Condition of the Indian tribes.: Report of the joint special committee, appointed under joint resolution of March 3, 1865. With an appendix.
United States. Congress.

Page  1 APPOINTED UNDER JOINT RESOLUTION OF MIAR(H 3, 1865. AN APPENDIX. WASHINGTON: G(OV RRNMENT PRINTING O FVP IC. 1867. worn

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Page  3 IN THE SENATE OF THE UNITED STATES. JANUARY 26, 1867.-Ordered to be printed. Mr. DOOLITTLE submitted the following REPORT. The JToint Special Committee of the two Houses of Congress, appointed under the joint resolution of MarchI 3, 1865, directing an inguiry into the condition of the Indian tribes and their treatment by the civil and military autthori ties of the United States, submit the followzing report, with an appendix ac companying the same: At its meeting on the 9th of March the following subdivision of labor was made: To Messrs. Doolittle, Foster, and Ross was assigned the duty of inquiring into Indian affairs in the State of Kansas, the Indian Territory, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah. To Messrs. Nesmith and Higby the same duty was assigned ill the States of California, Oregon, and Nevada, and in the Territories of Washington, Idaho, and Montana. To Messrs. Windom and Hubbard the same duty was assigned in the State of Minnesota and in the Territories of Nebraska, Dakota, and upper Montana. The result of their inquiries is to be found in the appendix accompanying this report. The work was immense, covering a continent. While they have gathered a vast amount of testimony and important information bearing upon our Indian affairs, they are still conscious that their explorations have been imperfect. As it was found impossible for the members of the committee in person to take the testimony or from personal observations to learn all that they deemed necessary to form a correct judgment of the true condition of the Indian tribes, they deemed it wise, by a circular letter addressed to officers of the regular army, experienced Indian agents and superintendents, and to other persons of great knowledge in Indian affairs, to obtain from them a statement of the result of their experience and information; which, with the testimony taken by the various members of the sub-committees, is also to be found in the appendix. The committee have arrived at the following conclusions: First. The Indians everywhere, with the exception of the tribes within the Indian Territory, are rapidly decreasing in numbers from various causes By disease; by intemperance; by wars, among themselves and with the whites; by the steady and resistless emigration of white men into the territories of the west, which, confining the Indians to still narrower limits, destroys that game which, in their normal state, constitutes their principal means of subsistence; and by the irrepressible conflict between a superior and an inferior race when brought ill presence of each other. Upon this subject all the testimony agrees. In answer to the question, whether the Indians " are increasing or decreasing if numbers, and from what causes," Major General Pope says: "They are rapidly decreasing in numbers from various causes: By disease; by wars; by cruel treatment on the part of the whites-both by irresponsible p'

Page  4 CONDITION OF INDIAN TRIBES ersons and by government officials; by unwise policy of the government, by inhumane and dishonest administration of that policy; and by steauy resistless encroachments of the white emigration toward the west, which every day confining the Indians to narrower limits, and driving off or killing the game, their only means of subsistence."-(See appendix, page 425.) To the same question, General John T. Sprague gives the following answer " The Indians are decreasing in numbers, caused by their proximity to the white man. So soon as Indians adopt the habits of white men they begin tc decrease, aggravated by imbibing all the vices and none of their virtues. Othe. causes exist, too numerous to be detailed in this paper."-(Appendix, 228.) The following is the answer of General Carleton to the same question: "As a general rule, the Indians alluded to are decreasing very rapidly ir numbers, in my opinion. The causes for this have been many, and may b. summed up as follows: 1st. Wars with our pioneers and our armed forces; change of climate an( country among those who have been moved from east of the Mississippi to th. far west. 2d. Intemperance, and the exposure consequent thereon. 3d. Veneral diseases, which they are unable, from the lack of medicines and skill, to eradicate from their systems, and which, among Indians who live near est the whites, is generally diffused either in scrofula or some other form of it: taint. 4th. Small-pox, measles, and cholera-diseases unknown to them in the early days of the country. 5th. The causes which the Almighty originates, when in their appointetime He wills that one race of men-as in races of lower animals-shall disap pear off the face of the earth and give place to another race, and so on, in th. great cycle traced out by Himself, which may be seen, but has reasons too dee. to be fathomed by us. The races of the mammoths and mastodons, and th. great sloths, came and passed away: the red man of America is passing away!' (Appendix, 432-3.) General Wright gives his testimony to the same point as follows: "The Indian tribes are rapidly decreasing in numbers, especially west of th. Rocky mountains, caused in some measure by the wars waged against then' and more particularly by the encroachments of the whites upon their huntin. grounds and fisheries and other means of subsistence, and by the readineswith which they adopt the vices of the whites rather than their virtues; henc their numbers are rapidly diminished by disease and death."-(Appendix, 440. These officers have had large experience in Indian affairs, and they are sup ported by the concurrent testimony of many other of the most experience, officers and civilians, to be found at length in the Appen4ix. The tribes in the Indian Territory were most happily exempted from thconstant tendency to decay up to the commencement of the late civil wai Until they became involved in that they were actually advancing in popula tion, education, civilization, and agricultural wealth. Their exceptional condition may be attributed to the fact that, from thei earliest history these tribes had, to a considerable extent, cultivated the soil an, kept herds of cattle and horses; that they were located in a most fertile terri tory and withdrawn from the neighborhood and influence of white settlements and to the legitimate influence of education and Christianity among them. The war has made a terrible diminution of their number, and brought diseas.and demoralization in its train. A full account of the condition of the Chero kees will be found in the reply of the lion. J. Harlan, agent of the Cherok' (See Appendix, pages 441-50.) The recent treaties with the tribes in A 4

Page  5 CONDITION OF INDIAN TRIBES. ian territory, and the reports of their improved condition since the pacifica t, give stroig hopes that their former prosperity will return. T'he committee determined,' if possible, to ascertain the real cause of the truction of the tribes, and proposed to the officers above named, and to ny others, the following most important inquiry bearing upon that subject, 'What diseases are most common and most fatal among them, and from at causes?" To this General Sprague answers: T'he children die rapidly and suddenly from dysentery and measles, and from elect and exposure to the weather. Thle adults die from fevers, small-pox, nkenness, and diseases engendered from sexual intercourse. These diseases among the men an:d women in the most malignant form, as the Indian dtors are unable to manage them. Indulgence in liquor, exposure, and the aence of reme-dies aggravate the disease. In this, striking at the very basis procreation, is to be found the active cause of the destruction of the Indian e." General Pope is of opinion that "venereal diseases, particularly secondary philis, is the most common and destructive. It is to be doubted whether one dian, man or woman, in five, is free from this disease or its effects." Without quoting from others, it will be found, by the united testimony of all, t this disease, more than all other diseases, and perhaps more than all other uses, is the active agent of the destruction of the Indian race. Add to this emperance, exposure, the want of sufficient food and clothing, wars among emselves and wars with the whites, and we are at no loss to account for the er extilction of many of the most powerful tribes, and the ultimate disaparance of nearly all upon this continent. It is a sad but faithful picture. INDIAN WARS WITH THE W-tITES. Second. The committee are of opinion that in a large majority of cases Ind an wars are to be traced to the aggressions of lawless white men, always to be found upon the frontier, or boundary line between savage and civilized life. Such is the statement of the most experienced officers of the army, and of all those who have been long conversant with Indian affairs. Colonel Bent, who has lived uponi the U'pper Arkansas, near Bent's fort, for thirty-six years, states that in nearly every instance difficulties between Indians and the whites arose from aggressions on the Indians by the whites. The war with the Sioux, commencing in 1854, the'war with the Arrapahoes and Chey ennes in 1865, are traced by him directly to those aggressions. (Appendix, page 93. Colonel Kit Carson, who has lived upon the plains and in the mountains since 1826, atld has been all that time well acquainted with the 4ndian tribes in peace and in war, confirms this statement. He says, "as a general thing the difficulties arise from aggressiolns on the part of the whites." c The whites are always cursi)g the lndians, an(l are not willing to do them justice." (Ap pendix, page 9(i.) From whatever canuse wars may be brought on, either between different In dian tribes or between the Indians and the whites, they are very destructive, not only of the lives of the warriors engaJged in it, but of the women andl children also, often becoming a war of extelminlation. Such is the rule of savage war fare, and it is difficult if not impossible to restrain white men, esp'ciailly white men upon the frontiers, from adopting the same mode of warfare against the In'- dians. The indiscriminate slaughter of men, women, and children has frequently -'*) occurred in the histoyy of Indian wars. But the fcet which gives such tert.i rible fo,rce to the condemnation of the wholesale massacre of Arrapahoes and 5 e

Page  6 CONDITION OF INDIAN TRIBES. Cheyennes, by the Colorado troops under Colonel Chivingtol, near Fort Lyon, was, that those Indians were there encamped under the direction of our own officers, and believed themselves to be under the protection of our flag. A full account of this bloody affair will be found also in the appendix. To the honor of the government it may be said that a just atonement for this violation of its faith was sought to be made in the late treaty with these tribes. Thkrd. Another potent cause of their decay is to be found in the 1()ss of their hunting grounds and in the destruction of' that game upon which the Indian sub sists. This cause, always powerful, has of late greatly increased. Until the white settlements crossed the Mississippi, the Indians could still find hunting grounds without limit and game, especially the buffalo, in great abundance upon the western plains. But the discovery of gold and silver in California, and in all the mountain territories, poured a flood of hardy and adventurous miners across those plains, and into all the valleys and gorges of the mountains from the east. Two lines of railroad are rapidly crossing the plains, one by the valley of the Platte, and the other by the Smoky Hill. They will soon reach the Rocky mountains, crossing the centre of the great.buffalo range in two lines from east to west. It is to be doubted if the buffalo in his migrations will many times cross a railroad where trains are passing and repassing, and with the disappearance of the buffalo from this immense region, all the powerful tribes of the plains will inevitably disappear, and remain north of the Platte or south of the Arkansas. Another route futher north, from Minnesota by the Upper Missouri, and one farther south, from Arkansas by the Canadian, are projected, and will soon be pressed forward. These will drive the last vestige of the buffalo from all the region east of the Rocky mountains, and put an end to the wild man's means of life. On the other hand, the emigration from California and Oregonl into the T( Go tories from the west is filling every valley and gorge of the mountains with tetmost energetic and fearless men in the world. In those wild regions, where no civil law has ever been administered, and where our military forces have scarcely penetrated, these adventurers are practically without any law, exceplt such as they impose upon themselves, viz: the law of necessity and of self-defence. Even after territorial governments are established over them in form by Congress, the population is so sparse and the administration of the civil law so feeble that the people are practically without any law but their own will. In their eager search for gold or- fertile tracts of land, the boundaries of Indian reservations are wholly disregarded; conflicts ensue; exterminating wars follow, in which the Indian is, of course, at the last, overwhelmed if not destroyed. TlqE INDIAN BUREAU. Fourthi. The question whether the Indian bureau should be placed under the War Department or retained in the Department of the Interior is one of considerable importance, and both sides have very warm advocates. Military men generally, unite in recommending that change to be made, while civilians, teachers, missionaries, agents and superintendents, and those not in the regular army generally oppose it. The arguments and otbjections urged by each are not without force. The argument in favor of it is that in case of hostilities the military forces must assume control of our relations to the hostile tribes, and therefore it is better for the War D)epartmrnent to have the entire control, both in peace and inl war; secondly, that the annuity goods and clothing, paid to Indians under treaty stipulations, will be more faithfully and honestly made by officers of the regular aimy, who hold their places for life, and are subject to military trials for 6

Page  7 APPENDIX. up. A narrow strip has been clearel along the bay, where they have about fifty small board and frame houses erected. They also have a few potatoes planted and garden vegetables, which gave but small promise of producing much. I saw nothing being done worthy of being called fitrming. The little property possessed by these people consists of their canoes, nets, and other fishing gear, with which they are generally enabled to supply their daily wants of food, beyond which they seem to give themselves no especial trouble or care. Here was the only place upon the sound where I witnessed any attempl)ts being made to educate Indian children. The'ev. ('. C. Chirouse, a Catholic priest, having some time since established himself here as a teacher, has succeeded in collecting from thirty to forty Indian boys under his c(are, and by a system of manual labor is attempting to make them support themselves while obtaining an education. His efforts are not confined to the school-room, but he accompanies his pupils in their out-door labors and gives them all needful instruction. The boys under the reverend father's care, and by his aid, have succeeded in clearing up a sufficiently large piece of heavily timbered laind for a garden, from which they draw a small supply of vegetables; the remainder of their living is obtained by catching fish in the neighboring waters. The boys are kept entirely separate from their parents, which is indispensable for their proper culture; they are mostly dependent upon the charity of the whites for their clothing. It is a matter of regret that the worthy father is compellerl to pursue his benevolent and Christian labors under so many disadvantages, and some further provision should be made to aid him in feeding and clothi-g the pupils, who seemn so anxious to avail themselves of his instructions. In visiting their school-room I was struck with their cleanliness and good manners, as well as with the progress they had made in reading, writing, and arithmetic Herewith I submit two communications addressed to me by the pupils themselves, and written in a fair and legible hand; they are marked, respectively, C and D. Lummi reservation is situated near the head of Bellingham bay. Owing to the brief period of my stay, and the stage of the tide, it was inconvenient to visit the village, but from what I saw of the people they appear much of the same character as those at Tulalip. Their agent informed me that the reservation is better adapted to the wants of the Indians than the latter-named point, and that they had made considerable progress in agriculture. Other points were visited bordering on the sound where Indians occasionally congregate in great numbers for the purpose of taking fish, but as their general features are the same, and as there was but little improvement worthy of note at any of themn, they will not require special mention Shokomish reservation is situated near the southern end of an arm of Puget sound, known as Hood's canal, vwhich extends southward about one hundred miles from the straits of Juan de Fuca. The Indians who belong to this reservation are the Shokomrish and Skallams, and two remnants of other tribes, parties to the treaty of Point No-Point. They are variously estimated at from twelve hundred to four thousand souls; indeed, I do not believe their actual number ever was or ever will be known. I saw but very few of them upon the reservation, but learned that they were absent gathering berries, catching fish, prostituting their women, gambling, and getting drunk, the latter of which appears to be their favorite occupation. Special Agent Knox, who is in charge of them, told me that there were twelve hundred of them came to receive their annuities in November, 1863. Superintendent Watermnan estimates them at a much greater number. This reservation appears to be well enough adapted to their wants as a home. But little, however, has been done upon it in the way of improvement. The fish and game, both of which are abundant in the neighborhood, are nearly equally as abundant upon all other portions of the sound; and as these people manifest no disposition to labor, there appears to be no inducement for them to remain at the home to which they have been assigned, consequently they are scattered all along the western shore of Hood's canal and the straits of Juan de Fuca nearly to Cape Flattery, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. But little control is exercised over them, and with the means at present at the disposal of the superintendent I am unable to perceive how he is to exercise more, as he is without means to subsist them upon their reservation, and as they are mostly lazy, drunken, dissolute vagabonds, who can neither be persuaded nor compelled to labor. They are brought in contact with the white population it all of the villages and lumber camps along the western portion of the sound, and rapidly falling victims to venereal diseases and noxious whiskey which they can but too readily obtain. The fewv of them who reside upon the reservation, with a white farmer to assist them, have only about ten acres of ground in cultivation. The annuities and other appropriations are too limited to enable the superintendent to collect and subsist such a de-. moralized and drunken herd of savages while the experiment of their reformation is being attempted It is not certain that any amount of mans would enable the department to improve the condition of these people. Possibly a few of them may be reclaimed and induced to cultivate the soil. I look, however, upon the great majority of them as doomed to a speedy extinction as the result of indolence, loathsome diseases, and bad whiskey. 7

Page  8 APPENDIX. At all of the agencies which I visited upon Puget sound the Indians manifested a great desire that the government should furnish theni with clothing and trinkets as the principal portion of their annuities. My own impression and advice is against such a course, as I believe that with the facilities which they have for laboring and obtaining good prices therefor, they should measural)ly be thrown upon their own resources to obtain their clothing, and that feeling the need of it would be an additional stimulus to their industry. When large quantities of clothing and blankets are distributed among them it usually is followed by a period of gambling and dissipation. It would evi(decntly be better for them to have the greater portion of their annuities expended in procuring domrestic animals, agricultural implements, and in opening farms. To obtain these articles they cannot be induced to labor, while on the other hand they have the stimulant of physic l suffering to urge them to work for the clothes necessary for their personal comfort. The Chehalis and Cowlitz are a couple of small tribes who reside upon the rivers of those names within the settled portion of Washington Territory. No treaties have been made with them, though their land has been surveyed and much of it disposed of by the governrmeent. They are a docile people, and more industrious than the majority of the Indians within that Territory, and it would seem but just that some permanent provision should be made for them. The Yalamra reservation is situated upon the river of that name, east of the Cascade mountains, and about seventy miles north of the Columbia river. The Indians located here by the provisions of the treaty of 1855 consist of fourteen tribes andl bands, the principal of which are the Yakamas and Klikatats. The superintendent reports them to consist of five thousand persons: perhaps half that number reside upon the reservation, which is exceedingly well adapted to the purpose for which it was selected, the mountains furnishing good timber, while the upland or hills are covered with an abundance of good grass. Several fine streams of water pass through the reservation, along the mnargins of which is excellent land for agricultural purposes. A great advantage enjoyed by the Indians here is their isolation from the white settlements, which prevents them being brought in contact with vicious persons and those disposed to sell them intoxicating drinks. They have two thousand five hundred acres under fence, and about twelve hundred acres in cultivation. Their crops last year consisted of two thousand bushels of wheat, two hundred bushels of peas, six hundred bushels of corn, and three thousand bushels of potatoes, in addition to large quantities of garden vegetables. The government has erected for them a good grist and savw mill, both of which are in good repair and successful operation. The abandoned military post of Fort Simcoc furnishes excellent buildings for residences, shops, storerooms, school-rooms, and all other purposes for which buildings are required at an agency. In visiting the Indiani farms and houses many of them gave evidence of the habits of industry of the tribe. Agent Wilbur, who is in charge of the reservation, manifests a determination to test the practicability of reducing an Indian to a state of civilization. His example is certainly valuable to them, and he neglects no opportunity to give them instruction of a practical character. He is energetic and enthusiastic in his efforts to elevate the character and condition of the people under his charge. If he fails, the failure must be attributed to some other cause than a want of zeal on his part. So far they have greatly improved under his management. I found the school in full and successful operation, and well attended by both boys and girls. Both are boarded and clothed at the agency, and kept separate from their parents. Both sexes are taught the elementary branches, and there is a farm connected with the boys' school, upon which they labor a certain portion of their time; the proceeds of their labor is applied towards their support. Some of the boys are taught to work at trades, under the direction of employ6s upon the reservation, and bid fair to make proficient workmen. The girls, in addition to their studies, are taught sewing and housework. The school here and at Poyallup were the only ones that I saw which seem to be resulting in much practical good. IDAHO TElRRITORY. The Nez Perc6s are located upon an extensive reservation, embracing the Clearwater river and its tributaries in Idaho Territory, and extending westward across the Snake river includes small portions of the State of Oregon and of Washington Territory, and contains about ten thousand square miles. They were assigned to this location by the provisions of the treaty negotiaited with them by Isaac I. Stevens, then governor, and superintendent of Indian affairs for Washington Territory, and General Joel Palmer, superintendent for Oregon, in the year 1855. By that treaty they relinquished to the United States their claims to a vast re,fion of territory, embracing portions of whliit are now Oregon, Washington, and Idaho. In c(onsi)deration of tlhis cession of territory the United States stipulated among other things, that tihe reservation I tract shall be st apart, and, so far as necessary, 8

Page  9 CONDITION OF INDIAN TRIBES. to administer oaths; and said board shall be authorized to suspend for cause any officer or employs of the Indian department in their respective districts, and to remove them from office, subject to the approval of the President. And said board shall report annually, or as often as may be required, to the Commis sioner of Indian Affairs; and in all cases of suspension or removal from office by said board of any officer or emnployc of the Indian department, sIid board shall make immediate report thereon in writing, stating the cause thereof, for the action of the President. SEC. 4. And be itfurtlaer egiacted, That all superintendents of Indian affairs, all Indian agents, and the assistant commissioners to be appointed under this act, in addition to the powers now conferred by law, shall also possess all the powers and perform all the duties now conferred by law upon circuit court commissioners, or court commissioners in all cases or matters wherein any Indian tribe or any member of any Indian tribe shall be concernled or be a party; and that in all matters or proceedings wherein any Indian tribe or member of an Indian tribe shall be concerned or a party, the testimony of Indian witnesses shall be received in all courts and before all officers of the United States. The purpose of the bill is to provide boards of high character, and to organize them in such a mannler and to clothe them with such powers as to supervise and inspect the whole administration of Indian affairs in its three-fold character-civil, military, and educational. To the position of chief of this board there should be appointed an assistant commissioner, with a salary sufficient to command the services of a man of character and great ability, whose whole time is to be devoted to this important work. One of the board is to be an officer of the regular army, to be assigned by the Secretary of War; (it is believed that he would be an officer of high standing in the army;) and a third is to be selectedfrom among those persons who may be named by the great religious conventions or bodies of the United States. It is impossible to believe that these great bodies could name any other than a man of high character and great ability. Such a board not organized upon political grounds at all, and possessing, as they will, the important powers conferred in the third section of this bill, will, in the judgment of the committee, do more to secure the faithful administration of Indian affairs than any other measure which has been suggested. The assistant commissioner will report to the Secretary of the Interior; the officer of the army to the Secretary of War; and the third will report, not onlyto the government, but to that religious body which may have recommended his appointment. Thus the treatment of the Indians by the civil authorities, by the military authorities, and by their teachers and missionaries, will be subject to constant inspection and supervision. It is urged that the expenses of these boards will be considerable; but in comparison with the greater economy and efficiency their supervision would secure, that 6xpense will be comparatively trifling. Such boards, charged with the duty, among other things, to preserve amity, will doubtless sometimes save the government from unnecessary and expensive Indian wars. As an instance bearing upon this point, when that portion of the commiittee who were charged with the duty of inquiring intc the condition of Indian affairs in Kansas, New MIexico, and Colorado, arrived as Fort Larned, they found that the officer there in command had just issued an order to his troops to cross the Arkansas, going south into an Indian territory where not a single white man lived, to make war upon the Comanches, a most powerful tribe which roams over all that region from the Arkansas to Mexico. Your committee felt that such an expedition would of necessity bring on a long war with that tribe; that it was wholly unnecessary, and they took the responsibilty of advising 2 9

Page  10 CONDITION OF INDIAN TRIBES General MIcCook, a member of the staff of General Pope, who accompanied them, to countermand that order until he could communicate with General Pope at St. Louis. The order was countermanded; the troops then in motion were recalled, and thus by the mere presence and advice of the committee a war was avoided with the Comanches, which, had it once begun, would not have been prosecuted to a successful termination without an expenditure of twenty millions of dollars. Your committee took the testimony, among others, of Colonel Ford, then in command at Fort Larned, upon this subject. He says, speaking of the Comanches, (see appendix, page 64:) "From the best information I can get, there are about seven thousand warriors well mounted, some on fleet Texan horses. On horseback they are the finest skirmishers I ever saw. How large a force, mounted and infantry, would be required to defend the Santa Fe road and wage a successful war against the Indians south of the Arkansas? It would require at least ten thousand men-four thousand constantly in the field, well mounted; the line of defence to extend from Fort Lyon to Fort Riley, and south about three hundred miles. All supplies would have to come from the States. Con-' tract price for corn delivered at this point was $5 26 per bushel." With corn at this enormous price, and hay, and wood, and all supplies in proportion, the expense of such an Indian war is beyond belief. By many it was estimated that such a war would have required at least ten thousand men, and a war of two or three years' duration, to make it successful, with an expenditure of more than thirty millions of dollars. It is believed that such boards of inspection thus organized and composed of the men who should be appointed to fill them, would save the country from many useless wars with the Indians, and secure in all branches of the Indian service greater efficiency and fidelity. If such boards should cost the government a hundred and fifty thousand dollars annually, and should avert but one Indian war in ten years, still, upon the score of economy alone, the government would be repaid five hundred per cent. Respectfully submitted. J. R. DOOLITTLE, Chairman Joint Special Committee. January 26, 1867. 10 A

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Page  A001 APPENDIX. SUB-REPORT OF HION. J. W. NESMITH. Hon. J. r. DOOLITTLE, ChairnToan of coamrnttee to inquire into the condition of the Indian tribes. SIR: The committee at its meeting on the 9th of March last, under the authority of the joinrt resolution approved March 3, 1865, assigned me to the duty of inquiring into the condition of the tribes within the State of Oregoni, Washington, Idaho, and southern Mon-ana. Leaving S\ew York on the 13th of April, I reached Oregon on the 15th of )Tay, and proceeded at once to the discharge of the duty to which I lhad been assi,ugned. TIlE COAST RESERVATION, S1LETZ AGENCY. This rccAvation is situated upon the coast, entirely within the State of Oregon, and em)braces a dli.tace of about one hundred and twenty miles from north to south, and varies from, probably, about fifteen to thirty miles in width. The greater portion of it is rugged mnountains, coveied with dense forests which abound in game. Along the margins of the streams is excellent productive land in sufficient quantity to supply the wants of the Indians for agricultural purposes. The bays along the coast as well as the streams passing through the reservation furnish an abundant supply of fish at certain seasons of the year. The Indians, located at and near what is known as the Siletz agency, consist of fourteen bands or remnants of tribes, each keeping up its distinct tribal organization. They amount in the aggregate to about two thousand souls. Treaties had been concluded with but two of those tribes, viz., the Chasta Scoton, who number but one hundred and twenty-three, and the Rogue Rivers, who number one hundred and twenty-one. By the aid of their annluities, those two tribes are enabled to make some progress in cultivating the soil and improving their homes, while the remaining seventeen hundred and fifty-six are dependent upon the limited amount of means which can be spared from the annual appropriations made by Congress for the Oregon superintendency, under the head of " removal and subsistence." The tendency of such a discrimination between bands of Indians upon the same reservation is, to make the tribes, who receive no annuities, dissatisfied, and it is a constant source of trouble and irritation among them. The reason why such apparent favoritism towards the Rogue River and Chasta Scotons to the prejudice of the other tribes and bands exists, is accounted for as follows: On the 10th of September, 1853, a treaty was negotiated with the Rogue River tribe, by the terms of which they were assignel to a reservation within their own country, in the southern portion of Oregon, and were to receive from the United States certain annuities. On the 18th of November, 1854, a similar treaty was negotiated with the Chasta Scotons. Both treaties having been ratified by the Senate, the Indians, who were parties to them, were in receipt of their annuities until in the fall of 1855, when a general Indian war was inaugurated, in which all of the tribes in southern Oregon participated, including the treaty as well as the non-treaty Indians. After the southern portbion of the then Territory of Oregon became nearly desolated, the policy was adopted by the government of removing all of the Indians from their ol(i homes in the south and keeping them assembled upon the coalst reservation, under military surveillance. The location was well adapted to thle purposes for which it was intended, and all the Indians in southern Oregon were removed by military force. The Rogue River and Chasta Scotons, who were upon reservations by virtue of their treaties, were forced to abandon them and remove with the other tribes, with whom no treaties had ever been made. The experiment of removing them was a success, and resulted in the maintenance of a permanent peace. The twelve bands or remnants of tribes who were thus forcibly removed from their homes now complain that they are as much entitled to compensation for their country as the other tribes, who are annually in receipt of government annuities, notwithstanding the fact that the superintendent and agent have done much to remove the disparity of their condition by a judicious disbursement in their favor, from the limited appropriations for removal and subsistence; but th amount is too smanll to procure for them the teams, -seed, and agricultural implements necessary to start them fairly in firming If it is not deemed prudent to make a treaty with those bands, it would but seem just that sotie general provision should be made by Congress to enable th.em to engage in agricultural pursuits.

Page  A002 APPENDIX. When those trib)es were removed to) their present location in 1856, they amounted in the aggregate to about five thousand persons. They were fierce, warlike, turbulent and intractable, and averse to the performance of any species of labor, For several years it was only possible to retain them upon that reservation by issuing them full rations of food and considerable quantities of clothing. Indeed, this course became a necessity, as they had been deprived of their arms by the military and congregated upon a reservation under the charge of the troops, without the requisite knowledge or means of gaining their own subsistence. Murders and other outrages were of frequent occurrence among them, and it was at times with great difficulty that the agent, assisted by the military, could restrain them from leaving the reservation en masse, for the purpose of depredating uponl the neighboring white settlements. Within the last few years loathsomne diseases have made sad inroads upon their numbers, and more than half of them have died, while a large majority of those still alive are infected with diseases, which will in a few years sweep them off. On my visit to their reservation I found the condition of the Indians greatly improved in point of subordination and industry —results attributable to the firm and judicious management of Agent Simpson, under whose charge they have been for some time. His policy of encouraging the industrious and peaceable members of the tribes in their efforts to support themselves and families, and of punishing the vicious and indolent, has been productive of the most salutary results. The manner in which they had cultivated their lands gave evidence of their industry. Many of them had raised a surplus of provisions during the last year, and I saw large quantities of potatoes in their houses, of which they desired to dispose for the purpose of procuring clothing and other articles necessary to their comfort. In the talk which I had with them the influential men unanimously justified Agent Simpson in the course he had taken to enforce obedience and habits of industry upon the turbulent arnd lazy memberis of their tibes, and they earnestly implored that they might be furnished by government with teams and agricultural implements to enable them more generally to cultivate the soil. Agent Simpson reports that during the last year, with the assistance of five white employes, these people have raised one thousand two hundred and sixty-two bushels of wheat, two hundred and twelve bushels of peas, four thousand two hundred andnl sixty-five bushels of oats, thirty-two thousand one hundred bushels of potatoes, and thirty-one tons of hay. At Acquinna bay, which is within the boundaries of the reservation, valuable beds of oysters have been discovered. Superintendent Huntingdon and Agent Simpson, impressed with the opinion, and, as I believe, correctly, regarded these oyster beds as ap pertaining to the reservation, have rented them to certain parties, the proceeds being ap plied by them for the benefit of the tribes. They have, however, been interfered with by persons in San Francisco, who could not resist the temptation to trespass upon the rights of the Indians; the consequence is that a suit is now pending in the State courts of Oregon for the purpose of determining the question. If the suit should be decided adverse to the claims of the Indian department, that the Indians have the exclusive right to take oysters from the bay included within the limits of their reservation, those people will suffer from being deprived of one of their largest sources for obtaining subsistence and clothing. GRANDE RONDE AGENCY. This agency is on the eastern side of the coast range of mountain's, and is within the limits of what is known as the coast reservation. There are lo)cate,l here eight tribes or bands, who, like those at the Siletz agency, keep up their distiinct tribal organization. They number in the aggregate one thousand and sixty-four souls. Five of those tribes originally inhabited different portions of the Willamette and Umpiua valleys. With those treaties have been made, and they are in receipt of government annuities. They were placed on this reservation in 1856, at the time the policy was inaugurated of assembling the Indians upon reservations to prevent their hostile contact with the whites. T''he other three tribes are known as Tillamooks, Nestuckas, and Salmon }Rivers, and number in the aggregate three hundred souls. They lhave never been treated with, and, like the nontreaty tribes at the Siletz agency, are dependent upon such aid as the superintendent can spare them from the limited appropriations for removal and sustenance.'I'hey have always resided upon that portion of the reservation near the coast, and claim it still as their country. Some provision should be made to put them upon an equality with the other tribes who are assembled here. Upon visiting the Grande Ronde agency I fouind the Indians is a general thing less inclined to industrial pursuits than at the Siletz T'hey have long been in close contact with the white settlers of the Willamette and logue Rliver valleys. Being as a general thing docile in character, they have led a listless life, depending more upon their ability to beg than upon their disposition to labor for their subsistence. When first located here, like the Indians at the Siletz, and for the sam reasons, they were subsisted by the government, until their long-established habit of deptn(dit,g upon clharity has reln 2

Page  A003 APPENDIX. dered them almnost incapable of procuring a living in any other way. It is true that some of themi work for the farmers in the neighboring, settlenme,nts, and make good hands; some of them also cultivate small farms upon the reservation; but these are exceptions; the majority of the trilbe have been spoiled by ill-advised charity, until they are now the most persistent and importunate of beggars. They will, however, within a few years ceasa to be a burden upon the government, as the universal prostitution of their women has entailed diseases upon them, which must soon cause their extermination. Two-thirds o.f those originally located here leave already died(, and the surgeon who was employed to attend them last year says in his report: "I am satisfied, from over a year's experience in doctoring them, that it is impracticable, not to say impossible, under the circumstances, to eradicate wholly from their systems the scrofulous and constitutional syphilitic diseases so deeply and thoroughly seated; and while such is the case, a greater fatality will attend acute inflammatory diseases, especially those of the lungs." Their close proximity to the settlements offers them increased facilities for obtaining whiskey, which contributes to increase indolence, disease, and demoralization among them. Government has expended large sums of money in erecting buildings and opening farms for those people. The buildings seem to be in a dilapidated condition, and the fields growing up to weeds. These results arise from the fact that the appropriations are too limited to employ the necessary labor to keep the buildings in repair, and overcome the aversion of the Indians to the cultivation of the ground. This selection, in point of agricultural fitness, was never well adapted to the purposes for which it was selected, and I think that it would be better fi)r both the government and the Indians to dispose of this portion of the reservation and remove them to the Siletz, where they could be more easily and better provided for, until such time as the diseases with which they are now so universally infected shall result in their total extinction. At the Siletz there is ample room for these people; by their being incorporated with the tribes now there, the services of one agent and several employ6s might be dispensed with. The government vwoulli also be relieved of the expense of keeping up a military post and garrison, as is now done at their present location. Herewith I submit a communication from Captain L. S. Scott, marked A. The reports of the agent show that during the last year there was produced at this agency 3,060 bushels of wheat, 3,058 bushels of oats, 705 bushels of potatoes, and 46 tons of hay. The schools, provided for at both the Siletz aud Grande Ronde, seem to result in but little, if any, practical benefit to the Indians, and this remark applies with equal force to all of the tribes, with two or three exceptions, that I have visited. There is usually incorporated in Indian treaties a provision that a teacher shall be employed and paid by the government; then follows inadequate appropriations for his services, with, occasionally, some slight provision for school books, and here the government terminates its efforts at educating the Indians, without taking into consideration the fact that a poorly paid teacher and a small supply of books furnish but inadequate means for educational purposes. The consequence is, that there is an occasional spasmodic effort made, when some ill adapted and empty building can be obtained for the purpose, in which to teach a few young Indians the alphabet, and usually before that feat is accomplished the teacher leaves, disgusted with the inadequacy of his compensation, or the appropriations become exhausted, and the school is discontinued, to be resumed again at an interval sufficiently remote to give the pupils ample time to forget the lessons but imperfectly learned under the former teacher. An institution conducted uponi such a plan among white people would seldom become famous for its educational advantages. All experience has demonstrated the impossibility of educating Indian children while they are permitted to consort and associate with their ignorant, barbarous, and superstitious parents. It is admitted by all teachers who have ever made the experiment, that the vicious home influences of the Indian lodge or wigwaln during the recess of school hours are more than sufficient to counterbalance and destroy all that is taught to the pupil during the period allotted to study. The only Indian schools which have attained to any degree of success are those where the means have been supplied to feed, clothle, and lodge the children separate and apart from their parents and members of their tribes. Where the Indian youth is left to the alternate struggle between civilization and barbarism the contest is likely to culminate on the side of his savage instincts. To provide for a school for the education of savages in the usual manner which we have adopted is not only a waste of funds, but a mockery. Where the government has entered into treaty stipulations for the support of Indian schools, it should redeem the pledge by procuring suitable buildings for the purposes of the schools remote from the tribe and its influences. It should board, lodge, and clothe the pupils, and employ suitable persons to instruct them in not only what is taught in books, but in other things pertaining to civilization. When this is done, the Indian who parts with his land under the impression that his offs-pring is to receive an instalment of 3

Page  A004 APPENDIX. civilization and intelligenrice in return, swill not be defraeuded by a humtbug too transparern to deceive any one except a savage. If it is thought that it will require too great an outlay of money to comply in this manner with our treaty stipulations, it would be better to abolish the farce of our annual mneagre appropriations for Indian schools, as, under the present system, the most of those appropriations are wasted without doing the Indians or any one else any good. INDIANS OF SOUTHEASTERN AND MIDDLE OREGON. The few facilities for travelling, together with the remoteness of those tribes, and the short space of time at my disposal, prevented my visiting them. Among them are the confederated tribes known as the Wascoes, the Des Chutes, anld Tyghs, who are located upon what is known as the Warmrn Spring reservation, situated east of tile Cascade range of mountains, and about one hundred miles south of the Columbia river. Those three tribes number 1,070 souls. They were located in their present reservation in pursuance of the treaty made with them June 25, 1855. Their isolated condition Cexemnpts them in a great measure from the deleterious influences of vicious whites, and it is believed that their condition has been greatly improved since their establishment in their present home. For the last four years they have been under the charge of late Agent William Logan, who lost his life in August last on board of the ill-fated steamer Brother Jonathan. Mr. Logan's reports of last year show that they raised 4,965 bushels of wheat, 275 bushels of corn, 170 bushels of peas, 450 bushels of oats, 1,600 bushels of potatoes, together with large quantities of other vegetables. Those people have devoted considerable attention to stock-raising, and would now have been wealthy had they not suffered great losses from the severity of the winter of 1861 and the constant depredations of the Snake Indians, who inhabit the country south and east of theirs, and who are constantly engaged in making forays upon the peaceable tribes, committing murders, and driving off their stock. Frequent calls have been made upon the military for the purpose of protecting the reservation against the periodical raids of the Snakes, and detachments of troops haive sometimes been stationed upon the reservation; but the wily savages have generally eluded the vigilance of the soldiers, and pursued their maraudings unmolested. The Snakes, Klamaths, and Modocs comprise what are known as the untamed tribes, and are variously estimated at from two to three thousand souls. They claim and wander over the entire southeastern quarter of the State of Oregon, and in their marauding expeditions infest portions of northern California and Nevada and southwestern Idaho. They have been-particularly that portion of them known as the Snakes-the natural thieves and murderers infesting the great interior region above referred to. They have taken many valuable lives and destroyed hundreds of thousands of dollars' worth of property, greatly retarding the settlement and development of a country rich in agricultural and nuineral resources. It is, unfortunately, not their habit to assemble in suifficiently large force to enable the military to find or bring them to a general battle. If they would congregate in large numbers and assume a defiant attitude there would be some hopes of our being able either to conquer or exterminate them. By dividing into small and prowling bands they are enabled to pounce at any moment upon remote settlements, isolated mining camps, or passing pack trains. Their stealthy presence is never indicated except by a consummated murder or robbery, while their parties are so small and so perfectly on the alert that pursuit is useless. They infest all the routes of inland travel east of the Cascade mountains and south of the Columbia river, and pay their respects alike and simultaneously to the stage stations, the ranch men, the farmers, and the miners They respect neither age, -ex, nor condition, and seem to live solely for blood and plunder. Superintendent Huntingdon succeeded, in October, 1864, in negotiating a treaty with the Klamaths and Modocs, by the terms of which they are to be assembled upon a reser vation near Fort Klamath, in the southern portion of Oregon. This treaty has not yet been ratified by the Senate. The location selected for them is well adapted to their wants, and it is said that they are anxious to be located upon their reservation. Herewith I submit a communication relative to them from Lindsay Applegate, esq., marked B. During the last summer Superintendent Huntingdon has been enabledl to hold a council with some of the chiefs of the Snakes, at which a treaty was negotiated with them which stipulates that they shall remove to the vicinity of Fort Klamath and remain there in the future, being confederated with the Klamath and Modoc tribes. If those two treaties should receive the sanction of the President and Senate, and the Indians adhere to their promises, Oregon, northern California, and southwestern Idaho will be happily rid forever of the curse of hostile Indians, their murders, robberies, and depre dations. I think it probable that the Klamaths and MNodocs will adhere to their treaties, but have less faith in any honest compliance on the part of the Snakes. One reason for this opinion is their constitutional and ingrained tendency to rob and murder, and another 4

Page  A005 APPENDIX. is based upon the fact thib within one monthl, from the time Supoerlntendent Iluntingdon made his treaty with the Snakes I heard of parties of them murdering and robbing per sons, destroying stage stations, and running off stocks on Burnt, Malheur, and Owyhee rivers; also upon thle stage route leading from Chico, in California, to Ruby City, in Idaho. It is barely possible that those outrages were committed by some marauding banlds who had not yet heard of the treaty. In any event no effort should be spared to carry out the provisions of the treaty, as the cost of its execution wall bear no comparison to tile expense of making a single campaign against them.. However desirable it might be to rid the world of such thieves and murderers by exterminating them, I look upon it as impossible to do so in consequence of the difficulties of prosecuting a campaign in so vast a region, where all the peculiarities of the country are in favor of the savage. The sums already spent in fruitless endeavors to chastise them would be more than doubly ample to carry out the provisions of the treaty. The Walla-Wallas, Cayuses, and Umatillas are, by virtue of the treaty of June, 1855, located upon the Umatilla reservation in the northeastern portion of Oregon. They number, by actual census taken in June last, as follows: Walla-Wallas, 160; Cayuses, 370 Umatillas, 229; mnaking an aggregate of 759 souls. Their reservation is large, consisting principally of rolling uplands covered with nutritious grasses, which furnish abundant pasture for their stock. Along the margin of the streams which traverse the reservation are some of the finest agricultural lands in the State, with a supply of timber ample for farming purposes. They pay much attention to raising horses and cattle, and are comparatively wealthy-the most so, perhaps, of any tribe upon the Pacific slope. When I visited them in August last in company with Agent Barnhardt we passed over many of their farms, and found that they were managed with at degree of intelligence and industry which would have done credit to a more civilized people. The treaty provides for the erection of a saw and grist mill upon their reservation, but owing in part to the mismanagement of a former agent that duty had been entirely neglected, which caused much complaint and dissatisfaction among them.'he last Congress made an appropriation for the erection of these mills, and I found that the money wvas being judiciously expended for that purpose, thus removing the principal ground of their coirmplaint. Their crops last year were as follows: 3,000 bushels of wheat, 1,300 bushels of oats, 850 bushels of corn, 2,100 bushels of potatoes, 700 bushels of peas, together with large quantities of garden vegetables. The vice of prostitution, so common among other tribes, is almost unknown among the Cayuses, Walla-Wallas and Uniatillas, and they are consequently free from the diseases which are so rapidly decimating the tribes west of themi, along the coast. Many of them are members of the Catholic church, and it is admitted by all that the labors of the priests of that denomination have had a salutary effect upon those tribes. Their principal vices are gambling and drunkenness, but even these are not as common as among many other tribes, and would measurably disappear were it not for vicious white men, who inculcate bad habits for the purpose of profiting thereby. With the rich pastures and agricultural lands and fine herds possessed by these people, they ought to be happy and contented, if it were in the nature of an Indian to be so. In the talks which I had with their principal chiefs they had but few complaints to make, and they were principally confined to the delays in receiving their annuities, and the worthless character of the articles sent out from the east by the department. They manifested great apprehension and uneasiness lest the government should desire to remove them to some other reservation. In fact, that idea has long been inculcated among them by reckless white persons, who are anxious to stir up difficulties, and desire, upon some pretext, to obtain the rich farms now occupied by thile Indians. As the white population becomes more dense, and as the value of the lands increases, the desire to intrude upon the reservations for purposes of settlement and trade also increases. I assured the chiefs that their apprehensions of having their homes taken from them were groundless, and that so long as they conducted themselves in a peaceable and proper manner, the government would protect them in their homes, which had been guaranteed to them by solemn treaty stipulations. They also made some complaint about the public thoroughfare crossing their reservation. In reply to which I pointed them to the provisions of the treaty authorizing it, and explained to them that while the government would protect them, in accordance with the stipulations of the treaty, in the quiet possession of their homes, it would also adhere to its right to make public roads over their land as provided for in the same treaty, and that they could not be permitted to obstruct the great thoroughfare of commerce between the n avigable waters of the Columbia and the rich productive interior. While this reservation is the best adapted to the wants of the Indians, I cannot but regard its location as unfavorable, from the fact that it lies in the way of the greatest thoroughftire leading from the Columbia to all of the rich mining region east clf the Blue mountains, rendering a conflict between the Indians and re-kless white persons imminent at any moment. As bcfire stated, th-e Indians are averse to being removed, and the amount 5

Page  A006 APPENDIX. of money already expended in opening farms, building mills and houses, would seem to forbid any attempt in that direction at present. VASIIINGTON TERRITORY. On the 11th of July I arrived at Olympia, and proceeded to visit such of the reservations bordering upon Puget sound as the time at my disp)sal would permit, anrd first visited, in company with Mr. Elder, the agent in charge, the Nisqually reservation, which is about fifteen miles from Olympia, and on the Nisqually river. The most of the reservation is high and dry gravelly ridges, covered with a growth of sorrel. The only lands fit for cultivation are the bottoms bordering upon the margins of the streams, and they are covered with a dense growth of timber too heavy to be cleared by Indian labor. The reservation is better adapted to grazing than farming, but I should not regard it as valuable for either. The agent informed me that there were five hundred and fifty Indians belonging to the reservation, but they were nearly all absent gathering berries and fishing, so that I had no opportunity to make a personal inspection of their condition. It would be advantageous to the Indians as well as the government to have this tribe concentrated with the Puyallups and removed to their reservation, which is about twenty miles distant, in a northeasterly direction. PUYALLUPS. This tribe is located upon a reservation upon and near the mouth of the Puyallup river. They number about six hundred souls, and obtain the principal part of their subsistence from the fish which abound in.the neighboring waters; they also cultivate the land to some extent which borders along the river and is of excellent quality, but more labor is required to clear off the timber and brush than the Indians are disposed to devote to that purpose. When I visited this tribe they had about one hundred and forty acres planted in potatoes, wheat, barley, oats, peas, and other vegetables, the labor being nearly all done by themselves. The extensive salt marshes upon this reservation afford fline opportunities for cutting hay, which finds a ready market in the neighboring lumber camps. Upon tb.he whole, I know of no reservation so well adapted to the wants of the Indians, or where their living could be more easily obtained; yet they manifest but little disposition to improve their condition by adopting habits of industry necessary to clearing and cultivating their fertile lands, cutting hay for market, or erec(ting comfortable houses. Here, as elsewhere, I observed that general tendency to idleness, vagrancy, dissipation, and indifference upon the subject of future wants, which seems to be an aboriginal characteristic. I'The mildness of their climate, together with the facilities for obtaining fish along the sound, prevents any great amount of suffering among them from want of food or clothing; yet with all the natural advantages by which they are surrounded, they have made comparatively no advances toward civilization. About twenty families have adopted the habits of the whites, to the extent of living in rude houses of their own construction; yet they are influenced by the prevailing superstition of all the tribes against residing in or in any way using a building in which one of their tribe has died; consequently, when a death occurs in one of their houses the family moves out and at once consigns their former residence to the flames. Their agent informs me that the tribe is decreasing, a result to be attributed to the presence of venereal diseases which prevail among them. Squoxon reservation, like the Nisqually and Puyallup, is also under charge of Agent Elder. It is situated upon an island in Puget sound. The land is poor and heavily timbered, and the large sums of money heretofore spent in attempts,o open farms and make improvements upon it have resulted in no corresponding benefit. It would be beneficial to the few Indians who reside here to remove them, as well as the Nisquallies, to the Puyallup reservation. The three tribes are parties to the treaty of Medicine creek, and should all be located at Puyallup, which is so well adapted to their wants. On the evening of the 14th of July I embarked, in company with Superintendent Waterman and three gentlemen who had been appointed by the department, to appraise certain improvements upon the reservation. Our only means of conveyance was an open boat. After being buffeted about by adverse winds and tides for two days and nights we reached Seattle, where we abandoned our open boat and took passage upon a small steamer chartered for the remainder of our trip. On the 18th we reached the Tulalip reservation, situated upon the margin of the Tulalip bay, and near the mouth of Shokomish river. At the time of my visit the reservation was under charge of Agent Howe, who reports that there are eleven hundred Indians who make their homes there for a portion of the year. They rely for support upon fishing and hunting; indeed they can do little else, as the soil, in addition to being poor, is covered with a growth of timber sufficiently dense to deter even a white man from attempting to clear it 6

Page  A007 APPENDIX. up. A narrow strip has been cleared along the bday, where they have about fifty small board and frame houses erected. They also have a few potatoes planted and garden vegetables, which gave but small promise of producing much. I saw nothing being done worthy of being called fi,rming. The little property possessed by these people consists of their canoes, nets, and other fishing gear, with which they are generally enabled to supply their daily wants of food, beyond which they seem to give themselves no especial trouble or care. Here was the only place upon the sound where I witnessed any aittempts being madle to educate Indian children. The RIev. (". C. Chirouse, a Catholic priest, having some time since established himself here as a teacher, has succeeded in collecting from thirty to forty Indian boys under his care, and by a system of manual labor is attempting to make them support themselves while obtaining an education. His efforts are not confined to the school-room, but he accompanies his pupils in their out-door labors and gives them all needful instruction. The boys under the reverend father's care, and by his aid, have succeeded in clearing up a sufficiently large piece of heavily timbered land for a garden, from which they draw a small supply of vegetables; the remainder of their living is obtained by catching fish in the neighboring waters. The boys are kept entirely separate from their parents, which is indispensable for their proper culture; they are mostly dependent upon the charity of the whites for their clothing. It is a matter of regret that the worthy father is compelie,l to pursue his benevolent and Christian labors under so many disadvantages, and some further provision should be made to aid him in feeding and clothi-ng the pupils, who seen so anxious to avail themselves of his instructions. In visiting their school-room I was struck with their cleanliness and good manners, as well as with the progress they had made in reading, writing, and arithmetic Herewith I submit two communications addressed to me by the pupils themselves, and written in a fair and legible hand; they are marked, respectively, C and D. Lummi reservation is situated near the head of Bellingham bay. Owing to the brief period of my stay, and the stage of the tide, it was inconvenient to visit the village, but from what I saw of the people they appear much of the same character as those at Tulalip. Their agent ilformned me that the reservation is better adapted to the wants of the Indians than the latter-named point, and that they had made considerable progress in agriculture. Other points were visited bordering on the sound where Indians occasionally congregate in great numbers for the purpose of taking fish, but as their general features are the same, and as there was but little improvement worthy of note at any of them, they will not require special mention. Shokomish reservation is situated near the southern end of an arm of Puget sound, known as Hood's canal, which extends southward about one hundred miles from the straits of Juan de Fuca. The Indians who belong to this reservation are the Shokomish and Skallams, and two remnants of other tribes, parties to the treaty of Point No-Point. They are variously estimated at from twelve hundred to four thousand souls; indeed, I do not believe their actual number ever was or ever will be known. I saw but very few of them upon the reservation, but learned that they were absent gathering berries, catching fish, prostituting their women, gambling, and getting drunk, the latter of which appears to be their favorite occcupation. Special Agent Knox, who is in charge of them, told me that there were twelve hundred of them came to receive their annuities in November, 1863. Superintendent Watermnan estimates them at a much greater number. This reservation appears to be well enough adapted to their wants as a home. But little, however, has been done upon it in the way of improvement. The fish and game, both of which are abundant in the neighborhood, are nearly equally as abundant upon all other portions of the sound; and as these people manifest no disposition to labor, there appears to be no inducement for them to remain at the home to which they have been assigned, consequently they are scat tered all tlong the western shore of Hood's canal and the straits of Juanle Fuca nearly to Cape Flattery, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. But little control is exer cised over them, and with the means at present at the disposal of the superintendent I am unable to perceive how he is to exercise more, as he is without means to subsist them upon their reservation, and as they are mostly lazy, drunken, dissolute vagabonds, who can nei ther be persuaded nor compelled to labor. They are brought in contact with the white population at all of the villages and lumber camps along the western portion of the sound, and rapidly falling victims to venereal diseases and noxious whiskey which they can but too readily obtain. The few of them who reside upon the reservation, with a white farmner to assist them, have only about ten acres of ground in cultivation. The annuities and other appropriati ns are too limited to enable the superintendent to collect and subsist such a de-. moralized and drunken herd of savages while the experiment of their reformation is being attempted It is not certain that any amount of means would enable the department to improve the condition of these people. Possibly a few of them may be reclaimed and in duced to cultivate the soil. I look, however, upon the great majority of them as doomed to a speedy extinction as the result of indolence, loathsome diseases, and bad whiskey. 7

Page  A008 APPENDIX. At all of the agencies which I visited upon Puget sound the Indians manifested a great desire that the government should furnish them with clothing and trinkets as the principal portion of their annuities. My own impression and advice is against such a course, as I believe that with the facilities which they have for laboring and obtaining good prices therefor, they should measurably be thrown upon their own resources to obtain their clothing, and that feeling the need of it would be an additional stimulus to their industry. When large quantities of clothiug and blankets are distributed among them it usually is followed by a period of gambling and dissipation. It would evidently be better for them to have the greater portion of their annuities expended in procuring domrestic animals, agricultural implements, and in opening farms. To obtain these articles they cannot be induced to labor, while on the other hand they have the stimulant of physic.l suffering to urge them to work for the clothes necessary for their personal comfort. The Chehalis and Cowlitz are a couple of small tribes who reside upon the rivers of those names within the settled portion of Washington Territory. No treaties have been made with them, though their land has been surveyed and much of it disposed of by the government. They are a docile people, and more industrious than the majority of the Indians within that Territory, and it would seem but just that some permanent provision should be made for them. The Yaklama reservation is situated upon the river of that name, east of the Cascade mountains, and about seventy miles north of the Columbia river. The Indians located here by the provisions of the treaty of 1855 consist of fourteen tribes an(l bands, the principal of which are the Yakamas and Klikatats. The superintendent reports them to consist of five thousand persons: perhaps half that number reside upon the reservation, which is exceedingly well adapted to the purpose for which it was selected, the mountains furnishing good timber, while the upland or hills are covered with an abundauce of good grass. Several fine streams of water pass through the reservation, along the margins of which is excellent land for agricultural purposes. A great advantage enjoyed by the Indians here is their isolation from the white settlements, which prevents them being brought in contact with vicious persons and those disposed to sell them intoxicating drinks. They have two thousand five hundred acres under fence, and about twelve hundred acres in cultivation. Their crops last year consisted of two thousand bushels of wheat, two hundred bushels of peas, six hundred bushels of corn, and three thousand bushels of potatoes, in addition to large quantities of garden vegetables. The government has erected for them a good grist and savw mluill, both of which are in good repair and successful operation. The abandoned military post of Fort Simcoe furnishes excellent buildings for residences, shops, storerooms, schoolrooms, and all other purposes for which buildings are required at an agency. In visiting the Indian farms and houses many of them gave evidence of the habits of industry of thte tribe. Agent Wilbur, who is in charge of the reservation, manifests a determination to test the practicability of reducing an Indian to a state of civilization His example is certainly valuable to them, and he neglects no opportunity to give them instruction of a practical character. He is energetic and enthusiastic in his efforts to elevate the character and condition of the people under his charge. If he fails, the failure must be attributed to some other cause than a want of zeal on his part. So far they have greatly improved under his management. I found the school in full and successful operation, and well attended by both boys and girls. Both are boarded and clothed at the agency, and kept separate from their parents. Both sexes are taught the elementary branches, and there is a farm connected with the boys' school, upon which they labor a certain portion of their time; the proceeds of their labor is applied towards their support. Some of the boys are taught to work at trades, under the direction of employ6s upon the reservation, and bid fak to make proficient workmen. The girls, in addition to their studies, are taught sewing and housework. The school here and at Puyallup were the only ones that I saw which seem to be resulting in much practical good. IDAHO TERRITORY. The Nez Perc6s are located upon an extensive reservation, emnbracin, the Clearwater river and its tributaries in Idaho Territory, and extending westward across the Snake river includes small portions of the State of Oregon and of Washington Territory, and contains about ten thousand square miles. They were assigned to this location bv the provisions of the treaty negotiated with them by Isaac I. Stevens, then governor, and superintendent of Indian affairs for Wasihington Territory, and General Joel Palmer, superintendent for Oregon, in the year 1855. By that treaty they relinquished to the United States their claims to a vast re.ion of territory, embracing portions of Nvh,lit are now Oregon Washington, and Idaho. In c(usiideratior of this cession of teriito,), the United States stipulated among other things, that the reservation'tr-act shall be s t apart, and, so far as necessary, 8

Page  A009 APPENDIX. surveyed and marked out for the exclusive use and benefit of said tribe as an Indian reservation, nor shall any white man, excepting those in the employment of the Indian decpartment, be permitted to reside upon the said reservation without pelrmission of the tribe and the superintendent and agent." In article 5 "The United States further agree to establish at suitable points within said reservation, within one year after the ratification hereof, two schools, erecting the necessary buildings, keeping the same in repair, and providing them with furniture, books, and stationery; one of which shall be an agricultural and industrial school, to be located at the agency and to be free to the children of said tribe; and to employ one superintendent of teaching and two teachers." Article 10 provides: " The Nez Perces desire to exclude from their reservation the use of ardent spirits, and to prevent their people from drinking the same; and therefore it is provided that any Indian belonging to said tribe who is guilty of bringing liquor into said reservation, or who shall drink liquor, may have his or her portion of the annuities withheld." The fact that not one of these excellent provisions has been complied with, on the part of the government, presents a striking contrast between what has been promised and what has been performed. For the last three or four years the reservation has been overrun with white people, not only by those in search of gold, but by others who have made locations there for agricultural purposes, and who have erected buildings, enclosed lands, and exercised all the rights of ownership over it. A town has been located there, which was designated as the capital of the Territory, and a lively trade carried on not only with the whites, but with the Indians, supplying them with arrdent spirits, upon their own reservation, in open violation of the intercourse law, and of the provisions of the treaty above quoted. Ihe agent, in his report of last year, and which, for some reason, was not published, states that "It is difficult to say what remedy can be taken. Of course we know that the sale of all merchandise in Lewiston and the different mining camps upon the reservation is in direct violation of the intercourse laws, yet these merchants say th,ey are paying the United States taxes for the sale of liquors and other goods. The capital of the Territory is located upon the reservation, counties and towns laid off, judges, sheriffs and constables appointed, county roads laid off, town and county licenses granlted, &c. It is sincerely to be hoped that some way be found to check this growing evil. Take the sale and traffic of liquor to these Indians away from them, and no better, more friendly, or kind-hearted people can be found on the coast." The people who are now and have been upon this reservation located themselves there at a time when rich gold mines were being discovered and worked, and remained under the impression that a treaty would be made with the Indians, by which they would relinquish to the government that portion of their lands occupied by the town of Lewiston and neighboring settlements. Such a treaty was negotiated by the commissioners appointed by the government, in June, 1863; but never having been ratified by the Senate, the leading chiefs are now opposed to its ratification, and, as a reason, allege that the government has defrauded them by not complying with the provisions of the treaty of 1855, and that it would be useless to enter into a new treaty while the provisions of the old one remtain unfulfilled. There are two thousand eight hundred of these people. They are the finest specimens of the aboriginal race to be found on this continent. They are possessed of considerable herds of cattle and horses, are brave and warlike, and are of good habits. They have always been the friends of the white man, from the days when Lewis and Clarke visited them to the present time. They have just reason to complain of the many infractions of their treaty, and more particularly of that clause of it which guarantees that the whites shall be kept off their reservation. Under the leadership of " Big Thunder," a principal chief. a party is forming which is hostile to the government, and if something is not speedily done to remove the causes of complaint there is g eat danger o be apprehended of their resorting to open hostility. No one can go upon their reservation with the treaty in his hand without being convinced that their complaints are well founded. I am only surprised that they have exercised so much forbearance under the wrongs and injustice which they have suffered. The fifth article of the treaty, providing for the erection of school-houses and the support of schools, lilie most of the other provisions, has been neglected, and nothing worthy of the name of school has ever existed upon the reservation. Agent James O'Neill, who is in charge of the Nez Perces, as, in his report of 1864, above referred to, "That no provision is made for the suppoit or boarding of children. The different bands of these Indians are located from half a mile to sixty miles from the agency, anrid, therefore, only those living near can attend." "These living near will not attend unless hired to do so. A school-house was erected last summer, and school taught for a short time, but five or six attending, and at sometimes but one or two, there being no regular attendance. The building was afterward, by order of Superintendent Wallace, exchanged with Dr. Newell for a house lt longing to him, which has since been occupied by one of the employ~s. This spring a ro(em formerly 9

Page  A010 APPENDIX, used as an office was taken for a school-room, but still the children will nut attend; and until such an appropriation is made for the support of the children from the d(lstaut bands, it seems as though an appropriation of thirty-two hundred dollars per annurm for the support of two teachers was a useless expenditure." Upon investigation, I found that teachers had been appointed, but, for the reasons set forth by the agent, they had been unable to accomplish anything; and I concur in the opinion expressed by Agent O'Neill, that the present expenditure is a useless one. All the other stipulations of the treaty with the Nez Perces are fulfilled with the same sort of fidelity as are the provisions f(;r excluding the whites and whiskey from the reservation, and for the establishment of schools. The annuities, which the treaty stipulates shall be paid annually, for some reasons have been withheld, and not a dollar has been paid to the tribe for more than two years. I found Agent O'Neill a competent officer, and doing all in his power to pacify the Indians and protect the interests of the government, but he was entirely destitute of funds, and had been for the last year. The treaty employces upon the reservation have eighteen months' pay due them, and, in order to live, are forced to dispose of their vouchers for services at from fifty to sixty cents on the dollar in currency. The chiefs, who have a stated salary by the provisions of the treaty, have been forced to make similar sacrifices. The credit of the Indian department is utterly destroyed, anrd the tribe greatlv disaffected towards the government, and I think it safe to assert that there is no portion of the United States in which Indian affairs are in so chaotic and disorganized a state as in Idaho Territory. Mr. O'Neill, who is the only Indian agent within the Territory, is utterly powerless to remedy the evils. The regulations of the department require him to conduct his correspondence through the superintendent of Indian affairs for his district. " Caleb Lyon, of Lyonsdale," who is governor and ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs, has not been heard of in Idaho since early last spring. His absence from his post, however, seems to entail no embarrassment upon the management of Indian affairs. When present, he conducted them with an ignorance unparalleled, and a disregard of the rights and wants of the Indlians, and of the laws regulating intercourse with them, deserving the severest rebuke. In a council which I held with all of the principal chiefs of the Nez Percds tribe, they unanimously denounced his conduct, and accused him), among other things, of negotiating with one of the tribe for the private purchase of an eligible situation within the boundaries of the reservation for his own benefit, and upon which he proposed to locate "New Lyonsdale." The charge made by the Indians is corroborated by the statement of Rev. H. H. Spalding, herewith submitted, and marked E. The most prominent feature of Governor Lyon of Lyonsdale's administration of Indian affairs is to be seen in his abortive attempts at erecting a stone church upon the Nez Perc6 reservation. The site chosen is at the eastern base of a steep hill, or mountain. The walls are constructed of large, rough basaltic stones, laid up in common earth, or mud. Its dimensions outside are thirty-six feet by fifty-tfix, and the walls are three feet thick and sixteen feet high, and without a roof, bearing a strong resemblance, ili all but height, to a Mexican corral, or a New England cattle pound. The freezing and thawing of the mud mortar has caused it all to fall out, so daylight is visible in any direction through the walls, while the accumulated water from the rains passing down the mountain side has made the walls settle in such a manner as to be in constant danger of falling. The expenses already incurred in erecting this novel structure amount to $5,913 13; $1,185 50 of which is still due to the Indians for labor performed by them at one dollar per day in its erection, and for the neglect to pay which the Indians make very uncomrplimentary remarks of the governor, who employed and promised to pay them therefor. Fortunately no roof lhas been placed upon it, and the period is not far distan4 when its fallen and dilapidated walls will constitute a costly ruin to commemorate the extravagant folly and want of common sense of his excellency Caleb Lyon of Lyonsdale. It is not known what authority, if any, thegovernor had for this expenditure, nor is it known from what appropriation the mone- expended was taken. The treatv certainly provided for nothing of the kind; and if it did, no sane man would think of erecting it in its present form, upon its present site, or of the materials selected. The amount thus foolishly squandered should be disallowed in Governo(r Lyon's accounts, and he or his sureties compelled to refund the money. The attempted erection of this structure seems to be in perfect keeping with the rest of Governor Lyon's official acts connected with his administration of Indian affairs in Idaho. Hence his continual absence will cause no detriment to the service. For further particulars relative to Governor Lyon's conduct I refer you to the statements made by Agent O'Neill and Rev. H. H. Spalding. I was unable to find aiiy records in Idaho connected with or pertaining to the office of supelintendent of Indian affairs. By an application to Mr. Gibson, who had been in charge of the office, he submitted the following under oath: 10

Page  A011 APPENDIX. "I was engaged by Governor Lyon in New York, in June, 1864, as clerk ill the Jndian department, and assisted the Secretary. I expected to receive fifteen hundred dollars per annum as my compensation. The governor agreed to allow me one thousand dollars per annum. I made out a voucher for one year's services, at the rate of fifteen tndred dollars per annum, and sent it to Governor Lyon by mail. I forget how much I have been paid, aud did not sign vouchers for the amount received. Governor Lyon pai(1 my expenses from \Jew York to Lewiston, Idaho, and I was in his employment up to the 25th of August, 1 S().5. "I conducted a portion of the correspondence of the office of supeuntendent of Indian nffidrs. I am net aware that Governor Lyon brought out any funds from Washington applicable to the Indian department since in Idaho. Governor Lyon only had one set of accounts made up for the superintendeticy during the period that I was in his employment, and they emaced the whole period. I made up those accounts. I do not know at amount of money Governor Lyon received or disbursed as superintendant of Indian affairs, nor what were the balances in the accounts. Ikuow that he disbursed some money on account of the erection of a stone church at Lapwai, but have no recollectio of the amount. I don't remember whetlier or no any funds were disbursed on account of annuities while Governor Lyon was in charge of the office. My business in the office was to examine the accounts of agents, and I only had the quarterly accounts of one agent to examine-they were Agent O'Neill's. Governor Lyon had no interpreter employed for the office when one was wanted Whitman was sent for, or some one else temporarilv employed. I remained in the office at Lewiston when Governor Lyon came to Boise valley to make treaties with the Indians. I never saw tlo treaties lie negotiated, and know nothing of their provisions. 'When Governor Lyon left the Territory be said nothing about turning over the office, but directed me to repair to Boisd City, and remain in charge of the office. I complied with his directions. All that I have done was to receive Agent O'Neill's retums and forward them to Washington. I have kept no letter-book, and made no communication in rekion to O'Neill's accounts, but simply forwarded them toWashington without letter or " WALTER W. GIBSON." "Subscribed and sworn to before me this eighteenth d(lay of September, 1865, at Bois6 City, Idaho Territory. " MILTON KELLEY, I Associate Jutstice.'' It would appear from Gibson's statement that there were no records kept inll the superintendent's office, and I imagine that it will be difficult to determine what Mr. Gibson was employed and paid for, unless it was, as he states, to remail at the end of each quarter one set of Agent O'Neill's accounts. It would seem hardly necessary to pay a clerk a thousand or fifteen hundred dollars a year for that service. A total change is required in the administration of Indian affairs in Idaho Territory; and the most salultary change that could be made would be the appointment of a suitable superintendent who would attend to the duties of his office. The sooner that is done the better it will be for thtie Indians and the government. The department in Idaho requires the services of two additional agents, there now being but one I herewith submit a statement relative to Indians in Idaho, fiom MIr. A. L DowNner, clerk of the supreme court of the Territory, and marked F. ANNUITIES. Among all the tribes that I visited, with whom we have negotiated and ratified treaties, I found a univeirsal complaint in relation to both the quantity and quality of their annuities. There is no general circulation of paper money, as currency, within the States or Territories bordering upon the Pacific; consequently the Indians there, who have never seen or known any kind of money excepting gold and silver, are unable to comprehend the representative value of a bank or treasury note as being above that of any other piece of paper. At the time the treaties were negotiated with them, ard the value and quantity of the articles they were to receive annually from the government was explained to them, all values had reference to a gold basis The practical effect has been to reduce their annuitiesonehalf in quantity. Their suspicious natures cause them to look upon such a diminution as an actual and intentional fraud on the part of the government, while their ignorance precludes the possibility of making them comprehend the abstract question involved in financial fluctuations. In their simplicity, they insist that paper is not money, and that they 11

Page  A012 APPENDIX. are annually and unjustly defrauded of one-half that was promised them. Hlowever erroneous their reasoning may be, it is not in the power of man to convince them of it, and it is hardly reasonable to expect that one party to a compact should be scrupulous in their compliance withl its provisions under a conviction that the other party is unjustly evading it. Another great cause of complaint is the worthless qualitv of the goods which are bought in the Atlantic States and sent out for distribution amiong them. There is a great fault somewhere, either on the part of the agents who make the purchases in the eastern market, or on the part of the merchants or contractors who supply the goods. From the personal inspection which I have given those goods, and on comparing them with tie invoices, I am thoroughly convinced that the contractors are guilty of the most outrageous and systematic swindling and robbery. Their acts can be properly characterized by no other terms. There is evidence also that the persons employed in the department to make the purchases are accomplices in these crimes. I have examined invoices of purchases made by the department or its agents in eastern cities, where the prices charged were from fifty to one hundred per cent. above the market value of good articles. Upon an examination of the goods I have found them, as a general thing, worthless and deficient in quantity. Among them were "steel spades," made of sheet iron; "chopping axes," which were purIely cast iron; "best brogans," with paper soles; "blankets," made of shoddy and glie, which came to shreds the first time they were wet, &c., &c., &c. Add to these villainous purchases, made with depreciated currency, the fait that the goods are generally sent by the most expensive means of transportation, and it can be easily imagined how small a proportion is received by the Indians. But the folly or wrong of these purchases, made by dishonest agents from dishonest contractors, does not cease here. Many articles are purchased which would be utterly useless to the Indi;ans, if their quality was ever so good, such as iron spoons, mirrors, gimlets, jewsharps, hair oil, finger rings, and, in one case which came under my observation, forty dozen pairs of alotig garters were sent out to a tribe in which there was not a single pair of stockings. Ageist W'ilbur, in charge of the Yakama reservation, in a report upon this subject, says "ithe goods furnished from the Atlantic States have been of in inferior quality, often damaged, and sometimes short inl quantity.,Of the first invoice of annuity gooIs received here there was a large number of blankets short; of other goods which arrived here in 1862 there was a deficiency of fourteen pairs of blankets, twenty-one yards of checks and stripes, and six pairs of brogans, besides twenty-five pairs of blankets rat-eaten to that exttilt that they were considered worthless. Thirty-seven pairs of pants and twenty-two) coats, on opening the case, were found to be wet andti completely rotten. The woollei goods sent out have been almost universally worthless; clothes made up for the schools from annuity goods, many of them, were not worth the making. The same might be truthfully said in regard to the quality of hoes, axes, pitchforks, and shovels, many of which were not worth the transportation from Dalles, Oregon, to this place, a distance of seventy-five mniles. The calico has been of a very inferior quality. One would suppose that the sentiment prevailed, where sutch goods were purchased, that they were for the Indians, and no matter about the quality or quantity. I think, in justice, that the government owas the Inrdians of this agency twenty thousand dollars for deficiencies in quality and quantity of goods purchased, and previously distributed to the Indians of the Yakaina nation." Independent of the frauds which have been perpetrated in these purchases, a great inconvenience has resulted from the ignorane of the parties perpetrating them in their not knowing what would be most useful to the Indians, and it often occurs that at sonle remote agency the tribe is destitute of some useful and indispensable article, while the storehouse is full of those for which they never had any use. I have seen hundreds of dollars' worth of paints, mirrors, jewsharps, finger rings, elastic garters, and other eqlally useless gewgaws stowed away upon a reservation, while the Indians were destitute of seeds, teams, and agricultural implements, which they would have used to some purpose. Not a dollar's worth of goods intended for distribution among the Indians upon the Pacific coast should be purchased in the eastern markets. All the articles of woollen goods which the Indians require are manufactured in Oregon and California, and sold at reasonable prices, while the quality is admitted by all good judges to be superior to simtnilar goods purchased in the Atlantic States. These States not only manufacture their own substantial woollen goods, but are large exporters of wool. The small quantities of cotton goods and hardware required by the Indians can be purchased in the Pacific markets cheaper than they ever have been furnished there by the Indian departmeniit from eastern cities, and as for the baubles and trinkets for ornaments, they should not be purchased, as they only tend to degrade the Indians by stimulating a barbarous fondness for useless display. What the Indian really requires for his comtfort and elevation is domestic animals, agricultural implements and seeds, and, under any judlicious management of their affairs, their annuities would be principally given in these articles; The appropriation bills usually pass at or near the close of a session of Congress, so late 12

Page  A013 APPENDIX. in the season that the purchases of annuity goods cannot be made in eastern cities and sent arotund Ctpe liorn in time to reach the tribes during the current year in which the appropriations are made. Somnetimes the alternative is adopted of serlnding the goods more expeditiously by express over the isthmus of Panama, on which route the charges for transportation usually amount to two or three times the value of such good(s as are required,by the Indians. Persons who have witnessed the distribution of annuity goods to Indians without being aware of how, where, or by whom they were purchased, have come to the conclusion that the tribes were being defrauded by the agents who made the distribution. My experience, resulttig from an investigation of the matter, forces the conclusion upon my mind, that, under the present system of purchasing annuity goods, the depredations upon the ftinds cominence sometimes before, and always soon after it gets out of the Indian bureau in Washington, to such an extent, that by the time the goods reach the agent, who is to distribute themt, there is nothing left either in quantity or quality to tempt his cupidity. The evils resulting from improper and dishonest practices in the purchase of Indian goods by the department, and its agents selected for that purpose, and who know nothing of the Indianis or their wants, have long been felt by all persons who had any knowledge of the svstem antd the enormous ifrais which have been perpetrated under it. An attempt was made to cor-i.:t this evil by contgressional legislation, and the following provision was, for that purpose, incorporated in the act approved July 5, 1862: i S:c 5. And be it further enacted, That hereafter no goods shall be purchased by the Indian department, or its agents, for any tribe, except upon the written requisition of the superintendent in charge of the tribe." As pertinent to this subject, and to show how little regard was paid to the law by the Indian bureau, I quota the following from the replies made by Superintendent Huntingdon, of Oreg(on, to certain interrogatories propounded to him by myself; and also append a copy of a letter from late Commissioner William P. Dole: "Prior to my appointment as superintendent the practice appears to have been to make the purchases by the superintendent or the agent having charge of the tribe, arid in the remittance of funds for the first half year of my incumbency, 1863, no change was made, the funds for annuities for all the tribes being remitted, and in due time turned over to the, agent, and by them expended. On the 2d of May, 1863, however, Commissioner Dole advised me' that it was his design to'change the practice, and cause the goods to be purchased in the Atlantic cities,' and, in pursuance of this plan, I was directed to transmit my estimate of the articles required for the Indians in the entire superintendency in such time as to reach Washington' not later than 1st October, 1863,' and I was especially enjoined( to' a strict compliance with these instructions' upon my part. This letter was received on the 2(1 day of June, 1863, and acknowledged on the following day. A copy of it, marked A, is hereto appended for your information. "On the 18th day of June Commissioner Dole informed me that he had ordered certain goods to be purchased in New York without waiting for my estimate of what was required, and enclosed a list of the goods so ordered.' On the 15th of July Mr. J. B. Gordon, special agent, wrote, enclosing invoice of goods purchased in New York and Baltimore, and advising me of their shipment. On the 24th September I forwarded to the Commissioner a. carefully prepared estimate of the articles which it was deemed most expedient to purchase for the Indians, which, of course, did not arrive at Washington until after the purchases for that year had been made. No further communication has ever been received by me from the Commissioner's office upon this subject; but, on the 4th of July, 1864, 1 received a letter from Mr. J. B. Gordon, special agent, advising me of the purchasq and shipment of annuity goods for all the tribes in Oregon. No allusion to this purchase has ever been made in any letter received from the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and this omission cannot be chargeable to the failure of the mails, for my monthly statements of correspondence sent to Washington have been found to correspond with the records of the commission. The goods purchased in 1863 were shipped via Panama at enormous freights, and arrived at the several agencies in time for distribution the same year. The goods bought in 1864 were shipped via Cape Horn, did not arrive here until the present year, and could not he distributed to the Indians for whom they were designed until very recently. Indeed, a portion of those designed for the Shasta, Scoton, Utnpguas, and Rogue Rivers are yet in this town. Thus the Indians have been one year without annuities, and mruch dissatisfaction exists among them in consequence. "The time and manner in which the goods have been shipped have been most unfortunately chosen. The goods of 1863 were not oly shipped by the costly isthmus route, but they were subject to exorbitant charge for packing, drayage, &c., (for detail of which see comparative schedule, marked G, and the bulky nature of some of the articles was such as to make the freight a great deal more than the value of the goods delivered. Handled axes, 13

Page  A014 APPENDIX. hatchets, pitch,torks, garden hoes, &c., were cased in huge pine bones, to be transported over the.route from Baltimore and New York to Warm Springs and Umatllla. The transportation of the bulky wooden handles was five times the value of the articles, handle and all, after delivery, while the Indians would have thought it no hardship to have made the hlandles themselves out of the timber which grows upon their own reservation. "The purchases of 1861 were all shipped via Cape HIorn and San Francisco to Salem. Salem was the proper destination of no part of the goods. Your familiar acquaintance with the country enables you to see at once the absurdity of sltipping goods bound for Warm Springs or Umatilla, up the Willamette river to Salem, thence down the river to Portland again, toward their final destination. The goods designed for Siletz agency afford a still more marked instance of mismanagement. They have been transported from San Francisco to Salem at a cost of about $75 per ton, and now the most economical way to get them to their destination will probably be to ship them back to San Francisco again at like cost, and thence direct to Siletz at a cost of about $16 per ton. The onlv other alternative is to transport them on pack-mutles from Salem to Siletz, which probably will not cost less than $100 per ton. In regard to the quality and suitableness of the goods shipped, it has generally been such as could have been anticipated where the purchaser was entirely unacquainted with the country, or the Indians who inhabit it, and there has.uniformly been an unfavorable discrepancy between the invoices and the articles actually shipped. I shall not swell this letter to the inordinate length necessary to point out all of these failures or swindles, but a few of the most glaring must suffice. "Merrimac prints ale named in the invoices of both ye(ars. This, as is well known, is the most costly sort of calico, and the prices paid have corresponded with the invoice quality, but not a yard of Iferrimac calico has ever been ptt in the package; on the contrary, the article shipped has always been of a very inferior quality, such as canm be bought for twenty-five or thirty per cent. less than the Merrimac, and is worth to the Indians, who are expected to consume it, less than half. The article shipped as cotton duck was a light and inferior article of common drilling. A considerable part of the thread sent out was rotten and utterly worthless. The needles, the buttons the fish-hooks and lines were of the most inferior description, and of very little value to the Indians. Spoons enough were brought to give nearly half a dozen to every one of the tribe, and they were so worthless that the Indians generally refused to carry them away after they were given out. Fancy mirrors, costing $5 per dozen, were sent; they proved to be little looking-glasses about two inches in diameter, and worth absolutely nothing to the Indians. A lot of steel weeding-hoes, handled, proved to be little affairs, intended for the use of some delicate lady, if indeed they were intended for use at all. Scissors and shears in inordinate quantity, and utterly worthless in quality, were sent. Tin ware, packed in roomy cases, until the freight was far in excess of the value. Frying-pans of thin sheet-iron, utterly worthless, and so esteemed by the Indians. In short, the entire purchases show either ignorance of the Indians' wants, or design to defraud them. If the purchases are made intelligently and honestly in New York, it may be that the government and Indians will be as well served; but if the invoices hitherto bought are to be taken as a sample of those to be bought in the future, it would be as well to spend half the amount here. No merchant of any interior town in Oregon or Washington ever thinks of buying his stock of goods-in New York, and the same reasons which impel individuals to trade at the nearest wholesale mart, apply with two-fold force to all such purchases as are necessarily made by the government.'.The facts which I have detailed, in my judgment, make evident these propositions: "1st. The purchase of goods should invariably be made by a person acquainted with the Indians and their wants, and with the character of the climate and country where they are to be consumed. "2d. That purchases should be made at the wholesale mart nearest to the agency where they are required. " 3d. That purchases in Baltimore and New York necessarily involve enormous tranisportation charges, or else the withholding c(f the goods from the Indians for a year. "For your further information, I take the liberty to transmit herewith a comparative schedule, marked B, showing the purtchases made in Baltimore and New York inl 1863, of the articles for which, in my judgment, the annuity funds should be expended. A careful examination of this schedule will give you a pretty thorough understanding of what has been purchased, and where; and it will also advise you of what, in my judgment, ought to have been purchased." "DEPARTMENT OF THrE INTERIOR, "I O/ice of Indian Affairs, ifay 2, 1863. "Si: On account of the appreciation of gold and the consequent increase in the prices of merchandise generally on the Pacific coast, it has been demonstrated that articles of general utility required for Indi,an purposes in the States of California and Oregon, and 14

Page  A015 APPENDIX. the Territory of Washington, can be procured in and shipped from the Atlantic States upon better terms, both for the government and the Indians, than can be done in the localities where they are required. I have, theiefore. to direct, that you transrit to this office your estimate for the articles required for the Indians within your superintendency, so as to reach here not later than the first October next. You will be careful to state the amount of money you wish exp.'-nded in each article requirel, aud not the quantity of the article. "A strict compliance with thiese instructions is expected on your part. "Very respectfully, "W. P. DOLE, C)ommissioner." N.iotwithstanding the restrictions imposed by the section of the law above quoted, it would seem, from Mr. Dole's letter, that he was determined to buty something And without waiting for Superintendent Huntingdon to make a requisition for goods of his own volition, as the law contemplated, he, the superior, addresses his subordinate a mandatory letter on the 2d of May, 1863, in which he orders him to send in his requisitions, but, apparently fea.ring that the subordinate officer might exercise the discretion which the law allowed him, the order is closed with the implied threat of official coercion, that " a strict col"fliance wvith these instructions is expected on your part It seems that Mr. Dole became impatient to make the purchase; therefore, on the 18th of June, and before he could possibly know what Mr. HIuntingdon's requisitions would be, or whether he would make any, makes the purchases, and the goods are shipped, with the results detailed by Superintendent Huntingdon. It seemts that again in 186t the annuity goods were bought and shipped by Mr. Gordon without awaiting for any further requisition. Huntingdon's requisitions of the 24th of September, 1863, were in the department at Washington when the purchases of 1864 were made, and by reference to Huntingdon's schedule, which I append, it will be seen that Messrs. Dole and Gordon had as little comnprehension of the requisition as they had regard for the law of Congress, which they were palpably violating. Huntingdon asked for "small steel ploughs," and they sent him "fancy mirrors;" he asked for "harness for ponies," and they sent him "frying-pans" and "knitting-needles;" he' asked for "axes and grain cradles," and they responded with "scissors and iron spoons." In this sort of disregard of the laws of Congress and official malfeasance is to be found the true foundation of the complaints of the Indians about the quality and quantity of their annuities. Superintendents and agents among the Indians who are conscious of these wrongs are restrained from protesting against a practice which is so much in favor with the head of the Indian bureau. If the practice of disobeying so plain a law of Congress is adhered to, I know of no remedy but to make it a criminal offence, punishable by incarcerating the offenders in prison among the more honorable robbers of their own race. The civilization of the Indians is a question which has attracted the attention of statesmen and philanthropists since the discovery of the continent. All schemes resorted to for that humane purpose seem to have resulted in failurie and disappointment, until it is now very generally conceded, at least by all practical people, to be an impossibility. The humane and liberal efforts of the government in their behalf have sometimes had the zealous aid and oo-operation of honest and devoted Christian missionaries, who have given their time and talents to their elevation without having accomplished any great apparent benefit. In some instances those efforts gave promise of being rewarded with beneficial results, but the barbarous instinct of the savage has generally reasserted its sway, and the missionaries and teachcrs have lived to witness the futility of their labors in seeing their pupils neglect and repudiate their teachings, and returning to their barbarous habits with the vices of the white men superadded. The Irdians of Oregon, Washington, arid Idaho are as susceptible of being instructed perhaps as any others of their race, yet they all have the same great characteristics and the same savage instincts which experience has taught us the impossibility of overcoming, and I do not believe that they will ever be very much elevated above their present condition. Their condition, however, can be ameliorated to isome extent by honestly devoting the annuities which we have stipulated to pay them to the improvement of their homes and opening their farmis, thus enabling them to gain a better and more reliable subsistence than they now have. The syphilitic disease, with which most of them are infected, is making terrible inroads upon their numbers, and seems to defy the efforts of our physicians; while the Indians' belief in demons, witchcraft, and magic, induces them to treat all diseases with a system of savage incantations administered by their own "medicine man," in whom they have great faith: if, however, the patient dies, the doctor is killed by the surviving relations as a punishment for his malpractice. Another great obstacle to their advancement is their habit of leaving their homes when a death occurs in one of them. This superstition is so thoroughly implanted in all of the Pacific tribes that no efforts of their agents can eradicate it, and when a death occurs in a 15 0

Page  A016 APPENDIX. residence, hospital, or schbol-ihou.se, it is shunned by the su;vivor.s of th- tribe and condemnnel to th, fl,als S.) long ats this superstitioa exists ameaog themi it will be difficult to improve their conlition by inducing them to reside in permanaent homrnes, and thus adopt even the firs, step necessary t) their civilization. 0 casionally a fainily evade what they consider the fattal consequentce of a death by removing the sufferer before he expires to some outside. temporary hut erected for the purpose. Thus, by adopting an expedient which the agents have taught them, they sometimes save their residences at the cost of the less expetlsivre buildirg, which is always destroyed by fire. The arguments of the agents have no tendency to remove the prejudice and superstitionrs of the Indians, but simplv furnish an expedient which is occasionally res-rted to for the purpose of saving their homes from destruction. In conclusion, I have to state that, after suclch an investigation of the Indib.in tribes in Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, as the limited time at my disposal would permit me to make, I am unable to perceive that the system there could be benefited by any general change of policy, excepting such as is incidentally suggested in the fo)regoing report, which is respectfully submitted. J. W. NhESkITI. A. FORT YAMIIILL, OREGON, Jaene 13, 1865. Si: In reply to your requiest of the 10th instant, I have the honor to inform you that the affairs of this agency, under the present agent, A. Harvey, esq., have, so far as my observation extends, been conducted with a view to the welfare of the Indians and the best interests of the government. The Indians are generally contented, peaceable, anid are fast adopting the habits of the white man. They are compelled to sow or plant a small piece of ground, some of them having quite large fields of grain. I would recommend that in the future, if they are kept on this reserve, that they have less blankets, trinkets, and articles of that class issued to them, and they be furnished with farming implements in lieu thereof; in fact, the most of the annuities should be of something of a more substantial character than is usually issued to them. The most of them are supplied with good clothing, which they purchase outside of the reservation, working in the various little towns and on farms with the consent of the agent There are at this time from seven to eight hundred men, women, and children belonging to this reservation. Of this numtber there are less than three hundred on the reserve at this time. I consider the selection of this site for an Indian reservation anl unfortunate one owing to its proximity to the white settlemnents, they being less than two miles distant, while the capital of the State is only t hirty miles distant. I desire also to state that the number of Indians on this reservation i diminishing very rapidly. This decrease is chiefly owing to the large number of deaths from syphilitic diseases. There are mo,'e deaths from this alone than from all other causes. I believe the condition of these Indians would be materially advanced by a removal fromn here to some place where they would be beyond the immediate influence of that class of white men whose association has a tendency to degrade to a lower depth this already degraded race. The Siletz reservation, distant eigh'ty miles from this post, I believe to be the proper place for them There are nowv about fifteen hundred Indians on the Siletz reserve, many of whom belong to the same tribes but not under the same chiefs as those on this reserve. I am credibly informed that that reservation is amply large enough to contain five thousand. My own observation induces me to believe that it would support eight or ten thousand. If these Indians on this reserve are removed there, the whole number would be increased to twenty-five hundred. The soil is better adapted to esculents than cereals. The Indian trader there informs me that he purchased of the Indians and shipped to San Francisco over twelve hundred bushels of potatoes last year. By removing the Indians on this reserve to the Siletz it would do away with the whole expense of one agency. It would also reduce the military expense of this post, as the necessity for it would no longer exist. In my opinion the cost of removal would not exceed three thousand dollars. In view of these circumstances, I would recommnend that a commission be appointed to treat with these Indians, having for its object their removal to the Siletz reservation I desire also to state that the military post known as the Siletz block-house, on the Siletz reservation, is a dependency of this post, and is therefore embraced in this command. B. Simpson, esq., is the agent on this reserve. The Indians subsist chiefly on potatoes and fish-ssalmon —of which there is an endless quantity in the Yaquina and Siletz rivers.'The reserve extends to the ocean, which is only a few miles distant. The sanitary condition of these Indians is much better than those at the Gra:nde Rondle agency, there being but little 16 a

Page  A017 APPENDIX. disease o. a syphilitic form among them as compared with the others. Before closing I desire to state th tt my intercourse with the agents of the Grande Ronde and Siletz agencies has been of a friendly character. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, L. S. SCOTT, fantry, com'd# post and d(pendenies. Hon. J. W. NESMITH, U. S. Senate, and member of Joint Committee, 8c., 8rc. B. ASHLAND MId, OREOON, June 23, 1865. Ds..R SIR: Yours of Juine 7, inviting me to give you what informati(on I could in re gard to the Indians of southeastern Oregon, having been received, I will now give you what information in regard to them I am able. The exact number of Indians present at the treaty at Fort Klamath, last autumn, I do not now remember, though I think it was something between eight hundred and- one thousand. Thie superintendent doubtless can give you the exact number. The Modocs, the country of which tribe lies surrounding Tule and Clear lakes, were not all present at the treaty, but their wishes were expressed by their chiefs who attended the treaty as representatives of the tribe. Of late years the Lake Indians have been greatly reduced in numbers by their continued wars with the tribes east, so that now I think the aggregate number of Klamaths and Mod(ocs about 1,200 souls, whilst the Indians imme(liately bordering on their country, via., the Bonacks, Snakes, and Pitt Rivers, who would in all probability establish themselves on the Klam tth reservation if the treaty were carried out, amount to more than twice that number. Some indiviluals of the last named tribes have this spring expressed a desire to go on to the Klamath reservation and thus secure the benefits of the treaty, and all of them, I think, with proper management, in a very short tim, could be induced to leave their own country, to be received upon the reservation, if proper provision were made to care for them. This wouli clear the country of Indians fromn Klamath lake to Humboldt on the east, and Soiake river on the north, and thus leave open thousands of acres of good country for settlement, and take from the government the expense of hunting those Indians with soldiers, and from travellers the almost certainty of being massacred or robbed in passing through the country not sufficiently prepared for defence. The importance of carrying out the treaty is evident. Had that treaty been ratified last session, those Indians might have been collected last spring. thus preventing robberies and murders which thy are every opportunity committing. You are aware that our 1st Oregon cavalry were all last summer pursuing the S iake Indians bordering on the lakes; but against the Indians acquainted with every mountain recess. and possessing superior means of traversing a rough, mountainous country, they could do but little, and spent the summer in pursuing them, with no success of note, but with the loss of Lieutenant Watson anrid other brave men. From what knowledge I have gained by conversation with Klamath Indians and some of the chiefs of the Snakes, who are disposed to give up war and live peaceably with the Kiamaths and the whites, I earnestly believe that through the influence ofthe Kiamaths the whole of the Snake tribe could be induced to give up their country and come upon the reservation. The Klimaths are exceedingly anxious to have the provisions of the treaty put in force, that they may till the soil and "live as the white people live," as they express it; but seeing the tardiness of complying with the promis-s m lde at the treaty, they are getting fearful that the authorities will be remiss enough to neglect it altogether. The district of c)untry derided upon at the treaty for the reservation I consider welI adapted for such purpose. Your obedient, humble servant, LINDSAY APPLEGATE. Hon. J. W. NESMITE, Salem, Oregon. 2 17

Page  A018 APPENDIX. C. TULALIP INDIAN RESERVATION. SiB: We f el happy and glad to see you coming amongst us, because we all know that the motive which brings y(,u here is for the welfare of all the Indians, and especially f)or our own good. We have been told that you should like to get all the information possible in order to help us at Wtshingt;n. I thank A(bd that I am able to express myself on paper, and with the permrnission of my father, Chirouse, I take the liberty, sir, to address you the following about the past and the present state of our school and the help that we should like to ask from our foster father, the government. The govet,rnent male fine promises to us; thi, whites always give us good advices, and we should like very much to follow them, to become civilized, to live as they want us to live, and do as they tell us to do, but most of these incitements have been mere words, with but very little effective help to us. I am one of the boys who first came to this school, and I think that I can give a correct account of what has been done. In the beginning, the first three years, we had no other dwelling but the Indian lodges and the poor little cot built by our father, Chirouse. During the same period we had no help of any kind from the department; since that time till now we always had some assistance, but never proportionate to our wants. For instance, at present we have no other clothing but those given to us by the charitable people of the Sound. Let the department furnish us with sufficient implements of husbandry, as plough, wagon, oxen, some milking cows, pigs, &c. Let the provisions fhat we cannot raise yet be abundant enough to keep us strong and healthy; let us have a seine, so that we may catch enough fish without losing too much time. If not a doctor, at least let us have the medicines required to help our poor health; let a carpenter, blacksmith, and a farmer give us the first principles of these trades so necessary to an Indian to make his own living. Upon leaving the school, to fix our permanent home on the reservation, let the department asist us in building comfortable houses, and furnish us with some of the nece,sary implements of husbandry, and in that let the government fulfil its generops promises, and then complaints may be deservedly mlade against us if we do not make in industry the progress that can be expected. I am acquainted with some Klikatute In dians, and according to what they say they have been anJd are yet far better treated than we are by the American government A large plain has been cleared for them by the Almighty hand; on the contrary, we have to work in a very dtnse forest. Notwithstand ing this, wagons, ploughs, oxen, cows, pigs, and many sheep, clothing, medicines, and everything to make the small number of pupils happy have always been furnished to them, and never to us, as every one in the country is well aware of. Otir parents have been and will always be friends to the whites, and for that reason we think we have a right to be trusted and looked on with a kind eye by them. To what concerns our poor sisters, the Indian girls, we have to lament upon their piteous situation; four years ago the Si.-ters of Oharity were promised thetn to take cale of them; but they and we have waited in vain. Every Sunday many little girls come and play around the new house erected for them; they look through the windows, but their mourning eyes never can find those mothers of charity so long expected. Please, Mr. Nesmith, have pity on so many little orphans, and send to them those Sisters of Charity who shall be true mothers to them and save them from ruin. Tell AndLew Johnson, our father at Washington, that the children of the In dians of the Sound, boys and girls, have the feeling of children towards him; and we trust and believe that you will aid the kind efforts of Mr. Waterman in our behalf at Washing ton, to be lo,ked upon accotidingly by him. Yours respectfully, the schoolboys of Tulalip Indian school, GEORGE. JOSEPH. WIllIAI KrERI. ACHItLFs. MAURICS. AUGUSTE. THOMAS S. THOMAS. J AMEY. HILAIRE, 3D. DAMILENS. ANDREW. JUSrIN. HYACINTHE. WILLIAM. WILLSON. BILL. VICTOtRIN. I'ULLS. TULLIUS. PA;TaIC. HILAIHE, 2D. MA RORK. EDWARD. PIBERRB. I A ILEN. P. TTgR. Lou s. H]ILAIRE. WILLIAMS. Honi, Mr. NlMITH, UnitedStas Senator. 18

