They had 12

Page  13 ETIINOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. eight permanently inhabited towns, others which they lived in only temporarily, and a number more which they had abandoned and allowed to go to ruin. They are spoken of in Lewis and Clarke's journal as the "Ricaras," "Mandans," "Minnetarees," and "Ahnahaways." All that are left of the four tribes are now gathered together in this one village, at Fort Berthold, which does not probably number 2,500 souls. The remains, now nearly obliterated, of their old towns, may be traced on nearly every prairie-terrace adjacent to the Missouri, along six hundred miles of its course, from the mouth of the Lower White-Earth to the mouth of the Little Missouri. The Indians at Fort Berthold are, however, now generally referred to as "the three tribes"; for one of the nations spoken of by Captain Lewis-that which he calls Alinahaways is no10 longer an organized tribe, but has been merged into the Minnetarees. (See ~ 11.) Arickarees.-The first-mentioned tribe is known by the various names of Arikaras, Ricaras, Arickarees, and Rees, all of which are from their Mandan name, Arlkara. They are related to the Pawnees of the Platte Valley, from whom they separated more than a century ago. In 1804, they were found living farther down the Missouri than the Hidatsa and Mandan tribes, and were at war with the latter. They made peace in the course of time, and gradually followed the other tribes up the Missouri, building new villages and abandoning old ones as they went. In August, 1862, they moved to Fort Berthold, and began to erect houses there beside those of the Mandans and MAinnetarees. These three tribes have ever since occupied the same permanent village. Descriptions of the Arickarees, as they were seen at different periods, may be found in the works of Lewis and Clarke, Catlin, Maximilian, and Hayden. Lewis and Clarke give accounts of many of their early migrations, and the lastnamed three authors furnish vocabularies of their language. The Mandans, about a hundred years ago, lived in several villages near the imouth of Heart River. From this neighborhood, they moved up the Missouri, stopping and building villages at different localities.* In 1804, they were found * For an account of these muovemnents, see Lewis and Clarke, pp. 83-85. 1 3

Page  14 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. dwelling in two towns about four miles below the mouth of Knife River. One of these towns was named Md'tutahanke, Mitutahankish, or, as Maximilian writes it, "Mih-tutta-hangkusch," meaning Lower Village. The other was called Ruptari or Nuptadi. They were almost exterminated by the smallpox in 1837, after which, for a time, they occupied only one village. In 1845, when the Hidatsas moved away from Knife River, some of the Mandans went with them, and others followed at different times afterward. For a short time, it appears that a few Mandan families occupied the old Amahami village.- We have an account of some moving up to the village at Fort Berthold as late as 1858, and of others still remaining at the mouth of Knife River at the same time.* The word Mandan seems to be a corruption of the Dakota name Matani or Mawatani. Previous to 1837, they called themiselves simply Numakaki, i. e., People, Men. They sometimes spoke of themselves and the Minnetarees together as Nu'weta, Ourselves. A large band of their tribe was called Siposka-numakaki, Prairie-hen People, or Grouse Men.t This name, Mr. Catlin, in his first work, renders "People of the pheasants",: and, in his last work, presents in the shape of "Nu-mah-ka'-kee (pheasants)",~ and then, from this translation, leaves us to draw the "important inference" that the Mandans once lived in the Ohio Valley. They now often call themselves Metutahanke, after their old village below Knife River. Captains Lewis and Clarke, Mr. Catlin, the Prince of Neuwied, and Dr. Hayden have written very full accounts of this tribe, and all but the first-named explorers present vocabularies of their language. The work of Prince Maximilian contains the most accurate and extensive information regarding their customs and manners. Notwithstanding the great changes in the tribe since 1834, the majority of his notes might be used without alteration in describing the Mandans of Boller, pp. 35,36. t The Mandan name Siposka (Hidatsa, sitska or tsitska) is applied to the Tetrao phasianellus (Linn.) or Sharp-tailed Grouse, the prairie-hen of the Upper Missouri. J N. A. Indians, vol. i, pp. 80, 178; vol. ii, p. 260. O-kee-pa, pp. 5, 44. 14

Page  15 ETHNOGRAPHY OF IlHE HIDATSA INDIANS. to-day. In a few cases, however, I believe that the deductions which he drew from his observations were incorrect.* Minnetarees.-Since the other one of the three tribes, the Hidatsas or Minnetarees, forms the principal subject of this essay, it is spoken of at length; the description forming the second part of this sketch. 11. AMAHAMI.-The people who, by Lewis and Clarke, are generally called Ahnahaways, and, ii this dictionary, Ama ami, were closely allied to the Hidatsa, and spoke a language differing but slightly from that of the latter; yet they occupied a separate village and long maintained a distinct tribal organization. Their village, in 1804, was at the mouth of Knife River, and was one of three villages which for many years stood on the banks of that stream. (See ~ 19.) In 1804, they were estimnated as numbering about fifty warriors.t In 1833-'34, their village was said to contain eighteen houses.t These estimates indicate that there was no material change in their nuinbers during the intervening thirty years. After the epidemic of 1837, the whole or the greater part of the survivors joined the Hidatsa, and, as before stated, merged into the latter. In what year this fiusion took place, I was unable to determine; it may have been gradual. A few of the Amahamis perhaps identified themselves with the Mqndans. In 1858, after the Hidatsa had left Knife River, Boller saw some persons occupying a few huts at the mouth of Knife River, probably the old Amaliami village. He says, however, that the occupants were Mandans.~ Lewis and Clarke evidently regarded these people as distinct from the dwellers in the other two villages on Knife River; but Catlin seemed to think that thie Amaliami village was merely one of the Minnetaree villages, for he says that the Minnetarees occupied the three villages on Knife River; ~ and the Prince of Neuwied seems to agree with Mr. Catlin.** Perhaps in the * Thus, in speaking of the custom of carrying small bundles of sticks (p. 356), which then existed, and still to some extent exists, among the young men of the Mandans and Minnetarees, he says," They do not meet with many coy beauties." If such were the case, why should they display tokens of their success? Why boast of a deed which was no great achievement? t Lewis and Clarke, p. 96. t Maximilian, p. 178. p. 36. p. p. 89, 95, 97. ~ p. 185. p. 178. 15

Page  16 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATRSA INDIANS. days of these latter travelers, the Amahamis may have submitted to tile authority of the Minnetaree chief In one instance, Lewis and Clarke spell the name of this tribe "Arwacah::,-as.".* In 1834, their village stood on the same ground that it occupied in 1804; at both of these dates it bore the same Indian names, t and the people bore the same French name; I yet Maximilian, aided by his interpreter, failed to recognize the resemblance between the name of the tribe as written by Lewis and Clarke and "Awachlawi", as he, according to German orthography, so correctly spells it. Such, at least, is tihe impression produced by the perusal of the foot-note on page 335 of his work. In this note, too, Maximilian, in criticising Lewis and Clarke's spelling, does not make due allowance for the fact that the American travelers wrote in a language whose alphabet is less suited to express the Indian words than that of the language in which he wrote. The descendants of the An) ahamis, among the Hidatsa, are now known friom the rest of this tribe by their preference for certain words and dialectic forms, which are not in common use among those of unmixed Hidatsa blood, and did not originally belong to the language of the latter. ; 12. POPULATION.- The population of the village is not known. It is said that the inhabitahts of some of the old villages allowed a census to be taken immediately before the epidemic which proved so fatal to them. They believed that their calamity resulted fromt the census, and have since resisted all efforts to ascertain their numbers. Many ingenious plans have been devised for counting them without their knowledge, but they have suspected and thwarted them all. In the Reports of the Commtissioners of Indian Affairs, various estimates of their strength may be found, but they are all conjectural. In the -Report of 1862, it is stated~ that the Grosventres and Mandans, in that year, numbered 1,120, and the Arickarees (then in a separate but neighboring village) 1,000,-total 2,120. In t Lewis and Clarke, p. 89," Mahawha ".-Maximilian, p. 335, "Machacha ". $ Lewis and Clarke, p. 96, "called by the French Soulier Noir, or Shoe Indians.' -Maximilian, p. 178, "Le village des Soulliers." ~ Pages 1i93 and 195, in Report of Agent S. N. Latta to the Commissioner. 16

Page  17 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. the Report of 1866 are the following "approximate numbers":* Arickarees, 1,500; Mandans, 400; Grosventres, 400;-total 2,300. In the Report of 1871, the population is thus given:t Arickarees, 1,650; Grosventres, 600; Mantans; 450;-total "about" 2,700. In these estimates, which vary greatly, the first gives the population of the Grosventres and Mandans to gether as more than the Rees; while, in the second and third estimates, the Rees are represented as about twice as numerous as the other two tribes together. In this respect, I believe the first quoted estimate to be nearest the truth; for the houses occupied by the Grosventres and Mandans number more than those occupied by the Rees.; In the estimate of 1866, it will be seen that the Grosventres and Mandans are represented as equal to one another. I have many reasons for believing this representation to be incorrect. The conjecture of the writer, based upon all ascertainable data, is that, within the past ten years, the proper population of the'village has never been more than 2,500, and that, at present, it is much less. It is pretty certain, too, that of the three tribes the Arickarees stand first in numerical strength, the Hidatsa second, and the Mandans third. However, if a perfect census of the village was taken any day, when no hunting-parties were out, it would not show the strength of these tribes; for the scouts who are enlisted at distant posts, their families, and the Minnetarees, who, of late years, have gone to live with the Crows, constituting in all a large proportion of this people, could not be included. ~ 13. CONVERSATION.-To the philologist, it is an interesting fact that this trio of savage clans, although now'living in the same village, and having been next-door neighbors to each other for more than a hundred years, on terms of peace and intimacy, and to a great extent intermarried, speak, nevertheless, totally distinct languages, which show no perceptible inclination to coalesce. The Mandan and Grosventre (or Minnetaree) languages are somewhat alike, and probably of a very distant common origin; but no resemblance has yet been discovered between either of these and the Arickaree ("Ricara"). Page 175, in Report of the Northwestern Treaty Commnissioners. t Page 520, in Report of Agent J. E. Tappan. t See note on p. 4. 2 17

Page  18 ETHINOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. Almost every member of each tribe understands the languages of the other tribes, yet he speaks his own most fluently; so it is not an uncommon thing to hear a dialogue carried on in two languages, one person, for instance, questioning in Mandan, and the other answering back in Grosventre, and vice versa. Many of them understand the Dakota tongue, and use it as a means of intercommunication, and all understand the sign-language. So, after all, they have no trouble in mnaking themselves understood by one another. These Indians must have excellent memories and "good capacity for study"; for it is not uncommnon to find persons among them, some even under twenty years of age, who can speak fluently four or five different languages. . 14. ARTS'.-Besides their agriculture and architecture, which have been already alluded to, they had the knowledge of many other useful arts, still practiced by them, which were entirely of native origin. They manufactured pottery; built boats of buffalo-hide; made mats and baskets of various descriptions, and wooden bowls so durable that they last for many generations; and formed spoons and ladles out of the horns of the buffalo and Rocky Mountain sheep. Their hair-brushes they made sometimes out of porcupine-qutills, but more commonly of grass-the long, tough awns of the Stipa juncea. They fasliioned whistles of the bones of large birds, and fifes and other wind-instruments out of wood; some of these were for musical purposes; others were to imitate, for the hunter's benefit, the bleat of the antelope or the whistle of the elk. They garnished their clothing with porcupine-quills, which they colored brilliantly with dye-stuffs of Indian discovery. They had flint and horn arrow-heads, and horn wedges with which they split wood. They knew something of the manufacture of glass, and made rude beads and pendants out of it; they possessed various pigments, and with them recorded the events of their day in symbolic pictures; and, in the manufacture and use of the various appliances of war and the chase, they had no superiors on the plains. Their arms were the same as those of the Dakotas and other western tribes; and they have been so often described that I feel there is little left for me to say concerning them. 18

Page  19 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. For cleaning the village-grounds, they had rakes made of a few osiers tied together-the ends curved and spreading. Their most important agricultural implement was the hoe. Before they obtained iron utensils of the white traders, their only hoes were made of the shoulder-blades of elk or buffalo, attached to wooden handles of suitable length. Maximilian, in 1833,* considered the bone hoe as a thing of the past only; yet, as late as 1867, I saw a great number in use at Fort Berthold, and purchased two or three, one of which was sent to Washington, and, I presume, is now on exhibition in the museum of the Smithsonian Institution.t They now make saddle-trees in somewhat the same way as we do, of wood or of part wood and part horn, covered with raw-hide. They also make neat pad-saddles of tanned elk-skin, stuffed with antelope-hair, and often handsomely embroidered, as well as other horse-equipments. They probably learned the art of making these articles some time during the last century, from the Indians of the south, of whom they first obtained horses. For their children, they make toys, which, as with us, indicate for each sex t[ie occupations of adult years. When the children are old enough, they make some of their own toys. They have pop-guns, the art of making which, as far as I could discover, was not learned from the whites. The boys make representations of hunts by fashioning out of mud, with much skill, little figures of the horse, the mounted hunter, and the flying buffalo. Glass.-The articles of glass spoken of above are chiefly of two kinds: first, large, globular, or ellipsoidal beads; and, second, flat, irregularly triangular plates or pendants, which are glazed only on one side, and have a hole at the apex. The art of making these deserves more than a mere mention, since it is commonly believed that the aboriginal Americans, even the most civilized races, knew nothing of the manufacture of glass at the time of the Columbian discovery. The very earliest ethnographical account we have of the Arickarees and Man p. 347..~ t See Smithsonian Report for 1869, p. 36, where the specimen is erroneously attributed to the Yanktonnais. 19

Page  20 ENHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. dans shows that they knew how to make glass beads; and these is no doubt that the process employed in 1804 was essentially the same as that employed to-day. The following is the account of this given by Lewis and Clarke:-"A Mr. Garrow, a Frenchman, who has resided a long time among the Ricaras and Miandans, explained to us the mode in which they make their large beads, an art which they are said to have derived from some prisoners of the Snake Indian nation, and the knowledge of which is a secret, even now confined to a few among the Mandans and Ricaras. T'ihe process is as follows: glass of different colors is first pounded fine, and washed, till each kind, which is kept separate, ceases to stain the water thrown over it; some well-seasoned clay, mixed with a sufficient quantity of sand to prevent it becoming very hard when exposed to the heat, and reduced by water to the consistency of dough, is then rolled on the palm of the hand till it becomes of the thickness wanted for the hole in the bead; these sticks of clay are placed upright, each on a little pedestal or ball of the same material, about an ounce in weight, and distributed over a small earthen platter, which is laid on the fire for a few minutes, when they are taken off to cool; with a little paddle or shovel, three or four inches long and sharpened at the end of the handle, the wet pounded glass is placed in the palm of the hand; the beads are made of an oblong form, wrapped in a cylindrical form round the stick of clay, which is laid crosswise over it, and gently rolled backward and forward until it becomes perfectly smooth. If it be desired to introduce any other color, the surface of the bead is perforated with the pointed end of the paddle, and the cavity filled with pounded glass of that color; the sticks, with the string of beads, are then placed on tlleir pedestals, and the platter deposited on burning coals or hot embers; over the platter an earthen pot, containing about three gallons, with a mouth large enough to cover the platter, is reversed, being completely closed, except a small aperture in the top, through which are watched the beads; a quantity of old dried wood, formed into a sort of dough orepaste, is placed round the pot so as almost to cover it, and afterward set on fire; the manufacturer then looks 20

Page  21 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. through the small hole in the pot till he sees the beads assume a deep-red color, to which succeeds a paler or whitish red, or they become pointed at the upper extremity, on which the fire is removed and the pot is suffered to cool gradually; at length it is removed, the beads taken out, the clay in the hollow of them picked out with an awl or needle, and it is then fit for use. The beads thus formed are in great demand among the Indians, and used as pendants to their ears and hair, and sometimes worn round the neck."* This art is now only occasionally practiced in the village, and is mostly confined to the making of the flat, triangular pendants. I have heard the process described in'much the same way as in the above quotation. From this quotation, however, which is in part ambiguous, the inference might be drawn that the ornaments, when completed, consist entirely of glass. Such is not the case in those I have seen; on the contrary, they consist of a core of baked earth covered with a thin shell of glass; and they have the appearance of having been perforated before heat was applied. But, in the matter of making the holes, the process may have been changed, or there may have been two ways of doing it. The existence of this art among the Indians evidently greatly astonished Catlin, who gives it as one of the reasons on which he founds his theory of the Cymric origin of the Mandans. He says, speaking of the Mandans:-"In addition to this art," [pottery,] "which I am sure belongs to no other tribe on the continent, these people have also, as a secret with themselves, the extraordinary art of manufacturing a very beautiful and lasting kind of blue glass beads, which they wear on their necks in great quantities, and decidedly value above all others that are brought among them by the fur-traders.' " This secret is not only one that the traders did not introduce among them, but one which they cannot learn from them; and at the same time, beyond a doubt, an art that has been introduced among them by some civilized people, as it is as yet unknown to other Indian tribes in that vicinity or elsewhere. Of this interesting fact, Lewis and Clarke gave * pp. 125-126. 21

Page  22 ETHNOGRAPHY OF TIlE IIIDATSA INDIANS. an account thirty-three years ago, at a time when no traders or other white people had been among the Mandans to have taught them so curious an art."* It is surprising that Mr Catlin, after reading the above-cited passages from Lewis and Clarke (and he leaves us to infer that he has read them), could state that the art of making these beads was confined to the Mandans; that it was unknown to the traders; that it was beyond doubt introduced by civilized people; and that no traders or other whites had been among these Indians before the time of Lewis and Clarke's visit. The art of making these ornaments would appear to be old; yet the process as it existed in 1804 was evidently in part recent, since the Indians obtained the glass which they used from the whites. I have been informed by the Indians that in old days the art flourished among the Arickarees as well as among the Mandans; and certainly at the present day the Arickaree women understand it. I had two of the triangular pendants made to order in 1870, by an Arickaree woman, to whom I furnished the blue glass necessary. When I gave instriuctions to have the articles madl I was invited to witness the process, but circumstances prevented me from doing so. One of these pendants was sent to the Smithsonian Institution. It is strange, if true, that these Indians shlould have obtained their knowledge of this art from the Snake Indians, a ruder and equally remote tribe. It is also strange, and undoubtedly true, that in 1804, as well as now, they did not make their glass, but obtained it ready-made, and merely fused it for their purposes, obtaining it, doubtlessly, from the whites. It is strange that within a few years after glass beads of European manufacture were first introduced among them, and when such beads must have commanded a high price, they should pulverize them and use the powder in making ruder and more unsightly articles after their own design. But it is not probable that- they should have learned such an art from civilized people prior to l804, when they had as yet seen but few whites, and when the whites they had seen were mostly rude Canadian frontiersmen, among whom it is not reasonable to suppose North Amnerican Indians vol. ii, p. 201. 22

Page  23 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. there were any persons versed in glass-making. I have heard Indians say, with uncertainty, that in former times they found glass in the hills, and pounded it for their beads; meaning perhaps that they used natural glass, which may be found where lignite beds have taken fire, and elsewhere on the Upper Missouri. In view of all these facts, I have conjectured that they had the art of making glazed earthen ornaments before the whites came among them; and that when they saw the brilliantly-colored beads of the traders, they conceived the idea of.improving their art by using these beads. If they ever possessed the art of making glass de novo, there is no record, tradition, or other.evidence of it that I have been able to find. One of many reasons, though perhaps an insufficient reason, for believing the art to be of no recent origin among them, is that they used the triangular pendants, not as ornaments' only, but as evidences of betrothal, as long ago as the oldest men can remember. When a girl was promised in marriage in her infancy by her parents, as was not infrequently done, one of thee pendants was tied to her forelock so as to hang down over her forehead. When the promise was fulfilled, the husband removed the pendant and threw it away. ~ 15. FooD, ETC.-Since the introduction of various articles of European food, their diet has been somewhat changed, yet they still largely adhere to their original dietary. Their chief food, until within the last eight or ten years, was the meat of the buffalo, or bison, which, when fresh, was cooked by roasting before an open fire, by broiling on the coals or on an extemporized wooden broiler, or by boiling. Their meat was boiled in earthen pots before brass and iron pots were introduced by the whites. They knew the different effects produced by putting the meat down in hot and in cold water, and employed the former method when they did not want soup. On hunts, they sometimes boiled the meat in skins, heating the water with hot stones, after the method employed by the Assinniboines, which has given the latter tribe its name of Stone-cookers. Sometimes they chopped the fresh meat fine, put it in a piece of bowel, and thus made a sort of Q 23

Page  24 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. sausage, which was usually boiled. For preservation, meat is cut into thin sheets or into long strips and dried in the sun. I have seen dried meat three years old perfectly sweet. Some times it becomes worm-eaten without becoming rancid. In rainy weather, they often hang meat up in the smoke of the lodge to preserve it. The dried meat is sometimes eaten raw, but more frequently it is boiled or broiled; or it is broiled, pounded fine, and mixed with fat to make pemmican. They sometimes add sugar and berries to small quantities of pem mican. The meat of the elk and the deer is cooked and prepared in the same way as buffalo-meat, and of late, since the buffalo have so greatly decreased in number, is more used than the latter. When game is abundant, they only use choice parts of an animal; but, when it is scarce, they discard nothing. They then pound the bones into small fragments, and subject them to prolonged boiling to make soup. During one winter of great scarcity, I knew of some Arickarees, who, not having horses, could not go out on the winter-hunt, to cut up and boil their bull-boats and the raw-hide doors A their houses for food. When hungry hunters kill an animal, they often eat the liver, the kidneys, and the hoofs of the fcetus, should there be one, raw. Raw liver is said to have a saccharine taste which is not unpleasant. Occasionally they eat other parts raw, but this is only when the quarry is little, the mouths many, and the prospect of a fire distant or doubtful. Fat porcupine, bear, and beaver meat are esteemed, particularly the tail of the latter. They are fond of marrow and fat. Birds of prey, foxes, and wolves are eaten, but only when food is scarce. Turtles and fish are used as food; but I have never heard of any such use being made of snakes. The Grosventres have but recently learned to eat dog-flesh, and they still eat horse-flesh only under pressing necessity; but the Arickarees seem to have less prejudice to such food. Among many belonging to these tribes, a young, fat pup is considered a great delicacy. Insects, with one exception, and worms are never eaten, and few can now be persuaded to eat oysters. When a gravid buffalo, elk, or deer is killed, the liquor arenil 24

Page  25 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. is generally preserved and boiled for soup, the fcetus being cooked in it. Formerly, they lived largely upon meat. When out on their hunts and war-parties, they often lived exclusively on it. There were many nomadic tribes around them who seldom tasted vegetable matter, often living for seven or eight months in the year exclusively on meat, and preserving perfect health. I have seen white men who had lived for years among the Indians, and during such residence, for six nmonths of every year, lived on nothing but meat (and water of course), "Buffalo straight," as they expressed it, and who, in the summers only, occasionally varied their diet with a mess of roots or berries-not seeking such vegetable food with any particular longing or avidity. In various books of western travel, these statements are corroborated; yet there are modern physiologists who would try to persuade us that an animal diet is inadequate to the sustaining of human life in a healthy condition. When subsisting for the most part on fresh meat, these Indians had the soundest gums and teeth; and no flesh when wounded healed more rapidly than theirs. Lately, however, since the increase in the consumption of bacon and flour among them, and the destruction of their game, there have been many cases of scurvy, a disease which was particularly fatal to them in the winter of 1868-'69; and a tendency to abscesses, to suppurative terminations of diseases, and to a sluggish' condition of wounds, manifests itself. The quantities of fresh meat they are able to consume are enormous. Sometimes, after a day's hunt, the hunters will sit up all night cooking and eating. Their principal vegetable diet was the corn they raised themselves. Flour, issued by the agency, is now, to a great extent, taking its place. They eat some of the corn when it is green, but the greater part they allow to ripen. When ripe, they prepare it in various ways. They pound it in a wooden mortar with water, and boil the moist meal thus made into a hasty pudding, or cook it in cakes. Trhey frequently parch the corn, and then reduce it to powder, which is often eaten without preparation. A portion of their corn they boil when nearly ripe; they then dry and shell it, and lay it by for winJ 25

Page  26 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. ter use; when boiled again, it tastes like green corn. (See Madas'kihe in Dictionary.) This is often boiled with dried beans to make a succotash. Their beans are not usually eaten until ripe. Squashes are cut in thin slices and dried; the dried squash is usually cooked by boiling. Sunflower-seeds are dried, slightly scorched in pots or paus over the fire, and then powdered. The meal is boiled or made into cakes with grease. The sunflower-cakes are often taken on war-parties, and are said, when eaten even sparingly, to sustain the consumer against fatigue more than any other food. They gather all manner of wild roots and berries that are eaten by the nomadic tribes of the same region; but they do not consume them to the extent that the wilder tribes do. The only nuts that grow in their hunting-grounds are the acorns. I have never known them to collect or eat these. I believe that they have always understood the value of salt and knew where to procure it. (See Matamahota in Dictionary.) They used it sparingly, however, and to season their vegetable messes only. Lately, since they can obtain salt so cheaply and plentifully from the traders and agency, they rarely hunt for it, and use it to a greater extent than they formerly did. In 1820, Major Long's Expedition met an Arickaree returning from the distant valley of the Arkansas, with about thirty pounds of pure salt, which " had evidently been formed by the -evaporation of water in some pond or basin."* In the earliest accounts that we have of these Indians, we find they cultivated a species of tobaccot (Nicotiana quadrivalvis). Sergeant Gass, who tried it ill 1804, and who, we may presume, was a good judge of the weed, says that "it answers for smoking but not for chewing";t and, in my time, I have heard similar opinions passed concerning it by tobaccousers. Lately, the cultivation of this tobacco has been greatly neglected, as the Indians obtain an article from the whites which they prefer. It is but recently that any of them have *Long, vol. i, p. 449. t Lewis and Clarke say "two different species of tobacco ", p. 76. t p. 73. 26

Page  27 ETHNOGRAPIIY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. learned to chew tobacco. All the men smoke; but the use of the pipe is very rare among the women. These Indians seldom use tobacco alone, but mix it with the dried inner bark of one or more species of dogwood, Cornus stotonifera and C. sericea. (See Ope and Opehas'a, in Dictionary). They also mix with it the leaves of the Eleagnas arqentea, which grows in Northern Dakota, and the leaves of a variety of Arctostaphylos uva-ursi. Sometimes they smoke the. dogwood-bark alone, without any mixture of tobacco. Often they put a fragment of castoreum on top of the tobacco before lighting the pipe. The various points of ceremony and etiquette connected with smoking are the same with these tribes as with other western Indians; and they have been described by many observers. 16. INTER-TRIBAL TRADE.-In former days, there was a trade carried on between these tribes and their Indian neighbors. Of late years, it has greatly diminished, but it still exists to some extent. With the. nomadic tribes around, they exchanged their agricultural produce for horses, and, recently, for robes. When the Dakotas saw a certain flower (Liatris punctata) blooming on the prairie, they knew that the corn was ripe, and went to the villages of the farming Indians to trade. From the time they came in sight of the village to the time they disappeared, there was a truce. When they had passed beyond the bluffs, they might steal an unguarded pony or lift a scalp, and were in turn liable to be attacked. The straight, slender spruce-poles, which form the frames of their skin-lodges, are not obtained in the immediate neighborhood of the Missouri, but are cut in and near' the Black Hills, many days journey from Fort Berthold, and in the country of the inimical Teton-Dakotas. The Berthold Indians, consequently, purchase them of the Dakotas, giving a good buffalo-horse, or its equivalent, for the number sufficient for a lodge, about a dozen. To tribes less skilled than were they in catching wareagles, they traded the tail-feathers of these birds; a single tail being worth a buffalo-horse. Their principal standard of 27

Page  28 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. value was a buffalo-hlorse, i. e., a horse swift enough to outrun a young adult buffalo in the fall. It appears probable that they once carried on a trade indirectly with the tribes of the Pacific coast, for they had Dentainurm shells similar to those obtained on the Pacific, and they prized them so highly that the white traders found it advisable to obtain them for the trade. As late as 1866, ten of these shells, of inferior size, costing the traders only a cent apiece, would buy a superior buffalo robe, and formerly only two or three of the same quality were paid for a robe. Modern traders, with whom the writer has conversed, obtain their shells from eastern importers, and know nothing of the original source of supply. They suppose them to come from the Atlantic coast or the Great Lakes, and call them "Iroquois shells", which is probably their corruption of the Chinook "hyakwa"; but it is possible the reverse is the case. They also used, and still use, as ornaments, fragments of the Abalone shells (one or more species of Haliotis) of the Pacific. These are now supplied to the trade under the name of California shells. Ten years ago, one of these shells, unpolishled, sold for a good robe. There is little doubt that they used Abalone, JDe(ntaliun, and other sea-shells before the traders brought them. Old traders and old Indians say so. Even as late as 1833, it would seem that they had not yet become a regular part of a trader's outfit; for Maximilian says of thile MAandans:-"They do not disfigure the bodies; only they make some apertures in the outer rim of the ear, in which they hang strings of beads, brass or iron rings of different sizes, or shells, the last of which they obtain from other Indian tribes. If they are questioned respecting these shells, they answer that they were brought from the sea."* 1 7. INTERCOURSE WITH WHITES.-In a recent little work entitled O-kee-pa, George Catlin says:-" Two exploring parties had long before visited the Mfandans, but without in any way affecting their manners. The first of these, in 1738, under the lead of the brothers Verendrye, Frenchmen, who afterward ascended the Missouri and Saskatchewan to the Rocky Mount *p.:37. See also p. 338, "White dentalium shells." 28

Page  29 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS\ ains; and the other, under Lewis and Clarke, about sixty years afterward."* He does not tell us where the account of the expedition of 1738 is to be found; he gives us no further evidence on this point; and, as no other mention of the journey has ever been seen by me, it will receive no further consideration in this essay. In aletter published in Schooleraft's Infornation respectin#... the Indian Tribes, the writer, D. D. Mitchell, says, speaking of the MIandans:-" The early portion of their history I gather from the narration of Mr. Mackintosh, who, it seems, belonged to, or was in some way connected with, the French trading company as far back as 1772. According to his narration, he set out from Montreal in the summer of 1773, crossed over the country to the Missouri River, and arrived at one of the M,andan villages on Christmas day.'t I have never seen Mackintosh's account, nor have I seen any more extensive notice of it than the one given by Mr. Mitchell; and from this, it does not appear that Mackintosh visited any of these agricultural Indians except the Mandans. There is every probability that some of these tribes received occasional visits from white traders and adventurers a century or more ago. It may be safely stated that every one of the bands represented in the Berthold village were visited by whites at least eighty years ago, and that they have been in constant communication with representatives of civilized races ever since. In 1804, British traders and French or Canadian interpreters were found in their camps; and the travelers of that year speak of "those who visited them in 1796'".: Prince Maximilian, writing in 1833, says of "Charbonneau, who was interpreter for the Manitari language", that he "had lived thirty seven years in this part of the country";~ that, at his first arrival, the Knife River villages stood precisely where they were in 1833; and that Charbonneau "immediately took up his residence in the central one".[I From these statements we must conclude that Charbonneau settled among the Hidatsas about seventy-nine years ago; and old men of the tribe say that he * p. 4. t Part third, p. 253. t Lewis and Clarke, p. 96. p. 318. I1p. 321. 29

Page  30 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. was not the first white man to come to their towns, yet that few preceded him. It is likely that all the Europeans who came to these tribes in the early days were from the Hudson Bay Territory, and that they were mostly traders; but, in 1804, it seems that there were some whites sojourning in their country, as hunters and trappers. The British fur-companies held the trade of these Indians until 1807,* when Manuel Lisa, who afterward founded the Missouri Fur Company, ascended the river in keel-boats to the Mandan villages and beyond. Until 1832, goods were brought up the Missouri chiefly in keel-boats or Mackinawboats, which were cordeled or towed by men, with great labor, against the rapid current of the river. Two summers, at least, were always occupied in dragging a boat from Saint Louis to the head of navigation; the crew sustaining thierhselves chiefly by hunting. In 1832, the first steamer reached the Mandan villages, and after that, for about thirty years, but one or two steamers a year went thus far up the river. Although these Indians have so long known the whites, it is only within the last twelve or thirteen years that our intercourse with them has been sufficiently extensive to materially modify their customs and ideas. Previously, excepting two or three small military expeditions and an occasional traveler, the only whites they saw were the few connected with the fur-trade; and these persons, as a rule, sought to produce no change in the Indian, but, on the other hand, learned the Indian languages, adopted Indian customs, and endeavored to assimilate themselves to the Indians as much as possible, often vying with one another in their efforts to become amateur savages. Before the period to which I refer, we had traded to them woven fabrics and many trinkets of little value, had taught them the use of fire-arms and iron tools, had given them an opportunity for acquiring a taste for coffee and ardent spirits, but, in other respects, had wrought little change in their minds or manners. Eight years ago, they knew nothing of the use of money, and nothing of the English language except a few oaths and vulgar expressions, which the "He set off in the spring following the return of Lewis and Clarke" (Bcrkea ridge, p. 90). 30

Page  31 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. more docile had learned. The conservatives were still much the same as their grandfathers were. In 1863, and during the two following years, in consequence of the Sioux outbreak of 1862, large military expeditions visited Fort Berthold, passing through the country of these Indians, and strong garrisons were established in their neighborhood, which are still retained. About this time too (1863), the emigration to the Montana gold-mines by way of the Missouri River began; and, instead of one steamer a year ascending the river as in the old days, they came up by dozens, some making two and three trips during the season of navigation. The Indians were thus brought into more intimate contact with the Americans, the seclusioni of their country was ended, and a change more general and rapid in their affairs initiated. Since then, their game has been killed off, they have grown weaker, poorer, and more dependent, and, in many other respects, they have altered for the worse. As yet, no sustained effort has been made to Christianize them; and but little has been done to advance them in civilization. On the other hand, they have, according to some standards of excellence, bettered in many respects. They have of necessity given increased attention to the cultivation of the soil. The men, as before stated, have learned to perform labor, which, in earlier days, they deemed degrading. Many of their savage customs and ideas have been abandoned; and many of their ceremonies have been simplified or have fallen into disuse. They are generally less superstitious than they were ten years ago, and more skeptical with regard to their old myths. Since 1866, a large number of their men have enlisted as scouts in the military service of the United States, and have been improved by the discipline of the camp. They have learned the responsibilities, and have done splendidly in the capacity of soldiers; many of them having heroically laid down their lives in our service. During A short period of their history, the Arickarees were at war with the Americans; but for'many years they have strictly maintained peace, and have fought with us ard against our enemies. The Mandans and Minnetarees claim never to 31

Page  32 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. have shed a white man's blood, although some of their number have been killed by whites. For their fidelity they have been repaid in starvation and neglect. Many of these friendly Indians, particularly among the Arickarees, have, during the past ten years, died of actual hunger or the diseases incident to a state of famine. Within the past three years there seem to be some evidences of increased legislative interest in them, but the benefits arising therefrom are by no means equal to their needs or their deserts. 32

Page  33 PART II. THE HI])ATSA TRIBE. 18. NAMES OF THE TRIBE. Grosventre.-The peoplewhose language is discussed in the accompanying grammar are commonly called, on maps, in official reports, and by white men in the Indian country, Grosventres. This was a name given to them by the early French and Canadian adventurers. The same name was applied also to a tribe, totally distinct from these in language and origin, which lives some hundreds of miles west of Fort Berthold; and the two nations are now distinguished firom one another as Grosventres of the Missouri and Grosventres of the Prairie, names which would lead a stranger to suppose that they were merely separate divisions of one tribe. In the account of Edward Umfreville, who traded on the Saskatchewan River from 1784 to 1787, we find mention of a tribe of Indians who lived near the falls of the south branch of the Saskatchewan, and whom he calls "Fall Indians". But he remarks:- " In this people, another instance occurs of the impropriety with which the Canadian French name Indians. They call them Grosventres, or Big-Bellies; and without any reason, as they are as comely and as well made as any tribe whatever, and are very far from being remarkable for their corpulency."* The tribe to which he refers is doubtless that which is now known as the Atsinas, or Grosventres of the Prairie. The similarity of the Canadian misnomers in all probability led Captain Lewis, in 1804, to speak of the MAlinnetarees on the Missouri as "part of the great nation called Fall Indians". t Comparing our Hidatsa words with their synonymes in Umfreville's Fall Vocabulary, or Dr. Hayden's later Atsinra Yocabulary, we can discover no affinity between the Fall and Hidatsa tongues. Unifreville's remarks concerning the impropriety of the p. 197. tp. 97. 3

Page  34 ETHNOGRAPIIY OF TIlE IlIDATsA INDIANS. iiame Grosventre would app)ly as well to those "of the Missoutri" as to those "of the Prairie". Maximilian says of the Hidatsa: "The French give them the singular name of Grosventres, which is no more appropriate to them than to any other of the Indian tribes." * Palliser remarks:-" They are most absurdly termed Grosventries by the French traders, there being not the slightest foundation for branding them with that epithet."t Various writers who hlave visited this tribe concur in these opinions. Minnetarees.-In the works of many travelers they are called "Minnetarees", a name which is spelled in various ways; thus Captain Lewis writes it "Minnetarees"; Catlin, "Minatarees"; De Smet, "Minataries"; Palliser, "Minitarees"; while in the accompanying Dictionary it is spelled Minitari, or Mliditadi. This, although a Hidatsa word, is the name applied to them, not by themselves, but by the Mandans; it signifies to cross the water, or they crossed the water. The name may allude to the Hidatsa tradition of their own origin, or to their account that they came originally from the northeast, and had to cross the Missouri before reaching the old Mandan villages, which were on the west bank of the river, or the name may have originated from some other cause; but the story, be it true or false, which is now given by both tribes concerned, to account for its origin, is this: When the wandering Mlinnetarees first reached the Missouri and stood on the bank opposite to one of the villages of the Mandans, the latter cried out, "Who are you?" The strangers, not understanding what was said, but supposing that the Mandans (who were provided with boats) asked them what they wanted shouted in return, "Minitari," to cross the water, or "Minitari mihats," we will cross the water. The Mandans supposed that in this reply the visitors gave them their name, and called them MIinitari ever after. The name, as above intimated, will be found in this dictionary written'Miditadi' or'Minitari,' and its component parts, 'midi,' water, and'tadi,' to cross over. The reason for this varying orthography will be discovered by consulting the grammar, paragraphs 19 to 23 inclusive, where it is shown p. 395. t p. 198. 34

Page  35 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INI)IANS. that d, 1, n, and r, are interchangeable consonants. Prince Maximilian writes the word MAIanitari (adding a plural ending), which represents a way in which the Mandans often pronounce it-the Mandan word for water being maui. Hidatsa was the namre of the village on Knife River farthest from the Missouri, the village of those whom Lewis and Clarke considered the Minnetarees proper.* It is probable that after the epidemic of 1837 the survivors of the other villages moved thither, or that the majority of all the survivors came from Hidatsa, which then lent its name to the whole tribe a name now generally used by this people to designate themselves, and for which reason the one most frequently employed in this essay. Tile origin of the word Hidatsa is obscure. It is said bv some to mean willows; but I know of no species of willow that bears this name. By a few of the tribe it is pronounced Hidaa'tsa, and in this form bears a slight resemblance to the word midaha'dsa, the present Minnetaree generic name for all shrub willows. It may possibly be an old form of the latter word; but, according to my present knowledge of the formation and phonetic changes of this language, I have no reason for believing it to be so. There is little doubt that the tribe, or a portion of it, was once called Willows; and this may be the reason why some suppose Hidatsa to mean willows. But it is evident that even in former days travelers or their interpreters were uncertain with regard to the application of the name Willows, and later inquiries on the part of the writer have done little toward clearing the difficulty. In Lewis and Clarke's journal (1804), we find the inhabitants of Amatiha, the first village on Knife River above its mouth, spoken of as "Minnetwees Metaharta, that is, Minnetarees of the Willows";t while Prince Maximilian (1834) says that Hidatsa, or the village on Knife River farthest from the Missouri (above Amatiha), was called " Elalh-sa (the village of the great willows).": It is plain that "Ela'h-sa" is but a form of Hidatsa, for the aspirate is often pronounced or heard indistinctly; d and I are interchangeable with one p.96. t p.97. + p.178. 35

Page  36 ETHNOGRAPIIY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. another in this language (see Grammar, ~~f 20, 22), and s is often used for ts, (see ~ 17). "Metaharta" represents possibly an old or dialectic form of "midahadsa", willow, which was mispronounced by the interpreter, and spelled from his mispronunciation by Captains Lewis and Clarke in an ill-devised way. Other names.-Hewaktokto, the name of this tribe in the Dakota language, I have heard translated D)wvellers on a Ridye; but I think the correctness of this translation may be questioned. Some of the Hidatsa believe that the appellation belonged originally only to the Amahamis, whose name signifies mountain. In the Arickaree language, the Hidatsa are called Witetsaan. I have heard this rendered in two ways, viz, Welldressed People and People at the Water; the latter said to refer to their old residence at the ford of Knife River. By the Crows, they are called, signifying earthen houses or "dirt lodges", as the Upper Missouri interpreters would say. ~ 19. HISTORY.-These Indians relate of themselves as follows: They originally dwelt beneath the surface of a great body of water, situated to the northeast of their present home. From this subaqueous residence some persons found their way out, and, discovering a country much better than that in which they resided, returned and gave to their people such glowing accounts of their discoveries that the whole people determined to come out. Owing to the breaking of a tree, on which they were climbing out of the lake, a great part of the tribe had to remain behind in the water, and are there yet. After coming from the water, they began to wander over the prairies, and sent out couriers to explore the country around. Those who were sent to the south returned after a time with tidings of a great river and a fertile valley, of a nation who dwelt in houses and tilled the soil. Tlhey brought back with them, too, corn and other products of the country. Toward this promised land the tribe now directed its steps, and, guided by the couriers, they reached in due time the Mandan villages on the Missouri. When they arrived, however, lInstead of putting to death the newly-found people, they encamped quietly beside 36

Page  37 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. them, learned of them the arts of peace, and have ever since dwelt near them. From the descriptions of their life previous to rising from the lake, it would seem as if their tradition originally mentioned an insular home or a home beyond some great body of water. The story of their coming up out of the lake, and of the breaking of the tree by which they rose, resembles so much the Mandan tradition as to lead us to believe that one nation borrowed its legend of the other, or that the two legends sprung, at no very remote time, from a common source. Some of the modern story-tellers say that the Minnewakan, or Devil's Lake, in Northern Dakota is the natal lake of the tribe. The Hidatsa call- it Midihopa, which, like the Dakota name, signifies sacred, or mysterious water. This account of their origin they tell usually as one story; but they have, besides, a voluminous account of what happened to them during their long wanderings on the prairie, from the time they left the lake until they reached the Mandan village, which account is embodied in a separate tale the almost interminable legend of Itamapi'sa, the proper recital whereof, by an old story-teller, occupies three or four long winter-evenings. In this tale, it is said that they were often on the eve of death by starvation, but were rescued by a miraculous supply of buffalo-meat. Stones, they say, were strewn upon the prairie obedient to a divine order, and from them sprang to life the buffalo which they slaughtered. It was during these years of wandering, as the legend relates, that the spirit of the sun took a woman of this tribe up into the sky. In the course of time, she had a son, who descended to the earth, and, utinder the name of Itamapisa, or Grandchild became the great prophet of his mother's people. It might be more proper to introduce such tales elsewhere than under the head of history, but, perhaps, a scrap of historical truth may be picked from them,'which is, that the Hidatsa were once a tribe of nomadic hunters, alternately starving and feasting as game was scarce or abundant, and that, since a comparatively recent date, they have settled in the neighborhood of the Missouri and become farmers by in 37

Page  38 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. tercourse with tribes who previously tilled the soil. There are many circumstances which seem to corroborate this. It may be remarked, too, that the stories from which the above items are taken are believed by these Indians to be true, while many other tales, just as plausible as these, they declare to be purely fictional. There are two affluents of the Missouri, named Knife River. One of these enters from the north, above Fort Berthold; the other from the west, below Fort Berthold. It was upon the banks of the latter stream that the former homes of this people stood. At least as early as A. D. 1796, there were three villages on Knife River. The first and largest, named Hidatsa, was on the north bank, about three -miles from the Missouri, and was the home of a people whom Captains Lewis and Clarke, for some reason, regarded as the Minnetarees proper. The second village, named Amattia, half a mile above the mouth of Knife River, and on the south bank of the stream, was the home of a people very closely allied to the inhabitants of Hidatsa, who spoke a language nearly but not exactly the same as that of the former, and had a separate chief, who seemed to acknowledge to some extent the authority of the chief of the upper village. The third village, named Amahami or Mahaha, was at the mouth of Knife River, on the south side, and was occupied, as before mentioned, by the Amahiamis (see ~11), a people allied to those of Hidatsa, but more remotely than the dwellers in Amatihia. The present Hidatsa or Minnetaree tribe of Fort Berthold consists of the survivors of these three villages and their descendants, with, perhaps, representatives of some small wand(lering bands of allied Indians which no longer exist as organized tribes. Lewis and Clarke seem to speak very positively of wandering MAinnetarees hunting in the neighborhood of Knife River,* and not considered as part of the Crow nation. In 179 6, the Mandans were near neighbors of the Minnetarees, living some four miles south of the latter, in three villages, which in 1804 were fe,und reduced to two. Some forty years before the coming of Lewis and Clarke, *p. 110. 38

Page  39 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. i.e., about the year 1761, the Amahamis and the people of Amatiha dwelt farther south, in the neighborlhood of Heart River, along with the Rees and Mandans; and it is likely that the people of Hidatsa lived there at the same time, or at an earlier date. At one time, the Crows and the Hidatsa (under which term I will now include all the bands represented in the present tribe) lived in close proximity to one another, and constituted one nation; not, probably, one consolidated tribe under a single chief, but independent and allied bands, making common cause against other races, and speaking slightly different dialects, like the various bands of the Dakota nation to-day. In the course of time, the Crows' in two bands, separated from the Hidatsa, and moved farther to the south and west, becoming estranged from the latter but not inimical to them. This separation took place, doubtlessly, more than one hundred, and probably not less than two hundred, years ago. The Hidatsa and Crow legends agree closely concerning the secession of the Crows, and their story is essentially as follows: During a season of scarcity, while portions of both peoples were encamped together, a single buffalo came in the neighborhood of the camp and was killed by some of the Hidatsa, who offered the paunch to the Crows. The latter, considering the offer illiberal refused it, and a misunderstanding ensued, which resulted in separation. The Hlidatsa have ever since called the Crows by the name of Kihliatsa, or they (who) refused the paunch. (See kiPiatsa in Dictionary.) It may reasonably be doubted that such an incident as this, of itself, and without previous disagreements, would have been sufficient to have alienated these bands fromn one another; yet it is not improbable, if, as some say, there was, among the party of slighted Crows, a very proud and powerful chief, who regarded the action of the Hidatsa hunters as a personal insult.. It is more likely, however, that they parted in consequence of some general misunderstanding concerning the division of game (and other matters perhaps), which may have culminated in some particular quarrel. There is no good reason for supposing the legend to be without foundation in fact. Laws con 39

Page  40 ETRHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. cerning the distribution of game are often unlike in different bands. Cases sometimes arise, too, which their laws do not cover, and grave disputes occur in consequence. The legend and the name Kiliatsa seem to have some allusion to the Hidatsa manner of dividing game. When two members of this tribe kill a buffalo, one takes the hind quarters and hump, and is said to "take the back"; the other takes the rest of the forequarters and the entrails, and is said to "take the paunch". During the years 1804, 1832, 1833, and 1834, we have the evidence of travelers that the three Knife River villages remained just where they stood in 1796, and it is said by the Indians that there was no change until some time after the epidemic of 1837, when the survivors of the three villages formed themselves in one on Knife River. There they remained until 1845, when the Hidatsa (and about the same time the Mandans-see ~ 10) moved up the Missouri, and established themselves where their permanent village now stands, some thirty miles by land and sixty by river from their old home. Here, as before stated, they were joined by the Arickarees in 1862. It may be well here to give some account of the tradingpost, which has lent its name to the village and the locality. In 1845, soon after the Hidatsa settled here, the American Fur Company began, with the assistance of the Indians, to build a stockaded post, which they called Fort Berthold, in honor of a Mr. Berthold of Saint Louis. In 1859, an opposition trading company erected in the village some inclosed buildings, which theyT named Fort Atkinson. In 1862, the opposition ceased, and the American Fur Company obtained possession of Fort Atkinson, which they then occupied, transferring to it the name of Fort Berthold. They abandoned the old stockade, which was afterward (December 24, 1862) burned by a warparty of Sioux, who attacked the village. One side of the newer fort still stands, and is occupied by the Indian agency; the other three sides having been burned down October 12, 1874. ~ 20. CHARACTER.-To illustrate the character of the Hidatsa, I present, first, a few extracts from thl writings of 40

Page  41 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDAT'SA INDIANS. other observers, placing them in chronological order of observation.. Some of the quoted writers visited this tribe in the most prosperous period of their history, others in later and unhappy days; yet their opinions are not at variance with one another. 1832.-" There is no tribe in the western wilds, perhaps, who are better entitled to the style of warlike than the Minatarees; for they, unlike the Mandans, are continually carrying war into their enemies' country; oftentimes drawing the poor Mandans into unnecessary broils, and suffering so much themselves in their desperate war-excursions that I find the proportion of women to the number of men as two or three to one through the tribe."-Catlin, N. A. In)dians, vol. I, p. 187. "This day's ramble showed us all the inhabitants of this little tribe, except a portion of their warriors, who are out on a war-excursion against the Riccarees; and I have been exceedingly pleased with their general behavior and looks, as well as with their numerous games and amusements, in many of which I have given them great pleasure by taking a part."Ilb., p. 199. 1834.-" The MIandans and Manitaries are proud and have a high sense of honor."-Maximilian, p. 353. 1848. "'The Minataries are a noble, interesting people."Palliser, p. 198. 1851. "Some days after, we stopped at Fort Bertliold, to land some goods'at the great village of the Minataries, or Osier tribe, nicknamed the Grosventres of the Missouri." * * * * "The great chief of the latter village, called Four Bears, is the most civil and affable Indian that I met on the Missouri." —De Sntet, pp. 76-77. 1854.- "The Grosventres have a large village of mud houses, very unsightly outside, but within warm and comfortable. These Indians are fine specimens of the red man. They are industrious, and raise corn enough to supply many of their neighbors with bread. They are well disposed toward the whites." Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1854.* 1858.-" I shall ever look back upon the years spent in I Extract from report of Lieutenant Saxton to Gov. I. I. Stevens. 41

Page  42 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. the Indian country as among the pleasantest of my life; and if in all my dealings with white men I had found the same sense of honor that characterized.iy'savage' firiends, my appreciation of human nature would be much higher."*-Boller, p. vii. "During the whole time that I lived among the Grosventres, I never missed a single article, althoughl I took no trouble to keep my things out of sight. My house would often be crowded with Indians; sometimes only one or two would be present; yet if called away I felt satisfied that on my return I would find everything just as I left it."-Ib., pp. 239, 240. 1862.-" They [Grosventres and Mandans] are a good people; peaceable, reliable, and honest. They keep as far as is possible the treaty made at Laramie."-Report of Commnissioner of Indian Affairs for 1862, p. 194.t I can indorse the above opinions, and can say that the Hidatsa are to-day, for Indians, examples in industry, general morality, forethought, and thrift. 21. APPEARANCE.-More than forty years ago we find the general appearance of these Indians thus described by a careful observer:-" The Manitaries are in fact the tallest and best-formed Indians on the Missouri, and, in this respect, as well as in'the elegance of their costume, the Crows only approach them, whom they perhaps even surpass in the latter particular.": "The Manitaries do not differ much in personal appearance from the Mandans; but it strikes the stranger that they are in general taller. Most of the men are well-formned and stout; many of them are very tall, broad-shouldered, and muscular; the latter may, indeed, be said of the greater proportion of the men. Their noses are more or less arched and sometimes straight. * * * The women are much like the Mandans; many of them are tall and stout, but most of them short and corpulent. There are some pretty faces among them, which, according to the Indian standard of beauty, may be called handsome."~ i From preface. These remarks seem to recfer more 1)arti(,cularly to the Grosventres and Mandctans, with whom the author spenlt the greater part of the tiIime that he lived "among the Indiians". tReport of Agent, S. N. L:itta to thie Commnissioner. t Maximilian, p. 179. lb., pp. 395, 39h. 4 2

Page  43 ETRHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. At the present day, it can hardly be said that they are of finer physique than the Tetons and other roving bands of the Upper Missouri, who have suffered less, of late, from epidemic disease and hunger, but thley still take greater pride in their dress and personal appearance than'most of their neighbors. The frequent intermarriages of the Mandans and Hidatsa tend constantly to assimilate thlem more and more to one another in appearance; yet those claiming pure Hidatsa blood are generally taller and of more prominent features than those who consider themselves pure Mandans. We do not see as many faces among the Minnetarees pitted with small-pox as among the Arickarees and Mandans. Among all the tribes in the village, there are many disfigured by goiter and opacities of the cornea. All of the Hidatsa men bear on their bodies unsightly cicatrices resulting from the tortures of the Nahlipike. Tattooing may be spoken of in this connection. A few only of the old men are tattooed. The marks consist of numerous parallel bands on one side, or over the entire of the chest and throat, and over one or both arms. I have never seen tattooed marks on any of this tribe elsewhere, or in any other shape. The middle-aged nmen, the young men, the women, and the children are not tattooed. I believe that these marks on the old men were put on for something more than mere ornament, and had some forgotten significance. In Arickaree picturewritings, Grisventres are sometimes represented by a rude symbol of a man having the upper part covered with parallel stripes. As far as I can learn, this particular style of tattooing is peculiar to the Minnetarees. Complexio. -The majority of the Hidatsa have the ordinary dusky Indian complexion, which is, however, not of a uniform shade, as far as I have seen, in any tribe. There are none of this nation that would be considered dark for Indians. Among various tribes of western Indians may be found individuals, claiming pure aboriginal blood, who possess complexions much fairer than the average Indian, with light-colored hair and eyes. Such individuals are more common amlong the Mandans and Minnetarees than they are among most of the neighboring tribes. A natural or inherited clearness of com 43

Page  44 ETIHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. plexion, too, is more easily discernible among members of the village tribes than among members of roving bands who are more exposed to the weather. The presence of pale Indians in these tribes was noted by travelers in early days, before intermnarriages with whites were common enough to have accounted for it. Lewis and Clarke* and Gasst notice this fairness when speaking of the Mandans, only, but their remarks are general. Catlin speaks of the fairness of the Mandans only, and supposes this peculiarity to arise fromn some pre-Columbian infusion of European blood. I The Prince of New Wied, who visited these tribes but one year later than Mr. Catlin, denies that the Mandans are of fairer complexion than their neighbors, ~ while he asserts, at the same time, that, "after a thorough ablution, the skin of some of them appears almost white." [ I have heard old Mandans say that when the Miinnetarees, including the Crows, first came among them, the strangers were a fairer race than they. Of the Crows, who, as before shown, once formed one nation with the Hidatsa, Colonel Raynolds, in his Report of the E.xploration of the Yellowstone (1859), p. 48, says:- "The Crows are fairer than the Sioux, many of the mountain band beiiing sallow and hardly a shade darker than whites who undergo similar exposure. This fact was so marked that the first seen were supposed to be half-breeds, but we were assured that they were of pure Indian descent." It ig-not necessary to suppose an intermixture of European blood in order to account for lightness of color in an Indian. There is no reason why marked varieties of color should not arise in the Red Race as it has done in other races of men, and as it has so often done, under cultivation, within specific limits in the lower animals. I have seen full-blooded Indians who were whiter than some half-breeds and whiter than the darkest representatives of the Aryan Race. An increase of hairiness is a more reliable sign of Caucasian blood in an Indian than a diminution of color in the skin; and I never could discover that those fair Indians, claiming pure blood, were more hairy than others. The fairness of which I speak is not albinism, * p. 89. t p. 83. -t Okeep~, pp. 5, 49. ~ p. 3)4. 1I p. 337. 44

Page  45 ETHINOGRAPHY OF THE IID)ATSA INDIANS. for the eyesight of the fair Indians is as perfect as that of the dark; they have no unusual appearance of the pupil, and exposure to sunlight darkens their skins. I have never seen an albino Indian. Among various western tribes, individuals may be found who are characterized, even in childhood, by having coarse gray hair. From all I could see and learn, I should think that such persons are more numerous among the Minnetarees and Mandans than in any other tribe; and they are perhaps the most numerous among the Mandans. ~ 22. CEREMONIES.-Their most important ceremony is that of the )Dahpike or Nahpike, which fomnerly took place regularly once a year, but is now celebrated every second or third year only. On the' day when it is determined to commnence this ceremony, some men of the Hidatsa tribe, dressed and mounted as for a war-party, proceed to the woods. Here they select a tall, forked cottonwood, which thley fell, trim, and bark; to this they tie their lariats,, and, bv the aid of their horses, drag it toward the village. In the procession, the man who has most distinguished himself in battle, mounted on the horse on whose back he has done his bravest deeds, takes the lead; others follow in the order of their military distinction; as they drag the log along, they fire their guns at it, strike it with their sticks, and shout and sing songs of victory. The log, they say, is symbolical of a conquered enemy, whose body they are bringing into the camp in triumph. When the log is set up, they again go to the woods to procure a quantity of willows. A temporary lodge of green willows is then built around the log, as the medicine-lodge, wherein the ceremony is performed. The participants fast four days with food in sight, and, on the fourth day, submit to tortures which vary according to the whim of the sufferer or the advice of the medicine-men. Some have long strips of skin separated from different parts of their bodies, but not completely detached. Others have large pieces of the integument entirely removed, leaving the muscles exposed. Others have incisions made in their flesh, in which raw-hide strings are inserted; they then attach buffalo skulls to the strings and run round with these until the strings become 45

Page  46 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. disengaged by tearing their way out of the flesh. Others, again, have skewers inserted in their breasts, which skewers are secured by raw-hide cords to the central pole, as in the Dakota sun-dance; the sufferer then throws himself back until he is released by the skewers tearing outi of the flesh. Many other ingenious tortures are devised.' In the narrative of Long's Expedition to the Rocky Mountains, we find an account of the latter part of this ceremony,* prepared probably from the statements of Mr. Dougherty or Mr. Lisa, as the expedition did not go.near the Minnetaree country. All of the torments there described, and more, are inflicted to this day. Among them is the following: "Anothler Minnetaree, ill compliance with a vow he had made, caused a hole to be perforated through the muscles'of each shoulder; through these holes cords were passed, which were, at the opposite ends, attached by way of a bridle to a horse, that had been penned up three or four days without food or water. In this manner he led the horse to the margin of the river. The horse, of coursb, endeavored to drink, but it was the province of the Indian to prevent him, and that only by straining at the cords with the muscles of the shoulder, without resorting to the assistance of his hands. And notwithstanding all the exertions of the horse to drink, his master succeeded in preventing him, and returned with hini to his lodge, having accomplished his painful task."t In describing the Minnetarees, Prince Maximilian says that they have the Mandan ceremony of the Okipa or O-kee-pa, with some modifications, and call it Akupehli. At this time, the Hidatsa call the Alandan cerelnony Akupi (of Nwhich word probably Akupehli is an old form); but they apply no such term to their own festival. MAaximiilian did not spend a summer among tliose Indians, and, therefore, knew of both ceremonies only from description. If the Minnetaree festival to which he referred was, as is most likely, the Nahpike, he is, to some extent, in error. The rites resemble one another only in their appalling fasts and tortures. In allegory, they seeni to be radically different. The minor ceremonies are chieflythose connected with their pp. 276, 277, 2a5. t pp. 277, 278. 46

Page  47 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HID)ATSA INDIANS. bands, of which the men and women have separate organizations and separate ceremonies.* Rites connected with the eagletrapping will be noticed hereafter. In one of his letters descriptive of the Mlinmetarees, Catlin gives an account of a greencorn dance, t and devotes a plate to illustratiing the same. I le does not directly say that this is a MNinnetaree festivity, but introduces the description in a way calculated to lead the casual reader to suppose that it is such. I have shown the plate to several of these Indians, and have given them the description of the dance, but have been invariably informed that they never had such a ceremony. In the same letter, he speaks of an improvident waste of she harvest in gluttonous eating of the green corn. His remarks on this point certainly do not apply to thie lHidatsa. In Chapter XIII of his work, Boller gives a brief description of a dance or paduididi performed by the Goose Band, an organization of the old women of this tribe; and, in Chapter XIX, he describes certain ceremonies of the White Cow Band. The latter band, originally, I believe, belongs to the Mandan women, but Hidatsa women are now admitted to its mysteries. 23. MYTI'HOLOGY AND SUPERSTITIONS.-Objects of veneration. -The object of their greatest reverence is, perhaps, Itsikamahlidis, the First M(ide, or First in Existence. They sometimes designate him as Itakate'tas, or Old Man Imtmnortal. Some Indians say that itsikamahidis means hle who first nmade, but such a rendering is not in accordance with the present etymology of the language. They assert that he made all things, the stars, the sun, the earth, and the first representatives of each species of animals and plants, but that no one made him. He also, they say, instructed the forefathers of the tribes in all the ceremonies and mysteries now known to them. Maahopa, or Miahopa-ictias, is the equivalent in the Hidatsa language for those terms in other Indian tongues which are usually translated "Thle Great Spirit". In thislanguage, it mlay be (figuratively, perhaps) applied to the Itakatetas, or any * See icke, iliokaicke, ihokamiaicke, ma4ukaicke, mxasukakadigta, masutamadaki, midaicke, and padnididi, in the Diction~try. t p. 1&9. t Plate 75. 47

Page  48 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE B1DATSA INDIANS. thing else of a very woniderful or sacred nature. Much diversity of opinion exists among observers of Indian character concerning the ideas which the savages attach to this term; and the subject deserves more consideration than it has yet received. The ideas of all the tribes within our borders have uniidoubtedly been greatly modified by intercourse with the whites; and, recognizing this fact, many claim that the Great Spirit, or, more properly, Great Mystery, s a deity of the modern Indian only. I have certainly heard some old and very conservative Minnetarees speak of Mahopa as if they meant thereby an influence or power above all other things, but not attaching to it any ideas of personality. It would now be perhaps impossible to make a just analysis of their original conceptions in this matter. But the Old Man Immortal has no vague existence in their minds. If we use the term worship in its most extended sense, it may be said that, besides this being, they worship everything in nature. Not man alone, but the sun, the mnoon, the stars, all the lower animals, all trees and plants, rivers and lakes, many bowlders and other separated rocks, even some hills and buttes which stand alone in short, everything not made by human hands, which has an independent being, or can be individualized, possesses a spirit, or, more properly, a shade. (See idahi in Dictionary.) To these shades some respect or consideration is due, but not equally to all. For instance, the shade of the cottonwood, the greatest tree of the Upper Missouri Valley, is supposed to possess an intelligence which may, if properly approached, assist them in certain undertakings; but the shades of shrubs and grasses are of little importance. When the MIissouri, in its spring-time freshets7 cuts down its banks and sweeps some tall tree into its current, it is said that the spirit of the tree cries while the roots yet cling to the land and until the tree falls into the water. Formerly it was considered wrong to cut down one of these great trees, and, when large logs were needed, only such as were found fallen were used; and to-day some of the more credulous old men declare that many of the misfortunes of the people are the result of their modern disre 48

Page  49 ETHNOGRAPIHY OF THE IIIDATSA IN])IANS. gard for the rights of the living cottonwood. The sun is held in great veneration, and many valuable sacrifices are made to it. Future state.-They believe neither in a hell nor in a devil, but believe that there are one or more evil genii, in female shape (see mahopamiis in Dictionary), who inhabit this earth, and may harm the Indian in this life, but possess no power beyond the grave. Their faith concerning a future life is this: When a Hidatsa dies, his shade lingers four nights around the camp or village in which he died, and then goes to the lodge of his departed kindred in the Village of the Dead. When he has arrived there, he is rewarded for his valor, self-denial, and ambition on earth by receiving the same regard in the one place as in the other; for there, as here, the brave man is honored and the coward despised. Some say that the ghosts of those who commit suicide occupy a separate part of the village, but that their condition differs in no wise from that of the others. In the next world, human shades hunt and live on the shades of buffalo and other animals that have here died. There too there are four seasons, but they come in an inverse order to the terrestrial seasons. During the four nights that the ghost is supposed to linger near his former dwelling, those who disliked or feared the deceased, and do not wish a visit from the shade, scorch with red coals a pair of moccasins, which they leave at the door of the lodge. Thie smell of the burning leather, they claim, keeps the ghost out; but the true friends of the dead man take no such precautions. Various superstitions.-They have a great many superstitious notions, yet I believe their superstitions are neither more numerous nor more absurd than those of the, peasantry of some European nations to-day. There is, too, among them every degree of faith in these fancies, from almost perfect skepticism to the most humble credulity. I will not describe all of their superstitions known to me, but will refer, for illustration, to a few of them. They believe in the existence and visibility of human and other ghosts, yet they seenm to have& no terror of graveyards and but little of mortuary remains. You may frighten children after nightfall by shouting nohidalii (ghost), but will not scare the aged. They have; muck faith in dreams, 4 49

