The history and antiquities of Boston, and the villages of Skirbeck, Fishtoft, Freiston, Butterwick, Benington, Leverton, Leake, and Wrangle; comprising the hundred of Skirbeck, in the county of Lincoln. Including also a history of the East, West, and Wildmore fens, and copious notices of the Holland or Haut-Huntre fen ... sketches of the geology, natural history, botany, and agriculture of the district; a very extensive collection of archaisms and provincial words, local dialect, phrases, proverbs, omens, superstitions, etc. By Pishey Thompson. Illustrated with one hundred engravings.
Thompson, Pishey, 1784-1862.

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Page  I THE A5itoxF2 UVrb ntintqIU*t oEA OF BOSTON, AND THE VILLAGES OF SKTIRBECK, FISHTOFT, FREISTON, BUTTERWICK, BENINGTON, LEVERTON, LEAKE, AND WRANGLE; COMPRISING giv Hndred of hidb, Ait, i tte qunntg of intoaXo. INCLUDING ALSO A HISTORY OF THE EAST, WEST, AND WILDBIORE FENS, AND COPIOUS NOTICES OF THE HOLLAND OR HAUTHUNTRE FEN; A HISTORY OF THE RIVER WITHAM; THE BIOGRAPHY OF CELEBRATED PERSONS, NATIVES OF, OR CONNECTED WITH, THE NEIGHBOURHOOD; SKETCHES OF THE GEOLOGY, NATURAL HISTORY, BOTANY, AND AGRICULTURE OF THE DISTRICT; A VERY EXTENSIVE COLLECTION OF ARCHAISMS AND PROVINCIAL WORDS, LOCAL DIALECT, PHRASES, PROVERBS, OMENS, SUPERSTITIONS, ETC. BY PISHEY -THOMPSON. ILLUSTRATED WITH ONE HUNDRED ENGRAVINGS. " The genuine history of a country canll never be well understood without a complete and searching analysis of the component parts of the community as well as the country. ~ Genealogical inquiries and local topography, so far from being unworthy the attention of the philosophical inquirer, are amongst the best materials he can use; and the fortunes and changes of one family, or the events of one upland township, may explain the darkest and most dubious portions of the annals of a realm."-SIR FRANCIS PALGRAVE. BOSTON: JOHN NOBLE, JUN. LONDON: LONGMAN AND CO.; SIMPKIN AND CO. BOSTON, MASSACHUSETTS: SAMUEL G. DRAKE. 1856.

Page  II LONDON: Pri:,ted by G. BAROLAY, Castle St. Leicester Sq.


Page  IV

Page  V PRE F ACE. REFACE-WRITING is probably nearly coeval with the art of printing. The publications of the early printers have generally a prefix or prologue. a Many of these ancient examples contain much that is not exactly prefatory; whilst of the mo-i ~' Sdern, it may be said, that the great majority have little claim to the title which they assume except their position. There is high authority for asserting, that it is easier to write a good book than a good preface. Certainly, although almost every book has this accompaniment, there are many more of the former than of the latter. Probably, however, it has not yet been decided what are the requisites and the characteristics of a good preface. The greater part of modern prefaces contain much that is generally redundant, and, always ought to be, unnecessary. For instance, an author states, in his preliminary address, the object and intention of his work; this the title-page should always sufficiently do. Then the preface often enumerates the contents of the volume; this ought to be rendered unnecessary by the running titles, the table of contents, and the index. Next frequently follows a long statement of the sources from which the author has collected his materials, and the authorities to which he refers in corroboration of his facts; this should always be done by notes accompanying each particular statement: where this is attended to, a detailed reference to authorities in a preface is useless, and therefore redundant. The Author is aware that he is materially reducing the usual functions of a preface: he does so because he cannot regard as legitimate any of the practices to which he refers. Of course it will be asked, what, in his

Page  VI vi PREFACE. opinion, is the proper object of a preface? He will not undertake to give a general answer to this question, because it does not appear to admit of one. Much will depend upon the particular description and object of the book to which a preface is prefixed. In works of a topographical and historical description, the business of a preface appears to be twofold; in both cases personal to the Author, and biographical (if the term be allowable), as respects the book. The progress of the work should be briefly traced from its inception to its completion, and due acknowledgments made to those persons who have assisted the Author in his labours. Both these subjects have a direct tendency to egotistical display, which it should be the writer's aim to repress. The Author began to collect materials for the " History of Boston " in 1804, and his intention to prepare such a work for publication was announced in 1807. He was fully aware that he was entering upon untrodden ground; but he also felt that it was a field which ought to be traversed and explored, that it was a rich soil, and if properly and diligently cultivated, would yield a valuable and exuberant harvest. He industriously continued his labour of collecting and arranging until 1819, when, by his removal to the United States, this work was interrupted, and there did not appear any probability that he would be, at any future period, able to resume it. The materials which he had collected were therefore arranged for the press, and published in 1820, under the title of " Collections for a Topographical and Historical Account of Boston, and the Hundred of Skirbeck, in the County of Lincoln." When the Author finally returned to England in 1846, he found that the " Collections" had been favourably received by the public, and that copies of the work were scarce and difficult to be procured. He was solicited to prepare a new, enlarged, and corrected edition; he was not unwilling to undertake the work, although quite aware of the labour which it would involve. Indeed, he never lost sight of his original intention, but had, during a residence of more than a quarter of a century in the United States, carefully collected all the information which he there met with, relative to his native district; but he knew that much remained to be done before he could complete such a " History of Boston " as he was ambitious to produce. The Author continued his labours until 1851, and from that time he has almost incessantly applied himself to the accomplishment of his object. He has been most kindly and efficiently aided by numerous friends, by whose assistance he is now enabled to present to his Subscribers and the Public a volume, which will, he hopes, be found, in some degree, worthy their acceptance and patronage, and which he wishes to be regarded as his humble contribution to the History of his native

Page  VII PREFACE. vii county. He lays no claim to any other merit than that of unconquerable (he cannot say unwearied) industry. The rising sun and the midnight hour have, during the last five years, very frequently found him engaged in his "labour of love." If errors be found-as he fears there may —in his statements and conclusions, he can only urge in extenuation, that they do not exist through any want of industrious and careful research; and that if the same energy of youth and health which aided him in his early exertions had accompanied him to the close of his labours, he might have avoided some of the erroneous conclusions with which he may now, he fears, be justly chargeable. He will vouch for his faithful quotations and statements, his readers must temper justice with mercy in commenting upon his deductions. The list of friends to whom the Author is indebted for most valuable assistance is indeed a long one. His thanks are, in the first place, due to the TOWN COUNCIL of Boston for their so promptly granting him every facility for the inspection of the Records and Journals of the Corporation, from its establishment in 1545 to the present time. All the interesting documents in the Corporation Archives have been almost literally perused by the Author, and the constant reference to these important papers in nearly every department of this volume, is evidence of the great service which this liberality on the part of the Town Council has been to him. The readiest access to the Parish Registers of Boston has been granted to the Author by the Rev. G. B. BLENKIN, Vicar of Boston; and the contents of the Church Chest, and other important documents, have been submitted to his inspection by the courtesy of the Churchwardens. The Rev. Mr. BLENRIN has also materially assisted the Author in various departments of his book, and the value of the service has been increased by the urbanity and kindness with which it was rendered. To FRE,)ERIC COOKE, Esq. (Mayor of Boston), the Author is indebted for many facilities officially and individually afforded him. G. G. SCOTT, Esq., the eminent architect, has supplied much valuable information respecting the late repairs of St. Botolph's Church. G. G. PLACE, Esq., the skilful architect, who superintended the repairs and adaptation of the interior of the church, furnished a description of the exterior; and THOrMAS COLLIS, Esq., an account of the interior, abridged from Mr. STEPHEN LEWIN'S valuable History of Churches in the Division of Holland, and embodying all the restorations and improvements executed under Mr. PLACE'S supervision. The Author is also indebted to Mr. CoLLIS for much assistance and valuable materials respecting the life of St. Botolph. From Mr. E. C. HAcKrFoRD, the intelligent Verger of the Church, he has received

Page  VIII Viii PREFACE. many official facilities and attentions, which he here begs to acknowledge. To the Rev. RICHARD CONINGTON of Boston, the Rev. MARTIN SHEATH of Wyberton, Major MOORE of Frampton, WILLIAM SIMONDS, Esq. of Kirton, the Rev. J. HOLMES of Swineshead, Rev. ROBERT E. RoY of Skirbeck, Rev. HENRY HOLDSWORTH of Fishtoft, J. B. MILLINGTON, Esq., of Freiston, Mr. J. S. BAZLINTON, and Rev. J. JACKSON of Butterwick, Rev. A. VEITCH, and Rev. C. F. NEWWMARCH of Leverton, Rev. HENRY BARFOOT of Leake, Rev. THOMAS B. WRIGHT, and Rev. R. F. WRIGHT of Wrangle, Rev. THOMAS MITCHINSON of Carrington, and Rev. J. CHAPMAN of New Bolingbroke, the Author is much indebted for the information communicated, and the facilities accorded in examining the records and registers of the various parishes, and for much valuable assistance in several departments of his laborious undertaking. He owes his especial thanks to Mr. STEPHEN LEWIN, for his permission to extract what was applicable to his purpose from that gentleman's valuable History of the Churches in these parishes, published in 1843 by Mr. Morton. Of this permission the Author has unsparingly availed himself. Much information has been received from SAMUEL H. JEBB, Esq., F. T. WHITE, Esq., J. G. CALTHROP, Esq., HENRY HARWOOD, Esq., JAMES GRANT, Esq., HENRY MARSHAL, Esq., STEPHEN LEWIN, Esq., and Mr. ABRAHAM KENT, relative to various subjects connected with the History of Boston and the Hundred of Skirbeck. The Author thanks Mr. TrHOMIAs STORR for his account of the Boston Savings Bank and Gas Works, and Mr. JAMES W. BONTOFT for the information he kindly furnished respecting the Boston Athenaeum, and the institutions which preceded it. The Rev. THOMAS W. MATHEWS, Rev. T)HoMAs HAYNES, Rev, ISAAc WATTS, Rev. JOHN RIGBY, HENRY MARSHAL, Esq., and Mr. S. VEALL, furnished valuable materials for the account of the various Chapels and Congregations of Dissenters in Boston; and much highly interesting information respecting the early. history of the Presbyterian and General Baptists' Congregations in Boston has been collected from MSS. in Dr. WILLIAMS'S Library in Redcross Street, London, which information is now first published. For much of the interesting account of the ancient outfall of Old Hammond Beck, and for other general information, the Author is indebted to Mr. JOHN FENDELOW of Boston, and for the history of the Black Sluice and the drainage by the South Fortyfoot drain, to J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries, and PARKIN WIGELSWORTH, Esq., of Donington. He ha1 received much general informnation, respecting Skirbeck Quarter, from HENRY CLARKE, Esq., and ROBERT W. STAINBANK, Esq. Mr. RoBERT REYNOLDS, of Boston, has supplied many valuable particulars respecting the river Withamn and subjects

Page  IX PREFACE. ix connected therewith, and his assistance in the history of the Fens, their present condition, and future requirements, has been very important to the Author. In this department, also, he has been materially served by the loan of several valuable ancient plans and surveys of the Witham and surrounding Fens, the property of Mr. HENRY MARSHAL. A very important addition to this section will be found in some original letters written by Sir William Killigrew in 1653, and an account of the Earl of Lindsey's operations in Holland Fen, in the early part of the seventeenth century, now first published; these have been furnished by the kindness of J. Y. AKERMAN, Esq., Secretary to the Society of Antiquaries. The Author's obligations to numerous friends for valuable assistance in the department of Biography deserve a- very special acknowledgment. For information respecting the probable last male descendants of the very ancient family of Holland of Estovening, and the transfer of the property at Swineshead to the Fairfax family, and thence to its present possessor, Mr. John Cooper, the Author is indebted to Messrs. HOLDITCH Of Sleaford; those gentlemen are thanked for their kindness. In the intricate and almost uninvestigated history and genealogy of the Kyme family, the Author has been very materially assisted by the Right Honourable Lord MONSON, L. WELLS, Esq., of London, the Rev. JOHN AYRE of Hampstead, Rev. F. C. MASSINGBIRD of Ormsby, the Rev. E. R. HORwooD, Vicar of Maldon, Essex, and the Rev. E. JOHNSTONE, Rector of Hampton-upon-Thames, Middlesex. This valuable aid, of which the Author expresses his high appreciation, and for which he tenders his best thanks, has enabled him to remove some of the doubt and uncertainty which rested upon the subject. The Rev. Dr. BLOXAM, of Magdalen College, Oxford, has supplied some information relative to John Claymond, and the same gentleman also furnished several interesting facts relative to the early life of John Fox, for which the Author tenders his thanks. The Rev. G. GRANVILLE, Vicar of Charlecote, Warwickshire, communicated some valuable information respecting John Fox's connexion with that village, and his "traditional" residence in the Lucy family. Other important assistance upon this subject is acknowledged in the Notes to the Memoir of the Martyrologist. In preparing the Memoir of the Rev. John Cotton, the Author has received invaluable aid from numerous friends in the United States of America, among whom he particularly enumerates, and especially thanks, SAMUEL G. DRAKE, Esq., the author of the "History of Boston, Massachusetts, &c.," the Rev. W. BUDDINGTON Of Charleston, Massachusetts, the Hon. JAMES SAVAGE, JOHN WINGATE THORNTON, Esq., and WILLIAM WHITING, Esq., all

Page  X X PREFACE. of Boston, Massachusetts. To these and other gentlemen, who liberally and kindly forwarded to the Author many valuable books, which have been of the greatest service to him in compiling the too brief account of the PILGRIM FATHERS, and other early emigrants from Boston and its neighbourhood, he feels under the greatest obligations. The kindness which he has experienced in this respect, as well as in others which he can only allude to, and not express, is an additional corroboration, were any necessary, of the unity of feeling and purpose which exists between the respective people of Old and New England. ESTO PERPETUA! In compiling the Memoir of Dr. William Stukeley, the Author found many valuable materials in a copy of the MS. letters of that eminent antiquary to Maurice Johnson, Esq., of Spalding, preserved in the Archives of the Gentleman's Society at Spalding, and which was furnished by the kindness of THOMAS CAMMACK, Esq., M.D., of that place; and that gentleman has laid the Author under additional obligations by his thorough examination of the Journals of the Spalding Society, and the communication of everything which he found there bearing any relation to the subject and design of this volume. Mr. STTURTON of Holbeach also forwarded some useful notices of the Stukeley family. HENRY HALLAM, Esq., the accomplished historian, very courteously furnished some interesting memoranda respecting his family, which formerly resided in Boston. JOHN FOSTEn, Esq., and C. A. BROMEHEAD, Esq., of Lincoln, favoured the Author with useful information respecting the Manor of St. John of Jerusalem in Skirbeck. The Geological section owes much to the communications of THOMAS BRAILSFORD, Esq., of Toft Grange. Although the Author cannot adopt his valued correspondent's scientific conclusions, he places a very high estimate upon his communications, thanks him for his kindness and courtesy, and feels convinced that the cause of geological inquiry will be served by this juxtaposition of conflicting opinions. The Messrs. TUXFORD, Engineers of Boston, are thanked for their tabular specification of the different strata observed at Boston during the borings for water, which were made there in 1828. In the department of Natural History the Author derived material assistance from Mr. BAZLINTON of Butterwick; from Mr. KimIn, and other practical fishermen of Boston, and from the reminiscences of Mr. ABRAHAM KENT. In the Botanical section the list of indigenous plants received many additions, and secured correctness, from the scientific knowledge and careful revision of THOMAS A. CAMMACK, M.D., of'Boston, H. RI. GILSON, Esq., of Skirbeck, the Rev. THOMAS W. MATHEWS of Boston. The brief but very comprehensive review of the Agriculture of the district is from the pen of Mr.

Page  XI PREFACE. xi JOHN LEAF of Friskney, assisted by Mr. JAMES P. BRUMBY of that village. The observations of Mr. PEREGRINE S. CURTOIS of Langrick, Mr. RICHARD STENNETT of Carrington, Mr. DAvID MARTIN Of WVainfleet, and Mr. ROBERT REYNOLDS of Boston, are also embodied in this able summary. The Author is under great obligations to Sir FRANCIS PALGERAVE for the facilities of access to the various Depositories of the Public Records in London, which he officially afforded him. He also begs to thank Mr. RICHARD COGAN, Librarian to Dr. Williams's Library in Red Cross Street, for his very kind attention whilst consulting various scarce and important books and manuscripts in that valuable institution. Thanks, also, are due for very kindly rendered assistance upon many archaeological and topographical subjects to the Right Honourable Lord MONSON, ALBERT WAY, Esq., of Reigate, the Rev. Dr. OLIVER of Scopwick, near Sleaford, Dr. TaoMAS CAMMACK of Spalding, and Mr. ARTHUR HILL of Reading. To Mr. JOSEPH CLARKE of Boston the Author acknowledges the favour of many useful suggestions. It will be the subject of much regret to the Author, if, in this imperfect expression of his thanks, he should omit the name of any one who may have obliged and served him by his communications. To the Artists, both professional and amateur, who have made the drawings for the engravings which illustrate this volume, and to his talented friend Mr. T.HOMAS BOLTON, by whom nearly the whole have been engraved, the Author presents his thanks, for the beautiful specimens of art which decorate his unambitious narrative. Among the engravings will be observed several from drawings by the late WILLIAM BRAND, Esq., and others from drawings by Mr. ABRAHAM KENT, senior-the latter made more than a century ago. The kindness of Mr. SAMUEL VEALL, the possessor of Mr. BRAND'S beautiful drawings, and of Mr. ABRAHAM KENT, the great-grandson of the gentleman of the same name previously mentioned, has enabled the Author to preserve in this volume these, perhaps, only existing portraitures of the objects represented, not one of which now remains. He sincerely thanks the gentlemen who have thus enabled him so materially to increase the interest of the work. Nor must he omit to acknowledge the gift of the Engraving of the new East Window in St. Botolph's Church, presented by HERBERT INGRAM, Esq. M.P. A list of the Engravings and the respective Artists follows this Preface. To his able Printer and his spirited Publisher the Author acknowledges his obligations. The beautiful mechanical execution and handsome appearance of the volume call for this expression of his thanks. The brevity of human life and the littleness of human pursuits receive a b

Page  XII Xll - PREFACE. striking illustration in the fact, that of the 350 persons, who favoured the Publisher with their names as subscribers to the volume which was published in 1820, and which may, in some degree, be regarded as the first edition of this work, only 30 are known to be living at this time; and of these, 22 are subscribers to the present volume. This latter circumstance is gratifying to the Author, as indicating that the confidence of his old friends towards him has not been impaired. May he venture to hope that the subscribers to the new book, —the work of his old age,-will evince equal satisfaction. In taking leave of this volume, the Author feels he is bidding farewell to an old friend, a pleasing labour, a resource against ennui and weariness, a companion in solitude and privation. Almost every page is impressed on his mind by the circumstances under which it was written, and the whole forms one of the few accomplished objects of his life. May it be acceptable and serviceable, and stimulate other individuals to take a part in supplying that great literary want-a History of the County of Lincoln. Most truly could the Author have said during every portion of his long and arduous employment, now about to be closed,"The ways through which my weary steps I guide In this research of old Antiquity, Are so exceeding rich, and long, and wide, And sprinkled with such sweet variety Of all which pleasant is to ear or eye; That I, nigh ravish'd with rare Thought's delight, M/y tedious travel quite forget thereby." Fairy Queen, Liber VI., Prologue. BoSTON, 8th July, 1856.

Page  XIII CONTENTS. Division I.-Early History. Probable first inhabitants of England, p. 2. Condition of the neighbourhood of Boston at the time of the Roman Invasion, 4. Hills, tumuli, or barrows in the neighbourhood, 5. Early state of the Witham, 6. Ancient Britons, 7. Introduction of Christianity, 7. Alliance of the Coritani (ancient inhabitants of Lincolnshire) with the Romans, 8. Roman works of drainage, 9. Roman banks, stations, 10. Roads, 12. Examination of the supposition that Boston was the Roman Causennwe, 14. Roman fort at Boston, 17. Division II.-Anglo-Saxons, Danes, &c. Anglo-Saxon invasion of England, 19. Kingdom of Mercia, 20. Danish incursions, 21. Battle of Threckingham, or Laundon, 21. Danish Camp at Swineshead, 22. Saxon and Danish history, 23. Boston, the Saxon Icanhoe, 26. Boston not mentioned in Domesday Book, 27. Danes in Lincolnshire, 28. Lincolnshire at the Norman Conquest, 31. The Girvii or Fenmen, 32. Division III. —Norman Conquest, &c. Lincolnshire at the Norman Conquest, 33. Three of the principal families never submitted to the Conqueror, 35. Took part with the Empress Maud, 36. Cloth manufactory at Boston (1201), 37. High commercial importance, 38. Paved roads or causeways leading north and south from Boston, 12, 63, &c., 40. Crimes and punishments in 13th century, 42. Boston a walled town, 1285, 43. Schedule of tolls to repair the walls, 43. Small agricultural produce of the neighbourhood(1295),45. Boston included in Skirbeck (1300),46. Subsidies,assessments, and levies, 47. Bostonmade a stapletown (1369), 55. Degraded condition of the people of England, 57. Curious circumstances attending the levying a poll-tax (1381), 58. Dissolution of the Boston religious houses, 61. Henry VIII.'s charters to Boston, 64. Erection Lands granted (1554), 66. First lottery in England (1567), 67. First attempt to procure a supply of water for Boston, 67. Decayed state of the town (1571), 69. Waytes or town musicians appointed, 69. Licenses to export corn first granted, 69. Dutch fishermen settled in Boston by royal license, 70. Pirates in Boston Deeps, 71. The plague in Boston, 74. Patent monopoly for making salt granted, 75. The town assessed for ship-money, and ordered to be fortified, 78. Quo warranto inquiry, 79. Boston during the contest between Charles I. and the Parliament, and during the Commonwealth, 80. Women accused of witchcraft (1649), 91. Remodelling of the Corporation by Charles II., 93. Surrender of the charters, grant of new ones, and the old ones restored, 94. Supply of water, and boring for it in the market-place, 96. Inclosure of Holland Fen, 98. Of the East, West, and Wildmore Fens, 99. Great tide of 1810; 100. Toll-case, Reform Bill, &c., 101. Water-works at Miningsby, 102. Income and expenditure of the Town Council, &c., 103. Area, population, &c., 104. Baptisms, marriages, and burials, firom 1560, 105. Sanitary position of Boston as compared with other parts of the kingdom, 106, 107.

Page  XIV X;iv CONTENTS. Division IV.-Mlonasteries, Guilds, &c. Monastery of St. Botolph, 108. Dominican or Black Friars, 108. Carmelite Friary, 109. Augustine Friary, 111. Franciscan Friars, 112. Guilds, 113. St. Botolph's Guild, 115. Corpus Christi Guild, 115. Extracts front the Register, 116. Obits celebrated, 123. Rentroll of the Guild (1489), 127. St. Mary's Guild, 134. Privileges granted by Papal Bulls, 135. Annual rent-rolls, 138. List of aldermen, 139. John Robinson's bequest to this Guild, 139. Inventory of property at the dissolution, 141. Guild of St. Peter and St. Paul, 147. Holy Trinity, 150. St. George, 153. Smaller unincorporated Guilds, 154. St.Anne's church, &c., 155. Chantries, 156. Sale of the plate of the Boston Guilds, 157. Companies of tradesmen or artisans, 158. Division V.-The Church. St. Botolph's Church. Probable mode of raising the money by which it was erected, 160. A church dedicated to St. Botolph, mentioned in 1090, 161. Notices of this church, and foundation of the present one, 162. Inventory of Church plate (1552), 163. St. John's Church, 164. Notices of St. Botolph's Church, 165. Renovation of the exterior in 1843, 167. Of the interior, 1851, &c., 168. New cemetery, 169. List of vicars and. rectors from 1309, 170. Mayor's Chaplains, 172. Lecturers, 173. Parsonage, Rectory, or Vicarage, 173. Description of the exterior, 175. Description of the interior, 180. Library, 187. Holles' Church Notes, 191. Existing memorials, 194. Division VI. — General History and Description. Boundaries of the parish of Boston, 199. The Scirebeck, 199. Maud Foster, 200. Heronshaw Hall, 201. Fishtoft Hundred, 202. Burton Corner, 203. Wide Bargate, and sheep and cattle market, 204. Independents' Chapel in Grove Street, 205. Unitarian Chapel, Chapel Row, 205. Pescod House, 205. Wide Bargate, 206. Bargate and Barbridge, 207. Wesleyan Centenary Chapel, 208. Congregational Church, 209. History of theatrical amusements in Boston, 210. Blue-coat School, 211. Wormgate, 212. Old Grammar School, 213. Old Vicarage, 214. The Church-house, 215. The Sessions House, 216. Old gaol in the Market-place, 217. The Butchery, 218. Corn Market, Pillory, &c., 219. Ducking-stool and hurry-cart, 220. New Corn-market, 220. Athenaeum, 221. Pump Square, 222. National Schools, 222. The old Market Cross, 223. Butter Cross and old Three Tuns, 224. Council Chamber and house John Fox was born in, 225. Market-place prior to 1710, 220. Assembly Rooms and Market House, 227. Gully Mouth, 228. Jersey School and House of Correction, 230. Remains of Dominican Friary and National Schools, 231. Custom House, 232. Packhouse Quay, 232. Spain Lane, 233. Unitarian Chapel, 233. Hall of the Guild of St. Mary, now the Town Hall, 235. Gysors' Hall, 236. Duckfield Lane, 238. Grammar School, 238. Manor of Hall-garth, 238. Cold Harbour, 239. St. John's Row, Bridge, Church, &c., 241. Hussey Tower, 243. Hussey Hall, 244. Parish Work-house, 244. Union Work-house and poor statistics, 245. Augustine Friars, 247. Ancient steel-yard, 247. History of the Quarter Sessions, 247. Merchant seamen's houses, 247. The Holms, Dock-pasture, &c., 247. Baths and garden; Gallows, 248. Approach to the bridge from the Market-place in 1772, 248. History of the successive bridges, 249. Stanbow Lane, 253. Robinson Family, 253. St. George's Hall and Cripple Hall, 254. Irby Hall, 255. High Street, Furth-end Lane, or WVest Street, 256. Railway station, Gas-works, &c., 258. Doughty Quay, Carmelite Friary, 258. The Old White Horse, 259. HIeslam Alley and Chapel, 259; Chapel of Ease, 260. General Baptists' Chapel and Congregation, 260. Presbyterian congregation, 263. St. Anne's Cross, &c., 263. Skirbeck Quarter, 264. Old Hammond Beck, 265. Red Stone Gowt, 266. Black Sluice and South Forty-foot drain, 267. Sir Thomas Middlecott's Charity, 268. Liquor Pond Street, Salem Chapel, 269. Ebenezer Chapel and Primitive Methodists, 270. Unknown localities, 271. Erection Lands, and list of them in 1553, 272. Beadsmen, 277. Bridge, 278. Henry Fox, Richard Briggs, and Agnes Fox's charities, 277, 279. Anne Carre's charity, 280. Benefactions to the poor and to poor widows, 281. Poor freemen and mariners, 282. Lost,

Page  XV CONTENTS. XV relinquished, and suspended charities, 283. Grammar School, list of masters and ushers, &c., 284. Erection Lands. John Robinson's property and settlement with Mr. Hunston, 286. Board of Charity Trustees, and plan for the administration of the Erection estates and charity funds, 288. Laughton's Charity School, 290. Blue Coat School, 291. Boston Public School, 293. National Schools, Sunday Schools, &c., 294. Bible Society and Provident Society, 295. Arms of the Corporation, 296. Insignia and Seals, 297. Poor Scholars and Literary Society, 298. Newspapers and mail-coach, 299. Antiquities, 300. Extracts from the Corporation Records, 303. Division VII. —Richmond Fee, &c. RICHMOND FEE. Earls of Brittany, from the Conquest 1430, 311, &c. Annual value of the Honour of Richmond. Honour of Richmond in 1280, 313. Of the property in Boston and Division of Holland (1283), 314. Margaret, Countess of Richmond, 317. Richmonton (?), 318. Family of Rochford, 319. Kyme Family, 320. Rochford, or Kyme Tower, 321. Toot Hill, 322. Division VIII. —Commerce of Boston. Early commerce of Boston, 323. Great mart or fair, 325. Early corn and wool trade, 326. Exports of wool, leather, and woolfels, 1279 to 1303, 328. Wine trade, 1274, &c., 329. Boston mart, &c., 330. Wool produced in England temp. Henry II. and Richard I., 331. Curious notices of the trade, &c., 1281 to 1353, 334.' Officers of the Customs, 1274, &c., 335. Boston made a staple town, 338. Seal of the Staple, 339. Decay of the commerce, 340. Licenses to export grain, granted 1572, &c., 341. Customs duties, &c., granted to Sir Francis Walsingham by Queen Elizabeth, 342. Manufacture of coarse earthenware, 343. History of the Great Mart, 1218 to 1742. Causes of Boston's early commercial importance, and sources of its present prosperity, 347, &c. Phoenix Foundry, and Boston and Skirbeck Iron Works, 348. Tables of shipping, tonnage, of coal and goods, shipment of grain, duties paid, &c., 349. Division IX.-River Witham, &c. Description of the River Witham by Leland, Dugdale, Stukeley, and others, 353. Fisheries on the Witham in 1115, 355. History of the river from the Conquest, 355. Sluice erected in 1500, 357. Sluices built at Langrick and Hammond Beck, 1601, 360. Grand Sluice erected 1766, 361. Improvements in 1788 and 1812, 362. Gradual diminution of the Wash, 363. Survey of the buoys and beacons (1571), 364. History of improvements in the haven, 365. "Bird tides," 367. Extract from Drayton's Polyolbion, 367, Division X.-Biography. Life of St. Botolph, and legend respecting him, from John of Tynemouth, 369. Tilney family; eminent ladies connected with the family. Pedigree, &c., 373. Hollands of Estovening (Swineshead), genealogical history from 1016 to the extinction of the family in 1689, 375. Arms, mansion at Swineshead, &c., 380. Kyme family from the Conquest to the termination of the elder rmale line in 1436, 381. Continuation through a younger brother of the last male descendant of the elder branch to the present time, 382. Objections to this descent examined, 383. Family connected with Boston from about 1250, 384. Anne Ayscough, 385 and 387. Kymes of Lincoln, 388. John De Kirketon, Richard Flemmyng, George Ripley, 389. Boston of Bury, 390. Irby family, 391. Genealogical descent from 1251, 391. Curious letter from the Corporation of Boston to Sir Anthony Irby, 394. The Hussey family, 398. John Claymond, 401. Wilfred Holme, John Thory, 403. John Fox, original memoir of, 404. Original memoir of Rev. John Cotton, 412. The

Page  XVI xvi CONTENTS. Pilgrim Fathers, 424. Early emigrants to New England from Boston and its neighbourhood, Richard Bellingham, 428. Thomas Leverett and Atherton Hough, 429. Rev. Samuel Whiting, 430. Edmund Quincy and the Hutchinson family, 431. Samuel.Bradstreet, &c., 432. Isaac Johnson and his wife, the. Lady Arbella, &c., 433. Peter Baron, M.D., 433. The family of Rich, Earls of Holland, and of Nassau, Viscount Boston, 435. Rev. Thomas Grantham, 436. Dr. William Stukeley, original memoir of, principally compiled from his MS. letters, 437. Patrick Blair, M.D., 446. Dr. Andrew Kippis, 447. List of Members of Parliament, and historical and biographical notices, 449. List of Mayors from 1545, and biographical notices, 454. Recorders, town-clerks, &c., 458. Division XI.-The Villages. SKIRBECK.-Origin of the name, 460. Historical notices of, from the Conquest, 461. The manor of Skirbeck from 1334, 464. Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem, from about 1200, 466. Church, rectory, list of rectors, &c., 470. Trinity Church and schools, 475. Area and population, 476. Charities, 477. FIHeorrT.-Derivation of the name, 478. History of the parish from the earliest records, 479. Curious deed of manumission, 480. Advowson of the church, manors, &c., 483. The church, 484. Extensive repairs in 1854, 485. Holles' Church Notes, 486. List of rectors, &c., from 1274, 488. History of the hamlet of Fenne, chapel, &c., 489. Hundred of Fishtoft, Willoughby Hills, Long Hedges, the Fen End, &c., 490. The rectory, 491. The family of Robinson of Rise ap Rise, 492. The Paynell family, 492. The Willoughby family, 493. Hawthorn-tree, 493. Extent and population, 494. School and charities, 495. FREISTON.-Probable etymology of the name, 496. Historical notices from Domesday, Testa de Nevill, &c., 497. An annual fair held in 1263; curious description of the parish in 1343; the manor of Skreyng, in Freiston, 500. Copildyke manor and family, 502. Peachey, or Peche Hall, manor and family, 503. Poynton and Farceux families, 504. De Croun family, 504. Roos, or Ros family, 507. St. James' Priory,'-508. Priors of Freiston, 514. The church, 516. Holles' Church Notes, 518. List of vicars, &c., 519. Extent, population, &c., 520. School, charities, &c., 521. BUTTERWIcK.-Early historical notices of the parish, 524. The church, 527. Rectors, vicars, &c., 528. Extent, population, &c.; Pinchbeck family, 529. School, charities, &c., 530. BENINGToN.-Probable origin of the name, 533. Domesday account, &c., 533. A weekly market held here in 1281, 534. History of the manor, 537. The church, 538. Holles' Church Notes, 540. Rectors, &c., from 1283, 541. Advowson, 542. Chantry of the Blessed Mary, 542. Families of Bell, and Benington of Benington, 543. Darby and Friskney families, 544. Packharness, Sibsey, Westland, and Winceby families, 545. Extent and population, 546. School, Bede, and other charities, 547. LEvERTON. — Derivation of the name, and of Wyberton and Algarkirk, 549 and note. Historical notices from the Conquest, 550. Manor of Leverton, 554. Church, 554. Ancient stalls, 556. The two rectories and list of rectors, from 1333, 557. Curious regulations respecting tythes, 558. Extent of parish and statistics, 559. Population, &c., 560. Charities, schools, &c., 561. Very curious extracts from the Churchwardens' accounts, commencing 1493, 561. Overseers' accounts from 1563, 571. Constables' accounts from 1617, 573. Families of Bohun, Bussey, Clements, Gilbert, Julian, Leverton, and Westland, 575. LEARE.-History of the parish from the Conquest, 576. Very great mortality in 1587, 579. Manor, 580. Church, 580. Holles' Notes, 582. Vicars, &c., 583. The Multon Chantry, 584. Chantry of St. Lawrence, 585. Darby family, 586. Bell, Hunston, Leeke, Pedwardine, and Tamworth families, 587. Leake Haven, &c., 588. Extent of parish, population, &c., 588. Charities, 589. Hunston's Charity and present administration, 590. WRANGLE.-Chronological arrangement of events connected with the parish, 593. A market established in 1282, 594. Descent ofthe Manor from 1200, 598. Church, monuments, &c., 599. Holles' Notes, 601. Vicars, &c., 603. Vicarage House, 604. Rede or Read family, 604. Guild of the Blessed Mary, 604. Wrangle Hall and Chapel of St. Peter, 606.