Page  A019 APPENDIX. D TULALIP INDIAN RESERVATION, Washiigton Territory, July-, 1865. SIR: On my own behalf and that of my schoolmates I extend to you a cordial welcome. Some of us are orphans, and we are very happy to have this opportunity of making our wants known to you. For the past five years we have been educated in the habits of the whites. We never have been discouraged from the hard work we had to perform on the land owned by the school. Now we can read and write, and we sholild each like to build a comfortable house and fix our permanent home on the reservation as honest farmers; but at school, notwithstanding our continual labor, we have not been able to make a single cent; we therefore apply to you, as to our father, for some help to get a start in a life of industry. Our kind teacher says that our conduct at school has always been satisfactory, and it makes us hope that you will have pity on us, and be our devoted advocate at Washington. We trust that the pioper means may be placed at the dispcsal of our agent, Mr. Howe, to afford us the help and encouragement we ask. Your obedient children, HILAIRE S. WILLIAM. WILLIAM. - PATRICE. X AUGUSTE. DAMIFNS. TULL1US. i'DWARD. X TULLES. VICTORIN. THOMAS. MAUIlCE X WILLIAM. ANDREW. HILAIRE, 3D. X JUSTIN. X THOMAS. PIERRE. a HILA1RE, 2D. X ~ JAMEY. X ACHILLES. Louis. BILL X DAILEN. X PIITT, R. ANDROW.. GEORGE. X ALFRED. X HYACINTHE. MARCK.' JOSEPH. X Hon. Mr. N.ESMITH, United States Senator. E. LAPWAI INDIAN AGRENCY, I. T., Sevtiember 1, 1865. SIR: In reply to your kind inquiry, "have any white children attended my school " there have been altogether eleven (II) white children connected with the school, eight girls and three boys. The average attendance has been seven. The third term in which white children have been in attendance is now in progress,'unde. the charge of Miss O'Neill. I open the school in the morning. and visit it once a day, at one o'clock, to hear the class in geography. Miss O'Neill teaches reading, writing, arithmetic, geography, and spelling. Miss Spalding teaches the Indians, as we can collect individuals, in reading English, Nez Percds, writing, sewing, and history. As to the stone church commnenced by Governor Lyon, I have to say I know not by what authority he commenced the building, or by what funds he promised to build it. The Indians, to the number of some forty, whom he employed to assist, promising to pay them as soon as the walls were finished, have not been paid, as the governor started early one morning after, not "a wild goose," but wild ducks, and the poor Indians cannot find him. He saidl he was to buil l the church to get rid of a "nasty mission chim." He did not consult me as to the place, or the material. The church, which he also called a school-house, is not finished, and the walls are falling down. As to the "New Lyonsd-le," I have to say the whole thing is a disgrace to any man. What I know of it is as follows, to wit: Some time in August, 1864, Governor Lyon, being at Lapwai, requested me to hire for him two Indians and a canoe to go to Lewiston, and wished me to accompany him. Although quite feeble, I consented. He showed much peevishness and want of sense, and seemed determined to run the canoe on dry land to Lewiston. On reaching Hortwai, six miles from C. agency, he stopped, and walked all over the little bottom, examining it, and stepped upon a little point and said, "'This I name New Lyonsdale; this shall be my home; here I will build my dwelling of stone, and over the river I will build a house for you. I have more influence at Washintgton than any other man,. I got my appointment from headquarters Do not depend upon the Pacific senators. I will get the reservation line, which divides the little bottom, moved up so as to leave the whole bottom outside * These are not able yet to sign. 19

Page  A020 APPENDIX. the reservation; and I will get for you, as an old pioneer, a donation of a section of land, as has been d(onated to Mr. Craig and many others, a half section here to extend over the river, and a half section opposite L wistor, and all I will ask f)r my services is this quarter. Let us see how much the Intlians will ask?" The Indians, or rather Noah, agreed to take $150 for that sile, and $100 for the opposite sile, but wished to see his brother. He did so, and returned to see Governor Lyon next day, and for several times, but the governor was never ready to make the payment. Respectfully submitted. H. H. SPALDING. Senator NESMITH, Chiairman of Committee of eInvestigation Indian Reservtwn. F. Boise. CITY, IDAHO TERRITORY, September 14, 1865. SIR: The Spokane and Cceur d'Alene Indians, in all about 500 to 600, very much like the Nez Perces, cultivate land abouit the mission, and need a flour and saw mill, and an agent to protect them in their rights from encroachments, and they need farming tools. They reside north of the Nez Per(ls over 100 miles. The Nez Percds Indians, numbering about 3,000, are located on their reserve near Lewiston, are peaceable, industrious and quiet, and would be contented if the stipulations of their treaty were carried out, and they were paid their annuities, which has not been done for three years, of which I am cognizant; an(d I have been requested by that excellent Indian lawyer, their head chief, to urge in their behalf that justice be done them. In the part of the Territory south and east of Salmon river are about 1,000 Indians somewhat domesticated, straggling about near the settlements, and about 8,000 to 9,000 wandering around in the mountains, obtaining a precarious and scanty subsistence, and make excursions for plunder frequently among settlers. These are the Shoshonees or Snake Indians. There is a valley about four miles from Boise6 City containing about 8,000 acres of good agriculltural land surrounded with mountain pasturage for many miles of extent, which would make a good reservation for these Indians, who are disposed generally to work for a living. It would cost, to carry out the design properly, about the same number of ehploy3s and amount of appropriation as is provided in the treaty with the Nez Percf3s, as per treaty of June 11, 1855. Yet it will undoubtedly be most proper to adopt the plan of congregating these Indians upon the reservation, same as at Round valley, in California, and the annuities necessary for their use to be distributed according to the best ju Igment of some practical and prudent man acting as agent. The whole Territory is divided into counties by the legislature, all of which, except two at the extreme northern part, are organized and being settled quite fast, which makes it very necessary that prudent and efficient measures be adopted to conciliate these Indians, who are necessarily driven from their hunting-grounds and deprived of their accustomed means of making or getting a sustenance. Respectfully submitted. A. L. DOWNER, Clerk S?preme Court. Hon. J. W. NESMITH, t- S. Senator, en route for Washington, D. C. 20

Page  A021 G.-Statement showing (the annuity goods purchased in New York and Baltimore in 1863 and 1864, lratk prices, with my requisition oj 1863, in columns in juxtaposition fur comparison. Purchases made in 1864. Art it les purchased. 6 pair 3-poieat scarlet MIacki nac blanke ts, a t $11....... 5 pairs 2-point scat rlet Mack i6lac blalkets, at $10....... 3 pai rs 3-point indigo Macki nac blankets, at $10 50..... 4 pairs a-point indigo Mack idoac blankets, at $8 50..... 400z yards checks, stripes, and plaids, at 30 cents.......... 7904 yard s hicko ry shirting, at 30 cents................. 725 yards ticking, at 40 cents. 1,859. yards calico, Merrimac, at 22 cents................ 1,0986 yards brown s hee ting, at 5 cents.............a$. 4 27 pounds cotton thread, at 60 cents................... 332i yards heavy twilled, ulixed jeans, at 60 cents.... 600 yards brown cotton duck, at 40 cents................. 2 G. G. buttons, $9; 2 thou sand needles, $4........... I pair wrappers, $4; baling, $14 78..................... 25 dozen 4 quart pans, at $2.. 30 dopzen tin cups, at 80 cents. 250 dozen fish-hooks, at 5 cents. 62 dozen fish-lines, at 20 cents. 50 dozen scissors, at $1....... 33 dozen shears, at $I 50.... 8 dozen black handle butcher knives, extra, at $6......... 4 dozen fancy mirrors, extra, at $5...................... 6 dozen steel weeding hoes, (handled,) extra, at $8..... I _ Namne of tribes. i I When and where purchased. When and where Arti cles, purchased. purchased. New York, May 1,532 yards unbleached do 31, 1861. iie,tic sheeting, at 35 cents 3,578 yards Merrimac, at 25 cents..................... 43 yards sand list scarlet cloth, at $2 90................. 79 yards sand list blue cloth, aat 2 75................... 6+ dozen extra large wool shawls, at $48............. 930+ yar ds str ipes, at 40 cents 4(!0 yards ticking, at 50 cents 40 pounds cotton thread, at $1 50...................... 9 pounds sewing thread, at $2. 03 y. G. buttons, at $4 50..... Baling...................... Baltimore. No 5 thousand needles, assorted, date. at $3...................... 48 dozen knitting pins, at 25 cents...................... 14 dozen 6-quart pans, at $6.. 20dozen2-quartpans,at$1 75. 60 tin kettles, at 83 cents..... 20 dozen tin cups, at 90 cents Packages, strapping, and cart age....................... l !I . I i i i I i i i i I i i i i I i I i I i i i i I i I i I i I I I o 'I :z, P, x $i, ooo 500, 200 1 200 1 2, 5001 1, 000i 800 800 1 "00 1 200 1 500 i 100 I Purchases made iLi 1863. S-Liperini;endent's requisition dated Septeinber 24, 1863. Amount. mo'nt. Walla-Walla,. Cay- New York, Jtine iise,andUm.,ttill,,ts.,l 1,14,1663. For pui-ell'ase of harness for ponies..................... For small 2-horse steel ploughs. For grain sickles............. For assorted tin ware -------- For blankets................ For h,,avy cotton sheeting. - - - For woollen linsey........... For Merrimac prints......... For scarlet cloth............. For blue cloth............... For woollen shawls, small.... For thread, buttons, needles, &c......................... $66 00 50 00 31 50 34 00 11-10 15 237 15 290 00 409 09 274 63 16 20 199 50 240 00 13 00 18 78 50 00 24 00 12 50 12 40 50 oo 49 50 48 00 20 00 48 00 $536 20 894 50 124 70 217'23 312 00 37 20 200 00 60 00 18 00 13.50 26 65 15 00 12 00 84 00 35 00 49 80 18 00 11 20 O. pt It tt t4 t i 1863 Baltimore,, June, i O"

Page  A022 G.-Statement showing the annuity goods purchased in New York and Baltimore, 4-c.-Contilued. Superintendent's requisition...___. dated September 24, 1863. n l her ~~ When and wherA purchased. Name of tribes. When and where purchased. Walla-Walla, Gay- Baltimore, June, use, and Umatil- 1863. las-Continued. 228 fry pans, at 22 cents...... 168 dozen iron table spoons, at 25 cents................ 6 dozen light chopping axes, extra, with handles, at $12.. Packing, strapping, cartage, &c........................ $50 10 42 00 72 00 21 50 2, 500 00 66 00 50 00 31 50 17 00 ].28 25 322 20 307 80 417 34 254 00 199 80 16o 00 16 20 13 0o 4 00 12 91 50 00 24 00 48 00 New York, May 3,591 yards Merrimac calico, 31, 1864. at 25 cents................. 1,575 yards unbleached do mestic sheeting, at 35 cents 1,258 yards blue denims, at 36 cents....... —---------------- no5 pounds cotton thread, at $1 50...................... 9 pounds linen thread, at $2.. 693 yards stripes, at 40 cents.. 395+ yards ticking, at 20 cts.. 10 G. gross buttons, at $4 50... 2+ dozen extra large wool shawls, at $48... —------------ Baling.......... —-------------------- Baltimore, June 17 thousand needles, assorted, 2, 1864. at $3... —------------------- 100 dozen knitting pins, at 25 cents.......... —------------------- 21 kegs nails, at $8S —....-. 1:.. 3+ dozen polished cast steel Sspades, at $14 50........... 2 pta4 dozen handled axes, extra, at $15-.-.................... 5 dozen extra strong hoes, at $10........................ Packing, strapping, cartage, &c.....-....... New York, May 4 boxes lump tobacco, 416 25, 1864. pounds, at 75 cents........ Cartage.................... 2 6 pairs 3-point scarlet Mack inac blankets, at $11..... — 5 pairs 21-point scarlet Mack inac blankets, at $10 50.... 3 pairs 3-point indigo Mack inac blankets, at $10 50.... 2 pairs 2+-point indigo Mack ina,ic blankets, at $8 50-. -... 427,k yards checks, stripes, and plaids, at 30 cents........ — 1,074 yards hickory shirting, at 30 cents................. 7691 yards ticking, at 40 cents. 1,897 yards calico, Merrimac, at 22 cents................ 1,016 yards brown sheeting, at 25 cents................ 333a yards heavy twilled, nlixedjeans, at 60 cents.. 400 yards brown cotton duck, at 40 cents................. 27 pounds cotton thread, at 60 cents................... 2 G. G. buttons, $9; 2 thou sand needles, $4........... 1 pair wrappers.-..-..... Baling...................... 25 dozen 4 quart pans, at $2.. 30 dozen tin cups, at 80 cents 8 dozen black handle butcher knives, extra, at $6......... i i I I Purchases made in 1863. Ptirellases niade in 18(' )4. Articles purchased. Article,,; piirelia-sed. moldt. i I I ss, ooo II 2, 000 800 1, ooo l loo i 0! 10 I .50!!1 50 ii 25 i 200 I 300 i 60 " 1, 600 i 100 I!ii 200'i i 50 1i, ; i 400 1 i i i Confederated tribes New York, June and bonds In mid- 24, 1863. dle Oregon. I i I 3F, 0 06 897 75 551 25 452 SS 75 00 is 00 277 20 197 75 45 00 108 00 27 17 51 00 25 00 168 00 50 75 60 00 50 00 20 25 312 00 '2 5 For Salem blankets.......... For Merrimac prints......... For brown sheeting.......... For blue denims............. For thread, linen,,tnd cotton, assorted................... For assorted needles......... For assorted buttons For knitting pins, assorted For shawls, assorted......... For tobacco ----------------- For matches ---------------- For teams, (oxen) ------------ For chains.................. For nails, 6d, 8d, and 10d...' For spades, Arnes's med. sizes-I For ploughs, small, strong, 2 horses, steel --------------- For harness, strong, plain, aid cheap, suitable for small ponies................... For axes ------------- ------ For grain cradles............ For hoes, strong ------------- It t-i -V m I i I i i Baltimore, Juue, 1863. ii i. 400' 50!,, 65 11 50'

Page  A023 500 dozen fish-hooks, at 5 cts. 125 dozen fish-lines, at 20 cts. 50 dozen scissors, at $1....... 33 dozen shears, at $1 50..... 3 dozen fancy mirrors, extra, at $5....... —-------------------- 6 dozen steel weeding hoes, I(handled,) extra, at $8.. - 0 228 fry pans, at 22 cents...... 168 dozein iron table spoons, at 25 cents................. 10 dozen half axes, at $5. -.. Packing, strapping, cartage, &C........................ 25 00 25 00 50 00 49 50 1t5 00 48 00 50 10 42 00 50 00 23 40 2, 500 0 22 00 50 00 63 00 42 50 117 45 329 10 287 80 430 98 253 00 198 90 160 00 16 80 13 00 4 00 11 47 50 00 24 00 48 00 50 00 49 50 10 00 Callaoolas Moll- Ne York ju. 2 pairs 3-point scarlet M~ack Frbak inac blankets, at $11.. 2 o w e o 5 pairs 2+-point scarlet Mack']2 pairs 3-poinit scarlet Mack inac blankets at $10....... 6 pairs 3-point indigo Mack inac blankets, at $10 50. 6 5 pairs 2+-poilt indigo Mack isac blaukets, at $8 50. 4m 391+ yards checks, stripes, and plaids, at 30 cents.... 1, 097 yards hickory shirting, at 30 cents................. 719+ yards ticking, at 40 cents. 1,959 yards calico, Merrimac, at 22 cents.................- 1,012 yards brown sheeting, at 25 cents................. 331+ yards heavy twilled mixed jeans, at 60 cents.... 400 yards brown cotton duck, at 40 cents..... —------------—. 28 pounds cotton thread, at 60 cents.................. 2 G. gross buttons, $9; 2 I housand needles, $4....... I pair wrappers............. Baling...................... 25 dozen 4-quart pans, at $2.. 30 dozen tin cups, at 80 cents 8 dozen black handle butcher knives, extra, at $6........ 50 dozen scissors, at $1....... 33 dozen shears, at $1 50.... 2 dozen fancy mirrors, extra, at $5...................... I I i I I i I I I I i i I I For bla-nkets............. For woollen cloth (heai for coats and pants...... For fla,inel, gray, coai, aDd heavy............. For linsey, $200; calico, M rimac, $300............. For shawls, small, woolle For unbleached sheetig - - For yarn................ For Iiiien, thread, butto iaeedles, and knitting pi assorted............... For sboes for men and -v men, coarse ------------ For hats for ii-ien. coarse - For harness, small, cheap, f suitable for ponies..... For grain cradles -------- For cut nails, 6d, Sd. and For mowing seythes sheaths.............. For hoes, strong --------- For spades, Ameg's cast st For hay forks........... For camp kettle., iron, pans, 4 and 6 quarts, E tin cups --------------- For grain sickles, $50; ax $75.................... For ploughs, small, stro: steel, 2-horse.......... For cows and heifers.. - - - For ox teamg........... .For chains, $75; tobacco,! Callapoolas, Molal la,, and Clacka mas. I' Baltimore, June, . 1863. I I I I

Page  A024 G.- Statement showing the annuity goods purchased in New York and Baltimore, 4.-Continued. Superintendent's requisition WAmount. dated September 24, 1863.. Il I p,ha..,rh When cnd where Articles purchased. purchased. Baltimore, Jlne, 10 dozen steel weeding hoes, 1863. (handled,) extra, at $8..... 228 fry pans, at 22 cents...... 168 dozen iron table spoons, at 25 cents................. 6 dozen light chopping axes, (handled,) at $12.......... Packing, strapping, cartage, & c....................... Baltimore, June 7 dozen 6-quart pans, 2, 1864. 10 dozen tin ciups, at! 5 dozen gr-aini sickles, 4 dozen handled axes I at $15............ 20 dozen butcher kn a $3 50............. Packing, strapping, &c............... 2,50000 8000 2,679 60~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 24 40 1 2, 500 (0 0 G.-Statenment showing thie annuity goods purcliased int -Aetv York and Baltimore, Qc.-Coiitinued. l l Superintendent's requisition dated September I Amount to 24, 1863. lbeexpended. l New York, May31, 1864..3...35 yards Merrimnac calico, at 25 cents............. $91 25 168 yards unbleached domestic sheeting, at 35 cents 58 80 20 pounds linen thread, at $2....................... 40 00 13 pounds cotton thread, at $1 50...................... 19 50 15 pairs men's brogans, at $1 65...................... 24 75 10 pairs women's shoes, at $1 45................... 14 50 2 dozen hats, at $25................................. -— 50 00 145+ yards stripes, at 40 cents...................... 58 20 Baling... —------------------ 300 Baltimore, June 2,1864.. 3.000 needles, assorted, at $3...................... 9 00 48 dozen knitting pins, at 25 cents..................... 12 00 5 kegs nails, at $8................................ 40 00 2 dozen handled axes, extra, at $15.................... 30 00 2+ dozen extra strong hoes, at $10................. 25 00 Packing, strapping, cartage, &c..................- 4 00 Total.................................. 480 00 I I Purchases made in 1863. Purchases n-lade, in 1864. Name of tribes. When and hre I! purchased. I Articles purchased.!Amo'nt. Callapooias, Molal las, aiid Clacka. mas-Continned. For butcher ]Knives..........1 $50 $80 00 1 For matches..................1 25 50 10 I I . 42 00' I', I z 72 00 1 i ii i I i 8, 000!ii I!I I P. I 1. - -It t-t .. tj, I Purchases made in 1864. Name of tribes. When and where purchased. Articles purchased. Aniount,. Umpquas and Callapoola of Uiiipqua Valley. s For blall For woo'. For lin For fla For calic For brow For shoes For hats IFor t.ck needles For harn For cut-D For axe, For ox te ails, 6d, 8d, and to.................. 50 00 $25; matches, $20; hoes, $25 ---------- 70 00 ams.................................. 600 00 Total................................ 21300 00

Page  A025 a250 00 New York, May31, 1864..-..- 165 yards unbleached domestic sheeting, at 35 cents.; 57 75 100 00 411 yards Merrimac calico, at 25 cents -----------—. i 102 75 r100 0 15 pairs men's brogans, at $1 65....................- 24 75 50 00 10 pairs women's shoes, at $[ 45........ 14 50 For nais, 6d,Sd, an S~d —------------ -50 00 118 yards stripes, at 40 cents ---------------------- 47 20 Balinig......... —------------------------------— 3 05 Baltiniors-, June 2, 18t'.....-6 kegs nails, at $8 -------------------------------- 48 00 Cartage ---------------------------------------—.2 00 550 00 Total -----------------—............... 300 00 New York, May:31,1864. 741 yards Merrimac calico, at 25 cents............. 287 yards unbleached domestic sheeting, at 35 cents-! 156 yards stripes, at 40 cents --------------------—. For calco Mema —----------------— ~6 lbs. inuen thread, $12; 10 lbs. cotton thread, $15.. 2 3 G. gross buttons, at $4 50 ------------—........... F25 pairs men's brogans, at $t 65 --------—......... 20 pairs women's shoes, at $t 45 —-------- Baling -----------------------—. —-------------- 6 New York, May25, 1864 -. — 33 lbs. lump tobacco, 75 cts., $24 75; cartage, 25 cts. oaO Baltimore, June 2,1864 - --- 7 kegs nails, $8, $56; 2,000 needles, assorted, $3, $6. 16 dozen knitting pins, at 25 cents ---------------—. 4 dozen handled axes, extra, at $15-.............. 7 dozen butcher knives, at $3 50 ------------------ wathes —--------------------- -5 ii 2+ dozen extra strong hoes, at $0 —. —------------ 2 Packing, strapping, cartage, &c................... For blankets -------------------------------—...... For heavy gray flan nel for shirts................. 200 00I For woollen yarn ------------------------------ 50 00 oor calico, Merri5ac -. —---------------------- 200 00 For unibleached sheeting, heavy ----------------- 100 00 For linen thread, button,,,, knitting needles, and needles -------------------------------------- 50 00 For shoes, men and women, heavy -. —---------- 75 01.) Fo~r nails, 6d, 8d, and 10d ------------------------ 75 00 For axes -----------—. —---------------------- 50 00 For ox teams ---------------------------------- 500 00 For chains ------------------------------------- 50 00 For butcher knaives ------------------------------ 25 00 For watches -----------------------------------'25 00 For tobacco -. —-------------------------------- 25 00 For hoes, strong ------------------------------- 25 00 Total -------------------—........... 2, 000 00 For blankets ----------------------------------- 500 00 For woolle., cloth, heavy, for coats and pants....'200 00 For gray flannel, heavy ----—. —---------------- 200 00 iFor calico, Merrimac ---------------------------'20 00 For shieet~ing, unbleached, heavy ----------------'200 00 Po,- woollen yarn, coarse. --------- 50 00 For linien thread, buttohs, n'ee'les, &e[[5[0 0 For shoes, me,, and women, heavy -. —---------- 75 00 For nails, 6d, 8d, 10d, $75; axes, $50 ------------ 1~25 00 For ox teams. $500; chains, $50 ----------------- 550 00 For butcher kniveS, $25; matches, $25............ 50 00 For tobaicco, $25; hoes, strong, $25 -. —---------- 50 00 For cows and heifers -------------------------— i 250 00 Total..... —------------------------ -... 675 00 I New York, May 31, 1864.... 742 yards Merrimac calico, at 25 cents. -. -.... 369 yards anbieached domestic sheeting, at 35 cents 1 45 yards ticking, at 50 cents, $22 50; 1521 yards 00 stripes, at 40 cents, $61 ---------------------- 8 lbs. linen thread, $t6; 10 lbs. cotton thread, $15.. 3 G. g,oss buttons, $13 50; 25 pairs men's brogans, at $1 65. $41 25 -------------------------------- pairs women's shoes, at $1 45, $29; baling, $6 10. nl New York, May 25, 1864. 33 lbs. lump tobacco, 75 cts., $24 75; cartage, 2 5 cts. Baltimore, June 2, 1864 - 7 kegs nails, at $8 ----------------- -------------- 4 dozen handled axes, extra, at $15. —-------------- 7 dozen butcher knives, at $3 50 ------------------ 2} dozen extra strong hoes, at $10................. Packing, strapli'ng, cartage, &c ------------------ Total......................... 2.... l7 5 ii i I Umpquas, (Cow-Creek For blaikets ------ ---------------------------- I band.) For bro,n sleeping ------------------------- I For calico, Merrituac --------------------------- I For sioes foi- men and women, heavy........... For nail,,, 6d, 8,1, and 10d ----------------------- Total ------------------------------- 185 25 100 45 62 40 27 00 13 50 41 25 119 00 615 25 00 62 00 400 60 00 24 50 25 00 950 Shasta, Scotons, Umpq,tias. It It t-t tv 185 50 1 1 129 15 83 50 31 00 54 75 35 1 0 25 00 56 O() 60 00 24 50 25 00 950 719 00 Rogtie R,iver Indians.... i 'total ----------------------------------

Page  A026 APPENDIX. THE CHIVINGTON MASSACRE. WASHINGTON, Tuesday, March 7, 1865. Samuel G. Colley sworn and examined. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What is your age? Answer. I was fifty-seven last December. Question. Are you agent for the Cheyennes and Arapahoes? Answer. I am. Question. How long have you acted as such? Answer. MYv commission dates from July, 186 1. I filed my bonds October, 1861. Question. When did you go upon the ground where they are located? Answer. I went upon the ground in August, 1861. Question. Have you been in charge of those Indians, as agent, ever since? Answer. I have. Question. State in brief terms about where they are located. Answer. Their reservation commences at a point fifteen miles south of Fort Lyon thence up the Arkansas river north to a point on the north bank of the A, kansas, some twenty-five miles above Fort Lyon; it then runs down till it strikes the old line of New Mexico, follows that line due north till it intersects a certain line described in the treaty, thence north till it strikes Sand creek, thence down Sind creek to the place of begilnig, including the fort. The reservation is in the form of a triangle. Question. Have the Arapahoes a reservation adjoining the Cheyennes? Answer Yes; the tract which I have described is dividled in two, half for the Cheyenn s andl half for the Arapahoes, the Cheyennes taking the west part of it. Question. About how many of those Cheyennes are there, according to your best estimate? Answer. I have enumerated them as well as I could. We have had, when I have given them some presents, between 200 and 300 lodges of Cheyennes there at a time, and something over 200 lodges of Arapahoes. There is another band that were not satisfied with the treaty who ran north of the Platte and have never come down there to minzle with these Indians much. Some of them may have been on the reservation, but they do not claim that as their reservation; they claim land north. Question. Are those Ch(yennes or Arapahoes? Answer. A band of ecih. Question. Do the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, any of them, live in houses? Answer. No; they live wild. Question. Do they have any kind of tents or skins, or anything of that sort, for shelter? Answer. They build a tent of buffalo skins on lodge poles, very much like a Sibley tent. Question. They move about from place to place? Answer. Yes; they move about; wherever the game goes they go. Question. They are nomadic? Answer. Entirely so. They break up into parties of twenty or thirty. Question. What was the occasion of the recent difficulty between our people and the Cheyennes and Arapahoes? Answer. It commenced early last spring on the Platte. There was a collision there between the Indians and the soldiers. I am not able to say which party was the aggressor; the claim there is differently made, the Indians claiming one wa~ and the soldiers the other. Question. Was there much fighting then? Answer. Not much fighting; they were small parties. I think Major Downing went out first and destroyed a few lodges, and killed one man and took some of their ponies. I heard immediately that there had been a fight there, and knowing that it is very difficult to keep one party of Indians from fighting when lhe'r brethren are at it, I went 240 miles to find the Arapahoes and Cheyennes. I found the former. and explained as well as I could that there had been trouble between some soldiersand Indians, and asked them if they knew anything about the cause of it. They said they did not; they had not heard of it. They told me at that time that they did not want any trouble with the whites; that if there had been trouble over there they were not to blame for it. They called those Indians that ran north their dog soldiers. They did nriot p,etend to have much control over them. They pledged me solemnly that if the whites would not follow them up and fight them they would remain peaceable and quiet. Coming back I met a palrty of Cheyennes and told them the same. They said they would go over towards the Platte and get those Indians in, and get them away. I told them to go over on the Arkansas, their country, and if they behaved them 26

Page  A027 APPENDIX. sBelves they should be protected as far as Icould protect thenm. The very day that I saw them there another party of sol(liers came out from Denrver, some of the first Colorado regi. ment, that were sent out by Colotel Chivintgton, I suppose, and they followed up these In. dians some 200 mtiles, and came in colli-lon with them over on Smoky Hill, in the tliiffalo country. They had quite a fight there, the Indians claiming that they were attacked, and the soldiers claining that they weie attacked. I do not know how that was. One of their tnmain chiefs war killed at that tiiie After that there were depredations committed. Question By the Ilditns upon the whitens? Answer. Yes; they came up to work the reservation. Some parties came up, drove in the stock of the coaitracto, killed two of his men. We supposed at that time the Indians were united against us that the whole c)untry was going to be at war, and they would unite. Previous to this, however, some Sioux Indians had been laboling with the Cheyennes and Arap hoes to get them to join them, but they disclaimed any idea of it. I got a circular from Governor Evans, in June, requesting me to send out runners and invite all friendly Indians of the Cheyeir-nes an,d Arapahoes who belonged to thie southern bands, as he called them, ar,d to my band, into Fort Lyon, and there feed and protect themn. I did so I sent out one ptrticular Indian who remained there all the while, only as I sent him out. I sent out my interpreter. I sent out C(,lonl WViliiam Bent, who has a wife, a Cheyenne squaw. He has been in that country thirty or forty years. He camne back,and said that he had seen Black Kettle, the head chief of the Cheyennes, and that they had promised to come in; that they did not want anytv trouble; were willing to cease hostilities and get all the war parties in that were out and would come uLp. In the last of Septelliber the one-eyed Indian whom I had sent out camne in. He said the Indians had three or four white prisoners with them whom they wanted to give up, arid if we would go out wecould get themi. Maj,,r Wynkoop went out with a comrmanid of 100 men, had an interview with them, brought in their main chief, and brought in four pris(oners whom they had, one young lady and three children. TIhey expressed a desire to be friendly. Major Wynkoop went to Denver, took them up to Governor Evans, and had an interview; I was not present. They came back again; they went out to their lodges towards Smokly Hill; brought in about 1it,0O lodges of Cheyennes, and about the same number of Arapahoes caome into Fort Lyon; anrid iMajor Wynkoop issued them half rations for a time Soon General Curtis relieved Major Wynkoi,p, ordered him to report to headquarters at Leavenworth or Fort Rile,y, I am not sure which, and placed Major Anthony in command, with orders to fight these Indians; that there could be no peace until they were chastised, as I understood the order M,jor Anthony came utip. looked the matter over, and said, "It is different from what I expected here; I supposed these Indians w,-re riiing in here making d(emands, and you were obligt-d to give ir to them. I cannot fight them." He called a council of them. He told them what his orders were, and told themn he wanted them to give up their arms and their stolen horses. They came in in about two hours, having seen their tribes, and gave up their bows and arrows and perhaps four or five field guns, and a dozen or fifteen government horses and mules; and he fed them for fifteen days, I think, on prisoners' rations. He considered them his prisoners and gave them prisoners' rations. This continued for some days. Not hearing from General Curtis he got a little aftraid, and told them to go down to Sand creek until he heard from General Curtis. They were in frequently; Black Kettle was in three days before the attack, and Major Anthony and I made up a purse and bought tobacco for them, thinking it was better to keep them peaceable. We had them right there, and there was no use going to fight those Indilns at that time, as they were friendly. There they remained till Colonel Chivington ca,me down with his regi ment. Question. When was that? Answer. It was the 28th of November, 1864,I think. By Mr. NFSMITH: Question. How many of the Indians were there, and did the numl)er embrace both Cheyennes and Arapahoes? Answer. About one-half of each tribe were there. Question. Where were the rest? Answer. They were, I suppose, on Smoky Hill-I know some of them were-and scattered around through the country. Questio)n. Were any still up on the ermigrant route on the-Platte? Answver I suppose there might have been some on the Platte. We did not know that Colonel Chivington was coming there until the morning he came in. We had had no mail from Denver for over three weeks, I think. We did not know what trouble there was, and were afraid the Indians had gone off and cut off the settlements above. The evening before he came iti some one came down and saiul he had seen somte camp-fires above, and he thought they were the Kioway Indians. He knew they were not our Indians, for if 27

Page  A028 APPENDIX. they were they would have come to see him. He came down and reported to the major that camp-fires were there, and he was fearful the Kioway Indians had come in. The major sent out scouts and fo)und that it was Colonel Chivington's commatnd coming from De,nver. He came in in the morning, and that evening marched for their camp at 8 o'clock. The results I do not know personally. I was not there Question. In the mean time did any orders come from General Curtis? Answer. Not that [ know of. I did ask Colonel Chivington that night if there was no hope that peace could be made with these Inilians He informed me that General Curtis had telegraphed him that it might be done on certain conditions; that is to say, they should deliver up property they had stolen, make restitution in ponies for those they had not got, and deliver up their desperadoes who had been making raids. By Mr. DOOLITTLP: Qtestion. You think about one-half of the Cheyennes and one-half of the Arapahoes were there in camp? Answer. Yes, sir. Q,iestiou. Of these, what proportion were of their warriors? Answer. I should think an equal portion of their warriors were with them. By Mr. Ross: Question. Half of the warriors of the two tribes? Answer. I should think there were. So far as I know, the young men of the bands who were with them were there. Thtere were warriors, and women and children too. By Mr. D)OOtITTLE: Question. The warriors belonging to these particular bands were not away? Answer. Not to my knowledge. The other Indians, those who were away, were away with their families. Quettion. Do they always take their women and children with them? Answer. Not always. They leave their women and children when they go out on a war expedition. They were encamped at that time about eighty miles from the others on the Smoky Hill, in the buffalo country. By Mir. HUBBArD: Question. When they go on a hunt, do they take their squaws and children? Answer. They move their squaws and children to the buffalo country when they go to hunt. When they go on a war party they leave them behind. By Mir. Ross: Question. When you speak of a lodge, you mean a family? Answer. Yes; a lodge will contain five on an average. We call a lodge five souls. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. Do you know anything about the attack? Answer. I was not there. I only know what I heard from officers who were there. Question. How did you regard those Indians who were in that encampment? Answer. I rezarded them as at that time friendly. Question. What had been their conduct previous to that? Had they been murdering settlers, and robbing. and committing depredations? Answer. These uheyennes had not. They might have had some among them that had been. Question. Colonel Chivington spoke to you of some desperadoes among the Indians; did you know of anty of that character there? Answer. I did not know of any of that character. There might have been some who were out with the Arapthoes. It was said there had been sa)me there that were out. Question. Was it your understanding that they made restitution of all stolen property prior to the attack? Answer The Arapahoes said they gave up all their government property. I think they had property belonging to citizens which they did not give up. Question. Did they give up all their arms? Answer I am not able to say. Ithink it is doubtful whether they did. We did not think, at the time, that they did give up all their arms. Question. How many guns did they give up? Answer. But very few. They had not many guns. I thought they had more guns than they brought in and gave up. 28

Page  A029 APPENDIX. By lIr. HUBBARD: Question. Even if these desperate Indians were there among them, you would hardly have known it yourself? Answer. No; I did not know who were there, only as the chiefs informed me. By Mr. NaESITH: Question. Were those Indians, who gave up the young lady and three children, in that encampment? Answer. One was there and was killed. The other was in the employ of the'governmnent at the time. Question. Do you know that young lady's name? Answer. Ropers. By Mr. DOOLITTL1: Question. Did any facts come to your knowledge as to the attack? Answer. I have heard all the officers repeat it who were there. Question. Give the current version. Answer. I can state, according to the received version, that the comnma d marched at 3 o'clock in the evening from Fort Lyon. They attacked the village, which was 30 miles distant, and fired into it about (laylight. The Indians, for a while, made some resistance. Some of the chiefs did not lit an arm, but stood there and were shot down. One of them, Black Kettle, raised the American rl ig, and raised a white flag. He was supposed. to be killed, but was not. They retreated right up the creek. They were followed up and pursue 1 and killed and butchered. None denied that they were butchered in a brutal manner, and scalped and mutilated as bad as an Indian ever did to a white man. That is admitted by the parties who did it They were cut to pieces in almost every manner and form. Question. How many were killed there, according to the reports? Answer. I will tetll you how I got my i)nformatiun. Tiere was a young half-breed who had been in Kansas. He had been educated here, and came out lst suimmer, for the first time in a good many years, to the Indians. He had been about Fort Lyon a good portion of the summer When the com nand c tme down there, my first impulse was to get him to go up and tell these Intians that the troops were coming up there and might attack them, but he had gone, the day before, out to their camp He made an attempt to reach the command when they began to fire, but was deterred, fell back and jumped on to a pony, behind a squaw, and rode till he overhauled a drove of ponies that they were driving off. He rode with them to the camp and was with them 14 days after they got together on Smoky Hill. He said there were 148 miss ng when they got in. After that quite a number came in; I cannot tell how many. There were eight who came intto Fort Lyon to us, reducing it down to about 130 missing, acc,rding to the last informnation I had, By Mr. NESMITR. Question. Were you on the ground after the battle? Answer. I was not. By Mr. DOOLITTLEi Question. Did you understand that any women or children were killed? Answer. The officers told me they killed and butchered all they came to. They saw little papooses killed by the soldiers. Colonel Shupe was in command of the regiment Colonel Chivington in command of the whole force. By Mr. Ross: Question. Who commanded the troops when this massacre took place! Answer. Colonel Chivington was in chief command. By Mr. HiIGBY: Question. Who was in immediate command of the party where the butchery took place? Who led the expedition? Answer. Colonel Chivington led the expedition. I do not think there was anybody in command; the soldiers appear to have pitched in without any command. By Mr. NESmITH: Question. What troops were they, and where were they raised? Answer. They were the one-hundred-day regiment raised in Denver, with a portion of the first Colorado regiment. The one hundred-day men were Shupe's command as immediate colonel; Chiving,tou was colonel of the first regiment, and took command of the whole force. 29

Page  A030 APPENDIX. By Mr. DOOLITTLB: Question. As you learned, was it the first Colorado regiment that joined in this massacre, or was it the one-hulndred-day men that were raised? Answer. Offic(ers of the first regimnent told me they did not fire a gun, and would not or could not; some of their soldiers undoubtedly dili. Question. Were the men who actually made a rush on the village the one-hundred-day men? Answer. That was so understood. By Mr. Ross: Question. Do I understand you that the officers had iothing to do with it? Answer. I was told by the (,fficers that Colonel Chivington told the men to remember the wr,,ngs the Indiarns had inflicted on the whites and to pitch in, anid they just went at it pell-mell; f)rty of our troops were killed and wounded; fourteen died. The Indians would get their families ahead of them and_then they would fall back, fighting as they went. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What about the property? Answer. From five hundred to six hundred ponies were said to be brought in, having been taken from the Indians, and their whole property was destroyed and they left perfectly destitute without hardly even their clothing. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. Did you see any of the property brought in? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. What did it consist of? Answer. It consisted of ponies principally, and Indian dresses, and the fixings natural about those wild Indians. They make their dresses out of skins and bead them off very nicely. The dreses were sold for from twenty to thirty dollars the dress. Question. Was any of this property recognized as property stolen from the whites? Answer. There were one or two things I saw that I knew had been stolen. Question. Was any of the other property recognized as stolen property? Answer. I saw a horse or two and a mule or two that were branded other brands than Indians'. Those lndians pick up a great many horses there, and sometimes they bring them in, but s,)metimes they do not. When they steal a horse their usual custom is to trade it right off to somebody else. Question. Were there any Mexican dollars among that property? Answer I do not know anything about that; I did not see any; they might have had some; I do not know. It must be a mistake to suppose, as has been said, that there were as many Mexican dollars as a mule could carry. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What is the condition of those tribes now? Answer. I have not been able to see any of t hem, but this young man s'ys they are all imbittered against the whites. He s-ys that Black Kettle, the leading chie,f, laughed at him when he went out; said to him, " You are an old tool; you ought to have stood and been shot down as the rest of us" He made a great deal of fun of him for coming out there and coming under our protection. Two or three of their war councils said they badl agreed first to strike the Platte and clean that out, and thenr strike towards Denver. They told him he had better leave the country there and get home as soon as possible, and furnished himn a horse in the night to come home. This was the half-breed who was out this summer, of whom I have spoken. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. What was his name? Answer. Edward Guerrier; and Major Wynkoop has his statement in writing, and i suppose it has been forwarded to the War Department. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What there is left of the tribe that escaped has gone north on to the Platte? Answer. I suppose so. By Mr. Ross: Question. Is that outside of the reservation? Answer. Yes, sir; these Indians have not been on the reservation much; they only come in and see us; there is no camp there; they cannot live there; they h tee to go out and hunt, for in that country there is no settlement between the Platte and the Arkansas, and 30

Page  A031 APPENDIX. none for two hundred and forty miles below us on the Arkansas, and none s,outh of the Platte from us, clear to Texas; it is a buffalo country; they roam there in bands and hunt and come into the agency two or three times a year. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What do you say of the reservation which has been set apart for the Arapahoes find Cheyennes? Answer. I think we can never Set them on to it again; they were killed there on it, and they are superstitious. The reservation is the best tract of land we have illn Colorado for ag icultural pul poses, I think. By Mr. Ross: Question. How is it'as to hunting and game? Answer. There is no hunting there and no game on it, only a few animals. No buffalo have been seen there f)r three or four yeais. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question From your knowledge of the Arapahoes and Cheyennes and their character, (do you think they can be brought to settle down and live a life of agriculture? Answer. I do not think the present generation can, to any exteint. Some few.of them want to come in and live with the whites, but as a general thing they are opposed to settlitg down. Tney say their fathers hunted, lived, and roamed over the coultry; the country was all theirs, and they had plenty, but the white man has come and taken it. I think they have gone north now with their families toward the Yellowstone. Question Have you an idea that they are uniting with the Sioux? Answer. I think they ale. The Sioux undoubtedly have been wanting them to unite the last two years. ]'hey have told me so. They have always disclaimed it and said they would not. They said they did not want to fight; the whites treated them well, and there was no use of their fighting. Alter the first fight of whichl I have spoken, they told me that if the whites let them alone they would be peaceable; that there was no object in fighting; but still they said there were young men in the party whom they could not control, which is the fact. The better portion of them cannot control all the young warrio,rs, who are somewhat a political class of men and who make their capital out of their bravely, and if they have no Indians to fight they will fight somebody else. By Mr. Ross: Question. I understood you to say that before this massacre there was a collision, and you could not tell which paity conn,ienccd it; do you not know who shed blood first? Answer. I heard officers there say that the Indians commenced it; and I heard others say they did not. I do not know. The Indians say they did not. They said they disarmned it; they camine up and shook hands, andi took their arms away, and that is like taking their life. That is their notion of it. By Mr. DooLIrLE:: Question. How many were in the camp that was attacked? Answer. About 500. There were only a few lodges of the Arapahoes that were attacked, and before Cbivington got there with his command they heard trom those who escaped and got away. Only a few of the Arapahoes that were camped with the Cheyennes were attacked-eight lodges. Part of them have now escaped and gone to the Kioways arid comanches, south of Arkansas. Question. Have you any other statement to make? An,swer. There was a good deal of misunderstanding among us there. At'one time we supposed the Indians were all against us, and expected that they were. Indians would come in and try to get into the camp and see us, and see what was the matter, and after we got them in we learned these facts. An Ind(ian whom I had two years ago, who speaks English, rode up to Fort Lyon, and he saw a soldier; he hallooed to that sol(lier and said he wanted to see Major Colley. He wanted to know what the fighting all meant, and to make p)eace. The soldier reported that he had been chased by all Indian and saw a number of others. We supposed they were coming to commit depredations and sent a command alter them, who overhauled them, and got near enough to fire into them, but not near enough to hurt them. Since he has come in he has told me that he is the Indian who came there to throw down his bow and arrow and talk to me. We did not understand, and( supposed he was coming with hostile designs. Then there is another thing. The people of Colorado are very much down on the Indians. As a general thing they want their land They are coming in contact universally with. them. If they take anything to make a fire with, & confiict grows up. My opinion is that white men and wild Indians cannot live in thile same country in peace. 31

Page  A032 APPENDIX Question. Are there any of the Indians in Colorado that you know who can be induced to live on and cultivate the soil? Answer. I do not know much about the Utes. There is a tribe of Utes over there that I know nothing about. They are west of me in the mountains. I do not know whether they would cultivate the soil or not. Question. But you think it would be next to impossible to get this generation of these Indians of the plains to settle down to cultivate the soil? Answer. I do. They will stay with you if you feed them all the time, and there will be no trouble; but they will not work. The squaws do all their work that is done. Question. Do the squaws of these nomadic tribes raise any corn or anything? Answer. They do not raise anything. Tiiey depend on the buffalo. That is their great staple. Question. What vegetables, if any, do tbey eat? Answer. They like corn in any way, but they do not raise any. They are fond of pumpkins and potatoes; they will eat them when you give them to them, but they never raise anything. We attempted to get them to work on the reservation. We laid out a good deal of money in getting a farmer there last spring, and the crops looked very fine until this trouble broke out. Question. How do you cultivate the crops there on the reservation; by irrigation? Answer. By irrigation. We had 250 acres brokeu in corn on the Aikans Is. Question Is it a country where you have no rains during the summer season? Answer. It rains in July. There are showers almost every day for a month. Question. Cannot the country be cultivated without irrigation? Answer. No, sir. Last season wheat might have Leen raised without irrigation, but there is no safety in it. As a general thing there is no attempt to raise anything without irrigation. Question. At what time does the spring open there? Answer. Earlier than in \Visconsin. We have but very little snow there. We have late frosts there. We can plant in April or the first of May. Question. Do you have frosts late enough to injure corn planted as early as that? Answer. We have not had. Question. How early do the frosts come in the fall? Answer. About as early as they do in Wisconsin —the last of September or first of October. Question. With irrigation what productions can you raise; for instance, on the Arapaho and Cheyenne reservation? Answer. Wheat, corn, oats, potatoes, barley, all kinds of vegetables. Question. How is it as to fruit? Answer. It has never been tried. Wild fruit is abundant; plums, wild grapes, and cherries. Question. Would it be a good country for vines? Answer. I think it would. Question. Which way do your rains come from? Answer. Our storms in winter come from the northeast altogether. Our rains are all showers coming from the mountains west and north. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. How is this reservation for timber? Answer. There is very little of it; nothing for fencing or building, but enough for firewood. It is cottonwood entirely. There is beautiful stone, as handsome a stone quarry as I have ever seen, there, and plenty all along. We burnt lime last year. It was supposed to be sandstone, but we found it made excellent lime. By Mr. DOOLIrTTLE: Question. Are there any white settlers there? Answer. A hundred miles above the reservation it is settled up the Arkansas towards Denver. By MR. WINDOM: Question. How far is the reservation from Denver? Answer. The head of it is 150 miles. By Mr. DOOLI'rLE: Question. Are the streams about there plenty? Answer. There is hardly any stream that has any running, permanent water. Question. So that it is only upon the Arkansas that you can irrigate. Answer. We cannot on the reservation, except on the Arkansas. 32

Page  A033 APPENDIX. Q(uestion. Is the country about there capable of a large settlement, a heavy population, in your opinion! Answer. It is frown the lower end of the reservation to the mountains on those streams. For stock-growing it is the best country I have ever seen. We do not feed at all in winter, The stock keep fat all winter without feeding-those that are not worked. Question. How is it for sheep Answer. There is no finer country in the world for sheep, I think. Question. Are the winters dry? Answer. Very dry. Question. But cold I Answer. We have some cold days. A snow-storm lasts a day or so80, but it is not wet snow; it is dry. Question. How low does the thermometer go? Answer. It has been as low as 20 degrees below zero. This winter more than half the time we slept with our doors and windows open. The nights are cool. Question. So far as health and salubrity are concerned, what do you think of it for a people? Answer. It canrnot be beat in the United States for our white people. There is hardly anybody sick there, and I have known a great many cured of asthma and lung complaints. Question. What is the nature of the country between this reservation and the Kansas settlements? Answer. It is rather barren. There is hardly any timber after you get 50 miles below Fort Lyon. Question Is that barrenness from a want of rain, or in the nature of the soil itself? Answer. For want of rain. I say it is barren, although it produces grass. It is a good stock-growing country. Question. Are there streams sufficient for stock growing purposes? Answer. On the Arkansas, and as you go north on the Republican and the Smoky Hill, yoni find water there, and between that and the Platte. Question. Do you think that all that country which we generally call the plains is adapted to a pastoral people and large stock-growing? Answer. No doubt of it. Question. And will hold a tolerably dense population? Answer. It takes more country to grow stock there than it would in Wisconsin. You could have larger establishment. By Mr. HIGBY: Question. You say that through winter, stock lives well Answer. Yes, sir. Question. When do the grasses of which you speak spring? Through what months do they grow, and when do they mature? Answer. They commence in April. The grasses on the high lands generally mature in July, or soon after the rains. That which we call the buffalo and the gramma grass, the bunch grass here, is a different grass from any I have seen in the western country. They spring a little earlier than in other places. Question. I understand you that there is no rain except in July? Answer. I have known some in the fore part of August, but generally July is the rainy month. Question. Then at the time your grasses spring there are no rains? Answer. None. Question. Is not that a natural vegetation,? Answer. It appears to b natural to that country; it grows every year. Question. Do you say a crop cannot be raised annually with the season without irrigation? Answer. They say that when the white man settles up a country it rains more. Question. Have you tested it with the natural season by putting in agricultural seeds at the time of the springing of the natural vegetation? Answer. They have done &o about Denver and above me, and sometimes they raise a crop and sometimes they do not. By Mr. DooLsITLE: Question. Is there any coal on the Arapaho reservation? Answer. Yes, sir; plenty of it on Sand creek. General Pierce, the surveyor general of the Territory, informed me that as he struck the creek he saw plenty of coal. Question. What would you suggest or propose to do with these Indians! Answer. My opinion is that they might have a hearing; that we might get at them in 3 33

Page  A034 some way, and if we could make them believe what we told them they would be' wilinag to go to some other country. There is a large country south of the Arkansas, betweer there and Texas, where the Kioways and Comanches roam. The Arapahoes might go there; I think the Cheyennes would want to go where they came from, towards the-Sioux. Question. Are the Arapahoes and the Comtanches and Kioways friendly? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. Do they speak the same language? Answer. Not the same language, but they can understand each other. Question. Have they ever lived or hunted together? Answer. They have always hunted together and have intermarried. Question. What is your suggestion as to the best thing to be done with them? Answer. It was my opinion after this affair that they would have to be annihilated;, that we could not get at them; but Colonel Leavenworth tells me that he has seen they Kioways and Comanches, and they are willing yet to come into terms of peace and ars rangement. Question. Is there any other fact or suggestion which you desire to make in relation to' the matter? Answer. The only fact is that, as I told you, the Colorado people are very much opposed to having peace with these Indians. It is almost as much as a man's life is'worthto speal, friendly of an Indian, and for that reason I do not believe they can live in that country. By Mr. HIIBBARiD' Question. From what does that feeling arise? Does it arise from the depredations andc murders which the Indians have committed heretofore, or is it a natural antipathy which the whites there have against Indians? Answer. There was a natural antipathy, and then the depredations and murders they have committed this year have outraged the people, and they think an Indian ought to be killed anyhow. It is my opinion that they cannot be got on to that reservation again. It is a pity the work was commenced there. Some came and compladned that the government had not complied with treaty stipulations in building houses %nd completing the farm, and we were induced to commence last year. By MrI. HIGBY: Question From what you gathered, from all the information you received, did it seem to be a general desire among those engaged in the expedition to make the slaughter, or were they inflamed to it by some of their leaders? Answer. The officers at Fort Lyon were opposed to going out, and represented to Colonel Chivington that they considered any men who would go out to fight those Indians, knowing the circumstances as they knew them, to be cowards. Question. Did they so express themselves to Chivington and those men? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. What answer, if any, was given? Answer. Chivington threatened to put the officers under arrest. That was the ans"rer, I believe. Question. Were the officers who made those remarks officers of his command who did finally go with him? Answer. Some of them did finally go with him. They said that at Fort Lyon before they started By Mr. DOOLITTE Question. In addition to your business as Indian agent, have you been prosecuting any ether business there, any private business, farming, or anything of that sort? Answer. None at all. My son is settled there; he went there in 1859, and put up some' hay at Fort Lyon last summer. Question. What has been usually the amount of annuities or presents that have passed through your hands to these Indians? Answer. The treaty of 1851 gave them about $17,000-I- think that was the amount of' it-in presents for the right of way through their country. In 18-61 they made a permanent treaty and this reservation was assigned to i hem. By t4at treaty, under the direction of the Interior Department, they were to have $30,000 a year for fifteen years, to be expended in improvements, opening farms, building houses, and so on. Whether any of that has been given to them in goods or not, I do not know. We still continue to give' them under the first treaty, which is not yet out, about $-17,000 in the shape of presents Question. Of that appropriation of $17,000 a year, how much actually gets to andc reaches the Indians and is distributed among them? Answer. The whole of it, L,o far as I know; all that comes to me does, .34 APPENIDIX

Page  A035 APPENDIX Question. But where are the purchases made? Answer. In New York, and the goods are shipped to Colorado. Question Shipped by the overland route? Answer. Contracts are made, and they are shipped by freighters from Atchison to Colorado. The bills of lading are sent on. The prices of the goods seem feair. Qaiestin. How do they compare with the prices of the goods as sold in the markets of Colorado? Answer. A great deal less than goods sold there. Que stion. Are they furnished to the Indiaus cheaper than they could be purchased of dealers in Colorado? Answer. A great deal cheaper. By Mr. HUBBARD: Question Of what descriptions are the goods? Answer. Blankets, sugar, coffee, flour, and some kinds of cloths, calicoes, and so on. Question. Is much hardware sent out? Answer. Not a great deal. Question. Trinkets? Answer. Yes; generally a little paint and a few beads. By Mr. Ross: Question. Who fixes the prices? Answer. I understand that the money is laid out in New York, and the government transports the goods to the Indians free of expense to them. The transportation does not come out of the annuities; it is let by contract. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. The goods are purchased in New York, and the transportation is let by the government by contract? Answer. Yes; the government contracts for hauling them to the agency. By Mr. NESMITII: Question. Have you been in the habit of receiving goods there for disbursement yourself? Arilswer. I have received two parcels since I have been there. Last year I received none for these Indians. Question. Have you ever made a requisition on the department here for goods? Answer. Yes; every year I consult the Indians and see what they want, and make a requisition on the government, and send it on here. By Mlr. Poss: Question. You spoke of a price being fixed; is that the price of the goods when given by the government to the Indians? Answer. I understand they have so much money to be expended for them, and the money is laid out in New York, and the goods are transported by the government. Question. Then the goods would only be for distribution; there would be no price to be fixed? Answer. There is no price fixed on the goods; we just give them to the Indians. When they come ont I generally take them out of the wagons and tell the chiefs to give them to whom they belong, and they divide them up among their families. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. Have the goods generally been furnished according to the requisition you made? Answer. Sometimes they say it is too large, and costs too much money. Question. I mean in kind; do they send you what you ask for? Answer. Yes, sir; they send the same articles. By Mrr. DOOLITTLE: Question. As an illustration of the prices, what do blankets cost apiece out there? Answer. So far as my knowledge extends, and I have seen the prices, they have been. furnished cheaper than they could be bought there. Blue blankets, three-point as they call them, that Indians want, used to come at about $12 a pair in New York; I think they are higher now. They send out a good blanket; it is different from a soldier's blanket. I used to look over to see how the prices compared, and I always thought the prices were no higher than the goods were bought at. Question. What kind of blankets did you get in fact? Answer. Good blankets; I think the price two years ago-there were none sent last year-was $12 a pair. Since the trouble broke out it has not been safe to send them. '35

Page  A036 APPENDIX. By Mr. Ross: Question. Did those Indians get anything last year? Answer. Nothing at all. By Mr. DOOLITTrLE: Question. What was the occasion of that? Answer. I suppose on account of the troubles, and because they were fighting the whites there. The articles sent are good, fair articles. Question. What does it cost a pound to get sugar there to the Indians? Answer. The contract for freights was low. Two years ago I think it was five or six cents a pound. Freights now are higher than that. By Mr. NESMITH: Question. What is the difference between the contract price the government pays and private freight? Answer. It was no higher than private freights, but generally lower, I think. I believe the freights on Indian goods were less than on soldiers' goods. I do not remember the amounts. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What has been spent of the money provided by the treaty? Answer. About $20,000 has been expended in breaking up the land and building a house and warehouse at the reservation on the Arkansas, and for an acequia. Whether there has been any of that expended in goods sent out there I do not know. Question. You think the Indians really will never live on the reservation? Answer. I do not believe we can get them to live there now. Question. What kind cf a building has been made there? Answer They built a house for a blacksmith, that was about completed; then they were to build a house for the agent, and in that house there was to be a council-room, and also a store or warehouse, and that is about up to the windows. It is made of stone. It remains unfinished. They have broken the windows out of the blacksmith's house and out of the blacksmith's shop which was built. About 250 acres, or a little over, were broken up. The acequia was built also. We had a fine crop of corn there, which would have produced well if it had been taken care of. By Mr. Ross: Question. Was it contemplated that the Indians themselves would work the land? Answer. It was thought some would come in to work. We thought we could get somr of them in to learn. The object was to teach and show them how to work. Jesse H. I,eavenworth sworn and examined. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. Have you lived in Colorado? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. For what length of time? Answer. I went to Colorado in 1860, and I was there until 1862, when I was authorize, to raise the second regiment of Colorado volunteers, and was there till the fall of 1863 -i command of that regiment on the frontier. Question. What is about your age? Answer. Near fifty. Question. Are you the son of General Leavenworth? Answer. Yes, sir; of General Henry Leavenworth, of the United States army. Question. Did you graduate at West Point? Answer. I did. Question. During your father's lifetime, when he was in command upon the frontiers die you become well acquainted with Indian life and character on the border? Answer. I did. Question. During your stay in Colorado and since, have you become acquainted with th Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kioways, Comanches, and Apaches? Answer. Yes, sir; I believe I have a thorough acquaintance with each and every one ( those tribes. Question. Do you speak the language? Answer. No, sir; I do not speak their language, but I talk with them by signs, mol or less. I have no difficulty in communicating with them. Question. From the best information you have, what do you estimate to be the numbof the Arapahoes? 36

Page  A037 APPENDIX. Answer. I think there is not to exceed from 1,500 to 1,700 of them. There is a band of Arapalhoes that claim not to be connected with those of the Upper Arkansas-the North Platte Arapahoes. With that band I am not much acquainted; but with the Arapahoes of the Upper Arkansas, who have a reservation with the Cheyennes at Fort Lyon, I am well acquainted. I think there are about 280 lodges of them-that is the number I have counted many times-and I think there are from 1,500 to 1,700 of them, all told, men, women, and children. Question. How many of the Cheyennes? Answer. I have supposed there was about the same number, with the addition of eighty lodges of what are called Dog Soldiers, who have never associated much with the Indians of the Arkansas, but have kept aloof from them. Question. What is the character of those who are called the Dog Soldiers? Answer. They are a warlike, high-minded, savage people. They separated from the others on account of the Fort Lyon reservation, with which they were dissatisfied. They went north, and said they would never live on the reservation. They were dissatisfied with the treaty and went off on to the Smoky Hill, and kept between the Smoky Hill and the Powder river. Question. How many of the Kioways do you estimate that there are? Answer. I think there is just about the same number of them as there is of Cheyennes and of Arapahoes. I do not think there is much difference; there may be a hundred either way. There are from 1,500 to 1,700 of them. Qi(istion. How many Apaches? Answer. Forlty lodges, and they average from fo,;r to five to a lodge. Qe,estion. WVh,t is the character of the Apaches? Au,swer. The Apaches are a small band of docile Indians dependent on their neighbors for protectieon.,. T'hev first ass)sociated with the Arapahoes, but they thought the Arapahoes were niCt strong enough to protect them, and they separated from them and now run rmostly with the Kioway)s, mnore for protection than anything else. They are led partly by the Kioways. For two years thAt I was in command of the southwestern frontier they wvould lookl upon the trains, but I never heard of any depredations committed. They would bhg, but they would not do any wrong. They apparently felt their weakness and did not like to get into any trouble. Question. What is the number of the Comanches? Answer. There are nine bands of Comanches. Eight of them are what we call Union Comanches; the ninth band is the southern Comanches, residing in Texas, who are friendly with the Tecx.-lns. I know that eight of the bands are friendly to the United States; the ninth band has never been north. Question. How many of them are there? Answer. I cannot state the exact number, but from the best information I can get they average fromn 500 to 700 warriors to a band. The old men, women, and children will average from three to five to each warrior. Mawwee has the largest band. It is a band composed mostly of young men. He has about 700 warriors, the largest band of all. Question. You think, then, there would be about 3,50)0 souls in the largest bands, and that there are nine bands of them; would your estimate be that they amount altogether to about 30,000? Answer. Not so many as that-from eighteen to twenty thousand, all told. I should like to state where I get most of my information about the Comanches. In 183t my father went into the Comanche country with General Dodge, afterwards Governor Dodge, of Wisconsin, the commanding officer of the 1st regiment of dragoons. My father was the second officer in command. He went there to form a treaty, under General Jackson's orders, with the Comanches. On thatexpedition he died. He had with him a man by the name of Jesse Chisom, as guide and interpreter. Jesse C(hisom has been with these Indians almost all the time since. He has been upon that frontier; he has traded with them; he speaks their language perfectly; and he is now my guide and interpreter for these Indians, and has helped me more since last fall than any one else in keeping them quiet and protecting them. His information in regard to them is perfect anti complete, and I get most of my information from him. I have had a great deal to do myself with many of the bands, but my information is principally from him. Question. Are all these bands, the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Apaches, Kioways, and Comanches, of the nomadic tribes? Answer. They are. They all live in lodges and move from place to place constantly over the plains. Wherever the grass fails them they remove to some other point. Where game is plenty they stay, and when it becomes scarce they move to some other point. They are the wild Arabs of America. Question. Have the Comanches many horses? Answer. A great many. 37

Page  A038 APPENDIX. Question. In their movements do they go on foot or on horseback? Answer. On horseback. A Comanche never moves except on horse, unless he is compelled to do so. Question. Are they fine horsemen? Answer. Splendid. There are no better horsemen in the world. They ride from the moment they call sit up straight. They are tied on the horse by the mother and the mother leads the horse, and that is the way they move from place to place. Question. Are the Comanches a warlike people? Answer. The most warlike we have on the continent, I think. They have fought the Texans for a great many years. Since the massacre at San Antonio-I do not remember in what year that was-they have been constantly at war with the Texans, and they are at war with them now. They have a great many Mexicans with them now as prisoners and servants or slaves. Question. State the disposition of the Kioways, Comanches, and Apaches towards the United States at the present time. Answer. Last summer I was appointed agent for the Kioways, Comanches, and Apaches, with instructions by the Indian department to meet them and to preserve peace between them and the United States, if possible. Owing to business outside of that I was unable to reach my agency until October. In October I arrived at Council Grove, the last town there is on the verge of civilization in the western part of Kansas. The Kioways. or the wild tribes, I cannot tell who they were, had ranged down within twenty miles of Council Grove last summer; had driven off stock and killed it, but committed no murders. General Curtis, a short time before that, had issued an order that no Indian should approach a military post. My headquarters were at Fort Larned, 240 miles east of Fort Lyon. Knowing that no Indian could approach Fort Larned, and having been in command of that frontier, and knowing all the chiefs and a great many of the braves of the Indian tribes, I felt very anxious to get in communication with them. To do it, it was impossible for me to go into their country with soldiers, because I could not approach any Indian in that way; and if I went alone, they, not knowing who was coming towards them,'would of course ambush me; so that it was a very dangerous business. I therefore went south, down on to the Osage lands, where there were bands of Towacaros, Wacos, Keitchies, Wichitas, and Caddoes. These were Indians who had been run out of Texas some years ago, and when this war broke out were called refugee Indians. They had had more or less communication with the Comanches and were most of them very friendly with them. 1 went to them for the purpose of getting runners to go into the Comanche country and communicate with them, which was the only safe way I had to get to them. I made arrangemnents for some fifteen or twenty to go out. They started out and were gone a few days, and came back and said they had met some Osages, and the Osages had six spare horses and told them that they had killed six Comanches, and that if they, living on the Osage lands, went out the Comanches would kill them, and they did not dare lo go. Before I could get another party started, the massacre at Fort Lyon, under Colonel Chivington, occurred, and then the Indians refused to go at all. They said there was treachery on the part of the whites, and if they went and anything should occur they would be blamed. I had some old acquaintances with the Caddoes. One was Jim Parkman, the chief, who was a very excel lent, good man. He told them that he was well acquainted with me, and had been for a number of years; that whatever I might say they might rely upon; it was all straight. I finally succeeded in getting the Waco chief, with three or four of his brothers, two Towacaros, and a Keitchi to go out. They were gone twenty days, and came in with 96 Kioways and Comanches, and 9 Arapahoes that had escaped from Colonel Chivingtcn's massacre. Little Raven's band of Arapahoes got away and sixApaches. When they came in and found who wanted to see them, they told me that they did not want to fight the whites, and had no wish to fight them, but were compelled to go to war. They said they would agree not to go into the Santa F6 road; they would not molest any more white men; they would get all the Indians together and meet me in four weeks and make a peace, and it should be a permanent peace; they did not want a war, but if the whites were determined to fight them on the Santa Fe6 road or above, they would join hands with the Texans, and go south. I agreed to meet them in four weeks. I came out to Council Grove, and from there to Fort Riley, and saw Colonel Ford, who commands the district. He at once agreed with me that it was right to make peace with them and stop the war. He sent my letter that I addressed to him to General Dodge, at St. Louis, who commanded the department, and telegraphed to him. General Dodge telegraphed back to Colonel Ford that the military have no authority to make peace with Indians; their duty is to make them keep peace by punishing them for hostility; and to keep posted as to their loca tion, so that when they were ready they could strike them. Having been down there as a white man, and almost the only white man that had spoken to these Indians for nearly eight or ten months, I felt that I was doing wrong to the red man to get him to stop his 38

Page  A039 APPENDIX. rrvaT and then let the whites jump upon him, as Colonel Clcivington had upon the -Cheyennes, and I immediately started for Washington, in hopes that the military might be stopped and that the Indians might be protected. They do not want a war; they do not want to fight the whites; they want to be let alone. Question. Have you a copy of the order of General Dodge Answer. I have. I have not a copy of my letter to Colonel Ford. I gave it to Colonel Lord for some purpose. I do not remember for what he wanted it. Question. Will you please read General Dodge's telegraph An swer. It is "- FEBRUARz 23, 18654 ', [By telegraph from St. Louis.] T' o Coloned Ford, Fort Riley: "The military have no authority to treat with Indians. OuLr duty is to make them keep the peace by punishing them for their hostility Keep posted as to their location, so that -as soon as ready we can strike them. 400 horses arrived here for you. "G. M. DODGE, Mo;7or General." I will say that, with all the information I can get, I hlave not learned that the Coman-ches have raised a hand hostile to the whites the past season. I know fromn report that Mawwee and Little Buffalo, the two leading chiefs of two bands, were at Fort Larned at the time the outbreak occurred between the Kioways and the post, and they immediately took their bands and went south, and I have no evidence that any Comanche has been north of the Arkansas this summer; I do not believe any of them have been. In conversation with General Curitis when I first got there, he told me that he did not think the Comanches ,had committed any depredations, and I do not think they have. I cannot learn that they ~have committed a single depredation. I think that all the depredations have been commnitted by Kioways and Cheyennes, with the Sioux frem the north, and probtbly some Arapahoes, but I do not believe that any of the bands as a tribe have been united in a general war. Question. Suppose that yourself and Major Colley were authorized to go out and meet these Indians and to make some presents to show the amicable feelings of the United States, rather than hostile feelings on the part of the government, do you believe you could reach them in a way to negotiate or to come to peace with them without any further hostilities? Answer. In 1862 I was in cormmand of the Santa Fd road from the Great Bend of the Arkansas to the Rattoon mountains, a distance of n.early 760 miles. I was sent there by General Blunt, with all the force at my command, to protect the frontier. I had 102 in,fantry and one section of artillery, and these were recruits. There were 18 men, all told, at Fort Lyon at the time I arrived there. Major Colley was then the Indian agent. I arrived there about the last of June. I had occasion to go south to Santa Fe to co operate with General Canby, and I got back to Fort Lyon on the 31st of July. On the 1st day of August Manor Colley received an express from, Fort Larned saying that the Kioways, Couaanches, Apaches, Arapahoes, and Cheyennes we,,l in full force at Fort L_rned, and that they had corralleda government train of goods, and asking for re-enforcements. I had no men that I could send. I started with Major Colley and his interpreter, and I went to Fort Larned and found that there was not one dozen of those Indians with whom I was acquainted; they were strangers to me. With the assistance of Major Colley and John Smith, the interpreter, in three days' time I had every one of those Indians off to their h7unting-grounds, and the train was started under an escort of twenty men and went through to Fort Lyon, with the Indians cAmping almost every night around it, in perfect safety; and for two years those Indians never commmitted a depredation that I know of, and neither the government naor any individual lost a dollar by them. I left there in October, and the outbreak occurred in May following. I have not seen these Indians since I left there, until the 15thl of February. I know them well. When I met them they agreed at once to quit hostilities. They said they did not want to fight; that I might make the road and they would travel it. I feel now that I can say with safety that I can go to them with Major Colley, and in thirty days the war will be ended, and it will save ~millions of money. I say it alse because Major Whalley, of the regular army, wrote, last spring, to the departmnent that if Colonel Chivington was not stopped in his course the government would be involved in a war that would cost millions of money. It has occurred. I told the department, last spring, that if Lieutenant Ayres was not stopped in hunting the Cheyennes from camp to camp they would get into a war. It has come. I know all the chiefs and a great many of the braves; I know them to be kind-hearted. I know there are bad men among them, but I know the Cheyennes so well that I am satis fled they can rule tliose bad men, and there is no necessity for this wax. If the soldiers :39

Page  A040 APPENDIX. are stopped from hunting the Indians, I will guarantee peace in thirty days, and I will not ask $50,000 to do it with. They want to know that their Great Father will protect them. They want some man that they have confidence in to say that they shall be righted. They never came to me with a complaint that I did not right them if possible. Question. As our white men are going and gathering into that country, and travelling all around about it, is not the game becoming scarcer? Answer. It is. Question. As the game diminishes, what do you suggest is to be done with the wild hunting Indians? Answer. There is the finest country in the world for agricultural purposes south of the Arkansas, on the Red river, near Fort Cobb and the Wichita mountains, on the north fork of the Red river, where they can live and raise almost anything they want. It is now literally alive with cattle. They can go there now, and if the whites are kept away from them, with the abundance of cattle they can live without coming in contact with the whites..All along under the Staked Plain, in the northern part of Texas and eastern New Mexico, there is fine water and fine grazing. Question. What is your opinion, based on your practical knowledge and experience of this matter? What would you advise the government to do? Answer. I would advise them to let some individual in whom these Indians have confidence go there and tell them that they shall be protected; take them down south, where I have got Kioways, Comanches, and two bands of Arapahoes now, and let them remain there. I think the Cheyennes can be induced to go down there; but they will never go on to their reservation again. Question. Do you think the Kioways and Corhanches who live down there would be willing to let the Arapahoes and Cheyennes go among them? Answer. Yes, sir; they would have no objection. The head chief of the Arapahoes is a half-Comanche; he speaks the Comanche language just the same as he does the Arapaho. Question. From your knowledge of all these tribes of Indians, do you think they couldcl be induced to abandon the hunter's life an(l live by pasturage or by cultivation of the soil? Answer. They cannot at present. They may live by grazing, and gradually come into it; but at present it would be out of the question. Question. They wouldl be like the Arabs in that respect? Answer. Yes; they would have to come to it gradually, and they mnay come to raising cattle, and as the buffalo disappeared begin upon the beef. I think they would make ex ellent graziers. Question. Do you mean that they should be put in that part of Kansas, as well as the Indian Territory anl Texas, that lies south of the Arkansas? Answer. I would not bring them anywhere near Kansas if I could help it. There is a little band of refugee Indians called the CAddoes, who, when the rebellion broke out, were driven from Fort Cobb up north and came in almost to Fort Lyon. They came in destitute, freezing, and almost perishing.'They brought a few cattle with them, a few hens, a few pigs, and a few cilves. Major Colley received them. They were loyal; they were half-civilized; they lived in houses; and a better set oLf men I never met in my life, welldisposed, kind-hearted. They are like the Pueblos of Mexico. Tlhey were more than half. civilized. Their women dressed in long dresses, the same as our, American women do; they made good bread; everything was neat and clean about them. They lived at Fort Larned. The government ga;tve them $5,000 annuity two years ago. LItst year the government authorized me to issue to them some goods to the amount of $5,000. I found them at the mouth of the Arkansas river. Last year they lost over 100 by small-pox. There were only 425 of them when they first came up. Parkman, tlir head chief, is one of the most intelligent men I ever met; he is correct in every particular. He tolid me that he could not live on the borders there; that the whites were stealing his horses all the time, and he moved across the Arkansas, on to what is called the Minisquta, and they followed him over there and stole quite a number of his horses there. He then moved on to the Chickasaqua. Since this Chivingtou massacre he has become alarmed, and he is now living with his little band awaty down between the Satlt Plains and the Brushy mountains, as near Texas as he can go. Parkman, if he dared to return to the rebel States to-morrow, would be killed; he dare not return there, and he dare not come back here, the whites abuse him so and steal his horses. He h:7s nothing left but a few ponies, and his men are suffering; they are dying almost every day from small-pox. John Leonard, the doctor and priest, died since I left, and his wife too. This is an illustration of the way they are treated. 40

Page  A041 APPENDIX. WASIINGTON, Wednesday, March 8, 1865. John S. Smith sworn and examined. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. What is your age? Answer. I was born in December, 1810. Question. How long have you lived in the country west of Kansas, in Colorado? Answer. I went to that country first in 1830. Question. Do you know the language of the Arapahoes and Cheyennes? Answer. I do that of the Cheyennes. Question. Have you acted as interpreter for the Indian agent to the Cheyennes? Answer. I have. Question. Were you in the Indian camp of the Cheyennes when Colonel Chivingtoa made his attack upon it? Answer. I was. Question. State when it was. Answer. I left Fort Lyon for the Cheyenne village on the 26th of November; on the 27th I reached the village; on the 28th I remained there; and on the 29th the attack was made. Question. How many Indians were there in camp? Answer. I think about 500, men, women, and children. Question. What number of warriors or men? Answer. About 200. They will average two warriors to a lodge, and there were 100 lodges. Question. What portion of the Cheyenne tribe was that? Answer. The southern band, led by the main chief of the nation, Black Kettle. Question. Where was the northern band at this time? Answer. They were supposed to be over on thie North Platte, between the North Platte and the Smoky Hill. Question. What time in the day or night was the attack made? Answer. Between daybreak and sunrise. Question. State now the circumstances of the attack; just describe them in brief words. Answer. As soon as the troops were discovered, very early in the morning, about daybreak, the Indians commenced flocking to the head chief's lodge, about the camp where I was-the camp over on Sand creek; it is called Big Sandy, about forty miles northeast of Fort Lyon. When the attack was made the Indians flocked around the camp of the head chief and he ran out his flag. He had a large American flag which was presented to him, I think; by Colonel Greenwood some years ago, and under this American flag he had likewise a small white flag. Question. Was it light, so that the flags could be plainly seen? Answer. Yes; they could be plainly seen. Question. How long was this before any firing was heard? Answer. A very few minutes; they were but a short time coming into camp after they were first discovered. They came on a charge. When I first saw them they were about three-qluarters of a mile from the camp, and then the flag was run up by Black Kettle. Question. Go on and state what occurred. Answer. The firing commenced on the northeast side of Sand creek; that was near Black Kettle's lodge. The men, women, and children rushed to the upper end of the village, and ran to the lodge of another chief at the other end, War Bonnet Question. Were the Indians then armed? Answer. Some of them were; some of them left their arms in their lodges; some few picked up their bows and arrows and lances as they left their lodges; the younger men did. question. Did they form in any battle array or with a view to oppose the charge? Answer. No, sir; they just flocked in a promiscuous herd, men, women, and children together. The bed of Sand creek ran right up; there was little or no water in it at this place. Then they came to some breaks in the banks about where the troops overtook them, and the slaughter commenced; I suppose about three hundred yards above the main village. White Antelope was the first Indian killed, within a hundred yards of where I was in camp at the time. They fought them from very early in the morning. as I have stated, until about eleven o'clock that day before they all got back together in camp. The troops then returned to the Indian village, followed the Indians up the creek two or three miles firing on them, then returned back to the Indian camp and destroyed everything there was there-the entire village of one hundred lodges. I had a son there, a halfbreed; he gave himself up. In this stampede of the Indians he started to go with them, 41

Page  A042 APPENDIX. but when he found there was a fair show for him he turned around and came back to our camp where the troops were. I made several efforts to get to the troops, but was fired on myself by our own troops. My son stayed in the camp of our soldiers one day and a night, and then was shot down by the soldiers. My life was threatened, and they had to put a guard around me to save my life. Question. After you surrendered to the troops? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. How many were killed? Answer. I think about seventy or eighty, including men, women, and children, were killel; twenty-five or thirty of them were warriors probably, and the rest women, children, boys, and old men. Question. Were any Indian barbarities practiced? Answer. The worst I have ever seen. Question. What were they in fact? Answer. All manner of depredations were inflicted on their persons; they were scalped, their brains knocked out; the men used their knives, ripped open women, clubbed little children, knocked them in the head with their guns, beat their brains out, mutilated their bodies in every sense of the word. Question. Do you know which troops those were that actually did this work; whether they were the hundred-day men who came from Denver, or the regular first Colorado regiment? Answer. I am not able to say; they were all in a body together, between eight hundred and one thousand men I took them to be. It would be hard for me to tell who did these things; I saw some of the first Colorado regiment committing some very bad acts there on the persons of Indians, and I likewise saw some of the one-hundred-day men in the same kind of business. Question. You say the troops pursued the Indians until about eleven o'clock, the Indians fleeing all the while? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. When they came back to the Indian village were there any of the Indians there, men, women, or children, left? Answer. No, sir; they were all gone except a few children who came into our camp an hour after we had all returned to this Indian camp. There were a couple of women there, white men's women, Indian women who had married white men, and they were not hurt. I think there were seven in number saved from the entire village, women and children, and they were taken to Fort Lyon. Question. When those Indians were there in camp do you know in what relation they were to our forces at Fort Lyon? Answer. Yes, sir; some of them had just returned from an interview with Governor Evans and Colonel Chivington at Denver city. We had seven of the chiefs up there with us at Denver city; I went as interpreter with them. They returned and were sent out for their families to move in near Fort Lyon, where they could be protected and taken care of; they were told that if the troops from Denver city or the Platte should meet them over in that direction they would probably hurt them, and it was supposed they would be better oft in the vicinity of Fort Lyon, where they could be watched, than out further north, and they went there with all the assurances in the world of peace promised by the commanding officer, Major Wynkoop. Question. Did he, in the mean time, issue some rations to them? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. Did they, so far as you know, remain there? Answer. They did. Question. And you, as interpreter of the United States, were in camp with them? Answer. I was in camp with them at the time. Question. Had this band, so far as you know, committed any depredations on our people after this interview at Denver? Answer. None that I heard of; I heard of none until after this raid of Colonel Chivington. Question. From your knowledge of these Indians, and all about them, and of that place which is set apart as their reservation, do you think they can be brought to settle down upon that Chieyenne reservation? Answer. Yes, sir; with diligent workers there with them it could be done in some time; probably it would take all sunsmer to do it. Question. Do you think those Indians could be induced to leave off their wild hunting life and go into agricultural pursuits or the raising of cattle? Answer. Not all of them; there are a few that are best acquainted with the whites who would be willing to do it; they have told us so; I think that in time, with encouragement, 42

Page  A043 APPENDIX. they could be brought to it. I have been twenty-seven successive years with the Cheyennes myself. Question. During those twenty-seven years how have they been as a tribe generally towards our citizens? Answer. They have been very peaceable until quite recently. In 1857 they had some trouble over on the Platte, but I never understood the particulars of it; that was when Colonel Sumner went out and had a little fight with them, but they came to immediately, and from that time until about twelve months ago, when they had a falling out with white settlers in the vicinity of Denver and below Denver on the Platte, they were peaceable; but this thing has been growving ever since that time, until Chivington made this raid. They have been followed up from the Platte to the Smoky Hill, and from the Smoky Hill to the Arkansas, and south of the Arkansas river; they went clear over south of Salt Springs, where Colonel Leavenworth is acquainted. Governor Evans then issued some circulars that were taken to them there, and explained to them that if they wvanted to return in peace they could do so; that those who were friendly disposed could return to their reservation. As soon as they learned this, the body of them returned. This band that I speak of, that purchased some white prisoners from the Sioux and some of the northern band of Cheyennes, sent us word at Fort Lyon that if we would go out to them they would turn them over to us. I went with Major Wynkoop there as his interpreter, and they turned over four of them, whom they had got from the Sioux and from the northern band of Cheyennes Question. Even now what is your opinion? Do you think, for instance, that if persons like Miajor Colley, yourself, or Colonel Leavenworth were to go to these Indians now, peaceable relations could be established between them and the United States, notwithstanding all that has occurred? Answer. I say yes; I think so from the fact that they never wanted to fight the whites. They have lost certainly a great deal of the confidence that they used to have in the white man, but wvith proper exertions I think they might be brought back, with correct assurances. Question. Did they have many ponies and horses? Answer. Yes, sir. Question. How many were taken away from them? Answer. About six hundred head. Question. And all their lodges? Answer. Everything they had. Question. These lodges of theirs are made of skins? Answer. Of buffalo hides; a lodge is made after the pattern of a Sibley tent; when they move from one place to another they take their tents or lodges with them. Question. Would you feel yourself any personal apprehensions if you were sent to go among them and converse with them? Answer. I wouild not like to go without some Indian protectors; I could get some of our other friendly Indians and would readily go with them, sending them on probably as runners ahead of me, so as to let them know my business, and then I would not feel at all apprehensive of losing my life. Question. But you think the result has been such that now they would kill any white man they should see. Answer. Yes, sir; anybody. Question. What is the number of the Cheyennes? Answer. There are about four hundred and eighty or five hundred lodges, and they will average five souls to a lodge; there are about two thousand five hundret Cheyennes altogether; this includes the northern band. Question. Is the northern band the same that are commonly called the Dog soldiers? Answer. No, sir; the Dog soldiers are mixed up promiscuously; this is a band that has preferred the North Platte and north of the North Platte, and lives over in what is called the bad land, mauvweis terre. Question. How long have you been with these Indians? Answer. Since I went there I have resided with these Indians off and on every year; I have,enerally been employed as United States interpreter; prior to that I was a trader in that country for St. Vrain & Co., and in that way I first learned the Cheyenne language. John Evans sworn and examined. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Question. Are you governor of the Territory of Colorado? Answer. I am. Question. How long have you been in that Territory? Answer. Since the spring of 1862. I went there in May of that year. 43

Page  A044 APPENDIX. Question. What is the state of the Indian tribes generally in your Territory at this time? Answer. There are three tribes or bands of Utes which are in the mountains west of us, the Tabahuaches, the Uintas, and the Yampah or Bear River Indians. These Indians have not committed any depredations since the summer of 1863. They committed depredations upon the overland stage line between Denver and Salt lake at that time. In fact, they attacked a party of soldiers who went after them to procure some stock stolen from the stage stations, and killed two or three of the soldiers I think the Indians did not get worsted any; perhaps one or two were wounded, but they made their escape with the stock, a portion of which, however, has since been returned by them. Question. What is the condition of the Tabahuache bands? Answer. Ttey were together at this time. Question. Are they now in peaceable relations with us? Answer. Yes, they all have been since that time. Just before that treaty, Major Wynkoop went after them, at the ti,e they made this raid upon the stage line, with quite a large expeditior), and followed them down the San Luis valley. Ie followed their trail, but did not overtake them; ran out of sul,sisteitce, and returned. In the mean time I informed Agetit Head, the agent of the Ta.bahuaches, of the difficulty. Hle had just retuirned from Washiirgton with a iparty of chiefs of that band, who had been on a visit here, and he was instructed to get information to these Indians as rapidly as po,s;')le, and fiy,o satisfy thenm until an explanation coul(d be made in regard to this pursuit They came down there very much alarmned, and at the same time intent upon going to war, and went to the Capotes and Muhuaches, who were near neigh)ors just over the line in New Mexico, asking them to join and go to war. Agent HIead sent immediately to them the chiefs who had( been here, and one of those chiefs, Ura, who is at very intelligent and very sharp and( shrewd Indian, who speaks the English laugua-ze fluently, went among theom and explained to them the folly'of going to war. He an I his associates had seen the army of the Po(tomnac, and one of his strong points with the Indians was, that the whit,s had sol(liers enough to surround all their country and close them in andI wipe them out. Through the representations of these chiefs difficulty was prevented, and they were ircdtced to meet in coumncil for the purpose of making the treaty of Conejos. That was the treaty with the Tib)ahuache band. That treaty was amended by the Senate, and last fall I met the band again in council to ratify the Senate amendments, and succeeded after a great deal of earnest effort to get their assent to the diminution of their hunting-grounds, all of which is matter of record. The Uintas, immediately subsequent to this expedition, were seen by Major Whitely and his interpreter, and they made an appointment with them last fall to have some presents for them this summer. They agreed to be peaceable and friendly and meet him in the spring. The waters, however, were so high and the snows were so deep that they could not meet him at the time appointed; they could not get there, nor could he, in the Middle Park, to the place appointed; but afterwards the major went over and found them and induced them to meet at the council ground of Conejos with the other tribes, to receive presents, in conjunction with the Tabahuache band, which they did, and went away very abundantly satisfied. We gave them a very nice distribution of goods. I gave them a lecture on obedience to their chiefs and on the necessity of going immediately to the agent as soon as any difficulty occurred, to report it to him and have it adjusted, instead of committing depredations or exciting any spirit of hostility amongst their men, which they were all satisfied with. Question. So far as they are concerned, do you think they are on friendly terms now? Answer. They are; and I understand that since my absence they have been down and offered their services to the commander of the department, if he should need them, as soldiers in the war against the Cheyennes. Question. Are the Tabahuaches hostile to the Cheyennes and Arapahoes? Answer. The Indians in the mountains all through New Mexico and Colorado have been at war with the Indians on the plains, as classes, from time immemorial; whenever they meet they fight. Question. Is that so when they go to hunt on common hunting-grounds? Answer. They get up their war parties. When I first went there I thought it would be a very humane and good idea to get those Indians to quit fighting one another, and I gave them a great many lectures on the impropriety of these war parties, but I found, after I had done it, that it gave a great deal of offence to them. One of them said he had been brotiught up to war, and to quit fighting was a thing he could not think of, and he thought it wasan unworthy interference on my part. They were for non-intervention. I found that my plan was not working well, and I concluded to let them alone. Question. Now, to come down more particularly to the difficulties with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, will you state, in as brief terms as you can, your view of the matter and all you know about it; how the difficulty arose; how it has been managed, and the part the force of Chivington took in it? 44

Page  A045 APPENDIX. Answer. When I went there, the first band of Indians that I met was a band of Arapahoes, under the command of Little Owl. They came in and gave me a visit; we had a friendly smoke, and they went off with this dissatisfaction: They said that the white people had taken their gold-this was Little Owl's speech; I do not know but that I have a copy of it. He said the white people had taken their gold and their lands; that they wanted their own lands, they did not care about the gold particularly. I told them that they had made a treaty at Fort Wise. He claimed that he was not there, and a good many of his party said they were not there, but some of them had been there. I told them that that treaty provided for their joining in the benefits that were conferred by the government. He said they would not settle on the Arkansas. There is mention in the treaty of one of the bands not being present. He and his band were perhaps as friendly then, and are now, as any other of the Indians of the plains. Friday, who was the chief talker of his band, had been brought up by Major Fitzpatrick, one of the old Indian agents there, and lived in St. Louis for some time, and he speaks English very well. He has, during all the difficulties, with a portion of his band, remained friendly. He came in and remained at Camp Collins under our protection, and has been subsisted by the government to a large extent, because it was unsafe for him to go out and hunt. Another portion of that band was among those young men who wanted to fight. In 1863, the spring next after my arrival, and after this interview, the head man after Little Owl's death-he died the winter after I arrived there-came in and told me there was a party of Sioux who had been down with them and had held a council, in which the question of driving the whites out of the country was the topic of discussion. The Sioux are at tie Fort Laramie agency, which is not in Colorado Territory, but the Indians are in the habit of passing to and fro. These Indians are entirely nomadic; they have no definite home; they range generallyin certain parts of the Territory, but they interchange in their hunts extensively. lie told me that the Sioux had been down with them and they had held a council on Horse creek, as he reported, in which the question of driving the whites out of the country and pre. venting them from settling was the chief discussion. His claim was that he and a good portion of his band were opposed to anything of the kind, but some of them were very much in favor of going to war. Soon after that, Major Lorey, the agent of the Sioux Indians, came to Denver and saw me in regard to the same thing.- He said there was dlissatisfaction among the Indians; that he was satisfied that it was important to get them together and hold a council, or they would go to war. They were committing occasional depredations at that time which were reported, and which, in my report for 1863 to the Indian Bureau, are mentioned. I saw the impending danger from the talk I had had with the Arapahoes; I was satisfied that a portion of them did not feel well, and a portion of the Cheyennes had been in to see me once, some of the Dog soldiers on a war party, and they had gone atter the Utes. I advised them not to go. That was at the time I was trying to make friends among them. They promised me that they would not, and started off as though they were going back to their own hunting-grounds, took a circuitous route, and in a day or two the settlers on the road to the South Park, in the southern mines, as they are called, came in and reported that this war party were committing depredations; they had outraged a woman at one of the ranches, and were in the habit generally of going to a ranch and taking what they wanted without injuring anybody, but they treated one hotel-keeper's wife very improperly. The man happened to be away, and they went into her bed-roomn and proposed to make her get up out of a sick-bed and get them something to eat, which was their custom. The settlers sent in for defence; they were alarmr,d and anticipated an attack. A squad of some half a dozen soldiers went after the Indians; Captain Wagner commanded the soldiers, but the Indians fled more rapidly than he pulirsued; he did not see them. He went up to get theta to come out of the settlement and go back to their hunting-grounds again, but he saw no Indians, and while he came out at Colorado City, seventy-five miles south of Denver, the Indians went out on their way to the plains again. That was in July, 1862. Question. Did any troubles occur in 1863? Answer. This should have been told prior to what I have stated in regard to Little Owl's reporting to me the proposition to go to war. I will return now to that. In 1863, upon Major Lorey's representation, I wrote a letter, a very urgent letter, to the department here for active measures to try to prevent these Indians from becoming hostile sand going to wvar, showing them the danger, that the Sioux Indians were in connexioni with the hostile Sioux of Minnesota. A party from Minnesota had blen with these Intidians at the council on Hearse creek. I sent Agent Lorey a despatch and got him to come in person to the Secretary of the Interior. He did so, and laid the matter before the department, with my letter, and they appointed a commission, consisting of Agent Colley, Agent Lorey, and myself, to get the Arapahoes and Cheyennes in council, and especially the northern bands, for the purpose of making an adjustment. I got his return an(l got the commission, I think in July, 1863. I sent for Major Colley, and we arranged for a council on the head 45

Page  A046 APPENDIX. of the Republican in the fall of 1863, on the 1st day of September, or thereabouts. I employed Elbridge Gerry, who has been about twenty-five years among them and has a Cheyenne wife, (and, by the way, he is a grandson of Elbridge Cerry who signed the Dec]aration of Independence,- and a scholar and a man of very good mind,) and Antoine Jaunice, to go to the Indians on the head of the Republican and on the Platte, and up and above Major Lorey's agency, to find all the Arapahoes and Cheyennes they could. They started and notified them of the council and induced them to agree to come. They spent the time up to the 1st of September in these efforts. They met various bands and got promises from them to be at the council. Major Colley and Mr. Smith, together, undertook to notify the Indians of the Arkansas, the Arapahoes and Cheyennes, of this council, and induce them to come. They went in person and visited their principal bands and urged the importance and necessity of coming. At the time of the council, however, they declined to come, on account of their horses being poor, they being at work making their lodges, and the journey being such a long one. It was supposed to be about a medium ground between the different bands, so that we could get them all together. That was advised by Gerry and others, as will be seen in his report of this expedition. Mr. Gerry met the Cheyennes more particularly, where nearly all their chiefs were together, at the head of the Smoklv Hill, on Beaver creek, and they promired to meet him at the time. He came out to the Platte river and escorted us to the Upper Timber, on the Rickaree fork-of the Platte river, where we went; and after he had escorted us so that he could give us directions to find the place within two days' travel, he left us, in order to conduct the Indians to the same place. We waited two weeks for the Indians and Mr. Gerry's return, and we got quite uneasy about his safety. He came in finally with a report, which is published in my annual report for 1863, showing the reasons why they declined to come. I think all or nearly all the chiefs that signed the treaty of Fort Wise were in the party at the time. M1r. Gerry says that one of them, Bull Bear by name, agreed to come in on his promising to give him a horse if he would do so, but they held a council and decided that he should not do it; that they did not want anything more to do with the whites; that they did not want any presents, but they wanted their lands, and would have their lands. Mr. Gerry argued very sensibly, as will be seen by referring to his statement, which I hope the committee will read. After his report we had nothing to do. The chief of one of the northern bands, Spotted Horse, came in. Major Lorey saw Friday, and he promised to come, but did not get there. I saw several small parties of Cheyennes myself, who told me that they had decided not to hold a council. One was Yellow Wolf's band that I met on the Platte as I was on this expedition. They said, however, they meant to be friendly; they did not mean to fight, but they meant to have their lands. They took the ground that they had never sold their lands. Mr. Geiry argued with them that they had better recognize that, but the chiefs who signed that treaty told Gerry that they were obliged to repudiate the signing of that treaty of Fort Wise, or the Dog soldiers would kill them. I returned home and was under the necessity of going as far in the opposite direction to meet the Tabahuache band of Utah Indians, which I had made arrangements to meet on the 1st of October. After I got back from Conejos, which took me until the latter part of October, I think the 16th or 20th of October, a party of Indians near Denver made a raid, and they stole Mr. Van Wirmer's horses. I sent out for them to come in and see me, counselled them against difficulty, and told them they must give up the horses they had stolen and try to remain peaceful. I sent to the department statements of these matters, which were published in the report for 1863. These were Arapahoes, I think, altogether; I do not think there were any Cheyennes among them I sent for the Indians to come in, and they gave up the horses that had been stolen, or made recompense for them to Mr. Van Wirmer. I found a white man, Mr. North, among them, who had been livingwith them for years and had a squaw wife, who sent me word that he could give me some advice that would be very important. I sent for him to come in, and his statement as made to me I communicated to the Interior Department and to the War Department at the time, and it will be found in my report for this year. His statement that a council of war had been held, and a confederation of the Indians had agreed to go to war in the spring, was laid before the War Departrnent, and a request made that our military posts be strengthened instead of withdrawing troops, as the War Department was then withdrawing them on account of the danger. In the spring these Indians stole 175 head of cattle from Irvin & Jackman, government contractors, about thirty-five or forty miles from Denver, where they were herding them. Question. What Indians took those cattle? Answer. They were Cheyennes, I suppose. That is, the Indians who came in to make peace with Major Wynkoop gave me the statement of the part cular bands that had committed the depredations, a memorandum of which I have. I do not recollect the facts well enough to state which Indians they were, but I can furnish them in detail as reported by the Indians themselves in this council. I got Major Whitely to take a record of the 46