Page  50 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. but usually regard as oracular those only which come after prayer, sacrifice, and fasting. They have queer notions respecting the effects of different articles of diet, thus: An expectant mother believes that if she eats a part of a mnole or shrew, her child will have small eyes; that if she eats a piece of porcupine her child will be inclined to sleep too much when it grows up; that if she partakes of the flesh of the turtle, her offspring will be slow or lazy, etc.; but they do not suppose that such articles of food affect the immediate consumer. They have faith in witchcraft, and think that a sorcerer may injure any person, no matter how far distant, by acts upon an effigy or upon a lock of the victim's hlair. It is believed by some of the Hidatsa that every human being has four souls in one. They account for the phenomena of gradual death, where the extremities are apparently dead while consciousness remains, by supposing the four souls to depart, one after another, at different times. When dissolution is complete, they say that all the souls are gone, and have joined together again outside of the body. I have heard a Minnetaree quietly discussing this doctrine with an Assinneboine, who believed in only one soul to each body. Amulets. Every man in this tribe, as in all other neighboring tribes, has his personal medicine, which is usually some animal. On all war-parties, and often on hunts and other excursions, he carries the head, claws, stuffed skin, or other representative of his medicine with him, and seems to regard it in much the same light that Europeans in former days regarded-and in some cases still regard protective charms. To insure the future fleetness of some promising young colt, they tie to the colt's neck a small piece of deer or antelope horn. The rodent teeth of the beaver are regarded as potent charms, and are worn by little girls on their necks to make them industrious. Oracles. Since their removal to their present village, they do not seem to have any very important local oracles to consult; but when they lived on Knife River, they had at least two such holy places. f One of these was a famous holy stone, or 'Medicine rock" (Mihopas, or, Mandan, Mihopinis), which is described by Long and by. Maximilian. It was some two or 50

Page  51 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. three days' journey fromn their residence. The Hidatsa now seldom refer to it, and I do not think they ever visit it. The other famous oracle, to which they now often refer, as they have still some fancies connected with it, was the Makadistati, or House of the Infants, a cavern, near the Knife River, which they supposed extended far into the earth, but whose entrance was only a span wide. This cave, they say, was inhabited by pigmies, or mysterious infants, who came out only at night, and then with great caution, lest they should be observed, and who followed a wise and watchful leader that knew the scent of man and snuffed the air as he advanced, like the leader of a band of antelope. They suppose that if he detected the presence of a human being, he gave the alarm and all retreated. After rainy nights, they saw tracks of some animals going from and returning to the cave, which tracks they said were those of the infants. The oracle was thus coiisulted: The childless husband, after a long fast, would repair to the neighborhood of the cave at night, and secrete himself behind a bowlder, to the leeward, to watch; if, in his hungerweakened brain, he had a vision of the infants, he returned home, confident that he would be a father within a year. The barren wife who desired children would, at sunset, lay at the mouth of the cave a tiny play-ball and a little bow and arrow. If the ball was missing in the morning, she believed that within a year she would be the mother of a girl; while if the bow and arrow were missing, she supposed she would be the mother of a boy. If neither were "taken", she went back with little hope, and could not consult the oracle again until a year had elapsed. There are those among them who imagine that, in some way or other, their children comne from the Makadistati; and marks of contusion on an infant, arising from tight swaddling or other causes, are gravely attributed to kicks received from his former comrades when he was ejected from his subterranean home. An account, given in Long's travels, of a certain hill, which "was supposed to impart a prolific virtue to such squaws as resorted to it", etc.,* seems to refer to this oracle; -* Lo<g, vol. i, pp. 274-275. 51

Page  52 ETHNOGRAPIIY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. but, if such is the case, I believe the account to be incorrect in some respects. 24. MARRIAGE, ETC.-Marriage is usually made formal by the distribution of gifts on the part of the man to the woman's relations. Afterward, presents of equal value are commonly returned by the woman's relations, if they have the means of returning them "and are satisfied with the conduct of the husband. After the marriage, if the husband is a young man taking his first wife, he becomes an inm-ate of his fatherin-law's lodge, and helps, by his hunting, to support his wife's parents. Some travelers have represented that the "marriage by purchase" among the Indians is a mere sale of the woman to the highest bidder, whose slave she becomes; but I feel that they misrepresent the custom, unless where their remarks may apply to some modern irregularities among the least reputable persons. Certainly, they misrepresent the custom as it exists in this tribe. The presenting of the wedding-gift is a form. The gift itself is a pledge to the parents for the proper treatment of their daughter, as well as an evidence of the wealth of the suitor and his relations. The larger the marriage-gift the more flattering it is to the bride and her relations; hence, the value of the presents offered has something to do in favoring a suitor's cause; but girls are left much to their own choice in selecting husbands for themselves. Parents soinetimes, by persuasion, but rarely by any harsh coercion, endeavor to influence a daughter in the reception or rejection of an offer. I have known many cases where large marriage-presents have been refused from one party, and gifts of much less value accepted from another, simply because the girl showed a preference for the poorer lover. The fame of a man as a warrior, his influence and position in the tribe, do more to secure him a good wife than the presents he may offer. Skill in hunting is a high recommendation; parents comnmonly advise their daughters to marry the men who will never leave the lodge unprovided with meat. I knew a case of a poor young Mandan, who had a sickly and worthless wife of another tribe, to whom, however, he was very kind; when she died, a well-to-do Grosventre, who had three fine daugh 52

Page  53 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. ters, gave them all to the young widower in marriage, and with them a valuable present in horses and other property, saying, "The young man has a good heart, and will be kind to my children when I am dead." Sometimes when a girl is crossed in her love, she elopes with her favorite. The pair remain out on the prairie for a week or so, and then return to the village. Usually this ends the trouble. They are then considered married, but such marriages are looked upon as undignified, and different terms are applied to a marriage by elopement and a marriage by parental consent. (See kidale and uahe in Dictionary.) Polygamy is practiced, but usually with certain restrictions. A man who marries the eldest of several sisters has a claim to the others as they grow up; and in most cases marries them, unless they, in the mean time, form other attachments and refuse to live with him. As certain female cousins are regarded as younger sisters, a man has often much latitude in selecting wives under this law. A man usually takes to wife the widow of a brother, unless she expresses an unwillingness to the arrangement, and he may adopt the orphans as his own children.. When a Grosventre takes a second wife who is no relation to the first wife the results are generally unhappy. Sometimes the first wife leaves him and returns to her relations; so)metimes she succeeds in chasing the second wife away. Occasionally, if the husband is well off, he provides them with separate establishments; sometimes, again, but rarely, the two wives agree. Divorce is easily effected; yet, among thIe better class of people in the tribe, it is rare. A young man who possesses sufficient recommendations to secure a comely and industrious girl of good reputation and well connected is usually in no hurry to part with her, nor is she willing to leave him for trifling causes. The unions of such people often last'for life. Among persons of different character, divorces are common. The Mlinnetaree woman is, as a rule, faithful to her husband, particularly when she is married to the man of her choice. It~sometimes happens, however, that a married woman elopes. The injured husband may then satisfy himself by seizing all the property of the 53

Page  54 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. seducer and of the seducer's friends that he can lay his hands on, and the latter often give him opportunities of doing so, or voluntarily come forward with presents to appease him. If the husband should at first slay his faithless wife, which is rarely done, no one would call him to account for it; but if lie or any of his relations have made seizures or accepted presents on account of the elopement, he does not dare to touch her when she returns. But the most praiseworthy course for the husband to pursue is to send for the runaways, request their return to the village' and, when they come back, invite them to his lodge and formally present the woman to her seducer, giving him a horse or some other valuable gift into the bargain. In short, if he would show that "his heart is strong", he must treat the whole affair as if he had had a good riddance. If a man discards a wife for infidelity, or if she elopes from him, he hopelessly disgraces himself if he takes her back. Notwithstanding that such are their customs, it must be remembered that their social discipline is not very severe. Punishments by law, administered by their soldier band, they have, but only for serious offenses against the regulations of the camp. He who simply violates social customs of the tribe often subjects himself to no worse punishment than an occasional sneer or taunting remark; but for grave transgressions he may lose the favor and regard of his friends. With the Mlinnetarees, as with other western tribes, it is improper for a man to hold a direct conversation with his motherin-law; but this custom seems to be falling into disuse. 25. NAMES.-Children are named when a few days old. Sometimes to males four names are given, all of which will have the same noun, but each one a different adjective. Only one of these names will be commonly used. In after years, the names of the males are changed once, or oftener, or rather new names are given; for they will be called as often by the old names as by the new. The first new name is usually given to a youth after he has first struck an enemy in battle. The names of women are rarely changed. Sometimes, if a name is long, a part of it only is used in ordinary conversation. Nicknames are often given on account of some absurd saying, 54

Page  55 ETHNOGRAPHY- OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. ludicrous circumstance, or personal peculiarity; and it sometimes happens that a person is called by his nickname almost to the exclusion of his proper name. Boys are sometimes named in honor of distinguished warriors deceased. Horses are rarely named; but names are often given to dogs, particularly to such as children keep for pets. White men known to the tribe are ordinarily named by these Indians from personal peculiarities; thus, we have for whites names which translated signify Long Neck, Fish-Eyes, Antelope-Eye, Old Crane, etc. A white man whlo has been for many years employed at Fort Berthold as an ox-driver, and who has, in consequence of his employment, frequently occasion to say "wo, wo-haw!" is known among the Grosventres as momohas (Englished, Momohaush or Bobohaush). Whites are sometimes called by the translations of their regular Christian-names or surnames. Thus, an old interpreter named Pierre Garreau is called mis (Englislied, Meesh or Beesh), from mi', a rock; and a Mr. Pease, who formerly traded at Fort Berthold, is known to the tribe as amazis (Englished, Amau'zhish), from amazi, beans. It is probable that some of these translations are made - by the whites and then employed by the Indians. I have seen some members of this and of other tribes who are ashamed to tell their names, and when asked for their names will answer reluctantly and with apologies, or seek a third party to give the information; while other Indians, apparently as conservative, exhibit no such hesitancy. I think that sensitiveness on this point is not so common among the Indians at Fort Berthold as among other tribes; nor is it as common among them now as it was ten years ago. 26. RELA'I'IONSHIP.- To illustrate their system of relationship, some of the Hidatsa names for relations are here synoptically given, although they may be found also in the Dictionary, each in its alphabetical order. adutAka,-grandfather or great-grandfather, or grandfather's brothers. iku, —grandmother, great-grandmother, grandmother's sisters. lta,-father, father's brothers, uncles in the male line. 55

Page  56 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. dte-ka'ti,-a true father. tatls,-another term for father, never used with the pro nouns. ika' or ikas,-mother, mother's sisters, aunts in the female line. hidu',-a true mother.(same word as for bone). hu,-another term for mother, said to be of amahami origin. itidu, a mother's brothers, uncles in the female line. iidmi, a fathler's sisters, aunts in the male line. itakfsa, a general name for sisters and female cousins, also the only name for a mnan's younger sister. itame'tsa, a general name for brother or male cousin, also used in the sense of companion as in English. The only term for a woman's elder brother. itaku,-,-a woman's younger sister. idu', -a woman's elder sister. itami'a,-a man's elder sister. itsu'ka,-a man's or woman's younger brother. faka,-a man's elder brother. idisi,- a son, said by both parents. ika,-a daughter, a brother's daughter. kid&, a husband. itddamia,-a wife, a wife's sisters, particularly her younger sisters. ua, -a true wife. isiklss, a husband's brother. ida'ti,-a wife's brother, a brothler's husband. The above terms are for relations of the third person; many of them having the possessive pronoun of the third person'i' inseparably prefixed, or to be removed only when pronouns of the first and second persons are used. To make the forms of the first and second persons'ma' and'di' are respectively substituted for'i', or the fragmentary pronouns 'm' and' d' used. We have thus, mate, my father; matsuka, my younger brother; du'a, your wife; di'aka, your elder brother, etc. The words tatis, ika', and hidu do not ordinarily take possessive pronouns, but are the same for all persons. All these may end with 5. (See E 90 in Grammar.) 56 I

Page  57 ETIINOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. In the above definitions, male cousins and adopted brothers are included under the term brother, and female cousins and adopted sisters under the term sister. Hence it is evident that their words expressive of relationship are often applied to the most distant and indefinite connections. On examination of the foregoing list, the following facts may be noted: Of the terms for brother and sister, certain ones are used only for relatives of the male, others only for those of the female; some are applied only to elder, others only to younger relatives; while two of the terms are general. There is a separate term for a maternal uncle, but none for a paternal uncle; he is called by the same name as a father. When they wish to distinguish between an actual father and a father's brothers, they use the adjective ka'ti, true, real, in speaking of the former. While there is a name for paternal aunt, there is none to distinguish maternal aunt from mother; yet there is a special word to designate the real mother, although she is coinmonly called by the terms which apply as well to her sisters. There are two names for wife; one for a wife by actual marriage, the other for an actual wife as well as what might be called a potential wife, i. e., a wife's sisters. There are two terms for brother-in-law, but no general term, as with us. It must not be supposed, from the wide significance of some of their terms, that they do not discriminate between all grades and conditions of kinship. When they have no single word to define the relationship, they employ two or more words. ~ 27. HUNTING.-Their methods of hunting are much the same as those of all the other plain Indians. In former days they made antelope-parks; * they stampeded heTds of buffalo over bluffs; they approached animals carefully until within close arrow-range, or decoyed them to approach the hunter by imitative sounds, or, as in the case of antelope, by displaying attractive objects. When they obtained horses, the chasing of the buffalo became common; and when they came into the possession of fire-arms, they began to hunt much as white * See Lewis and Clarke, p. 92; De Smet, p. 148 et seq.; Maxihilian, p. 385. Other authors describe this mode of hunting. 57

Page  58 ETHNOGRAPHY OF TIIE HIDATSA INDIANS. men do. They still often employ the primitive methods; thus, when they find antelope abundant, they make the oft-described antelope-park. The bow and arrow are still largely employed by the hunters; and fall-traps and snare-traps are made to catch foxes and other small animals. The boys practice themselves in the use of the bow by -shooting at marmots and small birds, and in winter they set horse-hair snares for snow-buntings. The majority of their modes of capturing and killing the lower animals have been so extensively described by other observers* that I will make no further reference to them here. But I will give an account of their eagle-hunt, which, as far as I know, has never been fully described in any book of travels, although Maximilian and Hayden both speak of it. Eaqle-hunting.-Late in the autumn or early in the winter, when they go out on their winter-hunt, a few families seek some quiet spot in the timber, and make a camp with a view to catching eagles. After pitching their tents, they first build a small medicine-lodge, where the ceremonies, supposed to be indispensable, are performed, and then make several traps on high places among the neighboring hills. Each trap consists of a hole dug in the earth, and covered with sticks, sods, etc.; a small opening is left in the covering; a dead rabbit, grouse, or other animal is tied on top; and an Indian is secreted in the excavation below. The eagle, seeing the bait, sweeps down and fastens his claws in it; but, the bait being secured, he is unable to remove it. When the eagle's claws are stuck, the Indian puts his hand out through the opening, and, catching the bird by both legs, draws him into the hole and ties him firmly. The trapper then re-arranges the top of his trap, and waits for another eagle. In this way many eagles are caught; they are then brought alive into camp, the tails are plucked out, and the bird is set at liberty, to suffer, perhaps, a similar imprisonment and mutilation at some future time. The covered hole or trap is called amasi'. When the trapping-season is over, they break up the camp; and, if the locality is not already provided with a name, they call it the * Particularly the exciting "buffalo-surrouud ". See Catlil), N A. Indians, vol. I, p. 199 et seq.-Boller, p. 224 et seq. 58

Page  59 ETIINOGRAPIIHY OF THiE HIDATSA INDIANS. amasi' of whoever was master of ceremonies during the season. Two instances of this manner of naming are given in the list of Local Names. The medicine-lodge is built after the ma~nner of their ordinary earth-covered dwelling-houses, but is much smaller. The door-way is low and small; and the door, consisting of a skin stretched on a frame, is suspended from the top by a string. On the inside of the lodge, opposite to' the door, is a sort of altar, on which various charms and relics are placed; around the edge,to the right and left of the door, hay is spread to serve as seats; and, in the center, is the fire-place. At night, after the trappers return, they sit to the left; their visitors sit to the right, as they enter. The latter enter and leave the lodge only by opening the door on the side corresponding with their seats. No person is allowed to spit on the floor, but he may spit behind him in the hay. Women are not allowed to enter the lodge, but may come to the door and hand in food and water. When some of the men wish to take part in the trapping, they go, during the day, after a preliminary fast, to the medicine-lodge. There they continue without food until about midnight, when they partake of a little nourishment, and go to sleep. They arise just before dawn, or when the morningstar rises; go to their traps; sit there all day without food or drink, watching for their prey, and return about sunset. As they approach the camnp, every one there rushes into his lodge, for the hunter must see, or be seen by, none but his fellowhunters until he enters the medicine-lodge. On entering the lodge, they stay there for the night. About midnight they eat and drink for the first time since the previous midnight, and then lie down to sleep, to arise again before the dawn and go to their traps. If where be one among them who has caught nothing during the day, he must not sleep at night, but must spend his time in loud lamentation and in prayer. The routine described must be continued by each hunter four days and four nights, after which he returns to his own lodge hungry, thirsty, and tired,' and follows his ordinary pursuits until he feels able to go again to the eagle-traps. During the four 59

Page  60 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. days of the trapping, the hunter sees none of his family, and speaks to none of his friends except those who are engaged in the trapping at the same time. They believe that, if any eagle-hunter does not properly perform all these rites, the eagle, when caught, will get one of his claws loose and tear the captor's hands. There are men in the tribe who have had their hands crippled for life in this way. The chief objects of pursuit in this hunt are the tailfeathers and largest wing-feathers of the war-eagle, Aqtuila chrys[etus, which are in such great requisition as emblems of valor. Of course, other birds of prey besides the war-eagle often seize the bait; of such tluhree species are considered worthy of capture; but these inferior birds are often slain at the'trap instead of being brought home alive. ~ 28. WARFARE.-The tales which some of the old men of this tribe tell of the warlike expeditions of their fathers and grandfathers seem scarcely credible, although from the descriptions of distant countries that they contain they bear internal evidence of truth. The journeys performed by the Hidatsa war-parties of the last century were very long,. but those undertaken by single individuals were more extraordinary. I have heard it related (with many descriptive embellishments and minute particulars) of an old warrior that he traveled directly to the south on foot until he reached the Platte River; there he built himself a bull-boat, and floated far down the Lower Missouri, where he found the land alf forest, and where he plucked fruits and shot birds such as he had never seen before; and there, from the head of some unknown Indian, he raised a scalp, and returned to his people after an absence of twenty lunar months. Another story is told of one who traveled toward the north-star until lie came to a land where the summer was but three moons long. Here he raised the scalp of some poor Tinneh, and came back to his native village in about seventeen moons from the day he started. * The?Minnetarees now rarely meet the Shoshonees, or Snake Indians of the Rocky Mountains, either in war or in peace;_yet, in 1804, as appears from the account of Lewis 60

Page  61 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. and Clarke, an almost constant warfare was carried on be tween these two tribes. There are old men now among the Hidatsa who speak of battles that they fought in their youth on the banks of streams that flow to the west. There are middle-aged men in this tribe who have, on mounted war parties, passed through the Dakota hunting-grounds to strike the Chippeways in Minnesota. When the Chippeways would see the tracks of the scalp-hunters pointing toward the western prairies, they would perhaps blame the Dakotas, and revenge themselves on the latter. Of late years, their military operations have become more restricted since the Dakotas have given them all they could attend to near home. Occasionally they have pitched battles with their enemies, but most of their hostilities consist in the raids of small war-parties, whose great object is not to take many scalps at any hazard but to inflict some injury without loss to themselves. The popularity of a partisan leader depends much on the small cause for mourning which his excursions entail on the tribe. When, however, they fight to resist a war-party, or meet an enemy by accident when they are not out on a regular war-excursion, they fight with little regard for life.* Many of their war-parties start out on foot, expecting to return with stolen horses. Prisoners of war. —-Young children are often taken prisoners of war. They are neither ill-treated nor compelled to perform unusual labors. Sometimes they are adopted by people who have lost children, and are then treated with parental kindness. When they have grown to maturity, they sometimes return to the tribe whence they came, but more often remain with their captors. I have never seen or heard of these Indians taking adult prisoners, for the purpose of torturing them to death, as was so common among the eastern tribes. The Hidatsa kills his enemy outright. The bodies of the slain, however, they mutilate in every conceivable shape. Sometimes they burn them whole, on large pyres; sometimes they hack them in pieces and burn * See account of a battle near Fort Berthold between Minnetarees and Sioux, given by Boller, p. 145. 61

Page  62 ETHNOGRAPIIY OF THE HIDA'rSA INDIANS. the fragments as offerings to the sun. Palliser gives an account of a fight between the Minnetarees and the Sioux at Fort Berthold, which he closes with the following remarks:"The skirmish now terminated; the Sioux retired and the Minnetarees returned to their village in triumph, dragging the body of their unfortunate victim along with them. Then commenced a truly disgusting sight; the boys shot arrows into the carcass of their fallen enemy, while the women, with their knives, cut out pieces of the flesh, which they broiled and ate. I turned away chilled with horror, and the whole scene hiaunted me for hours, and frequently afterward."* I first read this after I had known these Indians for some years, and was much surprised, for I had never heard of cannibalism among them, and had known of cases where some had died of hunger without resorting to this practice, which, among starving Europeans, is not uncommon. I had also heard Mr. Palliser's former hunting-companions and acquaintances on the Upper Missouri speak of him in terms of high praise as a man of veracity; and I have heard the adventures related in his book corroborated by eye-witnesses; therefore I took particular pains to inform myself on this point; and I was assured by the oldest white residents, as well as by the oldest Indians, that none of this tribe had ever, under any circunmstances, devoured human flesh. They say that the neighboring tribe of Crees do sometimes eat parts of the bodies of enemies slain in battle; and they account for his assertion either by supposing that there were Crees visiting the camp at the time, or that the horrified Palliser "turned away chilled" upon witnessing the cutting and broiling, and without waiting to see if the flesh was eaten, but taking the latter for granted. 29. STORIES.-Long winter-evenings are often passed in reciting and listening to stories of various kinds. Some of these are simply the accounts given by the men of their own deeds of valor, their hunts and journeys; some are narrations of the wonderful adventures of departed heroes; while many are fictions, full of impossible incident, of witchcraft and magic. The latter class of stories are very numerous. Some of them p. 286. 62

Page  63 ETHINOGRAPIIY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. have been handed down through many generations; some are of recent origin while a few are borrowed from other tribes. Of course, the interest of a tale depends much on the way it is told; although the plot remains the same with different narrators, the accessories and embellishments are added by each one to suit himself Thus, some old men acquire great reputations as story-tellers, and are invited to houses and feasted by those who are desirous of listening to them. Good storytellers often originate tales, and do not disclaim the authorship. When people of different tribes meet, they often exchange tales with one another. As an example of their tales of fiction, I have selected a story, said to belong originally to this tribe, and to have been known to it from time immemorial. An old Indian will occupy several hours in telling it, with much elegant and minute description, which I omit. On the other hand, I add nothiing, and give the following as a simple abridgment of the tale as I have heard it told. Tale of fiction.-Near the mouth of Burnt Creek, on the east bank of the Missouri, are the vestiges of some large round lodges, which stood there before the Indians came into the land. They were inhabited by various mysterious beings of great power in sorcery. In one of the lodges lived the two great demi-gods Long Tail and Spotted Body; a woman lived with them, who took care of their lodge, and who was their wife and sister; and these three were at first the only beings of their kind in the world. In a neighboring lodge lived an evil monster named Big Mouth, "who had a great mouth and no head". He hated the members of Long Tail's lodge, and when he discovered that the woman was about to become a mother he determined to attempt the destruction of her offspring. When Long Tail and Spotted Body were absent on a hunt one day, Big Mouth entered their lodge, and, addressing the woman, said that he was hungry. The woman was greatly frightened, but did not wish to deny him her hospitality; so she proceeded to broil him some meat on the coals. When the meat was cooked, she offered it to him in a wooden dish 63

Page  64 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. He told her that, from the way his mouth was made, he could not eat out of a dish, and that the only way she could serve him the food so that he could eat it was by lying down and placing it on her side. She did as he intimated, when he immediately devoured the meat, and in doing so tore. her in pieces. She died, or seemed to die; but the children thus rudely brought into the world were immortal. One of these he seized, and throwing him into the bottom of the, lodge, said: "Stay there forever among the rubbish and let your name be Atutish."* The other lie took out and threw into a neighboring spring, saying to him: "Your name is Iahash;t stay there forever, where you will love the mud and learn to eat nothing but the worms and reptiles of the spring." When Long Tail and Spotted Body came home, they were horrified to find their sister slaughtered; they mourned her duly, and then placed her body on a scaffold, as these Indians do. After the funeral, they returned hungry to the lodge, and put some meat on the fire to cook. As the pleasant odor of the cooking arose, they heard an infantile voice crying and calling for food. They sought and listened, and sought again, until they at length found Atutish, whom they draggedl forth into the glht, and knew to be the child which they supposed was devoured or lost forever. Long Tail then placed Atutish on the ground, and, holding his hand some distance above the child's head, made a wish that "he would grow so high"; and instantly the child attained the stature, mind, and knowledge of a boy about eight years old. Then Long Tail made many inquiries concerning what had happened to him and the whereabouts of his brother; but the child could give no information of what took place during the visit of Big Mouth. In a day or two after this transaction, the elders made for the child a little stick and wheel (such as Indian children use in the game called by the Candians of the Upper Missouri roulette), and bade him play round in the neighborhood of the lodge, while they went out to hunt again. While he was play * Or atutis. See' atuti' in Dictionary. + Or mahas. See' naha' in Dictionary. I have given above these two names in an English form for the convenience of the reader. 61 I

Page  65 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. ing near the spring, he heard a voice calling to him and saying "miakas " (ty elder brother).- He looked in the direction from which the voice proceeded, and saw little Mahash looking out of the spring. Wanting a playmate, Atutish invited him to come out and play. So Mahash came out, and the two brothers began to amuse themselves. But when Long Tail and his brother approached the lodge, on their return from the lhunt, Mahash smelled them far off, rushed svay like a frightened beast, and hid himself in the spring. When the elders returned, Atutish told them all that had happened while they were gone. They concluded that he of the spring must be their lost child, and devised a plan to rescue him, which they communicated to Atutish. Next morning they made another and smaller roulettestick, for the enchanted child to play with. Then they divested themselves of their odor as much as possible, and hid themselves near the sprint and to the leeward of it. When all was ready, Atutish went to the edge of the spring, and cried aloud "Mahash! Do you want to come out i" Soon the latter lifted his head cautiously out of the spring, raised his upper lip, showing his long white fangs, snuffed the air keenly, looked wildly around him, and drew back again into the water. Atutislh then went near where he had seen his brother rise, and called again to him; but the child answered from the water that he feared to'come out, as he thought he smelt the hunters. "Have no fear," said Atutish; "the old men are gone out hunting and will not be back till night. I am here alone. Come out to the warm sunlight. We will have a good time playing; and I will give you something nice to eat." Thus coaxed and reassured, the other ventured out, still looking mistrustfully around him. Atutish then gave him a piece of boiled buffalotongue to eat, which the little bov said was the best thing he had ever tasted. "Very well," said Atutish, "let us play, and I will stake the rest of this tongue against some of your frogs and slugs on the game." Mahash agreed; and soon, in the excitement of the play, he forgot his fears. They played along with the roulette some tinie without much advantage on either side, until, at length, they threw their sticks so evenly 5 65

Page  66 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. that it was impossible to tell which was farthest from the wheel. They disputed warmly, until Atutish said, "Stoop down and look close and vyu will see that I have made the best throw." The other stooped over to observe; and, while his attention was thus engaged, his brother came behind the little fellow, seized him, and held him fast. Atutish then called to the concealed hunters, who ran up, threw a lariat around the struggling captive and bound him firmly. Having secured the wild boy, their next task was to break the spell by which his tastes and habits were made so unnatural. To accomplish this, Longl Tail and Spotted Body put him in the sweat-hlouse and there steamed him until he was almost exhausted. They then took him out and began to whip him severely. As they plied the lash, they made wishes, that the keen scent would leave his nose, that the taste for reptiles would leave his mouth, that the fear of his own kind would leave his heart, etc. As they progressed with this performance, he suddenly cried out to Atutish, "Brother, I remember myself now. I know who I am." When he said this he was released; and his first impulse was to run to the spring. He ran there; but when hle reached the edge, he stopped, for he found that he no longer loved the black mud and the slimy water; and he returned to the lodge. Long Tail then placed the twins side by side, and holding his extended hand, palm downward, above their heads, a little farther from the ground than on the previous occasion, wished that they would both be "so high"; when, at once, they grew to the size of boys about fourteen years old, and they grew in wisdom correspondingly. Then Long Tail made bows and hunting-arrows for the boys, and a pair of medicine-arrows for their protection and for use on extraordinary occasions; and he addressed them saying, "You are now big enough to protect yourselves. Go out on the prairie and hunt, and we will see which one of you will be the best hLunter." After that time thley went out every day, and became expert hunters. Once, as they were looking for game among the hills, they came to a scaffold on which a corpse was laid. "There," said Atutish, "is the body of our mother. She was murdered, no one knows how." "Let us try the strength of our medicine 6-6

Page  67 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. arrows on her," said Mahash; "perhaps we can bring her back to life." So saying he stepped close to the scaffold and shot straight up. As the arrow turned to fall, he cried out, "Take care, mother, or you will get hurt;" and, as it descended near the body, the scaffold shook and a low groan was heard. Then Atutisli stepped nearly under the scaffold and shot up in the air. Ashis arrow turned to fall, he cried out, "Mother! Mother! Jump quick, or the arrow will strike yott." At once she arose, jumped down from the scaffold, and, recognizing her children, embraced them. The boys then asked her who was the author of their calamities, and how it all happened. She pointed to the lodge of' Big Mouth, and related all the circumstances of her death. Upon hearing this, the boys swore they would be revenged. Their mother endeavored to dissuade them, describing Big Mouth to them, assuring them that his medicine was potent, and that he would certainly destroy them if they went near him. They paid no attention to her remonstrances, but proceeded to plot the destruction of the monster. Now, this Big Mouth had a very easy way of making a living. He neither trapped nor hunted, nor took pains to cook his food. He simply lay on his back, and when a herd of deer came within sight from his lodge, or a flock of birds flew overhead, no matter how far distant, he turned toward them, opened his great mouth, and drew in a big breath, when instantly they fell into his mouth and were swallowed. In a little while, the boys had their plans arranged. They built a large fire, and heated some small bowlders in it. Then they carried the stones to the top of his lodge, put them near the smoke-hole, and began to imitate a flock of blackbirds. "Go away, little birds," said Big Mouth; "'you are not fit to eat, and I am not hungry; but go away and let me sleep, or I will swallow you." "We are not afraid of you," said the boys; and they began- to chirp again. At length Big MAouthl got angry. He turned up his mouth, opened it wide, and just as he began to draw his breath to suck them in, the boys stepped aside, and hurled the stones down into the lodge. "Oh, what sharp claws those birds have! They are tearing my throat," exclaimed the monster, as he swallowed the red-hot rocks. The next moment he 67

Page  68 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. roared with pain and rushed for his water-jars, drinking immense draughts; but the steam made by the water on the rocks swelled him up; and the more he drank the worse he swelled until he burst and died. The boys brought the body home, and, after they had danced sufficiently around it, their mother praised them for what they had done, but she said, "You must not be too ven,turesome. All these lodges around are inhabited by beings whose powers in sorcery are great. You cannot always do as well as you have done this time. You should keep away from the rest of them. There is one old woman in particular whom you must avoid. She is as powerful as Big Mouth; but you cannot kill her in the same way that you killed him, for she catches her food, not in her mouth; but in a basket. Whenever she sees anything that she wants to eat she turns her basket toward it and it drops in dead. If she sees a flock of wild geese among the clouds, no matter how high they fly, she can bring them down." When the boys heard this, they said nothing in reply to their mother, but set off secretly to compass the death of the witch. They went to the lodge of the latter, and, standing near the door, cried, "Grandmother, we have come to see you." "Go away, children, and don't annoy me," she replied. "Grandnother, you are very nice and good, and we like you. Won't you let us in? " continued the boys. "Oh, no," said she, "I don't want to hurt you; but begone, or I will kill yvu." Despite this threat, they remained, and again spoke to her, saying, "Grandmother, we have heard that you are very strong medicine, and that you have a wonderful basket that can kill aniiything. We can scarcely believe this. Won't you lend us the basket a little while until we see if we can catch some birds with it?" She refused the basket at first, but, after mLuchl coaxing and flattering, she handed it to them. No sooner were they in possession of the basket than they turned it upon the witch herself, and she dropped into it dead. After this exploit, the mother again praised her boys, but again warned them to beware of other evil genii of the place, Which she described. One of these was a man with a pair of 68

Page  69 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. wonderful moccasins, with which he had only to walk round anything that he wanted to kill. Another was a man with a magic knife, with which he could instantly cut or kill anything that he threw the knife at. These individuals they destroyed in the same manner that they overcame the basket-woman, by coaxing them to lend their magic property, and then slaying the owners with their own weapons. On each occasion, the boys retained the charmed articles for their future use. When all this was done, the old mother called her boys and told them there was but one more dangerous being that they had to guard themselves against. She said, " He lives in the sky, where you can not get at him; but he can hurt you, for his arm is so long that it reaches from the heavens to the earth. His name is Long Arm." "Very well," said the boys, "we will beware of him." One morning, soon after receiving this advice, they went out very early to hunt, but could find nothing to kill. They walked and ran many miles, until late in the day,, when they became very tired and lay down to sleep on the prairie. As was their custom, they stuck their medicine-arrows in the gromund, close beside them. The arrows possessed such a charm that if any danger threatened the boys they would fall to waken them. While the brothers lay asleep, Long Arm looked down from the clouds, and, beholding them, stretched his great arm down toward them. As the arm descended, the arrows fell hard upon the boys, but the latter were so tired and sleepy that they did not waken, and Long Arm grasped Atutish and bore him to the sky. In a little while, Mahash woke up and discovered, to his horror, that the warning arrows had fallen and that his brother was gone. He looked round carefully on the prairie for the departing tracks of his brother or for the tracks of the man or beast that had captured him, but in vain. When at his wit's end, and almost in despair, he chanced to glance toward the sky, and there, on the face of a high, white summer cloud, he saw the doubled track of Long Arm, where he came near the earth and went back. Mahash laid down his bow and arrow and other accouterments, retaining only his medicine-knife, which he concealed in his shirt. He next stuck his magic arrows into the 69

Page  70 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. ground and got on top of them, anl then he crouched low, strained every muscle, and sprung upward with all his might. He jumped high enough to catch hold of the ragged edge of the cloud. From that he scrambled higher until he at last got on Long Arm's trail, which he followed. For fear of recognition, he wished himself smaller, and, becoming a little, toddling child, moved on until he came to a great crowd, moving in one direction, with much talk and excitement. He ran up to an old woman who walked a little apart, and asked her what was the matter. She informed him that they had just captured one of the children of the new race which was growing on the earth-a boy who had destroyed many favored genii, and that they were about to kill and burn him. "Grandmother," said Mahash, "'I would like to see this, but I alm too little to walk there. Will you carry me?" She took him on her back and brought him to the place where the crowd had gathered. There he saw hIis brother tied to a stake, and a number of people dancing around him. He thought that if he could only reach the post unobserved and touch the cords with his medicine-knife, he could release his brother; but for some time he was puzzled how to do it. At length he slid down from the old woman's back,'1and wished that for a little while he might turn to an ant. He became one, and, as such, crawled through the feet of the crowd and up to the post, where he cut the cords that bound Atutish. When the latter was free, Mahlashi resumed his proper shape, and they both ran as hard as they could for the edge of the clouds. The crowd pursued them; but, as each foremost runner approached, Mahash threw his knife and disabled him. At last, Long Arm started after the brothers, running very fast. As he came within his arm's length of them, he reached out to grasp one of them. As he did so, Mahash again threw his knife, and severed the great arm from the shoulder. The boys got back safely to the earth. Then, having ridded themselves of all their enemies, they lived in peace, and in time they moved away from that locality. ~ 30. DivIsIoNs OF TIME.-Many writers represent that savage Indian tribes divide the year into twelve periods corre 70

Page  71 ETHNOGRAPHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. sponding to our months, and that each month is named from some meteorological occurrence or phase of organic creation observable at the time. Among others, Maximilian presents us with a list of twelve months,*-"The month of the seven cold days", "The pairing month", "The month of weak eyes" etc. He introduces this list in one of his chapters descriptive of the Mandans. He does not say it is their list of months. He publishes it without comment; and yet it is presented in such a way as to lead the reader to suppose that it is the regular and original Mandan calendar. Other authors present lists of Indian months in much the same way. As the results of my own observations, I should say that the Mandans and Minnetarees are generally aware that there are more than twelve lunations in a year, that they as yet know nothing of our manner of dividing the year, and that, although when speaking of "moons", they often connect them with natural phenomena, they have no formal names for the lunar periods. I think the same might be said of other tribes who are equally wild. The Hidatsa recognize the lapse of time by days, by lunar periods, and by years. They also recognize it by the regular recurrence of various natural phenomena, such as the first formation of ice in the fall, the breaking up of the Missouri in the spring, the melting of the snow-drifts, the coming of the wild geese from the south, the ripening of various fruits, etc. A common way of noting time, a few years ago, was by the development of the buffalo calf in utero. A period thus marked by a natural occurrence, be it long or short, is called by them the kadu, season, time, of such an occurrence. Some long seasons include shorter seasons; thus they speak of the 'season of strawberries, the season of service-berries, etc., as occurring within the season of warm weather. They speak of the seasons of cold weather, or of snow (tsidie, mada), of warm weather (ade), and of death, or decay (mata), which we consider as agreeing with our seasons of winter, summer, and fall; but they do not regularly allot a certain number of moons to each of these seasons. Should you ask an interpreter who knew the European calendar what the "Indian names of the * p. 384. 7.1

Page  72 ETHNOGRAPIHY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. months" were, he would probably give you names of a dozen of these periods, or natural seasons, as we might call them, corresponding in time to our months. In a few years, when these Indians shall know more of our system of noting time than they now do, they will devise and adopt regular Hidatsa names for the months of our calendar. Other facts concerning their cognizance of time may be learned from Paragraphs 256 and 25-7 of the Grammar, and by referring in the Dictionary to the following words, which are names of different parts of the astronomical day:-atade, ata, kiduhakute, midiatede, midiate, midiatedu, midiate-odaksipe, midimnapedupahide, midimapedupahli, midimapedupahi-dakamidi, midiimahpide, midiimahipi, opade, opa, oktside oktsi, oktsidu, mape and maku. 72

Page  73 P ILOLOG. 4

Page  74 4

Page  75 PHIL O LOGY. ~I. CLASSIFICATION OF THE HIDATSA LANGUAGE. —The language of the Minnetarees has been classified as belonging to the linguistic group called the Dakota group, and very properly so called, not because there is any evidence that the present Dakota tongue is the parent language of the group or the most direct representative of an archaic parent language, but because it is the miost extensively spoken, and the most thoroughly and intelligently studied language of the group. II. RELATIONS OF DAKOTA TO HIDATSA.-The Hidatsa language resembles the Dakota in many respects; and a large list might be made of words which are the same in both languages, if we allow for the interchangeability of certain lingual and labial sounds in the Hidatsa, to be described hereafter. The following are examples: -hota, gray; i, mouth; ista, eye; itopa, four)th; Ina, I; mini or midi, water; nita or dita, thine; nopa or dopa, two; te, die; topa, four; besides particles, such as i, denoting the instrument, to, interrogative, etc. There are many more words in each language which very closely resemble their synonymes, or approximate synonymnes, in the other; and several which in both languages are perfect homonymes and imperfect synonymes. These statements are illustrated in the following list:(DAKOT A.*) (HIDATSA.) dote, doti, throat; hi, hi, tooth, edge, point; his, hi,'feather8,fur, hair; ha, ha, rough; inkpa, icpu, point; ino) pa, inopa, second; ite, ite, face; niita, inata, mny, mine; nitawa, mnatawae, mine; * The Dakota words used throughout this essay are from Rev. S. R. Riggs's Dakota Gramntmar and Dictionary. Where the Dakota definitions differ from the Hidatsa, they are given separately.

Page  76 PHILOLOGY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. (DAKOTA.) nagi, a, to shoot and hit, oti, ti, tipi, ozu, po, pte, pute, 9upe, to, (HIDATSA.) dahi or nahi, ghost; u, to wound; ati, house; oze, to plant; pue, foggy; nlita, c o w; apite, uipper lip; ~ipe, bowels; tohi. blue; ha, to come; into or wad snow; roaml or waa, iwhite man; rmati or wati, boat; mia or wia, woman. of words which are nearly or quite synonynguages, we find little difference in sound, akota 6 (English ch in chain) stands in place as in these examples: - (HIDATSA.) cagu, dalio, lungs; 6aicao, dada, to tremble; cainte, da'ta, heart; daze, dazi, name; cekpa, dehpa, navel; cezi, (dezi, tongue; cute, side; duta, ribs; calihaliake, vertebre; dahaha, vertebral processes; nmicui, nada, my elder sister; nicun, didu, or nidfi, thy elder sister. More commonly, however, we find the difference to consist chiefly in the Dakota words having y, where the Hidatsa words have d: As the Dakota causative prefixes ya and yu are represented in the Hidatsa by da and du, many verbs may be placed under this head. In the following words, and in many others, we have instances of this difference:(DAKOTA.) (HIDAT'SA.) ya,t ya, to go, yaga, to peel with the teeth, yalideca, to tear with the mouth, yaliepa, to drink up, as water, yamni, 76 U, wa, wasi6ui), 'wata, Wil), (DAKOTA.), -. I cagti7 6ai)cai), 6ai) te, aie, 6ekpa, 6e2i, 6ute side; 7 6ah,,thake vertebrce - 7 - 7 mi6ul)7 ni6un,. da, thou; da, go thou; dalia(le, to shell with the.teeth; dahea, to tear with the teeth; daliupi, to drink dry; dami, three;,

Page  77 PHILOLOGY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. (DAKOTA.) (HIDATSA.) yuha, to lift, duhe, to lift, duha, lift thou; yuh(leca, to tear in pieces, etc., duhe,a, to tear in any way; yuhpa, to throw down, etc., duhlpi, to take down of; yuhuga, to break a hole in, etc., duliolii, to break across; yuksa, to break off, etc., dutsaki, to pull apart; yulka, to loosen, to untie,.(luka, to open, as a box; yutkiCda, to press, squeeze, dutsikti, to strangle; yuta, duti, to eat; yuza, dutsi, take hold of. In some of the above verbs it will be seen that the roots are much alike in both languages. Many of the quoted definitions embody similar ideas, although they are differently worded. It is well to remind the reader that even in the Dakota, in verbs beginning with ya and yu, the y is changed to d in the conjugation. (See Riggs's Dakota Gramnmtar, ~ 50.) In some cases, we find that the Dakotas use s where the Hidatsa usually use ts; but on this point usage is somewhat divided in the Hidatsa. (See Grammar, ~ 17.) (HIDATSA.) liatski, tsi (itsi), trite, tsidia, ditsukla, nitsuka,, sir) te, ti e, Iat; sni, tsidia, cold; nisurja, ditsulia nitsakl your younger brother. And some other words might be quoted to exeminplify this difference. In the words nagi and dahi, cagu and daho, yaga and dahiada, quoted above, and in others, the g of Dakota takes the place of h in Hidatsa. Althou(lh, as has been shown, there are many words alike or nearly alike in these two languages, allowance being made for certain uniform sound-changes, it must be remembered that a large majority of the Dakota words have no resemblance to anything in the Hidatsa. Reduplication in verbs, which is a prominent feature of the Dakota tong-ue, I have not observed to occur in the lHidatsa except in one word, ikaka. III. RELATIONS OF CRow TO HIDATSA. The Hidatsa bears a greater resemblance to the Crow than to any other language. Some speak of one as being but a dialect of the 77 (DAKOTA.) 1) as k a, sihe, sii)te1 7 sni, nisui)l,ca,, I(ENGLISH.) lo' ng - ot; tail;

Page  78 PHILOLOGY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. other; and so they might be regarded if we use the word dialect in a very wide sense. The Crow has its own dialects, differing to no great extent from one another. My opportunities for studying this language, particularly the dialects of the Mountain Crows, have been very limited. A vocabulary which I prepared of the language as spoken by the River Crows has been destroyed. I cannot, therefore, give a very full comparison of the Crow and Hidatsa. The Crow words presented below are from Dr. Hayden's Ethnography and Philology, which contains the most complete and accurate Crow vocabulary extant. A comparison of Hayden's Crow vocabulary with this Dictionary shows that many words of similar meaning are spelled alike in both, as adaka, you see; amaka, I see; apaka, a mnosquito; da, go; di, you; ika, he sees; mahla, a spring; mape, d(lay; ope, tobacco; ua, a wife, etc.; and that many other synonyms are nearly alike in spelling, as in the following examples, in each of which the Crow word precedes the Hidatsaame, anma, earth; apahe, apahi, cloud; ape, apa, leaf; aze, azi, river; daho, daho, lungs; dahlpitse, dahpitsi, bear; deze, dezi, tongue; due, duhi, lift; ho, hu, come; ho(e, hutsi, wind; ide idi, blood; mia, mi', stone; mnie, mia, woman; mihahe, mihaka, duck; oki, uki, clay; pohe, puhi, foan. The oft-quoted consonants (Grammar,'f~[ 19-23), which are interchangeable in the Hidatsa, are also interchangeable in the Crow, but perhaps in a less degree in the latter than in the former. Of the labial series, the Crows seem to pretfer b more than the Hidatsa; and of the linguodental series they use r and n to a greater extent than we find it used by the latter tribe. By taking this permutation of consonants into consideration, we find many words alike or nearly alike, both in Crow and Hidatsa, which would otherwise seem different. Examuples: (cRow.) (HDAI'TSA.) (ENGLISH.) atnalabe, ama,haini, mountain; are, ade, warm; are, arek, ade, adets, ache, it aches: apana, apadi, to grow: apani apadi, porcupine; 78

Page  79 PHILOLOGY OF THIE HIDATSA INLIANS. (HIDATSA.) atsimidi, ma(luhi, matse, watse, mnatsikoa, iiiatsu, matsua, maitaniua, mi, bi, mide, bide, mida, r mi(dahka, mitskapa, rnitia, bua, imia,t i(iuka or iruka, kada, kara, niada, nmi(la, midi, ldaka, (11daii, nawi, dl'l ln, nain a ee u dumidi, dopa, nopa, The Crows commonly use a sibilant, as s, sh, or z, where the Hidatsa use some other dental, as t. There are many Crow words which, except in this respect, differ but slightly or not at all from their Hidatsa synonyines, as the subjoined list will show: (CROW.) (HIDIATSA.) (ENGLISH.) _she, ati, house; hou'se;hiead; mtnie; auttum)n; Vemy noccasin; boat: buffalo; rib; large; face; how many; what; who; dead; inud; 79 (CRow.) (ENGLISH.) mnilk; I lift; qnan; sugar; cherry; sinew; bell; . I,? e; door; fire; kettle; rose; fish; to cry; mneat; run aw,ay; Winter; goose: water; child; three; deep; twist, wind; two. atsimina, b'arue, batse, watsi, batsihua, batsua, batsun, bate)hue, bi, bi(lia, bide, birahe, bitskipe, btia, it)ek, irtike, kana, 11ana, miina, inine, ihake, Ham, na,mo niomina., hop,

Page  80 PHIIILOLOGY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. (HIDATSA.) (CROW.) sho, shorak, shop, ( EwNGLISe H.) where; where, etc.; four. In a few cases, the above rule seems to be reversed, as in buata, motsa, coyote, wolf;.dakaka, tsakaka, bird; tamelh, same, Riot; azkate, azikaza, little river; miekate, miakaza, youtny womnan; tseete, tsesa, wolf; atanua, asadi, to steal. In these examples, the Crow words stand first. The Crow has an oral period as well as the Hidatsa; in the former it is k, in the latter ts. (See Grammar, f[[ 33, 16C8.) As these oral periods are much used, they constitute an important element in the difference in tone of the two languages. The Crows sometimes use s where the Hidatsa use 5 or ts, and c' (English ch in chain) where the Ilidatsa use k. There are many other instances of changes of sound in these languages which I have not now the means of illustrating sufficiently. . IV. SOME DIFFICULTIES IN TIIE STUDY OF TIIE HIDATSA. The interchangeable labial and linguo-dental sounds are very perplexing features of this laniiage. The sounds of m, b, and wU are interchangeable; so also are those of d, l, n, and r. 'I'Thlese permutations exist in other Indian tongues, though in few, I presume, to the extent to which they exist in this tongue. In the Dakota language, for instance, changes in these sounds are said to mark difference in dialect, while within each dialect the labials and linguals are not interlchanged to an extent sufficient to excite remark. The present Hidatsa tribe represents several bands formerly distinct; and the present language of this people, no doubt, represents nearly as many ancient dialects, the distinctive features of which cannot easily be determined at this day. The consolidation of these diverse dialects has had, perhaps, some share in producing this confusion of sounds; but, at most, it has had a very limited share. I believe that these Indians do not well appreciate the differences between these allied sounds as they fall on their ears, and consequently make no effort to distinguish them with their tongues. I have often, so to7 tod u, topa,

Page  81 PHILOLOGY OF THIIE HIDATSA INDIANS. for experiment, taken a word which contained two or more of these sounds, and pronounced it, in the course of conversation, with every possible change, and without being once mtisunderstood. Thus, the word madakoe, mny friend, my comrade, which contains but one labial and one dental sound, may be pronounced in at least twelve different ways,-which we have characters to represent, as, madakoe, marakoe, manakoe, malakoe, badakoe, barakoe, banakoe, balakoe, wadakoe, warakoe, wanakoe, and walakoe,-without fear of misapprehension, although they usually pronounce it malakoe or barakoe. Furthermore, when you hear an Indian uttering a sound belonging to one of these two series, you are often at a loss to select a character to express it. His labial will often sound as much like m as like b, or as much like w as m. Among linguo-dental sounds, it is often impossible, even after several repetitions of a word by an Indian speaker, to decide between d and r, or between d, 1, and n, as the best suited to represent the sound that smites your ear. In other words, there are labial, lingual, and dental sounds which we have not yet learned to distinguish, and which we have no characters to represent. I marvel not that old Charbonneau should have "candidly confessed" to Prince Maximilian, after a residence of thirty-seven years among the Minnetarees, that he could never learn to pronounce their language correctly.* In the Grammar (~~ 19-23), where this subject is further discussed, it will be seen that I have selected a standard letter to represent each series,-m for the labial, and d for the lingual or linguo-dental. When I first commenced to form my vocabulary, I adopted a different course, and put down each word in all the forms in which I heard it; but, in time, I discovered that I might fill a large volume with these repeated words, and, in the end, only confuse the student, obscure the truth, and misrepresent the language. When I first obtained some insight into the extent to which these permutations existed, I could scarcely trust my senses, and often feared that I labored under some subjective difficulties. At other times, when, in the mouth of the same speaker, and almost in the same breath, I would hear a well * Maximilian, p. 318. 6 81

Page  82 PHILOLOGY OF THE HIDATSA INDIANS. known word suddenly change its form, I would puzzle myself by supposing that thef change took place in accordance with some inscrutable grammatical rule. But when I came into the possession of vocabularies collected by others, I became better satisfied with the results of my own observations. In the compared vocabularies presented below, it will be seen how differently each author spells one and the same word, and that their differences arise chiefly from the transmutability of the sounds to which I have referred. In the first column (Say), the vowels have the English sound; and, in the second column (Hayden), they have the continental sound. VARIOUS AUTHORS.3 MwATTsbHEWS. miiptsa [bi-]. (nohpittsee, Boller.5 lachpizi, Max.6 daipitsi. [ [nahpitsi]. i de, ridia, peritska, awa, bida, ada, bi, baruhe, badi, bautse, idi. tsidia. pedetska. ama. mida [bi-]. ada. mi [bi]. maduhi. maetsi [bI)aetsi.] matse [watse, batse]. amah, beras, arra, i mee, merohhe, matze, mattza, ( Elahsa, Max.,1I hinatsa,9 ~ Idatza, De Smet,nd I eraansl Bo'er [ lteeraeainseb, Bol'ler,12 najes, laughpa, mourisha, neighje, nogpah, mene, boshe 14 and wasshe 15 meya, inbea, Catlin, 17 mia, w ea, Lewis and Clarke, " w From Dr. Say's YVocaullary in Long's Expedition, pp. lxx-lxxviii and p. lxxxiv. 2 From Dr. Hayden's Minnetaree Vocabalary in Hayden's Ethnography and Philology, pp. 424-'46. 3 Taken from various parts of the works of the authors to whom referred. 4 "Tomahawk, weep-sa-lan-ga", p. lxxxv. (See miiptsa daka, in Dictionary.) "loc-pitts-ee-toapish, or Four-Bears." Boiler, p. 56. 6 " Lachpizi-sihrish (the yellow bear)." Maximilian, p. 180. The letters have here their German sounds probably. 7 "Pehriska-Ruhpa (the two ravens)." Max., p. 180. s8 The first two syllables of "Awachawi", p. 178. (See amahami in the Dictionary.) 9 "Indian, hinatsa." o Max., p. 178. (See Ethnography, ~ 18. Hidatsa.) il "The Idatzas, miscalled Grosventres." From letter in Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864, p. 276. 12 " Men of the Hee-rae-an-seh ", p. 97. 13, Pehriska-Puhpa, (the two ravens)." See note 7 above. 14 "French, bo-she", p. lxxxiv. 15 Spaniard, was-she-o-man-ti-qua", p. lxxxiv. (See mahi and umatikoa in Dictionary.) 16' Leaving the'moshees' (whites) to reflect ", etc., p. 187. 7 In the feminine ending of the name "Seetsebea", p. 188. (See Grammar, ~ 93.) 18 In the feminine ending of the name "Sacajawea", p. 279. 82 EXGLISH. axe, SAY., weepsa,4 HAYDEN.' biipsa, bear, lab-petze, blood, cold, crow, earth, fi,-e, haii-, I, ice, k i i ife, mai7,, eb Fe, cerea, pebris'ka, Max.,' awa. Max.,' I hidatsa. i. dega fneaj. dahpi[nahpi]. madii. dezi [nezi]. dopa [nopa]. midi [bidil. mai. mada. Imia [wia, bia]. Minnetaree, desba, dalipe, badisba, deze, no, s7cin, my son, tol,tgue, two, qvater, .white man, ..woman, Y'Libpa, Max.," bidi, bashi, mana, moshee, BoZZer,16

Page  83 PHILOLOGY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANIS. Lest some should urge that these variations in orthography might be sufficiently accounted for by taking into consideration the changes which time may have produced in the language-for the quoted authors wrote at different dates-or by supposing the vocabularies to have been written from the dictation of men who spoke different dialects, I must call attention to the fact that there are many instances where one word, in different connections, is spelled with' different interchangeable consonants by.the same author. (In the following examples, the Hidatsa words in parentheses are forms given in the accompanying Dictionary.) Thus, Say presents us with two different forms of duetsa or luetsa, one, in "nowassa-pa" (duetsapi), nine, and "ape-leimoisso" (ahlipiduetsa.), eleven; with two forms of daka, child, a diminutive ending, in "sacanga-nonga" (tsakaka-daka), eyg, and "weepsa-langa" (miiptsa-daka), tomnah7aw/; with two formis of masi, white ian, in "French, boshe" and "Spaniard, wasshe-omantiqua" (the latter is doubtlessly intended for masi umatikoa, white nten at the so8uth-see note 1a, page 82); and withl two forms of dohpaka, people, in "Snake Indians, mabucshlo-rochlpanga" (mapoksa, dohpaka), and "Les Noire Indians, ateshlupeshla-lohpanga" (ati, sipisa, dohpaka). In Hayden's vocabulary, we find two different spellings of matse, san, in "bautse-itse" (matse-etsi), chief, and "makariste-matse" (makadista-matse), boy; two spellings of adui, sour, ungyent, etc., in "adawi", sour, and bidi-arawi (midi-adui), whisky; and two spellings of midi, sun, in "miidi-ewukpi" (midi-imalipi), sunset, and "bidi-waparepelhe" (lmidi-mapedupahi or bidiwaperupahi), mnidday, noon. I regret that, in preparing these remarks, I have not had access to a copy of MAaximilian's orliginal work, which contains a vocabulary of the Minnetaree language; but I have no doubt that instances of this kind might be drawn from it. Besides making the various labial interchanges mentioned above, they sometimes, but very rarly, use b for p; and occasionally, too they combine the sounds of b and w, thus ama may be pronounced abwa. A third series of interchangeable consonants might be mentioned, namely, a sibilant series. To some extent they confuse the sounds of s, 5 (English sh in shun), 83

Page  84 PIILOLOGY OF T''IIE HIDATSA INDIANS. and ts (see Grammar, SE~ 17, 18), and illustrations of this confusion taken from the vocabularies I have quoted; but these sibilant interchanges do not occur to such a marked extent as do the labial and lingual changes, and, when heard, they are not so perplexing to the English student. V. SONANT cHARAcTER.-The Hidatsa language is sonorous and pleasing to the ear; but I consider it less musical than the Dakota. One of the chief reasons for the difference in tone between the Hidatsa and Dakota languages, I believe to be the almost total absence, in the former, of the nasal-vowel ending (i)) so common in the latter (see Grammar, SUE 4, 14). The aspiration of the vowel in the Hidatsa takes the place of the nasal ending to a great extent. Another reason for difference of tone is that the Hllidatsa shorten and obscure their vowels to a greater extent than the Dakotas. The Hidatsa is spoken with much inflection, and the vowels are often increased in quantity to express different shades of meaning. If a party of Indians should be seated in an adjoining room, or at a short distance from the listener, conversing, where the voices can be heard, but not a syllable distinguished, the accustomed ear has little difficulty in discerning which one of the many languages of the plains the Indians are speaking. Each language has its own peculiar sonant character. It is more difficult to distinguish by this character the Hidatsa from the Crow than from the Dakota or Miandan, and more difficult to distinguish it fromn the latter than from the former of these two. The tones of these four languages belonging to the Dakota group are somewhat alike; so mnuch alike that a person possessing but limited acquaintance with them might mistake one for another, hearing it at a distance as I have described. But the contrast in tone between these tongues and the neighboring, but alien, Arickaree is well marked, and any quickeared person might learn at once to distinguish it from them. ~VI. CHIIANGES IN COURSE OF TIME.-I have said that the three languages spoken in the village at Fort Berthold show no perceptible inclination to coalesce (Ethnography, ~ 13). I have said this, well knowing that the statement was somewhat at 84

Page  85 PHILOLOGY OF THE IIIDATSA INDIANS. variance with the opinions of earlier observers.* The few Mandan and Minnetaree words given by Lewis and Clarke in proper names shlow, as far as they go, that the languages have not materially changed since 1804. There are now, and doubtlessly there were in 1804, many points of correspondence between the Mandan and Hidatsa languages; but there are none which may not be more easily' explained by supposing the two languages to have sprung from a common source than by supposing them to have been reciprocally changed by contact. I never could discover that the Hidatsa and M'andaii spoken by the rising generation resembled one another more than did those languages as spoken by the old men. I do not claim that the long and intimate intercourse which has existed between these two tribes has produced no ap)proximation or coalescence of their languages. It is but reasonable to suppose that the contrary is the case; but I could never get an Indian to point out to me, nor could I ever otherwise discover, a satisfactory instance of such coalescence. Throughout the past hundred years, the MIandans have had as much intercourse with the Arickarees as with the Minnetarees; yet I never could trace any resemblance between the modern Mandan and Arickaree tongues. As far as I have observed them, there is not a single word alike in both. It is not likely that intercourse has produced a noteworthy approximation of languages in one case and none whatever in the other. There is no doubt that the Hidatsa language has changed in the course of time; but the change has resulted chiefly from causes other than the influence of the Mandan tongue. Some of the old men occasionally converse among themselves in terms which younger members of the tribe do not understand, and, when asked what they mean, they say they are trying to speak the old language. Lewis and Clarke, p. 97.-Maxinilian, pp. 393, 405. 85

Page  86 I

Page  87 HII)ATSA G AMMAI 87

Page  88

Page  89 HIDATS A GItAMMAIR. 1. LETTERS. 1. Twenty letters, exclusive of the apostrophe, are used in this work to express in writing the Hlidatsa language. Fifteen of the letters are essential, an(! five non-essential. Essential Letters. 2. Of the essential letters, five are vowels, and ten; consonants. 3. The vowels are a, e, i, o, u. a has three sounds;-a (unmarked) has the sound of English a ill father; a (short) has the sound of English a in what; a (obscure) has the sound of short i in tun. e has three sounds;-e (unmarked) has the sound of English ai in air; e (short) has the sound of EInglish e in ten; e (long) has the English sound of e in they. i has two sounds;-i (unmarked) has the sound of English i in marine; 1 (short) has the sound of English i in tin. o has the sound of Ernglish o in tone. ui has the sound of English u in rude. 4. The apostrophe (/) is placed after vowels to denote a peculiar force or aspiration, not initial, in pronouncing them, which slightly modifies the sound. 5. The consonants are c, d, h, ]i, k, il,l p, s, i, t, z. c has the sound of German ch in ich. d has the common English sound before consonants; but before vowels it has a slight sound of English th in this. d is inter changeable with n, 1l, and r. h has the sound of English h in hat. Ii represents the guttural surd no longer in use in English; it is like the German ch in machen, but a somewhat deeper sound. k has the English sound, as in took. m has the ordinary English sound, as in man; it is interchangeable with b and iw. p has the ordinary English sound, as in pan. s has the sound of English s in sun. has the sound of English sh in shun. t has, before consonants, the ordinary English sound, as in tit; but before vowels it has a slight sound of English th in thin. z has the sound of English z in azure.