Page  XVII CONTENTS. xvii Goodrick family, 606. Gilbert family, and memoir of the Rev. Joseph Gilbert, 607. Wrangle haven, rmarket, antiquities, &c., 609. Extent, population, &c., 610. School and Bede, 610. Other charities, 612. FRITH BANK.-Historical notices from 1236, 614. Church, School-house, &c., 615. COWBRIDGE, mentioned in 1280. Vaccarium, 1310, 616. Historical notices, 617. Division XII.-The Fens. First allusion to the Fens in 664, 618. Historical notices from the Conquest, 619. Impediments to their inclosure, 623. Correspondence between Sir William Dugdale and Sir Thomas Browne respecting the Fens, 624. Inclosure of the East, West, and Wildmore Fens, projected by Charles I. in 1629, 625. Grants to Sir Robert Killigrew, &c., in 1629 and 1638, 625. Dugdale's account of these Fens, and of Sir Anthony Thomas's attempt to inclose them, 626. Sir Anthony Thomas's case stated, 629. Deeps in the East Fen, 629. The Commoners' petition, 630. The Earl of Lindsey's partial inclosure of Holland Fen (circa 1638), 632. Sir William Killigrew's Letters respecting, and mention of the original Black Sluice, 633. Statement of the Earl of Lindsey's case, and history of his difficulties with the Commoners, 634. George Kirke's claim under Charles I., decree of 1638, 636. Grant of Henry Heron of Cressy Hall to the Commoners in 1713, 636. Inclosure of the Holland Fen in 1767, 637. Of the East, West, and Wildmore Fens in 1800, 638. Parochial Allotments, 639. New parishes in the East, West, and Wildmore Fens, 639. Population, 642. Old Fen Laws and Fen Brands, 642. The ancient Fenmen, Girvii, Breedlings, and Slodgers, 644. Imperfect drainage of the East Fen in 1856: causes thereof, and probable remedy, and future requirements, 645. Sea Banks: History of and extracts from Dugdale, 646. Commissioners of Sewers, &c., from 1359, 649. Division XIII.-Geology, &c. The Author's theory respecting the geological changes which this district has undergone, and the history of those changes, 652. Dr. Stukeley's opinion, 653. Reference to the Delta of the Miissssippi, and the shores of the Gulf of Mexico, 654. Dugdale's, Elstobb's, &c., opinions, 657. Summary of the Author's theory, 660. Corroborated by Mr. Elstobb, 661. Opposing opinion of Mr. Brailsford, 663. Submarine Forest on the Lincolnshire coast, 665. Strata passed through in boring for water at Boston, 1746 and 1783, 666. Mr. Farey's letter to Sir Joseph Banks, 1808, 668. Mr. Bogg's borings at Donington-on-Bane, 671. Mr. Wilks' borings at Boston in 1826, and Messrs. Tuxford's tabular arrangement of the strata then passed through, 672. Division XIV.-Natural History. NATURAL HISTORY. The fame of Lincolnshire cattle 250 years ago, 674. The Feret JYatzfrc of the neighbourhood, 674. Wild fowl, geese, &c., before the inclosure of the Fens, 675. Decoys, swannery, and ordinances, respecting (1524), 676. Swan-rolls and marks, 678. Fresh-water and shell-fish, 679. Herring-fishery, 681. Solens or razor-shells, shrimps, salt-water fish, sturgeons, &c.; whales cast ashore, 682. BOTANY. Rare plants enumerated by Dr. Blair, 683. List of the indigenous plants, &c., of the neighbourhood, 684. Atmospheric phenomena, 690. Division XV. —Agriculture. Late improvements in agriculture noticed, 691. Division of the Hundred of Skirbeck into three parts, and survey of the agricultural features of each, 692. Improvement in the roads, 695.

Page  XVIII XViii CONTENTS. Division XVI.-Archaisms, &c. Importance of lists of archaic and provincial words and phrases, 696. Alphabetical list of 1260. Provincialisms, &c., 698. Proverbs, phrases, comparisons, superstitions, omens, customs, &c., 731. Appendix. List of religious houses formerly in Lincolnshire, 737. Classification of religious houses, 748. Members of the Corpus Christi Guild at Boston, who were officially connected with other places, 749. Monastic libraries in Lincolnshire, 754. Extracts from the Parish Register of Boston, 755. Briefs read in Boston Church, 757. King's Evil. Burying in woollen, 758. Appointment of Constables (1640), 759. Rate of wages in 1680, 761. Other rates in 1596, 1610, and 1754, 766. Assize ofbread, 1754, 767. Voluntary gift to Charles II. by the inhabitants of Lincolnshire (1661), 768. Additions and Corrections. Artificial hills in Lincolnshire, 769. King John's Charter to Boston, 771. Manor of Hussey Hall, 772. Lincolnshire persons charged with high treason (1642), 773. Guild of St. Mary, Boston, 774. John of Tynemouth, 775. Dr. Anthony Tuckney, 775. Dr. Obadiah Howe, 777. Canopies to the stalls in St. Botolph's Church, 777. The Cottbn memorial, 778. The Bolles family, 778. Unitarian Congregation, 779. The Guild Hall, 779. Grammar School, 779. Pond Garth, 779. General Baptists' Congregation, 780. Presbyterian Congregation, 780. Escutcheon of arms at the Vicarage, 781. The river Witham called Wima, 782. Chart of Boston Deeps, 782. The Tilney family, 783. George Ripley, 783. John Thory, 783. Rev. John Cotton, 784. Rev. Samuel Whiting, 784. Samuel Leigh, 785. Dr. Stukeley, 785. Dr. Andrew Kippis, 785. Methodist Chapels in the Hundred of Skirbeck, 786. Boring for Water (1826), 787. GENERAL INDEX................. 789 INDEX OF NAMES............... 804 LIST OF SUBSCRIBERS.............. 815 ERRATA. Page 263, line 22, for "Rev. Levi Underhill," read "Rev. Michael Underhill." Page 374, note 3, for "dairy," read " daisy." Page 472, line 3. The view of Skirbeck Church is called a " north-west" view, but it is the directly reverse, being a " south-east" view; the error arose from the engraving being changed without making a corresponding change in the letter-press. The name of the last known descendant of the Packharness family was William, not Peter, as is stated at page 545, line 17. Page 592, line 31, for "George Thomas Brailsford," read "Thomas Brailsford." Page 753, last line, for " Ecclesiastica" read " Fiercatoria." Several literal errors have, no doubt, escaped the eyes of the proof-readers; and some irregularities occur in the spelling of two or three words; but it is believed the above are the only verbal inaccuracies in the volume.

Page  XIX fist of Qngrabinr g$ SUBJECTS. DRAUGITSMEN. ENGRAVERS. St. Botolph's Church (Interior).. L. H. Michael Bolton.. Facing Title. Arms of S. R. Fydell, Esq...... H.B. Manley..,, i DediArms of H. B. Pacey, D.D.,,,, cation. Roman Fort, near Boston...... L. H. Michael..,, Page 17 Danish Camp, Swineshead..........,,, 22 Reservoir of Boston Waterworks.... W... H. Prior.. 102 Seal of Corpus Christi Guild.. Thompson... Thompson. 132 Seal of the Guild of St. Mary........,, 147 Seal of the Guild of Peter and Paul...... Hughes... Hughes.... 149 Seal of the Guild of the Holy Trinity..,,,, 151 Seal of the Guild of St. George........,,,n 153 Cemetery Chapel........ H. Prior.. Bolton.... 169 St. Botolph's Church, S. E.......... J. S. Prout....,, 175 Porch and Founder's Chapel, St. Botolph's.. L.H. Michael.,, 176 St. Botolph's Church, N. W.........,, 178 The Font, St. Botolph's..........,,,, 180 Groined Ceiling, Tower of St. Botolph's Church,,,, 181 Chapel of " Our Lady",,,,,, 183 Altar-Tomb of a Knight,,,, 184 Altar-Tomb of a Lady,,,,, 185 Painted Window in Chancel (Presented by H. Ingram, Esq., M.P.).......... 186 Organ and Canopies, St. Botolph's..... L. H. Michael.. Bolton... 187 Ancient Oak-Chest............ J. W. Archer..,, 188 Portrait of Thomas Lawe........ J. Palmer.... 196 Heron's Hall, Boston............ S. Williams.. S. Williams.. 201 Burton Corner House............ GW.G. Miller.. Bolton.... 203 Peascod House........... GF. Sargent..,, 205 Wesleyan Centenary Chapel.......,n Bolton.. 208 Congregational Church........,, 210 C

Page  XX XX LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. SUBJECTS. DRAUGHTSMEN. ENGRAVERS. PAGE Ancient House, Archer Lane.X.. W.H. Prior Bolton.... 212 Old Grammar-School House.... G. F. Sargent,, 213 Old Vicarage...,.,, 214 The Church House..,, 215 The Sessions House....,,,, 216 Old Gaol, Church, &c.,, 217 The Athenaeum.............W. G. Miller,, 122 Ancient Market Cross...S. Williams.. S. Williams.. 223 Butter Cross.,,,, 224 Three Tuns Inn.... W. H. Prior Bolton.... 224 House of John Fox..... G. F. Sargent,, 225 Market Place, prior to 1710 W... WG. Miller.,, 226 Assembly Rooms G. F. Sargent,, 227 Old Salt-House at the Gully Mouth...,, 228 Ancient House, South Street...,,,, 231 Ancient Warehouses.. J. W. Archer,, 233 Unitarian Chapel..... T. Sulman,, 234 Guild Hall G..... F. Sargent,, 235 Gysors' Hall.............. S. Williams S. Williams.. 236 Grammar School..... J. W. Archer Bolton.... 239 Hussey Tower............,,,, 243 Hussey Hall.... L. H. Michael..,, 244 Union Workhouse.............,,,, 245 Market Place, 1772 to 1812..W... WH. Prior,, 248 The Old Bridge.... G.. F. Sargent,, 252 The New Bridge, &c..J... JS. Prout, 253 Irby Hall....... Jewitt...... Jewitt.... 255 Old White-Horse Inn.G.... F. Sargent Bolton.... 259 Chapel of Ease..... 260,, General Baptist Chapel, 1764... Jewitt.. Jewitt.... 221 General Baptist Chapel, 1837..G..... F. Sargent.. Bolton.... 266 Salem Chapel....... R. Landells,, 269 Corporation Arms............ H. B. Manly,, 296 Corporation Regalia.....,, 297 Corporation Common Seal...,,, 297 Admiralty Seal...,,,, 297 The Mayor's Seal.,, 298 Tradesmen's Tokens...H..G. Hine,, 298 Roman Earthen Jug.... H. B. Manly,, 300 Ancient Key...,,,, 300 Token of the Holy Rood Guild.,,,, 300 Ancient Seal..............,,,, 300 Ancient Seal found at Fishtoft......,,,, 302 Ancient Arms on oak.........,,, 302 Richmond Tower............ J. W. Archer.,, 321 Seal of the Staple............ Hughes.... Hughes.. 339

Page  XXI LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. Xxi SUBJEOTS. DRAUGHTSMEN. ENGRAVERS. PAGE Seal of St. Botolph's Priory, Colchester. H.B. Manly.. Bolton.... 372 Portrait of Fox the Martyrologist... J. Palmer.....,, 404 Arms of the Fox Family.......... H. B. Manly..,, 411 Portrait of the Rev. John Cotton e Flowers.. 412 Rev. J. Cotton's First Church, America.. T. Sulman.... Bolton... 422 Jerusalem HIouse..............., 468 Inscription on Skirbeck Church S. Williams.. S. Williams.. 471 St. Nicholas' Church, Skirbeck....... T. Sulman.... Bolton.... 472 The Rectory, Skirbeck...., 472 Trinity Church, Skirbeck..........,, 475 Fishtoft Church..,,, 484 Font in Fishtoft Church.. H. B. Manly.., 485 The Rectory, Fishtoft............ T. Sulman....,, 491 The Hawthorn Tree........... S. Read..,, 493 Freiston Priory (Remains).......... T. Sulman....,, 513 Freiston Church.............. J.W. Archer.., 516 Font in Freiston Church...... IH. B. Manly..,, 517 Freiston Vicarage, &c............. J. W. Archer.., 520 Font in Butterwick Church....... B. Manly -,, 527 Butterwick Church.W. H. Prior..,, 528 Benington Church.. L. H. Michael..,, 539 Font in Benington Church.......... B. Manly Leverton Church.............. T. Sulman....,, 555 Stalls in Leverton Church.... H. B. Manly..,, 556 Leake Church............. T. Sulman....,, 580 St. Lawrence's Chantry, Leake...S. Williams.. S. Williams.. 585 Wrangle Church........... S. Prout... Bolton.... 600 Wrangle Vicarage..............,,, 604 New Bolingbroke Church........ T. Sulman....,, 640 Fen Slodgers.............. J. Palmer 6..,, 644 The Tilney Pedigree......................... 373 ALL the drawings on Wood from which the Engravings were made, were taken from Photographs, &c., by Mr. THOMAS BOLTON, with the exception of the following:The Fydell and Pacey Arms, and the Roman fort near Boston, were copied from sketches by the Rev. THOMAS W. MATHEWS. The Danish Camp at Swineshead was copied from an engraving in the Illuzstrated News. The Seals of the Boston Guilds, the old Gaol, &c., the Market-place in 1710 and in 1772, the Old Bridge, the Corporation Regalia, the Seal of the Staple, the Font in Benington Church, and the Stalls in Leverton Church, were copied from drawings by the late WILLIAM BRAND, Esq.

Page  XXII Xxii LIST OF ENGRAVINGS. Heron's Hall, the Butter Cross, Gysors' Hall, the Remains of Freiston Priory, and St. Lawrence's Chantry, Leake, were copied from drawings furnished by JOHN CAISTER, Esq. for the collections printed in 1820. Peascod Hall is copied from an original drawing by P. DEWINT. The Old Vicarage at Boston, the Three Tuns Inn, the house in which JOHN Fox was born, the old White Horse Inn, the ancient seal found at Fishtoft, and the " Fen Slodgers," are taken from drawings made by Mr. ABRAHAM KENT, who also furnished copies from the drawings of his great-grandfather (Mr. ABRAHAM KENT), of the old Salt-house at the Gullymouth, Hussey Hall, and Irby Hall. Messrs. BELLAMY and HARDY (architects) supplied a sketch of the Athenceum. The old Market Cross, Boston, page 223, the Roman Jug, and the ancient Key, at page 300, are copies of pen-and-ink sketches by Dr. STUKELEY. Mr. SAMUEL VEALL contributed drawings of the General Baptist Chapel of 1764, and of Salem Chapel. The Boston Official Seals, the Token of the Holy Rood Guild, and the ancient Seal at page 300, were taken from drawings by Mr. ROBERT POLLARD. The Seal of St. Botolph's Priory, Colchester, was copied from the original in the CHAPTER HOUSE at WESTMINSTER. The Portrait of JOHN Fox at page 404 is taken (with permission), from an engraving in the possession of Messrs. SHERWOOD, NEELY, and JONES; and the arms of the Fox family, at page 411, given upon the authority of Dr. MAITLAND. The Portrait of the Rev. John Cotton is taken from an original painting in the possession of JOHN THAYER, Esq., of Boston, Massachusetts; and the engraving of Mr. Cotton's first Church in New England from Mr. SAMUEL G. DRAKE'S History of Boston, Massachusetts. The Tradesmen's Tokens, at page 298, are copied from drawings by Mr. JOHN CLEGHORN, and the Church at New Bolingbroke from a lithograph supplied by the Rev. J. CHAPMAN, Rector of'that Parish.

Page  1 OF BOSTON AND THE HUNDRED OF SKIRBECK. DIVISION I. Diat~tq d tPie siftdt riPuV {oe tfe gomau rnJnasion al bSunti tft g~olum ~ot3antg of aX~Iana. HE precise time when England was first in-. habited, and the particular branch of the human family, from which the first inhabitants of this country descended, are two subjects connected with the great question respecting the dissemination of mankind over the surface of the earth. A question, which, in all probability, will never receive a satisfactory solution. And, if it could be solved, we do not perceive that its solution would materially advance the interests of veritable history. It would be merely the first link-to which we could never attach the second-of the almost illimitable chain which would stretch from that point of time to the date of the invention of writing, as respects the world at large; and to very nearly the date of the Christian sera, as respects England. Before the invention of writing, all knowledge of the past reached succeeding generations through the medium of popular tradition; and knowing as we do, how soon that which is merely traditional, even in the present day, fades into the " palpable obscure," or becomes a mere tissue of fable, we must receive with extreme caution anything of a traditional nature which has descended from the dark and dreamy ages of remote antiquity. Science, however, tells us there are indubitable evidences that the southeastern coast of England and the opposite coast of France were, at some remote period of the world's history, connected,l and that France and England then formed one continuous country. If this were so-and the deductions of 1 The early Greeks and Romans doubted whether settled until the time of the proprietor JuLInUs Britain was an Island or part of the Continent. This AGIICOLA: vide TACITus' Vita Agricol, c. 38, and uncertainty gave rise to a controversy which was not DIo CAssIus' Eist. Rom. lib. 39. B

Page  2 2 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. science furnish a much safer guide than the teachings of tradition-the inference is inevitable, that the original inhabitants of England came from France by the easy mode of transit which then existed, and that the stream of population in its western course reached our now "sea-bound Isle," in the same way as it had traversed the continent from its eastern to its western shore. We are, however, only removing the difficulty one stage further back, for we know not who were the original settlers of the opposite continent of Europe; and the question from what stock did the aborigines of England descend, still remains unsettled. The inhabitants of Cornwall, and those of some portions of Wales, have supposed that the aboriginal occupiers of their respective countries had a Phoenician origin. This idea has been based upon the known trading propensities of that once powerful people, and from the mineral riches of Cornwall and Wales, which might, after the Phoenicians had discovered those countries, tempt them to plant colonies therein. There is nothing but a bare possibility, and a very small probability, to support this idea. Again, the ancient language of Cornwall and that of Wales are totally distinct from those of any other part of Great Britain, and affinities have been traced between them and the languages of Western Asia, so far as any remains of the latter have come down to our aera. We believe that few, if any, specimens of the language of ancient Phoenicia are now extant, excepting a passage or two in one of the comedies of PLAUTUS,' who flourished about 200 B. C.; these specimens, however, of the Punic or Phoenician language are not sufficient to allow of any satisfactory comparison being made between the language of Phoenicia and those of ancient Cornwall and Wales. It is not improbable that the Phcenicians did plant Colonies in Cornwall-for there is historical testimony that they traded with the CASSITERIDES or Tin Islands,2 as the Scilly Islands and the southern parts of Cornwall were anciently called-but there is nothing against the supposition that Britain was inhabited long previously to its being visited by the Phoenicians. Notwithstanding the circumstantiality with which GODFREY3 of Monmouth, NENNIUS,4 and other ancient British writers narrate the conquest of Britain by Brutus, the descendant of ZEneas and Lavinia, and say that the Britons owe their origin to him,-thus deriving their descent from Greece and Rome,-but little notice is to be taken of the legend, more particularly as the historians of Greece and Rome make no mention of Brutus and his adventures. The minuteness of detail, so remarkable in the whole story, as related by the old chroniclers, is an obvious objection to its authenticity. But, whilst we do not deny the possibility of the history of BRUTUS and his settlement of Britain, its truth or its falsehood has not any bearing upon the question respecting the first inhabitants of this Island; for if Brutus subdued the country, it is clear that he found it inhabited, otherwise there was nobody to subdue. Besides, if Britain owed any portion of its earliest population to ancient Greece and Rome, it is almost impossible that some traces or evidences of such a circumstance should not have existed at the time of the Roman invasion under JULIUS CAESAR, or that the investigations of later days should not have brought 1 " Pcenulus; the Young Carthaginian." We are the bells contain one part of tin to ten parts of copaware of the hypothesis of General VALLANCEY, per, the exact proportions of modern bell-metal. who has endeavoured to prove that these passages are "The tin," adds Dr. Layard, "was, probably, obIrish. Competent judges admit that there are some tained from Phcenicia, and consequently that used in strong verbal resemblances, but, it is generally allowed, the bronzes of the British Museum may actually that this theory is not tenable. have been exported nearly three thousand years ago 2 Some of the vessels and bells lately found in the firom the British Isles!" ruins of Ancient Nineveh by Dr. LAYARD, have been 3 He flourished circa 1140. carefully analysed at the Museum of Practical Ge- 4 The time when NEwNNIUS lived is uncertain, and ology, and the curious fact has been discovered, that variously stated from 796 to 994.

Page  3 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. 3 some such evidences to light. There would also have been some tradition of such a descent among the people, some traces of a by-gone comparative civilization, some marks of their ancient parentage. Nothing of the kind is, however, recorded. On the contrary, one of our most investigating and competent modern historians says, "it is probable that the present state and people of NEW ZEALAND exhibit more nearly than any other, the condition of Britain when the Romans entered it."' The same writer (speaking of the landing of Caesar) says, "Hitherto England had been inhabited by branches of the Kimmerian and Keltic races, apparently visited by the Phcenicians and Carthaginians."2 We fully coincide with this opinion, and believe that the earliest population of England, whose origin can, with any degree of certainty, be discovered, came from Gaul. The first were, probably, the Southern Celts, who are said to have reached England about nine hundred years before the Christian era. Celts of a more northern origin succeeded to the former ones, who retreated to the more northern part of Britain. To them succeeded the Gothic population originally from the far East, but who had established themselves in Gaul, and thence into Britain, driving the Cimbri or Northern Celts who had preceded them, into the interior. These latter settlers obtained the name of BELGE, or men of war and tumult. With respect to these last colonies, which inhabited the southern parts of Britain, we have the express testimony of Caesar, that they came from Gaul. " The sea-coast of Britain is peopled with Belgians, drawn thither by the love of war and plunder. These last, passing over from different parts and settling in the country, still retain the names of the several states from whence they descended."3 The latest of these Belgic colonies came into Britain only a few years before Caesar's invasion. The Belgic colonists are described by Caesar, as being more polished in their manners than the Cimbri or Celts who inhabited the interior and the more northern portions of the island, and who, in contra-distinction to the Belgae on the frontier, were termed, by the Roman conqueror, Aborigines. STRABO and other historians have left us copious descriptions of their primitive and simple, or rather rude and barbarous mode of living. The ancient inhabitants of Lincolnshire were the Coritani or Coriceni,4 whose country extended also over the surrounding counties of Northampton, Leicester, Rutland, Nottingham, and Derby. It has been conjectured by Mr. Whitaker, in his History of Manchester, that the country of the Coritani was first inhabited about 300 years before Christ, when a large colony of the Belgwe emigrated from their ancient seat in Gaul, and possessed themselves of the present counties of Hants, Wilts, and Somerset, driving the natives further to the northward. Thus, it is probable, Lincolnshire was first peopled. NENNIUS,-who quotes as his authority, "MARK the Anchorite, a holy Bishop of the people," —says, that Britain contained at this period thirty-three Cities, whose names he gives at length. The only ones enumerated as being in the territory of the Coritani, were, Cair Lerien, (Leicester), and Cair lait colt (Lincoln). It does not appear probable that the district of Lincolnshire, now called Holland, was, at the time of the Roman invasion, thickly populated. For even admitting DUGDALE'S opinion to be correct, that the whole tract of marsh land, " though originally low, was not annoyed with the inundation of the ocean, or any stop of fresh waters, which might by overflowing and drowning make it 1 SHARON TURNER'S History of the Anglo Saxons, 3 CAESAR. Bel. Ga., lib. v., cap. 10. 5th ed., vol. i., p. 69. The passage quoted was writ- 4 From Car, a dwarf and iceni; or from Cor, a ten between 1790 and 1800. sheep and Yche, oxen. 2 History of Anglo Saxons, vol. i., p. 251.,

Page  4 4 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. fenny, but that it was a well-wooded country, as the quantity of trees discovered everywhere, where canals, &c. have been dug to any depth, manifest,"' yet it appears probable, that at the time the Romans took possession of this part of the country, it was little better than a morass. In support of this opinion, their numerous works of drainage, embankment, &c., may be adduced; for these would not have been necessary in a well settled and cultivated country. And, if any violent convulsion of nature ever did take place, which reduced this neighbourhood from the state of a "well-wooded country," to that of a swamp or morass, it must have occurred at a period considerably before the Roman invasion. The dwellings of the ancient Britons, like those of the ancient Germans, were scattered about the country; and generally situated on the bank of some rivulet, for the sake of water, or on the skirt of some wood or forest, for the convenience of hunting, and pasture for their cattle. Cwesar describes the towns of the Britons, as "tracts of woody country, surrounded by a mound or ditch, for the security of themselves and their cattle against the incursions of their enemies." Strabo says, "The forests of the Britons are their cities. For when they have enclosed a very large circuit with felled trees, they build within it houses for themselves and hovels for their cattle. These buildings are very slight, and not designed for long duration." From these descriptions, it is evident that the country round Boston would be, at that period, very ill adapted for the foundation of an ancient British city; and equally unfit for hunting, which Ossian, who flourished about that time, represents as the only business of his heroes in times of peace. The ancient Britons appear to have been absolutely ignorant of the art of catching fish; for there is not so much as one allusion to that art, in the works of that venerable bard. Certainly, the fens of Lincolnshire were well adapted for this amusement, but the ignorance of the Britons on this subject, is both confirmed and accounted for, by Dio NICEUS; who assures us "that the ancient Britons never tasted fish, though they had innumerable multitudes of them in their seas, lakes, and rivers." The higher parts of this fenny country, from the richness of the soil, were well adapted for agricultural purposes; but we have authority for supposing that agriculture was little known in this Island till about 150 years before the Christian Oera. At this period, multitudes of Celtic Gauls, being expelled their native seats between the Rhine and the Seine, by the Belgee from Germany, took shelter in Britain, where they met with a favourable reception, and formed several small states.2 These states practised husbandry, a way of life they were encouraged to pursue in Britain by the fertility of the soil, which produced all kinds of grain in great plenty and perfection. It is more than probable, from the derivation of the word Coriceni,3 that the people were partial to agricultural pursuits; and, of course, that they were not established as a nation, previously to the introduction of agriculture into the island. That the country adjacent to Boston was inhabited prior to the Roman conquest, scarcely admits of a doubt; but that it was well populated, or regarded as of much importance, appears, from the previous recital of the manners and habits of the ancient Britons, to be very improbable. We cannot, therefore, expect that many remains of this people should exist. 1 DUGDALE on Embanklnent. They are denominated Iceni, by Antoninus; Ceni2 MUSGRAVE. Belgium Britannicurm, p. 94. magni, by Cmesar; Cenomes, by Ravennas; and both 3 These people were also called Coritani, which is of Cenomanni and Cenimanni, by Richard; Ceni. Yceni uncertain derivation. but probably had its origin in or Cenomes, mean the head ones; Cenimagni, Cenothe British word Corani or Coranaie, appellations manni, &c., mean head-man.-WHITAKER's Mandenoting men that are liberal, generous, or lavish.- chester, vol. i., p. 20. Cambrian Register, vol. ii.

Page  5 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. 5 ]Dr. STUKELEY, speaking of this neighbourhood, says"Here I have not been able to meet with any remains of the ancient British, except it be the great quantity of tumuli or barrows, in all these parts; scarce a parish without one or more of them. They are generally of considerable bulk, much too large for Roman; nor has anything Roman been discovered in cutting them through; though a few years ago, two or three were dug quite away near Boston; and another at Frampton; to make brick of, or to mend the highways. I guess, these were the high places of worship amongst our Cimbrian predecessors, purposely cast up; because, there are no natural hills in these parts; and we know antiquity affected places of elevation for religious rites. No doubt, some are places of sepulture, especially such as are very frequent upon the edges of the high country all around, looking down upon the fens. Hither seems to have been carried the remains of great men, whose habitations were in the marshy grounds, who chose to be buried upon higher ground than where they lived, as is the case all over England; for the tumnuli are commonly placed upon the brink of hills hanging over a valley, where, doubtless, their dwellings were." This opinion of Dr. STUKELEY, however unsupported, as of course it must be, by historic evidence, and opposed by the contrary opinions of able men, who have assigned different purposes for these hills, and proposed various causes for their erection, receives considerable corroborative evidence from the study of the religious rites and opinions of the Druids, the high-priests of the ancient Britons. The united testimony of all historians informs us, that the Druids offered up their religious addresses from the summit of an eminence. Holding it derogatory to the majesty of the Deity, to be addressed from within the walls of any temple made by human hands, they asserted, that the temple of God was the extended universe, and paid him their homage and adoration in the open air. Again, we are told that the Druids, from their consideration of the spheric cal shapes of the sun, moon, and stars, inferred that this also was the form of the world they inhabited.-The circle, was, therefore, regarded as the most perfect of figures, and was adopted, by them, for the form of their houses, and places of worship. Dr. STUKELEY does not include in this supposition, the hills yet visible, at different places near the sea-bank, particularly at Fleet, Holbeach, Gosberton, Wainfleet, &c.; but says, these are evidently "the remains of salt-works.'2 RICHARD Of CIRENCESTER, speaking of the ancient Britons, says-" Their funerals were magnificent, and all things which they prized during life, even arms and animals, were thrown into the funeral pile. A heap of earth and turf formed the sepulchre."8 The classical authors have left us no description of the mode of sepulture among the Britons; and unfortunately the remains of the British bards afford little assistance in supplying this deficiency. As the modes of interment among all early nations were in many respects similar, there is, perhaps, no part of our national antiquities which has given scope to so much conjecture as this.4 Comparatively few undoubted British remains have been discovered in Lincolnshire, and none, that we are aware of, in the district to whose history and antiquities this volume has a relation. Several British celts have been found at Bullington, in this county; and other British antiquities, at Wold Newton and Quarrington. "An ancient celt, of a deep yellow or gold colour, was found in digging a ditch in the East Fen, in 1813."5 This was undoubtedly a British instrument composed of brass or bronze.6 Sir JOSEPH BANKS thought that these celts were not weapons of war, as is generally supposed, but that they were used by the ancient Britons as tools with which to hollow out their canoes; they certainly very much resemble the stone 1 STURELEY'S ft. Cur., vol. i., p. 6. Nenia Britannica, the Archceologice, &c. 2 It. Cur., vol. i., p. 5. 5 OLIVER'S Relig. Houses on the Witham, Preface 3 Ancient State of Britain. xi.; and OLDFIELD'S Wainfleet, p. 180. 4 Much information upon this subject may be found 6 Sir JOHN CLERK, in Relig. Galeance, p. 250. in the various works of Dr. STUKELEY, in DOUGLAS'

Page  6 6 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. hatchets which have been found in various parts of this county, and, also, such as were used by the Indians, in North America, previously to the introduction of iron among them. Several rich and curious swords, spear-heads, and other relics of antiquity were found in the bed of the Witham, when it was cleaned out, in 1788, from Lincoln to Chapel Hill. No particular description of them has been recorded; it is, therefore, impossible to fix their origin and antiquity.' A modern writer says" There is no doubt in my mind, that the ancient Britons paid divine honours to the GRANT-AVON, or dividing stream, subsequently denominated the WITHAM. The banks of the Witham were peopled with a tribe of aboriginal Britons, who possessed defences in their woods and fastnesses, interspersed with morass, which they deemed impregnable; and the chief station was at Bardney. Hence it became one of the most early places in this part of the country that was exclusively appropriated to the practice of true religion, by the erection of a monastery. The rites of Druidism were always connected with a lake or river, which was considered an emblem of the stream of life, and most sacred at its source and termination, particularly if it ran in an eastwardly direction, which is the character of the Witham. This leaves little doubt, that being honoured by the Britons, they established colonies on its banks for the convenience of performing the sacred rites, that they might receive protection and favour from the invisible Deity of the liquid element."2 The same authority says (p. 1] 70), the honours of the Witham may be inferred from its very names. It was called Grant-avon, the divine stream; and Cevaith Kit (which Stukeley Romanized into Cava-Cet), the work or river of Ceredevan. The sacred places on its banks were more numerous, perhaps, than those of any other river in Britain, within the same compass. The country on both sides of the upper part of the Witham was well wooded according to RICHARD Of CIRENCESTER3 and other ancient chroniclers, which would recommend it to the Britons as a convenient place of habitation. It is quite clear, says DR. OLIVER, that the country adjoining the Witham on both sides was thickly inhabited by the aborigines; for they have left behind them such palpable evidences of their occupancy as cannot be mistaken, in the form of tumuli, some of which have been found to contain vestiges which unequivocally mark a British eera.4 None of these remains have, however, according to DR. OLIVER'S statement, been found nearer the district under consideration, than Kyme and Tattershall. These observations do not, we think, militate in the least against the opinion which we have stated, that at the time of the Roman invasion the district of Lincolnshire, now called Holland, was little better than a bog or morass; that it was, therefore, not congenial to the habits and manners of the ancient Britons; and, consequently, very thinly inhabited. CAMDEN, no small authority upon such matters, says the name Coritani was expressed by the Britons, GUR-TANI, from their being a people scattered far and wide. We are well aware that DR. STUKELEY, who is also high authority, says" We may be assured that this whole country was well inhabited by the ancient Britons, and that as far as the sea-coasts, especially the islets and the higher parts, more free from ordinary inundations of the rivers, or though not embanked above the reach of spring tides; for the nature of this place perfectly answered their gusto, both as affording abundant pasturage for their Cattle, wherein their chief sustenance and employment consisted, and being so very secure from incursion and depredations of war and troublesome neighbours, by the difficult fens upon the edge of the high country." 5 We think this passage has not any relation whatever to the district of Holland, or at all events, to the hundred of Skirbeck, seeing that the "difficult fens" of which he speaks, formed in the days of the ancient Britons, the principal part, if not the whole of that district. 1 Gentleman's Magazine, 1788, p. 926. D3 e Situ. Brit., lib. iii., c. 10. 2 OLIVER'S Religious Houses on the Witham, pp. 4 OLIVER'S Rei#g. Houses, p. 161. 30, 31. 5 It. Cur., p. 5.