Page  A047 - APPENDIX. Sayings of the council when they were at Denver, when Colonel Chivington and Colonel Shoop and other officers were present. That is the same council referred to by Captain Smith. Very nearly at the same time they committed the depredations on the Platte, and there were several depredations of this kind committed on the Arkansas and at different points, in pursuance of the arrangement that they had made with one another. The plan was laid down in Mr. North's statement. Wherever there were depredations the people were alarmed and ran in for military protection, and the soldiers went off while there were any to send. But early in the spring not only were our posts not re-enforced, but General Curtis ordered our troops all to Kansas, to rendezvous in the southeast corner of the Territory, on the Arkansas, with the understanding that they were to go to Kansas. as the general said, to fight rebels. I not only made application for re-enforcements, but protested against this. as I knew that the Indians, seeing the troops going away, would become more troublesome and we should have more difficulty in keeping them quiet. Major Colley labored very earnestly to try to pacify and keep them quiet; but these circumstances emboldened them. You will find a portion of my correspondence on the sulbject in my annual report for this year. I was unable to collect the facts as to all the depredations that were committed at various points. They were not all reported to my office, and I made application at the office of the commander for the information so as to embody it in my report-I mean the depredations that we had heard of as occurring at various points during the spring and summer-and the commander said he was not allowed to furnish the evidence. I suppose the reports will be found on the files of the War Department. Question. At the time of the interview at Denver, when these chiefs were up there in behalf of the Cheyennes, were assurances given by you and Colonel Chivington that if they returned and went into camp in the neighborhood of Fort Lyon and did not commit depredations, they would have no difficulty? Answer. After a long talk, by which I endeavored to get all the information that was practicable in regard to who had been doing mischief and what mischief they had been doing, I asked them what assurance they would give that they were going to be friendly. I said that it was no part of our intention to continue a war; that their disposition to be friendly wvas manifested by their coming up, but I wanted to know what they were willing to do to assurIe us of their continued friendship; whether they would be willing to join us in fighting the Sioux, a large party of whom, from the north of the Platte, they told us, were then threatening the Platte river, and were on the head of the Republican. I have here the minutes of that council at Denver, as taken down by Major Whitely. Question. For a more specific statement you may refer to the minutes; but you can give us no-v the substance of the thing, and subsequently furnish the minutes if you wish. Answver. After a talk the Indians said they desired to make peace, and they asked if I could give them any assurance that their band, which was on the head of the Republican, would be safe. I told them that I could not; that the soldiers might come across them there and attack them; I could not say anything about that; that their best course would be to get out of the way-to bring them in. In general terms they were advised that they had been at war; that they had been committing a great many depredations by their own confession; that I was not the peace-making power; that the War Department claimed the right to say when the troops should make war and when they should make peace, and that I turned them over to the War Department for this purpose. They professed to be willing not only to make peace, but to join with the whites in fighting the Sioux, the Kioways, and the Comanches, all of whom had been with them in their war parties. Question. Was it not said by Colonel Chivington and yourself that if they would with. draw out of the way and go into the neighborhood of Fort Lyon they wonld be safe? Answer. No, sir. Question. What was the substance of what you told them on that subject? Answer. The substance of my assurance was that they should show their peaceable intentions, and that I had little doubt they would be able to make and retain friendly relations with the military department. Question. Was it not suggested to them to go to the neighborhood of Fort Lyon with their camp? Answer. Colonel Chivington was there; he was commanding the district. Fort Lyon was not in his district. I asked him if he had anything to say, and he simply remarked to them that his way of making peace was for them to lay down their arms; that the soldiers were still out on the war-path. That, I think, was about the substance of his expression. That is also found in Major Whitely's report. Colonel Chivington simply retuarked that they were out of his command; that Major Wynkoop would take them back and that he was competent to take care of them, or something to that effect. Question. Was Major Wynkoop there with them? 47

Page  A048 APPENDIX. Answer. Hle was there at the council. Immediately after that council I suggesteri to Major Wynkoop, through Colonel Shoop-I did not see him myself-that my judgment was, that for the time being it was better to treat them as prisoners of war, surrendered prisoners. I had Lo business to advise him about it; it was simply an extra-official suggestion that I made. 1 understood, however, that Major Wynkoop did treat them in that way. By Mr. Ross: Question. Did these men come in by your request? Answer. No. The council was held by my request, as I before stated. These were brought ir, by Major Wynkoop, who went out to their camp to rescue some white prisoners from them, and when he got there he suggested to them to make peace and come in, and they came with him to see me. By Mr. DOOLITTLE: Questlon. Looking at the whole transaction as it was, did you not understand that when there Indians came and proposed to surrender the white prisoners, it was an overture on their part to do something to try and make peace with us? Answer. I did. Question. Did-you not understand from what occurred at the council when Major Wynkoop was there, and on their going back, that, as they had surrendered these white prisone(rs, if they went back and remained where they were located, they were to have peace? Answer. I supposed that they were. Question. Major Wynkoop so understood, as far as you know? Answer. Yes, sir; I supposed they were to have peace. What occurred after they went away from Denver I have nothing but flying rumors about. The next day after that council I started for the Conejos treaty-ground, 250 miles off. By TIr. Ross: Question. Can you give us any explanation of the orders under which the massacre occurred? Answer. In regard to the massacre I gave no orders. I came away from the Territory before it occurred, and had no knowledge of any intention to make such an attack. I knew the soldiers were to go after the hostile Indians, but that they were actually going I had no knowledge whatever. Question. Did you, as governor, make any order about following them up? Answer. I made no orders except what will be found in my annual reports. There is a proclamation there to which some have taken exception. I will simply say in regard to it that it was at a time when our troops were all taken away or under orders to go away. The last company was on the march down to the Arkansas when several murders of famnilies and burnings of houses occurred close to the capital. The people were terribly excited and making a great cry that I did not do anything for them. It was impossible to secure the militia. It was out of the question, on account of the state of the militia law, to get the militia out. We had no means of equipping such as would volunteer to go. In that state of the law, as the only means I could think of to justify the people in defending themselves was to issue a proclamation authorizing them to do, so I issued the proclamation, and it is part of my report. I may say further in regard to it that, in reterence to pursuing, capturing, and destroying the enemy, I quoted the language of the Secretary of War in his complimentary order to General Rosecrans. The'same language which he used in regard to the rebels I used in regard to the Indians. There was nothing said about massacring. The troops were strictly prohibited fromn interfering wth friendly Indians, as will be seen by the document.'1 hat proclamation was issued before we commenced raising the third regiment, which I subsequently got authority from the Secretary of War to do. I had made application a month before for authority to raise them, but did not get it until this time. At the time I issued this proclamation I renewed my application to him for the means of defending ourselves, and he granted the privilege of raising a regiment, which was done very promptly by our people, for there was a great state of alarm and excitement at the time. Question. Hiad you anything to do with directing the troops when this attack was made? Answer. Nothing. I had no more command of those troops than I had of the army of the Potomac. I did not advise it in any way. Whenever anybody has said anything to me about troops, I have said that what they were raised for was to fight the Indians. I never had any knowledge that that particular attack was contemplated or that it occurred until I was in the States, alter having left the Territory. By Mr. WINDOM: Question. Do you know of any palliation or excuse for that massacre except what you have stated before in general terms? 48

Page  A049 APPENDIX. Answer. There are two stories in reg,ard to it. I do not know what the testimony brought before you is in reference to it, but I see by my Denver papers and some others which I have received that they justify the attack on the ground that those Indians had left the fort and gone off with hostile intentions. I have seen one letter of that kind in the Denver papers. Question. But you do not know ary facts yourself? Answer. I know no facts either justifying or condemning it except what I have heard here to-day-sonme of the statements miade by Captain Smith. It would be a matter of interest, I have no doubt, to the committee if we were to collect a statement of the progress of the war so as to give the depredations committed, and show the inauguration of it. I have no doubt, as is stated in my annual report, that emissaries from the hostile tribes who were driven out of Minniesota have got us into these difficulties. The restlessness that is among our Indians woul(l probably have amountedl to nothing if it had not bleen for those Sioux comning down there and telling them-this is their common expression-"' Now, whilst the wvhites are fighting amo,g themselves, we can join together and drive them out of this country." I think that is a very general opinion amnong the Indians. FORT LYON,,C. T., January 15, 1865. Personally appeared before me John Smith, Indian interpreter; who, after teeing duly sworn, says: That on the fourth day of September, 1864, he was appointed Indian interpreter for the post of Fort Lyon, and has continued to serve in that capacity uLp to the present date; that on the fourth d:ty of September, 1864, by order of Major E. W. Wynkoop, commanding post of Fort Lyon, he was called upon to hold a conversation with three Cheyenne Indians, viz, One Eye and two others, who had been brought into the post that day; that the result of the interview was as follows: One Eye, Cheyenne, stated th:at the prinrcipal chiefs and sl')-chiefs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations had held a consultation and agreed to send in himself, One Eye, with a paper written by George Bent, half-breed, to the effect that they, the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, had and did agree to turn over to Major E. W Wynrkoop, or any military authority, all the white prisoners they had in their p)ssession, as they were all anxious to make peace with the whites, and never desired to be at war. M-ijor E W. Wynkoop then asked One Eye, he having lived among whites'tand known to have always been frienily disposed toward them, whether he thought the Indians were sincere, and whether they would deliver the white persons into his (Major Wynkoop's) hands. His reply was, that at the risk of lhis life he would guarantee their sincerity. Major Wy nko,,Ip the:n told him that hlie would detain him as a prisoner for the time, and if he conclu ded to pCroceed to the Indian camp, he would ttake himn out with him and hold him as a hosta,ge for their (the Indians') good faith. One Eye also stated that the Comanche and Ariphlo nations were congregated to the number of two thousand on the hea(lwaters of the Smoky Hill, including some forty lodges of Sio(ux; that they had rendezvoused there and brought in their war parties for the purpcse of hearing wh:tt would be the result of their message, by which they had sued for peac, andl would remain until they heard something definite. Major Wynkoop told One Eye that he would proceed to the Indian camps and take him with him. One Eye replied that he was perfectly willing to be detained a prisoner, as well as to remain a hostage for the good faith of the Indians, but desired the major to start as soon as possible for fear the Indians might separate. On the sixth day ofSeptember I was ordered to proceed with Major Wynkoop and his comnand in the direction of the Indian encampment. After a four days' march we came inl sight of the Indians, and one of the three Indians before mentioned was sent to acquaint the chiefs with what was the object of of the expedition, with the statement that Major Wynkoop desired to hold a consultation with the chiefs. On the tenth day of September the consultation was held between Major Wynkoop and his officers and the principal chi-fs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations. Major Wynkoop state-l through mne to the chief apart that he hall received their message; that acting on that, he had come up to talk with them; asked them whether they had all agreed to and indorsed the contents of the letter which he had in his possession, and which had been received fiom One Eye. Receiviing an answer in the affirm,ative, hlie then told the chiefs teat he had not the authority to con,lude terms of pence with them, but he desired to mnake a proposition to them to the effect that if they would give him evidence of their good f,aith by delivering into his ha-n(ls the white prisoners they h:ld in their possession, lie would endeavor to procure for them peace, which would be subject to conditions 4 49

Page  A050 APPENDIX. that he would take with himn what principal chiefs they might select and conduct them in safety to the governor of Colorado, and, whatever might be the result of their interview with him, return them safely to their tribe. Black Kettle, the heid chief of the Cheyenne nrtion, replied as follows: That the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations had always endea:vored to observe the terms of their treaty with the United States government; that some years previously, when the white emigration first commenced coming to what is now the Territory of Colorado, the country which was in possession of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations, they could have successfully made war against them; they did not desire to do so; had invariably treated them with kindness, and had never to their knowledge committed any destruction whatever; that until the last two months they had gotten along in perfect peace and harmony with their white brethren; but while a hunting party of their young men were proceeding north, in the neighborhood of the South Platte river, having found some loose stock belonging to white men, which they were taking to a ranch to deliver them up, they were suddenly confronted by a party of United States soldiers and ordered to deliver up their arms. A difficulty immediately ensued, which resulted in thle killing and wounding of several on both sides. A short time after this occurrence took place a village of papooses and squaws and old men, located on what is known as the Cedar calion, a short distance north of the South Platte river, who were perfectly unaware of any difficulty having occurred between any portion of their tribe (Cheyennes) and the whites, was attacked by a large party of soldiers, and some of them killed, and their ponies driven off. After this, while a body of United States troops were proceeding from the Smoky Hill to the Arkansas river, they reached the neighborhood of Lean Bear's band of the Cheyenne nation. Lean Bear, second chief of the Cheyennes, approached the column of troops, alone, his warriors remaining off some distance, he not dreaming that there was any hostility between his nation and the whites. He was immediately shot down, and fire opened upon his band, the result of which was a fight between the two parties. Presuming from all the circumstances that war was inevitable, the young men of the Cheyenne nation commenced to retaliate by committing various depredations; all the time of which he, Black Kettle, and other principal chiefs of the Cheyenne nation, were opposed to war, and endeavored by all means in their power to restore pacific relations between that tribe and their white brethlren; but at various times, when endeavoring to approach the military post for the purpose of accomplishing the same, were fired upon and driven off. In the mean time, while their brothers and allies. the Arapahoes, were on perfectly friendly terms with the whites, and Left Hand's band of that nation were camped in close vicinity of Fort Larned, Left Hand, one of the principal chiefs of the Arapaho nation, learning~ that it was the intention of the Kioways on a certain day to drive off the stock from Fort Larned, proceede(l to the commanding officer of that post and intformed him of the fact. No attention was paid to the information he gave, and on the day indicated the Kioways ran off the stock. Left Handcl again approached the post with a portion of his warriors for the purpose of offering his services to the, commanding officer there to pursue and endeavor to regain the stock from the Kioway Indians, when he was fired upon and obliged hastily to leave. tlhe young men of the Arapaho nation, supposing it was the intention of the whites to make war upon them, as well as the Cheyennes, also commenced retaliating as well a'A they were able, and against the desire of most of their principal chiefs, who, as well as Black Kettle, and other chiefs of the Cheyennes, were bitterly opposed to hostilities with the whites. He then said that he had lately heard of a proclamation issued by the Governor of Colorado, inviting all fiiendly-disposed Indians to come in to the different military posts, and that they would be protected by the government. Under these circwmstances, and although he thought the whites had been the aggressors and forced the trouble upon the Indians, yet, anxious for the welfare of his people, he had made this last effort to communicate agalit with the military authority, and he was glad he had succeeded. He then arose, shook hands with Major Wynkoop and his officers, stating that he wats still what he had always been, a friend to the whites, and, as far as he was concerned, he was willing to deliver up the white prisoners, or do anything that was required of him, to procure peace, knowing it to be for the good of his people; but that there were other chiefs who still thought they were badly treated by their white brethren, who were willing to make peace, but who felt unwilling to deliver up the prisoners simply on the promise o'f Major Wynkoop that he would endeavor to procure them peace. They desired that the delivering up of the white prisoners should be an assurance of peace. He also went on t,, state that, even if Major Wynkoop's propositions were not accepted then by the chiefsi assembled, aud although they had sufficient force to entirely overpower Major Wynkoop's small command, yet, from the fact that he had come in good faith to hold this consulta tion, he should return unmolested to Fort Lyon. 0 50

Page  A051 APPENDIX. The expressions of other chiefs were to the effect tlhat they insisted upon peace as the conrdition of their (lelivering up the white prisoners. MaIj:.r Wynkoop finally replied that he repeated what hlie had said before-that it was not in his power to iinsiire tiheii pe.ce, and that all he had to say in the closing was, that they might think about his proposition; that he would march to a certain locality distant twelve miles, and there await the result of their consultation two days, advising themn at the samne time to accede to his proposition, as the best means of procuring that peace for which they were anxious. The w,ite prisoners were brought in and'turned over to Major Wynkoop before the time had expired set by him; and Black Kettle, White Antelope and Bullbeef, of the Cheyenne nation, as -ell as Nevah Nattune, Bovea, and Hiieys Biffilo, of the Arapaho nation, all these chiefs, delivered themselves over to Major Wynkoop. We then proceeded to.Fort Lyon, and from there to Denver, Colorado Territory, at which place Governor Evans held a consultation with the chiefs, the result of which was as follows: Ie told them he had nothing to do with them; that they would return with Major Wynkoop who would recon duct them in safety, and they would have to await the action of the military autlhorities. Colonel Chivington, then in command of the district, also told them that they would remain at the disposal of MIjor Wynkoop until higher authority had acted in their case The Indians appeared perfectly satisfied, presuming that they would eventually be all. righlt as soon as those authorities could be heard from, and expressed themselves so. Black Kettle embraced the governor and Major Wynkoop, and shook hands with all the other officials present, perfectly contented, deeming that the matter was settled. On our return to Fort Lyon I was told by Major Wynkoop to say to the chiefs that they could bring their dif. ferent b.n-ds, including their families, to the vicinity of the post until he had heard from the big chief; that he preferred to have them under his eye and away from other quarters where they were likely to get into difficulties with the whites. The chiefs replied that they were willing to do anything Maj(r Wynkoop miHhlt choose to dictate, as they had perfect confi dence in him. Accordingly the chiefs went after their families and villages and brought them in. They seemed satisfied that they were in perfect security and safety. After their villages were located and.Mijor Wynkoop had sent an officer to headquarters for instruc tions, hlie (IMajor Wynkoop) w,ss relieved from c.ommnand of the post by Major Scott J. An thony, and I was ordered to interpret for him (Major Anthony) in a consultation he desired to hold -itli the Indians. The consultation that there took place between Major Anthony and the Indians vas as follows: Major Anthony told them that he had been sent here to relieve Major Wynkloop, and that he would from that time be in command of this post; that he ha(l conme here under orders from the corimander of all the troops in this country, and that he hid orders to have nothing to do with Indians whatever, for they had heard at hea'lquarters that the Indians had lately been conmmitting depredations, &c, in the very neighborhood of this post; but that, since his arrival, he had learned that these reports were all false that he would write to) headquarters himself and correct the rumor in regard to them, and that he would have no objection to their remaining in the vicinity of Sand creekl, where they were then located, until such a time as word might be received from the commiander of the department; that he himself would forward a complete stateinent of all that hlie had seen or heard of them, and that he was in hopes that he would have sonie ood news for the Indians upon receiving an answer; but he wAas sorry that his orders were stuch as to render it impossible for him to make them any issues whatever. The Indians then replied that it would be impossible for them to remain any great length of time, as they were short of provisions. Major Anthony then told them they. could let their villages remain where they were, and could send their young men out to hunt buffalo, as he had understood that the buffalo had lately come close in. The Indians appeared to be a little dissatisfied at the change in commianders of the post, fearing that it boded themiii no good; but, having received assurances of safety from Major Anthony, they still had iio fears of their families being disturbed. On the twenty-sixth of November I received permission from Major Scott J. Antho,j-, commranding post, to proceed to the fudian villages on Sand creek, for the purpose,,f trading with the Indians, and started, accomnpanied by a soldier nanied David Louderb, c', and a citizen, Watson Clark. I reached the village and commenced to trade with thtirn On the niorning of the twenty-ninth of November the camp was attacked by Colonel J. x1. Chivington, with a c.ommnand of from nine hundred to one thousand men.'Ihe Indin village numbered anout one hundred lodges, counting altogether about five hundredt souls, two-thirds of whom were women and children, all of whose bodies had been mutilated in the iiiost horrible manner. When the troops first approached, I endeavored to j,,in them, but was repeatedly fired upon; also the soldier and citizen with me. When the troops began approaching, I saw Black Kettle, the head chief, hoist the American filte,, f'.earing there might be some mistake as to who they were. 51

Page  A052 APPENDIX. After the fight Colonel Chilvington returned wvith his comminnd in the direction of Fort Lyon, and then proceeded dovwn the Arkansas river. JO)HN S. SIITff, T,ited Sa'es liter.pre!er. Swvorn and subscribedl to at Fort Lyon, C. T., thls 27th d;y of Jlnuary, 186.5. W. P. MINTON, Second Lieuten!2r First A2w le,-ic, Volunteers, Po,st AdrJjtnt. A true copy: J E. TAPPAN, ActiWy Assistait Adjutanit General. FoNr LYon-, COIy,onAD,o, Jaanugr?y 27, 1865. Personally appenredl before ine Sanmuel G. Colley, who, being duly sworn, on oath deposes and says: That lhe is now, andl has been for the past three years, United States agent for the Arap thoes and Cheyenne Indians; tha't in the month of June last he receivedl instructions from Hon. John Evans, governor and ex-officio superintendent of India'tn affairs for Colorado Territory, directing himn to se,nd (,tit persons into the Indiai country to distribute pointed )roclamLations (which he was furiuiihe(i with) in,viting all friendly Itdians to conie into the d.'fferent places designated in said proclamation, and they would be protected and fed; that he caused the ter-is of suit proclamation to be widely disseminated among the different tuibes of Indians under his char!ge, and thait in accord,inie therewith a large number of Arapahoes andl Cheyennes came into this po)st, and provisions were issiiedl to them b,y Major E. W. Wynkoop, comnmanding, and myself; that on the 4to day of Septemb.r last'two Cheyenne Indians (One-EBe and Alinimick) came into this post with information that the Arapahoes andt Cheyenres had severail white prisoners amoug them that they had purchased, and were desirous of giving theni up and micking peace with the whites; that on tltie 6th day of September followin, Major E. W. Wynkoop left this post with a detachment of troops to rescue said prisoners, and tha, after an abenlce of several'days, he returned, bringing with him four Nwhite prisoners, which he received fiom the Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians; he was accompanied on his return by a number of the most influential men of both tribes, who were unani-iously opposed to war writl the whites, and desired peace at almost any trmis that the whites mig,ht dictate; that imniediat-ly upon the arrival of Major Wynkoop at this post, large numbers of Arapahoes andl Cheyennes cnime in and camped near the post; Major Wynikoop selected several of the most proininient chiefs of both nations and proceeded to Denver to counsel with Superintenident Evais; after his return he held frequent councils with the Iniliis, and at all of them (list'nctly stated that he was not empowered to treat with them, but that he had de-spitched a rnmessener to the headquarters of the department statin, their wishes in the inatter, and( that as soon its he received adlvices from there he wouldl inforrin t:hem of the Ieci,ionl of Genteral Curtis le specting them; that until that tim, if they placed themselves under his protection, they should not be molested; that the Indians rein,rineol quietly ner the post until the arrival of Major Anthony, who relieved Maijor Wynkoop; Maljor Antlioiy heid a council with the Indians and informed them that he was instructed not to allow any Indians in or near the post, but that he had found matters here much better th in he expected, ud advised thmrn to go out and canip on Sindl creek until he could hear from General Curtis; he wished them to keep himrn fully advised of all mov eni unts of the Sioux, wvich they promptly did; he also promised them that as soon as he hexrid from General Curtis he would advise them of his decision; from the time that lMajor Wynvkooop left this post to go out to rescue the white prisoners until the arrival of Colone,l Chivington hare, rwhich t)oo plac- on the 28th of November last, no depredations of any kind1 had I)een comnitted by the Indi(lians within two hundred miles of this post; that upon Colonel Chivington's airival here with a large body of troops he wis informed where these Indians were encampell, and was fully a;lvised under what circumstinces they had cone into this post, and why they were then on Saund creek; that he was remonstrated with bothl by officers and civilians at this post against making war upon these Inilians; that he was inform d and fully advised( that there was a large number of friendly Indians there, together with several white men, who were there at the request of himself (Colley) and by permission of Mlajor Anthony; that notwithstand ini his knowledge of the fcets as above set forth, he is i)if)irned tthi, Colorel Chivington did, on the morning of the 29th of Novemnber last, surprlise and attack said camp of fuieridly Indians and massacre a large number of them, (mostly wori:ieni and childien,) and did allow the troops of his command to nmangle and imutilate them in the most horrible manner. S. G. COLLEY, Unittd States lrdian Agent. 52

Page  A053 APPENDIX. Sworn and subsc( ibed to before me this 28th day of Januairy, 1855, at Fort Lyon, Colo rado Territory. W. P. MINTON, Seco,nd Lieutenant Firt Aew Iexic-o Voluntecers, Plost A(djutant. J. E. TAPPAN, Actinj Ae.Sistant Adjutant General. FORT Ly-ox, COLORADO TERRITORY, Janu1ary 16, 1865. Personally apeared before rne Lieutenant James D. Connor, first New AIexico volunteer infantry, wlho, after bein duly sworn, says: That on the 28th (lay of November, 1861, I was orderede by Major Scot t J. Anthonvy to accompany him on ain expedition (Indian) as his b tttalion adjutant; tie )ol-Jec of theit expeditio)n was to be a thorough campaign against hostile Inudians, as I w-as lei to understand I referrel to the fact of there being a friendly camp of Indian, in the imitcediate ne(,igliborhood, and remonstrated againist simply attacking that car), ns I w,as -aware that they wer resting there in fancied security under promises heldl out to, them of safetv from MAIjor E. W. Wynkoop, former commander of the post of F)ort Lyon, a w-ell ais by l:Iaj,,-r S. J Anltiony, then in command. OuLr battalion was attached to th-e c.nmand of Colonel J. MI Cllivington, and left Fort Lyon on the night of the 28th of oveniber, 1864; albout daytbreak on the morning of the 29th of November w-e came in sighlt of the camp of the fiiendly Ind(ians aforementioned, and were ordered by Colonel Chivington to attack the same, wrhich was accordingly done. T'I'he command of Colonel Chivington was composed of about one thousand men; the village of the Indians consistedl of fromn one hundred to one hundred and thirty lodges, and, as far as I am able to judge, of from five hundred to six hundred souls, the niajority of wvhich were women and children; in going over the battle-ground the next day I did not see a body of man, woman, or child b,,t was scalped, and in maiy instances their bodies were mutilated in the niost horrible manner-mren, women, and children's privates cut out, &c.; I heard one man say that he had cut out a woman's private parts and had them for exhibition on a stick; I heard another man say that he had cut the fingers off an Indian to get the rings on the h.And; according to the best of uiy knowledge and belief these atrocities that were committed were with knowledge of J. M Chivington, arnd I do not know of his taking any measures to prevent them; I heard of one instance of a child a few months old being thrown in the feed-box of a wagon, and after being caried some distance left on the ground to perish; I also hearddf numerous instances in which men had cut out the private parts of females and stretched them over the saddle-bows, and wore them over their hats while riding in the ranks. All these matters were a subject of general conversation, and could not help being known by Colonel J. M. Chivington. JA3IES D. CONNOR, Firs Lieutenznt Firet Li5fantry /ew Mtexico Volunteers. Swvorn and subzcribedl to bef)re mne this 27th day of January, 1865, at Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory. W. P. M INTON, Seconid Lieutenant First A,:ew.Mexico Volunteers, Post Adjutant. J. E. TAPPAN, Acting Assistarit Adj":tent General U.nited States V(tlunteers. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY, January 27, 1865. Personally appeared before me Private David Lauderbock, first cavalry of Colorado, andl P. WV. Clark, citizen, who, after being duly sworn, say: That they acconmpanied John Smitlh, JUnitel Stttes Indian interpreter, on the 26th day of November, 15i4, by permission of Mlajor Sc,ott J. Anthony, comma.ndin;, post, Fort Lyon. Colorado Territory, to the village of the friendly Cheyenne an4l Arapaho Inditns, on Sani creek, close to Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, ae, John Smith, having received permlission to trade with the aforesaid friendly Indians; thet on the morning of the 29thl day of November, 1864, the said Indian village wvas attacked while deponents were in the same, by Colonel J.:l Chivington, with a comraand of Ibout one thousand (1!000) men; that according to their best knowledge and belief the entire Indian village w,s composed of nrot more than five hundred (500) souls, twothirds of which were women and children; that the dead bodies of women and children were afterwards mutil!ited ia the mrost horrible manner; that it was the understanding of the dpnet. ahe dp.ne the.e. l 1 unerst.-ndinfg (of the garrison of Fort Lyon, that this vii 53 A tri-.e coliv: A tr,&e c-,)py:

Page  A054 APPENDIX. lage were friendly Indians; that they had been allowed to remain i., the localities they were then in by permission of Major Wynkoopl, former coinmando.r of the p)st, anrd by Major Anthony, then in command(l, as well as froma the fact that perilissiorn haill( been given John Smith andi the deponents to visit the said camp for the purpos)e of trading. DAVID Ii. LAUDI)EBl3OCK. R. W. CLARK. Sworn -and subscribed to before me this 27th day of Jauiiaiy, 1865. W. P. MAIINTON, Second Lieuztenant New 3[efdic T[ht,,tlters, Post Adjutlnte J. E. TA1'PPAN, Asting Assistant A(ijtltait Generrtl,. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY,,fe]U,ary 27, 1865. Personally appeared before me Second Lieutenant W. P. Minton, first regiment New Mexico infantry volunteers, and Lieutenant C. M. Cossitt, first cavalry of Colorado, who, after being duly sworn, say: That on the 28th day of November, 1864, Colonel J. M. Chivington, with the third regiment of Colorado cavalry, one-hundred(-day men, and at battalion of the first cavalry of Colorado, arrived at this post, and on the 29th of November attacked a village of friendly Indians in the vicinity, and, according to representations mad(le by others in our presence, murdered their women and children, and committed the most horrible outrages upon the dead bodies of the same; that the aforesaid Indians were recognized as friendly by all parties of this post, under the following circumstances, viz: that Major E. W. Wynkoop, formerly commander of the post, had given them assurances of safety until such time as he could hear from the commanding general of the department, in consequence of their having sued for peace and given every evidence of their sincerity by delivering up the white prisoners they had in their possession, by congregating their families together, and leaving them at the mercy of the garrison at Fort Lyon, who could have massacred them at any moment they felt so disposed; that upon Major Wyakoop's being relieved from the command of Fort Lyon, and Major Scott J. Anthony's assuming command of the same, it was still the understanding between Major Anthony and the Indians that they could rest in the security guaranteed them by Major Anthony; also that Colonel J. M. Chivington, on his arrival at the post of Fort Lyon, was aware of the circumstances in regard to the Indians, from the fact that different officers remonstrated with him, and stated to him how these Indians were looked upon by the entire garrison; that notwithstanding these remonstrances, and in the face of all these facts, he committed the massacre aforementioned. W. P. MINTON, Second Lieutenant Fir.st Aew Mfexico Volun'eers. C. M. COSSITT, Firet Lieutenant first C,tvalry of Colorado Sworn and subscribed to before me this 27th day of January, 1865. W. W. DENNISON, Second Lieutenant First Colorado Veteran Cavalry, ActingyRegimental A,jut,rat, J. E. TAPPAN, Acting Astistiat Adj?,tont Gemeral. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRtITORY, Ji?uary 16, 1865. Personally appeared before me Captain R. A. Hill, first New Mexico volunteer infantry, who, after being duly sworin, says: That, as an officer in the United States service, he was on duty at Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, at the time there was an understanding between the chiefs of the Arapaho and Cheyenne nations and Miaj(r E W. Wynkoop, with regard to their resting in safety with their villages in the vicinity of Fort Lyon until such time as ordeis in regard to them could be received from the comniandcling general of the d(-partment; that after Major Wynkoop being relieved from the command of F()it Lyon, Coloiado Territoryv, the same understanding existed between Major Scott J. Anthonv and the afore 54 A true copy: A true copy:

Page  A055 APPENDIX. said Indians; that to the best of his knowledge and belief the village of Indianis massacred by Colonel J M. Chivington on the 29th day of November, 1864, were the same friendly Indians heretofore referred to. R. A. HILL, Capuain First New Mexico Volunteers. Sworn a(nd subscribed to before me this 27th day of January, 1865. W. P. MINTON, Second Lieul. First Lsfantry,t,A Mexico Volunteers, Post Adjutant. J. E. TAPPAN, Actibg Assistant Adjutanit General. EXECUTIVE DEPALRTMENT, COLORADO TERRITORY, Denver, June 29, 1864. DEAR SIP: I enclose a circular to the Indians of the plains. You will, by every means you canl, get the contents to all these Indians, as many that are hostile may come to the friendly camtnp, and when they all do the war will be ended. Use the utmost economy in providing for those that come in, as the Secretary of the Interior confines me to the amount of our appropriations, and they may be exhausted before the summer is out. You will arrange t,) carry out the plan of the circular at Lyon and Larned. You will use your utmost vigilance to ascertain how many of your Indians are hostile, where they are, and what plans they propose, and report to me by every mail at least. For this purpose you will enlist the active aid of Mr. John Smith and his son, and of such other parties as you may judge can be of essential service. Mr. C(,. A. Cook reports to me that Mr. Bent has given you important information in regard to the plans and strength of the hostile combinations on the plains. Please be careful and report to me in detail all of the reliable information you can get, promptly, as above directed. I have the honor to be, respectfully, your obedient servant, JOHN EVANS, Colorado Territory and Sup't indian Affairs. Md jor S. G. COLLEY, Uldited States Indian Agent, Fort Lyon, C. T. W. W. DENNISON, 2d Lieut. lst Colorado VEt. Cavalry, Act'g Reot'l Adj't. J. E. TAPPAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant General. COLORADO SUPERINTENDENCY OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, Denver, June 27, 1864. To the frie?dly Indians of the plainzs: Agents, interpreters, and traders will inform the fiiendly Indians of the plains that some members of their tribes have gone to war with the white people.'Ihey steal stock and run it off, hoping to escape detection and punishment; in some instances they have attacked and killed soldiers, and murdered peaceable citizens. For this the Great Father is angry, and will certainly hunt them out and punish them, but he does not want to injure those who remain friendly to the whites; he desires to protect and take care of them. For this purpose I direct that all friendly Indians keep) away from those who are at war, and go to places of safety. Friendly Aralahoes and Cheyennes, belonging to the Arkansas river, will go to Major Colley, United States Indian agent, at Fo t Lyon, who will give them provisions and show them a place of safety. Friendly Kiowas and Comanrches will go to Fort Larred, where they will be cared for in the same way. Friendly Sioux will go to their agent at Fort Laramie for directions. Friendly Arapahoes and Cheyennes of the Upper Platte will go to Camp Collins, on the Cache-la-Pouidre, where they will be assigned a place of safety, and provisi)ns will be givei them. qhe object of this is to prevent friendly Indians from being klilled through mistake nose but those who intendl to be friendly with the whites 55 I,, true copy: A true copy: A true copy:

Page  A056 APPENDIX. must come to these places. The families of those who have gone to war with the whites must be kept away from the friendly Indians. The war on hostile Indians will be continued until they are all effectually subdued. JOHIN EVANS, Governor of C olorado and Superintendent of ~Indian Afairs. W. W. DENNI'ON, 2d Lieut. l,t Colorado T'et. C,valry, Act'g Rg,y'l Adj't. J. E. TAPPAN, Acting Assistart Adjut(nt Ge;neral. COLORADO SUPEIINTENDENCY, Dearer, C. T., June 16, 1864. SiR: You will immediately male necessary arrangemlents for the feeding and sutpport of all the friendly Indi'.,s of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians at Fort Lyon, and direct the friendly Comainches and Kiowas, if any, to remain at Fort Larned; you will make a requisition on the military commander of the post for subsistence for the friendly Itndlians o his neighborhood. If there is no agent there to attend to this, deputize some one to do it. These friendly Indians must be collected at places of ren(iezvous, and all intercourse between them and tribes or individuals engaged in warfare withi us prohibited. This arrangement will tend to withdraw from the conflict all who are not thoroughly identified with the hostile movement, and, l)y affording a safe refuge, will gradually collect those who may become tiled of wvar and desire peace. The war is opened in earnest, and upon your efforts to keep quiet the friendly Indians, as nucleus for peace, will depend its duration to some extent at least. You can send word to all these tribes to come as directed above, but do not allow the families of those at war to be introduced into the friendly camp. I have established a camp for our northern friendly bands on Cache-la-Poudre, and as soon as mly plan is approved by the military I will issue a proclamation to the Indians. Please spare no effoit to carry out this instruction, and "keep me advised by every mail of the situation. Very respectfully, your obecldient servant, JOHN EVANS, Goveraor and lx.of/ficio Sup't Ildian Agairs. W. W. DENNISON, 2d Lieut. 1st Coblorado Vet. Cavalry, Art'g Rlet'l Adj't. J. E. TAPPAN, Acting Assistant Adjutant Ganeral. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITOltY, January 16, 1865. Personally appeared before me Private David Louderback, 1st cavalry of Colorado, and R. W. Clark, citizen, who, after being duly sworn according to law, say:''lhat they accompanied John Smith, Indian interpreter, on the 26th Jay of November, 1864, by permission of Major Scott J. Anthony, commanding post of Fort Lyon, to the village of the friendly Indians, Cheyennes and Arapahoes, on Sand creek, close to Fort Lyon, he, John Smith, having received permission to trade with the aforesaid-IIndiarns; that on the morning of the 29th of November the said Indian village, while the deponents were in the same, was attached by Colonel J. M. Chivington with a command of about one thousand men; that, according to their best knowledge and belief, the entire Indian party was composed of not more than five hundred souls, two-thirds of which were women and children that the dead bodies of children were afterwards mutilated in the most horrible manner; that this village wvere friendly Indians; that it was the understanding of the deponents, and the general understanding of the garrison at Fort Lyon, they were allowed to remain in the locality they were then in by Major E. W. Wynkoop, former commander of the post, and by Major Scott J. Anthony, then in command, as well as from the fact that permission had been given to John Smith and the deponents to visit the said camp for the purpose of trading. DAVID LOUDERBACK. R. W. CLA[RK. Sworn and subscribedl to before me this 16th (day of JanuiLry, 1865.. W. P. oINTON, Post Adjutanrt. 16 Ii:) A true copy: A true copy: A true copy: A true copy:

Page  A057 APPENDIX. FORT LYON, COaLOBADO TEairITORY, Jae2uary 16, 1865. Personally appeared before me Lieutenant Jamies D. Cannon, 1st New Mexico volunteer inftnt,y, who, at'ter beilig duly sworn, says:'llhat on the 28th day of November, 186f, I was ordered by MIajor Scott J. Anthlony to accompany him on an I-,Idian expeditio(n as his ba-ttalion adjuitant; the (bject of the expediti(on was to be a thorough campaign against hbstile IndiAns, as I was led to understand. I referred to thle fact of there being a friendly camip of Indiatns in the immdc(liate vicinity, and simply renionstratedl against attacking that camp, as I was aunare that they were resting there in fancied security, under promises held out to themn of satety by Mafljor E. W. Wvnkoop, formerly comnmalnder of Fort Lyon, andl by 1aijor Sc(ott J Anthoni, then in command. Our battalion was attached to the comniandi of Colonel J. M. Chivington, and left Fort Lyon on the night of the 28th of Novetbi-er, 1864; abh)ut daybreak on the morning of the 29th of November came in sight cof tire camp of friendly Indians aforementioned, and was ordered by Colonel Chiivington to attick the same, wnich uas accoroinglv done. ihe cormand of Colonel Chivington w-s,. composed of about ote thliousanjld en; the vilate of I-,dians consisting of from one huli, i to one hiundred and thirt! loIlges, a nd, as fur as I am abl)le to judge, of from five to six hind.,ed souls, toe mt.jr:ity of theni were w n and children. In going over the battle-ground the next day I did tl,it see a bodv (,f mln, or woman,:or child, but what ;was scalped, andl in:ay instancs their bodies were inmuttilate(ed in the most horrible manlner-men, vome-,t. and children's privates cut out. I heard cne man say that he had cut . wonan's private parts out al d hi.d themi for exhibition on a stick; I lieard anothlcr man sav that he had cut the fir,gets (iff of,a,n Inlian t) get thle rings on his hands Accorling to the best of my knowledge and belief, these atrocities that were committedl were with the knowledge of Colonel J..t Cli,vington, and I do not know of himn talking any measure to prevent them. I he.rd of one instance of a child, a few months old, being thrown into the feed-box of a w4,gon, and aifter being carried soine distance, left on the ground to perish; I also he:rd of numeerous instances in which men had cut out the private paits of females and stretched them over their saddle-bows, anld sonie of them over their hats. While ri(ling iii ranks, all tlhee inmtteis were a subject of general conversation, and couldo not help beinjg known' to Colontel J. M. Chivington. JAMES D. CANINON. Swvorn and subscribed to befo)re me this 16th day of January, 1865. W P. LMINTON, Post Adjutxf t. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERanITORY, J.a?uary 16, 1865. Personally appeared before me Captain R. H. Hill, 1st New Mexico volunteer infantry, who, after being duly sworn, sIs: Thaiat, as an officer in the service of the United Stites, he was on duty at Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, at the time there was an understanding between the chiefs of the Arapahoes and Cheyenne nation and Major Wynrkoop with r, — gard to their resting in safety with these villages in the vicinity of Fort Lyon until such a time as orders in regard to them could be received from the commanding general of the department; that after Major Wynkoop being relieved from the command of Fort Lyon, the samne understanding existed betw een Major S. J. Anthony and the aforementioned Indians; that, to the best of his belief, thb village of Indians massacred by Colonel J. M. Chivington, on the 29th day of November, 1861, were the same friendly Indians heretofore referred to. ,,R. I' H.ILL. Sworn and subscribed to this 16th day of January, 1865. W. P. INTON, Po,,t AdjutaTn. FORT LyoN, COLrOPAnDO TERRITOPY, Juanuatry 16, 1Q(;5. Perso(,ially anpeared before nie Seco.d Li. utetiait W. P. Ainton, 1st New Mexic) volunteer iifinatry, atid Lieutenant C.:I. Cossitt, lIst cavrlay of Colorado, who, after being duly sworni, says: That on the 28th d-y of Novemb!er, 1864, Colotiel J. MA. Chivington, with the 3d r,igimeut Colori do cavalry, (one-hurdred-(idavs men.) and a battalion of tlie 1st cavalry of Cololaf1o, arrived at this p' st, an(l on the 29th of November, 1864, attacked a vill:age of frienrdly Ilrdians in the vicinity, anid, according to repireentations imade by others in our,presence,,murdered their women arnd children, and cotrmmritted the most hortible ouatrages upon the (t.ed bodies of the same,; that the afeoresaid Indians were recOgniz-Jd as friendlv Indiians by all parties at this post, under the following circumstances, viz: That 57

Page  A058 APPENDIX. Kajor E. WV. Wynkloop, formierly commander of the post, liad given them assurances of safety until s,uch a time as he could he.r from the commanding general of tihe department, inl c(,ns-quence of their heaving sued for peace, and given every evidence of their sincerity, by delivering up white piisoneis they had in their possession, by coi(areating their famiiies together and lea-vin them at the iiieircy of the g-iriison of Fort Lyo-n Colorado Territ)ry, who felt so dispoDsed; that upon.Iltjor Wynkoop being relieved of the comaiand of Fort Lyon, Coli,rado Ter itory, andl M-jor Scott J. Anthony assuingi command of the same it was still the understan'iir)g between Major Anthony and the Indians that they could rest in that security guarantee(l them by Major E. W. Wynilkoop; also that Colonel J. PI Chivington on his arrivwl at the post of Fort Lyon Colorado Territory was made aware of the circumstances in ieewrd to these Inrdians, from the fact that different officers remon trated with him and stated to hlim how these Indrians were loo!e(Il upon by the entire g~irris an; that notwithsta-tnding these remronstrances, arnd in the face of all true facts, lie committed the massacre a%orementioned. C. M. COssITrT. W. P. MINlI'ON. Sworn andI subecrilbed to before me this 16th day of January, 1865. W. W. DENNIO)N, Acting Reyime:tal A'O'fjtat FORT LyON, COLORADO TERRITORY, January 16, 1865. Personally appeared before me John Smith, United States Indiain interpreter, who, after being duly sworn, says: That on the 4th day of September, 1865, he was appointed Inl dian interpreter for the post of Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, and has continued to serve in that capacity up to the present time; that on the 4th day of September, 1865, by order of Major E. W. Wynkoop, commanding post of Fort Lyon, he was called upon to hold a conversation with three Cheyenne Indians, "One Eye" and two others, who had been brought into the fort that day; that the result of the interview was as follows: " One Eye" (Cheyenne) stated that the principal chiefs and sub-chiefs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations had held a consultation and agreed, to a man, of the chiefs and subchiefs to come or send in some one who was well acquainted with parties at the post, and finally agreed to send in himself, "One Eye," with a paper, written by George Bent, halfbreed, to the effect that the Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs would and did agree to turn over to,) Major E W. Wynkoop or any other military commiander all the white prisoners they had in their possession, as they were anxious to make peace with the whites, and never desired to be at war. Major Wynkoop then asked "One Eje," he having lived among the whites and known to have always been friendly disposed towards them, whether they would deliver the prisoners into his (Wynkloop's) hands; his reply was that, at the risk of his life, he would guarantee their sincerity. Major Wynkoop then told him that he would deliver him as a prisoner for the time, and if he concluded to go to the Indian camp he would take him along as a hostage for their (the Ihdians') good faith. "One Eye" also stated that the Cheyenne and Arapaho nation were congregated, to the number of two thousand Indians, on the headwaters of Smoky Hill, including some forty lodges of Sioux; that they had rendezvoused there and brought in their war parties for the purpose of hearing what would be the result of their message by which they had sued for peace, and would remain until they heard something definite. Major Wynkoop told "OneEye that he would proceed to the ln(lian camp and take him with him. " OnLe Eye" replied that he was perfectly willing to remain a prisoner, as well as a hostage for the good faith of the Indians, but desired the major to start as soon as possible for fear the Itdians might separate. On the 26th day of September I was ordered by Major Wynkoop to proceed, wvith his command, in the direction of the Indian encampment. After a four days' march we came in sight of the Indians, and one of the three Indians aforementioned was sent to acquaint the chiefs with what was the object of the expedition, with the statement that MNjor Wynkoop desired to hold a consultation with them (the chiefs) on the 10th day of September 1864. The consultation was held between Major Wynkoop and his officers and the principal chiefs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations. Major Wynkoop stated, through me to the chiefs;, that he had received their message; that acting on that he had come to talk with them; asked them whether they all agreed to and inldorsed the colntents of the letter which he had in his possession, and which had beeli brought in bIy " One Eye. Receiving an answer in the affirmative, he then told the chiefs that he hl id not the authloritv to con.clude terms of peace with them, but that he desired to make a propositioni to them to the effect that if they would give him evidence of their good faith 18 I1)

Page  A059 APPENDIX. 1)y delivering into his hands the white pris)ners they had in their possession he would enrdeavor to procure for them peace, which would be subject to conditions; that he would taive withl him what principal chiefs they might select, and conduct them in safety to the g,)verior of Colorado, and whatever mnight be the result of their interview, hlie would conduet them in safety to their tribe. " Black Kettle," the head chief of the Cheyenne nation, replied as follows: that the Cheyenne and Arapaho nation had always endeavored to observe the terms of their treaty with the United States government; that some years previously, when the whole emigration first commenced cominm to what is now the Territory of Coloradlo, the country which was in possession of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nations, tlie} could halve successfully made war azainst them, the whites; they did not desire to do so; had invariably treated them with kindne-s. and have never, to his knowlege, committed any depredations whatever; that until within the last few months they had got along il perfect peace and harmony with their white brethren; but while a hiuntinu party of their young men were proceeding, north, in the neighborhood of the South Platte river, having found some lo'UsA stock belon-ing to white men, which they were drivinig to a ranch to deliver up, they were sudienly confironted by a p-rty of United States soldiers anid ordered to deliver ap 1he-ir arms; a difficulty itmmriediately ensued, which resulted in killing and wounding sveratr o,i both sidles. A short time after an occurrence took place at a village of pipp ooss, squaws, and old mnen, located in what is known as the " Cedar calion," a short distance north of the South Platte, who wvere perfectly unaware of any difficulty having occurred between the whites and a portion of their tribe, (Cheyenne;) were attacked by a large body of United States soldiers, some of them killed and their ponies driven off. After this, whi le a body of soldiers were proceeding fromn the Smoky Hill to the Arkansas, they reached the neighborhood of "Lou. Bear's" band of Cheyennes. "Lou. Bear," 2d chief of the Cheyenne nation, approached the column of troops alone, his wirriors remaining off some distance, he not deeming that there was any hostility between his nation and the whites; he was immediately shot down and fire opened upon his band, the result of which was a fight between the two parties. Presuming from all these circumstinces that war was inevitable. the young men of the Cheyenne nation commenced to retaliate by committing various depredations at all times, which he, "Black Kettle," and other principal chiefs of the Cheyenne nation, were opposed to, and endeavored by all the means in his power to restore pacific relations between that tribe and their white brethren, but at various times, when endeavoring to approach military posts for the purpose of accomplishing the same, was fired upon and driven off. In the meanwhile their brothers and allies, the Arapahoes, were on perfectly friendly terms with the whites, and Left Hand, one of the principal chiefs of the Arapaho nation, learning that it was the intention of the Kioways on a certain day to run off the stock from Fort Larned, proceeded to the commanding officer of that post and informed him of the fact. No attention was paid to the information he gave, and on, the day anticipated the stock was run off by the Kioways. Left Hand again approached the post with a portion of his warriors for the purpose of offering his services to the commanding officer to pursue and endeavor to regain the stock from the Kioways, when he was firtd upon and obliged hastily to leave. The young men of the Arapaho nation supposing it was the intention of the whites to make war upon them as well as the Cheyennes, also commenced retaliating as well as they were able, and against the desire of most of their principal chiefs, who, as well as Black Kettle and other chiefs of the Cheyennes, wvere bitterly opposed to hostilities with the whites He then said that he had lately learned of the proclamation issued by the governor of Colorado, inviting all friendly disposed Indians to come to the different military posts and they would be protected by the goverarnent. Under these circumstances, not,hwithstanding lihe thought the whites had been the aggressors and had forced the trouble An the Indians, anxious altogether for the welfare of his people, he had made this last effort to communicate again with the military authorities, and he was glad to have succeeded. lie then arose, shook hands with Major Wynkoop and his officers, stating that he w,is still, as he had always been, a friend to the whites, and that, as far as hlie was concerned, hlie was willilag to deliver up the white prisoners or do anything that was required of him to procure "peace," knowing it to be for the best (if his people; but that there were other chiefs who still thought that they were badly treated by their brethren, but who were willing to make peace, but who felt unwilling, to deliver up the white prisoners simply upon the promi.e of Maijor Wynkoop that he would endeavor to procure themn peace; they desired that the condition of their delivering up the white prisoniers would be an assurance of peace; he also stated that even if Major Wynkoop's propositions were not accepted then by the chiefs assembled, and although they had sufficient force to entirely ovoe pi ver }l'ijor Wynkoop's smfall command, that from the fact that he ttad come in good faith to hold a consult:tion in consequence of the letter received, he should return to Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, without being molested. The expressions of the other chiefs were to the effect that they insisted upon peace ol the condition of their delivering up the white 59

Page  A060 APPENDIX. pr.isoners. Major Wyrikoop finally replied, that he repeated what he had said, that it wa out of his power to insure them peace, and that all he had to say was, that they might think at)out his proposition; that he would niarch to a certain locality, listant twelve miles, ad there await the result of their consultation for two days, idvising thenm at +the same time to accede to his proposition as the best means of plocuingi that peace for w hich they were anxious. The white prisoners were brought in and delivered 0l) before the time had expired set by him, and Black Kettle, White Antelope, and Bull Bear, of the Cheyenne nation, as well as Nevahl, Natanee, Boiece, and hip Biffalo, chiefs of the .rap —ihoes, delivered themselves over to Major Wynkoop. We tlhen proceeded to Fort Lyon, .nd from thence to Denver, at which place Governor Evans held a consultation with the ch efs, the result of which was as follows: He told them ti),y could return with Major Wyt, oop, who would recond(oct them in safety, and they would have to await the action of tlie mluiltiay authorities. Colonel Chivington, then in ca)miiteid of the district of Colo(do, also told themIn that they would remain at the disposal of Mlajor Wynkoop until higher authorities had acted in their case. The Indians appeared to be perfectly satisfied, ,resutrinmi th,at they would eventually be all right, is soon'Is those authorities could e leard fron, and expressed themselves so Black Kettle embraced the governor and Major Wynkoop, a id shook hands with all th-e other officers present, perfectly contented, deeming the matter was settledl. On our return to Fort Lyon I wis told by Major \VWyifkcop to sty to the chiefs that thiey could bring their dliffrenot bands, incluiding their ftmilie., to the vicinity of the post until he ai helard fromi the big chief; that he prefereed to have them unIer his eye, and away fo00 otiher quarters whlere they were likely to get into dcfficulty with the whiteis Th chicfs replied thalt they were willing to do anything that Major Wynkonp might choose to dictate, as they had perfect conrfidence in him, arnd accordingly immediately brought their villages, their squaws, and pappooses, and appeared satisfietd that they were in peirfect safety. After their villages were located heire, an( tMjr Wynkoop had sent an officer to headquarters f)r instructions, then Maljor Wynkloop was relieved from command of the post by Major Scott J. Antnony, and I was ordire(I to iitterpret for him (mlajor Anthony) in i consultation he desired to hold with these Indians. TIhe consultation that then took place between Major Anthony and thise Indians was as follows: Major Anthony told them that he had been sent here to ielieve Major Wynkoop, and that he would be from that time in command of the post; that he had come here under orders from the commander of all the troops in this country, and that he had orders to have nothing to do with the Indians whatever, as they had heard at.headquaiters that they had been committing depredations, &c., in the neighborhood of this p)ost; but that, since his arrival, he had learned that these reports were all false; that he wvould write to hleadquarters himself and correct these errors in regard to them, and that he would have no objections to their remaining in the vicinity of Sand creek, where they were located, until such time as word might be received from the commander of the departinent; that he himself would forward a complete statement of all that he had seen and heard, and that he was in hopes that he would have sorne good news for the Iddiaiis upon receiving an answer; but that he was sorry that his orders were such as to render it impossible for him to make them any issues whatever. The Indians then replied th at it would be impossible for them to remain where they were located any length of time, as they were short of provisions. Me.jor Anthony then told tihem that they could let their villages remain where they were, and could send their youiig mren out to hunt buffaloes, s he undlerstood that the buffitlo had lately come in very cloe. The Indians appeared to be a little dissatisfied in regard to the change of the commainders of the post, fearirg that it boded them no good;, but, having received assurances of satfety from Major Anthony, they still had nIo fear of their families being distuirbed. On the' twenty-s'xth day of Noveliber, S1864 I received permission of Major Scott J. Anthony, commander of the post, to procee, to the Indian village on Sand creek for the purpose of traidinig with the India,ns, and started, accomipanied by a soldier named Daniel Louderblack and a1 citizin, Watson Clark. I reached the village and c.immentced to trade with them' On the morning of the twelty-ninth of November, 186t, thie village was attacked by Colonel J. M. Chivington, with a cornmmand of from n ine hundred to o,le thousand men. The Indian village was composed of about one huondred lodges, rnumbering altogether some five hundred souls, two-thirds of which were womene and children. From my observation I do not think' there were over sixty warrliors that made any defence. I rode over the field after the slaughter was over ndl counted from sixty to seventy bodies of dead Indians a lare mnajority of which were w<omnen and childiren, al of whose bodies had been mutilaitedl in the rost horril)le nmannter. W.Vhen troops fist apipeared I endeavored to go to them, bht was repeatedly fired upon; alsO the s,,ldi( ~ ai,d citizen that were with mce When the troops began approaching in a hostil-emanner. I saw Black K,.tt'e hoist the Amrerican flag over his lodge, as well as a v/Ott flag, feariig that tirere might be somne mistake as to who they were. After the 60

Page  A061 APPERDIX. fight Colonel Chivington retiurned withl the coninand in the direction of Fort Lyon, and then li)roceeded by the road down the Arkansas river. JOHN SNIIT[I. Sworn and subscribed to before Ina this sixteenth d y of January, 1865. W. P. 5'INTON, Post Arijuta7it. FouT LYox,'COLOr.ADO TEuITOaRY, April 20), 1365. Personally appeared before me Lieuten;ant James Olunev, veteran battalion first Colorado cavalry, %who, after being duly sworn, deposes an(l says: That he was present nt tie massacre of the Indians at Saril creek by Colonel Clivintton, on the twerty-ninth d(y of November, 1861; that during that massacre he saw, three squaws and five chlildren, prisoners in charge of somne soldiers; that, while they were be,ng conducted along, they were approacled by Lieutenant Harry Richmond, of the third Colora(lo cavalry; that Lieutennit Richmond thereupon imnmediately killed and scalped the three wonien and the five children vwhile they (the prisoners) were screanming fo)r me cy while the s.)ldiers in whose charge these p isoners were shrank back, apparently aghast. JAMES OLNEY. Sworn and subscribed to before me at Fort Lyon, Colora(lo Territory, this twentieth day of April, 1865. CHARLES WHEELER, Adjutant Teteran B'ittelren C,ret U)iora.7o CUv,elry, Ar/jutent Fort Lyon. Official copy respectfully furnished to he:dqulirrt-rs. Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, eleveithi June, 1865. CHARRLES WHEELER, First Lieucenant Veterun Belttalion Firet C,leoral Ccavalry, Adjtnt. ta,rt Lyon. FOeT LYos, C,"'Lo)A^)O, January 27, 1865. Personally appeared before me Samuel G. C1lley, who being duly sw)rn, on oath depost,s andl says: That he is now, andl has been for the past three years, Uritel1 State, agent for the Aralalo andl Cheyenne Indians; that in the month of June last he received instructions from honorable John Evans, governor and ex officio superintendent of Indian affairs for Co'oralo Territory, directing him to send out persons into the Indian coutry to dist,-ibute printed proclamations, (which he was furni.hedl with,) inviting all friendly Indians to come into the different places designated in said proclamation, and they would be protected and fed; that he caused the terms of said proclamation to be disseminated among the different tribes of Indians under his charge, and th'at in accordance, therewith a large, number of Arapahoes and (Cheyenns came in to this po,st, and provisions were issued to thein by'lljor E. W. Wynkoop, comrnmanding, and myself; that on the. fourth day of September last two Cheyenne India,is (One Eye arid Mainimick) came in to this post with information that the Arapahoes and Cheyennes hadl several white prisoners amnong them that they had purchased, and were dlesirous of giving them up and making peace with the whites; that on the sixth day of September following Major E WV.'rkynkoop left this post w-ith a detachment of troops to rescue said prisoners, and that after an absence of sever.al days he returned, bringing with him four white prisoners, whlich he received from the Ar apaho and Cheyenne Indiaus. He was accompaniedI on his return by a number of the most influentiAl men of both tribes, who were unanimously opposed to war withl the whites, and desiredr peace at almost any terms tha-t tl-he whites mnight dictate; that immediately upo)n the arrival of MaIjor Wynikoop at this p,st large nunmbers of Arapahoes and Cheyennes came and cam,ped near the post Major Wynkoop selected several of the m1ost prominent chliefs of both nations and proceeded to Denver to counsel with Superintendent Evans. After his return he held frequent councils with the Indians, and at all of themn distinctly stated that he was not empowered to treat with'them; but that he had despatched a niess-ge to the headquarters of the departmient, stating their wish in tlhe matter, and that as soon as he received advices fiorn there he wound inform them of the d(ecisim)n of General Curtis respecting themn; thait until that time, if thev placed thlinselves un,ler his protection they should not be molestedl; that the Indi:Lns remnained qiuietly near the post until the arrival of M?ajor Anthony, who relieved Major Wynkoop. Major Anthony heldl 61

Page  A062 APPENDIX. a council with the Indians and informed them that he was instructed nriot to allowv any Indians in or near the post, but thl:t he hadi found matters ntmuch better here than he had expected, and advised them to go out and camp on Sand creekl until hle could hear from General Curtis He wi,hecl them to keep himr fully a(ldvised of all the movemnents of the Sioux, whviich they promptly did. Ie alsopromised thtem thatassoonas hle heard from General Curtis he would.dvise them of his deciion. From the time that Mlajor WVynrkoop left this post to go out to rescue the white prisoners until the arrival of Colonel Chivington here, which took place on the tw'enty-eighth day of November last, no depredations of any kind had been committed by the Indians within two hundred miles of this post; that upon Colenel Chivington's arrival here with a large body of troops, he was informed where the Indians were encamped, and was fully advised under what cirumstances they had come in to this post, and why thev were then on Sand creek; that hlie was remonstrated with, both by officers and civilians at this post, against making war upon these Indians; that he was informed andl fully advised that there was a large number of friendly Indians there, together with several white men, who were there at the request of himself (Colley) arid by permission of Major Anthony; that notwithstanding his knowledge of the facts as above set forth, he is informed that Colonel Chivington did, on the morning of the twenty-ninth day of November last, surprise and attack said camp of friendly Indians and massacre a large number of them, mostly women and children, and did allow the troops under his command to mangle and mutilate them in the most horrible manner. S. G. COLLEY, U,rited States aIndian Agent. Sworn and subscribed to before me this twenty-eighth day of January, at Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory. W. P. MINTrON, Second Lieutenant New Mexico Volunteers and Post Adjutant. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY, January 16, 1865. SiR: In pursuance of Special Order No. 43, headquarters district of the Upper Arkansas directing me to assume command of Fort Lyon, Coloeado Territory, as well as to investigate and immediately report in regard to late Indian proceedings in this vicinity, I have the honor to state that I arrived at this post on the evening of the 14thof January, 1865, assumed commnand on the morniing of the 18th, and the result of my investigation is as follows, viz: As explanatory, I beg respectfully to state, that wlhi!e formerly in command of this post on the 4th day of September, 1864, and after certain hostilities on the part of the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians, induced, as I have had ample proof, by the overt acts of whil:e men, three Indians, Cheyennes, woere biouight as prisoners to myself, who had been found coming towarcds the post, and who hadl in their possession a letter, written, as I ascertained a,fteriwards, by a half-breed in the Clheyenne camp, as coming foioi Black Kettle and other proiainent chiefs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho nation, the purport of which vw ttlit they desired peace, had never desired war with the whites, and as well as statin, they had ill their pos-session some white prisoner.s, women and children, whom they were willing to (delioer lup, providing that peace was granted them; klnowing that it was not in my power to( insure and offer them peace for which they sued, anad at the same time anxious, if possible, to accomplish the rescue of the white perso,s in their p(os.zessio.. 1 finially concluded to risk an expedition, with a small command I could raise, numbering one hundred and twentyseven men, to the rendezvous where I was informed they were congregated to the numberof two thousand, and endeavor by some means to procure the aforesaid white persons, and to be governed in my course of accomplishing the sa me entirely by circumstances, having formerly made a lengthy report in regardl to the same. I; my expedition I have )but to say that I succeeded, procuring four white captives from the hands of these I1dians, simply giving themrn, in return, a pledge that I would endeavor to procure for theci the peace for which they so anxiously sued; feeling that under the proclamation issued by John Evans, governor of Colorado and superintendent of Indian affairs, a copy of which becomes a portion of this repoit, by virtue of my position as a United States officer highest in authority in the country included within the bounds prescribed as. the country of the Arapaho and Cheyenne nations, I could offer them protection until such time as some measures might be taken by those higher in authority than myself i.l regard to them. I took with me seven of the principal chiefs, including Black Kettle, to, Denver City for the purpose of allowing them an interview with the governor of Color(lo, by that means making a mistake of which I have since become painfully aware, that of proceeding with these chiefs to the governor of Colorado Territory instead of to the headquarters of my district to my commanding officer. In the consultation with Governor Evans the matter was referred entirely to the military authorities. Colonel J. AI. Chiv 62

Page  A063 APPENDIX. iIigton, at that time commanader of the district of Colorado, was present at the council held with these Indian chiefs, and told them that the lwhole matter was referred to myself, who wvould act towards them according to tile best of my judgment, until such time as I could receive instructions from the proper authority. ReturninLg to Fort L)yon, Coloraido Territory, I allowed the Inuhitns to bring their villages to the vicinity of the fort, inculudinutheir squaws and papooses, and in such a position that I could at any moment, with the garrison, have annihilated them had they given any evidence of hostility of any kind in aly quarter. I then immediately despatched my adjutant, Lieutenant W. W. Dennison, with a full statement, to the commanding general of the department, askirng for instructions, bSit in the meanwshile various false rtimors having reached district headquarters in regard to my c.urse, I was relieved from the command of Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory, and ordered to report to district headquarters; Major Scott J. Anthony, 1 st cavalry of C(olorad(o, who h'd( been ordered to assurrme command of Fort Lyon, Colorado Tenlitory, previous to my departure, held a consultation with the chiefs in my presence, and told them that though acting rinder strict orders, under the circumstances, could net materially differ from the course which I had adopted, and allowed them to remain in the vicinity of the post with their families, assuring them of perfect safety until such time as positive orders should be received from headquarters in regard to them. I left the fort on the 26th of N()vember. 1864, for the purpose of reporting to district headquarters; on the second (lay after leaving Fort Lyon, while on the plains, I was approached by three Indians, one of whom stated to me that he had been sent by Black Kettle to warn me that about two hundred( Sioux warriors had proceeded down the road between where I was and Fort Larned to make war, and desired that I should be careful, another evidence' of these Indians' good faith; all of his statement proved afterwards to be correct. Having an escort of twentyeight men, I proceeded nI my way, but did not happen to fall in with them. From evidence of officers at this post I understand that on the 28th day of November, 1864, Colonel J. iI Chivington, with the 3d regiment of Colorado cavalry (one.hundied(lays men) and a battalion of the 1st Colorado cavalry arrived at this post, ordered a portion of the garrison to join him, under the command of Major Scott J. Anthony, against tie remaonstrances of the officers of the post, who stated circumstances of which he was well aware, attacked the camp of friendly Indians, the major portion of which were composed of women and children. The affidavits which bcmccrne a portion of this report will show nmore particulars of that massacre; any one whom I have spoken to, whether officers or soldiers, agree in the relation that the nmost fearful atrocities were committed that wa.; ever heard of; women and children wvere killed and scalped, children shot at their mother's breast, and all the bodies mutilated in the most horrible inanner. Nurmerous eyewitnesses have described scenes to me, coming under the notice of Colonel Chivington, (of the most dis-gustiing and horrible character, the dead bodies of females profined in such a mannrer that the recital is sickening. Colonel J. M. Chivingtont all the time inciting his troops to these diabolical outrages previous to the slaughter; commencing, he addresed(I hIis commandcl, arousing in them, by his language, all their worst passions, urging thenm on to the work of commritting all these diabolical outrages, knowing himself all the circumstances of these Indians resting on the assurances of protection from the government given them by myself and IMajor S. J. Anthony; hle kept his command in entire ignorance of trhe scme, and when it was suggested that such might be the case, he denied it positively, stating that they were.,ill continuing their depredations and lay there threatening the fort I beg leave to diaw the attention of the colonel commanding to the fact, established by the enclosed affidavits, that two-thirds or more of that Indian village,were women and ehildren. I desire al-o to state that Colonel J. M. Chivington is not my superior officer, but is a citizen mustered out of the United States service, and also to the time this inhliuman monster committed this unprecedented atrocity he was a citizen by reason of his term of service having expired, he having lost his regulation coiimnand some months previous. Colonel Chivington reports officeially that between five and six hundred Indians were left deid upon the field. I have been informed by Captainrl Boothl, district inspector, that he visited the field and counted but sixty-nine bodies, and by others who were piesent, but thalt few, if any, over that number were killed, and that two-thirds of them were women anrid children. I beg leave to further state, for the information of the colonel commandiig, that I talked to every officer in Fort Lyon, and many enlisted men, and that they unlani. nmoosly agree that all the statements I have made in this report are correct. In conclusion, allow me to say that from the time I held the consultation with the Indian chiefs, on the headwaters of Smoky Hill, rip to the date of the massacre by Colonel Chivington, iot one single depredation had been committed by the Cheyenne and Arnpaho Indians; the settlers of the Arkansas valley had returned to their camps and had been resting in perfect security, under assurances fiom myself that they would be in no danger for the present, by that, means saving the country from what must inevitably become a famine were they 63

Page  A064 APPENDIX. to lose their crops; the lines of communication to thse States were opened, and travel across the plains ren lered perfectly stfe through tihe Cheyernne and Arapaho country. Since this last horrible murder bv Ch.ivington the country presents a scene of desoation; all communication is cut off wiuhthhe States, exce)t by sendin,i large bodies of troops, and already over a hundred whites have fallen as victims to the fearful vengeince of these betrayed Indians. All this country is rined; thliere cin b, no such thing ts peace in the future but bv the total annihilation of all these Indians on.i the plains. I h.ave most relitble inform,itionr to the effect thet tne Cheyennes and Arapahoes have allied tlhemselves with the Kiowas, Colanches and Sioux. andt are congregated to thte number of thousand on the Smio)ky Hill. Let mne also draw the attention (-f the colonel commanding to the fact stated by the affidavits, that John Smith, iUnited Sti.tes interpreter, a soldier and citizen were presented in the Indian camrnp by permission of the commanding ofticer of th.s camp, another evidenc to the f,ct' of these same Indiats being regarded as frierndlyIndianrs; also, that Colonel Chivington states in his othfiial report that he fought from nine hundred to one thousand Indians, and left from five t) six hundred dead upon the field, the swvorn evidence being that there wer e but five hund,ired s(uls in the village, two thirds of them being womnen ard children, and thlit there were but fiom sixty to severty killel, the major portion of whom were women and children. It will take mrany imoie troops to give security to the travellers and settlers in this cuII,ntry and to make any kind ot successful warfare a,gainst the India-is. I am at vorik placing Fort Lyon in a state of defence, having all, both citizens and soldier3 located here, employed upon the works, and expect to have them soon completed and of such a nature that a c,omparatively small garrison can hold the fort against any attack by Indians. Hoping tlat my leport may rec,ive the partictular attention of the colonel coimmanding,, I respectfully subuait the ame. Your obedient servant, E WV. WY,\KOOP, lajor, Com'dg 1lt Vetera,. -'av,21lry iand Fort Lyon, C. T. Li.-iutenant J E TAPrAN, A. A A4. Getseral, District of Upper A,rkaos.is. FOr,T LARNED, JIMy 31, 1865. Colonel Ford sworn: I am colonel of the 2d Colorado!-reiment of cavalr,y and brevet brigadier general in commiand of the district of the Upper Arkansas. I hafve been in comimand since about tie lst of Septeminber last. I relieved Major Henningi Fromi the best of my inrfoimnation all thre tribes of Indians are hostile. The Kiow.ys, C,-ey-n,ies, Comanch-es, Arapahoes, and parts of other tribes, with their famnilies, are now sotiil of the Arkansas, on the Red river, which is one of its tributaries. In February last a a,tr,e number of them were about one hundred and fifty miles west of soutti of thii point. From the bet infiormation I can get, there ane abo,ut seven thousand warriors weli mount ed, sone o flet Texan horses. On horseback they are the finest s'kirm nishers I ever saw. Iow large a force, mounted and infantry, would be required to defend the Santa Fe ro.-d 0 id ware a sucncessful war iga(tinst the Indiaijs south of the Arkansas? It would require at least ten thousand men-four thousand constantly in the fielc, well mnounted; the line of defence to extend froni Fort Lyon to Fort Riley and south about three hundred mile. All supplies would have to come fromn the States. Contract piice for corn delivered at tLis pint was $5.26 per bushel. I do not know how the Indian difficulties originated. I believe the Cheyennes are trying to keep all the Indiin tribes in hostility. I have no10 doubt tie attel'k of Co!onel Chiving. ton on the Cheyennes had a very bad eff,ct. There ir no Indians north of the Arkansas in my district except some small ioving bands I think, without noving south of the Arkansas, it would require four thousand men to deiend the line of this road. I could not swear what Indiai-s have comrniitttd the hostilitites. Colonel Leavenworth has, in my opinion, the only feasible plan for procuring an interview withl the hostile tribes. I received my informration from somre Mexicans who were trading with the Indians tnder a pass from General Carleton. If a treaty were made by which the In,dians would agree to keep south of the Arkainsas and east of Fort Bascom, would it protect this route? It would if the northern Indians did not come on to the road. The time has been when traveliing over these plains was safe; the travel was as great thllen as now. There seems to be no reason why that state of affiirs could not be bronglit ribott by making or conqueririg a treaty of peace. I think the mouth of Cow creek woul;l be a good point to meet the Indians. Geenieral Dodge's orders were to the effect that the military authorities were not to make peace, but to punish the offenders. I am of the opinion th it no permits to trade with the Indians should be given while we are carrying on hostilities egain:t 64

Page  A065 APPENDIX. them; and no presents should be given by the agent without the concurrence of the military authorities. I am of the opinion that if a peace could be made by which the Indians would agree to keep south of the Arkansas it would be better than to conquer one. My plan of operations would be to capture their villages, women and children, killing the warriors found. I understand Kit Carson last winter destroyed an Indian village. He had about four hundred men with him, but the Indians attacked him as bravely as any men in the world, charging up to his lines, and he withdrew his command. They had a regular bugler, who sounded the calls as well as they are sounded for troops. Carson said if it had not been for his howitzers few would have been left to tell the tale. This I learned from an officer who was in the fight. From information I learn that Captain Parmeter, at Fort Larned, ordered soldiers to fire on Left Hand and party when they came -to offer their services to recover the stock run off by other Indians. There is a general order in this district that no Indian shall be permitted to enter any fort or post without being blindfolded. I am satisfied that the Sand creek affair has made the Indians more bitter and harder to get at. FORT LARNED, May'31,.1865. John T. Dodds affirms: I am fifty-four years old. Have spent six years among the.Indians of Ohio and seven years here. Have been engaged, in company with another man, trading with the Indians. The Cheyennes complain that the Great Father was to give them a certain amount for the privilege of passing through their country. Heretofore they have had their presents delivered to them at a point designated by themselves; that they requested their agent, Major Colley, to make the delivery at Walnut creek, but instead the agent carried them on to Fort Lyon; that they could not go there for them without losing more horses than the goods were worth. Part of the Arapahoes, under Little Raven, went to Fort Lyon, but lost their ponies; and they all complain that if the Great Father intends giving them anything he should give it when it arrives in their country, and not put them to so much trouble. They complain further that they have to pay for the goods intended by the Great Father to be given them. The above is the statement of Black Kettle, Lean Bear, Left Hand, and Raven. They complain generally that the whites are encroaching on their lands and killing their buffalo. I think that before the Sand creek affair they were willing to settle on their reservations; but they now feel that they have been badly treated. The Comanches claim that until lately they have been at peace. A Kioway chief stated that if they went to war the Comanches would join them. Stante stated that the Kioways divided with the Comanches the stock run off from Fort Ltrned. I think if Satank and Stante, of the Kioways, were out of the way there would be peace, but not until. After the stock was run off from Fort Larned, Lean Bear starte(d to go into the fort under a flag, of truce, but was fired on by order of Captain Parmeter. He left, tearing up his flag, Mauwee, One-Eye, Lou Bears, and Two Buttes, chiefs of the Comanche tribe, were present at the fort when the stock was run off, and have not since been seen. FORT RILEY, MAy 25, 1865. Edmond G. Guerrier, being duly sworn, says: I am the person referred to by Mr. Mayer in his statement. I speak Englsh well; I can speak Cheyenne some, though from long absence I have forgotten a good deal of Cheyenne. My father was a Frenchman and my mother a Cheyenne. I am twenty-five years of age. I was in the camp of the Cheyennes when Chivington made his attack upon them. I had been with them about three days before the attack. There were, I think, about eighty lodges; there are four or five in a lodge on the average; can't tell precisely the number. After the attack I remained with them about four weeks. I do not know how many warriors there were in the lodges. I do not think there were over two hundred warriors in the camp. Last spring I met John Smith, the interpreter, to go out with him about the time we got out there the Cheyennes were at war with the whites; but the Kio ways, Comanches, and Arapahoes were friendly to the whites. I drove team out for Major Colley, the Indian agent. I took my discharge at Fort Lyon, came back to Fort Larned and hired to another man to trade with the Indians, and lay in camp at Walnut creek and Fort Garah a few days after the Kioways, Comanches, and Arapahoes broke out into hostilities, and came into our camp at Fort Garah. There were two Cheyennes in the camp with us that night, and they saved us, saved our lives, myself and a trader. That night I left with the two Cheyenne Indians. This was in July some time. I was out with them 65 5

Page  A066 APPENDIX. until September, when they sued for peace. I wrote the propositions for them to send into Fort Lyon, as the terms of peace. Major Colley, the Indian agent, was there Major Wynkoop, then in command of Fort Lyon, came out into the prairie and met the Indians. Before he came he replied to my letter. His letter was directed to the chiefs. I read the letter to the chiefs. I think they have the letter still if ii was not lost at the fight. The substance of the letter which I wrote and signed by order of the chief was this: That the Indians held some prisoners, three women and four children, and that they were ready to surrender them; that the Indians desired peace, and to have all the other Indians come too, and have a general peace. He does not now remember all the contents of the letter. One thing more I remember about the prisoners; they had heard there were some Indian prisoners at Denver, and they wanted to have them given up also. The substance of Wynkoop's letter, as I now recollect, was this: He stated there were no Indian prisoners, to his recollection or knowledge, at Denver; that he would come out to talk with the Indians, and wanted them to meet him on one of the branches of the Smoky Hill; he did not come out to fight, but to talk, and wanted them to bring the priscners along. I read the letter to the Indians; they saddled up their horses and started immediately and met him that night, but had no interview until the next morning. He told them he was not big chief enough to make a treaty; he had no orders of that kind, but told them he would do all he could, and use his influence if some of the chiefs would go to Denver and see the governor, and told them that by giving up their prisoners to him it' would go to show they were in earnest for peace. The Indians agreed to do so, and started the same day to go after the prisoners. In three clays they brought in one young woman, and in a day or two after that brought in three children; the other three had gone north with another party of the band on to the Powder river. The chiefs who brought in the prisoners went with Wynkoop to see the governor at Denver. After Wynkoop and the chiefs returned, Wynkoop desired that the Indians who wished to be friendly should all come in and camp near Fort Lyon. If they did so it would show, if there were depredations committed they had no part in them; and if they did so, as long as they w(ould behave, he would issue them rations. He was expecting some expeditions, and if they were found outside they would be treated by them like hostile Indians. He told them as long as they would stay there andi behave themselves he would protect them and see that no troops should hurt them. I am sure and positive of this. Black Kettle and White Antelope, Cheyenne chiefs, also told me that Wynkoop had promised protection if they would come in, and they had promised to do so; and that Wynkoop had acted like a gentleman, more so than any other white man who had dealt with them, and they had promised to come in, and they did so. Before they came in Wynkoop was relieved of his command, and Mlajor Anthony took command. Wynkoop left and came east. They were encamped on Sand creek, about twenty-five or thirty miles from Fort Lyon. A few days after Wynkoop left I went out with John Smith from Fort Lyon to the camp to trade. Smith had a Cheyenne wife at the camp; he also had a son with him, full grown. About three days after that the camp was attacked early in the morning. David Louderback was also in the camp; also a young man by the name of Watt Clark; these were white men. I was, at the time of the attack, sleeping in a lodge. I heard, at first, some of the squaws outside say there were a lot of buffilo coming into camp; others said they were a lot of soldiers. The squaws in my lodge looked out and then called to me to get up; "there were a lot of soldiers coming." I did so, went out, and went towards Smith's tent, where he traded I ran and met him. Louderback, the soldier, proposed we should go out and meet the troops, We started; before we got outside the edge of the tent I could see soldiers begin to dismount. I thought they were artillerymen and were about to shell the camp. I had hardly spoken when they began firing with their rifles and pistols. When I saw I could not get to them, I struck out; I left the soldier and Smith; I wenTt to the northeast; I ran about five miles, lwhen I came across an Indian woman driving a herd of ponies, some ten or fifteen. I got a pony. She was a cousin of mine-one of White Antelope's daughters. I went on with her to Smoky Hill. I saw as soon as the firing began, from the number of troops, that there could be no resistance, and I escaped as quick as I could. From all I could learn at the council held by the Indians, there were one hundred and forty-eight killed and missing; out of the one hundred and forty-eight, about sixty were men-the balance women and children. From all I heard before and after the attack, I am sure that the Indians were encamped at the place where they were attacked in full faith and assurance that they would be protected as friendly Indians. George Bent, a half Cheyenne, helped me in writing the letter to Wynkoop to make terms of peace. E. G. GUERRIER. 66

Page  A067 APPENDIX. Henry F. Mlayer: I am sutler to the post, and have been such for two and a half years. I am forty seven years of age. I know Edmond G. Guerrier, a son of William Guerrier, formerly an Indian tradler, a Frenchman, and trader at Fort Laramie, by a Cheyenne woman. He is now about twenty-five years of age. I know him intimately. I was the executor of his father's estate, and am his guardian. His father died in February, 1858. Edmond has been with me most of the timrne since I know him to be an upright, intelligent, correct young man. He is entirely reliable. I trust every word he says. H. F. MAYER. Sworn to this 25th day of May, 1865, before me. J. R. DOOLITTLE. Captain L. Wilson, 1st Colorado cavalry, sworn: I arrived in Colorado in May, 1860, from Omaha, Nei raska; was raised in Pennsylva nia; I have been in the service since August, 1861; I entered the service as a private, was promoted to second lieutenant, and then to captain. The only fight with Indians I have been engaged in was the Sand creek affitir. I was first lieutenant commanding a'battalion at Sand creek; I think there were about eight hundred troops engaged, under the com mand of Colonel Chivington. The fight (ccurred on the 29th of Novemb)er,1864; the column concentrated at Fort Lyon and moved from there. No pickets were thrown around the post by the command, and nothing done to prevent any one from passing out. We reached Fort Lyon about 1I0 o'clock on the morning of the 28th; we received no inform ation that the Indians at Sand creek were considered under the protection of the govern ment. Major Scott Anthony was in command of the post; the column moved about 92 o'clock in the evening; the conmmaud was composed of cavalry with six pieces of 12-pound howitzers. We reached the Indian village at daybreak the next morning, surprising the Indians. I was ordered with my battalion to cut the Indians off from their ponies. The advance was made from the southeast side by the whole column. My orders from Colonel Chivington were to cut the herd off, and in doing that I was compelled to fire on the In dians. The first firing was by our troops; I detached H company of my battalion, which was engaged some five minutes before the action became geniieral. The artillery opened on the Indians, who had approached me under a bank as if they were going to fight. The Indians returned our fi st fire almost instantaneously. I was wounded in the early part of the action; the general action lasted about two hours. I saw no flag of any kind among the Indians. I heard the loss of the enemy estimated by some of the officers engaged at from 300 to 500; I should jtidge there were from 600 to 800 Indians in all. I heard no orders given in relation to taking prisoners, but it was generally understood among the officers and men, that no prisoners would be taken. Young Jack Smith and young Bent, half-breeds and two or three squaws, were the only prisoners taken. Young Bent was sent as a prisoner to Fort Lyon; Jack Smith was afterwards killed in camp. The squaws and pappooses followed the column to Fort Lyon; one young infant was picked up on the field; when we got into camp it was given to one of the sqluaws, but afterwards died and was buried. I saw some Indians that had been scalped, and( the ears were cut off of the body of White Antelope. One Indian who had been scalped had also his skull all smashed in,, and I heard that the privates of White Antelope had been cut off to make a tobacco bag out of. I heard some of the men say that the privates of one of the squaws had been cut out and put on a stick. There was a herd of about 600 ponies, mules and horses captured, whose average value per head was, I think. about $100; the Indians did not succeed in getting away with more than half a dozen of them. The herd was placed in charge of Captain Johnson, provost marshal of the column, and sent into Fort Lyon. When 1 reached Fort Lyon, I heard from the quartermaster that the main portion of the herd had been stolen by the troops; there were about 250 head recovered and brought to Denver with the command. Of the whole number captured the goverament derived no benefit, the stock being stolen and generally distributed throughout the country. In the Indian camp I saw one new scalp, a white man's, and two old;ones. Some clothing was found, womnien's sh es and dresses, and officers' uniformns and other articles. The men helped themselves to what they wanted, and the balance was burned in the village. All the force, with the exception of about two hundred and forty of the veteran battalion, were one.hundred-days men; this was their only engagement. I do not know of its being an Indian custom to scalp their own dead, but am of the opinion that the Indians at Sand creek were scalped by our soldiers. 67

Page  A068 APPENDIX. Pressly Talbott sworn: Have resided in the Territory since 1859; I came from Kentucky; have become pretty well acquainted with Indian affairs; the difficulties arise from depredations committed by the Indians. The first year I was here there was no difficulty with the Indians; since then they have been committing depredations. I entered the service as captain in the 3d regiment Colorado one-hundred-days men; the only battle I was engaged in was at Sand creek. I was at Fort Lyon the day before the battle; I had a conversation with Major Anthony, who expressed himself glad that we had come, saying that he would have attacked the Indians himself had he had sufficient force. I did not understand from any source that the Indians had been placed there at Sand creek under the protection of the government. Colonel Chivington gave orders that no parties, either military or civil, should be allowed to leave or enter Fort Lyon without his consent, and he stationed pickets to enforce the order. I believe the object of the order was to prevent any one from giving the Indians infurmation that troops were coming. I think we moved fil om Fort Lyon with about 650 men and four pieces of artillery, passing a distance of about forty-five miles, reaching the Indian village about sun up, surprising the Indians; Colonel Chivington ordering that the ponies be first secured, and Captain Wilson was intrusted with stampeding the ponies with Colonel Shoup. I received orders to march up the right side of the creek and attack, which I obeyed; the troops on the other side of the creek had commenced firing before; the artillery was also playing on the Indians. My company was permitted to charge the banks and ditches. No orders were given about taking prisoners. I was wounded and taken from the field about half an hour after the battle began, and know nothing of the fight after that time; I was shot through with a bullet. I did not see any flags displayed by the Indians. I do not know what disposition was made of the captured stock. I occupied a room while wounded adjoining the room of Major Colley, and was shown papers by John Smith against the government for 105 buffalo robes, two white ponies, and a wagon-load of goods. This account was made out in favor of Smith and Colley for $6,000. They claimed they had other demands against the government, and Smith said they would realize $25,000 out of it, and damn Colonel Chivington. They were very bitter in their denunciations of Colonel Chivington and Major Downing. Private Louderback swore to the accounts; he was detailed as a nurse for me, but did writing for Smith aid Colley. DEN,VER, July 21, 1865. Jacob Downing sworn: I have resided in Colorado since the spring of 1860; am a native of Albany, New York, a lawyer by profession, and about thirty-three years of age. I was major of the first cavalry of Colorado; was in service from August, 1861, to January, 1865. A portion of the time I acted as inspector of the district of Colorado. The first collision between the troops and the Indians was at Fremont's orchard, near Camp Sanborn, on the north side of the South Platte river, about the twelfth of April,,1864. I was at Camp Sanborn, inspecting troops. In the evening, about 9 o'clock, a man by the name of Ripley, a ranchman on the Kioway creek, came into Camp Sanborn and stated that the Indians had taken from him all his stock, and that he had narrowly escaped with his life. He did not know what tribe of Indians, and said that they were driving the people off from the Kioway, Bijout, and other creeks. He requested Captain Sanborn, the commander of the post, to give him the assistance of a few troops, stationed there, to recover the stock, saying that he knew the Indians; that they would go north, and he thought he could find them. Captain Sanborn consented. Next morning Lieutenant Dunn, with about forty men,vas ordered to go in pursuit and recover the stock, if possible, taking Mr. Ripley as guide; with instructions also, as I understood, to disarm the Indians if he found them in possession of the stock, but to use every means to avoid a collision with them. He started that morning and returned about ten o'clock that evening, stating that he had had a fight with the Indians; that they first fired upon him. After marching until four o'clock in the afternoon he came in sight of the Indians, near Fremont?s orchard. He was then on the south side of the Platte; the Indians were crossirg to the north side, some of whom were driving a herd of stock-horses, mules, &c. In the river he halted his comaanld to allow the horses to drink, they not having had water since morning, when Mr. Ripley and a soldier went ahead of the command to see what the Indians were driving, and to see if they could see Ripley's stock in the herd of the Indians. They soon returned, when Ripley stated that he recognized the Indians as those who drove off his stock, and had seen his horses in their herd, which they were rapid(ly driving towards the bluffs. The soldier stited that he thought the Indians intended to fight; that they were loading their rifles. When Lieutenant Dunn arrived on the north bank of the Platte, where hie could see the Indians, he found them with their bows strung and their rifles in their hands. He directed 68

Page  A069 APPENDIX. Mlr. Ripley and four soldiers to stop the herd the Indians were driving, halted his command, and alone rode forward to meet the Indians; talked with them, endeavoring to obtain the stock with!out any difficulty, and requested one or two of the Indians to come forward and talk with htim. They paid no attention to him, but together and in line rode towards him. Finding them determined not to talk with him, he rode slowly back to hisi command, and when the Indians were within about six or eight feet, he ordered his men to dismount and disarm the Indians. As soon as his men had dismounted the Inrdians fired upon them, and a fight commenced, which lasted about an hour. He succeeded in driving them into the bluffs, and followed them that night about twenty miles. He had four woun(led. two of whom afterwards died. He thought he killed a number of Indians. The Indians, being greatly superior in numbers, succeeded in getting their dead and wounded awav. At the commencement of the fight a small party of Indians drove the stock into the bluffs, and Ripley's stock was never recovered. He afterwards learned they were southern Cheyennes. He learned it from spears, bows, arrows, and other tthings left on the ground where the fight occurred, and by statements of some of the Indians of the Cheyennes; this is heafety. Major Whitely took the statement of Indians at Camp Welles Lieutelnant Dunn had separated his cornmand, and had only sixteen men with him. He thought there were from eighty to one hundred Indians. He returned to camp, and next morning, having obtained a man named Geary a. a guide, with a fresh mount,'he started in pursuit. It having snowed in the night, the trail wAs obliterated so they could not follow it. The next was a fight I had with them at Cedar Bluiffs. I came to Denver and requested Colonel Chivington to give me a force to go against the Indians. He did so. I had ab(,ut forty men I captured an Indian and required him to go to the village, or I would kill him. This was about the middle of May. We started about eleven o'clock in the day; travelled all day and all that night. About daylight I succeeded in surpri-ing the Cheyenne village of Cedar Bluffs, in a small canion about sixty miles north of the South Platte river. We commenced shooting; I ordered the men to commence killing them. We socln found a canon on the edge of the brinks, occupied by warriors with rifles. I arranged mny men the best, as I thought, under the circumstances, and commenced shooting at them, and they at us The fight lasted about three hours. They put their dead utier the rocks. They lost, as I was informed, some twenty-six killed and thirty wounded. My own loss was one killed and one wounded I burnt up their lodges and everything I could get hold of. There were fifteen large lodges and some smaller ones, but I was informed that there were some warriors who had no lodges. I took no prisoners. We got out of ammunition and could not pursue them. There were women and children among the Indians, but, to my knowledge, none were killed. We captured about one hundred head of stock, which was distributed among the boys. The stock consisted of ponies, for which I would not have given $5 per head. They were probably worth in this market $15 per head I dist)ibuted( the stock am.)ng the men for the reason that they had been marching almost constantiv day arid night for nearly three weeks, arid with the understanding that if MNajor General Certis, c )maudina the department, would not consent to it, they would turn the stock over to the government-having seen such things done in New Mexico, under the command of General Canby, commanding the department. General Curtis would not allow this to be done, and I ordered the mnen to turn the ponies over to Lieutenant Chase, acting,, battalion quartermaster, which, to the b(est of my knowledge and belief, was done; and by Lieutenant Chase, as I was informed, the ponies were turned over to the government. About the same time I heard Lieutenant Ayres had a collision with the Inuliaus. I made my attack on the In(lians from the fiact that constant statements were madle to me by the settlers of the deprediations committed by the Indians on the Platte, and the statements of murders commnitte(d; and I regarded hostilities as existing between the whites and Cheyennes before I attacked them at Cedar Bluffs, and before Lietuenant Dunn had a collision with them; and continue up to the present time I was under Colonel Chivington when he went to Fort Lyon, and when he made the attack at Sand creek. I have no knowledge of what occurred between the Indians and Major Wynkoop, commander of the post of Fort Lyon, but heard Major Anthony's statement Colonel Chivington marched with about five hundred men from Camp Fillmore; upon arriving at Fort Lyon he surrounded the place with pickets to prevent any one from leaving. He met Major Anthony at the officers' quarters. I was not present at the commencement of the interview, but camte up soon after. I heard Colonel Chivington ask Major Anthony how the Indians were. rThe major said he wished Colonel Chivingtonwould go out and attack them; that every man in Fort Lyon would go with him that had the opportunity; that he would have attacked them long before if he had had a sufficient number of troops. He stated that the Indians were on Sand creek, about twenty miles from Fort Lyon; but afterwards understood that he was mistaken, as they were about forty miles from Fort Lyon He urged an immediate attack upon the Indians, stating that he would like to save out of the number a few who he believed to be good Indians; mention 69

Page  A070 APPENDIX. ing the names of One Eye, B'ack Kettle, and one other, stating that the rest ought all to be killed. He sai,i, in substance, that he had ordered the Indians at one time to give up their arms, and that he had intended to treat them as pris)ners of war; that they gave him a few bows and arrows used by boys, and perfectly useless for warriors; that they gave up a Hawkins rifle without any lock on it; and, in fact, all the arms they surrendered were useless. Then, believing that they were insincere in their professions or fliendship, he had returned their arms, ordered them away from the post, and directed the guard to fire upon them if they attempted to come into the fort. In fact, all his statements were urging Colonel Chivington to attack the Indians; that they were hostile. The command arrived at Fort Lyon in the forenoon, and that evening about 9 o'clock Colonel Chivington's command started for Sand creek. I should judge he took with him some one hundred or one hundred and twenty men from Fort Lyon. We reached Sand creek about sunrise next morning. A battalion wasimmediatelyordered to place themselves between the village and the ponies; the other battalions were brought up and nearly surrounded the village. The horse of a man named Pierce was apparently running away with him; the horse ran into the village and fell, but got up; when an Indian fired and killed Pierce; this was the first shot fired, to my knowledge. I rode forward to the village at the head of what was left of my battalion, some having been sent away, an(l when near the village an Indian fired at me from under the bank of the creek. After looking at the arrangement of the village, I went back to Major Anthony, who had his battalion in line, and, under the supposition that he was going to charge the village with his cavalry, advised him not to do it, believing that the horses were liable to become entangled among the ropes and faill. Immediately after Pierce was killed the battalion on the right commenced firing into the village. Mlajor Anthony was on the east of the village, on the north side of the creek; most of the command were dismounted, and fought in that way. The Indians toesk refuge in trenches under the banks, which had evidently been dug before our arrival. The fighting became general; we killed as many as we could; the village was destroyed and burned. The surgeon informed me that some forty were killed and wounded in Colonel Chivington's coimmand. My own belief is, that there were some five hundred or six hundred Indians killed; I counted two hundred and odd Indians within a very short distance of where their village stood, most of whom were in these trenches, and Indians were killed five and six miles from the village; but of the two hundred killed, I counted about twelve or fifteen women and a few children, who had been killed in the trenches. I di(I not see any flag over the village, but afterwards saw a man with a small flag, who said he got it out of a lodge; I saw no person advancing with a white flag, but think I should have seen it had it happened. The Indians were notburiedby our men. I sawno soldierscalping anybody, but saw one or two bodies which had evidently been scalped. I understand two or three squaws were taken prisoners, and carried to Fort Lyon. A half breed namned Smith was taken prisoner, but was afterwards shot, the man who shot him afterwards deserting. I remember seeing John Smith after the attack was made. Major Ant.ony ordered his men to cease firing, and called to Soith to come towards him. I saw no mutilated bodies besides scalping, but heard that some bodies were mutilated. I don't know that I saw any squaw that had been scalped. I saw no scalps or other parts of the person among the command on our return I saw no papoose in a feed-box. I think I saw one with a squaw the night of our first camp, but understood they abandoned it the next morning, when the command moved. I heard Colonel Chivington give no orders in regard to prisoners. I tried to take none myself, but killed all I could; and I think that was the general feeling in the command. I think and earnestly believe the. Indiana to be an obstacle to civilization, and should be exterminated. I think there were some five hundred or six hundred head of ponies, horses, and mules. Colonel Chivington ordered the provost marshal, Captain J. J. Johnson, to take charge of them and turn them over to the quartermaster at Denver. Captain Johnson took charge of them and, I think, turned them over. I do not know of any being distributed among the men. I acted as attorney for Colonel Chivington in the late investigation. DENVER, July 27, 1865. Oliver A. Williard: Is a clergyman of the Methodist Episcopal church, residing in Denver, and have resided here three years nearly; I know Colonel Chivington, and also Governor Evans; I have had conversation with Colonel Chivington more than once upon the subject of Governor Evans's connexion with the affair at Sand creek last year; Colonel Chivington said that Governor Evans had no knowledge of when he was to strike, or where, nor what was the object of his expedition; he said this more than once; he said it was necessary to keep secrecy in such expeditions, and the governor knew nothing of it when he went to the States; the governor was absent when the attack took place; both Colonel Chivington and Governor Evans are my friends, and members of my church. 70