Page  90 HIDATSA GRAMMAR.. Non-essential Letters. 6. The non-essential letters are five of the seven interchangeable consonants of the language; they are b, 1, n, r, and w; they have all the ordinary English sounds. The language might be written or spoken without them. b and w are interchangeable with the essential letter m, and 1, n, and r with the essential letter d. Remarks. 7. As no great advantage could be seen in retaining two sets of characters, capitals are, here, entirely dispensed with in writing the Indian words; but, in the Ethnography, where a Hidatsa proper name is used~ temporarily, as an English word, the initial letter is a capital. Proper names are easily recognized by the termination i. 8. The following letters of the English, it will be seen, are not included in this alphabet: f, g,j, q,, x, and y. The sounds off, g,* and v are not in the language. It is a difficult matter for these Indians, or any one else, to pronounce i followed by a vowel (and many other vowel combinations) without an intervening consonantal sound of y; elsewhere in their tongue this sound is not heard, and a character to represent it would be useless. k is the equivalent of q. English j might be represented by dz, and x by ks; but neither of these combinations has been found in the Hidatsa. 9. Some of the tribe occasionally pronounce the first sound of a like English a in hall, and make other slight variations of the vowel sounds, which, however, seem to be only individual peculiarities of speech, or modifications unavoidably produced by preceding or succeeding consonants. It is believed that all the standard variations are duly represented. 10. Often before a final ts, and more rarely before a final k or s, long vowels may be shortened, e changed to 1, and a to a. (~IT 30-33). 11. It was originally thought advisable to include a short ti in the alphabet, or to introduce a new character to represent the sound of English iU in tub; but it is now believed that wherever this sound constantly occurs it is as a modlification of a. 12. o is never shortened, as in the English word not; but a sound much like short 6 is heard in the modification of a, which is represented thus, a. 13. The sounds of English u in pure and oi in oil, are not found in this language; nor is the sound of ou in our ever used except occasionally in the word ho or hao. 14. The nasal modification of vowels, so common in the Dakota, does not properly belong to the Hidatsa, although a few of the tribe use it with aspirated a in the words adtsi, idad'ti, ihabtaha, and liaka'ta. * In the words lioki, iplioki, matslioki, and one or two others, I have occasionally heard the k softened into a hard g. 90

Page  91 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 15. The sound represented by c occurs only after i, and ill accented syllables which are not terminal. 16. The English sound of ch in chais is represented by t;. 17. In words beginning with ts, the t is occasionally dropped by women and young people, who thus say sakits for tsakits, sitska for tsitska, etc.; but, according to the best usage of the language, the plain sibilant is never found alonewith a vowel and never begins a syllable. 18. Sometimes ts is used where ts is to be regarded as the standard; thus itsuasuka, a horse, may be pronounced itsuasuka. 19. In acquiring the language, and making a correct analysis of its words, one of the greatest difficulties to be encountered is the interchangeability of certain consonants. 20. There are two important series of interchangeable consonants; a labial series consisting of m, b, and w, and a dental, or linguo dental, series consisting of d, l, n, and r. The constituent sounds of each series are subject to interchanges so arbitrary and frequent that no definite rules can be given for them. The following remarks, however, will be found to apply: (t[f 21, 22). 21. m is regarded as the standard letter of the labial series; it is the one most commonly used by those who are considered the best speakers of the language. Before the vowel i, b is as commonly used as m it initial syllables, and w more commonly in median and terminal syllables 22. d is the standard of the dental series. WVhen r is substituted for d, it is more commonly done by men than by women, while the latter appear to have a greater preference for 1 and n than the former. A desire for euphony seems sometimes to determine sp)eakers ill their choice. 23. Whenever, in any word, a non-essential letter is heard as often or nearly as often, as its corresponding essential, the fact is shown ia the Dictionary in one of three ways: 1st, by putting the modified syllable in brackets and indicating its position in the word by dashes, thus ' liamua [-bu-] and " liami [-wi]'" denote that these words are very often pronounced liabua and liawi; 2d, by placing the entire modified word in brackets; and, 3d, by giving the modified word in its alphabetical order, referring to the same word with the standard spelling. Where a non-essential letter is heard oftener than the standard letter, the fact is shown by prefixing plus [+] in the brackets, thus,'dOpa [+ mopa]. I1. -SYLLABLEUS. 24. The words are divided into syllables in such a manner as to make the etymology as clear as possible. It is designed that each syllable shall represent one complete factor of a word, or, in case of contraction, tiore than one, but not the fragments of these factors joined together in an arbitrary way to simplify the task to the tongue and ear of the English-speaking student. 91

Page  92 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 25. A very large proportion of the syllables end with vowels. The more common cases in which they end with consonants are given below. (~ll 26-33). 26. Initial and median syllables may end with c or k. (~Jf 27, 28). 27. Syllables ending in i occasionally take c after i when another syllable is suffixed (I 15); this most frequently happens when the added syllable begins with k, p, or t; thus we have micki from'ni, and halipicti 1rom hlalipi. 298. In the prefixes ak, dak, and mnak, the kli is seldom transferred to the following syllable. 29. Terminal syllables (and consequently words) may end in k, t, A, and ts. (lIT 30-33). 30. A syllable may be closed by k: 1st, when verbs ending in ki form the imperative by dropping i, as amaki is changed to amak; 2d, when ak, duk, and tok are used as suffixes; 3d, when ak, d'k, or mak stand alone; and, 4th, in the words duk, tok, and tsakak. 31. A syllable may be closed by t, when a verb ending in ti forms its imperative by dropping i, as kipisuti is changed to kipgsit. 32. Proper names commonly end with A. 33. A word which closes a sentence, or stands alone forming a sentence by itself commonly terminates in ts, if not with k, t, or s. ts answers the purpose of a vocal period in most cases. (IT 168). 31. Syllables are frequently contracted by the elision of their vowels. 35. A contracted syllable, when not terminal, belongs to the succeediiig syllable. 36. A syllable consisting of a single vowel, when following immediately an accented vowel, or standing immediately between two other v,)wels, may sometimes be omitted. IlI. WORlD)S. 37. Words will be considered under the usual eight heads (articles excluded) of nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections. Nouns. 38. For convenience of description, nouns may be divided into two c'asses, primitive and derivative. Primitive Nouns. 39. Primitive nouns are such as, with our present knowledge of the language, we are unable to analyze either in whole or in part; as ma', snow; i', mouth; ista, eye, etc. 40. Nearly all the monosyllabic nouns are primitive, as are also the names of many things which are longest known to the people. 41. Many of the primitive nouns of the Hidatsa have, in kindred languages, their counterparts, which they closely resemble in sense and sound. 92

Page  93 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. Derivative Nouns. 42. Derivative nouns are such as we are able to analyze in whole or n part. 43. Derivative nouns may be formed from words of any class, but chiefly from verbs, adljectives, and other nouns, either primitive or de. rived, by certain prefixes and suffixes, the commonest of which are i. adu, o0, aku, ma, the possessive pronouns, and the diminutives d(ika and kaza. 4a. i, prefixed to transitive verbs, forms nouns denoting the instrument or material with which the action is performed; thus, ita, an arrow, is from ta, to kill, and ikipakisi, a towel, from kipakisi, to rub back and forth. Nouns formed in this way are commonly prefixed by other nouns (denoting the recipient of the action), by the prefix ma, or by both; thus, maikipakisi, iteikipakisi, and maiteikipakisi are more commonly used than ikipakisi, although all these words denote the same thing. Nouns of the material are seldom heard without such prefixes; thus, maikikak, ithread (from kikaki, to sew), and maiteidusuki, soap (from ite, theface, and dusuki, to wash), are not heard in the simple forms of ikikaki and idusuki. 45. adu (an adverb of time and place when used alone) is employed as a prefix to form nouns under the following circumstances: (][~f 46-48). 46. adu, prefixed to verbs, forms nouns denoting the part on which the action is performed; as, adukikaki, a seamn, from kikaki, to sew. Here ma, or the name of the thing to which the part belongs, precedes adu. 47. adu is also prefixed to verbs to form nouns, which signify the place where an action is performed; thus, from kidusa', to put away carefully, comes adukidusa, a place of deposit. In this case ma, or the noun denoting the object of the action, frequently precedes adu; e.g., maadukidusa, a place where anything is put away or stored, matakiadukiduna, a cupboard. 48. adu is prefixed to intransitive verbs and adjectives to denote oneor more of a kind or class which the verbs or adjectives describe; thus, from idakisa, left-handed, comes aduidakisa, a left-handed person, and from kiadetsi, brave, skillful, etc., comes adukiadetsi, one of the brave or skilled. In this case, ma usually precedes adu. 49. o, prefixed to a verb, may form therewith the name of the action;. as in odidi, walking, gait, from didi, to walk. 50. o is used in the same way as adu, to denote the place where, or the part whereon, an action is performed; as in od(fitsi, a mine, from dfitse, to obtain. 51. aku (a relative pronoun when used alone), prefixed to a transitive verb, forms a noun denoting the agent or performer of the act, and is nearly or quite synonymous with the English suffixes er and or. In this case, aku is commonly preceded by the name of the object; thus,*. 93

Page  94 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. froum mnasipia, grapes, and duti, to eat, we have magipisaakudfti, grapeeater, i.e., the cedar-bird, or Ampelis cedrorum. 52. aku is sometimes used in the same sense as adu, in Par. 48. In this sense, it is common before the adjectives denoting color; as in akutohi, beads, fromin tohi, blue, and akusipisa, black cloth, from Aipisa, black. 53. ma (to be distinguished from the pronoun ma) is a prefix of very extended use in the language. With some nouns, however, it is rarely used, while to a different class it is indispensable. It may be regarded as an indefinite particle, or as a universal noun or pronoun, qualified by the words to which it is prefixed. Some of the more common instances of its use are here given. 54. ma is prefixed to nouns of the instrument beginning with i, as in Paragraph 44, when the object on which the instrument is employed is not designated. When, for precision of definition, the object is named, its name takes the place of ma. When the name of the material of which the instrument is made is included, it commonly precedes ma; thus, from maidutsada, a sled, comes mida-maidutsada, a wooden, sled. 55. ma is prefixed to adjectives to form the names of articles which possess in a marked degree attributes to which the adjectives refer; thus, from tsikoa, sweet, we have matsikoa, sugar. 56. ma is prefixed to verbs to form the names of objects on which the action denoted by the verb has been performed; thus, from kidutskisi, to wash out, comes makidutskisi, a lot of washed clothes. 57. Many words beginning with ma drop this prefix when incorporated with the possessive pronouns. 53. The possessive pronouns, (tu), ma, mata, (d), di, dita, i, and ita, are placed before the name of the thing possessed; then, together, they are pronounced as one word, and the pronoun regarded as a prefix. 59. In many cases, where possessive pronouns are prefixed, the noun denoting the thing possessed loses its first syllable, has its accent removed, or is otherwise much changed; as in itapa, his moccasins, from hupa, moccasins; itasi, his robe, from masi, a robe. 60. Some words are rarely, others never,* heard without a prefixed possessive pronoun; as, itadsi. leggings, his leggings; isami, a father's sister; itsuka, a mtan's younger brother. 61. But few words, formed as shown only in Par. 58, are given in the Dictionary, while all known words in the 3d person, formed as in Pars. 59 and 60, are laid down. In the cases of such words as are referred to in Par. 60, as never being heard without a pronoun, the noun, with the pronoun omitted, is given sometimes as a hypothetical word. * This construction is only found with names of things, which necessarily belong to some one, and cannot otherwise exist (as blood relations), or are usually so conceived (as certain articles of personal property), and only to a limited number of such names. '94

Page  95 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. Diminutives. 62. daka, which, when used alone, means the offspring or young of anything, is employed as a diminutive suffix of general application. Ex.-idaka, his or its young (the offspring of any individual or species mentioned); dalipitsidaka, a bear's cub, from dalipitsi, a bear; miiptsidaka, a hatchet, from inmiiptsi, an ax. 63. kaza is a diminutive suffix, whose use is limited to about twenty words of the language, including proper names. Ex.-masuakaza, a puppy, from masfika, a dog; miakaza, a young weoman, from mia, a womanl; amatikaza, the Little Missouri River, from amati, tho Missouri. 64. The adjective kadista is also used as a diminutives Comipound Nouns. 65. There are certain words which may be considered as compound nouns, because they closely resemble in structure compound nouns in English; although no definite distinction can be made in Hidatsa between compound and other derived nouns, since the so-called prefixes and suffixes are really words-the most of them capable of being used alone. 66. Compound nouns are formed in the various ways described in Pars. 44, 46, 47, 54, and 57, and also by simply placing two or more nouns together or by joining nouns to verbs, adjectives, and adverbs; e.g., istamidi, tears, from ista, the eye, and midi, water; masitadalipitsisui, bacon, from masi, white man, itadalipitsi, his bear, and Afni, fat; istaoze, eye-wash, collyrium, from ista, eye, and oze, to pour into; itahatski, the Dakota Indians, from ita, arrows, and hatski, long; amasitakoamasi, the people of Prince Rupert's Land, from amasitakoa, at the north, and masi, white men. 67. When a compound noun is formed by simply placing two nouns together, the first word commonly denotes the possessor, the second the thing possessed. (IT 84). 68. Sometimes verbs, adjectives, and adverbs are used as nouns without undergoing any change of form; as oze, to pour, a drink; patsatikoa, at the west, the west. Properties of Nouns. GENDER. 69. Gender is distinguished by ising, for the masculine and feminine, different words, which may either stand alone or be added to nouns of the common gender. 70. matse, man, sikaka, young man, itaka, old man, the terms used for male relations (as itsuka, idisi, etc.), for callings exclusively masculine, and the compounds of these words (as makadista-matse and itakalie), are nouns of the masculine gender, applied to the human species. 95

Page  96 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 71. mia, woman, kadulie, old womnan, terms used for female relations (as idu, itakisa, etc.), for those employed in labors exclusively feminine, and the compounds of these (such as miakaz-, a young wm) are nouns of the feminine gender, applied to the human species. 72. kedapi, bull, when used alone, means a buffdlo bull; but as a suffix, either with or without the interposition of adu, it designates the male of any of the lower animals. 73. mite, the generic name for buffalo, means also a buffalo cow. 74. mika, a mare, is used as a suffix to denote the females of the lower animals. it follows the specific name, with or without the intervention of adu. 75. When the species has beeni previously mentioned, or is otherwise understood, the specific name need not be prefixed to kedapi, aduked(lapi, mika, or adumika. NUMBER. 76. Hidatsa nouns suffer no change of form to indicate the difference between singular and plural. 77. Some nouns we know to be singular or plural from their original meaning or from the sense in which they are used. In other cases, our only means of making a distinction is by the use of numeral adjectives, or such adjectives as ahu, many, etsa, all, kausta, few, etc. CAsE. 78. In view of their syntactical relations, Hidatsa nouns may be parsed as having the same cases as nouns of other languages; but they are not inflected to indicate case except, doubtfully, in the possessive. 79. Possession is ordinarily shown by the use of the possessive pronouns, which stand before the noun denoting the thing possessed, and are usually considered as prefixed to it. 80. Two kinds or degrees of possession are indicated in the language. One of these may be called intimate, integral, or non-transferable possession; such as the possession we have in the parts of our body, in our blood-relations; the possession which anything has in its parts or attributes-the words idakoa, his friend or comrade, and iko'pa, her friend or comrade, are put with this class. The other kind, or degree, is that of acquired or transferable possession; it is the possession we have in anything which we can acquire, or transfer from one to another.* 81. Intimate or non-transferable possession is shown by the use of the simple possessive pronouns, i, his, her, its, di, your, ma, my, and the contractions, m and d. Ex.-saki, hand, isaki, his or her hand, disaki, your *The terms here employed for the different classes of possession, as shown by the different kinds of pronouns, are the best which, at pressent, present themselves; bat they do not accurately cover all cases. 96

Page  97 HIDATSA GRAMMAB. hand, masaki, my hand; iaka, a man's elder brother, diaka, yotur elder brother, miia,ka, my elder brother. 82. Transfera,ble possession is shown by the compound possessive pronouns, ita, dita, and mata, which are formed by adding the syllalle 'ta to the simple pronouns. Ex.-midaki, a shield, itamidakii, his shield, ditamid(laki, your shield, matamidaki, my shield. 83. The noun denoting the possessor is placed before the nount denoting the thing possessed, and, when the former appears il a kenten(e, only the possessive pronoun of the third person can, of course, be used. 84. Possession may be indicated by simply p)lacing the name of the possessor before that of the thing possessed, without the use of an intervening pronoun; the two words may be written separately, or as a conipound word (~[T 66, 67), if the signification requires it. Some cases of this itiode of showing possession may be regarded as simply an omission of the pronoun i; others, as the use of one noun, in the capacity of ai adjective, to qualify another nioun. 85. When the name of the possessor ends with a vowel, the'i' of its may be dropped, in which case the names of possessor and possessed, with the itnterposed'ta', may be written as a compound word with at vowel or syllable eli(le(l, as shlowin in Pars. 34 and( 36. But if we regard thl'ta' as belonging to the noun denoting the possessor, we have as true a possessive case as is made by the English l apostrophe and s". The possessive particle ta is never used alone as a prefix.. 86. The position of a word in a sentence and the conjugation of the verb which follows, usually show whether it is in the nominative or objective. Often, too, the case is rendered unmistakable by the mleaning of the word and by the context. Proper Nouns. 87. Proper names, whether of persons, domnestic animals, or places, are usually terminiated( with thle consonant A, if not already closed by another consonantal sound, as t or k. 88. A may be regarded as the regular sign of a proper noun. It is well to end any proper name with A, where another terminal consonant does not interfere, but it may be omitted when, in calling a person. we accent the last syllable of his name, when we aninex the word azi to the name of a river, and occasionally under other circumstances. 89. A is not suffixed( to the names of tribes or nations when the whole people are referred to. Perhaps such words are not regarded as proper nouns by this tribe; but if.the name of the tribe is used to distinguish one member of it, and is thus employed as a proper name, it takes the terminal A. 90. Words temporarily enmployed as proper names (as terms of relationshlip, etc.), may take the terminal, if there would be danger of amtbiguity without it. 91. The name of a person may consist of' a single word, usually a 7 9 7 0

Page  98 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. noun; as, tsatses, Eagle (the spotted eagle), motsas, Coyote, amazis:, Beans. 92. Personal unames are, however, more commonly compound words formed-(1) of two noliluns; as, pedetskiliis (pedetska an(d ilii), Crow-crop, ista-uetses, Iron. eye;-(29) of a lnoun and a verb; as, tsakaka-amakis,, kSitting bird, dalil)itsi-i(luhis, Rising beqr;-(:(3) of a noun and an adjective; as, tsesa-liadaliis, Lean-twolf, tsalkaka-tobis, Blhtebird;-(4) of a noun and adverb; as, inidikoa-miis. Woman-at the water;-(5) of a pronoun, noun, aind adjective; as, itamidaki-iliotat is, His white shield,-and in various other ways.* 93. Names of females often begin with the word inia (wia, bia), or end with inia, Iniis (wiis), all of which mean woman. Ex.-miahopl)as, Miediciie-woman; miadalipitsis, Bear-woman; tsakakawiis, Bird-woman; Ilat ailiimii, Turtle- woman. 94. Localities are nalned from physical peculiarities or historical asso(ciations. The names of various localities known to the tribe are appended to the )ictionary. Syntax of Nouns. 95. A noun precedes a verb, adjective, noun in apposition, or any part of speech used as its predicate. Since there is no verb to be, used as in English, any word except a conjuuction or interjectiou mcy be emiployed as the predicate of a noun. 96. The name of' the person spoken to' commonly fi)llows a verb inii the imperative; but in almost all other cases a noun, whether subject or objec(t, stands before the verb. 97. WVhen the names of both subject and object appear, the former usually precedes the latter. 98. The name of the possessor precedes that of the thing( possessed. PRONOUNS. 99. Htidatsa pronouns ]may be divided into four classes, nainely, per0sonal, relative, interrogative, and demonstrative. Personal Pronouns. 100. Personal pronouns are of two kinds, simple aid( compound. o101. Simple, or primary, personal pronouns consist, in the.ingular, of but oine syllable; they may stand alone, as separate words, but are usually found incorporated wi'h other words. 102. Compound personal pronouns consist of more than one syllable, are derived from simple pronouns, and, except those in the possessive case, are nsed as separate words. 103. Personal pronouns exlhibit, by their different forms, their persont, n?lrnber, and case. *S e Ethiograpliy, ~ 25. 98

Page  99 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 104. They have the first, second(, and tllir(d personts, the singulartand I)ltiral numbers, anid the nominative, 1)ossessive, andI objective cases. SIMPLE PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 105. The simple personal pronouns are five in number; they are ma 'Ilid mi (sometimes contracted to mn) for the first person, da and di (some times contracted to d) for the second person, and i for the third person. 1()06. They stand'alone when used for repetition and emphasis, but otlierwise are incorporated with other words.. 107. ma, I, and da, thou, are the proper nominative forms; they are used as the noininatives of transitive verbs, I)ut may also be employed ais the liominatives of certain intransitive verbs which have an active sense; as, ainaki, he sits, ainamaki, I sit, adamaki, you sit, They may be l)refixed or suffixed to, or inserted into, verbs; thus we have kikll(i, he tunts, makikidi, [ hunt, dakikidi, you htunt; katsihe, he extinguishes, ka. tsiii,a, Iextinyguish, katsida, you e vtinguish; akakasi, he writes, ainaka k:)g, I write, adakakasi, you write. I()S. ma, my, is used in the possessive case, prefixed to the noun deliotitig the thing I)ossessed, in intimate or non-transferable possession; as in iinasaki, my hand, from saki, hand; matsi, imyfoot, from itsi, his foot. (IT SI). 1 9. ini, me, di, thee, and i, him, her, it, are prefixed to transitive verbs to denote the object; as, from kid(esi, he loves, we have Iniki(ldei, he loves ne, dikidesi, he loves thee, ikidesi, he loves him, her, or it, nidakidesi (me thou lovest), you love me, and dimakidesi (thee I love), 1 love you. 110. mi and di are, however, used as the nominala,tives of such intransitive verbs as imply only quality or state of being, and of qualifying words used as verbs. 111. di, thy, your, and i, his, her, its, theirs, are also used in the possessive case, prefixed to the name of the thing possessed, to denote nontransferable possession. (~ 81). Examples.-disaki, your hand, isaki, his hand, from satki, hand; ditsi, your foot, itsi, his foot (the hypothetical word, tsi, is not used without the possessive pronouns). 112. ma and mi, da and di, are commonly contracted, when placed before vowels, according to orthographic rules already given (I[~ 34, 35); as in makulii, my ear, dakulii, your ear, from akulii, ear; mista, my eye, (lita, your eye, from ista, eye. 113. The possessive pronoun, i, is often omitted before words beginning with a vogel, where possession is intimated; thus, akulii, ear, is also. his or her ear; ista, eye, also his or her eye. 114. When the pronoun of the third person, singular, stands alone, it is often pronounced hi. 115. The plural forms of simple pronouns are not incorporated; they are mido, plural of ma and mi; (lido, plural of da avid di; and hido, plural of i.. : ~e 9"9

Page  100 IIIDATSA GRAMMAR. COMPOUND PERSONAL PRONOUNS. 116. The compound personal pronouns are formed from the simpl)le pronouns by means of suffixes. The words most readily recognizable, as of this class, are micki, dicki, and icki (with their plurals), and the possessives, mata, dita, and ita. 117. micki (1st person), dic(ki (2d person), and icki (3d person) are used in an emphatic and limiting sense, and are nearly synonymous with the English words myself, thyself, and himself or herself They may be used alone, as nominatives or objectives to verbs, but are commonly repetitions, being followed by the simple incorporated pronouns with whichl they agree. 118. Their plurals, used in the same way as the singular forms, are midoki (ourselves), didoki (yourselves), and hidoki (themselves). 119. mdtai my, our, ditat thy, your, and ita, his, her, its, their, are compound possessive pronouns, which are ordinarily used to indicate an acquired or transferable possession (SST 80-82), and are prefixed to nouns, denoting the thing possessed. (I[ 83). 120. In compound words, formed of the names of possessor and possessed with the pronoun ita, the i of ita may sometimes be dropped. (11 36, 85). 121. mata, dita,, and ita have not separate forms for singular and plural. 122. The words matamae (1st pers.), ditamae (2d pers.), and itamae (3d pers.), are used respectively as the equivalents of the English words mine or my own, thine or thy own, and his, hers, its, theirs, or his own, etc., and also as the equivalents of the Dakota words mitawa, nitawa, and tawa. The lHlidatsa words, however, I regard not as pronouns, but as nouns formed by prefixing the compound possessive pronouns to the noun' mae'. According to the usual custom with interchangeable coilsonants, these words are often pronounced matawae, nitawae, and itawae. SYNOPSIS OF PERSONAL PRONOUNS. Skimple. Singular. nom., ma and mi. 1st pers. poss., ma. obj., mi. nom., da and di. 2d pers. poss., di. obj., di. noom., ([ 133). H....*ad. gem~. jposs., i. - - ( obj., i, or hi. I o,o Plural. all cases, mido. all cases, dido. all cases, hi(lo.

Page  101 HIDATSA GRAMMIIAR. Comnpound. With'ki' for emphasis and limitation. Singular. 1st pers., micki. 2d pers., dicki. 3(l pers., icki. With'ta' to denote transferable possession. Singular and Plural. 1st pers., mata. 2d pers., dita. 3d pers., ita. Relative Pronouns. 123. The interrogatives tapa, what? tape, who? aku (~[I[ 51, 52), and s )Ine other words are used as relative pronouns. Interrogative Pronouns. 124. Interrogative pronouns, and all other interrogative words of the iunguage, begin with t, which, being always followved by a vowel in these words, has a slight sound of English th in thing. (ff 5). 125. tap6e, who? tapa, what? taka, what? to, which or where? tua, which? hlow? are the principal interrogative pronouns. 126. Their compounids, tapeitainae, whose? tapata, takata, tota, whither? todu, where? tuami, how many? etc., etc., are sometimes used as proitouns, although usually filling the offices of nouns, adjectives or adverbs. Demonstrative Pronouns. 127. The demonstrative prolnouns are hidi, this, hido, that, with ku and A or cia, that, him, distinctive or emphatic forms. 128. Their compounds are hidimi, this many, hidika, this much, hiduka, this way, kutapa, what is that? kuadu, that place, kutsaki, setsaki, that alone, sedu, just there, etc., etc. Tbhese, like the compounds of interrogative pronouns, are used as pronounis but more commonly as other parts of sl)eech. Syntax of Pronouns. 129. All simple pronotuns in the objective case, or used sel)arately for eiiiphasis, and usually all compounId pronouns in any case, precede the verb. 130. Personal p)roinouns in the objective commonly precede those ip the nominative. 101 Plural. nmidoki. didoki. hidoki.

Page  102 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 131. VWhen mni or d(i is used as the nominative of an intransitive verb (1 110), or of any word used as such, it stands before the verb. 132. When ma or da is used as an iilcorporatedl pronoun in the noiiiinative (~1 107), its position in the verb is usually determined as follow.~;: (1st) In a verb formed directly froin a verbal root and beginning witIh any consonant (except mI followed by a), the pronoun is prefixed ill tlhe indicative as in kikiski, hle mneasures, mnakikiski, I mteas?re, dakikigki, you mneasure; patsaki, he cuts, Imiq)atg. ki, I cut, dapatsaki, you cut. (21) In a verb formed directly from a verbal root and beginning witih a vowel, or the syllable ma, the p)ron)ouii is inserted iii the indicative; while tile verb, if beginning in the third(l person with i or o, is miade to begill witi a in the first and second lpersons. ]Ex. —aadi, he steals, anasadadi, I steal aaaidadi, you steal; maihe, 7e tries, maiiiahe, I try, madahe,?ott try; iku'pa, he hates, alnakul')a, I hate, adalikuI)a, you hate; oda)i, he (discovers, amodapi, I discover, adodiapi, you discover. (3(1) In a transitive verb formed from an initransitive verb by the addition of be, ha, or k(, the pronoun is suffixed. 133. There is no incorporated pronoun in the third person nomitnative.* 134. The use of incorporated pronouns being necessary to the conj,igation of verbs, they cainnot be omitted when several verbs refer to tile same subject or ob)ject. 135. Incorporated possessive pronouns must be prefixed to the namie of each thiig possessed, even when buit one possessor is indicated. 136. A dernonstrative, relative, or interrogative pronoun usually standls at the beginning of the clause to whlich it belongs. 137. Wheni a relative and demonstrative pronoun appear in the saiiie sentence, the clause contaihing the former usually stands-first. 138. Some modifications of the above rules will be discussed und(er the head of verbs. VERBS. 139. Almost any word in the lanLguage mnay be used and conjugate(1 as an intransitive verb, and may again, by certain suffixes, be change(l to a transitive verb, and be conjugated as such. 140. A(ljectives, iiouns, adverbs, and prepositions are often thus treated; pronouns, conjulictions and interjections rarely. 141. But there is a large nuniber of words in the language which are used only as verbs and are not derived from other parts of speeclh; these may be called verbs proper. 142. Mainy verbs proper we cannot anal ze, and therefore consider themn as l)rimrnitive verbs. Such are ki, to bear or carry; hu, to come; d4i, to depart; eke, to know, etc. * Possibly ini maihti anud maihe we have exceptions to this rule. (I 199). 102

Page  103 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 143. Othler verb p)roper, which we call derivative, are forne(l, by thle use of certain p)refixes 1il(1 suffixes, from verbal roots, from primitive verbs, and from- other deriv-Ltive verbs. Verbal Roots. 144. Verbal roots are not used as independent word(s. A great number have been foun(l in the latiguage; butit satisfictory mneanings lliave been discovered for a very fewv oilly, sotlue of whi(,h are here giveni for illustration: liapi, bark, peel; litce, tear through; liolii, breakacross; lil, spill, overset; kahe, spre{,d, stretceh; kape, tear into), lacerate; k.a tsi, notch; kide, plush; kiti, clear off; kt(de, p)oun(d i, pe; inid(li, ti(-ist; ilitsi, mtince; inu, take noise; 1iuidsi, roll up; p)al)i, roughen chlp; l)i, penetrate; j)lit, or pliuti, squeeze or press out; )kiti, s)Iooth out (? fr. kiti); pgu, dislocate; ptsu or p)tsuti, thrust forth; silji, loosen; ski, open out; ,sku, extract; saki, erase; ta, destroy; t.%',ii, pl(,ce iii contact, shut; t.'l)i, squeeze; ts,, sepattrate; tsad(, slide; ts,'ti,stick, polish; tsiti,raze; tski, squeeze on a stall sur/fdce from different directions, shear, strangle, etc.; tskipi, pare; tskise, wotash; tskupi, bend. Soine of these may be no(dified roots, coutaiting somethinig more than the simplest radical idea, but could not be well furtlier analyzed. Prefilxes and Suiffixes. 145. Some of the prefixes anid suffixes referred to are indepentdeit words, bitt many of thein are used only whein connected with verbs. Some are to be regarded as'adverbs, others perhaps as auxiliary veribs. PREFIXES. 146. The more important prefixes, whose meanings have been determined, are ada, ak, da, dak, du, ki, mak, and pa. 147. ada immediately precedes the root, and (lenotes that tlhe actioin is I)erformned by the foot, or by ilieans of heat or fire; as in adraliolii, to break across with the foot, from liohi, break across, ad(1 adakite, to cletar off byfire, as in burning a prairie, from thle root kite, clear off. 148. ak deniotes that the action is perfobrmed with or on something; as, aksue, to spit on, from sue, to spit. 149. da deinotes that the action is done, or nmay properly l)e done, with the mouth; it standls immediately betore the root, an(l is ofen p)ronounce(l ra or la. Ex.-itlatsa to bite off, from tsa, separate; daliese, to tear wuith the teeth, from the root liese, tear. 150. d(ak (or daka) Staids iiiitnediately before a root or verb to denote that the actioti is )erforied( with a sudden fort,ible inmplse, or with great force appliedl (luring a short time, and Iusuall y repeatedl at short intervals; as in dl'kts aki, to chop, fromin tsaki, cut; d(lakaliolii, to break across with a blow, froth the root lio(liL break across. n is often nsed as the initial sound of this prefix. 103

Page  104 HIDA'TSA GRAMMAR. 151. du is prefixed to roots, to convert them into verbr, without materially adding to their significance; it may be said to denote general or indefinite causation; is sometimes pronounced ru or lu. Ex.-duliolii, to break across in any way or by any means, firom liolii, break across; dumidi, to twist in any icay, from the root nmidi, twist. 152. ki is sometimes added directly to verbal roots, but more cominonly to verbs. It may be added to any verb, no matter how formed, and is the iiiost extensively used verbal prefix in the language. It intensifies the meaning; denotes that the action is done forcibly, repeate(lly, completely, with difficulty, or 6ver the entire object. Some. times it ierely strengthens, without altering the meaning of the verb; in other cases, it totally changes its application. Some verbs are never used without it. Ex.-dili)a, to put the arms around, kidalipa, to hun7; pati, to fill down, kipati, to fallfrom a great height. The words kime, to tell, and kilesi, to love, have not simpler forms. 153. mak (or maki) is prefixed to verbs to denote opposition or reci)rocity; that the action is performed by two contending parties, that the motion is from opposite directions, that two actors mutually and reciplrocally perform the action; thus, from pataki, to close, comes makil)ataki, to close anything which has both sides moved in the act, as a book or a pocket-comb, and friom iku'pa, to hate, makiiku'pa, to hate mutually, to hate one another. 154. pa is a causative prefix, denoting that the action is (lone by the hand, or by an instrument held in the hand, or that it may be properly so) performed. It stands immediately before roots and primitive verbs. Ex.-paliu, to pour with the hand, from liu, spill; pamidi, to twist with the hand, from midi, twist. SUFFIXES. 155. The principal suffixes to verbs are adsi, adui, (le, he, ha, ke, ksa, and ti, with duk and tok for the subjunctive, di, diha, mi, and miha for the future indicative, and ts for the closing of sentences. 156. adsi denotes a resemblance or approach to the standard described by the simpler form of the verb; it is most commonly, however, used with adjectives, rarely with verbs proper. (IT 226). Ex.-mitapa,to lie, to deceive, mnitapadsi, to equivocate. 157. adui denotes progression and incompleteness in action on conditionI; it answers somuetimes the purpose of the English termination ing iii present participles. Verbs ending in adui are intransitive and usually preceded by ki. Ex.-titsi, thick, titsadui, or kititsadui, gradually increasing in thickness; isia, bad, isiadni, deteriorating, to become progressirely worse. 158. Verbs lose their final vowels when adsi and adui are suffixed. 159. de may be translated, almost, nearly, about to, and denotes an incoIlI)lete action or condition. It is added to, and forms, intransitive 104

Page  105 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. verl)s. Ex. —tsipiti, to ftill upon the utater, to be in a condition to sink, tsil)iti(l(e, to be about tofall, or nearly falling, on the water. 16(). he, signifying generally to miake or cause, changes some intransitive verbs, and words used as siuch, to transitive. Verbs take it iln thle third person indicative, but rarely retainl it in the first person; while inii the seconid p)erson indicative, and iii the imperative, it is (dropped or chanlged to ha. The incorporated i)ronoutns are suffixed to verbs formed by tile addition of he, which suiffix they sometimes follow, but more commonly replace. Ex.-komi, complete, finished, koinihe, he finishes, komima, I finish, koiilidia, you finish, koinihada. finish thou! 1(61. ha is the form of'he' used in the second person. 162. ke signifyiiig to cause, to change. to use for, is added to intransitive verbs, to form transitive verbs. It is more extensive in its applieation than he, and may be ad(lded to any of the numerous words of the laniguage which are capable of beirng used as intransitive verbs. It is retained in all persons, tenses, and mnodes and followed by the incorporated pronouns. W\hei ke is suffixed, the verb is most commonly put in the intensive foril. The more familiar instanuces, only, of its use are given in the Dictioxiary. Ex.-hisii red, hisike, to dye or color red, dyed red; isia, bad, i,siake, to make bad, change from good to bad, damaged, debased, kiisiake (intelsive), he damages, kiiuiakema, I damage, kiigiakeda, you daman(ge; ati, a house, kiatike% to use fi)Jr a dwelling, or convert into a dluelling; miidi, w'ater, kimidike, to liqueqty. 163. ksa denotes that an action is performed habitually or excessively, or that a quality exists to a constant or excessive degree; it is used with verbs proper and adjectives. Ex.-nitapa, to lie or deceive, mitapaksa, to lie habitually or excessively; ide, to speak, idekst, to speak garrulously or unguardedly, to say too much. (q 231). 16;4. ti, de(noting a favorable condition or readiness to, perform an act, is added to initranisitive verbs, forminig new intransitive verbs. Ex.liua, to coughl, huati, to be about to cough, tofeel a desire to cough; halipi, to s8teeze, halipicti, to desire ta sneeze; tsipi, to sink, tsipiti, to fall uplon the water, to be placed in a( condition farorablefor sinking. 165. duk, used alone as -Ln adverb of future time, is suffixed to subjoined verbs, to denote donlyt or condition in regard to future time, and is therefore equivalent to a signi of the subjunctive mode in the future tense. Ex.-mniiadeheduk d(litamiamits, ifI am atgered, I will kill you. 166. tok. an adverb used to denote doubt and interrogation, is usually used independently, but may be suffixed to verbs to indicate the past anLud preselct tense of the subl)junctive mode i as ill timadetok dliamakatats, had Igone, 1 would not have seen you. 167. di (2d persoli sinigular), diha (2d person plural), mi (1st person siligular), and miha (1st person plural) denote the future tense, indicalive mode, and may follow any verb which takes ma and (lda for its incorl)poratd no.nilLative lproouoas~ They Ilthe the apt)pearance of being 10l

Page  106 B IDATS.A GRAMMNIAR. only repeated pronouns, bIt are probably different forms of a regullrly co)jutgated auxiliary verb. 168. A verb, or any wordl used as such, in the indicative mode, wheei closing a sentence, and therefore when standing alone and formingi a sentence by itself, is terminated in ts; if in other situations it ends in a vowel. (~f 33). By comparison of this with previous rules, it will be seeli that a large majority of the wordis of the language are capable of receiving this termination. Iii the coiijugations following, some of the verbs are shown with the terminal ts. (fff 1962 198). 169. ta' (not) and ta (only) are often pronounced as if suffixed; they are regarded, however, as independent adverl)s. 170. There are verl)s which are heard to end sometimnes in i and sometimes in e, and( apparently wlhen a passive sense is meant by the former and an active by the latter. Owing, however, to the in(distinet mannier in which final vowels are so ofte-l pronounce(l, and to certaiii in(lividual liberties taken with vowel solunds, the value of this peculiarity, as a grammatical rule, cannot now be estimated. A few words, where this change of terminal vowels was often heard, are given in both fortis in the Dictionary. 171. Maiy verbs ending in i or e chi,i-ge these letters to a il the second person indicative, and also iii the imperrttive, when the fti-ll i or e is not dropped. Properties of Verbs. PERSON. 172. The first and( second persons are shown by thle incorporated pronouns, iia and mi tor the former, da and di for the latter. The third person is shown by the simple form of the verb. NUMBER. 173. In the conj'lgation of the verb, nunmber is indicated only in the future indi(ative, where mii and di are used in the singular, for the first and second personis respectively, and miha and d(iha in the plural. (J 167). MODE. 174. Three modes onlyl, thile itnfintitive, idica(tive, and imperatire, are shown iIn the conjugatiolls of verbs. The subjauctive and poteutial are indicated by adverbs or additionatl verbs. InJfiniitire. 175. The itifiiiitive mod(le is the samre as the third pterson indicative, the simple tormn of the verb. It is, however, rarely ulse(l, finite ve: bs beiiig empl)loyed inlsteadl; thus, " [ try to cough" is more freqiuently rendered maliua miamiahets, I couyh I try, than hua marmahets, to cough I try. 106

Page  107 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 176. In the thiud person, no distinction is made between the infillitive and indlicative; thus, hua miaihets ally be rendered either to eoutyh he tries or he coughs he tries. Indicative. 177. The silmple form of the verb is usetl as the thiirdI person indicattive. For the first and second persons this is nmodlified by the incori)po rated pronouns; aud for the future tense, as shown in Pars. 1G7 and 173. Imperative. 178. The iIml)erative mode has five forms. 179. The first conisists in using the same form as the second person indicative; this is done mostly in verbs which have the incorporated pronouns suffixed. 180. The second is made )by changing final i or e of the infinitive to a, or using an infiniti(ve ending in a or u. 181. The third is formed by drop)ping the flial i of verbs eniding inii ki, and somnetimes of those eindiig in ti; thus, we have amak, ilmp)erative of amaki. 182. In the fourth form, the auxiliary da is added to the second foIrtih of the ilmperaltive; it is usuailly, but not invariably, placed after tile verb. da seems to be a form of the verb de, to depart, ineaiing go thou! 183. The fifth form of the imperative mode is made by a(l(liig dilia instead of da. 184. The fourth and fifth f)rmas are used whlen immediate counpliance with the order is desired. TENSE. 185. But two distinctions, in regard to timne, are made in conijugating, verbs; olie of these is for indefinite, the other forfuture timne. 186. OthLer varieties of titme are expressed by adverbs, suffixed or independent, or by other wor(ls used independently. 187. The indefitite tetse, useil for both present and p)ast time, is showll by tlhe simple forti of the verb, with or without the incorporated pronouns. 188. For thefuture tease, indicative iiod(e, mi an(I miha are added to the indefilite for the first p)erson, atild di an1 d (liha for the second perSon; in tlhe third person, the formn is the same ias in the indefinite. 189. Sometimes, to a verb in the tlhird person, future teise, at tile close of a sentence, they are heard to add hIits, pronouncing it as a sel)arate word. This inly be a part of the conjugationi, but is, more l)rol)ably, a personal )roottin of the thirTl persoli, li, with the entlinrg ts, added for eiiphasis. 107

Page  108 HIIIDATSA GRAMMAR. CONJUGATION. 19(). All transitive and some intransitive verbs are properly coiijugated, having different forms fi)r the different m,)des and tenses. 191. The greater part of the intransitive verbs, and words used as suchi, are not prop)erly conjugated, since they suffer no change of form iii the different modes and tenses. 192. The verbs which are coinjug.ated may be known by taking ma (I) and da (thou) for their incorporated pronouns in the nomninative; while those which are not conjugasted have the pronouns mi and di incorporated iii the nominative case. Conjugated Verbs. 193. The conjugation has three principal forms. In the first formn, the pionouns are prefixed; in the second, inserted; and, in the third, suffixe(l. 194. In adding the pronouns, hlowever, some additional changes are i.sde in the verl), producing in all ten varieties of the conjugation. 195. In the first variety, the incorporated pronouns are simnply prelixed to the third person, or simple form of the verb; while the latter r&iunains unchanged. Ex.-kidesi, to love, or he loves. INFINITIVE MODE. kidesi, to love. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. kidesi, he, she, or it loves or loved, they love or loved. dakidesi, thou lovest, you love or loved. inakldesi, I or we love or loved. Future Tense. Singular. kid6ei, he, she, or it will love. daked6sidi, thou wuilt love. inakidesirni, I will love. Plural. kideSi, they will love. dakidesidilia, you will love. inakidesiiiiiha, we will love. IMPERATIVE M'ODE. kidesa, kidesada kidesadiha, love thou, love il esa, I ilesa La, il (sa ia, ore otiot, oroe ye. 196. In the secoix variety, the first letter of the siinple formn is drop)pe(l when the pronouns are prefixeld, and( the pronouns are contracted to m 108 3d person. 2di person. lst person. 3d person. 2d person. lst person. "d person. 2d person. lstperson.

Page  109 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. and d. The words belonging to this variety are not numerous; they all begin with d, and consequently in the indicative mode, indefinite tense, the forms of the second and third persons are the same. Ex.-dfiti, to eat, to chew. INFINITIVE MODE. duti, to celtew or eat. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. (without terminal ts.) 3d person. duti, he eats, etc. 2d person. duti, you eat, etc. lst person. muti, I eat, etc. Future Teitse. Singular. duti, he will eat, etc. dutidi, thou wilt eat. muttimi, I will eat. Plural. duti, they will eat. dutidiha, you will eat. mutimiha, we will eat. IMPEIIATIVE. d(lut. dal dut, etc. 197. The third variety of the conjugation has the pronouns prefixed to the unaltered simple form; but the letter a is in turn prefixed( to tlhe pronouns, causing them to appear inserted in the verb; further, the pronouns are contracted by the omission of their vowels. Most Verbs beginning with o belong to this variety. Ex.-6kip'tpi, to fiid, to re.( cover something lost, but not to make an original discovery. INFINITIVE MODE. okipapi, to find. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. okipapi, he, she, or it finds, or found, or they, etc, adokipapi, you find or found. atuokipapi, I or tee fiind orfoztnd. 109 (with terniiiial ts.) dutits. dutits. mutits. 3d, _person. 2d verson. - 1 st _person. dtitits. dutidits. mutilnits. 3d person. 2d person. lst person. dutits. datidihats. mutitnibat,,. eat, eat thou. 3d, _pers. 2d, _pers. Is t _perg.

Page  110 IIIDATSA GRAMMAR. FTture Tense. Singular. okipapi, he, she, or it will find. adokipapidi, thou wilt find. anmokipapim i I willfind. Plural. okil)api, they will fiind. adokipapi(liha, you will find. a mokipapimih a we will find. IMIPERATIVE MODE. okipapa, okipal)a da', okil)apa diha. 1I)S. Iii the fourth variety, the incorporate(d p)ronouns are inserted( iii the v-erb by being placed imne(li[ttely after the first syllable of the sim1)le fobrm, while no change is iimad(le i the latter, except the separationI of the s llables. Verbs conjugated thus have a or e for their first syllables. Ex.-6ke, to know, to recog)ize. INFINITIVE MATODE. eke, to know(. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. (without terininial ts.) (with terminal ts.) 3dpers. eke, he, etc., knows, or knew. ekets. 2d pers. e(lake, you know or knewv. edakets. lstl)ers. einake, I know or kiewv. einklkets. Future Tense. Singul-ar. eke, he, etc., w?ill edakedi tho?u wiilt kno?. emnakemi, I will know. Plural. eke, they will knouw. edakedilia, you will know. emakemilia, wte will know. IMPFFRATIVE MODE. eka, eka d(a', eka diha. 19)9. To the fifth variety, belong verbs beginning with ma. In it, the incorporated p)ronouns cotne, after the first sylalale, an(d are substitnite(l for the second syllable of the siInl)le form, which is, therefore, ciaiiged by the loss of a syllable. Ex. —maihu, to trade, to b?ty. . I 110 3d _pe)-s. 2d _pers. 1 -st _pers. 3d.pers. 2d _pers. Ist I)ers. 3d _pers. ')d vers. I st _pers. el,- 6 t S. - - edalie(lits. eii)aketuits. 3d, _pers. 2d _pers. I st.pers. edikediliats. eidakeniiliats.

Page  111 IIIDATSA GRAMMAR. INFINIf IVE MIODE. naihu, to trade. INDICATIVE MODE. Ildefinite Tense. SiDgula-r tend Plural. 3d pers. inaihu, he or she trades or traded, the,, etc.. 2d perts. mtadahlu, y)u trade or traded. lstpers. inmamahuL I or we trade or traded. Future Teise. Singul ar. maihu, he or she w(ill trade. I4 e hidiludli, tihou utilt trade. t mniamahumii I w ill tt'ade. Plural. mailit, they?will trade. madahudiha, you will trade. t rmanlahumiha, wie will trade. IMPERPATIVE MODE. madahu da, maihu dal. 2)00. In the sixth variety, the incorporated pronouns are inserted in tlhe same way as in the fourth; but the syllable da is inserted, in the first and second persons, immediately before the last syllable of the verb. This oxtra interpolated syllable does not seem to answer the liiri)ose of either pronoun, adverb, or auixiliary; its utility has not I)eeni (iiscovered. asadi, to steal, ata,ti, to go out of a house, and perhaps a few othier verbs, are conjugated in this way. INFINITIVE MODE. asadi, to steal. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. 3d pers. atadi, he or she steals or stole, they stea{l or stole. 2d4 pers. adasadadi, you steal or stole. lstpers. ama:tsaddi, I or we steal or stole. q0 lit 3d pe)s. 2d pers. 1 st pei-s. 3d _pers. 2d _pers. lst pets.

Page  112 HIDATSA GRAM.NIAR. Future Tenise. Singular. ae. asdi, he or she will steal. a(2aes adadidi, thout wilt stetl. a1Itaaadadimui, I will'steal. Plura,l. asadi, they?eill steal. adasa(ladidiht, you will steal. amasadadimiha, we will steal. IMPERATIVE MODE. asada dil', aaada diha. 201. To the seventh variety lbelong verbs beginning in i (not tIre incorporated pronouiin of the third persou objective). Here the inicorporated pronouns are inserted, but i is changred to a. EK.-ika, to see. INFINITIVE MIODE. ika, to see. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. ika, he or she sees or saw, they see or saw. adaka, you see or saw. amaka, I or we see or saw. Future Tense. Singular. ika, he or she wiill see. adakadi, thou?vilt see. arnakami, [ will see. Plural. ika, they will see. adakadiha, you will see. amakamiha, we will see. IMPERATIVE MODE. 9 ika, ika da', ika diha. Besides these, ika has a reduplicated f()rm in the iinperative, uiseI iit an exclamatory manner, ikaka! See there! Behold! 112 3d pers. 2d _pers. Ist pers. 3d pers. 2d pers. l st pers. 3d pers. 2d _pers. Ist pers. 3d pers. 2d pers. lst pers. 3d _pers. 2d pers. Ist pers.

Page  113 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 202. The eighth variety is distinguished by the iniicorporated pronotlus of the nominative being substituted for the last syllable of the infinitive form. Nearly all transitive verbs formnied from intransitive verbs by the suffix he belong to the eighth variety. Ex.-liapihe, to lose. INFINITIVE MODE. liapihe, to lose. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. lia. pihe, he or she loses or lost, or they lose or lost. lie.hpida, you lose or lost. liapima, I lose or lost, or we lose or lost. Future Tense. Singular. lia. pihe, he will lose. li.apidadi, thou wilt lose. lia pimami, I will lose. Plural. 3d pers. lihapihe, they will lose. 2d pers. liapidadiha, you wvill lose. lstpers. liapimamiha, we will lose. IMPERATIVE MODE. liapida, da' liapida, liapihada. 203. The ninth variety is the same as the eighth, with the addition of the simple possessive pronouns, in full or contracted, prefixed to the verb. In this variety are found but few verbs; they are formed from nouns by the addition of the suffix he; they undergo a double inflection, one to denote possession of the noun, and the other to show person, tense, etc., in the verb. Ex.-fiahe, to make or cause to be a wife, to wed, from ua, a wife. uahe, in its active sense, or used personally, is said of the male. INFINITIVE MODE. nahe, to make a wife, to wed. INDI('CATIVF MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plutral. 3d pers. uahe, he makes his wvife, he or they wed or wedded, etc. 2d pers. duada, you make your wife or wives, you wed or wuedded, etc. lstpers. muamna, I make my wife, I or we wed, etc. 8 113 3d _pers. 2d _pers. Ist_pers. 3d _pers. 2d _pers. lstl)'ers.

Page  114 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. Fututre Tense. Singular. 3d pers. uahe, he will make his wife, or wed. 2d pers. duadadi, thou wilt make thy wife, or wed. lst pers. muamami, I will make my wife, or twed. Plural. 3d pets. uahe, they w?ill make their wives, or wed. 2d pers. duadadiha, you will make your wives, etc. lst pers. muamamiha, we will make our uwives, or ued. IMPERATIVE MODE. duada, duaha da', duaha diha. 201. In the tenth variety, the pronouns are suffixed to the simple form, which in itself remains unchanged. Transitive verbs formed fromn the intransitive by the addition of ke are conjugated in this way. Ex.kitsakike, to render completely good, to make whole or sound, to change from bad to good, etc., from tsaki, good. INFINITIVE MYODE. kitsakike, to make good. INDICATIVE MODE. Indefinite Tense. Singular and Plural. kitsakike, he, she, it, or they make or made good. kitsakikeda,-you make or made good. kitsakikema, I or we make or made good. FFuture Tense. Singular. kitsakike, he, she, or it will nmaI,e good. kitsakikedadi, thou wilt make good. kitsakikemami, I will make good. Plural. kitsakike, they will make good, kitsakikedadiha, you will make good. kitsakikemamiha, we will make good. IMkPERATIVE MODE. kitsakikeda, kitsakike diha. 114 3d pers. 2d _pers. 1st pers. 3d pers. 2d _pers. lst pers. 3d pers. 2d _pers. I lst pers.

Page  115 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. Unconjugated Verbs. 205. All adjectives, adverbs, nouns, etc., used as predicates of nouns, are regarded as intransitive verbs, there being no copula in the lliiguage. These intransitive verbs, and such others as denote only (luality or condition, suffer no change of formn to denote different mnodes atid tenses. They may, however, take the incorporated pronouns mi and di for their nominatives. 206. These pronouns are prefixed. To veirbs beginning with consonants they are usually prefixed in full. Ex.-iie6, old, to be old. liie, he, she, or it is or was old, they are or were old. diliie, thou art or wert old, you are or were old. iillie, I am or was old, we are or were old. 207. Before verbs beginning with vowels, the pronouns are often contracted. Ex.-ad(liise, to be ignorant. adaliise, he is or was ignorant, they are or were ignorant. dada,liiie, thou art or wert ignorant, etc. madaliise, I am or was ignorant, or we were ignorant, etc. 208. Transitive verbs in the third person, or used in a passive sense or impersonally, with pronouns in the objective case prefixed, have the same appearance as the unconjutgated iutrausitive verbs, excep)t that fobr the third person the objective pronoun i is used; thus, from aia6~, to conceal, we have ialioa, he conceals it, or it is concealed. dialioa, he conceals you, or you are concealed. mialioa, he conceals me, or L am concealed. Irregular and Defective Verbs. 209. There are a few irregular and defective verbs in the language, of which the following are examples: 210. hi, to draw into the mouth, to drink or inhale, may, with terminal ts, be conjugated thus: 1. hits, he drinks or drank or will drink, they drink, etc. 2. dats, you drink or drank. 3. mats, I drink or drank. 4. d,adits, you will drink. 5. mamits, I will drink. Here, in the fourth and fifth forms, there are (with the terminal) but the pronouns and signs of the ftiture tense, anti in the second ant' third tfrnis, only the pronouns. 211. matfi, there is or there are, has no other form. 212. inuk (sometimes pronounced as the Eilglisli word book) signifies girve me. It may be an irregular imperative of. the verb ku, to give, but is more probably a defective verb. 115

Page  116 1HIDATSA GRAMMAR. Compound Verbs (so called). 213. Sometimes two verbs are used together to express an idea for which there is no single word il the lainguage. Wheii both verbs are in the third person indicative, or when one is in the infinitive, they often appear to us as a single word, particularly if their English equivalent is a single word; but when conjugated, it is found that each assumnes its ()wn proper form, the same as if used indlependently. Ex.-ikhn, to bring, consists of ak, to be with, and hu, to come. This, when in-fiecte(ld, appears as two separate words, one conjugated, the other ulncon)jugated; thus, ak-hu, he brings; dak-dahu, you bring; imak-mahu, I bring; dakdahudi, you will bring; mak-mahumi, I will bring, etc. 214. Again, a noun and a verb may be used together to express an idea for which there is no single word in the language; thus, from hi, to draw into the mouth, we have ope-hi, to draw tobacco into the mouth, i. e., to smoke, and midi-hi, to draw water into the mouth, or drink. 215. Some expressions, such as these, are, for convenience of definitioil, put in the Dictionary as compound verbs. Syntax of Verbs. 216. Almost all sentences are closed by verbs or words used as such; the principal exception being where interrogative adverbs are used to qualify an entire sentence. 217. When a verb denoting quality or condition, and another detiotiiig a(,tionI, are used in the same sentence with a common subject, the former )recedes the latter; or, in other words, conjugated verbs commonly follow n1uconjugated verbs. 218. Verbs in the infinitive usually precede those in the ind(licative. 219. Any word used alone, wtith the terminal ts, in answer to a qutestiori, may form a sentence by itself; for it is used as a verb in the siln)le forin, where a personal pronoun of the third person is understood to be in the nominative. '20. In this language, as in other languages, " active transitive verbs govern the objective case". It might be said that all transitive verbs govern the objective case, for the existence of a passive form is queslioiiable. (11 170). When an ol)bjective pronoun is followed by the simple form of a transitive verb, the latter may be parsed as in thie third person indicative; although, in trauslatilg, the expression into Etiglish, a verb in the passive voice may be used. 221. Other points conne(cted with the syntax of the verb have been referred to in the discussion of the etymology. ADJECTIVES. :22. There are certain intransitive verbs in the Hidatsa, which are IIse(l in the samne sense as the adjectives of Eturo)peiii lainguages, and( niioly be translated by them. For thie cotnvenience of the Entglish studellt, these verbs will be catlled adljectives, an,d descril)ed as such. 116

Page  117 IlIDATSA GRAMMAR. 223. There are a large number of the adjectives, which we callnlot analyze with our present knowledge of the language, and which nmay be called primitive. 224. Derinvative adjectives are formed fromn primitive adjectives, fromll other derivatives, from nouns, adverbs, etc., by forming compound words, or by the use of suffixes having the force of adverbs. 225. The force of the adjective is modified by the adverbial suffixtes and also by adverbs used in(lepeudently, as shown in the following paragraphs. 2a6. adsi is suffixed to denote an approach to the standardl qualit y or positive degree, as inldicate(l by the simpl)le forth of tlhe adjective; thus, from hisi, red, scarlet, comes his Ldsi, of a dull red color, crimson or purple. (1J 156). 227. isa, or ise, is of much the same signification as a(lsi, but sometimes applied differeutly; it signiifies like or resembling. Ex.-FroilL tohi, blue, sky-blue, colies tohist, of an impure or uncertain blue, bluish; from siai, black, coinmes sip)isa, resembling black, i.e., of a deep color hardly to be distinguished from black. adsi may follow is6 to denote a wider variation from the staIndard quality. 228. de is a suffix, which may be translated almost or nearly. Ex.kakilii, round, kakiliide, almost round; tsamutsi, straight, tsamutside, almost straight. 229. di increases the signification of the adjective to which it is suffixod; its use is not very extended; it seems to be suffixed only to words of three syllables, ending with i and accented on the penult. Ex.padlopi, short,- lou-sized, padopidi, very short; tamulii, minute, tamuliidi, rery minute. 230. tsaki, good, takes, as an increased or intensified form, tsakicti, which may be a compound of tsaki and ictia, great. tsakicti commonly takes the suffix di; thus, tsakictidi denotes a very high degree of excellence. 231. ksa denotes that the quality exists excessively, habitually, or continuously. Ex. -isia, bad, isiaiks., persistently bad. (f~ 163.) 232. ka'ti, much, true, truly, is a word used independently as an adljective and adverb. As an adverb, it is used to limit the significance of adjectives to the true or standard qualities; as in hisi-ka'ti, true red, bright red, isia-ka'ti, truly bad, unqualifiedly bad. 233. When two niouns are compared together il regard to quality, and either one used as the standard of comparison for the other, the exprt ssions itadotadui and itaokadut are used. The former means at the near side of it, and indicates the less degree; the latter signifies on the far side of it, or beyond it, and indicates the greater degree. These expressions give us more nearly the equivalents of the comparative degree of English than anything else in the Hlidatsa. 234. An adjective may be formed of a noun and an adjective. Ex. — 117

Page  118 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. From mika', grass, and tohiaa, bluish, comes mika'tohisa, green (grass. bluish). 235. Some adljec(tives are compounds of two other adjectives; as, tsidisipi, bay, from tsidi, yellow, and Aipi, black. Numerals. 236. The Hidatsa system of numeration is strictly decimal; consequently, there need not be more than ten primitive numeral adjectives. 237. There are, however, not more than~eight; these eight are du6tsa (or luetsa), one, kiliu, five, d)6pa (or nopa), two, akama (or akawa), six, dami (or nawi), three, sapua, seven, and t6pa, four, pitika, ten. 238. d6papl)i, eight, is a compound of dopa, two, and pi (which seems to be the root of pitika); it probably signifies ten less two.* 239. du6tsapi, nine, is a compound of duetsa, one, and pi, and seems to mean ten less one. 240. Multiples of ten less than one hundred are named on the same principle as in English; thus we have dopapitika (twotens), twenty, akamaapitika, sixty, damiapitika, thirty, sapuapitika, seventy, topapitika, forty, d6papiapitika, eighty, and kilifiapitika, fifty, duetsal)iapitika, ninety. It will be seen that the first word of each of these compounds, if not ordinarily ending in a, is made to do so in this connection, and that the accent is sometimes removed. 241. The word for one hundred, pitikictia, signifies great ten. The term for one thousand is, pitikicetia-dkakodi,-the meaning of akakodi, I know not. 242. Numbers over ten, but not multiples of ten, are named by the addition of the word alipi (portioned; a part or division), thus: alipidu6tsa, eleven, dopdapitika-alipiduetsa, twenty-one, alipid6pa, twelve, dopa'pitika-alipid6pa, twenty two, alipidami, thirteen, damiapitika-alipidami, thirty-t'tree, alipit6pa, fourteen, topa'pitika-alipit6pa, forty-four, etc. 243. With the exception of the word for first, itsika, the ordinals are formed by prefixing i to the cardinal numbers; thus, we have id6pa, second, id7lni, third, it6pa, fourth, etc. Syntax of Adjectives. 244. Adjectives usually immediately follow the nouns or pronouns which they quality. * Some judicious remarks on this paragraph, and on Par. 239, may be found in a paper On Numerals in American Indian Languages, etc. By J. Haemond Trumwbull, LL. D. Hartford, 1875. plt) 28, 29. 118

Page  119 HII)ATSA GRAMMAR. 245. Qualifying words are often seen used as nouns or pronouns; this is particularly the case with numeral adjectives, and such words as ,thu, many, etsa, all, iha, other, kausta, few, etc. ADVERBS. 246. There are adverbs which are apparently primitive; as, t', not, dik, when, tia, a long time, etc. Many primitive adverbs are used as suffixes, ils already shown when describing verbs and adjectives. 247. A large number of adjectives are used- as adverbs, without un(lergoing any change of form. When primitive adjectives are thus used, they appear as primitive adverbs. Ex. —ua, slow, slotly, hita,Jfleet, fleetly, atsa, near, tisa, far. 248. Derivative adverbs are formed fromt nouns, from demonstrative (nid interrogative pronouns, fiom adjectives, and from other adverbs. 249. A large number of adverbs of place are formed from nouns by suffixing the prepositions (postpositions), du, lia, ka, koa, and ta; thus, from dutmata, the middle, we have dumatadii, in or through the middle, dtilmatalia, toward the middle, dumataka, on the middle, dumatakoa, at the middle, and dumatata, facing the middle, or in the direction of the mliddle. 250. Words formed thus (~ 249), might be regarded as merely nouns in the objective, with their governing prepositions; but they are proniounced and used as if belonging to the same of words as the English adverbs windward and forward. Since every noun in t.e Ianguage is capable of taking one or more of these postpositions, the number of adverbs of this character is very great. 251. From nouns, adverbs of time are formed by suffixing du, duk, and sedu; the first of these means in or during any time, the second in or during future time, the third in or during past time; thus, from maku, night, we have makudu, during the night, nightly, makuduk, during the coming night, " to-night", makiusedu, during the past night, or "last night"; from oktsia, meaning also night, we have oktsisedu, oktsiadu, and oktsiaduk; from ata, daylight or dawn, we have ataduk, tomorrow, etc. 252. From pronouns, adverbs are formed in much the same way as from nouns; thus, from the demonstrative se, we have sedu, in that time or place, sekoa, at that place, just there, Aeta, in that direction, and from the interrogative to, we have t6ta, whither, t6du and t6ka, where, wherein, whereat. 253. When adjectives are used as adverbs, the same suffixes, to modify their force and meaning, are used in the one case as in the other. Adjectives which can denote the manner of performing the action aie those chiefly used as adverbs. 254. Adverbs are formed from numeral adjectives by suffixing to the names of the cardinal numbers du, and the compound preposition tsakoa; thus we have d6padu, at two timnes, or on two occasions, twice, 119

Page  120 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. dan)idu, thrice, t6padu, four times, and also dopatsakoa, at or in two places, dahmitsakoa, at or in three places, t6patsakoa, in four places, etc. 255. From ordinals, adverbs are formed by the addition of du; thus, itsikadu, in the first place or order, firstly, id6padu, in the second place or order, secondly, idamidu, thirdly, it6l)adu, fourthly, etc. 256. In adverbs of time, formed by adding' to nouns du, dulk, alII(l .edu as indicated in Par. 251, the numeral adjectives are inserte(l between the noun and the adverbial suffix iii the manner and for the pItrpose here indicated; thus from 6ktsi or 6ktsia, night: oktsiadu, during the night. oktsid6padu, during two nights. oktsit6padu, during four nights. oktsiaduk during the coming night or to-night. oktsid6paduk, two nights hence, or during the night after next. oktsidamiduk, three nights hence. oktsit6l)aduk, four nights hence. oktsised(lu, last night, during last night. oktsid6pasedu, night before last, two nights ago. oktsit6pasedu, four nights ago. 257. Adverbs formed from nouns are often used as nouns; thus, ,ttaduk, during to-morrow or to-morrow, oktsisedu, during last night, or last night, ad6sedu, during last summer, or last summer. 258. Adverbs are used as predicates to nouns, and in this posit.on, there being no copula, fill the office of intransitive verbs. 259. "Adverbs qualify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs ", as in other languages. 260. Adverbs usually precede the words which they qualify; but ka'ti, much, or truly, tq, not, ta, only, and the interrogative tok, more commonly follow the words they qualify. PREPOSITIONS. 261. ak (~ 148), which is prefixed to verbs, and du, in or during, lie, toward, ka, in, koa, at, ta, in the direction of, feicing, which are suffixed to nouns ([ 249) to form adverbs, fill more fully the office of prepositions than anything else in the language. They are not, however, usedl is independent words; and, from the position which they occupy in reg,trd to nouns, would be more properly called postpositions. 262. aka, on, and api, with, are perhaps to be regarded as independent or separate prepositions. 263. There are many adverbs which answer the purpose of prep)ositions, and may be translated by the English prepositions. Adverbs formed fromn nouns which are the names of place, belong particularly to this class; thus, from mikta, the bottom, comnes mikt.,ko, below, (lIId niJiktAta, down; from amaho, the interior, amah6ka, wlithin or in; from atfisi, oll out of doors, ataiikoa, out. 120

Page  121 HIDATSA GRAMMAR. 261. Prepositions, separate and incorporated, and all adverbs used as prepositions, follow the nouns which they govern. 265. WVhen incorporated, they may be found suffixed to the inoliils which they govern, or prefixed to the verbs which follow;. but in either case they comle, of course, after the noun. CONJUNCTIONS. 266. There are two words which are possibly simple conjunctiol)s; they are isa, and, also, and duma, but. 267. Other words used in joining words and sentences perform also the duties of adverbs and prepositions, and are properly to be classed as such. 268. ConjuLnctions comumonly stand between the words, clauses, or sentences which they connect. INTERJECTIONS. 269. There are not many words which are purely exclamatory or iliiterjectional; a large number of the words which are used as inteijectiolls being verbs. 270. The following words, however, cannot be well analyzed, and may be regarded as true interjections: u! oh! expressing pain or astonishment, and commonly preceding a sen tence. ihe! there now! does that sati.sfy you? etc. ki! is used in doubt and astonishment. hidi! used by children when tease(l; perhaps from the demonstrative pronoun hidi. huikahe! used by men to express surprise and delight; as when much game is killed at a volley, etc. tsakakl'! an expression of disgust and impatience, may be a derived word. 121