Page  7 PREVIOUS TO THE ROMAN INVASION. 7 We are far from wishing to disparage the character and condition of our British ancestors, when we adopt SHARON TURNER'S comparison between them and the New Zealanders, nor do we admit the absolute justice with which the ancient Romans applied-as the Chinese of the present day still apply-the term Barbarians to all nations except themselves; but we do not find in what has reached us respecting them, anything which would induce us to greatly modify the opinion which we have adopted. Certainly what we know respecting their religious notions, their priests, their sacrifices, &c., do not raise their moral and intellectual qualities above the standard of the bulk of the North American Indians, to say nothing of the yet higher capacity of the natives of New Zealand. TACITUS intimates that the religion of the Gauls and Britons may be proved to be the same, from their superstitions being of a similar nature.' Nor does what we know of the poetry of the ancient Britons evince a higher,-if so high-a state of feeling and conception, as is found in the speech of the celebrated Indian Chief, LOGAN, or in those of the Indian Warriors, RED JACKET and TECUMSEH. The North Americans and the natives of New Zealand have displayed a bravery and skill in battle, an heroic firmness under defeat, and a philosophical contempt of death, which the highest characters among the ancient Britons never excelled. In horsemanship, in the management of the canoe, and in whatever else we know of their acquirements, we cannot consent to place the ancient Britons above the North American Indians, nor do we think, when the condition of the world at that period is duly considered, that the position is an unfavourable one. The introduction of Christianity into Britain is, so far as respects the period of its introduction, and the persons by whom it was introduced, almost as much a controverted point as the first peopling of the country. Bishop STILLINGFLEET supposes that Christianity was introduced by ST. PAUL.himself, under the sanction of Caractacus.2 Others identify the Christian Lady, Claudia, who is mentioned in the Epistle of ST. PAUL to Timothy,' with the Lady Claudia, alluded to by the Roman epigrammatist, Martial.4 CAMDEN and SPEED assert5 that Christianity was introduced by Joseph of Arimathea in the time of SUETONIUS. STUKELEY says it was preached by SIMON ZELOTES in the time of AGRICOLA;6 and others, in defence of the antiquity of the British church, have endeavoured to prove that it was established by other of the Apostles. It appears, however, that the church, the remains of which are yet standing on the Castle Cliff at Dover, was built by Lucius, king of the Trinobantes, about A. D. 161, in the reign of the Emperor Aurelius; we cannot mention any other Christian church of coeval antiquity.7 It is foreign to our purpose to enter into any investigation upon the subject. One thing is certain, " Christianity made very little progress for many years subsequently to the time of the Apostles, and idolatry was not extirpated," says DR. OLIVER, "when the Abbey of Bardney was built," circa 697. I Vit. Agricolce. Martial are the persons mentioned by St. PAUL by 2 Oriq. Brit., chapter Ist. the same names, there would still be no proof that 3 2 Timothy iv. 21. Claudia was an Englishwoman. Peregrina is, pro4 MARTIAL iv. 13. MARTIAL lived A.D. 43 to bably, in this (as we know it was in other cases) a A.D. 101. The inscription to this epigram is, "Ad proper name, and not an epithet. Even if it were Rilfumq, de nvuttis Pudentis et Clacudic Persigrince," the latter, Claudia might be a stranger without being and the ten lines which follow can have no other bear- a Briton. ing upon the passage in the Epistle to TIMOTHY, 5 STILLINGFLEET S Orig. Brit., cap. 1. than the occurrence of the names of PUDENS and 6 HAKEWILL'S Cur. Dis., vol. ii., p. 170, &c., CLAUDIA in both. Had PAUL'S friends been husband and OLIVER'S Relig. Houses, pp. 5, 6. - and wife, he most probably would have mentioned 7 The Church founded by PAULINUS at Lincoln, them together, without interposing the name of LINUs according to BEDE, was built about 630, and is the between them. However, the coincidence is remark- oldest Christian church on record in this county. able. But admitting that the PuOdens and Claudia of

Page  8 8 THE ROMAN INVASION. We will now consider the condition of this part of the Island at the time of the Roman invasion. We are informed by Caesar, that the ICENI sought alliance with the Romans in the early part of this invasion; it is, therefore, probable the CORITANI, who were leagued with, and formed a part of, that nation, were included in this alliance. Although they submitted to the Roman power, it is certain they adhered to their original mode of living, dwelled dispersedly amidst their extensive forests and marshes, and cherished in their breasts that original spirit of independence for which the Britons were always eminent. This fact is allowed by the Roman historians, and we find it recorded by them, that the ICENI in the reign of Claudius, when P. Ostorius was the ProprEetor in Britain, being disgusted with his government, and the enormities committed by the soldiery, broke out into open rebellion, and took the field against him with a numerous army, being assisted by the neighbouring tribes. A battle ensued A. D. 61,1 when the Britons, through the want of experience in their commanders, and discipline in their troops, afforded an easy conquest to the Romans, who, by this fatal victory, entirely vanquished, and nearly exterminated the whole tribe. Being thus subdued, the ICENI became more submissive to their conquerors, who in return held forth every encouragement and assistance, to persuade them to desert their woods and fortresses, and to form themselves into communities; rightly judging it the only sure method of civilizing them, and effectually subduing that spirit of independence which was continually provoking them to insurrections. The Romans, steady in the pursuit of the plan they had formed, soon saw their perseverance attended with success; the natives began to erect towns and cities, and to adopt the language, habits, customs, and manners of their conquerors. Their agricultural knowledge was increased by the Romans, and they cultivated the soil with assiduity.2 The face of the country very soon exhibited a new appearance, and presented a pleasing picture of populous cities,3 wellbuilt towns, and productive meadows and corn-fields. We are told that the Romans, in order to prevent any future opposition to their power, or at least to render such opposition unavailing, built many forts and stations in the country of the ICENI. The Romans greatly delighted in agriculture, and were always anxious to instil the same fondness for this pursuit among the different people that they brought under their control. The marshes and fens which had been hitherto, or at least for some previous centuries, an extensive lake of stagnant water, were now drained, and furnished a large tract of rich land, suitable for every agricultural purpose. The country was intersected with canals, and guarded from the future inroads of the sea by stupendous works of embankment, constructed by the skill of the Roman generals and commanders. That the conquered Britons were the manual executors of these works, under the direction of the Romans, is proved by many authorities, particularly by TACITUS, who says-" the Britons complained that the Romans wore out and consumed their bodies and hands in clearing the woods and embanking the fens."4 The principal works of drainage and embankment, completed during this period, were the following:1 TACITUS' Annals, lib. xiv., cap. 40, 41, 42. Romans, many populous, flourishing, and well-built 2 CREASEY, in his HTistory of Sleaford, refers to towns, is allowed on all hands: and that these were PLINY as an authority for assuming that the ancient mostly overthrown and destroyed by the Saxons, is Britons were acquainted with the use of marl as a confirmed by the testimony of GILDAS. manure. 4 Vita Agricolce. 3 That this country contained, in the time of the

Page  9 ROMAN OCCUPATION. 9 A great work of this county, generally attributed to the Romans, is the CARDYKE, a large canal or drain, which extends from the river Welland, on the southern side of the county, to the river Witham near Lincoln. Its channel for nearly the whole of this course, an extent of about forty miles (Dr. STUKELEY says fifty), is sixty feet in width, and has on each side a broad flat bank. The Doctor at first attributed the origin of this great work to CATUS DECIANUS, the procurator in NERO'S time: and supposed that his name was preserved in the appellations of places, &c., in the vicinity of the dyke. He adduced those of Catesbridge, Catwick, Catsgrove, Catley, and Catthorpe, in support of his hypothesis; but having afterwards devoted some time and attention to the life of CARAUSIUS, the Doctor fancied he recognized part of the name of his hero in that of this work. SALMON, in "The New Survey of England," says, "that Cardyke signifies no more than fen-dyke. The fens of Ankholrne Level are called cars." Dr. STUKELEY also admits, that Car and Fen are nearly synonymous words, and are "used in this country to signify watery, boggy places." Car, in the British language, is applied to raft, sledge, &c., vehicles of carriage. Dr. MORETON supposes its name was originally Caer-dyke, the ditch of the city. This great canal preserves a level but rather meandering course, along the eastern side of the high grounds, which extend in an irregular chain up the centre of the county, from Stamford to Lincoln. It thus receives, from the hills, all the draining and flowing waters, which take an easterly course, and which, but for this catchwater drain, as it is now appropriately called, would serve to inundate the fens. Several Roman coins have been found on the banks of this dyke.' It has been supposed that one principal purpose of this and other canals, was to convey corn in boats, from the southern parts of England to the northern prwetenturias in Scotland, for the maintenance of the forces kept there. For the Car-dyke entered the Witham, which passed through Lincoln; the navigation then was continued by the Foss-dyke2 from Lincoln to the Trent, in order that the boats might pass down that stream to the Humber. From thence the fleet of corn-boats would pass, by the force of the tide, up the river Ouse to York. Dr. STUKELEY says there was a chain of forts along this dyke, to protect the trading vessels passing and re-passing. He traced them at Narborough in Northamptonshire, thence to Braceborough, Billingborough, Garrick, Walcot, Linwood, and Washingborough.3 "The Westlode," says DUGDALE, " appears to be one of the most ancient drains in the parts of Holland; probably the work of the Romans, made at the time they raised the stupendous banks in the marshes against the sea, in order to carry off the upland waters, by its communication with the Welland, at Spalding."4 1 Beauties oftEngland and Wales, vol. ix., p. 526. 3 History of Carausius, vol. i., p. 171, &c. 2 This canal is said by HOVEDEN to have been 4 A friend, writing to us on this subject, sayscut by Henry III.; but from the circumstance of its "The Westlode appears to me not to have been inbeing, in almost all cases, the boundary between tended, as has been asserted, to assist in carrying off parishes, and from the finding a bronze lar of Mars the upland waters, but for a fen drain. It has now at the bottom of it, when it was scoured out several ceased to exist, being almost entirely filled up, and a years ago, there seems to be no doubt that it was the common sewer running through a part of its bed in work of the Romans, and a continuation of the Car- the town of Spalding, whilst the drainage of which dyke, which skirted the fens from Peterborough to it formed an essential part is now wholly carried Lincoln.-ARcH2EoLocIA, vol. xiv., p. 273. through the Vernatt's Drain." C

Page  10 10 ROMAN OCCUPATION. The Romans having made preparation for recovering that vast tract of land called the Lincolnshire Level, by the formation of the Car-dyke, which secured it from the upland waters; made it their next care to render it safe from the influx of the ocean, by erecting a great bank along the sea-coasts. " This was done, as to the wapentake of Elloa, or Ello, by what we call Thle Old Sea-dyke; which, by the people at this day, is said to be made by JULIUS C~ESAR and his soldiers, as if they had knowledge of its being a Roman work. At the mouths of all the rivers, no doubt, they made gowts and sluices, as at present. We may well suppose it was performed after the time of LOLLIUS URBICUS: scarce fully accomplished before, possibly in SEVERUS his time, which seems not obscurely hinted at by HERODIAN III.-' But he had it in his particular care to make passes over the fens, that the soldiers might stand firm, and fight upon hard ground; for many places in Britain are marshy, through the frequent overflowing of the ocean, over which the inhabitants will swim and walk, though up to the middle in water.' To which description no place so well corresponds." BADESLADE, in his account of this district, says that these banks "were executed, under the direction of the Romans, by a colony of foreigners, brought over, probably, from Belgium, a country of a similar description, the natives of which would be eminently fitted for such employment." Mr. ELSTOBB makes no allusion to this supposed colony of Belgians, but evidently supposes the Britons were the workmen employed. He says" It clearly appears that neither WISBEACH, SPALDING, or BOSTON, nor any of the towns of Marshland, could have been built, or been extant, before the first embanking of the Romans; and, as DUGDALE asserts, that most or all of these towns existed and were inhabited during the Heptarchy by the Saxons, it clearly favours that these countries must have been embanked before the latter time, and that the great work was accomplished by the Romans."3 Again, the same author says-" the original inhabitants were not equal to the construction of these works. There was little or nothing of science among them. The Romans, on their invasion, found nothing that carried the appearance of a building, not one stone upon another, not so much as a brick in the whole island."4 We have every desire to rescue the character of our British ancestors from these imputations, but we do not know any facts, nor can we adduce any arguments, which would controvert them. We think it is abundantly proved that these great works were planned by, and executed under the directions of, the Romans; and whether the workmen were Belgse or Britons is of little consequence. They certainly could not have been executed without the powerful co-operation of the Britons. CATUS DECIANUS is generally supposed to have been the officer who had the chief direction or superintendence of the works which the Romans projected in the fens.5 He was, probably, the first Roman procurator in the country of the Iceni, and continued in that capacity for many years. From what is recorded respecting him, he appears to have been an unfeeling and rigorous task-master, and the people employed under him sometimes complained loudly of the hardships they suffered. CATUS DECIANUS, however, caused the works of which he had the superintendence, to be proceeded in with energy and effect, and they appear to have been soon brought to a considerable degree of perfection. The banks were maintained in a good state during the sway of the Romans in Britain; but they appear to have been neglected very shortly after their departure; by which neglect, and the operation of other 1 STUKIELEY'S It. Cu;r., vol. i., pp. 12, 13. 4 Ibid., p. 249. 2 BADESLADE, P. 15. 5 CARTE'S History of Englacnd, vol. i., pp. 115, ELSTOnnBB'S History of the Bedford Level, p. 105. 119., 122, &c.

Page  11 ROMAN OCCUPATION. 11 causes, hereafter to be detailed, the country rescued from the sea by the Romans, again fell back to a considerable degree, to its former marshy and fenny state. During the Roman government in Britain, Lincolnshire was included within the province of Flavia Ccesariensis, and had a number of military stations established in various parts of it. Of these stations, and some others on the immediate borders of the county, the following is as correct a list as can be furnished; but there is much uncertainty, and much diversity of opinion, as to the situation of several of them:AD ABUM..................... Wintringham, near Barton.-Stukeley. AD AQuIs.......................... Aukborough.-Stukeley. AD PONTEM........................ Bridgford, near Newark.-Gale, Stukleley. Near Southwell. —Horsley. Southwell.-Dickinson. ABus.............................. The Humber. —Stukeley. ARGOLICUM........................ ARGOLICUM, or............ Littleborough onTrent.-Stukeley, on Richcl AGILOCUM, Or..................... of Cirencester. SEGELOCUM........ o...iha..... BRIGE, BRAGA............. Broughton, near Newark.-Stukeley. BANOVALLUM........................ Horncastle.-Stukeley. CAUSENNIE, or........... Stow, near Lincoln, or Stainsfield, or PaunCORISENNIS........... ton.-Stukeley and Salmon. Qutery, if Kesteven be not derived from CAUSENNIS'? if so, CAUSENNIS must be in Kesteven. ComISENNIS, Stow Green, Stanfield. - Stukeley, on Richard of Cirencester. CAUSENNIS. Ancaster. —Horsley. CAUSENNIS. Boston.-Reynolds, on Antoninus' Itinerary. CAUSENNIS. Nottingham.-Dr. Gale in Archceologiee, vol. x., p. 379. GAUSENNX. Bridge Casterton.-Reliq. Gal., p. 485. CORITANORUM, or............... The Rive r TRIVONA..... The Rver Trent.St...............keley. CROCOLANA, or................ Collingham, near Newark.-Stukeley, Gale. CROCOCALANA..................... Brugh, near Collingham.-Horsley. DUROBRIVE....................... Tattershall.- Weir's Tattershall. Lynn.Reynolds. 1Bridge Casterton.-Stukeley, Gale. Castor on the Nen.-Camden, Baxter, and Horsley. IN MEDIO........................ Kirton in Lindsey.-Stukeley. Probably Hibaldstow. Reliq. Gal. ISINNIS........................... A city of Lincolnshire, according to Richard of Cirencester, but the situation notknown, supposed the same as Causennis. LINDUM............................ Lincoln. —Stukeley, Horsley, Gale, dc. MARGIDUNUM............. Willoughby, near Grantham.-Stkeley, Gale. Near East Bridgford.-Horsley. Near "Marged Overton" (Market Overton). Reliq. Gal., p. 487.

Page  12 12 ROMAN OCCUPATION. iMETARIS CESTUARIUM............ Boston Deeps, Washes, &c.-Stukeley on Richard of Cirencester. SIDNACESTER.................... Newark.-Dickinson. Stow.-Stukeley, &c. SINUS METARIS.................... Lincolnshire Washes.-Stukeley. VAINONA........................... Wainfleet.-Stukeley. VEROMETUM.................. Near Willoughby.-Horsley. Besides the above, which may be regarded as having been stations or towns of considerable importance, the Romans established many stations and forts of inferior rank, in various parts of the county. STUKELEY supposes that TORKSEY was also a Roman station. This may be doubted; but it is generally admitted, that Torksey was, during the Heptarchy, the Saxon town of Tiovulinygacester, where PAULINUS, according to BEDE, baptized the Lindisians in the presence of EDWIN, king of Northumbria. Sman babr. The roads formed by the Romans in the several provinces of their empire, have always been considered as remarkable proofs of the greatness, the ingenuity, and persevering industry of that extraordinary people. These roads must have been formed with immense labour, and at great expense. No part of the Roman empire appears to have had more attention bestowed upon it, in this respect, than Britain. The great excellence, and what has always attracted particular attention, in many of these roads, is the direction of their course in straight lines from one place to another; but this characteristic is not always necessary to determine a road to be a work of the Romans; various local causes would prevent the straight line from being invariably pursued. The principal roads constructed by the Romans in England, are the WATLING, the ICNILD,1 the RYKNILD, the JULIAN, and the ERMIN STREET, the Foss, and the SALTWAY. Of these, only the three latter have any connection with Lincolnshire; and there is very little evidence to support the opinion, that any of them approached the immediate neighbourhood of Boston; although Mr. REYNOLDS, in his commentary on the Itinerary of ANTONINUS, supposes, that a branch of the ERMIN STREET passed from Lynn, by Gedney and Fleet, to Boston; and thence, by Sleaford, to Lincoln. THE ERMIN STREET Entered the County of Lincoln a little to the west of Stamford; from thence, by Great Casterton (Durobrivum), to the ninety-sixth milestone, on the great north road: where the Roman road takes a north-easterly direction to Ancaster (Causennis); thence to the east of Navenby, Boothby, and Bracebridge, to Lincoln (Lindum). From Lincoln, its course is due north, through Spittal, Broughton, and Appleby, to Wintringham (Adc Abum), on the banks of the Humber. A second branch of this road turns off, after crossing the river Nene, in Northamptonshire, and goes by Lolham Bridges, Kate's Bridge, Thurlby, Bourn, Cawthorpe, Hanthorpe, Stanfield, Aslackby, to the east of Folkingham, and Threckingham; thence northward, in a straight line, to the "Old Place," which is about a quarter of a mile east of Sleaford, across the river, by a little of the left of Ruskington, IDorlrington, Digby, Rowston, Blankney, Metheringham, Dunstan, Noeton, Potterhanworth, Branston, to Lincoln, where it joined the main branch. 1 The Watling, and the Icnild or Ikening Street, are supposed to have been originally constructed by the Britons, prior to the Roman invasion,

Page  13 ROMAN OCCUPATION. 13 A third branch of the ERMIN STREET strikes off about six miles north of Stamford, running by Stenby, Denton, &c., to Southwell and Bawtry.' THE FOSS WAY Ran from the coast about Saltfleetby, by Ludborough, Ludford (an undoubted Roman station), to Lincoln; then by Bruff, to Newark, &c. THE SALT WAY "Ran from the saltmines, at Droitwich in Worcestershire, to the coast of Lincolnshire; entered Lincolnshire, not far from Saltby, crossed the Witham at Saltersford, near the town or Roman station of Ponton;"2 its route thence, to the sea-coast, does not seem to be accurately determined. Dr. Stukeley says"' I have little doubt in supposing that a Roman road was drawn from the northern high country, about Bolingbroke by Stickford, Stickney, Sibsey, &c., and so to Boston river, about Redstone-Gowt, where it passed it by a ferry. I have fancied to myself that several parcels of it are plainly Roman, by the straightness and by the gravelly bottom. From thence to Kirton it is indubitably so, being laid with a large bed of gravel; and just a mile from the river is a stone, now called the mile-stone, standing in a quadrivium;3 it is a large round stone, like the frustum of a pillar, and very probably a lapis miliaris. From Kirkton, I imagine the road went to Donington, where it met the great and principal road of the country, which is drawn from Ely to Sleaford, in a line not much different from a straight one."4 Another Roman road, Dr. Stukeley conjectures, was made from Horncastle (Banovallumn) to Sleaford. He describes its course as " east of the river Bane, southward by Les Yates (Leeds Gates), crossing the Witham at Chapel Hill, and the Car-dyke, somewhere about Kyme." "I think we need not scruple to assert, that Raven's-bank is another ancient road; going east and west through the heart of the country, from Tid St. Mary's to Cowbit. I have rode some miles upon it, where it is now extremely straight and flat. We have been informed that it is actually in some writings called Roman's-bank."5 Mr. Dickinson conjectures " a Roman road to have run in a northerly direction from Lincoln by Castor, Stallingborough, &c., to the sea-coast."6 Others suppose this road, after passing Castor, to have gone to Yarborough-Camp, Horkstow, &c. There are also some traces of a road from Doncaster (Danurm) to Wainfleet (Vainona) yet remaining. It entered Lincolnshire near Littleborough, where it forded the Trent, and ran by Stow and Scampton, crossing the Ermin Street about five miles north of Lincoln; thence by Minting, Horncastle, Asgarby, Enderby, and Little Steeping to Wainfleet. There is also reason to imagine, that a general road ran round the whole coast of Britain. In Lincolnshire, it may be traced at various places; such as Raven's-bank, or Roman's-bank, Pinchbeck, Bicker, Wainfleet, Burgh, Somercoates, Scartho', Grimsby, Stallingborough, Harburgh, Thornton, Barrow, Barton, Wintringham, and Alkborough.7 We have stated that Mr. REYNOLDS, in his Commentary on the Itinerary of ANTONINUS, supposes that a branch of the ERMIN STREET passed from Lynn, by.Gedney and Fleet, to BOSTON, and thence, by Sleaford, to Lincoln; thus fixing the Roman station, CAUSENNE, at BOSTON, an honour which no other 1 Dr. STURKELEY supposes this work was executed parish of Wyberton. during the reign of NERO, circa, A. D. 60. 4 STUELEY'S It. Cur., p. 14. 2 TURNOR'S Grantham. 5 Ibid., p. 15. 3 This stone may yet be seen at the cross-roads 6 Map to the Antiquities of Nottingham, &c. nearly opposite to the Pincushion public-house, in the 7 STUELEY'S It. C(r.

Page  14 14 ROMAN OCCUPATION. writer has conferred upon the capital of this district. The portion of the 5th Iter, which he thus proposes to alter is the following-we give both Mr. HORSLEY'S and Mr. REYNOLDS'S translation:Roman Towns. Mr. Horsley's Translation. Mr. Reynolds's. MILES. MILES. ICIANO ad ) 18 Chesterford to Icklingham. 17 Thetford to CAMBORITUM, J Cambridge. DUROLIPONTEM, 25 Cambridge. 25 Ramsey. DUROBRIVEM, 35 Castor on Nen. 35 West or Old Lynn. CAUSENNEM, 30 Ancaster. 30 Boston. LINDUM, 26 Lincoln. 36 Lincoln. SEGELOCUM, &C. In the remainder of this Iter the two routes very nearly ad LUGOVALLEM, J agree. The first material alteration in Mr. REYNOLDS'S route, from that of Mr. HORSLEY, and the commentators in general, is in fixing the site of DUROLIPONS at Ramsey, instead of Cambridge; and the following extract from Mr. REYNOLDS'S work comprises the whole of his observation on this Iter from DUROLIPONS to LINDUM. " When this lter comes into the Ermin Street, which it does at Godmanchester, it has been the general opinion of antiquaries, that it has continued long the road quite to Lincoln. " Camden fixes the next three towns at Godmanchester, Castor in Northamptonshire, and Bridge Casterton in Lincolnshire. " Gale observes, that all'our antiquaries place DUROLIPoNS at Huntingdon, or Godmanchester; though the numbers of Antoninus are plainly against the supposition; for this town is but fifteen miles from CAMBORITUM, which he considers at Cambridge, or near it, as Camden has done. And he expresses his surprise that this great writer should' praise the exactness of the numbers.' He, however, admits this to be the position of DUROLIPONS. " Stukeley agrees with his predecessors in the situations of this and the next town, but to the third he assigns a new place at a small distance from the Ermin Street, at Great Paunton in Lincolnshire. " But to all these opinions the numbers form insuperable objections: we must, therefore, venture to leave the road which has been hitherto readily adopted as a sure and safe guide, and try if three other towns cannot be found more conformable to the distance required. " And if in this stage we pass on ten miles beyond Godmanchester, we shall reach Ramsey, a place not without a proof of its Roman antiquity. " Ramsey (Stukeley tells us) has been famous for a rich abbey, where every monk lived like a gentleman. There is little left of it now, but a part of the old gatehouse. Anno 1721, many pecks of Roman coins were found there. And from the name, he is inclined to conjecture, that it has been a Roman town. " The fenny situation of this town is very agreeable to a place with Dur in its name. " And from this town to'Peterborough, about ten miles, a paved causeway is described, supposed to have been made by King Canute, with great labour and charge, by our historians called King's Delf, nigh the great Whittlesea Mere, because that way was rendered troublesome by brooks and sloughs.' " But Gibson does not admit'this road to have been the work of Canute, for the name King's Delf in these parts appears on record, before Canute's time, that is, in the reign of King Edgar, who, in his charter to the church at Peterborough, makes this King's Delf one of the bounds of his donation: it is much more reasonable to believe this road a work of the Romans, and that it was made for the convenience of this town, which lay so near the end of it.' "It will be allowed to be a very extraordinary circumstance that in this very line of road, there is to this day a bridge called Pon's Bridge. It is indeed written in Camden's map, Ponder's Bridge, but in Cary's modern maps, Pond's Bridge; in which we see plain traces of the ancient name of this old town, as Bemford-bridge has been supposed to mark the neighbourhood of Bonnones. "Cambridge to Huntingdon, sixteen miles; Huntingdon to Ramsey, nine miles and three quarters.-Patterson. In all, twenty-five miles and three quarters. But if the original road went direct to Huntingdon Bridge, it might not exceed twenty-five miles.

Page  15 ROMAN OCCUPATTON. 15 "DUROBRIVIS XXXV. WEST OR OLD LYNN, NORFOLK. "Lynn has not produced any Roman coin, or other remains that I know of, in proof of its antiquity; but the distances on both sides the situation, and the name of it, with some other circumstances, afford a very good probable evidence, that we need not look for this DUROBRIvIS1 anywhere else. " The present name Lynn, conveys the very same idea as to the watery situation of this place, as the ancient name DUROBRIVIS. Camden thinks Lynn so'named from its spreading waters, for so much is implied by Lhyn in British.' " And it is a quality by no means unusual in the Antonine towns to have transferred their consequence to some town near them, and in such instances the denomination Old marks the mother town. Thus we find Old Penrith, Old Richmond, that have given rise to the new towns of the same names. " Stukeley gives great weight to the supposition, that a Roman town might be here, and that the course of the Iter might lead through these parts, by showing that all the country between this place and Boston had been well known to the Romans, as the numerous coins, and other proofs, discovered in all parts of it, sufficiently testify. A road he speaks of, called Raven's-bank, which he thinks Roman.' It goes east and west through the heart of the country, from Tyd St. Mary to Cowbit.' He tells us, that' he rode some miles upon it, where it is now extremely straight and broad.' The direction of this road points to Lynn. " The same intelligent antiquary observes farther, that the upper road, running also east and west, nearer the sea-bank, now called Old Spalding Gote, is originally Roman. In some places about Fleet, it retains the name of Heregate, which is equivalent to Via nilitaris, when spoken by our Saxon progenitors.' This is the road through the washes from Lynn to Boston, which passes by Gedney and Fleet, and not far from Holbeach, at all which places Roman coins and other antiquities have been discovered.' "All these circumstances show that the Romans were well acquainted with this part of our island, and that consequently it is not unreasonable to suppose an Antonine town in this neighbourhood. "Governor Pownall2 conjectures, that there may have been a connection between Sandy in Bedfordshire (the SALINe of Ptolemy) and Old Lynn, in the Roman times; and observes that at Old Lynn are still remaining the ruins of several ancient salt-pans. And he adds,'there are upon the points of the high lands above the village, several fortified camps, or posts. But I shall not in this letter enter into any description of them, nor even state my doubts, whether they are Roman or not.' By the drift of his argument he may be thought to intimate, that he supposed them to be Roman fortifications; which is rendered more probable, if this town be the remains of DURoBRIVIS. " It is very difficult to prove the exact distance of this stage, because it is impossible to ascertain the real course of the Roman road. The face of the country might be very dif. ferent in those early times, and the communication more direct. A person, who kept an inn some years at Wisbeach, told me, he believed Ramsey must be about thirty-five miles from Lynn. Patterson, in his dictionary, makes twenty-nine miles the distance between Lynn and Peterborough. If this be exact, Ramsey cannot be more than thirty-five miles from the former place. The deficiencies in maps of Cambridgeshire and Norfolk, very much increase the difficulty in settling this distance. "CAUSENNIS XXX. BOSTON, LINCOLNSHIRE. " In a communication obtained for me by a young friend from some antiquary in the neighbourhood of this town, I was informed that'though the Romans had possession of many places in the low parts of Lincolnshire, yet there is no reason to think they were ever settled at Boston, as no coins, or other remains, have been ever met with there; and, that as Boston is not mentioned in Domesday, it was more than probable that the site of it was at that time an unembanked salt marsh.'3 " On this representation, I should have had some considerable doubts concerning the antiquity of Boston, but I immediately recollected, that CAMDEN quotes BEDE'S authority as to the original name of this town, a proof of its existence long before the time of the Conqueror's survey; and soon after an acquaintance with STUxELEY'S Itinerariumn Curiosuzn revived my hopes, that I might not be mistaken in thinking this place the CAUSENNIS of the Itinerary. 1 There are two towns of this name in the It. from Cambridge by Streatham towards Lynn."Britanniarum; the other is fixed at Rochester, in Bishop of Cloyne to Mr. Reynolds. Kent.3 " That the'Romans found this neighbourhood in 2 "YOU have hardly added force enough to your this state, there is much evidence in support of; but idea of Old Lynn being DuRoBIvIvs. For instead of that they very materially altered the face of the saying'Governor Pownall colnjectures,' you might country by their numerous works of drainage and say boldly, There is a certain Roman road bearing embankment, there is the most undoubted proof."