Page  A071 APPENDIX. Major Simeon Whitely sworn: I have resided in Colorado since April, 1863; I came here from Wisconsin; there was no outbreak among the Plain Indians until a year ago last spring; since then there has been continual trouble; I was present at a council held between Governor Evans and seven or nine chiefs of the Cheyenne and Arapaho tribes in September, 1864; copies of what was said at the council are on file in the Senate Committee on Indian Affairs, and in the conmmission to investigate the condu act of Colonel Chivington; the original draught is in the p)ossession of Governor Evans; I did not hear Governor Evans say that he did not want to see the Indians, or to make peace with them; he told them that the power to make peace had passed out of his hands; I did not hear him at any time say that if he made peace he would not know what to do with the regiment he had raised; in making the report of what transpired at the council I took great pains, and am sure that it is a correct and truthful account of the whole transaction; when the third Colorado regiment came back from Sand creek I saw in the hands of a good many of the privates a great many scalps, or parts of scalps, said to have been taken in that fight; at a theatrical performance held in this city I saw a great many scalps exhibited; at various times in the city I must have seen as many as a hundred scalps. S. E. Browne sworn: I have lived in Colorado since May, 1862, during which time have been United States attorney for the Territory; I have no doubt that if the military and civil management of Indian affairs were in discreet and competent hands Indian difficulties might be avoided; I personally know of no frauds or peculations committed against the government or Indians by any civil or military officers; in February last I was elected colonel of a mounted regiment raised in this Territory to serve for ninety days; late in the month of February I was in General Moonlight's headquarters, who was in command of the district of Colorado at that time, and heard him say that from the first and third Colorado cavalry then mustered out, and the horses and ponies taken at Sand creek, there were two thousand two hundred head to be accounted for to the government, but of that number only four hundred and twenty-five or four hundred and seventy-five had been accounted for, leaving a deficit of over seventeen hundred that he knew not what had become of; a comparatively small number, I have been informed, have since been recovered; I have seen over a hundred scalps in the city and through the country, said to have been taken at Sand creek; early in September or late in August last I heard Colonel Chivington in a public speech announce that his policy was to "kill and scalp all, little and big; that nits made lice;" one of the main causes of our difficulties with the Indians comes from the delay in paying the Indians their annuities according to law. Colonel Potter sworn: Am colonel of the sixth United States volunteers; I have been in Colorado nearly two months; am in command of the south sub-district of the plains; off from the stage lines I have received no reports; on the line south to Forts Garland and Fillmore, and the line into the States, I have had no difficulty, but on the line to Green river, towards Salt lake, the Indians have been troublesome, killing men, &c.; the Indians, as near as I can find out, are the Arapahoes, who have committed depredations between Fort Collins and the North Platte; they have driven off stag,e stock from some of the stations, and have also killed one sergeant and five men, burnt Foot's ranch, attacked a train near the ranch, capturing two wagons and running off some sixty head of stock; the train was escorted by soldiers, who fought as well as men could until their ammunition gatve out; it requires from twenty-five to thirty men to guard the stage from Virginia Dale to the North Platte; these depredations I believe to have been committed by the Arapahoes, who, while their families are fed and protected by the government, prey upon the trains; I know of no other Indians who have committed depredations this side of the North Platte; north of the North Platte depredations have been committed by the Sioux and Cheyennes; General Connor, commanding the district, is now at Fort Laramie; I do not know the strength of his force; I have at present twelve hundred and eighty-eight men under my command; I don't think there is any possibility of making any lasting peace with the Indians; I think there is only one of three things to do-either abandon the country to the Indians, forcibly place the tribes on reservations surrounded by soldiers, or exterminate them; my orders are to kill every male Indian over twelve years of age found north of the South Platte, but to disturb no women and children; as far as I know the policy of the military department here, it is to exterminate the Indians; Utah is within General Connor's district; I know of no depredations committed in Utah. 17 1

Page  A072 APPENDIX. Dr. Caleb S. BirtselI sworn: I have resided in Colorado since 1859; I came from Ohio originally; I was at the battle of Sand creek as assistant surgeon of the third Colorado cavalry; it commenced by our men corralling the ponies; Colonel Chivington and Colonel Shoup gave orders to form in line of battle, but it could not be kept; firing commenced, and I was soon after engaged attending to the wounded; I saw very little of what occurred; I reserved some of the lodges for hospital tents, and my time was occupied that day and night and the next day caring for the wounded; on the afternoon of the 29th of November, while in one of the lodges dressing wounded soldiers, a soldier came to the opening of the lodge and called my attention to some white scalps he held in his hand; my impression, after examination, was that two or three of them were quite fresh; I saw in the hands of soldiers silk dresses and other garments belonging to women; I saw some squaws that were dead, but did not go over the ground; I did not see any Indians scalped, but saw the bodies after they were scalped; I saw no other mutilations; I did not see any kind of a flag in the Indian camp; there were none left wounded on the field; I know of none being killed after being taken prisoner; soon after the battle, on the march, and here in Denver, I have seen soldiers with Indian scalps; of the stock captured a great many died, and some were distributed among the troops, and some, I think, were sold; I heard Major Anthony say that he had given the Indians back what arms they had delivered up, and told them they must take care of themselves-that he would issue no more provisions to them-and that they dared the soldiers out to fight; my impression is that orders were given to take no prisoners; I think Colonel Chivington was in a position where he must have seen the scalping going on. Asbury Bird, company D, 1st Colorado cavalry, sworn: I was present at the engagement between Lieutenant Ayres and the Indians, composed of Cheyennes, Arapahoes, and some Kioways. There was some cattle stolen on the head of Beaver creek. We were sent to recover it; encountered a band of five lodges; two of the Indians came towards us armed with rifles; when about sixty yards off we hollered " how" to them, and they to us; before we got clear up to them they saw the command about half a mile in rear of us coming up on a lope, and put off to their village and took their squaws and left. Lieutenant Ayres took round a hill to catch the Indians. On our left there was one Indian, and Lieutenant Ayres sent two men to capture him; but the Indian shot one of the men and the other ran off. The ground being too rough to get the artillery up, we returned to the Indian camp, took all the meat, &c., and burned the lodges. We got oil the Indian trail the next morning and pressed them so close they abandoned many things, and we recovered twenty of the stolen cattle. We then returned to Denver. We were ordered out again; met some Indians of the Sioux tribe; held a talk with them; they said they did not wish to fight; did not feel strong enough; they stayed in our camp that night, we sharing our provisions with them. The next morning, about 9 o'clock, we were attacked by about seven hundred Indians, and fought them until dark; we lost four men killed. We had no interpreter along with us. When the two Indians came to meet me they appeared friendly, but when they saw the command coming on a lope, they seemed frightened and ran off. No effort was made by Lieutenant Ayres to hold a talk with the Indians. I was with the train at Sand creek, but did not see the fight. I went over the ground soon after the battle. I should judge there were between 400 and 500 Indians killed. I counted 350 lying up and down the creek. I think about half the killed were women and children. Nearly all, men, wonmb, and children, were scalped. I saw one woman whose privates had been mutilated. The scalps were carried away mostly by the 3d regiment, one-hundred-day men. I saw but one Indian infant killed. Two children were brought to the fort. I think about 500 head of stock was taken; about 400 were turned over to the quartermaster at Fort Lyon. A great portion of all the stock became scattered through the country. In a conversation with Dick Colley, in the month of November, 1864, he told me they had sent $2,000 worth of the Indian goods to Denver, and expected the money every day. I heard John Smith say he had some goods that did not cost him anything; that he was going to trade with the Indians, and if he lost them would not be out anything. Mr. Bouser sworn: The first difficulty between the Cheyennes and Arapahoes and whites occurred on the 1lth day of April, 1864. A white man came into Camp Sanborn and reported that he had cattle stolen. A detail of twenty men was sent after the Indians to get the cattle. The commander of the detail, Lieutenant Clark Dunn, had orders to disarm and fetch in 72

Page  A073 APPENDIX. the Indians; if they refused, to sweep them off the face of the earth. A fight occurred, and some Indians were wounded, also four soldiers, two of whom afterwards died. There was no interpreter along with the detail. The Indians, so Lieutenant Dunn told me, shook hands, and appeared as though they wanted to say or do anything. I know an Indian named Spotted Horse, part Cheyenne and part Sioux; he is now dead; he told me that he was in the affair with Lieutenant Dunn. He said the Indians took three head of cattle; there were 100 warriors. There was snow on the ground, and the Indians were hungry and took the cattle; they would have come into Denver if their horses had been in condition. They went south of the river with the cattle, intending if the soldiers came after them to settle for the cattle by giving some of their ponies Before they had time to cross the river and kill the cattle the soldiers overtook them. The soldiers had no interpreter, held no talk with the Indians, gave them no time even to deliver the cattle, b-at pitched into them. He also told me that had he been up in time, as he speaks English, or had there been an interpreter, the whole matter might have been settled without a fight. As it was, the Indians rode up close to the soldiers, dismounted, and shook hands with them. Lieutenant Dunn's men then took hold of some of the Indians' weapons and tried to wrest them away. The Indians did not know what it meant, and refused to give up their arms, when they were fired upon by the soldiers. Spotted Horse, seeing that there was going to be a war, threw up his chieftainship, and with it some one hutdred head of ponies, and came in to Governor Evans. I acted as interpreter, and he told substantially to Governor Evans the above. This same chief traded four of his ponies to ransom a white womanMrs. Kelly. The next collision was under Major Downing, at Cedar cafion. I have a Brule Sioux woman for a wife. I am of opinion that a lasting peace could be made with all the southern Sioux without any more fighting. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY. Lieutenant Cramer sworn I am stationed at this post, 1st lieutenant company C, veteran battalion Colorado cavalry. I was at this post when Colonel Chivington arrived here, and accompanied him on his expedition. He came into the post with a few officers and men, and threw out pickets, with instructions to allow no one to go beyond the line. I was then in command of company K. He brought some eight or nine hundred men with him, and took from this post over a hundred men, all being mounted. My company was ordered along to take part. We arrived at the Indian village about daylight. On arriving in sight of the village a battalion of the 1st cavalry and the Fort Lyon battalion were ordered on a charge to surround the village and the Indian herd. After drivinx the herd towards the village, Lieutenant Wilson's battalion of the 1st took possession of the northeast side of the village, Major Anthony's battalion took position on the south, Colonel Chivington's 3d regiment took position in our rear, dismounted, and after the fight had been commenced by Major Anthony and Lieutenant Wilson, mounted. and commenced firing through us and over our heads. About this time Captain John Smith, Indian interpreter, attempting to come to our troops, was fired on by our men, at the command of some one in our rear, "To shoot the damned old son of a bitch." One of my men rode forward to save him, but was killed. To get out of the fire from the rear, we were ordered to the left. About this time Colonel Chivington moved his regiment to the front, the Indians retreating up the creek, and hiding under the banks. There seemed to be no organization among our troops; every one on his own hook, and shots flying between our own ranks. White Antelope ran towards our columns unarmed, and with both arms raised, but wastilled. Several other of the warriors were killed in like manner. The women and children were huddled together, and most of our fire was concentrated on them. Sometimes during the engagement I was compelled to move my company to get out of the fire of our own men. Captain Soule did not order his men to fire when the order was given to commence the fight. During the fight, the battery on the opposite side of the creek kept firing at the bank while our men were in range. The Indian warriors, about one hundred in number, fought desperately; there were about five hundred all told. I estimated the loss of the Indians to be from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and seventy-five killed; no wounded fell into our hands, and all the dead were scalped. The Indian who was pointed out as White Antelope had his fingers cut off. Our force was so large that there was no necessity of firing on the Indians. They did not return the fire until after our troops had fired several rounds. We had the assurance from Major Anthony that Black Kettle and his friends should be saved, and only those Indians who had commnitted depredations should be harmed. During the fight no officer took any measures to get out of the fire of our own men. Left Hand stood with his arms folded, saying he would not fight the white men, as they were his friends. I told Colonel Chivington of the position in which the offi 73

Page  A074 APPENDIX. cers stood from Major Wylnkoop's pledges to the Indians, and also Major Anthony's, and that it would be murder, in every sense of the word, if he attacked those Indians. His reply was, bringing his fist down close to my face, "Damn any man who sympathizes with Indians." I told him what pledges were given the Indians. He replied, "That he had come to kill Indians, and believed it to be honorable to kill Indians under any and all circumstances;" all this at Fort Lyon. Lieutenant Dunn went to Colonel Chivington and wanted to know if he could kill his prisoner, young Smith. His reply was, "Don't ask me; you know my orders; I want no prisoners." Colonel Chivington was in position where he must have seen the scalping and mutilation going on. One of the soldiers was taking a squaw prisoner across the creek, when other soldiers fired on him, telling him they would kill him if he did not let her go. On our approach to the village I saw some one with a white flag approaching our lines, and the troops fired upon it; and at the time Captain Smith was fired upon, some one wearing a uniform coat was fired upon approaching our lines. Captain Smith was wearing one. After the fight I saw the United States flag in the Indian camp. It is a mistake that there were any white scalps found in the village. I saw one, but it was very old, the hair being much faded. I was ordered to burn the village, and was through all the lodges. There was not any snow on the ground, and no rifle-pits. I was present at the interview on the Smoky Hill between Major Wynkoop and the Indians, and it is correctly set out in his report, which I have read. I was also present at the interview between the Indian chiefs and Major Anthony, after he had assumed command. The chiefs desired to come into the post for protection, as they had heard through the Sioux that the 3d regiment Colorado troops was advancing in their direction. Major Anthony declined to permit them, saying he had not provisions to feed them. They must stay where they were, and their young men must go out and hunt buffalo. This was only three days before the massacre. FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY. C. M. Cossitt: Is acting quartermaster at this post; was here when Colonel Chivington came in from Sand creek after the fight or massacre there. He used to stop with me when he came here. In my room several present, among others Major Colley, Indian agent. He thought he had done a brilliant thing which would make him a brigadier general. I think the expression was, "that he thought that would put a star on his shoulder." This would do for a second Harney as an Indian fighter. This is the substance of the conversation. C. M. COSSIFT, Lieut. Vet. Battalion 1st Colorado Cavalry, A. A. Q. M. Lucien Palmer sworn: Am sergeant of company C, veteran battalion 1st Colorado cavalry. I was such at the time of the attack on the Cheyennes by Chivington; I was in the midst of the fight; I counted 130 bodies, all dead; two squaws and three papooses were captured and brought to Fort Lyon. I think among the dead bodies one-third were women and children. The bodies were horribly cut up, skulls broken in a good many; I judge they were broken in after they were killed, as they were shot besides. I do not think I saw any but what was scalped; saw fingers cut off, saw several bodies with privates cut off, women as wll as men. I saw Major Sayre, of the 3d regiment, scalp an Indian for the scalp lock ornamented by silver ornaments; he cut off the skin with it. He stood by and saw his men cutting fingers from dead bodies. This was the morning after the fight. All I saw done in mutilating bodies was done by the members of the 3d regiment. I counted the number of dead bodies, but did not count the women and children separate from the men to learn the proportion of each. I speak only from my impression as to the women and children being one-third of the number killed. I was with the battery. Amos C. Miksch sworn: Am a corporal in company E, veteran battalion, 1st Colorado cavalry; was born in Pennsylvania, but my home is in Ohio. I was in the battery; did not see the first attack; after we came up we opened on the Indians; they retreated and we followed and stayed until all were killed we could find. Next morning after the battle I saw a little boy covered up among the Indians in a trench, still alive. I saw a major in the 3d regiment take out his pistol and blow off the top of his head. I saw some men unjointing fingers to get rings 74

Page  A075 APPENDIX. off, and cutting off ears to get silver ornaments. I saw a party with the same major take up bodies that had been buried in the night to scalp them and take off ornaments. I saw a squaw with her head smashed in before she was killed. Next morning, after they were dead and stiff, these men pulled out the bodies of the squaws and pulled them open in an indecent manner. I heard men say they had cut out the privates, but did not see it myself. It was the 3d Colorado men who did these things. I counted 123 dead bodies; I think not over twenty-five were full-grown men; the warriors were killed out in the bluff; altogether I think there were about 500. There were 115 lodges, from four to five in a lodge. In the afternoon I saw twenty-five or thirty women and children; Colonel Chivington would not allow them to come in; a squad of the 3d Colorado was sent out; I don't know what became of them; it was about four miles off. The Indians were generally scalped as they fell. Next day I saw Lieutenant Richmond scalp two Indians; it was disgusting to me; I heard nothing of a fresh white scalp in the Indian camp until I saw it in the Dunn papers. There was no snow on the ground; there were no rifle-pits except what the Indians dug into the sand-bank after we commenced firing. I saw them digging out sand with their hands while firing was going on; the water camne into the trenches they dug in this manner. FORT LYON, June 9, 1865. Major Wynkoop sworn: I am in command of this post; I was in command in May, 1864, and until within a short time previous to the Sand creek affair. Question. Do your report and theaccompanying affidavits state the facts of that affair? Answer. They do so far as they go. I have been a resident of this Territory since October, 1858. I have been familiar with the state of affairs with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. Previous to the Chivington affair hostilities were open about four months. From my own personal knowledge I have no doubt that the hostilities were commenced by a detachment of soldiers under the command of Lieutenant Dunn, who was sent in search of some cattle supposed to have been stolen and driven away by some Cheyenne Indians. A conflict occurred between Lieutenant Dunn and the Indians. Captain Sanborn sent out the detachment. A rumor had reached district headquarters that the cattle had been stolen by the Indians, and Colonel Chivington issued orders that a detachment should be sent oult to recover the stock and disarm the Indians. The attempt to disarm the Indians resulted in a conflict; there was one killed and three wounded on our side. That was the first difficulty I know of between the Cheyennes, Arapahoes and whites since my residence in the country, seven years. The next difficulty was an attack on a Cheyenne village by Major Downing, under Chivington's orders The major reported he had killed over forty warriors, but the Cheyenne chiefs stated to me that their loss consisted of two squaws and two pappooses. Our loss was one killed. Lieutenant Ayres, of the Colorado battery, had the next conflict with the Indians. He had been ordered by Colonel Chivington, as he stated to me, to kill all Indians he came across He marched from Fort Larned, about forty miles, until he came to Lean B-ar's band of Cheyennes, a few of whom were some distance from the column, hunting buffalo. Sergeant Fribbley was approached by Lean Bear, and accompariled by him into our column, leaving his warriors at some distance. A short time after Lean Bear reached our command he was killed, and fire opened upon his band. I am not aware of any hostilities committed by Lean Bear's command previous to this time. A running fight for a (couple of hours ensued, in which we lost several killed, the Indians getting possession of the bodies. My information has been derived from information received and reports made to me, also from the Cheyennes. At and previoufto the fight of Lieutenant Ayres, a band of Arapahoes were situated about twenty-five miles from here, on Sand creek; they had been in the habit of coming into the fort frequently, and having communication with their agent, Major Colley, and myself. I had been in the habit of issuting rations to them when I found them in want. They had given every evidence of fiiendship for the whites, and were in the habit of bringing in and delivering to me government stock found loose on the prairie. In consequence of this friendly feeling on their part, and desirous to keep them friendly, as we were at war with the Cheyennes. I issued rations to them every ten days. About this time I made the proposition to them. colonel Chivington was temporarily at this post, and in the presence of several officers I submitted the proposition to him, and he heartily indorsed the same, and was present at one or two issues. This post was then in the district of the Upper Arkansas; Colonel Chivington was here, but dated his ordlers headquarters in the field. Left-Hand's band was at this time camped near Fort Larned; near them was a band of Kiowas. Left-Hand, who had always been friendly to the whites, learned that the Kiowas, on a certain day, intended to run off the stock from Fort Larned, and he accordingly stated that faIct to the commanding officer of that post, Captain Parmeter. No apparent attention was paid to the 75

Page  A076 APPENDIX. information given by) Left-IHand, and on the day indicated by him the stock was driven off by the Kiowas. Immediately after this Left-Hand and his band approached the post to offer his services and the services of his young men to pursue the Kiowas and recover the stock. Meeting a soldier a short distance from the post, he requested him to state to the commanding officer his object. I am personally acquainted with Left-lIand; he speaks English. Left-Hand( co)ntinued to approach the post, at the same time exhibiting a white flag, when fire was opened upon them by the battery, which drove them off After sufficient time had elapsed for the news to retch this vicinity, the band of Arap-ihoeq camped here suddenly disappeared. Not a great while afterwards a citizen, a quartermaster's teamster, and his wife, while travelling from Denver here, were attacked by Indians; the man killed and the woman carried off I have reliable information that this act was committed by Little Raven's band of Arapahoes. A short time after that, two citizens on their way to this post to testify before a military commission, sixteen miles from here, were attacked by Indians and killed. My information is, that this outrage wis committed by Little Raven's band. I know of no outrages committed by any of Left-Hand's band. While a small detachment of my regliuent, some thirty men, were encamped near the mouth of the Cimarron crossing, their stock was run off. Lieutenant Chase, encamped at Jimmy's camp, had his stock driven off The letter I received from the Indians is correctly printed in the Commnisioner's report. I do know that the Indians encamped on Sand creek felt that they were under the protection of the govertment, and were friendly; have driven my fanily down to their camp and sat in their lodges, without an escort. Colonel Chivington had no orders to attack the Cheyenne camp; I never have received any instructions in regard to Indians and their treatment. Since the Sand creek affair there has existed the deadliest hostility between those tribes and the whites; they have killed many persons on the Platte, and captured and destroyed much property. I know of no depredations committed on this roulte by the Cheyennes and Arapahoes since I have reason to know that the Kiowas and Comnanches have joined them in hostilities; I know that the Sioux are anxious, with the other tribes, to make peace, if the Cheyennes and Arapahoes do, and I think before the Sand creek affair a lasting peace could have been made with all the Indians. Since the mnassacre I have not been able to hold any communication with the Indians. I have in my possession a statement made by a half-breed, who had been in their camp since the massa,cre. He was in during the attack, and was among those who escaped; he was also in their camp when the remnant of the tbile got together on the Smnoky Hill. Black Kettle, head chief of the Cheyennes, was there, but in disgrace with his tribe; was recognized no longer, and was taunted for having, by putting too niuch faith in the white man, their women and children murdlered. Thev insulted him and threatened his life, asking him why he did not stay and die with his brother, White Antelope. The Indians told him that altogether there were one hundred and forty missing, but some woundedl afterwar(ls cane iti. Black Keittleis the ornly chief left who was in favor of peace. White Antelope folded his arms stoicallv arid wvas shot down, refusing to leave the field, stating that it was the fault of Black Kettle, others, and himself that occasioned the massacre, and he would die. Black Kettle refusing to leave the field, was carried off by his young men. I gave to the head chiefs of the, Cheyennes and Arapahoes a written statement that I had, in co3nsequence of their delivering up some white prisoners, come to an understanding as a United States officer to cease ho)stilities until such a time as something definite could bi concluded by the proper authorities, and warned all officers from interfering with them in a hostile manner until such time should elap)se. I pledged myself to give them an interview with the governor of Colorado, and, whatever might be the result, I would return them in safety. This post, at the time of Chivington's attack, was not in his department; but he went out of his district to maike the attack. There was force enough at tis post, if necessary, to have whipped the Indians I (lo not think this reservation is very good, not as good as on the Beaver creek or Smoky Hill Fork. The latter place is midway between the travelled routes and the Indians would much prefer land there. There is a great scope of coulntry south of the Arkansas; the Smoky Hill is the best section of country for the butiffilo. In 1858 I travelled with one companion down the Platte, through all the tribes, and was fed and lodged in their camps, encountering no difficulty. I think we might make peace if we coul I meet the Indians, with the exception of the Dog soldiers of the Cheyennes. But it would be difficult, in consequence of the massacre, to obtain their confidence. I think it a matter of justice to the Indians, and of a decent self-respect to the government, that an effort should be made to make place. At the time I met the Indians I had but 130 men, and the Indians had some 70() armed warriors. I think had a fight occurred I should have been defeated After Major Anthony assumed command of the post, he proceeded with a command of cavalry to an Arapaho village, contwining the bands of Little Raven and Left-Hand. I had gone down to the village simply as a looker-on, and was there when Major Anthony arrived. He told Little Raven and Left-Hanri that he had come for the purpose of taking their arms, as it became necessary to consider them pris 76

Page  A077 APPENDIX.7 oners; he did not wish any of them to leave camp without permission from him; he said he would cout the aumi)er of souls in their camp, atd would send an otfficer every day to verify their presence. The chiefs both appeared willing to deliver up their arms, Little Raven stating he did not desire to be at war with the whites, but was willing to submit to whatever Major Antho,ny might impose on him. Left-Hand coincided, but requested that he would like to have the Indian boys retain their bows and arrows, as they were in the habit of shooting prairie dogs and jack rabbits, which proved of benefit to them in collnsequence of their destitute situation. Major Anthony refused to accede to his request, and ordered all the arms to be turned over to him, which was accordingly done, and I saw them placed in a wagon and conveyed to Fort Lyon. This occurred about ten days previous to the fight on Sand creek; Left-Hand joining the Cheyennes, and Little Raven going to Camp Wynkoop. I proceeded from this post with a detachment of cavalry under charge of Lieutenant Cramer. At Booneville I left the detachment, and proceeded ahead with the white prisoners, expecting the cavalry having the Indian chiefs in charge would reach Denver two days after my arrival. My object in proceeding ahead was to have an interview with Governor John Evans, ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs, previous to the arrival of the chiefs. On my arrival I was informed that the governor was sick in bed, and on that evening I did not see him. The next morning he called on me at my hotel. Upon entering the parlor I found him in conversation with Dexter Colley, son of the Indian agent for the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, who was present during our whole interview. I told the governor I had come up in accordance with my report; had brought the rescued white prisoners with me, and that the chiefs would be in in a few days, for the purpose of having an interview with him. He intimated that he was sorry I had brought them; that he considered he had nothing to do with them; that they had declared war against the United States, and he considered them in the hands of the military authorities; that lihe did not think, anyhow, it was policy to make peace with them until they were properly punished, for the reason that the United States would be acknowledging themselves whipped. I said it would be strange if the United States would consider themselves whipped by a few Indians, and drew hlis attention to the fact that, as a United States officer, I had pledged myself to these Indians to convey them to Denver, to procure an interview with himself, being the Indian superintendent, upon conditions communica-ted to him In my report; that I had brought these Indians a distance of nearly four hundred miles from their village with that object in view; and desired that he would furnish them an audience. He replied querulously that he was to start next day to visit the Ute agency on business; besides, he did not want to see them, anyhow. I endeavored to explain to him the position in which I was placed, and earnestly requested that he would await their arrival. He then referred to the fact that the third regiment of one-hundred-day men having been raised, and in camp, were nearly ready to make an Indian campaign. He further said that the regiment was ordered to be raised upon his representations to Washington that they were necessary for the protection of the Territory, and to fight hostile Indians; and now, if he made peace with the Indians, it would be supposed at Washington that he had mistepresented matters in regard to the Indian difficulties in Colorado, and had put the government to a useless expense in raising and equipping the regiment; that they had been raised to kill Indians and they must kill Indians. Several times in our conversation in regard to the object of tte Indians who were coming to see him, he made the remark, "What shall I do with the third regiment, if I make peace?" I have recently been over the battle-field of Sand creek: I saw no evidences of any intrenchments. I do not think the location is suitable for defence. DENVER, (!OLORADO TERRITORY, September 13, 1865. DEAR SIR: Enclosed please find a copy of my reply to the "I Committee on the Conduct of the War." I hope you will find in it a vindication against their unjust implication of my name in the "Sand creek affair." I fain would hope that, in your report, my administration of Indian affairs might have such mention as the faithfulness of which I am conscious entitles me to receive. I ask nothing but justice, and feel confident that I shall receive this. But the circumstances in which I am placed by the Committee on the Conduct of the War make me anxious for more at the hands of your committee than a mere passing notice. If there is any point in my administration not fully and satisfactorily explained I shall be happy to give the facts as they are. I have, from what was said to me, assumed that the account of my stewardship was satisactory to you. I trust I have not been hasty in this. 77

Page  A078 APPENDIX. I am gratefilly obliged for the kind words in my behalf you were pleased to express at Washington, which have been comnmunicated to me by a friend. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, yours, &c., JOHN EVANS. Hon. J. R. DOOLITTLE. Reply of Gover7?or Ecins, of the Territory of Colorado, to that part, referring to him, of the reeport oj the Comaittee on the Conduct of the War," headed " JlMassacre of Cheyernne lndian8." EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT AND SUPERINTENDENCY OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, C. T., Dienver, Atugust 6, 1865. To the Public: I have just seen, for the first time, a copy of the report of the Committee on the Conduct of the War, headed " Massacre of Cheyenne Indians." As it does me great injustice, and by its partial, unfair, and erroneous statements will mislead the public, I respectfully ask a suspension of opinion in my case until I shall have time to present the facts to said committee or some equally high authority; and ask a correction. In the mean time I desire to lay a few facts before the public. The Committee on the Conduct of the War, as shown by the resolution of the House of Representatives heading the report, had power "to inquire into and rep)ort all the facts connected with the late attack, by the 3d regiment Colorado volunteers, lin(ler Colonel Chivington, on a village of the Cheyenne tribe of Indians, near Fort Lyon." They had no power to inquire int.) my management of Indian affairs except in so far as it related to this battle; and the chairman of the committee assured me that they would not inquire into such general management. Having no connexion whatever with the battle, and, at the time, knowing nothing of the immediate facts connected therewith, I so stated to the committee, and, relying upon the above assurance of the chairman, addressed myself to another committee which had been appointed to investigate the management of Indian affairs generally in the United States. Of this committee, Senator Doolittle was chairman, and to it, I believe, I have rendered a satisfactory account of my stewardship. The Committee on the Conduct of the War, however, have seen fit to go beyond the scope of their powers, and to enter into a hasty and general investigation of Indian affairs in this superintendency, and in their report attack matters occurring at remote periods from, and entirely disconnected with, the sul)ject-matter of investigation. Under these circumstances, having been censured unheard, I claim the privilege of presenting proof of the fdlsity of their charges, in order that, so far as it can be done, the committee, or equally high authority, may repair the great injury done me. And I pledge myself to prove by official correspondence and accredited testimony, to their satisfaction, and that of all fair-minded men, the truth and justice of my complaint. I do not propose to discus.s the merits or demerits of the Sand creek baittle, but simply to meet the attempt, on the part of the committee, to connect my name with it, and to throw discredit on my testimony. I shall not ask the public to take mv assertions except so far as I shall sustain them by undoubted authority, a large part of which is published in government documents by the authority of the honorable body of which the committee are members. The report begins "In the stnumet of 1864 Governor Evans, of Colorado Terriory, as acting superintendent of i-n(dian affairs, sent notice to the various bands and t-ibes of Indians within his jurisdiction that such as desired to be consi,lered friendly to the whites shouldl repair to the nearest military post in order to be protected from the soldiers who were to take the field against the hostile Indians." This statement is true as to such notice having been sent, but conveys the false impression that it was at the beginning of hostilities, and the declaration of war. The truth is, it was issued by authority of the Indian department months after the war had become general, for the purpose of inducing the Indians to cease hostilities, and to protect those who had been or would become friendly, from the inevitable dangers to which they were exposed. This I notice" may be found published in the report of the Commissioner of Inditan Affairs for 1864, page 218. The report continues: "About the close of the summer some Cheyenne Indians, in the neighborhood of the Smoky Hill, sent word to Major Wynkoop, commanding at Fort Lyon, that they had ia their possession, and were willing to deliver up, some white captives they had purchased 78

Page  A079 APPENIDIX. of other Indians. Major Wynkoop, with a force of over one hundred men, visited those Indians and recovered the white captives. On his return he was accompanied by a number of the chiefs and leading men of the Indians, whom he had brought to visit Denver for the purpose of conferring with the authorities there in regard to keeping the peace. Among them were Black Kettle and White Antelope, of the Cheyennes, and some chiefs of the Arapahoes. The council was held, and these chiefs stated that they were friendly to the whites and had always been." Again they say: "All the testimony goes to show that the Indians under the immediate control of Black Kettle and White Antelope, of the Cheyennes, and Left-Hand, of the Arapahoes, were and had always been friendly to the whites, and had not been guilty of any acts of hostility or depredations." This word which the committee say was sent to Major Wynkoop was a letter to United States Indian Agent Major Colley, which is published in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1865, page 233, and is as follows: "CHEYENNE VILLAOE, August 29, 1864. "MAJOR COLLEY: We received a letter from Bent, wishing us to make peace. We held a council ill regard to it. All come to the conclusion to make peace with you. providing you make peace with the Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahoes, Apaches, and Sioux. We are going to send a messenger to the Kiowas and to the other nations about our going to make peace with you. We heard that you have some [prisoners] in Denver. We have seven prisoners of yours which we are willing to give up, providing you give up yours. There are three war parties out yet, and two of Arapahoes. They have been out somne time and expected in soon. When we held this council there were few Arapahoes and Sioux present. We want true news from you in return. That is a letter. "BLACK KETTLE, and other Chiefs." Compare the above extract from the report of the committee with this published letter of Black Kettle and the admission of the Indians in the council at Denver. The committee say, the prisoners proposed to be delivered up were purchased of other Indians. Black Kettle, in his letter, says: "We have seven prisoners of yours, which we are willing to give up, providing you give up yours." They say nothing about prisoners whom they had purchased. On the other hand, in the council held in Denver, Black Kettle said: "Major Wynkoop was kind enough to receive the letter, and visited them in camp, to whom they delivered four white prisoners, one other (Mrs. Snyder) having killed herself; that there are two women and one child yet in their camp whom they will deliver up as soon asfthey can get them in; Laura Roper, 16 or 17 years; Ambrose Asher, 7 or 8 years; Daniel Marble, 7 or 8 years; Isabel Ubanks, 4 or 5 years. The prisoners still with them [are] Mrs. Ubanks and babe, and a Mrs. Norton, who was taken on the Platte. Mrs. Sny. der is the name of the woman who hung herself. The boys were taken between Fort Kearney and the Blue." Again: they did not deny having captured the prisoners, when I told tlhem that having the prisoners in their possession was evidence of their having committed the depredations when they were taken. But White Antelope said: "We (the Cheyennes) took two prisoners west of Kearney, and destroyed the trains." Had they purchased the prisoners they would not have been slow to make it known in this council. The committee say the chiefs went to Denver to confer with the authorities about keeping the peace. Black Kettle says: "All come to the conclusion to make-peace with you providing you will make peace with the Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahoes, Apaches, and Sioux. " Again, the committee say: "All the testimony goes to show that the Indians under the immediate control of Black Kettle and White Antelope, of the Cheyennes, and Left-Hand, of the Arapahoes, were, and had been,'friendly to the whites, and had not been guilty of any acts of hostility or depredations" Black Kettle says, in his letter: " We received a letter from Bent, wishing us to make peace." Why did Bent send a letter to friendly Indians, and want to make peace with Indians "who had always been friendly?" Again, they say, "I We have held a council in regard to it." Why did they hold a council in regard to making peace, when they were already peaceable? Again, they say, "All come to the conclusion to make peace with you, providing you make peace with the Kiowas, Comanches, Arapahoes, Apaches, and Sioux. We have seven prisoners of yours, which we are willing to give up, providing you give up yours. There are three war [not peace] parties out yet, and two of Arapahoes." 79.

Page  A080 APPENDIX. Every line of this letter shows that they were and had been at war. I desire to throw additional light upon this assertion of the committee that these Indians "were and had been friendly to the whites, and had not been guilty of any acts of hostility or depredations;" for it is upon this point that the committee accuse me of prevarication. In the council held at Denver, White Antelope said: "We (the Cheyennes) took two prisoners west of Kearney, and destroyed the trains." This was one of the most destructive and bloody raids of the war. Again, Neva (Left-Hand's brother) said: "The Comanches, Kiowas, and Sioux have done much more harm than we have." The entire report of this council, which is hereunto attached, shows that the Indians had been at war, and had been "guilty of acts of hostility and depredations." As showing more futlly the status and disposition of these Indians, I call attention to the following extract from the report of Major Wynkoop, published in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864, page 234, and a letter from Major Colley, their agent; same report, page 230. Also statement of Robert North; same report, page 224. "FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY, Septenm)er 18, 1864. "SiRa a 0 e l: Taking with me, under strict guard, the Indians I had in my possession, I reached my destination, and was confronted by from six to eight hundred Indian warriors,'drawn up in line of battle, and prepared to fight. "Putting on as bold a front as I could under the circumstances, I formed my command in as good order as possible for the purpose of acting on the offensive or defensive, as might be necessary, and advanced towards them, at the same time sending forward one of the Indians I had with me, as an emissary, to state that I had come for the purpose of holding a consultation with the chiefs of the Arapahoes and Cheyennes, to come to an understanding which might result in mutual benefit; that I had not come desiring strife, but was prepared for it if necessary, and advised them to listen to what I had to say, previous to making any more warlike demonstrations. " They consented to meet me in council, and I then proposed to them that if they desired peace to give me palpable evidence of their sincerity by delivering into my hands their white prisoners. I told them that I was not authorized to conclude terms of peace with them, but if they acceded to my proposition I would take what chiefs they might choose to select to the governor of Colorado Territory, state the circumstances to him, and that I believed it would result in what it was their desire to accomplish-' peace with their white brothers.' I had reference, particularly, to the Arapaho and Cheyenne tribes. "' he council was divided-undecided-and could not come to an understanding among themselves. I told them that I would march to a certain locality, distant twelve miles, and await a given time for their action in the matter. I took a strong position in the locality namrned, and remained three days. In the interval they brought in and turned over four white prisoners, all that was possible for them at the time being to turn over, the balance of the seven being (as they stated) with another band far to the northward. ,aA ~ ~~~~~~ A-..-.P *a C C; m ~ > e "I have the principal chiefs of the two tribes with me, and propose starting immediately to Denver, to put into effect the aforementioned proposition made by me to them. "They agree to deliver up the balance of the prisoners as soon as it is possible to procure them, which can be done better from Denver City than from this point. "I have the honor, governor, to be your obedient servant, "E. W. WYNKOOP, "Major First Col. Cav., Comd'g Fort Lyon, C. T. "Hi s Exc ellency JOHN EVANS, "Governor of Colorado, Denver, C. T." "FORT LYON, COLORADO TERRITORY, July 26, 1864. "SIR: When I last wrote youL I was in hopes that our Indian troubles were at an end. Colonel Chivington has just arrived from Larned, and gives a sad account of affairs at that post. They have killed some ten men from a train, and run off all the stock from the post. "As near as they can learn, all the tribes were engaged in it. The colonel will give you the particulars. There is no dependence to be put in any of them. I have done everythingr in my power to keep the peace; I now think a little powder and lead is the best food for them. "Respectfully, your obedient servant, "S. G. COLLEY, United States Indian Agent. "Hon. JOHN EVANrS, "Governor and Superintendent Indian Affair6." 80

Page  A081 APPENDIX. - fle folowing statement, by Robert North, was made to me ~ I I NOVEMBER 10, 1863. "Having recovered an Arapaho prisoner (a squaw) from the Utes, I obtained the confidence of the Indians comnpletely. tI have lived with them from a boy, and my wife is an Arapaho. " In honor of my exploit in recovering the prisoner, the Indians recently gave me a 'big medicine dance,' about fifty miles below Fort Lyon, on the Arkansas river, at which the leading chiefs and warriors of several of the tribes of the plains met. "The Comantches, Apaches, Kiowas, the northern band of Arapahoes, and all of the Cheyennes, with the Sioux, have pledged one another to go to war with the whites as soon as they can procure armmunition in the spring. I heard them discuss the matter often, and the few of them who opposed it were forced to be quiet, and were really in danger of their lives I saw the principal chiefs pledge to each other that they would be friendly and shake hands with the whites until they procured ammunition and guns, so as to be ready when they strike. Plundering, to get means, has already commenced; and the plan is to commence the war at several points in the sparse settlements early in the spring. They wanted me to join them in the war, saying that they would take a great many white women and children prisoners, and get a heap of property, blankets, &c.; bot while I am connected with them by marriage, and live with them, I am' yet a white man, and wish to avoid bloodshed, There are many Mexicans with the Comanche and Apache Indians, all of whom urge on the war, promising to help the Indians themselves, and that a great many more Mexicans would come up from New Mexico for the purpose in the spring." In addition to the statement showing that all the Cheyennes were in the alliance, I desire to add the following frank admission from the Indians in the council: "Governor Evans explained that smoking the war-pipe was a figurative term, but their conduct had been such as to show they had an understanding with other tribes. "SEVERAL MINDIANS. We acknowledge that our actions have given you reason to believe this," In addition to all this, I refer to the appended statement of Mrs. Ewbanks. She is one of the prisoners that Black Kettle, in the council, said they had. Instead of purchtsing her, it will be observed that they first captured her on the Little Blue, and then sold her to the Sioux. M.rs. Martin, another rescued prisoner, was captured by the Cheyennes on Plum creek, west of Kearney, with a boy nine years old. These were the prisoners of which White Antelope said, in the council, "We took two prisoners west of Kearrley, and destroyed the trains." In her published statement she says the party who captured her and the boy killed eleven men and destroyed the trains, and were mostly Cheyennes. Thus I have proved, by the Indian chiefs named in the report, by Agent Colley and Major Wynkoop, to whom they refer to sustain their assertion to the contrary, that these Indians had " been at war, and had committed acts of hostility and depredations." This documentary evidence could be extended much further, but enough has been produced to show the utter recklessness of their statements; and because I would not admit, in the face of these published facts, that these Indians "were, and always had been, friendly, and had not been guilty of any acts of hostility or depredations," the committee accuse me of "prevaricatio(n." They say that I prevaricated " for the evident purpose of avoiding the admission that he was fully aware that the Indians massacred so brutally at Sand creek were then, and had beent, actuated by the most friend,y feeings towrds the whites." I had left the Indians in the hands of the military authorities, as I shall presently show. There were many conflicting rumors as to the disposition made of them. I was absent from the Territory, and could state nothing positive in regard to their status after the council. In regard to their status prior to the council at Denver, the foregoing public documents which I have cited show how utterly devoid of truth or foundation is the assertion that these Indians "had been friendly to the whites, and had not been guilty of any acts of hostility or depredations." Ignorance of the facts contained in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864 is inexcusable on the part of the committee, for I particularly referred them to it. I am obliged to the committee, however, for stating wherein I prevaricated, for I am thus enabled to repel their gross attack on my character as a witness, by showing that they were mistaken and I was correct in my testimony. The next paragraph of the report is as follows: "A northern band of the Cheyennes, known as the'Dog Soldiers,' had been guilty of acts of hostility; but all the testimony goes to prove that they had no connexion with 81

Page  A082 APPENDIX. Black Kettle's band, and acted in spite of his authority and influence. Black Kettle end his band denied all connexion with, or responsibility for, the Dog Soldiers, and Left-Hand and his band were equally friendly." The committee and the public will be surprised to learn the fact that these Dog Soldiers, on which the committee throw the slight blame of acts of hostility, were really among Black Kettle and White Antelope's own warriors, in the ".friendly" camp to which Major Wynkoop made his expedition, and their head man, Bull Bear, was one of the prominent men of the deputation brought in to see me at Denver. By reference to the accompanying report of the council with the chiefs, to which I referred the committee, it will be observed that Black Kettle and all present based their propositions to make peace upon the assent of their bands, and that these Dog Soldiers were especially referred to. The report continues: "These Indians, at the suggestion of Governor Evans and Colonel Chivington, repaired to Fort Lyon and placed themselves under the protection of Major Wynkoop," &c. The connexion of my name in this is again wrong. As will be seen by the accompanying report of the council, to which I referred in my testimony, I simply left them in the hands of the military authorities, where I found them, and my action was approved by the Indian bureau. The following extracts from the accompanying report of the council will prove this, conclusively. I stated to the Indians: "d -'Another reason that I am not in a condition to make a treaty is, that the war is begun, and the power to make a treaty of peace has passed from me to the great war chief." I also said: "Again, whatever peace they may make must be with the soldiers, and not with me," And again, in reply to White Antelope's inquiry, "How can we be protected from the soldiers on the plains?" I said'"You must make that arrangement with the military chief." The morning after this council I addressed the following letter to the agent of these Indians, which is published in the report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864, page 220: " COLORADO SUPERINTENDENCY INDIAN AFFAIRS, "Denver, September 29, 1864. " SIR: The chiefs brought in by Major Wynkoop have been heard. I have declined to make any peace with them, lest it might embarrass the military operations against the hostile Indians of the plains. The Arapaho and Cheyenne Indians being now at war with the United States government, must make peace with the military authorities. Of course this arrangement relieves the Indian bureau of their care until peace is declared with them; and as these tribes are yet scattered, and all except Friday's band are at war, it is not probable that it will be done immediately. You will be particular to impress upon these chiefs the fact that my talk with them was for the purpose of ascertaining their views, and not to offer them anything whatever. They must deal with the military authorities until peace, in which case, alone, they will be in proper position to treat with the government in relation to the future. " I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, "JOHN EVANS, " Governor Colorado Territory and ex-officio Superitendent Indian Afairs. "Major S. G. COLLxY, United States Indian Agent, Upper Arkansas." That this course accorded with the policy of the military authorities was confirmed by a telegram from the department commander, sent from headquarters at Fort Leavenworth to the district commander, on the day of the council, in which he said: "I fear agent of the Interior Department will be ready to make presents too soon. It is better to chastise, before giving anything but a little tobacco to talk over. No peace must be made without my directions." It will thus be seen that I had, with the approval of the Indian bureau, turned the adjustment of difficulties with hostile Indians entirely over to the military authorities; that I had instructed Agent Colley, at Fort Lyon, that this would relieve the bureau of further care of the Arapahoes and Cheyennes, until peace was made, and having had no notice of such peace, or instructions to change the arrangement, the status of these Indians was in no respect within my jjlrisdiction or under my official inspection. In the face of all these facts-):tters of public record-the committee attempt to make me responsible for the care of the e Indians at the time of the battle. 82

Page  A083 APPENDIX. It may be proper for me to say, further, that it will appear in evidence that I had no intimation of the direction in which the campaign against the hostile Indians was to move, or against what bandsit was to be made, when I left the Territory last fall, and that I was absent from Colorado when the Sand creek battle occurred. The report continues: "It is true that there seems to have been excited among the people inhabiting that region of country a hostile feeling towards the Indians. Some had committed acts of hostility towards the whites, but no effort seems to have been made by the authorities there to prevent these hostilities, other than by the commission of even worse acts." " The people inhabiting that region of country!" A form of expression of frequent occurrence in the reports of exploring expeditions, when speaking of savages and unknown tribes, but scarcely a respectful mode of mention of the people of Colorado. "Some had committed acts of hostility towards the whites!" Hear the facts: In the fall of 18-63 a general alliance of the Indians of the plains was effected with the Sioux, and in the language of Bull Bear, in the report of the council, appended, "Their plan is to'clean out all this country." The war opened early in the spring of 1864. The people of the east, absorbed in the greater interest of the rebellion, know but little of its history. Stock was stolen; ranches destroyed, houses burned, freight trains plundered, and their contents carried away or scattered upon the plains; settlers in the frontier counties murdered, or forced to seek safety for themselves and families in block-houses and interior towns; emigrants to our Territory were surprised in their camps, children were slain, and wives taken prisoners; our trade and travel with the States were cut off; the necessaries of life were at starvation prices; the interests of the Territory were being damaged to the extent of millions; every species of atrocity and barbarity which characterizes savage warfare was committed. This is no fancy sketch, but a plain statement of facts, of which the committee seem to have had no proper realization. All this history of war and blood-all this history of rapine and ruin-all this story of outrage and suffering on the part of our people-is sulimmed up by the committee, and given to the public, in one mild sentence, "Some had committed acts of hostility against the whites." The committee not only ignore the general and terrible character of our Indian war, and the great sufferings of our people, but make the grave charge that "no effort seems to have been made by the authorities there to prevent all these hostilities." Had the committee taken the trouble, as they certainly should have done before making so grave a charge, to have read the public documents of the government, examined the record and files of the Indian bureau of the War Department, and of this superintendency, instead of'adopting the language of some hostile and irresponsible witness, as they appear to have done, they would have found that the most earnest and persistent efforts had been made on my part to prevent hostilities. The records show that, early in the spring of 1863, United States Indian Agent Loree, of the Upper Platte agency, reported to me in person that the Sioux under his agency, and the Arapahoes and Cheyennes, were negotiating an alliance for war on the whites. I immediately wrote an urgent appeal for authority to avert the danger, and sent Agent Loree as special messenger with the despatch to Washington. In response, authority was given, and an earnest effort was made to collect the Indians in council. The following admission, in the appended report of the council, explains the result: "GOvERNOR EvANS. " Hearing last fall that they were dissatisfied, the Great Father at Washington sent me out on the plains to talk with you and make it all right. I sent messengers out to tell you that I had presents, and would make you a feast; but you sent word to me that you did not want to have anything to do with me, and to the Great Father at Washington that you could get along without him. Bull Bear wanted to come in to see me, at the head of the Republican, but his people held a council and would not let him come. "BLACK KETTLE. That is true. "GovERaRNOR EVANS. I was under the necessity, after all my trouble, and all the expense I was at, of returning home without seeing them. Instead of this, your people went away and smoked the war pipe with our enemies." Notwithstanding these unsuccessful efforts, I still hoped to preserve peace. The records of these offices also show that, in the autumn of 1863, I was reliably advised from various sources that nearly all the Indians of the plains had formed an alliance for the purpose of going to war in the spring; and I immediately commenced my efforts to avert the imminent danger. From that time forward, by letter, by telegram, and personal representation to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, the Secretary of War, the commanders of the department and district; by travelling for weeks in the wilderness of the plains; by distribution of annuities and presents; by sending notice to the Indians 83

Page  A084 APPENDIX. to leave the hostile alliance; by every means within my power, I enleavorel to preserve peace and protect the interests of the people of the Territory. And in the face of all this, which the records abundantly show, the committee say: "No effort seems to have been made by the authorities there to prevent these hostilities, other than by the commis sion of even worse acts." They do not point out any of these acts. unless the continuation of the paragraph is intended to do so. It proceeds: "The hatred of the whites to the Indians would seem to have been inflmed and excited to the utmost. The bodies of persons killed at a distance-whether by Ia(lians or not is not certain-were brought to the capital of the Territory and exposed to the public gaze, for the purpose of inflaming still more the already excited feeling of the people." There is no mention in this of anything that was done by authority, but it is so full of misrepresentation, in apology for Indians, and unjust reflection on a people who have a right, from their birth, education, and ties of sympathy with the people they so recently left behind them, to have at least a just consideration. The bodies referred to were those of the Hungate family, who were brutally murdered by the Indians, within twenty-five miles of Denver. No one here ever doubted that the Indians did it, and it was admitted by the Indians in the council. This was early in the summer, and before the notice.sent in June to the friendly Indians. Their mangled bodies were brought to Denver for decent burial. Many of our people went to see them, as any people would have done. It did produce excitement and consternation, and where are the people who could have witnessed it without emotion? Would the committee have the people shut their eyes to such scenes at their very doors? The next sentence, equally unjust and unfair, refers to my proclamation, issued two months after this occurrence, and four months before the "attack" they were investigating, and having no connexion with it or with the troops engaged in it. It is as follows "The cupidity was appealed to, for the governor, in a proclamation, calls upon all, either individually, or in such parties as they may organize, to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians; authorizing them to hold, to their own use and benefit, all the property of said hostile Indians they may capture. What Indians he would ever term friendly it is impossible to tell." I offer the following statement of the circumstances under which this proclamation was issued, by the Hon. D. A. Chever. It is as follows: " EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT, COLORADO TERRITORY, Aueust 21, S18 65. "I, David A. Chever, clerk in the office of the governor of the Territory of Colorado, (10o solemnly swear that the people of said Territory, from the Purgatoire to the Cache a la Poudre rivers, a distance of over two hundred miles, and for a like distance along the Platte liver, being the whole of our settlements on the plains, were thrown into the greatest alarmi and consternation by numerous and almost simultaneous attacks and depredations by hostile Indians early last summer; that they left their unreaped crops, and, collecting into communities, built block-houses and stockades for protection at central points throughout the long line of settlements; that those living in the vicinity of Denver City fled to it, and that the people of said city were in great fear of sharing the fate of New Ulm, Minnesota; that the threatened loss of crops, and the interruption of comnmunication with the States by the combined hostilities, threatened the very existence of the whole people; that this feeling of danger was universal; that a flood of petitions and deputations poured into this office, from the people of all parts of the Territ,)ry, praying for protection, and for arms and authority to protect themselves; that the defects of the militia law and the want of means to provide for defence was proved by the failure of this department, after the utmost endeavors, to secure an effective organizttion under it; that reliable reports of the presence of a large body of hostile warriors at no great distance east of this place were received, which reports were afterwards proved to'be true, by the statement of Elbridge Gerry, (page 232, Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864;) that repeated and urgent applications to the War Department, for protection and the authority to raise troops for the purpose, had failed; that urgent applications to department and district commanders had failed to bring any prospect of relief, and(l that in the midst of this terrible consternation, and apparently defenceless condition, it had been announced to this office, from district headquarters, that all the Colorado troops in the service of the United States had been peremptorily ordered away, and nearly all of them had marched to the Arkansas liver, to be in position to repel the threatened invasion of the rebels into Kansas and Missouri; that reliable reports of depredations an d murders by the Indians, from all parts of our extended lines of exposed settlements, became da:ily more numerous, until the simultaneous attacks on trains along the overland stage lite were re ported by telegraph, on the 8th of August, described in the letter of George K. Otis, su 84

Page  A085 APPENDIX. perintendent of overland stage line, published on page 254 of Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1864. Under these circumstances, on the 11th of August, the governor issued his proclamation to the people, calling upon them to defend their homes and families from the savage foe; that it prevented anarchy; that several militia companies immediately org'tized under it, and aided in inspiring confidence; that under its authority no act of impropriety has been reported, and I do not believe that any occurred; that it had no reference to or cgnnexion with the third regiment one-hundred-days men that was subsequently raised by authority of the War Department, under a different proclamation, calling for volunteers, or with any of the troops engaged in the Sand creek affair, and that the reference to it in such connexion, in the report of the Committee on the Conduct of the War, is a perversion of the history and facts in the case. "DAVID A. CHEVER. "TERRITORY OF COLORADO, Arapaho County, City of Denver, ss: "Subscribed and sworn to before me this 21st day of August, A. D. 1865. "ELI M. ASHLEY, Notary Public." I had appealed by telegraph, June 14, to the War Department, for authority to call the militia into the Uniited States service or to raise one-hundred-dly troops; also had written to our delegate in Congress to see why I got no response, and had received his reply to the effect that he could learn nothing about it; had received a notice from the department commander, declining to take the responsibility of asking the militia for United States service, throwing the people entirely on the necessity of taking care of themselves. It was under these circumstances of trial, suffering and danger on the part of the people, and of fruitless appeal upon my part to the general government for aid, that I issued my proclamation of the 11th August, 1864, of which the committee complain. Without means to mount or pay militia, and failing to get government authority to raise forces, and under the withdrawal of the few troops in the Territory, could any other course be pursued? The people were asked to fight on their own account-at their own expense-and in lieu of the protection the government failed to render. They were authorized to kill only the Indians that were murdering and robbing them in hostility, and to keep the property captured from them. How the committee would have them fight these savages, and what other disposition they would make of the property captured, the public will be curious to know. Would they fight without killing? Would they have the captured property turned over to the government, as if captured by United States troops? Would they forbid such captures? Would they restore it to the hostile tribes? The absurdity of the committee's saying that this was an "appeal to the cupidity," is too palpable to require much comment. Would men leave high wages, mount and equip themselves at enormous expense, as some patriotically did, for the poor chance of capturing property, as a mere speculation, from the prowling bands of Indians that infested the settlements and were murdering their families? The thing is preposterous. For this proclamation I have no apology. It had its origin and has its justification in the imperative necessities of the case. A merciless foe surrounded us. Without means to mount or pay militia, unable to secure government authority to raise forces, and our own troops ordered away, again I ask, could any other course be pursued? Captain Tyler's and other companies organized under it, at enormous expense, left their lucrative business, high wages and profitable employment, and served without other pay than the consciousness of having done noble and patriotic service; and no act of impropriety has ever been laid to the charge of any party acting under this pwclamation. They had all been disbanded months before the "attack" was made that the committee were investigating. The third regiment was organized under authority from the War Department, subsequently received by telegraph, and under a subsequent proclamation issued on the 13th of August, and were regularly mustered into the service of the United States about three months before the battle the committee were investigating occurred. Before leaving this subject, I desire to call attention to the following significant fact; the part of my proclamation from which the committee quote reads as follows "Now, therefore, I, John Evans, governor of Colorado Territory, do issue this, my proclamation, authorizing all citizens of Colorado, either individually or in such parties as they may organize, to go in pursuit cf all hostile Indians on the plains, scrupulously avoiding those who have responded to my call to rendezvous at the points indicated. Also to kill and destroy, as enemies of the country, wherever they may be found, all such hostile Indians." The language which I have italicised in the foregoing quotation shows that I forbade, in this proclamation, the disturbance of the friendly Indians and only authorized killing the hostile. 85

Page  A086 APPENDIX, The committee, in their censorious mention of the proclamation, omit this sentence which I have italicised, although they quote the language immediately'in connexion with it, and add the exclamation, " What Indians he would ever term friendly it is impossible to tell." Had they not suppressed this sentence their exclamation would have been awkward. Had they not suppressed it, its appearance in its proper connexion would have answered one of their most serious charges againrst me. Why is this? Does it not look like a persistent determination on their part to place me before the public in an improper and unjust position? If such a thing is possible, from so high a source, where is there any safety for the character of public men? Before clos'ng this reply, it is perhaps just that I should say that when I testified before the committee the chairman and all its members, except three, were absent, and I think, when the truth becomes known, this report will trace its parentage to a single member of the committee. I have thus noticed such portions of the report as refer to myself, and shown conclusively that the committee, in every mention they have made of me, have been, to say the least, mistaken. First. The committee, for the evident purpose of maintaining their position that these Indians had not been engaged in the war, say the prisoners they held were purchased. The testimony is to the effect that they captured them. Second. The committee say that these Indians were and always had been friendly, and had committed no acts of hostility or depredations. The public documents to which I refer show conclusively that they had been hostile, and had committed many acts of hostility and depredations. Third. They say that I joined in sending these Indians to Fort Lyon. The published report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and of the Indian council, show that I left them' entirely in the hands of the military authorities. Fourth. They say nothing seems to have been done by the authorities to prevent hostilities. The public documents and fies of the Indian bureau, and of my superintendency, show constant and unremitting diligence and effort on my part to prevent hostilities and protect the people. -Fifth. They say that I prevaricated for the purpose of avoiding the admission that these Indians "were and had been actuated by the most friendly feelings towards the whites." Public documents cited show conclusively that the admission they desired me to make was false, and that my statement, instead of being a prevarication, was true, although not in accordance with the preconceived and mistaken opinions of the committee. Those who read this will be curious for some explanation of this slanderous report. To me it is plain. I am governor of Colorado, and, as is usual with men in public position, have enemies. Mlany of these gentlemen were in the city of Washington last winter, endeavoring to effect my removal, and were not particular as to the character of the means they employed, so that the desired result was accomplished. For this purpose, they conspired to connect my name with the Sand creek battle, although they knew that I was in no way connected with it. A friend in that city, writing to me in regard to this attempt, and mentioning the names of certain of these gentlemen, said: "They are much in communication with, a member of the committee charged with the investigation of the Chivington affair." These gentlemen, by their false and unscrupulous representations, have misled the committee. I do not charge the committee with any intentional wrong. My charge against the committee is that they have been culpably negligent and culpably hasty; culpably negligent in not examining the public documents to which I called their attention, and which would have exonerated me, and saved them from many serious, unjust andnistaken representations; culpably hasty in concluding that I had prevaricated, because my statement did not agree with the falsehoods they had embraced. If my statement did not agree with what they supposed to be the truth, my position was such as to demand that they should at least go to the trouble of investigating the public documents to which I called their attention before publishing a report containing charges of so grave a character. That the Committee on the Conduct of the War should have published a report contain ing so many errors is to be regretted. It is composed of honorable gentlemen —members of the Congress of the United States-to whom have been intrusted duties of the gravest character, and from whom is expected, first, thorough investigation, and then careful state ment, so that their reports may be relied upon as truth, so far as truth is ascertainable by human means. This report, so full of mistakes which ordinary investigation would have avoided; so full of slander, which ordinary care of the character of men would have prevented, is to be regretted, for the reason that it throws doubt upon the reliability of all reports which have emanated from the same source, during the last four years of war. 86

Page  A087 APPENDIX. t am confident that the public will see, from the facts herein set forth, the great injustice done me; and I am further confident that the committee, when they know these and other facts I shall lay before them, will also see this injustice, and, as far as possible, repair it. JOHN EVANS, Governor af the Territory of Colorado and ex.officzio Sup't Ind. Affairs. Report of council with Cheyenne and Arapaho chiefs and warriors, brought to Denver by Major Wyn keep; taken down by United States Indian Agent Simeon Whiteley as it progressed. CAMP WELD, DENVERP, Wednesday, September 28, 1864. Present: Governor John Evans; Colonel Chivington, commanding district of Colorado; Colonel George L. Shoup, third Colorado volunteer cavalry; Major E. Wynkoop, Colorado first; S. Whiteley, United States Indian agent; Black Kettle, leading Cheyenne chief; White Antelope, chief central Cheyenne band; Bull Bear, leader of Dog Soldiers, (Cheyenne;) Neva, sub-Arapaho chief, (who was in Washington;) Bosse, sub-Arapaho chief; Heap of Buffalo, Arapaho chief; Na-ta-nee, Arapaho chief; (the Arapahoes are all relatives of LeftHand, chief of the Arapahoes, and are sent by him in his stead;) John Smith, interpreter to the Upper Arkansas agency; and many other citizens and officers. His Excellency Governor Evans asked the Indians what they had to say. Black Kettle then said: On sight of your circular of June 27, 1864, I took hold of the matter, and have now come to talk to you about it. I told Mr. Bent, who brought it, that I accepted it, but it would take some time to get all my people together-many of my young men being absent —and I have done everything in my power, since then, to keep peace with the whites. As soon as I could get my people together we held a council, and got a half-l)reed, who was with them, to write a letter to inform Major Wynkoop, or other military officer nearest to them, of their intention to comply with the terms of the circular. Major Wynkoop was kind enough to receive the letter, and visited them in camp, to whom they delivered four white prisoners-one other (Mrs. Snyder) having killed herself; that there are two women and one child yet in their camp, whom they will deliver up as soon as they can get them in-Laura Roper, sixteen or seventeen years; Ambrose Asher, seven or eight years; Daniel Marble, seven or eight years; Isabel Ubanks, four or five years. The prisoners still with them [are] Mrs. Ubanks and babe, and a Mrs. Morton, who was taken on the Platte. Mrs. Snyder is the name of the woman who hung herself. The boys were taken between Fort Kearney and the Blue. I followed Major Wynkoop to Fort Lyon, and Major Wynkoop proposed that we come up to see you. We have come with our eyes shut, following his handful of men, like coming through the fire. All we ask is that we may have peace with the whites. We want to hold you by the hand. You are our father. We have been travelling through a cloud. The sky has been dark ever since the war began. These braves who are with me are all willing to do what I say. We want to take good tidings home to our people, that they may sleep in peace. I want you to give all these chiefs of the soldiers here to understand that we are for peace, and that we have made peace, that we may not be mistaken by them for enemies. I have not come here with a little wolf bark, but have come to talk plain with you. We must live near the buffalo or starve. When we came here we came free, without any apprehension, to see you, and when I go home and tell my people that I have taken your hand, and the hands of all the chiefs here in Denver, they will feel well, and so will all the different tribes of Indians on the plains, after we have eaten and drank with them. Governor Evans replied: I am sorry you did not respond to my appeal at once. You have gone into an alliance with the Sioux, who were at war with us. You have done a great deal of damage-have stolen stock, and now have possession of it. However much a few individuals may have tried to keep the peace, as a nation you have gone to war. While we have been spending thousands of dollars in opening farms for you, and making preparations to feed, protect, and make you comfortable, you have joined our enemies and gone to war, Hearing, last fall, that they were dissatisfied, the Great Father at Washington sent me out on the plains to talk with you and make it all right. I sent messengers out to tell you that I had presents, and would make you a feast, but you sent word to me that you did not want to have anything to do with mne, and to the Great Father at Washington that you could get along without him. Bull Bear wanted to come in to see me at the head of the Republican, but his people held a council and would not let him come. BLAcK KEELS. That is true. 87 Very respectfully

Page  A088 APPENDIX. GOVERNOR EVANS. I was under the necessity, after all my trouble and all the expense I was at, of returning home without seeing them. Instead of this, your people went away and smoked the war-pipe with our enemies. BLACK KETTLE. I don't know who could have told you this. GOVERNOR EVANS. No matter who said this, but your conduct has proved to my satisfaction that was the case. SEVERAL INDIANS. This is a mistake; we have made no alliance with the Sioux or any one else. Governor Evans explained that smoking the war-pipe was a figurative term, but their conduct had been such as to show they had an understanding with other tribes. SEVERAL INDIANS. We acknowledge that our actions have given you reason to believe this. GOvERNOR EVANS. So far as making a treaty now is concerned, we are in no condition to do it. Your young men are on the war-path. My soldiers are preparing for the fight. You, so far, have had the advantage; but the time is near at hand when the plains will swarm with United States soldiers. I understand that these men who have come to see me now have been opposed to the war all the time, but that their people have controlled them and they could not help themselves. Is this so? ALL THE IND)IANS. It has been so. GOVERNOR EVANS. The fact that they have not been able to prevent their people from going to war in the past spring, when there was plenty of grass and game, makes me believe that they will not be able to make a peace which will last longer than until winter is past. WHITE ANTIELOPE. I will answer that after a time. GOvERNOR EVANS. The time when you can make war best is in the summer-time; when I can make war best is in the winter. You, so far, have had the advantage; my time is ju st coming. I have learned that you understand that as the whites are at war among themselves, you think you can now drive the whites from this country; but this reliance is false. The Great Father at Washington has men enough to drive all the Indians off the plains, and whip the rebels at the same time. Now the war with the whites is nearly through, and the Great Father will not know what to do with all his soldiers, except to send them after the Indians on the plains. My proposition to the friendly Indians has gone out; shall be glad to have them all come in under it. I have no new propositions to make. Another reason that I am not in a condition to make a treaty is that war is begun, and the power to make a treaty of peace has passed from me to the great war chief. My advice to you is to turn on the side of the government, and show by your acts that friendly disposition you profess to me. It is utterly out of the question for you to be at peace with us while living with our enemies, and being on friendly terms with them. INQUIRY MADE BY ONE INDIAN. What was meant by being on the side of the government? Explanation being made, all gave assent, saying: "All right." GOVERNOR EVANS. The only way you can show this friendship is by making some arrangement with the soldiers to help them. BLACK KETTLE. We will return with Major Wynkoop to Fort Lyon; we will then proceed to our village and take back word to my young men every word you say. I cannot answer for all of them, but think there will be but little difficulty in getting them to assent to help the soldiers. MAJOR WvYNKOOP. Did not the Dog Soldiers agree, when I had my council.with you, to do whatever you said, after you hadbeen here? BLACK KETTLE. Yes. Governor Evans explained that if the Indians did not keep with he United States soldiers, or have an arrangement with them, they would be all treated as enemies. You understand, if you are at peace with us it is necessary to keep away from our enemies. But I hand you over to the military, one of the chiefs of which is here to-day, and can speak for himself to them, if he chooses. WHITE ANTELOPE. I understand every word you have said, and will hold on to it. I will give you an answer directly. The Cheyennes, all of them, have their eyes open this way, and they will hear what you say. He is proud to have seen the chief of all the whites in this country. He will tell his people. Ever since he went to Washington and received this medal, I have called all white men as my brothers. But other Indians have since been to Washington and got medals, and now the soldiers do not shake hands, but seek to kill me. What do you mean by us fighting your enemies? Who are they? GOVERNOR EvANS. All Indians who are fighting us. WHITE ANTELOPE. HOW can we be protected from the soldiers on the plains? GOVERNOR EVANS. You must make that arrangement with the military chief. WHITE ANTELOPE. I fear that these new soldiers who have gone out may kill some of my people while I am here, 88

Page  A089 APPENDIX. GOVERNOR EVANS. There is great danger of it. WHITE ANTELOPE. When we sent our letter to Major Wynkoop, it was like going through a strong fire or blast for Major Wynkoop's men to come to our camp; it was the same for us to come to see you. We have our doubts whether the Indians south of the Arkansas, or those north of the Platte, will do as you say. A large number of Sioux have crossed the Platte, in the vicinity of the Junction, into their country. When Major Wynkoop came, we proposed to make peace. He said he had no power to make a peace, except to bring them here and return them safe. GOVERNOR EVANS. Again, whatever peace they make must be with the soldiers, and not with me. Are the Apaches at war with the whites? WHITE ANTELOPE. Yes, and the Comanches and Kiowas as well; also a tribe of Indians from Texas, whose names we do not know. There are thirteen different bands of Sioux who have crossed the Platte, and are in alliance with the others named. GOVERNOR EVANS. HOW many warriors with the Apaches, Kiowas, and Comanches? WHITE ANTELOPE. A good many; don't know. GOVERNOR EVANS. HOW many of the Sioux? WHITE ANTELOPE. Don't know; but many more thanof the southern tribes. GOvERNOR EVANS. Who committed the depredation on the trains near the Junction about the first of August? WHITE ANTELOPE. DO not know; did not know-any was committed; have takeni you by the hand and will tell the truth, keeping back nothing. GOVERNOR EVANS. Who committed the murder of the Hungate family on Running creek? NEVA. The Arapahoes; a party of the northern band, who were passing north. It was Medicine Man, or Roman Nose, and three others. I am satisfied from the time he left a certain camp for the north, that it was this party of four persons. AGENT WHITELEY. That cannot be true. GOVERNOR EVANS. Where is Roman Nose? NEVA. You ought to know better than me; you have been nearer to him. GOVERNOR EVANS. Who killed the man and boy at the head of Cherry creek? NEVA. (After consultation.) Kiowas and Comanches. GOVERNOR EvANS. Who stole soldiers' horses and mules from Jimmy's camp twentyseven days ago? NEVA. Fourteen Cheyennes and Arapahoes together. GOVERNOR EVANS. What were their names? NEVA. Powder Face and Whirlwind, who are now in our camp, were the leaders. COLONEL SisouP. I counted twenty Indians on that occasion. GOvERNOR EvANs. Who stole Charley Autobee's horses? NEVA. Raven's son. GOVERNOR EvANs. Who took the stock from Fremont's orchard and had the first fight with the soldiers this spring north of there? WHITE ANTELOPE. Before answering this question I would like for you to know that this was the beginning of war, and I should like to know what it was for. A soldier fired first. GOVERNOR EVANS. The Indians had stolen about forty horses; the soldiers went to recover them, and the Indians fired a volley into their ranks. WIITE ANTELOPE. This is all a mistake; they were coming down the Bijou, and found one horse and one mule. They returned one horse before they got to Geary's to a man, then went to Geary's expecting to turn the other one over to some one. They then heard that the soldiers and Indians were fighting somewhere down the Platte; then they took fright and all fled. GOVERNOR EVANS. Who were the Indians who had the fight 7 W5HITE ANTELOPE. They were headed by the Fool Badger's son, a young man, one of the greatest of the Cheyenne warriors, who was wounded, and though still alive he will never recover. NEVA. I want to say something; it makes me feel bad to be talking about these things and opening old sores. GOVERNOR EVANS. Let him speak. NEVA. Mr. Smith has known me ever since I was a child. Has he ever known me commit depredations on the whites? I went to Washington last year; received good counsel; I hold on to it. I determined to always keep peace with the whites. Now, when I shake hands with them, they seem to pull away. I came here to seek peace, and nothing else. GOVERNOR EVANS. We feel that they have, by their stealing and murdering, done us great damage. They come here and say they will tell me all, and that is what I am trying to get. NEVA. The Comanches, Kiowas, and Sioux have done much more injury than we have. We will tell what we know, but cannot speak for others. 89

Page  A090 APPENDIX. GOVERNOR EVANS. I supplse you acknowledge the depredations on the Little Blue, as you have the prisoners then taken in your possession. WHITE ANTELOPE. We (the Cheyennes) took two prisoners west of Fort Kearney, and destroyed the trains. GOVERNOR EVANS. Who committed depredations at Cottonwood? WIITE ANTELOPE. The Sioux; what band, we do not know. GOVERNOR EVANS. What are the Sioux going to do next? BULL BEAR. Their plan is to clean out all this country; they are angry, and will do all the damage to the whites they can. I am with you and the troops, to fight all those who have no ears to listen to what you say. Who are they? Show them to me. I am not yet old; I am young. I have never hurt a white man. I am pushing for something good. I am always going to be friends with the whites; they'can do me good. GOVERNOR EVANS. Where are the Sioux? BULL BEAR. Down on the Republican, where it opens out. GOVERNOR EVANS. DO you know that they intend to attack the trains this week? BULL BEAR. Yes; about one-half of all the Missouri River Sioux and Yanktons, who were driven from Minnesota, are those who have crossed the Platte. I am young and can fight. I have given my word to fight with the whites. My brother (Lean Bear) died in trying to keep peace with the whites. I am'willing to die in the same way, and expect to do so. NEVA. I know the value of the presents which we receive from Washington; we cannot live without them. That is why I try so hard to keep peace with the whites. GOVERNOR EVANS. I cannot say anything about those things now. NEVA. I can speak for all the Arapahoes under Left-Hand. Raven has sent no one here to speak for him. Raven has fought the whites. GOVERNOR EVANS. Are there any white men among your people? NEVA. There are none except Keith, who is'now in the store at Fort Larned. COLONEL CHIVINGTON. I am not a big war chief, but all the soldiers in this country are at my command. My rule of fighting white men or Indians is to fight them until they lay down their arms and submit to military authority. They are nearer Major Wynkoop than any one else, and they can go to him when they get ready to do that. The council then adjourned. I certify that this report is correct and complete; that I took down the talk of the Indians in the exact words of the interpreter, and of the other parties as given to him, without change of phraseology or correction of any kind whatever. SIMEON WHITELEY. Statement of Mrs. Ewbanks, giving an account of her captivity among the Indians. She was taken by the Cheyennes, and was one of the prisoners proposed to be given up by Black Kettle, White An telope and others, in the council at Denver. JULESBURG,-COLORADO TERRITORY, Tune 22, 1865. Mrs. Lucinda Ewbanks states that she was born in Pennsylvania; is 24 years of age; she resided on the Little Blue, at or near the Narrows. She says that on the 8th day of August, 1864, the house was attacked, robbed, burned, and herself and two chilren, with her nephew and Miss Roper, were captured by the Cheyenne Indians. Her eldest child, at the time, was three years old; her youngest was one year old, her nephew was six years old. When taken from her home was, by the Indians, taken south across the Republican, and west to a creek the name of which she does not remember. Here, for a short time, was their village or camping place. They were travelling all winter. When first taken by the Cheyennes she was taken to the lodge of an old chief whose name she does [not] recollect. He forced me, by the most terrible threats and menaces, to yield my person to him. He treated me as his wife. He then traded me to Two Face, a Sioux, who did not treat me as a wife, but forced me to do all menial labor done by squaws, and he beat me terribly. Two Face traded me to Black Foot, (Sioux,) who treated me as his wife, and because I resisted him his squaws abused and ill-used me. Black Foot also beat me unmercifully, and the Indians generally treated me as though I was a dog, on account of my showing so much detestation towards Black Foot. Two Face traded for me again. I then received a little better treatment. I was better treated among the Sioux than the Cheyennes-that is, the Sioux gave me snore to eat. When with the Cheyennes I was often hungry. Her purchase from the Cheyennes was made early last fall, and she remained with them until May, 1865. During the winter the Cheyennes came to buy me 90

Page  A091 APPENDIX. and the child, for the purpose of burning ILS, but Two Face would not let them have me. During the winter we were on the North Platte the Indians were killing the whites all the time and running off their stock. They would bring in the scalps of the whites and show them to me and laugh about it. They ordered me frequently to wean my baby, but I always refused; for I felt convinced if he was weaned they would take him from me, and I should never see him again. They took my daughter from me just after we were captured, and I never saw her after. I have seen the man to-day who had her; his name is Davenport. He lives in Denver. He received her from a Dr. Smith. She was given up by the Cheyennes to Major Wynkoop, but from injuries received while with the Indians, she died last February. My nephew also was given up to Major Wynkoop, but he, too, died at Denver. The doctor said it was caused by bad treatment from the Indians. While encamped on the North Platte, Elston came to the village, and I went with him and Two Face to Fort Laramie. I have heard it stated that a story had been told by me to the effect that Two Face's son had saved my life. I never made any such statement, as I have no knowledge of any such thing, and I think if my life had been in danger he would not have troubled himself about it. LUCINDA EWBANKS. Witness: J. H. TRIGGS, 1st Lieut. Comd'g Co. D, 7th Iowa Cavalry. E. B. ZAnRISKIE, Capt. lSt Car. Nev. Vol., Judge Advocate Dis't of the Plains. SENATOR: Since you were here I have had another talk with Major Anthony, who was in command of Fort Lyon at the time Colonel Chivington arrived there, having relieved Major Wynkoop. He says, among a great many other things.: " As I told you before, but two days before Colonel Chivington came down, they [Cheyennmes] sent word to me, after I had fired on them, that if that little G-d d-d red-eyed [Major Anthony's eyes and eyelids are red from having had the scurvy] chief wanted a fight out of them, if he would go up to their camp they would give him all he wanted." And Major Anthony says to me: "I told Colonel Chivington I was glad he had come; that I would have gone before and cleaned out the sons of guns if I had had force enough; but there were some of them I should have saved if possible." Again, he says: "This whole row has been caused by jealous officers and civilians who conspired to get' Old Chiv.' out of the way." I have no note or comment to make on this, only that it is a repetition of what the major said to me on the cars fast spring, between Atchison and Leavenworth, and accords with what officers in Denver say he told them before the battle, Truly yours, SINMEON WHITELEY. Hon. J. R. DOOLITTLE, C. S. Senate. EXTRACTS FROM THE ROCKY MOUNTAIN NEWS, DECEMBER, 1864. Despatch from Colonel Chivington. HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF COLORADO, Denver, December 7, 1864. EDITORS NEws: The following despatch has been received at this office and forwarded to department headquarters: HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF COLORADO, IN THE FIELD, Cheyenne Country, South Bend, Big Sandy, November 29. GENERAL: In the last ten days my command has marched three hundred miles-one hundred of which the snow was two feet deep. After a march of forty miles last night, I, at daylight this morning, attacked a Cheyenne village of one hundred anc thirty lodges, from nine hundred to one thousand warriors strong. We killed chiefs Black Kettle, White Antelope, and Little Robe, and between four and five hundred other Indians; captured between four and five hundred ponies and mules. Our loss is nine killed and thirty-eight wounded. All did nobly. I think I will catch some more of them about eighty miles on Smoky Hill. We found a white man's scalp, not more than three days old, in a lodge. J. M. CHIVINGTON, Colonel, Commanding District of Colorado and First Indian Expedition. Major General S. R. CURTIS, Fort Leavenworth. I am, gentlemen, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CHARLES WHEELER, A. A. A. General. 91

Page  A092 APPENDIX. Letter from Colonel Shoup-About the big fight. [The following private letter from Colonel Shoup was politely handed us for publication. SOUTH BEND OF BIG SANDY, BATTLE GROUND, Cheyenne Country, DecEmber 3, 1864. DEAR SIR: I have the pleasure of informing you that we engaged the Indians on yesterday, on the Big Sandy, about forty (40) miles north of Fort Lyon. The engagement commenced at sunrise, and lasted to about 21 o'clock p. m., completely routing the Indians. Our loss is eight (8) killed, one missing, and about forty wounded. The Indian loss is variously estimated at from 300 to 500-I think about 300-between 500 and 600 Indian saddles, and over 100 lodges, with all their camp equipage. Black Kettle, White Antelope, One Eye, and other chiefs, are among the killed. I think this the severest chastisement ever given to Indians in battle on the American continent. Our men fought with great enthusiasm and bravery, but with some disorder. There are plenty more Indians within a few days' march. I fear, however, they will lose their assumed bravery when they hear of the defeat of their allies in arms. The story that Indians are our equals in warfare is nailed. This story may do to tell to down.easters, but not to Colorado soldiers. About one hundred and seventy-five men of the first Colrado, a small detachment of the first New Mexico, and about six hundred and fifty of my regiment were in the engagement. I might, if time would permit, give you many interesting incidents that came under my notice during the battle, but I will have to close. Your son, the lieutenant, behaved well in the fight, and came out without a wound. Your friend, GEO. L. SHOUP. Captain SopRis. Letter from Major Anthony-About the Indian fight. [The following from the major to his brother, in this city, we are permitted to publish:] SAND CREEK, 25'MILES ABOVE FORT LYON, December 1, 1864. DEAR WEBB: I am here with the command. We have just had, day before yesterday, an Indian fight. We have nearly annihilated Black Kettle's band of Cheyennes and LeftHand's Arapahoes. itscr- a a I. t 0 l a i, a I did my share, and I think my command did as well as any in the whole brigade, notwithstanding I lost one man killed and two slightly wounded; I was one of the first in the fight and among the last to leave, and my loss is less than any other battalion. We have forty-seven persons killed and wounded. I will give particulars when I see you. We start for another band of red-skins, and shall fight differently next time. I never saw more bravery displayed by any set of people on the face of the earth than by those Indians. They would charge on a whole company singly, determined to kill some one before being killed themselves. We, of course, took no prisoners, except John Smith's son, and he was taken suddenly ill in the night, aad died before morning. Lieutenant Baldwin, of my command, lost his horse. I had one horse shot under me, but came off with a whole "hide." I did not sleep for three days and two nights until last evening. S. J. ANTHONY. Additional about the Indian fight. HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF COLORADO, IN THE FIELD, On Big Bend of Sandy Creek, Colorado Territory, Novemrber 29, 1864. SIR: I have not the time to give you a detailed history of our engagement of to-day, or to mention those officers and men who distinguished themselves in one of the most bloody Indian battles ever fought on these plains. You will find enclosed the report of my surgeon in charge, which will bring to many anxious friends the sad fate of loved ones, who are and have been risking everything to avenge the horrid deeds of those savages we have so severely handled. We made a forced march of forty miles and sur 92

Page  A093 APPENDIX. prised, at break of day, one of the most powerful villages of the Cheyenne nation, and captured over five hundred animals; killing the celebrated chiefs One Eye, White Antelope, Knock-Knee, Black Kettle, and Little Robe, with about five hundred of their people, destroying all their lodges and equipage, making almost an annihilation of the entire tribe. I shall leave here, as soon as I can see our wounded safely on the way to the hospital at Fort Lyon, for the villages of the Sioux, which are reported about eighty miles from here on the Smoky Hill, and three thousand strong-so look out for more fighting. I will state for the consideration of gentlemen who are opposed to fighting these red scoundrels, that I was shown by my chief surgeon the scalp of a white man, taken from the lodge of one of the chiefs, which could not have been more than two or three days taken; and I could mention many more things to show how these Indians, who have been drawing government rations at Fort Lyon, are and have been acting. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, J. M. CHIVINGTON, Colonel, Commanding Colorado Exvedition against indians on Plains. CHARLES WHEELER, A. A. A. General, Headquarters District of Colorado, Denver. Colonel Bent sworn: Having been living near the mouth of the Purgatoire on the Arkansas river in Colorado Territory for the last thirty-six years, and during all that time have resided near oriat what is known as Bent's Old Fort, I have had considerable experience in Indian affairs from my long residence in the country. Since I have been there nearly every instance of difficulties between the Indians and the whites arose from aggressions on the Indians by the whites. Some of these aggressions are of recent date. About three years ago the Arapahoes were encamped near Fort Lyon; a soldier had obtained some whiskey and went to the Arapaho village after dark; he met an Indian or two outside and told them he wanted a squaw for the whiskey; that is, he wanted a squaw to sleep with for the whiskey. The Indian told him that if he would give him the whiskey he would get him a squaw; he gave him the whiskey, and the Indian started off and went into a lodge of his friends, and commenced drinking the whiskey with them, without bringing the squaw. The soldier started on a search for the Indian and whiskey, and found them in a lodge. The Indian refused to return the whiskey, when the soldier pulled out his revolver, fired and broke the Indian's arm; the soldier then made his escape and could never be identified by his officers or by the Indians. The matter created great confusion among the Indians, but was finally settled without a fight. I understood from some officers under Colonel Chivington that the hostilities between the Cheyennes and the whites were commenced by Colonel Chivington's orders, who sent an officer down the Platte to see some Ind(iians who, it was said, had stolen some steck, with orders to disarm all the Indians he met. The officer proceeded until he met seme Indians coming in with some animals they had found, belonging to the whites; he rode up to the Indians in what they thought to be a friendly manner, and, I think, shbook hands with the Indians, and after doing that, he and his men made a grab for the Indians' arms. The Indians tried to run; the soldiers fired at them, wounding two; one fell from his horse, but the Indians rallied and got him off before the whites could get hold of them. This was a party of Cheyennes, I think seven in number. This was the first actual conflict between this tribe and the whites. Very soon after Lieutenant Ayres was sent down to pursue the Cheyennes; to continue down the Republican and Smoky Hill fork to Fort Larned. He met a party of Cheyennes on Smoky Hill, who were going out on a hunt; they had just left Fort Larned. One of the chiefs who had been on to Washlingtcn the spring previous was with the party. He went up to the soldiers, shook hands with them, showed the lieutenant the medal he got from the President, stating that his Grieat Father, when giving him the medal, told him to be always friendly to the whites. Thischief, Lean Bear, was then shot by one of the soldiers; a fight then commenced; there were tw, other Indians killed, three soldiers killed and ten or twelve wounded. The troops then commenced retreating, and a running fight was kept up for ten or fifteen miles; the Indians finally left them, the soldiers going to FortLarned. Lieutenant Ayres left his troops at Fort Larned and started for Fort Lyon. I met him on my way to the States, near Fort Lyon He told me he had had a fight with the Cheyennes, and some Sioux connected with them, on the Smoky Hill, killing some seventeen of them. I continued on my journey the next morning and met an express from the Indian village, where the fight was, stating they had had a fight on the Smoky Hill, but did not know what it was about or for, and that they would like to see me and converse with me on the subject. I sent the express back, stating I would meet the chief on Coon creek. Seven days after this I met the chief 93

Page  A094 APPENDIX. on Coon creek; he stated to me that he did not know the cause of the attack; that it was not his intention or wish to fight the whites; that he wanted to be friendly and peaceable and keep his tribe so. He felt he was not able to fight the whites, and wanted to live in peace. I then asked him if he would prevent his young men from committing any depredations for twenty days, by which time I thought I should be able to go to Leavenworth, see General Curtis, then in command of the department, and return. After leaving the chief I altered my mind, and concluded I could do better by seeing the authorities in Colorado at Fort Lyon. I returned next morning towards Fort Lyon. On my arrival there I met Colonel Chivington, related to him the conversation that had taken place between me and the Indians, and that the chiefs desired to be friendly. In reply he said he was not authorized to make peace, and that he was then on the war path-I think were the words he used. I then stated to him that there was great risk to run in keeping up war; that there were a great many government trains travelling to New Mexico and other points, also a great many citizens, and that I did not think there was sufficient force to protect the travel, and that the citizens and settlers of the country would have to suffer. He said the citizens would have to protect themselves. I then said no more to him. I then went up to my ranch, twenty-five miles from Fort Lyon; was there about seven days, when I received a letter from Major Colley, the Indian agent, stating he wished to see me immediately on business. I went to the fort, and he (Major Colley) showed me Governor Evans's proclamation, also a letter from Governor Evans to him, directing him to get some one to go immediately to the different tribes of Indians and fetch all of the different tribes of Indians into the forts, Lyon and Larned-that is, all who desired to be friendly; that they should be protected by the government of the United States, and at the same time have rations issued to them. Governor Evans at that time was ex-officio superintendent of Indian affairs. I immediately started on my way in search of the Indians, alone; I found all the different tribes in the vicinity of Fort Larned; the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches. I then immediately brought the Cheyenne chiefs within four miles of Fort Larned, they being at war with the whites; the other tribes were at peace. I had an interview with the Cheyennes-translated to them the governqr's proclamation; they expressed a great desire to make peace and to keep it, and appeared to be perfectly well satisfied with the governor's proclamation. They went up with me the next morning and had an interview with the commanding officer of the post, and everything was settied satisfactorily on both sides. The Indians then returned to their villages on the Arkansas, some twenty-five miles from Fort Lyon. I then mentioned to the commanding officer that I thought from the movements and actions of the Kiowas they would break out in a short time, which proved to be the case. In two or three days afterwards the Kiowas went up to Fort Larned and ran off the stock, at the same time wounding a sentinel. They resorted to a stratagem to obtain the stock: the squaws went into the fort and commenced a dance to attract the attention of the troops, while the war party got the horses, and when the alarm was given the squaws jumped on their horses and ran off. The Arapaho chief, LeftHand, then took twenty-five of his men and went to Fort Larned, with the intention of offering his services to the United States, to assist them in fighting the Kiowas and recovering the stolen stock. He got within four hundred yards of the fort, met a soldier, and sent him to the commanding officer, to state that he wished to have an interview with him, but the first salute he received was a cannon shot fired at himself and party. LeftHand carried a white flag, and could speak English very well. He was afterwards killed in the massacre on Sand creek. This was the commencement of the Arapaho war. The Arapahoes, who had committed no hostile acts previously, now commenced and committed more depredations than the Cheyennes. From information, I know of what occurred in the Sand creek fight; I had two sons in the village, and one who'acted as guide and interpreter for the government, and was with Colonel Chivington. The attack at Sand creek on the Indians produced great excitement among them; they even deposed their head chief, Black Kettle, stating that he had brought them in there to be betrayed; they also stated that they had always heard that white men would not kill women and children, but they had now lost all confidence in the whites. Since that time the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, and a portion of the Comanches, have been at war with the whites. I have no doubt but for the firing on the Arapahoes at Fort Larned, and the affair at Sand creek, we might have had peace with all the Indiains on the Arkansas. I have no doubt if proper persons (and by proper persons I mean those who would be honest and not try to defraud the Indians or the government, and they should be acquainted with the Indian character) were appointed agents, and if officers from the regular army, with troops from the same, were stationed at the posts near the Indians, I think there would be no difficulty. Volunteer officers, the Indians can see, have no control over their men-no discipline, and the soldiers cannot be punished for abusing the Indians. The last great difficulty previous to the one I have mentioned, grew out of the Sioux war. This war originated as follows: Some Mormons on their way to Salt lake were driving some stock; either a cow or an ox 94

Page  A095 APPENDIX. gave out, the Indians killed the animal, and the Mormons reported the fact to the commanding officer at Fort Laramie; the officer sent down for the Indian who killed the animal, but the Indians refused to send him, as he was not present and could not be found, offering at the same time to pay for the animal killed; the officer then sent Lieutenant Grattan, with eighteen men, to the Indian camp, where there were some three hundred warriors, to fetch the Indian away; he demanded that the Indian should be delivered in fifteen minutes, or he would fire on them; the Indian not being forthcoming at the time, Lieutenant Grattan fired on the Indians, and in a few minutes he and his comnmand were all massacred. This occurred in 1854, and was the commencement of the Sioux war, which lasted some time, the Cheyenne band of the North Platte becoming involved in it. Two campaigns were carried on against them; one under General Harney, and the other under Colonel Sumner. In answer to your inquiry, I must say there have been a good many goods sent by the government to the Indians which never were delivered. These goods are withheld in various ways. For instance, an Indian will come in and make the agent a present of a poney another will make him a present of a mule, another will present four or five buffalo robes, all of which the agent will receive to himself, when he has no right to. The agent then pays these Indians out of the annuity goods, which causes a great deal of dispute among the other Indians, who see the goods which ought to come to them given in payment to other Indians. The Indians never make presents without expecting to receive something more than its value in return, so in the long run it is nothing more nor less than a trade. I believe there are agents, or agents' relatives, in this country who have made very good speculations. The son of Major Colley, the Indian agent of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, was an Indian trader for the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, and Comanches. He came to this country the fall after his father was appointed agent. When he first came here he could not have had property of the value to exceed fifteen hundred dollars, which consisted of some thirty or forty head of cows. From what he said to me he must have made twenty-five or thirty thousand dollars in the two or three years he was trading with the Indians. John Smith acted as the Indian trader, and was considered as a partner in the business. It is hard to identify Indian goods, but I am satisfied that a portion of the goods traded with the Indians were annuity goods. From comparison of the goods traded and the annuity goods, I am satisfied they were identically the same goods. The Indians knew they were purchasing their own goods, but did not complain about it. At the time I was trading in the same village with Mr. Colley, one of my men went into his lodge and brought back to me a top of a box marked "U. S. Upper Arkansas Agency." I have heard it stated that sometimes agents give the Indian goods to white traders in the country to trade them on shares. To procure vouchers for the goods the agent will send out to have the tribe come in and get their annuity goods. The goods thought proper to be given them are piled in a heap on the prairie, the Indians sit round in a large circle, and the agent then tells them, "There are your annuity goods-divide them among yourselves." The agent then gets four or five of the principal chiefs to come in and sign the vouchers; as a matter of course the Indians do not know what or how much they are signing for. I would suggest that the Indians be allowed by law to select some white man to be present at the distribution, with power to examine all bills and vouchers, and see that the Indians are not defrauded. All the agents on the Arkansas have been in the habit of distributing the gooqs in the manner above described, and the poor and needy Indians do not get their share,/which falls to the richer and more powerful ones. If the matter w ere left to me I would guarantee with my life that in three months I could have all the Indians along the Arkansas at peace, without the expense of war. These would include the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Kiowas, Comanches, and Apaches. Some Cheyennes in whom I have confidence stated to me that they had no confidence in Major Colley, knowing he was swindling them out of their goods, and they did not care to come in and receive them, but when Major Fitzpatrick was their agent they had confidence and always came in for their annuities. There was a treaty made between the Cheyennes and Arapahoes and Colonel Boone. In my opinion the reservation now set apart for the Cheyennes and Arapahoes is not suitable. The best place for a reservation for them, in my opinion,'would be on Beaver creek, between the Smoky Hill and the Republican. This would be in their own country, where the buffalo abound, and where they will probably last le seen. This reservation would be off from all the roads and all the great thoroughfares, and distant from all settlements. The land would be suitable for them, but not for the whites, and contains no minerals. On this reservation the agency should be established, and the agent should always be with them; grass and timber abound. Robert Bent sworn: I am twenty-four years old; was born on the Arkansas river. I am pretty well acquainted with the Indians of the plains, having spent most of my life among them. I aas employed as guide and interpreter at Fort Lyon by Major Anthony. Colonel Chiving 95