Page  122 I


Page  124 I

Page  125 H,II)ATSA DICTIONARY-. a. a d lii;e, v. t; to be ignorant of.-niadaliisets, I don't know, I am ignorant. a da lii se ke, V. t.; to make ig itorant; to leave-in ignorance. A da lii lii, v. t., fr. adA and liolii; to break with the foot. ia da lipa ko a, n.; the Mandan Iidians. a di!ipi, n.,fr. adu and alipi; a part of anything;-also adal~i a, n. a treLe, a plant; the entire !)lallt c,s distinguislhed fromn its l)arts; —used after' ma-' or as a suxffi to nouins; as, kohati, corn, koliatia, a stalk of cor;. a. n.; a nmuscle. a a4 te, v. t.; to strike by throw in(,r; to hi it or bruise with al stone or other missile. a i ti, v.; hurt or bruised by a ti da [aral, n.; the armns; the forelegs of quadrupeds. i d(a, n.; the hair of the head; ilie locks. ,4 da, a causative prefix to verbs, (lenoting thet the action is done 1)y the foot, or by heat or fire. ( k 147). a da a du ic ti a, n., fr. ada and amiuictia; the brachiznm, the upper part, of i he arm. a di du i, v. i.,fr. ade and adni; beColiiig painful. A da lia, v. i.; to be burning; I)iirnt, parched, charred. i da lhia he, v. t., 3d pers.; to 1)arch or bourn.' i d~t lia ke, v. t.,r. atlailia; to ,ittise to burnl; to be burxned or !)arched. .i d h lia pe, v. t., fr. ada and icl)i; to kick; to ]ark or denude I)v kic(king. ai d,i lie lie, v. t.; to seize, take ii,)Il of, cli ng to; —:tlso atlAlielii. a da li( se, v. t., fr.. a(1 and liee; to teair with thle foot; to teatr with the paws, as a. be.-ist. pi.' a da lipi ke, v. t.; to mniake or be made a portion; to make one thing a part of another. ai da liul, v. t., fr. i(1A and liu; to spill with the foot; to upset by kicking;-also a(laliue. a da i du ti [-ruti], n., fr. ada and iduti; ribbon or braid used ill tying up the hiair. a da ka, v. t., 2d pers. of ika, to see. a da kf da ho [ara-], n.; the Arickaree Indians; perhaps from pad,,the hair or lock7s. This name, it is sai(, was originally applied to the Arickarees from their mnan ner of wearing their hair. The Ineanling of the last three sylla bles is now unknown. a da k.i pe, v. t.,.Jr. A'A,~ antd ka[)pe; to scratch with toe-nails, or witlh )aws, as a dog;-also, a(lak api. a da ki de, v. t., fr. kide; to Ipuish with the foot. Aid& a

Page  126 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ad6 a da tsi ki he, v. t.; to sev(r by fire. a da tsa ko a, adv.,fr. adats;; and koa; behiud. a da tska pi, v. t.,,fr. 5la, ail tskapi; to press with the toes; to walk on tiptoes. a da tska ti, v. t., fr. ada aner tsltati; to enter or pass throtught on tiptoes. a da tskiu i du i, v. i.; becoin ing progressively moist. a da tsku i [aratskuli], adj.; moist, wet. a lId tsku i de, v. i., fr. ada tskuti; almost wet. a da tsku i ke, v. t.; to wet or moisten; wetted. a (1, v. i., adj.; to be warm; un pleasantly warm; painful. a d6i, n.; warm weather; summier. a d6 a du i, v. i.; same as ada dui. a d6 de, adj.; almost painful. a d6 du [-ru], adv.,.fr. adt6; dutr ing the summer. a de duk [-ruk], n. an(l adv.,fr. ade; next summer; during next summer.- ade-(dopa-duk, t w o summers hence. ade-dami-duk [ade-nawi-ruk], three summers hence. ade-tol)a-duk, four snm mers hence. a d6, he, v. i., fr. ade; to be al gere(l; he is angry. a de he ke, v. i., fr. adehe; to make angry. a dei ke, v. t., fr. ade; to make warm or painfull; changed from a comfortable to a painful condi tion. a de ksa, adj., fr. ade and ks-a; sul trys. a d( se du [-ru], n. and adv., fr. ade and sedu; las t su mmer; -dur inlg last -summner. —ade'dopa-,%d u hdh a da ki ti, v.; cleared. o?ff by fire, as a bturned prairie. a da kti"pa, v. t., 2d pets. of ikul'pa, to hate. a dh mi di [-widi], v. t.,.fr. adq and midi; to twist with the foot. a dh pa pi du i, v. i., fr. ~d~ papi; becoming scorched or sun burnt. A da pa pi [hla- or Zla-], v. i.; scorched; sunburnt. a dh pfi pi de, v. i., a(Ij.; al most scorched. a dh pa' pi he, v. t., 3d pers.; to scorch or chap. a da pai pi ke, v. t.; to cause to become scorched or sunburn t; to expose to sun or fire. i da pc, v. t.; to kick. a dh sui ki, v. t., fr. 6(til and suki; to erase with the foot. a da t. lipi, v. i.; to snap or crackle in the fire. a da ta lipi he, v. t.; he makes snap by fire. a da ta lipi ke, v. t.;. to caus e to SDap by fire. a da ta pi, v. t., fr. Adq and tapi; to squeeze with the foot; to trample on. a da te, v. i., fr. ada and te; to be bruised under foot; to be trampled to death. a da te he, v. t., 3d pers.; to trample to death. a dai ti, n., fr. adu and ati; a camp)itg-ground; a place marked with the remains of old camps. a da to" ti, v. t.,fr. to'ti; to agi tate or shake to and fro with the foot. a da lsa, n., adv.; a place be aind somkethi,ng else; behid ndsd. hi da ts.~ ki, v. i.~fr. tsgki; to be severed hy fire. 126

Page  127 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. /du a du hi dfl, n.,fr. hidu; the skel eton; the bony part of any mem ber. a du h6 pi, n., fr. ad u and hopi; a perforated or excavated place; a hole. a du hfu pa, n. See hupa. a du hia kfu pi, n.,fr. ad u an ld liakupi; a g roove or crease; ai longditudinal depression. a du ai pii, n.,fr. liapi; any pla(i,e to lie down; a be d, either temo porary or per ma nent. a du liE pi, n.,.fr. adu and liepi; a shallow placein a lak e or river; a s hoal. at du i, a suffix to verbs signifying conitinuiiation or progress. (] 157). a du i, v., adj.; bitter; sour; pun gent. a du i, n.,fr. adu and i; h air; feathers; the entire plumage of a bird or pelage of an animal. a du ic ti a, n., fr. adt and ictia; the main part, the larger part of anything as distinguished froui its smaller parts. a du i dfl lipi, n., fr. idalipi; an incised wound, a knife-cut. a du i da ki sa, n., fr. adu and idakiaa; a left-handed person; the left side. a du i d(, n.,fr. adu and ide; speech, language; a word. a du i de, v. i., adj.,fr. adui; al most bitter or sour, as changing milk. a du i d tsi, n.,fr. adu and iditsi; scent, smell, odor. a du i di, tsi-i si" a, n. (iaia, bad); a stench. a du i d[ tsi-ts~a" ki, n. (ts~aki, good); an agreeable oclor. ~iidu ike, v. t.,ffr. adui; to change from sweet to bitter. adi [ade-uopa-Aern], t w o summers ago. ade-topa-sedu, four sumn mers ago. a di [aril, n.; a road. a trail. a di a sa dsi, adj.; poor, desti tute. a di a sa dsi ke, v. t.; to im- d poverish. a di i ta du i, v. i., fr. adiiti and adtii; becoming hungry. a di i ti, v. i., adj.; hungry.-m - diiti, or bqdiitits, I am hungry. a di i ti ke, v. t.; to cause to be hungry; to be made hungry. a di;a, n.; the little ravenl of the northern plains, probably the Corrus columbianus of Wilson. a di a i ta pa" hi;, n. (See Local Names.) a dsi, a suffix to verbs and adjec. tives denoting an aplroach to the standard. (1 156). at du raru],prob. fr. du; a suffix denoting time and place; an ad verb of time and place. a du, a prefix to verbs forming nouns; a part, a place, one of a kind. (1~1 45-47). a du a da pa pi,n.,fr. adapapi; a sunburint surface. a du a du i, v i.,.fr. adui; becom ing bitter. a du a ka, n.,fr. adu and aka; outside part; skin or rind. a du ak a. ki, n.,fr. adu and akIaki; a contusi on; a contused wound. a du a ptse, n., fr. a.,ptse; the edge of a knife. a dti ( di, n., fr. adu and edi; ordure. a du e ta, n.; a sore place, ascar or ulcer. a diu hi da, n., Jr. hi(la; new gools or articles. 127

Page  128 HIDATSA DI)ICTIONARY. adu a du kLi d6 pa ke [+ -nopa], same as last word. a du ki du i6 tsa pike, n.; one. ninth. a du ki du sa, n.,fr. aduii and kidusa; a place where ainything is laid away or put in order. a du ki du sa ko a, adv.,Jfr. adukiduaa. a du ki ka ki, n., fr. kikaki; a seamn. a du ki ki lin a ke, n.,fr. kiki liuake; a fifth part. a du ki si pt a he ke, n., saine a.s the next word. a du ki aad pu a ke, n., fr. kisa puakie; a seventh part, one-sev a du ki t6 pa ke, n.,fr. kitopa kt; a fourth part. a du m6 di he, n.,fr. adu and madihe; prepared fbod; prtpa ration of food; cooking. a du mor di he a tid n.,.fr. adu - madihe and ati; a kitchen. a du ml' ta pa, mitapa; falsehood, deceit. a du o ki pa di, n., fr. adu and okipadi; young trees, saplings. a du 6 ktsi, n., fr. adu and oktsi; a shadow.-a(luoktsi mnahewits, I will mnake a shadow, i. e., erect a screen to keep off the sunrlight. a du p4 lia du i, n.,fr. palia dui; a blister; a chafed or blis tered part. a du p.i!ii, n.; a corner or an gle. a du pa lii-dfi mi [+-nawi, n.; a triangle. a du pqa lii-t6 pa, n. (topa, four); a quadzranlgle.__adup~a.lii kiliul, a pelitaigl. —adupa. lii-ahu, . polygon. &du ah dit I k;a, adj.; excessively b)it ter. a d ii I ptsi, n., Jfr. adu and iptsi; an upright, a perpendicular sup 1'ort, as a chair-leg. a du i sa mi ke, n., fr. adu and isamike; young twigs sprouting froin a stum)p. a dHi I si, n.,fr. adu and isi; rind; covering; exterior; —nearl, syn oilliylIous with aduaka. a d i i i a, n., fr. isia; an ilfie Iior or rotteii portion; - used soiiietimtnes as a term of contempt for p)ersons. a du i ti pe, n.,fr. itil)e; a hole dIugof, or a place in any way ar raIoged for a trap. a du li.4 ti, n.; cultivated ground; a field or garden. a du k@a ti lia, adv.; toward the a du ka ti ka, adv.; in the field; among the fields. a dui ka ti lko a, adv.; at the field. a du ke da pi, n.; the male of a]Jy species. a du ki a de tsi, n.,fr. kiadetsi; a )irdleve, skillful, or enrduring fer son; a goo d hunter or warrior; ohe intellig ent o r ingenious. a dui Li a kt nla kIe n.,fr. aka lnIaike; one - sixth. a di ki dai-de a [-nesa], nt., fr. kida antd (lesa; a maiden. a du ki dli-ma tu, n.; a woman who is or has been married. a du ki da mi he kel n.,fr. kIi(tatmiheke; one-third. a du ki dak mi ke [+-kina wike], same as adlukidamuiheke. a du ki do pa he Le, n.,fr. ki dopaheke; one-half. 128

Page  129 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. alip a du ts6 hi, n.,fr. tsohi; a point; a tapering end or part. a du tsit a, n.; a seed. w a du i, n.,fr. adu and u; a wound, more particularly a bullet or ar row wound. a a du fi e, n., fr. adu and ue; a , fire-place. a du ei C lia, adv., fr. aduue; toward the fire, i.e., in the direc tion of the centre of the lodge, opposite to atutilia. a du i klio a, adv.; at the fire. plae. a du fit C-l" C tsa, n. (uetsa, metal); a stove. a du wi ta pa. See adumitapa. a hi", n.; the'l)omme-blanche, or Psoralea esculenta, a plant bearing an edible root, growing wild in D)akota.: lecently, the name has been applied to turnips introduced by the whites, and now cultivated by these Indians. a hil mi ka, n.,fr. ahi and iiiika,; the " female pomme-blanche'", or Psoralea argophylla. a hfi, adj.. adv.; much, inany. ahuts. a hfi ke, v. t.,fr. ahu; to increase, to multiply; increased. a li6 a, v. t.; to conceal, to hide also alioe. ai lio ka, n.; the kidneys. a lilpi, adj., n.; Iportional; not en tire; a )art. a lipi a kfi ma [+-wa], nurm. adj.,ifi. a,lipi and akarna; sixteen. a lipi di mi [+-nawi], adj.,fr. alipi atd dami - thirteen. a lipi d6 pa [+-nopa], adj.,fr. alip~i and dopa, twelve. a lipi d6 pa pi, adj., fr. alipi and dopapi; eighteen. adu a da pi. tska, n.,fi. adu antd p. tska; a side; anln even surface; a 'lacet. The compounds of this word and of adupalii are often used synonymously; b u t the former commonly refer toflat sur taces and short solids, the latter to long prismoidal bodies. a da p-a tska dai mi [-nawi], gi., Jr. adup.tsk-a and dami; a three-sided needle a glover's nee aI di p.i tska ko a, adv.,fr. atdt u I)atska; at or on the side. a dEu p-a tska t6 pa, n. (topa, J)ibr); any long, four-sided, ob,ject, as a hewn log. a du pi, i. fr. adu and pi, to tat too or patnt; a tattooed mabl- on tlce body; tattooing. a du pi di e, n., fr. pidie; a ruf flel edging. a du p6 ada mi [-wi], n. fr. t adu and poadam i; a bullet; bul lets. a d oa p6 a da mi-ka di" ata, t. (knadista, small); shot. a du pf a, n.,fr. adu and pua; a sw,elling. a d ta L;a, ui., fr. adu a and dam t t i fork or branc h, a bifurcation. a du ti pei aa.,fr. adu and sipe; a )iece of broken ground, a suc c(ission of steep hills and d eep ravines. a du 46 lki, n., fr. adu and &oiL; thre back of a knife; dull part of an, iy cutting instrument. a du f- ka, it., fr. adu and ~uk-a; -i,..joint; a condyle. a da ta ka, n., prob. fr. same root as itakca; a grandfitther; a grand ulncle in the male line. a du tsi di a mnatu", n., lit.~ it 7as yellow) spots; a rattlesnakie.1 129

Page  130 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. alip a ipi du V t,,sa [+-In-], hum. adj., fr. alipi and duetsa- nine. a lipi dui e tsa pi, U. a(j.,f r, alipi and duetsapi; nineteen. a lipi ki lin, adIj.,f;r. alipi and kiliu; fifteen. a lipi;i pu a, adclj., fr. alipi and ,apua; seventeen. d a lipi t6 pa, a(j.,fr. alipi and tol)a; fourteen. a lift a'V. t., sate as alioa. ak, v. i., prep.; with; upon; to be or have with. ak, a prefix to verbs signifying on or with. (.~ 148). fa ka, prep., ad v.; above; exterior to; surrounding. fi ka, it., prob. fr. last word; rinld, peel; same as adudka. a ka lipi, v. t.; to cross over; to step over. . ka ka L i, v. t.; to write in char acters, or in Indian symbols; to make a pictorial record, but not to paint for mere ornament. fimakaka.i, I write. adakaliasi, you write. a ka ko di. (T 241). a kfi ma, num. a7d.i six. a kLi ma a pi ti ka, nun. adj.; sixty. a ka ma he, v. t., 3d pers., Ji. akamna; to' make or divide into six. a kfi ma ke, v. t.; to divide into six parts; divided into six. a ka pe, v. t.; to court, to seek one of the opposite sex.-mia alapets, said of the muaD. a ka ski, v. t.; to pull out; to hola between the fingers. ai 1a Ira, adv.,fr. aka; up; up) wards. a kai ta, ~,.; the palate. a kta" ta a du hxi rff,~ n., fr. aklita an(l a(tiduhidlu; the palate bones. a kai wva, htum:i alj., same as alat m. a ka wa a pi ti La, samte as akamptapitika. tt La za, it, d(inii. of a; a ten (ton. ak' de, r. t., comi. of ak and de; to takie away with one, to carry something off. - makmadets, r carrvy.tway. aL' hia, v. t., comp. of ak and hu; to bring, to come and take with. makrmahbuts, I bring. fia Li, v. i. and prefix to verbs; on or with; nearly synonymous with ak, from which it mnay be derived, or the latter may be a contrac tion of aki. a ki lii, v. t., fr. aki and elii; to urinate on; to stain or soil in this way. a pki riLa hi, v. i.; to be with; to' be taken back with. a ki kLa he, v. t.; to take back with; to capture and bring home; to take from and bring away. ia ii tsa, v. t.; to overshoot; to miss in throwing. fa ko La, adv. fr. ak and oka; upon, on top of. a;e a Li C, r. t.; to support; to hold in the hand, as a light. tt L i C, or ak-u-e, v. t.,fr. gut; to spit upon. ak1 tsi Y, V. t. to look through an aperture at something, to look in or out through a window or door, to glance through at. li lbku,.; color; kind, description. akuto? what kind? wa Lki, a relative pronoun, prefixed to vxerbs, forming nouns; it de notes the subject; with transi 130

Page  131 IIIDATSA DICTIONARY. thouse); a tem p)orary screen or shed erected for cooking pur poses; a kitchen. d ku ma i kfi tsLi, n., fr. aku antd maikutski; one who copies, patterns after, follows an exam ple, or carries out instructions. aa ku mia i Lk(-, n.,fr. aku and mai,;ke 3 one who commands, di rects, or sets an example. At ku ma ki Lkit a, n., fr. kikua; a soldier; the Soldier Band of the Hidatsa; a member of the Soldier Band. This band con sists of a number of the bravest and most influential men of the tribe; it enforces laws, admin isters punishments, h a s great power, and may discipline even the chief of the tribe. This term is applied also to white soldiers, who, for special distinction, are sometimes called ma,si-akumaki kua. a ku ma tse 6 tsi, n., fr. aku and matseetsi; men belonging to the class or order of chiefs, men of consequence in the tribe. a ku L pi zi, n., fr. akui and puzi; anything striped or spotted, par ticularly printed fabrics; calico. See maaiiliipuzi. a ku;i' pi;a, n., fr. aku and si l)isa; dlark blue cloth; black stroudin g. a ku to hi, n.,fr. aku and tohi; glass beads used in garnishing. Possibly the beads first intro duced by the traders were blue, and hence the name. A i nla [faima, aibwa, ava], n.; k the earth; earth, clay; country, land. ' ina 1l1i da lia, n., fr. amna and adalb~; lignlite. hku tive, verbs the agenit, with in transitive verbs the object of the action; with adjective verbs, it denotes something of the color, or kind referred to; it is prefixed also to nouns used as verbs. a Lu ai lia pe n.,fr. aku and aka,tpe; at b)eau, a suitor. i li-t a ma ol/ ze, n.,fr. amaoze; a farmuer. h(i ho tski, n t., fr. aku a nd lbatski; giants. h Lku lit! de, n., fr. aku and htide; a malker, a manufaceturer of any tlling. h klu h~,i n.,fr. aka and hisi; red cloth; scarlet shrouding. a kfa lia, adv., apparently from oka and lia; yonder, o ff, in the dlirection of the more distant side. a kfi lii, n.; the human ear; the pinIIa.-makulii, my ear. a kull hi a du ho pi, n. (adu ho)i, a hole); the meatuts audito rins externits. a ku"l lii a du lia ki6 pi, n. (aduliakupi, a groove); fossa of helix of auricle. ai tu li6 ta i $/, n., fr. aku and liotaise; something of a grayish color; an iron-gray horse. k -u i di tsi tsa ki, n.. fr. idi tsitsaki; scent, material f or scenting. a kut i;i a, n.,Jr. aku and isia; a worthless or impecunious per son; a person not respected. h liti ki kge, n., fr. aku and ki kgse; one who fixes, mnends or arranges. t ktiu ki ta he, n., fr. aku and kitahte; a butcher. - a kLu ma di he, n., fr. aku and ma dlihe; a cook. a ku luff di he a ti, ni (ati, a 131

Page  132 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. area A ma ho a de, r. i.,fi,. ama ho antd ade; to feel inlternal l)ain, to be grip)ed. A ma h6 ka, adv., v. i.; within, inside; to be within.-ati aLLma hoklia aminamakits, I am sitting in the house. a ma h6 La ke, r. t.,f-. auma laoka; to put into, to place within. ia mla lia kfi pi, n.,fr. atna and hakipl)i; furrowed land, a tract of land containing one or more ratvines; often used synonymous lv with amaaduliakupi. a ma lift ni [-wi], n.,fr. ama and liami; a mountain-chain; mountainous country. A ma liai mi [-wi], n.; a tribe of Indians who formerly dwelt in a village of th se sanme name on Knife River. See Ethnography, ama a ma af da tsa, n., fr. ama and adatsa; tle high upland, the of)eLi utninhabited prairie. a ma a da tsa ko a, adv.,fr. ama'at-di auttsa; o n the hplands, awa,y 4irom the iriver-valleys. a ma a du lia ku" p i,.,fr. a ma and aduliakup i; a ra vine, an old water-course. a ma a du ai" pe, n.,fr. ama sand adusi)er; "i bad-la eids". a ma a lio ka, nd.,fr. ama and alioka; stra wberries. a ma dek tsa ki, n.,fr. area amnd (oalkts paki; a dee) gull. a ma dc ta, n., fr. ana and d eta; a bluff; a steep river-sbank; high steep hills bordering a valley. a mna di ta ko a, adv., fr. arna deta; on or at the bluff. a ma de ta kd lia h ii, n. (lialii, striped); a boluff of manb-colored, stratified rocks. ma de ta ku mt i ku, n., sfr. amadeta, aku, and maku; a high bluff; a bluff forming the edge of a lofty plateau, a s distin guished from t he ba nks of a river where it passes through its flood-plain. A ma de ta ku;i dis, n. See Local Names. .i ma de ta ma pa his, n. See Local Namies. a ma di a, it., fr. ama; an Ordi nary low hill, a prairie knoll. a nla di a di da" zi, n.,?fr. amadlia; a[ ringworm. ama,n.; a hoe. a ma e a ku tsu" ka, n. (tsuka, fiat); a spade. h ma hli tski, n.,fr. ama and hatski; a long ridge; a *' di vide ". ai ma ho, n.; the inside% the in terior, ~11. A ma lia mi ko a, adv., fr. amaliami; at the mountains; said when referring to the PRocky 3Iountain region. g ma lia ti, v. and n.,fr. ama and liati; to shine; light; light pro ceeding from an original source, not reflected. La ma liat wi; alone and in'its derivatives' amaliami I is often thus pronounced. a nma li6 ta, n.7fr. ama and ]iota; salt. ama ic' pu, n., fr. ama and iepu; a pointed or conical butte or hill; the point of such a butte; a col lectioni of such buttes. a ma ic pu Sia a [or -;aSe]. See List of Local Names. a ma i d:.i lii;e, n., fr. ama and idaliioe; a shovel. a makl, v., imperative of amaki; sit down, be seated. 132

Page  133 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. anla ai nla ka, n., prob. f-. ama and ka; a badger. The name may allude to the proximity of his body to the earth as he walks, or to his dwelling. a ntla ka, adv.,fr. ama and aka; overgroun(l; upon the laned. a ma ka do lipa ka, nt,. fr. a'naka and h olipaka; Indians; a name of special distinction, used when dolipaka would be asbig. llOllS. oa irai ka noli pa ka, n., same a s am Ckadolipaka. a ma ki, v. i., 1rob. fr. a m a and alii; to sit. a mnia hi ke, v. t; to put sitting; to cause or oblige to sit. . ma n*a ki mna ka da. See Local f Names. ma mfi ku, n.,Jr. ama aind mnaku; high ground; a general namie for a hill or ridge of any kind. na i 6 ze, u. t., fr. a s a and oze; t o plant. h Elna ", it.; aLi eagle-trap, a trap in tlhe ground. See Eth,nography, ~ 27, Eatgle-Hutnting. t 1}a ai' I, it., fr. areia and,l i.;ia; ' bad-lands'. t ilia. pC, n., s8ame (s8 amaadiu sipe. .i nia;i pi;a, n. (sipisa, blatck); a dark miineral pigment, obtained by these Indians fronm various places in the neighborhood of their village and used in sym bolic writing, decorating robes, etc. Of -late years, the name has been also applied to black ink obtainedl frlom thle wvhites. h ma ~i ta,?n. (sita, is said to mlean cold, bu1lt I hav-e never heardl it, sv u s ed but in, ama word); the north, the land nort h' of the Hidlatsa country. hi ma n i ta ko a, adv.,fr. ama sita; northward; at the north; northern; used also as an adjec tive and noun. a-ma;i ta" ko a-a mna lia ti, n., literally, northern lights; an rora borealis. See apaliiadalia,. which is the more common name. A ma i tai ko a-ma i, n., lit., wvhite men of the north; the white inhabitants of Hudson's Bay Ter ritory. a ma;6 di;a, n.; the mud swallow. ta ina ta, adv.,fr. ama; turned in the direction of the ground, facing the earth. a mfa te, lstpers. indicative of ite, to aldmire. a m(t ti, n.; the Mlissouri PRiver. See Local N\ames. .a ti", i.,fr. ama and ati; an earth-covered lodge; a number of such lo(lges; hence, a permta nent village of earth-covered lodges. a mfi ti a du;a',a;. See Lo cal ~Naies. , mt ti da ta Iii [-natalii], onepe oo f the old villages near or on Knife R-iver. i a mati hlia n.; another of the Klni te River villages. pf ana ti liht mi, 5satme as amaivgn linti; naLme of bformer tribe and village. a mna ti La za, i.; the Little bMissouri River. See List of Lo cl bl tame s. ;i nmi Isa Ika" du i, f.,r. lmatsaki; lbecoming stained wlth eartlh. 133 i

Page  134 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. fipi for embroidering. This word is also used to designate the quills. a pai di hi', n.,fr. apadi and hi'; t eporcupine quills.-apad(li is the more usual term. a pi) di ki~, r. t.,Jf'. apadi; t(z cause to grow; growin. i a pa I(. da pi, i.,ifr. apa a(ed he(ldpi)i; thejuncture of the nose with the forehead. a pai lii, g.; the skh; cloud(is. a pa lii i dai la, n.,. apalii (and 5d(]dlia; the aturora boreatlis. a pi lii a di i lio"l ta Li,. (iliotaki i, w(Ihite); wlwite cIon(Is; cirrhus clou(ds. a pi Iii a d;It pi gi. (,i pisa, blactk); (lark, heavy cloluds. a lpa Iii t[.i tzs, t. (tatsi, thick).a sky compl)letely overcast witli clou(ds. a pa li[ t6 hi, n. (tohi, bl~(c); the b)lue sky. ai ai ic' pI1, n.,if. ('I)i( a?d icpu; the point oi- the nose. a pat ka, n.; mosquito. fia pfi ~fi li, n., fi. Fp,i -tnd (a i, tlte hantd; a p)elican (Pec s trtachyjrhynchus). The iname al ludes either to the shape of the bird's bill or to the use whiclh he makes of it. fi lilfst E1! k p i^ 5p(- and sakupi; a hooked or Roman nose. i a pa tsi tft ki, aL.,f. h i)5 (tad tsitilii; a pug-nose. ai pi, 2-ep., etc.; with; to be with. a pie ti a,. fr. apa antd ictia; a mule. ia pi ka, adv.,.fi-. api; together, p togethe r with. ai pikle, v. t.,fr. alpi; to p~lace together. ai pi.{a, n.; thle liver7. ai mai tsa ki, aclj., fr. area,x and tsaki; stained with earth. .i mni tsa ki he, v. t.; he stains with earth. ai mfa tsa ki ke, v. t.; to stain with earth; to cause to be soiled with earth soiled with earth. t mna tsi di, it.,Jr. a5ma and tsidi; a yellow mineral pigment ob tained by the Indians; ochre. .t ma tsi di o du tsi, n. See Local Names. i ma tsfi ka, n., fr. ama and tsuka; a flat meadow; a bottom. mi a ia ti, n.,fr. amiia and uti; the skirt or base of a hill; a foot-. hlill. ;t ma 6 ti ko a, adv. of place, fr. amanti. a mtiu zi, n.; beans; any legu minous plant. a ma pi ia, g., fr. aila,zi and sipisa; black beans. The name is also sometimes applied to roasted coffee. a mpa, n.; the neck. :i niitsi. See a'tsi. a pa, n.; ears, particularly the ears of the lower animals. .i p-i, n.; the nose of man and the lower animals; the bealk of a bird. a" pi a du'h6 pi, n.,fr.,pIA and aduhopi; nostrils. a" pt a du i ka, n.,fr. apa no and aduauka; the bridge of the nose. ai pa dka la, n., diitin. of (tpa,; ale of nose. a pai di, v. i.; to sprout and grow, to increase by growth. a pa di, n.; the Canadian porcu pine (Erethitzon dorsatum). Thle animal is common on the Upper Miissouri, and its quills are used 134

Page  135 HIDATSA DICTIONARY, api ati a pi tsa, i.; sand-bill crane (Gius a ta ka,.; the end or extrem canadensis). ity;-perhaps, also, in the end. a pi tsa t6 hi, t.; I)lue heron a t;i ka dui, n., and adv.,fr. ata (Ardea Rerodias). ka; in or through the end; the a. pi t*ka, i.; bristles on lips of terminal portion. Felidw, etc. a tai ka di i, r. i., f,. at,iki and a p6 ka, i.; a head-dress of any adlui; bleaching, gradually whit kind, a hlat or bonnet. eing. a p6 ksa, t.; a pendant jewel; a tia, ia, (Irl.,fr. ataka; end aii earjewel. wiards, towards the end. a pi ti,.,f. (,p( lnd uti; the a ta ka ko a, ctadv.; at the end. upper lip, the entire upper lip. ia t-. ki, a(j.; white; same as ilio (See ideta). These Indians seemi talki. to regard the upper lip as the a tLik ie, v. t.,fr. ataki; tocause "root of the nose".; to whiten; whitened, bleached. ai p(i ti a du lia kil" pi, i,f,r. h ta rlluk, t.; to-morronw; sav:e aputi andl aduliakupi; the 8stet ts as ata(duk. of the upper lip.; ta, n.,fr. ati; one's own house; a ri, n.; a trail; same (s1 adi. a home. ai rut; alone and in its compounds a tit zi gi.; out of doors; outside. adu is often thus pronounced. a ta zi lia, a(v.,fi-. atazi; toward a.a di, v. t.; to steal, to take the outside. anytlhing illegally or occultly.- a tai zi ko a, adv.; at the out adi asadi, "to steal the road", to side; out of the houses. run away secretly, to abscond. ai te, n.; a ftlther; a father's .i su, i.; a string or cord; also a brothers and male cousins. fishing-line; a snare. a te, r. i.; to appear, to come in ia u ka, n.; testes. sight. a"g auka-mna tfi, i.; a stallion.- a t( de, v. i.; to be almost in aguka-desa, a gelding. sight, nearly appearing. a ta, n.; day; daylight.-ata-ka- a te he, V. t.,fr. ate; to make dista, sometimes said of early in appear, to show. the day.-atats, it is day. a ti he kaI, r. t., iraper. of atehea ta de, i.; almost day, near day- ke; show it, let us see it. lighlt. a te he ke, v. t.; to cause to apa ta di, v. i.; to go out of doors; pear, to hold Lup to view, to ex also to menstruate. hibit. a t-a di ke, v. t.; to put out of i tea ka'ti ti., ft. ate andl ka'ti; a doors, or out of the house. true or real father, not a father's '1 ta duk [-ruk], n.,fr. ata antd brother. duk; to-morrow. ai til i.; a house of any kind. a ta duk, adrv.; when to-morrow a Iti du ti di, n.; the roof of an comes. earth-covered lodge. a ta fi e, adj.,fr. ata and ise; a ii he, r. t.,fr. ati; to make a bright as day. camp. 135

Page  136 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. azi .; a tskai ksa, v. i., adj., fr. atsla and kga; habitually cross. r a tska kla ke, v. t.; to render habitually cross, to sour orie's temper. ak tu, n.; the head. a a tfi a de, v. i., conmp. of atu attd ade; to have headache. a tufii tsa ti, n., fr. atu and itsa ti; hair-grease. a tfi ka, n.; the seat opposite the door of a lodge; "at the head". a tft ti, n.,fr. ati and uti; "the bottom of the lodge". In a skin lodlge, this signifies the space be tween the poles and the ground, near where they meet; in an earth-covered lodge, thle space between the short uprights, the outer wall, and the grouudl. a tfi ti hia, adv.,fr. aItuti; in the d irection of the b)ottom of the lodge, awvay from tie, fire. a ti ti ko a, adv.; at or il I he bottom of the lodge. a ti ti ko a-i" ptsa, i.,f-. attu tikoa (,an(d iptsa; the shorteri up rights of an earth.covere(l 1lo(lge, the outer row of supporting posts. a tfi ti ko a-i" ptsi, sam)e as last wordl. a tfi ti io a-il da", nt. Synon. atittikoaiiptsa. fi' zi, it.; a river. Ia zi, it.; a horn. d zi, n.; a, spoonI or ladle. The Hidlatsa make their spoons of horn; hence, perhaps, the name. a zi a du;ia sa, n.,fr. azi coid adusasa; a branch or fork of a Iriver. e a zic ti a, n.,fr. azi and ictit(,; a the big-horn or Rocky Mountsuin sheep,7 Ovis montana. ati a ti i pki ti, n.,fr. ati and ipliti; the mixture of white earth and water which they use in coating log cabins. Lately this term has been applied to whitewash ma((le of lime. ai ti ke, v. t.,fr. ati; to change into a house; to use for a house. a ti $i, n.; the hole in the tol) of the lodge to let out the smoke; ( recently) a stove-pipe. a ti hi a, n., prob. fr. ati and i; heavy, dressed elk or buffal o skin, such as is used in malking skin lodges. a ti ts6 hi, n.; sanme as atitsuahe, but less used. a ti tsi a he, n., fr. ati and tsua he; a skin l odge. The name al ludes to its shape. a ti tsii ka, n., fr. ati and tsuka; the side of the fire, a seat ill the lodge neither opposite nor next the door. ai tsa,prep., ad iv.; near by, close to;- also htsa. a" tsi, n., the ammace,; the ud(Ider of an animal. a" tsi bi di, n., same as a'tsimidi. a" tsi hi, v., conmp. of a'tsi and hi; to suck. a"/ tsi hi ke, v. t.; to give to suick, to nurse, to suckle. a" tsi ic pu, n.,fr. a'tsi and iepu; the nipple. a"l tsi m di n.,fr. altsi and mi di; iiilk. a tska, a(ij.; cross, fierce,-as a dog. a tsk-.t de, adj.; surlv, almost fierce. a tsktai dn i, v. i. bvecomling fierce. atskal ke, v. t.,fr. ~tska; to en rage. 136

Page  137 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. idali da, adv., prefix to verbs; denotes, departure or motion from; as in dainakoa, I go away, from ma koa, I go. da' [+ na], probably a form of the last word, or of de, to go; suffixed to verbs it makes an imperative form; —go thou! do thou do it! da da [nana], v. i.; to shiver, to tremble. da di [na-], n.; a party of In dians travelling with their effects, a moving camp. dai dsa, it.; the calf of the leg. da he, v. t.; to work, to labor at anything; to make or form. da he ka" ti [lahekanti], v. i.~?fronm dahe and ka'ti; to be tired.-madahekati, I am tired. da he kaLa" ti he, v. t., 3d pers.; to tire; to fatigue. da he kla" ti ke, v. t.; to cause to tire; fatigued. da he Lku ti di ki, v. t., fr. diki, to strikerI know not the mean ing of the rest of the word(; to strike an enemy first, to " count first coup ". d'ai hu [nahu, lahu], v. i.,fr. da' and hu; to come away from. daniahuts, I come away from. dadahuts [nalahuts], you come away from. da lia de [la-], v. t.,fr. lia~d; to shell with the teeth, as coin. da li.. lii [na-], n.; theelongaLteld, vertebral, spinous processes be tween a-n animnal's shoulders; a " hump-rib ", a buffalo-hulri)p. da lia lii ma ku, n., fr. ldalialii aitd maku; a high hump, a buf -falo-hum~p. d.'i lia mi [-wi], adj.,, liami; fri'nged, having long or — nlamenltal endsl.9 azi a zi d6 lii, n., fr. azi au(d delii; a spoon or ladle made from the horn of the Ovis miontana. a zi lia mi, n., fr. azi and( liami; antlers: animals bearing antlers; males of the Cervitlte. a zi lia wi, same as aziliami. a zi ic' pu1, u.,fr. azi and icpu; the source or head waters of a river. a zi ic' pu ko a, (adv., fr. azi iCpu. a zi ic' pu;a;a, n.,fr. aziicpu and gasa; the affluents which join a river near its source. ai zi ka za, n., dimin. of azi; a creek or rivulet. .,zi ka zi, nt., samte as azikaza. a zi si pi ~a, n., fr. — azi a,nd (dI am ie,,a; a black spoon, one madle of buffalo-horn. a zi f e tsa, i.; metal spoons, such as are obtained from the whites. a zi fi ti, n,fr. azi and uti; the itioutih of a river. b. Words heard as beginning with the sountn of b may be found tin der m. d, a cotimmonI abbreviation of the prleolnins da and di. da [na, la, ra], pets. proit., sim)t' pule, 2'1 per&.S.; thou, yout, ye. 137' b. C. c is not a initial sound. d.

Page  138 IIIDATSA DICTIONARY. dali dak da lia pe;i, adj.; steep; per- da ip tsi-i tsic pu [na-I, n., perdicular. fr. dalipitsi and itsicpu; a bear's da lia. pi [la-] v. t., fr. lhapi; to claw. peel off; to bark a tree. (da lipi tsi-i tsi ti [na-]n t?.] da lia pi he si, same as dalia- d(tlipitsi and itsiti; a bear's track. pesi. da lipi tsi-o da hlipi [na-], i., da lid;e, v. t.,fr. liese; to tear ft. dalipitsi (and oditlipi; a bear with the teeth. skin. da i6 ~i, v., adj.; torn with teeth. da hlpi ts6 ki [na-], n. (tsoki, da li6, i ke, v. t.; to cause to har( d); raw-hide, I)pa:cghe". tear with teeth; torn by teeth. d(a litsi a, td(j.; samie as daktsia, da lii [na-], n.; a dim shadow which is the more common pro or shade; hence also a soul or nunciation. ghost; sel(ldom used alone. See da liu, v. t., /. liu; to spill, over. idalii and dokidalii. set, or topple. da lii lii, nt., prob. fr. dalii; the da lie e, v. t.; sace as (daliu. reflection of an object as seen on da lif pi, v. t., prob. fr. liupi; to a polished surface; perhaps a drink dry, to drain with the hypothetical word. See idaliilii. mllouth; also, to absorb as a da lii pi, V. t.; to flay. sponge. 3c pers. d.a lii se, v. t.; to dash or throw dak [fnak], a prefix to verbs and away; to dig or shovel. verb-roots, usually ind(icating) d(a liki;i [na-], n.; a pillow. that the action is performed 1)y da liki si si, n., fr. dalikisi and a sudden, forcible impulse. in isi; a pillow-case. the 1st and 2d persons, the' (is d(a lio, n.; the lungs. sometimes dropped. da lio ke [na-],?fr. dlalio; a d(ik' a [naka], sam,e as dak, fromn saddle of any kind.-dalioke-hi- which it may be derived, or the du, a bone saddle or horn saddle. former may be a contraction of dahoke-mida, a wooden saddle. d(aka. See matatsidalioke. da ka, a diminutive suffix. da li6 ki, v. t.,fr. lioki; 2d and da Lka, n.; the offspring or young 3d pers.; to row a boat.-malio- of anything. See idaka. ki, I row. d;ia ka, v. i.; to remain, to cond.a lipa, v. t.; to place the arms tinueinoneconditiou unchanged; around, to enfold in the arms. to be; to live. (da lipi [nalipi], n.; a pelt of d(a ka a dii ni di, 9t., fi. daka, any kind; a buffalo-robe. ofsprify, adu and midi; liqfor d(a lipi ke [nalipike], it.; the anlnii. annual religious ceremony of the da Lka dai tka [-liu-], it.; a Hidatsa. See Ethnography, ~ 22. twin, twins. They are very rare da lipi' tsi [nalipitsi]. ni.,jf. among these Indians. dalipi and tsi; a bear. d(a kfi lie, v. t.; to pull toward; da lipi tsi-a d(i a ma" ki., n,. to pluck, but not pluck out; to See Local ~Xames. stretch or spread out. 138

Page  139 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. dak da k.i ptsi he, v. t., 3d pers.; to nick, to cut fine notches, to leep a record or tally by cutting ~notches. dak' a ta, v. t., f. daka atd ta; to smash to pieces by throwing violently or by hitting. dhk a t. lii, V. i.; to make a noise by stampinig, pounding, etc. dali a ti, r. i.; to be stretched out or shaken out forcibly, as ill shakidg blankets. daL- a ti i9 sam)e as dakati. dak a ti he, V. t., 3dl pers.; to uenfold; unroll: shake out. daki a ti ke, v.; to cause to un roll; unrolled; unfolded; shaken out. tu b n fc a to,' ti, r. t., fr. d(kta kand to"ti; to ruffle or shalke with bore suddenly a,nd briefly ap l3ied1. sd ia tsa, adj., v., f. V. i. dlaka, remaining unchanged; alive. ak a wi di, satmie (is dakam-idii. dr lke, a form)i of dlaka; to con tinue, etc. deal' ki [na'ki], g.; a prisoner of war. d~..!if v. i.; to squeal as a child. dzl lii [naki], a band or clan in a tribe. In the Hidatsa daki, we have apparently a modification of the totem system. da ii dfi nmi [nakiniiwi],.fr. d~iaki aid dami or i(lami, i. C, thr-ee bctands (consolidated) or the third(l band; one of the Bidatsa clans. da9 ki'.1.; (sc,'e s (lalikigi. da -i 11i, v. i.,?/). kiti; to close up1 like a poketle-kunife. ~aa h t6 pn [ha-I lit., foutr bazct.s or thae fburth banld; the arms. da Lak hi,i, held in the arms. daik a lio lii; v. t., fr. dclka a(nd liolii; to break across with a blow. daik a Lki ti [nahk-], v. t.,fr. d.aka acnd kliti; to shave or remove hair; to clear off by blows, as these Indians do in removing lhair, with a flint or iron scraper, from a skiin, preparatory to dress ig it. df'k a ni di [nakawvidi], v. i. and t., f't. dJ ka antd miidi; to twist by sudden force; said if a sadldle turns while a horse is run ning, etc. d.k a mi di ke, v.; to cause to tulrl; turned by sudden torce. df:k a t - tsi [-vitsi9, v. t., J;^. 1Sa a)d umltsi; to cut fine by f blows, to mince, to chop into small fragments. d't:k a p- i v. i.; to blossom. dlaLk a pt ki Lie, v. t.; to cause to )lossoml. da pC, V. t.'r. kape; to lacer- dte with the teetlh. d a ki pi, v. t. See kidakapi, which is the mnore common form. dak a pi ii, v. t.; to float in air or on water; to flap. d'tEi a p lii he, v. t.; to float; to allow to float. 3d pers. dak a p' lii le, v t.; to cause d to float, to inake float; floated. dafi a pfi;i, V. i.; to be puffed out, inflated. tiaL a pI 4i Le, v. t.; to cause to increase in diameter; to puff out. da k.i pt~i, v. i.,fr. ka.ptsi; to be nicked, to have numerous L small not ches. 139 .dal. da kit hi 4e, v. t.; to hold in the

Page  140 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. dam dak tsi ti, v. t.; to hit hard; to beat with a stick. dhk tsfi ti, v. t.; to braid. dtk gif di, v.; to produce a cur rent of air by a sudden motion, as in i.atining. dahk i dsi, v. i. and t.; to oscil late, to swing; pronounced so much like dakudsi, 2d pers. of kudsi, that it is difficult to dis tinguish. dahk i liti [hakm], adj.; light, not heavy. dak fi liti he, v. t., 3d pers; to make light. dak u liti klie, v. t.; to make light; reduced in weight. da" ku pe [na-'], n.; a bed-cur tain. da mi [nawi], nutmn. a(j.; three. It is mor e commonly pronounced nawi, both alone and in its de rivatives. di min a pi ti ka [+ na-], hium}. a(d(Ij.; thirty. dai mi de [+ na-], a(lj., v.; al. most three, two and a large part of a third. dal mi h( ke [+ na-], v. t.; to malie into three, to divide into three; pass. divided into three parts. d(' nml ke, v. t.; samie as da,imi h1eke. dai mi tsa ko a, adv.; in three places or directions. da mln ti, v. t. fr. mitsi; to chew fine. da m6 ki [-wo-], V. i.; to sink (own, to ea)b.- kid amoki is the more comnmon form. ~1~ nn_' [~awuv], aclj., etc.; deep; ,saidl ot w ater. dfa mXu Eke [nawu.], v. t.; to dleepen; bjecomue deep. dak name of one of the Hidatsa clans, or bands. da ko a [na-], v.,fr. da and koa; to go away troni, to abscond. damakoa, I go away. da k6 e [la-], n., a maii's friend or comirade; a hypothetical word. See idakoe and madakoe. dhk;i k. ke, v. t.; to produce a wound by throwing. dak;a. ki, v. i.; wounded by a milssile. dak' si, v. t.; to bundle, to wrap in skins or cloth. dak;i pi [nak-], adv., v.; after ini point of time, later, subse quent to. dak ta de, v. t., fr. ktade; to natil with heavy blows, to drive a spike. tsai da ke, v. t. and i.; to slide or cause to slide with sudden, forcible impulses, as in skating. d-'L tsi ki v. t.,fr. d'k and tsa ki; to chop, to cut with heavy blows as in cholpping wood. daL tsa' ti, v. t., fr. dlak and tsa ti; to thrust into with force sud denly applied, as in sticking with a spear. dak tsi a, v. i, a(dj.; heavy, weighty. dak tsi ai diu i, v. i.; gradually increasing in wveight. dah tsi a ke, v. t.; to make heavvy. dii ktsi di, n., fr. daka and tsidi; a name applied to light-colored buiffa,lo-calves. dak tsi ke, v., a(Uj.; to place in a row; to be in single file; alignedl, as thle posts of,~ palisadle or the teeth of a comb. dak tsfi a [nak-], n.; a min i;; the Putorius vison. 140

Page  141 IIIDATSA DICTIONARY. dan d a nh, same as daqd-t.-midanats, I shiver. da p~, v. t.,fr. da and pe; to eat by tearing, as a dog eats. da pSii ti, v. t., fr. psu; to shove out of place; to jog the a)rm. da;a, v. t.; to lacerate with the teeth. dai i [nasi], i.; a name, a proper natne; pronounced also dazi. dit;i e [la-], v. t.; to take off with the teetlh, as in eating corn from a cob. da;i pi [la-], v. t.,,fr. sipi; to untie with the teeth. dai 4ku, v. t., fr. sku; to extract with the teeth. da;te6 v. t.; to munch, to chew fine; also to pound fine. dai' ta [+ na-] n.; the heart. This word is also used figura tively, as in English; and vari Olls emotions and feelings are ttributed to conditions of the heart, as shown in words which follow. da' ta d6 sa [na'tan6;a], v. i., adj., fr. dalta and desa, "heart less "; giddv, foolish, inconsider ate. da' ta de;a ke, v. t.,.fr. da'ta dlega; to cause to be foolish or inconsiderate. da' ta dc;e, same as da'tadesa. da' ta lie pa du i, v. i., fr. da' taliepi; becoming indolent. da' ta hi6 pi, v. i., fr. da'ta and liepi; to be lazy; indolent. da' ta li( pi ke, v. t.; to cause to be lazy. da' ta i;i a, v. i., fr. da'ta and -isia,, bad; to be angry, mnoros%, disagreeable; unhappy or sorry. da' ta i si a du i, v. i.; becom ing angry, etc. dat da' ta i si a ke, v. t.; to cause to be morose angry, etc.; an gered. da ta ki, v. i.; to be hurt, to be in pain.-midataaki, I am hurt. da ta pi, v. t., fr. tapi; to hold or press between the teeth. da ta 1i, v. t.; to squeeze with the teeth. da' ta tsai ki, v. i.,fr. da'ta and tsaki, good; to be happy, pleas ant, agreeable, da' ta tsa ki ke, v. t.; to make or cause to be happy. da' ta ts6 ki, v. t.,fr. dalta and tsoki, hard; firm, resolute, self deny,ing. da' ta ts6 ki ke, v. t.; to make resolute, etc. da' ti, brotber-in-law; a hypo thetical word. See idati. da ti pi, n.; a ravine. da t6' ti, v. t., fr. to'ti; to shake to and fro in the mouth, as a cat worries a mnouse. dai tsa [la-], v. t., fr. tsa; to bite. da tsai' ti [la-], v. t.,fr. tsati; to stick the teeth into; to hold in the teeth for the purpose of cut ting, as these Indians do with meat. da tsi [la-], v. i., )rob. fr. datsa; denited. da ts! pi, v. t.; to loosen with the mouth; to lick off with the tongue. da tsk. pi [la-], v. t., fr. tska. pi; to pinch With the teeth; to nib ble or bite, but not to bite off. da tskai ti [la-], v. t, fr. tskati; to pass or p)ress through a small opening; to squirt or leak. da tskif pi, V. t.;~ to pare offJ to pee1. 141

Page  142 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. dfk di6 zi [nezi], it.; the tongue. de zi a zi; nt. See Local Names. di, v. t.; to shoot; to shoot at, whether you kill or not; also to hunt. See kidi. di, a suffix to adjectives, increas i n g their force; as in padopi(ldi and kaustadi. di [ni], pron.; thoui; thee; thy. die' ki [nic-], pron. com)p.; thy'2self. di da k6 e [nilakoe], your friend. See dakoe and idakoe. dat da Iski ti [la-], v. t., fr. tskiti; to clip, to dock. da ts6 pe, v. t.; to draw in with the lips, to smnack. See kidatso I)e. da tsi ki, v. i.; to draw in or suck with the lips, but not to nurse. da wi, itiUt. adj., samie ats dami; more commonly pronounced ha Wi. da wi tsi, v. t., samte as darnitsi, atind mnore ca3mmou. da vw6 ki. See damoki. dai wut, V. i., same as damu; but more commonly pronounced na dai zi [nazi], i.; a proper name; same as dasi.-dazi taka, or nazi takii? whatis his iame?,-manazi, my name. —dadazi, or nanazi, your name. de, v. i.; to go, to depart; gone. dets, he is gone, departed. de', a suffix to verbs and adjec tives, signifying incompleteness, a degree less than the positive; almost, nearly. de lii, v., adj.; clear, transparent; white, when referring to the tail of a horse, and some other tpings. de pa, n.; certain deformities arti ficially produced. d(- sa [+ nera], v. i., adv.; no; there is not; there is none, etc. de 4a lie, v. t.; to cause to be not, to cause to cease or disap pear; pass. disappeared, extinct, cured (as a disease).-kidelake is the more common form. de se, same as des:a. de ta, n.; a boundary, edge, or border. d6 ta ko a, ad., fr. deta; at the edge or border. di dla' ti, n.; your brother-in-law. See ida'ti. di de, ~ v. i.; to travel, to marchb di di, to walk; also said of the motion of a snake, of swimming, etc. di di, n.; a travelling party, a party moving or marching; a step, a walk. See matsedidi and paduidlidi. di di ki, your leg. See diki and ieliki. idi d 4 si [ni-],, your son. See di Ai and idiai. di do [ni-], p. prot., 2d pers., plur.; ye. di do ki [ni-j, pron., fr. dido; yourselves. di ha [ni-], v. t. and auxil., 2d pers., imper.; do thou do it; about t h e same as da:' but more emphatic; added to verbs, it gives one form of the impera tive. di ha,? aux. verb, suffixed to form the secon(d person, future, ind(lic ative of conjugated verbs. di lio, your body. See lio and ilio. dik~ v. t., imperative of diki; strike. di ki, v. t.; to strike, to whip; to ;; couut ~ottp ". 142

Page  143 tIIDAT,SA DICTIONAPY. dik d6t di ki, a hypothetical word; leg; Idok i dia lia ti [no -], n.,fr. lower extremity. dokidali and ati; the village of di pi, v.; to bathe; to be bath- the (lead(. the hereafter of the ing; to bathe one's self. Iidatsa. diI pi ke, v. t.; to cause to bathe; dok i da hi, n., r. dlok andt ida to clean by bathing; to bathe lii; a humain shade, a ghost. another person. ~other p~erson~. dok i da" lii ta i ko zi, i. lit. di ti nli [nitawi], your aunt; ghost's whistle; the E~quisetu)t Jr. hypothetical wLor(ld sami. hye)lale. di si, n.; a son; probably a hypo- dok i da lii ta ia tsu, n., fr. thetical word. See idisi, didisi, dokidlai, ita,, an, matsu. e., and Imad,iM. andl muadilsi. ghost's cherry; t h e Virgini:L di;I, v. i.; to hasten, to hurry, to creeper; the fruit of te Vir I I ~~~~~~creeper; the fruit of the ~ir. ble falst. ginia creeper or Anpelopsis. di;i di 4i, ian imperative formn of dok a" ii a a tu a, n.; Al;(Ili;be hoi i hate burydok i da"l lii ta mna tsu a,~ n.; i(lisi; be thou itl haste, hutrry tlthe Virginia creeper, the entire up! hurry thyself. l-lant,. di' i ke, v. t.; to cause to hurry; 'urried. dok i da ii ta pa hiS, n. See hlurriedl. hurried.-~ ~Local Names. di tal [ni-]~ 1)ers. 2ron., 2d pers._ di ta [i-],pers.pron., d pers dok pa ka, n., same as dolipaka. possessive; denotes transfera ble possession. dok t(, n., fr. dok and te; a ble possession. di ti du [nitarl], your moth-, corpse er's biother. See itadlu. dok te o du ~a [nokteoruSa], di~~~~~~~~~.d~ dota Cn,dga place di t.a mn, e [nitawae], n.,fr. lokte and o(lus; a place dita and mae; your own, your of deposit for the dead, a scaf fold, grave, or graveyard. p~rop~erty. di ta m tsa [nitawetsaj, d6 pa [+ nopa], numn. adj.; two. y-otur brother. See itamietsa. Ilii compounds, this is sometimes pronounced nupa and dupa. di tsa ii, v., pron.; you alone; pronouuce(t nupa and dupa. you unaide(d, or by yourself. d pa he,. t.,r. dopa; to make double, to form in two parts. di tsi [nitsi], v. t.; to massacre. ole to form i i ti ii [+ ni, n.; yor dress d6 pa he ke, v. t.; to form into di shirt S itu[+ ii.- y rtwo parts, to divide in two; di or shirt. Sree itu~li.I vided in two. d6 do pa [loropa], n.; the vie in two. cheek. d6 pa ke, same as dopaheke. doli [noli], a prefix limiting a d6 pa pi [+ no-], num. adj., fr. noun to the human species; al.,o dopa eand pi; eight. pronounced nok and dok. do pa pi ti ka [+ no-], numn. doli pa kfa [noli-], n.; living adj.,f'. dopaand pitika; twenty. human beings; iformerlyapplied d6 pa tsa ko a, adv.; in two only to Indians, but n'ow often places or directions. used to include all races. See d6 ta [iota], n., adv.; near to; amakadolil)aka. the near side; neighborhood or dok, same as doli. proximity. 143 I

Page  144 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. du~Rl d lia, v. t.; to spread, as bed tding. -kidulia is the more conm moii form. du lit de, v. t.; to collect by dragging; to rake. du lii de, v. t.; to shell, as corn. du li6 nmi, v. i.; said of the set tling down of a river, the abat ing of a flood. d u lie;e, v. t., f-. hese; to tear in any way, to tear such articles as cloth or paper. du li6 wi, samle as duliemi. du li6 lii, v. t.,J-. holii; to break across by any means; to break by bending, as in breaking a stick. du li6 lii ke, v. t.; to cause to be broken; br,heke. du li6 ki, v. t., fr. lioki; to sep)a rate by dragging, as in comb ing. dfi ipi, v. t.; to take down some thing that is hanging on a nail or peg. duk [ruk], an -adverb of future time; when-will. It is also used to denote uncertainty or condition with regard to future events. It is suffixed. du ki. pi, v. t.,f-. kapi; to lacer. ate byv any means; to wound by tearing. d-f!ki di~ v. t., fr. kidi; to pull a skin back and forth across a rope, as is d o n e in dressing hiides. du Li ti, V. t.,fr. kiti; to clear off by pluckliing, to pluck clean. du kill ti, v. t.; to pluck. du nma iii ta, v. i., adv.; back and forth, going tiom side to side, changing direction rapidly. du mni lii ta ti di e, v.; to run b~acki and forth. d6t 416 ta du [-ru], atr,I., n., ft. dota; the near side; at or in the near side. See itadotadu. d6 ta lia [lo-], adv., fr. dota; in this direction; denoting motion toward the speaker. d6 ta ko a, adv., fr. dota; i ll the neighborhood of the speaker; at a place nearer to the speaker than some object named; also, inferior to. d6 ti [lo-J, n.; the throat. do tic ti a, n., fr. doti and ictia; bronchocele,-a disorder not un common in the village at Fort Berthold. du, a hypothetical word. See idu. du [ru], a prefix to verb-roots, denoting general causation, that the action is done in some way not specified. Same as Dakota 'yu'. ddu [ru], 1)rep.; in, during, at that time or place. Suffixed to noiuns, it forms adverbs of time and I,lace. Suffixed to pronouns, it forms words which may lie con sidered as pronouns or adverbs. du G tsa [+ In-], num. adj.; one. du 6 tsa ke, v. t.; to cause to be one; united. du e tsa pi [+ nlu-], numn. adj., fr. duetsa and pi; nine. du 6 tsa pi ke, v. t., fr. duetsa pi;; to divide into nine parts. du C tsa ta, adj.; only one. ,di 6 tsa ti, v. i., adj.; one here and there; to be a scattered few. d-C ha, v., imtper. and 2d 1)ers. in die. of duhe; lift.-diduha, lift thyself, i. e., arise (from sitting). daf he, v. t.; to lift, to raise up. diu hi, v.; lifted, raised; aroused. du hi lke, v. t.; to cause to arise; to assist in rising or raising. 144

Page  145 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. dum du mat ta [ru-, nu-], n.; mi(l dle, the middle of anything. du mai ta du [brui, adv., n.; in or through the middle; the mid (Ile part of anything. du ma ta lia, adv.; toward the middle. du ma ta ko a, adv.; at the middle. du ma ta ta, adv.; facing the middle, directed towardi the mi(l dle. du ma ti tslki, v.,fr. dumata ti and itski; tied in the middle; cut or strangled in the middle. du mi di, v. t., fr. midi; to twist or twill in any way. du mi lia [-wi-], v., adv.; to turn or poin t out of a straight line, in an oblique direction; said of a white an's tra ck- t oes outward, of the track of it mVan lost in a storm, etc. dum dsi du [ uwumdsi], v. t., ftr. tudsi; to roll up; nearly t he satne as pamudsi. dufi pi, v. t.; to break off a portion. du ple pai, adj.; capabl e of stretch inlg and recoiling, elastic. du se [ru-, lu-], v. t.; to lay down, t o relea se, to deposit. duma and duaa-diha are impera. tive forms. du 4w pi, v. t.; to lunt ie; to open lik e a sa ck by pulling the edges apart. daf;ke [ru-], v. t.; to open, as a door or the lidI of a box. —duska, inmperative.-dugki, opened. dgi ]ku, v. t.;,to place an evil charm on, to bewitch. dii sa ki [rum], v. t.,fr. suki; to erase, to clean by rubbing; to wash as the face, but not as clothing. dut du ta, v. i.,fr. ta; to crack; to go to pieces in ally way. diu ta [nut.a, luta], n.; a rib; ribs. du tai he, v. t., fr. duta; to cause to burst, or fly to pieces. du ti pi [ru], v. t.,fr. tapi; to squeeze; to hold and press, as in shakinig, hands; to squeeze in any way. du ta ti, fr. tati; to poke or punch; to press with the finger tip. dufi ti [nuti], v. t.; to chew; to eat, to partake of solid food. duti is the form of the 2d and 3d persons;- njuti, of the 1st per son. See f 1963. du ti, v. t.; to bind, to confine. In this word, the initial d (or r) is retained throughout its conju gation (lst var. IT 195), which distinguishes it from duti, to eat; but in the 3d person and in the infilnitive, these two verbs are homonymous. du tf ksa, v. t.; to eat constant ly, hab-)itually. du t6' ti, v. t.,fr. to'ti; to shake -s in casting pepper; to dredge or sprinkle. dfa tea, simple imperative of dutsi, take it, get it. du ts~a da, v. t.,fr. tsada; to slide or slip in any way. du ts, ki, v. t., fr. tsaki; to dis sever without cutting or burn ing; to pull apart. du ts.i ki de, v., adj.; almost dissevered, torn so as to be held only by a thread. du tsa' ti, v. t., fr. tsa'tii; to stick, thrust through, impale; hold in readiness for cutting by sticking. 10 I 145

Page  146 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. dfit dfi ts6, v. t.; to take hold of; to obtain; to lift. du tsi [ru-],v; taken; procured. du ts! pi, v. t.; to untie. du tsi ii, v. i.; to spring back, as somLething bent and released. kidutsisi is the more'common foI'm. du tsi ti, v. t.; to tear asunder; to tear down, to raze a building. dlfu tska v. or adj.; twin. See dakadutska. du tsk.a pi, v. i.,fr. tskal!i; to pinch with an instrument. dti tska ti, v. t.,fr~. tskati; to squeeze, force, or pass through, by any means. du tski pi, v. t.; to milk a cow. This word seems to be from saTne root as datskipi, but the coninec tion is not obvious. du tskl Si, v. t.; to wash; said( of washing clothing. diu tski ti, v. t.,fr. tskiti; to en circle the body, neck, limbs, or any object, with something which presses closely; to tie a string tightly around, to strangle, to kill by hanging, to tie,a sack in the middle, etc. du tskfi pi, v. t.,fr. tskupi; to bend, to double by pressure or otherwise; to bend a stick for setting a spring-trap. du tsfi ki, v. t.; to knead the ab domen (kneading the abdomen is <a common remedy for numer ous complaints with this people); to engirdle. du tf,' ti, v. t.; same as d(Ito'ti. du wa Hi ta, v. i.; same as du d ialtiita. dun wi di, v. t.; same as dumidi.. F, adv.; yes. e, v. t.; to keep, to retain. 6 de de, v.; to bear, t o lay. C di, n.; the abdomen. r di, v. t.; to defecate. die' ti, V. t., fr. edi, witth the suffx ti; de noting desire or reatdi ness. i e ais ti a, v. i., fr. edi and ictia; to be pregnant. e di de, comp. v., fr. edi and de. e du i, adj.; same as adui; pun gent, bitter. hii, v.; to urinate. e sien ti, v. i fa. elii a nd ti; de noting desire or readiness. 46 lee, v. t.; to know; to under stand; to recognize. e ke ta', v. t., negative of eke; to know iiot.-emaketgts is the true equivalent of I don't know, but mad,4iigets, I am ignorant, is more commonly used. i' lu i, same as eduli and adui; this pronunciation is quite common. e pi!, v. t.; to grind or triturate; samneas pa. e rip n.; same as edi. e6 tsa, n., adj.; all, the aggregate of a number of individuals; not ordinarily applied to the whole of one thing. See liakah6ta. e tsa de, adj.; almost all. ha, v. and suffix to verbs, 2d pers. of he; y-ou do; you make. ha he te, v. I.; to divorce.-ha heta, 2d pers. 146 hah C. . h.