Page  16 16 ROMAN OCCUPATION. "This indefatigable antiquary resided for some time in this town, and he informs us that,'about the year 1716, a Roman foundation was dug up beyond the school-house, near which some hewn stones formed a cavity, in which was an urn with ashes, another little pot with an ear, and an iron key, of an odd figure. Some time before this, in Mr. Brown's garden at the Green-poles,L they dug up an urn, lined with thin lead, full of red earth and bones, unquestionably Roman.' " I am informed, by one conversant in the ancient British, that CAUSENNIS means' The Causeway Town, an interpretation which may be supposed not inapplicable to Boston, situated in a deep fenny country.' " Bridge-end causeway points towards this town, and is said'to have all the requisites that can ascertain it to be a Roman work; being straight, and laid with a solid bed of stone. The present, indeed, is repaired every year, but there is much reason to think the first projection of it, through this broad morass, was no less than Roman.' With this opinion I entirely coincide, and am persuaded, that, however tradition may sometimes attribute such works to the Saxons, or the Danes, they all owe their origin to the Romans. " Old Lynn to Boston, thirty miles.-Patterson."2 The next stage of this Iter is LINDUM, undoubtedly Lincoln, and Mr. Reynolds thus states his authority for altering the distance from CAUSENNIS to LINDUM from 26 to 36 miles. " The number in this stage is in most copies XXVI., but in Harrison's first copy it is XXXVI. This seems to have been the original reading, and gives the real distance between Boston and Lincoln." The distance between Corisennis and Lindumn, is, in Richard's XVII. Iter, said to be 30 miles. The Roman road is not supposed to have gone from Sleaford along the present road, but to the east of it, through Old Sleaford, and by the villages of Ruskington, Dorrington, &c., in the direction pointed out, as that of the second branch of the Ermin Street. It was thought necessary to extract thus largely from Mr. Reynolds's work, in order that the reader might be enabled to judge as to the probability of BOSTON being the ancient CAUSENNE. This he could scarcely have done, if the observations adduced to prove that Ramsey and West Lynn were the Roman towns of DUROLIPONS, and DUROBRIVUM, had not also been submitted to his consideration. There can scarcely be a doubt that Boston was known to the Romans, and that they had a station here; though probably it was merely a fort or garrison,'to defend the mouth of the Witham. But that Boston has a just claim to be regarded as the CAUSENNlE of Antoninus, is exceedingly problematical.3 About a quarter of a mile from Boston haven, and not more than forty yards from the south bank of the ancient and natural drain called Hammond-beck, is a piece of ground, which is rather more elevated than the surrounding fields. It is in form of a parallelogram, extending from east to west ninety yards, and 1 We do not know in what part of Boston the another from Whaplode Drove, Gedney Hill, and "Green Poles" was situated. St. Edmunds, in which vicinity they most probably Dr. STUKELEY'S account of these antiquities had their small stations, as evidenced by coins found will be given in another place. from time to time, some even within the last three 2 REYNOLDS'S Commentary on Antoninus' Itine- years, in moated sites, which roads crossed by a rary, p. 257, &c. bridge at Spalding in the situation of the present 3 A friend at Spalding, who is most competent to High Bridge, and which was the only means of give an opinion upon the subject, says, "A direct com- transit across the fen country-the road then promunication by land between Spalding and Boston could ceeding to Pinchbeck, and afterwards in the direcscarcely have existed in the time when the Romans tion laid down by Stukeley towards Rigbolt, and were in possession of the country-Bicker haven also perhaps to Donington. The only trace of a extending from the Wash across the present road. Roman name is Cate's cove corner (supposed to be This, I think, alone, does away with REYNOLDS'S from Catus Decianus) near Whaplode Drove, close hypothesis as to the situation of the Roman CAU- by one of the moated sites I have mentioned and SEENIS at Boston. It would, perhaps, more plau- the one where there has been the most recent sibly attach to Spalding; I do not mean to say discovery of coins." probably. A road existed in their time through Dr. STURELEY, as we have already stated, supSpalding, leading by the Heregate, i. e. the present posedthat the ancient road from Boston southward. road from Holbeach, and running nearly parallel to, turned off from Kirton towards Donington. and within a mile of, the old Roman Bank; and

Page  17 ROMAN FORT AT BOSTON. 17 is forty-five yards in breadth. This is surrounded by a hollow of about twelve yards over, and was probably a fosse or ditch, the bottom of which is now not more than six feet lower than the enclosed ground. Whether it was in this place the Roman fort, mentioned by Dr. STUKELEY, stood, is not easily ascertained. The following considerations, however, are favourable to this conclusion, and it is not improbable that the Roman standard once waved over this spot. ~~ — --- That the fort was in this place, seems probable from its being in that line which appeared to Dr. STUKELEY to be a Roman road, running across the country in a southern direction from Bolingbroke towards Boston Haven, about Redstone-gowt, where was the ferry, and from which it proceeded forwards to Kirton, and perhaps united with the Herman Street near Donington. This opinion is further supported by considering that the situation would be very convenient for the purpose of a ready communication, by water, with the Car-dyke. Hammond-beck, near which the fort stood, being one of the natural drains of the country, (and was probably such in the time of the Romans,) crosses the Roman road near Bridge-end, where it and the Car-dyke are not far asunder.' It is generally supposed that the Romans, immediately previous to their departure, A. D. 420, erected many forts upon the eastern and southern coasts of England, for the protection of the country against the Franks and Saxons. It is probable that the fort at Boston was erected at this period. Dr. STUKELEY conjectures that similar forts were erected at Spalding and Wisbeach. If forts were erected in this neighbourhood, it is hardly probable that they were of an earlier date than that above fixed, when it is considered what a length of time would be requisite to drain and embank this fenny country, and render it an object worthy of preservation. That the Romans would not leave the mouth of the Witham undefended, 1 S. Collections of the late W. CHAPMAN, Esq.,, -

Page  18 18 ROMAN FORT AT BOSTON. must appear evident from the consideration, that upon this river was seated their famous city of LINDUM; a station of the very first rank and importance, during the continuance of their empire in Britain. STUKELEY expressly states, that the Romans had a fort at Boston. The existence of the remains of roads, which that intelligent antiquary pronounced to be of Roman construction, as well as the discovery of several " undoubted remains" of that celebrated people, in this town and its immediate neighbourhood, clearly prove that this district was inhabited by them. Roman coins, of the lower empire, and principally of the smaller brass, have been frequently found in this neighbourhood; never, however, in any collected quantity. The mere fact of single coins having been found in any place, proves nothing, except, that they have been previously lost; but whether by the people who originally circulated them, or by subsequent possessors, cannot be determined. The latter appears the more rational inference. " It is the current belief, that GAUSENNE (or CAUSENN.) was demolished (as Henry, Archdeacon of Huntingdon, relates) when the Picts and Scots ravaged this country as far as Stamford; when our Hengist and his Saxons, with great resolution and gallantry, stopped their progress, and forced them to fly in great disorder: "I this was about the year 450. Nothing appears upon record, as to Boston or its neighbourhood having been the scene of any particular event, during the Roman government in Britain. The Roman possession of Britain, reckoning from the landing of Julius Caesar, 54 B. c., to the year 435 A. D., when they took their farewell of this Island,2 was 489 years. They, however, according to WILLIAM of MALMESBURY, twice sent expeditions to assist the Britons against the inroads of the Picts and Scots. The last of these expeditions was about 449, when the Romans took their final leave of Britain, either as conquerors or allies. 1 CAMDEN, GIBSON'S edition, 1772, vol i., p,. 557. j 2 Saxon Chronicle, translated by INGRAM, P. 12.

Page  19 DIVISION II.'istoof stu an if Piftrid bongx fezrti garso ah Pann n14 ix gfau. I llllll, I ITHERTO," says SHARON TURNER," England had been inhabited by branches of the Kimmerian and Keltic races, apparently visited by the Phoenicians and Carthagenians, and afterwards occupied by the Roman military and colonists. From this succes@,#~ll 7.I sive population it had obtained all the benefits which each could impart. But in the 5th century the period had arrived when both England and the south of Europe were to be possessed and commanded by a new description of people, who had been gradually formed amid the wars and vicissitudes of the Germanic continent; and to be led to manners, laws, and institutions peculiarly their own, and adapted, as the great result has shewn, to produce national and social improvements, superior to those which Greece or Rome had attained. The Anglo-Saxon invasion of England must not, therefore, be considered as a barbarisation of the country."l A late writer upon the subject divides the invaders of England during the 5th century, into three classes, "Angles, Saxons, and Jutes. The Angles settled in the north; the Saxons in the south and south-west; the Jutes were not numerous enough to form any large settlements. The Britons were driven to the mountainous districts-Cumberland (the land of the Cymbri or Celts), Wales, and Cornwall. War existed between the Britons and their invaders for more than 150 years. The descendants of the invading nations continued for several centuries to be the reigning people under the common name of Anglo-Saxons. Although perpetually harassed on their frontiers by the Britons, the Saxons successfully continued what the Romans had begun, with regard to the improvement of the land and the civilisation of the people. Christianity began to extend itself; and, about the time of its general introduction, the several Saxon kingdoms were united into one. Churches and convents rose with surprising rapidity through the land, and the pursuits of peace, science, and art, throve luxuriantly. Under these pursuits, however, the Anglo-Saxons lost much of their military character, during the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries."2 WILLIAM of M(ALMESBURY says, "The Angles and Saxons first came into Britain A.D. 449;"3 he says, they "were invited over by the Britons to defend 1 TURNER'S Anglo-Saxons, vol. i., p. 251. 2 WORSAAE'S Account of the D)anes in England, p. 5, &c. 3 History of the Kings of England, p. 5.

Page  20 20 KINGDOM OF MERCIA. them" from the incursions of the Scots and Picts, against whom the Romans had twice lent their aid; but who now declined returning to assist them, "bidding them rather themselves not degenerate from the martial energy of their ancestors, but learn to defend themselves with spirit and with arms." The Scots, learning "that the Britons would not be any longer assisted by their former powerful allies, made more frequent attacks upon them." It was at this juncture that VORTIGERN, king of Britain, summoned a council to consider the state of public affairs, and it was unanimously resolved to invite over aid from Germany.1 The first arrival of Saxonis vwas commanded by HENGIST and lHORSA, and reached Britain in 449; the best historians are of opinion, however, that they never extended their visitation beyond Kent.2 The kingdom of MERCIA, in which Lincolnshire was included, was established by CRIDA in 586, and made the eighth Saxon kingdom; it became, in time, more celebrated and powerful than any other, except that of the West Saxons, who, at length, conquered Mercia.5 PENDA, the grandson of CRIDA, reigned from 627 to 634.4 —Mercia south of the Trent, then contained only 5,000 families.5 The kingdom of Mercia was founded by the Angles.6 In 655, Mercia was much overflowed by water. The Chronicles and later historians furnish the names of the following kings of Mercia. 716.-ETHELBALD, who was instructed by St. Guthlac, and raised Croyland abbey. The banner displayed by Ethelbald, in his various wars with the Northumbrians and the people of Wessex, was a golden dragon, which became the adopted flag of Mercia.7 Ethelbald was slain in battle in 755. 755. —BURNRID succeeded Ethelbald, and OFFA succeeded Burnrid. Offa displayed great talent. ALCUIN, the Saxon bard, praises him largely in his poems, and says he was a great reader. OFFA was a correspondent of CHARLEMAGNE, who greets him with expressions of friendship. Offa died in 794. Egforth succeeded him. 800.-KENWULF was a peaceful, pious, and just king; he died in 819. KENELM and CEOLWULF succeeded him. 823.-]BEORNWULF lost his crown to Egbert, king of the West Saxons, in 827; and was succeeded by him as king of iMercia, according to a treaty drawn up by the Abbot of Croyland. EGBERT overcame all his enemies, and very much increased the power and the extent of MERCIA. He was baffled, however, by the genius of the celebrated Sea King, RAGNAR LODBROG, who commanded an incursion of the Danes, and committed many outrages. Egbert died in 836. 836.-ETHELWULF succeeded his father; he was a prince of weak capacity, but was honoured by having for his fourth son the illustrious ALFRED the Great, born in 849. 838. —B3ERTULPH was tributary king of Mercia, under the West Saxons; he died in 852. 852. —BURTHRED, the last king of Mercia, ascended the throne. From this time MERCIA lost its individuality as a separate member of the Saxon Heptarchy, Octarchy, or rather Tetrarchy, as it had lately been, and was merged in the kingdom of the West Saxons.8 The internal government,the 1 William of Malmesbury, p. 7. 5 COLLEN, ibid., p. 377. 2 CARTE, WHITAKER; and SHARON TURNER. William of 2Malmesbury, p. 9. 3 TURNER'S Anglo-Saxosns, vol. i., p. 317. 7 COLLEN says the arms of Mercia were, Azure, 4 COLLEN says, from 625 to 655, see his Britan- a Saltire Or.-Britannia Saxonzica, p. 40. nia Saxonica, p. 44. 8 William of MalmesbTry, Sharon Turer, tc.

Page  21 I)ANISII INCURSIONS. 21 history of the country, nay, even the names of the kings or governors, with the exception of the few which we have here recorded, all have long been buried in oblivion. This is owing, principally, perhaps, to the destruction, by the Danes, of the records of the monastic institutions within this ill-fated district.1 But about this time a new element begins to mix itself with British history. It is true that the DANES made their first appearance on the English coast in 653; they landed in Dorsetshire in 787, and in Northumberland in 794, and made other irruptions in 8382, 836, 837, and 851; they spent the winter of 860 in the Isle of Thanet; they landed in great numbers in 866, in East Anglia; and conquered Northumbria in 867; but they were unable to maintain any permanent footing in the Island until 870, when a large body of Norwegians and Danes, commanded by the chiefs INGUAR and HUBBA,2 entered the Humber, and plundered the counties of Nottingham, York, and Northampton; they afterwards broke into East Anglia. They entered Lincolnshire at Humberstone, and ravaged the entire county. " Bardney Abbey was destroyed, and the monks slaughtered, and the summer spent in desolating the country with fire and sword. They crossed the Witham, and entered Kesteven with the same dismal ministers of fate. The Saxon sovereign of the country (Ethelred, king of the West Saxons) made no effort at defence; but a patriotic few attempted to procure for themselves, and their countrymen, that protection which their government could not impart. The brave Earl ALGAn, in September, drew out all the youth of Holland; the two seneschals, WI13ERT and LEOFRIC, whose names the aged rustics, who survived, attached with grateful memory to their possessions, which they called Wiberton and Leofrieston, assembled from Deeping, Langtoft, and Boston (query Baston) 300 valiant and well appointed men 200 more joined them from the Croyland monastery. They were composed chiefly of fugitives, and were led by Tolius a monk, but who, previous to his entering the sacred profession and assuming the cowl, had been celebrated for his military character. Morcar, Lord of Brunne (Bourn J), added his family, who were undaunted and numerous, and Osgot, the sheriff of Lincoln, a courageous an-d formidable veteran, collected 500 mnore from the inhabitants of the county. These generous patriots attacked the advanced bands of the Northmen on St. 3Maurice's day, slaying three of their kings and many soldiers, and pursuing the rest to their very camp, until night obliged them to separate. In the same night, several of the Princes and Earls of the Danes, with their followers, who had been out in search of plunder, came to the assistance of their countrymen, and a number of the Lincolnshi'e men, intimidated by the increased power of their enemies, fled, during the night succeeding the first day's victory. ALGAR gave battle with the remainder next morning. Among them were Tolius, with his 500 men in the right wing, with Morcar and his followers to support them, and Osgot, the sheriff, with his 500 men in the left wing, with the stout Knight Harding of Rehale, and the young and impetuous men of Stamford." The Danes, after having buried the three kings they had lost the day before, at a place then called Launcden, but since, from that circumstance, Threckinghain,3 marched into the field. The compacted wedge-like mass of the English resisted all the attacks of the Danes, until the latter, feigning a flight, induced the former to break their ranks, when the Danes rallied, rushed upon the scattered English, and made them pay dear for their temerity. In fine, the Danes were completely victorious. A LGAR and the other chiefs did all that could be done, and yielded their lives to the enemy. "A few youths of Sutton and Croyland escaped, and communicated the fatal catastrophe to Letter from Mr. AnYOTT to Sir HENxrY ELLIs, the probability of Pagan kings being buried in a On the IKings of the East Angles, p. 6. Christian church, and adding, that he had decyphered 2 Sons of the celebrated Sea King, RAGNAR LOD- an inscription upon one of the stones to be "Hic BROG.-TURNER'S Anglo-Saxons. Jacet Johannes quondzmn domninus de ]'reckinghamn." 3 This statement of Ingulphus, with the modern The site of the battle was, according to the Doctor, evidence of the three recumbent figures still shown in at Londontlhorpe (Laundenlethorpe) by Belton Park. Threckingham church, was vehemently disputed by Dr. This paper was read at the first meeting of a society Stukeley. Thereis a curious paper by the Doctor in the of antiquarics, held at Ancaster in 1728. archives of the Spalding society, iln wrhich hle contests

Page  22 22 L)A.N 181.. AP 1I \AT:'S S \ N-ESHEAD.I{ the monastery of rL'Oyland." Croyallad, Tlborney, Ramsey, arnd Peterboroughl abbeys, and the monastery at BOSTON were destroyed.' We have no means of ascertaining at what period the earthworks at Swineshead were thrown up; but, if they existed at the time, they would, most probably, be visited by the Danish army on its march from Launden towards Croyland; being nearly in the direct road between those places. These works still remain in great perfection, and are represented below. This encampment is sixty yards in diameter, and surrounded by a double fosse; the inner fosse being almost entirely encircled with willow trees.2 In 873, the Danes deposed BURTHRED, the nominal king of Mercia, and placed a Dane, CEOLWULF, upon the throne. This year the Danes wintered at Torksey. Thus ended the kingdom of Mercicia. The Danes were finally defeated in 878, and Alfred the Great re-ascended the throne of England. MERCIA was then associated with Wessex, from which it was not afterwards separated.3 INGULPHUS says, that from the first year of PENDA, to the deposition of CEOLWULF, the kingdom of M/ercia lasted about 230 years; according to TURNER, its duration was 251 years. ALFRED appears to have entertained the enlightened design of converting the conquered Danes into allies, by leading them to the culture of the ground, to civilisation and Christianity. With this view he permitted them to possess East Anglia as peaceful colonists. There were allotted to the Danes, Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire, parts of Hertfordshire and Bedfordshire, and TURNErS'S Anglo-Saxons, vol. i., p. 519, &c. uipland waters flowed also into that then-importantinlet BLORE'S Rsutland, upon the authority of INGULPHUS of the sea, and opened communication with Spalding, and LELAND. Peterborough, &c. (The decay of this haven is supposed 2 A very brief inspection of the map of ancient to have taken place during the reigns of Henry III. Linconshire will sho, that no place, in this portion and the first two Edwards, 1216 to 1327.) The of the county, was better adapted for a camp, or camp at Swineshead had also near communication point of observation and concentration, and a centre with Hamsmond Beck, and, through it, with Boston of action, than this was. It was near the Skirth, and the asouth of the Witharn. By the Skirtle it a.n ancient creek, which rose near Kyme, and ap- was connected with Kynme Eass, and by the Gillparently flowed into, or had communication with, Syke (Langare or long Creek,) with tile 5eppel' Bicker sHaven. Near Swineshead Drayton, banks Withae and Lincoln. are yet visible, indicatinlg a channel of former times, TUauRxm's Anglo-Sa.xos.s, vol. i., p. 539. along which, most plroably, some of the fell ailci

Page  23 SAXON AND DANISH HISTORY. 23 a small part of Huntingdonshire. SPELMAN thinks that the supreme authority of ALFRED was preserved, however, in all his treaties with the Danes.' The Danes, from abroad, were still desirous of uncontrolled power in England, and fresh incursions were made by the celebrated HASTINGS in 884, 893, and 894. In the latter year, HASTINGS invaded MERCIA, and extended his ravages to Stamford-the Weslod (Welland) and the "thick wood CEOFTEFNE (query) are mentioned in connection with this raid."2 In the winter of 894 the Danish fleet was laid up in the river Lea, on which the Danes built a fort, twenty miles above London, supposed by TURNER to be either Ware or Hertford. HASTINGS' attempt to establish himself in England did not terminate until 897, when he retired into France, and died in peaceful privacy. ALFRED died in 900 or 901, and during the disturbances which succeeded for the crown, Edward the Elder, in the year 921, gave battle to the Danes on Wittering heath, a spacious plain, three miles south of Stamford, wherein they are said to have received a memorable overthrow.S In 922, the king advanced towards Stamford, in order to reduce it, it being at that time the Danish head quarters in this part of the country. Success attended him. He is said to have expelled the Danes from the eastern coast, from the mouth of the Thames to Boston Wash, and shut them up in their northern provinces by a line of fortresses, erected along the banks of the Humber.4 Another historian says, "Edward the elder, the son of Alfred, ravaged the fens of Lincolnshire."5 These intestine divisions invited the northmen to another invasion, and in 934, ANLAFF, the Norwegian, entered the Humber with a fleet of 615 ships.6 The people of Mercia were engaged in the conflict which ensued. A great battle was fought at a place then called Brunanburg, which TURNER supposes was in Northumbria, and THIERRY fixes at Bamborough, but which is believed by others to have been in Lincolnshire. It is fixed by some of these advocates for Brunanburg being in Lincolnshire, at Burnham, in the parish of Thornton Curtis, and by others of them, at or near Stow, near Gainsborough.7 This battle ended in the entire discomfiture of the Danes, and ATHELSTAN, the commander of the Anglo-Saxon forces, has received the fame of being the founder of the English monarchy.8 ANLAFF, the Norwegian, renewed his attack in 941, and landed "at the White Wells, where the broad stream of the Humber flowed."9 The death of ANLAFF, shortly afterwards, "terminated the dangerous independence of the five cities-which the Danes had long occupied on the frontiers of Mercia and East AngliaDerby, Leicester, Nottingham, Stamford, and Lincoln. Preceding kings had allowed them to be retained by the Danes, but Edmund the elder now I TURNER'S Anglo-Saxons, vol. i., p. 579. the battle of Brunanburgh; but I think the earth2 Ibid., p. 595. works there have a much more remote antiquity." — 3 PECK'S Annals of Stamford. Mr. T. WRIGHT, Gentleman's Magazine, May, 1854, 4 THIERRY. p. 478. A note in the new edition of Ingulphus, 5 TURNER'S Anglo-Saxons, vol. ii., p. 168. p. 74, says, "Brunenburgh near the banks of the 6 Ibid., p. 181. Humber." INGULPHUS calls it Brunford. It will 7 If this latter supposition be correct, STOW is be observed that the account says "the Norwegians indeed thrice-famed, since there is little doubt that entered the Humber;" this would lead to an inference it was the SIDNACESTER of the Romans, and the that the battle took place near the entrance of that Saxon LIzDIs. The following authorities may also river, and is in favour of its site being near Barrow be quoted respecting the locality of Brunanburg. or Barton. The editor of William of Malmesbury says, "It is 8 TURNER, vol. ii., p. 189. called BRUMBY in the Sacxon Chronicle, it, probably 9 Ibid., p. 223. This locality is unknown. It was was not far from the Humber." Ethelred's Chronicle evidently near the mouth of the Humber, and, most says the battle was fought at BRUNANDEENE, probably, on the Lincolnshire coast; and, if so, near which a late editor says was BRUMBY in Lincolnshire. Barrow or Barton. This would give an additional North-humberland and North Mercia are often mis- probability to ANLAFF'S having also landed there in taken one for the other. "It has been supposed, 934, and that the place of his former defeat-Bruwith some plausibility, that the neighbourhood of nanburg-was also in that neighbourhood. Barton and Barrow upon Humber was the site of

Page  24 24 SAXON AND DANISH HISTORY. expelled the Danes, and peopled them with Saxons."l The Danes landed again in great force some years afterwards, and ravaged the whole province of Lindsey. King Edgar died in 975: it is stated he drove out the Danes, and stationed three fleets of 1,200 ships each, on the east, west, and south coasts of the island, as a defence against future invasion. We have no record, whatever, respecting the size of these ships; they were probably only boats, and those very small ones.2 The governor of Mercia this year quarrelled with the monks, and turned them out of their houses: the governor of East Anglia supported them, and many tumults ensued.3 ALFRIC was Duke of Mercia in 992. About this time, says WORSAAE, Danish and Norwegian Vikings again swarmed throughout England; the tax called Danegelt4 was levied to defray the expense of defending the country against them.5 The Saxon king, ETHELRED, made treaties in 995 and 1002, with the Norwegian and Danish kings, after paying immense sums as Danegelt, and agreeing to many humiliating conditions. As a last resource, ETHELRED determined upon secretly and treacherously slaughtering the Danes who were settled in England; and this massacre took place on St. Bridget's eve, 13th of November, 1002. Old and young, women and children, were slaughtered indiscriminately, and without mercy. WORSAAE says, the slaughter was confined almost exclusively to the south of England. But, notwithstanding this terrible treachery, the power and the influence of the Danes was far from being annihilated in the south, while the massacre did not extend to the north.6 In 1003, SWEYN, king of Denmark, enraged at the treacherous treatment of his countrymen, landed in the west of England and ravaged the country. In 1004, he came with his fleet to Norwich, and burnt that city. A famine prevailed in England this year, and the Danish fleet returned to the Baltic.7 Edric was Duke of Mercia in 1007. In 1010, the Danes held sixteen counties in England, and levied a tax of ~48,000.8 In 1012, SWEYN again invaded England; the people gradually seceded from Ethelred, and appointed the Dane their king. Sweyn's reign was, however, a short one: he died at Gainsborough, 3rd February, 1014,9 having brought his vessels up the Trent, and conquered all Lindsey. He was buried in the cathedral at York, leaving his son Canute to secure the advantages he had obtained. The English seized the opportunity afforded by the death of SWEYN, and took measures for the total expulsion of the Danes. They invited Ethelred to return from Normandy, to which he had retired, in 1013. ETIELRED attacked CANUTE before he was prepared for him, and compelled him to take refuge in his ships. From the Trent, CANUTE directed his course to Sandwich. The five cities,-Lincoln, Leicester, Nottingham, Derby, and Stamford, whose population was almost entirely Danish,-all readily submitted to SWEYN in 1012; they, therefore, and their neighbourhoods, were severely punished by EDMUND IRONSIDE; and INGULPHUS says, speaking of the ravages committed, that Baston, Langtoft, Pekirk, Glinton, Northborough, Maxey, Etton, Baddington, Barnack, Peterborough, Eye, TURNER'S Alnglo-Saxons, vol. ii., p. 225. tax of that kind, mentioned by our historians. It 2 Ibid., 265. A curious circumstance connected continued to retain the name long after it became apwith this reign may be mentioned here. According propriated to uses entirely different. "A Short Acto HEARNE, the generally regarded myth, Tou count of Daneyelt" states it was levied in 1012 or THuMB —existed as an actual living person at this 1013. period. The history of that celebrated personage 5 WORSAAE'S Dlanes in England, p. 10. was nothing else originally than a description of 6 ibid., p. 139. King Edgar's dwarf. ibid., p. 271. 7 TURNER, vol. ii., p. 318. 3 Ibid., p. 272. s Ibid., p. 320. 4 This tax was originally an annual tax of 2s. on 9 STARK's Gainsborough. TURNER says he died every hide or carucate of arable land in the kingdom, in 1013. and was in its nature a land-tax, being the first stated

Page  25 SAXON AND DANISH HISTORY. 25 Thorpe, Walton, Wittering, Paston, Dogsthorpe, and Castor, were all burnt, and the inhabitants carried into captivity. The following year, ETHELRED plundered the five cities for submitting to Sweyn and Canute; and in 1015, Edward, the son of Ethelred, reduced these cities, by fire and military executions, more completely to his father's power. ETHELRED, however, died in 1016; and his successor-Edmund Ironside-and Canute, had a long struggle for mastery, in which both parties claimed a victory. EDMUND was assassinated before the end of the year; and CANUTE was without a rival, and reigned until 1034, when he died, and HAROLD succeeded him in 1040. HARDICANUTE was the next sovereign; he died, however, in 1042: his death separated the crowns of England and Denmark.l EDWARD the Confessor, the son of Ethelred, succeeded HARDICANUTE. LEOFRIC (called the wise,) was Earl of nIMercia in 1051, he died in 1057; by his wisdom the reign of Edward was preserved from many perils and disorders.2 ALGAR succeeded his father, Leofric, as Earl of Mercia. EDWARD the Confessor died in 1066; and then commenced the struggle for the crown between HAROLD, the son of Earl GODWIN, and WILLIAM of NORMANDY, which terminated in the battle of Hastings on the 14th of October, the death of the former, and the Norman conquest. There was a trifling incursion of the Danes this year, under HARALD HARDRADA, or Harfager, king of Norway, who burnt Scarborough, and proceeded up the Humber with 500 ships. They were victorious at first near York, where they landed, but were afterwards completely defeated at the battle of Stamford Bridge, near York, 23rd of September, 1066.3 We have thus given, as briefly as possible, a chronological statement of the principal historical events which occurred in the kingdom of MERCIA, particularly in LINCOLNSHIRE, between the departure of the Romans, about 449, to the Norman conquest in 1066; comprehending the period of the Saxon rule in England, and the conflicts between the Danes and Saxons for mastery in the Island. It may, perhaps, be said, that we have lost sight of the history of BOSTON and the surrounding district in this detail: we reply, that we have been pursuing that history on the only road where traces of it can be discovered. We do not coincide with the opinion that BOSTON was the CAUSENNIS of the Romans, or that it was a place of any importance during their sojourn in Britain; but we think it extremely probable that the Romans had a fort near to the site of the present town, and that the neighbourhood was well populated and cultivated at the time of their departure. But, admitting that BOSTON was the Roman CAUSENNIS, we have the testimony of Henry of Huntington, that this Roman station was destroyed by the Picts and Scots about the year 450. During the Saxon rule in England, Lincolnshire formed part of the powerful kingdom of Mercia. STUKELEY, in his Account of Lesnses Abbey, says" KIRTON in Holland was the original estate and seat of the first Saxon Kings and Earls of Mercia, and the origin of the potent kingdom of Mercia." This establishes the importance of this district at that period. The first historical notice that we have relative to BOSTON, is in the Saxon Chronicle, where it is stated, "that St. BOTOLPH built a monastery here, A. D. 654, upon a desert piece of ground given him for that purpose by ETHELMUND, king of the South Angles." This monastery existed till the devastation of this county by the Panes, A. D. 870,-so fatal to these old religious houses. Bishop TANNER, in his Notitia Monastica, controverts this statement, and says, that " this kingdom (the South Angles) will scarce appear anywhere but 1 TURINER'S Anglo-Saxons, VOl. ii., pp. 323 to 358. 2 Ibid., 369. 3 Ibid., 393 and 395. E

Page  26 26 SAXON ICANHOE,. in the legends. ETHELMUND was not Duke of Mercia till near one hundred and fifty years after St. Botolph; and I suspect that South Angles is a mistake for South Hymbres, by which name the people of Lincolnshire are often called by the Saxon writers." LELAND gives contradictory statements, not only respecting the date of the foundation of the monastery by St. BOTOLPH, but also as to the situation in which it was erected. In one place he says, ICANHOE was at Lincoln, "scant half a mile from the minster."l Again, he states, " St. BOTOLPH founded the monastery at Icanno, in the reign of Ethelmund. St. Botolph died there and was buried there. The monastery at Icanno was destroyed by Inguar and Hubba."2 In another place,3 he writes, " Anna, King of the East Angles, was slain in battle with Penda, King of Mercia, A.D. 654. Ethelbert, his brother, succeeded him, who reigned only two years, and in his reign St. BOTOLPH founded the manastery of Icanno." LELAND also says, "In the year 651, St. BOTOLPH founded a monastery at Ycanno, near the eastern side of Lincoln. This monastery was afterwards slightly repaired, and is now a cell for two or three monks of St. Mary's at York."4 BEDE merely says, in reference to the subject, "St. BOTOLPH, a pious Saxon, had a monastery at Icanhoe." Dr. STUKELEY states, "Icanhoe, Icanhoc, or as it was commonly called, according to Dugdale, Wenno, is supposed to have been the ancient name of Boston; and also that it was the last bounds northward of the Iceni, in most ancient times; therefore, he concludes its old name was Icanhoe," or, as Mr. Baxter interprets in his Glossary, "Icenorum munimentum."5 HIGDON, in his Polychronicon, speaking of the situation of Icanhoe, places it " ad orientem Lincolnice;" which, Tanner remarks, "if some distance of miles be observed, is reconcileable to Boston." CAMDEN, in his Britannia, mentions a part of the city of Lincoln, called Wickanford, which Tanner thinks resembles the name of Icanhoe.6 A more modern writer supposes MONKHOUSE, near Lincoln, to be the ancient Icanhoe.7 In all the maps of Saxon England which we have inspected, we have invariably found the present site of Boston represented as Icanhoe. Amidst this opposing testimony, it is impossible to come to an absolute decision respecting the site of the Saxon Icanhoe'; it is, however, rendered more than probable, by the following considerations, that it was situated at or near Boston. The writers of the Life of St. Botolph say, that he, wishing to disturb no one in his possessions, solicited leave to found his monastery in a situation previously unoccupied and unappropriated; this could not be the case with any part of the city of Lincoln. The Saxon Chronicle says, "he founded this monastery upon a desert piece of ground;" and a description of the site of the monastery8 is certainly much more applicable to the marshy mouth of a river, than the vicinity of a powerful and long-established city, like Lincoln, "scant half a mile of which," is said to be the situation of Icanhoe. That St. Botolph did found a monastery where Boston is now situated, is almost beyond a doubt, but there is no evidence whatever to prove that he established two in the county of Lincoln. That he founded his monastery at Icanhoe, there is the testimony of Bede, the Saxon Chronicle, Leland, Higdon, Dugdale, Stukeley, and of almost every writer on the subject. I LELAND'S Collectanea, vol. i., p. 32. 6 There is also, in this part of the city of Lincoln, 2 Itinerary, vol. viii., p. 71. a church dedicated to St. Botolph. 3 LELAND'S Collectanea, vol. i., p. 590. 7 Topographical Cabinet, vol. x. 4 LELAND'S Collectanea, vol. iv., p. 33. 8 See Life of ST. BOTOLPH in a subsequent page. 5 STUKELEY'S It. Cur.