Page  A096 APPENDIX. ton ordered me to accompany him on his way to Sand creek. The command consisted of from nine hundred to one thousand men, principally Colorado volunteers. We left Fort Lyon at eight o'clock in the evening, and came on to the Indian camp at daylight the next morning. Colonel Chivington surrounded the village with his troops. When we came in sight of the camp I saw the American flag waving and heard Black Kettle tell the Indians to stand round the flag, and there they were huddled —men, women, and children. This was when we were within fifty yards of the Indians. I also saw a white flag raised. These flags were in so conspicuous a position that they must have been seen. When the troops fired the Indians ran, some of the men into their lodges, probably to get their arms. They had time to get away if they had wanted to. I remained on the field five hours, and when I left there were shots being fired up the creek. I think there were six hundred Indians in all. I think there were thirty-five braves and some old men, about sixty in all. All fought well. At the time the rest of the men were away from camp, hunting. I visited the battle-ground one month afterwards; saw the remains of a good many; counted sixtynine, but a number had been eaten by the wolves and dogs. After the firing the warriors put the squaws and children together, and surrounded them to protect them. I saw five squaws under a bank for shelter. When the troops came up to them they ran out and showed their persons to let the soldiers know they were squaws and begged for mercy, but the soldiers shot them all. I saw one squaw lying on the bank whose leg had been broken by a shell; a soldier came up to her with a drawn sa,bre; she raised her arm to protect herself, when he struck, breaking her arm; she rolled over and raised her other arm, when he struck, breaking it, and then left her without killing her. There seemed to be an indicriminate slaughter of men, women, and children. There were some thirty or forty squaws collected in a hole for protection; they sent out a little girl about six years old with a white flag on a stick; she had not proceeded but a few steps when she was shot and killed. All the squaws in that hole were afterwards killed, and four or five bucks ootsidte. The squaws offered no resistance. Every one I saw dead was scalped. I saw one squaw cut open with an unborn child, as I thought, lying by her side. Captain So)ule6, aft,rward(s told me that such was the fact. I saw the body of White Antelope with the privates cut off, and I heard a soldier say he was going to make a tobacco-pouch out of them. I saw one squaw whose privates had been cut out. I heard Colonel Chivington say to the soldiers as they charged past him, " Remember our wives and children murdered on the Platte and Arkansas." He occupied a position where he coul(d not have failed to have seen the American flag, which I think was a garrison flag, six by twelve. He was within fifty yards when he,planted his battery. I saw a little girl about five years of age who had been hid in the sand; two soldiers discovered her, drew their pistols and shot her, and then pulled her out of the sand by the arm. I saw quite a number of infants in arms killed with their mothers. There were trading in the village at the time John Smith, a solier named Louderback, and a teamster of young Colley's named Clark. They were trading goods said to belong to Dexter Colley and John Smith. The goods traded were similar to those they had been in the habit of tradling before. I have heard the Indians charge Major Colley with trading their own goods to them. Colonel Kit Carson sworn: I have heard read the statement of Colonel Bent, and his suggestions and opinions in relation to Indian affairs coincide perfectly with my own. I came to this country in 1826, and since that time have become pretty well acquainted with the Indian tribes, both in peace and at war. I think, as a general thing, the difficulties arise fromn aggressions on the part of the whites. From what I have heard, the whites-are always cursing the Indians, and are not willing to do them justice. For instance, at times large trains come out to this country, and some man without any responsibility is hired to guard the horses, mules, and stock of the trains; these cattle by his negligence frequently stray off; always, if anything is lost, the cry is raised that the Indians stole it. It is customary among the Indians, even among themselves, if they lose animals, as Indians go eyerywhere, if they bring them in they expect to get something for their trouble. Among themselves they always pay; but when brought in to this man, who lost them through his negligence, he refuses to pay, and abuses the Indians, striking or sometimes shooting them, because they do not wish to give up the stock without pay; and thus a war is brought on. That is the way in which difficulties frequently arise. I have heard read the statement of how the Sioux war arose, which agrees word for word with what I have heard, and what I believe to be the facts. And in relation to the war with the Cheyennes, I have heard it publicly stated that the authorities of Colorado, expecting that their troops would be sent to the Potomac, determined to get up an Indian war, so that the troops would be compelled to remain. I know of no acts of hostility on the part of the Cheyennes and Arapahoes committed previous to the attacks made upon them, as stated by 96

Page  A097 APPENDIX. Colonel Bent. In 183(", or'31, I was one of a party who made pt-.e with the Arapahoes, and since that time I know of no difficulty wleth thlra until that described by Colonel Bent. I know of no other great difficulties on the Arkansas route than the Sioux war and the present war. I think the Kiowas are hostile against the government without cause. The other tribes, I think iare rather compelled to be so. Most of the Comanches, I think, are friendly disposel. I think if proper men were appointed and proper steps tiken, peace could be had with all the Indians on and below the Arkansas, witl-iout war. I believe that, if Colonel Bent and myself were authorized, we could make a solid, lasting peace with thoIse Indians. I have much more confidence in the influence of Colonel Bent with the Indian,is than in my own. I think if prompt action were taken the Indians could be got together by the tenth of September. I know that even before the acquisition of New Mexico there had about always existed an hereditary warfare betwe-L the Navtjoes and Mexicans; forays were made into each other's country, and stock, wvomen, and children st,)len. Since the acquisition, the same state has existed; we would hardiy get back from fighting and making peace with them before they wvould be at war again. I consider the reservation system as the only one to be adopted for them. If they were sent back to their own co)untry to-morrow, it would not be a month before hostilities wvould commence again. Theie is a part of the Navajoes, the wealthy, who wish to live in peace; the poorer class are in the majority, and they have no chiefs who can control them. When I campaigned against them eight months I found them scattered over a, country several hundred miles in extent. There is no suitable place in their own country-and I have been all over it-where more than two thousand could be placed. If located in different places, it would not be long before they and the Mexicans would be at war. If they were scattered on different locations, I hardly think any number of troops could keep them on their reservations. The mountains they live in in the Navajo country cannot be penetrated by troops. There are canions in their country thirty miles in length, with walls a thousand feet high, and when at war it is impossible for troops to pass through these canons, in which they hide and cultivate the ground. In the main Cafion de Chelly they had some two or three thousand peach trets, which wvere mostly destroyed by my troops. Colonel Sumner, in the fall of 1851, went into the Cation de Chelly with several hundred men and two pieces of artillery; he got into the caiIon some eight or ten miles, but had to retreat out of it at night. In the walls of the caion they have regular houses built in the crevices, from which they fire and roll down huge stt)nes on an enemy. They have regular fortifications, averaging from one to two hundred feet from the bottom, with portholes for firing. No small-arms can injure them, and artillery cannot be used. In one of these crevices I found a two-stoiv house. I regard these caflons as impregnable. General Canby entered this canion, but retreated out the next morning. When I captured the Navajoes I first destroyed their crops, and harassed them until the snow fell very deep in the cafions, taking some prisoners occasionally. I think it was about the 6th of January, after the snow fell, that I started. Five thousand soldiers would probably keep them on reservations in their own country. The Navajoes had a good many small herds when I went there. I took twelve hundred sheep from them at one time, and smaller lots at different times. The volunteers were allowed one dollar per head for all sheep and goats taken, which were turned over to the commissary. I think General Carleton gave the order as an encouragement to the troops. I think from fifteen hundrled to two thousand could subsist themselves in the Valley de Chelly. At this point it took me and three hundred men most one day to destroy a field of corn. I think probably fifteen hundred could subsist on the northeastern slope of the Tunacha mountain. I know of no other place near by where any considerable number could subsist themselves. I was in the valley of the San Juan, but can give no idea of the number that could subsist themselves in it. While I was in the country there wass continual thieving carried on between the. Navajoes and Mexicans. Some Mexicans now object to the settlement of the Navajoes at the Bosque, because they cannot prey on thenm as formerly. I am of the opinion that, in consequence of the military campaign and the destructi,)n of their crops, they were forced to come in. It appears to me that the only objection to the Bosque is on account of the wood, which consists of mesquite roots; but I am not sufficiently acquainted with the character of it to give an opinion of it, and the tine it would last, but it is rather hard to dig. Many of the Apaches understand farmning, and they should be put on a reservation. I think the Jicarrilla Apr)aches would object to being put oin the Bosque.'I'heApaches in Arizona, I think, would make very little objection to bein placed on: reservation. With the Utes it would be more difficult, as they know nothing of planting, and when spoken to on the subject have invariably objected. qi hey are a brave, warlike people; they are of rather small size, but hardy, and very fine shots. I would advise, however, that they be put on a reservation, as they canneJt live much longer as now; they are generally hungry, and killing cattle and sheep, which will bring on a war. They are now at peace, and it would be the wiser 7 97

Page  A098 APPENDIX. policy to remain at peace with them. I think there is a goo( place for a reservation north of the San Juan in Utah. I think that justice demands that every effort should be made to secure peace with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes before any war was prosecuted against them, in view of the treatment they have received. HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF NiEW MExico, Saentea 1, Asew Mlexico, October 22, 1865. SiX: I have the honor herewith to enclose for the information of the congressional committee, of which you are the chairman, letters of instruction and advice from myself to various commanders and to different departments of the public service in relation to Indians, Indian wars, &c., &c., within my official jurisdiction and controlled by myself. Among these letters will be found two or three relating to the wealth of this part of the country in precious metals. These are sent to you in order that the committee may see the national importance of settling Indians upon reservations, so that the country now inhabited by many bands of them may be left open to the enterprise and skill of the miner. The Indians will not themselves work the mines: they should not be permitted to lie in wait to murder the prospecter who comes with much toil and many privations to explore their country for its hidden wealth. This they will surely do unless they are exterminated or placed upon reservations. The miners wtll go to their country, and the question which comes up is, shall the miners be protected aivd the country be developed, or shall the Indians be suffered to kill them and the nation be deprived of its immense wealth? In all that I have had to do in this command, so far as the Indians are concerned, I have endeavored to treat them justly, and I point to this record of over three years of anxiety and toil, mostly on their account, as one of whichi I do not feel ashamed. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CAPLETON. Brigadier Generel, C'omandiyrj Hon. JAMES RP. DOOLITTLE, U/nited States Sernate, Tf,ashiaigton, D. C. LETTERS RELATING TO INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE DEPARTMENR OF NEW MEX ICO DURING THE YEARS 1862 AND 1863. [Extract., HIEADQUARTERS DEPAR3TMENT OF NEw MExico. Santa i', AT. L., Septenber 30, 1862. GENEnAL: I have the honor to i'nformi you that I relieved General Canby in the command of this department on the 18th instant, and he left this city fo)r Washington, D. C., four days afterwards. I find that during the raid which was made into this Tlerritory by some armed men from Texas, under Brigadier General Siblcy, of the army of the so-called Confederate States, the Indians, aware that the attention of our troops c)uld not, for the time, be turned toward them, commenced robbing the inhabitants of their stock, and killed, in various places, a great number of people the Navajoes on the western side, and the Mescalero Apaches on the eastern side of the settlements, both committing these outrages at the same time, and during the last year that has passed have left the people greatly impoverished. Many farms and settlements near Fort Stanton have been entirely abandoned. To punish and control the Mescaleros, I have ordered Fort Stanton to be reoccupied. That post is in the heart of their country, and hitherto when troops occupied it those Indians were at peace. I have sent Colonel Christopher Carson, (Kit Carson,) with five companies of his regiment of New MAexi:an volunteers, to Fort Stanton. One of these companies, on foot, will hold the post and guard the stores, while four companies mounted, under Carson, will operate against the Indians until they have been punished for their recent aggressions. The lieutenant colonel, with f)ur compinies of the same regiment, will move into the Navajo country and establish and garrison a post on the Gallo, which was selected by General Canby it is called Fort Wingate. I shall endeavor to have this force, assisted 98'

Page  A099 APPENDIX. i by some militia which have been called out'by the governor of tile Territory, 7service among the Navajoes as will bring thern to feel that they have been doing wrong. I ma, general. very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comrnatdirg. Brigad,lier General LoRENzo THOMIAs, Adj;etant Genieral U. S. A., TWa.shirigqton, D. C. EPRASTUS W. WOOD, Cptain let Diet. lf. C. Tr', A. A. A. Generci. Confidential. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MaIrXICO, San?zta Fe, -.V. M, October 11, 1862. COLONEL: I have ordered Colonel Carson, with five companies of his regiment, to reoccupy Fort Stanton. These troops are already en route to that point; they will immeliately commence hostile operations against the Mescalero'and Navajo Indians who may be in that vicinity and southward of it. You will order the following troops into the Mlescalero country to co-operate with Colonel Carson, yet to be independent of him: Captain MIcCleave you will place in command of one expedition, to be composed of his own and one company of your regiment. Hlie will start with this force, increased by twenty good Mexican spies and guides which you are authorized to) employ at reasonable rates on the 15th of next mionth, and be absent until the 31st day of December, 1862. He will proceed by the way of Dog Calion and operate to the eastward and southeastward of that noted haunt of the Mescaleros.. You will order Captain Roberts of your regiment to command another expedition against these Indians. His force will be composed of all the effective men of his own company, all the effect.ive men of Captain Pishon's company now in the valley of the Rio Grande, north of Fort Quitman, and twenty first-rate Pueblo Indians or Mexicans, whom you are authorized to employ at Isletta, Socorro, and San Elizario. These last twenty I would suggest you employ Don Gregorio Garcia, of San Elizario, to command. He has often been on expeditions against the Mescaleros and had good luck; he knows the country well. Captain Roberts will start from Franklin, Texas, on the 15th of November next, and be absent until December 31, 1862. He will procee i by the Wacco Tanks and thence northwestwardly to such points as will be most likely to b occupied by Apaches. Assistant Surgeon Kittridge will accompany Captain lIcCleave; Assistant Surgeon McKee will accompany Captain Roberts. There is to be no council held with the Indians, nor any talks. The men are to be slain whenever and wherever they can be found. The women and children may be taken as prisoners, but, of course, they are not to be killed. From Dog Cation and from the Wacco Tanks, subsistence stores and ammunition, &c., will doubtless have to be transported on pack-mules. I have ordered seventy-five packsaddles to be sent down from Fort Union for the use of the two expeditions. I would suggest a depot being formed by each expedition well out into the Mesalero countrv, further out than Dog Cation or Wacco Tanks, if practicable-a depot that may be reachedl by wvago-s-and thence operate with pack-mules, leaving a few mien in depot to guard the supplies not immediately required. I send a copy o0 this letter t) Colonel Carson, that he may know when,ou are to act, and where your forces are to operate, and he will shape his plans accordingly. AIuch is expected of the California troops. I trust that these three demonstrations will give those Inriianus a wholesome lesson. They have robbed and murdered the people with impunity too long already. If the mov-emenets are kept from being made public, so the Indians through the Mlexicans may not know of your plans until the troops take the field, it will be better so If the Indians want to negotiate, Carson will send the chief, under a flag, to Santa Fe for that purpose. While Captain Roberts's company is in the field, you will station Captain Willis, with a portion of his company, at Franklin, and leave another portion, under Lieutenant Whittemore, to guard Hart's Mills. Both Mecleave an it Roberts will be instructed to keep a journal of every day's march and work; of the estimated courses and distances travelled of the kind of country passed over; of the water courses, spl ings, go ass, &c., which they find. These journals will be forwarded to department headquarters as soon as the campaign is over, and copies of them to Washington. Official:

Page  A100 APPENDIX. Tile several commiands wvill be entirely independent of each other, unless they "happen to join to do duty together," and the commanding officers will have full powers to subdivide their forces, when once they have got into the Indian country, in such manner as in their j udgmrnent will be the best, having in view the punishment of the Indians. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H CARLETON, Brigadier General. Cormanding. Colonel JOSEPII R. ANEST, Coemaeiei,ig the District of Arizmna, Jesilla. If necessary, C.;pt.ni Willis can employ the doctor in E1 Paso to attend his sick during MIcKee's absence. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain Ist Tot. Ief. C. V, A. A. A. Gereral. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTRTENT OF NEW MExICo, Sonta Fe, N. Mf., October 12, 1862. COLONEL: Enclosed you will find a confidential communication to ColonelWest, comimuding the district of Arizona; it is dated the 11th instant, and directs him to send two expeditions against the Mescalero Apaches, starting them on the 15th of next month. I desire youto send one of your mounted companies down to the junction of the Rio Hondo with the Pecos, to act as an outpost to this country; to keep scouts well down the river towards Delaware creek to see that no force advances up the Pecos from the direction of Fort Lancaster, in Texas, without your having timely notice of the fact, so that you can send me word. As vour Scouts from this company conme near the mouth of the Perlasco they will, doubtless, find a plenty of Mescaleros. It was near that point where Captain Stanton was killed by them. In this case you could, if you thought it advisable, move the company down to the month of the Pefiasco to produce an impression upon the Indians, at the same time it watched the approaches to New Mexico by the way of the Pecos; but under no circumstances will it leave the valley of the river unwatched. The other three companies you can divide as you please, but with these you will make war upon the Mescaleros and upon all other Indians you may find in the Mescalero country, until further orders. All Indian men of that tribe are to be killed whenever and wherever you can find them. The women and children will not be harmed, but you will take them prisoners, and feed them at Fort Stanton until you receive other instructions about them. If the Indians send in a flag and desire to treat for peace, say to the bearer that when the people of New Mexico were attacked by the Texans, the Mescaleros broke their treaty of peace, and murdered innocent people, and'ran off their stock; that now our hanfis are untied, and you have been sent to punish them for their treachery and their crimes; that you have no power to make peace; that you are there to kill them wherever you can find them; that if they beg for peace, their chiefs and twenty of their principal men must come to Santa Fe to have a talk here; but tell them fairly and frankly that you will keep after their people and slay them until you receive orders to desist froml these headquarters; that this mraking of treaties for them to break whenever they have an interest in breaking them will not be done any more; that that time has passed by; that we have no faith in their promises; that we believe if we kill some of their men in fair, open war, they will be apt to rememb,er that it will be better for them No remain at peace than to be at war. I trust that this severity, in the long run, will be the most humane course that could be pursued toward these Indians. You observe that there is a large force helping you. I do not wish to tie your hands by instructions; the whole duty can be summed up in a few words: The Indians are to be soundly whipped, without parleys or councils except as above. Be careful not to mistake the troops from below for Texans. Itf a force of rebels comes, you know how to annoy it; how to stir up their camps and stock by night; how to lay waste the prairies by fire; how to make the country very warmn for them, and the road a difficult one. Do this, and keep me advised of all you do. I am, colonel, respectfully, your friend, MES iH. CARLETON, Briyadier C eneral, Commanding. Colonel CIiRISTOPHIER CARSON, 1Ist Vew Jiexico Vol, en route to art Staeton, N. MI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vtet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 100 C,ffic,al:

Page  A101 APPENDIX., LExtract. HEADQUARTLFaRS DEPARTMENET or Nrw M,NIxICO, Santa 2, 3 By., revcaibele 9, 186G2. GENERAL e':'::';;;:. You are aware of the hostile attitude of the Mlescalero Apaches, the Pino Alto Apaches, and the Navajoes, and also of the rumors of another Texan raid. I shall endeavor to accomplish everything possible with the handful of men which are left. Five companies of Colonel Carson's regiment are now at Fort Stanton and in the Mescaflero country, and four companies of the California volunteers enter that country from Fort Fillmore and from Franklin, Texas. These nine companies will, I trust, punish the Mesccileros well. Alrea(dyv, in one small affair, Carson's men have killed Jose Largo and Manuelita, two of the principal chiefs, and nine of the men, besides wounding several, and besides capturing, as I learn, some seventeen horses. By establishing Fort Sumner at the Bosque hedondo, I shut up the door through which the IKiowas and Comanches have hitherto entered New Mexico, and cut off a great thoroughlfae northward of the Mescaleros. Another very important consideration in establ)lishing this post was to open a portion of the country where good grass is found all winter for our worna-dlown aninmals to keep them from perishing. AV e could not buy hay enough to subsist them even if we had the money, The saving on hay alone, this winter, will mnore than build the post in the spring. During the winter the troops will live in tents or under canvas. I beg to call your attention again to the practicability of sending the regimen-t of infantry and five companies of cavalry (at all events the former) which were asked for, to be sent from California, by General Canby. The provisions are already in abundance at Fort Yuma and at Tucson, the medical stores and ammunition here, and the transportation all ready to convey the baggage of those troops firom Fort Yuma to the Rio Grande. The weather is now cool, and no discomfort would be experienced in passing the Gila desert. I beg, respectfully, to ask that I have authority to incorporate the troops from California with those belonging to this department. Under War Department Orders No. 29, series for 1862, they are still borne as belonging to the column from California. This leads to great embarrassment in making up the returns, as the withdrawal of so many troops from this department renders it necessary to distribute the California troops throughout the department. I trust the importance of this change, and the greater importance of sending more troops without delay into this department, will merit and receive your serious attention. I amr, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri adier Gerteal, Cornmaradi;,.q. Brigadier General LORENzo THOMIAS, Adjutant General J. S. A., TWahir,i,ton, D. C. NOrE.-I herewith enclose a copy of a letter fromnt Captain Archer, commnandcling at Fort Craig, New Mexico, in relation to an attack by Indians of a train on the Jornado del MIuerto. The Indians are said to have been Navajoes; the party numbering about two hundred. J. II. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. Ge?eral. HEADQUARTERS DE.PARTMENT OF NEW I}XICO, Santa Te', N. JI., Ar'ovenmber 25, 1862. COL)NEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the re:.eipt of your letter in relation to the Mescalero chief.s who have come to this city with Mir. Labadie, the Indian agent, to sue for peace. Yesterdiay, in presence of the governor, the superintend(lent of Indian affairs, ard other gentlemten, I had an interview with the chiefs above alluded to, and told them that if they and th ir part of the tribe desired to have peiace they must come out of the Mle scalero country, so that we should not mistake them for those who were hostile, and so that we would be sure that they conveyed no intelligence of our miovemene.ts to those who did not come in. 1 told them I wou'd send them and their families to Fort Suminer, at the Bosque Redondo, on the Peces river, and there feed and protect them until we had punish(d those who were still at war. anl luntil these latter come in an,d leg for peace like!ise. 101 Official:

Page  A102 APPENDIX. A train of government wagons will leave Fort Union, with subsistence stores, for Fort Stanton, iu a few days. When this train starts to return, have all the Mescalero men, women, and children, of the peace party, with all of their effects, come with this train. The women and children and baggage will be hauled in the wagons, and you will see that they have provisions enough to last them all to the Bosque Redondo, by the way of Agua Negra. The meat portion of the ration will be beef on the hoof. The commanding officer at Fort Sumnner will be instructed to feed and protect them after their arrival at the Bosque Redondo. After these Indians have been sent to the Bosque Redondo youL will continue to make war on the others, as heretofore instructed. If they sue for peace, (anty one small band of the Mescaleros,) send that band to Fort Sumner to await there until the remainder come in. The result of this will be that, eventually, we shall have the whole tribe at the Bosque Redondo, and then we can conclude a definite treaty, andl let them all return again to inhabit their proper country. If you are satisfied that Graydon's attack 0o1 Manuelita and his people was not falir and open, see that all the horses and mules, including two said to be in the hands of one Mr. Beach, of Manzana, are returned to the survivors of Manuelita's band. These arrangements seem to be just. When any band comes in for peace, send me a list of the names of all the men, and the number of the women and child'en, so that I may know the additional number to provide for at Fort Sumner. 1 am, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Briyadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPIIER CAPSON, Comezanding Expedition against the JIesca,lero Apaches, Fort Stanton, 2E. 31. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captai 1slt Iet. JAf. C V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPART.IENT OF NEW MIEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., Novenber 26, 1862. CAPTAIN: Enclosed herewith is an authentic copy of a letter from myself to Colonel Carson in relation to sending to Bosque Redondo certain men, wome,n, and children of the Mescalero Apache Indians, who desire peace. When these Indians come to Fort Sumner you will have them encamp sufficiently near your garrison to have them feel secure from attacks by Comanches and Kiowas, of whom they are much afraid; and sufficiently near for you to know that none of them leave for the Mescalero country without authority. These Indians are to be fed by your commissary; are to be treated kindly; are not to be annoyed by soldiers visiting their camp at improper times. As you see by my instructions to Colonel Carson, others of this tribe will doubtless soon be sent to join these. You will have all the parties that come in provided for and carefully protected from harm until further orders. Send me by every express a list of the names of the men and the number of women and children which you are thus called upon to feed and protect, so that provision may be made for them. I am, captain, very respectfully, IJES H. eARLETON, .Brigadier General, Conmmandin#. Captain JosEPH UPDEGRAFF, Commnanding fto7t Sumni.er, Boeque Redonde, Y. JI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captainz 1st Vet. [,,f. C. V, A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW IMEXICO, Santta Fe,,., v., Naovem)er 26, 1862. SIR: If in your investigations of the matters relating to the attack by Graydon on Manuelita's band of Miescaleros it shall appear that one Charles Beach, of Manzana, is implicated to a criminal extent, arrest Beach and hold him securely until further orders. The horse 102 Offici,,il:

Page  A103 APPENDIX. and mule which Beach is said to have received as a part of the booty taken front the Indians must be restored to youe, or Beach kept in confinement until this restoration is made. I consider Mlr. Beach an improper person to reside in the Mescalero country, so he will be forbiddeni under any circumstances frou settling there. -C' -;}........ 9 -:; -: e';.'..................... -:COW :-:I amn, c-pt.ain, very respectfullyi, y)our o,bedienlt servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadicr General, Commanding. Colonel CIIEISTOPHER CARSON, or, OrIce,- co,miauid,,tng Fiort Stant'on,.N. ail. ERASTUS W. WOOD, CG5t0in lst Yet. Izf. C V., A4. 41. General. HEADQUARTERS D,aPARTMIEN-T OF NEW MEXICO, Inert Uiioil, NV EL1., December 9, 1862. Sir: i learnei a week since, unofficially, that an Indian of the Utah tribe was in Taos recently, where certain parties are said to have gotten him drunk, then to have saturated some parts of his garments with spirits of turpentine and set fire to the clothing thus saturated. From the effects of this burning the Indian is said to have died. The Utah tribe to which he belonged is sai(dl to be very much incensed at this inhuman outrage, and to threaten to be avenged. In your capacity as judge of this district it occurred to me that you are the proper person to institute inquiries into this matter, and if the rumor be true, to make it your especial business to cause the offenders to be brought to punishment. As one of the United States officers in New Mexico, and as one whose particular calling is to see justice done, I trust I have but to call your attention to this alleged crime to awaken your zeal in the cause of justice and humanity. In many years' experience in affairs connected with Indians, I think it never has been my lot to have heard of such horrible barbarity before on the part of white men toward Indians. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Briyadier General, Commanding. Hon. Judge KNAPP, at Barclay's Fort, N.,I. NOTE -I beg you will acknowledge the receipt of this letter. ERASTUJS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Set. Ilof. C. V., A. A-. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NV. JIl., December 20, 1862. A delegation of eighteen Narvio chiefs ha:ve been in asking for peace. They have heard of our demonstrations against thle Miescalero Indians, and see that Fort Wingate is established in their own country, and imagine that our attention will soon be turned toward them. I told them that they could have no peace until they would give other guarantees than their word that the peace shouldl be kept; to go home and tell their people so; that we had no faith in their promises; that if they did not return we should know they had chosen the alternative of war; that in this event the consequences rested on them. With this they returned to their people. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comm?anding. Brigadier G eneral LORENzo TlHOM,IAS, Ad)jutant General U. S. A., WVashzington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Ca.)tain 1st Vet. lhf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 103 : Official: offici,,Ll:

Page  A104 APPENDIX. iEADQUAP.TErS DEPARTMENT. OF NEw MExico Forit Cr aigl, a, Jariusry 2, 1863. GENERAL: I hlive the honor to repo)t that I ami strengthening tlhe (feces of this post by fatigue parties andI with the help of the citizens, so that should it ber,'e invested by the rebels. I trust to )e able to hold it and its miazines of supplies. To-morrow I leave for tle Mesilla valley, alod for tiie northwestern p)rtion of Texas. Unless I lhear beyond a doubt that Baylor's for)ces are coming, I shall organize and send into the country, around the headwaters of the Gi'la, an expedition to puniiish for their frequent and recent mutrdcers and depredations tile hand of Apaches which infest that region. The Pino Alto gold miles can then be worked( with security. Fromn all I can learn, that is one of the richest auriferous countries in the wokrl(d-onie whose develol)iment will tend greatly to the prosperity of this Territorv. Should I be so successful as to whip those InJdians, I purpose at once to establishl a military post near the Pino Alto mines, not only to furnish protection to the mi,ners already working there, butt to have a moral effect in preventing the Indians from further depredations. A military road should be opened from Socorro, or Fort Craig, through by the copper mines, to intersect the road leading from Mesilla to Tucson at Ojo de la IVaca. This would shorten thie distance from Santa Fc to Tucson at least one hundred miles; would avoid the Jornado del Muerto; and in a strategical point of view wouldl render western Arizona less isolated and less in danger of being cut off by an enemy occupying the Mesilla valley; besides, it would make the Pino Alto gold region more accessible from the settled portion of New Mexico. You may rely upon it, the attention of thie government may be worthily drawn to the importance of thio road. It would doubtless c,)st one hundred thou'-and dollars to build it. I shall return to S.:nta Fe by the 25th insta,)t. I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES II. CARLETON, Brlicadier Gene,ral, GaiomianadivJ. Brigadier General Loa.Ezo TIio_IAS, Adjtacnt General U. S. -4., J,rashizigto,, D C. ERASTUS vW:. WOOD, Captaiiz 1st Tret. nf. C. T', A. A. A. Geeral. IHIEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT Or NEW MIEXICO. Santa Te, N. AM., February 1, 1863. GENERAL: I have just returned from San Elizario and Franklin, in northwestern Texas, whither I went to confer with the people, who, in their.alarm at the rumors of another invasion from the eastern part of that State, were fleeing into C(hihuahua, and leaving their fields to lie uncultivated The commander of the district of Arizona had issued an order that all lands thus aband(loned should, for the year, be given to others who would cultivate them. This had a good effect I am assured that they will all return. There are no new ruminors of an advance of rebels from Texas. T'hey could have but little to gain by such an expedition, except the right of way to the Pacific, to which great importance is said to be attached by the southern confederacy. As, in the event of a separation, to use their argument, they could not claim territory whichl they did izot occupy, it is possible that an effort will be made to recover and hold New Mexico and Arizona. Besides, it is perhaps a part of the plan to persuade, if possible, Chihuahlua antd Sonora to secede from Mexico and join the southern confederacy. For this purpose it is alleged that Colonel Reilly was sent by General Sibley last winter to confer with the govemnors of those States. Leaving out of the question these reasons for recovering this ciunttry by troops of the socalled southern confederacy, the probabilities of an invasion cease. At this moment I consider such probabilities so remote as to justify me in employing the troops under my command in chastising the hostile tribes of In(lians by which the settled portion of the'I'erritory are surrounded. The Mescaleio Ap ilches have been conmpletely subdued(l. I have now three hundred and fifty of that tribe at Fort Sumner a.nd en route thither. These comprise all that are left of those Indians, except a few who have either run off into Mexico or joined the Gila Apaches. I shall try to settle what hiave come ir on a reservation near Fort Stanton. and have them plant fields fori their subsistence the coming year. The expedition ordered into the Gil, country has already been quite successful. 3Iangus Colorad,), doubtless the worst Indian within our boundaries, and one who has been the cause of more murders an1d of mere torturing and( of burnings at the stake in this country 104 Official:

Page  A105 APPENDIX. than all others together, has been killed; and in one battle a few days since over twenty of his followers were killed, (the bodies counted,) and quite an amount of stock captured. Among this stock were found some of the United States mules captured from one of our trains in an attack made on it by these Indians last November on the Jornado del Muerto. Hostilities against the Gila Apaches are now prosecuted with vigor, and will be productive of lasting benefits. The evidences of rich gold field,, and of veins of silver, and of inexhaustible mines of the richest copper in the country at the head of the Mimbres river and along the country drained by the upper Gila, are of an undoubted character. It seems providential that the practical miners of California should have come here to assist in their discovery and development. I have sent four companies of California volunteers to garrison Fort West, in the Pinos Altos gold region. I beg to ask authority to let, say, one-fourth of the command at a time have one month's furlough to work in the gold mines on their own account. In this way the mines and the country will become developed, while the troops will becomne contented to remain in service where the temptation to leave is very great. By the time the spring opens the Apaches of the Gila will doubtless have been subdued, when I propose to punish the Navajo Indians for their recent murders and wholesale robberies. It is not practicable with my present force and amount of means to make effective demonstrations on more than one tribe at a time. It may be set down as a rule that these NIavajo Indians have long since passed that point when talking would be of any avail. They must be whipped and fear us before they will cease killing and robbing the people. All of the Colorado volunteers have been ordered home. All of which is respectfully submitted. J S H. CARLETON, rrigadier General, CGonmaazding. Brigadier General LORENZO TIIOMIAS, Adjutant General l S. -A., loshinyton, D. C. EPRASTUS W. WOOD, Capt.ain 1st Vet. I]?f. C. V, A. A. A. Genzeral. [Extract.] HEADQUARTFaRS DEPARTMENT OF NEIW MEXICO, Santa Fe, A7\. M., Jiarch 13, 1863. GEN-EBAL:..,:-g Your plan not to stay for one moment hostilities against the Apaches meets with my views and carries out my exact wishes. I do not look forward to any peace with them, except what we must command. They must have no voice in the matter. Entire subjugation, or destruction of all the men, are the alternatives. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JOSEPH R. WEST. Commanding District of Arizo,na, lesilla, A. T. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F'7, N. M., Mlarch 16,1863. Give orders that the company of cavalry that will return with Captain Andlerson from Fort West to the Cienega (as directed in paragraph V of Special Orders No 17, current series, from these headquarters, which paragraph is herewith enclosed) have tools and help work the road to that point. These companies exploring for, locating, worli:;g on, or passing over the road in question, will attack any and all Indians they may find, except women and children. This will be a part of their instructions. There must be no peace, or conference, 105 O'Ec,.al: C,ffici-al:

Page  A106 APPENDIX. with any Indians living on appy of the tributaries of the Mimbres, or the headwaters of the Gila, down as far as Fort Stanford, until they are completely subdued; and not then, until the subject has been duly considered and decided upon at these headquarters. If possible, the present war upon the Apaches, and the one about to be inaugurated against the Navajoes, will be continued without iltermission to that point where a prospect is opened which may disclose that no other war will be necessary. So all instructions, operations, and efforts will look to no other conclusion. The campaign sweepirng the Florida mountains, about which I have twice written to you, should be borne in mind. Information should be gathered concerning that region, the best guides known, and the work done at the earliest practicable moment. This is a settled purpose, andl will, I am sure, meet with a prompt and hearty co-operation on your part. Drivein from the Gila, the Apaches will naturally seek asylumn in those mountains. There the mo#guey grows, which is their principal food, and in the month of May they will beg-n to prepare it. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CAR-LETON, Brigaydier G.neral, Commandiey. Brigadier General JOSEPH R WEs'r, Commanding District of 1rizoiza, Mlesllai. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. [af. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', N. All., iMarch 19, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that the operations of the troops against the Mescalero Apaches have resulted in bringing in as prisoners about four hundred men, women and children of that tribe, from their fastnesses in the mountains about Fort Stanton, to Fort Sumner, at the Bosque Redondo, on the Pecos river. This leaves about one hundred, the remainder of that tribe, who are reported as having fled to Mexico and to join the Gila Apaches. Against these last, the Gila Apaches, vigorous'hostilities are prosecuted, as I have already informed you. Want of troops and of forage has prevented any operations against the Navajoes. Now that the Mescaleros are subdued, I shall send the whole of Colonel Carson's regiment against the Navajoes, who still continue to plunder and murder the people. This regiment will take the field against them early in May. Already I have commnienced drawing the companies in from the Mescalero country preparatory to such movement. It is my purpose to induce the Mescaleros to settle on a reservation near Fort Sumner at the Basque Redondo, on the Pecos river. The superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico and myself proceed to that point, starting to-day, to have "the talk" with them with reference to this matter. My purpose is to have them fed and kept there under surveillance; to have them plant a crop this year; to have them, in short, become what is called in this country a pueblo. If they are once permitted to go at large again, the same trouble and expense will again have to be gone through with to punish and subdue them. They will murder and rob unless kept from doing it by fear and force. The bishop of Satnta Fe will go down with the superintendent and myself, and, if the Indians agree to my terms, will have a talk with them about sending; priest down to teach them the gospel and open a school for the children. The superintendent will take down farming implements and other useful articles for the Indians, and an agent will remain with the Indians to instruct them in the use of these things. You will feel pleased to learn that this long-dreaded tribe of murderers andl robbers is brought to so promi'sing a condition. Their country around Fort Stanton is fast filling up with settlers. I shall return to Santa F6 on the 6th proximrno. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier Gener al LORENzo THOMAS, Aejittant Geiie?'Jl U. S.. 4rmy, lVashirgtoe, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Crtptaii 1st Vde. In,af. C. V., A. A. A. General 106 Official: Official:

Page  A107 APPENDIX. HIEADQIARTER.S DEPAITME\NT OF NEW- MEXICO, Sanitz fe, N. M,f., April 10, 1863. CAvITrX: ~I herewith enclose for your information a copy of a report made by Major Arthur Morrison, 1st New AIexic) volunteers, in relation to a dreadful massacre of a party of Mexicais, who went to gather salt on the plains west of Fort S,tanton. Thus you see the remainder of that tribe, still at large, are as hostile as ever. This will admonish you to be doubly on your guard ag'aiuiit the clandestine departure of any of those now at the Bosque Redondo. Should any of the men of those MAescaleros now at Bosque Redondo attempt to escape, after their promnises to me to remain quietly there, you will be sure to cause them to be shot. If they give you much trouble in this respect, seize every animal they have and have all of them sent to Fort Union, and disarm all the men, even of their bows and arrows. Colonel Collins sends down another plough. I have ordered the part of my escort which belonged to Captain Creinony's company to Fort Sumner, to strengthen the cavalry portion of your command. Lieutenant Muller is to return to Santa Fe It is possible that Mir. L-ibadie, the Indian agent, will wish to be absent from his duties a good deal, to the great detriment of the public service. In this event you will report the fact to these headquarters. He is a good agent if he attends to his business; if he d,Joes not stay at his post I shall ask for his removal. You had better let him know it. Large quantities of melons and pumpkins should be planted. The pumpkins dried are not only a fine article of diet, but are anti-scorbutic to a great degree. The prospects in the east seem to be brightening. I shall be down in June. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Gene?al, Commanding. Captain JOSEPH UPDEOGRAFr, U. S. A., Fort Sumner, Ntew JIexico. ERASTUS W. WOOD, C"ptain lst Ve!. ]ef. C. V., A. A. A. Generat. HEAI)QTARTERS DEPAILTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 10, 1863. SiRa: I have the honor to enclose herewith the copy of a report made by Major Arthur Morrison of some dreadful murders by M[escalera Indians on the plains west of the Sierr& Blanca, near Fort Stanton. You will be sure to have slain every Mlescalero Indian who may be met with at large ia the vicinity of your post. No woman or child of the tribe will be injured, but such will be sent as prisoners to Fort Sumner. I have had a talk with the Indians of this tribe now at Fort Sumner, and told them that if they left that point to return to Fort Stanton or its vicinity without written permission from the commander at Fort Sumner, they would be shot; that you would have orders to that effect. These are the orders; be sure they are rigidly executed. Send Captain Abreui's company out, or as much of it as can be spared, and endeavor to recover the stock of Mr. Lugan, of Socorro, Texas, a very worthy man. He seemed to have owned the I outfit" of the party sent for the salt. Detachments must be kept scouting about the Sacramento and Bianca mountains all the time, in search of Indians. As soon as mnore troops arrive, now en route from California, the strength of your garrison will be increased. Great care should be bestowed on the gardens for your post. It would be well to put in a good crop of corn at what is known as the Beach farm, watered by a spring, some ten or fifteen miles below Fort Stanton. This could be planted by the companies at odd times, and sold for the benefit of the company fund. Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Conmanding. COMMANDI,NG OFFICER, Jo?t Stanton. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Cptain Ist Vret. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 107 OfE-. elfl": Official:

Page  A108 APPENDIX. IHEADQUARTERS DEPArTIFENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Is, N,. AI., April 11, 1863. COLONEL: There is said to obe a man in Taos, or near there, who was for a great many years a captain with the Navaj,o Indians, against whom you are about to take the field. Mr. Manzaneres, of Aboiquiu, says he knows their country thoroughly; it will be well for you to secure his services as a guide. Some of the Ute Indians from the neighborhood of Abiquiu would like to be employed as trailers, &c. You have my authority to secure the services of, say, ten of the best Ute warriors, and say four of the best Mexican guides, as spies and guides for the contemiplated campaign against the Naviajoes, their services to commence when the campaign commences; a reasonable compensation will be allowed them. It is said several fine guides live near Abiqiiu; we will have none but the best our work is to Ie thorough, and we must have rien to do it. I shall leave for Fort Wingate on the 13th instant, and shall be gone sonme twelve days. When I return vou will doubtless be in Santa Fe. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES 11. CAILETON, Briaadier Ceneral, Comimeordir. Colonel CIrLISTOPIIRE CARSON, let.Yid JI.) xico TohlZit?ers'-, Tocs, 3,. -il. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain ist bet. Ietf. C. A, A. A. A. General, HEADQUARTEPS DEI'ARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO. Santa Fe', N. M., April 12, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I retumred from Fort Sumner, at the Bosque Redondo, on the Pecos river, on the 5th instant. I found, gathered in at that point, four hundred and fifteen men, women, and children of the Mescalero Apaches, of whom I have heretofore written to you. The rest of the tribe is still hostile. Those at the Bosque Redondo have been told that if they behave themselves, and remain quietly at that point, they will be well cared for and fed until they can raise food for themselves. This they have promised to do. They have also been told that if they attempt to leave they will be shot. It is very important that Fort Sumner be named as a chaplain post. If this is done, the bishop will send a minister to that point who will teach the Indian children Christianity, and to read and write. I earnestly beg that the Secretary will attend to this request at once, as great good will doubtless result from it. To-morrow I proceed to Fort Wingate, in the Navajo country, to take preliminary measures, and gather information for a campaign against the Navajoes as soon as the grass starts sufficiently to support stock. I am, general, ve.ry respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLE,TON, Brigadier CGeneral, Comn7.iading. Briga dier General Lo.SE.zo TiIOIDAS, Adjuta.nt Genertil U. S. A., TWashi~igiton, D. C. ERPASTUS W. WOOD, Ciptain let let. Inf. C. T-, A. A A. General HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw I MEXICO, Santa Fe, Y. M., April 27, 1863. CAPTAIN: I authorized the quartermaster at Fort Sumner to let the superintendent of Indian afilirs have some beef cattle belonging to the quartermaster's department, with which to feed Apache Indiains,' now held near Fort Sumner, New Mexico. The supeiintendent was to pay uhatever price theses cattle should prove to be worth, the price to be determained by yourself. Please hare this matter adjusted,,and the funds received from the sale incorporated wtit the funds pertaining to your depairtment. In a.m r es ectfu,y,v yeou obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Conma ndin0 Captain John C. Chief Q7et falt Pd.A Official: ERASTUS IV. WOOD, Cc:,{taiii 1,t Vet lnf. C. -A,T.A A. General 108 Official: Official:

Page  A109 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIco, Santa Fe',:\. ji., April 27, 1863. SIR: Your letter of MIarch 18, 1863, in relation to enltlemen who have imade inquiries of you whether Fort West is to be permanently girrisone-d, as in this event those gentlemen are desirous of investing in andl working the mines of precious metals near the h ad of the Gila, I have had the honor to receive; and I beg to reply that unless I am comnpe'led by confederate forces to abandon the rich country about Pinos Ait,)s ai(l on the Rio Prieta, it will be held permanently. Our troops have allealy killed M ingUs Coloi ado, his son, his brother, and some sixty of his braves, and I am still prosecuting hostilities against the Gila Apaches, and propose to continue doing so until people can live in that country, and explore and work the veins of precious metals which we know abound there, with safety. The country along the Rio Prieta, and further down the Gila, gives promise cf wonderfil richness in gold and silver. I have two comi.panies out now surveying a road from Fort Craig to Fort West. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMIES H. CAPLETON, Brigadier Geizeral, Comimaniding. SAMUEL J. JONEs, Esq., Klansas City, Mijssouri. ERPASTUS W. WOOD, Captaizn lIt Vet. lif. C. V, Al. A. A. General. LExtract ] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTIENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FI, V.;'~, Alay 1, 1863. MAJOR: No Mlescaleros will have a right, even with a pass, to come back from Fort Sumner into their country to mnke mescal. I wish you would write this to Captain Updegraff. Nor will any woman or child return from Fort Sumner. One or two were to be permitted to come to tell the rest of the tribe to come in. You will kill every Mescalero man that can be oun(d witlho)ut a passport. I am, major, very respectfully, IES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnuandiny. MJajor JOSEPR SMITH, 5th Inf. Cal. Vols., Commanlin?g Fort Stanton, AT H. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Ciptain 1st Vet. arf. C. V;, A. A. A. General. HEA)QUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw iEXICO, Santa Ft s,. 3I.,,NI(y 10, 1863. GENE.RAL: I am officially informed by the superintendent of Indian affairs for New MAexico, under date of the 9th instant, that persons who have just crossed the plains to this Territory from MIissounri state that there is evidence of hostile intentions towvards the whites among the Indians of the great prairies lying between New Mexico and the frontier of Kansas, Missouri, &c. This feeling, it seems, has manifested itself so far tlhtt the agent in charge of some of these Indians has written to traders and expressed the belief that there would be a general uprising among those tribe(s unless steps are taklen to prevent it. If the War Department will station one good regiment of cavalry at old Fort Atkin.on, below the lower crossing of the Arkansas, at the low.r Cimarron Springs, and on the headwaters of the Cimarron, near Cold Spring, on the old Cimarron route, s,y four companies at each point, it would be a timely precaution so far as these Indians are concerned. This year the merchants of New Mexico have sent larger and more teains to the States for goods than ever before. Indeed, nearly all of the available c:'pital in this country invested in means of transportation and goods will, in six weeks, be afloat, as it were, oa the great plains. Besides, all of the army supplies fIor the tioons in this Territory will shortly be on the way out. The danger from attacks by Indlians is not the le,ast danger to provide against. The rebels in Arkansas under PIIce, atud the rebels in Texas, know as 109 Offic —ip,l: Official:

Page  A110 APPENDIX. well as we do just what will be upon the road; just lhow vital all those supplies are to us; just how poorly they may ba guarded and, if they have the enterprise which I believe they have, they will give us a good deal of trouble by cavalry raids after the grass has grown; therefore I beg the department to send the force indicated, and keep the garrisons at Fort Ltrned and Fort Wise in good strength in the number and quality of the troops. This should, in my opinion, b)e done without delay. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigeadier General, Commandingy. Brigadier General LORENZ7) THOMAs. Adjutatt General al S. A.. c VasT-ii7ton, D. C. ERPASTUS W. WOOD. Captain 1,t V'et. In C. F., A. A. A G neral. HEADQUARTER-S DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa f'H, la. A1., MAlry 10, 1863. MIY DEAP GENERAL: I am aware that every moment of your time is of value to the country, and I would not presume to ask you even to read this note did I not believe that what is herewith enclosed would be cf interest to you as a general, and, therefore, as a statesman. Among all mny endieavors since my arrival here, there has been an effort to brush back the Indians, as you have seen from official correspondence, so that the people could get out of the valley of the Rio Grandle, anid not only possess themselves of the arable lands in other parts of the Territory, but, if the country contained veins and deposits of the precious metals, that they might be found. So I re-established Fort Stanton, and at least a hundred families have gone to that vicinity to open farms, and they are commencing to find gold there. I established Fort West, and have driven the Indians away from the head of the Gila, and they are finding gold and silver and cinnabar there. There is no doubt in my mind that one of the richest gold countries in the world is along the affluents to the Gila, which enter it from the north along its whole course. Thus you can see one reason why the rebels want, and why we may not permit them ever to have, a country evidently teeming with millions on millions of wealth. Last winter I asked for one hundred thousand dollars to make a wagon road from near Fort Craig to the Gila. My lequest was not listened to, and I endeavored to open the road without help. Strategically, you will see its value. Intimsically, as I then anticipated, it would be beyond price. My preliminary survey has been unsuccessful, as you observe by Captain.Andersonr's letter, herewith enclosed. But I do not despair of success. You will also see by the enclosed notes what signs of mineral wealth are already discovered. If I only had one more good regiment of California infantry, composed, as that infantry is, of practical miners, I would place it in the Gila country. While it would exterminate the Indians, who are a scourge to New Mexico, it would protect people who might wish to go there to open up the country, and would vlrtunlly be a military colony when the war ended, whose interests would lead the officers and soldiers to remain in the new E1 Dorado. Pray give all this a thought. It is not a chimera, but a subject that is worthy of the attention of the government now. California, you remember, was not considered as valuable an acquisition until its gold startled the whole world. Do not deswise New Mexico, as a drain upon the general government. The money will all comne back again. The report of Captain MIeCleave I allowed to be printed to nmake others emulous of the self-denial, fixedness of purpose, and ha,id work of these Californians. This McCleave is the officer I wrote to you about as one who would not draw his pay while he was a prisoner with the rebels. As a soldier you will see he has tolerably fair qualities. I am, general, very sincerely yours, JAMES H. CARLETON\, Brigadlier General. Major General HE-R-.v W. HALLECK, CGeneral-in-Chi:~, Xc..,Jsi'<'al:o;,Q D.C ERASTUS Wl. WOOD, CoTetair i!t Stt. fof. C. V., A. A. A. General. 110 'Official: Private.] ,,)fficial:

Page  A111 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTlExNT OF NEaw MEXICO, Santa Fe, Y. AM, Alay 11, 1863. CAPTAIN: Lieutenant Sills will be retained on duty at Fort Sumner until further orders. Call in Lieutenant Bennet and his picket-guard. Let your interpreter and guide take turns in watching on the routes from Texas. If the Indians give you any trouble, take and burn all their bows and arrows; take and send to Foit Union all their rifles and horses. I cannot, for a short time, send you any more men. So you must work the harder and watchl the closer with what you have got. I am, captain. respectfully. JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General. Comm?nz'.ii?g. Captain JOSEPIS UPDFGRaFF, Commanding Fort Sumner, A-. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain let let lif. C. T., A. A A General. HEADQUARTERS DEPART3IMhT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, A'. lI., Alay 29, 1863. CAPTAIN: Enclosed herewith you will find a copy of a letter from these headquarters, dated the 24th instant, to Colonel Collins, superintendent of Indian tfFairs, i,iforming him of the inability of the military department to furnish subsistence stores to the Apache Indians at Bosque Redondo after the 31st instant. The general commanding directs that you be governed accordingly. Colonel Collins reports that Mr. Labadie has been instructed to purchase some sheep, which are said to be in the neighborhood, for these Apache Indians. If Mr. Labadie fails to supply these Indians you will report the faqt to Colonel Collins. I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYIRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Ca.T. Captain JosEPH UPDEGRAAFF, U. S. A., Commanding Fort Sumner, N. A. E[tASTUS W. WOOD, Captain ist let. -tsif. C -[ A. A. A. Generat. [Extract.] HEADQUAETErS I)EPAI,TMENT OF NEEw MEIXICO, Santa Fe', A_ al., ay 30, 1863. GENERAL: Please publish an order complimenting the cormniand of Captain Tidball, including Doctor Cox, 5th infantry California volunteers, and the citizens who accompanied Captain Tidball, for their zeal, energy, and gallanitry in their attack upon the baud of Apaches in the Aravayha cation in Aiz,ona. (Give the exact date of the battle.) Mr. I. Trumbull Hayden seems to have done well in helping punishl these savages who delight in roasting their victims. I remember seeing and burying the bones and ashes of one of the victims they had tortured by fire, and of burying the bodlies of six more, near Apache cation, on the 31st of July, 1862. Poor Sergeant Wheeling and the guide Chaves, whom we lost, have begun to be avenged. a, gn.....r., you obe....se. ETON, 1, Cowmandinig. .BrigYadier General JOSEPH PR. WEST, t. S. bl.s., Cornmanding Ditrict of Ariz)na, Ilirt's lIlils, Te:as. OERASTUS W. WOOD, Capt,iin lst VIet. eTf. C.., A. A. A. General. ill Official: Official: offici —Al:

Page  A112 APPENDIX HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMIENT OF NEW MlEXICO, Santae f, N. ll., June 11, 1863. CAPTAIN: In reply to your communication of MIay 29, I am directed by the department commander to say to you that he wishes you to have the Indians at the Bosque Redondo continue to plant corn until the 4th day of July. So much of the corn as does not fully ripen will be purchased by the government for fodder. The general desires also to know how many acres the Indians have already planted, and how much ground is under cultivation for the use of the command at your post. In such a climate crops planted very late in the season come to maturity with great rapidity. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, A. A. General. Captain JOSEPH UPDEGRAFF, LT S. 5th Infaetry, Commnnanding Fort Sitmner, -V. If. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Ca(ptain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HIEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa fe, N. 3I., June 12, 1863. MosT REVEREND Sin: Enclosed herewith please find an order from the Secretary of War, creating Fort Sumner a chaplain post. I beg respectfully that you will name some clergyman of energy, and of all those qualities of patience, good temper, assiduity and interest in the subject so necessary in one who is wanted to teach the Indian children now at Fort Sumner, not only the rudiments of an education, but the principles and truths of Christianity. The person whom you might select for so important and interesting a trust will doubtless be selected by the council. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JANIMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandity. Righlt Reverend Bishop LAMEZ, Santa Fe,.~. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD. Captain 1st Vet. o-qf. C. V., A. A.A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., June 12, 1863. GENERAL: I beg that you will leave no stone unturned to get the troops which are ordered up the country from your district on the march to their several destinations at once. I have written to Colonel Rigg to send Hind's company to Franklin with all practicable despatch. The organization of the expedition against the Navtjoes has been approved by the War Department, and it is desirable to have the troops in tlde field before the grain is gathered. So I count on celerity of movement from below. T..am....... 1 gene.al. retfu.11.tl JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandiny. Brigadier Genreral JOSEPH R. WEST, U. S. Vols., Comrnmanding District of:Irizona, tart's Mills, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHIEADQUARTERS DEPAPTMENT OF NEW MExico, Santa Fe, N. AI., June 13, 1863. CAPTAIN: Enclosed herewith please find the copy of a letter to the chief commissary to send to the Pieblo Colorado, Navajo country, a certain amount of subsistence stores which 112 Official: Offic-lal: Offici,-tl:

Page  A113 APPENDIX. will weigh, in gross weight, 236,813 pounds. For these stores transportation will be required. The stores should be at Los Pinos so as to move thence under the escort of troops on the 1st proximo. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain JOHN C. MCFERRAN, Chief Quartermaster, Santa Fe, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW 1MEXICO, Santa F~, N. MI., June 14, 1863. GENERAL: a. i a a a There are rumors, coming through the Comanches, that a force of Texans will attack the trains en route to New Mexico from the western frontiers. It would be a wise precaution, in my opinionl, to station a regiment of cavalry as indicated in my letter to yourself, dated May 17, 1863. The troops destined to operate against the Navajoes, will take the field on the 1st proximo. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant GCneral U. S A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Iff. C. V., A. A. A. General. Private.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., June 14, 1863. MY DEAR GEuERAL: I enclose herewith for your perusal copies of two letters just received by Chief Justice Benedict from a kinsman who is a member of /a prospecting party which left the Rio Grande, under the leadership of old Captain Walker of Rocky mountain and California celebrity. There is no doubt, from Benedict's character, that all he says of the mineral wealth of the region southwest of the San Francisco mountains is under rather than over the mark. I have seen the gold he sent to Judge Benedict; it is coarse and seems to be of the first quality. By taking Whipple's wagon-road via Zufii, the Cosnino caves, and thence across the headwaters of the Rio Verde to a stream marked on the map of New Mexico, published by the War Department in 1859, Val de Chino, I believe this gold region would be reached by a fine practicable wagon-road within three hundred and fifty miles from Albuquerque. I will send word to this Mr. Benedict that if he and Walker will come through from these gold fields to Albuquerque, I will employ Walker as guide, and send a military force of, say, two companies of California volunteers through to that point, and there establish a military post for the protection of miners until they become strong enough to protect themselves. In this case it would be well to have a first-rate topographical engineer to make an authentic map of this terra incognita, and fix its principal geographical features instrumentally. This, general, is a matter that, in all laudable ways, should have the immediate help and fostering care of the government. I trust, amid all your cares and anxieties, you will have time to give this subject a thought. There is every evidence that 8 113 Official: Official:

Page  A114 APPENDIX. a country as rich if not richer in mineral wealth than California, extends from the Rio Grande, northwestwardly, all the way across to Washoe. If I could have but one firstrate regiment more of infantry I could brush the Indians away from all that part of it east of the Colorado river. The troops for the campaign against the Navajoes take the field on the 1st proximo. I am, general, very truly, yours, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Cornmandhng. Major General HENRY W. HALLECK, General-in-Chief U. S. A., Washiagton, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Te', N. M., June 14, 1863. GENERAL: I beg respectfully that you will order Major Mayer, 1st New Mexico volunteers, (who went east without proper authority, and who was afterwards on sick leave in New York, and who now figures somewhere as an assistant provost marshal, as I learn,) to join his regiment without delay. The regiment, Colonel Carson's, is ordered to take the field against the Navajoes, and Major Mayer's services are greatly needed. If he cannot join, (it is understood that he will resign rather than return to this country,) some other major should be appointed to fill his place. I am, general, respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A, Washington, D. C ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HIEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. JA, June 17, 1863. GENERAL: Enclosed herewith please find an order organizing an expedition against the Navajoes, and likewise a request from Colonel Carson, the distinguished commander of the expedition, asking authority to employ one hundred Ute Indians to act as auxiliaries to his force. I beg respectfully to submit, with my approval, this request to the Adjutant General, for the consideration of the War Department, believing the money expended in the employment of these Indians for the purpose indicated will be profitably laid out. The Utes are very brave, and fine shots, fine trailers, and uncommonly energetic in the field. The Navajoes have entertained a very great dread of them for many years. I believe one hundred Ute Indians would render more service in this war than more than double their number of troops. They could be mustered as a company, or, preferably, could be employed as spies and guides. It is important, if the employment of these Indians be authorized, that I be so informed at the earliest practicable date. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO T HOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 114 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A115 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. i, June 22, 1863. MY DEAR CAPTAIN: I have seen two letters written by Mr. Benedict to Judge Benedict, setting- forth) the wonderful discoveries which yourself andi p arty have made. I have written to the War Department and to Genernl flalleck on the subject. The surveyor general of New Mexico proceeds to visit your new gold regions, and when he returns will make an official report on their probable extent and value, so that the government can be well infoimed on the subject. If you can do so, when General Clark has completed his observations, I desire that you will come by Whipple's route, by Zuii to Albuquerque, with General Clark and escort, so that I may employ you as a guide for a couple of companies of troops which I will send to establish a military post in the very heart of the gold country. These companies you can guide back by the best practicable route for wagons. I am satisfied that Albuquerque will be the point from which you will draw your supplies. The people who will flock into the country, around the San Fiancisco mountains, will soon open farms and have stock enough for the mines All they want is military protection on the road and in that country until they have got a good foothold, then they will take care of themselves. I am just commencing active operations against the Navajoes. I enclose an order which organizes the expedition. You see the new fort will be at Pueblo, Colorado, about twentyeight miles southwest of old Fort Defiance, and this will be the nearest point for your people to get supplies in case of accident. The sutler there will doubtless have a large stock of goods, and I will tell him about keeping on hand such articles of prime necessity as you all might require. I send you a map of the country, so that you may know about where Fort Can by will be situated. I send you another similar map, on which you can trace your new gold fields. If I can be of any service to yourself or party, it will afford me pleasure to help you. If I can help others to a fortune, it will afford me not quite as much happiness as finding one myself, it is true-but nearly as much. My luck has always been not to be at the right place at the right time for fortunes. I have been a little too far ahead, or else a little too much behind, for that. Yourself and your party deserve success for your industry and perseverance. Hoping that each of you will receive abundant reward for your past toil and hardships and danger, I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain JOSEPR WALKER, At the }[alker mines, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., fine 22, 1863. CAPTAIN': I send you a map of New Mexico, on which I desire that you will trace your route to and from the new gold fields, in obedience to orders to go as an escort to Surveyor General Clark. Have great care taken of your animals. When you arrive at the new diggings, I want each of your men to prospect and wash, and I want you to report the exact time they severally work and the amount of gold each one obtains in return for his labor during that time. Much reliance will be placed upon these statistics. The people must not be deceived, nor be inveigled into that distant desert country without knowing well what they may expect to find. If the country is as rich as represented-and of this I have no doubtthere will, on your return, be a revolution in matters here which no man now can even dream of. I have written to the authorities at Washington, that if the country is rich as reported, on your return I shall send two companies of California troops to establish a post right in the heart of the gold region. Your company may perhaps be one of them. So you will have an eye to the best location for a post of one company of infantry and one of cavairy. In returning by the Whipple route to Albuquerque, mark the country well for 115 Official:

Page  A116 APPENDIX. the whole way from the gold region. Take your best men with you, and things to wash with. Send me a few specimens for the War Department on your return. Wishing you good fortune, I amn, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain NATIIANIEL J. PISHON, First Cavalry California Volunteers, Fort Craig, N. }I. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F,e N. Ml, June 23, 1 63. COLONEL: I enclose herewith General Orders No. 15, current series from these headquarters, which organizes the expedition against the Navajo Indians. It is hoped now that the people of New Mexico will become more secure in their persons and property. As soon as the troops take the field, the small bands of Navajo robbers now infestin)g the settlements will doubtless return to their country to look after the safety of their women and children, and as long as the troops are engaged in active operations against their tribe they will not have a disposition to come in on the river. You remember what I told Barboncito and Delgadito about what would be required of all Navajoes who did not want to engage in the war, or be sufferers from it: that while hostilities were progressing against their tribe no peace party of Navajoes could remain in the country; that all those Navajoes who claimed not to have murdered and robbed the inhabitants must come in and go to the Bosque Redondo, where they would be fed and protected until the war was over; that unless they were willing to do this, they would be considered hostile and would be proceeded against accordingly; that in this event, if they or their families suffered, these consequences would be the result of their refusing to accede to such a reasonable demand, and the responsibility would rest upon them, not upon me; that a time would be set for all those who desired to avail themselves of the offer to come in with their families to Fort Wingate; that they should be transported to Bosque Redondo in our trains, &c. Send for Delgadito and Barboncito again and repeat what I before told them, and tell them that I shall feel very sorry if they refuse to come in; that we have no desire to make war upon them and other good Navajoes; but the troops cannot tell the good from the ba(l, and we neither can nor will tolerate their staying as a peace party among those against whom we intend to make war. Tell them they can have until the twentieth day of July of this year to come in-they and all those who belong to what they call the peace party; that after that day every Navajo that is seen will be considered as hostile and treated accordingly; that after that day the door now open will be closed. Tell them to say all this to their people, and that as sure as that the sun shines all this will come true. I am, colonel, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel J. FRANCISCO CHAVEZ, First New Mexico Volunteers, co [Copy of this letter furnished Colonel Cars Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', N. M., June 23, 1863. SIR: Enclosed herewith please find an order from the War Department making Fort Sumner a chaplain post. As soon as I received this order, I addressed a letter to the Right Reverend Bishop Lamez, and requested that he would recommend some minister for this important position-it being the purpose in having a chaplain at Fort Sumner, for such chaplain, in addition to his other and regular duties, to instruct the Apache Indians in the tiuths and principles of the Christian religion, and to teach their children to read and write. Enclosed herewith I have the honor to send you a letter from the bishop recom 116 Official:

Page  A117 APPENDIX. mending the Reverend Joseph Fialon to be appointed chaplain of your post. Mr. Fialon is now in France, but will be back in August. See for your guidance pages 209 and 210 of the revised regulations. As the duties will be very heavy, I trust the council will be considerate in the rate of pay recommended. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMIMANDiNG OFFICER, Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., June 26, 1863. GENERAL: I have written a letter to Captain Walker, which goes down to Fort Craig to your care. It is hoped and expected that he will come with you as guide on Whipple's route via Zuli. Since you left, I have seen a gentleman named Groom, who last fall came from the new gold diggings on the Colorado river, ascending Williams's fork to the San Francisco mountains, and thence in by Zufii to Fort Wingate and Albuquerque. He is very anxious to return to the new gold fields, having always entertained the purpose of doing so as soon as he was able. I have told him to go to Fort Craig and consult with yourself, Colonel Rigg, and Captain Pishon on the subject of your journey. He is firmly of the opinion that he can guide the party to the point indicated in Mr. Benedict's letter as the one where most gold was found-by the route from Zufi. if this can be done, a great distance will be saved, much veiy hot weather upon the desert avoided, and, better than all, much time gained. The subject is left wholly to your decision. In case you determine to go from Fort Craig v a Ziii, and so on on Whipple's route, Captain McFerran and myself have come to the conclusion that with three good wagons and teams you can take flour, bacon, sugar, coffee, salt, &C-, enough for the party for seventy-odd days, and travel light. You should take some pack-saddles complete, with ropes, wanties, &c., perfect, that when near the San Francisco mountains, if it become necessary or advisable to leave a camp or leave your wagons, y,u can proceed on to the gold fields without embarrassment. Great care and forecast must be exercised to have everything which will be indispensably necessary, and not an ounce more. In case you conclude to go by the Zunfii route, then Mr. Groom can be employed by Colonel Rigg as a guide. From Fort Craig to Zuili there is a wagon-road over which troops have travelled, and Captain McFerran says there are men living at Socorro, and in the neighborhood of FoLt Craig, who know this route. One of them Colonel Rigg can employ to pilot you out on to the Whipple route wherever it may be necessary to strike it, whether at or this side of Zulli. This guide can go through with you. Once on the Whipple route, then Mr. Groom's knowledge will be available. In case no such guide can be found for the country between Fort Craig and the Whipple route, your party can come up the river to Las Lunas and go out on the road via Fort Wingate. In this event, you need take from Fort Craig only rations enough to last to Wingate, and there lay in the supply for the remainder of the journey. This will save your stock for the rest of the work. All these remarks have been made having in view the decision to go via Zufii. In case you go by the Fort West route, as originally suggested, Mr. Groom, being an old and expelienced packer, can be employed in that capacity. You will find him avery gentlemanly and intelligent man. He has had misfortunes and is entirely destitute, but from what I have seen of him, and what I have heard of him, he seems to be worthy of consideration, kindness, confidence, ard help. He is known to Colonel Rigg. Great care and vigilance must be exercised with regard to Indians. Never be off your guard; never become careless; be sure when your stock is grazing to have men with arms in their hands always with them, and always on the alert and awake. I cannot impress this matter too strongly upon your mind. In my experience I have found that to travel mornings and evenings, and to lie by in the heat of the day, keeps the stock in better order than to make the whole march without turning out to graze. I wish you luck. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Gene ra l JOHN A. CLARK, Surveyor General of New Mexico, Fort Craiy, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 117 Official: Official:

Page  A118 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw IExICO, Santa Fe, N. M., June 26, 18l63. COLONES,,L: I send you this note by Mr. Groom, whom you know. I have written to General Clark that if, upon consultation with yourself and Captain Pishon and Mr. Groom, it shall seem expedient to go to the new gold fields via Zufii, you are authorized to employ Mr. Groom as a guide, at a reasonable compensation. In the event of a decision among you to go that way, starting across the country directly from Fort Craig to the Whipple route, you are authorized to employ some good person as guide until that road is struck. This latter person's services will be continued throughout the journey to anrd from the gold fields. After the Whipple road is struck, he can act as a spy and herder, &c In case it is concluded to go via Fort West and Tucson and the Pimo villages, you are authorized to employ Mr. Groom as a packer, at a reasonable compensation. Great care should be taken to fit out this party down to the minutest detail. Some medicines should be taken along, some lint, bandages, a field tourniquet, &c., &c. The wagons should be minutely inspected, the boxes looked at, and extra linchpins, hame-strings, buckskins for mending harness, rope for packing, two lanterns made secure from breakage, (in case a man is wounded by night,) axle-grease, and auger, saw, sonme wrought nails, &C., &c. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandin. Colonel EDWIN A. RIGG, Commanding at Fort Craig, N. 3I. NOTE.-In case the party goes by Fort Wingate, provisions for the trip can be got there J. H. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW, MEXICO, Santa FiA, N. JI, June 27, 1863. MAJOR: I enclose herewith for your information a copy of a letter received from commanding officer at Fort McRae, New Mexico, giving an account of an attack made upon Captain Pfieffer, first New Mexico volunteers, by a party of Mescalero Apaches. The general commanding directs me to say to you that he considers it unnecessary to point out the course you should pursue in case any of these Indians should be found lurking around Fort Stanton. No measure, except one of great severity, should be resorted to with Indians such as those referred to in the enclosed communication. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Ad(jutant General. Major JosEPII SMNITH, F'ifth Inf. C. V., Commanding Fort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Tet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTHINT OF NEW MExiCO, Santa Fe, Y. JL., June 28, 1863. CAPTAIN By reference to a letter to myself from the War Department, dated May 20, 1863, a copy of which was forwarded to you on the 12th instant, it is evidently conternmplated that all subsistence stores intended for Indians, which are furnished by the military, should be furnished by the Subsistence department solely. Therefore, in order that these matters may not be complicated even indirectly by a sale of cattle by the Quartermaster's department to the Indian department, as heretofore authorized, the cattle which have been transferred to the Indian department by Lieutenant Barr, as acting assistant quartermaster at Fort Sumner, as well as all quartermaster cattle which had previously been slaughtered at that post for issue to Indians, will at once be paid for by the chief commissary. The chief commissary will then make the sale, and receive the money for all the cattle delivered to the Indian department on the hoof, as before mentioned, and will make the "abstracts 118 Official: Official:

Page  A119 APPENDIX. of the issues" alluded to in the letter from the War Department of May 20, 1863, " to the Commissary General, in order that it may be submitted to the Secretary of the Interior for settlement." I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri'adier General, Commandin. Captain JOHN C. McFERRAN, U. S. A., Chief Quartermaster Department of New Mexico, Santa Fe, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Sqnta Fe, N. I., June 28, 1863. GEN.ERAL: Your letter of the 20th instant, announcing that Lieutenant Bargie, first New Mexico volunteers, had been killed by Miembres Indians, has just been received. The express for below waiting, I have but a moment in which to write. That you will take prompt and efficient measures to punish these Indians, and render the road more safe, I have no doubt. The presence of Fritz's company at Fort Stanton is greatly needed, as I have been obliged to call for Abreii's company for the Navajo campaign, which leaves Major Smith with but one company, and the Indians in that neighborhood are getting troublesome. I am expecting to hear of the arrival of Green's company at Fort McRae, and that companies C and H, first infantry, have arrived at or are near Los Pinos. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMIES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JosEPH R. WEST, U.S. Vols., commanding District of Arizona, Hlrt's Mills, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MIEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., June 29, 1863. GENERAL: Enclosed herewith please find the official copies of letters from the district of Arizona, giving an account of Indian murders on the Jornado del MIuerto on the ]6th and 20th instants. Lieutenant L. A. Bargie, first New Mexico volunteers, who was murdered and mutilated, was from Washington city. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri adier General, Commanding. Briga dier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant Genieral of the Army, Washinyton, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW TEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., July 2, 1863. MIAJOR: When this reaches you, you will have heard of the murder by Indians of expressmen bringing mail from Fort Stanton to Santa Fe. Please to get all the particulars of these and other Indian atrocities recently committed in your vicinity, and report them officially and at length. Captain Abreii's company must march at once to Los Pinos. Report the amount of government stock lost by Indians near your post, and the exact 119 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A120 APPENDIX. amount remaining on hand. Have your command on the alert, and let us hear that any Indian men at large in your vicinity without a written pass have been destroyed. No mercy must be shown to them. We have suffered too much from them already. I understand they tortured by fire the expressmen. Much reliance is placed upon your ability to rid your neighborhood of these murderers. When Captain Fritz comes you can use his company by detachments-each one under an officer -in scouring the country. Vigilance and energy and continued effort will sooner or later attain the desired end. The men, whether as scouts or herders, must never be off their guard. rvant, AMES HI. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOSEPH SMITH, Fifth Inf. C. V., Commanding at Fort Stanton, N. Al. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Itif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. V., July 29, 1863. CAPTAIN: Colonel McMullen will relieve you in command of Fort Union on the fourth proximo. On the fifth proximo you will leave with your company for Camp Easton, and Captain Hollister will on that day leave Fort Union with company "C" United States 7th Infantry for Fort Stanton. This letter is written thus early, in advance of the receipt by you of the order, that you may have these two companies in readiness at all points to move promptly on the day specified. Each company will be provided with five thousand rounds of ammunition in boxes, besides twenty rounds of ammunition to be carried by each soldier in his cartridge-box. Great care must be taken, particularly with the company ordered to Fort Stanton, to have kegs or barrels sufficient to carry two gallons of water per man, as there are long distances on the Fort Stanton road where water is not to be found, unless we have a timely fall of rain. The Indians are not only numerous but very hostile around Fort Stanton, and Major Smith, commanding at that post, asks for more troops successfully to pursue them, and at the same time garrison his post and guard his herd. The Indians are said to be bad on your route to Camp Easton. I mention this that you and Captain Hollister may be on your guard all the time, having reference to the safety of your animals by night and by day. You will promptly attack and destroy any and all grown male Indians whom you may meet between Fort Union and Camp Easton. Women and children will not be harmed, but will be taken prisoners, and will be securely guarded until further orders. A copy of this letter is herewith enclosed for Captain Hollister, wlho will be governed by the same rules with regard to any Indians he may meet between Fort Union and Fort Stanton. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain PETER W. L. PLYMPTON, U. S. A., Fort Union, NV. A. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NV M., July 29, 1863. MAJOR: If Captain Abreii's company has not left Fort Stanton for the Navajo campaign when you receive this letter, detain it until further orders. There is not, in my judgmnent, any necessity for a picket down the Pecos below your post, for the present. Your whole attention will be devoted to hunting and killing Indians, until none are to be found in your part of the Territory. Women and children are to be spared, to be sent to Fort Sumner as occasion may offer. I send you company " C" United States 7th infantry. These officers and men have been 120 Official:

Page  A121 APPENDIX. a long time in garrison, and will not only hope to be kept in the field, but will be kept in the field hunting and killing Indians until you are no more annoyed by the savages. At that moment report the fact, as the company is greatly needed at another point. This company and the California infantry company-seeing who can do the best-will have a generous emulation in scouring the Capitan, Blanco, and Sacramento mountains. The " California boys" must look out for their laurels. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOSEPH SMITH, Comrnanding at Fort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1s,t Vet. Inf. G. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., July 30, 1863. GENERAL: I have just received your letter of the 18th instant, giving an account of the capture by Indians of mules and wagons in Cook's cation, and of the fine conduct of Sergeant Hoyt, of company "D" 1st infantry California volunteers. Please make a recommendation for Sergeant Hioyt's promotion in a letter having no reference to other matters. It will afford me great pleasure to aid in getting a commission for so gallant a soldier. Captain French's little fight was creditable; but he always does well. Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JOSEPH R. WEST, U. S. Vols., Com. District of Arizona, tlirt's Mills, exas. Official: ERASTUIJS W. WOOD, Captain 1st VTet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M, July 31, 1863. MAJOR: The general commanding directs me to say to you that, by the company which will leave Fort Union on the 5th of August next for your post, Captain McFerran will send twenty-five horses for Captain Fritz's company. The general hopes to hear of your better success against the Indians in your vicinity, after the arrival of this re-enforcement of men and horses. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Camp. Major JOSEPII SMITH, Commanding at Fort Stanton, N. M. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., August 1, 1863. GE.NERAL: Enclosed herewith please find the last advices from Chihuahua, Mexico, received at these headquarters. Mr. Creel's letter, dated July 15, 1863, you will find to give the true feeling of the Mexican people in Chihuahua. The extraordinary developments of gold and silver in Arizona, which I write to you about in another letter by this mail, are but one example of the gold and silver in Chihuahua, Sonora, and Sinaloa, which states the French want, and which we should never permit them to have. Respectfully, I am, general, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General V. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A General 121 Official: Official:

Page  A122 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., August 2, 1863. GENERAL: On the 21st of last June I wrote to you a letter, enclosing copies of several communications in relation to extraordinary discoveries of gold and silver in Arizona Territory, particularly at a point or region lying southwestwardly from the San Francisco mountains, west of Albuquerque, New Mexico. I now herewith enclose two other communications from Mr. Benedict and a man named Jack Swilling, both reliable men, on the same subject. These communications speak for themselves. There cannot be a doubt, from these and from other reliable sources, that all that is said of these discoveries is true. You will see by the last return of the troops in this department that the effective strength is less than three thousand men. Of these, nearly eleven hundred are in active operations in a campaign against the Navajo Indians, and many of the remainder are constantly employed in active operations against the Apaches, who are scattered through the country in small bands, committing murders and robberies almost daily. The cavalry force in this country is entirely inadequate to pursue successfully these lawless savages. There were seven companies of the 1st cavalry California volunteers, which, last winter, General Wright wrote should be sent one by one across the desert, to New Mexico, as fast as they were raised. Of these, none have come, nor do I hear of their coming. Even if they started soon, it would be winter before they would arrive. I beg respectfully to urge upon the War Department the absolute necessity of sending to this department, at the earliest practicable moment, one full regiment of cavalry. The forage here this year is more abundant than ever, and when our stores now en route arrive we shall have an abundance of everything for their wants. As soon as the surveyor general, Clark, returns and makes an official report on the richness and extent of the new gold fields, it will be absolutely necessary to post troops in that section of the country; indeed, the capital of Arizona will be sure to be established there. All of the people of Tucson, our teamsters, and employes generally, who could possibly get away, have already left for that region. These troops, together with those we need here, additional to what we have, will fall below the mark of what are required. There will be many desertions. It is therefore incumbent on the War Department to take timely measures, so that troops to come may reach here before the grass is dry on the prairies or the winter sets in. There is a rumor here that a fine regiment of Wisconsin cavalry is operating somewhere between this country and the States. Could not that regiment be sent here before the fall months are over? The subject of these new discoveries demands the immediate and serious attention of the government. Please, if any troops are ordered here, to reply by telegraph to Julesburg, to come by express from Denver, so that I may have hay cut while there is yet time. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO TO,.AS, Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., August 3, 1863. CAPTAIN: Send a company of infantry from your post to scour the eastern slope of the Sandia mountain country, from Tejerras cailon northwardly towards the Placer mountains, with instructions to kill every male Navajo or Apache Indian who is large enough to bear arms, and who may be living in the fastnesses of the region above described. You are authorized to hire two good guides at a reasonable compensation. The company will keep the field for thirty days. It will start at once. I am, captain, very respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandiny. WILLIAM H. LEWIS, U. S. A. Commanding at Albuq ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 122 Official: Officia,l:

Page  A123 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N'. A., August 3, 1863. CAPTAIN: Send a company of infantry from your post to scour the country thoroughly from Abo Pass northwardly along the eastern slope of the Manzana mountains to Tejerras caion. The troops will not go into any of the towns lying east of the Manzana mountains, but will be kept busily scouting, and will be instructed to kill every Navajo or Apache Indian large enough to bear arms whom they may find. No women or children will be killed; these will be captured and held until further orders. It is believed that in the fastnesses of those mountains are many of these Indians. They will doubtless be found well up toward or at the crest of the ridge. There are points along the western base where there is water which can be reached by wagons with rations from time to time. The subsistence to be carried in the mountains will be bacon, flour, sugar and coffee. These will be carried by the men in haversacks, and by a few pack-Inules from one point to another, where a wagon can reach the base of the mountains, as the command progresses northward. The details how best to accomplish this are left to your good judgment. The company will be in the field for thirty days, and will start at once. You are authorized to hire two good guides, at a reasonable compensation, to go with it, and two or three packers. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain SAMUEL ARCHER, U. S. A., Commanding at Los Pi. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., August 4, 1863. COLONEL: I have been informed that there is a spring called Ojo de Cibolo, about fifteen miles west of Limitar, where the Navajoes drive their stolen cattle and "jerk"' the flesh at their leisure. Cannot you make arrangements for a party of resolute men from your command to be stationed there for, say, thirty days, and kill every Navajo and Apache they can find? A cautious, wary commander, hiding his men, and moving about at night, might kill off a good many Indians near that point. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON. Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel EDWIN A. RIGG, Commanding at Fort Craig, N. M. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., August 5, 1863. MAJOR: In reply to your communication of July 31, 1863, relative to an extract from department Special Orders No. 33, current series, ordering Captain Abre''s company to Los Pinos, I am directed by the general commanding to say to you that, doubtless, the order for Captain Abreci to remain for the present at Fort Stanton was received before the company had left for Los Pinos; that the horses ordered to be sent from Fort Union for that company were not sent, from some unaccountable oversight or neglect at that post, but were sent in another direction. The commanding general expects that you will clear the whole Bonita country of every Indian in it. The company of the 7th United States infantry must be kept in the field to help, as it is to go to another post as soon as this work is done. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de- Camp. M aj or JOSSEan SMITH, Commanidin# at Fort Stanton, NV. lf. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 123 Official:

Page  A124 APPENDIX. [Extract ] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N/. I., August 6, 1863. COLONEL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 1st instant. You will send the eleven recruits, 1st New Mexico volunteers, whom you report as just arrived at your post, to Los Pinos by the first practicable opportunity-say by the first train that comes up after the receipt of this communication. You will forward to the same point all recruits for that regiment received from below as soon as practicable after their arrival at Fort Craig. They are much needed in the Navajo country. Keep these headquarters advised of when you send such recruits, and transmit a list of their names. It is sincerely hoped, and expected, that you will be able to arrange some plan by which the predatory bands of Indians infesting your district may be destroyed. This is a subject that not only demands your attention, but your action. The troops must be kept after the Indians, not in big bodies, with military noises and smokes, and the gleam of aims by day, and fires, and talk, and comfortable sleeps by night; but in small parties moving stealthily to their haunts and lying patiently in wait for them; or by following their tracks day after day with a fixedness of purpose that never gives up. In this way, as large a command as that at Craig ought not to be run over or hooted at by a few naked Indians armed with bows arid arrows. Some flour, bacon, a little coffee, and sugar, thrown on a pack-mule, with the men carrying, say, two or three days' rations in their haversacks, and it will surprise the country what a few resolute men can do. If a hunter goes after deer, he tries all sorts of wiles to get within gunshot of it. An Indian is a more watchful and a more wary animal than a deer. He must be hunted with skill; he cannot be blundered upon; nor will he allow his pursuers to come upon him when he knows it, unless he is the stronger. I have made these few remarks because I desire you to impress upon your officers and men the uLitter folly of going after Indians unless these rules are observed. I once, in this country, with some good trackers under Kit Carson, followed a trail of Apaches for over a fortnight. I caught them. Others can do as well. I am, colonel, respectfully, your obdient servant, JAMES H CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnrnandirg. Colonel EDWIN A RPIGG, Comrnmandiig at Fost Craig, AT. A. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa 16, N. AJ., August 6, 1863. GENERAL: Cause the arms and ammunition sent from the department of the Pacific for the Pimo Indians to be placed in the hands of those Indians without delay, with such restrictions as will best subserve the interests of the government, and will insure that the Pimos use them in assisting to make war upon the Apaches, as far as it is practicable to get such assurance from Indians. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JOSEPI R. WEST, L. S. Vols., Corn. District of Arizona, Hart's Mills, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. (,. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., Auygust 6, 1863. GENERAL: a a 0 a C: In reply to your note of July 27th ultimo, I have the honor to say that the letter asking for a company from Fort Craig, to co-operate with Major McCleave in his efforts against the Indians, was sent to Colonel Rigg, and your request ordered to be carried out. The following was the indorsement: 124 Official:

Page  A125 APPENDIX. "July 15. This letter is respectfully referred to the commander at Fort Craig, who will send company K, 1st infantry California volunteers, to the points mentioned by Major McCleave, and this company will be instructed to proceed with great caution, without noise of trumpets or drums, or loud talking, or the firing of guns, except in battle; to march silently, mostly by night; to build fires of dry twigs. that no smoke may arise from them; to have no fires by night; to kill every Indian man they can find; to be gone thirty days; to have pack-mule transportation where wagons cannot go; to remember that California troops always find and whip the Indians; to excel in this respect all other California troops." This indorsement was on a letter from Major McCleave to General West, dated June 25, and enclosed in a letter from General West to these headquarters. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JOSEPH R. WEST, U. S. Vols., Com. District of Arizona, Hart's fMills, Texas. ERAqTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HIEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M, August 7, 1863. MAJOR: When Lieutenant Wardwell leaves your post to return scouting towards Santa Fe, it will be well for you to send along with him all persons casually at your post, who belong to other commands, if they are fit for duty. He must not be embarrassed by sick men, as he is ordered to hunt and fight Indians all the way back. Give him twenty days' rations and written orders that he will diligently spend that time in hunting Indians. He will go near no town or village on his way back He will keep notes of every day's marches and work, and make to these headquarters a detailed report on his return. Instruct him to do all this.::: Your animals must be carefully herded by a guard of suitable strength and suitable vigilance. I hope not to hear that the United States herds have been run off again. If we cannot protect our own stock we can hardly protect that of the people. If one or two men make large circuits every day, morning and evening, about your post and about your herd, if they are at all expert, they will cut all trails in the neighborhood. There are a thousand ways to know if Indians are about which should be practiced. Thus far the Indians about Fort Stanton, I am sorry to say, have had rather the best of it. The company of the 7th infantry is to be kept in the field until all the Indians have been driven from your part of the country; then it is to go to another post. Keep your command busy scouting. The Indians must not run over us rough-shod. It seems to me that we are as smart as they are, and can arrange some plan by which we can surpri;.se and destroy them. It is said the few remaining Mescaleros in your country, numbering about seventy men, women, and children, have been joined by small parties of Navajoes, and that they are operating together. They talk the same language. I am very anxious to hear that you have made an impression upon those Indians. Make a written report of all your command has done from the time one express left until you send the next, and so on. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JosEPH SMITH, Commanding at Fort Stanton, N. 1. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M, August 7, 1863. COLONEL: I have heard a rumor that you have had some success against the Navajoes, and have felt surprised that an official report from you on the subject could not have reached me as soon as the rumor. AMake a note of this: You will send me a weekly report, in detail, of the operations of your 125 Official:

Page  A126 APPENDIX. command, a certified copy of which I desire to send to Washington by each mail, if possible. Let me know all about the crops destroyed, their extent and location; all about the stock captured-when, where, by whom, and the kind and number; all about the Navajoes killed, and the exact number of captured women and children. The prisoners are all to be sent to Santa Fe6, to my care, by every safe and practicable opportunity. Be sure and make timely requisitions for supplies Keep me advised of just how you are getting along in all respects. Major Morlison will be required to state what reason he had for delaying his command so long at and near Las Lunas. That officer will be kept in the field until he has become an experienced Indian fighter. When you can, pray give Major Blakeney a chance for distinction. The value of timne cannot be too seriously considered. Make every string draw. Much is expected of you, both here and in Washington. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Briyadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPHER CARSON, Commanding Fort Canby, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. A., August 7, 1863. SIR: I have waited anxiously to hear that the command at Fort Wingate had had some success against the Navajoes. It seems to me that if some thirty or forty men, with some flour, bacon, sugar, and coffee, in haversacks, and on a few pack-mules, should move by night, (hiding by day,) without noise, and very cautiously, they would be able to surprise parties of Navajoes at or near their fields, which fields, within a radius of seventy miles of Fort Wingate, must all be destroyed before the crops are gathered by the Indians. All captured women and children (none will be killed) will be sent, by every practicable opportunity, to Santa Fe. I speak of thirty or forty men: one, two, or three such parties can be in the field at once, in different directions, if necessary and expedient. The Navajo Indians have got to be whipped, and I wish to hear that the Fort Wingate garrison has done its part. There is no peace party of Navajoes, unless such a party came in before the 20th of last July. The whole tribe is a war party, and as such will be treated alike. Every male Navajo able to bear arms will be attacked and destroyed or captured wherever he may be found, unless he came in before the 20th of last July. No women and children will be harmed, but will be sent to Santa Fd as prisoners. The rule is a plain one, and needs no future correspondence to define its meaning. A weekly report, in detail, of what the command at Fort Wingate will have accomplished, week after week, until further orders, whether in building or in campaigning, will be made to these headquarters by the commanding officer of that post. Remember this, and be sure to be particular in making the report, a certified copy of which will be sent by mail to Washington as soon as received. Be sure and make timely requisitions for supplies. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. L ieuten an t Colonel J. FRANCISCO CHAvEFZ, Of Officer Commanding Fort JWingate, N. 1. NoTE.-If Barboncito, Delgadito, or Che wish to be employed as expressmen to and from Fort Canby, I have no objection. In this case their families may remain at the fort. If not, they will be sent here if captured alive. The old Navajo woman I saw at Wingate can remain there. J. H. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 126 Official: Official:

Page  A127 APPENDIX. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa N,. M., August 7, 1863. GENERAL: o el e;- a It is well to inform you that a trail of, say, two hundred Navajoes going south was passed three days since by a gentleman from Colonel Carson's command. The trail was fresh and was passed a short distance this side of Laguna. These Indians sometimes go as low or lower than Fort Thorn. As you are aware, they are a branch of the Apache family, talk the same language, and are said now to be mixed with predatory bands of the Apaches. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JOSEPH R. WEST, U. S. Vols., Commandin9 District of Arizona, Hart's Mills, Texas. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1 st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FTe, N. AL.,August 14, 1863. COLONEL: I shall write to Captain Shoemaker to send you twenty sets complete of the McClellan horse equipments. Some three hundred head of cattle are on the way to Fort Craig, destined for the district of Arizona. As soon as they come report the fact, and guard them securely until further orders. If it takes your whole available force, the public animals must be guarded beyond a shade of danger from Indians. All the troops that can be spared in the whole upper country are after Indians. Pettis sending for re-enforcements, thus losing time, augurs badly. 1 hope to hear that your troops have killed some Indians. A good deal of study of how to get at them, and a good deal of caution and fixedness of purpose in carrying plans into execution, will be sure to produce good results eventually. There are many Navajoes and Apaches prowling over the country. The troops and the people must all the time be on their guard. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel EDwiN A. RIGG, Commnanding at Fort Craig, N.M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., August 15, 1863, CAPTAIN: In reply to your communication of the 6th instant, relating to captured Indians, the general commanding directs me to send you a copy of a letter from these headquarters to Colonel Chavez, commanding Fort Wingate, dated August 7, 1863, and to say to you that captured Indians will be sent to Santa Fe by every practicable opportunity-if necessary, the men in irons; and in case any attempt to escape is made by them they will be shot down. The copy of the letter herewith enclosed contains instructions which are sufficiently explicit to require no further correspondence on the subject. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Camp. Captain RAFAEL CHACON, 1st N. M. Vols., Commanding at Fort Wingate, N. H. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A General. 127 Official: Official ~

Page  A128 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa F, N. M., August 16, 1863. GENERAL: On the 2d instant I wrote to you a letter showing the importance of sending more troops to this department. Fearing that letter may have been delayed or miscarried, I enclose herewith a duplicate of it. You are aware that the Territories of Arizona and New Mexico are more extensive than, say, five or six such States as Ohio; that they swarm with hostile Indians; that the wealth of the country, consisting mainly in flocks and herds, is greatly exposed to depredations on a large scale. A man may have twenty thousand dollars' worth of stock, the result of a life of watching and care, and in one night become a beggar from a raid by a dozen Navajoes or Apaches. Since Colonel Carson took the field many small bands of Navajoes have come into the settlements and are committing some murders and many robberies. I have all the troops in the field which can be spared from the various posts, but men on foot, in an open country, are not successful against these mounted savages. If I could have the full regiment of cavalry asked for, and could have authority to raise one independent company of native mounted volunteers in each county, to scout in that county, I really believe the Indian wars in New Mexico could be brought forever to a close. Pray send the regiment and grant the authority. These companies could be discharged as soon as their services were no longer required. The men of each county being familiar with all the trails and watering places of their own county, and being near the flocks and herds of their own neighbors, to get notice and give chase the moment hostile Indians made their appearance would, in my opinion, be a cheap and efficient auxiliary to the operations by the more permanently organized troops. We have rumors of a guerilla force having been organized at San Antonio, Texas, under the notorious Baylor, to come here on a robbing and murdering expedition. This may be so; and if so, you can see, as well as I, the greater necessity of sending more troops here. Whatever is done should be done at once. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa l,e, N. M., August 18, 1863. COLO.EL: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 24th ultimo, in relation to the disposition to be made of captured Navajo women and children, and to say, in reply, that all prisoners which are captured by the troops or employds of your command will be sent to Santa Fd, by the first practicable opportunity after they are, from time to time, brought in as prisoners. There must be no exception to this rule. Here, the superintendent of Indian affairs and myself will make such dispositions as to their future care and destination as may seem most humane and proper. o All horses, mules, or other stock which the troops or employds under your command may capture belong to the United States, and will be reported to department headquarters.'the horses and mules will be turned over to your chief quartermaster, who will have them carefully branded "U. S.," and used in the public service. These he will account for on his property returns. But to stimulate the zeal of the troops and employes who have captured horses and mules from the Navajoes, or who may hereafter make such captures from those Indians, a bonus of twenty dollars apiece will be paid to their captors as prize-money, on the delivery to the chief quartermaster of every sound, serviceable horse or mule. These will be accounted for as purchased. All sheep captured will be turned over to the chief commissary of your expedition. These will be taken up on the returns of provisions; will be properly marked; will be killed from time to time and issued as fresh meat to the troops and employeds. The chief commissary is authorized to pay the captors of such sheep one dollar per head as prize money, and as an encouragement to renewed exertions. Every lot captured will at once be reported to department headquarters. The sheep paid for, as here set forth, will be taken up as purchased. 128 Official:

Page  A129 APPENDIX. All other property captured from the Indians will be reported, when orders will be given as to what disposition shall be made of it. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMIES H. CARLETON, .Briadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPrtIER CARSON, Commanding Expeditlon against the Navajoes, IP;rt Canby, NV. JI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Tet. Ilf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHIEADQUARITERS DEPARTMENT OFr NEW MEXICO, Santa le', NS. Af., August 19, 1863. CAPTAIN: You will, immediately on receipt of this, send the 1st sergeant of Captain Cremony's company and twenty-five picked men of that company on a scout after Indians, up the Pecos as far as Agua Negra, and thence towards the Piedra Perdinales, on a road leading from Agua Negra to Albuquerque. The party will be absent thirty days, and will kill every Apache or Navajo Indian who is large enough to bear arms, whom it can find in that region. No women or children will be harmed. These will be taken and held captive until further orders. There are small parties of Navajoes and Apaches prowling around that section of country which must be destroyed. Urge the sergeant to use his utmost endeavors to this end. There are other parties out from all the posts, and I trust the party from yours will try hard to obtain results which will be creditable to it. The party will be in the field scoutilg all the time for thirty days. You are authorized to employ two good trackers and guides for it. If one or two of your Apaches can do this, let the experiment be tried, and pay well, say two dollars a day cash, for his services. Little by little we will avail ourselves of their knowledge in ferreting out others, and in finding water and grass. Report every week how you progress in building, and on all other matters which wvould be useful and interesting to be known here of your surroundings and of the condition of the Apaches. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain JOsEPi UPDEGoRArF, U. S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, IV. L. NOTE. -The sergeant will be instructed to keep a journal of his operations and marches, day by day, which will be sent to department headquarters when the service is done. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMIIENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa Fe,. N. 3I., August 19, 1863. MIAJOR: I regret to learn of the capture, by Navajoes, of so large a flock of sheep as that seen in their possession by Lieutenant Higclden. I suppose, of course, that you immediately sent troops to recapture the sheep and destroy the Indians. or eW.".pchp #'.-.-:' Yo ae ag cmad n nexesv oe ndIhp t er ono sm 0 You have a large command and an expensive one; and I hope to hear soon of some favorable reports in the way of destruction of Indians and the recovery of stock. Every Navajo or Apache man who may be found by your troops will be destroyed or taken pris. oner. No women and children will be injured. These will be held until further orders. 9 129 Official: Offici-,il:

Page  A130 APPENDIX. Each command that leaves your post is to keep a journal of every day's operations, which journal, when the commands return to your post, is to be sent to me. I shall be impatient until I hear of some success in your quarter of the country. There are now scouts out from every post in the department. Respectfully, your obedient servanlt, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOSEPH SMITII, Commanding at Ibrt Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUAPTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIco, Santa Fe, N. M., August 19, 1863. CAPTAIN: Immediately on the receipt of this letter you will send Lieutenant Brady, with twenty-five picked men from Captain Bergmrann's company of 1st New Mexico volunteers, on a scout up Red river to Carion Largo-the mouths of the Conchlias and Mora -and to hunt up and destroy any parties of Navajoes or Apaches which may be found in that section of country. No women and children will be harmed; these will be taken and held as prisoners until further orders. Lieutenant Brady is said to be a very energetic, determined man, and will doubtless perform this special service with marked credit to himself and to your command. Similar scouts are out from all the posts, and it is hoped that by activity and caution the Indians now infesting the country east of the Rio Grande will be destroyed. The party will be absent on this duty thirty days.! A journal will be kept by Lieutenant Brady of each day's march anid operations, which will be sent to me. While he is in the neighborhood of Cation Largo it would be well for him to see if the road could be made off the mesa from the direction of Fort Union-the road I spoke to you about. I am, captain., very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain P. W. L. PLYMPTON, U.S. A., Commanding at Tort Bascom, N. M. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., August 23, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to report that nearly all the troops in this department, certainly all that can possibly be spared, are now in the field endeavgring to chastise hostile Indians, as well as to protect the people in their persons, and their property in flocks and herds. Colonel Carson, with all the available force from Fort Canby, and Major Willis, with two companies from Fort Wingate, are after Navajoes in the Navajo country. I have stationed a force in a pass in the Jemez mountains, known as E1 Valle Grande, to prevent stock being driven through that noted thoroughfare. Another force is at the Cibola Springs, west of Limitar, and companies and smaller detachments are scouting over the country east of the Rio Grande, from Forts Bascom, Sumner and Stanton, and from Albuquerque and Los Pinos. Four companies are operating against the Apaches near the heads of the Miembres and the Gila. Yet with all these exertions, small parties of fives, and tens, and twenties, of Navajoes and Apiches, most always well mounted, steal through the country and commit depredations. You will observe that the force here is entirely inadequate for the absolute necessities of the country. The plan suggested in my letter of last week of giving me authority to raise one independent company of volunteers in each county, mainly for the defence of the county, would, in my opinion, be entirely effective against these small predatory bands. The tribes in their country could then be attacked by the 130 Official: 4

Page  A131 APPENDIX. regularly organized troops. Another full regiment of cavalry should be sent here at once. I would not ask for a man, general, unless I knew it was absolutely necessary to have him. Respectfully, your obedient scrvant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO TIIOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st ret. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIco, Santa Fe, iV. I., August 26, 1863. MAJOR: The Indians beginning to be troublesome about Fort Union, where there is no cavalry, I have been obliged to order Captain Fritz's company to that post. In case you have not transportation to move all the company property with the company now,.you will have such property boxed up and forwarded by the first train coning from your post to Fort Union. Let Ca,ptain Fritz transfer his new horse equipments complete to Captain Abreii; he will have them replaced at Fort Union. Captain Fritz will also transfer to Captain Abrefi, of the new horses which he has received, enough to mount sixty of Captain Abreii's men. These will be replaced as soon as practicable after the Captain's arrival at Fort Union. It is said that some eight thousand sheep were run off by Navajoes on the 24th instant, from Benguin valley, near Fort Union. Some troops, mounted on mules, are in pursuit. Should these not overtake them, it is calculated that parties from your post (an intercept them on their way toward the Jornada, or to cross the Rio Grande at some place higher up. Having timely notice, I trust this flock will not get by you. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brqigadier General, Comnmanding. Major JOSEPH SMIITH, Commanding at Fort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. I[f. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL's OFFICE, Santa fB, V. M., August 27, 1863. MAJOR: The general commanding directs me to say to you that he expects that, in sending out scouting parties from Fort Stanton, you will bo particular to give such instructions that a careful lookout will be kept up for Navajoes and Apaches in the neighborhood of the Salt lakes, which are situated in a northerly direction from the Gallinos mountains, and toward Manzana. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Major JosEtP SMITal, Commandi.,g at Fort Stanton, Ni.. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captainz 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa ee,, N. M., August 27, 1863. SiR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 24th instant, and am directed by the department commander to say that he trusts you will use every exertion to intercept and destroy any parties of hostile Indians who may attempt to sass in the vicinity of your camp. He desires that you make the huts you are building 131 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A132 APPENDIX. for your mene. as substantial and as comfortable as you possibly can, and( lay up a good supply of wood, and if possible have a supply of hay cut and stacked up for, say, eighteen government animals, in case your own party or any other party of troops are obliged to remain during the winter at Las Valles, and for, say, what tell beef cattle would consume in four months. Having this object in view, the general leaves it all to your own good judgment as to the place where, aind the manner in which, you shall put up these huts, so that the men may be comfortable. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. First Lieutenant ERASTUS W. WOOD, Comminding at La:s Valfes, iE. i. iERlASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERs DEPARTM[ENT OF NEw MEXICO. Satna Fe, NS. 1l., September 2,1863. GOVEaNOR: It becomes my melancholy duty to inform you that Major Joseph Cummnings, 1st New Mexico volunteers, was killed by the Navajo Indians near Pueblo Colorado, in the Navajo country, on the 18th ultimo. There was no better soldier than lie within the department of New Mexico. He was brave and generous to a fault, and in manly attributes he had but few equals, and hardly a superior. His comrades in arms are overwhelmed with sorrow at his untimely fate, and from them there comes but one expression-that of admiration of his manly character, and grief at his loss. I am, very respectfully, your excellency's obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Generalt, Co,?.maudin,. His Excellency HENRY CONNELLY, Governor of Newv Mexico, Santa. Fe, N. 31. aERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., September 3, 18 63. GENERAL: I have to inform you that, from information I have received, it is probable the Navajo Indians in large numbers have gone southward and joined the Gila Apaches somewhere in the White mountains. If this is so, it will be well for you to be prepared, not only to whip them if they come into your district, but to be on your guard against increased depredations. The troops in the Navajo country are pressing them sorely. By the time the snows of winter drive them down out of the mountains it is hoped we shall have better success. I am, general, respectfully, &c., JAMES. CARETON, Tal, Commandin,. at, Commianding. Brigadier General JOSEPSI R. WEsT, U. S. Vols., Commandiny District of Arizona, Lis Cruces, N. AI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Tet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEAD)QUARITERS DEIARTMIENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa AI, N. 1t., September 4, 1863. SIR: You will minake a report every week of all that is done by the party under vour command at the Valles. Although no sign of Indians may be se'en, you must be sure to be on your guard against surprise, and teach parties of your men detachlli from the main body to be vigilant all the time. 132 Official: Offic'ial: Official:

Page  A133 APPENDIX. As troops may stay in the Valles all winter, you will make timely preparation, to thisend. A storehouse to contain three months' supply for forty men, and an oven, will be built. I am, sir, respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Second Lieutenant PHILIP A. J. RUSSELL, 1st Infantry Cal. Vols., &Sainta Ne, N. 11. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain let Vet. Irj. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] DEPARTMENT OF NEW MIEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe6, N. i., September 4, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to transmit for your information duplicate copies of the various communications which were forwarded to you from this office by the mail which left Santa Fe on the 22d ultimo, under the supposition that the originals were all destroyed by the Indians who captured the mail on the Jornada del Muerto on the 26th ultimo. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Brigadier General JOSEPH R. WEST, U. S. Vols., Commanding District of Arizona, flart's MJills, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st, VFt. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTEIS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe. N. N., September 5, 1863, CAPTAIN: Your letter setting forth your inability to do much at building of your post has been received. I have given orders for fifty citizens to be employed to help you. It is hoped you take great interest in having your command comfortably sheltered before the winter sets in. There can be no good reason why this is not done. There seems to be as much indifference as to the progress of the work as there was to the setting out of trees. If so, this cannot be complimentary, in the long run, either to yourself or your command. It is difficult to conceive how, with three companies, with nine men for guard, and a small party on detached service, you have no men to help build your post. Captain Hollister is reported to have said at Fort Stanton that you had told him that Ojo Blanco was not at Fort Sumner, and had been gone some time. I do not credit the report, because I take it for granted that if a single Indian which had been turned over to you for safe-keeping made his escape, you would, as-it is made your duty to do, at once notify me of the fact. I have senti you fifty-one Navajo men women, and children, who are ikewise to be retained near your post as prisoners. They will be allotted some place where they will be by themselves. They are to be fed by the Indian agent, as the Apaches are fed, and are to be treated with the greatest kindness. As fast as others are captured they will be sent to you. It is my purpose to have the whole Bosque Redondo part of the valley of the Pecos set apart as an Indian reservation, and place upon it all captured Navajoes and Apaches. They belong to the same family, and as a Pueblo under proper care and instruction, will soon again become a homogeneous people. Your chaplain will be here on his return from Europe, in about two weeks. I am,-captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain JOS,PI-I UPDEOGRAFF, 1Ut. S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. Cial ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 133 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A134 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. AIl., September 6, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to report that I have this week sent fifty-one Nav'tj(, Indian men, women, and children to Fort Srumner, at the Bosque Redondo, on the Pecos river, where, as I have before informed you, I have four hundred and twenty-five Alescalero Apaches, held as prisoners. The purpose had in view is to send all captured Navajoes and Apaches to that point. and there to feed and take care of them until they have opened farms and become ab e to support themselves, as the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico are doing. The. War Department has already approved of this in the case of the Apaches, and authorized that Fort Sumner should be a chaplain post, so that the chaplain there could educate the Indian chil(lren. This year those Indians have been contented and happy. They planted, under the direction of their agent and with a little help, some large fields of corn; and now that they have their acequia dug, will next year raise quite enougbh to support themselves. This the Navajoes can be persuaded to do as well. At the Bosque Redondo there is arable lard enough for all the Indians of this family, (the Navajoes and Apaches have descended from the same stock and speak the same language,) and I would respectfully recommend, now that the war is vigorously prosecuted against the Navajoes, that the only peace that ca,l ever be made with them must rest on the basis that they move on to these lands, and, like the Pueb'os, become an agricultural people and cease to be nomads. This should be a sine q,za non. As soon as the snows of winter admonish them of the sufferings to which their families will be exposed, I have great hopes of getting the most of the tribe. The knowledge of the perfidy of these Navajoes, gained after two centuries of experience, is such as to lead us to put no fi.th in their promises. They have no government to make treaties. They ale a patriarchal people. O e set of families may make promises, but the other set will Lot heed them. They linderstand the direct application of force as a law. If its application be removed, that moment they become lawless. This has been tried over and over, and over again, and at great expense. The purpose now is never to relax the application of force with a people that can no more be trusted than you can trust the wolves that run through their mountains; to gather them together, little by Iittle, on to a reservation, away from the haunts, and hills, and hiding-places of their countly, and then to be kind to them; there teach their children how to rea(l and write; teach them the arts of peace; teach them the truths of Christianity. Soon they will acquire new habits, new ideas, new modes of life; the old Indians will die off, and carry with them all latent longings for murdering and robbing; the young ones will take their places without these longings; and thus, little by little, they will become a happy and contented people, and Navajo wars will be remembered only as something that belongs entirely to the past. Even until they cart raise enough to be self-sustaining, you carn feed them cheaper than you can fight them. You will observe that the Bosque Redondo is far down the Pecos, on the open plains, where these Indians can have no iateral contact with settlers. If the government will only set apart a reservation of forty miles square, with Fort Sumner, at the Bosque Redondo, in the centre, all the good land will be covered, and keep the settlers a proper distance from the Indians. There is no place in the Navajo country fit for a reservation; and even if there were, it woul l not be wise to have it there; for, little by little, the Indians would steal away into their mountain fastnesses again, and then, as of old, would come a new war, and so on ad infinitum. I know these views are practical, practicable, and humane; are just to the suffering people, as well as to the aggressive, perfidious, butchering Navajoes. If I can have one more full regiment of cavalry, and authority to raise one independent company in each county in the Territory, they can soon be carried to a final result. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Briga dier General LORENZO THOMIAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., iVashington, D. C. ERASTIJS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 134; Official:

Page  A135 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEDICO, Santa Fe, N. M., September 6, 1863. COLONEL: I have sent to Fort Union fifty-one Navajo men, women, and children, en route to Fort Sumner. They are escorted by some soldiers, under Lieutenant Holmes, of the first New Mexico volunteers. The Indians will be treated with great kindness while at your post. You will see that suitable provisions are made for their subsistence there, and for the journey to Fort Sumner, whither Lieutenant Holmes and escort is to accompany them. You will inform the depot quartermaster and commissary that if they have supplies to send to Fort Sumner, this same escort can guard them, and return with the train to Fort Union. Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Genzeral, Conmmanding. Lieutenant Colonel WILLIAM MCMULLEN, Commanding Fort Union, NV. if. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vft. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. 3I., September 6, 1863. GENERAL: I enclose herewith the copy of a letter from Captain A. IH. French, first cavalry California volunteers, himself an old practical miner. From all points I hear news confirmatory of the theory that from the head of the Gila northwestward(ly to the Colorado riser, near Fort Mojave, there is a region of country of unequalled wealth in the precious metals. I soon expect to hear of the return of Surveyor General Clarke. and the party I sent with him to the new Eldorado, when the government will then be officially as well as reliably informed, lby an eye-witness, of the wealth so much written about. I am, general, respectfully, &c., JAMIES HI. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa IC, N. il, Septem,nber 10, 1863. SIR: The general commanding desires to be informed, without delay, what amount of money and other valuables came into your possession from the persons and the vicinity of the murdered express men you came across when en route from Fort Stanton to Santa Fd in the month of June last, and what disposition has been made of such valuables and money. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORRESTtAi e-de-Camp. Lieutenant WILLIAM H. HIGDON, Ffth Infantry, California V:olunteers, Fort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., September 13, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose, for the information of the War Department, copies of letters received from Samuel J. Jones, Charles 0. Brown, and King. S. Woolsey, in relation to the new gold fields southwest from the San Francisco mountains, about which I have so frequently written to you. Brown and Woolsey are men whose statements are to be credited. Jones simply transmits Brown's letter. 135 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A136 APPENDIX. Surveyor General Clarke, and the officer and men I sent with him, have not yet returned-. They should be back'before the end of the month, when the;r reports will be forwarded. It is unnecessary for me to take up the time of the War Department by making comments on the prospective results of such startling developments of treasure, whether to Arizona and New Mexico, or to the country at large; they will be apparent to all on a rnoment's reflection. In other letters heretofore written, I have endeavored to impress upon your mind the, importance of sending an additional regiment of cavalry-a full regiment-to this country. Authority has been received by the governor of New Mexico to raise in the Territory two regiments more of troops, but it is very doubtful if even one can now be raised: first, because of the real scarcity of men; second, because other more profitable pursuits interpose; third, because nearly all the floatingpopulation will go to the new gold fields. An effort will be made to raise one regiment of infantry, ias there are not horses in the Territory which can be spared from other labor to mount a regiment of cavalry. If a full regiment of cavalry could at once be sent here from the States, I would have troops quite sufficient, I hope, to whip the Indians, and to protect the people going to and at the mines. The authority to raise one independent company in each county, for the protection of the people and flocks and herds of that county, should be given to me. I have no inclination to ask for more authority or more troops than I need. I beg respectfully to say, if I am considered worthy of commanding so remote a department, some confidence should be reposed in my judgment-being, as I am, upon the ground-of what is absolutely wanted. If troops cannot be sent, permit me to recruit in Colorado Territory. One thing should be borne in mind: Every regiment you send here, whether from the east or from California, will stay. Thus each one is a military colony, to people the vast uninhabited region between the Rio Grande and the Pacific. As winter is so near, time now is everything. Pray let serious attention be given to the subject of these new discoveries of gold. A new revolution in all that pertains to this country is on the eve of commencing, and the government should provide for approaching emergencies. The people will flock to the mines, and should be protected. Providence has indeed blessed us. Now that we need money to pay the expenses of this terrible war, new mines of untold millions are found, and the gold lies here at our feet, to be had by the mere picking of it up! The country where it is found is no fancied Atlantis; is not seen in golden dreams; but it is a real, tangible El Dorado, that has gold that can be weighed by the steelyards-gold that does not vanish when the finder is awake. I hope I may not be considered visionary, and therefore be denied reasonable help. This is a great matter not only for our present wants, but for the future security of our country; for, henceforth, in place of a desert, dividing peoples, we find a treasure which will attract not only a population to live upon that desert, but which will, as sure as the sun shines, bring the great railroad over the 35th parallel, and thus unite the two extremes of the country by bars of steel, until, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, we become homogeneous in interest as in blood. I beg you will send to New Mexico a first-rate topographical engineer to map the new gold fields, and fix their positions instrumentally. Congress should, by early legislation, determine whether the government shall have rights of seigniorage in these new treasures, and whether foreigners shall come and take gold from the country ad libitum and without tax. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LoUaEzo THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vtt. Itf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HIEADQUARTEIS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. 2l., September 13, 1863. SIR: I have had the honor frequently to write to the War Department of the new gold fields which have been discovered along the Gila river, and upon the line of the 35th parallel, between the Rio Grande and the Rio Colorado. Enclosed herewith please to find copies of letters upon this subject which I have just received. You will at once perceive that the capital, as well as the population, of the new Terri 136 Official:

Page  A137 APPENDIX. tory of Arizona will be near that oasis upon the desert out of which rise the San Francisco mountains, and in and beside which are found these extraordinary deposits of gold; and not at the insignificant village of Tucson, away in the sterile region toward the southern line of the Territory. This will render absolutely indispensable a new mail route over the Whipple road to the new gold fields, and thence crossing the Colorado at old Fort Mojave, (now abandoned,) and thence up the Mojave river and through the Cajon Pass to Los Angeles, California. People flocking towards these mines will clamor for, and will deserve to have, mail facilities. They will go from the east; they will come from California; therefore liberal appropriations should be made early in the approaching session of Congress to prepare the road; to establish a post near the San Francisco mountains; to re-establish old Fort Mojave; to have a first-class permanent ferry across the Colorado at that point; and to provide for an overland mail from Albuquerque to Los Angeles. The reason why I have presumed to write to you upon this important matter is that you may give it timely consideration. There is no doubt but the reports of these immense deposits of gold are true. As a statesman you will readily imagine all of the political results which must at once ensue from such startling developments when they obtain publicity. This should not be given to them until we have official reports from Surveyor General Clarke and a party I sent with him to see precisely into the matter. We know from various other sources what that report must be, at least sufficiently to make timely preparations for emergencies which will then at once arise. For myself there comes no little satisfaction in the thought that, for all the toil through the desert of the troops composing the column from California, there will yet result a substantial benefit to the country; that if those brave fellows, who encountered their hardships so cheerfully and patiently, who endured and suffered so much, have not had the good fortune to strike a good, hard, honest blow for the old flag, they have, at least, been instrumental in helping to find gold to pay the gallant men who have had that honor. Somebody had to perform their part in the grand drama upon which the curtain is about to fall. The men from California accepted unmurmuringly the role that gave them an obscure and distant part upon the stage, where it was known they could not be seen, and believed they would hardly be heard from; but in the great tragedy so cruelly forced upon us, they tried to perform their duty, however insignificant it might be, and to the best of their ability; and now, a finger of that Providence who has watched over us in our tribulation, and who blesses us, lifts a veil, and there, for the whole country, lies a great reward. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Hon. MOeNTGOMERY BLAIR, Postmaster General, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st VTet. Iif. C. V., A. A. A. Geieral. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MExico, Santa FE, N. M., September 18, 1863. GENERAL:: -: You will issue instructions to all your posts that the protection of the government herds must be the first duty of every garrison. It is a mortifying thing to admit that the Indians run off the stock of the troops. A vigilant officer with vigilant men would want nothing better than for Indians to come and make an attempt to do this. It would save a hard march to go in search of the Indians. It is hoped we have heard the last of such misfortune. The new post at Cook's Springs will need and should receive your immediate attention. By industry, and some help from other troops and a few citizens, it ought to be done before freezing weather comes. Hay can be got at the Mimbres; vigas from the ruins of Fort Thorn, if not nearer, and everything can be made snug and tidy and secure before 137 O C,.I:

Page  A138 APPENDIX. winter comes. The spring should be dug oufit so that no muck will surround the water, and then be nicely stoned. The volume of water should be large, that whole trains need not exhaust it. I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Conmmianding. Brigadier General JOsEPH R. WFST, Ur S. Vols., Commanding Disrict of Ar,zona, Las Cruces, N. JM. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain l1t Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N.. i., September 18, 1863. MAJOR: You will take Captain Hollister's company and twenty other men from your command and proceed to the Gallinas mountains, and cause the spring there to be cleaned out and enlarged, so that water enough may accumulate for the use of trains and cavalry which may encamp there While there your command will all the time be on the lookout for Indians, and you will attack all you can find or may encounter. Captain Hollister's company will be kept encamped at that point after the spring is prepared, until the 1st of December, to watch for and attack Indians. You will give him written instructions not to visit any town or settlement, or permit any of his command to do so, during that time. On the 1st day of December that company will return to Fort Stanton. You, yourself, will return as soon as the spring is properly prepared. It is possible'you may have to have the reservoir for the water below the spring on account of the neighboring rocks. Now that you find no Indians near Fort Stanton you should give careful instructions to your guards and herders to be on the lookout for them. I am, major, respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Genteral, Commanding. M,Iajor JOSEPH SMITIH, Commanding at Tort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa E:d, N. M., September 18, 1863. CAPTAIN: YOU will send a party of thirty, rank and file, to be commanded by Lieutenant Speed, of your regiment, to proceed through the Abo Pass and scout along through the eastern portion of the Manzana mountains northward to Tijeras cation, in search of Navajo and Apache Indians. The party will be instructed to kill alt the male Indians of these tribes whom it may meet or can find. It will have the same instructions as regards supplies which the party recently returned had, except that under no circumstances will the commander of the scout leave it until it returns to your post. The scout will keep the field thirty days, and will leave Los Pinos at once. I am, captain, respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Generol, Commanding. Captain SAMUEL ARCHER, U. S A., Comrmanding at Los Pinos, N. J. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 138 Official: Official: Ofricial:

Page  A139 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., September 18, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose the reports of a scout against the Navajoes made recently from Fort Wingate by Captain Chacon, 1st New Mexico volunteers, and Captain Hargrave, 1st infantry California volunteers. You will be struck with the distances these troops have to niarch without water. I am, general, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Geteral, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO TIIOMAS, Adjutant General U. S A., Washington, D. C. ERASI'US W. WOOD, Captain 1st qVet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO. Santa Fe, N. 3r., September 19, 1863. COLONEL::'.;-. I recommend, unless you can produce the same result by more gentle measures, that you seize six of the principal men of the Zuni Indians, and hold them as hostages until all Navajoes in and near their village are given up, and all stolen stock surrendered. You will assure the Zuii Indians that if I hear that they help or harbor Navajoes, or steal stock from any white men, or injure the person of any white man, I will as certainly destroy their village as sure as the sun shines. I have received the report of your operations in the vicinity of Cafion de Chelly. If any Indians desire to give themselves up, they will be received and sent to Fort Wingate, with a request that from that post they be sent to Los Pinos. No Navajo Indians of either sex, or of any age, will be retained at Fort Canby as servants, or in any capacity whatever. All must go to the Basque Redondo. You are right in believing that I do not wish to have these destroyed who are willing to come in. Nor will you permit an Indian prisoner, once fairly in our custody, to be killed, unless he be endeavoring to make his escape. There is to be no other alternative but this: Say to them-" Go to the Basque Redondo, or we will pursue and destroy you. We will not make peace with you on any other terms. You have deceived us too often and robbed and murdered our people too long to trust you again at large in your own country. This war shall be pursued against you if it takes years, now that we have begun, until you cease to exist or move. There can be no other talk on the subject." As winter approaches you will have better luck. I send your report to Washington. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Col onel CHRISTOPHER CARSON, Commanding Expedition against the N~avajoes, Fort Canby, N. AL. ERASTUS W.-WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NV. M1., September 20, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor to report that Mr. John A. Clarke, the surveyor general of the Territory of New Mexico, has returned from his visit to the newly-discovered gold fields. He has written to me a letter giving a brief synopsis of his observations, a copy of which please to find herewith enclosed. General Clarke is very careful to keep well within bounds in all he says about the gold, as he desires to give rise to no expectations which may not be realized. That there is a large and rich mineral region between the San Francisco mountains and the Colorado river there can be no doubt. I am making preparations to) establish a military post of two companies of infantry at 139 Official: Official:

Page  A140 APPENDIX. or near the mines; and it is my purpose to have the troops leave the Rio Grande for that point some time about the 10th proximo. I beg again respectfully to urge upon the War Department the expediency as well as the necessity of having an appropriation for the making of a road from the Rio Grande to the new gold fields, and thence to Fort Mojave on the Colorado river. From the latter point there is already a road up the Mojave river through the Cajon Pass to Los Angeles. Mail facilities should also be put upon the road. The new government of Arizona, if it ever come, will be at the gold fields, not at the insignificant village of Tucson. I am, general, very respectfully. your obedient servant, JAMES H CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandinq. Brigadier General LoRENZO TIIOM3AS, Adjutant GenTeral U. S. A., Vashington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEA1)QUARTFESs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MExico. Santa Fe, N. A., September 20, 1863. MY DEAR Sir: Knowing the great interest which you feel in all matters that will increase the prosperity of our country-and more particularly, at this time, in all matters that relate to its moneyed resources-I have ventured to write to you concerning the new gold fields recently discovered near the San Francisco mountains, on the 35th parallel, and between the Rio Grande and the Rio Colorado. Surveyor General Clarke, of this Territory, has just returned from these new gold fields, and has written a letter to myself, giving a brief account of what he saw. General Clarke is prudent in his expressions, lest extravagant expectations might be raised on what he says, leading to disappointment. From what he says, and from what I learn fiom other sources, a large region of country, extending from near the head of the Gila along the southern slope of the Sierra Blanca, Sierra AIogollon, (copper mountain,) San Francisco mountains, and thence to the Colorado, is uncommonly rich, even compared with California, in gold, silver, cinnabar, and copper. On the Prieta affluent to the Gila, from the north, gold was found by my scouting parties last winter as high as "forty cents to the pan." And veins of argentiferous galena were found which, I am informed by the best of authority, yielded more than a dollar to the pound of crude ore. If I can but have troops to whip away the Apaches, so that prospecting parties can explore the country and not be in fear all the time of being murdered, you will without the shadow of a doubt find that our country has mines of the precious metals unsurpassed in richness, number, and extent by any in the world. Rich copper, in quantity enough to supply the world, is found at the head of the Gila. Some of this copper abounds in gold. Some is pure enough for commerce with but very little refining. The gold is pure. I send you herewith a specimen of copper from near Fort West, on the Gila, and two specimens of pure gold from the top of Antelope mountain, spoken of by General Clarke. These specimens were sent to me by Mr. Swilling, the discoverer of the new gold fields, near the San Francisco mountains. If it be not improper, please give the largest piece of the gold to Mr. Lincoln. It will gratify him to know that Providence is blessing our country, even though it chasteneth. Now, would it not be wise for Congress to take early action in legislating for such a region; to open roads; to give force to subjugate the Indians; to give sail facilities; to claim rights of seigniorage in the precious metals, which will help pay our debts, &c.? To so eminent a statesman as yourself it will be sure to occur that timely steps should be taken for the development and security of so rich a country. Play pardon my having trespassed upon your time, and believe me to be, Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Hon. SALMON P. CIASE, Secretary of the Treasury, WVashington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A.A. General. 140 Officill: Official:

Page  A141 APPENDIX. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, N. M., October 17, 1863. COLONEL: In reply to your communication of this date, I am directed by the general commanding to state that the four horses and one mule belonging to the Navajo Indians are not to be taken from them, but that they be sent with these Indians to the Bosque Redondo. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUILER, Assistant Adjutant General. Colonel M. STECK, Superintendent of Indian Alffair.s, Santa fe', N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain l st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF XEW MEXICo, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, N. Al., October 21, 1863. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the l18th instant, reporting the arrival at your post of certain Navajo chiefs, who wish to make peace for their people. In reply, I am directed by the department commander to say that the Navajo Indians have no choice in the matter: they must come in and go to the Bosque Redondo, or remain in their own country, at war. The commanding officer at Fort Wingate has received instructions to send by first practicable opportunity to Santa Fe all Navajo Indians who have been taken prisoners, or who may give themselves up. An exception will be made to this rule in the cases of the man Chb and his wife, and the woman Paulonia and her children. No other Navajoes will be allowed to remain at Fort Wingate, and if the large band of Indians of which you write are in the vicinity of your post they will be sent at once to Santa Fd, en route for Bosque Redondo. They will be fed, well cared for, and provided with a suitable escort. All stock of every description which may be brought in by, or taken with, these Indians, (except such as proves to be the property of the United States,) will be sent with them to the Bosque Redondo. The department commander having decided that all Navajo Indians who desire peace must go to the Bosque Redondo, he directs me to say that further correspondence on this subject is unnecessary. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. COMMANDING OFFIcER At Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Sanuta F6, N. hI., October 22, 1863. SIR: In reply to your communication of the 20th instant, asking for information concerning certain sum of money forwarded from Fort Stanton, New Mexico, to Santa F6, by Sergeant Pablo Torres, company " A," 1st New Mexico volunteers, in June last, I am directed to inform you that the express to which you refer was attacked by Indians while en route to this place. On the 29th of last June Second Lieutenant W. H. Higdon, 5th infantry California volunteers, found the dead bodies of the two express men. He found several letters scattered around the bodies, some of them partially destroyed; he also found one hundred and nineteen dollars in legal tender notes, and some letters containing valuable papers which had been intrusted to his care by the sutler at Fort Stanton. The money was 141 Official: . Official:

Page  A142 APPENDIX. turned over to Captain E. B. Frink, 5th infantry California volunteers, the commanding officer of the company to which the murdered express man belonge(l, and the letters recovered were sent to their proper destination by Lieutenant Higdon. This officer made a statement to these headquarters regarding the money and valuables found on the bodies of the mrnurdered express mnen. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Hon. JOHN. S. WATTS, Santa Fe, N. ll. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MaEXICO, Santa Fe', V. M., October 23, 1863. COLONEL: You will cause to be said to all Navajoes that those who come in to go to Bosqlue Redondo-come in of their own accord-can bring with them, and take with them to, the Bosque Redondo, all stock and other property of which they may be possessed. Stock will only be taken from those whom your parties may fall upon, not from those who voluntarily surrender. Tell them this by the first opportunity. It will doubtless have much influence with the rich men of the tribe. I am, colonel, very respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CIIRISTOPHER CARSON, Corn. Expedition against the 3Navajo Indians, fort Carby, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Tet. Id. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Feg, NV. ]f., November 15, 1863. SiR: Sixty or seventy Navwjoes have come into San Miguel county and are robbing the people. They may come to attack and rob you. Be on your guard, and if small parties come about you be sure and destroy them. A spy on the summit of the mountain back of the spring could see any party coming across the plains fiom the north in the daytime. They will attempt to run out stock between you and Abo. I am, sir, respectfully, &c., JAE H ARLETON, aier General, Commanding.N, ier General, Commandingl. COMMANDER OF THE CAMP AT TiHE GALLINAS MOUNTAINS, En route to Fort Stanton, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Capt,!in 1st Vtt. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIcO, Santa fe, N. I., NVovember 15, 1863. MAJOR: Some days since some sixty or seventy Navajoes crossed the country east of the Rio Grande and are now in San Miguel county. They have already captured one or two herds of sheep. They came on foot, but are doubtless by this time partially mounted. Now, these Indians will endeavor to escape with their booty down the plains east of Man 142 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A143 APPENDIX. zana, and will cross the river near La Joya or below Fort McRae. They will doubtless attempt to run off your stock; I trust they will not only not do this, but that you will destroy them. I am, major, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigidier General, Commanding. Major JosEPrn SMITH, Commnanoing at Fort Stanton, N. l. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain l st Vet. If. C. V., A. A. A General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., November 15, 1863. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose a letter from the new superintendent of Indian affairs to the commander of Fort Sumner; a letter from the commander of Fort Sumner to myself, both in relation to Indians who have been collected at the Bosque Redondo. My indorsement on Captain Updegraff's letter is an order to Major Walleii, who has gone to Fort Sumner to relieve Captain Updegraff, as to what is to be done with the Mescalero Apaches. The new superintendent of Indian affairs, Dr. Steck, who has gone to Washington, seems to have a confidence in the integrity of that noted band of murderers which is not entertained by myself. The troops have had much trouble in getting these Indians together. From his letter one would suppose that Mr. Labadie, the agent, had gotten them to move. You have been kept officially informed on all points connected with these Indians, and know that the agent has had nothing to do with the matter except to accompany the Indians from Fort Stanton to Fort Sumner, and to stay at the latter post with them. Mr. Labadie, however, I believe to be a good man and a good agent. The superintendent seems not inclined to feed the Indians until they can get started upon their new ground sufficiently to support themselves. He seems to give himself but little anxiety about them, knowing that I will not see them starve. I fear that, from some mistaken philanthropy, the experiment of having these Indians domesticated will be sadly interfered with. You may rest assured, if they be permitted to go back again to their mountains and cations, everything in the way of subduing them will again have to be gone over with. Unless the War Department sends orders to the contrary, the Mescalero Apaches will remain where they are. The point about their subsistence should be definitely determined. The Indian department here, I am satisfied, will not feed or care for them unless under positive instructions from Washington. When they need food I shall give it to them and send the abstracts to Washington, as heretofore directed by the Secretary of War. It is to be very much regretted that there should be any conflict of opinion as to what is best to be done with these Indians. Whatever the superintendent may desire to do, except to have them leave the Bosque Redondo, I shall certainly not oppose, but they shall not leave that point. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LoRENZO THOMAS Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. In.f. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, Ni. A., November 22,18 63. COLONEL: First Lieutenant William V. B. Wardwell, 1st cavalry California volunteers, leaves Santa Fe this morning, having under his charge one hundred and eighty-eight men, women and children of the Navajo tribe of Indians, en route, via Fort Union, for Fort Sumner. The transportation is ox-wagons as far as Fort Union. From that point they are to have such other transportation as the chief quartermaster may direct the depot quarter 143 Official: Official:

Page  A144 APPENDIX. master to give. It is important that they have no delay at Fort Union. They will be escorted thence to Fort Sumner by Captain Fritz, with thirty rank and file of his company. lie will be charged especially to see that none of them escape. See that they have rations of flour, meat, salt, and half rations of sugar and coffee. See that they are treated with great kindness. Let Captain Fritz have four worn Sibley tents for the use of the women and children. These will be transferred to the acting assistant quartermaster at Fort Sumner. The meat ration had better be beeves on the hoof as far as practicable. In this event gentle cattle should be selected. You will please give your personal attention to see that these Indians are well cared for, and if you have not got the worn tents, this is your authority for drawing them from the depot quartermaster. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel WILLIAM MCMULLEN, Commanding at Fort Union, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. Through the chief quartermaster, who will please instruct Captain Davis as regards the transportation, and to have it ready when the Indians come. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTIMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NV. M., November 22, 1863. GENEaAL: In my letter to you of September 6, 1863, the policy of moving the whole Navajo tribe of Indians on to a reservation at the Bosque Redondo, on the Pecos river, New Mexico, was advocated. Pursuant to that policy, all Navajoes whom we may capture, or who may voluntarily come in, are sent to Fort Sumner, which is at the Bosque Redondo. Enclosed herewith please find a list of Navajo captives who gave themselves up at Fort Wingate, and arrived here on the 21st instant. They number one hundred and eightyeight men, women, and children. They leave for Fort Sumner this morning. Since they have surrendered I have heard of others who have come into Fort Wingate. When these have arrived at Fort Sumner, orders will be given to the commanding officer at that point to let four of the principal men among them return to the Navajo country, and tell all those of the tribe still at large what kind of a country they are to go to if they come in, and how those are treated who have surrendered and gone to that point. This will have a good effect, and I count confidently on getting the bulk of the tribe before the spring opens. I beg to congratulate the War Department on the prospect now of ending forever all Navajo wars; and when once the tribe is quietly settled on the fine reservation alluded to, there is no reason why they will not be the most happy and prosperous and well-provided for Indians in the United States. I amgeneral, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Br'gadier General, Commanding. Briga dier General Lo U.A Whzo TtO-MAS, C Adjutant General U,. S. A.,'Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Cvptain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fef,N. A., November 22, 1863. MAJOn,: To-day one hundred and eighty-eight men, women, and children of the Navajo tribe of Indians leave Santa Fd for the Bosque Redondo via Fort Union. I beg you will take particular pains to have these Indians located in a good place, and to see they have some shelter for their women and children. I learn that others have come in to Fort Wingate. These will soon be forwarded to you. Among the Indians who leave here to-day is Delgadito. I have promised that he, and 144 Official: Official:

Page  A145 APPENDIX. three others, named Cha-hay, Chiquito, and Tsee-6, shall return at once with the interpreter Jesus to the Navajo country, to let other Navajoes know what kind of a place the tribe is expected to move to, and to let the tribe know how those are treated who have gone to that point. Let those four Indians and Jesus have passports to return at once to Fort Wingate. The government seems to take great interest in this experiment of placing the nomadic Indians on reservations, and this exodus of the Navajo people from their country, to become a domesticated race, is an interesting subject to us all, and one fraught with great questions so far as the prospective wealth and advancement of New Mexico may go. Of course, the subject of timely preparation of acequias and of grounds for next year's crops will demand and receive your earnest attention. I am, major, very respectfully, you obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALL.EN, U.S. A., Commanding Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V,, A. A. A. Genral. HEADQUARTEIS DEPARTfENT OF NEW MXriCO, Santa Fe, N. M., November 23, 1863. CAPTAIN: From the impossibility of transporting forage for your whole company in its ,journey as escort to Governor Goodwin to Fort Whipple, Arizona, you are hereby ordered to dismount all of the rank and file of your company, except twenty-five, and transfer the horses and horse equipments of all you thus dismount to the acting assistant quartermaster at Los Pinos, where they will be retained until you return. You will make out regular invoices of all this property to him and take regular receipts therefor. Sergeant Mandeville, and Privates Johnston, Reed, Spotts, Fletcher, Burk, and Tarrater, now here, are detailed to stay at Los Pinos, after they have come down to takre care of your horses thus left behind, until you return. The men who are dismounted will proceed with you as part of the escort of Governor Goodwin. I take this occasion to remind you of the necessity of the most thorough discipline among your men, and the greatest carp of your horses. You will be sure that your horses are not ridden over one-third of the time by the watch, in order to keep them in strength ready for fighting. You are admonished that you are to perform a most responsible duty through a country infested with hostile Indians from the moment you pass the Rio Grande; that constant vigilance, night and day, alone can save you from the great disaster of having the animals run off which belong to your company, as well as those which belong to the train and to the governor and suite. Your beef-cattle driven along upon the hoof you must guard with anxious care, or the Indians will get them, and with them your food. Your sentinels must be always on the alert-your men ready at all times to fall in at a moment's notice by night or day, to fight and defend your stock. You must inspect your men'Farms the last thing at night and the last thing in the morning before the march is commenced. The men must sleep in their clothes with their arms by their side. You must have a few men in advance to see that there are no ambushes laid for your command to run into. You must have three or four men off on each flank to see that no enemy watches your movements. You must have a good rear-guard to bring up everything. Before you approach water, have a wide circuit made by yourself or trusty men, to see that no party lies in wait to pounce upon your stock when it is drinking. You and your company will be forever disgraced, if, after these instructions, you lose a hoof of stock. All these rules must go into force the moment you cross the river, and must hold good until your return to Los Pinos. You yourself must never relax one moment in your vigilance. If this duty is performed well you will all have earned a high reputation; if ill, you are all sure to be disgraced, as I have said before. 10 145 Official: - - -. 7

Page  A146 APPENDIX. Recollect that you and your men petitioned to be put upon this duty. Now let us all see the metal you are made of. Wishing you good fortune, I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri'adier eneral. Commandlna. Captain JolN H. BUTCIHER, Company I, 11th Mo. Cav. Vols., Los Pinos, N. M. Through commanding officer. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1lt Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', N. M., November 28, 1863. MAJOR: Private Porter, of Cremony's cavalry company, has informed me that that company had found and was on the trail of Navajo Indians who were running off sheep a few days since, and that the company turned back and gave up the pursuit; that Sergeant Roberts offered to go on, even to the Rio Grande, if he could have only ten men. This has been a source of great mortification and pain to me. This is the first time Cremony has had a good chance to distinguish himself. Pray inquire into the facts. If he was not justified in turning back, your duty is plain. The troops in New Mexico had better quit the country if this is a sample of their perseverance. If they had gotten out of rations they could have eaten horses. There was a prospect of some ten thousand sheep, as I am informed, which would have been good food if they had been caught. This is the first instance on record where Californians, with Indians to track, have quit a warm trail. What reason can be given to justify such a course passes beyond my comprehension. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, Commanding Fort Sumner, Ne M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. In!f. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., December 5, 1863. COLONEL: AS I have before written to you, I have not authority to grant you a leave, but it is important that before long we have a consultation about further operations against the Navajoes. Therefore, as soon as you have secured one hundred captive Navajo men, women, and children, you will turn over the command of the troops and post of Fort Canby to Captain Casey, United States army, and come with those captives to Santa F6. You will take all captives which may then be at Fort Wingate, and bring them in as well. Major Sena, Captain Pfeiffer, and Lieutenant Abeyta and Dr. Shout, may come as part of the escort to the Indians. It is desirable that you go through the Cafion de Chelly before you come. It is also desirable that you try that murderer and have your court adjourn sine die. No other officers than those named will come with you. Captain Casey will be instructed to press the campaign against the Navajoes to the best of his ability while you are absent. If you have more than a hundred captives bring them all. Do not leave in Fort Canby, as servants or otherwise, one single Indian man, woman, or child of any tribe; and when you come by Fort 146 Official:

Page  A147 APPENDIX. Wingate, make a clean sweep of every Indian man, woman, or child, whether held as servants or otherwise, at that post. Please forward no more applications for leaves of absence. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPHER CABSON, Commanding Navajo Expedition, Fort Canby, Al. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPASTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Id, N. M., December 10, 1863. SIR: I have had the honor to receive the proceedings of a board of officers assembled at Fort Bascom in November last, to make a schedule of property seized from persons who were believed to be violating the law regulating trade and intercourse with Indians. You will confiscate the liquor and powder which they had, and deliver up to them all the rest of their property. You will inform them of the law, and of the penalty for breaking it. They were doubtless ignorant of its existence. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFICER at Fort Bascom, N. 3M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa f-, N. M., December 10, 1863. COLONEL: Captain Greene will never cease his energetic course in recovering stock and in pursuing Indians. He hardly gives us time to talk over and admire his praiseworthy efforts before we get new information of some new and successful raid. No one in this department has a more substantial reputation for energy, perseverance, and dash than Captain Greene; and if he desires any help in any way from me, he has but to name it. Do what is right and proper with regard to giving Don Pedro Garcia a part of the sheep alluded to in Captain Greene's letter of the 3d instant. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel EDWIN A. RIGG, Commanding at Fort Craig, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEzw MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., December 12, 1863. GENERAL: Many of the Navajo women and children which we captured are quite naked, and the children, especially, suffer from the extreme cold. The superintendent of Indian affairs is away in the States, and neither money nor instructions have been left by him, with which or under which blankets or clothing can be procured for them. It is hard to see them perish. Will the War Department authorize the quartermaster department here to buy some cheap blankets for the destitute children, and to issue condemned clothing to 147 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A148 APPENDIX. these Indians until they can get a start at the Bosque Redondo towards clothing themselves? The Indian department here will do nothing unless under express and urgent instructions from Washington. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. In,f. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. M., December 18, 1863. MAJOR: There are many Navajoes near Red river, who are sending off small parties with stock across the plains, by Galinas mountains, to cross the Rio Grande. See if you cannot intercept and destroy these small parties. Be on the lookout all the time. Unless you are careful they will get your stock. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOSEPH SMITH, Commanding Fort Stanton, N. M. Ofil ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. A., December 18, 1863. SIR On the receipt of this letter you will send all the effective men of Captain Shaw's company on a twenty days' scout, over in the Rita Quemado country and south of that, to kill every Navajo man that can be found in that section of the country. Women and children will be captured, but not harmed. If the troops start and march mostly by night, and are cautious about fires and noises, it is believed they will destroy many Indian warriors of this tribe. It is believed that just now there are parties of Indians going through by that way and south of there, from the Rio Grande, with stock. Respectfully, your obedient servant, * JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFIcER Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain let Yet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., December 19, 1863. GENERAL: Enclosed herewith I have the honor to forward a letter addressed to myself, which was written by the Reverend P. Equillon, vicar general of New Mexico, asking permission to have fifteen boys and ten girls of the captive Navajoes to educate in the Catholic schools at Santa F6; and asks that, if the government will agree to this, it will authorize the food and clothing of these children be furnished at the expense of the United States. This offer and request of the vicar general is a liberal one, and should, in my opinion, be accepted. Once these children become educated, they can be sent to teach others oi their tribe on the reservation at Fort Sumner. Mr. Equillon is a man of great piety and learning, and a practical philanthropist. Hc is very anxious to superintend the education of these children himself. He will be greatly 148 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A149 APPENDIX. disappointed if the government refuse his request. His rank in the church, his learning, and his pure and exalted character, are sufficient guarantees that he will do all that can be done for the benefit of these children if he may be permitted to have them. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., Decmber 19, 1863. SIR: Enclosed herewith is a letter from Governor Connelly about Navajo Indians being at or near La Sierra (Mesal.) Rica, on the Canadian. Go yourself, with the effective men of Bergmann's company, and pursue and destroy these Indians. Keep the field for twenty days, and report the result. Captain Fritz's company, from Union, and Cremony's, from Sumner, will be out on the same duty. Let me see who accomplishes the most. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFICER at Fort Bascom, N. J. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa FE, X.NM., D)ecember 19, 1863. MAJOR: Please find enclosed herewith a letter from Governor Connelly about a band of Navajo Indians being at La Sierra (Mesal.) Rica, near the Canadian. Send the effective men of Cremony's company, with Cremony in command, on a twenty days' scout, (with bread, meat, sugar, and coffee,) to pursue and destroy these Indians. Fritz and Bergmann have been sent on the same duty. Let me know who does the most. Some Apaches might be permitted to go as trailers. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, U. S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICoo, Santa FE, N.. M., December 19, 1863. COLONEL: Enclosed herewith please find a copy of a letter, dated the 18th instant, from Governor Connelly in relation to Navajo Indians being at or near La Sierra (Mesal) Rica, near the Canadian river. You will at once send the effective men of Captain Fritz's company to that point, with orders to pursue and destroy those Indians.'Ihe company will be out for twenty-five days. A similar letter to this is written to Bascom and to Sumner, and troops from those posts will be sent on the same duty. Give orders for all the 149 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A150 APPENDIX. details. Call on Captain Davis for the transportation. Don't let the troops be anchored to a train. They must go light or they will accomplish nothing. Tell Captain Fritz, for once, I hope he will catch the Indians. McCleave is ahead of him as yet. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JES H. CARLETON, Brigvdier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel WILLIAM MCMULLEN, Commanding at Fort Union, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., December 20, 1863. GENERAL: Enclosed herewith please find the official report of Colonel Carson's last scout after the Navajo Indians. I beg to call the attention of the War Department to what he says of the destitute condition of that peaceable and gentle tribe of Indians known as the Moquis. A copy of a private letter from Major Henry D. Wallen, United States army, commanding at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, will be found enclosed herewith. It gives an interesting account of the feelings, condition, and prospects of the Apache and Navajo Indians gathered together at that point. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THIOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N.M., December 20, 1863. MAJOR: Your very interesting private letter, setting forth the feelings, condition, and prospects of the Indians under your charge, I have taken the liberty to send to the War Department. You will exercise your own discretion on the subject of the diminution of the ration for the Indians. Mr. Labadie's views of that subject seem to be sound and practicable. It is hoped this time that Captain Cremony will march with more judgment, and will report some results. That you have a plenty of hostile Navajoes near you there is no doubt. Did Cadetta, Blanco, and Chatto go out after the Mescaleros? I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. M ajor HENRY D. WALLF o u, U.S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., December 21, 1863. SIR: This will be handed to you by Don Anastacio Sandoval, of this city, who is a man of note here. He has just heardl of the loss of his herd of 7,000 sheep from near Mesa Rica, on Red river. Mr. Sandoval knows all that section of country. You will send troops in pursuit of the Indians who stole these sheep. You will receive by mail an order to this effect. Mr. Sandoval will go with the troops. Care should be taken to not break down the horses before the Indians are come up with. 150 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A151 APPENDIX. Now, I hope that we shall not hear that the troops turn back without the stock. The trail of these sheep can be followed. Give orders, if the party gets out of rations, for meat to be bought if any can be found; if none can be found, the troops can feed upon their pack-mules, and finally upon their horses; but they must not turn back, when once the trail is struck, until the stock is recovered, if they go to the furthest boundary of the Navajo country. In case Fritz's company is already out, mount some infantry. Be careful, or the Indians will get your own and the herds of the depot quartermaster. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFICER at Port Union, N. H. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO. Santa FE, N. M, December 23, 1863. GENERAL: Please find enclosed herewith a report by Major Henry D. Wallen, United States 9th infantry, commanding Fort Sumner, New Mexico, of a fight which took place within thirty-five miles of that post between parties sent out from the post and one hundred and thirty Navaj9 Indians. The result was, twelve Navajoes were left dead upon the field and one was taken prisoner. Many were doubtless wounded, but these were borne away. Our people captured nine thousand eight hundred and eighty-nine sheep and a good deal of other property. I beg to call your attention to the conduct of Lieutenant Newbold, United States 5th infantry, who led the handful of cavalry, and also to the conduct of Mr. Lorenzo Labadie, Indian agent, and to the gallant chaplain of Fort Sumner, the Reverend Mr. Flalon. These two gentlemen, at the head of thirty Mescalero Apache Indians from the reservation at Fort Sumner, (Apaches who, one year ago, were our mortal enemies,) did most all the work, as they were fortunate in being the first to encounter the Navajoes. Captain Bristol and Lieutenant McDermott, United States 5th infantry, at the head of their companies, manifested the utmost zeal and alacrity on this occasion, but were unable to get up in time to participate in the affair. It was a handsome little battle on the open plains. TheApache chiefs, Cadella and Blanco, were very distinguished. One of their braves, named Alazan, was mortally wounded. I beg to have authority to issue a suit of clothes to each of these thirty Apaches who took part in this fight. The government should give them some token of its appreciation of such fidelity and gallantry. They volunteered for the service, and fought without the hope of reward. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Briga dier G eneral LoRENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS Wf WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Iaf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. H., December 23, 1863. SIR: The interpreter at Fort Wingate, Jesus, with Delgadito, and three other Navajo In. dians, who have been with Jesus to Fort Sumner, leave here this morning for Fort Wingate, via Jemez. I told Colonel Chavez that Jesus and Delgadito would go on with him, but, on reflection, I have concluded not to let them go. Jesus will be needed at Fort Wingate, and Delgadito is wanted to go out among other Navajoes to induce them to move. You will let Delgadito and the three Indians who are with him go out among their people, free to go where they please. But when they come back, if they should come back, they are not to be permitted to lurk around the post, but will be sent in with all the Indians 151 Official: Official:

Page  A152 APPENDIX. who come in with them. I count on good results in letting these Indians run at large, for they will tell the others how we are treating those who have already surrendered. Let me know the day they leave your post to go out among their people. Jesus will stay at Fort Wingate. I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnmanding. COMMANDING OFFICcR at Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MExICO, Santa FE, N. M., December 24, 1863. DEAR SIR: I have the honor to enclose, for your information, a copy of a letter from myself to Major Wallen, commanding at Fort Sumner, and a copy of his reply. One of the first things to be got and sent out, and they should be sent by express, will be three strong "breaking-up ploughs." Pray send out a large lot of garden seeds, and get clothing and agricultural implements sent out at once. These matters demand your immediate attention. I will send you a paper giving an account of a late fight near Fort Sumner. I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. MATHEW STECK, Sup't of Indian Affairs, Territory of New Mexico, Santa Fi, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. $ HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MExICO, Santa FE, N. M., -December 24, 1863. MAJOR: Dr. Bryan will send to Dr. Courtwright 50 bed-sacks and 100 blankets for the Indian hospital. They will be sent to Fort Union in a day or two. There are no "breaking-up ploughs" here-not one. Borrow Giddings's. I shall send to Dr. Steck to buy and send send some out. This will take time. Shall send you down some small ploughs. If the ground be well wet small ploughs will do better than none. What with spades, hoes, small ploughs, the plough you have, and Giddings's, a good deal of land can be got ready to plant by April 1, 1864. There are no Navajo goods here except some wool cards. Shall send you a lot of these. The owners of the sheep will come for them. You will require them to give to the Apaches who helped to recapture them enough wethers to be a suitable reword. The law allows a certain percentage, but I do not know how much. It is left to yourself to determine what would be right for the Apaches. The troops, of course, want nothing. In consideration of the gallantry of the Apaches in the late affair, you are authorized to let a number of them, not to exceed five, have passports to go, first to Fort Stanton, and then from there, under new passports, out in the Mescalero country, to try to induce the remainder of the tribe to come in. You will send men who leave families behind. Their passes will be for sixty days, when they will report at Fort Sumner. They should be told how important it is for all who wish to come to come at once, to prepare for next year's planting. Write to Major Smith precisely what they go for, and so that he may give passes from his own post, and food to those coming in, when they reach his post. If Captain Cremony, when out on the late scout, did not exercise energy in his pursuit of Indians, as is indieated in your letter, your duty is plain. It is very expensive keeping cavalry at Fort Sumner. He has a fine company, and if his men are properly led and handled would be of great service. You must keep that lower country free of 152 Official: Official:

Page  A153 APPENDIX. hostile Navajoes. If Cremony is not the man to be at the head of his men to lead them, you must get some other leader. Of this you must judge; but that company must keep all Navajoes off of a circuit of'sixty miles' radius from your post. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, U.S. A., Commanding at -Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. GeneraL HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OP NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., December 25, 1863. SIR: It is important that you send a force, say of twenty mounted men, under a reliable, energetic officer, who, if he gets upon a trail of Indians, will not wish to turn back without some results, to the Abo Pass, to remain there and in that neighborhood. twenty days, to watch for Navajoes coming from the direction of the Pecos, with or without stock, and to attack any and all parties it may find of these Indians. There are small bands of these Indians coming through to cross neal the mouth of the Puerco. These may be intercepted. If CGsta Colorado would be a better point, with pickets patrolling out towards the mountains to cut trails going east or west, you can send the party there.? It is hoped that this party may have as good luck as one had which was sent from Fort Sumner recently. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFicER at Los Pinos, N.M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DFPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, X. M., December 25, 1863. SIR: I learn that Navajo Indians, in small parties, are crossing the Rio Grande near Alameda, and are depredating upon the stock in that neighborhood. You will send an efficient officer with twenty or thirty of your best men, mounted, (whether of artillery or infantry,) up to that part of the valley, or above, to stay there for twenty days, and to pursue and attack any parties of Navajoes which may have come in during that time. By having patrols moving up and down the river trails would be cut almost as soon as made. The party can remain at or near Bernalillo or Alameda, as shall be considered best. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETOY, Brigadier General, Commanding. CO~MANDIL' OFFIcER at Albuquerque, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lef. C. V., A. A. A. General HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., December 31, 1863. COLONEL: I regretted to hear that the Indians had run off thirty-eight of your best mules. It appears to me that if they prowl around your herds in this manner some stratagem might be used so as to decoy them to the neighborhood of a force strong enough to destroy them. It is hoped, hereafter, your command will be able to protect its own stock. 153 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A154 APPENDIX. If Captain Casey can furnish mules to carry provisions for the expedition through the Canon de Chelly, but not the men's blankets, you will not delay the expedition on account of lack of transportation. You will have the men carry their blankets and, if necessary, three or four days' rations in haversacks. The army of the Potomac carries eight days' rations in haversacks. Unless some fatigue and some privations are encountered by your troops the Indians will get the best of it. Captain McFerran will soon send you some more mules. I sincerely hope we have had the last report of the Indians running off stock in the Navajo country. Now, while the snow is deep, is the true time to make an impression on the tribe. You will give your chief quartermaster positive orders that, when expeditions leave Fort Canby for scouts, not to exceed twelve days, the men will be required to carry their blankets and greatcoats for the first eight days. There is now a large party of citizens and Utes in the Navajo country after Indians. They started from Abiquia. 1 am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPHER CARSON, Commanding Navajo Expedition, Fort Canby, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. LETTERS RELATING TO INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THE DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, DURING THE YEAR 1864. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., January 11, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor to enclose the official report of a sharp little action with the Navajo Indians near Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on the Pecos river. You will see that great credit is due to Lieutenant Charles Newbold, United States 5th infantry, to Mr. Labadie, Indian agent, to Ojo Blanco, an Apache chief, and to several citizens and soldiers named in Maj )r Wallen's report. The extreme severity of the weather doubtless was the reason why it happened that any of the Navajoes escaped. Lieutenant Newbold's name is respectfully submitted for favorable consideration by the War Department. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General United States Army, Wa Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. N., January 11, 1864. SIR: I see that officers from your post go to Cubero. They have no duties there, and if they go "on leave," half their pay is stopped by the orders from the War Department. Send me an abstract of all officers of your command who have been absent at Cubero, or any other town, since October 31, 1863. Every train going from Fort Wingate to Fort Canby will be escorted efficiently, and the escort will be commanded by an officer. The ammunition which will come to Fort Wingate with Captain Fritz will be strongly guarded to Fort Canby. The escort to each train should have spies on ahead, on the flanks, and in the rear, to prevent surprise. Shall the Indians always get the best of Fort Wingate troops? Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Wingate, N. M. Official: ERASTTTS W. WOOD, Captaiii 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 154 Official:

Page  A155 155 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', N. M., January 12, 1864. DEAR SIR: Your note of the 15th ultimo has just been received. Herewith you will find the message of the governor of New Mexico, indorsing the policy of putting the Navajo Indians on the reservation at Bosque Redondo. The legislature has unanimously approved this policy. Dr. Steck himself approved it before he left New Mexico, as I can prove, Every intelligent man in the country approves it. It will be the most unfortunate thing that ever happened to New Mexico and Arizona, the interfering with this policy. The Indians will go on as before. The great thoroughfare over the 35th parallel will be interrupted by them; people going to the new gold fields will be murdered; and, after anotherfruitless season, you will come to this policy at last. It is a pity that other motives, besides what is best for the country and the most humane for the Indians, should work to the disadvantage of the people, just now. We have made a good beginning, and if "let alone" this will be the last Navajo war. Colonel Collins, who for years has been the superintendent, indorses the policy throughout, as you see by his paper. What motive influences Dr. Steck? We had a sharp fight with the Navajoes on the 5th instant. You will see the account in the papers. Very truly yours, H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Hon. FRANCISCO PEREA, Delegate in Congress from New Mexico, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. lOnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. M., January 12, 1864. GENLAL: I have just received a note from the Hon. Francisco Perea, delegate from New Mexico, in which he says: "Dr. Steck," (superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico,) "showed mne a report which he is going to submit to the Indian department here, in which he disapproves your (my) policy to colonize the Navajo Indians, decidedly. He made several other allusions to your (my) campaign against them, which I did not like nor believe. He thinks it impossible to put the Navajo nation on the Pecos for the small space of irrigable lands at the Bosque," (Fort Sumner.) I respectfully refer the War Department to the message of the governor of New Mexico, herewith enclosed, and which, with reference to Indian policy, was unanimously indorsed by the legislature. It is unhesitatingly indorsed by Colonel Collins, the late superintendent, and by Colonel Kit Carson, who has conduct of the campaign, and by every American and MAlexican I have heard speak of the subject, Dr. Steck included, except Mr. Amrny and Mr. Greiner, and I had not heard them say much for or against the policy. It will be an unfortunate thing for New Mexico and Arizona if there be a change of policy, and you must come to this at last-depend upon it. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. NOTE.-As for the quantity of irrigable land at the Bosque Redondo, I believe there is more than enough; and even if there be not enough, the land at theBosque Grande, twenty-five miles further down the river, can be used. J. H. C. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Assistant Adjutant General V. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M, January 12, 1864. GFERAL: The general commanding this department addressed to you, this day, a communication in reference to a report about to be made by Dr. Steck, (superintendent of Indian affairs for this Territory,) disapproving of the policy now being pursued by the military authorities in this department towards colonizing the Navajo Indians. Official: Official:

Page  A156 APPENDIX. I have the honor respectfully to state, for the information of the War Department, that on or about the last of October, 1863, I met DIr. Steck at Fort Union, New Mexico, en route for Washington city. I was present at the last interview Dr. Steck had with General Carleton. The doctor had that day arrived at Fort Union from Fort Sumner, at which post nearly eight hundred Apaches and Navajoes were collected. Dr. Steck, on this occasion, after having personally visited the Bosque Redondo and observed the condition of the Indians, approved, most cordially, the policy pursued towards them by General Carleton. He spoke of the Indians as being happy and contented; he gave it as his opinion that the Bosque Redondo was the only suitable place in New Mexico for a large Indian reservation; and the general tenor of his conversation was such as to impress me firmly with the belief that Dr. Steck intended to use his influence with the proper departments at Washington to have the policy of General Carleton, in this matter, carried out to the very letter. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General of the Army, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M,, January 15, 1864. SIR: The general commanding directs me to say to you that Delgadito, having done so well in his recent trip into the Navajo country, need not be sent to the Bosque Redondo with the other Indians until further orders, but will be allowed to make other trips for the purpose of inducing more Navajoes to come in. The general thinks that if he would go to the Sierra Datil he would doubtless find some Navajoes there. Delgadito's family can remain at Fort Wingate until he goes to the Bosque if he so desires. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Gamp. COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. I.f. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MExICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Be, N. JI., February 2, 1864. SIR: Colonel Carson, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, will probably reach Los Pinos with about two hundred and forty Navajo Indians on the 5th instant. I am directed by Major John C. McFerran, United States army, chief of staff at department headquarters, to say to you that it is the order of the general commanding that you send these Indians direct from Los Pinos to Fort Sumner, escorted bf company K, 1st infantry California volunteers. You will give the officer commanding the escort from Los Pinos, Nlew Mexico, written instructions to use the utmost vigilance while these Indians are under his charge; he will see that they are well cared for, and that none of them escape on the road. After having taken the Indians safely to the Bosque Redondo, the commanding officer of company K, 1st infantry California volunteers, will report for duty, with his company, to the commanding officer of Fort Sumner, New Mexico. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. COMMA.ADING OFFIcER, Los Pinos, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. t .156 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A157 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Las Cruces, N M., February 7, 1864. GmNRAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose a copy of the report of Colonel Christopher Carson, commanding the expedition against the Navajo Indians, of his success in marching a command through the celebrated Cahnon de Chelly, the great stronghold of that tribe, and of the killing of twenty-three of the warriors and the capture of a large number of prisoners. These prisoners are now en route to the Bosque Redondo. This report is accompanied by reports of Captain Asa B. Casey, United States army, and of Captain Albert H. Pfeiffer, of the 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, marked B and C. I also enclose a copy of a letter from Colonel Carson, written subsequent to his return to Fort Canby. It will be seen by these papers that the operations of the troops during the severely cold weather has been of the most praiseworthy character, and been crowned with unparalleled success. This is the first time any troops, whether when the country belonged to Mexico or since we acquired it, have been able to pass through the Caflon de Chelly, which, for its great depth, its length, its perpendicular walls, and its labyrinthine character, has been regarded by eminent geologists as the most remarkable of any "fissure" (for such it is held to be) upon the face of the globe. It has been the great fortress of the tribe since time out of mind. To this point they fled when pressed by our troops. Colonel Washington, Colonel Sumner, and many other commanders have made an attempt to go through it, but had to retrace their steps. It was reserved for Colonel Carson to be the first to succeed; and I respectfully request the government will favorably notice that officer, and give him a substantial reward for this crowning act in a long life spent in various capacities in the service of his country in fighting the savages among the fastnesses of the Rocky mountains. Captain Asa B. Casey, of the United States 13th infantry, the chief quartermaster of the expedition against the Navajoes, volunteered for this march, and, as usual with this gallant and energetic officer, was particularly distinguished. I hope the government will reward him with the compliment of a brevet. He is entitled to a brevet for his gallantry in assisting the intrepid Captain William H. Lewis, United States 5th infantry, who burnt the Texan train in Apache calon on the 28th of March, 1862, and richly deserves that and also a brevet for his distinguished services in the operations against the Navajoes. I am sure the government will not be unmindful of the labors of these officers and the brave soldiers who followed them, even though the field of their operations is far removed from the more important and brilliant events of the great war. Sergeant Andreas Herrera, of company C, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, it will be seen, has again distinguished himself, and it affords me great pleasure to call attention to his name. I believe this will be the last Navajo war. The persistent efforts which have been and will continue to be made can hardly fail to bring in the whole tribe before the year ends. I beg respectfully to call the serious attention of the government to the destitute condi tion of the captives, and beg for authority to provide clothing for the women and chil dren. Every preparation will be made to plant large crops for their subsistence at the Bosque Redondo the coming spring. Whether the Indian department will do anything for these Indians or not you will know. But whatever is to be done should be done at once. At all events, as I before wrote to you, "we can.feed them che]per than we can fight them." I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandin. Brigadier General LORENZO TIIOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, XN. l., February 14, 1864. MAJOR: On the 8th instant Lieutenant Pettls, 1st infantry California volunteers, commanding company K of that regiment, started from Los Pinos, New Mexico, for the Bosque Redondo, having in charge about two hundred and thirty Navajo Indians. Lieutenant Pettis was directed to report to you for duty until further instructions were received from the general commanding. 15, 7 Official:

Page  A158 APPENDIX. I have received information from the commanding officer at Fort Wingate that about nine hundred Navajoes were at that post. Orders were sent, by last mail, that these Indians should be sent direct to Fort Sumner, escorted by company B, 1st cavalry California volunteers. The commanding officer of this company has orders to report to you for duty until the general commanding directs otherwise. Captain A. F. Garrison, chief commissary, has been directed to send at once to Fort Sumner subsistence stores to feed at least fifteen hundred Indians in addition to those already atyour post. The expedition of Colonel Carson through the Canion de Chelly has been a perfect success, and the Navajoes are coming in to Fort Canby in great numbers, and there is no doubt but that the greater portion of that tribe will proceed to the Bosque Redondo as soon as they can be furnished with transportation by the government. Mr. Baker, who represents the superintendent of Indian affairs during his absence from this Territory, sent to the Indian agent at Fort Sumner, by a train which left Santa F4 yesterday, a quantity of goods to be distributed to the Indians at the Bosque Redondo-not a large supply, but all that he could spare. The general commanding directs that you use every exertion to make these Indians as comfortable as circumstances will admit upon their arrival at Fort Sumner. rTime is now precious, and having in view the approach of spring and the planting of a crop, the general directs that you see that the acequias are enlarged, and that such other steps are taken as you may deem proper to carry out what you know to be his views in regard to the Indians now being sent to the Bosque Redondo. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistaat /djutant General. Major HENRY D. WALLrN, U.S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. *fc' ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Albuquerque, N. M., February 19, 1864. SIr: The general commanding directs me to say that as fast as practicable, after the Navajoes come in to your post, you will send them to Los Pinos, as it is cheaper to feed them on the Rio Grande than at your post. You will also continue the campaign against that tribe as heretofore, that they may understand that hostilities are not discontinued against them on account of the number that have already delivered themselves up. The general also directs that, by each express from your post, you send to department headquarters a statement showing the number of Navajoes captured, and who have delivered themselves up at your post,the number sent to Bosque Redondo, and the number remaining on hand. Each statement will include all who have come in and been sent away since the previous statement. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Camp. COMMANDING OFFICEa, Fort Canby, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Fet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. EADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., February 25, 1864. MAJOR: In addition to the Indians already at the reservation at the Bosque Redondo, including those who went with Lieutenant Pettis, there are thirteen hundred now at Los Pinos, who will start for the Bosque to-day or to-morrow. Mr. P'ettis will tell you how long they will probably be in coming. You will be sure to make timely estimates for the bread and meat and salt required for all these Indians, and have a margin of food on hand of at least fifty days. There must be no mistake made about having enough for them to eat, even if we have to kill horses 158 I Official: Official:

Page  A159 APPENDIX. and mules for them. I have ordered Captain Garrison to get flour and meat to you as fast as possible. I count on your forecast, and shall endeavor to get everything which you may need and require; only you must make your requisitions, as you have the data. Count the Indians twice a month and report the number to these headquarters. Keep an exact history of the number and date of the arrival of all parties of Navajoes; of deaths and the cause; and of the births. Open a book for this purpose, that reference may be had to it from time to time for statistical information. I hear this morning that there are thirteen hundred more at Canby and Wingat awaiting to come in. These must make over half of the whole tribe. Major McFerran has caused to be sent to you two large ploughs, which were made here; two more are making at Fort Union, and we will endeavor to buy some. You should have at least eight ploughs running from now until the 10th of June for corn; until the 10th of July for beans, &c. I am collecting large lots of seeds for you. Captain Craig has sent to Bascom to send over some yokes and chains with the cattle from-that post. If they do not come soon send over for them, so as not to lose time. The main thing to be done, while the ploughs are ruuuing, will be to have an acequia. madre of great capacity and length, so there will be no doubt of the supply of water being adequate to your wants. Estimate for hoes, spades, axes, kettles, &c., &c. The responsibility resting upon you in starting properly this interesting colony is very great, but I know you to be equal to it. The government will not fail to appreciate and notice your labors. A copy of this letter will be sent to the War Department. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, U.S. A, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. LExtract.] HEAEQUARTRRS DEPARTMENT 0]! Naw Mzxico, Santa F, N.M., February 26, 1864. SIR: Send the two Mexican captives to the commanding officer at Los Pinos. Keep no people at your post awaiting advices from here. Send them all to Los Pinos. We cannot feed them at Wingate. Remember this, and make a weekly report of all you send. If Indians can come in to Fort Wingate they can be made to work along toward Los Pinos. If they are fed, and have food transported for them, they are well off. They must not be kept at Wingate. They must be employed in overcoming distance towards the Basque Redondo. Why has not the order been obeyed to send Captain Fritz's company in? Order it in at once. Feed corn or wheat to Indians, which otherwise Fritz's horses would have eaten. Issue, until further orders, only eighteen ounces of flour to a ration to your troops. Keep an account of the difference, so the companies can be paid money. You must cut down on your rations in time. This sudden influx of Indians will embarrass us for a while. Keep none at your post. Move them at once tords the river. There we can provide for them. Send me a detailed report of all Navajoes who have surrendered at Wingate, with the date of coming in, and date of shipment to Los Pinos. th a Deprtmn may knwexcl the hsor of thei exodus. a —, a a a a a a a I expect much from you. The great point to study is to save your own rations by getting the Indians away. If they could come to Wingate, they can come to Los Pinos. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, .Brigadier General, C'bmmanding. COMMANDING OFIcER, Fort Wingate, N.M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lIst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A; General. 159 Official: Official:

Page  A160 APPENDIX. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa FE, N. M., February 26, 1864. CAPTAIN: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 14th instant, reporting the arrival of large bodies of Navajo Indians at Fort Canby. The general commanding directs that these Indians be sent with all practicable despatch to Los Pinos, New Mexico Should your transportation be limited, or any of the Indians be unable to travel, you will send forward by every opportunity as many as you possibly can of the well ones, and allow those who are sick and crippled to remain at Fort Canby until they are able to stand the trip to the Rio Grande, or until you have transportation. I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Aejutant General. Captain ASA B. CASEY, IT. S. A., Commanding at Fort Canby, C. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 18t Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa FE, N. M, February 26, 1864. SIR: I am directed by the department commander to say to you, that as the Navajo Indians are now coming in and giving themselves up in great numbers, you will exercise a sound discretion in sending out scouting parties after them as long as they continue their present course. Indeed, you will not send out parties to attack them, unless in your judgment the exigencies of the case absolutely demand it. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assi8tant Adjutant General. COMMANDING OFFICER, Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., February 27, 1864. GE4EnAL: What with the Navajoes I have captured and those who have surrendered we have now over three thousand, and will, without doubt, soon have the whole tribe. I do not believe they number now much over five thousand, all told. You have doubtless seen the last of the Navajo war-a war that has been continued with but few intermissions for one hundred and eighty years, and which, during that time, has been marked by every shade of atrocity, brutality, and ferocity which can be imagined orwhich can be found in the annals of conflict between our own and the aboriginal race. Our success, although hoped for and expected, has come upon us more suddenly than I anticipated. In consequence, it is found that our commissariat is hardly able to meet the large demands now made upon it. To provide against every contingency, I find it to be necessary to ask that you will telegraph to Fort Leavenworth to have sent thence by an express train two hundred thousand rations of subsistence at once. We are bending all our energies to get corn, flour, meat, and salt to the Bosque Redondo, where the Indians are locating, and are making every effort to get lands ploughed and acequias dug preparatory to putting in a large crop at that point. I beg to congratulate you and the country at large on the prospect that this formidable band of robbers and murderers have at last been made to succumb. To Colonel Christopher Carson, first cavalry New Mexico volunteers, Captain Asa B. Casey, United States army, and the officers and men who have served in the Navajo campaign, the credit for these successes is mainly due. The untiring labors of Major John C. McFerran, United States army, the chi f quartermaster of the department, who has kept the troops in that 160 Official: Official:

Page  A161 APPENDIX. distant region supplied in spite of the most dischiraging obstacles and difficulties-not the least of these the sudden dashes upon trains and herds in so long a line of commuunic'tiondeserves the especial notice of the War Department.' I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandinq. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjuttant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa'E, N. M., Ffebruary 28, 1863. MAJOR: Captain Bristol arrived here this morning. Hle said that flour seems to be unwholesome food for the Navajoes. It is, doubtless, because they do not cook their bread properly, and eat too much of it. They have been accustomed to food whichl had greater bulk in proportion to the nutriment it contained. I have ordered corn-meal to be sent to you for them, and have contracted for unbolted wheat-meal. Until this arrives issue wheat or corn to them as a change of food. They can make matates, and grind it as Mexicans do. You are admonished to see that the utmost economy is observed, both by trool)s and by the Indians, at your post. The drain now upon the commissariat is so great it will require every commander to give his personal attention to this matter, or we shall soon be upon diminished rations. There are no more old tents to send you. The condemned tents have usually been ordered to be made up into sacks for corn. Your Navajoes must make wigwains. This brings me to the thought to ask you to plan a pueblo town for them. The buildings should be but one story highji, and face to the placitas. By a proper arrangement-dead-wall on the outside, and the buildings arranged so as to mutually defend each other in fighting on the parapets-a very handsome and strong place could be made by the Indians themselvesthat is, against small-arms. By having a judicious site selected, and the spare time of the families spent in putting up their houses, by next winter they can all be comfortably sheltered. Then to have trees planted to make shade, and I fancy there would be no Indian village in the world to compare with it in point of beauty. Over three thousand Navajoes have surrendered, and many are coming with stock which is their own. It was a condition, if they came voluntarily and surrendered with their stock, it should be theirs, and they should take it with them; if they held out, and we came and captured their stock, then the stock was ours. When these Indians with stock come, if they are willing to sell any that is not breeding stock, y6u can buy it, and pay what is fair for it, as fresh mneat. this will alike teach them the relative value of stock and of money. In my opinion there are not over five thousand Navajoes in all. I believe I shall have them all at the Bosque within three months. You have by far the most important command in this department. That you will exerci~e forecast and devote all your thoughts, time, and energy to the great work of colonizing this historic and formidable band of Indians, I fully believe. I am, major, respectfully, JAMiES I. CARLETON, B, igadier General, Commandiyg. Major HllNay D. WALLEN, U.S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Fet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', NV. M., February 29, 1864. MAJOR: I desire that you give to the Indians at the Bosque Redondo all the hides and pelts of the cattle and sheep which are killed for them from flocks and herds sent f)r their subsistence, and not furnished by the contractor who delivers fresh beef at that post for the troops. If these hides do not furnish enough parflesh to make soles for their moccasins, you are authorized to purchase others from the contractor and issue for this purpose. An 11 161 Official: Official:

Page  A162 exact account must be made of these purtnhases by the quartermaster, and entered upon a separate abstract. ilhe Indians to whom they are issued must receipt for them, aind an officer witness their mark. It is possible that no one Indian will require a whole hide for himself and family; if not, he will receipt for one-fourth or one-half, as the case may be. These abstracts and receipt-rolls, sent through the chief quartermaster, will be approved by me. ent servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Birigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, U S A., Conmmanding at Fort Sumner, NV. AI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Ci tain 1st Yet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. A3., MJarch 3, 1864. MAJOR: BY the last advices from Captain Asa B. Casey, I learn that he has fifteen hundred Navajoes now at Fort Canby. I find it will be necessary to have made, at least, eight "breaking-up' ploughs, including those you have already had fabricated at Santa Fe and Fort Union, in order to have a sufficient amount of ground gotten ready for planting at the Bosque Redondo for those Indians. Please cause them to be made and sent to Fort Sumner at your earliest convenience. Rlespectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOHN C. MCFERRAN, U.S. A., Chief Quartermaster, Santa Fe, N. M. ERASlTITS W. WOOD, 'Captain slet Vet. rif. C. V., A. A. A. Gen.eral. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. A., March 6, 1864. GENER.AL: I have the honor to enclose herewith,'for the information of the War Depart ment- I. Letter dated February 20, 1864, from Second Lieutenant George W. Campbell, first -cavalry New Mexico volunteers, in relation to a party of seven hundred and fifty Navajo Indians under his charge en route from the Navajo country to Bosque Redondo. II. Letter dated February-21, 1864, from Captain Asa B. Casey, United States army, re porting that on the 18th of February he had forwarded one hundred and forty-seven Nava joes en route for the Bosque Redondo, and stating that he has fifteen hundred more Nayajoes at the post of Fort Canby, New Mexico, awaiting transportation to go forward to the same locality, and that more are coming in. III. Letter dated February 24, 1864, from Lieutenant Mullins, cownmanding at Los Pinos, New Mexico, stating that up to that date two thousand and nineteen Navajo Indians had arrived at that post. This number includes the party that camne in under Lieutenant Camp bell, and all who had gone by that post to the Bosque Redondo, but not those alluded to by Captain Casey. L[NoTE.-The number of Navajo prisoners in my hands by last advices is three thousand six hundred and fifty-six, and of Mescalero Apaches four hundred and fifty, making a total of four thousand one hundred and six.] IV. Letter dated February 5, 1864, from Colonel Charles D. Posten, superintendent of Indian affairs for Arizona, giving an account of Indian difficulties near the southern line of that Territory, and asking military protection. V. My reply to Colonel Posten's letter. VI. Letter dated March 16, 1864, from Colonel James L. Collins, late superintendent of Indiaen affairs, to myself, suggesting what the government ought at once to do with refer ence to the captured Indians. Colonel Collins's views are worthy of great weight. You will see that they are fully indorsed by Governor Connelly and by Colonel Carson, who has been Indian agent in this country. All three of these gentlemen have great experience 162 APPENDIX. Officii,ll: Official:

Page  A163 APPENDIX. with Indians. They have resided in this country for thirty years. I beg to say that I fully concur in all that Colonel Collins has said. By the subjugation and colonization of the Navajo tribe we gain for civilization their whole country, which is much larger in extent than the State of Ohio, and, besides being by far the best pastoral region between the two oceans, is said to abound in the precious as well as in the useful metals. I beg to impress upon your mind, general, that the government should at once take some action for the immediate support and the prospective advancement of the Navajoes. Although they have been forced by military power to leave their country, yet the government is so greatly the gainer by their giving it up, that an annuity of at least one hundred and fifty thousand dollars should be given to them in clothing, farming implements, stock, seeds, storehouses, mills, &c., for ten years, when they will not only have become self-sustaining, but will be the happiest and most delightfully located pueblo of Indians in New Mfexico-perhaps in the United States. Legislation to this end should be had at once. There should not be a week's delay. Now, until laws be passed granting this annurty, somebody has got to feed and clothe these Indians. From what I have observed, the Indian department, as represented in this country, is slow to move in any matter looking towards the peaceful settlement of the Indians, thus freeing the country forever from their hostilities. There is no superintendent here; no goods or money belonging to the superintendency, as I am informed; and no agent to take care of and direct this interesting tribe. I have had eight ploughs made, and am gathering up seed, opening acequias, and endeavoring to do all that I can possibly do to get in a crop for them this year. I wrote to the superintendent, now in Washington, to send out by express even two " breakinrg-up" ploughs; but he has not even answered my letter. The chief quartermaster has also bought blankets, and manta and kettles, hoes, axes, &c., &c., to help give them a start until you in Washington can come to their relief. The troops have toiled hard to overcome this formidable tribe, and doubtless the operations against them will be entirely closed by the end of next May. It is a little hard that the Indian department does not stand ready to receive and provide for the captives, so that our attention and energies may be turned to other portions of the department where other bands of Apaches are killing aid robbing the people with seeming impunity. These Indians are upon my hands. They must be clothed and fed until they can clothe and feed themselves. I will not turn them loose again to war upon the people, and cannot see them perish either from nakedness or hunger. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAs, Adjutanrt General U. S. A., Washinyton, D. G. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st it. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., March 7, 1864. MiAJOR: I return herewith the charges against citizens Ramon, Lopez, and Mateo Sena, cnlarged with violation of the intercourse law. Also enclosed you will find the proceedings of a board assembled to investigate matters concerning the selling of liquor to Indians The reservation of forty miles square, with Fort Sumner in the centre, has been duly set apart for Indian purposes, and approved by the President. No citizens, except those connected with the rnilitary establishment of Fort Sumner and with the Indian department, will be permitted to settle on the reservation; no persons shall be permitted to come within the lines to trade with Indians; no Indian will be permitted to sell to any person a single article of clothing, food, cooking utensils, agricultural implements, tools, or arms issued to him by the agent or by military officers; nor shall any Indian be permitted to sell any horse, ox, cow, sheep, goat, burro, mule, or other domestic animal, to any person outside of the military reservation, and to no person inside of the reservation, to be taken away from such reservation. You will at once establish such rules and take such measures as will give practical effect to this order. The citizens against whom charges have been filed for violation of the intercourse law you will keep diligently at work planting or in digging acequias, or any other necessary 163 Official:

Page  A164 'APPENDIX. labor looking towards raising a crop of corn, &c., for the Indians, until the district court for San Miguel county, or the county in which the offence was committed, meets, when you will cause them to be turned over to the civil authorities for trial. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major H-ipaY D. WALLEN, U. S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V.,A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MIEXICO, Santa 1eX, NV. M.,. Jlarch 9; 1864. MAJOR: General Wright has requested me to send Captain Cremony's company to the department of the Pacific. You will at once have Captain Cremony turn in everything which will not be required on his march via Fort Stanton to Las Cruces. Give him three wagons to go as far as Fort Stanton, and rations only to last him to that post. The wagons will load at Stanton with wheat or corn for Sumner. Write to Major Smith to give Captain Cremony provisions and transportation to Las Cruces. There he will be provided for for the rest of his journey. Write to Major Smith to send the wagons, which must return fiom Las Cruces laden with flour to your post with the flour. Get Cremony off at once, not only to save the rations, but to save for Indians the corn and wheat his horses eat. This can be transferred to the subsistence department. You must get along with the very least cavalry you can, until the grass is high enough to maintain the horses without grain; and if you find you will run low on grain, you must not feed a cavalry horse an ounce of grain. It will require the greatest effort and most careful husbandry to keep the Indians alive until the new crop matures. Every Indian-man, woman, or child-able to dig up the ground for planting, should be kept at work every moment of the day preparing a patch, however small. What with ploughing, spading, and hoeing up ground, with the labor of the troops and the Indians, you must endeavor to get in at least three thousand acres. - It will surprise you to see how much can be done if the bands are properly organized, and all the officers go out and set the example of industry. The very existence of the Indians will depend upon it, and they should understand that now; for the country cannot support that number of mouths in addition to what we want for the troops. Everything depends on your effoits, and on your making every moment of time of every hand you can muster tell. The aniLtals of the Indians must be bought and consumed before you kill a head of workcattle; these you will need for ploughing. Atole will go a great ways even without meat. The Indians must live on the smallest possible quantity of food. The amount set in the order is in case we are fortunate in getting enough, which I greatly fear we shall have trouble in obtaining. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES HI. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WAILEN, U.S. A., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Fet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] Semi-official.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO Santa F, N. A., March 10, 1864. Mv DEAR COLONEL: r r I aq-. The cavalry at your post, and to come, must not be fed grain forage until I have time to ce what all these human beings are to eat. Give them hay, and have large parties, headed bv an officer, out on herd by day with them until further orders. There is no help for it. You!must not have a worthless animal at your post. All such must be appraised and con 164 Official: Official:

Page  A165 APPENDIX. demned, and sent to Los Pinos without delay as food for Indians. Work hard to help me carry out atl this in letter and in spirit. I count'on you, and all in your district. The rule applies to all cavalry, or mounted infantry. JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding; Colonel EDWIN. A. RIGG, Fort Craig, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, -'. M., Mlarch 11, 1864. MAJOR: I have heard that over five thousand of the Navajoes have surrendered, and within a few days you will have over two thousand of this tribe; the other three thousand are about leaving Fort Canby. The question about sufficient food for them to support life, is one about which, as you may well suppose, I am very anxious. In conversing with Colonel Carson, Gdvernor Connelly, and Major McFerran on this point, I find it is their opinion that one pound of flour, or of meat, or of meat, per day, to each man, woman, and child, if cooked as atole or porridge, or into soup, could be made to be enough, and.is, probably, of more nutriment per day than they have bee.n accustomed to obtain. Counting big and little, it is believed that this would feed them. On this basis, one pound of food per day-that is to say, of flour, or of corn, or of wheat, or of meat, made into soup or atole-I can barely see how they can be supported until we get provisions from the States, or their corn becomes ripe enough to pluck. The other day it occurred to me that it would not be well for you to sow much wheat; but I am told the wheat-crop will mature much sooner than corn, and therefore submit the question entirely to your judgment as to how much of each you will plant. You will at once commence the system of issuing the pound. The Indians themsel es must be informed of the necessity of the restriction. Unless this plan be adopted, and at once, ultimate suffering must ensue. Soup and atole are the most nutritious, and the best way in which the food should be prepared to go a long way, and at the same time to be wholesome. I am told the Navajoes never plough. I am told that corn can be planted (so the ground be prepared for irrigation) in hills, and that if afterwards the intermediate grass be cut down and the turf kept loosened, quite a good crop can be raised in that way. I have more anxiety about the length of your acequias than a little. If you only have water enough you can plant wheat, corn, beans, English turnips, in this order, until the summer be far advanced. The Indian villages should be along the acequia, and each family, or band, have their separate lot, so that all could be spading up ground and getting it ready at the same time. Your acequia should be at least six miles in length, allowing that your land to be cultivated is one mile in width. If the land is narrower, the acequia should be longer. If you can get in six sections of crops, you can laugh at next winter. Working every hand every hour from morning until evening you will all be surprised at what you will accomplish. Having sixty of the one hundred and forty-three cattle reserved for ploughing, you will ruia/ten "breaking-up" ploughs. We have had eight new ones made. The ploughs can be in open ground away from the mesquite roots, and the spading in amtng the mesquite roots. I only make these hints as they ccur to me. Being uponi the ground, you will be the best judge of how best to employ your force. The troops, I know, will'feel like lending a hand in so important a work. Again I recur to the length and breadth of the acequia. With plenty of water, and such a soil,'I am sure you can raise a year's supply of bread this year. What an achievement! Pray let me count on the effort of every soul to attain such a vital point. I will have two storerooms and a hospital'for Indians made by contract, so as not to interfere with building the post, and have a doctor sent especially for Indians. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major H _ENRY D. WALIE Fr, U S. A., Commanding at Fort,Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOO D, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 165 Oificial: Official:

Page  A166 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. M., March 11, 1864. MAJOR: Captain Cremony's company will, in a few days, come from Fort Sumner to your post en route to Las Cruces. Cremony will have three wagons from Sumner, which you will return to Sumner laden with wheat or corn, and escorted beyond danger. You will then give Cremony transportation to Las Cruces. The wagons which go with him to Cruces you will have return with flour from Cruces, and send this flour to Fort Sumner. Get some grain at Tulerosa for Cremony, so as not to haul any that way. Report by return of mail how much grain you have on hand, and feed no more to cavalry horses until further orders. Have your cavalry horses sent under a strong guard, commanded by an officer, to some good grazing camp. Give such instructions that the men will not become careless and lose the horses. Have them (the horses) brought in every night and fed on hay, if you can. If the place for grazing is too far away for this, have them brought in every Saturday night. Every grain of corn and wheat'has got to be saved for the five thousand captive Indians now on my hands. If I can see my way clear, and not require all the grain you;have got, so much the better. Will the people at Tul eroso send wheat or corn to Fort Sumner? and if so, how much, and at how much a pound, and when will they deliver it? See about this, and let me know. Encourage everybody to plant all they can. We shall want more than they can raise. How many condemned and no-accoont animals have you at Stanton, of all sorts? Report. I am, major, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOSEPH SMITH, Comnmanding at Fort Stanton, Y. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD; Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MzEXICO Santa Fe, N. M., March 12, 1864. GENEsRAL: S.;nce writing to you on the 6th instant in relation to the Navajo Indians, I have been informed that there are now three thousand of them-mnen, women, and children-who have surrendered at Fort Canby, and are about starting for the Bosque Redondo. These, with those now at that place and en route thither, will make five thousand five hundred, without including the captive Mescalero Apaches. There will doubtless be more Navajoes come in to Fort Canby-what are known as the Ricos of the tribe; men who have stock, and will doubtless be able to subsist themselves upon that stock until we are better prepared to take care'of them., Colonel Carson has b'een instructed to send in the poor and destitute first. The Ricos will come in afterwards. Among the poor are nearly or quite all the ladrones and murderers, so that we have already in our hands the bad men of the tribe. An exact census will bel'taken of the Ricos, and a statement made of the probable amount of their stock, which has hitherto been greatly exaggerated, in my opinion. When this is done, Colonel Carson will himself come in from the Navajo country and go down to the Bosque Redondo to give the Indians the counsel they so much need just at this time as to how to start their farms and to commence their new mode of life. You have from time to time been informed of every step which I have taken with reference to operations against Indians in this country. I multiplied, as much as possible,,the points of contact between our forces and themselves, and, -although no great battle has been fought, still the persistent efforts of small parties acting simultaneously over a large extent of country has destroyed a great many and harassed the survivors until they have become thoroughly subdued. Now, when they have surrendered and are at our mercy, they must be taken care of-must be fed, clothed, and instructed. This admits neither of discussion nor delay. These six thousand mouths must eat, and these six thousand bodies must be clothed. When it is considered what a magnificent pastoral and mineral country they have surrendered to us-a country whose value can hardly be estimated-the mere pittance, in comparison, which must at once be given to support them, sinks into insignificance as a price for their natural heritage. They must have two millions of pounds of breadstuffs sent from the States. This can be done b-)y instalments-the first instalment to be started at once; say, five hundred thousanl pounds of flour and corn, in equal parts. The next instalment to reach the Bosque in August -next, and all to be delivered by the.middle of next November. This amount will last them, with what we can buy here, until the crop comes off in 1865; when, from that time forward, so Or as food may go, they will, in my opinion, be self-sustaining. 166 Official:

Page  A167 APPENDIX. Add to these breadstuffs four thousand head of cattle, to come by instalments of five hundred each-the first to reach the Bosque by the first of July next, and all to be there by the middle of November. Salt can be bought here, but you cannot buy the )readstuffs or the meat; they are not in the country, and consequently cannot be got at any price. In view of the contingencies of delays, accidents, &c., I have put all the troops on half-rations, and, at most of the posts, ordered that no grain be issued to cavalry horses. These. six thousand people must be fed until you can get us relieved by sending supplies, as above named, from the States. This matter, being of paramount importance, is alluded to here as the first which will claim your attention, or, rather, your action; for the matter is imperative-is self-evident; it needs no deliberation, as you will see, and admits of no delay. Next comes the wherewithal to clothe these poor women and these little children. You will find in a duplicate of the letter which I wrote to you on the 6th of March, and which is herewith enclosedi a list of such articles as are absolutely needed now. Then comes agricultural implements, which must be here to insure the crops Then the tools, cooking utensils, &c., &c., lists of which you will a!o find enveloped with this letter. I beg to call your attention to that most important consideration-the management of the Navajoes upon the reservation. The amount of ability and business habits and tact necessary in one who should be selected to direct these people in their work, and in the systematic employment of their seasons of labor-in one having forecast to see their comning wants and necessities. and having resources of practical sense to provide for those wants and necessities-in one who would have the expending of the funds which must be appropriated for their support-cannot be commanded for the sum of fifteen hundred dollars per annum, given to an Indian agent. The law to be framed granrtirig an annuity to the tribe should also provide for a supervisor, with a salary of at least,three thousand dollars a year, and an assistant supervisor, vith a salary equal to that of Indian agent. These men should be selected with great care. The assistant supervisor should be apt at accounts-practical as a man of business —of resources as a farmer and as a mechanic-of patience, industry, and temperance- one whose heart would be in his business, and who would himself believe that his time belonged to the government, and need not be spent mainly in "grinding axes" elsewhere at the expense of the United States. The superintendent need have, and should have, no further control than simply to audit the accounts. If all this be set forth in the law, so far as salary and duties go, the whole plan will go into successful operation at once. If not set forth in the law, you may depend upon it, general, that, what with changes in superintendents-with diverse counsels and diverse interests, and lack of fixedness of purpose and system-the Indians will not be properly cared for, and, in room of beconming a happy, prosperous, and contented people, will become sad and desponding, and will soon lapse into idle and intemperate habits. You wish them to become a people whom all can contemplate with pride and satisfaction as proteges of the United States-a people who, in return for having given you their country. have been remembered and carefully provided for by a powerful Christian nation like ourselves. But unless you make in the law all the arrangements here contemplated, yoi will find this interesting and intelligent race of Indians will fast diminish in numbers, until, within a few years only, not one of those who boasted in the proud name of Navajo will be left t6 upbraid us for having taken their birthright, and then left them to perish. With other tribes whose lands we have acquired, ever since the Pilgrims stepped on shore at Plymouth, this'has been done too often. For,pity's sake, if not moved by any other consideration, let us, as a great nation, for once treat the Indian as he deserves to be, treated. It is due to ourselves, as well as to them, that this be done. Having this purpose in view, I am sure the law-makers will not be unggperous; nor will they be unmindful of all those essential points which, in changing a people from a nomadic to an agricultural condition of life, should be kept in view, in order to guard them against imposition, to protect them in their rights, to encourage them in their labors, and to provide for all their reasonable wants. The exodus of this whole people from the land of their fathers is not only an interesting but a touching sight. They have fought us gallantly for years on years; they have defended their mountains and their stupendous caions with a heroism which any people might be proud to emulate; but when, at length, they found it was their destiny too, as it had been that of their brethren, tribe after tribe, away back toward the rising of the sun, to give way to the insatiable progress of 6ur race, they threw down their arms, and, as brave men entitled to our admiration and respect, have come to us with confidence in our mag nanimity, and feeling that we are too powerful and too just a people to repay that confi dence with meanness or neglect-feeling that for having sacrificed to us their beautiful country, their homes, the associations of their lives, the scenes rendered classic in their tra ditions, we will not dole out to them a m.iser's pittance in return for what they know to be and what we know to be a princely realm. 167 x