Page  147 HIIDATSA DICTIONARY. hah ha h(e ti;'divorced. ha lipi, v. i.; to sneeze. ha lipic ti, v. i.,fr. halipi; to have a desire to sneeze, to be ready or about to sneeze. ha lipi ke, v. t.; to cause to sneeze to produce sneezing. ha ka' la [hakaita], 2d pers. and. imper. of haka'ti; wait, halt! ha ka' ti, v. i.; to stop, cease, leave off, hlalt. ha ka' ti he, v. t.; to stop or ar rest. ha kg' ti ke, v. t.; to cause to stop; stopped.-haka'ti ard its derivatives are often used with li as the first letter. See liaka'ti. ha ka tsi, v. t.; to butcher, to cut up meat. ha ke, v.-t.; to gather and hold up with the hands, as the edgc of a robe or skirt is held in wad ing. ha ko ka, adv.; above, over head, but not ill contact with; nearly the same as akoka. ha mni [hawi], v. i.; to sleep. ha milc' ti, v. i., fr. hami and ti; to lie sleepy. ha ni de, v. i.; almost asleep, dozing. ha ml ksa, v. i.; to sleep habit ually and excessively. ha o, interj., adv.; a word used to denote approbation, gratifica tion, agreement, assent, or greet ing. It is common to many In dian languages. It is usually written "how " by travellers, and is often pronounced by Indians the same as the English word howr. It is difficult to determine the best mode of spelling. Mr. Riggs in his Dakota Dictionary writes it hao and ho, both of which forms are used here also, although the -Hidatsa rarely say ho. ha pa, adj.; cold, chilly; refers to the sensation As experienced by living animals. ha pa ke, v.; to make cold; changed from warm to cold, chilledi. ha' p6 Aa, v.i., adj.; dark, de void of light. ha' p6 Aa de, adj., n.; almost (lark; twilight. ha' pb na du i,v. t.; darken ing. ha' pa na kie, v. t.; to darken; darkened. ha Aiai, v. i.; to feel a stinging or sma,rting sensation. ha si Ai he, v. t.; to sting, to suaprt. ha A i ke, V. t.; to ase tion sow Itit; retndered sharply p)aain ful. h;i tsa, v. t., ftr. tsa; to clean czar sepa,rate land scraping. ha tsa ke ki,. i.; to hiccough. hai tsa ke kic ti, v. i.,fr, ha tsakeki; to have a desire to hie cough, to be about to hiccough, to be hiccoughing and likely to continue. ha tsi {e, v. t.; to cook by roast ing or baking. ha tskf du i, v. i., fr. hat,zka,; lengthening gradually. ha4 tski, adj.; long. ha tski de, adj; almost lhmg, nearly lotng enough. hai tski ke, v. t.; to make long; lenlgthene(l. ha tski ksa, v., adj.; continu ously or excessively long. la wei to. i.; same as.hami. her v. t.; to make; to prepare, I .i 147 he

Page  148 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. hbid hi di, dem. proit.; this; is used for person, place, and time. hidimape, this day, to-day. hi di ka, adj.,fr. hidi and ka; in this compass, this amnount, so much. -hidika Or hidikats is said when exhibiting a quantity, or givi ng an i(les of quantity by signs8. hi di ko a, adv.,fr. hidi and koa; ait this place, here. hi di mi, adj.,fr. hidi; this many, so umany. It is used in much the same way as hidika, but re fers to number instead of quan tity. It answers the question ' tiami?' how many? hi di W, hidi and ise; thus, ill thi s manner. hi di ta, adv., fr. hidi; in this way or direction; this part. hi di wi or hidiwits, comrmon itodes of f pronouncing hidimi. hi(liwits is the termi na l forim. hi do, pers. pron., 3d pers., plural. hi d6, dem. pron.; thiat, that per,son or place. hi do, adv.; in that place, there. hi d ]ia,; in that place; by that way; therein. hi do ki, comnlp. pers. pron., 3d person, I)lur., fr. hido; them selves. hi du, n.; a mother. hi alii, n.; bone. hi du" a du pu pu!ii, n.; carti lage. hi dfi i mnaol i a, n.,fr. hidu and imakia; bones used in gam ing. The name has been recent ly applied to dominoes. hi dut ka, adv., sasne as hidoka; al1so pronounced hiduka. hi du si di~ n.; the Assinneboine Itrdianls. he he, an auxiliary verb or suffix to verbs, forming transitive from intransitive v e r b s; 3d pers.; signifies to make or cause. (4f 1o0). h(, da pi, n.; the waist. :he' duts, same as heide, and ap parently a contraction. h46 i de, v. i., or sentence, fr. ide; "so he says'; "that is what he says"; said when quotiing or repeating, and ordin. rily used with the terminal ts; thus, hei dets. hi, v. t.; to draw into the mouth, as in smoking or drinking; an irregular verb. (~ 210). hi, v.; to touch, to come in con tact with. hi [or i], n.; a sharp point; the point of an instrument; com motily suffixed. hi', n.; a common name for der n)al.appendages-hair, feathers, bristles, etc.; commonly used 1as a suffix, or terminal part of a (ompound noun. hi, pers. pron.. 3d pers., singular. hi ddi, v., adj.,?from hbdi; new, recently made. hi da ka tsa, v. i., fr. daka; it lives; it continues. hi da mi [-wi], v. i., imperf. 3(1 pe'., s ame ( as litmi; he sleeps. 'hi da ni de, v. i., fr. hidami; he dozes. hi daf tsa, n.; said to mean " wil lowus"; the name of one of the old villages of this tribe on the Knife River, and the present naime of the entire tribe. hi di, v. t.; to make; to form. hi di', interj.; let me alone! there nobet Used mostly ba children whlen beinig teased. i 148

Page  149 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. huti a child to sleep; to drone a lul laby. h6 pa, adv.; slowly; tediously, wearily. ho pai, v. i., adj.; to be mysteri ous; sacred; to have curative powers; to possess a charm; in comprehensible; spiritual. Sa,me as Dakota, wakan, but signifies a.lso the power of curing dis eases. ho pa di, n., fr. hlop; mystery; mn edicine; incomprehensible power or inflnence,,etc. ho' pa du i, v. i., fr. ho'pi andZ a,diui; becomitg mnore and more pertforated in different piaces, as a ta,rget at which marksmen are shooting. h6 pa ke, v. t.,fr. hb6pa; to make slow, to ca-use to be slo-w. ho pa; 4e, v. t.; to scare greatly, to terrify._hop:Alts, terrified. ho pa ti, n., prob. fr. hupa,; corni in the ear; roasting ears. ho pai ti si, n., fr. hopati and si;; corn-huiilsks. ho' pi or h6pi, v. i., adj.; bored, perforated; excavated. h6' pi de, adj.; almost perforated, bored nearly through. h6' pi ke, v. t.; to perforate; bored through; supplied with au excavation or opening. hu, v. i.; to come.-hu', impera tive. hu, n.; a mother. This word is said to be of amaliami origin. hu a, v. i.; to cough. hufi a ke, v. t.; to cause to cough. hu.1 ksa, v. i.;* t,o cough habitu ally or continuously, as with a bad ctold. hul S ti, v. i.; to have a desire to cough; to be about to cou-gh. hik hi ke, v. t.,fr. hi, to drink; to cause to drink, as in wa-tering a horse. hi sa4 dsi, v. i., adj., fr. hisi; of a dull or doubtful red color, red but not scarlet, reddish. hi sa dsi ke, v. t.; to n ake of a red(hlish color; to dye reddi sh. hi sfi du i, v. i.; reddening, be comin g red. hi;i, adj. r d; red; b right red, sea,r let.h-bli-de6lii-hii, a light trans - parent r e d.-hisi-:ktiahu-liota, pink. hi 4i de, v. i., toI.,fr. hisi; almost r ed; said of a in iron or stone that is being h ea ted. hi;i he, v. t.; to redden. hi si ke, v. t.; to dye red; to make red. hi si ke, v.; reddened; dyed red. hi;i;a du i, v i.,fr. hisise; as siiiillg a reddish tinge. hi;! se, adj., v. i.,fr. hbii and, Tge; ha,vinig a reddish tinge; said of northern lights, the morning sky, et..; —also hls~Si. hi;if i ke, v. t.; to cause to as sume a reddish tinge. lit;fa a, n.; mint, Mentha cana densis. hi ta, a(Ij.; fast, fleet; said of a good runniier; used also adverb ially. hi t* du i, v. i.; becoming fleet, ini(,reasing in speed. hi ta ha, adv.; fleetly, rapidly; a more proper adverbial form than hits.. hi ta ke, v. t.; to make fleet, to accelerate motionl. ho; the word hao (which see) is sometimes thus pronounced. ho i kie or howike% v.,~ to hum 149

Page  150 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. hud ~ linik ' lia lia du i, v. i.; becoming very rough. liaft lia dsi, v. i.; roughisb, hav inag t h e appearance of being rough. lia lii tu a, n. (Dakota, lialia tonway); t h e Chippeway In. dians. lia lifa tu a-ma si, n. (masi, uwhites); the R e d River half breeds. ] li lii, v., adj.; striped, marked with parallel bands or lines. lia lii he, v. t., 3d pers.; to stripe, to mark with parallel bands. lia Hii ke, v. t.; to stripe, to cause to be striped. .lia liu aI, v. i., adj. to be set closely together; thickly stud ded. Ilia liuf a ke, v. t.; to cause to set closely together, to com pel a large number of Iersons or tbings to occupy a small surface, to plant closely, to p)itch camp with the lodges close together. lia liuf a ksa, adj.; continuously or constantly close, or thickly set. liai ka, v. i.; to be rocking, oscil latinig, shaken, or agitated. libv ka, v. i.; to itch; to be af flicted( withi itching sores, as in small-pox. lia La du i, v. i.; becoming itchy or more itchy. lig ka he, v. t.,fr. hbka; to rock, shake, or agitate. lih ka h6 ta, v., n., adj.; whole, entire; the entire of one thing. lih ka h6l ta de, adj.; almost enltire.' Iia ka he( ta le, V. t.; to make prcly or entirel; tompl eted. I lia ka ke, v7. t.,fr. lialka; to muake h'ud hua di Ae du [huriseru], n., adv.; yesterday. See sedu. fhu duk, adv.,fir. hu and duk; when it comes to pass, at a future time specified. hu ka h6! interj.; hallo! etc. hu pa, n.; soup. hu pa, n.; moccasins. See itapa. hit pa, n.; astem or bandle; a corn-cob; a pipe-stetn, etc. hu pa a ku i.kf tski, n.,fr. aku and ikrtski; -t ba measuring worm b. ht t6, n.; a screech-owl. h-i tsi, n.; wind. lia, prep.; toward, in the direction of; suffixed to lnouns, it forms a(d verbs, which qu.-lifv verbs denot ing motion. lia, adj.; co arse, rough, scaly, etc; used only as a fa ctor of com poulnd words. lia bfi a, same as liamua.. lia da. liai du i, v. i.; gro wing leanu. !ii da lii, adj.; learn. lii da lii ke, v. t.; to cause to be lean; to starve; starved, re dueed to a colndition of leanness. 1 da lii kla, adj., v.; habitu ally lea rn; emaciated. [in da lii kl.a ke, v. t.; to cause to be emlaciated. lia de, verbal-root; shell, as corn. lia d,6, n.; rain. lia d(6, v.;-to rain.-liadets, it rains..... l!a di e, t.; to rain; same as liade. Iia'!ia~ v. i., fr. liat; very rough, prickly, echinate. 1,50 R.

Page  151 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. li.1 pe, } verbal root; denude, relii pi, move surfi,ce, peel. lia pi, v. i., adj.; thin, as paper or ftinely dressed skin. li.i pi, v. i.; to lie down.-liap, imperative. li.i pi, v. i.; to be lost. lii pi he', v. t.; to lose; he loses or losr; they lose. (11 20"). lia pi h6 ke, v. t.; to cause to lose. li.i pi h6 ksa, v.; to lose fre. quently or excessively; to be careless of things; to be in the habit, of losing. lia pi ke, v. t., fr. hap)i; to make thin, to wear thin, to cause to be thin. limi pi ke, m a d e'thin, worn thin. lie pike, v. t.,fr. ha pi; to cause to be l)st, to lose. li a pi ksa, v. i.; excessively thin; constantly thin. li.mi ta ta ka, adV.; rapidly, lia tatakaha, iii frequentand rapidl succession. hia ta ta.ka du i, v. i., fr. hbta talki; becoming gradually a-ccel era,ted in motion. ali ta ta ki, v. i., adj.; to be rapl)i(l, to move rapidly. liia ta ta ki ke, v. t.; to make riptlid, to accelerate maotion. liti ti, verbal root; to brighten or lighten; hence, amalia.ti and oliati. lid wi, same as liami. lie, adj.,probably a contraction of liie; old. lih mi [-wi], v. i., adj.; lonesome. io mi ke [-wi-], v. t.; to make aOllesome. li~ mi ]ksa, v. i.; conltinually lonesome; melancholy-. liak itchy, to produce an itchy sensa tion or an itching sore. Iia kfi' ta, same as lhaka?ta. In the dlerivatives of this word also, li is often substituted for the in itial ih. hia ki p1, v. i., adj.; hollowed longitudinally, having a crease or furrow. lia lifi pi he, v. t.; to make a crease or furrow. lia kfi pi ke, v. t.; to furrow, to mark with creases or grooves; grooved. lid ma dsi [-wa-], v. i., adj.,fr. liaiiii; having a, diverging.p Ipearance. ha ma du i [-wa -], v. i.,fr. lia mi; becomingprogressively more branched, forked. or diverging. lii nli [-wi], v. i., adj.; to be forked; scattering or diverging. lift mi ke, v. t.,fr. liami; to cause to diverge or scatter, as in toss ing the hair. lia m aiI a [-bu-], v. i.,fr. mua; to make a rouglh noise, to rattle. lifta pa du i,v. i.,fr. liapi and adui; becorning thinner; wear ing thin. lia pa tC du i, v. i.,fr. lia.p.ti; becoming satiated. li.a pai ti, v. i.; to hav e a feeling of satiety, to have hunger or thirst fully satisfied, to be sa,tis fied or satiated in any respect. lia p.i ti de, almost satisfied. !io pa. ti he, v. t. to satisfy. 1i:.- p4 ti ke, v. t.; to satist; to cause to be satisfied, to supply with food sufficient for satistfIc tion; satisfied. ha pfi ti ksa, v. i., adj.; habitu o ally satiated; gorgedm satisfied to disgust. i5i',

Page  152 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ~lic'p Help l pa du i, v. i.,f-. liepi; becom ing more shallow. is pi, V. i., adj.; shallow; applied to water, etc. il pi de, v. i.; almost shallow. lie' pi ke, v. t.; to make shallow, to b)ail out or drain oat. li4 pi lie, made shallow, drained or evaporated to shallowness. li,6 pi k;a, v. i.; very shallow; continually shallow. li( pi ksa ke, v. t., fr. liepiksa. liK6 e, verbal root; tear through, separate. li4 wi, a common pronunciation of liemi, either when used alone or in its derivatives. lii di a, v. i.; to experience an itchinlg sensation; to feel other abnlormial or peculiar sensatiol)s. Ii di a lke, v. t.; to make itchy orI sensitive. li di A lika, v. i.; persistently or habitually itchy or sensitive. lii c4, adj.; old, advanced in age; decrepit as if old; said of organ ized beings. lii kLe, v. t.; to'cause to be old or decrepit. lii e kla, adj., v.; superannu ated. lii pa du i, v. i.,fr. liipi; becom ing wrinkled, as a person ad vancing in age. lii pe, verbal root; skin, flay. lio, hypothetical word; the body; the trunk; the entire body. See ilio, dilio, and malio. li6 lii, verbal root; break across, break by bending. li6 lio i, v. i.; to experience the peculiar weak or painful feeling in the eyes resulting from de ferred sleep.-mista liolioits, my eyes are sleepy. li6 kap n.; a skunk,, plepthitis nme _phitica. ii6 ka di ti, v. t.; to close np by tying. li6 ki, verbal root, denotes the pulling of a hard instrument through something that yields, as in j)ulling a comb through the hair, an oar through water. lio pa Ae, v. t., same as hopase. liopiae is the more conaion pro nunliation. lio pA i, v.; scared, startled, tor rifie(l. lio p. Ai ke, v. t.; to cause to be secared. oi6 ta, adj.; gray; whitish-gray. li6 ti;a, adj., fr. hota and i5e; li6 ti e, ) gras ish, i r o; said in describing horses. liu, ver bal root; upset, spill, throw down. lift a hia, n.,. hypothetical; the knees. See ilitualia. lih e, v. t. an(d i.; to upset; to topple over, as aa s tick set up right. lift e de, v. i., fr. liue anid de; to be almost falling; to stumible. lift ]in i, same as liolioi. Iiu pi, verbal root; drain dry; drink, absorb. See (laliupi. liu ti, verbal root, or I msiodified, fr. liu; to be in a cond(litionl to tall, placed insecurely. lifi' ti, n.; gloves; mittens. i, n.; point, e dge; to oth; same as hi. i', ni.; hair of animals; hi,. i or i, n.; the mouth. i 1,52. i

Page  153 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ida IC pe, n.; the, tail of a bird. ic pu, n.; point, top, extremity, small end; same as Dakota ink pa or inttpa. For examples, see amaicpu,,, ziicpu, midaicpu, and Aakiiepu. ic ta ta ki, n.; the killdeer, -Egialitis vocifera. ic ti a, adj.; great, large. ic ti a du i, v. i.,fr. ictia; in creasing. ic ti a he, v. t. and i.; to in crease. ic ti a ke, v. t.; to cause to en plarge or increase; to change from small to large. ic ti a ke, enlarged. i da, v. i.; to ya,wn. i dai lii, n.,fr. dalii; a shade; its or h is shade, shadow, or ghost. i da lii lii, n.,fr. daliilii; a re flection; his, her, or its reflec. tion.-madaliilii, nmy reflection. (lidaliilii, your reflection. i d.i lii Ae, n., fr. i and (da.liise; a shovel; same as amaidahiie. i da lipi, v. t.; to make an incised wound. i da ka, n., fr, daka; his or her offspring; their offspring. i da ka ki ti, dakakiti; a, role-scraper. The term has been recently applied to razors. i da ki;a, n., adj.; left; left hand; lett side. i dh ki;a lio a, adv.; at the left; to the left. i da ko a ka de, n.; the part. ih;g in the centre of hair of head. i da k6 e [-ia-] fr. dakoe; his Iriend, his comrade. i da- kul dsi~ n.,fr. dakudlsi;- an swinlg. See maidakudlsi andI m kiadistaidakiudsi. i,pers.pron., incorporated, 3d pers., mtiase., fem., and neut., sing. and plur., objective and possessive. In the objective, it may denote the combined agent and object of a reflexive verb. In the pos sessive, it usually denotes non transferable possession. i, a pI)refix forming, with verbs, nouns of the material or instru ment. Prefixed to cardinal nutm bers, it forms ordinals. i a lia lia, v. t.; to encircle or surround; surrounding it.-alia li.i is perhaps the simple word. i a lio a, v., reflex ofalioa; also, ialioe. i a ka,n.; aman'selderbrother. miaka, my elder brother. diaka, your elder brother. 1 a pa ti, n.; a stopple of aly kin([; a cork. ic kh, n.; a star. ic ki dli mi [-nawiJ, n.,fr. icka and dami; the Belt of Orion. ic k-A d6 lii, n.,fr. icka and delii; SiIitis. ic kh lia lib a, n., fr. icka antd lia.liua; the Pleiades. ic kh ic ti a, n., fr. icka and ic tia; Venus and Jupiter. ic kh sa pu a, n.,fr. icka and Aapua; Ursa Major. ic Le, n.; bands, societies, or se cret orders a,mong the Hidatsa; each h a v i n g its own songs, dances, and ceremonies, which are to a certain extent esoteric. ic ki, comnp. pers. pron.; himself; herself; itself; themselves. ic pa, n.; the wing of a. bird. ic pa ta ki,., fr. icpa and taki; a species of hawk. ic pc, n.; a magpAie the Pica hud-. sonlca. I 153 i

Page  154 HIDATSA I)CTIONARY. id. i da. mi [+ -nawi], ord. num., fr. dami; third. i dt mi de [-ntawi-J, v., adj.; altmost third. i'da nmi du [inhwiru], adv.; thirdly, in the third order or place. i daL mi ke, v. t.; to make third, to place in the order of third; made third. i da pa, n., adj.; right; right side; right hand. * i da pa4 lia, adv.; toward the right. i da pi ko a, adv.; at the right. 1 da pu di, adj.; wild or unman ageable, as a wild bhrse. i da spa, n.; shoulder; shoulders. 1i dO pa ki pe, comp. v.; to carir-y on the shoulders. i da' ti, n.; a wife's brother, or a iinan's sister's husband. —dida'ti, your brother-in-law. mada'ti, f e illy brother-in-law. i da tska ti, n.,fr. i and datska ti; a syringe.-maidatskati is the mtore common form. i da wi. See idami and its de rivatives. i d6, v. t.; to say; to speak. i de kla, v. t.; to talk excessive ly, to say too much; to be ga,r I ulous or too communicative. i de ta, n.,Jfr. i, mouth, and deta; the lips, more properly the mu cous surface of the lips. —ideta aku-akoka, upper lip. ideta-aku iniktakoa, lower lip. See aputi. i di, n.; blood. V di, n.; penis. i di a lii, v. i.; to sigh. i di ( or idiets, v. t., 3d pers.; he3 thin ks, believes, or su pposes. dadiets, or hadlets, you think. madiets, or badiets, I think. idt i di hu v. conmp.,fr. idi and hu; to bleed. i dii psa ki, n.,fr. ipsaki; a breech cloth. i di Lka iia, n.,? fr. idiki; popli teal space. i di k, di Lia, n., fr. idiki; a garter, or string for securing the legging. i aidi ki, n.; the leg; the entire lower extremity. -- iadiki, my leg. i di Li fi ti, n.,fr. idiki and uti; head of femur. i di ki k i ti o ki, n., fr. idikiuti and oki; acetabulum. I di ko a-ma tu", said of a wouman'ls jealousy. i di paf du i, v. i.,fr. idipi and adiii; fittteliing. i di pi, v. adj; fat, fleshy. i di pi ke, v. t.; to make fat; fattened. i di pi ksa, adj.; obese. i di Ai, dimi; his or her son; their sou. i di tsi, a(7j., V. i.; to have a scent or smell, agreeable o r disa greea -. ble. i S i d tsi i a, v. t., fr. iditsi and iaia; to smnell disa,greeablv, to stink. i di tsi i siai ke, v. t.; to cause to smell badly; chang ed from an agreeable t o a disagreeable odor. The intensive form is more com monly used. i di tsi ke, v. t.; to supply with an odor, to cause to smell. i di tsi tsf.i ki, v. i., fr. iditsi and tsaki; smelling sweetly, sweet seent ertd. i di tsi tsa ki lke, v. t.; to cause to- smell sweetly, to put scenlt upou, to remuove a disagreea~ble II I i 154

Page  155 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. illio i hl4 ko a, adv.,.fr. iha; in an other,iirection or place. i ha' ta ha, v.; take care, get out of the way, make room. i h(h, interj.; there now! what do you thlink of that I i hi $a dsi ke, n.,fr. hisadsike; material to dye reddish. i hi i keL, n.,fr. hlsike; red dye stuff. i lia, n.,?fr. lia, rough, etc.; dust, solid dirt; the dirt on a floor or dish, but liot soils onl clothing. i lia tsa ki, adj.,fr. ilia; to be covered with dirt, (lirty. i lia tsa ki ke, v. t.; to cover with dirt; to throw dirt on. i lii, n.; the forehead. i lii, n.; braided hair; woven fab ric. See maaiilii. i lii,.; the omentum, the crop of a fowl. This word and the onie immediately preceding are per haps. but different applications of one term. i lio, n., fr. hypoth. word lio; a body; his or her body; their bodies.-malio, my body. dilio, your body. i li6 a de, v. i., comp. ft. ilio and ade; to be sick, to have general disea,e.-mali6adets, I am sick. i lio ra, it.; a fox. i lio ka da ka, n.,fr. ihoka and daka,; a tox-cub. i lio ka ic ke, n., fr. ihoka and icke; the Fox Band, a secret degree or order among the men of this tribe. i lio ka i ti pe, n., fr. ilioka and itipe; a little fall-tral) such a,s boys make for catchling foxes. i" lio ka mni a 1C ke, n.,fr. iho ka, mia, and icke; the Fox-wo. gman Band, a secret degree or id6 odor; sweetly scented. See kii ditsitsakike, which is the more commoni form. i d6 pa [+ -nopa], ord. nuinm.,fr. dopa; second. i d6 pa du [in6paru], adv.; secondly, in the second place. i d6 pa du ke, v. t.; to put in the second place or order. i d6 pa ke, v. t.,fr. idopa; to ~ place second, to make second. i dui, n.; a woman's elder sister; her or their elder sister. See madu and didu. i dut hi, v. reflex.,fr. duhi; to lift one's self up, to stand up; to arise from sitting, but not from lying.-diduh,, lift thyself, i.e., arise! i du lia, n.; meat of any kind, particularly dried meat. i du ksI ti, n.; fresh meat; flesh. i du kst ti i ini di ti, n.; fry ing-pan. See imiditi. i du p" pi, n.,fr. dupupi; elas tic band or web. i dfi ti, n., fr. duti, to bind; any thing used to bind, especially a bridle, or a raw-hide or rope tied around a. horse's jaw as a,t bridle. See uetsa iduti. ~ i dfi tsi, n.,fr. dutsi; an instru ment for taking up or lifting, as a fork. i ha, v. i., adj.; to differ, to be dif ferent; other, of another kiind-]. i hia di, v. t.; to set out food, to l)ut a feast before a guest; lately al)plied to setting a table. i h.' du, adv.,fr. ihat; in another place. i ha ke, v. t.,fr. iha; to cause to b~e different, to change, to alter;~ cha~nged. il 155

Page  156 HIDATSA DICTIONARY iki i ka Li, n.,fr. kaki; a wheel; a rollinig vehicle. i kia ti pe, n.,fr. katipe; a but ton. See maIikatipe, whicll is more conmmonly used. i ka tsui ti, v. reflex.; to scarify one's self; to cut the flesh in mourning. Scarifying the flesh is a common method of showing sorrow for the dead. lii, n.; a whip. il ki, n.; beard. i hi da ka pu Ai, n., fr. kidaka. ilusi; something used to inflate, or fill out. See madaahapi —iki dak'al)ugi. i ki da ku di, n., fr. kidaku(di; a ftiin. inaikidakudi is the more conmmon form. i ki da ts6 pe, i', mouth, ancld ki(latsope; a kiss. i ki da ts6 Pe, V. t., comlp.; to kiss the mouth, to kiss.-imaki datsope, I kiss. idatkidatsop)e y,yu kiss. i ki du tia ta, n.; an opeln space in a solid coverilg, as the foita nels of a1i inifanut head. This word and the word midiikiduta ta (which see) are apparently from a verb''? kid utata 11, which, however, I have never heard ex cept in these words. i ki ki Aki, i., fr. kikiaki; an in strument for measuring or deter mining any quality. i ki pa ml di [ikipawidi], v. reflex.,fr. kipamiidi; to turn one's self around, to look behind. i ki pa ta Li, i., fr. kipataki; a bolt or bar for a door; accent also onl p~enult,. i ki pa t6' ti, V. reftex.,fr. kipa. tolti; to shake oites selu; said of a bird shaking its plumnag%7 of ifio order among the females; its members are usually iromi fifteen to twenty years ol(l. i lio ka ta ki, n.; Artemizisia ludoviciana, or smnall " salge " of the northern plains. i lio La ta ki-a ku Si pi;a, n.; lit. blac7c sage; Artemiiia bi ennits. i lio ki, n.,fr. lioki; an oar. i lio ta kLit du i, v. i., f. iliota ki; bleachling, becoming white. i lio ta kf; dsi, v. i., adj.; whlit ish, havring a white apl)ear,-m(ce. i lio ta lki, adj., v.; white; to be white. i li6 ta ki de, adj.; almost wlhite. i li6 ta ki he, v. i. and t.; to whiten; to bleach. i li6 taki ke v. t.; to cause to be whlite, to bleach, to wash white, to- change from dark to white. i liu a lia, in., fr. liuhlia; the knee or knees; his or her knee or knees.-maliualia, my linee. dilifalia, your knee. ii ti pe, n., fr. i', moutl, and iti pe; a, lid, the lid of a pot or ket tle. i i psa ki, n.,fr. ipsaki; a screen; a (-covering. i ka, n.; the chin. i Lka', n.; mother; my mother; a mother's sisters. -ika. is the common form of address. i L;ai, n., fr. ka; his, her, or their daughter.-malik, my daughter. nik'd, your daughter, i ka, v. t.; to see; he or she sees. diiaka, I see. ddaka, you see. i La lii, v. t., reflex.; to lean Lagainst. ika 1ka, v. t.; red. of ikal; look, behold.! 156

Page  157 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ipa i ma lipi de, v., adv.; almost setting; near the time of setting. i ma lipi du [iwi'ipiru], adv.; at the time of setting. i ma lipi duk [iwalipiruk], adv. of future time; when it will set. i mii lipi ~e du, adv. of past time; when it did set, at last time of setting. i mak i [ivaki], n.,?fr. maki; the chest, the sternal region. .makd i e ke, n.,fr. i and maki; gaiming ilaterials; cards. i mak i du, a contraction of ima kihidu, and more commonly used than the latter. i mak i hi"l du, n., fr. im aki and hidu; the breastbone, the ster ntU,. i mak i ka ti- pe, n., fr. imaki, the chest, and ikatipe, or fr. i, maki, and katipe; buttons which join a garment in front. i mak si di, n., lit. tawuny breast; the wester n meadow-lark, Stur nella neglects. i ma Ai, n.; I)riee, value. i mi a [iwia], v. i.; to weep; to cr.vy -and weep). I mi a lie, v. t.; to cause to cry. 1 mi di pi ke, n.,fr. midipi; a Slpo!ge. mi di tit n.,fr. miditi; a fry in-})an. i o pe, n. fr. ope; a receptacle, a box. i 6 ki, n.,fr. oki; a receptacle which closely surrounds or encir cles, as a candlestick, a socket. i 6 ptsa ti, n., f-. optsati; nearly synonymous with ioki. See sa kioptsati. i pa lka dle, n, fr. i and p~akade; a fork. iki an animal drying itself by shak ilT-; also ikipato'ti. i ki pi, n.; a pipe. i ki pi hu pa, n.; a pipe-si em. i ki pkli ti, n., fr. kipkiti; a sad iron. i ki 4i, n.; a nest, a bird's ntest. i lii tsa ti ke, n:.,fr. kitsatike; polish, varnish, etc. i ko ki, v. t.; to hang up on a l'eg or nail. i lt6r pa, n., fr. ko'pa; her friend or comrade. —mak6'pa, my friend. i ko zi, n.,fr. kozi; a whistle. i' ko zi, v. i., fr. i' and kozi; to whistle with the mouth. -ksi a, v. i.; stuck or stranded, as a vessel. i k.s.i ki v.; to dash or splash; to d.ash on. i ktsfi ti, v. t.,?fr. kitsati; tobe laubil; to apply any soft sut) statnce, as mud or molasses. i kl, n.; agrandmother; a grand tmiotler's sisters. i ki p.a, v. t.; to accomipany, to go with. i kl pa, adv.; with, along with. ifu' pa, v. t.; to hate; he hlates. amaku'l)a, I hate. adaku'pa, you hate. i klu' pa dsi, v. t.,fr. ikfi'pa and adsi; to dislike very much. i ki ti, n.; the wrist; his or her wrist. i ku ti a du su ka, n., fr. ikuti and adusuka; t h e wrist, the wristjoint. i klu tski, n., fr. kutski; a meas- uring-stick; a pattern. See mai- kutski, which is more commonly usedl. I I ma lipi [iw(ilipi], v. i. and re I. odes.; to set; said of heafenly o bsodies. I 157

Page  158 HIDATSA DICT1IONARY. ipa i pa Aa ki, n., fr. i and pasaki; a belt; same as maipasaki. i pa ta ki, v. i.,fr. pataki; to come iII contact; to'lean against. i pa tsa' ti, n., fr. patsa'ti; a skewer or fork. i plio ki, n.; a species of eagle. i pi, v. t.; to cohabit. i pi ta, n.; behind, the rear, the b;ick part of anything. i pi ta du, adv.,fr. ipita; in the rear, in the back part; after, fol lowing. i pi ta la, adv.; toward the rear, ba ck ward. i pi ta ko a, adv.; at the rear, belxind. i pkli ti, v. t.; to smooth out; to slread smoothly; to co a t or cover smoothly, as in spreading 1)utter or mnortar. i p.a ki, v. t.; to conceal, screen, hlide from view. I ptsa, n.; an upright, a support ing-post or pillar. I ptse, v. t.; to garnish, to em broid(ler with b)eads. i s-, n.; tooth; teeth. i $a4 adv., suf. to verbs, etc.; alike, resembling; nearly resembling. isa, adv.; thus, in this manner. I /a, conj.; and, also. i s-i ki, n.,fr. saki; his or her ha-;nd. See Aaki.-magaki, my hand. disaki, your hand. ki a du tsa-mi he. See Sa-,kiadutsamihe. i sa ki Ic pu. See sakiicpu. i a mi [isfiwi], n.; an aunt; his or her aunt; a father's but not a mother's sisters.-masami, or masawi~, my annt. cdilami, or iiisawis, your aunt. i sp mi geo v.i.; said of yotung sprouts growing from a stump. i sa tsa, adv.; gratuitously, with out reward. I sa, same as isa; alike, resembling. I iS n.; a vessel, box, sack, cover, or receptacle of any kind. i Ai a, v., adj.; bad. i si a du i, v. i.,fr. isia and adui; deteriorating. i st a lie, v. t.; to make bad, to spoil. damage, ruin. i si a ke, damaged, ruiined. i si ta, n.; thle back; his or her back.-masita, myback. disita, your back. i i i si, n.; a brother-in-law, a, wolnan's husband's brother; his or her, mybrother-in-law. disiki.i, your brother-in-law. i si pi he, n.,fr. i, mouqt7,, and si pilie; Mouth Blackeners, an or der or degree among the Hidats. men. i i pi sa ke, n.,fr. sipisake; dye-stuff for coloring black. i ske', v. t.; to command or di rect.-amaske, I direct. i sp.i lii, n.,?fr. I)alii; the elbow; his or her elbow.-misp.alii, my elbow. dispa.lii, your elbow. i sta or 1 sla, n.; an eye; eyes. i sta da lipi, n., fr. ista and da lipi; the eyelids. i sta du i li6 ta ki, n., fr. ista, adu, and iliotaki; the white of the eye. i sta du si pi sa, n.,.fr. ista, adu, and gipiaa; tihe pupil. i ita dfi la, v., adj., prob. fr. iata and duti, to bind; squint-eyed. i 4ta lif!ii, v. i.; to wink. msta mi di [-bidi], n.,fr. ist,a and midi; t ears. i sta o ze, n., fr. ista and oze; a~n eye. water. 158

Page  159 HIDAiTSA DICTIONARY. I ta d6 ta ko a, adv., fr. dot,a koa; "at this side of it", at a point nearer than some given point whose name is the anteced ent of ita. i tai du [-ru], n.; a mother's bro ther, his or her mother's brother, uncles in the female line.-mat. - adu or mnatdrus, my uncle. dit-, du or nitdru, your uncle. I ta du lia, n.,fr. midulia; one's own gun or bow.-matad ulia, iasmy own gun. ditadulia, your own gun. i ta df Iia ke, n., fr. miduliake; one's own pol)-gun. i ta du li. pi, n.,fr. aduliapi; one's own bed.-mataduliapi, my own bed. i tai dsi, n.; leggings; his or her legginigs.- matadsi, my leggings. dita(dsi, your leggings. I tai dsi-6 da ka pi hii, n., fr. itadsi and odakapilii; the flap or fringe worn on the outer seam of the legging. i ta hai tski, 2.,fr. ita and hat ski, lit., Long Arrows; the Da kota In(ia,,ns. i ta i', n., fr. ita and hi'; an ar row-point. i ta' hu, n.; a mouse. i ta hu ic ti a, n., fr. itahu and ictia;,t rat. i tIt i A't, n., fr. it,4 and isu; the quills at the base of an arrow, arrow-directors. i tai lka, n.; an aged' man; a, venerable person. i tai ka lie or itaikaliie, n.,fr. ita-ka and lie; a very old man. i ta ka t6 tars prop. n., fr. itak.q, te, and t', lit., Old Man Immortal; one of the lidatsa names for a Deity. i;ta pC di, n.,,fr. ista and pedi; purulent or mucous matter ad hering to the eyelids. i sta4 pi, n.; eyelashes. I;u, n.; quills; primary feathers of wings of large birds, particu larly of eagles' wings. i'su a ti;i al n., fr. i~n and ati sia; a bat. 1,u sI sa, n.; a species of king bird, Tyrannus verticalis. i sfi ti, n.; the lap. i su t[ psa ki, n., fr. isuti and ipsaki; an apron. i ta, n.,fr. i and ta; an arrow, lit., an instrument of death. See maita. I ta or i ta, coinp. _pers. pro%,, 3d pers., sing. and plutr., possessive, and used for all genders; de notes principally acquired or transferable possession. ita (or its equivalents in the fi-;st and second person,-mat. and dita) is pre ixed to nouns, forming compounds which often differ so much from the original nouns in sense or sound that they are to be regarded as distinct words. A few examples tollow. ( 5 1[ 58 f)l1). i tai da mi a [itarawia], n.,fr. mia; a wife; a betrothed wife; a wi'e's sister. I ta d6 lipa, n.; the navel. I ta do lipa ka, n.,fr. ita and dolipaka; one's own people, re lations, kindred. I ta d6 ta du [-lotaru], n., adv.,fr. ita and dotati; this sid e of it; a place nearer than some given point; used also in com parison of adjectives to denote, a less degree, or inleriority. ([ 233). 159 iAt ita

Page  160 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ita i ta!Lii, n.,fr. i, hair, and taki,' white; t h e jackass rabbit, or Lepus canmpestris, which turns white in winter. i ta ki da ki: he, n., fr. kidaka he; a spani the outstretch of the hand, the measure of a s'pan. See Aakiitakidakahe. i ta ki'a, n.; a sister; a man's younger sister. — matakiga, my,, sister. nitakiaa your sister. i ta kli pi 4a, n.,fr. itaki and sipisa; the s m a ll rabbit, the "1 woo(I-rabbit 11, Lepus sylvatidus var. nuttalli. i tfi ku, n.; a woman's younger sister; her younger sister.-ma taliu, my sister. ditaku, your sister. i ta!;fi pe, n.; an owl, particu larly the great horned owl, Bubo virginitanus. ]' [#ma, n.,fr. ita and ama; one's own country, the proper hunt ing-ground of any tribe. i ta mii e, n.,Jfr. ita and ma,e; one's o w n property; his own property. —natamae, my own. ditamae, your own. (f[ 122). 1 ta ma pl;a, n.; grandchild; his or her grandchild. i ta mla;i, n.; a servant; used wlhen spe.aking of white men. 1 ta ma;f ka, n.; his dog. ita tma ta, adj., adv.,.fr. ite, ama, and ta; face downward; with the face to the ground. it a m6, tsa [-wetsa], n.,?fr. imatse; a brother; brethren (in the widest sense); thlis is also the only term for a woman's elder brother.-matametsa, my brother. i ta mni a [-w~ia], n., ft. ita and mia; a mlan's elder sister. -ma it~ tamia, my sister. ditamia, your sister. i ta 6 l;a du, adv.,fr. ita and okadu; the other side of it, on the other side of it, in a place further off than some object men tioned. This word and the next following are commonly used in comparison of qualities to de-; note supl)eriority,-the anteced ent of ita being the inferior. (IT233). iI ta 6 lka ko a, adv., fr. ita and okakoa; at the other side of it, beyond some object mentioned. ita 6 ki ko a, a rare pronunci ation of the word immediately preceding. I ta pa, n.,fr. ita and hupa; moc casons; his or her moccasons. matapa-, my moccasons. i ta Ai, n., fr. itt and masi; his or her own robe or blanket. —mata Ai, my robe. i ta Ai i ptsi, n., fr. itasi and iptsi (see ma4iiptsi); the gar nishing of bisor her robe. i ta su, n., contraction of itaisu. i tfi u slia, n., fr. ita and itsua suka or suka; one's own horse. mat.isuka, my horse. i ta;u pu zi, n., fr. itasu and puzi, lit., Spotted Ar)row-quills; the Cheyenlne I(lians. i tia tsu, n.,fr. ita and tsu; the lhalf'of anything. i ta tsu he, v.t.,fr. itfitsu; to divide into its halves; also used as a noun or adjective, signifying half or halved. I ta wg tsa, n., same as itametsa. i ta wi a, n., same as itamia. i t6, v. t.; to admire; to be fond of.-amatets, I admire. adatets, you admire. 160

Page  161 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ite i te or ite, n.; the face. i te a ka ta, adv.,same as ita kata. ite i ma ta, adv., same as ita mata. i te lia, adv.,fr. ite; toward the face or front, forward. i te i;i a, v. i., adj.,fr. ite and iaia; to be ill-favored; ugly. i te ko a, adv.,fr. ite; at or to the front or face, in front. i te ko a hi, adv. of time,fr. ite koa; soon, presently, at a future time not very distant. i te Lo a hi duli, adv. of time, fr. itekoahi; soon, in a little while; when, or if, a future time not very distant arrives. i te ma tse e" tsis, n. See Lo cal Names. i te ta, adv. and n.; on the face; the cheek. i te ta a du ho pi, n.; a dim ple. i te tsa ki, v. i., adj.,fr. ite and tsaki; possessed of a handsome face, pretty. i te fi i, n., fr. ite and ni; vermil ion or other pigmenit used in painting the face. i ti pe, n.,fr. i and tipe; some thing which closes or covers, as a lid, a fall-trap, etc. See mai tipe. i t6 di, v. i.,?reflex.; to be ashamed of. to feel shame. i to di ke, v. t.; to cause to be ashamed, to shame. i t6 hi lie, n.,fr. tohike; dye stuff for coloring blue. i t6 hi si ke, n.,fr. tohisike; material for dyeing bluish or green. i to pa, ord. htum., fr. t o paJ fourth. its i t6 pa du, adv.,fr. itopa; fourth ly, in the fourth place or or der. i t6 pa du ke, v. t., fr. itopadu; to put in the fourth place or or der. f tsa Lki, v. comp., often used as prono.un, ft. i and tsaki; he, she, or it alone; he by himself, un aided.-mitsaki, I alone. ditsa ki, you alone. i tsai ti, n., fr. i and tsati; oil or other material used to render a surface smooth. i tsf' ti, n.; the Isanti or Santee Dakotas. This word is simply the Hidatsa pronunciation of the Dakota word. i tsa 6 zi e, v. t.,fr. uzie; to meet another person face to face, to meet in coming from opposite direction s. i ts6, v.,? reflex.; to waken up, to arouse one's self. i tsi. See itsfl. i tsi, v. i.; to be awake. tsi, n.; the human foot; the claws of a fowl; the hind paws of a quadruped.-matsi, my foot. ditsi,yourfoot. itsi, his foot. See tsi. t tsi a du tsa mi he [-wihe], n.; the toes. i tsic pu, n., fr. itsi and icpu; the toe nails. i tsi di kLe, n.,fr. i and tsidike; yellow dye-stuff, a lichen found by the Indians on dead pine-trees in the mountains. The name has been recently applied to turme ric and other yellow dyes ob tained from the whites. g tsi he, v. t., fr. itsi; to arouse another per son. i Its/i, v. i. and adj.. to be strong; 11 161

Page  162 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kad brother. ditsuka, or nitsuka, your brother. i tsu a su ka. See itsuasuka, which is sometimes pronounced thus. i tu di, v. i., adj.; containing pas, purulent, suppurating. i tfi ii, n.; a dress, coat, or shirt; one's own dress. - matulii, my coat. dituii, your coat. i tfI ka, same as itekoa. i tu pa, n.; any wild feline, par ticularly the Canada lynx, Lynn canaden.sis. i tu pa ic ti a, n.,fr. itupa and ictia; the puma, Felis concolor. i tu pa pu zi, n.,fr. itupa and puzi; the red lynx, Lynx rufus. wa ki, same as imaki. physically strong; said of organ ized beings. i tsi i ke, v. t.; to strengthen; strengthened. i tsi ka, adv. and adj.; first, fore-. most. i tsi ka ko a, adv.,fr. itsika; formerly, in the beginning, very long ago; used in reference to very remote past time. i tsi ka ma hi die, n., fr. itsi ka, ma, and hbdi; one of the Hi datsa names for their Deity, or object of greatest veneration. I tsi $i pi 4a, n., fr. itsi and Ai pisa; the Blackfoot Indians. i tsi ti, n., fr. itsi; a foot-prin t, a track; his, her, or its foot-print. i tsi tsa du i, v. i.,fr. itsitsi; be coming very bright. i tst tsi, v. i., adj.; very bright, gleaming, resplendent. i tsi tsi ke, v. t.; to cause to brighten; made bright. i tski, v. i.; to be large enough for a purpose, to contain, to ac commodate; said if it is desired to cut a pair of moccasins out of a piece of buckskin, and, on lay ing on the pattern, the piece is found to be large enough, etc. itskitats, it is not large enough. i tski ti, n.,fr. i and tskiti; an instrument for shearing off, or cutting close, as a scissors. See maitskiti. i tsfi a Si' ka, n.,fr. suka; a horse. The meaning of the first three syllables is not now known. Some of the tribe think that the word was originally itsimasuka, the' strong dog' or' strong beast of burden'. i tsii ka, n.; a man's or woman's younger brother. —matsuka, m~y ka, prep.; at; in; suffixed to nouns, it forms adverbs of place. fka, hypothetical word for daugh ter. See ikd. ka, an adjective, or qualifying suffix, denoting quantity.-tua ka, how much? hidika (or hidi kats), this much, so much. ka, 2d pers. of ke, an auxiliary suffix; to make; to cause. kIa', v. i.; to laugh. ka da, v. i.; to flee from, to run away. ka da iia, v. t.,prob. fr. ki and adlalia; to kindle. k.a da mi [-wi], v. t.; to remem ber, to recollect. ka. da ml ke, v. t.; to cause to rememberll, to rem ind. ka da.1 tsi, v. i.; to be willing. ka da tsi ke, v. t.; to cause to be willing, to persuade or induce. 162 Its k.

Page  163 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kad ka d6, [kar], v.; to vomit. ka de ti, v. i.; to have a desire to vomit, to ifeel nausea. ka de ksa, to vomit excessively or continuously. Lai di, v. t.; to ask for a gift, to beg. Ika dic ka [-ri c-], n.; light ning. ka di kia, v. t.,rt. kadi; to beg excessively, habitually, shame lessly. Ika di Eta [-ri-], adj.; small; refirs to size, not qu an tity or number. ka di 4tfa du i, v. i.,fr. kadit ta; decreasing gradually in size. ka di 4ta de, adj.; almost small; almost small enough. ka di Lta di, adj.; very small. La dei ta ke, v. t.; to cause to be small; decreas ed, diminished. ka di dta ksa, adj.; constantly small. ka d i tska [-ri-], adj.; to glisten, to shin e br ightl y by reflected light. ka di tska pa [-ri-], v. i.; to stick; to adhere, as a glued or pasted surface. ka di tska pa he, v. t.; to stick, to place in contact with an adhesive surface. ka di tska pa ke, v. t.; to cause to adhere, to apply an ad hesive substance. kfL dse, v. i. and t.; to blow with the mouth; to blow away. ka dfi, n.; a season of the year, a period of time marked by some natural phenomenon. ka dfl du, adv.; during the sea son. ]kf du lie, n.; all old woman. tie is an adjective signifying old, kar and kadu is, I doubt not, the original noun; but I have never heard it without the adjective suffixed. See itaka and itakalie. ka en, v. t.; to scratch with the nails. kti he, v. t.; synon. dakihe. lka he, v. t.; to set free, to liber ate. lta' ke, v. t.,fr. ka'; to cause to laugh. - ka'ike, it makes him laugh. ka ke' ki, v. i.; to make a loud rattling or stamping noise. kfi kLi, v. i.; to roll, as a wheel. ka ki Iii, adj.; round, circular. ka ki lii de, adj.; almost circu lar; irregularly circular. ka kLI ii ke, v. t.; to make cir cular; to cause to be circular. kit kTa, n.; any large tuber, as the potato, wild artichoke, etc. kIs' ksa, v. i.,fr. ka'; to laugh excessively. ka kfi i, n.; a squash. kta mi [-wi], same as komi, which is mnore common. ka mic La, adj.; tough, hard, and elastic. ka mic ki Au, adj.,fr. kamicka and isu; the name of a water fowl, which sheds its quills on lakes. The quills are collected by the Indians on the leeward shores, split, dyed, and used in embroidery like porcupine quills. The name applies to both bird and quills. kfi mi he, same as komihe. lkea pe, or kapi, verbal root; scratch, lacerate. See adakapi, dukpi, e tc. lkfi ptsi, verbalroot; nick, notch. !~a rat, same as kada. Ika r.~ tsi~ same as kada.tsi, 163

Page  164 HIIDATSA DICTIONARY. kar ka ri sta. See kadiata and its derivatives. k.i ta ke, v. t.; to turn inside out; to roll up the sleeves. ka' ti, adj. and adv.; true, real; truly, really; exceedingly. ka ti a, adj.; extended, as the arms in yawning, as the bands outspread. ka ti he, v. t.; to extend, to stretch out. ka ti ke, v. t.; to change, or pour, from one vessel to another. katika. ka. tsi, v.; to make a buffalo-sur round. ka. tsi, v. i., adj.; to be extin guished, as a light or a fire; t o beticooled by being blown on with the mouth, or by bei ng taken f rom the fire and set aside to cool. ka tsi he i, v. i., 3d pers.; to cool by blowing, etc.; to extinguis h a light or a fire. -katsi eats, I extinguish. ka atsidats k you ex tinguish. ka tsf ka, adj.; to be swollen and hardened, as a diseased joint, or a cicatrix on a tree. ka ft;ta, adj.; small in quantity or number. sa ifi ta —ali" pi, it., adj., fr. kauata and alipi; a small part or portion; fractional. ka fit ta de, adj.; almost too few. ka fit ta di, adj.; very few; a very small quantity. ka fit ta du i, v. i.; decreasing in number or quantity. ka fi sta ke, v. t.; to cause to decrease in number or quanltity; reduced in numbers. lka wic ka, adj., same as kamic kia ka, and a more common pronun ciation than the latter. ka wic ki;u, n., same as kamic kigu. ka za, a diminutive of limited use applied to a b o u t twenty words of the language. kIt zi, same as kaza. ke, v. t.; to give away, to present. ke, v. t.; to scratch, as in reliev ing an itchy sensation; synol. with kae, of which it may be a contraction. ke, a suffix to verbs, adjectives, etc., or a v e r b auxiliary; to make, to cause; to change con dition; to use as. Where ke is suffixed, ki is commonly prefixed. In the sense of " to use as", it is added to nouns; and the words thus formed m ay be used as nouns; as, makadistake, a doll, from makadiata, a child; midu liake, a pop-gun, from midulia, a gun. ki, v. t.; to bear on the back; to carry a heavy load. ki, an intensifying prefix to verbs denoting that the action is done forcibly, completely, frequently, under circumstances ofdifficulty, etc. ki often merely strength ens without altering the mean ing-the intensified word requir ing no separate definition; but in other cases it totally changes the significance. ki, an interjection, u s e d when something false or absurd is heard. ki a a ti, v. t., fr. aati; to hit severely with a missile. ki a da du i, v. i.,fr. adadui; becoming rapidly and exceed ingly painful. 164

Page  165 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ki, i ki a da lia, v. i., fr. adalia; to be burned up, consumed by fire. ki a da lia ke, v. t.; to cause to b e consumed by fir e; to burn up, to reduce to ashes. ki a da lii pe, v. t., fr. adaita pe; to kick severely. ki a da li6 lie, v. t.,fr. adalielie; to hold securely. ki a da lik Pe, v. t.,fr. adaieae; to t ear to pieces with t he f oot. ki a dt si nii, intensive forw of adaliolii. ki a da lipi k-e, synon. with adal.ipike. ki a da kliI e, v. t., fr. adaliu; to overthrow completely, or by kicking violently. ki a da ki pe, v. t., fr. adaka. pe; to scratch vig orous ly with the paws; said w h e n an animal tears up the ground by scratch ing, ki a da 1i de, q. t., ft. dakide; to plush coipletely way with the foo;. Iki a da ki ti, v. i., fr. adakiti; said of a wide str etch of coun try, that has been thoroughly cleared by fire. ki a da mi di, v. t., iaatensive of adamidi. ki a da pa pi du i, v. i.,fr. adapal)i; becomling rapidly and extensively scorched. ki a da pak pi, intensive of adla papi. ki a dh pa4 pi ke, v. t.; to cause to be extensively scorched or chapped. ki 2 da pe, v. t.,fr. adape; to kick angrily or repeateclly. Iki a da ~(! ki, v. t.,'J?. adasukii; to complet-ely erase with the foot. kil ki a dh to4 pi, v. t., fr. adatapi; to squeeze severely under foot. ki a da te, v. i., intensivre form of adate. ki a da t6 he, v. t.,fr. adatehe; to kill a number by trampling, to kill a brood of young birds by accidentally stepping on them, to trample a number of insects to death. ki a da t6' ti, v. t., fr. adat6'ti; to shake vigorously or entirely with the foot. ki a da tsi. ki, v. t., ftr. adatsa. ki; to divide a thick body rap idly by fire. oki a da tska pi, v. i., intensive forme of adatskapi. ki a da tsku a du i, vr. i.,fr. adlatskuadui; becoming wet throughout. ki a da tsku i, v. i., f r. ada tskui; entirely wet, etc. ki a da tsku i ke, v. t.; to moisten thoroughly or rapidly. ki a deti,.fr. ade; to pain ex ceedinglv. ki a d6 a du i, v. i.; becoming very sultry. ki a d6 he, v. t.; to be very an gry; to become suddenly very angry. kii a d, kIe, v. t.; to make ex ceedingly painful, etc. ki a de tsi, adj.; to be possessed of admirable qualities, to be brave, skilful, intelligent, inge nious, enduring, etc.; to be skilled in any particular art or calling. ki a de tsi ke, v. t.; to cause to be brave, enduring, or skilful; to instruct thoroughlly in an y art. ki h dia sa dsi tze, v. t.,fr. adi 165

Page  166 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kin aaadsike; to impoverish greatly, to render destitute. ki a di i t du i, v. t.,fr. adiiti; becoming ravenously hungry. ki a di i ti, v., intensive of adiiti. ki a di i {i ke, v. t.; to starve, to deprive of food. ki a dOu a dii i, v. i., fr. aduadui; becoming entirely or excessively bitter. ki a du i, v. i., fr. adui; entirely bitter. ki Ai du i ke, v. t.; to render completely or exceedingly bitter or pungent. ki a hfi le, v. t., fr. ahuke; to multiply rapidly, to increase largely and rapidly; to increase every one of a -number of ob. jects. ki a li6 e, v. t.,fr. alioe; to con ceal carefully or completely; to conceal all. ki a k.4 Bipi, v. t.,fr. akalipi; to s t e p completely over a wide space; to cross a chasm success fully but with difficulty. Iki a lkt ma he, v. t., intensive form of akamahe. ki a ka ma he ke, v. t.; to di vide completely into six equal parts. ki a kf ma ke, divided into six equal parts. ki a ka pe, v. t.,fr. akape; to court assiduously. ki ak' de, v. t.,fr. akde; to seize and bear off; to carry to a dis tance; to carry the entire of any thing away. ki ak/ hu, v. t.,fr. akhu; to bring with difficulty,y or from a dis tance; to bring all. saidi ki ka he, v. t.w,fr. akikahe; said when something is captured kia and brought from a distance; as when a war-party brings home a prize in haste and danger, but in triumph. ki a4 ki tsa, v. t., fr. akitsa; to miss widely; to miss at every trial. ki i ak' si e, v. t.,fr. alksie; to hold firmly. ki ak' su e, v. t.,fr. aksue; to spit on repeatedly. ki ak' tsi se, v. t.,fr. aktsis&; to look 1 o n g or scrultinizingly through a door or window. ki a ma h6 ka, v. i.,fr. amaho ka; to be far within; deep un der ground. ki a ina h6 ka ke, v. t.; to place far within; to put all in. ki ama ki, v. i.; to remain sit ting long or steadily. ki a ma Lii ke, v. t., fr. ama kike. ki a nlita tsa ki, v. i., intensive form of am atsaki. ki a nma tsa ki ke, v. t.; to soil entirely with earth; to soil all of a number of objects with earth. ki ai pai di, v. i.,fr. a,padi; to grow vigorously. ki a pa di ke., v. t.; to cause to grow vigorously; to cause all to grow. kLi a pi ke, v. t.,fr. apike; to place together closely or contin uously. ki. tfi di, v. i., fr. atadi; to go out and remain out; said. too, when a number of individuals go out from a house. wi i a t~1 di Le, v. t.; to cause to go out, etc. Iii a t.~ ki lee, v. t., ft. at.~kike, to render completely white. I 166

Page  167 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kia ki a tfi zi ko a, v. i., intentsive of atazikoa. Jki a t6, v. i., fr. ate; to come into full view; to come suddenly into full view. ki a t6 he, v. t.; to present im mediately to full view. ki a te he ke, v. t.; to cause to appear entirely; to exhibit all of a number of objects. ki a tska, intenseivef)rmn of atskS. ki a tska du i, v. i., fr. atsk' dui; becomingrapidly very fierce. ki A tska ke, v.t.; to persist ently aggravate to fierceness. ki da, n.; a husband. ki da he, v. t.,fr. kida and he; to marry; said of the woman, if the marriage is informal or against parental consent. ki da h6, v., same as kiduhe, which is more common. ki da he kai' ti ke, v. t., inten siveform of daheka'tike. ki da lia pe 4i, v. i., fr. daliape si; to rise perpendicularly to a great height; to extend perpen dicularly to a great length. ki da lia pe si ke, v. t.; to cause to be rprpendicular to a great height or length. ki da lia pi, v. t., ft. daliapi; to peel entirely, to strip a tree bare. ki da lic;i, v. i.,fr. daliesi; torn to shreds with teeth. ki da liC $i ke, v. t.; to cause to be torn to shreds with teeth. ki da lii;e, v. t., prob fr. ki and adaliiie; to forget. —makidqlii sets, I forget. dakidSaiigets, you forget. kidaliisets, it is forgot ten. ki da lii pi, v. i., iyntensive forrn of daliipi. kid' ki da lipa,v. t.,fr. dalipa; to embrace, to hug. ki da lifi e, v. t.,fr. daliue; to spill or overset completely and forcibly. ki da liu pi, v. t., fr. daliupi; to drink or absorb a large amount completely and rapidly. ki da k-a he, v. t.,fr. dakahe; to stretch completely out. Iki da kfi hi si, v. t., fr. dakahi. Ai; to carry in the a rms; to hold long in the arms. ki dak a li6 ii, v. t.,fr. daka liolii; to break completely across with a blow; to break some thing large, or to break a num ber of objects across with a blow. ki dak a ki ti, v. t., ft. dakaki ti; to scrape the hair entirely away. ki dak a pni di, v. t., ft. daka. midi; to turn complete ly by force; to twill tightly by sudden force. ki dik a mi di ke, yv. t.; to cause to turn completely by sud den force. ki dhk a ml tsi, v. t., fr. daka mitsi; to mince completely, to chop fine all that is given to be chopped. ki daik a pa ki, v. i.,fr. daka ) pa. ki; l; tobloofull; toexpand numerous blossoms. ki da k.4 pe, v. t., intensivefornm of dakape. kIi da kti pi, v. t.; to pick out, to cull, to separate; to pick grain from chaff, stones from coftee, etc. ki da lka pi'!ii, v.,fr. dakapilii; to float well or continuously. ki da ka pl lii ke, v. t.; to 167

Page  168 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kid ti; to impale securely or fre quently. iki dak tsi, v. i.?fr. daktsia; to settle as water; also kidak tsio. pki dak tsi a dii i, v. i.; increas ing rapidly and greatlyin weight. ki dak tsi a ke, v. t., intensive Jorm of daktsiake. ki dak tsi ke, v.,fr. daktsike; to continue, remain, or follow one another, in single file; said of the motion of t flock of wild geese, or of a band of antelope running after their leader. ki dak tsfli ti, v. t., fr. d,ktsuti; to braid completely. ki dak ii di, v. t., fr. dckudi; to fan; a form more commonly em ployed than dakudi. ]ii dii uf dsi, v. t.,.fr. dakudsi; to swing vigorously or continu ously. ki dak -i dsi ke, v. t.; to cause to oscillate continuously. ki dak fi liti, i?tensive form of clakulit,i. ki dak u tliti lee, v. t.; to de crease greatly or rapidly in weiglht. ki da mni h6 ke [+ kinawi heke], v. t.,fr. damiheke; to (livi(le completely into three equal parts; divided equally in three. ki dai mi ke, same as kidami heke. ki da mi tsi, v. t., intensiveformr of damitsi. ki da mo ki, v. i.; to ebb away, to sink down to fall as a river. ki da mu ke [ki na wuke]e v.,fr. damulke; to ('eepen great l~y~ rapidly, or throughout. ki d~t pe, v. t., fr. dape; ro de kid cause to float continuously; to cause all to float. ki da ka. ptsi, v. i.,fr. dak aptsi; covered wi th ni cks or tallies. ki da ka pti Ai, v. t.,.fr. daka pusi; greatly inflated; perma nently inflated. ki daka pfi si ke, v..; to in flate ex tensively or permanently. ki dak' a ta, v. t., fr. daka ta; to smash completely; to sm ash and resmash. ki dak a tp!ii v. i., intens ive form of dakatalii. ki da-ka ti, n.,fr. kidla and ka'ti; a first husbandl. ki dak a t6' ti, v. t.,fr. dak a, to'ti; to shake repeatedly or con tinuously with -fore suddenly applied. ki dhk a wi di, sam)te as kidS ka midi. ki dak a wi tsi, sane as kida kamitsi. ki da ki ti, v. i., fr. dakiti and nearly synonymous with it, but more commonly used. ki dak k. ki, v. t., fr. d~k,.aki; to wound repeatedly or severelv by throwing missiles. ki -dhk' 4i, v. t.; to bundle se curtely or completely. ki dhk si pi, v. i., intensive form of dAki-ipi. ki pi ke, v. t.; to cause to be much later. ki dak tat de, v. t., fr. drktade; to drive hard; to nail securely or completely. ki dhk tsai da Ike, v. t.; synon. with daktsadake. ki dhk tsa~ ki, v. t.,fr. d~kts~a k;; to chop all up; to chop into numerous pieces. 1i dak tsa li, v. t., fr. daktsa 168

Page  169 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kid' vours btrg oe ma ki da' ta ts6 ki ke, v. t.; to with tetethandvor r ender very resolute; to inspire all with resolution. kofdapsuti. L~ki da t1' ti, v. t., fr. dato'ti; to ~~Li'.t,fr a oct skake vigorously in the mouth; to worry to death by shaki ng in the mouth. L ki da tsa, v. t., fr. datsa; to bite severely or repeatedly ki da tsa ti, v. t.,fr. datsati, and nearly or quite synonymous. ki da tsi pi, v. t.,fr. datsipi; to lick repeatedly and continuous ly; to lick all over. ki da tska pi, r. t., intensive of datskapi. ki da tska ti, v. t., fr. datskati; to leak through a large orifice; to leak rapidly or entirely away. ki da ts6 pe, v., fr. datsope; to kiss.-[-akidatsope, I kiss. da kidatsope, you kiss. See ikida tsope. ki da tsu ki, v. t., intersive form of datsuki. k-i ('a w6 ki, sam)e as kidamoki. ki (le, verbal root; push; trans fix, impale. ki d(6, v. i., 9fr. (le; to fly. . Ii d(, ak de, v. t., comp. of kide atd akde; tofly off with; to bear off flying, as an eagle with its prey. ki d6 e, v. i., same as kide; to fly. ki d(6 a, v. i., intensiveformn of clesa. Li dfe af dsi, v. t., fr. kidesi and adsi; to like very much; to love, but not dearly. ki d(6 sa ke [kinesake], v. t., fr. desAake; to destroy, extermini nate, banish, annul, abrogate; to cure a disease completely, etc. kLi d( si, v. t.; to love; said of the affection existing between kid .our by te aring, t ttear mea t with the teeth and devourit. ki da pcfi ti, v. t., intencsie form of daptktii. Li dai;a, v. t., fr. da ta; to cut extensively or severelv with the teeth. Iki da ti pi, V. t.,fr. dasipi; to untie completely with the tee th. ki dfa s~ku, v. t.,fr. dakua; to take o[t with the teeth some thing difficult to extract. k-i dai.te, v. t.,fr. daate; to com minute completely. ki da' ta d,6;a, v. i.,fr. da'ta dega; to be completely inconsid erate, etc. ki da' ta d;a $ke, v. t.; to cause to be inconsiderate, etc. L-i da' ta!i6 pi, v. i.,fr. da'ta liepi; to be thoroughly lazy, or always lazy. ki da' ta li46 pi ke, v. t.;to cause to be lazy. ki da' ta i;i a, v. i.,.fr. d-,i?tai,ia; to b)e miserable or despond ent; to be continually unhappy, sorry or ill-tempered; said too of a num ber of individluals who are unhappy. ki da'lta i*i fid tin, v. i.; be COming very unhappy, ilisera ble, etc. ki da' ta i ~i a ke, v. t.; to make constantly- unhappy, etc. ki da t-.1 pi, v. t., iinte~si~vefo), of dat.ap)i. ki d a' ta ts~a ki, v. i.,fr. dalta tsaki; to be very happy; con stantly happy. ki da' ita ts~a ki ki, v. t.;- to render very happy; to make all ha~ppy. form of da'tatsoki. 1691

Page  170 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kid ki du lift de, v. t.; to rake; to clean thoroughly by raking. ki du lil de, v. t., intensive form of duliade. ki du lie mi, v. i., to settle down, as a river; to dry up; to become shallow. ki du lic se, v. t.,fr. duliese; to tear to pieces. ki du lic wi, same as kiduliemi. ki du li6!ii, v.,fr. duliolii; to break, or to be broken complete ly across. ki du li6 hii ke, v. t.; to cause to be completely broken. ki du li6 ki, v. t.,fr. dulioki; to comb out, to comb completely or thoroughly. ki dfi lipi, V. t.,fr. dulipi; to take down something that is hanging high. ki du k.i pi, v. t., fr. dukapi; to lacerate extensively or severely. ki du ki ti, v. t., ii,tensive of du kiti. ki du kit ti, v. t.; pluck out ex tensively. ki duma lii ta, v. i., fr. duma liita; to ride or move repeatedly and rapidly back and forth. ki du mg lii ta-ti di e, v.; to run or ride back and forth, as is done when one man alone makes a war-signal. ki diu mi [+-wi], v. t.; to count. ki du mi di, v. t., fr. dumidi; to twill thoroughly. ki du mni lia [-wilia], intensive form of dumilia. ki du sa, v. t.,fr. dusa; to place in security, to store or put away with care. Iki du si pi, v. t.,fr. dusipi; to open widely or completely. kid parent and child, husband and wife. ki de ta, v. t.; to fancy, to ad mire. ki de ta dsi, v. t., to admire, but not greatly. ki di, v. t.,?fr. di; to search for any person or thing, to go for game, to pursue, to seek. kiki di is more commonly used. 1ki di e, v.; to mount a horse; to ride on horseback. ki di 6, v. i.; to be greatly terri fied. ki di ki, v. t., fr. diki; to strike repeatedly. ]ki di Ai, v. i., fr. disi; to dance. ki do pa he ke, v. t., fr. dopa heke; to divide completely into two equal parts; divided equally in two. ki d6 pa ke, v. t., synon. kido paheke. ki du c tsa pike, v. t., fr. due tsapike; to divide into nine equal parts. ki du hai, imperative of kiduhe; arise; said if the person is re cumbent, not sitting. See duha and duhe. ki du ha ku te, a., adv.,fr. ki duha; early mornidg, time to rise. :ki du ha ku te du, adv., fr. ki duihakute; during the early morning. ki du he, v. t.; to arise from a recumbent posture; to lift out of. ki dil hi, v. i.; arisen; standing. ki du hi ke, v. t.; to cause or assist to arise from a recumbent posture. ki du lia, v. t.; to spread out on the ground; to spread to dry; to spread bedding. 170

Page  171 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kih to wash thoroughly, to wash clean; to wash all that is given to be washed. ki du tski ti, v. t., intensive form of dutskiti. ki du tsku pi, v. t.,fr. dutsku pi; to bend in several places; to fold repeatedly. ki du tsufi ki, v. t.,fr. dutsuki; to knead the abdomen long and vigorously. ki du wa Iii ta, v. i., same as kidumaliita. ki du wi di, v. t., same as kidu midi. !ii e, v. t.; to fear. L-i ha h46 ta, v. t., intensive of ha. heta. Ibi ha lipi, v. i.,fr. halipi; to sneeze repeatedly. ki hai lipi Le, v. t.; to cause to sneeze hard or repeatedly. dIi ha ka' ti ke, v. t.,fr. haka' tike; to completely and sudden lyv, arrest progress. ki hfi ka tsi, v. t.,fr. hakatsi; to butcher completelv, to cut up all the meat killed. ki ha pla ke, v. t.,fr. hapake; to render very cold, or cold throughout; chilled, frozen. ki ha' p4 sa du i, v. i., intensive form of hlalpesadui. ki ha' pc 4e, v. i.,fr. ha'pese; cornpletely dark. thLi ha' pi 4e Le, v. t.; to com lyletely exclude lig ht. Iki ha -s 4i, v. i.,fr. haaisi; to smart severely. ki ha;i;i lke, v. t.; to cause to smart extensively or severely. ki ha tsi te, v. t., intensive formn of hatsite. kii ha tskai du i, v. i. fr. hatska duli increasing rapidly in length. kid ki dfiu ske, v. t.,fr. duske; to open a door or lidl widely. ki du sfi ki, v. t.,fr. duiaki; to wash entirely or thoroughly by rubbing. ki du tii, v.,fr. duta; to burst violently, to fly to pieces. ki du ta pi, v. t., fr. duta.pi; to squeeze long and hard. Iki du t.4 ti, v. t., intensive of dutati. ki dfi ti, v. t., ft. duti; to eat tip; to devour, to eat all; said also if you speak of eating an animal still living, conveying the i(lea that you will both kill and eat. ki du t6' ti, v. t.,fr. duto'ti; to cover by sprinkling; to exhaust by dre(l,ging or sprinkling. ki du tsaf da, v.,fr. dutsada; to slide far or rapidly. ki du tsa ki, v. t.,fr. dutsaki; to dissever completely and repeat edly. ki du tsat ti,fr. dutsati; to im pale securely. ki di tse, v. t.,fr. dutse; to take off under difficulties; to take and hold securely. ki du tsi pi, v. t.,fr. dutsipi; to completely untie anything se cured by hard and numerous knots. ki du tsi $i, v. t.,fr. dutsisi; to sprink back, to regain suddenly and completely the original posi tion when released from a bend ing pressure. Ii du tsi ti, v. t., fr. dutsiti; to raze to the ground, to completely destroy a building. ki du tska. pi, v. t., Jr. dutsk.a pi; to pinch severely or repeat e dly. lri Adu tsk~ ~i, v. t., Jr. dultskiisi;, 171.