Page  27 BOSTON NOT MENTIONED IN THE DOMESDAY SURVEY. 27 Therefore, if he founded only one monastery, and that at Icanhoe, it is almost conclusive that ICANHOE and BOSTON are the same. We do not find anything upon record respecting this neighbourhood, from the foundation of this monastery, about 650, until its destruction in 870, by the Danes, under Inguar and Hubba. It is incidentally mentioned in the account which we have given of the battle of Threckingham, in the year 870; but from that time, until seventeen years after the completion of the Domesday survey, in the reign of the Conqueror, there is an entire absence of direct historical information respecting Boston and the immediately surrounding country. Nor is Boston mentioned in Domesday Book. From this circumstance, it appears to be a fair inference, that it had not, up to that period, been considered as a separate and distinct town or parish. We are told that St. BoTOLPH1 founded his monastery at a certain " untilled place, where none dwelt, named Ikanho, it was a wilderness zunfrequented by men." Boston, therefore, at the time of the Danish invasion, probably consisted of nothing more than the monastic building erected by St. Botolph, and the usual appendages of such institutions; these being destroyed, Icanhoe, as it was called, then relapsed into its former desolate state; and in this condition, or something approaching to it, it was, in all probability, at the time of the Norman survey. INGULPHUS, in his chronicles of Croyland Abbey, when enumerating the benefactors to that establishment, upon its re-building, after the fire which entirely destroyed it in the year 1091, says-"In place of the ancient tower of the church we erected an humble belfry, and placed therein two small bells (skillettas) which Fergus, the coppersmith of St. Botolph's town, had lately presented to us."2 This re-building the abbey at Croyland was in the year 1113. From the quantity of land in Skirbeck, mentioned in Domesday, it is almost certain that BOSTON was included with Skirbeck in that survey; and that it, at that period, formed part of it. In fact, at the present day, BOSTON is very nearly surrounded by Skirbeck, and appears to occupy the very centre of the land, which, in the Domesday survey, was returned as belonging to that parish. It would certainly be unreasonable to infer, that, because this district has obtained so little notice between the years 450 and 1066, it did not share, in some degree, in all the stirring events which took place in the county of Lincoln during the intervening 600 years, and that the character of the inhabitants, and the condition of the district, were not sensibly affected by them. What those events were, we have endeavoured briefly to state, and refer to them as the best and only history of BOSTON and its neighbourhood which we can furnish. It is sufficient, we think, to afford a tolerably good idea of the varied and often suffering condition in which our Lincolnshire ancestors were placed during the long-continued strife, not only between them and the Saxons-first 1 CAPGRAVE, Vita St. Botulphi. chapel of Haslemire, is not mentioned in Domesday,. 2 RILEY'S edition of Ingulphus (1854), p. 208. owing to its being parcel of the manor of Godalming 3 KELHAM, in his Illustration of Domesday Book, (vol. i., p. 650); and Haslemire itself, from being abp. 17, says-" It is certain that all lands, both of the -sorbed in the same manor, is likewise unnoticed (p. laity and clergy, were at the survey held of the King 657). It is stated also, that Wimbledon appears to directly in cacite, and no land whatever, or township, have been omitted, in consequence of being included was excepted from the account then taken; and those in Mortlake, vol. iii., p. 267. Hull is not mentioned towns which are not mentioned in Domesday, as hay- in Domesday, although it was certainly a considerable ing no manor in them, are accounted for in some port within a century after the compilation of that neighbouring lordships and towns where the manors record, and probably at a much earlier period. Hull stood, and are there assessed." was then parcel of the manor of Myton, which is deIn MANNING'S History of Surrey, as edited by Mr. scribed in Domesday as a berewick, within the manor BRAY, it is noticed that Chidingford, including the of Ferriby, in Hessle Hundred. —F1osT's Hull, p. 6, E2

Page  28 28 DANES IN LINCOLNSHIRE. their allies and then their conquerors-but afterwards between the dominant Saxons and the hardy and marauding Vikings of DENMARK and NORWAY,-the Scandinavians of the North. Without this summary of Saxon and DanishBritish history, an account of this district would be most decidedly imperfect. We have, however, something more to say respecting the DANISH history of Lincolnshire, which we think of importance towards the attainment of a correct idea of the effects which their residence in the county was likely to produce upon the inhabitants, and the condition of this neighbourhood. Although we are not inclined to coincide with the old chronicler, who says, that, at the time of the earliest Danish invasion, "one Dane would often put ten Saxons to flight," yet we think it very probable that the Anglo-Saxons derived much vigour, both of mind and body, from their mixture with their Scandinavian invaders: a people who had never been subdued by the Romans or any other nation. The Danes principally settled in England; the Norwegians in Scotland and Ireland. That the Danes were well acquainted with Lincolnshire, is sufficiently evidenced by the preceding narrative. And we have authority for asserting that the neighbourhood of BOSTON was not unfrequently the scene of their operations. Mr. WORSAAE says" The Thames certainly brought many Danes in ancient times to the country south of Watling Street; but the large bay on the eastern coast of England, called' THE WASH,' and the rivers Humber, Tees, and Tyne attracted still more of them to the eastern and northern districts. The WASH especially seems to have been one of the landing places most in favour with them." Whatever were the reasons which attracted the Danes to the Wash, " it is certain," continues the writer, " that thefirst and richest settlements of the Danes were round this bay; and from it, afterwards extended themselves quite up to the frontiers of Scotland, and formed the, so-called,' DANELAGH,' which comprised fifteen of the thirty-two counties or shires then existing in England. In the province called Mercia (or the marshes) which formed the centre of England, and in that of Lindisse, which extended from the Wash to the Humber, they were not only in possession of a great number of villages and landed estates, which they had selected to settle on, but had likewise made themselves masters of several towns, and particularly the five strong fortresses of Stamford, Leicester, Derby, Nottingham, and Lincoln. These places belonged to the Danes as early as the reign of King Alfred, and were distinguished by their size, their commerce, and their wealth. They obtained the name of the'Five Burghs.'l They formed, as it were, a little state, possessing in common their own courts of judicature and other peculiar municipal institutions."2 Mr. WORSAAE says,-and, although there is much truth in what he asserts, yet his opinions must be taken with some allowance for his amor patrice," It is an incontrovertible and notorious fact, which has, however, hardly been sufficiently insisted upon, that about half of England-the'Danelagh,' or community of the Danes-was for centuries subject to the Danish laws, and that these laws existed even after the Norman Conquest; and that they did not pass into the general or common law of England till the successors of William the Conqueror at last united into a whole, the various discordant parts into which England had been previously divided."3 The Danes generally anchored their ships at the mouth of a river, or lay under the islands on the coast. Thence they could sail to the interior of the country. It is worthy of remark that, although in pursuance of this plan, the Danes advanced up the Humber and the Trent to Gainsborough, the Ouse to York, and the Lea to Hertford or Ware, there is no mention'WORSAAE'S Danes in England, pp. 30, 31. 2 Mr. BROOKE, in his Account of Lincoln CatheDRAKARD, in his History of Stnamfos-d, says these dral (p. 16), says-"the inhabitants of the Qbsinque were conquered by the Danes in 871; WORSAAE Burgi (called by the Danes Firfburgi) were styled Fifplaces their conquest something earlier. DRAKARD burgenses. After the division of the kingdom, in adds-" The inhabitants of these cities were princi- 1017, between Edmund and Canute Mercia fell to pally Danes, all the English among them being their the lot of the Danes." servants, or such as had by intermarriages become 3 WORSXAA:'S Danes in England, p. 152. Danes in interest and in religion, and in their social and political connections," p. 27.

Page  29 DANES IN LINCOLNSHIRE. 29 whatever made of their arriving at the mouth of the WITHAM, or of their proceeding along that river. LINCOLN, one of their "five Burgs," they could reach by the Trent and Gainsborough; and it is probable that there was at that period very little, along the course of the Witham from its entrance below BOSTON to the neighbourhood of Bardney, which invited either the cupidity or the curiosity of these Scandinavian marauders. The long and restless period which commenced with the departure of the Romans, and scarcely terminated with the Norman conquest, had, probably, been passed without due care being taken of either the defences from the sea raised by the Romans, or of the internal modes of communication by roads, or of drainage by the canals, constructed by that energetic people. There is reason to believe that Roman civilisation had all but disappeared from Britain long before the Saxons had established themselves permanently on the soil. According to Mr. KEMBLE,1 — " The Brito-Romans, rapidly thinning in numbers, had nearly all retreated to the towns. The open country lay neglected and untilled, and the great roads themselves were all but completely obstructed by fast-growing coppice and brushwood. Undoubtedly, however, much wealth remained in the towns, all which fell an easy prey to the Saxon conqueror." If this was the condition of the country generally, how likely were all the great features of decay to be increased about the mouth of the WITHAM, where so much more than average care was necessary to ward off the consequences of time and accident. And, if England presented this aspect during the early part of the Saxon visitation, what was to prevent it becoming immeasurably worse before the inroads of the Danes? We are afraid that the Saxon ICANHOE had little attractions for the Danes, and that the Saxon river LINDIS, although quite as capacious as the Trent at Gainsborough, and much more so than the Ouse at York, or the Lea at Ware or Hertford, had never the honour of bearing a Danish fleet upon its waters. There is every reason to believe that the DANES" Fierce and strife-loving Pagans as they were, Housed on the wild sea-with wild usages," furnished many early converts to Christianity. Many of the towns of England can still show an ancient church dedicated to St. OLAVE, the patron saint of the Northmen. There are two, at least, in London; there is also St. Clement Danes, where was an extensive burial place. CANUTE himself was distinguished by his liberality to the church. As though he wished to make compensation for the destruction of Croyland abbey by the Danish soldiery, he gave the splendid golden chalice which stood on the high altar of the restored church there.' Under Canute, Christianity was almost completely established in the DANELAG itself. Mr. WORSAAE is disposed to consider CROYLAND as the chief point from whence Christianity and civilisation were diffused through the Danish population in England. There were many Danish abbots of CROYLAND between the 9th and 12th centuries.3 We have most satisfactory testimony to the permanent settlements of the Danes in LINCOLNSHIRE, in the names of persons and places. We have evidences of Danish descent in the family names-Thirki]l, Holden, Harold, Thorley, Elliff, Orme, Swain, Hastings, Thurstan, Bond, Goodwin, Torrey, Magnus, Osgood, Harle, Hoding, Adlard, Ealand, Harrap, Storr, &c., and in all 1 KEMBLE'S Sazons in England, vol. i., p. 20, and The whole number mentioned in the Survey is about vol. ii. 1,700: and it is remarkable, that while 222 churches 2 WORSAAE'S Danes, ic., in England. were returned from Lincolnshire, 243 from Norfolk, 3 The precept which directed the taking the and 364 from Suffolk-all Danish counties,-one only DOMESDAY SURVEY, laid no injunction on the jurors is returned from Cambridgeshire, and none in Lancato make a return of churches. The mention of them, shire, Cornwall, or even Middlesex.-SIR HENRY therefore, if at all made, was likely to be irregular. ELLIS'S Int. to Domesday.

Page  30 30 DANISH NAMES OF PERSONS AND PLACES. names ending in son or sen, terminations which never appear in Saxon names. In DOMESDAY Book, under the head of LINCOLNSHIRE, nearly all the names of persons mentioned as holding property, and having Sac and Soke, or Toll and Theim, are Danish-English.' In the same manner, of the twelve lagemen (equivalent to lords of manors) who resided in the city of Lincoln in the reign of Edward the Confessor, there is scarcely one that does not bear a Danish name. In Domesday return for the city of Lincoln, out of the twelve persons mentioned as holding Sac and Soke, ten are undoubtedly of Danish descent; one is called a Norman, and another is probably a Norman also.2 But the most striking proof of the great prevalence of the Danish element in Lincolnshire is, that out of 1373 names of places, of Danish derivation, selected from the map of England, Lincolnshire contained 292; Norfolk, Northamptonshire, and Lancashire, only about 50 each; Leicestershire, 90; Yorkshire above 400; Westmoreland and Cumberland, each about 150; and fourteen other counties the remaining 130. Of the 292 Lincolnshire towns, 212 had the termination by, 63 that of thorpe, 1 that of with, 4 ended with toft, 8 with beck, 1 with ness, and 3 with dale.3 The colonisation had clearly been the greatest near the coasts, and along the rivers; it had its central point in Lincolnshire, which was very nearly the earliest and most occupied by the Danes.4 In many places, the name of the first Scandinavian possessor is still retained; for instance, in Thoresby, Thurganby, Ormsby, Haconby, Ingoldsby, Kettelby, Ravendale, &c. The provincial dialect also of LINCOLNSHIRE is full of Danish elements, as we shall show in a subsequent section. If the Danes, previously to their invasion of England, were unacquainted with the art of coining money, as has been asserted by some writers, they very readily acquired it when here, since the names of 50 Danish-Norwegian coiners in England occur between A. D. 979 and 1066: of these seventeen resided at Lincoln, five at Stamford, and one at Torksey.5 It is a matter of course, that arms and ornaments, which had belonged to the Scandinavian Vikings, should frequently be found in England. In the rivers upon the eastern coast, where the Danish ships showed themselves so often, and where remains of these ships are supposed to be now and then found, iron swords have been discovered. The Scandinavian sword is generally heavier and longer than the Saxon sword, and has a guard and commonly a large and triangular knob at the hilt. Besides their arms, the ornaments and decorations of the Danes and Norwegians are occasionally found; which are easily distinguished by antiquaries from those of the Saxons.6 The Norman invasion, says Mr. WORSAAE, was but a continuation of the invasion of the northern men,7 for Norman signifies nothing more than a man from the north. The Danish conquest of England was therefore just as fully Normanic, as was the conquest, by the Norwegians and Danes, of the part of France, called 1 WORSAAE'S Danes in England, pp. 149, 150. belong to it, often of very great finish and beauty, 2 BROOKE'S Lincoln Cathedral, pp. 24, 25. generally formed of a heavy, mixed metal, into which 3 WORSAAr'S D)anes, p. 71. tin enters largely. Numerous ornaments of the 4 Ibid., pp. 72 and 132. purest gold are also found of this period. The THIRD 5 WORSAAE's Danes in England, p. 119. is the age of iron, and now, and not before, silver oc6 We have met with the following observations in curs in large quantities. Such is the gradual proa late publication, which we think pertinent to this gress which has been traced thoroughout Northern subject:-" The stone, bronze, and iron periods may Europe. be classified as follows: The antiquities of the FIRsr, "tBronze is the metal found almost exclusively in or stone period, illustrate a time when the country the earliest sepulchral interments. The origin of was rude and uncultivated in the greatest degree, Bronze is supposed to result from an attempt to when no knowledge of metals was possessed by the harden copper in countries where iron was not known, inhabitants, who formed all their implements or or could not be readily procured. Iron also undergoes weapons, of wood, of the bones of animals, or of stone. much more rapid decomposition than either brass or The SECOND, or age of bronze, indicates a very re- bronze." markable advance. Weapons and personal ornaments 7 WORSAAE, P. 96.

Page  31 LINCOLNSHIRE AT THE NORMAN CONQUEST. 31 after them, Normandy. These invasions of the Northmen, says SHARON TURNER, brought great political advantages to England. They appear to have planted in their British colonies a numerous race of freemen. The following summary from the Domesday returns justifies this observation, and corroborates what Mr. WORSAAE says:" That from the time of their first settlement in England, the Danes desperately resisted every chief who attempted to deprive them of their rights as free and independent men. It was, indeed, but reasonable that they should, with persevering boldness, defend in a foreign land, that fi-eedom, for the sake of which they had abandoned their Scandinavian homes."' It was the object of the Domesday survey to enumerate, chiefly, if not only, those persons whose lands and tenements rendered some payment or service to the Crown or State; or had been supposed to do so. The counties of Northumberland, Durham, Westmoreland, Cumberland, and Lancashire are not mentioned in Domesday Book. In the other fifteen counties to the north and east of Watling-street, the "Sochmanni" (independent landholders), and the "Liberi Homines" (freeholders), are thus enumerated by TURNER. We rejoice at finding LINCOLNSHIRE holding so good a position. SOCHMANNI. LIB. HOM. TOTAL. Lincolnshire................................................. 11,322 11,322 Norfolk...................................................... 5,521 4,981 10,502 Suffolk......................................... 1,014 8,012 9,026 Leicestershire.................................... 1,716...... 1,716 Nottinghamshire.......................................... 1,565..... 1,565 Essex........................................ 343 306 649 Yorkshire............................................... 438...., 438 Northamptonshire.................................... 915...... 915 Derby...................................... 127...... 127 Cambridge........................................ 45...... 245 Hertford, Bedford, Cheshire, Rutland, and Hunt- 224 224 ingdon.... ) 23,430 13,299 36,729 This enumeration will have more effect when it is stated, that the remainder of England contained only 1,485 Sokemen and 228 Lib. Homines, together 1,708. The population of Lincolnshire, at the date of the Domesday return, consisted of the following classes:Tenentes....................................................................... 68 Taini (Saxon nobility)............................................................. 27 Sochmanni (free of blood)............................................................. 11,322 Villanli (superior to Servi, but at the disposal of the Lord)......................... 7,168 Bordarii (cottagers, superior to the Villani)................................................,737 Molini2 (millers)................................................................................. 414 Moldarii (quarrymen)....76 Silvwe (woodmen)................................................ 252 Ecclesioe (churchmen)......226............................... Salinee (makers of salt)........................................ 361 Piscarii (fishermen).............................................................................. 211 Censorii (farmers paying rent)....................................................... 20 Burgesses (tradesmen in towns)....274 Other persons........................................................................................ 260 24,416' WORSAAE, P. 171. that WITtAr, king of Mercia, confirmed to the 2 It has been a generally received opinion that Abbey of Croyland, A.D. 833, a windmill, near Sutwindmills were not known in England before the ton in Bosworth, "the gift of Normannus;" in the Conquest, and that the Molendina mentioned in grant it is termed "unum molendinum ventricium." — Domesday were all watermills; but Mr. FROST says See INGULPHUS: P. 20.

Page  32 32 THE GIRVIT, OR FENMEN. Brought forward...... 24,416 Lincoln Mans (houses).......... 982 Stamford,....................................................................... 317 Torksey,,,,........................... 102 25,817 The total population of the above classes in England, at this time, was 300,755, of which the five Danish counties, Norfolk, Lincoln, Suffolk, Essex, and Yorkshire, contained 100,794. These numbers may be considered as representing so many families, and if we take five as the general average of a family, we shall have the Anglo-Saxon population at the time of the Conquest 1,503,775. But as all the monks, and nearly all the parochial clergy are omitted, and very few of thefreemen are enumerated, except in the Danish counties, we shall, probably, be justified in taking the population at the Norman conquest, at a little over two millions of persons. "There can be no doubt," says Mr. TURNER, "that nearly three-fourths of the AngloSaxon population, at the time of the Domesday survey, were in a state of slavery, and nothing could have broken their bonds but such events as the Norman Conquest, and the civil wars which it excited and fostered." The ancient inhabitants of the fens appear to have been a distinct race of people; they are mentioned by BEDE as the GIRVII, who inhabited Cambridge, Northampton, and Huntingdon, with part of Lincolnshire; and had their own princes, dependent on the kings of Mercia.1 "These people have been, from the earliest times, distinguished by manners and habits, which were the consequence of their isolated state, living in a country almost inaccessible, and at all times very uninviting to strangers. They were called Gyrvii, because Gyr in English is the same as profundi palus, a deep fen, in the Latin."2 CAMDEN says, "they that inhabit this fennish country, and all the rest beside (which, from the edge and borders of Suffolk, as far as Wainfleet in Lincolnshire, contains threescore and eight miles, and millions of acres), were, in the Saxon Times, called GYRvII, that is Fen-men, or Fen-dwellers, a kind of people, according to the nature of the place where they dwelt, rude, uncivil, and envious to all others whom they call upland men; who, stalking on high, upon stilts, apply their minds to grazing, fishing, or fowling. The whole region, which in winter season, and sometimes most part of the year, is overflowed by the spreading waters of the rivers Ouse, Grant, Nen, Welland, Glen, and Witham, having not lodes and sewers large enough to void away; but, again, when their streams are retired within their own channels, it is so plenteous and rank of a certain fat grass and full hay, which they call lid, that when they have mowen down as much of the better as will serve their turn, they set fire on the rest, and burn it in November, that it may come up again in great abundance. At which time a man may see this fenny and moist tract on a light flaming fire all over every way, and wonder thereat."3 We are aware that CAMDEN is here describing the character and habits of the Fen-men, as he found them in the reign of ELIZABETH; but the condition of the fens had then altered very little from what it was at the Norman conquest, and the people inhabiting them had, probably, altered as little; and CAMDEN'S sketch may, we think, be taken as a tolerably accurate description of the GYRVII in Anglo-Saxon and Danish times. We here bring this long section to a close. We are aware that we have been treating of LINCOLNSHIRE at large, rather than of BOSTON as a part, but we [have already stated our reasons for doing so, and hope they will prove satisfactory. 1 BEDE'S Ecclesiastical History, lib. iii., cap. 20.: and from Gyrva, Saxon for marsh lands. INGUL2 Register oJ Peterborough. Girvii has also been PHUS, p. 50. derived from the British Gyrwys, drivers of cattle, 3 CAMDEN'S Britannia, Cambridgeshire.

Page  33 DIVISION III. XVun/ tTl2 b#Srman ~ qmnt.t LTHOUGH it is usual to date the Conquest of England by the NORMANS, from the battle of Ak4 1,HASTINGS, which took place October 14th, 1066, it is certain that the contest did not terminate during several years after that event; and it was then accomplished by the sword, by torture, by the death and extermination of the Brito-Saxons, by confiscation of their property, and by rewarding there-;.: i~ with the followers of the Norman Conqueror, who thus became possessed of the broad lands and the stately homes of the Chiefs, the Thanes, and the Franklins of the country. The Saxons, though they fought gallantly in a cause of which death to one of the engaging parties was the only termination, were not equal in warlike ability to the Normans, who, after a pertinacious and bloody struggle for about six years, obtained the mastery in nearly every part of the kingdom. Strong negative proof may be found that the Normans at the commencement of 1067 had not advanced in a north-eastwardly direction beyond the rivers the mouths of which form "Boston Wash." No Norman had passed the Humber, and very few had even reached the central parts of Mercia, in 1068. The city of York was not conquered until 1070; in which year a severe famine extended over all England: it had commenced in the districts conquered by the Normans in 1067.1 The fenny districts of MERCIA had long been the residence of a people who were difficult to subdue, and still more difficult to keep in subjection; and these districts were now the " Camps of Refuge" to the scattered and discomfited Saxons. A recent historian of a neighbouring portion of the Fens says," The remote situation and solitary habits of the inhabitants of the Fens would render them as averse to any change in the government, as they were afterwards found to be to improve their fruitless land by cultivation. It is men of this' kind, who, with no notion and no wish for alteration, whose position gives them more natural security than their neighbours, and consequently more independence of powerful parties, who have been found the last to be conquered in every country where their subjugation has been attempted. What the rock and defile were to the mountaineer, the reed-field and mere were to the fenman-his home, the source of his subsistence, and his defence in seasons of oppression or misfortune."2 The Isle of Ely was one of these "Camps of Refuge;" and here, during 1 THIERRY'S Norman Conquest, pp. 192, 207, 226, and 227. 2 WALKER and CaADDOCK'S History of Wisbech, p. 74.

Page  34 34 HE REWARD DE BRUNNE. several years immediately succeeding the battle of Hastings, were assembled for protection many of the principal Saxon nobility and ecclesiastics, particularly the brothers of the slain King Harold, and the Earls Edwinl and Morcar;2 and there was also found the heroic HEREWARD, son of Leofric, Lord of Bourn, who for a long time, by his sagacity, bravery, and self-devotedness, baffled all the attempts of the Normans to obtain possession of this stronghold. HEEREWAnD, however, was finally driven out by the force of numbers, and the Isle of Ely conquered; but its brave defender was not only spared all personal indignity, but allowed to enjoy his inheritance. The deeds of HEREWARD long lived in the traditions of the people, and have come down to our day in the narratives of the ancient chronicles.3 His only daughter and heiress, TURFIIDA, was married to HUIGu DE EVERMONT, Lord of Deeping. Hereward's death took place about the end of 1072, when he was traitorously attacked by a troop of armed Normans, in defiance of the King's oath; HEREWARD having accepted " the King's peace," as it was called. But the Isle of Ely was not the only portion of the Fens which resisted the army of the Conqueror. The more immediate neighbourhood of BOSTON furnished some brave men, who successfully opposed the invaders; we find it recorded that,"The country of HOLLAND, being, at the Conquest, very strong by abundance of water: the HOLLANDS, the WELLES, and the Lords of KYME, being confederate together (as by old men, from man to man, I have been credibly reported), kept out the Conqueror by force, till at length he had it by composition and agreement, that they should keep their lands still; and so the grant to the HOLLANDE'S at that time from the Conqueror, passed in this sorte,' Notiscat omnibus Anglis, Francis, et Alienigenis, nos Willum: Regem redidisse iRADULPHo Milite de HOLAND totum dominium suum de Esteveninge, tam libere, honorifice, quiete et in pace, sicut aliqui alio de Baronibus nostris de nobis tenent, teste, &c.'" 4 These estates of the HOLLANDS, the WELLS, and the KYmEns, were probably held by what was then known as allodial tenure, which signified an hereditary and perpetual estate, free, and in the power of the possessor to dispose of by gift or sale, but subject to the common and constant tax of hidage. The king was, on the death of an allodial tenant, entitled to relief.5 The families of HOLLAND and I(KYM were for a long time closely connected with this neighbourhood, and we shall give an account of them in a subsequent section. Besides the resistance and the insubordination of the inhabitants of the country, WILLIAM had to attend to the incursions of the Danes, who entered the HIumber in considerable force in 1069, 1074, and again in 1085: they were, however, repulsed. In 1080 the invaluable record, Domesday Survey, was commenced by order of WILLIAMI; it was completed in 1086. In this Survey Lincolnshire is divided into thirty Wapentakes or Hundreds, of which only nineteen at the present day bear a name anything approaching to that given Earl of Mercia. was 201. per annum, and his relief was one-fourth 2Earl of Northumberland. (51. or 100s.) Sir Edward Coke says, a baron's 3 See THIERRY'S History of the Norman Con- relief was loo marks, or 661. 13s. 4d., being thirteen quest, BENTHAM'S Isle of Ely, SPEED, DUGDALE, knights' fees and a third. An earl's estate was 4001. ROBERT OF BRUNNE'S Chronicle, &c. per annum, and his relief was one-fourth thereof, or 4 BLOMEFIELD'S Nosfolk, vol. i. p. 232; quoting 1001. These reliefs were not abolished until the the words of George Holland, one of the family, who reign of Charles II.-THOMSON'S Magna Charta, lived in 1563. pp. 67, 164, and 165. 5 By Magna Charta, when any earl or baron died, The tenure of allodium in Domesday refers to the who held of the king iln capite, his heir, if of full tenants and possessors chiefly before the Conquest. age, entered upon his inheritance by the ancient -KELHAM ou Domesday, p. 154. relief; earls and barons paying 100., and knights Allodian lands are free lands which pay no fines or 100s., for a whole knight's fee. The sum which was service.-CowELL'S Law Dictionary. anciently thought sufficient to maintain a knight

Page  35 LINCOLNSHIRE AT THE CONQUEST. 35 them in this record. The county is called Lincolnshire or Lindesig. Lincoln, Stamford, and Torksey, are the only large towns mentioned as containing houses held of the king in capite, and of these Lincoln contained 982; Stamford, 317; and Torksey, 102. The whole number of tenants in capite in Lincolnshirebesides bishops, abbots, priors, and other churchmen, and servants of the king — was about sixty; all others who held any estates, held them of the great tenants by mesne tenare.l The catalogue of tenants in capite enumerated in Domesday shows that nearly all the lands in England were divided by the Conqueror amongst his great men, commanders, soldiers, and ministerial dependants. The earldoms, baronies, bishoprics, and prelacies of the whole nation, he gave to his Norman followers, and scarcely permitted any Englishman to enjoy any place of honour, distinction, or power; and such as were favoured with their own lands again, were, with very few exceptions —among which were the Hollands, Kymes, and Welles, of Lincolnshire — compelled to hold them as tenants to Norman lords, and under such compositions, rents, and services, as they put upon them. The Church lands, indeed, by the mediation of Archbishop LANFRANC, were mostly restored.2 It appears that William, in his zeal to reward his followers, sometimes made distinct grants of the same property to two or more persons; and it is curious that in all the instances in which he did so the property was in either Lincolnshire or Yorkshire. The conflicting claims in these cases were adjusted by " homines qui juraverunt" to do justice between the parties. These contending claimants were, in all cases, Normans: there is not a single instance of an English Saxon appearing among these " Clamores "-as they are termed in Domesday-to seek allowances of their titles, or restitution of their estates.3 The "Clamores" in Lincolnshire are enumerated under the divisions,-South Riding, North Riding, West Riding, and Chetsheven.4 The only claim in the South Riding was one in which Gilbert de Gaunt and Normannus d'Areci (D'Arcy) were parties; the claim related to twelve bovates of land in Stainfield. The claim was decided in favour of Gilbert de Gand.5 When the Conqueror parcelled out the kingdom among his knights and followers, the land in this district was principally shared by ALAN RUFUS, Earl of Brittany and Richmond, WALTER D'EINCOURT, and Guy DE CREON or CROUN: GILBERT DE GAUNT had also a minor share. To the Earl of Brittany (nephew to the Conqueror) was given the immense estate of the Saxon Earl Edwin, eldest son of Algar, Earl of Mercia, who had his chief residence at Kirton in this district. His brother, Earl Morcar, lived at Casterton, near Stamford. Their sister Agatha was married to Ulphus, the fourth son of King Harold. Ulphus died at Woolsthorpe in this county. Alan Rufus was the founder of the Honour of Richmond, " the head of which (now an obscure village), Drayton, was the principal seat of this Earl." There is reason to suppose, however, that the Earls of Richmond had a seat in the parish of Boston very early in, if not prior to, the thirteenth century. WALTER D'EINCOURT had a residence at Kirton, although the head of his Barony was at Blankney in this county.6 GUY DE CREON or CROUN resided at 1 KELHAM'S Illustration of Domesday, p. 17, 21, teven) were the same. PEGGE derives the word 123, &c. The whole number of tenants in capite in ridings from thriddings, or third parts. the counties included in the Survey, was about 420. 5 Lansdowne MSS. 207a, p. 5. Each of these had a few sockmen, and a great 6 WALTER D'EINCOURT was rewarded with number of men of slavish condition called Servi, several lordships in the counties of Northampton, Villani, Bordarii, and Cottarii, under them. Derby, Nottingham, York, and Lincoln. The last 2 KELIAM, P. 143. baron died in the reign of Henry VI.-KELHAM, 3 Ibid. p. 126. p. 104. 4 Most probably West Riding and Chlesteven (Kes

Page  36 36 REIGNS OF STEPHEN AND HENRY II. Freiston,' which he made the chief seat of his Barony. Whatever was the condition of Boston and its immediate neighbourhood at the time of the Norman Conquest, the circumstance of these powerful Barons fixing their residences in its immediate vicinity must have been a powerful stimulus to its prosperity. We have not any record of any particular participation which the inhabitants of this district took in the commotions which existed in the Isle of Ely during the early part of the Conqueror's reign; yet, when it is remembered that this district formed part of the estate of the Earls Edwin and Morcar, who were the most popular and esteemed of the Saxon nobility, and who had a principal share in the revolt, it will be admitted to be very probable that the men of Holland would not be backward in attempting to get rid of Norman usurpation, and proving their attachment and loyalty to their ancient lords. Alan, son of Eudo, Earl of Brittany, gave, A.D. 1090, 2 William II., the church of St. Botolph to the Abbey of St. Mary at York; which gift was afterwards confirmed by Henry II. Whether this church was one dedicated to St. Botolph standing in Boston at that time, or the parish church of Botolph's town or Boston, is impossible to determine; but it proves beyond dispute the existence of a church in Boston at that early period.2 The Fen districts of Lincolnshire and the Isle of Ely took a prominent part in the disturbances and intestine warfare which occurred between the Empress MAUD and King STEPHEN. This district became a camp for the Normans of the Angevin faction; and intrenchments of stone and mortar were erected against King Stephen in the very place (near Ely) where HEREWARD DE BRUNNE had constructed his fortress of wood against the Normans. About the year 1140 a battle ensued in which Stephen was victorious.3 STUKELEY says: "Prince Henry, the eldest son of Henry II., unnaturally joined the King of France against his own father; and engaged the Earl of Boloign, amongst others, in the confederacy." He bribed him "with the famous and rich Soke of Kirton (or, as it is more properly called, Drayton Soke), in my native country of Holland. Many of the principal men of Lincolnshire joined with Prince Henry in this unnatural war against his father. The well-affected nobility of this county, and Yorkshire, were commanded and animated by Geoffry, Bishop-elect of Lincoln, King Henry's natural son by Fair Rosamond. This intestine war, in which all the Barons and leading men of the county were engaged, either on one side or the other, would of course be felt in this neighbourhood; but history is silent respecting the share which the men of this district took in these transactions, and the party to which they inclined." We do not find anything upon record relating to Boston until 1171 (17 Henry II.), when the town was the property of Conan, Earl of Richmond. He died in this year, when it fell into the hands of the Crown, under the title of the " Honor of Conan." The King retained it a considerable time, since Ralph de Glanville, in the 21st and 29th of that reign, accounted under that title at the Exchequer for the farm of the town. The town, at least so much as lay on the east side of the river, continued to be held by the Crown until the 25th Henry III. (1241), and the profits thereof were, from time to time, answered for at the Exchequer either by the King's receiver or farmer, or by the men of the town.4 WIDo DE CREDUN or CROUN received about dictoe ecclesie sancti Botulphi, et extra cimeterium sixty lordships in Lincolnshire, besides many in suum in tota terra sua ejusdem ville, commodum Leicestershire. —KELHAM, P. 108. situm sine aliquo impedimento mei vel meorum pro 2 In the charters of Stephen, Earl of Brittany, libito suo faciant in perpetuum."-DUGDALE'S and Conan, Duke of Brittany, to this same abbey, Monasticon, p. 391. temp. Henry II., this grant is confirmed, with the 3 THIERRY'S Norman Conquest, vol. ii. p. 25. following additions, "Concedo etiam prmefatis mona- 4 Pipe Rolls in the Exchequer, 21 Henry II. chis, ut in tempore nundinarum in cimeterio prte

Page  37 CLOTH MANUFACTURED AT BOSTON IN TWELFTH CENTURY. 37 A great calamity occurred in 1178, when the old "sea-bank" broke, and the whole fen country was deluged by the sea.' The injury was, however, very soon repaired, as respected a considerable portion; for about 1200 WILLIAM OF MALMESBURY says, " The fens were a very paradise, and seemed a heaven for the delight and beauty thereof, the very marshes bearing goodly trees." In the year 1185 an earthquake overthrew the church at Lincolnm2 If the effects were so violent at Lincoln, there can be little doubt that they were felt at Boston and its neighbourhood, but there is nothing respecting it upon record. The manufacture of woollen cloth appears to have been carried on at Boston to a considerable extent during the twelfth century, for HOVEDEN says: 3,C Hugh Bardolf, and certain others of the King's justiciaries, came to St. Botulplh's, AND. 1201, to seize certain cloths which were not according to the statute-' two4 ells wide between the lists;' but instead of taking them in the King's name, the merchants persuaded the justiciaries to leave them for a sum of money, to the damage of many." The dealers in cloth in those days appear to have been sharp traders; for in the year 1198 a statute was issued ordering " that dyed cloths should be of equal quality throughotut, and that the merchants who sold such goods should not hang up red or black cloths at their windows, nor darken them by penthouses, to prevent any from having a good light in buying their cloths."5 Two peculiar kinds of cloth are mentioned about this time -" russets and halberjects or hauberjets."6 The first was an inferior kind of cloth often spun by rustics, and dyed by them with bark of a dull reddish hue; the latter was a coarse and thick mixed cloth of various colours, sometimes used for the habits of monks. In 1202, letters were addressed by the King to all Abbots of the Cistercian order throughout England, stating,"' You and all others well know how the King of France shamefully wages war against me, contrary to the treaty of peace made between us, and how he endeavours to deprive us in every way of our inheritance. Now, in this necessity, affecting not only ourselves, but the whole of our faithful subjects, we ought and must have assistance." He therefore requires the Abbots,"As they love and honour him, to diligently employ themselves in procuring money on loan for his use," promising to repay such money in full at the terms which shall be named. These letters were addressed from Bonport, 7thl July, 1202.7 The extent and importance of the commerce of Boston at this period are manifested by the fact, that in the year 1205, the sixth of the reign of King John, when William de Wrotham and others accounted for the quinzeme of merchants, which was a tax levied of one-fifteenth part of the goods of merchants, for the use of the state, at the several ports of England,8 the amount paid by the merchants of Boston was 7801.; those of London paying 8361.; of Lynn 6511.; and of Southampton 7121.9 London paid the largest sum of any port towards the tax, and Boston the second in amount. This is sufficient to 1 STUKIELEY'S Paleog. Sacra, part ii. 6 THOMSON on Magna Charta, chap. 35, sect. 12. 2 SALMON. 7 Rotuli Litterarum Patentum, p. 14. 3 Annalcs, last part, p. 822; and THOMSON'S 8 Sometimes a tax of the tenth part was levied, Essay on Magna Charta, p. 216. which was called a desine.-FRosT's Hull, p. 93. 4 The standard of the ancient ell, which answers Both desines and quinzemes were levied upon to the modern yard, was established in HENRY I.'S " moveables." Quinzemes were also levied in 1225, reign, and was the length of the king's arm, accord- 1300, and 1332. ing to WILLIAM OF MALMES3URY. 9 RAPIN, vol. i. p. 346; and MADOX'S History 5 THOMSON'S Essay on Magna Charta, p. 217. of the Exchequer, p. 347.