Page  A168 APPENDIX.' This is a matter of such vital importance that I cannot intrust to the accidents of a mail, but transmit this letter and its accompanying papers by a special messenger-Colonel James L. Collins, late superintendent of Indian affairs-who can be consulted with profit not only by the War and Interior Departments, but by the proper committees in Congress, whose attention will have to be called at once to the subject. The War Department, general, has performed its whole duty in having brought these Indians into subjection, and now, in my opinion, stands ready to transfer them to the Department of the Interior. Other tribes along the Gila and in Arizona are murdering our people and committing robberies almost every week. We certainly should not be embarrassed with the care of Indians no longer hostile; so that it follows that laws should be at once passed to provide for them, and the proper officers be sent out immediately to receive them. We certainly, as soldiers, have come to that point where our services cannot properly be required any longer with anything which concerns the Navajoes, unless it be to station a guard in their midst for the preservation of order, and to protect them for a while from the nomads of the plains. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commaadin,. Brigadier General LoReNzo ThOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract.] HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NaEW MExico, Santa Fe,N. M., [,irch 16, 1865. CAPTAIN: 2.- *,..: - You will have corn or wheat issued to Indians, if practicable, at the rate of one pound a day to each. This, with transportation added, will be paid for by the subsistence depart ment. The Indians will have no other foed given to them except salt. In case meat is given to them at times, it will be in lieu of the wheat or corn, and at the same rate, i. e., one pound for each Indian, big and little. Say to Colonel Carson that I think we can feed 6,000 Navajoes, but not to send in more, or feed additional numbers at Fort Canby. This 6,000 includes all you have sent, which * now amounts to 5,000, including those left at the fort when you sent in the 2,000 and upwards, and includes those sent from Foit Wingate.and elsewhere. So it will leave a thou sand to send, supposing you have sent off the, four hundred left at Canby when the 2,000 came away. Will not that be the m+-st of the tribe? I hardly think they will overrun 6,000. The greatest care must be had of food; every ounce must be made to tell. Keep up a perfect record of all Indians who come in-who are sent off-who are born, die, or desert, and the amount of stock sent to the Bosque. These statistics are absolutely , necessary. You will furnish them on the 10th, 20th, and last days of the month., Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain ASA B. CAREY, U.S. A., - Fort Canby, N. A. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet! Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., March 19, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of a letter from Dr. Steck, the superintendent of Indian affairs, to myself. It is dated at Washington, Febriary 12,1864. It is to be observed that he declines to feed the Navajoes. It is a fact that he went off to Washington without making provisions for subsisting the four hundred and fifty Mescalero Apaches which I had moved to the Bosque Redondo, and which Colonel Collins took off my hands last April, but which his successor, this Dr. Steck, let come back on to my 168 Official: Official:

Page  A169 APPENDIX. hands again in November, 1863. And now, to cap the climax in the way of modesty, you will observe that he wishes me to help rpove the peaceable Jicarrillas to the Bosque and to feed them as well. If this be done, it would be curious to learn what Indian affairs Dr. Steck is superintending. You will also find herewith enclosed a copy of a letter from Captain Bristol, United States army, written at iny request, and sent to a Mr. Baker, who, I believe, assumes to be acting as Dr. Steck's vicegerent while the doctor is absent in Washington. He never answered the -letter nor gave the articles enumerated, although, I am informed, he has many in store which he says are for the Pueblo Indians. It may not be amiss to state that the Pueblo Indians are all comfortably provided for; that the Aravajoes are utterly destitute, and that he could have let these articlesgo to the Navajoes without detriment. You will also find enclosed with this a letter from Major Wallen, United States army, who is in command of Fort Sumner, and is doing all he can to get the Indians located, to get in their crops, and to have them well cared for. Last fall, as you have been informed, this superintendent desired that we should let the Mescalero Apaches go to their country again. This was positively forbidden by myself. Then he went to Washington and endeavored to oppose the Navajoes going to the Bosque Redondo, because he thought they should have a reservation in their own country. iHe knows well enough there is no one place in the Navajo country where there is tillable land enough for such a purpose; he knows they could not be kept on such a reservation; he knows the difference in cost of transportation of supplies alone for Indians and for the garrison in their midst would be against a reservation there equal to tl support of the tribe at the Bosque Redondo. Last fall, at the Bosque, he held out the idea that the Indians (Mescaleros) then there should go to their country. When told by the military that if they attempted to go they would be shot, it made trouble, Now he writes to the agent there that it is an Apache reservation, (land enough to support 10,000 people given to 450!) and that the Navajoes will not be permitted to stay there. The poor Navajoes, as you see by Major Wallen's letter, who had thought they had finally got a home, feel unhappy at the prospect of moving again. And thus he makes more trouble; and all this time, it will be well to remark, he feeds neither the Navajoes nor the Apaches, and his vicegerent will not even lend us some hoes and brass kettles to' help out a little when we have so many prisoners on our hands and are straining every point to feed them and to get in a crop this year for their support. Dr. Steck wants to hold councils with Navajoes! It is mockery to hold councils with a people who are in ourshands and have only to await our decisions. It will be bad policy to hold any councils. We should give them what they need-what is just, and take care of them as children until they can take care of themselves. The Navajoes should never leave the Bosque, and never shall if I can prevent it. I told them that that should be their home. They have gone there with that understanding. There is land enough there for themselves and the Apaches. The Navajoes themselves are Apaches, and talk the same language, and in a few years will be homogeneous with therh. I beg therefore to say, that unless the Navajoes are permitted to stay at the Bosque Redondo, they have been treated in bad faith. And I beg further to say that, judging from the manner in which this Dr. Steck has gone on, his' superintendency of Indian affairs will not conduce either to the happiness or the prosperity of the Indians. Pray let us do what is right by the Indians without the mockery of a council,'when, finally, we should have everything our own way. And as I have promised the tribe that the Bosque should be their home, I trust the government will make good my promise. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLET1)N, Bri;raadier conral. Commanding. Brigadier General LORF.ZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N.M., March 21, 1864. CAPTAIN: You Will send a list of all Indian prisoners which arrive at your post, made out on the day of their arrival, and showing their condition as regards clothing and cooking utensils; and you will make out a list of all who leave your post for the Bosque Redondo, made on the day of their departure. Keep a record of all deaths, births, and d 169 Qfficial:

Page  A170 APPENDIX. sertions among them while at your post, and send an abstract of it to these headquarters, and send a list of the stock arriving and departing which belongs to the Indians, and of what articles you issue to the Indianis. I am, captain, respectfully, JAMIES H. CARLETO's, Brigadier General, Comnmanding. Captain THOMAs L. ROBERTS, Comman-ding at Los Pines, N. LM. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. JI, March 25, 1865. MAJOR: On your list of persons composing the military establishment of Fort Sumner, who are entitled to draw rations, you put down six as belonging to the Indian department. Neither Mr. Labadie nor his employes having a right either to draw or buy rations, who are these six persons? The Indians are to,-be fed at the rate of one pound for each man, woman and child per day, of fresh meat, or of corn, or of wheat, or of wheat-meal, or of corn-meal, or of flour, or of krout, or of pickles; cr, in lieu of any one of these articles, half a pound of beans, or of rice, or of peas, or of dried fruit. Salt at the regulation allowance if necessary. It is nm t only desirable on account of the health of the Indians, but to save the regular subsistence stores for the troops, that corn and wheat, and corn-meal and wheat-mneal, and beans be issued to Indians. We have a good supply of beans, andi as they are a wholesome and nutritious article of diet, you can cause them to be issued as often as practicable. If meat could be killed so as to have some meat and some farinaceous food nmade into soups, it would doubtless go further and be more acceptable to the Indians. Save the workcattle for ploughing. Be sure that no wool or pelts are thrown away. In future reports, the amount of food for Indians which you may have on hand will be rendered on a separate paper from that for troops, and the return of Indians will be on a separate peper from any account of troops. This will lead to no confusion in counting upon the duration of your supplies. How many ploughs are you now running? Please report from time to time the progress you make in getting ground ready for cultivation. Some more ploughs, two at least, will soon be sent down. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY 1). WALLEN, Commenading at Fort Sumner, N. M. NoT.-I have mentioned the amount of food to be issued to Indians as an amount sufficient for their support, according to the judgment of Governor Connally, Major McFerran, Colonel Carson, and others. But you are upon the ground, and can tell if this be enough or not. If not enough, in your opinion, give me your views of how much should be issued. The utmost economy must be observed, but there must be no want. J. H. C. ERASTUS. W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. In?f. C. V., A. A. A. General. [Extract ] HEADQUARTERS DFPARTME,NT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. 1I, Jlarch 27, 1864. DEAR MLNAJOR: - 4p a We smiall want more long-handled shovels, and at least two hundred strong hoes, for the Indians. vWallen w,ites they break three spades a day. If, when this reaches you, you have already telegra-hied to send out the five hundred thousand pounds of flouir and two thousand head of cattle for Indians, you need not change it, as we can use the flour and cattle here 170 Official: Official:

Page  A171 APPENDIX. and for the expedition, but if you have not telegraphed as yet in relation t, ) the matter, send this message: "We have succeeded in getting bread and meat enough for Intdians. None need be sent." I you can manage to get enough breaking-up ploughs to make twenty with what we have, send them through as soon as you can. What will a peck of English turnip-seed cost, good fresh seed - Truly yours, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major JOHN C. MCFERRAN,,. Chief of Staff, Dc., Denver City. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C'. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NiEW MEXICO., Santa Te, N. M., MIa2ch 30, 1864. MAJOR: Mr. Robert Carley, of Albuquerque, had some mules run off by Indians last summer. He says the Navajoes who are coming in have some of these mules. We have told the Indians if they voluntarily surrendered they should retain their stock. The question arises whether they do not claim such stolen stock as their stock. I decided, in case of government mules found with them, that they should have ten dollars a head for recovering it, the price paid others, as we cannot tell whether the Indian now in possession of the animal is the one, or even belongs to the tribe of the one who stole it. Mr. Carley in the same way should pay ten dollars a head for recovering his mules to the person who now has them in possession. This seems to be no more than right. Certainly it is the only just way by which I can reconcile the giving up of the stock with what is due to both parties. It may be hard on the Indian, and is certainly hard on Mr. Carley. Better this, however, than not get his mule at all. So you will explain this matter to the Indians, have Mr. Carley identify the mule or mules, and when he pays the money, -as indicated, to the Indian, the mule or mules will be given up. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major ThENRY D. WALLEN, U. S. A., Commaneding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Yt.,.April 1, 1864. COLONEL: On the 10th instant I shall despatch' a small train from Albuqulrque with subsistence stores for Fort Whipple. It will take some seventy-two thousand pounds of assorted stores. As soon as the Navajo war has finally closed, which will, I hope, be soon, as I already have six thousand prisoners of that tribe, operations will be commenced on the Apaches. I desire to establish a post, which will be a base of operations, on the Gila river, on that great bottom north of Fort Bowie. That must be the most important agricultural region in Arizona; and while it is central with regard to operations against Apaches, it will protect the farming interests there and the rich mineral region near the Prieta, affluent to the Gila from the north, opposite somewhere about the centre of the bottom alluded to. I desire that you proceed from Fort Bowie to that point and select the site of a four-company post. Have Captain Tidball or some other intelligent officergo with you, and have the ground so marked that he can direct the troops to the identical spot you select. I enclose herewith a copy of a letter just received from Colonel Fosten, superintendent of Indian affairs for Arizona. You will order, in my name, a board of officers to assemble to investigate and report upqn the matters of which he complains. Let this be done at once. I trust that there is no disposition on the part of the military to embarrass Colonel 171 Official: Official:

Page  A172 APPENDIX. Posten, or to withhold any reasonable amount of help which he nay properly require in the way of escorts. As for transportation, it seems to me that the Depirtmert of the Interior should furnish him with that, and not the Department of War. He surely has no right to claim that, and yet, when it can be spared, there must be no splitting of hairs. It is for the public service. I take it for granted that Colonel Posten will see how hard we are pushed for transportation, and not feel to ask for more than what is positively necessary to discharge his official duties as superintendent The exigencies of the military service will first be considered by the military; but we must be neighborly, and it is our duty as well to help all the other branches of the government in that isolated and dangerous region. At this season of the year, when transportation is scarce, an effective campaign against the Apaches of Arizona cannot be put afoot by the waving of a wand. Troops and supplies have to be collected from very distant points, and at great expense, and means of transportation have to be provided without leaving the rest of the department at a dead lock. Please inform the people of Arizona that they shall have help as soon as it can be given effectively. When I commence on the Apaches, as when I commenced upon the Navajoes, they must understand it is to be a serious war; not a little march out and back again. If there can be a post established at the point indicated by the middle of May, the troops can have some vegetables this year. Let me know how far it is from Fort Bowie to that point, and whether it is a good wagon road, and if there be water mid-way. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel NELsON H. DAVIS, Assistant Inspector General U. S. A., Yncson, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Irf.'. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NI. M., April 1, 1864. COLON-EL: We have succeeded so well in getting food for the Navajoes that the restriction can be removed with regard to feeding forage to cavalry horses. You will therefore feed as you had done up to the date of that restriction. The Apaches in the mountains southwest of your post and at the head of the Mimbres are numerous and hostile. Cannot you send, say, two good, resolute parties of forty men each, by different routes, to hunt and destroy all but the women and children? Have Greene organize a third party and take a third route. Each party should go light; should depend mainLly on beef on the hoof, or sheep if you have them, a little sugar and coffee and flour and salt. Let the parties be out for at least forty days, and go well into the country-go without noise, with spies in advance, with flankers, with men concealed in each camp when the troops leave it, to destroy all who follow on the trail. If you think forty too small a party, increase it. In and around Fort West and the Burro mountains the Apaches are also numerous. I suppose they have just come back from their winter residence in (hihuahua. They have just run off seventy mules and horses from one of our trains at Cow Springs. Whitlock is after them from the Mimbres. I will try to send a force south from Wingate, and another from Canby. Picked men and officers, each striving to do his utmost, will accomplish a good deal. To move silently to hunt Indians is the only way to accomplish anything at all. For God's sake let the commands move light, as we want much transportation to get supplies south of the Jornado. Greene sets the example of moving light. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colo nel EDwIN A. RIM, Commanding at Fort Craig, N'. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 172 Official: Official-:

Page  A173 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa N', i I-., April 3, 1864. GENERAL: Since writing to you on the 12th ultimo, the letter taken to Washington by Colonel James L. Collins, bearer of despatches, we have been able to secure more food for the captive Indians than I believed then to be possible, and therefore I directed Major McFerran, chief of staff, to telegraplh to you from Denver City to send out but five hundred thousand pounds of flour and two thousand head of cattle, these to arrive in October. We have been able to borrow some subsistence stores from the district of Colorado, and I have just heard of the arrival, at the mouth of the Colorado river, of a vessel with subsistence stores which will be taken to Fort Yuma, whence we can draw upon them to a certain extent for the troops in western Arizona. This vessel had been seventy days out! So that I can now see the way clear for the troops and the Indians to be fed until supplies can come out from the States. About this I was very anxious. The Apaches in Arizona are very hostile, and efforts must be made to subdue them at the earliest practicable day. I was in hope that some answer would long before now have been given to my letter to you dated the 29th of last November, a duplicate of which was also forwarded on the 12th of last January, in relation to increasing the bounties to be paid to troops re-enlisting in this remote department. Some more men, perhaps, might have been gotten under the law for re-enlisting veterans, had it not expired so soon. BefQre the orders reached here extending the time to the first of March, there were only a few days left, not enough to let the fact be known at the remote posts where the troops are the most needed. The last extension to the first instant only reached here at noon on the 31st day of March, and could only be known in Santa Fe before the time expired. So, practically, it was of no avail except to secure the-re-enlistment of eleven men. Is it expected in Washington that I am to furnish transportation for Indian goods, and escorts and transportation for the superintendent of Indian affairs, and for other civil officers in Arizona? I will do all I can consistent with requirements in the military branch of the service. I am written to, and about, as if this could be demanded as a right.$'> Should not other departments furnish all but escorts? I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, -D. C. See enclosed letter from Colonel Posten, dated March 10, 1864, marked I; letter from Colonel Coult, commanding at Tucson, of March 18, 1864, marked' II; letter from General Carleton to Lieutenant Colonel N. H. Davis, dated April i, 1861, marked III. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain let Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., 1Iarch 20, 1864. MAJOR: I have received your letter in relation to Labadie's making the Navajoes unhappy by suggesting they would move. You have the Navajoes and Apaches under your charge, and Labadie, too, so far as seeing that he does and says nothing to make the Indians either unhappy or discontented. If he does either, you will at onc order him off the reservation, and order any other person off, whatever be his rank in the Indian department, unless he will promise not to sow seeds of discontent among the Indians still under charge of the mi'itary and who are fed by us. You will be sure to let no Indian leave the reservation except by my authority, let whoever may desire it, until after the Indians are all transferred to the Department of the Interior. We have had trouble enough by these outside hostile, puerile, senseless interferences, and I propose to have no more of it. So you will be governed entirely by 6r(lers from me. You are responsible for the safety, care, feeding and work of the Apaches and Navajoes. Don't the Apaches eat our food? And you will be sure, as long as you have this responsibility, to let neither Labadie, nor Steck, nor anybody else, come there to breed mischief or make trouble. When the Indian department acts properly and feeds and clothes the Indians, we will let them do it in their own way; but when they throw the Indians. on our hands, as they did the Apaches, to feed, then they must not meddle with them until they get them back. This matter has been represented to the War Department. Have neither nonsense nor child's play. 173 Official:

Page  A174 APPENDIX. Have sent you seven ploughs, Will soon send you some more, if possible. Have sent to Cr,ig for fifty each of shovels, spades, pickaxes. Will try to send you ten more ploughs and some farmers to help work. You must get in six sections. Tell Calloway, (vwho is a trump,) Colonel Collins has gone to Washington to look after matters for the Navajoes. There are 2,200 en route from Canby, besides those who came with Mullins, and 400 more at Canby awaiting transportation. Send me a copy of this letter. I shall be down as soon as I see you all have enough to eat; 6,000 is no joke. Respectfully, &c., [ES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WARREN, Conmna(zzdiy Fort Sumner, N. I. c ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. G. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 8, 1864. MArOR: I have the honor to inform you that I have ordered one hundred thousand pounds of subsistence stores from Albuquerque to Fort Whipple. They start the 10th instant. These stores will reach your post on the 15th or 25th of May next. The train will be escorted by the remainder of company " D" 1st cavalry California volunteers. When the train returns, send in to Albuquerque, New Mexico, (giving them rations only to Fort Wingate,) company "F" 1st infantry California volunteers. This will give you a company of infantry and nearly a company of cavalry for your garrison. The next train that goes out with rations will be escorted by a company whose time will not be out for a year or two. How you stand with reference to supplies, and the number of mouths to eat them, you should report by every express. You disappoint me by the paucity of your reports on all the subjects of which I spoke to you. You have doubtless got back from, and had time to give me, a full account of your explorations. I am preparing to commence operations against the Apaches of Arizona. A post will be established in the great valley of the Gila, directly north of Fort Bowie, and from that point hostilities will be prosecuted. If possible the troops will be there by the 1st of June. The valley in which it is intended to put the post is said to be very fertile; to be some sixty miles long and a mile and a half broad. It will be the' greatest agricultural locality in the Territory. The Prieta, a streamn running through the richest gold region, comes into the Gila about midway the valley. Ad < r -a> S Aid:.9iC' i > no a l' I am, mqjQr, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CAaLETON, Brigadier General, Commandiag. Major EDWARD B. WILL'IS, Conmiiizidi.eg Fort Whipple, Arizonz6 Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F', N. M., April 8, 1864. COLONEL: I have noted what you have said about the rich Nav;joes. If they can feed themselves you can send in even 10,000. If not, send in not over 8,000, including what we have. Those who have stock and can support themselves had better be told again that, if they come in, they shall have their own stock. If they compel us to force them in, we will have all we can take. I cannot believe but that 8,000 will cover all the tribe; and we can manage to feed that number. The Ricos can live on their stock at the Bosque as well as in their own country. Tranffer your command to Captain Carey when you come in on the court that is to try CaptaiA Everett. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CAERETON, Brigadier General, Co?nmmandinq. Co lonel CHRISTOPHER CARSON, Commaedi:ng N'avjio Fxpedition, Fort Canby, N. Al. NOTE.-Captain Murphy can come. Captain Pfeiffer must stay with his company. Send in Indians by every opportunity. If the ricos come in soon they can plant some this year. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, .+~~~~~~ ~~~Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 174 Official:

Page  A175 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DErPAPTIENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fre, N. MI., April 9, 1864. MAAJOR: I have received your letter of the 1st of April, 1864, in relation to food for the Indians. It wats well, if you found that a pound of breadstuffs a day, or its equivalent in meat, was not enough, to issue more. It is possible that we may be able to get meat so as to give them a pound apiece per day, if the whole animal, weighed just as it lies upon the ground after it is killed, the entrails taken out, but the animal not skinned, (for they eat the entrails, which will compensate for the skin,) be issued. If we cannot get the animals you will have to make close calculations, so as not to find yourself entirely without meat. You will, if necessary, have to issue less. The Indians will have beans issued to them once a week. Have them taught by the soldiers how to cook the beans. You are authorized to issue to the chiefs and principal men of the N-avajoes and Apaches some coffee and sugar in all not to exceed eighty rations per day-the Navajoes to have their just proportion, having reference to their superior numbers. You should have a good talk in council with the chiefs of both tribes in convention, and tell them that every effort is making to get food forward, but they must be prudent and see that not an ounce is wasted; that Colonel Collins has gone to Washington, at mry request, to urge upon the government to send out blankets and other clothing, and tools, and utensils for farming and for coolking, and tobacco, and ornaments, &c., and that I hope soon to send them word that the articles have been bought and are upon the road; ttlLt the Indians must be patient and must believe we will do all we can to make them comfortable and happy; that the Indians have the best land in the country; that the Mexicans are jealous that they have such a beautiful place; that, if they work hard, in a few years they will be the richestpueblo in the country. This is all true; and if they could be made to see how they will prosper if they will only be patient, be prudent, and industrious, as I see it, they would be very happy and contented. On the 25th of February you were directed to make timely estimates for food for Indians, so as to have fifty days' supply on hand. We have not yet received an estimate for this food. Make the estimates on the Indians you actually have on hand to feed. Why has it not been sent in? Major McFerran has bought ten ploughs for you at Denver. Have the yokes and chains got in readiness.'The ploughs will soon reach you. The Indians themselves should learn to plough. You should talk with the chiefs how important this is. They will have to do it some day. Now is the time to learn. You may even,hire them as laborers to plough. We canot get citizens to do this. You have by far the most important command in this Territory. Every one knows it and speaks about it. I should rather you would stay at. Sumner than to send you to Bascom, because I believe you will take an interest in this great work. The post of Fort Sumner is uncommonly healthy, as all the records show. The water, although a little biackish, is proved to be most wholesome. When Fritz's company comes a cavalry camp must be formed down the river, and the horses kept on grass We cannot get the corn to feed to cavalry at Fort Sumner. It must be reserved for the feeding of hu man beings. Remember this, and please to remember it in time. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major HENRY D. WALLEN, U.S. A., CommandingF ort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Ve!. lIf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEAkDQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MaEXICO, Santa FE, N. I., April 17, 1864. GEXNERAL: Enclosed herewith please find 1st A cQpy of a private letter from Governor Goodwin, of Arizona, to myself. This letter is dated at Tucson, Arizona, April 4, 1864. It shows that there i's an immedia-te anid pressing necessity for a military force to go to that country to punish the Indians, who are not only numerous, but very hostile. In this letter Governor Goodwin sustains the action of Colonel Davis, assistant inspector general United States army, about which Colonel Posten, the superintendent of Indian afiairs, so bitterly complained in a letter already sent to you. 175 I ,Official:

Page  A176 APPENDIX. 2d. A copy of a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Davis, assistant inspector general, United States Army, dated at Fort Whipple, Arizona, Marelh 20, 1864, ill which, among other things, he treats at length of these Indian difficulties. 3d. A copy of a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Davis, assistant inspector general U. S. A., dated at Tucson, Arizona, April 4, 1864 In this will be seen what is said of Colonel Brown, of the 1st cavalry California volunteers, now en route to this department from that of the Paciflic Colonel Brown has been ordered to Fort Craig, New Mexico, there to await further orders. What with political schemes and mining interests in Arizona, both of officers of volunteers, of civil officers, anil citizens-which go to form not only springs of action, but which warp judgment, and sometimes strive to deflect tile rays which should come direct from truth-it is difficult for any commander, who proposes to act with an eye to the interests of the government, to act justly by all, and to act with anything like vigor, to escape the most unmeasured abuse. You can depend on this. I shall expect at least my share, for I find that my ideas of what should be done conflict very directly with those of many of these gentlemen who have gone in one capacity or another to that Territory. 4th. Copies of extracts from private letters from Lieutenant Colonel Davis, United States Army, on affairs in Arizona. The necessities which are shown by these letters to exist for immediate demonstrations against the Apaches of Arizona, have induced me to commence organizing an expedition to proceed against them It will consist of, say, about five hundred men; will start from Las Cruces, New Mexico; will have its depot of supplies on the Gila river, north of Fort Bowie, whence small parties of twenties, and forties, arid eighties, will radiate in all directions antl follow any tiail that may be found. We must trust to the gallantry of small parties against any numbers. Large parties move snail-liie; are seen at once and are avoidet; generally ale laughied at by these Apaches. Small parties move secretly; cover more ground; move vith celerity; emulate to do better than all others, and, in the end, either de troy the Indians or worry them into submission. It is very fortunate that the Navajo war is at that point toward a final ending as to give but little further uneasiness. If, by the help of Providence, we can have the samle fortune in our demonstrations against the Apaches of Arizona, the great drain upon the treasury, which has been kept up by these Indian wars, will forever cease. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLE'lON, Brigadier General, Commandirg. Brigadier General LoaF.zo THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain!st Vet. Iif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M1., April 1, 1864. COLONEL: There are many Apaches returned from Chihuahua, and are now in the Mogollon and White mountains, at the head of thie Little Colorado, due south of Fort Canby. A few days since they stole 70 mules and horses from one of our trains at Cow Springs. Is it possible for you to secd a force of one hundred picked men into these mountains, to scout for them for, say, fifty days? If so, do it at once. Two parties will be out from Craig, and two others from McRae, and one from the Mimnbres. You will find some Navajoes in that way who have stock. The men should take mainly cattle o'sheep on the hoof for food, a very little flour and sugar and coffee and salt. This is the way they will go fronm the other posts: as light as possible; as silently as possible; with spies well to the front with flankers:'wih a few men secreted in camps to ambush Indians following the trail., I think you overrate the numbers of the Navajoes. Get all the information you canl from prisoners, Zufii Indians, Moquois, of where they are; have this written down, and the probable numbers. We will then see what the chiefs at the Bosque say. Some of those we can then get for guides, and lay all our plans understandingly. You can send on 7,500 Navajoes, including what we have. That number we can feed.. Respectfully, I am, colonel, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPHER EP CANSON, Comranding NAavejo Expvedition, Fort Canby, N. M. ERASTUS W, WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 176 . Official:

Page  A177 APPENDIX. IHEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, Y. M., April 20, 1864. MY DEAR SIR: I have had the pleasure to read your letter to Lieutenant Colonel Coult, sent by Captain French, in which you kindly give us the privilege of receiving supplies at the port of Guaymas, and the privilege of transporting them through the sovereign State of Sonora to our Territory of Arizona, for the use of the troops of the United States serving in that Telritory. You also give us the privilege of continuing the pursuit of hostile Apaches over the boundary line, if necessary, into your state; a corresponding privilege which we cordially extend towards the forces of your excellency, when following our common enemy, the Apaches. These kindnesses are duly appreciated. They serve to make your people and our people still faster frienis, and serve to make us feel that we have kind and obliging neighbors. We only trust your excellency will contrive some way by which we may have the pleasure of reciprocating the favors you have extended towards us. There is one matter which should be called to the attention of your excellency at this time. I amr about to commence hostile operations against the Apaches of Arizona. A force of five hundred men will leave Las Cruces, on the Rio Grande, about the 10th proximo, and will march to a'point on the Gila north of the Chiricahui mountains; there establish a depot, and from that point, in small parties, commence operations upon those savages. I sh llat the same time endeavor to get the Pimo and Maricopa Indians to help, and also the miners in Arizona. In this way a great many men, acting simultaneously against them, will nlakle them suffer very greatly. Some of them will doubtless make their way into Sonora. If your excellency will put a few hundred men into the field on the first day of next June and keep them in hot pursuit of the Apaches of Sonora, say for sixty or ninety day s, we will either exterminate the Indians or so diminish their numbers that they will desire to cedOse their murdering, and robbing propensities, and live at peace. Your excellency is well aware that the great obstacle which stands in the way, of, the immediate advancemnent towards prosperity of Sonora, Chihuahua, and Arizona, is this tribe of savages. When it is subdued that prosperity will come, but not till then. I beg you will write to the governor of Chihua,hua on this point, so that we may make a combined effort against these Apaches. If we do this I am sure we shall succeed. It has been my good fortune, in making war upon the Mescalero Apaches and the Navajoes, to destroy a great matny; and I have now 6,000 of them prisoners. They are upoli a reservation at the Bosque Reotloido, on the Pecos river, where they are now planting corn and wheat, and where they will form a pueblo. I sincerely trust I may count on the earnest and powerful co-operation of your excellency in prosecuting hostilities against the Apaches, which infest the country on both sides of the line west of the Rio Grande. With sincere wishes for the health andhappiness of your excellency, and for the happiness and prosperity of the good people of Sonora, I have the honor to be your excellency's obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. His Excellency. Don YGNoACIO P nSQUIRA, .Governor of Sonora, Mexico. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUABTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 20, 1864. MlY DEAR SIR: I have ventured to trespass upon your time in order to call your at tention to a plan I have in view, which looks toward a punishment for murders and robberies of the Apache Indians, who infest the states of Chihuahua and Sonora, and the Territory of Arizona, on our side of the line. About the 10th of May, or a little later, I shall send a command of troops, numbering, say, five hundred men, to a point onl the Gila north of the Chiricahui mountains, where a depot of supplies will be established, and from which the troops, in small parties, will move in every direction, and follow up and attack every male Apache Indian able to bear arms whose trail may be met, or who may be overtaken. At the same time this is done it is my purpose to get the Pimos and Maricopa Indians, to whom I have given over two hundred muskets and ammunition in plenty for the same, to join in hostilities against the tribe. The miners at the gold fields in western Arizona say they will also turn out and help, if they can have some provisions from me, which I shall give them. 12 . I 177 Official: I

Page  A178 APPENDIX. Now these active operations will cause many of these Indians to flee across the lines into Chihuahwa and Sonora. If your excellency will turn out your militia and get a few hundred of them into the field by the 10th or 15th of June next, for, say, fifty or sixty days, we shall accomplish a great deal toward the destruction of the common enemy of all the citizens of your state as well as of Sonora, and the country on our side of the line. Not until this is done effectually can we hope for anything like prosperity. I hope your excellency will give your powerful co-operation in a matter of such grave importance. In this event, should your troops desire to come on our side of the line, come in welcome, when you please, and as far as you please. A captive Mexican woman, whom we took away from the Apaches, and who is now at Pinos Altos, says the Apaches go into the town of Corralitas and buy powder and other ammunition from a Mexican resident of that place, whose name is ZDloaga. If this is so, I have but little doubt but that your excellency will cause Mr. Zoloaga to be shot for it would be impossible to conceive of a crime of greater magnitude. Hoping to hear a favorable response to my proposition, and ardently praying for the health and prosperity of your excellency, and the happiness and good fortune of the good people of the state of Chihuahua, I have the honor to subscribe myself, with high regards, your excellency's obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigalier General, Comnmanding. Don LOUIS PERRAZAS, Goveinor of Chihuahua, MIxico. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Fet. i~~:C. V., A.A A. A.General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MFxico, Santa Id, N. M., A4pril 20, 1864. MY DEAR GOVERNOR: About the 10th of May proximo a command of, say, five hundred men will start from Las Cruces, New Mexico, for a point to be selected on the Gila river, north of Fort Bowie, as the site of a new post. Here a depot will be formed, and from this place active hostilities will be commenced and continued against the Apache Indians of Arizona. The purpose of this letter is to urge upon your excellency the importance of getting every citizen of the Territory who has a rifle to take the field for, say, sixty days, and to co-operate with us in making war upon this tribe. The only hope we can have of speedy success must rest upon the combined efforts of every man who can be got to take the field. In this way, where many parties are in pursuit of Indians at the same time, the Indians, in endeavoring to escape from one, run into others. In this way, those who are not destroyed will soon be worried into acquiescence with ouL terms. I have written to the governors of Chihuahua and Sonora to endeavor to get them 1o turn out a few hundred men each, and to co-operate with us for sixty days, commencing, say, June O10, and have given them-authority to pursue Indians over the line and a. far into our Territory as they please. I have given the Pimos and Maricopas over two hundred stand of arms, and ammuni tion for the same, for the purpose of enabling them to prosecute hostilities against the Apaches, and I desire that you will urge them to put four parties of, say, fifty men each in the field for the same sixty days. The Papagoes should also be induced to help thei. quota, and make the war' general, and make it extend over as large a field as possible at the same moment of time. Here lies the great key to our success. While this doing, troops will be directed to work eastward from Fort Wiuipple, southward from For Canby, southwestward forom Fort Wingate, westward from Forts C('raig and McRae. Theso movements will be simultaneous, and must produce favorable results. I will consult wit? Governor Connelly and try to get him to send a few militia from the southern part of th. Territory to help Let me count on your active and energetic efforts in this matter, and in a few month we may hope to see Arizona free from the great impediment which st-tands in the way 0 her speedy d-evelopmLnent. Pray see the Papagoes, the Pimos, and thel\1aricopas, and hav that part of the programme well and effectually executed. You will be able to secure th. efforts of the miners without trouble. Let us work earnestly and hard, and before nex Christmas your Apaches are whipped. Unless we do this you will have a twenty years war. 178 Official:

Page  A179 APPENDIX. You may count on my doing all that can be done to clear your Territory of these terrible savages; but it will take hard work and persistent work. Every man who has the development and prosperity of Arizona at heart must put his shoulder not only to the wheel, but to the rifle. I am, my dear governor, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. His Excellency JOHN N. GooDWIN, Governor of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO,. Santa Fe', N. M;, April 21, 1864. ao 0 #- a- - 0 COLONEL'' a a ~ # a I am organizing a command of five hundred men to operate from a base to be established on the Gila, north of Fort Bowie. This command will take the field about the 10th proximo, and will be supplied with flour from mills in your district. You are authorized to give the Indian ponies captured in the very handsome -affair of the energetic and gallant Whitlobk to his command. Let me assure you, colonel, that Captain Whitlock's success is regarded here as a great coup on the Apaches. I feel to thank him most heartily for his exertions, prudence, skill, perseverance, and gallantry. The officers and soldiers who went with him, and who shared alike his toil and his triumphs, deserve great praise. The letter sent by this mail to the governor of Chihuahua I wish you to forward by express. It is left unsealed, that you may read it. Every effort must be made to have a general rising of both citizens and soldiers, on both sides of the line, against the Apaches. All, Mexicans and Americans, have a direct interest in this matter. I hope you will have every company in your command put in immediate readiness for the field, prepared at all points. If possible I will come down in May. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES U. CARLETO,, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel GEORGE W. BOWIE, Commanding District of Arizona, Franklin, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Nr, f. M., April 24, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose 1st. An official copy of a letter from Captain J. Thompson, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, giving the essential points of a march which he made from Fort Canby, in the Navajo country, to Fort Sumner, on the Pecos river, having in his charge, when he arrived at Fort Sumner, two thousand four hundred Navajo prisoners. The Adjutant General will see that one hundred and ninety-seven of these Indian prisoners of Captain Thompson's party, when he left Fort Canby, died en route. The weather was very inclement, with terrible gales of wind and heavy falls of snow; the Indians were nearly naked; and, besides, many died from dysentery, occasioned by eating too heartily of halfcooked bread, made of our flour, to which they were not accustomed. 2d. A copy of a letter from Major Henry D. Wallen, United States army, command, ing at Fort Sumner, in the heart of the Indian reservation. This letter explains how the Navajo and Apache prisoners are getting along. 179 Official: Official:

Page  A180 APPENDIX. By next week we shall have some sixteen ploughs running near the post. Both of these letters are dated the 15th inistant. I am, general, very respectfully, your- obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAs, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MIEXICO, Santa FB, N. JI., April 24, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose 1st. A copy of an official letter from Colonel Christopher Carson, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, dated the 10th instant. In this letter the colonel expresses his convictions that we have not yet got one-half of the tribe of Navajoes. In this, from all I can learn, I think the colonel overestimates the number of those not come in. In my belief the Ricos not yet surrendered, but who, it is said, will soon come in, do not number over two thousand. We have now, in round numbers, six thousand, which would make the whole number of the nation to be eight thousand-a full estimate, I think. See in this letter what Colonel Caison says of the "wisdom" displayed in moving these Indians. I use the word wisdom without any reference to myself, but merely to contrast it against the uitter folly of any measure looking toward putting the Navajoes on a reservation in the Navajo country. 2d. An official copy of a private letter from Colonel Carson, in which he speaks more fully of the propriety of removing the Indians, and of his desire to be at some post where he can have his family with him. Colonel Carson has labored hard, and is deserve ing of some respite. I sincerely trust the War Department will recognize his services in some substantial manner. Captain Asa 13B Carey,'who has labored so hard in this Navajo war, should be brevetted a lieutenant colonel. This recommendation is based upon the supposition that he will surely be brevetted a major for distinguished gallantry in assisting to burn the Texan train in Apache caion, March 28, 1862. Major John C. McFerran, United States army, should receive a brevet as lieutenant colonel for distinguished services as chief quartermaster of this department during the Navajo war. See a copy of my letter of February 27, 1864, on this subject. I am, general, very truly and respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LoRENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf, C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 24, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose 1st. A copy of a private letter from the Hon. Richard C. McCormick, secretary of Arizona, dated Fort Whipple, Arizona, March 26, 1864, in relation to Indian hostilities in that Teritory. This will be proved fo be a very interesting letter. 2d. A copy of the Arizona Miner, newspaper, which also tells of Indian troubles there. 3d. A copy of an official letter from Major Edward B. Willis, 1st infantry California volunteers, commanding at Fort Whipple, Arizona Territory. It is dated March 18, 1864. This letter gives an account of an extended scout in that distant terra incognita in search oi a locality for the territorial capital. The description of the country, and the difficulty oi travelling over it, will be found interesting and of historic value in connexion with the first settlement of what, at no distant day, will be a powerful and wealthy State. iso Official: Official:

Page  A181 APPENDIX. 4th. A copy of an official letter from the same officer. It is dated Fort Whipple, Arizona, March 28, 1864, and gives further intelligence of the hostilities of the Apaches in that section of country. 5th. Letter from myself to his excellency the governor of Chihuahua, Mexico. It is dated April 20, 1864. 6th. Letter from myself to his excellency the governor of the State of Sonora, Mexico. 7th. Letter of same date from myself to his excellency John H. Goodwin, governor of the Ter iitory of Arizona. These last three letters will inform the War Depirtment of measures which are now taking towards commencing hostilities against the Apaches of Arizona. We are getting supplies and means of transportation down to Las Cruces as fast as practicable, and collecting troops there from other points for this service. We shall all do our best to put anl end to these Indian troubles in Arizona. The War Department must know that all of Arizona north of the Gila for, say, two hundred miles, and covering the range of country infested by hostile Indians, is of the most difficult character over which to move troops. Every expedition must be made with pack-mules for transportation, and as the country may be said to be unknown with regard to practicable routes and to points where grass and water may be found, too much must not be expected from the labors of the troops. They will do their best; and if the plan of operations which is set forth in the letter to Governor Goodwin be carried out, hopes for good results may, with some reason, be entertained. 8th. A map of the country upon which Lieutenant Cyrus H. De Forrest, aide-de-camp, has laid down some of the principal points alluded to in these letters. It will be found to be useful as a map for reference. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General Lo uE. Azo THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 24, 1864. GENRAL: On the 15th ultimo, about 3 p. m., the Apache Indians of Arizona stampeded a herd of government mules at Cow Springs, one march west of the Mimbres river, and succeeded in getting off with sixty of these mules and four public horses. This could not have been done had a company of infantry, which was escorting the train to which these animals belonged, been on the alert, and with sentinels posted well outside of the herd, which was grazing. Enclosed herewith please find a letter from Colonel George W. Bowie, commanding district of Arizona, and a letter from Captain James IH. Whitlock, commanding a company in Colonel Bowie's regiment, 5th infantry California volunteers, wherein you will see with what handsome results these Indians were followed. Captain Whitlock anl the gallant men who accompanied him deserve an especial notice from the War Department. A dozen or two of pursuits like Captain Whitlock's would. give our troops the morale over these Ishmaelites of our deserts. Twenty-one Apache warriors left dead upon the ground, and a large amount of stock retaken, are results which the War Department may consider to be creditable. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LoRaNzo T WHOMAS, A,ijutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, aptain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 181 Official: Official:

Page  A182 APPENDIX. FHEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa le, N. M., April 25, 1864. COLON.EL: Enclosed herewith you will find a telegram dated at San Francisco, the 7th instant. The companies which are to be sent by Yuma are the last three of the seven companies of the 1st cavalry California volunteers. Colonel Davis, United States army, who is supposed to be at or near Tucson, has this day been written to to send the best one of these companies to the Riventon, and the other two to await orders at the camp on the Mimbres. In case Colonel Davis has left Tucson when these companies come, you will see that these troops are distributed as I have directed. Have your whole command put in immediate order for field service. See that all your canteens, haversacks, water-kegs, pack-saddles, apacahoes, wagons, harness, &c., are ia the best possible repair, so as to move your troops at a day's notice. Depend on this, the present garrison at Tucson will be sure to take the field at a very early day, and I desire to have it move without delay and in splendid order for field service and fighting. When you come to have critical inspections of your material, of your clothing, camp and field equipage, of what needs repairs, of what is absolutely essential and what is not, you will find, as I have often found, that you have a great task on your hands. See that all of your books are posted up to date, and all accounts made up to date and sent off, that there be no after-claps about your records, whether of post or in any company or staff departments. Have everything snug and ship-shape and prepared, as a sailor might say, for a storm. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel TzEODOaE A. COULT, Commanding at Tucson, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General HEADQUARTERs DEPARTMIENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., April 25, 1864. COLONEL: You are authorized to let the camp on the Mimbres remain as it is until further orders. It will be a good strategic point, having reference to approaching operations against the Apaches of Arizona. Please send some first-rate men and have Leitzendorfer's well enlarged, and made so as to hold a large volume of water. The troops will doubtless have to go by the Cienega de San Simon on account of a lack of water on the Stein's Peak route. Have Cow springs enlarged and cleaned out without delay. Respectfully, I am, colonel, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel GEORGE W. BOWIE, Commanding District of Arizona, Franklin, Texas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V.,, A. A. A. General HEADQUJARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., May 2, 1864. CAPTAIN: Please find enclosed herewith General Orders No. 12, current series from these headquarters. You can have a picked command of sixty men, all told, got in readiness and move by the 20th instant, so asdto be in position in time tt perform your part of the 182 Official,: Official-:

Page  A183 APPENDIX. programme. Of course, if this party comes across Navajoes who are not en route to surrender themselves at your post, they will be attacked. It seems to me you could get two or three Navajo gutides who could take the troops directly to an Apache rancheria. Let us see whether parties of New Mexico volunteers can excel parties of Californians. Let officers and men be picked. - I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain ASA B. OAREY, U. ~ A., Commanding Nacvajo Expedition, Fort Canby, N..M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIco, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, NV. J, MIay 3, 1865. CAPTAIN: Your communication of the 29th ultimo has been received. The commanding general directs me to say that the course adopted by you with reference to the Mexicans and Ind(ianrs who attacked the Navajoes that were en route to Fort Canby is approved. You will retake any stock or property thus taken from the friendly Navajoes and return it to them; and take prisoners, and send to Santa F6, any Mexicans, Zurii, Moquoi or Utah Indians who offend in that manner. Send word to the Zuiiis and Moquisthat if they allow this to occur again their villages will be attacked by our troops. If necessary, take some of the chiefs and principal men and hold them as hostages for the good behavior of the balance of the tribe. The missingcommrunication from the express package was probably one taken out by Colonel Carson, while en route from Fort Canby to Santa Fe6 The express man had orders to give him a letter from the package if he should meet the colonel on the road. Enclosed you will find a copy of department General Orders No. 12, current series. The general thinks it would be well, in executing that portion of paragraph V which refers to Fort Canby, to transport your supplies, if possible, by wagons to the base of the Mogollon mountains By so doing you would save your pack-mules for the more active operations. If you can spare the wagons from the post they might remain until the return of the detachment. The guard left with them would have to intrench themselves to prevent being captured while the scouting parties were out. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FORREST, Aide-de-Camp. Captain ASA B. CAREY, U.S. A., Commanding at Fort Canby, N. AI. I ERASTUS W. WOO D, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FT, N. M, gay 9, 1865. GEENERAL: Enclosed herewith I have the honor to send you an interesting report on affairs at Fort Sumner, as far as the Navajo and Apache Indians are concerned. This report is written by Major Henry D. Wallen, United States army, at present in command at Fort Sumner. It shows the progress of the work that has been done there preliminary to getting in a crop. Want of tools, want of clothing, want of almost everything, is severely felt; but we are hoping that the authorities at Washington will soon remedy all this. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. I~~~~~~~~~~ ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 183 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A184 APPENDIX. [HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., Mlay 31, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor to enclose herewith 1st. An official copy of a report dated May 5, 1864, made by Lieutenant Henry H. Stevens, 5th infantry California volunteers, and giving particulars of a handsome little fight which took place between company I, 5th infantry California volunteers, unider Lieutenant Stevens's command, and one hundred Apache warriors. The Indians attacked the troops as they were passin! through Doubtful Canon, near Stein's Peak, in Arizona. Lieutenant Stevens deserves credit for the handsome manner in wtich he conducted this affair. 2d. An official copy of a report on the Navajo war, and other matters pertaining to the settlement upon a reservation of this formidable tribe. this report is made by Colonel Christopher C(arson, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, and is dated May 20, 1864. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Irf. C. V., A. A. A. General. .'~HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEIxITCo, Santa FiN. M., May 31, 1864. GENERAL: Enclosed herewith please find a report made by Capt'in Francis McCabe, 1lst cavalry New Mexico volunteers, of the movement of over eight hundred N.vajo prisoners from their native country to the reservation at the Bosque-Redondo. I am induced to send all these reports to the War Department that you may be in possession of the historical facts connected with the final exodus of this interesting people from the land of their birth to that set apart for their residence, henceforth, by the general government. I am, general, very respectfully, &c., &c., JMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa le, N. M.,June 17, 1864. CAPTAIN: I have directed Colonel Rigg to establish Fort Goodwin in or near the Tuleroso valley. Colonel Davis suggests that you be selected to point out the exact spot. To save time proceed at once and join Colonel Rigg for this purpose, which, when completed, may leave no doubt upon so important apoint. Give Colonel Rigg allpossible information of the country, the San Carlos and Bonita valleys; of wheat and corn-fields belonging to Indians, that he may consume the grain before it is gathered by them, and then return as quickly as possible to your post and carry out effectively, as I know you will do, your part of the programme. I feel to congratulate you on your success. Pray thank the officers and men who were with you for their gallant conduct and their efficient services. Do this in my name. My anxiety to do all that mortals can do to bring this Apache war to a speedy and final end is very great. Not until then will Arizona show the world her wonderful deposits of gold and silver. I am, captain, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, .Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain T. T. TIDBALL, Commanding at Fort Bowie, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 184. Official: Official: Official:

Page  A185 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa _F, N. M, June 19, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose 1st. An official c)py of a letter from Major Edward B. Willis, 1st infantry California volunteers, commanding at Fort Whipple, Arizona. It is dated the 27th ultimo, and gives the latest intelligence from the new gold fields in that vicinity. The general will see that the promise of mineral wealth in northern Arizona is becoming more than realized. 2d. An official copy of a letter from Lieutenant Colonel Nelson H. Davis, assistant inspector general United States army. It is dated at Tucson, Arizona, June 5, 1864. Colonel Davis was ordered to select a site for a post to- be established on the Gila river, northward from Fort Bowie, Arizona, and had an escort of about one hundred men, more or less, according to my recollection from previous reports. With a part of this escort he made a night march, and at daybreak attacked a rancheria of Apaches and killed forty-nine of them. This is decidedly the most brilliant success over that tribe of brutal murderers which has ever been won. Too much praise cannot be awarded to Colonel Davis and the handful of officers and men who so gallantly followed him, for this achievement. I urgently request that Colonel Davis may receive the compliment of a brevet for such gallant and meritorious conduct. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, AMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Sanra Fe, N. M., June 25, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose a copy of a letter, dated the 9th instant, from Captain Henry B. Bristol, United States army, commanding at Fort Surnner, N. M. You will see that it gives very gratifying intelligence from the Navajoes and Apaches on the reservation at that post. The overflow of the river alluided to is over the lower bottom; the crops are quite all planted on a second bottom some four or five feet higher, and were not injured, I suppose. I think the estimate of three thousand acres already planted is too large, but do not doubt but that the number of acres which will be planted this year will come nearly up to three thousand-may exceed it. The Indians, as a general thing, are very docile and quite industrious. I am general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Briga dier Genera l LoRENzo THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa iX, N. M., June 26, 1864. DEAR SIR: Your letter of the 16th instant was handed to me by Captain Benjamin C. Cutler, assistant adjutant general, last evening. I regret to hear that the Indians in Colorado are'becoming hostile. Your excellency, perhaps, may not have heard that we are now in the midst of active operations against the numerous hordes of Apaches in Arizona, and that nearly all the available force in this department is now occupied in that campaign or in conducting captive Navwjo Indians from their native country to the Bosque Redondo, on the Pecos river, a distance of more than three hundred miles, or in guarding near seven thousand of these captives at Fort Sumner and Fort Canby. A short time since a band of guerillas robbed some trains upon the Cimarron route, and I have troops in pursuit of them from Fort Union and from Fort Bascom. I mention these matters to show how the small number of men now under my command are employed. But when we were menaced and in trouble you came to help us, and you may be sure that should you need our assistance 185 *Official: Official:

Page  A186 APPENDIX. we will responj to your call, as far as possible, to the last man that can be spared. I will try to get some more troops to Fort Union at the earliest practicable day, and will help you all we can. Be of good cheer, for if Colorado and New Mexico join in hostilities against the Utes, I believe by the end of next winter we could bring them to such a state as lo make any other campaign unnecessary. It would be well to avoid a collision until the snow falls, if possible. The winter time is the most favorable for operations against Indians, as then no time is lost in trailing, and they soon become exhausted of supplies; and, beinr)g embarrassed by their families, cannot so well elude pursuit. Of course, a war with that or any other tribe is to be avoided altogether, if possible. When it is commenced, it should be commenced because they have been the aggressors and are clearly in the wrong. In this case the punishment should be very severe. I mention these matters to y3our excellency, so that all efforts for peace may be resorted to before war is resorted to; then, if we must have war in spite of our efforts, Colorado and New Mexico united may make it a war which they will remember. I am, very respectfully, your excellency's obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. His Excellency JOHN EvANs, Governor.of Colorado, Denver, Col. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, SantaRF6,N. M., June 30, 1864. COLONEL: By a communication from the War Department to these headquarters, dated January 9, 1864, it is forbidden for any of the military to adopt Indian children. This, in connexion with another communication from the same source on the giving up of Indians held by citizens, which communication is referred to in a recent proclamation by the governor of New Mexico to the people, induces me to believe that under no circumstances will the government tolerate the "binding out" of Indians to either officers or citizens; therefore I decide that all Apache captives be sent, properly guarded, to the Rio Grande, at Las Cruces, and thence to the reservation at the Bosque Redondo. Please to thank Captain French and his men, in my name, for their handsome campaign, made with good results, under discouraging circumstances. It is to be hoped that the citizens of Tucson, who have so much interest in a successful termination of the Apache campaign, will go out and strike one good blow to help the cause. The troops operating from the north have had some beautiful little battles, and killed and captured quite a number of Apaches. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Lieutenant Colonel THEODORE A. COULT, Commanding at Tucson, drizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet.'Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTEENTT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, v. M., July 8, 1864.' MAJOR: I desire that you send to the Bosqule with the next party of Navajoes all of the Apache prisoners who were brought in by Captain Pfeiffer's command. If there be danger of their escaping en route. the men of those prisoners should be ironed. By having some of the Arizona Apaches at the Bosque, I can, at the proper time, send 186 Qfficial: 0 I Official:

Page  A187 APPENDIX. some of them out into their own country with such intelligence as may induce others to come in. It is important that every Navajo Indian should be sent to the Bosque at the earliest practicable day. I wish to break up Fort Canby as soon as possible. Please send me an express the day the next party starts, with an account of its streugh, the number and description of its stock, &c. I am, major, respectfully, JAMES H. C ARLETON, Brigadier General, C6ommandirng. Major P. W. L. PLYMPTON, Comnmanding at Fort Canby, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, CaFtain lst Vet. lnf. G. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F'E, N. M., July 8, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor to enclose herewith 1st. A return of captive Indians now at the Bosque Redondo. This return is dated the 30th ultimo, and shows a total of 6,321. Information, not in an official form, has just been received here that there are now at Fort Canby 1,000 more Navajoes, awaiting transportation for the children, to go to the Bosque. Teams are now on the way to that post to move this party. I have reason to believe that we shall soon have them all; for the Navajoes who come in say that the Ute Indians are endeavoring to cut off all Navajoes who are still at large. This will hasten them in. 2d. A copy of a letter from Captain H. B. Bristol, United States army, conveying a letter to himself, written by Captain William P. Calloway, 1st infantry California volunteers, who has had charge of the planting at Fort Sumner. These letters show how much has been done towards raising a crop this year. If we could have had tools and farming utensils enough we could have raised twice as much this year. A field of 3,000 acres will help a good deal, however. I am very hopeful that next year there will be enough raised to support all the Indians at the Bosque Redondo. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutantt General U. S. A., Washington, D.C. ERASTUIS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. linf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., July 17, 1864. CAPTAIN: I desire that you make, once a week at least, a report of the progress made in building by the employes and troops, and of the progress made in planting and attending to crops, and the appearance of the crops belonging to the Indians. Some three or four hundred of hoes have recently been sent to you. Do you absolutely need more, and if so, how many? The Reverend Mr. Hayes has come back and gives us the pleasing intelligence that he has engaged a priest and three lay brothers and some sisters to instruct the Indian children; and the Secretary of the Interior has written to the bishop of New Mexico that we shall have some assistance toward establishing of the schools at Fort Sumner. Tell the Indians this. Now, as the season is far advanced, and it is important to have schoolrooms erected at the earliest practicable day, I wish you would consult with Colonel Carson, and get the Indians to make a sufficient quantity of adobes to put up, say, eight good Tooms for school purposes and for the teachers to live in. I want a site chosen for this school establishment near the post, and a plan carefully drawn for the different buildings. The rooms should, when all completed, occupy the four sides of a square. No one school-room should hold over one hundred scholars. Now all the rooms should face inward on the square or placita. Here the children could play. Suppose the square to be arranged so as to be to the same points of the compass as Fort Sumner. Now the first rooms to be built, this year, should be those on the northern side, 187 Official: Official:

Page  A188 APPENDIX. and if possible some on the east and west sides. Next year we could complete the square. It follows, then, that the whole plan should be carefully made, and be framned, and be kept at Fort Sumner, to be built to from time to time, until completed. It must be remembered that for at least 800 children, with rooms for teachers, &c., the establishment when done will be quite extensive. I wish you to study out this matter carefully, and give expression to the idea by a well-considered plan with specifications. We will at once build as many of the rooms as we can. All we ask of the In(iians is to make the adobes. If they help lay them they shall be paid for that part of the labor. The site should be so chosen that a fine, large piece of ground can be set apart as a garden, where the boys can be taught practically the art of raising fruit and vegetables. We have no time to lose. I an., captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain HENRY B. BRISTOL, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO. Santa E, NV. M., July 21, 1864. COLONEL: From information which I have received, I believe that many Apaches have left the mountains north of the Gila and are now in considerable numbers along the Sonora line, about and west of Lake Guzman. I am anxious that an officer of experience should command a small force and proceed against these Apaches. His operations in this respect will be independent of, but auxiliaryto, the general movement now making against these Indians, which movement is under the command of Colonel Rigg, 1st infantry California volunteers. You are selected to command this force, and will proceed to Las Cruces, and, by my authority, require of Colonel Bowie, commanding the district of Arizona, the necessary number of trqops, not to exceed seventy, rank and file of infantry, and not to exceed fifteen cavalry, with a proportionate number of officers. The necessary funds, subsistence stores, transportation, guides, and packers, will be furnished by the chief quartermaster and chief commissary of the district of Arizona on and according to your requisitions. The ordnance officer at Las Cruces will also furnish what ordnance and ordnance stores you may want. The time to be occupied on this expedition is left to your judgment; but it is presumed that you can accomplish all practicable purposes with regard to the Indikns in, say, not to exceed sixty days from the time of departure from Las Cruces. I have heard that some rich placers of gold have recently been discovered on the Sonora line. somewhere northwestwardly from Corralitas; that these placers occupy the country on both sides of the line. I have also heard that in that neighborhood, or still further westward, there are some very rich mines of silver. You will get all the information you can in relation to the truth of these rumors, as to the existence and character of these mines, as the next important consideration, after the subjugation of the Indians, is the knowledge of the mineral wealth of the country. This is now of vast importance to the general government. Having completed all this, and returned the lWoops to their proper stations, you will come to department headquarters and report the result in writing for the information of the War Department. If possible procure specimens of good size from any placers or mines which you may visit or discover, that they may be sent to Washington with your report. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. L ieutenant C olo nel NELSON H. DAVIS, Assistant In,pector General U. S. A., and chief commissary. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. 188 Official: Official:

Page  A189 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa iF, N. M., July 23, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose 1st A copy of a letter dated July 12, 1864, at Fort Canby, by Major P. W. L. Plympton, United States seventh infantry, temporarily in command of that post. This letter shows that, say. one thousand and forty-four Navajo Indians are now en route fromnt the Navajo country to the reservation at the Bosque Redondo. This nearly completes the whole tribe. As operations are concluded in the Navajo country, instructions have been given for the abandonment of Fort Canby as soon as the materiel can be gotten'away. 2d. A copy of a letter dated at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on the 14th instant, from Colonel Carson. This interesting letter shows the favorable condition of affairs at the reservation to which the Navajo tribe of Indians have been sent. It shows that there are now on the reservation six thousand three hundred and nine Indians. When those reach there. who are now en route, there will be seven thousand three hundred and fifty-three. It is possible when all the stragglers come in the number will be swelled to eight thousand. 3d. A copy of a letter dated at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, on the 15th instant. This letter, written by Captain Henry B. Bristol, United States fifth infantry, in command of that post, gives a very satisfactory account of the condition of affairs at that important station. rvant, JMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Cummanading. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASlUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Iif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MaEXICO, Santa FE, AN. l., August 13, 1864. CAPTAIN; I have not received your return of captive Indians made in tabular form, and showing loss and gain, for the month of July, 1864. Please send it at once, that a copy may be forwarded to the War Department. Hereafter enter upon the remarks on ) our p)st return the number of captive Indians of each tribe which you have on the last day of each month. I desire that a regular morning report be kept of these Indians, so that a history of the changes among them can always' be at Fort Sumner. In the column of remarks of such report, enter arrivals, births, deaths, &c., &c., and events, such as when fields were ploughed, hoed, crops gathered, and amounts, acequias dug, &c., &c. Such a report will be exceedingly useful for future reference. Of course the report will only be approximately correct, except on days when you make a regular count of the Indians. - Major Wallen, I believe, commenced a book of this kind If it is found impracticable to make a morning report, have it made weekly and on the last day of each nmonth, when, of course, it will correspond with the total of the monthly return sent to department headquarters. I am, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLE'ON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Capta in HaFRY B. BRISTOL, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW M.EXICO, Santa FE, X. 2l., A,igust 14, 1864. SIR: Enclosed herewith is the ground-plan of a building for school-roomls and for quarters for some sisters and some lay brothers, who are coming to this Territory to assist in teaching the Navajo and Apache children how to read, write, &c. It is proposed to make this building near Fort Sumner, on the Navajo and Apache reservati,n. There we already have seven thousand five hundred of these Indians, and at least one thousand if not twelve hundred children-among them. I have already expended, from quartermaster's funds, 189 Official: OffiQial:

Page  A190 APPENDIX. some eighteen thousand dollars for a hospital and for store-rooms for grain for these Indians. Those buildings are now nearly, if not quite, completed. If you could give twelve thousand dollars toward making this building, out of the one hundred thousand dollars just appropriated, we could soon have shelter for the teachers and rooms for the children and make a commencement in the great work in educating the youth of this interesting people. The twelve thousand dollars would be not even half what contractors would charge to put up the building and finish it complete, but that sum would pay for the vigas and the lumber, and for doors and windows. We hope to be able to get the Indians themselves to make the adobes, and to help lay up the walls. All of the expense of moving, clothing, feeding, and attending the sick of these Indians has thus far been thrown upon the War Department. I suppose the superintendent of Indian affairs has no authority to do anything for them. If the twelve thousand dollars could at once be put at the disposal of Major John C. McFerran, the chief quartermaster of this department, 1 believe we could have all the arrangements completed for the school to go into operation before the first of next January. I have been encouraged to address this note to you from having seen a letter which you wrote to Bishop Lanny on this subject. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Hon. J. P. USHER, Se&c e arb of the Interior, Washington, -D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO. Santa Fe, N. M., August 15, 1864. CAPTAIN: I have heard that many Navajoes have had leave of absence. This is very hazardous just now when there are so many Indian troubles on the plains and in this country. If the report be true you s,ill discontinue the practice until further authority from these headquarters. a a 0 a JAMIES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Captain HENRY B BRISTOL, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. AI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. 0. V, A. A. A. General. IEADQuARTERs DEPARTMENT (k NEW MEXICO, Santa F~, N. M., August 15, 1864. COLONEL: Please give no more passes to Indians living on the reservation until further orders. There are now many Indian troubles, and the people will be alarmed even at seeing friendly Indians from the reservation. The Comanches have, within a few days, killed five Americans at lower Cimarron springs, and run off cattle from a train of five wagons belonging to Mr. Allison, of this city. You will therefore have no word sent to them to come to make a treaty with Navajoes. Will two hundred Apaches and Navajoes go with troops to fight Comanches in case of serious trouble,s with the latter Indians? Respectfully, your obedient servant, BJAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CnRISTOPHER CARSON, Port Sumner Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD. Captain 1st Yet. Irf..C. V., A. A. A. General. 190 Official: Official:

Page  A191 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MexiCO, Santa -e, N. M:, August l6, 1864. CAPTAIN: You are authorized to employ Navajoes to make adobes for their new schoolrooms by giving them a ration, as you suggested. They should commence at once. The site should be selected, and have the adobes made and carefully piled away near the site. A copy of your plan has been sent to the Secretary of the Interior, and he may give some help. If enough to buy the lumber and the doors and windows, we will do the re.A. Let me count on your immediate and careful and continuous attention to this matter of the adobes. If these can be made at once, the building will be completed this fall, if Mr. Usher gives us help. Encourage the Indians to help. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, .BEiyadier General, Commanding. Captain HENRY B. BRISTOL, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. hIf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fi, N. Mi., August 22, 1864. SIR: Enclosed herewith please find copy of letter to Captain E. H. Bergmann, first New Mexico cavalry, commanding Fort Bascomn. Should the commanding officer of that post require help from you-a contingency contemplated in that letter-send to him as much as you can spare The general suggests whether, in this event, it would not be well to send one hundred or more picked Apaches and Navajoes to help whip the Comanches, their hereditary enemies. The chief quartermaster will direct that a set of blacksmith tools complete, and some iron, be sent to Fort Sumnier for the use of the Navajoes. Tell them to go to work at once and make adobes to build the shop. You select the site near the post, and have the shop made long enough to have a forge in each end. It should not be too wide, on account of the difficulty of getting vigas of the proper length. You will furnish the vigas, in case the Navajoes cannot get them, by going to some place up the river. You will also furnish the window-casing and doors. Have a board of officers go through the fields and make a careful examination to ascertain the probable per cent of corn which is injured. It is hoped that not so much of it has been destroyed as you feared. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. C03IMANDING OFFICER, Fort Sumner, N. if. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inaf. C. V., A A. A. General. [Extract.] DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFIC'E, Santa E', N. M., August 22, 1864. CAPTAIN: The general commanding the -department directs that you take fifty rank and file and one officer, have them well mounted, and march without delay to Fort Union. Leave careful instructions with Captain Deis about continuing the building of your post. You will leave behind the mechanics and men who will be most essential to that purpose. You will caution Captain Deiis about having a look-out party down the river to let him know whether any demonstration is about to be made against him by any large parties of Comanches, and if so, to send word to Fort Sumner in caLse'those demonstrations are of an unmistakably hostile character, so as to get help from that post. The,'Comanches, Kiowas, and Cheyennes are attacking trains between the Cimarron and the frontier of Missouri, and some men have been killed by them upon the Cimarron. You will have thirty infantry added to your force at Fort JIUnion, and remain at or near the upper Cimarron spring, Cold 191 Official: Official.

Page  A192 APPENDIX. spring, or Cedar bluffs, according to how you find the best grazing., Each of the three points is a favorite place where Indians lie in wait to attack passing trains, and the purpose for which you are sent is to see that these trains are properly guarded until those points are safely passed. With the thirty infantry you can have your camp secure while you are making scouts, and are escorting with your cavalry. Major Joseph Updegraff, United States army, with fifty infantry and fifty cavalry, will be at or near the lower Cimarron spring. Should he need assistance from your party, he will send to you for it. If you need assistance from his, send to him. sr *- A, or o h a. a at The general commanding thinks you had better take your guide, Mr. DeLisle, with you, as he knows all of the country around the upper Cimarron, and is familiar with all the Indians who frequent that part of the country. I have the honor to be, captain, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Captain EDWARD H. BERGMANN, First New Mexico Cavalry, commanding at Fort Bascom, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. 15hf. C. V., A. A.' A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPABTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., August 24, 1864. COLONEL: I have the honor to inform you that the commanding officer at Fort Canby, New Mexico, writes to me that the Moqui and Oribi Indiahs have lost their crops from high winds and excessive drought, and are, from the statements of the Indians themselves, as well as from their famished appearance, already at the point of starvation. Please to inform me by return of mail, or express, whether you will take measures at once to have them provided with food. If you will not do this, please state your determination to this end. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, BBrigadier General, Comnmanding. Colonel CIHARLES ). POSTON, Sup't of indian Affairs, Territory of Arizona, Tucson, or Prescott, Arizona. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vt. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NlEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. JL., August 27, 1864. SIR: I have been furnished with copies of two letters written to the Hon. William P. Dole, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, by Matthew Steck, superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico. The letters are dated May 28 and June 25, 1864, and are in relation to the removal of the Navajo Indians from their country to the reservation set apart by law for these Indians and for the Apaches. I have no disposition to have any controversy with Mr. Steck, nor do I wish to claim for the Indians anything that is not their just due, but truth and can(lor' compel me to say that those letters are calculated greatly to mislead you with reference to this whole question. Please find herewith enclosed a return of the number of Indians now at the reservation and en routte thither. These comprise the principal chiefs and the most of the tribe, including nearly all the rich Indians. This fact is patent to every person in this country. The Indians on the reservation are the happiest people I have ever seen. They are industrious and look forward with ardent hopes to the time when they can raise enough to support themselves. In room of committing depredations, they have gone out and attacked Indians who were attempting to run off the herds of the people. This fact is of public notoriety. No board was ordered by the War Department. I, myself, ordered one. The board included provisions bought for troops and issued to Indians. No sixty men were ever employed by the quartermaster's department for Indians. Some public oxen were used for 192 Official: Official:

Page  A193 APPELNDIX. ploughing fields. The contracts for supplies for Indians included the cost of tansportation to Fort Sumner, where the supplies were to be delivered. The supplies were not for four months but for nearly a year. The whole cost of supplies, as ascertained by the board, was $414,852 66, total cost, and this for nearly or quite a years' supply, and not $700,000 for four months' supply and for labor, &c., as stated. Beef has risen greatly in price. from the advance in the price of gold, and it is fortunate these purchases were made when they were. It was a saving to the government of more than $200,000: I have never heard of sheep being sold at four dollars per head, even at the highest, and one at a time. It is true that I had two storehouses made for the provisions, which cost $9,000, and a hospital for the Indians which cost $9,000. The people are not opposed to the Indians being located at the Bosque Redondo; we all know that such an idea has been started and written upon for effect. I enclose for your perusal a New Mexican newspaper, with one of these sutpposed-to-be manufactured articles in it. No persons were killed by Indians from the reservation; no stock was run off by them. The stock was run off by the wild uncaught Apaches, it is thought, from Arizona, and was taken away from them by the troops. See the enclosed gazette. I am sorry to trouble you about such matters, but let me assure you, as a gentleman, you are imposed upon by these letters, and the conduct of the military authorities here is not fairly represented. Time will prove all this to you. The proceedings of the board alluded to are in the War Department. I enclose a letter from Colonel Carson ini relation to the late raid upon the stock of the people by the Apaches. We have had the Indians to contend with, and after much toil and suffering have brought this formidable tribe to terms. We hardly supposed that an officer of the government could sit down, and by such an array of misstatements endeavor to prejudice so high a public functionary as yourself against the only measure that can ever secure peace and prosperity to this impoverished country. I appeal to the proceedings of the board in question, to the archives of the quartermaster and subsistence departments, to the adjutant general of the army, to all the principal gentlemen in this country, commencing with the governor, the delegate, the chief justice, &c, &c, and to Colonel Carson, who commanded the expedition against the NavajoEs, for the exactness of the statements here made. I don't believe that, all told, there are one thousand Navaoes left in their courntry, and these, from the best information as yet ascertained, have fled away beyond the Little Colorado. You will perhaps, some time or other, learn the motives which have induced these statements by Dr. Steck. It is a pity, when so much has been accomplished for the country, that any one should come forward with a studied effort to undo it all. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier Generct, Comnmanding. HoL.. J. P. USIIER,. Secretary of the Interior, Wtihington, D. C. NOTE.-Contrast the comparative expense between feeding and fighting these Indians, as set forth in Superintendent Steck's letter to the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, dated September 19, 1863. (See Report of Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1863, p. 107; and also see the able Report of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs for 1863, pp. 13, 14 and 15.) ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain l,t Vt. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. IEADQUAaRTEPS DEPARTMENT OF NEW N MEXICO, Sazta Fe, N. M., Awust 27, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor to inform you that I have ordered a force of fifty cavalry and fifty infantry, under the command of Major Joseph Updegraff, to the lower Cimarron springs, to assist in giving protection to trains ean route from and to the States; anId fifty cavalry and thirty infantry to the upper Cimarron spring for a like purpose. I informed you on the 8th instant that fifty cavalry and fifty infantry hadl been sent, via the Cimarron route, to the upper crossing of the Arkansas to help the trains. These three parties, all 13 193, Offici-,tl:

Page  A194 APPENDIX. that can be safely spared at this moment, will, it is to be hopod, effect good results. They are rationed for fifty days. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, ~* JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri'"zdier Genepra, Gatzmrenelinn Brigadier General LoRENzo THOMIAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., WVashing on, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Irif. C. V., A. A. A. General. IHIEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mf., August 27, 1864. MAJOR: Under the peculiar circumstances in which you are placed with reference to Indian hostilities and a want of arms, the authority given to you by Colonel John C. McFerran, United States army, chief of staff at these headquarters, to take from Mr. Bryant's train fifteen boxes of Sharp's carbines and ten boxes of revolvers, with a reasonable amount of ammunition for the same, is hereby approved. Please call a board to count the articles and send triplicate receipts for them in favor of William R. Shoemaker, in charge of ordnance depot at Fort Union, New-Mexico. Enclosed herewith please find copies of orders sending two companies of infantry to give you help. I have to inform you that I have ordered fifty cavalry and fifty infantry, with two mountain howitzers, to the crossing of the Arkansas, fifty cavalry and fifty infantry to the lower Cimarron spring, and fifty cavalry and thirty infantry to the upper Cimarron spring. The first of these detachments has already arrived at its destination; the latter two will leave Fort Union within a week. It is important that your scouts should know this. These detachments have been rationed for fifty days. We will help all we can. We have the Apache war in Arizona on our hands, and nearly eight thousand Navajo prisoners to guard, but we do not forget that your gallant troops from Colorado came to our relief when we were sorely pressed. But for the fact that over half of the available force in this department is about to be mustered out of service, we would do even more. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES II. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. M ajor EDWARD W. WCNKOOP, Commanding at Pobrt Lyon, District of Colorado. ERPASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MExICO, Santa F, N. M., August 27, 1864. GENERAL: I have the honor again to call your attention to the condition of this department with reference to its rapidly diminishing force from the mustering out of service now, and between this time and next November, of the most of the 1st cavalry, New Mexico volunteers, of five companies of the 1st cavalry, and the 1st and 5th regiments of infantry, California volunteers. As you will see, this leaves the department in a helpless condition. The Indians upon the plains are attacking our trains and killing our people. We are in active hostilities with the Apaches of Arizona, and have seven thousand six hundred and forty-one Indian prisoners upon the reservation, which, for the present, we are obliged to guard. I heard a rumor that it was the intention of the War Department to' send Colonel Ford's regiment of Colorado volunteers for service in this department. If that regiment, now in Missouri, could be sent at once across the plains to New Mexico, the moral effect upon the hostile Indians en route would doubtless be so great that they 194 Official: Official:

Page  A195 APPENDIX. would leave the road and thus let our trains come through in safety. The importance of these trains coming through without molestation, laden as they are with our subsistence stores, hospital stores, and supplies of ordnance and ordnance stores, cannot be too highly estimated. I beg this matter may have the inmmediate and serious attention of the War Department. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General Commnanding. Biigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjuta,t Genieral U. S. A., TVashington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain I,'t Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A A. General DEI'ARTMENT OF NEW MExICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENER.AL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, N. il., August 27, f864. 2IAJOR: The commanding general directs me to say that you will exercise the greatest care, while out upon the Cimarrou, that the Indians do not run off your stock. At night the animals must be tied to a picket line in camp, and grass cut and hauled into camp during the day and fed to them by night. This will keep things snug. Such articles as you may require to carry this order into execution you will obtain from the depot quartermaster at Fort Union, New Mexico. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS H. DE FOPREST, Aide-de-Camp. I'djor JOSEPH UPDEGRAFF, U.S. A., Fort.i]trcy,.7.1 ERASTUS WV. WOOD, Captain t et lnf. C. F., A A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW NIMEXIcO, Santa Fe, N. HI., August 29, 1864. GENERAL: Colonel McFerran, chief of staff at these.headquarters, has just come across the plains, and has submitted the enclosed communication, descriptive of the condition of affairs on the road, with reference to Itndian troubles. I have ordered one company of infantry to Fort Lyon and another to Gray's ranch on the Purgatory river; have ordered fifty cavalry and fifty infantry to the Crossing of the Arkansas, by the Cimarron route, fifty cavalry and fifty infantry to the lower Cimarron spring, and fifty.cavalry and thirty infantry to the upper Cimarron spring, to give all the help they can. You are aware that there are not enough troops here to guard properly the road. If you will give me two thousand efficient men from the States, Ford's 2d Colorado regiment as part of them, and give me authority to employ our Utes, Apaches,and Navajoes, I' feel quite sure that the Kiowas and Comanches, to say the least, can be.so roughly handled as to make them refrain from these depredations for some years to come. The season is rapidly advancing, and unless the troops arrive here by the end of October their stock will be unfit for service this fall and winter. They should be ordered to guard trains en route. Once we can get all our supplies in, and get the merchants' trains off the road, we can commence upon the Indians in earnest. Our first care should be the defensive-the preservation of the trains. When they are secure, the offensive may be begun in earnest. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant JAMIES I. CARLETON Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LoRE.,Nzo TioMAs, Adjutant General U. S, A., TVashirgton, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st let. Inf. C. V., A. A4. A. General. 195 I') tli c, a-I: , I Official: Official:

Page  A196 APPENDIX. HEADQUAIlTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MExICO, Santa Te, N. A., August 29, 1864. GEN'ERAL: Enclosed herewith please find a return of Indian captives at Fort Sumner on the 31st ultimo, and a letter from the commander at Los Pinos of one thousand two hundred and nine Navajoes and twelve Apaches who left that post for the reservation on that day. Besides these, I have information of one hundred and fifty more Navajoes who have just reached Los' Pinos. The last parties who have come in are of the rich men of the tribe. In my opinion one thousand more will cover every Navajo remaining back in their country, and these will come straggling in as soon as cold weather comes on. This war then may be considered as done. I have given orders for the breaking up of Fort Canby. We are bringing off the material as fast as we can. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAM,ES H. CARLEiTON, Brigadier General, C6iatrinding. Brigadier General LoaEN-zo-THOMAS, Adjuta,.t General U. S. A., TVas,in,qton, D C. ERASTUS W. WOOD Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A A. A. General. DEPARr-3ENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT G-NNERAL'S OrrICs, Saita Fe', At. Alt, September 2, 1861. .SIR: Major Edward B Wilis, 1st infantry Cd,if,)Yrnia volunteers, left at your post eight Apache Indians and one Mlexican br,y w',l) wats a captive in their hands. The'general commanding desires to see and talk with t'iese In lihns; he th,,-refore directs that you send this party, securely ironed (e:tch Tildianr with b It ll,tii(i chai,tl) and( properly guarded, to department headquarters Thegene,"l sutgets th it (ne non cornmissioned officer andl six trusty men woutld be a sufficient g,art t,o,)lreveit escape, lsi ttt the Mexican boy be kept separate;l as far as practica)le froli the Iti(lians, for fear that he may receive some injury at their hands. I am, sir, yery respectfully, your obl)elient scervant, BE~. C. CUTLEtR, Asisetait A4djgatent General. COMMANDING OFFICER, Los PiIcs, 1Y. Al. OERAlTUS W. WOOD, Ciptait Ist Vet. Ilif. O. V., A. 4. A. General. H1EAiQUARTERS DEPARTMEN'T OF NEIW MEXICO, ia,tia ~,, NV. A., Septenmber 12, 1864. CAPrAIN: On account Of the difficlIty for procuring cattle to lie killed for meat, to issue to the Indianis on the reservation at the B) qie ictudondo, you will issue mreat to those Indians at the rate of half a pound api;ce per di,y to each Iii ainII entitled to draw rations as heretofore, and in lieu of the half pound thus cut d(i,ewii, youl will issue half a pound of corn or b,eadstuffs, so that each IndiaIn will receive a pound and a half of breadstuffs and half a pound of meat per day. Explain this matter to the Indians, and commnience the new rate of issue at once. You will assemble a board of officers to ascertain how much corn and grain was raised by Mr. Labadie by hands paid by the United States and by Indians upon the reservation, and have the product of such labor turned in to the public stores for issue to the Apaches. An exac(t account will be taken of such product, whether of grain, corn, beans, straw, fodder, &c., so that the records and statistics. may be exact for reference in fi:ture. Yot? will also make arrangements at once not to issue any food to those Navaj)es who have maide crops until aIll that they.hliave ra sed has been consumed. You are the guardian of ti;e interests,:f the United States, and as such should long since have seen, when the In liens had a plenty for their su)pport in their fields, that they were not fed by the goverinment. It is u~iderstoo'l that MIf. L-tbalie has a large flock of sheep on the reservation, and that he bouight some sheep of the Meditns. Mr. Labadie's sheep will not be permitted to stay within the lirnits of the reservation. He should not have been permitted to purchase an ounce of food of the Indians, nor under any circumstances a single sheep Report the facts in the case. 196 Official: Official:

Page  A197 APPENDIX. From the receipt of this letter neither himself nor his cmplovy6s will be permitted to buy subsistence stores or to draw such stores, or to buy them from the troops or from the Indians. I desire to be informed if there is any practical necessity for Mr. Labadie to live on the reservation while it is in charge of the military. You will see that no one buys a single article from the'Indians except the quartermaster, who is authorized to buy their fodder at a fair price. You will at once have all the ploughs put in order, and continue breaking up new land. You will at once have the acequa,a properly enlarged. Pray, do not correspond about this matter, but have it done. I am, captain, respectfully, 5ETON, entral, Commanding. Captain HENRY B. BRISTOL, Commanding at Fort Sum.?er, N. M. NOTE. —I shall try to come to Fort Sumner at)boutt the 30th instant. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [IEADQUARTE'S DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. A., September 16, 1864. DEAR SiR: As you are doubtless aware, I have now nearly eight thousand Indians upon the reservation at the Bosque Redondo, who are almost entirely destitute of clothing and blankets, and now the cold weather is rapidly approaching. It is of vital importance that the articles which were to be purchased for these Indians with the hundred thousand dollars appropriated by Congress in its last session for this purpose, arrive at the Bosque Redondo and be distributed at the earliest practicable moment. I write directly to yourself on the subject, that no time may be lost. I do this because I had heard it was possible these Indian goods might not come out this fall. Let me impress upon your mind that unless they come, hundreds of naked women and children will be likely to perish. A special train of wagons, escorted by a company of troops, can come through at all seasons. I am, sir, veiy respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Coimano'ing. Hon. WILLIAM P. DOLE, Commissioner of -rdiaa Afufirs, TWashington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Caetin 1st Vet. Inf. C V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. ]I., September 18, 1864. COLONEL: I have received, throughl Brigadier General Crocker, United States volunteers, a message from Mr. Lucien B. Maxwell that some two hundred or more ite Indians, now near Mr. Miaxwell's place on the Little Cimarron, are willing and anxious to go out on the plains and attack the Kiowas and other Indians now depredating upon our trains and kill ing our people who are en route to and from the States and New Mexico, provided that they, the Utes, can be furnished with some rations, ammunition, perhaps a blanket apiece, and provided they may have whatever stock or other property they may be able to capture from the hostile Indians alluded to. I desire that you proceed without delay to Mr. Max well's, and if a strong party of these Utes, say two hundred, arc willing to go on the ser vice alluded to, under your direction and command, I wish them to do so on the terms above indicated, except that if they capture from the Indians of the plains any stock be longing to the United States or to the citizens, such stock shall be restored to the rightful owners on the owners paying to the said Utes a fair sum for the recovery of the animals, which sum per head must be agreed upon between yourself and the said Utes before they start upon the expedition. All stock belonging to the hostile Indians themselves, and which has not been captured from the United States troops or trains, or fromn citizens, the Utes shall receive as their own in case they can take it from the said hostile Indians. It is important to have these Utes start at once in case they go at all, antd I desire that you 197 Official: Official:

Page  A198 APPENDIX. should lead them. There ate fifty cavalry and thirty infantry at or near Cold spring, under Captain Bergimann, and fifty cavalry and fifty infantry at the lower Cimarron spring, under Major Updegraff, and a like force at the crossing of the Arkansas, under Captain Davis; there is also a company of infantry on the road near Gray's ranch. Any one of these parties will co-operate with you on showing this authority to its commander. In case the Utes will go, you will proceed to Fort Union and report to me the number and the length of time for which they should draw subsistence, &c. It is important that there be no unnecessary delay in this matter. It is believed that a demonstration of this kind, made at this time, will be productive of good results. The main object is to have the Utes commit themselves in hostility to the Indians of the plains, that there may be less chance for them to join in any league which the latter Indians may attempt to make for a general war by all the Indians between the mountains and the Missouri upon the whites. Your knowledge of the haunts of the Indians of the plains, and the great confidence the Ute Indians have in you as a friend and as a leader, point to yourself as the most fitting person to organize, direct, and bring this enterprise to a successful issue. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRIST3OPHER CARsON, 1st Cavalry New MIexico Volunteers, Taos, N. HI. ERAST'US W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. G. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMIIENT OF NIwE MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL's OFFICE, Santa Fe, N. M1., September 27, 1864. SIR: The commanding,general directs that you say to the Kiowas and Comanches who came to your post under a flag of truce, that their people have attacked our trains, killed our people, and run off our stock; that we believe their hearts are bad, and that they talk with a forked tongue; that we put no confidence in what they say; that they must go away, as we regard them not as friends; that they need not come in with any more white flags until they are willing to give up all the stock they have stolen this year from our people, and also the men among them who have killed our people without provocation or cause; that we will not permit them to visit the Navajoes on the reservation, nor permit any treaty to be made with the Navajoes until the injuries done us have been atoned for to our satisfaction. This is what at once must be told them, and these emissaries must go away. The general is fearful that these Indians came in only to spy out the strength of your command, &c., and have a strong force near to swoop off the stock, as was done at Fort Larned. I enclose a copy of a letter to Colonel Chaves, ordering him to proceed to and take command of Fort Bascom, Ne* Mexico. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, CYRUS IH. DE FORREST, Captain 2d Colorado Cavalry, A. A. A. General. COmmANDING OrrFiczn, Fort Bascem, A? 1. ERASMUS W. WOOD, Coptin 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERS DEPARTSIENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, _. M1., October 9, 1864. GENERAL: I have had the honor to receive your very interesting letter of the 28th ulti me in relation to the condition of the Indians upon the reservation at the Bosque Redondo,and have this day forwarded certified copies of it to the Department of War and of the Interior. Taking into consideration the requirements of par. 1, Special Orders No. 37, current series from these headquarters, and also the fact that Fort Sumner and its dependencies do not constitute a district, and taking into consideration the injunctions of the 62d article of war, I cannot see how you can avoid assuming command of the troops; for it is yourself who must "give orders for what is needful to the service." Captain. 198 0 fficial: Official:

Page  A199 APPENDIX. Bristol is an excellent officer, and has my fullest confidence, and you can place him in charge of any particular part or parts of the service at Fort Sumner; but, as you see, general, the orders and the law make you the responsible man, and as such I am obliged to recognize yourself as the commander of Fort Sumner. Please forward a report similar to the one already forwarded, at the last of each month, showing the condition of affairs at the Bosque Redondo; the progress made in breaking up new ground; in opening acquias, and their length and capacity, and in setting out trees. Last winter nearly 1,400 trees were set out. Some of these died or were destroyed by horses, &c., this summer. Others must be planted in their place. This winter it is my desire to have 5,000 additional trees planted. The avenue should be extended as far as practicable, both up and down the river, and trees should be planted on each side of all the large acequzias. Wher they get large they will shade the water, and their roots will strengthen the banks. But, mainly, it is required to have at least this number of trees planted every year to supply fuel to the thousands of Indians when the mesquit roots have all been consumed. Please have a return rendered of all the serviceable ploughs, hoes, picks, spades, and shovels, which you have on hand, for the use of the Indians, at the end of every month. I desire soon to come down and make a personal inspection of all matters pertaining to the reservation. Pray have every plough running, and every spade, shovel, and pick employed in enlarging acequias, in opening new ones, and in grubbing out roots where land must be ploughed, and in spading up land for cultivation. I have information that 300 or 400 of the richest Navajoes are now near Fort Wingate, on their way in. Very respectfully, general, I am your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General MARCELLUS N. CROCKER, Commanding at Fort Sumner Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captainz 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa lee, N. M., October 14, 1864. COLONEL: I have received. your letter of the 10th instant in relation to the Utes and Apaches. You will issue to the men of those tribes, who will be sure to go, one and a quarter pound of beef and one pound of breadstuffs per man, each day, and the necessary amount of salt. You will send to Fort Union for the salt and get the meat and breadstuffs from Mr. Maxwell. Captain Bell will write to you on the subject. The amount of issues must not exceed the number of your party. Send me an exact list of the number who will be sure to go. As soon as I get off the Arizona mail and make arrangements for Thompson's company and a train of supplies which are to go to Fort Whipple, I will commence the organization of your party. General Crocker writes that some of the Apaches from the Basque will go.'They are the best fighting Indians we have. It is possible you will not be able to get off quite so soon as we talked, as I may have to wait for Bergmann to come back. But this I shall know in two or three days, and will write-you by mail. The guns, ammunition, and blankets and shirts will be sent to you. At Taos we agreed on two hundred men and one hundred Indians as the strength of the party. You now say three hundred men. These I will try to raise, but the Apaches from Fort Sumner will have to be included.'I will write by mail. Give me positive information of the number of Indians who will go. I believe you will have big lick. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPIIER CARSON At Maxwell's, on the Cimarron, N. AI. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 199 Offic,'Ial:

Page  A200 0 APPENDIX. .HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW Al.xrco, Santa Fe., NI. M, October 20, 1864. COLONEL: I have just eceived your letter of the 18th instant. It is impossible for me to issue rations to the families of the Utes; I have not the means or the right. The Indian department shou!d do this. If the Utes will not agree to remain in the field fortyfive days they had better not go. You will be informed what troops will form your command as soon as I can get an express from Sumner and Bascom replying to communications sent there some four or five days since. I Approve of Lieutenant Haberkom's going with you if Colonel Selden can spare him. You can have Lieutenant Taylor for your commissary and quartermaster; I cannot conjecture why he expected to go.' But he is a capable officer, and if he tries can be distinguished. Your Utes and Apaches should have sugar a;-d coffee from Fort Bascom. I will try to get the Apaches, some fifty, to go with you from Fort Sumner. An order was given to the quartermaster's department for the blankets and shirts to be sent to you. It has doubtless been received at Fort Union. Call on Captain Shoemaker for the rifles; show him this letter as your authority. Send me an exact list of all you receive for the Utes. Talk with Captain Carey how few mules you will want to go from Maxwell's to Bascom. Reduce the number down to the lowest. Your own things which you may need at Bascom had better be sent to Fort Union to'go down on a wagon. In haste, respectfully, your obedient servant, JES H. CARLETON, Briyadier Gtneral, Commanding. Colonel CHIRISTOPEn CArSON, lSt Cavalry New Alexico Volunteers, Fort Union, NG. 1I. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Coptain let Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A A General. HEADQUARTEIS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa fB, Ni. M., October 21, 1864. GENEErAL: Mr. La Rue, sutlffer at Fort Sumner, has, I understand, several thousand pounds of pumpkins which he desires to sell. If these pumpkins were raised by Indians they should not have gone into his possession, as it is forbidden, positively, for any one to buy a single article of food, animate or inanimate, from Indians belonging to the reservation. If not raised by Indians, these pumpkins may be bought at what you consider a fair price per pound, and issued in lieu of other food. Did not the Indians themselves raise many pumpkins and turnips? If so, these articles must be consumed by them, and the breadstuff issues be diminished while these vegetables last. The money for the fodder should be used toward defraying the expenses of subsistence of Indians. Pray take this matter under consideration, and have it so arranged that all the fruit of the labor of the Indians on their farms will be sure to go toward feeding them, except a sufficient sum to buy them tobacco. An exact account of the money received for fodder, &c., and how expended, should be kept, so that a copy mray be forwarded to the War Department once a quarter. You cannot be too particular in this matter. Please to have an understanding with Mr. Labadie to this effect. The reservation is for the present under the exclusive control of the military. It follows that all persons residing upon it must be subject to that control.. If any person refuses'to follow the injunctions of the commander of the reservation, of course he cannot remain upon that reservation. I trust Mr. Labadie will see the necessity of this rule and will conform to it, so that there may be no coll.sion between yourself and himself, or necessity for him to move. He seems to be a clever man, and will do right, if he fully understands this matter, I have no doubt. The board found that the present and proposed farms would make about four thousand acres. This will not be enough for the support of the Indians, nor will it be half what they can cultivate if their labors are well directed. Pray think of this, and see that every man and woman able to work' be keptf employed in preparing fields for cultivation from now until the next season for planting has passed by. This increased extension will carry with it the idea of lengthening and enlarging the main acequias. Please be sure to have enough acequias, and those of sufficient volume. Are any of the Navajo'horses fit for light cavalry service? If so, how many can be bought of this quality, and at what price per head? Some of them might do well for men in Colonel Carson's regiment, particularly for light Mexicans. 200 Official:

Page  A201 APPENDIX. I shall leave for Franklin, Texats, about the first proximo, and shall endeavor to return via Fort Stanton and Fort Sumner. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Conmmandiny. Brigadier General MARC-LLUs M. CRaCKER, U. S. Vols., Commandi)?g at Fort Sumner, N. AL. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Criptain lst Vet 1f. C. V., A A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT or NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Al., October 22, 1864. GENFRAL: But a few days since I wrote to you directing that the ration of breadstuffs to be issued until further orders, to each captive Indian, big and little, upon the reservation, must be cut down to one pound and a quarter per dawy. Since that was written I have had consultations with the chief coummissary with reference to his ability to get an adequate supply of stores to the Bosque, so that there would be no danger of running short, and I find that in my judgment it is all-important to reduce the ration of breadstuffs to twelve ounces per day, and to have issued eight ounces of meat per day-twenty ounces of solid food in all-until we can hear from the proposals for furnishing wheat, &c, which you will see in the enclosed gazette, and until we see what success the staff officers will have in getting corn. We shall strain every nerve to get a plenty; but as we may encounter delays which would perhaps be fatal to the Indians, un-,, less this precaution were taken, the Indians must see the necessity which compels it and be satisfied. Assemble the chiefs and tell them this: 1st. That we did not look for a loss of all their corn by the worms, but supposed that they would raise nearly enough this year to support themselves, which they have failed to do. 2d. That we have been greatly embarrassed in getting their supplies from the States be. cause the Kiowas and Comanches attacked our trains. 3d. That the hail and frost killed nearly all the corn in Taos and Maora, the two places where we expected to get whit the Indians would need. 4th. That more Indians have come in than we expected would come, which must be fed. 5th. That they must make their food into atolg, by which it will go much further, and use their pumpkins and melons, of which Mr. Labadie informs me there are yet many, to help out their meals. The Indians must be made to understand that we are doing our best for them, but cannot overcome impossibilities; that unless we took this timely precaution they must starve. Through all the clouds that now seem to surround this important, and, to them, vital matter, I hope soon to see some encouraging light, when you will be informed, so as to add, if necessary, to this diminished ration at the earliest moment. While the expedition is out after Kiowas and Comanches, parties of Navajoes might be permitted to go eastward and southeastward to hunt. Each party should have a pass and be headed by a responsible chief. A good non-commissioned officer or soldier going with such a party would insure that it went for this purpose, and did not turn off its course to depredate upon the flocks and herds of the people. This latter matter should be surrounded by all possible safeguards that i; be not abused. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES HI. CARLETON, Brigadier GenEral, Comnmanding. Brigadier General MARCRLLUS M. COCaac,. U. S. Vols Commanding at Fort Sismner, iV. A. NOTE.-If the Indians murmur at these necessary measures for their own good, and to shield them from the possible danger of being out of food entirely, tell them that they must make up deficiencies from their own stock, which they will have to do if worse comes to worst. J. H. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Cptain 1st Vet. lif. C. V., A. A. A. General. 201 Official: Offici,,Ll:

Page  A202 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, -N. iM., October 22, 1864. GENERAL: I received a letter from Major General Curtis, dated the 19th ultimo, in which he says, "General Blunt is at or near Fort Larned looking out for Indians, and may cooperate with you in crushing out some of the vile hordes that now harass our lines of communication." This is to inform you that a report has reached me, coming through Mexicans, that the Kiowas and Comanches are now encamped on a creek called Palo Duro, some two hundred miles in a northeasterly direction from the mouth of Utah creek, on the Canadian or Colo. rado river, east of Fort Union, New Mexico. This would make them about, say, two hundred miles south of Fort Larned, or southwardly from that post. I shall, within ten days, send a force of three hundred volunteer troops, two hundred mounted and one hundred on foot, with two mountain howitzers, and, say, one hundred Ute and Apache Indians, i. e., four hundred ini all, under Colonel Christopher Carson, to attack the Kiowas and Comanches. This force will move down the Colorado to within fifteen miles of Ute creek and there doubtless take a road running northeast toward the States, which road is said to come into the Arkansas from the southwest near the mouth of Walnut creek. I hope you may be able to time your movements so as to reach the Indians on the Palo Duro or near there at the same moment with Colonel Carson, so that a blow may be struck which those two treacherous tribes will remember. I will send a copy of this letter to Colonel Carson. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMNIES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Matjor General JAMES G. BLUNT, U. S. Vols., Commanding an Expedition against the Kiowas and Comanches, Fort Larned, Kansas. NOTE.-I enclose herewith a copy of General Orders No. 32, current series from these headquarters To be sent to the general by express from Fort Larned. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Capt-in 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. iI., October 23, 1864. COLONEL: Enclosed herewith please find General Orders No. 32, current series from these headquarters, which organizes an expedition under your command to proceed against hostile Kiowas and Comanches. As you see, I have given you more men than you asked for, because it is my desire that you give those Indians, especially the Kiowas, a severe drubbing. Enclosed is also a copy of a letter which I send by mail to General Blunt. I do not wish to embarrass you with minute instructions. You know where to find the Indians; you know what atrocities they have committed; you know how to punish them. The means and men are placed at your disposal to do it, and now all the rest is left with you. I need not repeat to you the orders given to all commanders whom I have sent out to fight Indians, that women and children will not be killed-only men who bear arms. Of course, I know that in attacking a village, women and children are liable to be killed, and this cannot, in the rush and confusion of a fight, particularly at night, be avoided; but let none be killed wilfully and wantonly. We make war upon men who have murdered and robbed our people. I have written to General Crocker that if thirty of the Mescalero Apaches wish to go under Cadetta, they can come to Bascom with Captain Fritz and join you there. In this case the general will give them a blanket and shirt apiece and arm them. They complain that their horses are poor. They will bo told that they can get batter ones from the Kiowas. You had better come at once to Fort Union and see everything started to suit yourself, and then return to Maxwell's and go on with the Utes. Remember to take everything from Union which you will require for packing, as at Fort Bascom you will find little or nothing belonging to the post for this purpose. 202

Page  A203 APPENDIX. Should you get among the buffaloes youi can stay out, if necessary, a lmuch longer time than you otherwise could. Be sure and take some spades and axes, so as to form an intrenchel camp for wounded men, and supplies, if necessary. I am, colonel, very respectfully, your obtedient servant, JAMES H. CABLETON, Brigadier General, Commandin. Colonel CnmISTOPIIEa CARSON, At Mlaxwell's Ranch on the]Cinaerrcn River, N. JM. NoTs.-I enclose a copy of a letter to Major General Blunt, dated the 22d instant. ERASTUS W. WOOD, CGaptain lat Vtt. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HIEADQUARTEES DEPARTMENT OF NEw MExico, Santa FE, N. ill., October 27,. 1864. Sin: Owing to the total failure of the crop at the Bosque Redondo, and the paritial failure of the crop at Taos Mora, and in other places in the Territory, I find that we have now an many Navajoes and Apaches on the, reservation as we can feed during the winter, so that no more will be permitted to come in until further orders. If necessary you will have runners sent to inform the Navajoes of this decision. As soon as provisions have been accumulated enough to warrant others in coming in without danger of suffering, word will be sent to that effect, so that the remnant of the Navajo tribe still at large may proceed to join their people. If any of those still at large commit either murders or robberies they will be pursued and destroyed wherever found. When the season for planting came, this year, those at large were invited to come in and help put in a crop, but then they would not come. Now that the wiater is setting in, they are anxious to come and eat the fruit of the labor of others. It is true, their labors in planting would have had poor results, but they would have shown a disposition to help raise their own sustenance, which would have been praiseworthy. Now they must take care of themselves until another spring opens, when again they will have an opportunity to put in a crop. Tell them this. Ascertain as nearly as possible how many Navajoes are,till at large, and whether they are poor or rich, and report the facts. Get your horses into serviceable condition, and be on the look-out that no Apache from the White or the iMogollon mountains and that no Navajoes run off the flock of the people. I must count on your being always on the alert and ready to take the field to prevent any such consequences. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CABLETON, Brigadier General, Comnmanding. COMM1ANDING OrFFICER, lfort l}igyate, iV. M. NOTp.-When did Captain Thompson leave? Howv long was the train detained at your post? ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lIst Vet. ItV. C. V, A. A A. General. IIEAD)QUARTEaS DEPARTMENT or NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe', N. A., October 28, 1864. GENERAL: Colonel McFerran, chief of staff, has suggested that if we should take one of the two new storehouses made for the protection of Indian food, and arrange in it a system of ovens, according to the enclosed rough plan, and bake the wheatmeal and flour which we may, perhaps, be able to get for issue to the Indians, and issue bread instead of the flour, we could feed them with less trouble and more economically. I wish you would take this subject under consideration. You are upon the griod, and can judge of the practicability of such a plan, and what would be its success. A very important point will be the procuring of a sufficient and constant supply of oven-wood. A calculation of how many times each oven would have to be heated per day, and the quantity required each time, anrid a calculation as to where wood will have to be drawn from; how long the supply would last; how many loads could be got in a given 203 Offici,,Il: Official:

Page  A204 APPENDIX. time, &c., &c., should be well considered, and should be balanced against the present manner of issuing flour for the Indians themselves to cook in their style; and the report should show which would be the preferable mode, and the reasons therefor. It has always seemed to me that the cooking of the flour and meat as a soup would be by far the most nutritious. By cooking twenty ounces of solid food to each person, big and little, per day, in this way, would be as much as they c)uld possibly require. There is one thing which you must rely upon: that amount is positively as muich as we can get by the most strenuous efforts; and to keep up this supply until the crop matures next year gives me more anxious moments in thinking by what process it can be done than you can well imagine. Send me an exact return of how much corn and grain Captain Morton has in the quartermaster's department, after having turned over the wheat in the quartermaster to the subsistence department, and exactly how many animals he feeds per day. What we must do, owing to the scarcity of food and the difficulties in transportation, I pee from my point of view more clearly than the Indians can see it. They must believe we are doing our best for them, and submit without murmuring to what cannot be helped. If they have more than the twenty ounces per day till corn comes from the States certain starvation must ensue. This matter must be looked squarely in the face, and they must meet it like men. It cannot be helped. As much wheat as'possible must be sown. This they cannot consume before it ripens; it matures early, and a crop of beans can be planted on the same ground after the wheat is gathered. I am, general, very respectfully, your. obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLEtON, Brigadier General, Commaunding. Brigadier General ZMARCELLUS WI. CROcKER, U. S. Vols., Commandingq at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vt. Irf. C. V., A. A. A. Gen,eral HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NFW MEXIcO, Santa FX, N. JI., October 28, 1864. SIR: Let whatever captive Navajoes you now hA[ve at Los Pinos, or which may come to that post fe)r their country, en route to Bosque Redondo, remain at Los Pinos until further orde:s. The difficulty of getting transportation for fo:)d to the Bosque Redondo nmakes it imperative to feed all we can nearer the source of supply until that difficulty is overcome. The daily allowance, until further orders, of foo-i for these Indians will be twelve ounces of breadstuff and eight ounces of meat, to latge and small. You will have the Indians required to stop at Los Pinos put in as sheltered a place as possible, and have them made as comfortable as circumstances will admrit. Please report, if they require blankets, how many they require. In this connexion it is well to remark tiat you can doubtless procure at a fair price some sheep to issue for the meat ration. Should you do this, the Indians could be employed in making the wool into blankets for their children, as far as practicable. Please report in full all that you do to carry these instructions into effect. Are there not some buildings or co,,rrals that could be used as shelter for the children? I trust greatly to your reswlrces to have them well cared for, and am, Respectfu.lly, your obedient servant, J B AdiES H. CARLETO,N, Brigadier Ge.eral, Commandi'sg. Lieutenant EDMIUNTND BUTLER, U. S. A., Gomma.zding at Los Pinos, N. A1. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lI,t V't. Elf. C V, A. A. A. General IIEADQIUARTERS DEPARTLIENT OF Nr,W MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Al., October 29, 1864. Sia: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your official communication of the 26th instant. It would have been answered before buit for the press of buskiness which 204 OM(ial: Offic'Ial:

Page  A205 APPENDIX. had to go by the southern mail. The information upon which your letter is based differs from that which has reached me through other channels, in regard to the complicity of the Comanches in the late robberies and murders on the plains. I am advised that these troubles first commenced with the Cheyennes and Arapahoes, and, in the attempt to conciliate those tribes, Colonel Bent and Indian Agent Colley, acting on the part of the government, issued to those Indians a liberal sutpply of stores. This excited the jealousy of the Cemanches and Kiowas, who alleged that they did not understand why they, who had remained quiet, should be excluded from the bounty of the government, while those who had been murdering and robbing should be thus favored; and, as no attempt was made to remove this cause of complaint, they, too, commenced depredating, and I was not aware, until the receipt of your letter, that any doubt existed as to the guilt of the Comanches equally with the Kiowas. It is certainly understood that the interruption to our line of travel to the States is owing to the hostility of the Cheyennes, Arapahoes, Comanches, and Kiowas. The attack upon the trains at Walnut creek, and the tmurder of our countrymen, was known to be by the Comanches and Kiowas. The horses taken from the mounted company on the long route between Forts Larned and Lyon were taken by the Comanches and Kiowas. T-ie mules taken from Mr. Bryant's train near Fort Larned were, beyond a doubl)t, run off by the same Indians, who, it is alleged, crawled through a Mexican train and up to Bryant's train before they gave the yell which stampeded the mnles. These mules other Comanches and Kiowas, mounted, were ready to take charge of as soon as they broke from the wagons-so it is said. The taking of oxen at Pawnee fork, where there were several men killed, is well known to have be en by Comanches and Kiowas. The large number of mules taken from Don Ambrosio Armijo's train, this side of the upper crossing of the Cimarron, were taken by Comanches and Kiowas, for they were recognizedl as such by the teamsters in charge of the train The outrage upon Mr. Allison's train, at the lower Cimarron spring, was, as I have been informed by eye-witnesses, committed by Comanches. The Mexicans with the train witnessed the whole transaction, and saw the five Americans taken out from among themselves and shot down in cold blood. The bodies of the sufferers were afterward buried by Captain Nicholts S. Davis, first infantry California volunteers, whom I sent to the cross'ini of the Arkansas, to render what assistance he could. When these Americans were thus brutally murdered and scalped, the Mlexicans, their companions, were furnished by the Comanches with the means to return unharmed to the settlements. All the stock taken by the Indians at the points named along the Arkansas river was driven southward directly into the Comanche country, where, it is understood, those Indians have at large depot of stolen cattle, horses, and mules.. The expedition now on the plains under the command of General Blunt is for the purpose of making war upon the Comanches and Kiowas. For this purpose it is understood that expedition moved into the country of those Indians. There can hardly be a doubt, that while the Comanches were thus robbing and murdering at the points named, other arties of Comanches were depredating on the frontier settlements of Texas, and have brought herds of cattle away from that State, as well as out of the northeastern portion of Mexico; but these latter raids of these Bedouins of our plains do not prove the former not to have been made. The discrimination which the Comanches have frequently made in favor of the people, natives of this Territory, and against Anglo-Americans, cannot be regarded in any other light than as an insult to the government and to our people, and I suppose there will be no doubt what it becomes my duty to do in reference to it. It seems to me that this favor shown to the Mexicans lessens the weight of the information which you have received. The Mexicans, finding themselves thus favored, of course feel inclined to favor the Indians in return; and the Mexicans would doubtless be further induced to this course from a desire to continue the trade which is carried on with these Indians by the very men from whom you get your information. I also feel myself co,-pelled to differ with you in regard' to the past conduct of the Comanches on our eastern frontier. I cannot venture for information upon this subject as far back as eighty years, but I am advised that in the year 1856 the Comanches, in connexion with a few Kiowas, made a raid through the settlements in toe direction of the Navajo country, and it is said that on their return from the Rio Grande they robbed houses, violated women, and killed the stock of the citizens. After they had collected various small lots of mules and horses, they finally drove off from near Las Vegas ifty-odd mules, the property of our present Governor Connelly. I cannot enumerate all the robberies and outrages which they committed from time to time from 1851 to 1856, during my first sojourn in New Mexico, particularly about Chaparita and on the Pecos. I myself was sent in pursuit of them on one occasion. Then three Mexican captive boys got away from them, and these General Garland sent home to their friends in Mexico. I am informed that in 1860 they drove off One hundred and odd head of cattle from Mr. Gidlings, and killed a number of his fine sheep, which, at great cost, he had brought from the .205

Page  A206 APPENDIX. States. About this time, too, they attacked the grazing camp of Messrs. Moore and Rees on the Pecos, killed one man, and destroyed and ran off horses and cattle from that camp. In the early part of 1861 they drove off four hundred and fifty head of cattle belonging to the United States. To these robberies may be added a large list mentioned in a letter from Mr. Levi J. Keithly, which was published about the same date. In May, 1861, Colonel Collins, the superintendent of Indian affairs, in company with Captain Wainwright, of the army, met the Comanches at Alamo Gordo, when several chiefs were present, among them Esaquipa and Pluma de Aguila, who are known to be the principal chiefs of the band of Comanches which occupies the country along the Canadian. Stipulations of peace were agreed upon with those chiefs, and they promised not to return to the settlements again unless permitted to do so by the authorities of the government. This agreement, however, was violated in a few days after the council; the Indians returned to the settlements, and, after being warned off by Captain Duncan, United States army, were attacked by him, and one of their number was killed and several wounded. Since then I have not heard of their committing any depredations upon the settlements of New Mexico. But if you will contemplate the record of their atrocities upon our people on the plains this year, and count among those atrocities the going up to unoffending citizens travelling with trains, the shaking of hands with those citizens and then coolly shooting them down, the scalping of their victims, the scalping of two innocent boys yet living and now in the hospital at Fort Larned, the killing and the mutilating of the bodies of the five Americans with Allison's train, I think you can hardly fail to see that I should be derelict of my duty if I should refrain from making at least an attempt to avenge our slaughtered and plundered citizens. For all these reasons I have sent Colonel Carson into the field with as many men as can be spared to make such an attempt, and it is not proposed to embarrass him with such instructions as you have done me the honor to suggest. If, however, you are satisfied that any portion of the Comanche tribe have not participated in the late outrages, and who still seriously desire to be at peace, and will send a reliable agent with Colonel Carson to designate that portion, he will be charged to make the discrimination, unless he have informlation which may lead him to believe that such agent is mistaken. I beg to apologize for the length of this communication, and in closing it to assure you that it has been with reluctance that I sent these troops into the field to make war; but I cannot see what else there is left for us to do, unless it be to bear all these outrages uncomplainingly, and as soon as spring opens witness their recurrence with increased barbarity for these Indians would attribute our refraining to strike to our fears, and then kill and rob our people with impunity. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, .Brigadier General, Commanding. MATr uIEw STECK, Esq., Superintendent of fiedian Affairs, Santa ~e, N_. I.. NOTE.-I append, for your information, a copy of a letter from Mr. Greenwood, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, to Mr. Secretary Thompson, in relation to depredations in San Miguel county, New Mexico, in November, 1859. J. H. C. ERASTUJS W. WOOD, C,'Ptain 1st TVet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A4. General. D.EAPART3IENT OF THE INTERIOR. Office Indian Affairs, December 30, 1859. Smi: I have the honor to transmit, for your information, the copy of a letter from Superintendent J. L. Collins, dated the 5th instant, covering the minutes of the proceedings of a meeting of the citizens of San Miguel county, assembled on the 1st instant, at Las Vegas, New Mexico. The minutes show not only that the Comanches have, during November last, destroyed several ranches, but are now prowling upon the borders with the evident design of repeating their depredations upon the property of the settlers. The superintendent says, in his communication, that he believes that the statements of the settlers are not exaggerated, and submits the propriety of calling the attention of the Secretary of War to the subject. He further says that the Indians of the plains will certainly have to be chastised before we can have any security in passing over the plains. He thinks that a large military force should be employed, and that three columns-one from Texas, one from New Mexico, and one from Kansas-should simultaneously enter the Intdian country, and that a single column would, in his opinion, do nothing effective. I 206

Page  A207 APPENDIX. would respectfully suggest, provided it meets with your approbation, that copies of the enclo-sures be transmitted to the Secretary of War for his information, and such action thereon as in his judgment the exigencies of the case shall require. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, A. B. GREENWOOD, Commissioner. Hon. JACOB THOMPsON, Secretary of the Interior. I ERASTUS W. WOOD, C,ptain 1st Vet. Itif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQIJARITERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M1., October 30, 1864. GE.NERAL: S have delayed making a formal report on the important matter of subsisting the Navajo and Apache Indians, now on the reservation at the Bosque Redondo, until I could learn definitely the probable result of the harvest in this Territory. As you have already seen in a report of General Crocker on the condition of the Indians at the Basque Redondo, everything there was a success, except the crop of corn. We had a field of nearly three thousand acres, which promised to mature finely, whel, after it had tasselled and the ears formed, it was attacked by what they here call the cut-worm, or army-worm, and the whole crop destroyed. I enclose herewith the report of a board of survey on the subject. When this was known, I then hoped the corn, and grain, and bean crop in the Territory would prove adequate to the wants of the Indians, until the crop matures in 1865; but the wheat crop, when nearly ready for harvest, was drenched and beaten down by unprecedented storms of rain, and over half destroyed. In Taos, Mora, Rio Arriba, and San Miguel counties, whence we reasonably expected to get a good supply of corn, the hail-storms and early and severe frosts nearly destroyed the whole crop. This, too, was the case with the beans; so that there is a great scarcity even for the people. The reports which were sent to Washington that I had purchased last spring supplies enough to last the captive Indians for two years were unfoundcd in fact, as I wrote to you at the end of last June. The breadstuffs remaining of that purchase will all be consumed by the end of December of this year. We have advertised for wheat, wheat-meal, and beans enough to last until corn can be brought from the States; but, in my opinion, we shall hardly be able to secure the requisite quantity in the country, for the reasons before stated. This failure of the crop-a visitation of God-I could not contend against. It came, and now we must meet the consequences as best we may. The Indians could not be turned loose, or even taken back to their country, without being obliged to war upon the people, as heretofore, or perish. This is stated, not that I have any idea of either turning them loose or taking them back, but in answer to the senseless argumenlts which a few persons here, headed by the superintendent of Indian affairs, are making against the reservation at the Bosque Redondo. It then follows that we must feed them where they are, until at least the harvest of next year, which we may reasonably hope, judging from the past, will not be disastrous, as the one of this. The future of not only New Mexico, but of Arizona, depends on the determination and the ability of the general government to hold this formidable tribe, now that it has been subdued and gotten in hand, until it can support itself. Nothing should arise or conspire to let them go again. The axiom, "that that systeix is the cheapest and best which is cheaper and better than any other in the long run," should be borne in mind as having an exact fitness to the question of holding these Indians. The enclosed letter to General Crocker about reducing the amount of food to be issued until we can get some more ahead, I have not heard from in reply, but I hope he will be able to carry into effect my request without trouble. You can hardly imagine, general, the great difficulties which have lain in the path leading toward the settlement of this nation. Congress passed a bill appropriating one hund(red thousand dollars toward clothing them and getting them farming utensils, tools, &c. This was the first of July last, and, as yet, not a yard of cloth, or a blanket, or spade, or plough, has reached them. Now the cold weather is setting in, and I have thousands of women and children who need the protection of a blanket. It is said that the goods bought by this money left Lcavenworth on the first of October, instant. With good luck they may be at the Bosque Redondo by the tenth of next December. All these things the Indians were told would be here long ago, and they have waited and hoped for them until now, when the winter is upon us, and they think we may be acting in bad faith. This has been very unfortunate. Add to this the complete destruction by the army-worm of their crops, which they had labored so hard to raise. Then, to fill the measure of their troubles, the failure of the crop elsewhere obliges me to cut down their rat;on. These are their troubles. 207 Official:

Page  A208 APPENDIX. Ours have been manifold, but they have been met and overcome thus far. Now we have come to that point when we must have immediate help from the government. We must have our past requisitions for funds filled at once, and those which we shall be obliged to make promptly filled, else what little food the people have to sell will be held in their hands. You can better imagine the consequences resulting from our inability to get this food, and have it at the Bisque Redondo in time, than I describe them. Again, it is absolutely necessary that two thousand five hundred head of good cattle be bought in Kansas or Missouri, and sent out at once. This the War Department should order to be done. There should be no time lost by advertising for proposals, but the stock on hand, if there be any, should be sent, or it should be bought ia the open market and forwarded, one thousand two hundred and fifty at a time, without delay. Then, if we cannot get bread, we-can give the Indians more meat, and at least keep them from perishing. I trust the earnestness of my appeal will be measured by the necessities which surround me, and that there will be no delay in filling our requisitions for money, or in sending these cattle. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, 13rigadier General, Comnmanding. Bligadier General LoRFNzo THiOMAS, Adjettarnt General Ut S. A., Washington, D. C. List cf eap wrs whict Qo'oi e.ge thies letter. Proceedings of a bordl of survey convened at For-t Sumner. New Mexico, August 30, 1864. Copy of a let ter to General rocker, dated Octob)er 22, 186i4. Copy of a t tter from Gnerl roker, dated October 21, 361t. -(Extract ) Coi),y of ai leiter froCain CoptetaiCaltlow( y, dated Sptemlber 14, 1864. Copy (if a letter froni L,)rizo Lab did (late October 22, 186St. Ca,py ()f a lett r frt,m ('olooael J,ihui C. McFerr.n, chlief qutartermaster, to Major H. MA. Enos, dlivision qtuartet,master, datled October 29, 161-. c EPAS'US W. WOOD, Ca~pon~ 1 st ret. Isf. (, Or, A.. A. General. HEADQUAaRTERS DEPARATMIENT OF NEWi MExico, Santa Fe, N. llM., October 31, 1864. GEN'r.RIAL: The cold'weather admoniishes me to write to you about lwhat it appears to me would be the best planl to construct habitations for the Indians for the approaching wintes Itf you will have ci cula.. excavations made at the points where you will have the d ifferent vi la)es-etch one large enough for a family, anid, say, four feet or more in depth. w th tihe earth embati,led some three or four feet high on the north side, with steps ctt in the eaith to descend to the floor-they would be very warm, even with a little fire Piav have one made as a model, and, if they like it, encourage the Indians to follow the Iattern Inl this wa.y the co'd winds will be entirely escaped by the childiren W\That is do;.e shouldt be at once, before the winter sets in. The Indians can spread the floors with c,carte reed grass, or with hay, and can male beds of grass which will be very comfortable. Boides, they will have some green hides and skins to spread down. Suchl excavations require no timber, are warmer than the huts they have, and are soon made. They should be made north of the north acequia, and far enough removed to avoid dampness from it. I have ordered Captain Bell to buy if possible and send down from Fort Union, where he has gone, 4,000 sheep. These will furnish wool to we ve into litt'e blankets for the smaller children; the skins can be dressedl for clothing, and the flesh issued for food at the p)reseit established rates. The whole animal, including what the butchers call the "head and pluck," nmust be issued. You in ust pat don me for suggesting all theQe details, but my anxiety is so great to make this powerful nation. which has surrendered to us, as happy and as well cared-fi)r as possible under all the adlve se circtumstances which enicompass us, that every idea looking to this end which comes into my mind I send to you, fully believing that you will enter into the spirit which ani.ates me for their good. The economy in the use of food in all things must be ob.-erved The making of soups, which is by far the best way to cook what they have, must be inculcated as a religion. And let me observe that one pound of solid food made into nutritious soup-nutritious because well and thoroughly boiled 208 Official:

Page  A209 APPENDIX. for each man, woman, and child, per day-for a Frenchman-is more than he wants, and more than he gets, as a rule. I hope the Indian goods will be at Fort Union by the twentieth of November, and at the Bosque by the end. Then they will have more tools to work with-some blankets, shirts, and cloth, for the children's nakedness. These articles, with the fleeces of the 4,000 sheep, will help keep the Indians comfortable. Tell them to be too proud to murmur at what cannot be helped. We could not foresee the total destruction of their corn crop, nor could we foresee that the frost and hail would come and destroy the crop in the country; but not to be discouraged; to work hard, every man and woman, to put in large fields next year, when, if God smiles upon our efforts, they will, at one bound, be forever placed beyond want, and independent. Tell them not to believe ever that we are not their best friends; that their enemies have told them that we would destroy them; that we had sent big guns there to attack them; but that those guns are only to be used against their enemies, if they continue to behave as they have done. In relation to the excavations, it would be well to have them at the sites of the different villages, for this reason: the Indians will then be near where they will erect their houses, and will lose no time in going to their labors upon them. If the Navajoes had the spirit with reference to the Comanches which they ought to have toward their hereditary enemies, a war party of 500 of the former could go out and get all the stock they wanted. It would add to the punishment which the Comanches deserve for their depredations and butcheries of this year. Captain Bristol and Captain Calloway would be the best men to prepare a model for the temporary habitations for the Indians. Colonel Collins tells me that some twenty wagons and sixty work-cattle are coming, as he understands, for the Indians. Colonel McFerran will have ten wagons-old and condemned-sent down from Fort Union. These will be given to them. Thus, little by little, they will have many conveniences. Tell them this, please. Some of their own horses should be broken to teaming and ploughing. It is possible a committee of the legislature may come down to see how the Indians are getting on. Pray have them kindly received and shown everything. I know I can count on your constant thoughts and earnest and persistent efforts to second me in this important work, and shall always feel obliged to you for them. Respectfully, general, your obedient servant, HE. CARLETON, !ier General, Commanding. Brigadier General MAACELLUS M. CROCKER, U. S. Vols., Commnandiny at Fort Sumner, N. AM. NOTE.-I shall start for Franklin about the 10th November. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lIzf C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Id, N. M., November 1, 1864. SIR: We have in this department nearly 10,000 Navajo and Apache Indians whom we are endeavoring to establish upon a reservation and teach to till the earth for a support. You were kind enough last year to send us a few packages of seeds. for which we are very thankful. I pray that you will send us a large supply this year. If some came every mail from now until the planting season will be over next year, it will help us very much. They should be put up in the strongest possible wrappers, preferably in tin boxes, and be legibly marked. This year the army-worm totally destroyed the crop planted by the Indians, which was a calamity, and reduces us to great straits. With God's blessing, ne-t year, we hope to raise enough for their support. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ChIEF OF THE AGRICULTURAL BUREAU, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1 t Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 14 209 Official: Official:

Page  A210 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, At. I., November 6, 1864. GENERAL: I beg again to impress upon your mind the planting of the 5,000 trees this winter on the reservation. If 10,000 can be planted and cared for, so much the better. Please give this important matter your personal attention. When the mesquite roots have all been consumed we shall have growing quite a forest of wood for fuel if we plant from 5,000 to 10,000 trees per annum. Captain Calloway informed me that immense numbers could be easily procured. 5 p rm -Your letter of the 28th ultimo has just been received. The Indians must be contented with the amount of food now ordered to be issued to them; id est, twenty ounces per day of solid food to each individual. Major McCleave, 1st cavalry California volunteers, is the officer I propose to send to your post to act as commissary. Please make arrangements to have a certain census of all captive Indians on the reservation made on the 30th instant by actual count. At that time it will be well to know the strength of each family, with age, sex, &c., of each. Report the number, age, sex, &c., of the orphan children, and what plan you have adopted with reference to their case. This will be an especial report required for the War Department. Pray let it be as full and complete as possible, and give the amount and kind of stock owned by each family or each Indian, as the case may be. If you require any more of the tin tickets to facilitate the issue of rations, please write to Captain Shoemaker to have them made, stating the number and size (with regard to the figures stamped upon them) of what you require. It is left with yourself to invest the money due to Indians for fodder as you may think will most conduce to their interests. A fund should be formed to provide grape cuttings and to pay for pumpkin, melon, child, and other seeds. Please let me know if many seeds have been saved for planting, and what you will require. The seed wheat must be selected from the wheat you have on hand as far as possible. Suppose, for example, you cause to be sown, say, 3,000 acres. This will take from 4,500 bushels to 6,000 bushels, equal to 300,000 pounds, a frightful quantity, considering the scarcity. It will not do to trust too much to the corn crop. Besides, if the wheat is sown early, and matures early, beans can be raised on the same ground next summer-a great gain. The Indians destroy a great deal of the corn crop by eating the corn before the ears are filled. Separate ground should be planted to be depredated on, so that the main fields would be left intact to ripen. Captain Bell, commissary of subsistence, has bought twelve new ploughs. These shall be sent down as soon as they come. If all the able-bodied Indians will keep busily at work now, and day by day, until the next planting season has passed, 10,000 acres can be put in seed with ease. The 4,000 sheep have been bought and are en route to you. The fleeces should be given to the poorest Indians. Please inform me of how much these sheep average in weight per head, taking every ounce that can be issued as food. If the commissary would arrange to have all the blood of slaughtered cattle and sheep saved, to be made into haggies and blood puddings, it would be great food for the orphan children who go to the school. The scarcity of food in the country is very great, and every resource must be tried to economize, or there will be positive suffering before the next crop Frill be gathered. Please have the land which is to be cultivated measured. A calculation can easily be made which will determine beyond a doubt the number of acres. Delays in the arrival of the mail have detained me from going below. I shall start some time this week, and shall endeavor to return via Fort Sumner. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brig. Gen. MARCELLUSM.I CROCKER, U.S Vols., Commanding at Fort Sumner, A~ M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. Genral. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF -EW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., November 8, 1864. SIR: I have the honor to acknowledge the receipt of your communication of the 5th instant, and to say, in reply, that it has hitherto seemed to be my duty, when Indians murdered our people and ran off their stock, to punish the aggressors if I could. The respon 210 Dfficial:

Page  A211 APPENDIX. sibility of all the consequences which mty follow my acts it is expected will rest where it rightfutilly belongs-that is to say, upon myself. I was not aware, until so info)rmei by yourself, that it was expected that investigations, with reference to Indian hostilities on our people, were to be made through your office before a blow could be struck. It is, however, acknowledged that you should be informed when hostile demonstrations are to be made against Indians within your superintendency, and, therefore, copies of orders in such cases have been sent to you. Utes and Apaches have had authority to go against the Comanches and Kiowas, with Colonel Carson, mainly because it was desirable, when so many coalitions are forming between the various Indian tribes against the whites, to have the savages of the mountains committed on our side as against the Indians of the plains. This subject seemed to be the peculiar province of the military department, which is charged with the protection of the people. It may not be improper to inform you that I, myself, was in command of the troops at Albuquerque, in 1856, when the Comanches and Kiowas visited that town. I gave them an ox andi some flour and sugar and coffee, and had a talk with them. Enclosed please find a copy of a letter from depairtment headquarters to myself in relation to them. It is to be regretted that, from no cause on the part of the military, there has come to exist a state of affairs between ourselves officially which seems to preclude the idea of much cordiality in consultation or in co-operattion; but:ny earnest efforts shall continue and the whole of my ability be given to protect thie Ipersons and property of the people residing within this department from Indian aggressions, even though, unhappily, there be not such a condition of harmony between ourselves, as public officers, as might be desirable. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H CARLETON, Brgadier General, Comrwondiyg. MIATTHEw STECK, Esq., Superinten&dnt of fidian Affairs, Santa.F, N. Jf. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTIIENT OF NEW MtEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa FE, N I., November 9, 1864. GENERAL: The general commanding the depirtment has been sorry to learn that some Indians froni the reservation are reported to have killed a beef belonging to a citizen who lives near 5Ir. Giddings, or above there. If this be true, the general says that a stern example must be made by the punishment of the aggressors. If they cannot individually be identified. the chief of the particular band to which they belong should be imprisoned and kept as a hostage for the good behavior of his people until the offenders have been given up. The general further directs that you call the chiefs together and tell them about this, and tell them you have orders to try and puniish, if necessary by shooting, any Indian who depredates upon the property of the citiz.ns This matter must be met at once, and met in a manner to prevent its recurrence. Pay the owner of the beef out of the money due the Indians for fodder, and have them see you do it. The commanding general trusts that you will be able to adopt such measures, by precept and by force, as shall forever put a stop to such acts. Forbid the Indians coming toward the settlements. They mul,t herd their stock and hunt to the northeast, east, and southeast of the post. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant Gen'al. Brig. Gen. M'ARCELLUS M. CROCKER, U. S. Vols., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. GeneralZ. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Socorro, N. JI., November 15, 1864. MAJOR: On the 8th instant seven Indians, supposed to be Moqui, Zui, and Apache Indians from arrows found, attacked four shepherds near Limitar, killed three and ran off 3,000 head of sheep. They doubtless went to the Rita Quemado toward Zufi and the 211 Official: Official:

Page  A212 APPENDIX. Moqui. Take a few resolute men, go yourself south, cut their trail and follow it and retake the sheep. I believe the Moquis, pressed by hunger, have committed the robbery. If you travel as well as you did on your late trip you will be sure to catch them and make some reputation. I am anxious for you to succeed in this. I have great faith in your energy and perseverance. Send a copy of this letter to department headquarters for record. I am, major, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES IH. CARLETON, Brngadier General, Commnanding. Major ETHAN W. EATON, Conmmanding at Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Yet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Ne, N. AM., November 25, 1864. GlNERAL: Dr. M. Steck, superintendent of Indian affairs for the department of New Mexico, leaves Santa Fe on the 26th instant for Fort Union. He goes to that post for te purpose of receiving and conducting to Fort Sumner, New Mexico, a train of goods and presents intended for the Indians on the military reservation at the Bosque Redondo, about to arrive from the States. I am directed by the general commanding to say to you that it is his desire that you afford Dr. Steck every assistance in your power to enable him to carry out the wishes of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs in the distributiop of these goods. Dr. Steck may take an escort from Fort Union; in case he should do so, you are directed to return the same to that post as soon as practicable. The general also directs that if the superintendent wishes to examine into the condition of the Indians under your charge and to go among and talk with them, you will permit him to do so, and have Captain Calloway and your interpreter go with him and show him the Indian farm, mode of working it, facilities for doing so, &c., &c., and how Indians are supplied with food, as well as any other information he may desire to obtain in relation to the Indians on the reservation. 1ly, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutiant General. Brig. Gen. MARCELLUS M. CROCKER, U. S. Vols, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. H. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inlf. C. V., A. A. A. Geutral. [Confidential.] DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe, Ni. M., December 9, 1864. GENERAL: I have just heard from the general commanding. Hf was at Las Cruces, New Mexico, on the 1st instant, and he directs me to write to you as follows: About one year since, when Dr. Steck, superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico, went to the Bosque Redondo, he caused the Apaches to become discontented, by telling them that they could go to their own country to make mescal. If the doctor pursues any such course during his present visit, or talks with the Navajoes in any manner to make them unhappy or discontented, he will be required at once to leave the reservation. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. C(UTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Brig. Gen. MARCELLUS M. CROCKER, U.S. Vols., Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 212 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A213 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MIEXICO, Franklin, Texas, December 10, 1864. DEAR GENERAL: Your private letter of 17th ultimo came to hand to-day. I have written to the chief commissary that if he can see his way clear to feed the Indians, if we add four ounces to the present meat ration, making it twelve ounces per day to each Indian, to write to you to that effect by the special express which will take this letter from Santa Fe, when you will give orders accordingly. Whether the Indians understand the necessity of diminishing their rations or not, that necessity meets us at every turn from the great scarcity in the country, and they must be satisfied. If they proceed to any unpleasant extremes force must be used against them on the moment. They must do what we direct or perish. Besides, they must commence work upon their fields at once. Adopt the best plan to produce this result, but the result must be produced now before it is too late. You can try this plan if the chief commissary finds he can make the additional four ounces to the meat ration per day. Issue the addition only to those who do good days' work. Order a military commission to try the three Navajoes about whom you write. Have them have a fair trial. If they are sentenced to be hung or shot for what they have done as alleged, they will deserve the sentence. Your arrangement about having a part of the Indian hospital used for school purposes is a good one and approved by me. It was my purpose to come to Fort Sumner via Fort Stanton from Las Cruces, but I fear I shall not have time. If not, I shall come as soon after my arrival at Santa Fe as possible. I shall leave here, en route to Las Cruces, on the 13th, and shall be obliged to remain there a day or two. Hoping that, by firmness and kindness combined, you will succeed in managing the Indians in a satisfactory manner, I am, dear general, very truly yours, AMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brig. Gen. MARCELLUS M. CROCKER, U. S. Commanding at Fort Sum ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain ist Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Franklin, Texas, December 10, 1864. CAPTAIN: I have just received a letter from General Crocker, stating that the Indians make many daily complaints that their ration is too small. If you can see your way clear in getting supplies so that you can safely increase the meat ration to twelve ounces per day to each Indian, of meat-it is now eight ounces-and twelve ounces of breadstuffs, in all twenty-four ounces to the ration, write to General Crocker at once by special express to increase the issue of the meat ration to twelve ounces. I am, captain, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Cbmmanding. Captain WILLIAM H. BELL, U. S. A., Chief Commissary, Santa Fe, N.. Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Las Cruces, N_. M., Decemnber 15, 1864. COLONEL: I had the pleasure to receive your very interesting and satisfactory report of your battle with the Kiowas on 25th ultimo, and have sent a copy of it to the War Department. I beg to express to you and to the gallant officers and soldiers whom you commanded on that occasion, as well as to our good auxiliaries, the Utes and Apaches, my thanks for the handsome manner in which you all met so formidable an enemy and defeated him. Please to publish an order to this effect. 213 Official:

Page  A214 APPENDIX. This brilliant afftir adds another green leaf to the laurel wreath which you have so nobly won in the service of your country. That you may long be spared to be of still further service, is the sincere wish of your obedient servant and friend, Colonel CHRISTOPHER CARSON, Comn'dg Expedition ag,1io.t the Kiowa and Comanche Indians, Fort Bascom, N. -3. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet lnf. C. V., A. A A. General. LETTERS RELATING TO INDIAN AFFAIRS IN THiE DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEX ICO DURING THE YEAR 1865. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Whittemrnore's Rlanche, N. M., January 5, 1865. GENERAL: The general commanding the department directs me to write to you as follows: Send all men belonging to company A, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, to Fort Stanton It is supposed that some are at your po)st unless they left with Lieutenant Hubbell for Fort Stanton The general saw a Navajo woman, having with her a Navajo girl aged about twelve years, abo-ut three miles from this place. They had evidently followed an ox train which had brought flour to Fort Sumner from Mr. Moore a few days since, and this evening another Navajo woman, aged about eighteen, came into this rariche from the direction of Fort Sumner; this last one he has asked Mr. Whittemore to return to Fort Sumner by the first opportunity. The general is under the impression that a great many Navajo women are inveigled away from Fort Sulmner by Mexicans who come there with supplies, and that others are perhaps wandering away towards the settlements. Tlhis must be effectually stopped at once, and he leaves it with you to adopt the means. It is understood here that Dr. Steck told Mr. Taylor that the Navajoes are going off by fives and sixes every day; that the Indians told him so. One or two movable pickets commanded by a determined officer could soon ascertain whether this is true and put a stop to it An officer and a half dozen men stationed at this point to search trains might also do a great deal of good. In conclusion, the general suggests whether it wvoild not be b tter to not permit any Indians to leave the post without a written passport, these to be de-livered up on their return. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, ERASTUS W. WOOD, Aide-de-(Ccmp. n. MAIRCELLUS M. CROCKER, U. S. Conmiranding at Fort Sum a ERASTIUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEw MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. Mf., January 14, 1865. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose for the information of the Secretary of War the proceedings of a board of officers assembled by Brigadier General Crocker, United States volunteers, at Fort Sumner, New Mexico, to make an examination of the quantity, quality and kind of goods issued by Matthew Steck, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs for New Mexico, to the Navajo Indians at the Bosque Redondo, in December. 1864. You will also please find enclosed a letter friom General Crocker on this subject, and likewise letters from Captain Lusby, assistant adjutant general, and of Mr. La Rue, the present sutler at Fort Sumner, setting forth their opinions of the value of the goods. You are aware that Congress passed a bill appropriating one hundred thousand dollars for the purchase of goods for these Indians. The result to the Indians is shown by these papers. Captain Bristol, who was onI the board, informed me that Mr. Steck asked him not to count the pieces of prints. 214 mandin,g. Official: Offic-'Ial:

Page  A215 APPENDIX. If, general, this is to be considered as a specimen of the manner in which the intentions of Congress in making appropriations are to be carried into practical effect, it would be well for that honorable body, when considering the matter with reference to how much of that appropriation would reach the point aimed at by them, to leave a wide margin for what in target practice is technically called "the drift." I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General LORENZO THOMAS, Adjutant General U. S. A., Washington, D. C. NOTE.-The wagons and oxen, much needed, have not been turned over to the Indians, or to the commander at Fort Sumner for their use. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO; Santa TE', N. M., Jalzuary 17, 1865. SIR: I have been informed that an influential Mexican wrote to his brother in Valencia county, on the Rio Grande, that unless the people there opposed the colonization of the Navajoes at the Bosque Redondo, and unless they succeeded in having the Navajoes got back to their own county, all of the government business which has hitherto been so beneficial to that country by passing trains of supplies to the old Navajo country, and the employment of means of transportation for army purposes in that country, would cease. There can hardly be a doubt but that here are a set of demagogues who foresee that when the Indians are all colonized, there will be no further need of the immense expenditures which have hitherto been incurred in keeping troops in New MIexico, and make that one of the points to oppose so important a measure. It is well to remember the machinations of parties to keep up the Florida war. In my opinion, this idea of losing the government patronage for New MIexico when the Indian difficulties should come to an end, with a certain set who care nothing for the poor or the future of the country, is one great element of opposition to the measure. I can prove by figures, if necessary, that to place and keep the Indians on any reservation in their own country, for example on the San Juan-the only place which even those who wish them moved say they could occupy-would cost more than three times as much as to keep them where they are. If those who wish them moved will name the place west of the Rio Grande where they would put them, I will measure the distances, survey the ground, get bids for freight, calculate the cost of the forts, the number and cost of the various garrisons, the cost of food, and prove by positive data what, without going into minute details, I here state. You had better, by far, move them to Kansas or Mihsouri, for then you take them where provisions are cheap. I am, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ADJUTANT GEN-IERAL OF THE ARMY, Washington, D. C. ERASTIUS W. WOOD, Capltain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. I. A. General. HEADQUIARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., January 24, 1865. GENERAL: I have the honor to enclose herewith a copy of Colonel Carson's report of his fight with the Kiowas and Comanches on his expedition as ordered by General Orders No. 32 of last year, from these headquarters. Had General Blunt gone on to the Palo Duro, near the scene of this fight, those two tribes would doubtless have received a severe punishment. I find that it is impossible for me to guard the lines of communication hence to the States with the limited force at my command, and at the same time guard the nine thousand Indian prisoners I have and whip other hostile Indians within New Mexico and Arizona. It is simply impossible for me to do it. Therefore I must depend on your help to this end. 215 Official: Offic,,al:

Page  A216 APPENDIX. Permit me to suggest that if you will send six companies of cavalry and two of infantry and a section of artillery via the bend of the Arkansas near Walnut creek, to the Palo Duro, (there is a fine road leading to New Mexico by that route,) and there to encamp for the summer, the cavalry to scout, the infantry and artillery to hold an intreuched camp with the hospital and supplies, the efforts of the Comanches and Kiowas would be paralyzed; for that point is in the very heart of their country, is easy of access, and has an abundance of fine wood, water and grass. If then you would have two companies of infantry and four of cavalry at old Fort Atkinson, twenty-six miles below the Cimarron crossing of the Arkansas, and two companies of infantry, one section of artillery, and four companies of cavalry at Fort Larned, which, in all, would amount to one regiment of cavalry, six companies of infantry and two sections of artillery, I think that, with what I could do from Fort Union to the crossing of the Arkansas, the route would be rendered safe during the summer. I suggest what is here written from having some knowledge of the country and of the summer hauntts of the Indians. I am getting troops prepared to occupy the lower Cimarron spring, Cold spring, Rabbit Ear and Whetstone creek. These will furnish escorts from point to point to the crossing of the Arkansas, a distance of three hundred and fifty miles from Fort Union. Unless what is here suggested be done, and done by the first of May next, there will be many lives sacrificed and much property destroyed. I beg that you will furnish at least what is here suggested. If you know of better points than those named where troops should be placed, having these objects in view, of course you will place them there. I only offer the result of my observation and experience on the road to be guarded, and would not be understood as desiring to influence your own judgment in the matter. General Sumner, when in command here, employed myself upon the road for two seasons, which gave me some knowledge of the country. I enclose herewith a newspaper having paragraph I of Special Orders No 2, current series from these headquarters, by which you will see that troops are moving toward Fort Union preparatory to taking up the positions upon the road here indicated. The government should at once make the continuation of the telegraph from Denver to Santa Fe; then we could act in concert and produce lasting results. If I had influence it should be exerted to this end. The proposition is self-evident. Once you bring the whole matter of the good results to be attained by having telegraphic communication with Santa F,, movements can be combined and timed by the commanders of these two military departments which must result in the total subjection of the Indians of the plains. The economy of such an enterprise, when considered in connexion with the cross-purposes with which, for want of rapid communication, we now have necessarily to work, is its principal recommendation. I have the honor to be, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Mlajor General SAMUEL R. CURTIS, Comnmanding the Department of Kansas, Fort Leavenworth, IKansas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. JI., Janu?ary 29, 1865. GENERAL: I have the honor herewith to enclose for the information of the War Department the following documents. I send the originals, so that those who may have them to consider and act upon may have positive evidence in their own hands: 1st. General Orders No. 32, series for 1864, from these headquarters. 2d. Original letter from Matthew Steck, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs, acknowledging receipt of General Orders No. 32, above named. It is dated October 26, 1864. 3d. Copy of my reply to Mr. Steck's letter. 4th. Oriiginal letter from Superintendent Steck to his excellency the governor of New Mexico, stating that since he received General Orders No. 32, he had not issued any passes for Mexicans to go and trade with the Comanches. This letter is dated November 23, 1864. 5th. Original letter from Captain Edward H. Bergmann, 1st cavalry New Mexico volulnteers, dated November 26, 1864, enclosing an autograph passport signed by Superiutendent Steck, and dated October 27, 1864. 6th. Original letter from Captain Bergmann, dated December 4, 1864, enclosing an autograph passport, dated October 27, 1864, and another dated November 15, 1864, also written by Superintendent Steck's own hand. 216 Official:

Page  A217 APPENDIX. 7th. Original of a letter written by Captain Bergmann, dated November 24, 1864, in relation to Mexican traders with passports from Superintendent Stock, going stealthily past the military lines after they had been warned not to do so, and giving information to the enemy of the movement of troops. 8th. Original of a letter written by (Colonel Carson, commanding an expedition against the Indians, stating that he found powder and lead in their camp, which had been furnished, without a doubt, by Mexican traders. 9th. Original letter from Captain Murphy, enclosing an affidavit of the movements of Mexican traders with passports from Superintendent Steck, in defiance of warnings that we were at war with the Indians. 10th. Printed report by Colonel Carson of his battle with the Indians. You are aware, general, that the Indians robbed our trains on the route hence to the States during nearly all of last summer. That in the winter, as those some Indians moved south with their booty in stock, the Mexicans here, whom the Indians have not harmed on the road as set forth in my letter to Dr. Steck, got passports from Dr. Steck togo out on the plain. eiast of this Territory to buy the stock robbed from Americans. That they paid in part fo)r this stock with ammunition which they knew would be used against Americans in a continuation of this iniquitous business, there is not the,hadow of a doubt. How many of these passports were issued by Superintendent Steck after he ha(d notice.of hostilities and before he wrote to the governor that he had issued none since he got that notice, it is impossible to say. The enclosed three are all which thus far have been intercepted. The military is doing its best to protect the people and the lines of communication from hostile Indians; but when a high civil functionary gives passp )rts to menr to carry on a nefarious traffic, when he knows in reason that those men will give information of the movements of the troops; and when he sits down and deliberately writes to the goverinor that he has not given such passports, you must know, general, that such conduct adds not a little, to say the least, to our many embarrassments. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ADJUTANT GENERAL U. S. A., Washinyton, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Ilf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTEIS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa TFe, N. M., February 12, 1865. SIR: Enclosed, herewith, please find a printed notice to the people that a company of troops will leave Fort Union on the 1st and 15th of each month, to escort trains from that post to Fort Larned, Kansas. You will detail the company which has been longest from field service to move on this duty on the 1st proxiimo. Every officer and ffeictive marn will go. It will have one hundred rounds of ammunition per man in boxes, and twenty rounds per man in cartridge-boxes. Each man will be allowed to take two blankets, one greatcoat, two extra shirts, two extra drawers, one pair extra shoes, one pair extra pants; and no more clothing, except what he wears. You yourself will make a personal inspection of each man's knapsack, after the company has marched off the parade, and see that this order is carefully observed. The coinpaniy will take rations only to Fort Lyon, Colorado Territory. There it will draw enough to last it to Fort Larned. It is hoped the company commander is a man capable of logoking out well for the safety of the animals and property he is to escort and guard, and that he does not need specific instructions on this point. It is hoped he and his men will be not only r-ealy to fight, but will fight any number of hostile Indians they may meet, or who may attack or menace the company or the train, by night or by (lay, in storm or in fair weather. It is to be hoped that neither officers nor men will be off their guard, or idle away their time, but will atte.nd to the business for which the government pays them. No man's musket will be carried in a wago- or in a feed-box. He must carry it himself all the time. Only two tents will be taken to a company. The chief quartermaster will send orders with reference to the transportation-not to exceed two six-mule teams. Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commandi:g. COMIANDING OFFICER, Fort Union, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C.., A. A. A. General. 217 Official: 4 Official:

Page  A218 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, NV. M., February 15, 1865. This morning Herrera Grande and five other Navajo chiefs and Jesus, the interpreter for whom I wrote to General Crocker, on the 22d of January, 1865, came to Santa Fe, en route to the old Navajo country. I had a talk with them in the presence of Governor Connelly and Don Josd Manuel Gallegos. It was to this effect: "They were to go out into the old Navajo country and tell the Navajoes still remaining there that they must come in at once, and go to the reservation; that this is the last warning they will have; that, if they come in now, their stock shall remain as their own. But if, within five weeks from the time of the notice, they are not at Fort Wingate, the door will be shut, and we will then fight them, the people will fight them, and the Utes wvill fight them, and they will be destroyed. In this case their blood will be on their own heads, not on ours, as they have had fair warning. These Navajoes whom I send out as delegates with this warning are then to return to Santa Fd, and thence to the Bosque Redondo, -without waiting for any others." JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnmanding. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., February 20, 1865. Sin: I send Lieutenant John Ayres, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, with Herrera Grande and two other principal men of the Navajo nation, and with Jesus, the interpreter, to Fort Wingate, en route to inform Manuelito and the other Navajoes not yet surrendered, that they must now come in and go to the reservation, so as to help put in a crop this year. If you think it adyisable, Lieutenant Ayres and his party can proceed with Herrera to Manuelito's camp. In this case some one should go who can talk Spanish fluently, so as to act as Lieutenant Ayres's interpreter, in case you think private Dorlarnd cannot talk that language sufficiently well to make Jesus understand what Lieutenant Ayres may have to communicate. If it would be necessary-to send half a dozen more picked men, you can do so. In case Lieutenant Ayres should go on with this delegation-and this is left with you to decide-see that he has a plenty of rations, and, if he take a team, plenty of forage. In case the Indians go on alone, give them animals to ride. You had better give them these, in either event, as they may be obliged to leave the road to hunt Manuelito. The remnant of the tribe still in the old Navajo country will be destroyed, unless they come in. The people of the country and the Utes will rob them first and capture their children for servants, and by degrees will completely exterminate them. Their only safety depends on their immediate surrender and removal to the Bosque Redondo. Be sure to impress this important truth upon the minds of all Navajoes still back. Not six months will go past before what is here stated will come true, and I wish to save them from such unhappy consequences, in case they persist in their folly of remaining behind. Herrera and the others, having given the warning, will not wait for the other Navajoes, but will return at once to Santa Fe, en route to Fort Sumner, where they are anxious to make preparations for planting. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H.' CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. COMMANmDING OFFIcER, Fort Wfingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. [EADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., Fetruary 25, 1865. SIR: Your note of this date I have had the honor to receive We are not yet at peace with the Kiowas and Comanches. I hope soon to receive-intelligence that a delegation from the latter tribe have come to Fort Bascom to make overtures for peace. I 218 Official: Official:

Page  A219 APPENDIX. have authorized three parties to go out to their country to procure three American women and three children said to be held captive by them, and to procure one Mexican boy, stolen from Chihuahua. When these parties return we shall know more definitely whether any durable compact can be made, having in view a peace with those tribes, when you will be duly notified of the result. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. MICHIAEL STECK, Esq., Supe-intendent of Indian Affairs, Santa FE, N.M. ERASTUS W WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERs DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. JI., February 26, 1865. SiR: Mr. Delgado said he would send a party out to endeavor to buy the captives of whom I wrote to you yesterday. I cannot consent to traders going to the Comanche country for any other than the bona fide purpose of trying to get by purchase or otherwise the unfortunate persons now held captive by that people, or by the Kiowas. Passports having this purpose in view will be countersigned, and the parties permitted to pass through our pickets. I am, sir, respectfully, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. MICHAEL STECK, Esq., Superintendent of Izdian Affairs, Santa Fe, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. I.f. a. V, A. A. A. General. DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Santa Fe', N. J., IJIrch 10, 1865. MAJOR: I send down by this express a small sack of apricot seeds, which the general desires to have planlted at once. The general commanding directs me to say that General Crocker was some time since instructed to feed to captive Indians one pound of fresh meat and three-quarters of a pound of breadstuff per head, each day, commencing March 1st; but owing to the cattle having fallen off during the late stormy weather you will cause to be fed, commencing at once, one pound of breadstuff and three-quarters of a pound of meat per head, each day, to the aforesaid Indians. The general also directs that you fit out a party of about one hundred Indians, well provided with axes. Place them under the charge of some efficient officer-Lieutenant Fox, for instance-and scid them up the Pecos river, to cut wood and let it float down for the use of the troops and Indians on the reservation. This wood cali be stopped by running a boom out into the river at some point near the post; but great care should be used in order that it should not have the effect of causing the spring floods to overflow the river bottoms. I have the honor to be, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Major WILLIAM McCLrEAv, l,t Cav.-lly C. V., Com. at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. Vf, A. A. A. General. 219 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A220 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERlS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXIc(O, Santa Fe, N. M., March 15, 1865. MAJOR: I received yesterdaiy your note of the 9th instant. I have written to Mr. Dold that if he desires his train to proceed the escort will go with it, as originally ordere,d. Let the company understand that it must be on the watch all the time arid not be surprised. By having it understood how the train shall march, with advanced spies, and with fltankers, and with men ill rear to give the alarm; and have it understood how the wagons shall be corralled in case of alarm, so that a corral can le formed at a moment's notice; and by having it understood that the men are to fight to the last man in case of an attack-there will hardly be a doubt of their making a successful trip. You will tell the Comanche chiefs that they will send runners to warn the Indians that if they attack our trains, either upon the Palo Dtro, the Cimarron, or the Raton mountains route, we will put men enough in the field against them to destroy them. Tell them that the question of a'bitter war is left with themselves; that we do not propose to have our trains stopped or our people murdered with impunity; that if they keep off the road we shall not harm them But if they attack our trains we will make a war upon them which they will always remember. Tell the chiefs that if our trains are attacked we shall not wish to see them again; that we shall not believe ever in their sincerity, certainly not in their ability to control their people. I will send you another company, and if you are attacked we expect, of course, that you will make a handsome defence. I believe, if Deuis is not surprised, he can whip all the Indians which will dare to come against a train of wagons filled with soldiers, on the road, or against a wellformed corral, in camp. We must not have the commerce of the country stopped by rumors. We must go ahe,d, and, if worse comes to worst, fight it out. Let that be understood just now. And be sure and impress this idea upon those chiefs. It will be a sorry time for their people in the long run. Tell them of their helpless condition in winter, and that we shall not forget their summer rascalities. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major EDWARD H BERGMANRN, Commanding at Fort Bascom, Y. M. NOTE -Have the trains take some water-barrels to hold water for the men, in case a corral is made to fight when the train is not near a stream. Give Captain Deiis orders to keep the barrels filled all the time. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. itf. C. V., A. A A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N2. M., March 16, 1865. SIR: I have had the honor to receive your letter of the 15th instant, stating, that you have received information that the Apache Indians, known as the Ilimbres band of that tribe, desire peace; and that you propose to have a talk with they in their own country, and desire that I give you an escort as far as Fort West on the Gila river. In reply, I beg to say that I have been duly informed of the disposition of those Indians, and some weeks since gave directions as to the only terms on which peace could be had. I have hitherto considered. and am still of the opinion, that when we are at war with a band of Indians the military department of the government should and must manage all affairs connected with them until the war is ended; otherwise a superintendent or Indian agent might go and have talks and negotiate with them, when in the opinion of the military commander the proper time had come to prosecute hostilities with increased rigor; and thus the two branches of the government might act with crosspurposes. The Indians to whom you allude have been long at war, and are now, it is believed, coming to that point where they wish to surrender. They are still in the hands of the military, and will be, until the military commander makes peace with them upon his own terms. Some of them have been captured and are kept as prisoners, so that when, in the opinion of the military commander, the proper time comes, if the present efforts to get the Indians fail, they will be sent as runners to tell their headmen to come in for a talk. Should 220 Official:

Page  A221 APPENDIX. the headmen thus come in, they will again be informed that the ultimnatum is for their people to remove to the reservation at the Bosque Redondo; that they can have peace on no other basis; that we will continue the war until that result is produced, or the band is exterminated. To have any person outside of the military go and hold talks with them would be productive of no good, and might lead to complications which should be avoided. I therefore trust you will suspend the prosecution of your contemplated journey with such an end in view. As soon as these Indians are at peace, and are removed to the reservation, and the Department of the Interior stands ready to feed and take care of them, in common with the Navajo Indians and the Mescalero Apaches, you will of course be notified, when it will afford me pleasure to turn them over to you. But until that time comes, the military will claim to manage them to the best of its ability, whether in making war or in making peace. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLEtON, Brigadier General, Commanding. MICHAELM STECK, Esq., Superintendent of Indian Affairs, Santa Fe, N. M. NOTE.-See enclosed indorsement, number 772, series of 1865, from these headquarters. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf C. V., A. A. A. Gtneral. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M, March 21, 1865. Herrera Grande, Fecundo, and the other Navajo chiefs who were sent as delegates on the 15th of February, 1865, to the old Navajo country to tell Manuelito and other Indians still in that country that they must go the Bosque, came back yesterday, and this morning came to department headquarters to report the result of their mission. His excellency Governor Connelly, Colonel James L. Collins, Hon Jose6 Manuel Gallegos, Colonel Nelson H. Davis, assistant inspector general United States army, and Lieutenant Colonel Eaton, 1st cavalry New Mexico volunteers, were present when Herrera made his report, which was made in Navajo to Jesus, the interpreter, and was rendered in English by his excellency the governor. It was as follows: Herrera Grande says: Three days and a half after he left Fort Wingate he got to Zufi, where he met Manuelito. They embraced, when Herrera told Manuelito he hal come to see him. Manuelito said his elder brother was the commander, and it would be better to go where his brother was. Next day Herrera started for the rancheria, and was overtaklen at Ojo del Venado that afternoon by Manuelito, who had staid back at ZIfii for awhile. That night, in talking with Manuelito, the latter said he would be willing to go to the Bosque, but his animals were poor. Herrera said it was not his orders for him to go, but the commander's orders. They camped together, and the next day at 3 p. m they arrived at the camp of Manuelito. Next day after, Manuelito sent out to call in those who were absent. Many had scattered, owing to a recent attack of the Utes. They came in that evening, in all about fifty men, women and children; this is about half of Manuelito's band. Then Manuelito brought in his stock; there were about 50 horses and 40 sheep. He said: "Here is all I have in the world. See what a trifling amount. You see how poor they are. My children are eating roots," (palmillas ) Manuelito said the stock was so poor it could not travel to the Bosque now. Herrera said he was not authorized to extend the time set for him to come in. The two men who went with Herrera joined the latter in saying that it was no use to discuss the matter; that if they did not go to the Bosque worse would come to them; that they need not remain behind thinking to have wealth in stock as they used to have; that they would lose not only their stock, if they staid, but their lives; that the dead could not be called back, and they had better think of this. The women and children, seeing that Manuelito was not disposed to come, commenced to cry, as they seemed to foresee the consequences of remaining behind. This conversation took place before the arrival of Manuelito's brother. But he soon came, when he said that his animals were too poor, and he wanted to remain. After this conversation, Herrera said it was no use to remain longer; that he had delivered his message and would aow go back to the Bosque. They then asked for three months to get their stock in order so that they could go. Manuelito sLid( then, upon reflection, he concluded not to go. That his God and his mother lived in the west and he would not leave them; that there was a tradition that his people should 221 Official:

Page  A222 APPENDIX. never cross the Rio Grande, the Rio San Juan, or the Rio Colorado; that he also could not pass three mountains, and particularly could he not leave the Chusca mountains, his native hills; that his intention was to remain; that he was there to suffer all the consequences of war or famine; that now he had nothing to lose but his life, and that they could come and take whenever they pleased, but he would not move; that he had never done any wrong to the Americans or the'Mexicans; that he had never robbed, but had lived upon his own resources; that if he were killed innocent blood would be shed. Herrera then said to him, "I have done all I could for your benefit; have given you the best advice; I now leave you as if your grave were already made." Here they parted, and Herrera and his companions then came to Zuili, where five Navajoes overtook them, some of whom had heard what had been said in council, and told them that a good many Navajoes would come in; and that the commander at the fort should be told of it, so as to be prepared for them and not treat them as enemies; that they would try to be in in fifteen days; but the snow was deep, and if they failed they would send in runners to tell the reason. Herrera then came to Fort Wingate, and this was the end of his mission. Jesus, the interpreter, then said that Manuelito told him, while the party was at Manuelito's rancheria, as follows: "Last summer, when I had a talk with you at Cation Bonita, I told you I would come in, but I told you falsely. Now I tell you what is true: I will not go, and it is no use in killing up horses in coming for me; I will never go voluntarily." Herrera was then asked by General Carleton how many Navajoes he thought were still back in the old Navajo country? How many, of all who remain, west of the Rio Grande? Answer. Fromn our calculations there are now six small parties. The first one is beyond the Colorado Chiquito, and consists of fifty souls, all told-men, women and children. They are mostly all ladrones. 'I'he next is Manuelito's band. It lives this side of Colorado Chiquito, about sixty miles beyond Zuili. It consists of about one hundred souls, of all ages and sexes. There are about twenty-five warriors. Not over twenty-five of this party say they will stay in the old Navajo country, but will go to the Bosque. The third party is at a place called Quelitas, south of Fort Canby. That band consists of sixty or seventy. They are living there on piionoes. They had considerable stock, but the Utes have recently taken it. They now live entirely upon nuts and roots. The fourth party lives at Pueblo Colorado. This party is poor, and lives also on piliones. This party has a hundred or more souls, with from thirty to thirty-five men who could bear arms. The fifth party is in Canion de ChellI. This party numbers sixty persons-men, women, and children. Has about twenty men. There is a sixth party at the Mesas de Calabazas, which has some stock-say 2,000 head of sheep and 100 horses. This party is friendly with the Pah-Utes, and numbers about one hundred. This makes four hundred and eighty in all, at the outside. We think there are less. Question by General Carleton. In your judgment, how many of these will voluntarily come in? Answer. We cannot tell how many, but probably seventy or eighty, or perhaps more. Here the interview ended, and, on the 22d day of March, Herrera and party left for the Bosque Redondo. JAMES H. CARLETON, BrigadieroGeneral, Commanding. ERASfUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa fN, N.M., JMarch 21, 1865. [By the hands of Michael Steck, esq., superintendent of Indian affairs in New Mexico.] MAJOR: I herewith enclose for your information a copy of a letter which I wrote to Superintendent Steck on the 18th instant; also a copy of his reply. Dr. Steck will cause to be transferred to Captain William L. Rynerson, assistant quartermaster United States volunteers, certain articles of property belonging to the Indian department, for the use of the Apaches and Navajoes upon the reservation. You will direct Captain Rynerson to receipt for them and to account for them through the proper department to the treasury 1222 Official:

Page  A223 APPENDIX. of the United States. Dr. Steck will give him information as to necessary details in making out the accounts, and the usual channel of communication. Of course these accounts will be distinct from all army property accounts, and, so far as this property is concerned, Captain Rynerson will be an acting Indian agent. Should Dr. Steck visit the Bosque Redondo, I bespeak for him at your hands the hospitality and consideration and \kindness to which he is entitled as the head of the Indian department in New Mexico. I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Gommandiny. Major WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N.M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NIW MEXICO, San!a Fe, N. 3JI., March 22,1865. GENERAL: I felt it to be my duty to order that Mr. Lorenzo Labadie, Indian agent for the Mescalero Apaches, be required to leave the reservation at the Bosque Redondo. He has, without a doubt, been engaged in buying cattle which had been delivered at Fort Sumner for subsistence for Indians. Captain Morton was not found guilty on the specification charging him with sending government cattle to Labadie's herd; but in General Crocker's opinion, as well as in my own, there can hardly be a doubt that Labadie and he were concerned in defrauding the government. I send the original record of the proceedings of the general court-martial, which tried Captain Morton, to you for your perusal. I beg, respectfully, that the Secretary of War ask of the Secretary of the Interior that Mr. Labadie be removed as Indian agent. He is not fit to hold office under the government. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, AMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ADJUTANT GENERAL OF THRE ARMY, Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe'. N. M., March 23, 1865. SinR: I understand if Manuelito, the Navajo chief, could be captured his band would doubtless come in; and that if you could make certain arrangements with the Indians at the Zufii village, where he frequently comes on a visit and to trade, they would co-operate with you in his capture. Whatever honorable arrangements can be made for his capture would doubtless save his people from being robbed and perhaps exterminated. Send runners to tell all Navajoes who want to come in to get to Fort Wingate as soon as possible. I believe many wish to come and will come. Owing to the deep snows which have fallen, and the weakness of their animals, consequent upon the late severe winter, the time in which they may come in before hostile demonstrations will again be conenced against those who positively refuse to come is extended to May 1, 1865. Try hard to get Manuelito. Have him securely ironed and carefully guarded. It will be a mercy to others whom he controls to capture or kill him at once. I prefer he should be captured. If he attempt to escape when again in our power, as he did from Fort Canby, he will be shot down. As fast as Indians come in to Fort Wingate send them to Los Pinos, where provisions are cheaper. Send some of those who come as runners to warn the rest to come in, not only to avoid danger, but to help put in a crop this year. Keep me promptly advised of all you do. I am, sir, respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Bri adier General, Commandiny. Commndin at Fort WinCte, N. SA., Commnanding at Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 223 Official: Official: ,Official:

Page  A224 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. I., March 30, 1865. SIR: I have the honor herewith to enclose for your information printed copies of General Orders No. 3, series of 1864, and General Orders No. 4, series for 1865, from these headquarters, which give an epitome of operations against Indians within the department of New Mexico for the last two years. You will observe in the summing up, in General Orders No. 4, that we have three thousand Indian children now upon the reservation. It is in reference to these children that this communication is written. Last year I had the honor to request of the Secretary of the Interior that that department furnish funds for the building of school-houses in which these children may be educated, but no answer was ever made to the letter. I now beg that you will take this important matter under consideration. It lies at the bottom of all our efforts to civilize these Indians. The education of these children is the fundamental idea on which must rest all our hopes of making the Navajoes a civilized and Christian people. It is unnecessary for me to put on paper the many arguments which I could use to convince you of the importance of having schools for these children. You can figure to your own mind 3,000 intelligent boys and girls with no one to teach them to read or write. Here is a field for those % ho are philanthropic which is ample enough to engage their attention and be the object of their charities for many years. Without money to build school-houses and to buy books, my hands are tied. The bishop of New Mexico has promised help in the way of teachers, but, in my opinion, this important subject should receive the fostering care of the government. The,-e children properly belong to your department, and now, as well as when they have become men and women, are and will be objects which must engage your solicitude. I trust, therefore. that my appeal to you in their behalf will not be in vain. There is another point to which I beg to call your immediate attention. Last year I requested of you that the surveyor general of New Mexico should cause to be surveyed the Indian reservation. This should be done at once. Not only should the exterior lines be run and be marked by durable mounds, but the irrigable lands should be laid off in ten acre lots for assignment to different families. Perhaps even lots of a smaller size may be necessary. No permanent organization of the tribes into bands, nor identity of lands, with particular fields, can be made fairly and justly until this survey is made. You are aware that there are no public surveys making either in this Territory or in Arizona which would interfere with this work. Not one rood of laud has been surveyed in New Mexico since September, 1862, to my knowledge; the reason was, perhaps, on account of Indian difficulties. But there exists no reason why this important reservation may not at once be surveyed and be cut up into lots. 1 pray that this may be done at an early day. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, AMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Hon. SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR, Washington, D). C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lst Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N'. M., April 24, 1865. GENERAL: I returned yesterday from the Bosque Redondo. It will be impossible to organize into bands and systematically direct the labors of the 9,000 Indians we have at that point unless the lands are properly surveyed. I have written two letters to the Secretary of the Interior on the subject. The last one is herewith enclosed. The surveyor general of New Mexico is now in Arizona, and it is uncertain when he will return. Even if he were here there are no practical surveyors here who could do the work. So I beg respectfully to recommend that the War Department, unless the Department of the Interior will do it, will employ and send out at once some practical surveyors to divide this land so that particular lots can be given to particular bands and families. To do this by guess is going to lead to endless quarrels. Once I can divide up the land so as to let a given quantity be set apart for a certain number of Indians, and have it defined by a wall which they can make, once the lines are drawn, the great step towards organization will at once commence. Now, I have but a mass of Indianr.s with no acknowledged head, and 224 Official:

Page  A225 APPENDIX. no subdivisions. The question about the schools for the 3,000 children I have written much about, but can do nothing without authority from Washington to erect the schoolhouses. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ADJUTANT GENERAL U. S. A., Washington, D. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW M~EXICO, Santa Fe, N. A~., April 26, 1865. MAJOR: I desire that you have a careful examination made of the amount of subsistence stores on hand for issue to Indians at Fort Sumner. This subject gives me great anxiety. Should there be any accident to prevent the arrival of corn from the States, we shall have to diminish the ration, and must know to what extent this must be done before the stock runs low. Should the priest, who has been elected chaplain, come with Paymaster Watts, who will be at your post to pay off in a few days, give him for religious and school purposes the three rooms in the Indian hospital which I looked at when there. The steward knows the three. They are contiguous and are of the following dimensions: two rooms in the west wing, each 18 by 20 feet; and one front room, 20 by 30 feet. He is a fine young man, and I bespeak for him your kind consideration, help, and encouragement. I believe it would be better for him to have the care of as many children who are orphans as possible. He will then know if they get enough to eat. I enclose herewith a copy of a letter from my)self to Mlr. Labadie, and a copy of his reply. Your own judgment will dictate what is best to be done. If that woman has sold or is selling grain, the matter can be soon ascertained. Woodworth can be sent for, questioned, and, if guilty, tried. You have one or two links; you can now follow up the chain. See what Labadie told Mr. Edgar in this connexion. Respectfully, &c., JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding, Major WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. O. V., A. A. A. General. IHEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., May 4, 1865. COLONEL: I received your note of the 12th of April. It is my purpose to establish a camp of three companies during the summer at or near Cedar Bluffs or near Cold spring, on the Cimarron route, to give assistance to trains en route to and from the States. I believe if you go upon duty at that point you will be able to have a talk with some of the chiefs of Cheyennes, Kiowas, and Comanches, and impress them with the folly of continuing this bad course. The troops would have been ordered out to that point before now, but the spring was so backward the grass would not sustain the animals. Pfeiffer, perhaps, may be spared to go. It would be well for you to get ready to go from Fort Union by the 20th instant. Please talk with Colonel St. Vrain about purchasing the beaver skins for me. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CRRISTOPHER CARSON, Taos, N. M. NoTE.-It would be well if Mr. Benthner would send out to your camp some necessaries to sell to your soldiers, and canned fruit, which would keep them healthy. Besides, he would sell much to passing companies and trains. Ofiia:ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain I st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A Gener 15 225 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A226 APPENDIX. H[EADQUAxTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. I., May 8,1865. COLONEIL: I received last evening your note of the 6th instant, and enclose herewith the order for your movement. In my opinion your consultations and influence with the Indians of the plains will stop the war. Be sure and move on the appointed day. I have full faith and confidence in your judgment and in your energy. To have a fine camp, with ovens; a comfortable place for the sick; good store-rooms; some defences thrown up to prevent surprise; pickets established at good points for observation; hay cut and hauled to feed of nights or in case the Indians crowd you; large and well-armed guards, under an officer, with the public animals when herding; promptness in getting into the saddle and in moving to help the trains; a disposition to move quick, each man with his little bag of flour, a little salt and sugar and coffee, and not hampered by packs; arms and equipments always in order; tattoo and reveille roll-calls invariably under arms, so that the men shall have their arms on the last thing at night and in their hands the first thing in the morning; to have an inspection by the officers at tattoo and at reveille of the arms, and to see that the men are ready to fight, never to let this be omitted; to' have, if possible, all detachments commanded i)y an officer, to report pro,,ress and events from time to time-these seem to be some of the essential points which, of course, you will keep in view. If the Indians behave themselves, that is all the peace we want, and we shall not molest them; if they do not, we will fight them on sight and to the bitter end. The wt:r is over now, and, if necessary, 10,000 men can at once l'e put into the field against them. Tell them this. It is a short speech, but it covers all the ground. You know I don't believe much in smoking with Indians. When they fear us, they behave They must be made to fear us or we can have no lasting peace. They must not think to stop the commerce of the plains, nor must they imagine that we are going to keep up escorts with trains. We do this now until we learn whether they will behave or not. If they will not, we will end the matter by a war which will remove any further necessity for escorts. Keep up discipline from the start and all the time. After you have established your camp and got matters in training, please report in full. Very respectfully and truly, JMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPHfER CARSON, lst Cavalry New Mexico Volunteers, Taos, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MxiCO,, Santa e, NA Nf., May 8, ]865. GENERAL: I am anxious that some five or six of the principal chiefs of the Navajo nation of Indians, and some three or four of the principal men of the M,escalero Apache Indians, from the nine thousand of these two peoples now upon the reservation at the Bosque Redondo, New Mexico, should go to Washington to see and talk with the President, the Secretary of War, and the Secretary of the Interior. They are very anxious, themselves, to go, and I am confident that for them to see our authorities and to see our country en route to the seat of government, will have a beneficial result. I respectfully beg leave from the War Department to send them on under the charge of Captain Henry B. Bristol, United States 5th infantry, who has for a long time been stationed in their midst, has directed their labors, settled their little differences, has taken uncommon interest in their welfare and advancement, and whom they look upon with great affection and confidence. This can be done with but a trifling expense, as they can go to Leavenworth in public wagons. I trust the honorable Secretary will be pleased to know that they wish to see him and to take him by the hand. He cannot fail to have his feelings interested in their behalf, once he has seen what intelligent and manly fellows they are. And once they know that the heads of the government take an earnest interest in their welfare, and are disposed to be generous to them and their people, they will return satisfied and happy. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnanding. ADJUTA'T GENERAL OF TfiE ARxY, Was: Official: ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 18s Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 226 Official:

Page  A227 APPENDIX. DEPART3MERNT OF NEW MEXICO, ASSISTANT ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, Senta Te, N. M., June 3, 1865. SIR: It has been officially reported to the governor that yesterday a party of Indians, supposed to be the band of the Jicarilla Apache chief Jos6 Lirgo, attacked the herders of Mr. Alexander Valle and Donaciano Vigil, at the Rio de la Vaca, about twelve miles from Mr. Valle's ranch on the Pecos, but between his place and Tecalote. Two herders were killed, their arms taken from them, also their horses and other animals. The general commanding directs that you at once start out a picked party of two officers and thirty men, one-half cavalry and the remainder infantry, well armed, and with twenty days' rations on pack animals. The officer in command will be directed to use every effort to get on the trail of these Indians, but before attacking them to be sure that they are the guilty parties. Should it appear beyond a doubt that these Indians are the ones who killed the herders and drove off the stock, they will be pursued until caught and punished, even if the men are compelled to go upon half-rations, and if the stock and property is retaken it will be returned to the owners. A man from the Pecos will meet the troops at Tecalote and guide them from there to the place where the men were killed, and Mr. Valle goes to his home in the morning and will get up a party of citizens to co-operate with the military and act as scouts, &c The officer who goes ini comm-and of this party should be particularly careful in guarding his own stock and in providing against a surprise, as this Indian, Jose Largo, is perfectly acquainted with the country over which the troops will travel, and has with him generally about thirty warriors. I have the honor to be, sir, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. COMMANDING OrFFICER, Fort Union, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NFEW MEXICO, Tecalote, N. M., June 19, 1865. MAJOR: I have learned by a private letter from Captain Henry B. Bristol to Captain. Cutler, dated June 16, 1865, that Ganado Blanco, Barboucito Blanco, and some ten or twelve Navajoes, with their herds of horses and sheep, left the reservation for Chusca, ther place of abode before coming to the Bosque. Major Fritz and Captain Fox, with forty cavi airy, are in pursuit, and Captain Gorham, with the interpeter Jesus and a small party, are out. Captain Bristol could not ascertain positively the number gone until he could have another count. The Indians say that nearly all the Indians that had stock to carry them had left. No reason is assigned for this unfortunate step except that it was sickly there. I hope the Indians have not been incited to this step by parties opposed to the reservation system. These Indians must be recaptured or destroyed before they cross the Rio Grande. It is unfortunate that we have not sufficieat troops to do this, and we must call upon the people for help; but we will concentrate all the troops possible. Send an order for all the mounted men at Las Cruces, Fort Selden and Fort McRae, to march at once to Fort Craig; for Colonel Rigg, with Samburn's company of cavalry and the company of infantry formerly commanded by Captain Haskell, to march at once to Los Pinos. Tell Colonel Rigg to say to General Montoya to raise one hundred well armed, well mounted men and go with Colonel Rigg or follow him as quickly as possible. All these troops will be cautioned to take with them an abundant supply of ammunition. Unless the presence of these Navajoes near the Rio Grande should render it otherwise necessary, Colonel Rigg will move immediately with this force from Los Pinos to the pass of Abo. You will send an express to Brady to join with all his company, mounted and on foot, Colonel Rigg at that point, or at such other point as circumstances may render it necessary for Colonel Rigg to go. Send to Colonel Davis to send Captain Nichols with fifty of the picked and best mounted men of his company, at once, to Fort Stanton by the shortest route, taking the soldiers now at the Tularosa saw-mill in to Fort Stanton, as he passes that point Have Captain Shinn move at once with all the effective mren of his command, and through the Camwell pass to some point east of the mountains, where he can, by means of spies, observe the plains towards the Bosque. Oider Colonel SL.aw to send fifty mounted men to join Captain Shinn at once by way of Los Pinos Get Don Ambrosio Ameijo to raise one hundred picked, well mounted men, Americans 227 Official:

Page  A228 APPENDIX. and MAexicans, with Bias Lucero for guide, and to go with, or as soon as practicable join, Captain Shinn. Get General Clever to raise one hundred men. Miexicans and Americans, and proceed to Galisteo, or some point fifteen or twenty miles from there in the direction of Anton Chico, where, through his spies, he can get an idea as to the whereabouts of the Indians, with a view of attacking them or of joining Captain Shinn, or the armed party nearest to him, as circumstances may require. I wish Colonel Brown to raise another hundred men, including the men he can get at Fort Marcy, and proceed with them to Don Serafin Ramirez's place beyond tile Placer mines, and there throw out spies toward the east to observe the motions of the Indians, and to attack any and all parties of Navajoes of which he can obtain information and can reach. Dr. Brown will go with Colonel Brown. See the governor and get him to confirm all this, and get him to write to all the principal citizens to aid in this matter at once. I hope it will be the last, as it has been the first, time that Navajoes will attempt to escape from the reservation. Do all this promptly; if necessary, hire transportation; furnish rations from the government supplies; then place yourself with the command of Captain Shinn, and there, in my name, give such orders for the combination and supply of these forces, the sending o'ut of spies, the attacking of the Navajoes, the protection of the people, and the getting such NavaLjoes as may be captured back to the Bosque Redondo as in your judgment may be for the best until you hear further from me. Say to the governor that the hundred men that may be called out under General Montoya Ambrosio Amijo, General Clever, and Colonel Brown, I will endeavor to get paid by the government. Such other parties of citizens as may go out to attack these Indians shall be rewarded with all the stock they can recover from them. It is probable that the Indians, many of them, are embarrassed with the,r wonmen and children and cannot travel as fast as war parties. Tell the governor to send word to owners of stock to get their stock to places of security until this matter is ended. It is likely that many of the Indians of Santa Domingo, Ysleta, San Dia, and San Felipe may desire to go, if so, authorize and urge them to do so. Let everything be done quickly, but let there be nothing like a stampede. I shall go to Fort Union to-morrow, and, having seen the congressional committee, shall go to the Bosque as soon as possible; when, having learned more definitely about the matter, will give you further information. Hiave some spies, to be sure that the Indians do not pass down the river, with a view of crossing the Rio Grande at some point on the Jornada. Captain Fountain, at Paraje, would be one good man to employ on this business. The people of Chilili, Manzana, Toren, and Punta del Agua are well acquainted with the country to the east of those places, and good spies can be got from among them. I have the honor to be, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES HI. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major WILAM H. L EIs, U. S. A., Santa F6, NV. M. NOTE.-YOu will order Doctor Foye to accompany Rigg. I beg you to bear in mind that in this matter time is precious. Colonel Rigg will be ordered to start at once, without waiting for the troops ordered from below to arrive at Fort Craig. Give directions that no women nor children be killed. J. HI. C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Capatin 1st Vet. linf. C. V. A. A. A. General. IEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NMEw MEXICO, Fort Sumner, N. M., June 25, 1865. MAJOR: Your letter of the 22d instant was received this evening, and I am directed by the general commanding to say that your action, as stated therein, is approved by him. The Navajoes who ran away from the reservation have returned, with the exception of a small party not exceeding twenty-eight or thirty in number, as reported. Many are said to have died from starvation and want of water, and those who could get back were glad to do so, and it appears that all are now more contented than ever. The general desires you to send at once, by express, and order the troops detailed from Forts Wingate, Craig, Selden, and Las Cruces back to their respective posts. Captain Shinn, with the troops from Albuquerque and Fort Stanton, will remain out until further orders. If it happen that citizen parties are in the field they should be informed that terv can return to their homes. 228 Official:

Page  A229 APPENDIX. It is believed by many officers here that these Navajoes have been tampered with by men who, for political purposes, have opposed the reservation, and would be willing to see the interests of the country suffer, provided they could advance their own. I have the honor to be, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, BEN. C. CUTLER, Assistant Adjutant General. Major WILLIAM H. LELwIs, U. S. A., Santa Fe, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. lnf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fee, N. M., July 13,. 1865. MAJOR: In view of the evident shortness of the crop of breadstuffs throughout the Territory this year, I find that it will be much cheaper and much safer to diminish the amount of breadstuff to be issued to captive Indians to three-fourths of a pound per head per diem, and to increase the meat ration for said Indians to one pound per head per diem, from the date when you receive this letter until further orders. The ration of solid food in gross will, by this measure, be the same, only there will be one-fourth of a pound more meat, and one-fourth of a pound less breadstuff to the ration. Respectfully, &c, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Miajor WILLIAM IMc ILEAVE, Commanding at F)rt Sumner, N. M. ERPASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st VTet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. M., July 18, 1865. MAJOR: I have been informed by Mr. Parker that the corn worm has made its appearance at the Bosque, and this causes me great anxiety. As I understand it, the butterfly or moth, which lays the egg that produces this worm, lays that egg in the moist silk of the growing ear Each thread of that silk goes down to the embryo kernel of corn, and becoming impregnated by the pollen or seed, which, like dust, floats from the spindle, the kernel comes to maturity. If I am correctly informed, once you destroy a thread of that silk, before imLpregnation takes place, no kernel of corn will grow at the point where that thread had root upon the ear. So, if to destroy the worm, which is at first found at the tip of the ear, you cut off or break the thread of silk, you prevent the growth of a corresponding number of kernels of corn. But if each ear, at its upper extemity, could be carefully opened and the worm removed without breaking the threads of silk, the corn would be saved, in my opinion. So much is at stake in this matter that I wish you would make the attempt and let me know the result. The moth that lays the egg looks like a small butterfly; and if some plan could be had to destroy that, the evil would be attacked at the proper place. In Kansas, it is said, that plates, with molasses in them, were placed on posts in corn-fields, and at these the moths would come, when they could be destroyed. It would be well to try this experiment in three or four places. Of course in your extended farm it would be impossible to carry it out effectually. Every ounce of food should be carefully husbanded. Famine literally stares the people of the Territory in the face this year. I am devising every plan possible to get extra amounts of hay and mesquite beans, &c., for our animals, so as to leave to the people all they can raise. You should tell the Indians what a dreadful year it is, and how they must save everything to eat which lies in their power, or starvation will come upon them. HTave lk,rge parties at work with those hoes. Corn, well hoed, will produce twice as much as corn indifferently attended to. Let me now give you notice of the importance of saving all the melon and pumpkin 229 Official: Official:

Page  A230 APPENDIX. seeds possible. Make it a business of some to do this. A seed-room should be made now. Have the shelves, on which the bags of seed are to be placed, suspended by wires from the ceilings, that the mice may not be able to get upon the shelves to depredate upon the seeds. Very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. 31. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V, A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F, N. M., July 20, 1865. GENERAL: About the 15th ultimo two of the Navajo chiefs, named Ganado Blanco and Barboucito, with quite a large number of their followers, left the reservation at the Bosque Redondo, and started in the direction of the old Navajo country. There came to Santa Fd many rumors swelling the number who had esc ped as high as three thousand There was not cavalry enough at Fort Sumner to pursue and bring back all the reported fugitives; and to make it certain that all the main points along the Rio Grande should be watched and guarded, I authorized that some citizens should be called out to help the few troops along the river to check aid drive back these Indians. You doubtless know that much of the available force in this department was then, and is now, off on the plains endeavoring to protect trains en route to this country from the hostile Indians in that quarter. This rendered a call for help on the citizens imperative. (See the enclosed circular.) It so happened that many of the Indians who attempted to escape returned of their own accord to the Bosque, as they got out of provisions and suffered greatly for the want of water. The others were both pursued and headed off, so it is doubtful if a single one was able to cross the river. Ganado Blanco and some of his followers were killed, and much of their stock captured. (See the accompanying reports of Major Fritz, Captain Brady, Captain French, and of General Montoyo.) It is doubtful if another attempt will soon be made by parties of Navajoes to escape. Enclosed, also, is a roli of some of the citizens who abandoned their work and went into the field. I have directed that they be named as spies and guides, that, if the WVar Department so orders, they can be paid by the quartermaster department, as the pay department can only pay legally and regularly organized companies. You will see how few days they were employed. No price was fixed for their services. That is left with the War Department. I think these men should be paid. If paid, in case of a sudden emergency every citizen hereafter will take the field with alacrity. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H1. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. ADJUTANT GENERAL, U. S. A., Washington, I). C. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. CA.V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa PE, N. M., July 24, 1865. MAJOR: The plan adopted by you to let the quartermaster at your post have unthreshed grain to feed his animals and to cavalry horses, and take therefor to issue as breadstuffs to Indians grain which he has in sacks that is already cleaned up, seems to be wise and laborsaving. The accounts of these exchanges should be ri,zidly kept, so as to challenge scrutiny on the palt of those who fancy wrong where all is right. The straw, which goes with the grain thus exchangd, should be weighed, and, if it answer the place of hay, should be paid for at a fair valuation, so that the Indian farm should give all the fair returns toward the support of the Indians which may be possible. I have sent for a bell, to be used as a signal for hours of labor and repose for the Indians. This will weigh one thousand pounds, and cost in St. Louis two hundred and fifty dollars 230 Official: Official:

Page  A231 APPENDIX. This must be paid for out of a fund accruing from sales of straw and fodder from the Indian farm. Then there are soldiers to pay for the extra clothing worn out in their unusual labors upon that farm, and garden-ceeds, and grape-shoots, &c., to say nothing of getting sheep and wool for the Indians. This must come out of the proceeds of the sales of the straw and fodder; so that I hope you will have a book opened and an account kept of all straw or fodder sold, date of sale, price agreed upon, amount received, &c I am, major, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major WILLIAM MICCLEAVE, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. A., July 25, 1865. To whom it may concern: Two Navajo women-Not-li-ar-pa and Es-nart-so, or, as they are called in Spanish, Maria and Guadalupe —came to department headquarters to-day, and in presence of his excellency Governor Henry Connelly and of the superintendent of Indian affairs, Don Felipe Delgado, said that they desired to live in the family of Don Antonio Jose Mora, of Cieneguilla, near Santa Fe. This I have agreed that they may do so, as it is their wish voluntarily made. But it is understood by all the parties that the said women, or either of them, may depart from said family and go where they please, without hindrance from the said Morn, or any other person, provided they do not go to the old Navajo country, or commit crimnes or misdemeanors against any person or persons in this Territory, or within the boundaries of the United States. Each one of the women named herein is furnished with a copy of this paper, and it is recorded at department headquarters. JAMES IH. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Comnianding. Signed in presence of HENRY CONNELLY. FELIPE DELGADO. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. M., July 29, 1865. MAJOR: Owing to the threatened scarcity of breadstuffs, and the difficulty there will doubtless be to procure enough for the subsistence of the Indians upon the reservation, in case their own crop fail, from and after the date of the receipt by yourself of this letter, you will cause to be issued to each Indian upon the reservation, per day, until further orders, half a pound of breadstuffs and one and a quarter pound of meat-in all, one pound and threequarters of solid food. This can the more economically be done now, when cattle are fat; and, besides, the Indians can eke out their meals at this season of the year with melons, pumpkins, &c. Respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Major WILLIAM MCCLEAVE, Commanding at Fort Sumner, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. 231 Official: Official: Official:

Page  A232 APPENDIX. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Te", N. M., July 30, 1865. GENEIAL: I had the honor to receive your letter of the 30th ultimo, which gives your views in reference to the protection of the Santa F4 road from Indians, and gives informIation of expeditions which you are about starting against Indians south of the Arkansas river. 31My opinion is, while the trains are exposed upon the plains in the summer season, our force should be so distributed as to give them protection. When they cease to run in the fall and winter, the Indians being then in known haunts with their families, can be more readily attacked, and without the danger, as now, of their dodging the troops, and, while the latter are off the road, of their pouncing upon the trains left unguarded. From lack of troops it will be entirely out of my power to co-operate in your contemplated movements. The Indians within this Territory occupy the attention of every man that can be spared to take the field. I am, general, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Brigadier General JAMES H. FORD, Commanding District of Upper Arkansas, Fort Larned, Arkansas. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa F1e, A. M., Auguest 2, 1865. SIR: It is said that a party of Indians crossed the Rio Grande, near Stapleton's ranch, doubtless, if true, going west; and some troops were ordered, with ten days' rations, on the 21st ultimo from Fort Craig, to take the trail and follow it up. These Indians may be Itavajoes, and, if so, they will doubtless, if not before killed or captured, go through the Rita Quemiada toward the old Navajo country. It is expected that they will not only not get any of your stock, but that you will have a good account given of them. Kill or capture all Navajo men you can find in the old Navajo country without proper passports. JAMES E. CARLETON, Brigadier Generol, Commanding. CONMANDING OFFICER, Fort Wingate, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain lest Vet. Inf. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa Fe, N. -., August 6, 1865. CoLoxNL: I had the honor to receive your letter of August 2, 1865, enclosing a letter to yourself from the Hon. J. R. Doolittle, United States Senate, chairman of the congressional committee to inquire into Indian affairs, and also enclosing two telegraphic despatches from the Secretary of War to Mr. Doolittle, with reference to holding courils with the Indians. Mr. Doolittle's letter, and Mr. Stanton's despatches, I herewith return for your guidance in your special mission upon the plains, made at the request of Mr. Doolittle. Your knowledge of what Mr. Doolittle desires and hopes you will be able to effect with the Indians of the plains, which knowledge you have derived in conversation with that gentleman, precludes the necessity of special instructions from me. Indeed, in this matter, where, as I understand it, the great object to be had in view by yourself is to make preliminary arrangements, if possible, with the Comanches, Kiowas, and Cheyennes and Arapahoes, so that hostilities on their part will cease, and so that their chiefs and principal men will meet commissioners in council to make a treaty of peace. Your great knowledge of the Indians your knowledge of what is desired on the part of the government-your kn,owledge of the danger to be apprehended that the Indians may believe our overtures proceed rather from our fears of them than from a sincere desire not to make war upon them on our part, unless they compel us to do so-your knowledge of how to talk with them, so that they may not suffer from any such delusion-these considerations you understand so much better than myself, that it is unnecessary for me to give you, or attempt to give you, any instructions in the case. 232 Official: Official:

Page  A233 APPENDIX I wish you to keep a journal of each day's march, and of each day's events, and of what Indians you meet. Please report your talks with them, and all they say in reply. This information is required for the War Department. If you go by Fort Bascom, you have my authority to take Mr. DeLisle, the guide at that post, with you. He knows well the country between the Canadian and the Arkansas rivers. Please look well to the country you pass over, with an eye to the site of a large post to be built in the place where the Kiowas and Comanches spend their winters-a ten-company post, with six of the companies cavalry. I enclose herewith the order for your escort, and for Adjutant Tanfield to join you. That you may have good luck and return in health and safety, is the earnest wish of your sincere friend, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General, Commanding. Colonel CHRISTOPnER CARSON, Fort Union, N. M. ERASTUS W. WOOD, Captain 1st Vet. Iif. C. V., A. A. A. General. HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF NEW MEXICO, Santa FE, N. N., August 6, 1865. SIR: The bearer of this letter is Colonel Theodore H. Dodd, a distinguished soldier during the late rebellion, but who, since he retired from service, has been, as you are aware, appointed Indian agent for the Navajoes Colonel Dodd came out to New Mexico with the Hon. James R. Doolittla, chairman of Indian affairs in the Senate, and went to the Bosque Redondo to enter upon his duties. He expected to find his commission here, but he has not yet received it. From the 25th day of last June, the day when Colonel Dodd arrived at the Bosque Redondo, he is, as yourself I hope will decide, clearly entitled to pay. We have learned, unofficially, that in the last session of Congress one hundred thousand dollars were appropriated for the Navajo Indians. Not one line of official information has been received on the subject, so far as I can learn, and here it is in August, with the fall and winter so near at hand, when the women and children will be suffering for the want of clothing. In order to insure that there shall be no delay either in making the purchases of necessary articles for the Indians, and in getting them out here before the winter sets in, I have advised Colonel Dodd to go directly through to Washington and to see personally after these important matters, in which the health and comfort of nine thousand Indians, entirely dependent upon the government for everything, are concerned. I hope you will approve of his coming. Indeed, there was nothing else left for him to do, unless to sit down and see the people whose wants he is in duty bound to look after perish, when the snows come, for want of clothing. You will find Colonel Dodd, whom I have known for some years, to be a fine gentleman, and one who is conscientious to the last degree in the discharge of his official duties. He has fine business capacity, and I have to congratulate you in having secured his valuable services. I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant, JAMES H. CARLETON, Brigadier General,