Page  172 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kih ki hai tski ke, v. t.; to lengthen rapidly and greatly; greatly lengthened. ki hi ke, v.,fr. hike; entirely drunk up. ki hi sa dsi, v. i., fr. hisadsi2 to be completely reddish. ki hi ai dsi ke, v. t.; to dye throughout of a dull red color. ki hi si ke, v. t., fr. disike; to dye red; to dve the entire of anything red. ki hi Ai sa du i, v. t., intensive of hisisadui. ki hi's Ai ke, v. t.; to cause to assume a reddish hue rapidly or throughout. ki hi ta du i, v. i., fr. hitadui; rapidly increasing in speed. ki hi ta ke, v. t.,fr. hita,ke; to accelerate motion greatly; to in crease the speed of a number of objects. ki ho' paf du i, v. i., intensive forn of ho'padui; more common ly used than the simple form). ki ho pa 4e, v. t., fr. hopase; to horrify; to horrify all. ki h6' pi ke, v. t.,fr. holpike; to riddle. to perforate in many places. ki hfl, v. t., copl). of ki and hu; to come with a load; to come bearing on the back. Li hfi a, v. i.,fr. hua; to cough repeatedly or severely. ki hi a ke, v. t.; to cause to cough repeatedly. ki lia, n.; the paunch, the stom. ach or stomachs of an animal. ki lia a du pi da lipa, n.,fr. kili%s adu, and pidalipa; the ru men or first stomach of a rumi nant. ki!iai da lii ke, v. t., ft. ]iada kili liike; to starve completely, to make very lean; to make a num ber lean. ki lia ida i ksa ke, v. t., i n teonsivefor; i of hedaliikgake. ki lia lia du i, v. i., fr. liaiadui; becoming completely rough. ki hlii i pi, v. i. fr. lialii; to been tiretlv or complete ly striped. ki lia ii ke, v. t.; to cover with parallel b a n d s; completely striped. ki lia lip a ke, v. t., intensive of lialiuake. ki lia k-; du i, v. t.; used the same as liakadui, but more com moDly; said of a healing sore, etc. ki lii ka h6 ta, v. i., intensive form of liakaheta. ki lift ka fee, v. t.,fr. liaka ke; to render a large surface itchy. ki lia kfi pa du i, v. i.; becom ing extensively furrowed. k-i lia i/f! pi, v. i.,fr. liakupi; extensively furrowed, furrowed over the entire surfate. ki lia kfi pi khe, v. t.; to mark the entire surface with furrows; completely furrowed. ki liat ma dsi ke, v. t.,fr. ha madsi; to cause to appear much branched; to depict as very branching. k-i lia mni ke, v. t.,.fr. liamike; to make entirely diverging or scattering. ki lift pa dui, v. i.,fr. liapadui; wearing thin throughout, or in numerous places. lki lio p$& ti, v. i., intensive of li~a. lki lia p.A ii he, v. i.; to eat to complete satiety. 172:

Page  173 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kili ki hia p4; ti ksa, v. i.; synon with liapatikaa. ki lia pa ti ksa ke, v. t.; ta gorge, to glut; to feed a number of persons to excess. ki li.4 pi he, v. t., fr. liapihe; to lose hopelessly; to lose all. ki hi pi ke, v. t., Jr. liapike; ta scrape or wear thin throughout. ki lia' pi ke, v. t.; hopelessly lost; all lost. ki lial pi ksa. See liapikaa. ki lii. pi ksa, synon. with liapi ksa. ki iiai pi kna ke, v. t.; to scrape wear, or rub to thinness the en tire of a skin or other such arti cle. ki lih ta t a ki, fr. liatataki, and nearly or quite synonymous. ki lii ta ta ki ke, intensive forem of liatatakike. ki liat tsa, n., ft. kilia and itsa, lit., They Refused the Paunch; the Crow Indians. Lewis and Clarke .spell this " kee-heet-sas" on their map, and speak of a portion of the Crows as "' Paunch Indians 77. (See Lewis and Clarke, p. 96). For the origin of this name see a preceding page of this work. Iki lia twi ke, same as kiliamike. !ii li6 mi mke, v. t., intensive ot liemike, but m o r e COmmonIly used. kLi lih mi Lka ke, v. t., fr. lie. mikaa; to cause to be constantly very lonesome or melancholy; to make a number lonesome. ki li(6 pi, v. i.,fr. liepi; entirely shallow. tki!i pir e, v. t.; to leake en tirely shallow, to leave no deep Li li( wi ke, same as kiliemike. ki lii di a du i, v. i.,fr. hiidia; becoming rapidly or extensively itchy or sensitive. ki lii di a ke, v. t.; to cause to be entirely or extensively sensi tive or itchy. ki lii di.; kla, v. i.; denoting itching, constant or excessive, over the entire surface or afflict ing a number. ki lii di ai kLa kc, v. t.; to - cause constant extensive itch ing, etc. ki lii C ke, v. t., intensive of lii eke. ki lii pi, v. i., fr. liipi; entirely wrinkled. Li lii pi ke, v. t.; to make en tirely wrinkled. ki io6 ka di ti, intensive (and com mon ) form of liokaditi. I ki lio pa. e, v. t.,fr. liopfie; to occasion general terror. ki Ho pa $i ke, v. t.; to cause general or continued alarm. ki lio ta kai dsi ke, v. t.,fr. iliotakadsi; to change to a whit ish color. kLi lio ta kat du i, v. i.,fr. ilio takadti; whitening throughout. ki lio ta ki ke, v. t., fr. iliota kike; to bleach uniformly throughout; to paint entirely white; w)hitened, bleached. ki lin,i htumi. adj.; five. l i lifi a he, v. t.; to make five; made into five. ki lih a he ke, v. t.; to divide into five parts; divided into five parts. ki Ltif a kce v. t., synon. with ki rLiuahtaeke. ki ic ti a~ v. ictia (intensive form)l. part; dried or drained to shallowness. 173 kii

Page  174 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kii ki i li6 a de ke, v. t.; to make sick; sickened. ki i ko ki, v. t.,fr. ikoki; to hang up high or securely. ki i kfi pa, v. t.,fr. ikupa; to accompany closely or continu ally. ki i lii' pa, v. t., intensivefo)rm of lkil'pa. ki i kni' pa dsi, v., intensive of ikfi'padsi. ki i ku' paE dsi ke, v. t.; to cause to dislike. ki i ku' pa ke, v. t.; to cause to hate. ki i mna lipi, v. i., fr. imalipi; set completely. ki i nli a, v. i., fr. imia; to cry long or frequently; to mourn by cr,ving. ki i mi a ke, v. t.; to cause to ,cry long, etc. ki I psa ki, v. t., fr. ipsaki; to conceal or screen completely. ki i si a, v. i., intensiveform of i.ia. ki i si i du i, v. i.; deteriorat ing greatly. ki i si a du i ke, v. t.; to cause a rapid progressive deteriora tion. ki i 4i a ke, v. t.; to'make bad, to change from good to bad; greatly damaged; all damaged. ki i t6 di ke, intensive of ito dike. ki i t6 pa du ke, ~ v. t.; to place ki i t6 pa ke, fourth; to cause to be fourth. See itopake. ki i tsi i ke, v. t., fr. itsiike; to strengthen comnpletely. ki i tsi k;a ke, v. t.,fr. itsika; to cause to be first; placed first. ki i tsi tsi, v. i.7 intensive of itsi tsi; gleaming continuously. ki ic ti A du i, v. i.; increasing rapidly or greatly. k-i ic ti a ke, v. t.; to cause to be enlarged greatly or through out; to increase several objects. ki i da4 mi ke [-nawi-], v. t., fr. idamike, and of similar mean ing. ki i di a lii, v. i.,fr. idialii; to sigh repeatedly. ki i di pat du i, v. i.,fr. idipa dui, and used synonymously. ki i di pi, v. i., intensive form of idipi. ki i di pi ke, v. t.,fr. idipike; to fatten rapidly; to fatten a number. ki i di pi kIa ke, v. t.; to make constantly fat. - ki i di tsi i;i a ke, v. t. See iditsiiaiake. ki i di tsi ke, v. t., intensive of iditsike; nearly or quite similar in meaning to the simple form. ki i di tsi tsa ki ke, v. t. See iditsitsakike. ki i d6 pa du ke, v. t.,fr. ido paduke; to change to the second order or position, to change from some other position and place second. ki i d6 pake, v. t.; to make sec ond; to change to second. ki i ha ke, v. t.,fr. ihake; to make entirely different, to change all attributes. ki i lia tsa ki, v. i.,fr. iliatsaki; stained extensively with dirt. ki i lia tsa ki ke, v. t.; to stain completely or extensively with dirt. ki i li6 a de, v. i., fr. ilioade; to be severely sick; said, too, of a number -tsfeering from an epi demic. 174 kii

Page  175 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kik ki ka ki liat du i, v. i.,fr. kaki lii; assuming a circular form. ki ka ki lii ke, v. t.; to cause to be entirely or permanently circular. ki ka ta ki, v. t.; to turn corn lletely inside out. ki ka t he, v. t., intensive of ka tihe. ki ka ti ke, v. i., fr. katike; to pour all from one vessel to an other, to empty one vessel into ,another or others. ki k.4 tsi, v. i.,fr. katsi; com pletely cooled; said, too, of a number of objects which have been cooled or extinguished. ki ki tsi kLe, v. t.; to cool com. pletely; to cool a number. ki ka tsfit ka, v. i., intensive oj katsuka. ki ka tsfi tka ke, v. t.; to cause to be swelled and h ardened. ki ka iu ta du i, v. i.,fr. kau stadui; decr eas ing gr eatly and rapidly in number or quantity. ki ka u;ta ke, nearly synony mous with kauatake, but more commonly used. ki kV, v. t.; to resemble. ki k4, v. t.,fr. ke; to scratch back and forth; to scratch re peatedly or severely. ki ki di, v. t., fr. kidi; to hunt, to seek and pursue. ki ki lif a he ke, v. t.,fr. ki liuaheke; to divide completely into five equal parts; divided into five. ki ki lifu a ke, v. t.; to cause to be divided into five parts; di vided by five. Iki kl sli, v. t.; to determine quantity or quality in any way; to taste, measure, or gauge with kii ki i tsi tsi ke, v. t.; to cause to gleam. ki i tski ke, v. t., fr. itski; to make large enough. ki i tufi di, v. i.,fr. itudi; suppu rating extensively; said of large or numerous abscesses. ki i tfi di ke,. t.; to cause ex tensive suppuration. ki ka da mi, v. t.,fr. kadami; to remembe r after having long forgotten; to remember com pletely. ki ka da tsi ke, v. t., fr. kad.a tsi; to ca us e to be willing. ki ka de, v. t., intens ive of kade; to vomit all up. ki ka d L ke, v. t.; to cause to vomit. ki ka di, v. t., fr. kadi; t o b eg repeatedly, to impo rtune; to beg all away. ki ka di ata, v.., intensive o f kadiata. ki Lka di itei du iL v. i.; dwin dling rapidly. ki ka di;ta ke, v. t.; synon. with kadistake, and more com monly used. ki ka d' tska, v. i., fr. kaditska; to glisten continuously or over an extensive surface. k-i ka di tska ke, v. t.; to cause to glisten; made to glisten. ki ka di tska pa, v. i.,fr. kadi tskapa; to adhere firmly over a large surface. ki ka di tska pa ke, v. t.; to cause to adhere, etc. ki kfi dse, intensive of kadse. ki ka ki' k-i, v. i.,fr. kakelki; to male a continuous rattling noise. ki kai ki, v. t.; to sew; to join by sewing. 175

Page  176 1IDATSA DICTIONARY. kik a view to determining quality or quantity; to sound a person's tfeelings or opinions. Li k6 mi [wi], synon. with komi. Li k6 mi he, i. t., fr. komihe; to complete or finish perfectly; to finish all. ki k6 mil ke, v. t.; to cause to be concluded, terminated, or ex hansted; concluded, finished, etc. ki k6 wi he, same as kikomihe. ki k6 wi ke, same as kikomike. kLi ka, imperative of kikse. ki kLe, v. t.; to arrange; to re pair, to mend, to "fix ". Li ki, v. t., fr. ku; to give back, to restore. ki kfi a, v. t.; to listen; to hear; to pay attention to. kii ku hia, v. t.; tfo send for a per son, to invite. ki ma a zi, v. i.,fr. maazi; to be full to overflowing; to be all full-if a number of vessels are referred to. ki ma a zi le, v. t.; to cause to be filled. ki mni di he, v. t., fr. madihe; to cook all the food on hand; to complete the cooking. ki ma du li pa ke, v. t.,fr. ma dul.iapake; to set beastly drunk; to set all drunk. Lki ma diu lita du i, v. i.,fr. madutitadui; becoming very foolish. ki ma du lita ke, v. t.; to make quite foolish. ki mak' i a, v. t., fr. makia; to fight; to battle. Li miak i ma La da ha ti di e", v. i.; synonymous with mak imakadahatidie, but more com monly used. ki6 ki mak 4e ai du i, v. i., used in nearly or quite the same sense as makseaadui. ki mnak 6e se ke, v. t.,fr. mak seseke; to cause two things to resemble each other in every re spect; to cause several things to resemble one another. ki m kali s a ka, v. i.,fr. mak bsi,,ka; to be of the same size in all dimensions. ki rnak ti a ka kee, v. t.; to cause two or more things to be of the same size in all t heir di mensions. ki mat hu ke, v. t., intensive of makuke, and more commonly used. ki m6 [-we], v. t.; to tell, to re late; to d isclose a secret. ki ini. ti ke, v. t.; synony mous with miatike. hi mi de di, v. t.,.fr. midedi; to come in and sit down; to pay a long visit; to visit frequently. ki mi i i ke, v. t., fr. midike; to liquefy co mpletely. ki mi dfi e, v. i.,fr. midue; to boil vigorously. ki mi df e ke, v. t., synony mous with mlidueke. kIi 6 da pi, v. t.,fr. odapi; to find o,lI, to make a complete dis covery. hi 6 hi, v. t., intensive of ohi. ki 6 hi ke, v. t.; to cause to be attached, to treat with kindness and foster attachment. kIi 6 lia ta du i, v. i., fr. oliata dui; becoming white through out. ki 6 lia ti, v. i., fi'. oliati; to be entirely white or pale. ki 6 lia {ikle, v. t.;to render entirely pale. 176

Page  177 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ki6 ki 6 ka ta, v. t.,fr. okata; to l)ut all on, to dress completely. kt 6 ki, v. t., fr. oki; to hold firmly; to hold all. ki 6 ti, V. t.,fr. oti; to be cookedL or ripened throughout; all rip ened. ki 6 ti lie, V. t. to cause to be entirely ripened. ki 6 tsli.a mli [-wvi], v. i., inten si;ve of otsliami. li 6 ze9 v. t.,fr. oze; to plant all the seed or all of a field, to finish planting. ki pa, v. t., fr. pa; to powder or grind completely. kIii pa d6 pa du i, v. i., fr. pado padui; becoming rapidly low in stature. ki pa d6 pi ke, v. t.; to shorten ini stature. ki pa du i ke, v. t.,fr. padui ke; to diminish in length; short ened. ki pa hi, v. i., fr. pahi; to sing loudly or continuously; to sing a song. ki pa ha du i, v. i.,fr. paliadui; becoming extensively chafed. ki pa litu e, v. t.; to scratch or rub w i t h t h e finger-tips or knuckles; to rub the hair loose with the fingers; to rub the eyes in sleepiness. ki pa;i ia e, v. t.,fr. paliue; to spill all out, to empty. ki pa ka de, v. t.,fr. p.kade; to stick in numerous places. ki pa ka; pi, v. i., fr. pakapi; to be torn extensively or severely. iki pa ki di, v. t., fr. pakidi; to push hard; to shove comp~letel y away. ki p.~ li i, v. t.,fr. p.ki2i; to rub back and forth as in scour 12 kip ing, or as in drying wilh a to wel; to dry by rubb)ing. ki pa mi tsi [-wi-], v. t.,fi'. pamitsi; to cut all up finely. kIi pa mnfi dsi [-wu-], v. t., fr. pamudsi; to roll up completely, to make au entire piece into a roll. ki pa at ki, v. t., fr. pasaki; to engirdle completely; to put on a belt outside of the robe and all the clothing. hki pa Skil, v. t.,fr. pasku; to shove completely through.' ki pa t. ki, iv. t., fr. pataki; to shut as a door or a box- lid, to close up as a book. etc.-mide ki patd.k, shut the door. ki pa t6, v. t.,~fr. pate; to turn completely over. ki pa ti, v. i.,fr. pati; to fall from a great height. ki pa. ti he, v. t.; to throw down from a great height. ki pa ti ke, v. t.; to cause to fall firom a great height; to shoot a biid sitting in a tree-top and, thereby, cause it to fall to the ground. Iki pa t6' ti, v. t.,fr. patolti; to shake repeatedly or vigor ously. ki pa tsa ti, v. t.,fr. patsati; to puncture repeatedly. pIi pa tsk-i pi, v. t.,fr. patsku pi; to fold several times; to fold into a small bundle. ki pa tskfi pi ke, v. t.; to cause to fold up. ki p6, v. t., fr. pe; to swallow all, to devour completely. ki pe, v. t.,fr. pe; to triturate finely; same as kipa. ki pliu ti, v. t.~ fr. pliuti; to squeeze completely out; to pro I 177

Page  178 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kip trude by squeezing or pressing; to eject metallic cartridges. ki pi, v. t.,fr. pi; to deck or tat too the body extensively. ki pi di e ke, v. t.,fr. pidie; to flute or ruffle, to ornamaient with ruffles. ki pk' di, v. t., intensive of pa kidi. ki pki ti, v. t., fr. pkiti; to iron clothes; to smooth completely out. ki p6 a du i, v. t.,fr. poadui; to make completely globular. ki p6 pi, v. i.; worn out, as old clothing. ki pSUi li, v. i., fr. psuki; to belch; to b e l c h repeatedly; much less used than the simple form. ki psiu ti, v. t., fr. psuti; to dis locate, to put out of joint. ki ptsu ti, v. t.,fr. ptsuti; to thrust forward.-deai [nesi] ki ptsuti, to stick out the tongue. ki pu a du i, v. i., fr. puadui; becoming rapidly or extensively swollen. ki pui a Lke, v. t., fr. puake; to cause to be greatly or extensively swollen. ki pu dsi, v. t.,fr. pudsi; to mark, sew or wrap extensively or completely. ki pu- dsi Lke, v. t.; to cause to be finely marked or wrapped. ki pfiu lii, v. i., intensive of pulii; to foam. ki pu lii ke, v. t.; to cause to f o a m greatly; to cover with foam. ki pu zi ke, v. t., fr. puzike; to cover wvith spots or figures. Li sa pu a he ke, v. t.,fr. sapu aheke; to divide into seven equal parts. ki s; pu a Lie, divided into seven parts. Li;a;fi li ke, v. t.; to cause to be compl)letely dull; dulled throug,hout. hLi;i di ke, v. t.,fr. sidike; to render tawny; to smoke a skin until it assumes a tawny hue. di;i, v. i., intensive of Aidisi. ki;i di si ke, v. t.; to cause to hasten. ki si ki a ke, v. t.,fr. sikia,; to cause to curl or tangle; tangled. ki 1i ki he, v. t., intensive olf si kihe. ki si pi sa dsi ke, v. t.; to d(ae blackish. ki Si pi rai du i, v. i.; darken. ing throughout. ki si pi sa ke, v. t.,fr. sipiake; to dye black uniformly through. olt. ki ski, v. t.; synornymous with kikieki, bat rarely u sed. kti s6 ki ke, v. t.,fr. A oki; to widen, to make broad or blunt. fi i ta du i, v. i.,fr. tua; de creasing in speed. ki cI a ke, v. t.; to ca use to b e slow, to change from a rapid to a slow motion. ki tat, intensive of ta; killed. Li tai di, v. t.,fr. tadi; to cross complete]y, as w h e n a large party with all its effects crosses a stream. ki ta h,, v. t., fr. tahe; to mur. der, to slaughter. ki ta mu e, v. t., fr. tamue; to ring long and loudly. ki ta m6i hi ke, v. t.,fr. tamu lii; to cause to be minute, to change from coarse to fine. ki t,a tsai du i, v. i.,fr. t~atsa dui; thickiening throughout. 1 78 kit

Page  179 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kit ki tA' tsi ke, v. t.; to make tlhick in every part; to thicken all. ki t6, v. i.,fr. te; to be all dead; said if a number of individuals are referred to. ki te, verbal root; clear off, make smooth (shave, pluck, etc.). ki ti, verbal root; same as kite. ki ti di e, v. i.,fr. tidie; to run far or long; to run away. ki ti di e ke, v. t.; to cause to run far. ki ti pi a tsa ki, v. i.,fr. tipia tsQaki; cotnipletely soiled with mu(ld. ki ti pi a tsa ki ke, v. t.; to soil completely with mud. ki ti;a ke, v. t., fr. tisa; to cause to be distant, to remove far away. ki ti tsh du i, v. i.,ft. titsadui; tlhickening rapidly or along the entire length. ki ti tsi ke, v. i., fr. titsike; to thicken throughout.' ki to ha dsa du i, v. i., fr. to haclsadui; becoming bluish throughout. ki to ha dsi ke, v. t., fr. toha dsike; to dye or color bluish throughout. ki to ha du i, v. i.; assuming a pure -)lue color throughout. ki t6 hi ke, v. t.,fr. tohike; to (lye or color all a pure blue. ki t6 ki;i ke, v. t., intensive of tolhiikei ki t6 pa he, v. t., fr. topahe; to divide iixto four completely. ki to pa h( ke, v. t.,fr. topahe kle; to divide completely into four equal parts; dividled into four equal parts. ki t6 pa ke, v. t.; synonymous with kitopaheke. ki ts-i da lie, v. t., intetsire of tsadake. ki tsa dai tsa ki lie, v. t.,fr. tsadatsakike; to soil all over with grease. ki tsa kai dsi lie, v. t.,fr. tsa kadsi; to improve all moder ately. ki tsa ki ke, v. t.,.fr. tslakike; to completely cure, improve, or mend;. mended, restored, per. fected. ki tsa m6 a te, v. i., fr. tsame tite; to perspire freely, or from the whole surface. ki tsa mG he, v. t.,fr. tsamehe; to heat thoroughly. ki tsa m(6 le, heated through out; changerd fom very cold to very hot. ki tsa mu tsa du i, v. i.; straightening along the entire length. ki tsa mt tsi ke, v. t., fr. tsa mutsike; to straighten com pletely. eLi tsia ti ke, v. t., fr. tsati; to rende r smooth and glossy; to oil l s, polish, o r varnish. ki tsa tsu lki Ire, v. t.,.fr. tsa tsukike; to render completely hard by drying, baking, or oth erwise. ki tsi dat dsi ke, v. t., fr. tsida. dsi; to dye of a color allied to yellow. ki tsi dai du i, v. i.; becoming yellow throughout. ki tsi di e ke, v. t.,fr. tsidie; to cause to be cold; reduced in tem perature. kIi tsi di ke, v. t.,fr. tsidike; dlyed all yellow. ki tsi ks6 a, v. i., fr. tsikoa; thor. oughly7 sweet. 179 li. it

Page  180 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. kfia k6 e, v. i.; to leave, depart, go from.-mak6emits, I will leave a common equivalent for good bye. !k6 ha ti, n.; corn, maize. k6 ha ti a, n.; a corn-stalk, the stalk or the entire plant. k6 ha ti i 4i, n.,fr. kohati and iis; a bag for containing corn. Caches are sometimes called ko hatiisi. k6 ha ti pi, n.; coarse corn meal, such as is m a d e in a wooden mortar. ik 6 ha ti ta pa, n. (tapa, soft); flour. ko ka, v. t.; to cease to act, to stop, to discontinue; commonly used imperatively.-kok.ts, it is done. k6 mi, v. i.; to be finished, ex hausted, expended, or completed. It mli he, v. t.; to finish, to ex haust, to complete. -6 wi, a common pronunciation of koiii. ko wi he, same as komihe. LnL zi, v. i.; to make a whistling sound. li.a, an adverbial suffix, denoting that an action or quality is con s t a n t, habitual, or excessive. See q 1[ 163 and 231. kta de, v. t.; to secure or join with nails or rivets. ku, v. t.; to give, to present. kui, demonst. -ronoun, referring to something pointed out, obvious or previously described; that, that one. Most of the following words beginning with' ku' are more or less directly derived f ro m this pronoun. kut a, adv.; in that way or place, just so. kit ki tsi lco a du i, v. i.; becom ing sweet throughout. ki tsi lk6 a ke, v. t.; to make entirely or thoroughly sweet. ki ts! pi, v. i., fr. tsipi; to sink entirely, to be lost completely in the water. ii ts! pi ke, v. t.,. tsipike; to cause to sink tootally. li tsi ps ti, v. i., intenstiveform of tsipiti. ki tsi p ti i Lke, v. t.; to mlace the wlole in a conditi on to s ink; to upset all on the water. Li tso ka du i, v. i.,fr. tsoka (Li; beco ming entirely hard. ki ts6 ki, v. i., intensive of tsoki. ki tsa lci ke,.v. t.; to make en tirely or permanently hard. lii tsu tsf lii, v. i.,fr. tsutsulii; to make a continuous rattling or stamping noise. ki tsu tsu ti,,v. i.,fr. tsutsuti; to be entirely smooth; uniformly soft. ki tsu tsu ti ke, v. t.; to make entirely or uniformly smooth. ki -t a, v. t.,fr. un; to envy con tinually or maliciously. ki u a he, v. t., intensive of uahe. kinu a lipi, v. t.,fr. ualipi; to smash to pieces by shooting. kiu fa ti, v. t.,fr. uati; to ridi cule continuously or severely. ki u dsai du i, v. i.,fr. udsadui; becoming uniformly dry. ki u dsi, v. i.,fr. uclsi; to be dried completely. ki fi dsi Ike, v. t.; to dry com pletely. ki u zi a, v. t., intezsive of uzia. ]ki Ilr, v. t.; to tell; same as kime. ko~ a, p~rep.; at; in;~ suffixed to nouns to form adverbs. 180

Page  181 HIDATSA DICTIONARY kua k-iu a du, adv.,fr. ku and adu; in that very place, right there. kfi a ru, same as kuadu. kfi dsi, v. t.; to take back some thing given. kft i;a, adj., adv.,fr. ku and isa; like that, just like that. ku i;a dsi, adj., adv.,fr. kuisa and adsi; much like that, re sembling that closely. ki i iai dsi ke, v. t.; to cause to resemble imperfectly some> thing previously mentioned or pointed out. kfi i a ke, v. t., fr. kuis,,; to cause to resemble something pre viouslv demonstated or defined. kfi plie da, adv.' opposite or facing so m e t h i n g previously named or pointed out. kfi pi, v. i., adj.; to smell like, to have the same odor as something previously mentioned and com pared. k-f ta, adv., fr. ku and ta; there at, therein. kit ta pa, interrog. pron. or sen tence,fr. ku and tapa,; what is that, what is the nature of- the thing named or pointed out. kuf ti, adj.; dirty. seedy, shabby; said of old clothes, etc. kuts, v.; here, take it. This word is perhaps a form of the verb ku, and may mean "it is given to you"; but is used when com manding a person to accept something offered.. kfi tsa ki, pron. (?), fr. ku and tsaki; that one alone, that by itself. kfi tski, v. i.; to be like, to ac cord; to be measured, regaulatede or shaped a~ccording to a stand ard or pattern. 1. Words heard to begin with the" sound of I may be found under d. See 11 IT 6, 20, and 22. m, a common contracted form of the simple personal pronouns of the first person. (11 ~ 105, 112). ma, pers. pron., 1st pers., sing. and plur., simple, incorporated, anominative and possessive; I; we; my; our. (I ~ 58, 81, and 105-108, inclusive.) ma, a prefix to verbs of all classes forming nouns; a prefix to nouns slightly limiting their meanings; to be carefully distinguished from the pronoun I ma', which is often used as the first syllable of a word. (f1 f1 53-56). nmlln n.; sniow. ma a, n.,fr. a; the entire I)lant; the body or chief portion of a plant or tree as distinguished from any of its parts. ma a da lia, n., fr. adalia; cof fee in the grain; parched coffee; but not the infusion or decoction. See midigipia. nma a da. lipi, n.,fr. ad(alipi; a, single part or portion. ma a da i du ti, synonymous with qdaldtiti. ma a da i ki d(i lio ii, n.,fr. ada alnd ikidtiliok i; a, comb. cma a de, n., fr. (ide(; a warm season, a sultry tiade. mna a (ln 5i d-i pa pi, n.,fr. 181,. maa 1. M.

Page  182 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mnfid something understood or not specified. ma a klu ma di he, n.,fr. aku madihe; a cook, one who cooks anything. na ia pi, n it.; a necklace. na ti po k',a. n.; a house-fly. na-ia pu zi,a, t.,f. puzi; a meat fly. na a sii di, adadi; a stolen article; a theft. ma ia tsi, n., lit., yellow tree; pine. a imma a i,. i.; to be full. Ina ai zi he, v. t.; to fill full. ma ai zi ke, v. t.; to cause to be tull; filled. nla bui a, sanme as mamua. met da [-ra], n.; winter; a year. mi g da da ka n, n.vfr. mada ad daka; snow-bi rd, Lapland br Int ing, (Plectrophanes sp.). mai da du [-rn], adv.,fr. mada; during the winter. ma da duk [-ruk], n., adv.,fr. inada; next winter; during next winter. ma d.- lia pi, n.; bread. ma da lia pi h6' pi, n.,J'r. ho' pi; light bread. ma d. lia pi-i ki da ka pfi ;i, n.; saleratus or other letv ening material. See -idaka. pusi. nma da, lia pi tso" ki, n., fr. tsoki; hard-bread]-, crackers. nla da ka pi lii, i., ft. dakapi lii; a flag, a banner. ma dti ki, v.; to p)aint, to dira,vw; to ornament with drawings. ma da k e' [malakoe, bala koe, barakoeJ, n.,,fr. dakoe or idakoe; n~y fi'iend, myj com rade. mna da ~e dun, 21., adv.,fr. mada v, maa adapapi; a scorched or sun burnt spot. ma a du hi da", n., fr. aduhi da; anything new or recently made; an unworn garment. ma a du h6' pi, same as-adu hopi. n.a a du lia kfi pi, n.,fr. adu liakupi; a crease or groove in anything. ma a du lia pi, n.,fr. aduliapi; a bed, any one's bed; commonly applied to a permanent bed with bedstead. ma a du lie pi, n.,fr. a duliepi; a shallow spot. ma a du i da ki;a, n.,fr. aduidakisa; a left-handed per son. ma a du i di tsi, n.,fr..duidi tsi; a particular odor. ma a du i di tsi i 4i" a. See aduiditsiiaia. ma a du i di tsi tsa" ki. See aduiditsitsaki. ma a du i 4i a, n.,fr. aduisia; a worthless person; an inferior thing. ma a du i ti pe, n.; a fall-trap. ma a du ki a de tsi,fr. aduki adetsi; a brave man. ma a du ki du sa, n.,fr. adu fiduaa; a place where anything may be stored, or where only certain things are stored which it is not necessary to specify. ma a du 6 ki pa di, n.,fr. oki 1adi; a scion, a sapling. ma a lii dfi lia, n.; large beads, such as are used in necklaces; a necklace of such beads. ma a.ka kaa ~i, n.,fr. akakali; a wrktinug, a.r uins-riptron.e ma a ku kfi k~c, n.,fr. akukli kse; one who arranges or mnendls I 182

Page  183 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mad anal, sedu; last winter; duling last winter. ma da 4ki he [-la-], n.; un r-il)e corn prepared for keeping. sl,i,da' ti, i.; my brother-in l;ik*. See iddlti. l:X di, adj.; cooked. mn di di, n.; meat dried in b:oad thin layers. ma di e [badiets], v. t.; I tlhink, I suppose, I believe. See ildie. ma di he, v. t.; to cook, to pre pare food. ma di' i, n.,fr. disi; a dance; syVnonymous with makidigi. ma di' i, n.; my son. See idisi. nia d6 lia, n.; gypsum. These Indians burn gypsum and use it as a pigment,. ma d6 ka, n.; an elk. ma d6 ka o da" lipi, n.; an elk-skin. ma d6 ti ka de, n.; a gall or swelling on a plant caused by an insect laying its egg. ma du lia. pa, adj.; crazy, in sane; drunk. ma du lia. pa dsi, adj.; ap pearing as if drunk; acting crazily. ma du li i du i, v.i.; be-. coming drunk. ma du lit pa ke, v. t.; to cause to be crazy; to set drunk. ma dfi lii, n.; ice. ma du lii ic' pu, n.,fr. madulii and iepu; an icicle. ma difi lita, n.; a foolish or silly l)erso:i a, fool; a harlot. ma dfi lita, adj.; foolish, silly. ma du lira du i, n.; becoming foolish. nla dui fita Ike, v. t.; to cause to boe foolish. mah ma du sk. pi, n.; urethritis. ma dii ti [maruti], n., fr. du ti; food, particularly solid food. ma du" ti a du ki du s.i, n; a place for storing food. ma du ti ki di ti, v. i.; to be surfeited, to be sick from eqat ing. mbt e tt.,fr. e; private property, anything retained in possession. See itamae. ma C pa ka, n.,fr. maepe and aka; the club or pestle used witlh the wooden m or t a r for grinding corn, meat. etc.; more commonly pronounced mepaka. ma V pe, n.,fr. 6pe; a wooden mortar used by these Indians for pounding corn, dried meat, and other articles of food. ma 6 tsi [baetsi], n.; a knife. ma 6, tsi-a du ki da ki ti, n.; a pocket-knife. ma e tsi a zis, n. See Local Names. ma e6 tsi ha" tski, n., lit., Long Ktnives; synonymous with mae tsiictia, which is the more cornm mont expression. ma 6e tsi ic ti" a, n., lit., Big Knives; the inhabitants of the United States. This word is probably translated from the language of some tribe farther east. ma 6 tsi i Ai, n., fr. maetsi and isi; a knife-case. mat ha, n.; a swamp; a spring. The sp r in g s of the Hidatsa country are swampy, not clear and bubbliii g; hence, the double mfeaninsg of this word. m~a ha ka k' Ski, n.; meat cut inl long strips andl driedl. mfi he, v. t. See maihe. 183

Page  184 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mah ma hi si, n.,fr. hisi; the, bull berry or buffalo-berry. Ina hi si a, n.; the bull-berry tree, Shepherdia argetdtea. nla ho pa, n., samie as inahupa: which is more comnmon. Ina ho pai, n.,fr. hopa; medi cine; a charm, a spell. mia ho pai li a, n., samne as ma hopamiis. ma ho pai mi a i ta ma" tsu, n. (matsu, cherry); the fruit of the Virginia creeper. See doki daliitarnatsu. mna ho pai mi a i ta lina" tsu a, n.; the Virginia creeper, Am) pelopsis. Inla ho pa mi i; [-wii;], n.; a fabulous old woman (some think there are more than one), who dwells in the woods and delights in doing evil. She is supposed to strangle such children as, through parentl ignorance or carelessness, are smothered in bed. mIia lihi pa, n.; the stemn or haln dle of anything; a corn-cob. mia lia lia, n.,fr. lialia; Cyno glossun Jliorrisonii. ma lia kla, n.,fr. liaka; small pox. Imai lio, n.,fr. lio or ilio; my body. ma li6 ki, v. t.; I row. See da lioki. ma lifi a lia, nt., fr. iliualia; my knee. tna lib lii sa, n; tree-willow,a Sali.v lucida. ma i a lIa la si, n., fr. kakakE si; a penl or pencil. ma I a pa tl,'Un. same as iapati. ma ic ti a, n.fJr. ictia; a boy or girl nearly or quite full grownl mail said in contradistinction to ma kadista. ma i dak ts.i da ke, n.,.fr. daktsadalie; skates. n ma i dak ui dsi, n.,fr. dakli dsi; a swing; a swinging cra-(le, such as these Inidians use to irock their children. tna t da tska ti, n., fr. datska ti; a syringe. n,ia I di k6 di ksa, n.; straps or bands for supporting the leg gings; garters. ma i di' tisi, n., fr. iditsi; mate rilal for scenting. ma i duii tsa da, n.,fr. dutsada; a sled. ma i du Isi, n.; synonymous with idutsi; a fork of any de scriltion. tma i du tska pi, n.,fJr. dutska pi; a pincers; a clothes-pin. In the latter sense, maitulii-idutska pi is preferable. ma i diu tsku pi, n. See mua idutskupi. nma i ha4, n.,fr. ilia; an enemly, an inimical tribe. ma i lhi di, t., fr. ihadi; food set out, a meal, a feast. ma i ha lipi, n., fr. halipi; an errhine, a plant obtained by these Inidians on the prairies, powdered and used as snuff in cases of catarrh; name recently applied to snuff. ma i hai ni a, n., fr. maiha, cand nmia; a member of the ELnemy wonmani Band. ma i ha mi a ic ke, n.; the Enemy-woman Bandc one ofI lie orders or degrees among the EIi datsa h iomen. tuna ilhe, v. t.; to try, to en deavor.-maihe, he tries. ma 184

Page  185 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mai Inat dahe, you try. mamahe [wawa- tike; any material used in pol hets], I try. Possibly m,ahe is ishing. the true radical form, but it is ma i ki tso ki, n.,fr. kitsoki; never heard. (IT 199). material used to render anything ma i hu [ba-, wa-], to trade, hard, as starclh. to buy. (~1 199). ma i kta de n.; a nail, peg, or ma i lia ka, n., fr. liaka-allud- spike, anything driven in for the ing to effects upon the skin; poi- purpose of securing. son vines, Rlhus toxicodendrov, n1a i kfi tski, n.,fr. ikutski; and Rhus radicans. anything copied or taken from ma i ka di tska pa, n., fr. ka- some model or used as a modelr ditskapa; adhesive material, a pattern for a garment, a model paste, mucilage. of an instrument or utensil; ma i ka ti pe, n.,fr. ikatipe; a sometimes applied to a mea,sur button of any kind. ing tape or stick. 111a i ki da ku di, n., fr. kida- ma i kfi tski kSa, n.,fr. ku kudi; a fan. The Hidatsa corn- tski; an initator, a mimic, one minonly maklie fans from wings of who frequently imitates the man birds. ners of others for the amusemai ki da ku dsi, n.,fr. kida- meut of spectators kudsi; same as naidakudsi. ma i ma da ki, n.,fr. madakli; 11a i lIi di Li. See makidiklli, a pencil, brush, or prepared stick which is more commonily used. used in painting pictures. ta i Lii dii lia di, n., fr. kidu- ma i mak i e ke, n.; playing liadi; a rake. cards. See imakieke. ma i ki du lio!ii nI.; synony- n1a i nii di ti. See iduksitii mous witth i(iaada,ikidulioki. miditi. na i i iL ka, n.,fr. ika; glass; rma i pa lia de, n.,fr. ipakade; a window. a fork, a table-fork. Ina i ki l1a ki, in.,fr. kikaki; ma i pa sa ki, n.,fr. ipasaki; thread. the belt worn around the waist, 11a i ki ki ski, n.,fr. kikiaki; outside of the dress or shirt a weight; a measuring vessel. the girdle. nia i Li ku, n.; a spring- il1a i pa tsati, n.; synonymous trap. with ipatsati. 11a i ki pa ki )i, n., fr. kipaki- ma i ptsa, n.,?fr. iptsa; an axe. si; a cloth for wilping or rubbing, mna i ptsa da kai n., diminutive a towel. of mnaiptsa; a hatchet. ma 1i ki pa s'a ki,.,fr. kipa- 1mai $i, n.,fr. isi; a covering; saki; a belt worn outside of all corn-husks. the clothing, around the robe or n1a i;ke, n.,fr. iske; one corm blanket.! manded, one obeying. n1a i ki pLi ti, n., fr. kipkiti; a! ma i.;pa du nli di, n.; a snail. sad iron. 113 a i nu, n.,?ft. isu; the war"1113 kLi sa ti Le, 2w., fi-. hitsa- teagle, Aquila chrysactus. 18,5

Page  186 IIIDATSA DICTIONARY. mak ma lia di toIa nml a, t. (mia, a 4cone an); a younlg g irl. m a a di ta ti,.i. See Local Names. msl' lIa ili ta ii C [-wi], n.; hail. ma li.m ptsi,k v. t., 1st l?ers. of da kas. ptsi. ma ha ta, it.; large fruit, par ticularly plums., v. i.. and adverbial pre iix, sam)i e as nak. maauk i a, v. i.,fr. maki; to COD test, to oppose t o struggle w ith one another; to play a game in which opposite sides are taken. nmak i a p6,, adj.; checkeredc cross-barred. maak i a p46 ke, v. t.; to checker, to ornament with intersecting lines. n.ak i fi ti di e", v. i.,fr. tidic; to ruin a contested race. m~ak i a ti di e" ke, v. t.,fi-. tidieke; to cause to run in con test, i. e., to race horses, to have a borse-race. mak i da ksi, n.,fr. kidaksi; a very young child, one tied up in a buindle (as these Indians usual ly carry children until they are about six months old); the bun dle'and child together. nla ki d46 ksa, n.,fr. kideksa; an excessive vomiting; a sick ness characterized by prolonged or excessive vomiting. ma ki di ki, n.,fr. kidiki; a hammer. ma ki dif;i, n.,fr. kidiai; a dance. ma 1ki dn msi [+-wi], n., fr. kiidumi; a numeral. ma lki dul tski/,si, n., fr. kidu tskisi; a lot of wvashed clothes. mal ma i;u i kil" 4i, n. See Local Names. ma i;u ti psa ki, n.,fr. isuti and ipsaki; an apron. ma i ta, n.; an arrow; syn. it(. ma i tai hi, n. See itahi. ma i ta i su, n., fr. itaisu, and of similar meaning. ma i ta nmu a, n., fr. tamua; a bell; also maltatuna. ma i te i du;u ki, n., lit., ma terial for washing the face; soap. ma i te i ki pa ki ~i, n.,fr. ite, i, and kip4akiAi; a towel. (IT 44). ma i ti du;u ki, n., a con. tracted.formi of inaiteiduguki com monly used. ma i'ti pc, n., fr. itipe; a fill trap). ma i tsi mu a, n.,fr. tsimua; ornamental metallic pendants. mna i tski ti, n.,fr. itskiti; a scissors. mna i tu lii i ki pki ti,fr. itu lii and maikipkiti, and synony mous with the latter. mnak [wakL], a prefix to verbs denoting opposition, reciprocity, etc. See maki and IT 153. ma ka, n.; my daughter (form of address). Ina ka di sta [-ri-], n.,.fr. ka. dista; a child, a young person. ma ka di sta i" u dsi, n., fr. makadista and dakud~i; a childIs swing, orswinging cradle; an arrangement, for rocking chil dren, made of ropes and blankets and suspended from a beam. See mai(lakudsi. ma ka di ~ta ke, U.; a doll. See ke. ma ka di,ta ma tse, U. (ma tse, aman); a younlg boy. 186

Page  187 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mfik close together; to shut anything when two sides are moved in the act, as in closing a book or a covered mirror. ma. k6' pa, n.; my comrade; said by one female to another. See ikolpa. mak 4 ki, v. t.; lstlperson of dkalaki. mak se sa, same as maksese. mak k.{a dsi, adj., fr. makse se; seeming to resemble one an other. mali.;s~5 a du i, v. i.; becom ing mnore and more alike. mia e, e [+wvak.], v. i., adj., fr. sese; mutually resembling .one another,,alike. ina1k -.q 6,e de, adj.; closely but not exactly resembling one an otlier. ma?k ~;;e ke, v. t.; to cause to resemble one another, to make alike. msak i a, adj.,fr. mak and sia; nearly the same as maksese. Inal,i;i a de, adj.; much alike. mak;i a ka, adj.,fr. miak,sia and ka; of the same size or length as one another; nearly synonymous with siaka, and seka.-maksia. o kats% they are of equal size. mak 4i a ka dsi, adj.; appar ently alike in size or length. mak;i a lia kle, v. t.; to in crease or reduce in size so as to make two things of equal length or size. nmak tsa ki, v. t., lst person of d'ktsaki. mia kIu, n.; the cottonwood tree; perhaps so called in allusion to its useight. mfi lku~ n.; night. The word is also used to denote the astro inak maf. i lke, v. i. and t.: to con test, or cause to contest; us ed in much th e same sense as makia. mak i hi, v. i.; to st and mutu ally in contact, as tw o sticks placed so as to support one another. I.ak i hi taI, negative of maikihi;' to ble separa ted mutually. mak i i d6, v. t.,fr. maki and idle; to interchange speech, to hold a dialogue. mnak i i ki' pa, v. t.,fr. maki and ikumpa; to hate on e another. mak i i, n., fr. maki and ii, so called bec ause the covers or flaps close from o ppos ite dire tions; a meat-ca,se or parfstche caLse, which is an arrangement made of decorated - raw-hide for holding dried mea,t and other articles. mak i ki d4 6i, v. t., fr. and kideai; to love one another. mna lii kuf a, n.,fr. kikua; a soldier; one of the Soldier Band of' the tribe. mal. i ma ka da ha, v.; to pass and repass one another coin ing from opposite directions. mak i ma lii da h-a ti di 4, v. (tidie, to run); to run or ride rapidly, passing a,lnd repassing one another, coming from oppo site directions; as when two per sons, on foot or mounted, make a var-signal. mnak i lnik i a [baliiwakia], n.,fr. kim.akia; a battle, a fight. lna ki pa, n., fr. kipa; hominy. ma kIi pai hi, it., fr. kipahi; a song.-maliirpaihi mukl give (us) .a song — a, common mode of ask inlg a person to sing. m.ak i pa la~ ksi, v. t.,fir. ((Znd; to shut together, to 187

Page  188 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. matk homical day or cycle of twenty four hours, and sometimes to denote a year. nm; Lu, adj.; tall, lofty. man ku a du o" ki pa di, n.; you iig cottonwood shrubs grow ing at the base of a tree. See aduokipadi. nlma kui du, adv.,.fr. maku; dur. img the night. ma;i kui dik, adv.; during the coming night. Imat Lf fia za, n., same as next w.aord,, but less in use. nma iku ka zi, n., diminutive of maku; a youlln g cottonwood tree. mnia k-u hle, v. t.,fr. mnaku; to mnake tall; miade tall. mua ku mi di [-bidi], n.,fr. maku, night, and midi; tle moon. In[i mla, v.; a word used impera tively when trying to get an in frant to drink or nurse. n'i mta da ki, n.,fr. madaki; a picture, a painting; a book. ma ma i (i klie, n.,fr. makieke; a gamet in which opposite sides are ta, ken. ma mfi a, n.; haw; haws. ia 111 mi a a, n.; haw-tree; a, species of Cratxgqus growing in Northlern Dakota. mia 0 d6 sa [-nesa], n.,fr. desa, ? lit., a thiny tw 7ich is not; a thing of imaginary existence, a ground less storyv etc. nma o de sa a zis, n. See Lo cal -Names. ina pa si pi sa, n.; sunflower seeds,-used as food by these Indianls. ma pa tslka ki di ti, n.; a wasp. ma p~ or ma pc, n; day, d ay. I'lla4 time; a period of twenty-four hours. —hidi-inap6, to-day. ma pe du, adv.,fr. mape; dur ing the day. ma pe he pa it.,, fr. mape and hopa; any day observed as sa cred )by white men, as Sund(ay and Christmas. mat pem n1 i di [-bidia li.,fr. mape and imidi; the s un. ma api di lipa, n.,fr. pidaulipa; ribbon. ma po s, n.; anw v animal or animals offensive to the sigh t of these Indians or unfit for food, a s insects, worno s, snakes etc. ma p6;a, n.; a te rm a ppli ede to flies.and insects less offensi v e to the sight a than te iapoka. ma po;a lIi dif ti, n.; an aDt. ma pi dsi ke, n.,fr. ptidsik-e; a cord of buckskin or other ma terial having porcupine quills or other ornamen,tal trilling wrapped around it. ina ro ka, n., same as madoka. ma rfi lita, n., same,(ts madu. lita. ina,a mi, tn.; miy aunt. See ma;a wi;, i iaami and disami. ma.i, n.; a buffalo-robe; a blanket worn as a robe. ma 4i, n.; a white man. The word was originally applied only to the French and Canadians, who are now sometimes desig nated as maaika'ti, the t r u e whites. ma,,~i a de, v.; to dream.-n-a inaaiade. I dream. mada,~iade, you dream. ma.i a lia, v.; to sweep oult dirt, to clean b)y sweep~ing wvith a~broomn. ma ~i a ila n.,/,. magialia; a 188

Page  189 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. ma; biroomd. The position of the par ticle' i' in this word is unique. ma si da. lia nl, t.,fr. masi and (laliain i; a shawl. ma,si i hii, n.,fr. nim,isi and ilii; dry-goods of any description. ma i i lii liht pi, n. (liapi, thin); light cottonI goods; mus lin. nta,i i lii puf zi, n. (puzi, spot ted); c,ilico prinits. ma:i I 1 ta tsi, n. (tatsi, thick;); cloth; woolen goodls. ina i i ptse, n.,fr. m,sii and iptse; a wide, embroidered band in thecentre of a robe or bl,anket. ma si" i ta da lipi tsi, n., lit., wchite man's bear; a hog. ma;i" i ta da lipi tsi;u ii, ,. (sui, fact); bacon. ma si i ta i mak i e ke, n., lit., white man's gamning materials; cards. ma;i i ta mi te [-wite], n., lit., white mant's buffalo, or cow; domestic cattle. ma;i" i ta tsa *ai ka, n., lit., white man's bird; the domestic cock. nma si ka, n.; chewing-gum. ma i pi a, a.?fr. s;ipiga; grapes; raisins. ma;i pi;a a kuL du" ti, n., lit., gratpe-eater; the cedar-bird, Amtpelis cedrorum. (IT 51). nla i pi p;a, n., fr. masi and Aipiga; the negro. ma;i ta, n.; Imy back; from iaita or the hypothetical word sita. ma.~i ta lia liku, n., lit., whitec mnan's tuber; the potato. ma,i ta ra lipi' tsi, same as masii taLda atipitsi. mna sfi a ka za; n., dimintnutive of na suka; a puppy; willow catkins are also so called. ma sfi ka, n.,fr. Auka; a dog. ma su ka ak $u4 n.,f-. masu ka and?akkue; the coral-berry or wolf-berry, Syrnphoricarpus. na su k.a a;k su a ma $i~", it. See Local Names. ma;u ka ic Le, n., lit., Dog Band; one of the orders or so cieties among the men of the tribe. ma gu la ka di;ta, n., lit., Little Dogs; an order or society of the men. ma;u ka ma dat Li, n.; an other of the bands or orders of the Hidatsa men. ma ta, n., prob. fr. ta, to kill; autuinrn. ma ta du, adv.,fr. rnata; dur inig the autumn. ma.ta duk, n., adv.,.fr. mata; next autumn; during next au tumn. ma ta!ii, nt.; a turtle. ma ta liii i;a, lit.,resemblinq a turtle; a padlock. ma ti lipi, n.; a heavy cord, a rope; a lariat. ma taL ki, n; a plate; a shallow disl. mna ta ki a du ki du;a, n.; a cup-board. See adukiduaa. ma tat ki a zi, n. See Local Nfames. - ma ta ko a, atdv., same as ma,te koa. ma tii Sit,.; my robe or blanket. See itaai. ma ta tsi dat lio ke, n., fr. ta. tsi and dalioke; -ati Indian pad. sadldle. ma ta tsi mi lio ke, sabme as last wcord. 189 mat

Page  190 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mat ma tC, i., adv., fr. te or tie; long ago; a long time; the last vowel is often lengthened to indicate very distant past time. ma t6 ko a adv., fr. mate; at a distant time in the past. nla ti, n.; a boat.-hutsi-mati (wind-boat), a sail-boat. mida mati, a wooden boat. mia ti si;a, n.; a steam-boat. ma t6 ke, n.; a clam. mna tsa nli di [-bidi], n.; a bowl or basin. ma tsa mi di ka zi, n., dimin utive of matsamidi; a small bowl or basin. -ma ts6 [watse, batse], n.; a mall. ma tse di di, n.,fr. miatse and didi; a war-party. ma tse 6 tsi, n.; a chief; a per son of prominence. ma tslio ki, n.; eagle tail-feath ers. ma tsi, n., contraction of maatsi. ma tsi, n.; my fool. See itsi. ma tsi k6 a, n.,fJr. tsikoa; su gar; a sweetened drink. mna tsi k6 a a ku ti" du e, n.; molasses, ma tsi k6 a ha" tski n. (ha tski, long); candy. ma tsi ko a pu" zi, n. (puzi, striped); candy. ma tsi ta hi du, n., fr. tsita and hidu; the coccyx. ma tsi to, n.; a needle or awl. ma tsi to ic ti" a, n. (ictia, large); an awl. mfa tsi to-u" ti po a du i, n. (uti and poadui); a pin. !na tsu, n.; small fruit, part~icu larly cherries. mia tsu a, n.; a cherry-tree. ma tslt a, n.; fibrous tissue from lne the back of the buffalo, elk, deer, etc. It is dried and split into finue threads for sewing, and is commonly called sinew by the whites. nma tsI a pa ki i, n., fr. ma tsua and p.kiMi; "; sinew " twilled by rubbing, as it is fixed pre paratory to being used in sew ing. ma tsu.4 tsa, n.; fragrant grass. ma tsu a zi*, n. See Local Names. ma tsu, ka, n.; my younger brother. See itsuka. mea tsu o tak a, n.; the smaller dogwood, Cornus stolonifera. mat tsu o taak i, n.,.fr. inatsu and taki; the berries of Corus stolonifera. mat tsu ta pa, n., fr. mnatsu and; the service-berry- Aoelan chier canadensis. ona tsu tm a pt a, n.; the serv ice-berry tree, shad-bush. ma tfi, v.; there are; there is; he has; they have, etc.; opposite of deaa. ma tf a, n.; green corn, roast itig ears. ma tu ii, n.; my dress or shirt. See ituii. ma u pqa hi, n.; a mallet. ma fit p.a ki hu" pa i ~is. See Local Names. ma u ta pi, n.,?fr. tapa; a ball of buck-skin or elk-skini stuffed with hair, and used by women in t hei r games; a ga me played with such a ball. ntlt wa dal ki, samee as mama d)aki. ma zi, n.; a!egend, a tale. ne, n.; a louse. 190

Page  191 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. trip mll n' pa ha, n., contraction of ma e- nic li, co})I. I)ers. pron., lst per pakai, but more common. son; I, myself. (~ 117). 'le' pi, n., contraction of maepi, mi da [wi-, bi-], i.; a wild much used. goose. nli' [li'], n.; a rock. lni da F+bidal, n.; wood; a nil [wi, wits], prob. auxiliary tree; a forest. verb, suffixed to denote 1st per- nliI da a lu du ti, n., lit., wood son, future. (11 167). eaters; caterpillarswhich liveon nil, simple pers. pron., 1st pers., trees. used independently or incorpo- mi da a pa,., fr. mida and rated, nominative and objective, apa; leaves of any kind; tea. usually singular, but when in- mi da du e tsa,n.,fr. midaand corporated may refer to more duetsa; awoodencanoe,"dug than one. (~ I 109, 110. 172, out". 205). ml da ha, n.; fire. nmi [wi, wits], a suffix inidicat- mi da hat dsi, n.; willows; a ing number. See tuami and hi- name applied to all shrub wil dimi. lows. nli, a syllable or prefix of uacer- ini da hai dsi hi si, n.; red tain significance, beg i n n in g willow. many nouns in the language; nli da ha i du ka pi, n.; a often pronoiunced bi, sometimes friction-match. I. a h A a Y embers. wi. mi a [wia, bia], n.; a woman. nli a d6 ka ta [-no-], n.; a harlot. This is the proper word; but m a d u li t a, fool, is often used. mi a ka za, n., fr. mia and ka za; a young woman. mi a ti, n.,fr. mia; a man who dresses in woman's clothes and performs the duties usually al lotted to females in an Indian camp. Such are called by the French Canadians "berdaches"; and by most whites are incor rectly supposed to be lherm,a phrodites. nli iia ti he, v. t.; to become a miati; said of a man who as sumes the dress and tasks of a woman. mi ai tike, v. t.; to cause to be a muiati. 191 mid nic lii, comIpi. liers. pron., lst per son; I, myself. (1 117). mi da [wi-, bi-], i.; a wild: goose. ini dai [+bida], n.; wood; a tree; -i forest. nmi da a lcu dfi ti, n., lit., wood eaters; caterpillars which live on trees.' mi da a pa, it., fr. mida and apa; leaves of any kind; tea. mi da du 6, tsa, n.,fr. mida and duetsa; a wooden canoe, a"dug out "

Page  192 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mid ml 4a ii ma lia ti-i o" ki, mi la i a ma ia ti-i o" pe, I mi da i a ma lia ti-i o" ptsati,n.; acandlestick. See oki, ope, and optsati. mi da i.i pi, n.; a spool. mi da ic lie, n.,fr. mida and icke; the Goose Band, one of the orders among the women of the tribe. mi da ic pa ti, n.; sunken tree or snag in a river. mi da i ka ki, n. (kaki, roll); a wagon. nlii da i 6 pe, n.,fr. mida and iope; a box of any kind, partic ularly a, wooden box. ml da I si, n.,fr. mida and isi; bark. ml da ka mic lia, n. (kamic ka, tough); oak. ml da ka za, n., diminutive of mida; a stiek, a switch. mi dai ki, n.; a shield. mi da k i, n.; a palisade or stockade; a skillet or pan; so called perhaps because like a palisaded enclosure. mi da lu C tsa, same as midadu etsa. mi da ma i du tsa da, n.; a .wooden sled. See nmaidutsada. mi da mia ti, n.,fr. mida and mati; a yawl or skiff. mi dai pa, a contraction of mida apa, often heard. mi da pa, n.; beaver. nli da tsa pi, n.; ashes; gun!)owder; dust. mii da tsa pi a zi, n. See Lo. cal Names. mi da tsa pi i $i, n.; a powder horn. mi da tsfi ka, n.,fr. mida and tsuka; boards; a floor. mid mi do6, n.; a door; a door-way. mi dd di, v. t.; to come through a door-way, to enter a house; to pay a visit. mi d, ko a, n.; at or near the door; the seat around the fire nearest to the door. nil di [bidi, mini], n.; water. The latter pronunciation, corre sponding with the Dakota, is most commonly used in com pound words. mi di, n.; a name given to both sun and mroon; it may be trans lated luminary or great luminary. iWhen there is danger of ambi guity they are distinguished as mape-midi (day luminary) and oktsi-midi or maku-midi (night 1lumin-ary). mi di [widi], verbal root; turn, twist. See pamidi, dumidi, etc. nli di a p6 LIa, n., lit., water head dress; a rainbow. mi di a t~, adv., n.,fi'. midi and ate; when the sun (or moon) rises; sunrise. mi di a tc de, adv.; near sun rise, just before sunrise. nmi di a tc du, adv.; at sunrise, during the time the sun is rising. mni di a t6 duk, adv.; when the sun shall next rise. mni di a te 6 dak Ai pi, adv.; after sunrise. See daksipi. midi d-a lii Ai, n., fr. midi and da~his'e; a wave, a billow. mi di d6 ta, n., fr. iiiidi, water, and deta; the bank of a river; the shore of a lake. mi. di di di [-niri], v., fr. midi and dim i; to swip n. mi di ho pa,~ n. See Ljocal ~ames. mi di i a p~a ti, n.; a saw. 192

Page  193 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. mih nii di ma p6 duii pa hi-dak si pi, n.; synonymous with ]last wor(l. mi di ma p( du pa hi de, n.; nearl, noon. mi di mi ta lia hlie, n.; the MIandd;a mvdicilie-ark. mi di pi, v.; to enter the water, i. e.,,t6 ba,ithie one's self. mi di sa, v., adj.; turbid; said of water. mi di sa a zig. See Local Names. Ini di;a lie, v. t.,fr. micdia; to ma,ke turbid; roiled. mi di si, n., contraction of mida iM. mi di si pi sa, n.,fr. midi and Aipiga; coffee, the inifusion or decoction. mi di ta di [minitari],'u., comp. v.,fr. midi and tadi; to cross water, to go across a streim. Thc Hidatsa Indians; so called by the Mandans. mi di ti, v. t.; to cook by fry ing. ml di tsi, adj.; of a watery con sistency. nlil do, pers. pron., plural; we; uS. ml do ki, pers. pron., compound, plural; we, ourselves. mi du e, v. i.,fr. midi and ue; to bubble; to boil as water. mi dfl e he, v. t.; to boil water. mi di e lie, v. t.; to cause to boil, to set to boil; boiled. mi dufi lia [bi-], n.; a gun or bow. mi dfl lia lke, n.,fr. midulia; a popP-gun. mxi e, n.; woman, same as mia, mi lia ka, nl.; a generic name !br (lucks. mid mi di i da liu pi, n., fr. midi, i, and daliupi; a sponge. mi di i hi' ke, n.,fr. midi, i, and hike; a' drinking-vessel, a cup. mi di i ki ki ski, n.,fr. mi(i and ikikiski; a watch or clock.' mi di i ma lipi [-wfl-], n., adv.,fr. midi and imnilipi; sun set. mi di i ma lipi de, adv.; neaer sunset. mi di i nma lipi du, adv.; at sunset. mi di i ma lipi dulS, adv.; when the sun shall next set. nli di i ma lipi se du, adv.; when the sun did last set. mi di i ta tsu, n.,fr. midi and itatsu; the half-moon. mi di ka, adv., fr. midi, water; in or by the water. nli di ka Li ii, n.,fr. midi, moon, and kakilii; the full-nioon. ml di ka kI lii de, n.; the gib bous moon. mi di ka 6 ze [mini-], n., fr. imjidika and oze, lit., They Plant by, or in, the Water; a band of the Teton Dakotas. mi di ke, v. t., fr. mide and ke; to liquefy, melt. nil di ki da he, fr. midi, moon, and kidahe; the new moon, the crescent. mi di ki dak tsi e, n.; clear water, water allowed to settle. ml di 6 pe, contraction of mida iope. mi di ma pC' du pa hi [bidi wap46rupahi], n., fr. midi, mape, and dopahe, lit., the sun 1 divides the day in two; noon. mi di ma p6 du pa hi-dak a-mi di, n.; afternoon. 13 193

Page  194 HIDATSA DICTIO,ARY. mit mi' Ima fi p? lii, n., fr. tni' and m,upl)aki; at stole-ljea(led m.lilet, such -is is ordinarily mlad.1e, by? these; Indiadns. mi spa [bispaj, n.; the ash tree. mi ta pa [witapa, wita pats], v. i.; to lie, to decesive. mi ta pa dsi,,t. i.,fr. mital)a; to equivocaite. mi ta p4 ksa, v. i.,Jfr. mita pa; to lie frequently or hbabitu ally. ml t6,, n.; a buffalo-cow; the word is also used generically. ml t6 a ka zi, n., diminutive of nmite; a biff,alo.calf. mi te a ta di ke [bitcatiri ke], n.; the box-elder, Negundo aceroides. mi t6 a ta ki, n.,fr. mnite and ataki; an albino buffalo, whi; I)uffa-lo. mi t,6 a ta ki ic ke, n.; the White Buffalo Band, a secret degree or order among women of the tribe. ml t6, ktsa tsa, n; the black curran t. mi te6 ktsa tsa a, n.; the cur rant-bush. mi t6 o da lipi, n.; a buff,tlo hide. mi' 1i, v. i.; to creep, as a hunter approaching game. nli tsa ki, v.; I alone; I un aided. mi tsi, n.; a wedge for splitting wood. mi' tsi, verbal root; mince; com minute finely. ml' tsi a da zi. See Local wl ames. mi tsi i ta mi dqLasi. See Loea,! l/ames. mi' i, n.; a stone or rock, same as mi'. mni' i da' ta, n., lit., stone heart; a geode. mi I ptsa, n.,fr. mi' and iptsap,; an axe, particularly a stone axe. See maiptsa. nli i ptsa da' ka, n., diminutive of miiptsa; a tomahawk or hatchet, particularlyv a stone hatchet. See maiptsadaka. mi ka, n.; a mare; as a suffix it indicates the female of all lower animals except bufilto. mi ka', n.; grass; sedge; all grass-like plants. mi ka' i du tsi, n.,fr. mika' and dutsi; a pitchfork. mi ka' ki ksa, n., lit., Grass fixers; an order ordegree among women. nmi ka' t6 hi sa, adj.,fr. mika' and tohisa; green. mi ka' tsa. ki, n.; a name sometimes applied to fragrant grass. mi ka' fi dsi, n.,7it., dry grass; hay. mi ka' fi ta Iku du ti, n.,fr. mika'uti and aktuduti; a cater pillar that eats onions. mi ka' u ti, n.,fr. mika' and uti; onions; wild garlic. mil' ka za, n., diminutive of mi'; gravel, pebbles. lni klta [wi-], n.; the bottom, the lower part or surface of any thing. mi ktaf ka [wi-], adv.,fr. mi kta; at the lower part; below. nli kta ko a, adv.,fr. mikta; near or at the bottom; under. mi kt'i ta, adv.,fr. mikta; down ward, iu t he directioh of tho b ot tom. 194 n'ti9

Page  195 HIDATSA DICT'IONARY. mit mi tska pa, n.; the fruit of the rose; it is eaten by Indians. mi tska pa a, n.; a rose bush. mi tslka pa 6 ddik a pa ki, n; rose-blossom. See odaka m6 tsa, n.; a coyot6 (Canis lat rans). nm6 tsa i ta ma ka ta, n., lit., coyote's plum; the fruit of Astra galus caryocarpus. mri, verbal root. See mua. mui a, v. or verbal root; to soun(l, to make a noise. See liamua, tamnua, tsimua, etc. mfia [bua], n.; generic na,me for fish. nu a da ki, v. i.; to bark as a wolf or dog; to imitate the howl of a, wolf, as Indian hunters com monly do when calling to each other in the woods. ~ inu a i du tsku pi, n.; a fish hook. mu a pa d( lii, n.,fr. mua, ap, p and delii; sturgeon. mu a pa ha tski,fr. mua, apa, and hatski; gar-pike (?). inu a tsfi ka, n. (tsuka,flat); sun-fish. mu dsi [wudsi], verbal root; roll up, fold by rolling. mu pi [wuipi], v. t.; to smell. mfi ti, v. t., 1st pers. of duti; I eat. o, adv. much; used in com pounds; synonymous with ahu, which may be derived from o. o, a prefix to verbs forming nouns which are names of places and actions; often synonymnous with a(]a. (11 ff 49, 50). o, a i)retfix of undetermined mean i,og to verbal roots. In the 1st and 2d persons, it commonly takes m and d as pronouns, pre ceded by a. (IT 197). 6 da [-ra], v. t.; to pass another person on the road either by overtaking or mneeting him. Oo da lipi [-nalipi, -ralipi], n., fr. dalipi; the hide of an an imal, the entire hide. 6 dak a pa ki, n.,fr. dalkapaki; a flower, a blossom; sometimes accented on penultimate. 6 dak a pit ii, n., fr. dakapilii; an ornaimental flap on a gar ment; also odakal)llii. 6 da ki, v. i.; to chirp, to make a stridulous sound. 6 dak sa ki, n.,fr. daksaki; a contused wound; the act of giv ing a contused wound. 6 dlik si pi, n.,fr. dakaipi; a. subsequent time. a time after some other time nentioned. 0 da mu, n.,fr. damt; a deep spot in a stream; the channel of a river. 6 da pi [-ra-], v. t.; to find, to make an original discovery; not to recover something lost. 6 da sa' ti [ona-], n.; a name, a designation; not a proper name. n. Words heardl to begin with the sound of n may be found under d; n and d being inter changeable letters. (1I I1 20 and 21.) 195 6da 0. n.