Page  38 38 EARLY COMMERCE OF BOSTON. prove that Boston must have begun to rise into consequence very shortly after the Norman conquest; for the change from the state in which it was most probably found at the Domesday Survey to the rank which it had now assumed, of the second place in the kingdom in a commercial point of view, could not have been the effect of a few years, but must have been the gradual work of a very considerable period. We are told there is an important error in this statement. The comnpotus, which is recorded in the Great Roll of the Pipe, accounted for the duty received between the 20th July, 5th John, and the 30th November, 7th John, and was therefore the produce of two years, and not of one.' This error does not, however, affect the relative position of Boston as to its commercial importance, but merely the amount of its taxation. We shall endeavour to show in a subsequent page what was the amount of commercial capital employed in Boston at this period, and what that capital, so employed in the reign of King John, would represent according to the value of money at the present day. King John granted a charter to Boston, dated 30th of January, 1204.2 The next year, the men of Boston, of the Soke belonging to the honour of Richmond, in Holland, paid 1001. and two palfreys, that no sheriff or his bailiffs should interfere, or have anything to do with them; but that they might choose a bailiff from among themselves, who should answer at the Exchequer for pleas and outgoings, as they were wont to answer to the Earl of Brittany while it was in his hands.3 In the same year a grant was made to ROGER DE THORNE of the tenth of the produce of the fair of St. Botolph;4 this, we suppose, had reference to the charges levied for stallage, toll, &c., upon the merchants frequenting that fair. The King commanded, in 1206, that all vessels capable of containing eight or more horses should be seized and manned with able seamen, and sent to Portsmouth. All vessels which were laden were immediately to be unladen. "All merchants, helmsmen, and sailors, were commanded, as they regarded the peace and protection of the King, as well by land as sea, to come to him immediately at Portsmouth. Any one disregarding these commands, whatever be his country, we will always hold him for our enemy wherever we find him within our dominions, whether on land or water. Other letters were sent out within the month succeeding the above, ordering the wardens of the sea-ports to send all ships with their goods to whatever country they may belong, save Denmark and Norway, and the foreign islands that are not opposed to us." Ralph Gernun and Robert Clark, of London, were directed to attend to these commands for the ports in the county of Lincoln. Similar commands were given" As you regard your own safety and welfare, and our honour and peace, to select the best and strongest men of your ports, and those who are well armed, to man our vessels." 5 John Mariscus, Earl of Lincoln, had the custody of the whole of the seacoast of the county of Lincoln, by letters patent from King John, 1214.6 In 1216, Lambert, son of Thomas de Moleton of Boston, had letters of safe conduct for himself and all who accompanied him, to speak with the King; and Thomas de Parenny of Boston had letters of safe conduct (dated 5th October, 1216) to the King, to obtain the redemption of Gerald de Normanville, his lord.7 FROST'S Hull, p. 95. 4 Charter Rolls, Tower. 2 Charter Rolls, Tower. Rot. Litt. Patentum, pp. 62, 65, and 79. 3 This instrument, and King John's charter, are 6 Ibid. p. 109. given in the Appendix. 7 Ibid. p. 199.

Page  39 HALL-TOFT MANOR-HOUSE (1220). 39 The Bailiff of Boston was ordered to prepare an account of the goods and chattels of the men of that town who had been guilty of some 1" transgressions," 2 Henry III. (1217); Grimsby, Scarborough, Ipswich, Lynn, and Yarmouth, were in the same position.' A.D. 1216, 1 Henry III., an inquest was made " in Hoyland, in the Wapentake of Scirbec of military fees, upon the oath of the undermentioned, namely, William de Rupe, John de Farceus, Thomas Gernui, Thomas Blouthwed, Andrew son of Walter, Raymond de Screyng, Jacob de Pysley, Robert son of Eudon, Alan of Butterwyck, Alan son of Henry of Leak, Magnus son of Turgot, and Simon son of Magnus, who say that the Count of Richmond, and Petronella de Croun, hold CAPITALES HoNOREs in the said Wapentake of the Lord the King, and they say that the Count of Richmond holds all the town of St. Botolph in the east part of the water of the King in capite; except 12th part, which the Abbot of York holds as a gift of the said honour, but know not for how much."2 At the same time Alanus de Danby held, on the west side of the water, in St. Botolph, the 21st part of a military fee of the honour of Croun. In 1220, according to STOW,; "Ranulph Earl of Chester, Lincoln and Richmond, and Lord of Little Brittayne, came into England from the Holy Land, and built a castle at Boston." This was, very probably, merely a manorial residence in the town of Boston,-in fact, the original HALL-TOFT manor-house. There were as many as 1115 Castles-as they were called-in England, in the reign of Henry II. It was directed that there should be one in every manor, such castle to bear the name of the manor in which it was erected; these castles were therefore merely the manor-houses of the respective manorial lords. Each of these manor-houses contained a prison. The constables, or keepers, of these prisons, often treated their prisoners so cruelly, and made them compound for their liberty by such heavy fines, that at length, in the 5th of Henry IV. (1403), it was enacted that Justices of the Peace should imprison in the common gaols.3 A.D. 1241, King Henry III., by a special charter, bearing date May Ist, gave to Peter de Savoy (who had been created Earl of Richmond in 1231), son of Thomas Earl of Savoy and uncle to Queen Eleanor, and to his heirs for ever, the town of Boston with the Soke and fairs.4 In 1247, Radulph de St. Botolph gave land in St. Botolph to the monks of Furness Abbey; and Richard, his son, granted to them "free ingress and egress through his garden in St. Botulph," 5 —to facilitate, we suppose, the occupancy of his father's gift. In A.D. 1249, Robert of Tateshall died possessed of a manor and tenement in Boston; he also held two oxgangs of land, in the said town, belonging to his Barony of Tattershall; and also other lands and rents of assize 41. 18s. lOd., and for the letting of houses in the fairs of St. Botolph, and for tronage yearly, 121. His son Robert also held this Manor of Boston, and died about 1304. In 1255, Henry de Hamill died possessed of the office of collector of customs of lastage in the town of St. Botolph,. The annual fair at Boston appears to have been, long before this time, resorted to, by merchants and traders, from a very considerable distance: as will be treated upon at length in the section on the trade and commerce of Boston at this period. In 1262, Henry III. confirmed his grant of the town, manor, and markets of St. Botolph to Peter de Savoy. The facilities for intercourse between Boston and the neighbourhood at this time may be gathered from the account which Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, vol. i. p. 24. charter was confirmed 15 March, 46 Henry III. L iber Feodorum, Exchequer. Charter Rolls for that year. 3 THOMSON on Magna Charta, p. 205. 5 TWEST'S Antiquities of Furnes, Appendix No. 11. 4 Charter Rolls, Touler, 25 Henry III. f.4. This 6 Escheat Rolls, Tower.

Page  40 40 PAVED ROADS OR CAUSEWAYS IN THIRTEENTH CENTURY. DUGDALE gives of the roads leading from Boston. In the year 1263 he says, "There was a presentment by a jury exhibited by Martin de Littlebury and his fellow justices itinerant, at Lincoln, showing, "That anciently, in the time of old William de Romara, Earl of Chester, it happened that two men carrying a corpse from Stickney to Cibecey to be buried in the churchyard there, drowned it on Northdyke Causeway." The Abbey of Revesby was appointed to repair and maintain the said Causeway for ever, and received two pieces of land of the said. Earl, called Heyholme and Westfen, containing together about 120 acres, and worth by the year 61.1 NORTHDMKE Causeway was a continuation of HILLDYEI Causeway; and this was a continuation of what was called the LONG Causeway, which commenced at the end of Bargate and reached to Burton Corner, where it joined Hilldyke Causeway. And this chain of Causeways-Long Causeway, Hilldyke and Northdyke Causeways-formed the "King's Highway" from Boston towards the Humber. It is mentioned by Dugdale as being out of repair in 1339.2 At Burton Corner another Causeway branched from the Long Causeway towards Wainfleet. Several parts of this Causeway, between Burton Corner and Freiston, were in existence about forty years ago. In 1263 Northdyke Causeway was reported to be in so bad a state that a number of persons were drowned whilst travelling upon it every year.3 Another Causeway commenced in Skirbeck Quarter, and continued probably to Sutterton, where it branched to the right towards Bicker and Donington, to avoid the estuary of Bicker Haven.4 At Donington this Causeway joined the Holland Causeway, which came from Spalding to Donington through Gosberton, and extended to Bridge End, where the Convent of St. Saviour formerly stood. This Causeway was to be maintained wide enough for carts and carriages to meet thereon; and the bridge called Peckebrigge or Brigg Dyke, so wide, that men riding on horseback might meet thereon.5 This was a very convenient road compared with many, which were so narrow that a footpassenger travelling thereon had to step on one side into the soft mud or water when he met a string of packhorses, which was the usual mode of conveying merchandise and produce from place to place. Deeping Bank was the road from the Deepings by Croyland and Cowbit to Spalding, principally on the bank of the Welland.6 In 1325 it was stated that " the Causey between Spalding and Crowland ought to be repaired by the Abbot and Town of Crowland."7 Nor were other modes of conveyance more rapid at this period; since we are told that the passage of the retinue of Edward I. across the Humber by the ferry from Barton to Hessle, in May 1300, occupied two days.8 At a considerably later period than this, the intercourse between London and Croyland was so difficult, that a small organ purchased by the Abbot for the use of the Abbey choir, "was carried by two hired porters on their shoulders all the way from London to Crowland." This was in 1463.9 In 1268 (52 Henry III.), Richard de Kalmete was summoned to respond to the plea of Lucas de Batenturt for taking eleven tuns of wine and other goods from the monastery of the Friars Minor, in St. Botolph, of the value of 1001., and removing them thence, whereby the said goods were greatly depreciated in 1 DUGDALE, by Cole, 1772, pp. 157, 219, &c. 6 DUGDALE on Embankment, p. 194. 2 Ibid. p. 157. 3 Ibid. p. 219. r Ibid. p. 202. As a matter of precaution, " all 4 " The river of Bicker ran to the sea, 23 Ed- hogs were ordered to be kept half a mile from any ward I. (1295), but was not so deep as it had defensible banks, and the sewers within the district formerly been for carrying away the waters."- of Holland."-DuGcDALE, p. 203. DUGDALE on Embankment, p. 224. 8 FROST's Hull, p. 61. 5 Ibid. pp. 199, 220, 224, 227, &C. 9 INGULPHIUS, P. 431.

Page  41 A.D. 1270 TO A.D. 1300. 41 value. The said Richard responded that he never had any wine or goods of the said Lucas. A precept of inquiry was issued.1 The Prior and Convent of Nocton were possessed of lands, &c., in Boston in 1270.2 At the close of the reign of Henry III. (1272), William de Holgate took stone (petram) out of the King's quarry at Lincoln, and sent it, when squared by the stone-masons, to Boston to build houses there.3 In 1272, " Robert de Thatishall held in St. Botolph's the 21st part of one Knight's fee of Lambert de Muleton; but it is not known under what honour the same Lambert held. Ralph de Fenne held one carucate of land, of the Honor of Richmond, by payment of twenty shillings per annum."4 In the beginning of the reign of Edward I. the Abbot of York held in Boston, "in free eleemosynary," one bovate of land and a sixth part, the gift of the Earl of Brittany.' A.D. 1273, 2 Edward I., Alicia de Batonica was possessed of land, and the Abbot of Louth Park of houses in Boston.6 In 1274, Lawrence de Rupe, Thomas Lord of Multon, Lord William de Huntingfield, Roger, brother of Ralph de Rochford, Lady Lucia Peche, William de Pokebrook, Prior of Freiston, AIan de Hiptoft, William de Butterwick, Parson of Tofte, Alexander de Poynton, Master of the Hospital extra Sci. Botolphi, William Honeywyn, Abbot of St. Mary's, York, Lord Eudo de Friskney, and Ralph de Scirewood, all claimed to have assise of bread and ale, and rights and profits of courts, &c. in various parts of the Wapentake of Skirbeck.7 In 1276, an inquisition was made at Stamford by twenty-four jurors of the Wapentake of Skirbeck," Who say upon their oaths that the King holds no manor in his own hands in that wapentake. That John de Brittany, Earl of Richmond, holds the manor of St. Botolph, &c., with soke and markets, which was given by the King to Peter de Sabandia for his life, and which, after his death, reverted to the King, and was subsequently given by him to John de Brittany, who has now held the same for more than six years, by what warrant or service they know not. The said Earl holds houses in Boston, the gift of the King, which were also held by the said Peter de Sabandia, who had the same of Fawkes de Butetter, and valued at 40s. The manor, markets, and soke, are valued at 1001. more per annum; the same being part of the Honor of Richmond. " They also find that the said John claims to have in St. Botolph the right of gallows, pillory, and ducking-stool, the assise of bread and beer, and wayffs and wrecks of the sea from Scdteny (?) to Wrangle, by what warrant they know not. " They also find that Robert de Tattershall claims to have at St. Botolph's, on the west side of the water, tronage of lead and wool, and a court from seventh day to seventh day, which is called the market court, they know not by what tenure." 8 From the early part of the reign of Edward I. (circa 1276) to 1300, many instances of murder and other crimes occur in this neighbourhood, in which the offenders fled for sanctuary to a church, and refused to attend the inquisition of the coroner; and in several cases they escaped by irregular verdicts and other lapses of the law. Some fled from justice, and there is no record of their capture. In cases of drowning by falling from a boat in the river, a fine was levied on the boat. Richard, the son of Elye, was hung for stealing bread. William Wyeth de Gernon and Nicholas de Mundham were beheaded at Lincoln for slaying Peter de Martel in the field of St. Botolph. Two females fell into tubs of hot liquor (vejice) and were scalded to death, and were scalded to deand fines were levied upon the vessels. William de Francys fell from his horse into the river at St. Botolph's, and both man and horse were drowned; a fine was levied on Abbreviatio Placitorom, vol. i. p. 176. Teste de Neville p. 346. 2 Charter Rolls, Tower. 6 Escheat Rolls, Tower. 3 Hundred Rolls, vol. i. p. 399. 7 HTunddred Rolls, vol. i. p. 348. 4 TestC de Neville, p. 315. 8 Ibid. 4 Edward I. (1276). G

Page  42 42 CRIMES AND PUNISHMENTS IN THIRTEENTH CENTURY. the horse's skin, value lId. Several deaths occurred through wounds by swords; these were, most probably, occasioned by accident, since the parties charged were fined various sums from 9d. to 20s. In 1300, Galfrid, servant of Thomas de Guttura, was taken for stealing a horse in St. Botolph, and confined in the prison of John de Brittany, Earl of Richmond, but afterwards escaped from justice. A woman was thrown from a cart and killed, and the cart and horse were forfeited. The following fines are mentioned as levied in Boston during this period: Fine for an undiscovered murder in the hundred..............40s.,, for not attending an inquisition...................... 5 marks.,, levied on the soke of the Earl of Brittany, for the escape of a murderer....................................81.,, to the Sheriff for the escape of two fugitives............31. 4s. 4d.,, for the escape of two murderers............ 81.,, for the escape of a thief.................10s. Paid to the Sheriff for capture of a fugitive.... lOs. H, ugh French and his ten associate jurvmen..40s.,, to the Sheriff for the capture of Abraham de Friskney, who was beheaded'................................s. 3cd. In the year 1276, certain merchants of Gascony, trading in the market of St. Botolph, and others, including three Englishmen, were accused of concealing felons, and enabling them to avoid capture, receiving as a bribe for so doing a horse and 101. in money. Many other persons were accused of compounding felonies and receiving bribes.? Ill 1277, 5 Edward I., the King's writ was directed to the Viscount of Lincolnshire, to make inquest at St. Botolph's of the goods of merchants of the towns of Ipres, Duaco, Poping, and in Flanders.3 The Hanseatic merchants and those of Flanders carried on at this time a very large and important traffic in Boston; as appears by the valuation of the property of the Honour of Richmond taken 1279, 8 Edward I. The subsequent account of the Richmond Fee, or Honour, will furnish many curious and interesting particulars relative to Boston and its neighbourhood. A tolerably correct idea of its state at this early period may be gathered from the perusal of this document. Merchants from Ipres, Cologne, Caen, Ostend, and Arras, appear to have occupied houses in Boston; and the great mart then held here was no doubt the emporium of business for a very considerable part of the eastern side of the kingdom. In consequence of an inundation of the sea, and defects of the roads or causeways (calcetti) of Holland, and in the sea-walls or banks, and in the drainage, sewers, bridges, &c., in various parts of Holland, " The King, as well as the inhabitants, was subjected to great damage and peril. The King, desirous of applying a remedy, appointed John de Vallibus and his associates justices itinerant in the county of Lincoln to make inquisition of the facts and to report a remedy." A former inquisition had been appointed for the same purpose. The report of the justices itinerant was, that the Abbot of Spalding and the people of that town had been negligent of the orders of the preceding inquisition; and they were now summoned to appear at the town of St. Botolph on the vigil of St. Lawrence (circa 1280).4 Great part of the town of Boston was destroyed by a fire which took place 3 Cal. August 1281.5 Placita de Coronce, and Placita de Juratis et 3 EscheCts of Grants, Exchequer. Assisis, de Temporis. 4 Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, vol. i. p. 205. 2 Hundred Rolls, vol. i. p. 349. LELAND'S Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 315.

Page  43 REPAIRS OF THE WALLS OF BOSTON (1285). 43 When the Liber Feodorum, or Testa de Neville, was taken (temp. Edw. I. and II.), the Earl of Richmond held the whole town of St. Botolph on the east side of the river of the king in capite, except the twelfth part, which the Abbot of York held in Frank-almoigne of the said Honour. Alan de Derby held on the west side of the river the one-and-twentieth part of a knight's fee of the Honour of Croun. Also, Robert de Tateshalle held there " The one-and-twentieth part of a knight's fee of Lambert de Moleton, but it is not known of what honour the said Lambert holds." In 1281, a jury presented that John, son of John le Croter of Fenne, had constructed a certain ditch in the common way between Fenne and Skirbeck, in length 40 feet; and the town of Boston had extended the said ditch in the common way in the said town the length of 200 feet; and others, the inhabitants of Boston, had thrown a bridge across the road which leads from Deppoll to the bridge at Boston, which bridge was too narrow for two carts to pass, and that the said bridge should be 20 feet in breadth. Also, that Thomas Peyt ought to cleanse a certain gutter between the hospital and St. Botolph's.2 All which works the Sheriff directed to be done.3 In this year also, " Bernard Dernagill complained that Adam de Northburgh, of Lincoln, unjustly detained from him 11. of money (argentum), which he ought to have paid to him at the feast of St. Michael last past, for wine sold and delivered to him at the market of St. Botolph; whence, he says, he is injured to the amount of the said 111. He produced testimony of this assertion, and obtained a verdict to levy upon the land and goods of the said Adam for the 111. and damages as taxed by the Justice." 4 In 1282, twenty-one dolia (?) of wine, which were in the keeping of Matthew de Columbarii, keeper of the King's wine at St. Botolph, and were destroyed by the great fire which took place there in 1281, were allowed him in the settlement of his account with the Exchequer, by order of the King dated May 4.5 In 1283, John Tylle, of Boston, recovered his seisin against Thomas, Abbot of Tupholme, of a messuage and three acres of land with the appurtenances in Boston.6 The town of Boston appears at this time to have been surrounded by a wall, for, in 1285 (13 Edward I.), a grant was made by the King to the bailiffs and burgesses, and other good men of the town of Boston, of a toll in aid of repairing the said walls, at the instance of John de Brittany, Earl of Richmond. This toll was granted for one year, and was as follows:"For every weight (256 pounds) of cheese, fat, tallow, and butter for sale, one farthing; for every weight of lead for sale, one farthing; for every hundredweight of wax for sale, one halfpenny; for every hundredweight of almonds and rice, one halfpenny; for every hundredweight of pepper, ginger, white cinnamon, incense, quicksilver, vermilion, and verdigrease for sale, one farthing; for every hundredweight of cummin seed, alum, sugar, liquorice, aniseed, picony roots, or pimentum, one farthing; for every hundredweight of sulphur, potter's earth, bone of cuttle-fish, rosin and copperas, one farthing; for every great frail of raisins and figs for sale, one farthing; for every hundredweight of cloves, nutmegs, mace, cubebs seed, saffron, and silk for sale, one penny; for every 1000 yards of the best grey cloth for sale, one penny; for every 1000 yards of Russet cloth, one farthing; for every hundred of rabbits for sale, one farthing; for every timber (40 skins) of fox-skins for sale, one farthing; for every dozen of leather for sale, one halfpenny; for every dozen of whetstones for sale, one farthing; for every ton of honey for sale, one penny; for every tun of wine for sale, one halfpenny; for every sack of wool, one halfpenny; for every sieve of salt, 1 WTormgate was formerly called Deppol, or Deep- 3 Placita de Julratis et Assisis, 9 Edward I. (1281) pool Gate, from a deep pit or pool formerly at its For an account of FENNE, see Fishtoft; and for north end. DEPPOL, the Walk therough Boston. 2 This gutter was a natural sewer or drain, which Pleas of the Crown, 9 Edward I. ran from Cowbridge before Maud Foster's drain was 5 Close Rolls, 10 Edward I. Membrane, 5. cut in 1568. It fell into the Scirebeck near Pedder's 6 Assize Rolls. or Peter's Bridge.-See Walk through Boston.

Page  44 44 CHAMBERLAIN'S RIOT (1288). one farthing or every ton of ashes and pitch, one farthing; for every hundred of deal boards, one halfpenny; for every barrel of steel wire, one farthing; for every hundred of canvas, one farthing; for every great truss of cloth, one penny; for every 1000 stock fish, one penny; and for all sorts of merchandise not enumerated, one farthing for every 20s. worth. The year having been completed, the custom to wholly cease and be abolished." No traces of this wall are now visible, but some evidences of its former existence are, perhaps, discernible in the present names of some of the streets, Bargate, Wormgate, &c.2 The drain, or sewer, called the Barditch, one end of which enters the river at the extremity of South-end, and the other near the Grand-sluice, was, probably, the fosse or ditch at the foot of this wall. The Barditch encloses the whole of the eastern side of Boston between South-end and the upper end of Widebargate. Probably there was formerly a gate, or bar, across the farther end of Bargate, in which case the whole of Wide-bargate would be without the walls. The greater part of the town was at this time on the east side of the river. In 1286, Boston was afflicted with another visitation; great part of the town and the surrounding district of Holland being inundated for a considerable time by a flood. The Monastery of Spalding suffered much loss.3 This is, probably, the same flood as is stated by STOW to have taken place " On the New Year's Day at night" (A.D. 1287), when, "as well through the vehemency of the wind, as the violence of the sea, the Monasterie of Spalding and many churches were overthrown and destroyed; not only at Yarmouth, Donwich, and Ipchwich, but also in divers other places in England, adjoining the sea; especially in the parts called Holland in Lincolnshire; all the whole country there for the most part turned into a standing poole; so that an intolerable multitude of men, women, and children, were overwhelmed with the water, especially the towne of Bostone, or Buttolph's towne, a great part whereof was destroyed." 4 A similar flood had occurred in the year 1236,5 "on the morrow after Martinmas;" another in the year 1254;6 and a third in 1257. A more ruinous affliction, however, than these occurred in 1287, of which STOW says, "A Justis was proclaimed at Boston, in the faire time in 1287, whereof one part came in the habyte of monks, the other in sute of chanons, who had covenanted after the Justis, to spoile the faire; for the atchieving of their purpose, they fired the towne in three places; it is said the streams of gold, silver, and other metal, molten, ranne into the sea. The Caiptaine of this confederacye was Robert Chamberlain, Esquire, who was hanged, but woulde never confesse hys fellows."7 LELAND says this took place in 1288.8 "Better times (says CAMDEN) succeeding, raised Botolph's town once more out of its ashes, and the staple for wool, &c. being settled here, brought in great wealth, and invited the merchants of the Hanseatic league, who established here their guild, or house." About 1290 an extent was made of the town and soke of St. Botolph by Walter de Pyncenbent and William Holebec:I Records of the Court of Chancery, Tower, dated Dover and Dunwich were both important seaports, 22 May, 13 Edward I. (1285). We have given and Southampton already a thriving place. Yarthe table of tell at length, because it exhibits an mouth was then starting into life through the enumeration of the articles then brought to the herring fishery, and Newcastle had just begun to market at Boston for sale, which we do not know profit by its coal. where else to look for. These tolls were also granted "The whole population of London was under in aid of the repairs of the town pavement.-Patent 20,000. In the fourteenth century the whole numRolls, 13 Edward I. (1285). ber of the inhabitants of Lincoln who contributed 2 Bar was formerly the name of the edifices now to an assessment of ninths was less than 800."called Gates, while the word gate then signified the DICKENS'S Household Words, No. 84, p. 125. street or road leading to the bar. This phraseology 3 DUGDALE on Embankment, p. 221; and LEstill obtains in the north of England, and toll-bar LAND'S Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 420. is generally used instead of toll-gate. "Towns were 4 STOW's Chronicle, p. 229. 5 Ibid. p. 198. generally walled in the fourteenth century; the chief 6 Ibid. p. 216. 7 Ibid. p. 227. towns then being, after London, york, Winchester, s LELAND'S Collectanea, vol. iii. pp. 404 and 410. Lincoln. Boston, St. Ives, Lynn, and Stamford.

Page  45 SMALL AGRICULTURAL PRODUCE IN 1297. 45 "To wit, 1031. 6s. 4ld. in all extents, except the fairs, and the profits of the fairs, and except six pounds and a half of pepper, and except one pair of hose, and one pair of gilt spurs, and one pair of sandals embroidered with gold, and except two outlying manors, to wit, Wike and Franton, which used to be let to farm for 301.: but are now increased from, the free rent; to wit, Wikes to 241. and Franton to 161. Sum of the extent, 1441. 6s. 4l d." In the 16 Edward I. (1288), Pope Nicholas IV., to whose predecessors in the see of Rome the first-fruits and tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices had for a long time been paid, granted the tenths to the King for six years towards defraying the expense of an expedition to the Holy Land. The taxation upon the full value, as taken (A.D. 1291) by the King's precept, was for the church of Boston or St. Botolph 511. 6s. 8d. The church at Kirton was valued at 531. 6s. 8d., and also a pension paid to the brethren called " Hospitalers not decimable." Additional evidence of the great traffic which was carried on at the annual mart or fair held at Boston, and of the great distance from which people resorted to it to purchase their annual supplies of both necessaries and luxuries, is afforded by a knowledge that the Canons of Bridlington regularly attended this fair, from 1290 to 1325, to purchase wine, groceries, cloth, &c., for their convent. In 1291, John de Sutton held forty-four perches of land in St. Botolph's for the preaching friars of that town.s The Prior of Durham possessed a house in Boston in 1292.s This appears to have contin ued in the possession of the Monastery of Durham until the Refornlation, at which period it is said to have received a yearly rent of 10s. from lands and a tenement in Boston.4 In 1293, Robert, son of Raymund of Bungay, recovered his seisin against Raimond of Rocheforde de Fenne in Hoyland, of two houses, 17 acres of land, and 12s. 11 2d. of rent, with the appurtenances in St. Botolph.5 Writs of election were addressed to Robert le Venur, Sheriff of the county of Lincoln, in 1296, reciting that the King desired to hold a " colloquiuzm" with the earls, barons, and others of the kingdom, and commanding the election of knights, citizens, and burgesses, to appear at Bury St. Edmunds, on the 3d November.6 In 1297 (25 Edward I.), a subsidy of a ninth was granted in consideration of the renewal and confirming the charters de Libertatibus and de Forestis, by the "archbishops, bishops, abbots, priors, earls, barons, knights, and others;" and a writ was issued appointing the assessors and collectors, dated 14th October, 1297.7 By an inquisition taken in 1298, on the death of Robert de Tateshall, it was fbund that " He held one salt pan in St. Botulph's, and also that there were there two bondmen, and both hold one cottage, and each renders by himself 2d. at the feast of St. Botulph." The property of Robert de Tateshall in Boston was valued at 131. 19s. ld. yearly.8 The Subsidy Roll, which contains this assessment of the ninth penny, affords much most curious information respecting this district at that period; and it will scarcely be believed that the whole of the property in the hundred of Skirbeck,-including the town of Boston, —-which was taxed to this subsidy, was valued at 661. Ils. 4d., the amount of the tax was 71. 7s. 10d. The property taxed consisted of 28 horses, 9 pack-horses, 55 oxen, 42 cows, 7 calves, 15 stirkes, 2 heifers, 95 sheep, 13 swine, 3 sows, 2 sows and pigs, 2 genets or small horses, and 1 colt or foal. The hay and fodder was valued Inquis. temp. Edward I. 5 Orig. Excheq. vol. i. p. 79. 2 Escheat Rolls, Tower. 3 Ibid. 6 Parliamentary W1rits, vol. i. p. 26. 4 DUGDALE'S Monasticon, by BANDINEL, vol. i. 7 Ibid. vol. i. pp. 63, 64. p. 251. 8 Escheats, 26 Edward I. No. 40.

Page  46 46 BOSTON INCLUDED IN SKIRBECK (1300). at 31. is. lid. There were in the hundlred 23+ qrs. of wheat, 61 - qrs. of maslin,l 43 qrs. of oats, 39 - qrs. of beans and peas, and 11 c qrs. of barley, 33 carts, &c., 2 fishing-boats, and 1 bacellariumn cumn arment.2(?) The following is the taxation of Peter, son of William Goode, of Boston: — 2 horses at 3s. 4d. each, 2 oxen at 6s. 8d., 1 cow, 5s., 1 calf, is., 1 stirke, 2s. 6d., 1 sow and pigs, 2s. 6d., 20 sheep at is., 4 qrs. of maslin, 2s. 6d. per qr., 10 qrs. of oats, is. 6d. per qr., 4 qrs. of beans, 2s., i cart, is., 1 little cart, 10d., hay and fodder, 3s. Total goods, 41. 8s. 10d. Tax, 9s. O1-d. The three other persons taxed in Boston were John Bunnge, Nicholas, son of Alexander, and John, the son of Richard. Boston paid the Subsidy Tax upon 5 horses, 8 oxen, 5 cows, 5 heifers, 3 calves, 3 stirkes, 2 sows, 2 sows and pigs, 26 sheep, 11i qrs. of maslin, 15 qrs. of oats, 6 of beans and peas, 6 carts, and 7s. 6d. worth of hay and fodder. The taxable goods and property were valued at 111. Os. 3d., and the none or subsidy paid was 11. 4s. 7d. About the year 1300, an account of the land in the wapentake of Skirbeck was taken, and which confirms the supposition that the town of Boston was anciently included in the parish of Skirbeck, for at this time they are returned together. The entire wapentake is said to contain seven hundreds, each hundred containing twelve carucates of land, "' Of which, in the town of St. Botolph and in Skirbeck, are twelve carucates of land, of which Thomas, son of Lambert of Milton, holds six carucates and three oxgangs of the honor, by military service. The Earl of Richmond and his tenants hold five carucates and five oxgangs. And Robert of Tateshale holds, on the west side of the river, two oxgangs of land, of what fee or by what service, is yet to be learnt." 3 " A fine was had in the King's Court at York, in the octave of St. Martin, 30 Edward I. (between the 11th and 18th Nov. 1302) John Bek, plaintiff, and Robert de Wylghby, defendant, of (inter alia) land in Leverton, Wrangle, and Boston; by which the land was conveyed to the said John Bek, to hold for his life, rendering a rose at the feast of the Nativity of St. John the Baptist, for all service; and after his death, then it should revert to the said Robert and his heirs." 4 The manor of St. Botolph on the west side of the water, with tronage, perquisites of court, &c., escheated to the crown in 1303,5 in consequence of the death of Robert de Tattershall in 1298; and, in 1304, the King granted to Queen Margaret, his wife, the custody of the manor and castle of Tattershall, with its hamlets of Kirkby and Thorpe, and the manor of St. Botolph aforesaid, with the perquisites of court, &c., which were the property of Robert de Tattershall, then deceased; with permission to sell the same to Henry de Percy and John de Neville for 3501., to them and to their heirs; until the heir of the said Robert de Tattershall arrived at'"legitimate age." 6 This appears to have taken place very shortly after, for, in 1306, Robert, son of Robert de TateThis in the original is Mixtell, which COWELL TussER's time (circa 1550) a sort of grain called explains as mixed corn, meslin or maslin —that is, dreg in Sussex, &c., which was mixed with barley to wheat and rye mixed together. We are not sure make malt of. He says,that we are correct in stating the preceding article Sow barley and dreg with a plentiful hand, as wheat; it is called fruimeatum in the original, Lest weed'stead of seed overgroweth thy land. which some writers hold to be a term applied to all Thy dreg and thy baley go thrash o to malt." grain of which bread is made. Archbishop CRANMER, in his translation of the Bible, 1539, speaks 2 The meaning of these terms is not exactly of Firumenlty corn. In other parts of this Subsidy known. Roll another species of grain is mentioned called 3 COLE'S MSS. British Museum, vol. xliv. fol. 47. dragiuon, which COVWELL calls a coarser kind of 4 Harleian Charters, British Museum, 30 Edbread-colrn. We have regarded it as an inferior kind ward I. of masling, and have classed it with that article. 5 Inquis. post Mortem, 26 Edward I. (1298). Maslin was valued at 2s. 6d. the quarter, dragium 6 Orig. Excheq. at 2s. There seems, however, to have been in

Page  47 A.D. 1309. 47 shall, was possessed of the duties on the weighing of wool in St. Botolph, which were valued at 121. per annum. This Robert was the last male representative of the Tattershall family, his son Robert dying without issue in 1307. The family estates were then divided amongst his three sisters, Emma, wife of Sir Osbert Cayley; Joan, wife of Sir Robert Driby; and Isabella, wife of Sir John Orby. The property at BOSTON appears to have fallen to the second; from whom it descended in the female line to Sir William Bernake; and again, in default of male issue, to Ralph de Cromwell, who married one of the Bernake family, in the reign of Edward III., and died 18 Richard Iio (1394). There was another manor in Boston on the west side of the water belonging to the Roos family, by intermarriage with the daughter of John de Vaux, and was purchased of the representatives of that family (Henry Earl of Rutland) by the Corporation of Boston in 1556.1 A great number of persons were found guilty (1306 or 1307) of selling wine contrary to assise, among whom are mentioned Reginald de Osselur, Richard Carl, Richard Pisceneye, John Mosse, Peter Milles, and Robert Knobler, of St. Botolph, and about thirty other persons residing in neighbouring towns, who were variously fined from 40d. to 20s.2 The Prior and brothers of St. Botolph held a messuage and lands in that town in 1305 (33 Edw. I.)3 Among the reddisseisins this year, Walter, son of Andrew of Wainfleet, and John, his brother, recovered possession in the court of the King at York, against Petronilla, the wife of Thomas Astan, of half a messuage, with appurtenances in Boston.4 In 1306, John de Trasings received 266.- qrs. of bread-corn (wheat or rye)at Boston, of Ralph Paynell, in his ship, the John, and conveyed the same to a certain port of Spain for " the sustenance of the faithful subjects of the King sojourning there, in obedience to the King;" the price paid for conveying this corn to its place of delivery was about 11e per qr. (35 Edward I.) The following persons at that time held land in Boston, which had belonged to Warner Engayne: —The Abbot of Fountains, 40s. yearly value; the Abbot of Leicester, 40s.; William de Derby, 40s.; John de Bohun, 13s. 4d.; Galfrid Fabir, 53s, These tenants, with various others in Toft, Butterwick, Benington, Leverton, Leake, and Sibsey, appear to have owed, or to have been taxed, six years' rent, the whole amounting to 2661. 4s. 4d., to pay for the transportation of this corn. In the latter part of the reign of Edward I., William de Ros, by his marriage with Maud, one of the daughters and coheiresses of John de Vaux, came into possession of much property in this town and neighbourhood. A charter was granted, in 1308, to John of Brittany, Count of Richmond, for a market every Saturday at the town of St. Botolph.6 In 1309, Robert de Leyvs, of Kirkby, and Christiana his wife, recovered their seisin against Watson le Coupin and others of St. Botolph of the third part of five messuages with their appurtenances in the town of St. Botolph. Also, William, son of Symon Gysors, recovered his seisin in the King's Court at the town of St. Botolph, against Reginald, son of Robert, and Elizabeth his wife, of three messuages, six acres of land, two acres and " two parts of a mill," with the appurtenances in the sanme town.7 The King proposing shortly to make a raid against Robert de Bruce and Inquis. ad quod damnnur, and Corporation Re- 5 Pipe Rolls, 1306. cords. 6 Charter Rolls, Towelr. A market was also 2 Assise Rolls. granted by the same charter, to be held at Kirton 3 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. i. p. 201. in Holland, on Monday in every week. 4 Orig. Excheq.7 Orig. Excheq. vol. i. pp. 166 and 172.

Page  48 48 ASSESSMENT TO THE KING'S HOUSEHOLD (1314). his adherents in Scotland, for the purpose of utterly putting down his rebellion, commanded levies to be made in the various counties. Holland in Lincolnshire was called upon for 300 sappers; 18 June, 1311 (4 Edward II.)I In the same year, William, son of William le Clerk, made a fine with the King, for five marks, for license to give a certain tenement in Heckington and 1Hale to a certain chapel, for the daily celebration of mass for ever for the soul of the said William le Clerk, of St. Botolph. In 1312 (5 Edward II.), a writ was addressed to the Sheriff of Lincolnshire, John de Neville, stating that "Certain persons assert that they are empowered to act as keepers of the peace, though not appointed by the King, but by some other authority, at which the King is much surprised, since the power of appointment belongs to him alone. The Sheriff is, therefore, commanded to make inquiry in the most discreet and secret manner that he can, who they are who thus act, and to ascertain the form of their commission, and to certify the same to the King. Proclamations to be made that the peace is to be firmly kept," &c. &c. Similar writs were sent to the Sheriffs of all the other counties.2 Philip Darcy, in the same year, recovered in the King's court at Boston possession of two messuages and two bovates of land in Swineshead.3 A patent grant of tolls, for the support of the bridge, and for paving of the town of St. Botolph, was made A.D. 1313 (6 Edward Il.)4 A similar grant, for the same purposes, was made in 1320.5 In 1314, a license of alienation was granted to William Cublande, of a messuage in Boston, to the Abbey of' Revesby. About this time (1314) great outrages appear to have been committed in various parts of Lincolnshire " by sundry malefactors, knights as well as others, during the King's absence in Scotland.'" Conservators were appointed in each county to report upon the nature and extent of these offences, and to guard against their occurrence. They were found to consist " in the holding conventicles and other unlawful assemblies, as well by day as by night; committing assaults and murders; breaking parks and hunting deer," &c. The reply to this report was, that " the King would shortly send certain of his lieges into the county to do justice to the offenders." Four commissioners were appointed for Lincolnshire, three of whom, Edmund Deyncourt, Rogrer de: Cuppeldyck, and Walter de Friskney, were connected with the division of Holland.6 In the same year, the Sheriff of the county of Lincoln was commanded to provide towards the support of the King's household (on account of the coming Christmas), and of the Parliament, 100 beeves, 500 sheep, and 300 swine.7 At this time Thomas de Caillys, and Margaret his wife, are stated to have possessed in St. Botolph one messuage and divers cottages, upon a place called the Green-yard, and 41. 6s. 8d. rent.8 It appears that Thomas de Caillys, who was most probably a merchant from Calais, died this year; that Simon de Driby was appointed by the King guardian of his children; and that Margaret, the widow of this Thomas de Caillys, married Robert of Willoughby; the King assigning her certain lands and tenements in Boston, of the yearly rent of 101. 6s., as part of her marriage-portion in dower.9 This Robert of Willoughby is stated to have had great possessions in Lincolnshire. Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 65. sheep and 400 swine; Norfolk and Suffolk fur2 Parliamentary Writs, vol. i. p. 83. nished 20 lasts of red herrings, 10,000 cod-fish, 3 Rot. Orig. Abbrev;iatio, vol. i. p. 54. 20,000 stock-fish, and 20 barrels of sturgeon; Es4 Charter Rolls, Toawer. 5 Ibid. sex, Heltford, Bedfolrd and Bucks, Kent, Surrey, 6 Parliamnlenltaryy Rolls, vol. i. p. 118. Sussex, Oxford, Berks, Cambridge, Huntingdon, and 7 Ibid. vol. i. p. 130. Hampshire furnished 60 Northampton, 1300 qualrters of wheat, 1700 quarbeeves, 300 sheep, and 300 swine; Bedford and ters of oats, and 1000 quarters of malt and barley. Bucks, 40 beeves; Somerset and Dorset, 100 beeves; Payment to be made out of the debts due to the and South Wales, 100 beeves; Oxford and Berk- King, and the other issues of the Sheriffs' bailishire, 300 sheep; Cambridge and Huntingdon, 40 wick. beeves and 500 sheep; Surrey and Sussex, 200 s Escheat Rolls. 9 Orig. Excheq.

Page  49 A.D. 1314 TO A.D, 1320. 49 "It may be here observed," says Mr. FROST,' "that until the fourteenth century this country possessed no regular navy, the maritime force of the kingdom consisting only of merchant ships and vessels which were pressed into the service whenever any extraordinary occasion rendered their assistance necessary. An instance of this kind occurred so early as the year 1314, when about thirty ships were required to assemble at Kingston-upon-Hull preparatory to an expedition against Scotland. On this occasion two ships (naves) were to be furnished by Hull, and one each by Ravenser, Grimsby, Barton, and BOSTON; Yarmouth being the only port which was to provide three." 2 William de Cublande gave to the Abbot and Priory of Revesby, in 1314, a messuage and its appurtenances in St. Botolph, worth half-a-mark annually, which the said William held of the Earl of Richmond by the annual payment of 2d. for all services.3 In the returns made in 1316 for effecting the military levies ordered by the Parliament at Lincoln (9 Edward II.), those for the county of Lincoln are wanting, owing to the Sheriff not having had sufficient time to make the full returns. He, therefore, sent only the names of the towns, and not those of the lords of the manors and proprietors.4 Courts were held in Boston in 1316, in which seizures, &c., were recovered.5 The county of Lincoln was directed this year to raise 2000 foot-soldiers to assist the King against the Scots, Of these 1000 were levied from Lindsey, 500 from Holland, and 500 from Kesteven.6 In 1317 (10 Edward II.), the King assigned to Margaret, the widow of Thomas de Cayllis, sundry lands and tenements in St. Botolph's in dowry.7 William de Huntingfield held property in Boston; also Robert de Willoughby and Margaret his wife, and " A cottage in Boston, and sundry cottages there, in a place called the Green Yard; and 41. 6s. 8d. annual rent belonged to the heirs of Thomas de Cayllis." s Disturbances very generally prevailed in the kingdom in 1318; and Roger de Coppledyk, Gilbert de Boothby, Walter de Friskney, and Robert de Mablethorpe, were appointed justices for this neighbourhood, 16th March. Writs were issued August 12th (12 Edward II.), purporting, "that considering the general obligation to contribute towards the defence of the kingdom, the mayors, aldermen, &c., of various cities and towns were required to raise 2075 able-,bodied foot-soldiers, armed with aketons, bacinets, and iron breastplates." Of this number Boston furnished 15, Lincoln 100, Stamford 15, Grimsbv 10, Grantham 10.9 In 1320, William de Bruly, an English subject residing in the King's service at Paris, petitioned the King on behalf of his brother Gilbert, also an English subject, residing in the city of Bordeaux. The petition states that Gilbert de Bruly had shipped wines from Bordeaux for England, to be unladen at St. Botolph's; but that the Flemings, " through their great malice, took and stole 1 Notices of the Early History of HIull, p. 132. the army was at this time so great, that in York2 Rot. Scot. vol. i. p. 122. shire, Lancashire, Westmoreland, and Cumberland, 3 Inquis. ad quod damnum, 7 Edward II. No. 57. an order was issued, August 24th of this year, for 4 Parliamentary Rolls, vol. ii. part 3, p. 301. raising and arming all the inhabitants between the 5 Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, vol. iii. p. 231. ages of twenty and sixty.-Ibid. p. 211. The orders 6 Parwliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 195. The entire wvere still more imperative the next year. The shelevy was 18,000 foot-soldiers. riffs for the northern counties were directed to sllm7 Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, vol. ii. p. 234. mon all persons between twenty and sixty to repair s Ibid. vol. ii. pp. 255, 281, and 286. to the King atYork, properly armed, and all excuses 9 Hull furnished 20 men, Newark 10, Derby 10, laid aside, underpenalty of life and limb, in order to Nottingham 40, Huntingdon 20, Bury St. Ed- advance with the King against the Scots. The munds 100, Beverley 30, York 100, Norwich 100, sheriff to spare no one, as he tenders the King's Shropshire 40, Staffordshire 40.-Parliamentary honour, the salvation of the kingdom, and his own Rolls, vol. i. p. 210. The pressure for the service of safety, 28 October, 1319.-Ibid. p. 236. LI:

Page  50 50 A.D. 1320 TO A.D. 1324. his wines."' The Flemings, the petitioner states, had been made to pay the value of these wines for the benefit of his brother; but the Chancellor would not give an order to his brother to receive the amount unless under the direction of the Sheriff. The Sheriff, he states, had been so much occupied, as not to be able to attend to his brother's claim, He, therefore, prays the King to direct relief to be given to his brother. Such directions, it appears, were given to the proper authorities at St. Botolph. Another robbery of wine occurred in 1322, when William de Forbenard of La Reole, a merchant of Gascony, stated that "He had shipped his wine in Gascony in a vessel belonging to John Perbroun of Gernemue, called the Pater Noster, to be unladen at St. Botulph; but that Peter Bert of Sandwich, Gervas Athelard of Winchelsea, and Robert Clives of Greenwich, had taken out of the said vessel, on the Sunday next after Easter, off the Foreland of Thanet, nine tuns of the said wines." The petitioner prayed relief of the King; the said Peter, Gervas, and Robert, being in his service. Relief granted at common law.2 Robert de Bavant owned 40s. rent in Boston, 1321 (14 Edward II.)3 A commission for the Conservancy of the Peace for the parts of Holland was issued 17th January, 1322. John de Roos, Alan de Multon, and John de Kirketon, were appointed.4 On the 1st April of that year, a writ was issued, addressed to the Bailiff and probi homines of St. Botolph's, commanding them to furnish six men to attend at a certain place and time to be appointed by Walter de Norwich.5 On the 11th June, the division of Holland was ordered to raise and array all the force of the district to march against the Scots at three days' notice. The writs were addressed to Alexander de Montfort and Alan de Multon.6 A commission was issued 2d December, 1322, to Richard de Holebech and Nicholas de Leek, to assess and collect the subsidy of a tenth granted by the Earls, Barons, Knights, "Liberi Homines et Communitas;" and of the sixth, granted by the citizens and burgesses of the kingdom, of such goods as they had on the feast of St. Andrew, their last feast.7 In this year the King granted to John of Brittany, Count of Richmond, the return of briefs in his town of St. Botolph; and also confirmed to Peter de Ipatecario the possession of two houses in the same town, which were granted him by the Count of Richmond.8 Simon de Driby and Margaret his wife held ten bovates of land in Boston of Forde de Gaunt.9 On the 5th April, 1323, Alexander de Montforde, one of the Commissioners appointed to raise 2000 footsoldiers from the county of Lincoln armed with aketons, bacinets, pallets, and other fit arms, was directed to march with them to the King at Newcastle on the 6th of July."0 This order was superseded on the 2d of June. In 1324, license was granted to Joanna, the wife of Richard Driby, to assign two messuages, one acre and a half of land, and 51. 12s. 3d. rent, with the appurtenances in Boston, to Gilbert Bernake, parson of the church of Tattershall, and John de Giselyngton, parson of the church of Wolverton, to be holden of the King and his heirs by the accustomed services. They, the said Gilbert and John, to grant to the said Joanna the said land and rent for her life; and after her death the said tenements to remain to Robert her son for his life; then to pass to William de Probably by piracy on their transit. —Parlia- furnish 6 men, Fleet 4, Kirton in Holland 3, Lafford nentary Rolls, 14 Edward II. vol. i. p. 379. (Sleaford) 3, Louth 2, Newark 2, Horncastle 2.2 Ibid. vol. i. p. 406, 15 and 16 Edward II. Parliamentary Rolls, p. 306. 3 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. i. p. 296. 6 Ibid. p. 306. 7 Ibid. p. 339. 4 Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 272. 8 Patent Rolls. 5 Parliamentaory Rolls, vol. i. p. 290. On the 8th 9 Abbrev. Placit. p. 303. June similar writs were addressed to Grantham to'o Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 350.

Page  51 A.D. 1325 TO A.D. 1328. 51 Bernake and Alice his wife, and their heirs.' In 1324, the Sheriff of Lincolnshire made a return of the Knights in the division of Holland. They were Alexander de Montford, John de Roos de Gedney, Humphrey Littlebury, Edmund Bohun, Hugh Gorham, Richard Casterton, William Cressy, Peter de Gypthorp (returned as infirm and gouty), Nicholas Leake, Roger Cobledyke, (infirm and paralytic), Roger son of Roger Pedwardine, and William Cause (" who is always unwell"), being twelve in all.2 There is not, so far as we know, a descendant of any of these families now residing in the division of Holland. Some of their ancient manor-houses are, it is true, remaining, but in a very dilapidated and degraded condition. On the 6th August Alexander de Montfort was appointed one of the Commissioners of Array, "To raise from the body of the county (the city of Lincoln excepted) 260 men, with aketons, hcaubergeons, &c.; and 780 men with aketons, bacinets," &c. 3 There appears, however, to have been a still further press for the support of the army, for, on the 21st September"The King issued an order requesting and exhorting the citizens, by the faith and friendship which they bear to him, to raise the following numbers of the most able-bodied and vigorous foot-soldiers, and to equip them with aketons, laaubergeons or plates, bacinets, gcauntlets of steel or whalebone, or other fit arms, on or before St. Martin's day then next." Boston was to supply 20 men, Barton-upon-Humber 3, Grantham 15, Grimsby 3, Lincoln 80, Stamford 15.4 The " Mayor et les bons gens " of St. Botolph were directed to cause their levy of twenty men to muster at Peterborough on the 17th March, ready to cross the sea, receiving the King's wages.5 This order was given on the 23d December, but was counter-ordered on the 17th February following, when the men were directed to muster at HIarwich, ready for embarking on the 24th of that month.6 Roger de Cupildyk held a house in Boston in 1325.7 The Hobhelers8 from Lincolnshire were directed to march to Portsmouth, the 20th February in this year.9 On the 24th September, the Bailiff, &c., of Boston, and many other seaports, were commanded to make diligent search concerning all correspondence from foreign parts, and to arrest all suspicious persons.'~ Humphrey de Littlebury and Alexander de Montfort were appointed Commissioners of Array for the division of Holland, 26th January, 1326 (19 Edward II.)" On the 16th of August of this year, Thomas de Novo Mercato and John Davy were appointed Commissioners to inquire into the number of vessels in the ports, or belonging thereto, of St. Botolph, Saltfleetby, Waynfleet, and Grimsby, and to cause them to be made ready for the King's service against the enemy.'2 John de la Gotere held two acres of land in Boston in 1327.13 A subsidy of one-twentieth was granted to the King this year. The whole amount of the taxation upon the hundred of Skirbeck was 1181. 10s. 56d.;-of which Boston paid 451. 13s. 6 d.14 John de Dribv held land and tenements in Boston in 1328.15 1 Inquis. ad quod damnum, 17 Edward II. 8 A species of horse-soldiers, of whom see an No. 188. account in a subsequent page. Theywere mounted 2 This return is dated 9th May, 1324. The num- on the small Lincolnshire horse, called hobby, now ber of knights returned from Kesteven was 40; that extinct. from Lindsey, 43.-Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. 9 Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 415. p. 384. lo Ibid. p. 428. 11 Ibid. p. 436. 3 Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 393. 12 Parliamentary Rolls, vol. i. p. 448. All the 4 Ibid. p. 399. London was to furnish 300 men, ports on the eastern and southern coasts of the York 100, Bristol 100,Yarmouth 100, Norwich 100, kingdom were included in this inquiry. Spalding Lynn 100, Oxford 60, Southampton 50, Northamp. was classed with Lynn and the other ports in Norton 50, Hull 40, Cambridge 30, Coventry 30, Not- folk. tingham 20, Bath 16, Derby 16, Newark 10. 13 Escheat Rolls, vol. ii. p. 12. 5 Ibid. p. 406. 6 Ibid. p. 413. 14 Subsidy Rolls, 1 Edward III. 7 InqUis. post Mortem, vol. i. p. 1325. 15' Inquis. post Mortem, vol. ii. p. 23.

Page  52 52 TAXATION OF BOSTON (1332). In 1331 (5 Edward III.), a special commission was directed to the Sheriff of Lincoln, instructing him to inquire by a jury"c Whether the Lords of the Fair of St. Botulph held the fair there beyond the time fixed by the charter; of which fair the said Lords were, by their charter, commanded to make proclamation on the first day thereof, announcing how long the same was to be holden. The King understood that the Lords held the same fair beyond the time limited, and that also merchants, as well native as foreign, tarried in the said fair, and sold their goods, beyond the limited time, in manifest contempt of the King, and contrary to the law." Therefore the said jury was required to inquire what Lords of the Fair had so transgressed, and what merchants had " tarried in the fair, and sold their goods after the legal time for holding such fair had expired." The jury found that John de Brittany, Earl of Richmond, had lately held the fair for various lengths of time, but, not knowing the number of days allowed by the charter, they could not say whether he had ever exceeded those days. The record is much defaced, and is illegible towards its conclusion.l In 1334, an Inquisition was taken, on the death of John de Brittany, of the value of the property held by him in the town of St. Botolph. The jury estimated the profits of the fair (mart) to be 1001. annually, and no more, because foreigners came not there as they were wont to do. Among the merchandise enumerated are, wines, fish, herrings, and onions. The whole revenue was returned as 1841. 10s., from which " Rents resolute," amounting to 18s. 8d., were deducted.2 John Alleyn de Langtoft recovered possession from William Franceys and Joan his wife of two acres of land in Boston, "held for himself and for others, for whom he is responsible," 6 Edward III. (1332).3 A subsidy of a fifteenth and a tenth was granted in the Parliament at Westminster this year,-the tenth on boroughs, towns, &c., and the fifteenth on persons not living in boroughs, towns, &c. The statements of the amount of these subsidies vary. The entire amount of the subsidy for the Wapentake of Skirbeck is first stated to be 1761. is. 8d.; but when it is apportioned among the parishes, and assessed upon the individuals in those parishes, it amounts to 1581. 15s. 2Id. only. In the same way the amount assessed upon Boston is stated as being 731. 6s. 8d., but the amount of the individual taxation is 601. 19s. 84d. only. One hundred and thirty-one persons are taxed in Boston, of whom John de Tumby paid 41., the highest charge. John Brasse paid 21.; Hugh de Leycester, 11. 6s. 8d.; and Robert But, Reginald Rygaud, and John le Warner, 11. each; the remainder varying in amount from 17s. 31d. to is., the lowest amount paid.4 Among the namles are John Tilney, John de Kyme, William de Fenne, Richard de Sibsey, Thomas Abraham, Robert King, Robert Pynson, John de Stickney, John de Roughton, Richard Hardy, William Whytyng, Thomas de Spayne, Hugh Adcock, Peter Read, John de Ros, Peter Lambert, and Thomas Bell. The remainder are not, either traditionally or by known descendant, at present associated with the town or neighbourhood. John de Kyrketon held lands and tenements in Boston in 1334.5 John de Roos also held lands there at that time.6 In 1334, the King confirmed to Philip of Coventry, in fee, a piece of land and a shop, in the town of St. Botolph, which were given to him by John, Count of Richmond, for the yearly rent of 2s.7 Alexander de Cubbledyk possessed property in St. Botolph at that time. The town of Boston, with the Commission of Inquiry, 5 Edward III. (1331), 4 Subsidy Rolls, 6 Edward III. (1332). No. 179. 5 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. ii. p. 80. 2 Inquis. post Mortem, 8 Edward III. (1334), 6 Ibid. p. 85. No. 70. 7 Patent Rolls. 3 Rot. Orig. Abbreuiatio, vol. ii. p. 73.

Page  53 A.D. 1335 TO A.D. 1347. 53 soke of Kirton, &c., were the property of John de Brittany, Count of Richmond, in 1335.1 John Multon de Egremont held lands and tenements in Boston in that year.2 The trade between Boston and the Continent appears to have been very considerable at this time; for, in the year 1336, a patent grant of protection was issued for a great number of German merchants, and fourteen ships, coming to the fair of St. Botolph.3 John de Roos possessed property in Boston, Wyberton, and Skirbeck, and a salt pan in Donington, 1339.4 The property in Boston, Wyberton, and Skirbeck, consisted of a messuage, worth 3s.' annually; of sixteen cottages, worth 101. annual rent (standing empty, except at time of the fair); of fifty-two acres of land, worth yearly 26s.; and six acres of meadow, worth yearly 5s., "C6 as in hay time, and not more, because the meadow is frequently wet;" and a mill, worth yearly 13s. 4d. The property in Donington was a messuage, worth yearly 6s. 8d.; fourteen acres of land, worth yearly 7s.; 12 acres of meadow, worth 12s.; and a salt pan, worth 3s. 4d. yearly.5 This year also (1339), orders were issued to the Sheriffs throughout England to make proclamation throughout their bailiwicks, that all persons who had charters of pardon should repair to certain seaports to enter into the service of the King "at his wages," before mid-lent day, under pain of forfeiting their charters, and being made responsible for the things mentioned in such charters. Those of the counties of Cambridge, Huntingdon, Norfolk, Suffolk, Lincoln, Northampton, Rutland, and others contiguous, were to repair to Yarmouth and St. Botolph.6 In 1341, a subsidy was granted by the Parliament at Westminster, by the prelates, laity, and barons, for themselves, and all their tenants; and the knights of shires for themselves and the commons of the land. The said subsidy, consisting of the none, or ninth sheaf, the ninth fleece, the ninth lamb, &c. The certificate of the value of the said none for the town of St. Botolph was 161. 6s. 8d.," With the none of the temporalities of the Chapel de Novo Loco (?) which are valued at 6s. 8d.; and those of the Abbot of Kirkstede in the same, which are valued this year at Is. 8d."7 In 15 Edward III. (1341), Lambert de Threckingham and Walter de Friskney, Barons of the Exchequer, were directed to hold an inquisition at Boston, to ascertain whether the Abbot of Croyland held his abbey by barony, and was, or was not, liable to be amerced as a Baron.8 William Roos de Hamlake held a manor in Boston in 1344, and property there in 1352.9 In 1347, James Tilney, of the town of St. Botolph, a servant of Robert Ufford, Earl of Suffolk, petitioned Parliament, stating that he was imprisoned in the Tower of London, charged with being concerned in a riot which lately took place in St. Botolph, but that he had been accused through malice, having 1 Patent Rolls. do not know what the " Chapel de Novo Loco" 2 Abbrev. Placitorum, vol. i. p. 80. alludes to. This none appears to have been levied 3 Patent Rolls. 4 Ibid. upon agricultural produce only, otherwise the RMollse, 1 Eamount assessed upon Boston could not be so 5 Inquis. post Mortem,12 Edward III. (1339). low, being exceeded by the amount paid by Leake, 6 Rolls of 13 Edwawrd III., ex veteri Codice in Wrangle, Benington, Leverton, and Skirbeck, and Turri Londinensi, folio 78, 93. These Charters of equalled by that paid by Freiston and Fishtoft. Pardon appear to bear a close relation to the Tickets s NMADOX'S Baronia Anglica, p. 111. of leave of the present day. 9 Patent Rolls. 7 Subsidy Rolls, 14 Edward III. (1341). We

Page  54 54 IIMPORTANCE OF BOSTON IN 1359. had no concern whatever in the said affray, nor had he been indicted or called upon to plead. The petition was submitted to the King.l The dissatisfaction which at this time almost generally pervaded the kingdom, in consequence of the expensive, though glorious war, which Edward III. was waging with France, operated also upon the minds of the inhabitants of Boston. There are no means of judging of the extent of this feeling, or of its mode of operation; but that commotions and disturbances of a considerable magnitude had existed in this neighbourhood, is placed beyond doubt; from the circumstance that, in the year 1348, " the King issued a patent grant of pardon to a great many men of the town of St. Botolph, for their felonies and conspiracies, in having assumed the regal power in the said town."2 In 1348, the citizens of Lincoln complained to Parliament - " That whereas from time immemorial they had been free from tronage and pesage of goods and rmerchandise throughout all England, both with respect to the king and the people, yet the bailiffs of Gisors' Hall, in the town of St. Botolph, now took forcibly from the said citizens the said duties upon their goods and merchandise. They, therefore, prayed that a commission of inquiry should be granted to certify to Chancery thereupon, and to do justice to the said citizens." A commission was appointed, but the result of their inquiry is not stated.3 (" Master Raimond de Ergern and others, for the Dean and Chapter of the Church of the Blessed Mary in Lincoln, held certain lands, &c. in St. Botolph, 1351.'4 The Dean and Chapter of Lincoln held also tenements here in 1352.~ In 1355, many vessels belonging to different ports were distinguished as "naves guerrince," though we are not told whether these vessels were of a different construction from others, or only the largest and strongest of the mercantile vessels.6 In 1356, orders were issued at the maritime towns and cities for the equipment, with arms and stores, of all the vessels belonging to the ports therein mentioned.7 In a suit between Sir Thomas Multon of Kirketon, Knight, and Walter of Salmonby, in 1355 (29 Edward III.), it was pleaded, that the latter claimed, and held illegally, property in Kirton, Wyberton, Frampton, Algarkirk, Sutterton, Bicker, Wigtoft, and St. Botolph, of the annual rent of 68s. 54d., and one pound, and two parts of a pound of pepper, two pounds and two parts of a pound of Comyn, and one quarter five bushels and a half of salt.8 Margaret, wife of Robert de Ufford; Earl of Suffolk, held certain tenements in Boston, 31 Edward III. (1357).9 A grant was made, in 1389, to John, Count of Richmond, for the paving of the town.10 Boston appears at this period to have ranked high amongst the sea-ports of the kingdom. In 1359, when King Edward III. prepared for the invasion of Brittany, there were eighty towns assessed, in proportion to their trading importance, to provide ships and men for the service of the government. The scale of importance of the different towns of that day, when compared with their present state, affords a most striking proof of the vicissitudes to which trading places are liable. Fowey, in Cornwall, then sent nearly twice as many ships as London did; and the names of many which stood high in the list are now forgotten. The number of ships in the whole navy was,'according to one list, 688; the number of men, 14,002. Another list makes the ships 710, the Petitions in Parliament, 21 Edward III. vol. i. 6 MACPHERSON'S Annals of Commerce, vol. i. p. 188. p. 511. 2 Patent Rolls. 7 R.YMER'S Federa, vol. iv. fol. 717 and 719. 3 Petitions in Parliament, 2 land 22 Edward III. 8 Proceedings in Chancery in Reign o' Eliziabeth, vol. ii. p. 213. vol. i. Introduction, p. liv. 4 Escheat Rolls. 9 Inqnis. post Mortem, vol. ii. p. 290. 5 Patent Rolls.'o Patent Rolls.