Page  196 IIIDATSA DICTIONARY. 6da 6 da sa' ti, v. t.; to name, to speak of or call by name. Iu the conjugation of this word, o is not preceded bv a, as in other verbs beginning with' o'. —oma dasa'ti, I name. odadasa'ti [ola nasa'ti], you name. o di di, n.,fr.didi; gait, walk. odidi i,i a, said of a lame per son. o dui se, n.,fr. duse; a place of deposi t. o du ska ska pka, n.; spruce gum, such as the In(liaiis them selves gather. That obtained from the traders is called ma ika. o dfi tsi, n.,fr. duttsi; a mine; a llace where anything may be obtained with certainty. 6 hi, v. t.; to be fond of; said of the affection of pets for their owners. 6 lia ta dui, v. i.; becoming pale. 6 lia ti, adj.,fr. liati; white, bright, clear, or pale; often used synonymously with ilio taki. 6 lia ti ke, v. t.; to make pale, to bleach or whiten. 6 lia ti ksa, adj.; continually or habitually pale. 6 La, n., adv.; yonder, over there. 6 ka du, adv.; in a distant place (pointed to), yondo'r; beyond. 6 ka ko a, adv.; at a distant place, at yon place; at the other side. 6 kLa ta, v. t.; to put on an arti cle of clothing, to dress. 6 Li, v. t.; to surround the base, to surro udn one endg of an ob ject; to maintain ill Imsition or supoport by thlus surroun~dinlg, — Oph as a candle is held in a catndle stick, as the teeth are held in the gums. 6 ki, n.; a plume, a feather, some thing plumose. o Li ic pu, n., fr. oki and icpu; a tassel. 6 ki pa di, v. t., fr. oki and apa di; to grow up around; said of oiiyoung saplings or twigs growing around a parenit tree. 6ii pa. pi, V1. t.; to find, to re cover something lost. See [ 197. kLtsi, n.,?fr. katsi; darkness; hencee, one of the names for night.-hidi oktsi, this night. ktsi a de, n., adv.; almost night; almost dark; after sun set. o ktsi a du [-rvi], adv.; during the niglht. o l tsi a duk [-rilk], n., adv.; next night; duringtbe approach iDg [night. o ktsi se du, n., adv.; last night; during last night (I 1 256,257). oktsisedu itaokakoa, before last night. o lhti se ru, same as last word. o nai wu, same as odranu. 6O pa, n.; evening, near sunset. 6' pa de, n., adv.; near evening, late in the afternoon. 6' pa du, adv.; during the eve — illg. 6o pa duk, adv.; during the conm ing evening. 6 pa pe, v. t.; to bedaub slightly, to bespatter, to stick on in sall quantities. O pa ~a,? n.; a tucekinlg. oo pa sa kli, n., fr. ol)aa and ku; r to give a tucking, i. e. to tuck ini the edges of bedding. 196

Page  197 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. opa 6 pa 4e, v. t.; to tuck bedding. pc, v. t.; to contain to holdl, as a box or vessel. O pV, n.; tobacco. This name is often applied to articles mixed o withli, or used in place of, tobacco, as bark of Cornus or leaves of uva ursi. 6 pe ha Aa or op(hasa, n.; the barlk of Cornus stolonifera, or Cornus sericea(, d(ried an(l pre pared for smoking, "kinneke nick ". 6 pe hi, v. t., conmp. of ope and hi; to smoke tobacco or any substi tute for tobacco. 6 pe i Ai, n., fr. ope and isi; a to bacco-bag. 6 pe pa Ini tsi, n.,fr. ope and pamitsi; a board on which to bacco is cut. This word is not formed according to ordinary etymological rules; it was prob ably originally opeipamitsi. 6 psa 4a, v. t.; to stop, to jar, to arrest motion; said of an object against which a person stumbles in walking. 6 ptsa ti, v. t., to encircle or sur round closely; to hold by sur rounding closely; often used synoti,y,tiiously with oki. 6 ti, V. i., adj.; cooked; ripened; scalded. 6 ti he, v. t.; to scald or cook. 6 ti ke, v. t.; to cause to cook or riplen; to put fruit away to ripton. 6 tslia mi [-wil, v. i., adj.; lulUb; paralyzed;.said of the feeling in the limbs produced by pressure, and commonly called " sleep-iness ". —matsi otsliaw its, my foot is asleep. 6 tslia mlii ke, v. t.; to make numb, or "sleepy ". pout o ze, n., f;. thte verb; a drink, a cpl) of water or other fluid. 6 ze, v. t.; to pour into, to fill or partly fill a vessel; also to plant or sow seed. pa, v. t.; to reduce to powder by grinding or pounding. pa, a prefix to verbs, commonly signifying that the action is per formed by the hands or is capa ble of beiDg performed by the hands. (f[ 154). pa d6 pi, adj.,?fr. padui; short in stature, low-sized. pa d6 pi di, adj.; very. short. pa du a du i, v.,fr. padui; shortening; decreasingin length. phi du i, adj.; short. po i du i di di, n.,fr. padui and didi; ceremonial processions per formed by hands or secret orders of the tribe, in which the per formers follow one another in a circle, taking very short steps and singing as they move. These processions are commonly called "iu e d i c i n e lances" by the whites; but the Hidatsa apply a different term to -t dance. pa du i ke, v. t.; to shorten; shortened. ph du i ksa, v., adj.; constantly and excessively short. pa hi, v.; to sing. pa lia du i, v. i.; becoming chafed or blistered. pa li6 hi, v. t.,?fr. liolii; said of ice when it begins to break in the spring. pk liu, v. t.; to spill; imperative,, form. 197 P.

Page  198 HIDATSA DICTlONARY. pali pa liu e, v. t., fr. liu or liue; to spill out, to pour; to empty by pouring. pa ka d46, v. t.; to stick into or thrust through, to impale. pa k.a pi, v. i.,fr. kapi; to be torn, as in walking through rose bushes. pa. ki di, v. t.; to push, to sho ve away with the hand. pa ki Ai, v. t.; to rub gently in one direction with the hand, as in smoothing the hair or strok ing a cat. pa ki ti, v. t.,[fr. kiti; to press to sm oothness, to make smooth by pressure with the hands. pa mi di, v. t.,fr. midi; to twist with - be hand. pa mi tsi [-w i tsi], v. t., fr. pni tsi; t o cut fine b3p pressing on with a knif e he ld in the h and, as in c utting up tob acco or other m aterial on a booard preparatory to smoki ng. pa m i dsi [-wudsi], v. t.; to roll utp with the hands, to roll as a long strip of cloth or carpet or bandage is rolled; to fold or pack by rolling. pa sa. ki, v. t.; to engirdle or cover, as with a belt. pa sA ki, v. t.; to love or like; possibly a figurative application of paaaki, to engirdle. .pa ikfi, v. t.,fr. Aku; to extract by pushing with the hand. to shove a cork into a bottle, to Touslh a bullet out of a wound. pa' t1, imperative of pa'te. pa t,. ii v. t.; to place in con tact. Seze ipat~aki, kipat~aki, and m.kipat~aki. pai' ten v. t.; to turn ovter; to tum ble over. pat p.i ti, v. i.; to fall down off of, to drop from a height. p4. ti he, v. t.; to throw or knock down; to throw down from. pa ti ke, v. t.; to cause to fall, to throw down, to remove a support and aillow to fall. pa t6' ti, v. t., fr. to'ti; to wave or agitate back afnd forth; to wave with the hand; to make a signal by waving. pa tsa li, V. t.,fr. tsake; to cut; to cut withi a knlife or instru nient held in the hland.-patsak, imperative. pa tsa' ti, v. t.,fr. tsati; to punc ture. pa tsa ti, n.; the west, the land to the west of the Hidatsa. phi tsa ti hia, adv.; westward. pAi o tsa ti Loa, adv.; at or in the west. p4. tska, adj.; flattened, having one or more plane surfaces. pa tskl. pi, v. t.,fr. tskapi; to prick with a pin; to stick with an instrument held in the hand. pa tska., n. proper. See Local Naames. pa tski di a, n., fr. p.tska; cac tus, particularly the different species of Opuntia or prickly pear. pa tski di a 6 lia, n., fr. p.a tskidiaoki and a; the round ca1c tus of the Upper Missouri, which bears a pleasant edible fruit. pa tski di a 6 ki, n.,fr. patski dia and oki (alluding to the waty in which the fruit grows on the plant); the fruit of the round cactus or Mammillaria. Tihe name ha~s recentltly beenl applied to figs. 198

Page  199 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. pat pua pa tskfiu pi, v. t.,fr. tskupi; to pi di e, v., adj.; ruffled or frilled, fold up as a blanket or robe is ornamented with a ruffled bor folded. der. pa wi di, same as pamidi. pi e, v., adj.; smoky; said of atpe, v. t.; to swallow; to take a mosphere rendered disagreeable meal in which both liquid and by smoke. solid food are served. pi C ksa, adj.; constantly and pe, v. t.; to grind, as coffee in a disagreeably smoky. mnlill. pi ta kic ti a, adj. See pitikicpe da kLu din ti, n.,fr. pedi, tia. aku, and duti; a vulgar name pi ti ka, num. adj.; ten. sometimes applied to dogs; of- pi ti kic ti a, num. adj.,fr. piti fensive epithet applied to per- ka and ictia; one hundred. sons whom they wish to liken to pi ti kic ti a-a ka ko di, numn. dogs. adj.; one thousand. pe da ku pa' te, n.,fr. pedi, pli ti, v. t.,fr. kiti or I)akiti; to aku, and pa'te; a species of bee- smooth out; to iron clothes. tle. inapkiti, I smooth. dapkiti [na.], pe de tska, n.; the large crow you smooth. The word pLkii or raven. alone is rarely heard; for in the p6 de tska i ta lii" pi Aa, n.; third person the intensive form, Phlox aristata. kipkiti, is used. pe de tski;ta p6 di, n.,fr. pe- p6 a du a dsi, adj.,fr. pI)oadui; detska and istapedi; a sort of of a hemispherical or somewh-at sott hail or snow falling iII glob. spherical appearance. ular flakes," mountin snow ". p6 a du i, adj.; globular, bemip6' di, n.; any offensive matter or, or nodular. excretion, dregs, ordure. p6 a du i ke, v. t.; to make pli6 ta, n.; nasal mucus. globular. pliC6 ta i si, n.; a pocket-hand- psu, verbal root; dislocate; kerchief. knoc(k out of line. pliu, verbal root, or?J?-. liu; psu li, v. i.; to belch.-mapsuki, squeeze out and let fall. I belcl. (lapsuki, you belch. pliu ti, v. or verbal root?jfr. pliu psu kic ti, v. i,.,.fr. psuki; de or liu; squeeze forward, squeeze noting desire or readiness. out. See kipliuti. p(ii ti, v. t.,fr. p5u; todislocate.pi, v. t.; to tattoo. kipsuti is the more common pi, verbal root; pene'rate. As a, Ioiill. verb, often used synonymously ptsfi li, v. t.; to shove or thrust with ipi.-rnapi, dapi. forward, to protrude. See kipi a, v. i.; crepitate. ptsuti, which is the form most pi a ti, v. i.,fr. pia; denoting de- commonly used. sire or readiness. pu a, v. i., adj.; to swell; to be pi da lipa, v., adj.; light and swollen, as a bruise; also to rot thin, as silken goods. or become putrid. 199

Page  200 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. pua pfi a de, v. i., adj.; to be tainted or sour, but not decidedly rotten. pu a du i, v. i.; becoming swol ]en, swelling gradually and con stantly. pufi a ke, v. t.; to cause to swell, to iniflict an injury which pro duces swelling; swollen. pu a Lia, v. i.; constantly swollen. pu dsi, v. t.; to mark with fine indentations closely set; to sew with fine stit:ches; to wrap fine thread closely around; to wind colored horsehairs or porcupine quills closely around a buckskin string for ornament. The object of this verb is the name of the material used in wrapping or marking. pu dsi ke, v. t.; to cause to be finely sewed, indented, or en wrapped. The object of this verb is the name of the article on which the marking or wrapping is done. pu e6, n.; visible vapor from warm water; mist, fog. pu c, v. i.; to steam (said of water); misty. pu lia ki, n.; sand. pu" lia kLi a t6e, n.,fr. puliaki and ate; a sand-bar appearing above the surface of the water; a sandy island. pu lii, n.; foam or lather. pu lii, adj.; freckled, blotched. pufi lii, v. i.; to foam. pufi lii ke, v. t.; to causelto foam, to agitate until a foam is pro (lucel. pip pu, t.; a tall species of grass, the Dakota cedi. pfl zi, adj.; spotted, figured, or striped. tl kah pit zi ken v. t. to mark or orna ment with spots or figures; spot ted. pfi zi ke, n.; the domestic cat, an animal not long known to this tribe. The name is said to come from puzi; but it was probably, to some extent, sug geste.d by the Eniglishi termn pussy-cat.-puzike sounds just as the Hidatsa would be Ioost likely to corrupt or mispronounce pussy-cat., pfi zi ke da ka, n.; a kitten. r. Words heard to begin with the sound of r mnay be found under d, these letters being interchange able. See IT f[ 19, 20, 22. s. Words heard to begin with the sound of s may be found in this dictionary with ts for their first letters. See It 17. ia, n.; same as Aada. Aa a ka, n.;. a frog. 49 da, n.; pudendum muliebre. $a he, n.; the Cree or Knisti neaux Indianils. Assineboine "sba-i-yc". Other tribesof this region call the Crees by names wh ich sound much like v ahe or shaiye. There are various ex planations of the derivations, but they are all doubtful. i 200 r. S.

Page  201 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. sak sa ka, n., same as Aaaka; a fiog. In the first syllable, the vowel is prolonged or pronounced as if douibled. 4a lia du sfn ki, n.,fr. Aaki and aduauki; the knuckles. sa ka pi, adj.; tepid, luke warlli. sa ka pi he, v. t.; to make tel)id. $A. ki, n.; the human hand; somnetimes applied to the fore pIaws of brutes. —aki, a,lone and in derivatives beginning with it, is cotnmonly preceded by the !~rotiouns. See i.aki. Aa ki a du tsa mi he, n.; fin gers. ia ki do ma ta du, n., fr. Aaki and duinatadu; the middle fin ger. sa ki i 6 ptsa ti, n., fr. saki and ioptsa-ti; a finger-ring. sai ki ta ki da ka" he, n.,fr. saki and itakidakahe; a span; a span measure. isa Ii Lia zi, n., diminutive of sa ki; the little finger. ia ki la zi fi ti du, n.; the third finger. See utidu. sa ki 6 ptsa ti, a contraction of &a,kiioptsati. s;a ki ta, n.; the thumb. sa kufi pa du i, v. i.; becoming crooked, warping. sa lik pi, adj.; crooked. sa kfi pi he, v. t.; to distort; to bend. a kai pi ke, v. t.; to make crooked. sa mi, hypothetical word; aunt. See isami. sa pu a, nuni. adj.; seven. sa pu a he, v. t.; to make into seven t -rms or parts.s.'a pu a he lke, v. t.; to cause to bet make into seven; nearly synony mous with Aapuake. isa pu a ke, v. t.; to separate into seven parts, to divide into sevenths; divided into sevenths. sa pi a pi ti ka, num. adj.; sevenity. $sa sa, v., adj.; to fork or divide; forked, branched. sa sa ka du i v. i.; becoming dull or blunt. sa sAa ki, adj.; dull, as an edge tool. sa sfa ki he, v. t.; to tickle.-ni asisukim,wits, I s ill tickle you. ;a sfi ki Ike, v. t.; to cause to be dull. ase, demonst. pron.; that one, that tlithing.-sets, that is he, is the very one. i6, du, adv., fr. ~e and du; there; then; at that very time or place. As a suffix, this word is used to denote time, as the English last or ago. (If 255). s6, i Ake, adv., fr. Ae and iske; just as directed, just as ordered. 6 L ka, adj., fr. se and ka; of the same size as something previ ously described. s6 lio a, adv., fr. Se and koa; there, at that very place. $6 ru, adv., same as sedu. cs sa, adj., adv., fr. se and isa or ise; same as Aege. s sc, adj., adv.; resembling some thing previously described, "just like that ". s6e sets, a foim of the last word used when it is desired to agree with some particular version of a story; "it is just as you say ". s6 ta, adv.,';not the samle as that 7t ";not just that "'. —et'~ts. $~ tsa ki, verbl or phrase usedl as 201

Page  202 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. Aia a, pronoun; that alone; he or she unaided or unaccompanied. si a, synonymous with se. Possi bly the latter is a contraction. Ai a ka. See Aeka, siakats. Ai di, adj.; tawny, dull yellow. Ai di lie, v. t.; to make tawny, to color a dull yellow. Ai di Ai, v. i.,f. disi; to hasten, to be in a hurry.-disidisi, hurry thou. Ai di si ke, v. t.; to cause to hurry, to make hasten. ~i k.La ka, n.; a young man. Ai ki a, adj.; curly, as the hair of a t)bufftlo; said also of tangled underwood. ;I ki he, v. t.; to curl. %I pa, n.; the bowels. Ai pe, adv.; tangled, hard to pen etratte; said of bad-lands, dense woods, etc. i pi, adj.; black, pure black. ;i pi he, v. t.; to blacken; to ap l)ly powdered charcoal. 4i pi;a, adj., fr. sipi and isa; blackish; of a very dark blue, brown, or other color scarcel s distinguishable from black; of ten applied to pure black. Ai pi;a de, adj.; almost black, distinguishable from black, but approa,ching it. Ai pi sa dsa du i, v. i.; becom ing dark, -,s the face from expos ure to weather. 4i pi sa dsi, adj.; resembling black, seeming to be blackish. ;i pi sa dsi he, v. t.; to darken, to deepen or darken the color. Ai pi sa dsi ke, v. t.; to dye of a darkish color. si pi sa du i, v. i.; darkening, be coolin blaidkish (ras irou (21 lowved to cool); said wheu re p)orting the progress of an oper ation for dyeing of a blackish color. Ai pi;a lie, v. t.; to niake very dark; to e n eusything of a black or blackish color. i ta, hl)o ypothetic(a l. See isita. tke, v.; commaandd; direct. sku, verbal ioot; fource through, e xtract. s6 ki, adj.; baroad; often used for dull. See Atguki. ;-j a, adj, adv.; slow; slowly. sfu a ha, adv.; slowly. sfi a ke, v. t.; to cause to move slowlb', to retard motion. su e, v. t.; to spit. su i, n.; unmelted fat, adipose tissue. si lia, perhaps hypothetical; a dog, a beast of burden; same as Dakota, Aunka; found in the words itsuaunka, itaauka, niaau ka,, etc. su l-i adj.; same as Aoki. ta, adv.; only, but; commonly pronounced as if suffixed. th or ta', an adverb and adverb ial suffix denoting negation; not. As it conimonly terminates a sentence, it is often beard pro nounced tats. Ex.-itskits, it is -large enough. itskitats, it is not large enough. (IT 260). ta, a suffix to nouns and pronouns denoting possession, particularly acquired or transferable posses sioux. (1T 85). ta, prep.; toward, in the direction of, etc.; suffixed to nouns, it forms adverbs. (f[ 261). 202 ta t.

Page  203 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. tip ta pa ta, adv.; in what direc tion, whlither.- tapata daide, where are,y ou going? ta p6,, interrog. pron.; who. ta p tI lta, interrog. poss. pron.; whose. ta p46 ta, same as tapeita. ta pi, verbal root; press, squeeze. See dutal)i, etc. ta ta, adv.; referring to past time not very distant; a short time ago, some time ago. ta ta ko a, adv.; at or during a past period not very distant. ta tsa dsi, adj.,fr. tatsi; thick ish. appearing to be thick. ta tsa du i, v.; thickening. t. tsi, adj.; thick, as cloth, etc.; also used to express total ob. scurity of the sky. See apalii tatsi. t. tsi ke, v. t.; to thicken; thickened. ta wi fii, same as tamulii. te, v., ad(j.; dead.- tets, he is dead. te du ti [-ruti], n.; a prairie terrace; a low open plain. t6 he, v.; to die.-temats, I am diyinig. temamits, I will die. ti, a suffix to verbs denoting read iness or desire to pertform an ac tion; to be about to ti a, adv., same as tie. ti di a, v. i.; to run. ti di e ke, v. t.; to cause to run; to race a horse. ti e, n., adv.; a long time; long continuing. ti e duk [-ruk], adv.; referring to distant futurity. ti e hi duk, adv.; when a dis ralnt future time~ shall arrive. ti pi a, n.; mludl. ti pi a da zi. See Local Names. ti pi a tsa ki, v. adj.,fr. tipia ta ta, v. i. and t.; to kill; to be killed. ta. da to di [-la-], to discharge a gun. ta d6, v.i.; almost killed; nearly dead. ta di [-ri], v. t.; to cross over, to go from one side to the other; to row or swim across a stream. td du, hypothetical. See italdu. ta h6, v. t.,fr. ta; to kill; he kills.-tamats, I kill. tadats, you kill. tahets, lie kills. ta hfiu', 21., v.; thunder; to thun der. Like most other tribes of the plains the Hidatsat attribute thunder to the movements of a great bird. ta hfi i da k a, n., fr. tahu' and idaka; low rumblings of thun d(ler following a loud )peal. ta, hfi i ki sis, n. See Local Names. t'd ka, intertrog. pron.; what; which. ta ha dgt [-ra], what do you say. ts ia ta, inter. adv.,fr. talla; in what direction, whither.-tai)ata and t6ta are synonyms more commonly emplloyed. t. ki, adj.; white. See ataki and ili6taki. ta mu a [tabua], v., fr. niua; to make a loud ringing sound, to be ringing, to ring. la mfi lii, adj.; very fine, mi nute. ta mn fihi di, adj.; exceedingly fine, very miniute. ta, pa, interrog. pron.; what? what is it a. ta pta, adj.; soft, easily brokeni or yie!(ilint,. t? pgt i, adj,~ same as t~apt~. 203

Page  204 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. tip and tsaki; soiled with imiud, be spattered with mutd. ti pi ai tsa ki Le, v. t.; to cause to be soiled withl muud. ti Aa or ti Ae, adj., adv.; Iar, dis. taut; to a distance. ti tsa du i, v. i.,fr. titsi thlick ening, increasing ill diatme ter. ti tsi, adj.; thick, as a fat or swollen limb or the truiik of. large tree; refers to ditLmeters of cylindrical bodlies. ti tsi ke, v. t.; to thicken, to in crease in diameter; thickened. ti tsi ksa, adj.; thick excessive ly and habitually, as a perroa n,.ntly swollen limb. to, ijterrog. adv. -nd pron.; what t place? what person? what kind or colo r? t6 du [-ru], adv.,fr. to and du; in what place? wherein? where tsa ability or uncertainty; hence, it is often used interrogatively and i s frequently fotllowea d by tmadi etsr I suppose. t6 ka, adv., fr. to and ka; where - to we thre,? whiither g t6 La ta or t6 kta, synoyrimous with toka.-t6katadade [tokta rorble, toktalale], wh ere are you going? 16 pa, tum. adj.; four. be c t t to pa he, v.. and t.; to part in l'oui-. to pa he ke, v. t.; to cause t o pa,rt in lour. t6 pa lie, v. t.; to divside into fotur i)arts; divided into four parts. to pbra i ti ka, n., adj., f. to pa and t)itika; f si ty. t6;a, interrog. adv., fr. to; how in what mnainner? to;, interroq. adv.; whly? where tore? t6 ta, intert-og. adv.,fr. to; in whatt direction? toward what —t6tat(lade [totarade, to talale], in what direction are you going? to' ti, verb)al root; implying sud den, repeated reversion of mo tionI. See datolti, duto'ti, patol ti, etc. tsa, adj.; raw, uncooked. tsa, verbal root; separate, divide. tsat da, n.; grealse, oil. tsai da, v. or verbal root; slide, rnove smoothly. tsa da ke, v. t.; to make slide, to cause to assist to slide. tsa dfi tsa ki, adj.,fr. tsada, grea~se, a~nd tsaki; soiled with grease. tsa hi du mni di,- v. i.,fr. dumi di; to sufl~r irom vertigo. at! to ha dsa du i, v. i.,fr. tohadsi; assuming a bluish hue. t6 ha dsi, adj.; having a bluish or implure blue color. t6 ha dsi ke, v. t.; to dye aii im pure blue color. 16 ha du i, v. i.; assuming a blue color. t6 hi, adj.; blue; denotes pure or positive blues, sky-blue, ultra iiiarivhe. t6 hi ke, v. t.; to dye anything a pure blue. t6 hi Aa, adj.,fr. tohi and iba; of a color allied to blue; green. See mikaltohiaa. t6 hi Aa ke, v. t.; to dye ally thing green or other color allied to blue. tok, adv.; it is used after sen tences and verbs to denote prob 204

Page  205 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. tsa kin, n.; something inferior or worthless, a nuisance. tsa mak, a form of tsame, us ed iii the sense of a noun.-tsamak isiats, its being hot is ba(ld i. e., th e he at is oppressive. tsa me' [-we] adj.; hot, very warn.-tsaw6ts, i t is p hot. tsa md a te [-we-], v. i., r. mtsaane and ate; to p erspire. tsa ma he, v7. t.; to heat. tsa t4 lie, v. t., to make hot, to chsi.ige from hot to cold; heated. wtsa mt kta, adj.; constantly warm; very wa,rm. tsa mi tsa dsi [-Wu-], adj., Jr. ir d utsamuti; straightish, nearly s t r a i g 1 t or a.ppearing to be straight. tsa mu tsa du i, v. i.; straight' ecuing. tsa mu tsi [-wu-], adj.; straight. tsa muf tsi de, adj.; almost st,raight. tsa mfi tsi he, v. t.; to straighteu. tsa muf tsi lie, v. t.; to straight. eii; straightened(. tsat pi, adj.; puckered, wrinkled. tsa ti, v., arIj.; smoothed; oiled; l)olishe(l. tsa' ti, verbal root, or fr. tsa; stick, impale. tsi ti ke, v. t.,fr. tsati; to pol ish. tsa tse or tsfitsi or saitsi, n.; a species of go.shawk or talcon, known oii the Upper Missouri as thie " spotted eagle ". tsa tit i ta ma pa, n.; the pasque flower or l)ulsatilla. tsa tsfu kii adj., fr. tsuki and ~. tsa; hard to b~rea~k, not brittle. tsa tsuJ ki ke, v. t.; to render hard; hardeneed. tsa ka dsi, adj.,fr. ts,aki; mnod- erately good; rather pretty. tsa ka dsi ke, v. t.; to make moderately good. tsa ka du i, v. i.; improving, becoming good. tsa kak', interj.; an expression D of contempt or disapprobation. tsa kLa Lka, n.; a bird. tsa ka ka da lia, n.; an egg; eggs. tsa ka ka hi, n.,fr. tsakaka and hi; feathiers, any portion of a bird's plumage. tsa ka k a i ki Ai, n.; a bird's nest. tsa ke or tsakLi, modified verbal root; to cause to be divided. tsa li, v. i., adj.; to be stalined with -; to be rendered offeni sive; suffixed to nouns it forms adjectives; as amatsaki, tsadat saki., et al. isa ki or tsakits or sakits, adj.; good; I)retty; often ac centell o( last syllable. ts.i ki, v.; alone, by itself; used only with pronouns. See itsaki mitsaki and tsa kic ti, adj.,fr. tsalii; very good; very beautiful.-tsakicti dIi dlenotes a still higher degree of excellence than tsakicti. tsa lii hai, adv.; quiet, quietly. tsa ki ha mak, v. comp., im-. perative,fr. tsa.iiha and amak; sit quietly, stay quiet. tsa lIi he, v., adv.,fr. tsaki; well, in a satisfactory manner; to act well. tsa ki ke, v. t.,fr. tsaki; to im prove to make ood, to cure a disease; imuprovfed, cured, re stored. —kits~akike is more: fre quently emiployed. 205 tsa tsa

Page  206 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. hsi k6 a ke, v. t.; to sweeten; sweetened. tsi mu a [-bua], v. i. and 4.,fr. mua; to jingle, as metallic pend ants, steel chains, etc. tsi pa, i.; a marmot; a prairie dlog. tsi pa lu su ti, n.; the burrow i ng owl, which dwells along with the prairie-dog. tsi pa tso pe, n.,fr. tsipa and . tsope; the stril)ed marmiot, Sper mophilus tridecem-lineatus. tsi pi, v. i.; to sink, to sink in water. tss pi de, v. i.; almost sunken, sinking but rescued in time. tsi pi ke, v. t.; to cause to sink; to scuttle, overload, or upset a boat and make it sink. tsi pi ti, v..,fr. tslpi; to be in a condition to sink, or ready to sink; said if something falls on the surface of the water, and it is yet uncertain whether it will sink or not; said of a river-bank which is being gradually washed away. tsi pi ti de, v., adj.; nearly in at position to fall upon water; said of portions of a river bluff that are cracked off and ready to top ple, or of anything in danger of falling on water. tsi pil ti ke, v. t.; to cause to fall upon water; to place in a condition favorable to sinking. tsi ta, n.; the tail of a quadru ped. tsi ta si pi sa, n.,fr. tsita and gipiga; the black tailed deer, Cer vus macrotis. tsi ta ta ki, n., fr. tsita and ta ki; the white-tailed deer, Cervus virgini~anus. tsi, n., hypothetical word; foot; hind paw. See itsi, ditsi, and matsi. tsi, a prefix to verbs denoting a low or jingling sound. See tsimua and tsitside. tsi. See tsidi. tsi dfa dsi, adj.,fr. tsidi; yellow ish; orange-colored. tsi dfai du i, v. i.; becoming yel low. tsi di, adj.; yellow. In com pound words, this is often repre. sented by its first syllable' tsi', which may be a word wherefrom tsidi is derived. tsi di a, same as tsidie. tsi di ai du i, v. i.; becoming cold. tsi di e or tsi di ets, adj.; cold; refers chiefly to reduction of temperature in inorganic bodies. tsi di e,,; cold weather; winter is sometimes so called. tsi di e ke, v. t.; to cause to be cold; chilled. tsi di ke, v. t.,.fr. tsidi; to dye of a yellow color. tsi di se p, adj.,fr. tsidi and sipi; bay; said in describing horses. tsi k6 a, adj.; having a marked but not unpleasant taste, sweet, salty, savory. tsi k6 a de, adj.; almost salty, having a slight saline taste; said of such " alkali springs" and creeks as have water not very strong or unpalatable. tsi klo a dsi, adj.; sweetish. tsi ko ai du i, v.i.; becoming sweet; said of coffee wh ich is being alter na[tely sweetened and tasted. 206 tsi tsi

Page  207 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. tsi tsi tsi de, v. i., fr. tsi and ide; to whisper. tsi tska, n.; the' prairie-hen" of Western Dakota-the sharp ta;iled grouse, Pedio,ecetes phasia nellus var. columbianus. tsi tsh-a do ipa ka, n.,.f,. tsi tska and dolipaka; the Prairie hen People, one of the heredi tary bands or totems of the Hi datsa tribe. tsi tska ic ti a, n.,fr. tsitska and i -tia; the sage-hen, Centtro cercus urophasianus. tsi tii ki, adj.; turned up, pugged. tsk.i pi, verbal root; denotes pressure on a small surface; pinch, squeeze, poke. tskat ti, verbal root; pass or force through an aperture. tski ti, verbal root; denotes pressure on a small surface from different directions; strangle, shear, etc. tskli pi, verbal root; bend, fold, double. See datskupi and pa tskupi. ts6 hi, adj.; pointed, tapering. ts6 hi ke, v. t.; to point, to taper. ts6 ka du i, v. i., fr. tsoki; be coming hard, soliditfying, con gealing. ts6 ki, adj.; hard; resisting pressure, but not necessarily hard to break. ts6 ki he, v. i. and t.; to harden. ts6 ki ke, v. t.; to harden by baling or otherwise; hardened by any obvious cause or process. ts6 pe, v. i.; to make a chirping or smacking sound. tsu, n.; half; side; division; coin partinent. tsu, adj. (radicle); smooth, flat. tsiI a, adj.; narrow. as&i tsui a de, adj.; almost narrow enough. tsu af dsi, adj.; narrowish, seem ingly narrow. tsu a he, adj.,?fr. tsua synony mous with tsohi, which may be a contraction of tsuahe. tsu a ke, v. t.; to tnake nairow. tsu. tia, n.; brains. tsu he, v. t.,fr. tsu; to divide into two parts; to halve. tsui i ta do ta du, n., adv.,.fr. itadotadu; bottom-land on the near side of a river; in the bot tom lan.ud, etc. tsu i ta d6 ta ko a [-Iota-], adv.; at or on the portionl (f bottom-land or flood-plaiu on the near side of the river, ion the point this side ". tsu i ta 6 ka du [-ru], n., adv., p r. itaokadu; the part of the bot tom-land beyond a river; on the opposite side of the river in the bottom. tsu i ta 6 ka klio a, adv.; at or in the bottom on the opposite side of a river. tsuf lia, adj.; fiat, as l ow ground. tsfi li a, adv.; at or in the bottom land. tsfu ki, adj., same as tsoki. ts-t ta, n., adv.; a half; the side of a house; an apartment; in an apartment. tsft ta he, v. t.; to break into halves. tsui ta ka, adv.; within a, half or portion; in one side. tsfl ta ta, adv.; toward one side; toward one half or portion. tsu tsft!i, q. i.; to rattle or stamp loudly. ash tsu te, adj.; smooth to the touch~, soft; also tsutsulti. 207

Page  208 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. filii u a.ka, n.,?fr. ua and ika; a man's brotherfs wife. nI a ki, n.; tanything used as bed dinig, except a pillow; a mat tress, sheet, blanket, robe, or skini used as bedding. u a ki ta tsi, n.,fr. unaki and tatsi; a mattress; a tick. u a skSa, v. i. and t.,fr. na; to envy habitually, to be of an en vious disposition. u ai ti, v. t.; to ridicule. u ta ti kla, v. t.; to ridicule nn. reasonably or habitually. u dsa du i, v. i.; drying, becom. ing dry. ut dsi, adj.; dry, devoid of moist ure; thirsty. u dsi de, adj.; nearly dry. u( dsi ke, to cause to dry, to pla(e before a fire to dry; dried. u e, v. i.; to boil. See mnidlue. fi e he, v. t.; to boil i be boils. fi e tsa, n.; metal of any kind; coin; recently applied to money of any descriptionl and to the unit of our money, a dollar. uetsa duetsa [luetsa], one dollar. uetsa topa, four dollars. utetsa itatsuhe, half a dollar. fi e tsa hi;i" si, n. (hisisi, red. dish); copper. u e tsa i du ti, n.,f. uetsa and iduti; a bridle-bit. u e tsa kla' ti, n. (kw'ti, true); gold. u e tsa ma i kta de", n.,fr. uetsa and maikta(le; a nail. u e tsa si di, n. (Aidi, tawny); brass. u e tsa Si pi sa, n. (sipis,a, black); irou. ulii, n.; Amlerican antelope. u ii ma du ti, n., lit., antelope food; the prairie ssags, Artemisia. t.'d $e, 2.; the large wolf. tse sa do lipa ka [-no-], n., lit., Wo~' People; the Pawnee fIndians. t$C'.sa ma ai, n., fr. tAeA, and masi; a gray blanket. ti a, interrog. adv.; nearly syn onymous with to. tui a ka, itterrog. adj.,fr. tua; how much? how many? ta a ka duk, adv., fr. tuaka and duk; how long hence? how ma.ny days or nights hence? tia a ka ruk, adv., same as tua kaduik. ta a Ira se du [-ru], interrog. adv.,fr. tuaka and Aedu; how loig Iago? how many days ago? tufi a kats, when tuaka stands alone as atni interrogative it takes this form. t-l a mi, interrog. adv.,fr. tua and mi; how many I ti a wits, same as tuami, with terminal' ts 7. it, v.; to wound; to be wounded. u ai v. t.; to envy; he envies. amlts, I envy. admits, you envy. unats, he envies. u a, n.; a wife, a wife by actual marriage; not perfectly synony mous with itadamia. a a he, v. t.; to marry. (~[ 203). u a h,6 4e, v. t.; to cause to marry, to give or take in mar riage; said usually of the female. a ke, v. t.; to cause to be a wife; married. u a lipi, v. t.; to smash by shoot ing. 208 tA,6 U.

Page  209 HIDATSA DICTIONARY. U i, n.; paint for the face, rouge, vermilion. U I Ai, n.,fr. ui and isi; a paint bag, a small embroidered bag for holding vermilion or other paint for the face. fi ka ki, v. i.,?fr. kaki; to roll, as a horse rolls himself on the ground. U lka ta ka-zi, n. See Local Names. fi ka ta ki, n., fr. uki and ataki; a white earth which these In dians use in decorating their bodies. fi ki, n.; indurated clay, compact earth of uniform appearance. ki-a ta ki, same as ukataki. ai ma ta, n.; the south, land south of the Hidatsa hunting grounds. ta ma ta lia, adv.; toward the south. ma ta ko a, ad?.; at the south. ii ma ta ta, adv.; southward, looking or moving south. a;a ti, n.; east, land east of the Hidatsa country. a Aa ti lia, adv.; eastward, to ward the east. fi sa ti ko a, adv.; at the east, in the east. 14 h 4a ti ta, adv.; facing the east. 4 si, n.; the anal region. ti, n.; base, bottom; root or larger extremity. fi ti lia, adv.; toward the base or bottom; qualifies verbs denoting motion. g ti dui, adv.; in the base, bot tom, or root. fa ti ko a, adv.; at the base. uti koa and utidu are often used in the sense of near, beside, or ad joining. t tsi tsa, n.; a variety of change able weasel, or so-called a er mine ". ft zi a, v. t.; to pay a visit; to meet, to encounter. w. Words he ard to begin with the sound of w may be found under m. (f[ IT 5, 20, 21). 209 if, i z W. Z. z. No words have been noted as beginning with z.

Page  210 LOCAL NAMES. The names of some localities known to the tribe are here given to gether for convenience of reference. a di sa i ta pa" his,fr. adisa, ita, and pahi; Song of the -Ravens or Singing-place of the Ravens; a high butte situated between the Missouri an d Little Missouri Rivers, west of Fort Berthold. a ma de ta ku si" dis,fr. ama deta, akui a nd AidiA;: Tawny Bluff; a prominent river bluff on the south side of the Missouri, about fifteen miles below the mouth of the Yellowstone. a ma de ta ma pa" his,fr. amadeta and mapahi; Song Bluoff; a prominent point on the Mis souri, below the last. a ma ic pu tsa sas,fi. amaicpu and Aasa; Forked Hill-top; a high butte south of the Missouri in the neighborhood of the upper Great Bend. a ma mak i mna ka da, Lands Crossing One Another; the lower Great Bend of the Missouri, near Fort Thompson. The derivation is indicated in the word maki makadaha, which see. a ma ti, The Missouri River. Some of the tribe say that the name comes from ama, earth and alludes to its muddiness; others think it is from matr, a boat, and alludes to its navigability. a ma" ti a du sa sas,fr. amati and adu2 a~a; Fork of the Mlis souri; Milk River is sometimes so called. 210 a mai ti ka za,fr. amati and kaza; Little llissouri River. The English name is a literal transla tion of the HIidatsa. a ma ti pa" du is,fr. amati and padui; Short 1iissouri; a small stream entering the Mis souri from the south, above Fort Berthold. a nma tsi di o du tsi [-tsis], fr. amatsidi and odutsi; Ochre lMine; a place southeast of the mouth of the Yellowstone, where a yellow mineral pigment is ob tained. a pa di a zis, fr. apadi and azi; Porcupine River; a stream enter ing the Missouri in Montana Ter ritory. dh lipi tsa" tu a du a ma kis [na-],fr. dalipitsi, atu, ad(u, and amaki; Place WVhere the Beards Head Sits; a high hill rising from the plateau, southeast of Fort Bu ford and north of the Little Mis souri. da lips tsi a du a ma" kis, fr. dalipitsi, adu, and amaki; Place lVhere the Bear Sits; the termination of a mountainous ridge, immediately opposite the mouth of Milk River, Montana. da lipi tsi a zis,; Bear River; Milk River, Montana. da'i ta a zi [-zisj],fr. da'ta and azi; Heart River; the Heart River, which enters the Mis The translations are in italics.

Page  211 NAM ES. ma o de Aa a zi [-ne-], fr. maodesa and azi; Nothing River or Nameless River; an affluent of the Little Missouri, entering the latter about one hundred miles above its mouth. ma p6 ]ksa a ti, fr. mapokra and ati; Snake House; a cave near the Missouri River, on the north or left bank, close to Snake Creek. It is said, at some sea sons, to swarm with serpents. ma p6 ksa a ti a zi [-zi4], Snake House River. So called by these Indians; but Lewis and Clarke have given the name as "Snake Creek ", and it has been thus known to the whites ever since. It enters the Missouri five miles east of Fort Steven son, Dakota Territory. ma Au" ka ak Au a ma ii;, fr. magukaakgu and amagi; Earth. trap, or Eagle-trap, of Coral Ber ry; a point on the left bank of the Missouri, immediately below the upper Great Bend. mn ta ki a zi4, Dish River; Platte River, Nebraska. / Tma tsu a zi [-zis],fr. matsu and azi; Cherry River; a stream which enters the Little Missouri from the east, above the maode gaazig. ma u" pa ki hfi pa i ki4,fr. maupnaki, hupa, and isis; Like the Handle of a Mallet; a promi nent bluff on the south side of the Missouri, nearly opposite the mouth of upper Knife River. mi da i Ai a zis,fr. midaisi and azi; Bark River; a stream which enters the Missouri from the south above the Yellowstonle. mi d. tsa pi a zis,fr. mida tsapi and azi; Powder River or LOCAL souri from the west, above Fort Rice. d6 zi a zi [neziazi;],fr. dezi and azi; Tongue River; the Tongue River, a branch of the Yellowstone. do ki da lii ta pa hi; [Dno-], fr. dokidalii, ita, and pahi; Sing ing of the Ghosts, or WTiere the Ghosts Sing; a high pinnacle of red rocks about mid-way between the Little Missouri and Yellow stone Rivers near the point of greatest proximity of the two streams. hi da tsa, formerly the principal village of this tribe when they dwelt on Knife River. hi da tsa ti,fr. hidatsa and ati; Dwelling of the Hidatsa Indians; the present village of the tribe at Fort Berthold. lia lia" tu a a du ta hes,fr. lialiatua, adlu, and tahe; Whtere the Chippeway was Killed; a lo cality near the foot of the upper Great Bend of the Missouri. i liic ti" a a du ta lie, Whtere Big Forehead was Killed; the Tobacco Garden bottom, at the mouth of Tobacco Garden Creek. i te ma tse e tsi;,fr. ite and ma tseetsi; Face of the Chief; the Black Hills of Dakota. ma e tsi;a zi;,fr. maetsi and azi; Knife River; a name ap plied to two streams, one of which enters the Missouri from the north, above Fort Berthold, and the other from the south, be low that place. ma ka di sta ti, fr. makadista and ati; House of the Infants, a cavern near the old villages on Knifb River, supposed to be in habited by mysterious infants. 211

Page  212 NAMES. n mli tsi a da zi [mitsianazi], prob. fr. mi', tsi or tsidi, and azi; the Yellowstone River. mi tsi X ta mi da ksik, fr. mitsi, ita, and midaksi; Pali sade of the Wedge; a high coni cal hill in the valley of the Lit tle Missouri, some eighty miles southeast of the mouth of the Ye]lowstone; a prominent land mark. pa tska.,fr. patska,; the Coteau of the Missouri. pe de tski" lii i ta a ma Ai;, Eagle-trap of Crow-(Crop) Breast; the bottom-land in the neighbor hood of Dry Fork, on the road between Forts Buford and Ste venson. ta hu i lki 4i4,fr. tahu and iki asi; Nest of the Thunder; a prom inent flat-topped hill lying south of the -lissouri, near the anmaic. pusasaA. ti pi a a zis, or tipianazis, M ud River; the Big Muddy River, a stream flowing from the north and entering the Missouri about twenty miles west of Fort Buford. ci ka ta kam zis, fr. ukiataki and azi; White-earth River. The White. Earth River enters the Missouri from the north in W. long. 1020 30' (nearly); it was formerly the extreme western boundary of Minnesota Terri tory. Dust River; the branch of the Yellowstone now known as Pow der River. ml di ho pa [bidi-],fr. midi and hopa; Sacred, Medicine, or Mysterious Water; the Minne wakan or Devil's Lake, in north ern Dakota. ni di o da mu a ziA [bidio nawuazi], fr. miqai, odamu, and azi; River waith Deep Spot or Channel. Som e say that this name signifies the River that Rises, or River that Deepens, and such may be liberal translations of the word; hence the English names of Rising-water and Tide water Creek, and the French L'eau-qui-mont. This stream en ters the Missouri from the north, about twenty-five miles west of the Grosventre village. mi dl.i a zi4, fr. midi, isia, and azi; Bad WTVater River; the Muddy, a stream flowing from the north and entering the Mis souri about twenty-five miles east of Fort Buford. nli di t6 hi a zi;, fr. midi, tohi~ and azi; Blue Water River; a creek near Fort Berthold to the west. mit e a {i di ke a zi;,fr. mi teatadike and azi; Box Elder River; a stream entering the Missouri from the south, about thirty miles below the mouth of the Yellowstone. 212


Page  214

Page  215 ENGLISH-IIIDATSA VOCABULARY. ANUS. AFRAID, adv., kie, kiets. AFTER, adj., ipita, ipitakoa. AFTERNOON, n., midimapedupahi. daksipi. AFTERWARDS, adv., ipitadu. AGITATE, V. t., liakahe. AGo, adv., sedu, tata, tatakoa. See How andI LONG. AHEAD, adv., itekoa, itsika. ALIKE, adv., maksese, maksesadsi, makkeia. See EQUAL. ALIVE, adj., t6tats, hidakatsa. ALL, a(c., etsa, liakaheta. ALOFT, adv., hakoka. ALONE, adv., itsaki, mitsaki, Aetsa. ki, etc. ALSO, adv., isa. ALTER V. t.`, kiihake, ihake. A3MERICAN, n., maetsiietia. AMIDST, prep., dumatadu [nuwa. taru]. A-PLE, adj., itski, itskits. ANECDOTE, n., mazi. ANGEr~, v. t., adeheke, da'ta isiake. ANGLE, n., adupaii. ANGLE, V. i., muakikidi, muadutsi. ANGRY, adj., adehe, kiadehe. ANNIHILATE, V. t., kidesake. ANOTHER, n., iha, aduihd. ANT, it., maposakiditi. ANTELOPE, n., ulii. ANTIQUATE, v. t., liieke, kiliieke. ANTLER, n., aziliami. ANUS, n., uzi. ABASE, V. t., isiake. ABASH, V. t., itodike, kiitodike. AB.ATING, pvar-., kadiatadui. ABDOMiEN, n1., edi. ABED, adv., maadluliapikoa. ABJECT, adj., adiaaadsi kalti. ABOARD, adv., matikoa, mati ama hoka. ABODE, n., ati, atike. ABOLISH, V. t., kidesake. ABOVE, pr., adv., aka, akoka. ABRIDGE, V. t., kipaduike. ABSORB, V. t., daliupi, liupi, kida liupe. ACCELERATE, V. t., kihitake. ACCELERATING, par., hitadui. AC,EPT, v. t., dutse. ACCOMPANY, v. t., ikupa, ikupa de. ACCOMPLISHED, par., komi, kiko mike. ACETABULUM, n., idikiutioki. ACHE, V. i., ade, kiadA. ADD, V. t., ikupake. ADHERE, V. i., kaditskapa. ADJUST, V. t., kikaa. ADMIIRE, V. t., kideta, kidetadsi, ite. ADULTR, n., maictia. ADVANCE, V. t., kiitsikake. AFLOAT, adv., dakapilii. NOTE.-There are some Hidatsa words in this section which are not contained in the Dictionary proper. In such words, the accent is indicated; in the others, as a rule, it is not. 215 ABASE. A.

Page  216 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. APART. APART, adj., ihadu, ih4koa, maki hita. APEX, n., icpu, aduicpu. APPEAR, V. i., ate, kiate. APPROACH, V. t., kiatseke. APRON, n., isutip.aki, maisuti paaki. AQUEOUS, adj., miditsi. ARE, V., matu. ARICKAREE INDIANS, n., adaka daho. ARISE, V. i., iduhi, kidulha, kiduhe. ARISEN, part., kiduhi. ARM, n., ada, adaaduictia. AROUND, adv., ialialia. AROUSE, V. t., itsihe. ARRANGE, V. t., kiksa. ARROW, n., ita, maita. ARROW-CASE, n., maitaisi. ARROW-HEAD, n., itahi', maitahi'. ARROW-QUILLS, n., itaisu, maita iu. ARTEMISIA n., iliokataki-akusipi Aa. See SAGE. ARTICHOKE, n., kaksa. ASH, n., mispa. ASHAMED, adj., itodi, itodike. ASHES, n., midatsapi. ASLEEP, adj., hidami. ASSINNEBOINE INDIANS, i., hidu idi. AT, prep., ka, koa. ATTEMPT, V. t., maihe waihe. AUGER, i., mida-ikih6pike. AUNT, n., isami, ika, masawis. AURICLE, n., akulii, apa. AURORA BOREALIS, n., apaliiada lia, amasitakoa-amaliati. AUTUMN, n., mata. NEXT -, ma taduk. AUTUMNAL, adj., matadu. AWAKE, adj., itsi, hidamitats. AWL, n., matsito, matsitoictia. AXE, n., maiptsa, miiptsa. BABY, n., makadista, makidak gi. BACK, n., isita. — adv., ipita, ipitadu. - AND FORTH, duma liita. BACKBONE, n., isitahidu. BACKWARD, adv., ipitakoa, ipitalia, isitakoa, iaitalia. BACON, n., masiitadalipitsisui, sui. BAD, adj., idia. BAD-LANDS, n., amasia, amagipe, etc. BADGER, n., 4;maka. BAG, n., isi. BAKER, n., mad.liapi-akuhidi. BALD, adj., ada deaa. BALL, n.. mautapi. BAND, n., icke, daki. BANK, n., amadeta, midideta. BANNER, n., madakapilii. BARGE, n., midamati. BARK, 7., midaisi, midiai [bidisi]. - v. i., muadaki. - v. t., dati. .1pi. BARREr, n., midiope-kakiii. BARTER, V. t., maihu [baihu, wa ihu]. BASE, n., uti, adufiti. — adj., iaia. BASIN. n., maatsamidIi. BASKET, n., mid aliasi [bid.aliasi]. BAT, n., isuatiaia. BATHE, V., midipi, midipike [bi dipi], dipi dipike. BATTLEi n., BAY, adj., tsidisipi. BEADS, n., akutohi, maaliidulia. BEAK, n., tsakaka apa. BEAN, n., amazi. BEAR, n., dalipitsi. - SKIN, dati pitsiodalipi. BEARDS CLAW, dali pitsiiepu. -a uB, dalipitsidaka. TRACK, dalipitsiti. 216 B F, A P.. B.

Page  217 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. BEAR. BEAR, V. t., ki; edede. BEARD, n., iki. BEAT, V.t., diki. BEAUTIFUL, adj., tsaki [sa kits], ite tsaki. BEAVER, n., midapa, [bidapa, mira PA]. BED, n., adutiliapi, itaduliapi, maa.dulia.pi. BEDDING~ uaki. BEEF, n., mnit6-iduksiti. BEETLE, n., pe(lakupa'te. BEFOOL, V. t., kimadulitake, ma dulitake. BEFORE, _pep., adv., itekoa, itsika. BEG, V. t., kadi. BEGGAR, n., akukadiksa. BEHIND, adv., ipitadu, ipitakoa. BEDOLD, V. t., ika, ikada', ikaka. BELCH, V. i., kipsuki, psuki. BELIEVE, V. t., idie. BELL, n., maitamua. BELOW, prep., adv., miktata, mIik takoa, utikoa. BELT, n., maiplasaki, maikipasaki. BEND, V. t., dutskupi, kip)atskupi, kipatskupike, patskupi, saku pike. BENT, part., kipatskupike. BENUM3, V. t., otsliamike. BERDACHE, t., miati. BESIDE, adv., utikoa. BESPATTER, V. t., opape. BEWITCH, V. t., dusku.i BEYOND, prep., itaokadu, itaoka koa, oka, okadul, okakoa. BID, V. t., iske. BIG, adj., ictia. BIGGER, adj., ictia itaokakoa. BIG-HORN, n,, azictia. BILLOW, n., mididalii.i. BIND, v. t., duti. BIRD, n., tsakaka. BISECT, v. t., dopahe, dopaheke. BISON, n., mite, kedapi. BIT, n., kausta alipi, uetsa iduti. BONE. BITE, n., aduda'tsa. - v. t., dat sa, datapi [latapi]. BITTER, adj., adui [elui]. BLACK, adj., sipi, Aipiga. -PAINT, amasipisa. BLACK-BIRb, n., tsakaka sipisa,. BLACK-DYE-STUFF, n., isipisake. BLACKEN, v. t., s ipiahe, ipiake. BLACKENING, part., Aipigadui, ki Aipigadui. BLACKFEET INDIANS, t., itsisihi — .ae. BLACKING, n., midahupa-ikitsatike. BLACKISH, adj., sipisadsi. BLADDER, n., figikadaHi. BLANKET, n., itasi, masi, uaki. BLEACH, V. t., iliotakike, kiataakike. BLEACHING, part., atahadui, ilio takadui. BLEED, V. i., i(lihu. BLIND, adj.? ista deaa. BLOOD, n., idi. BLOODY, adj., iditsaki. BLOSSO.ll, n., odakap.lki. - v. i.,., BLOTCHED, adj., pulii. BLOW, v. t., kadse, katsi. BLUE; a(dj., tohi. - DYE-STUFF, n.r itohike, ikitohike. BLUIISH, adj., tohadsi, tohiga. BLUFF, n., amadeta, amadetaku maku, amadetakulialii. BLUNT, adj., gaauki. BOAR, n., magiitadalipitsi-kedapi. BOARD, n1.. midatsIka. BOAT, n., mati. SAIL-BOAT, hut simati. BODKIN n., mat,sitoka. BODY, n., i:lo (lio, dilio, malio). BOIL, n., aduitfi(i, adupiia. BOIL, v. i., midue [bidue]. -,v. t.r, miduehe, midueke, kimidueke. BOLD, adj., kiadetsi. BOLT, it., ikipataki, maikipataki. BONE, n., hidu. 217

Page  218 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. CANDLESTICK. BROTHER, n., iaka (miaka, diaka), itadu (matadu, ditadu), itametsa (matametsa, ditametsa), itsuka (matsuka, ditsuka). -IN-LAW, ida* ti, * i,ikii. BRUISE, n., odaksaki. - V. t., dak.aki, kidakg.aki. BucK, n., tsitataki kedapi. BUCKET, n., midalia. BUCKSKIN, U., tsitataki-oddlipi, a tisia. BUFFALO, n. See BISON. BUFFALO-BERRY, n., mahisi. - TREE, mahiaia. BUFFALO-ROBE, n., dalipi, itasi, masi, mite-odalipi [bite-oralipi]. BULKY, adj., titsi. BULL, n., kedapi. BULLET, n., adupoadui. BUNDLE, n., makidaksi. - v. t. ki dakoi. BURN, V. t., adalia, adakiti, ada. papi. BURST, V. i., kiduta. BUTCH1ER, n., akukitahe, -v., bak.atsi, kihak.atsi. BUTTER, n., d'tsimidi-tsida. BUTTON,,., ikatipe, iwakikatipe, maikatipe. - v. t., katipe. Buy, v. t., maihu. BONNET. BONNET, n., apoka, mia-apoka. BooM, n., ammadaki. BOOT, n., midah,upa [bidahupa]. BORDERa d,, deta, adudeta. BosoM, n., it m.aki. BOTTLE, n., midiaduiiai [bidielui-]. BOTTOM, n., mikta, uti; tsuka, tsuitaokadu, tsuitadotadu, etc. Bow, n., itadulia, midulia. BOWELS, n., sipa. BOWL, n., matsamidikaza. Box, n., iope, maiope, midaiope, midiope [bidiope]. BOX-ELDER, n., miteatadike. Boy, n., makadiatamatse. BRED, n., adaiduti. v. t., dak tsuti. BRAIN, n. tsua.ta. BRANCH, n., adusa Aa. BRASS n., uetsa aidi. BRAVE, n., maadukiadetsi. BRAVE, adj., kiadetsi. BREAD, mada., ihapi, madaliapi hopi, madaliapitsoki. BR EAK, V. t., adalioii, daliolii, da kEIitisk, Viaitkk. CAKE U. 7aaip-ska kalioii, liolii, dulioii, paliolii [na kaliolii, ruiolii], kiadalol ii, kida kaliolii, kiduliolii, kidulioliike, dakata [nakata], dupi. BREAST n., imaki, a'tsi. BREECH-CLOTH~,., idiipsaki. BRETHREN, n., itametsa. BRIDLE, n., iduti. BRIGHT, adj., itsitsi, kaditska, ataise. BRIGHTEN, V., itsitsike, kaditskake, kiitsitsike, kikaditskake. BRING, V. t, alkhu, iiakhuS aki kahe. BRISTLE, n., hi. BRITTLE, adj., tapa, tapai. BROAI) adj., soki, sasuki. BPWooK, n., azikaza. [BRoo~, n., masiailia. BROTH, n., hupa. 218 C. CACHE, n., amaisi, kohatiiai. CACTUS, n., patskidia, p.tskidiaoka. CAKE, n,, mad.iliapi-tsik6a. CALF, n., daktsidi [naktsidi], mite. idaka, mitekaza. CALICO, n., akupuzi, maaiiliipuzi. CAMBRIC, n., maiiiliiliapi. CAiP, n., ati, adati. CANDLE, n., midaiamaliati. CANDLESTICK, n., nidaiamaliati io'ki, midaimaliatiioptsati.

Page  219 ENGLISHII-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. CA iOMPANION. CHIRP, v. i., odaki. CHOKE, V. t., dota dutskiti, dutapi. CHOP, v. t., dakitsaki [naktsiaki], dakamitsi, kidaktsaki. CIRCLE, gi., adukakilii. CIRCULAR, adj., kakilii. CLANI, n., matoke. CLAN n., daki. CLARIFYr, V. t., dehike, kideliike. CLAW, nt., tsakaka itsi. CLAY, it., area: uki. CLEAN, V. t., duauki, dutskisi hat sa, ilia kideaa-ke. CLEAR, adj., delii, oliati. CLIFF, it., arua daliapeai. CLIP, V. t., datskiti. CLOCK, n., inidiik-ikiaki ictia. CLt,SE, V. t., nm.kipataki. CLOSE, adj., atse. CLOTH, 2l., n),a siilitatsi. CLOTHE T. t., olkata, itulii oklata. CLOTHES, 91., ilioisi. CLOTHES-PIN, it., maidutskapi, Iijaituliii-dutska. pi. CLOIJD, n., apalii, atpalii-adusipisa. CLOYED, aIdj., liapati, liapatikaa. CLUB,?I., midakaza-titsi. COALI n., amaadalia. COAT, 21., itulii, mats6-itulii. COBit n., hupa, k6hati-hupa. COCHINEAL, it., il1i;ike. CoCK, n., magtiitatsakaka. COFFEE, it., amazigipiga, maadaha; midiaipia [.iiinigipiga], matsikoa. COHERE, V. i., rnakikaditskapa. COLD, (((Ij., akhapa, hapa, tsidia. CosIB, It., ikiduliokir inaadaikidu lioki, maikiidtiolki. v. t., du lioki, hidulioki. COmIBATi n., malimakta. CO3IE, v. i., hu, aite. CO'OAZAND, V. t., iskie, ske. CO,MPANIONr n., idakoe (madakoe, dlidalkoe), iko'pa (malko'pa, di ko'pa).: CANDY. CANDY,?., imatsikoa-hatski, matsi koa-puzi. CANNON, n., inidufilia-aduh6pi-ictia. CANOE, n., midaduetsa [bidaluetsa]. CAP, n., apoka. CAPTIVE, n., da'ki. CAPTURE, v. t., akikabhe, kiakikahe, dutse, kidutse. CARESS, V. t., kidalipa. CARRY, V. a., ki. CART, n., lialia'tua-midiikaki. CAT, n., puzikle, itupa. CATERPILLAR, n., n)idakuduti. CATKIN, n., masuakaza. CAVE, n., ama-aduh6pi. CEASE, V., haka'ta, kilhaka'take. CEDAR, n., midahopa. CEMETERY, n., dokteodusa. CENTRAL, adj., dumatakoa. CENTRE, n., durpaata ka'ti. CEREMONY, n., dalipike, paduididi. CERTAIN, adj., ka'ti, ka'timats. CHAIR, n., midaiakaki. CHANGE, V. t., ihake, kiihake, ka tika. CHANNEL, U., odamu [onawu]. CHAP, V., adapapihe kiadlapapike. CHARM, n., hopa, mahopa. CHEAP, adj., inmasi-kafista. CHEC(K, V. t., kiliaka'take. CHECKER, V. t., mnakiapeke. CHECKERED, adj., m.akiape. CHEEK, n. dodopa. CHERRY, I,., matsu. - TREE, mat sua. CHEW, V. t., dasa, duti [ruti]. CHEYENNE INDIANS, n., itasupuzi. CHICKEN, U., tsitska, masiitatsa kaka-idaka. CHIEF, it., mats(etsi. CHILD, i., daka, idaka, makadista. CHILL, V. t., hapake, kihapake. CH/IMNEY,'i., atisi, aduue. CHIN, U., ika. CHIPPEWAY INDIANS, U., lialiatua. 219 . - I

Page  220 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. DAMIAGE. COWARDLY, adj., kuadetsitats. COYOTE, n., motsa [lootsa]. CRACK, V. i., duta. CRACKERS, n., madaliapitsoki. CROADLEA, n., maidakudsi, maikida kudsi, makadistaidakudsi. CRANE, n., apitsa. CRAZE, V. t., kimadaliapake, mada Cai,pa ke. CRAZY, atDj., madaliapa. CREASE, n., adulakupi, maadulia kuipi. CREEK, n., azik,aza. CREEP, V. i., miti. CREE INDIANS, n., sahe. CRESCEqNT, n., midikidahe. CIM,VSON, adj., hiaadsi. - DYai STUFf, n., ihisakdsike. CROOKED, adj., sakupi. CROOKEN, V. t., kiaakupike, ~aku pihe, saktipike. CROP, n., ilii. CROSS, adj., atska. v. t., ak.alipi~ tadli. CRow, n., pedetska. CROwD, v. t., lialiuake, kilialiuake. CROW INDIANS, n., kiliatsa. CRY, V. i., inia. To CAUSE TO —J imiake, kiimiake. CUB, n., idaka. Cupr n.?, midiihike. CUPBOARD, n.? matakiadukiduga. CURE, V. t., deaake, kideaake, kit sa.kike, tsakike. CURLY, adj., gikia. CURRANT,'n., mitektsatsa. CUT, V. t., daktsaki, datskiti, idali pi, pamitsi, patsaki, kidaktsakiJ kidatskiti, etc. D. DAKOTA INDIANS, n., itahatski. DAM~AGE~ V. t., isiake, kiisiake. COMPLETE. COMKPLETE, V. t., kikomihe, kiko mike. COMPLETED, part., komi, kowits. COMIRADE, n. See COMPANION. CONFIrm,, n., adudeta, deta. - v. t., duti. CONICAL, adj., tsohi, tsuahe. CONSUHE, V. t., kiadaliake, kiada kiti, pe. CONSUMED, part., kiadalia. CONTAIN, V. t., itski, matu. CONTEST, V., muakia, makieke. CONTINUE, V. i., daka, hidakatsa. CONTRACT, V. t., kikadistake, ki kaustake. CONVERSE, V. t., ikupa-ide, ma kiide. CoNvEx, adj., poaduadsi. CooK, n., akumadihe, maakuma dihe. - v. t., madihe, otihe, otike. COOKED, part., oti. COOL, v. t., kbatsihe, tsidiake, etc. COPPER, n., letsahisisi. COPSE, n., mida-sikia,, mida-sipa. COPY? v. t., kutski. CORAL-BERRY, n., masukaaksu. -- usi, masukaaikua. CORD,., asu, matalipi. CORN, n., hopati, kohati, madaskihe, matua. -COB, hupa. -HUSK, hopatiai. - STALE, lkoh atia. -- MEAL, kohatipi. CORPSE, n., dokte [nokte], CORPULENT, adj., idipi. COST, n., imasi. COSTLY, adj., imaai-ahfi. COTTONWOOD, n., makau mnaku kazi. COUGH, v. i., hua, huaksa. COUNT, v. t., kidumi. COUNTRY, n., ama, itama. COURT, v. t., akape, mia akape. COVER,n., iitipe, isi, maisi. Cow, U., mite, masitamite. 220 .. I )...

Page  221 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. DAIP. DAmP, adj., adatskui. DANCE, n., makidisi, paduididi. - v. i., kidiai. DARK, adj., ha'pesa, sipisadsi. DARKEN, V. t., ha'peaeke, kihalpe seke, aduoktsihe, Aipisadsihe. DARKENING, part., ha'pesadui, ki ha'pesadui. DARKNESS, n., aduoktsi. DAUB, V. t., ipkiti, opape. DAUGHTER, n., ika (ka, maka, di ka). D)AWN, n., ata, atade, kiduha kute. DAY, n., mape. BY DAY, mape: du. DEAD, adj., te, tets. DEAF, adj., akulii desa. DEBASE, V. t., kiisiake. DECEITFUL, adj., mitapaksa. DECEIVE, V. t., mitapa [witapa], mitapadsi. DECREASE, V. t., ka(ditake, kau gtake, kikadiatake, -kikauatake. DECREASING, part., kadistadui, kauatadui, kikadiatadui, kikau Atadui. DEEP, adj., damu [nawuts]. DEEPEN, V. t., damuke, kidamuke. DEER, n., tsitasipisa, tsitataki. DEGENERATING, part., isiadui, kii siadui. DEITY, it., itakatetas, itsikamahi di. DELIRIOUS, adj., madaliapa. DENUDE, V. t., adaliape. DEPOSIT, V. t., duse, kidusa. DERIDE, V. t., uati. DESCEND, V. i., miktata de. DESERT, n., amaisia. DESTROY, V. t., kidesake, kitahe. DETER, V. t., kihaka'take. DEVOUR, V. t., kiduti [kiruti]. DIE, V. i., te, ta, tehe. DIFFERENT, adj., iha. DOWN. DIRT, )., ama, ilia. DIRTY, a dj., amatsaki, iliatsaki, tsadatsaki, kiamatsaki, kiiliatsa ki. DIRTY, V. t., amatsakike, iliatsaki ke, tsadatsakike, kiamatsakike, etc. DISCOVER, v. t., odapi, kiodapi. DISEASE, n., ilioade, mailioade. DISH, n., matlaki. DISHONEST, adj., asadikga. DISLIKE, V. t., ikuipade, iku'padsi, kidesitats, kiikulpade. DISLOCATE, V. t., kipguti, pgati. DISPLEASE, v. t., dataisiake [nal taigiake]. DISREGARD, V. t, ikatats. DISSIPATED, V. t., maduli.pakaa. DISTANT, adj., tisa. DISTEND, V. t., dakapuii, kidaka 1)usi. DISTRESS, V. t., kida'taisiake. DIVIDE, V. t. — IN TWO, dopake [nopake]. - IN THREE, damike [tna.t,Nike]. - IN FOUR, topake, kitopaheke, kitopake. -, v. j., sasa. DIVERGE? V. i., liami [1iawi]. DIVORCE, V. t., haheta, hahetake. DizzY, adj., tsahidumidi. Do, v., ha, he. DOE, n., tsitataki mika. DOG, n., maauka, pedakuduti. DOG BAND, n., maauka icke. DOGWOOD, n., matsuotaka. )COLL, n., makadiatake. DOLLAR, n., uetsa-duetsa [luetsa]. DOMINOES, n., hiduimakia. DONE, part., komi [kowi, kowits]. DOOR, n., mide [bide]. DOUBLE, V. t., patskupi. DOUGH, n., madd.liapi-tsa. DOVE, n., midaitakupeicetki. DOwN, adv., miktddu. [wiktaru], miktakoa [wiktakoa]~ utikoa. 221

Page  222 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. DOWNWARD. DOWNWARD, adv., miktata [wikta ta], utilia. DOZE, v. i., hami(le, hidamide. DRAG, V. t., duliade. DRAIN, V. t., daliupi, kidlaliupi. DREAM, V. i., Inasiade. DREDGE, V., duto'ti. DREGS, it., pedi. DRESS, n., ilioisi. - v. t., okata. DRIED, part., kiudsike. DRINK7,., Oze. - V. t., hi, midihi. DROP, V. i., pa%ti, kipati. - V. t., patihe, patike, kipatike. DROWNED,I) part., tsipak tets. See tsipi. DROWSY, adj., hamicti, hidamicti. DRUMI, n., midalia. - STICK, mi daliidiki. DRUNK, adj., nmadai.apa. DRY, adj., udsi. -v. i., udsike, kiudsike. -ING, part., udsadui. ta. EAST, it., usati. - ERN, adv., usa tikoa. - WARD, u,sitilia, usa tita. EAT, v. t., duti, kiduti, pe. EATER, it., akudfiti. EBB, V. i., kidamoki, kiduliemi. EDGE, n., aduaptsa, adudeta, deta. EGG, n., tsakakadaka. EIGHT, adIj., dopapi [nopapi]. EIGsT HT, adj., idopapi. EIGHTHL Y, adv., idopapidu. E IGHTEEN, adj., alipidopa. EIGHTYp adj., dopapitika. ELASTIC, adj., dupupi. - GUM, n. idupupi. ELBOW, n., isp.alii, (mispqabii, di,.pai). ELEVEN, adj., alipiduetsa [alipi luetsa]. ELK, n., madoka [maroka]. ELM, n., midai. ELSEWHIERE, adv., ihadu, ihakoa. EMACIATEDD adj., liadaliikaa. EMBERS, n., midahapokga. E'BRACE, V. t., kidalipa. EMiBROIDERY, n., adupfidsike, ma Aiiptse. E-ERGEI V. i., ate, atehe. EMETIC n.: maikad6. E3IPTY, v. t., kidaliupi, kipaliue. ENCxAP, V. i., atihe. ENCHANT, v. t., dugku. ENcIRCLE, v..t., dutskiti, ialialia. DUCK, n., miliaka. DULL, adj., sasuki, soki. - v. t., kisokike. DUNG, n., aduedi, p)edi. DURING, adv., du, sedu. - THE AUTUIIN, matadu. - THE COM- dp ING ATTUMN, mataduk. - THE DAY, mapedu. - THE NIGHT, makudu, oktsiadu. - THE SEA soN, kadudu. - THE SUMMIER, adedu. - THE WINTER, mada du. DUSK, n., oktsiade. DUST, n., midatsapi. DWELL, V. i., amaki, amakadaki. DYE, V. t. — BLACK sipisake. - BLACKISS, sipisadsike, kisipiaad sike. -BLUE, tohike, kitohike. - BLUISH, kitohadsike, kitohisi ke. - RED, hisike, kihisike. - YELLOW, tsidike, kitsidike. DYE-STUFF, n. See names'of differ ent colors. DYINOG, art., tade, tadets. 222 ENcinCLF,. E. EAGLE, iplioki, i-naiau, tsatsi. EAR, n., akulii, apa. - OF CO-R-N, I hopati. EARLY, adv,, itsikakoa7kidiihaku, tedu. EARTH, n., aina. EARTHWARD, adv., amakoa, ama

Page  223 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. FINE. FALL, n. See AUTUHN. -- v.i. liue, pati, kipati. FAN, n., maikidlakudi. - v. t., dakudi, kidakadi. FAR,a adv., tiaa, oka tiAa. FARee, m'a?., adukati. - V. t., ama. oze. FAR.IER, it., akuamaoze. FAST, adj.. hita, tsoki. FASTEN, V. t., duti, kitsokike. FAT, n., sui, tsada. - adj., idipi. FATHER, t., ate, tatia. FATIGUE, V. t., daheka'tike, kidahe kaltike. FATIGUED, adj., dahekati. FATTEN, V. t., idipike, kiidipike. FATTENING, part., idipadui, kiidi pa dui. FAWN, n., idaka. FEAR, V. t., kie. FEAST, n., maihadi. FEATHER, n., hi, tsakakahi. See QUILLS. FEED, V. t., kidutike, madutiku. FEaIALEm, n., adumika, mia, mika, miikats. FE:IUR, n.. i(likihidu. FEW, adj., kauata. FIBROUS TISSUE, n., matsua, mat. suapqakiai. FIELD, n., adukati. FIERCE, adj., atska, atskakga. FIFTEEN, adj., alipikiliu. FIFTEENTH, adj., ialipikiliu. FIFTH, adj., ikiliu. FIFTHLY, adv., ikiliudu. FIFTY, adj., kiluapitika. FIGHT, n. See BATTLE. - V. t., kiamakia [kiwakia]. FIGURED, adj., puzi. FILL, V. t., kimaazike, maazihe, oze. FIND, V. t., odapi, okipapi. FINE, adj., tamutii [tawulii], tamu!iidi., END. END, n., ataka, iepu. At END,. takakoa. ENEMY, n., maiha. ENEMY-WOMAN BAND, n., maiha miaicke. ENLARGE, V. t., ictiake, kiictiake. ENOUGH, adv., ahu, komi. ENRAGE, V. t., kiadeheke. ENTER, V. t., midedi [bidedi], pi. ENTIRE, adj., liakaheta. ENVY, v. t., u,b, uaksa, kind. EQUAL, adj., maksia, maksiaka, Ae,ka. - NEARLY, makaiade, maksiakadsi. See ALIKE. EQUALIZE, V. t., kimakseseke, ma.k seseke, mikaiakake, etc. ERASE, V. t., adasuki, dusuki, kia daauke. ERIINE, n., utsitsa. EVENING, n., oktsiade, o'pa.. NEXT -, o'paduk. EXAMINE. V. t., kikiski. EXCAVATE, V. t., ho'pike, kiholpike. EXHAUST, V. t., kidaliupi, kiko mike. EXHIBIT, V. t., atehe, ateheke. EXPOSE, v. t. kiateheq kiateheke. EXTEND, V. t., kidakahe. EXTERMINATE, V. t., kidesake, etsa kidesake. EXTERNAL, adj., atasikoa. EXTINGUISH, V. t., katsi. EXTRACT, V. t., dasku, duska, pasku. EYE,. n., iSta. - LASH, istapi. - LID, istadalipi. - WASH, istaoze. -, WHITE OF, istaduiliotaki. FACE, n., ite. FACING, adv., ta. See iteakata and iteamata. FAIP, adj., lelii, oliati. 223 0 F.

Page  224 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. FUTURE. FOOD, n., maduti. FOOL, n., madulita. FOOT, n., itsi. - PRINT, itsiti. FOREHEAD, n., i liA. FORENOONN n., midimapedupabide. FOREST, n., mida. FORGET, v. t., kidaliisae. FORK, n., adu,;taa, aziiepu,aoa, malipatsati, mika'idutsi, maip. kade. FORKED, ac7j., Aasa. FORMERLY, adv., itsikadii. FORT,. n., akumakikua ati. FORTY, aGGj., topapitika. FORWARD, aidj., adv., itelia, itekoa. FOUR, num. adj., topa. FOURTH, num. adj., itopa. FOURTEEN, htm. adj., alipitopa. Fox, n., iliolka. - BAND, n., ilioka icke. CuB, iliokadaka. TRAP, iliokaitipe. FRAOILE, adj., pidalipa, tapai. FRAGRANT, adj., iditsitslaki. GRASS, matsuatsa. FRECKLED, adj., pulii. FRENCat-AN, n., masi, masi-kai. FREsh, adj., tsa. FRIEND, n., See COMRADE. FRILL, V. t.. pidieke, kipidieke. FRILLED, adj., pilie. FRINGED, adj., daliami. FROG, n., saaka, saka. FRUIT, n., makata, matsu. FRY, v. t., miditi. FRYING-PAN, n., maimiditi, iduksi. -tiomsiditi. FULL, adj., maazi, kimaazi. FuR? n., aduhi, hi, i. FURROW, n., aduliatkupi..- v. t., liakupihe, kiliakupike. FURROWED, adj., liakupi. FURTHER, adv., itaokadu, okadu~ okak~oa. FUTURE. See duk, itakuahiduk, tieduk. FINGER. FINGER, n., Aakiadutsamihe, isaki adutsamihe. - NAIL, gakiicpu, isakiicpu. - RING, saklrioptsati. LITTLE -, sakikazi. MIDDLE -, Aakidumatadu. RING, sakikazi-utidu. FINISH, V. t., komihe [kowihe], ki koomihe. FIRE, n., midiah,a. - PLACE, aduue. FIRST, adj., itsika. FIRSTLY, adv., itsikadu. FISH, n., mnua. - v. See ANGLE. -HOOK, maidutskupi, muaiduts kupi. - LINE, muaidutsi. FIT, V. t., itski. FIVE, num. adj., kiliu. FIx, V. t., kikse. - ER., n., akuki kse. FLAGOT, n., madakapilii. FLAP, n., odakapilii, etadsiodaka pilii. FLAT, n., amatsuka. - adj., tsuka. FLAY, V. t., daliipi. FLEE, V. i., kada Lkara]. FLEET, adj., hita, hitats. FLEETLY, aav., hita, hitaha. FLESH, n., iduksiti. FLOAT, v. t., dakapiliike, kidaka pihike. - v. i.; dakapilii, kida kapilii. FLOOR, U., midatsuka. FLOUR, n., kohatitapa. FLOWER, n. and v. i. See BLOS SOM. FLY, n., maapoksa, maapuzi. FLY, V. i.7 kada, kide, kideakde. FOAM, n., pulii. To CAUSE TO puliike, kipuliike. FOG, n., pue. FOGGY, adj., pue, pueksa. FOLD, V. t., kipamudsi, pamudsi, patskupi, kidutskupi. FOND, adj., ohi. FON1TANEL, n., ikidutata, maikidu teta. I 224

Page  225 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. HALT. GOOSE, n., mida. - BAND, mida icke. GOSLING, midaidaka. GRANDCHILD, n., itamapisa (mata mapisa, ditamapisa). GRANDFATHER, n., adutaka. GRANDMOTHERa n., iku. GRAPE, n., maVipisa. -VINE, ma sipisaa. GRASP, n., adalieii. GRASS, n., mikap [bika'], matsuatsa. GRATIS adv., isatsa. GRAVE, n., dokteoduaa amakoa. GRAVEL, It., mi'kaza. GRAY, adj., liota. - ish, ]ioti sa,. - BLANKET, n., tsesa-ma si. - HORSE, aku-hotaise. GREASE, n., tsada. - v., kitsa datsakike. GREASY, adj., tsadatsaki. GREEN, adj., mika'tohisa. GRIND, V. t., pa, pi, kipa,. GROOVE, n., aduliakupi. GROUND, 21., area. GROUSE, n., tsitska [sitska]. - GROW, v. i., apadi. - v. t., apa dike, kiapadike, okipadi. GROWN, part., apadike. GULLY, Il., amadakts.aki. Gui, n., masika,, oduskagkapka. GUN, n., midulia [bidulia]. - POW. DER, midatsapi [bidatsapi]. GYpsum, n., madolia. GAIT, n., odidi. GANDER, U., mida-k6dapi. GARLIC, n., mika'uti. GARHENT, n, itulii. GARNISH, V. t., iptsi. GAR-PIKE, n., muapahatski. GARRULOUS, adj., idekaa. GATHER, V. t., hake. GARTER, n., idikediksa, maidike diksa. GAZE, V. i., ika ka'ti. GET, V. t., dutsi. GHOST, n., dokidalii [nokidalii], ida,lii. GIANT, n., akuhatski. GIRDLE, n., maipasaki. - v., ki pasaki, pasaki. GIRL, I., makadistamia, miakaza. GIVE, V. t., ku, muk. - BACK, ki ku. GLAD, adj., da'tatsaki. - v. t., ki daltatsakike. GLASS, n., maikika. GLEAM, V. i., itsitsi. - TO CAUSE TO, V. t., itsitsike, kiitsitsike. GLISTEN, V. i., kaditska. GLOBULAR, adj., poaduadsi, poa dui. GLOOMY, adj., apaliitatsi. GLOVE, n., huki. GLUE, n., maikaditskapa. - v., kikaditskapake. GLUTTON, n., akudfitiksa. Go V., dakoa, de, koe, kada. - OUT, atadi, kiatadi. GOITRE, n., dotictia [lotictia]. GOLD, n., uetsa, uetsaka'ti. GONE, part., dets. GOOD, adj., tsaki, tsakicti, tsakits [sakits]. GOODISH, adj., tsakadsi. 15 HACK, V. t., dakaptsi. HAIL, n., mak.alpiptami. HAIR, n., ada, hi, i. — Om, atui tsati. HALF, n., adj., itatsu, itatsuhe, tsu% tsuta. HALT V. i., hakalti. -imper., lia. ka'ta. — v. t., kiliaka'tike. 225 GAIT. G. H.

Page  226 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. INCLOSE. HIT, V. t., diki; aate, kiaate. HOE, n., am ee. [-OF BONE, hidta mae. - OF IRON, fietsa-amae. HOG n, -maiitadal-pitsi. HOLD, V. t., adalielii,.aki, ki.akie, optsati, oki. HOLE, n., aduhopi, maaduhopi. HOLLOW, adj., hopi, holpits. HOMrINY, n., makipa. HORN, n., azi, azilami. HORSEF, n., itsuaguka, itaguka. HOT, adj., tsame [tsawets], tsame ksa. HOUSE, n., ati. How, adv., toge. — LOTG AGO, tuakisedu. -LONG HENCE, tua kaduk. -- 3ANY, tuami. - ,quCH, tuaka. HOWL, V. i., muadaki. HuH, v. i., hoike. HUNDRED, adj., pitikictia. HUNGRY, adj., adiiti. HUNT, 7. t., kidi, kikidi. HURRY, v. i., S(di$. HURT, V., dataki., HUSBAND, n., kida, kidag. HUSK-7 n., hopatiiai, maisi. HALVE. HALVE, V. i., kidopake, tsutahe. HAMmER, n., makidiki. HAND, n., isaki, saki. HANDKERCHIEF, n., plietaisi. HANDLE, n., hupa. HANG, V. t., ikoki, kiikoki. HAPPY, adj., da'ta-tsaki. HARD, adj., tsatsuki, tsoki. HARDEN, V. t., tsatsukihe, tsatsu kike, tsokike, kitsokike. HARDENING, part., tsokadui, kitso kadui. HARE, n., itaki, itaksipiga. HAS, v., matu. HASTEN, V. i.; sidisi. -v. t., sidisi ke? kisidisike. HAT, n., apoka. HATCHET, n., maiptsadaka. HATE,' V. t., iku'pa.H HAW, n., mamua [mabua]. -TREE, mamuaa. HAY, n., mika'udsi. HE, -pron., i, se. HEAD, n.,' atu. - ACHE, atuade. - DRESS, apoka. HEAL, V. t., kitsakike. HEAR, V. t., kikua. HEART, n., da'ta [nata]. HEAT, n., maade, tsamak. - v. t., tsamehe [tsawehe], kitsameke, etc. HEAVENS, n., apalii. HEAVY, adj., daktsia [naktsiats]. HEIGHTEN, V. t., makuke, kima kuke. H,R_pron., i, ita. HERS, itamae. HERON, n., apitsatohi. HICCOUGH, V. i., hatsakeki. HIDE, V. t., alioa, ialioe. - n., oda lipi. HIGH, adj., maku. HILL, U., amadia, a madeta, ama-. maku. HIM, p1ron., i. - SELF, icki. HIS, pro., ita, ita-mae. 226 1. I, pron., ma, mi [wa, ba, wi, bi3. IcE, n., madulii. ICICLE, n., imaCduli-icpu. IGNORANT, adj., v. i., adaliiae. ILLUmINATE, V. t., kiamaliatike. IMITATE, V. t.,7 kutski, ikutski. IMITATOR, n.; maikutskiaa. IIPorTITNE, v. t., kadiksa, kikadi. IMPOVEERISH, V. t., kiadiasadsike. IMPROVE, V. t., kitsakike, tsakike. IN, prep., amahoka, ka. INCISE, v. t., idalipi. INCISION, n., aduidalipi. INCLOSE, V7. t., kiamah6kake.

Page  227 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. INCREASE. INCREASE, V. t., kiahuke, kiictiake. INDENT, V. t., datapi [latapi]. INDIAN, n., amakadolipaka [ama kanolipaka]., INFERIOR, adj., isia itaokadu. INFIRM, adj., itsiitats. INFLATE, V. t., dakapusike [naka puike], kidakapusike. - ED, dakapuse. INGENIOUS, adj., kiadetsi. INHALE, V. t., hli. INK, n., amasipisa. INSECT, n., mapoksa. INSIDE, n., amaho. - adj., ama hoka. INTERSECT, V. t., dumatitski. INTOXICATE, V. t., maduliapake. INVITE, V. t., kikuha. IRON, n., uetsa, uetsasipisaA. IT, pron., i, se. ITCHY, adj., liaka, lidia. - TO MAKE V. t., liakake, kiliakake, kiliidiake. ITSELF, pron., icki. L. LACERATE V. t., adakape, dukapi, kiadakape. LADLE, n., azi, azidelie. LAKE, n., midiictia. LAME, adj., odidi iia. LAND, n., ama. LAND- SLIDE, n., amadta-tsipiti, /ima-tsipiti. LANGUAGE, n., aduiE de, ide. LAP, n., isuti. LARDER, n., madfiti-adukidu. LARGE, adj., ictia, LARIAT, n., iduti, matalipi. LARK, n., im.akaidi [iwaklidi]. LAST, adj., ipita, ipita.du. - FALL, n., matdaedu. NIG-HT, oktsi sedu. -- SUmER; adesedu. WrNTER madasedu. LATELY, adv., tata, tatakoa. JAR, v. t., opsasa. JEALOUS, adj., idikoamatu, miali teksa [wialiteksa]. JEWEL, n., apoksa. JINGLE, V. i., tsimua. - v. t., kit simuake. JOG, V. t., dapsuti [napsauti]. JOIST, n., adusuka. JOURNEY, n., didi. JUICE, n., adumidi. 227 LATELY. KEY, n., middidugka, midi6peidu Aka. KICK, v. t., adaliape, adape, kiada. liape. KIDNEY, n., alioka. KILL, V. t., ta, tahe, kitahe. KiIND, n., ak u. WHAT -? akn to? KINDLE, V. t., kadalia. KINDRED, n., itadolpaka. KISS, n., ikidatsope, maikidatso. pe. - V. t., ikidatsope, kidatso pe. KITCHEN., n., akumadiheati. KITTEN, n., puzikedaka. KNEAD, V. t., dutsuki, kidutsuki. KNEE, n., tiuaia, ilualia. KNIFE, n., maetsi [baetsi]. KNIFE-CASE, n.? maetsiiai. KNOCK, v. t., daktsuti. KNow, v. t., eke. See f1 198. KNUCKLE, n., sakadusuki. J. K. KEEP, V. t., e. I wits. KETTLE, n., mida.lia WILL -, md-.

Page  228 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. LATHER. LATHER, n. See FOAIM. LAUGH, V. i. ka', ka'ksa. LAY, V. t., duma, edede, iiapihe. LAZY, adj., da'taliepi [na'taliepi]. LEAF, n., midaapa, midapa [bida MARRY. LIVER, n., api ta. Lo, t t., ika ikaka. LOCK, n., mat.aliii. — v. t., kitso, kike. LODGE, n., amate', ati, atitsuahe. LONESOME, adj., liemi [liewi], lie miksa. LONG, adj., hatski. - AGO, itsika koa, mate, matekoa. - TILSE tia, tie. LOOK, v. t., ika. BEHIND, ikipa midi. - THROUGE, aktseaa, ki aktsisa. LOOKING-GLASS, n., maikika. LOOSEN, v. t., datsipi [latsipi], du. Aipi. LosE, V. t., liapihe, liapihekaa. LOST, part., liapi, liapits. LOVE, V. t., kidesi, kideta, ohi, ite... Low, adj., padopi, padopidi. LUKEWARH, adj., Aakapi. LUNGS, n., dalio [nalio]. LYNX, n., itupa, itupapuzi. pa]. LEAK, V. i., datskati [latskati]. LEAN, adj., liadalii. - v. i., ikalie, ipataki. LEFT, adj., idakisa. - SIDE, n., aduidakiaa. LEFT-HANDED PERSON, n., maadu idakisa. LEG, n., idiki. FORE-LEG, ada. LEGEND, n., mazi. LEGGINGS, n., itadsi. LENGTHEN, V. t., hatskike, kihats kike, kimakuke. - ING, part., hatskadui, kihatskadui. LESS, adv., itadotadu. LEVEL, adj., tsuka. LIAR7 n., akumftapaksa. LIBERATE, V. t., kahe. LICK, V. t., datsipi [latsipi].L LID, fl., iitipe. LIE, V. i., See DECEIVE. -DOWN, .liapi. LIFT, v. t., duhi. LIGHT, n., amaliati. - adj., dakuli ti, pidalipa. LIGHTEN, V. t., dakulitike [nakuh tike], kidakulitike. LIGHTNING n., kadicka [karicka]. LIGNITE, n., amaadalia. LIKE, V. t., ite, kideta, kidesadsi. LIKE, adj., adv., kuisa, kuisadsi, kupi, maksese, sese. To MAKE -, v. t., kimakae,eke, kuisake, etc. LIP, n., aputi, ideta. LIQUEFY, v. t., midike, kimidike. LIQuID adj., miditsi [biditsi]. LIQUOR AMNII, n., dakaadumidi. LITTLE, adj., kadista [karista], kadistadi, kausta, kaustaalipi. MAGIC, it. See MYSTERY. MAGPIE,- n. iepe. MAIDE:N, i., adukidadesa. MAIZE, n., kohati. MAKE, V. t., he, hidi, kikaa. MAIAEtR, n., akuhidi. MALE, adj., adumats6, adukedapi. MALLET, n., maupaki, mi'maupa ki. MAMMIARY GLAND, n., a'tsi, antsi. MAN, n., matse, itaka, sikaka. 5]AINDAN INDIANS, n., adalipakoa. MANEIrNDi n., dolipaka [nolipaka]. -/IANY, adj., ahu. MARE, n., miika, mikats. MARIRY) V. t., uahe, uaheke, kida he. 228 M.

Page  229 1MOW, V. t., itskiti. MUCH, adj., ahu. So —, hidika. Mucus, n., plieta. MUD, n., tipia. MUDDY, a., tipiatsaki. MULE, n., apictia. NIULTIPLY, V. t., alhuke, kiahuke. MUSLIN, n., maaiiliiliapi. MY, _pron., ma, mata. MYSELF, pron., micki. M1YSTERIOUS, adj., hopa. MYSTERY, n., hopadi, mahopa. ksal. MIELT, V. t., kimidike, midike. MEND, V. t., kiksa, kitsakike. MENDER, n., akukikse. METAL, n., uetsa. METEOR, n., icka-p6ti. MIDDLE, it., dumnata. - adj., adv., dumnatadu. TOWARD THE -, di matakoa, dumatatia, dumatata. MILK, i., a'tsimidi [a'tsibidi]. - v. t., dutskipi. MIMIC, n.? maikutskiksa. MINCE, V. t., dakamitsi, kidaka mitsi, kipamitsi, pamitsi. MINE, n., odutsi. -_pron., mata mae. MIINK, n., daktsua [naktsua]. MINNECONJOU INDIANS., midi- kaoze. MINT, n., hisua. MINUTE, adj., tamulii [tawulii], ta muliidi. MISS, V. t., akitsa, kiakitsa. MITTEN, n., liuti. MOCCASIN, n., hupa, itapa. MODEL, n., ikutski, maikutski. MOIST, adj., adatskui, adatskuide. MIOLASSES, n., matsik6a-akutidue. MONEY, n., uetsa. MAIOON,., midi [bidi], makumidi, 6ktsimidi. - FULL, midikakilii. N. NAIL, it., uetsa-maictade, i.aakicpu, ,gakiiepu, itsiiepu. v. t., dak tade. NA-IE, it., dazi [nazi], od~'ati. NARROW, adj., tsua, t-suadsi. v. t., kitsuake, tsuake. N AUSEATE, V. t., kikadeke. NAUSEATED, adlj., kade, kadeti. NAVEL, n., itadelipa. NEAR, adv., atsa, dota, utikoa. NEARER, adv., dota,dii [lotaru], ita. dotadu, itadotakoa. NEARLY, adv. (suffix), de. NECK~ n., ampa. - LACE, maapi, maaliidulia.

Page  230 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. NEEDLE. 'NEEDLE, n., matsito, adupatskada mi. NEGRO, n., maMisipisa. NEST, n., ikisi, tsakakaikisi. NEW, adj., hida. A - THING, n., aduhida, maaduhida. NEXT adj. s- sUMMER, n., ade duk. - WINTER, madaduk. NIBBLE, V. t., datskapi [latskapi]. NICK, n., adudakaptsi. - v. t., dakaptsi. NIGHT, n., maku, oktsi. NIGHTLY, adv., makudu, oktsiadu. NINE, num. adj., duetsapi. NINTH, num. adj., iduetsapi. NINETEEN, num. adj., alipiduetsa pi [alipiluetsapi]. NINETY, num. adj., duetsapiapiti ka. NIPPLE, n., a'tsiicpu. No, adv., desa [nesats]. NooN, n., midimapedupahi. NORTH, n., adj., adv., amnasita, ama Aitakoa. NORTHER-N-LIGHT, n., apaliiadalia. NOSE, n., apa. - BRIDGE OF, apa adusuka. - ROOT OF, apaheda pi. -WING OF, apadaka. NOSTRIL, n., apaaduhopi. NOT,'adv., ta, tats. NOTCH, n., V. See NICK. NOTHING, n., desa, maodesa. NUMB, adj., otsliami. NUMERAL, n., makidumi. NUMERALS. See page -. NURSE, V. i. and t., a'tsihi, a'tsi hike. OAR, n., ilioki. OBESE, adj., idipikaa. OBLIQUELY, adv., dumilia. OBTAIN, V.-t.7 dutse [rutse], dutsi. OCHRE, n., amatsidi. ODOR, n., aduiditsi, maaduiditsi, maiditsi. ODORATE, V. t., iditsike, kiiditsike. ODOPROUS adj., iditsi, iditsi matu. OFFICER, n., akumakikfia-matse 6tsi. OIL, n., tsada. - v. t., kiitsatike. OLD, adj., lie, liie. - MAN, n., ita kalie. 0N, prep', adv., aka. ONCE, adv., idu6tsadu. O.NE, n., adj., duetsa [luetsa]. ONION, n., inika'uti [bika'uti]. ONLY, adii., ta, ta-ts. OPEN, V. t., dugipi, duske, kidusi pi. OPPOSE, v. t., mlakia, kimakia. OPPOSITE, adv., kuplieda. ORANGE-COLORED, adj., tsidadsi. ORDER, v. t., iske. ORDURE; V., aduedi, pedi. ORION, n., ickadami. ORNAXENT, V. t., kipudsi, kipud sike, kipuzike, mamadaki, pudsi, pudsike. - OTHER, adj., iha, ihats. OTTER, n., midap6ka [bidapoka]. OUR, pron., mata. OuRts, mata mae. OURSELVES, _pron., midoki [wiro ki]. OUT, adv., atazikoa. To GO v., atadi. OUTSIDE, n., atazi. OUTWARD, adv., atazilia. OVER, prep., adv., akoka, hakoka. OVERTURN, V. t.: kipa'te, pa'te. OWL, n., hute, itdSkupe. OWN, adj., mae, itamae. midakamicka [bidaka-. 230 OWN. 0. 0, int., u. OAX, n., wicka].

Page  231 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. POKE. PERFORATED, adj., ho'pi, hopits. PERFUME, n., aduiditsitsaki, maa duiditsitsaki. PERSPIRE, V. i., tsamneate (tsawea tels.) PERSUADE, V. t., ka(latsike (kara tsike), kikadatsike. PESTLE, n., maepa ka, mepaka. PETRIFY, V. t., kinukke. PHLOXd n., pedetskaitaaipi-a. PHAYSICIANS qt., maLi-hopa, matse. hopa. PICKe v. t., kidakapi. PICTURE i., nmamadaki. [mawa daki.] PIECE? 1.7 adalpi. P[LLOWV, n., dalikisi, 6daksisi. PILLOW-CASE, n., dalikisisi [naliki PIN, n., matsito-utipoadui. PINCERS, n., U.aidutskapi. PINCIH V. t., datskapi~ dutskapi. PINE] n., maatsi, matsi. PINK, adj., hisi-.mahu-liota. PIPE, n.~ ikipi. — STEM, ikipihu pa. PITCHFORK, n., mikaiduTsi. PLACE it., kuadu, Aedlu (IT 11 47, 50). -. t., kiamahokake, ki duaa, pataki. PLAIN, n,., teduti [terfitis]. PLANT, V. t., amaoze. — n., a, maa. PLATE~ n., mataki. PLAY, V. i,., mnakia, midaliaticke. PLAYINCG-CARDS, n., maim.akieke ma,iitaim.akieke. PLEIADES, 1.7 ickalialiua. PLUC,K7 V. t., dukiti, kidukiti. PLUT, it., makata. — TREE, man kataa. PLUME, n., mnatslioki, oki. POINT, nt., icpu. POISON-VINE, n.~ mailiaka. POKE, V. t., dutati. PADLOCK, n., mataliiisa. PAD-SADDLE, n., matatsidalioke. PAIN, V. i., ade. -v. t., adeke, kiadeke. PAINT, n., ui. - v. t., madaki. PAINTING, n., mamadaki. PALATE, n., akata;. PALE, adj., iliotaki, oliati. PALISADE, n., midaksi. PAN, n., midakai. See FRYING PAN. PANTALOONS, n., itadsi, masiitad PARCH, V. t., adaliake, kiadaliake, kiadapapike. PARCHED, part., adalia. PARE, V. t., datskipi [latskipi]. PARFLCHE, it., dalipitsoki. PARFLPCHE-CASE, n., makiisi. PART, n., adalipi, kaustaalipi, maa dalpi, tsu, tsuta, tsutaka. PAss, v. t., itsauzie, makiniakada ha, makimakadahatidie, oda. PASTE, n., maikaditskapa. - v. t., kikaditskapake. PATH, n., adi [ari]. PAUNCH, n., kilia. PAWNEE INDIANS, n., tsesadolipa ka. PEA, n., amazi. PEBBLE, n., mi'kaza. PEG, n., miaictade. PELICAN, n., apasaki. PELT, n., dalipi, odalipi. PEN, n., ufietsa-maiakakasi. PENCIL, n., maiakakasi, maimada ki. PENDANT, n., maitsimua. PEOPLE, n., dolipaka. PERFPORATE, V. t., hopike, kiho pike. 231 PADLOCK. P. Si.

Page  232 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. POLISH. POLISH, V. t., kitsatike, tsatike. -- n., maikitsatike. POHME-BLANCHE, n., ahi'. PooR, adj., adiasadsi, liadalii. POPGUN, n., miduliake. POPLAR, n., midahbadsi-pakp.ksi. POPLITEAL SPACES n., idikalia. Q PORCUPINE, n., apadi. - QUILLS, apadihi. POST, n., atutikoaiptsa, aduiptsi, iptsa, iptsi. POT, n., midalia [bidalia]. POTATO, n., kaksa, maiitakaksa. POUCH, n., isi, opeisi. POUR, V. t., paliue, katike. POWDER, n., midatsapi. - HORN, midatsapiigi. PRAIRIE, n., amaadatsa, teduti. PRAIRIE-HEN, n., tsitska [sitska]. PREGNANT, adj., edi-ictia. PRESENTLY, adV., itekoahi, itekoa hiduk. PRESS, V. t., datati, dutapi, duts kapi. PRETTY, adj., ite, tsaki. PRICE, n., imasi. PRICKLY, adj., lialia. PRICKLY PEAR, n., patskidia. PROTRUDE, V. t., kiptsuti, ptsuti. PSORALEA, n., ahi', ahi'mika. PULL, V. t., dukidi. PUMA, itupaictia. PUMIPKIN, n., kakui-ictia. PUNCH, V. t., patskapi. PUNCTURE, V. t., kipakade, pakade. PUPIL, n., ista-adusipisa. PuP, n., masuakaza. PURULENT, adj., itudi. PUSH, V. t., adakide, pakide, kia dakide. REED. QUARTER, n., adukitopake. -v. t., kitopaheke, topaheke, to pake. QUENCH, V. t., katsi. QIJICK, adj.,' liatataki, sidisi. QUICKEN, V. t., sidisike. QUIET, V., tsakihamak. QUILL, n., apadi, apadihi, isu, ka mic[iau, matslioki, oki. QUIVER, n., maitaigi. RABBIT, n., itaki, itaksipisa. RACE, v. t., tidieke, makiatidieke. RAID n.I, v p., liade, liadets. RAINBOW, n., midiapoka. RAISEl V. t. duhi, kidubi. RAISIN, n., masipisa. RAKE, n., maikiduliadi. -v. t., ki(lutade. RANCID, adj., puade. RAPID, adj., liatataki. RAPIDLY, adv., liatataka, liatata kaha. RAT, n., itahuictia. RATTLE, v. i., liamua [habua]. - v. t., liamuake, kiliamuake. RATTLIESNAKE, n., adutsidiamatu. RAVEN, n., adiaa, pedetska. RAVINE,'i.7 amadaktsaki, amaadu liakupi, datipi. RAw, adj., tsa. - HIDE, it. See PARFLCOHE. RAZE, V. t., dutsiti [rutsiti], kidu tsiti. RAZOR, n., maidakakiti. RECEPTACLE, n., ioki, iope isi, ma ioki, maiope, maiai. RED, adj., hisi. REDDISE, adj., hiaadsi, hisisi. REDDEN, V. t., hisike, kihisike. REDDENING: part., kihigiaadui. REED, n., pupu. QUADRANGLE, n., adupalii-topa. 232 R. Q.

Page  233 ENGILISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. REFLECTION. REFLECTION, I., idallili. REFUSE, V. t., itsa. RELATION, n., itadolipaka. RELEASE, V. t., dusa, duse, kahe. REMEMBER, V. i., kadami, kikada mi. RErMIND, V. t., kadamike kik.da mike. REPTILE, n., mapoksa. RESE,MBLE, V. t., kike. See ALIKE. RESOLUTEF, adj., da'tatsoki (na'ta tsoki). RETURN V. t., kiku. RIB, n., duta. RIBBON, n., mapidalipa. RIDDLE, V. t., kiho'pike. RIDE, V. t., kidie, kidumahitatidie. RIDICULE, V. t.? uati, uatiksa. RIiGHT, n., idapa. - adv., idapalia, idapakoa. RIND, n., aduaka, aduisi. i RING, n. See FINGER.-RING. - - v. i., tamua. RIPE, adj., oti. -- V. t., kiotike, otihe, otike. RISE, V. i., ate, iduhi. RIVER, n., azi. See MOUTH and SOURCE. ROAD, n., adi. ROAST, V. t., hatsite. ROBE, i., dalipi, itasi, masi, miteo dalipi. RocK, n., mi'. ROcK, v. t., dakudsi, liakahe kida kudsi. ROIL, V. t., midisake. ROLL, V. t., dumudsi, pamudsi; ka- ki; ukaki. RooF, n., atidutidu. ROOT, n., uti.ti RoPE, n., asu, matalipi. ROSE, n., mitskapa. BUSH, mi tskapaa. - FLOWER, mitska paodakapaki., ROT1EN, ad;., pua, puats. SCORCH. ROUGE n., iteui. ROUND, adj., kakilii. NEARLY, kakihiide. - TO MAKE V., ka kiliike, kikakiliike. ROUSE, V. t., itsihe. Row, v. i., lioki (malioki, dalioki). Row, n. IN A -, daktsike, ki daktsike. RUB, v. t., kipakigi, kipatitue. RUFFLE,? n., adupidie. — adj., pi die. — v. t., pidieke, kipidieke. RU-ENl n., kiliaadupidalipa. RUN, v. i., tidie, makiatidie. SACRED, adj., hopa, hopdlats. SAD, adj., liemikga. SADDLE, n., dalioke. * SAGE, n., ilioksttaki, uliimaduti. SAGE-HENI n., tsitskaictia. SALEPRATUS, n., madaliapiikida kapuai. SALT, n., amaliota. SAND, n,, puliaki. BAR, puliaki ate. SAPLING, n., aduokipadi. SATIATE, V. t., l iapatike, kiliapa. SATISFY, V. t.,'tike. SATIATED liapq.ti, liap.atikma. SATURATE, V. t., kiad.atskuike. SAW, n., mnidiial.ati. SA~V, V. t., ide, heduts, heidekime. SCABBARD, n., imidiisii. SCALD~ V. t., otihe. SCALDED, part., oti, otits. SCA~, n., adueta [erueta]. SCARED, adj., liopaMi. SCARLET, adj., hi;i, higi-k,4'ti. SEENT n., aduiditsi, aduiditsitsaki, akuiditsitsaki. v. t., iditsike, iditsitsaakike kiiditsitsakike. SCISSORS, n., maitskiti. ScoRac, v. t., adapapi, adapapike. 233 S.

Page  234 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. SLOW. SHORT, adj., padui, padopi, pado. pidi. SHORTEN, V. t., paduike, kipaduike. SHORTENING, part., paduadui, ki padopadui. SHOT, it., adup6adui-kadita. SHOULDER, n., SHOULDER, V. i., idagpakipe. SHOVE, V. t., kipkidi, kiptsuti, pakidi. SHOVEL, n. amaid.aliiae. SHOW, V. t,. atehe, ateheke. SHUT, V. t., kipataki, makipataki. SICK7 adj., ilioade. SIDE, n., adup.tska, tsu, tsuta. SIGH, V. i., idialii, kiidialii. SILVER, n., uetsailidtaki. SINEW, n., matsua, matsuapakisi. SINGY V. i., pahi, kipahi. SINKy V. i., tsipi. v. t., tsipike, kitsipike. SmRIUS, n., iekadehi. SISTER, n., idu, iku itakisa, itaku, itamia. - IN-LAW, uaka. SIT, le. i., amakil kiamaki. SIx, num. adj., akama. SIXTH, iakama. SIXTEEN, adj., alipiakama. SIXTY, adj., akamaapitika. SKATE, n., maidaktsadake. —,. i., daktsadake. SKEWER, n., maipatsalti. SKIFF, n., midamati. SKIN, n. See PELT and ROBE. SKULL, n., atfihidu. SKUNK, n., lioka. SKY, n., apalii. SLED, n., maidutsada, midamaidu tsada. SLEEP, V. t., hamiy hamiksa, hi dami. SLEEPY, adj.,y hamicti, hidamicti, lioloi. SLIDE, V. i., dutsada~ kidutsada. SLOW7 adj., /ma. SCRAPE. SCRAPE, v. t., hatsa, kidakakiti. SCRATCH, V. t., kae, ke, kike; ada kapi. SF,AM, n., adukikaki. SEASON, n., kadu. IN A, adv., kadudu. SEAT, V. t., amakike, kiamakike. SECOND, adj., idopa. SECONDLY, adv., idopadu. SEE, V. t., ika (1l 201),.kktsisa-. SEED, n., adutsua. SEEK, V. t., kidi, kikidi. SEIZE, V. t., adalieii. SERVICE-BERRY, n., matsutapa. SET, V. i., imalipi. SEVEN, adj., sapua. - TH, isapua. SEVENTEEN, adj., alipisapua. SEVENTY, adj., gapuapitika. SEVER, V. t., adatsaki, dutsaki. SEW, V. t., llkaki. SHABBY, adj., kuti. SHAD-BUSH, n., 7 atsutapaa. SHADE, n., dalii, daliilii. -v., aduoktsihe. SHADOW, n., aduoktsi. SHAKE, V. t., liakahe; adato'ti, dakato'ti,'kiadato'ti, kipato'ti, etc. SHALLOW, adj., liepi, liepiksa. SHAME, V. t., itadike, kiitodike. SHARP, adj., sptse. SHAVE, V. t., dakakiti, kidakakiti. SHAWL, n., masid.aliami. SHE, pron., i, se. SHEAR, V. t., datskiti. SHELL, V. t., dasie, daliade. SHEEP, n. See BIGHORN. SHIELD, n., midaki. SHINE, V. i., amaliati, kaditska. SHIRT, n.: matse-itulii. SHIVER, V. i., dada. SHOAL, n., aduliepi, maaduliepi. SHOE, n., hupa, itapa. SHOOT, V., di, tadatodi, ualipi. SHORE, U., midideta. 234

Page  235 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. STOIMACH. SPAN, n., itakidakahe, sakiitakida kahe. SPAN, V. t., kidakahe. SPILL, V. t., adaliu, liu, paliue. SPIRIT, n., dalii, idalii, dokidalii. SPIT, V., akaue, kiakaue, sue. SPOILING, part., isiadui, kiisiadui. SPONGE, n., mulidiidaliupi, maimidi -pike. SPOOL, 1t., nidaiapi. SPOON, n., azi, azidelii, azisipisa, aziuetsa. SPOTTED, adj., puzi. SPRNEAD t, v. t.a, dakahe, kidulia. SPRING, 2i., maha. SPaING, V. i., dutsiki, kidatsii. SPRINKLE, V. t., dutoiti, kidutoti. SPROUT, n., aduigamike. -v. i., apadi, iaamike. SQUARE, 9., adupaliitopa. SQUAW n, miia, amakadolipdka mia. SQUEAL~ V. i. daki [naki]. SQUEEZE, V. t., datati, datapi, dutsklapi, dutskati, kidatati, ki (latapi, kidutsati. 8QUINT-EYED, adj., igtaduta. SQUIRT, r. t., datskati. STAIN~ r. t. See SOIL. STAR, it., icka. STARVE, v. t., kiadiitike, kiliada. liike, kiliadaliikgake,. STEAL, V. t., agadi. STEAM, V. i., pue. - BOAT, mati. *i.a. STEEP, adj., daia.pegi. STE3I, It., aduhfipa, hupa. STENCH, n., aduiditsiigia. STERNUAI, n., ima.kidu. STIC(K, It., midakaza. - v. t., da tsalti, kidatsa'ti, kip.lkade, paka. de, patsantA. See ADHERE. STING, v. t., hasisike, kihasiske. S~NK, v. i., iditsiisia. STOmIAChYi n., kilia. SLOWLY. SLOWLY, adv., hopa, sua, sLiaha. SMACK, V., datsope. SMALL. See LITTLE. - Pox, ma liaka. SMART, V. i., hasisi, kihasisi. SMASH, V. t., dakata [nakata], ua lipA. S~ELL, nl., maaduiditsi, maiditsi. - v. t., mupi. - v. i., iditsi. SMOKE, n., v. i., pie, pieksa. - v. t., opehi. - SIOOTH, adj., tsutsute. - V. t., kipkite, kitsutsutike, pakiti. SMOOTHIING-IRON, i., maikipkiti, maituliiikipkiti. SNAG, ni., midaicpati. SNAIL, n., maispadurnidi. SNAKE, it., mapoksa. SNAP) V. i., adatalipe. SNEEZE, V. i., ha-ilipi, kihalipi. SNOw, n., malp~detskistapedi. v. i., ma'pi, ma'pits. SNOW-BIRD, I., madadaka. SNUFF, n., maihalipi. SOAP, n., maitiduauki [maitiru suki.] SOCKET, n., ioki, mai6ki. SOFT, adj., tapa. SOFTEN, V. t., tap)ake. SOIL, V. t., kiawatsakike, kiiliatsa kike, kitsadatsakike? etc. SOILED, adj. See DIRTY. SOLDIER, n., akumakikua, masi" akumakikfia. SoN, n., idisi. SONG, n., makipahi. SOON, adv., itekoahiduk. SORE. See SCAR. - -v. i., ade, hasisi. SouP, n., hupa. SOUR, adj., adui. -v. t., aduike. SOURCE, n., aziiepu. SOUTH, n., adv., umata, umatalia, umatakoa, umatata. Sow, v. t., amaoze., i I 235

Page  236 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. STONE. STONE, n., mi', mi'kaza. STOP, V., haka'ta, liaka'tihe, kilia ka'tike, opsas,a. STOPPLE, n., iapati, maiapati. STOVE, n., uetsa-aduua. STORE, V. t., kidusa. STORE-ROOM, n., adukidusa, ma adukidusa. STRAIGHT, adj., tsamutsi [tsawu tsi]. STRAIGHTEN, V. t., tsamutsike, tsa mutsihe, kitsamutsike. - ING, part., tsamutsadui. STRANGLE, V. t., dutskiti. STRAWBERRY, n., amaalioka. STRENGTHEN, V. t., itsiike, kiitsi ike. STRIKE, V. t., diki. STRIPE, V. t., lialiike, kilialiike, ki puzike, puzike. STRIPED, adj., puzi. STRONG, adj., itsii, itsiits. STROUDING, n., akuhisi. STURGEON, i., m uapadelii. SUBORDINATE, n., maiske. SUCK, V. t., a'tsihi, datsuki. SUCKLE, V. t., a7tsihike. SUGAR, n., matsikoa (fr. tsikoa). SULTRY, adj., adeksa. SUMMER, n., ade, maade. SUN, n., midi [bidi], mapemidi. - RISE, midiate. - SET, mIidii malipi. SUNDAY, n., mapehopa. SUNFISH, n., muatsukkl. SUPPORT, V. t., aksie, kiaksie, oki. SURFEIT, V. t., kiliapatike, kiliapa tikaake. SURROUND, V. t., ialialia, oki, op tsati. SURVEY, V. t., ama kikiski. SWALLOW, n., amasodisa. SWALLOW, V. t.,, kipe, pe. SWEEP, V. t., masialia. SWEET, adj., tsikoa. TAIL, n., iepe, tsita. TAINTED, adj., puade. TAKE, V. t., dutse, kidutse, kuts. - BACK, kudsi. - DOWN, du aipi kidulipi. TALE, n., m azi. TALK, it., aduide, ide. -- v. i., ide. TALL, adj., hatski, maku. TALLY, V. i., dakaptsihe [nakaptsi de]. TANGLED, adj., Aikia, Aipe. TAPrE,I,G, adj., tsobi, tshuahe. TASSEL, n., okiiepu. TASTE, V. t., kikiaki. TATTOO, V. t., pi, kipi. TATTOOING, n., pi, adupi. TAWNY, adj, sidi. — TO MAKE, V. t., sidike, kisidike. TEA, n., midapa [bidapa]. TEAP, v. t., adalieae, dalieae [la-], dutlieae dukapi, kiadaliege, kidu lieae, etc. TEARS, n., istamida. TEDIOUSLY, adv., hopa. TELL, V. t., kime. TEMIPLE, n., atihopi. TEN, num. adj., pitika. TENTH, ipi tika. 236 TEN. SWr,,ETEN7 V. t.7 ketsikoake, tsiko ake. SWELL, V.- i., kipuake, puadui. SWELL7 TO CAUSE T07 v. kipu ake, puake. SWELLING, n., adupua. part., kipuadui, puadui. Swim,'-v. i., midididi [bidiniri]. SWING, n., maikidakudsi. - v. t., dakudsi, k-Ldakudsi. SWOLLEN, adj., pua, puats, katsuka. SWORD n., midiigi. SYRINGF., n., maidatskat-i. T.

Page  237 THERE, adv., hiduka, kuadu, sedu, Aekoa. - AREI V., matu. THICK, adj., tatsi, titsi, titsiksa. THICKEN, V. t., tatsike, titsike, ki. tatsike, kititsike. THICKENING, part., tatsadui, titsa dui, kitatsadui, kititsadui. THICKISH, adj., tatsadsi. THIN, adj., liapi; liadalii. THINK, V. i. and t., idie. THIRD, num. adj., idami [inawi]. THIRSTY, adj., udsi. THIRTY, nhnm. ad'., damiapitika. THIRTEEN, num. adj., alipidami. THIS, pron., hidi. - MUCH, adv., hidika, hidikats. - PLACE, hi dikoa. THOU, pron., da? di. THOUSAND, numn. adj., pitikictia akakodi. THREAD, n., maikikaki. THREE, numn. adj., dami [nawi]. THROAT, n., doti [loti]. THROUGH, prep., adv., dumatadu. THROW, V. t., ise, kipatike, patihe. THUMB, n., sakita. THUNDER, n., tahu, tahuidaka. THUS, adv., hidise, kua. TICK, n., uakitatsi. TICKLE, V. t., sasukihe. ToP, n., icpu. TORNN, part., dahesi, duil6e, paka p6. Toss, v. t., liamike, ki TOTEM, i., daki. TOUGH, adj., kamicka TOWNVARD, 1prep., lia, to TOWEL, n., maikipakii TRADE, V. i. See Buv TR ADER, n., akumnaihl TRAIL,;i., adi. TRAMP, v. i., dakatalii TRALUPLE, V. t., adatal TRANSPARENT, adj., d TRAP, n., itine, maitip TRAVELLING-PARTY, TRE31BLE, V. i. See S TRIANGLE, n., adupa. TRULY, adv., kalti. TRy, v. t., maihe [wait T,UBER, n., kakaa. Tuci, v. t., opaaa, opa TumoR,?t., adupua. TURBID, adcj., midiaa. TURN, v. t., dumidi, take. TURNIP, it., ahi'. TURTLE, n., mat.aii. TWTLVE, num. adj., al TWENTY~ unm. adj., d( dumilia, ks

Page  238 ENGLISH-HIDA SA VOCABULARY. WHISKEY. VOMIT, v. i., kalde. VORPACIOUS, adj., adiitikaa. TwICE. TWICE, adv., dopa, dopatsakoa. TWILIGHT, n., ha'pesede. TWINKLE, V. i., kaditska. TWIN, n., dakadutska [nakalu-]. TWIST, V. t., adamidi, dumidi, ki dumidi, pamidi. Two, u. adj., do)pa [n6pats]. WAGON, n., midaikaki. WAIST, i., hedapi. WVAIT, v. i., haka'ta. WAKEN, V. t., itsihe. WALK, V. i. dide. See GAIT. WAR, n., makuakia.ia. WAR., adj., ade, tsame. WAUR-PARTY n., n. matsedidi. WARPING, part., ki.akupadui, ~a. kup adui. WAELRIOR, n., akumakikua. W.sE, V. t., duauki, dutskisi, kidu suke, kidutskisi. WASHING, n., makidutskiai. WASP, n., ma.,atskakiditi. WATCh, it., midiikikiaki [bidi-]. WATER, n., midi. v.t., midihike. WATERY, adj., miditsi. WAVE, n., mididdhiai [bidida.isig]. WAVE, V. I., pato'ti. WE, pron.,-ma, mi, mido, midoki. WEARILY, adv., hopa. WEASEL, it., utsitsa. WrED, v. t., uahe. WEDGGE, n., mitsi. WEEP, v. i., imia, iatamidi p.ti. WEIGH, V. t., kikiski. WEIGET, n., maikikiaki. WELL, adv., tsakihe. WEST, n., adj., adv., patsati, patsa tikoa. - WArnD) patsatilia. WET, adj., adatskui. - v. t., ad.a tskuike, kiadatskuike. WHArT~pron., tapa, taka, takada, to. WHEN, adv., tuakaduk, tuakasedu. WHERE, adv., to, todu [toru], toka., WHICH, pron., tapa, tape. WuIP, n., iki. - v., diki. WHISKEY, n., midiadai [bidialui]. UDDER, n., a'tsi. UGLY, adj., isia, iteisia. UNCLE, n., ate, itadu. UNDER, prep., miktakoa [wikta-J. UNDERSTAND, V. t., eke. UNFOLD, V. t., dakatihe. UNITE, V. t., kiikupake, kidue tsake. UNTIE, V. t., (ldaipi, dusipi, dutsipi, kidutsipi. UPLAND, n., amaadatsa. UPON, prep. adv., akoka. UPRIGHT, n., aduiptgi. UPSET, V. t., adaliue, liue. URSA MAJOR, n., icka i.apua. Us, pron., mido rmiro, wido]. VALLEY, U., amaliakupi. VALUE, n., imasi. VAPOR, n., pue. VARNISH, n., maikitsatike. VENISON, n., tsitataki iduksiti. VENUS, n., ickaictia. VERMILION, U., ui, iteui. VERY, adv., ka'ti. VEST, n., mapat6pe. VILLAGE, n., ati, ati ahu. VINE, % magipiaaa. VIOLIN, n., maaiitamakipahi. VIRGINIA CREEPER, n., mahopa miaitamatsua. VISIT, v. t., uzie kiuzie, midedi. i I i 238 W. U. V.

Page  239 ENGLISH-HIDATSA VOCABULARY. YOURSELVES. WORSE, adj., isia-ita6kakoa. WOUND, n., aduu, aduaksaki, oda ksake. - v. t. u, daksaki, duka pi, idalipi, kidakaaki, kidukapi. WRAP, V. t., pudsike. WRINKLE3,,. t., liipike, kiliipike. WRINKLED, adj., liipi, liipits. WRIST, n., ikuti. WRITE, V. i., akakaMi. WRITING, n., maakaka.i. WHISPER. WHISPER, V. i., tsitside. WHISTLE, n., ikozi. - v. kozi. WHITE, adj., ataki, ihotaki, oliati. -- IAN, n., masi. WHITEN, V. t., iliotakike, kiataki ke, etc. WHITE-WASH, n., atiipkiti. WHITHER adv., tapata, toka, tokta, tota. WHO, pron., tape. WHOLE, adj., liakaheta. WHOSE, pron. tapeta, tapeita, ta peitamae. WHY, adv., tose. WIDE, adj., soki. WIFE, n., itadamia, ua. WILD, adj., idapudi. WILLOW, n., mnaliuliisa, midahadsi. WIND, n., hutsi. WINDOW,,~., maikika. WING, n., icpa. WINK, V. i., istaliulii. WINTER, n., mada, tsidie. Nee LAST and NEXT. WITH, prep., api, apika, ikupa. WOLF, n., mnotsa [botsa], tsesa. WOLF-BERRY, n., masukaaksu. WOMAN, n., mia, imiakaza. WOOD, n., mida [bida]. WORK, V., dahe, kiksa. WORM, n., hupaakuikutski, mapo ksa. WORMWOOD, n., iliokatlki-akusi piaa. YARDSTICK, n., maikutski. YAWL, n., milamati. YAWN V. i., ida. YE, pron., dido [niro]. YEAR, n., mada. See WNT~ER. YEAST, n., maahapiikidakapuai. YELLOW, adj., tsi, tsidi. - isi[, tsidadsi. - DYE, n., itsidike. -TO MAIK:E, V., kitsidike, tsidi ke. -TURNING TO, tsidadui. YES, adv., e, hao. YESTERDAY, n., hfidisedu. YONDER, adv., oka. You, pron., da, di [na, ni]. YOuNG, n., daka, idaka. - MAN, sikaka. -- WOMAN, miakaza. YOUR,.Pron. di, dita. YOURS, pron.- ditamae [nitawaets]. YOURSELF, pron., dicki. YOURSELVES, pron., didoki. THE END. 239 V.

Page  240