Page  55 MADE A STAPLE TOWN IN 1369. 55 men 14,151. Boston furnished to this navy 17 ships and 361 men,-a greater number of vessels than was supplied either by Portsmouth, Hull, Harwich, or Lynn, and equal in number of ships, and superior in number of men, to those furnished by Newcastle.l Out of the eighty-two towns assessed, only eleven sent a superior number of ships to Boston; these were, London, Feversham, Winchelsea, Dartmouth, Plymouth, Looe, Fowey, Bristol, Shoreham, Southampton, and Yarmouth. Eleven towns also furnished a greater number of men than Boston did; these were, London, Feversham, Winchelsea, Dartmouth, Plymouth, Bristol, Fowey, Southampton, Hull, Yarmouth, and Lynn.2 Margeria, one of the sisters of Egidius de Badlesmere, and wife of William de Roos of Hamlake, before married to Thomas Arundel, was in 1363 " possessed of the extent of the manor of St. Botolph."s She afterwards married Henry de Percy; and, in 1372, had 201. yearly rents in Boston. John de Kirton had lands and tenements in Boston A.D. 1367;4 in which year Margaretta, the wife of Robert de Ufford, Count of Suffolk, was also possessed " of a certain messuage in the town of St. Botolph."5 In 1369, Boston was made a staple town for wool, leather, &c., and would necessarily derive most material advantage from this measure. It had, before this time, been only the outport for Lincoln; the staple for this district having been fixed there in 1353. The counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Leicester, and Derby, petitioned in the year 1376, that the staple might be removed back from Boston to Lincoln, but they failed in accomplishing their desire.6 John de Willoughby had possessions in Boston A.D. 1371. In the same year Robert de Mythyngby and others held a messuage in Boston for the Abbot and Convent of Revesby; and also held another messuage for the same convent, of the Count of Richmond. The Abbot of Kyme had possession in Boston A.D. 1372;7 John King of Castille and Leon, and Duke of Lancaster, possessed a messuage in St. Botolph, called GISHOURSHALL, in this year.8 An Inquisition was held at Horncastle before de Skipworth and Thomas de Thimoldby, Justices of our Lord the King, 45 Edward III. (1371), in which it was determined that" The parts of Lindsey shall furnish one-half of the men, to be armed with arrows, and one-half of all the expenses otherwise levied upon the county; the parts of Holland onethird of the other half, and the parts of Kesteven two-thirds of the other half." An Inquisition was held at Lincoln in the same year, in which it was determined that the amount levied upon the parts of Holland, 351. 12s. 6d., should be sustained by the various towns, as follows:~s. d. ~s. d. Tidd.............. 1 0 0 Moulton........... 1 16 8 Sutton.............. 2 0 0 Weston........... 0 17 8 Gedney........... 1 13 4 Croyland............ 0 13 2 Fleet............. 1 10 0 Spalding............ 1 16 8 Holbeach.......... 1 15 0 Pinchbeck.......... 2 0 0 Whaplode.........1 15 0 Surfleet............ 0 16 8 Archceologia, vol. vi. p. 214, and MSS. in the mouth 25, the Hull, 29, those from Bristol 24, the Cottonian Library. To this navy London sent 25 Lynn 24, the Boston 21, the Newcastle 18, the ships, Feversham 22, Dover 16, Weymouth 15, Fowey and the Looe 16, and the Shoreham 13. Exmouth 10, Looe 20, Portsmouth 5, Plymouth 26, 2 See observations on the population of Boston in Fowey 47, Bristol 24, Dartmouth 31, Margate 15, a subsequent page. Shoreham 26, Southampton21, Hull 16,Grimsby 11, 3 Escheat Rolls. Lynn 16, Yarmouth 43; Barton-on-Humber sent 4 Patent Rolls. 5 Ibid. 5 ships and 91 men, Saltfleet 2 ships and 49 men, 6 See "Commerce of Boston." Wainfleet 2 and 49 men, Wrangle 1 and 9 men. 7 Escheat Rolls. s Ibid. The London ships averaged 26 men each, the Yar

Page  56 56 POPULATION OF BOSTON, 1379. ~ s. d. ~ s. d. Gosberton.......... 1 4 4 Wyberton.......... 0 13 4 Quadring.......... 0 15 0 St. Botolph.......... 0 15 0 Swineshead........ I 0 0 Skirbeck.......... 0 10 0 Donington...1...... I 0 0 Toft.............. 0 13 4 Bicker........... 0 13 4 Freiston.....0..... 0 16 0 Wigtoft............ 0 16 0 Butterwick.......... 0 6 8 Algarkirk.......... 1 4 4 Benington........ 0 13 4 Sutterton.......... 0 16 8 Leverton......... 0 12 5 Kirton............ 1 6 8 Leake............. 1 2 3 Frampton..1 0 0 Wrangle...... 0 16 0 It will be observed that, owing to some inaccuracy or omission, this enumeration amounts to only 341. 8s. 10d., the specified amount being 351. 12s. 6d.; of which the Wapentake of Ellowe was to pay 161. 17s. 6d., that of Kirton Ill. 5s., and that of Skirbeck 71. 10s.1 The Willoughby family, from this time to the end of Richard II.'s reign, held land in Boston, Wyberton, Frampton, Kirton, and Bicker, which was called Sutton Lands.~ In 1374, the King commissioned Thomas de Boston, Clerk, to take possession of three messuages, one dovecot, and six acres of land in St. Botolph in Lincolnshire, which were the -property of John Baret, late the pastor of the church there, and which the Prior of Kyme had appropriated without license.3 The population of Boston, in 1377 is stated to have been only 814 above fourteen years of age. This was, no doubt, a great falling off from what it was previous to the desolating pestilences, of 1349, 1361, and 1369. The first is said to have carried off nine-tenths of the people.4 Later writers have stated the loss at four-fifths; while RAPIN and Dr. MEAD have reduced it to one-half. KNIGHTON says, that before the pestilence a chaplain might have been obtained for four or five marks, or for two marks with his board. GRosE says, the pay of a foot-archer at this period was three pence a-day, or nearly seven marks a-year. An archer on horseback received double this amount; and an engineer or armourer, ten or twelve pence a-day. The poverty, therefore, says Mr. AMYOTT, "Of CHAUCER'S good parson, who was only "' Rich of holy thought and work,' might not have been remarkable for its singularity."5 The subsidy which was granted by Parliament to Edward III. in 1377, of four pence- equal to five shillings at the present day —to be paid by every lay person in the kingdom, both male and female, of fourteen years of age and 1 The above, copied from a paper in the Corpora- appended by two parchment labels."-Minutes of tion Archives, signed by Thomas Middlecott and Spalding Society, vol. i. p. 121. Thomas Coney, which purports to be a " careful 3 Rot. Orig. Abbreviatio, vol. ii. p. 325. transcript from an old parchment roll." 4 STOW's Annals, p. 345 (edition of 1631); and 2 Reliquia Galence, p. 81. "Dec. 18, 1727. The WALSYNGHAM'S Chronicle, p. 159 (edit. of 1574). secretary showed the Society a deed of gift, dated 5 The entire population of England and Wales did 1st March, 20 Richard II. (1397), firom Sir Wil- not, in 1377, much exceed 2,350,000 persons, of liam de Wylughby, knight, Lord of Gresby, and Sir which London contained less than 35,000, York Philip le Despencer, knight, to Robert, brother of 10,800; Lincoln, proverbial for its early greatness, the said Lord Willughby by the father's side, of the and its large population, two centuries before, 5100; manor of Bicker, and certain lands and tenements in Canterbury less than 4000; and Norwich, the grand Boston and thereabouts (Wyberton, Frampton, and resort of the emigrant Flemish manufacturers, only Kirton), called Sutton Lands, on parchment in- 6000."-Mr. AMYOTT On the Population, temp. dented, with the donor's great seals (very curious), Edward III. p. 5.

Page  57 CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE IN THE 14TH CENTURY. 57 upwards (mendicants only excepted), was an enormous oppression; suffering, as the whole country must have been, in its commerce, manufactures, and agriculture, from the late depopulating pestilences. The sum collected at Boston by this subsidy was 131. Ils. 4d., and is stated to have been received of 814 persons. The parts of Holland paid 3091. 17s. 4d., received of 18,592' persons. Some difference appears to have arisen among the Dominican, or Black, or preaching friars in Boston about this time, which was attended with tumult and bloodshed. A battle is said to have taken place in the year 1380 (3 Richard II.), " amongst the preaching friars in Boston:"0 what the quarrel originated in, or h6w it terminated, is not stated. The condition of the great bulk of the people at this period appears to have been most abject. Travellers of the fourteenth century express their astonishment at the multitude of serfs they saw in England, and at the extreme hardness of their condition in that country,3 compared with what it was on the Continent, and even in France. The word bondage conveyed in this age the last degree of social misery; and this was the condition of all the cultivators of the earth - thev were serfs of body and goods, obliged to pay heavy aids or rents for the small portion of land which supported their families, and unable to quit that land without the consent of the lords, whose tillage, gardening, and cartage, or carriage of all kinds, they were obliged to perform gratuitously. The lord might sell them, with their house, their oxen, their tools, their children, and their unborn posterity, as is thus expressed: "Know that I have sold such an one, my naif (nativum meum), and all his progeny, born or to be born." 4 Resentment of this misery, caused by the oppression of their Norman lords, led the peasantry of England to contemplate the injustice of servitude in itself, independently of its historical origin.5 Great symptoms of popular agitation appeared in the commencement of the reign of Richard II., which matured into the insurrections headed by the priest John Ball, and Wat Tyler, and Jack Straw. The subsidy of 1377 was succeeded, in 1378, by one of twelve-pence on every beneficed clerk, and four-pence on those not beneficed.6 So far as concerns the hundred of Skirbeck, the subsidy was assessed upon eleven beneficed clergymen and sixty-eight unbeneficed ones. Thirty-nine were assessed in Boston, of whom " Master John de Strensale, rector," was the only beneficed one. Among the thirty-eight unbeneficed ones assessed at four-pence each, the names occur of John, Chaplain to the Guild of the Blessed Mary, and Henry de Tilney.7 A more oppressive subsidy was wrung from the people 4 Richard II. (1381). This was granted by the Parliament held at Northampton, and amounted to "Three groats on all persons of whatsoever rank, state, or condition they may be, above the age of fifteen years; saving always that the levy should be made so that each lay person be charged equally according to his estate, and in manner following:-That in the sum accounted for in each township, the rich, according to their estate, should assist the poor, I FROST says Lincoln contained only 3412 persons 2 Patent Rolls. in 1377, but this was the number above fourteen 3 FROISSART, vol. ii. p. 133. years of age. STOW says, " 50,000 persons were MADOX, Formulare Anglicanum passim buried in one year without Smithfield Bars." 1500 persons, about half the population, died in Leicester; 5 THIERRY'S Norman Conquest, vol. ii. p. 369, 57,374 died of the plague at Norwich. BLOMEFIELD and the historians of the period. estimated the population of Norwich before the 6 This subsidy was assessed and collected in the plague at 70,000. archdeaconries of Lincoln, Stowe, and Leicester, ~ s. d. Persons. and in the deaconry of Rutland, by the Abbot of The City of Lincoln paid 56 17 4 by 3,412 Barlings.,, Close of Lincoln,, 2 12 4,, 157 7 Subsidy Rolls, 5L Edward III.,, Townof Stamford,, 20 6 0,, 1,218,, Parts of Kesteven,, 359 8 8,, 21,566,,,, Lindsey,, 788 7 4,, 47,303 Archalologia, vol. vii. p. 314. I

Page  58 58 TEIE SUBSIDY OF 1381. so that the more wealthy pay not more than sixty groats for himself and wife, andno person less than one groat for himself and wife; and that no person be charged to pay, excepting where he dwells with his wife and family, or where he dwells in service."' This arrangement took away the worst features of an equally assessed poll-tax. We have only the full returns of three parishes in the hundred of Skirbeckthose of Skirbeck, Toft (Fishtoft), and Freiston, which will be noticed in their respective places. The number of persons assessed in those three parishes was 555; and of that number only forty-seven persons were assessed four-pence each, of whom a considerable number were the sons and daughters of persons above the lowest classes. About a dozen are styled servants; and only in two instances were a man and his wife taxed together, the minimum of four-pence indicating that they were very poor. The higher and middle classes of the inhabitants appear to have borne the great bulk of the subsidy, in sums varying from Is. to, in one instance, 13s. 4d., paid by Sir John de Rocheford, of Toft. This arrangement secured to the King an equivalent to a poll-tax of is. per head; whilst it was made to bear upon the whole much in the manner of a modern property-tax.2 In the same year, 1381 (4 Richard II.), a subsidy was granted by the clergy in the Parliament held at Northampton, in the Church of All Saints, of twenty groats upon all prelates, clerks, procurators, and presbyters; and also a subsidy of three groats upon all deacons, sub-deacons, acolytes, and others inferior, of sixteen years of age, who are not notoriously mendicant. The tax of twenty groats was paid by ninety-seven of the clergy of various degrees, in the wapentake of Skirbeck; of whom fifty-nine resided in Boston. Among these are mnentioned John Stransgillum, Rector of Boston; Edmund, Chaplain to Isabella Rede; and William, Chaplain in the Chapel of St. John there. The names of Tilney and Pinchbeck frequently occur in the list of the clergy of Boston at that period. The mode of collecting the subsidy of 1381, notwithstanding the arrangement which we mentioned, was offensive in the greatest degree to the lower classes, and caused great commotion in many of the eastern and southern counties of England. We do not know that the people of Boston and its immediate neighbourhood took any part in these insurrectionary movements; but we are told that in 10th of Richard II. (1387), a commission was issued by the King to. assess the inhabitants of Boston " in a loan of 200 marks."3 We are afraid, for loan we should read subsidy or fine, for an assessment by Royal Commissioners is a very unusual mode of raising a voluntary loan. We have our fears that Boston had borne a part in the Tyler and Straw movements, and that the 200 marks was a fine for the insubordination of its inhabitants. In 1384, Thomas Roos de Hamlake and Beatrix his wife held four messuages and ten acres of land in St. Botolph.4 John de Clyfton and Elizabeth his wife held, in 1389 (12 Richard II.), a messuage called the Greengarthe, and two parts of a house called Leadenhall, and 110s. 1ld. annual rent in Rolls of Parliament, vol. iii. p. 90; and Subsidy and doubtful as to sex), but there is not one of any Rolls, 4 Richard II. of the names of Charles, George, Edward, Matthew, 2 A curious proof of the comparatively modern Mark, or Francis. There are 91 named John, 40 use of many of our now commonest Christian names William, 25 Robert, 23Thomas, 18 Alan, 16 Richard, is, that out of 233 females enumerated in this taxa- 15 Hugh, 9 Simon, 8 Walter, 7 Henry, 7 Roger, tion, there is not one Mary, Jane, Susanna, Anne, 5 Ralph; 4 each, Andrew, Gilbert, Nicholas, Peter, or Frances. There are 47 named Alice, 33 Joans, aid Samuel; 3 each, Joseph and Stephen; 2 each, 32 Agnes, 29 Isabella, 14 Margery, and 10 Matilda. Adam, Lawrence, and Lucas; 1 each, Alexander, We find the names of Juliana, Cecilia, Ellen, Avise, Luke, Martin, and Philip; and a few names now Dulcibella, Emma, Ada, Anabella, Christiana, Goda, entirely obsolete. Nora, Mabella, and Marrona, 2 Maria, 2 Sarah, 3 BLOMmFIELD'S Nolfolk, vol. ix. p. 107. 1 Elizabeth, and 1 Jeannette. The names of 307 4 IJquis. post Mortem, vol. iii. p. 61. males are given (there are 15 indistinct, imperfect,

Page  59 A.D. 1394 TO A.D. 1445. 59 St. Botolph, with certain tolls on wool, &c., held of the Baron of Tattershall.l The same parties held this property in 1394. Stephen de Houghton, parson of Leasinghamn, and others, held a house in Boston for the Abbot and Convent of Barlings in 1390.2 John Roos de Hamlake and Maria his wife held a windmill and three messuages in Boston in 1394.3 Maria, the wife of John Roos de Hamlake, held the manor of St. Botolph of the barony of Tattershall in 1395.4 Ralph Cromwell de Tateshall held the messuages called Greengarth and Leadenhall, &c., in 1399 (22 Richard II.).5 In the same year, John de la Warre and Elizabeth his wife held the Soke of Boston and a messuage there called Tumbye Place.6 In 1406, the custody of the sea was committed to the merchants of the kingdom, under the command of two. admirals of their own nomination.. The order was promulgated by writs, directing the magistrates of the different towns to which they were sent, to call the merchants together, and require their assistance in carrying the provisions of Parliament into effect. Writs were sent to Beverley, York, Lincoln, Barton, Nottingham, and Grantham, so that the communication was not confined to the principal ports.7 Maria, who was the wife of John Bussye, knight (who died 22 Richard II.), held lands in Boston of the honour of Richmond 8 Henry IV. (1407).8 Beatrix, the wife of Thomas Roos de Hamlake, held in Boston, the property attached to the manor of Roos Hall in Freiston in 1416 (3 Henry V.) Matilda, who was the wife of Ralph Crumwell, senior, knight, held, in 1420, the third part of the manor of Boston.9 John Lord Roos held property in Boston in 1422.10 In 1426 (4 Henry VI.), Ralph Earl of Westmoreland held the manor on the east side of the water called Burteshall, in the town of Boston." Thomas Beaufort, lately Duke of Exeter, held, in 1427, a messuage called Gishours' Hall, in Boston, with the franchise and appurtenances of tronage and pesage thereto attached.'2 Thomas Roos held the manor of Boston in 1431."3 In 1437, when the staple was at Calais, the Mayor and citizens of Lincoln had the privilege of shipping forty sacks of wool annually at the ports of Kingston-upon-Hull and Boston for Calais without payment of duty.l4 Thomas Deyncourt held land in Boston in 1442.15 Richard Bennynton and others held 5 messuages, 31 acres of arable and 10 of pasture in Boston and Skirbeck in the reign of Henry VI.16 In the year 1443 (21 Henry VI.), the King granted to John Viscount de Beaumont, and to his heirs male, the manor of Frampton and Wikes in the county of Lincoln, which were of the honour of Richmond; and the sokes of Kirton and Skirbeck; also two parts of the manor of St. Botolph; together with two parts of the soke of Gayton and Mumby, in the county of Lincoln; he holding the same of the king in capite, without any rent.l7 In the account of the expenses attending bringing over Margaret, queen of Henry VI., is the following entry:" To Richard Fisher, master of the ship called the Michell of Boston, of fifty tons, owner, John Arnold; coming into the King's service, with ten mariners, on the 5th Sept. 23 Henry VI. (1445), and continuing therein until the 10th Jan. next ensuing, eighteen weeks. His wages, 6d. per day; the mariners, 2s. 3cl. per week each, 231. 8s." A grant was made by the clergy of the province of Canterbury, in a convoca1 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. iii. p. 100. 11 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. iv. p. 103. The Earl 2 Ibid. p. 123. 3 Ibid. p. 177. of Westmoreland held 48 knights' fees in Lincoln4 Ibid. p. 183. 5 Ibid. p. 228. shire at this time. 6 Ibid. p. 253.'2 Ibid. p. 110. 13 Ibid. p. 131. 7 FROST'S Hull, p. 136. 14 FROST'S Hell, p. 117. s Inquis. post MIortem, vol. iii. p. 308. 5 Inquis. post Mortem vol. iv. p. 208. 9 Ibid. vol. iv. p. 45. lo Ibid. p. 62. 16 Ibid. p. 305. 17 CharterRolls.

Page  60 60 GREAT FLOOD IN 1467. tion held at St. Paul's in February and March 1453 (31 Henry VI.), of onetenth on benefices taxed or not taxed, to be gathered in moieties, at the Feast of St. Martin in 1453 and 1454; also a second tenth to be collected at St. Martin's Feast in 1455 and 1456. Boston Church was taxed at 571. 6s. 8d., the grant of a tenth was therefore 51. 2s. 8d.1 RALPH: LORD CROMWELL, of the Tattershall family, inherited the manor of Boston belonging to that house; he was one of the executors of the famous Duke of Bedford (the Regent during the minority of Henry VI.), and succeeded him as master of the mews and falconer to the King. He married Margaret, daughter of Lord Dayncourt, who died in September 1454. Lord Cromwell died in 1455, and, having no issue, enfeoffed Bishop Wainfleet in the manors of Candlesby and Boston, and some in other counties.2 In 1467, Boston was very much injured by a great flood, ", throughout the whole of Hoyland especially," says INGULPHUS,"There was scarcely a house or building but what the streams of water made their way and flowed through it. Nor must it be supposed that this happened hurriedly, and in a cursory manner only; but continuously, during a whole month, the waters either stood there without flowing off, or else, being agitated by strong gusts of wind, swelled and increased still more and more day after day. Nor on this occasion did the embankments offer any effectual resistance, but, on the contrary, though materials had been brought from other quarters for the purpose of strengthening them, they proved of very little service for that purpose; however diligently the work might have been attended to in the daytime, as the waters swelled and rose, the spot under repair was completely laid bare during the night."' Extraordinary appearances in the air at this time were supposed to prognosticate some great calamity; to obviate which Edward IV. undertook a pilgrimage to our Lady at Walsingham.4 Of these appearances INGULPHUS says, - In divers places there appeared unto many persons terrible prognostics, replete with no better auspices. For one day there were seen in the heavens three suns; and a shower of blood, as the grass and the linen clothing stained therewith abundantly testified to all beholders. This latter came down in manner just like a gentle shower. Besides this, horsemen and men in armour were seen rushing through the air; so much so, that Saint George himself, conspicuous with the red crosse, his usual ensign, and attended by a vast number of armed men, appeared visibly to great numbers."5 Ingulphus claims implicit credit for this narration, since " a most strict examination" of the matter was made before the venerable "father, Thomas, the Lord Archbishop of Canterbury." In 1468, Hamo Sutton held messuages and land in Boston. In the same year, Eleanor Duchess of Somerset, wife of Thomas Lord Roos, held much property in Boston.6 The trade of Boston received a severe check in the reign of Edward IV. (about 1470), when, according to LELAND, "one Humphrey Littlebyri, merchant of Boston, did kille one of the Esterlinges, whereupon rose much controversy, so that at last the Esterlinges left their course of merchandise to Boston."7 In 1479, George Dnke of Clarence, and Isabella his wife, held the manor of Boston on the east side of the water, and two parts of that on the west side.8 Hugh Tilney held messuages and land in Boston, 20 Edward IV. (1480).9 1 Subsidy Rolls, 31 Henry VI. 5 INGULPHUS, P. 444. 2 CHANDLER'S Life of Wainfleet, p. 79. 6 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. iv. p. 339. 3 INGULPHUS, P. 443. 7 LELAND'S Itinerary, vol. vii. p. 204. 4 DUGDALE'S Monasticon (new edition, 1817), s Inquis. post Mortem, vol. iv. p. 390. vol. ii. p. 104. 9 Ibid. p. 400.

Page  61 DISSOLUTION OF MONASTERIES (1534). 61 In 1485, "John Ley, of Boston, merchant, had 401. of reward towards his losses of the customs of Boston."' A grant was made in 1523-4 (14 and 15 Henry VIII.) of a yearly subsidy for four years. Eighteen persons only were taxed in Boston, as follows:2 — ~s. d. Thomas Robertson........................... 33 6 8 John Robynson, Robt. Thomlynson, and William Sutton, each 101...................................... 30 0 0 Godfrey Wase........ 2 10 0 Hugh Schawe, John Leeke, Robt. Pulvertoft, Roger Meres, Thomas Lound, and Nicholas Field, each 21... 12 0 0 William Etwell, John Hochynson, Peter Emery, and William Parker, each 51................................... 20 0 0 Thos. Malne and John Copley, each 41................... 8 0 0 Joseph Benyson................................ 3 6 8 Whole subsidy....... ~109 3 4 An account was taken, in 1535, of the property which was lately held in Boston by Margaret Countess of Richmond and Derby; and it was found, that from the Feast of St. Michael in 1533 to the same feast in 1535 the receipts arising from such property amounted to 981. 5s. 44d., and the disbursements, 211. 17s.; that 511. 18s. 9gd. had been paid to the receiver for the estates, and 241. 9s. 6 d. was in the hands of the bailiff in Boston. Property is mentioned as being situated in many parts of the town now unknown.3 Tronage was received upon 236 sacks and 14 cloves of wool, shipped within the port, at 2.d. per sack. The entire tronage, pisage, and docage received on other articles, was only 9s. 10d., 19 Henry VII. (1504); it amounted to 41. 4s. 22d. in 1535. The pleas and perquisites of court were 46s. 9d.; estrays, 5s. Payments were made to thile nuns of Stickswould; to the Prior of St. John of Jerusalem, Prior of St. Bartholomew in London, and to the Abbot and Convent of Jervaulx. The bailiff's salary was 91. 9s. per annum. The clerk of the auditors received 11. 6s. 8do for keeping the accounts; and 8 qrs. of wheat, costing 4s. the qr., were given, " according to old custom," to the Grey Friars of Boston.4 In 1534 (26 Henry VIII.), it was found that the Abbot and Convent of Kirkstead had in Boston property of the annual value of 41. 5s. 4d. The Monastery of Tupholm held 5s. of annual rent. The Abbot of Stickswolde held lands and tenements in Boston, Wyberton, and Freiston, of the annual value of 91. 11s. The Abbot of Revesby held in Boston annual quit-rents, amount 14s. 4d. The Abbot and Convent of Louth held property producing annually 5s. That of Alvingham, 11s. The Monastery of Bardney, 13s. 9d. The Priory of Stansfield, Is. 4d. The Abbot of Croyland, 61. Os. 8d. The Abbot of Swineshead, 41. 17s. 6d.; and that of Kyme, 21. 6s. The Monastery of Haverholm, 10s. The Monastery of Barlings, in Boston, Sutton, and Quadring, 51. 5s. The Priory of Thorneholm in Boston, 11. Os. 4d. The Monastery of St. Michael's near Stamford, 11. 2s.; and that of St. Mary's, Leicester, 21. 16s. 8d. The Preceptory of Dalby, Rotheley, and Heyther, held in the Rectory of Boston' Harleian MSS. No. 433, p. 58. Rowe, Harrowe Lane, Tylney Lane, Bolton, Garth, 2 Statutes of the Realm, 14 and 15 Henry VIII., Chamber Rowe, Coney Street, the Crane Chamber, cap. 16; and Subsidy Rolls, 1523 and 1524. &c. 3 Among others, Barber Rowe, the new Bochery, 4 Ministers' Accounts, 25 HenryVIII. A.D. 1535. the Checker, New Rents and Five Rents, Gascoyne

Page  62 62 PILGRIMAGE OF GRACE (1540). a large mansion with its orchard, of the annual value of 551. 14s. 6d.; and paid annually and perpetually to the Vicar of Boston, 331. 6s. 8d.1 William Lord Willoughby de Eresby possessed " a tolle in Boston," which, by his will, dated May 4th, 16 Henry VIII. (1524), he left to his wife during her life.A The account of the Guild of the Blessed Mary, in a subsequent page, states many interesting circumstances relative to Boston at the commencement of the sixteenth century. Boston appears to have taken a part in the insurrection named the Pilgrimage of Grace, during the reign of Henry VIII. It is recorded that when the King passed through Lincolnshire, on his way to the city of York, in the month of August 1541, the different cities or towns through which he passed, or in the neighbourhood of his route, sent deputies to make humble submission to him, to confess their faults in having taken part in this commotion, and to thank him for his pardon. The men of Lincolnshire seem to have properly understood Henry's character, for they accompanied their submission with a present of money. The town of Stamford presented him with 201.; the city of Lincoln with 401.; and the town of Boston with 501. The parts of Lindsey gave 3001.; and Kesteven, with the church of Lincoln, 501.3 It will be observed that the present from Boston was larger than that of either Lincoln or Stamford. Whether the men of Boston had been more active in the insurrection, and so judged a larger expiatory acknowledgment necessary, or they were richer than their neighbours, or the town was more populous than the others, cannot now be determined. About this time LELAND wrote the following account of Boston: — "Botolphstowne standeth hard on the river of Lindis. The great and chiefest parte of the towne, is on the este side of the ryver, where is a faire market-place, and a crosse with a square towre. The chief parish church was St. John's, where yet is a church for the towne, St. Botolph's was but a chapel to it, but now it is so risen and adorned, that it is the chiefest of the towne, and for a parish church the best and fairest of all Lincolnshire, and served so with singing, and that of cunning men, as no parish in all England. The society and brotherhood longing to this church causeth this, and much land longeth this society. The steeple being qcuadrata Turris, and a lanthorn on it, is both very high and faire, and a marke bothe by sea and land, for all the quarters thereaboute. There is a goodly fonte, whereof part is of white marble, or of stone very like to it. There be three Colleges of Freeres, Grey, Black, and Augustine, also an hospital for poor men; and in the towne, or near to it, the late Lord Huse had a place with a stone tower. All the buildings of this side of the towne are fayre, and merchantes dwelle in it, and a staple for wool is used there. There is a bridge of wood to come over Lindis into this parte of the towne, and a pile of stones set yn the middle of the ryver. The streame of it is sometymes as swift as it were an arrow. On the west side of Lindis is one long street, and on the same side is the White Friars. The mayne se ys VI. miles of Boston. Dyverse good shipps, and other vessells ryde there. "Mr. Paynel, a gentleman of Boston, told me that syns Boston of old tyme, at the great famous fair there kept was brent, that scant syns it ever came to the old glory and riches that it had; yet syns hath it been many fold richer than it is now. The staple and the stilliard-houses yet there remayne, but the stilliard is little or nothing at alle occupied, there were IIII colleges of freeres. Merchants of the stilliards coming by all partes by est were wont greatly to haunt Boston; and the Grey Freres took them yn a manner for founders of their house and many Esterlinges were buried there. In the Black Freres lay one of the noble Huntingfields, and was a late taken up hole, and a leaden Bull of Innocentius Bishop of Rome, about his neck. There lay also in the Grey Freres of the Montevelles Gentlemens, and a six or seven of the Witham's Gentlemen also. There remaynith at Boston of the manor of the Tilney's by their name, and one of them began the great steeple in Boston and lies in the church by the steeple. "It is from Boston to the sandes of the wasche a VI miles, and then by the sandes of the 1 Valor Ecclesiasticus, vol. iv. pp. 35 to 165. - COLLINS' Peerage (1812), vol vi. p. 616. HINDEWELL'S History of York, 3 vols. 12mo. York, 1785. Vol. i. p. 423.

Page  63 LELAND'S ACCOUNT OF BOSTON, ABOUT 1560. 63 salte gutte a XII, and then again VI to Lynn. There is a -certain feode paid at Boston, called Crumwell's fee. "Boston is countid a 24 miles from Lincoln. "The Esterlings kept a great house and course of marchandice at Boston, ontylle such tyme that one Humfrey Litlebyri, marchant of Boston, did kill one of the Esterlinges there about Edward the IV. days; where upon arose much controversie; so that at last the Esterlinges left their course of marchandice to Boston, and syns the towne sore decayed. " One Maude Tilney layid the first stone of the goodly steple of the Paroshe Church of Boston and lyith buried under. "The Tylneys were taken for founders of 3 of the 4 houses of Freres at Boston. "There is a great Fe gateryd aboute Bostone parts, by the name of Petronelle de la Corone, doughter by lykelihode to la Corone, founder of Friston Priorie, and buried at Crowland. This fe is now payde to the Lorde Rosse, but the Richemounte fe is greater there. "There is also another fe called Pepardine, and that the Lorde Lindsey had, and the owners of these fees be Lords of the towne of Boston." The town and commercial importance of Boston appear at this period to have been considerably reduced, and the dissolution of the monasteries would not fail still further to reduce it. The religious establishments in Boston were numerous, although none of them appear to have been of first, or scarcely of second-rate importance; what little can be found recorded respecting them will be detailed in a subsequent page. The Abbot of Bardney, 30 Henry VIII. (1539), possessed a fishery at Boston of the annual value of 6s. 8d.1 Fountains Abbey, Yorkshire, held property in Boston, in 1539, of the yearly value of 1 Is., and derived an annual profit 151. 10s. from the sale of wood, lead, &c., there.2 The College of St. Mary Magdalen, Oxford, held at that time the Manor, &c., of Multon Hall in Kirton and Frampton, and several houses in Boston. It also held of the Lord of the Manor of Tytton, and rent of the King in Boston.3 A statute was passed 1544 (35 Henry VIII.), which enacted that persons possessed of goods of the value of 20s. and upwards to 51. should pay 4d. in the pound; from 51. to 101., 8d. in the pound; and from 101. to 201., 16d. in the pound; and all who possessed above the value of 201., two shillings in the pound. The amount paid by the wapentake of Skirbeck to this subsidy was 1461. is. 4d.; of which Boston paid 811. ls. 4d. by seventy-three persons. Nicholas Robertson paid the highest amount, 51.; and Nicholas Field the next, 41. The Aldermen of the Guild of the Blessed Mary paid 31. 6s. 8d.; the Guild of Corpus Christi, 1l. lOs.; that of St. Peter,. lOs.; and that of the Holy Trinity, 6s. 8d.4 The Corporation of Boston directed, in 1546, " That all the voyde ground should be surveyed and viewed, and that all which belonged to the town and the liberties thereof should be enclosed to the common use and benefit of the town."'5 Henry VIII., in the 38th year of his reign (1546), granted to the Corporation of Boston, in consideration of the sum of 16461. ISs. 4d., all the Manor of Hallgarth, both in the north and south parts of the town, all his messuages in the New Boochere, and in Barber's Row, Fish Row, and Butcher Row; the messuages upon the bridge and in Bargate; the Checker and Chamber Row, Gascoyne Row, Tilney Lane, and Old Friar's Lane; the nine rents, the five rents, and the new rents; sundry meadow and pasture ground, and a water-mill; Gysors' Hall and the beam therein, with right of prisage, tronage, docage, 1 DUtGDALE'S Monasticon (1817), vol. i. p. 642. I 4 Subsidy Rolls (35 Henry VIII.), p. 1544. 2 Valor Ecciesiasticus, vol. v. 5 Corporation Records. S Ibid. vol. ii.

Page  64 64 HENRY VIII.'S SALES AND GRANTS TO BOSTON (1546). stallage, &c.; and all the staythes and custom which were the property of the Duke of Richmond; and everything which pertained to the Manor of Boston, with customs, tronage, stallage, &c. And all the property within the town of Boston belonging to the following dissolved religious houses: Fountains Abbey, Durham Monastery, Leicester Monastery; and to the religious houses at Barlings, Kirkstead, Bridlington, Jervaulx, Swineshead, Thorneholme, Haverholm, Nun Ormesby, Alvingham, St. Catherine's at Lincoln, Bardney, Kyme, Spalding, Stixwold, Louth Park, and Freiston; the Rectory of the Church of St. Botolph, Hussey Tower, with its appurtenances, belonging to Sir John Hussey, Knight, attainted of high treason; yearly rents growing out of houses called the White Hart and the Saracen's Head; also yearly rents arising from various houses belonging to the Guilds of St. Mary and Corpus Christi, and various religious houses and private persons; also land and houses occupied by about forty enumerated individuals, the property of the lately-attainted Sir John Hussey; also the houses, sites, gardens, orchards, meadows, and pastures belonging to the Carmelites, the Augustine, and the Grey Friars; assay of bread, wine, and ale; estrays, chattels of felons and fugitives, fairs, markets, tolls, &c.; the Lordship, Manor, and Rectory of Boston, and all the lands, tenements, &c., rents, court-services, and all other profits whatever, amounting yearly to 1601. 17s. 4Id.; from which a yearly payment of 211. 12s. is to be made to the Court of Augmentation.' Henry VIII. made ample amends to Boston for the temporary injury he had done by the dissolution of the religious houses; since he raised it into the rank of a free borough, gave it a charter of incorporation, and granted it several privileges by his charter dated 14th May, 1546, in the 38th year of his reign. Another subsidy was granted in 1547, the last year of the reign of Henry VIII. The preamble to this subsidy is very curious, and we shall give it at length, retaining the quaint language of the original: - " LINCOLN, HOLAND. The certificat of John Hennege, Nicolas Robertson, Thomas Holand, Antony Irby, Richard Ogle, Robert Walpole, Blase Holand, and Thomas Brown, the Kyng's Justices of the peac within the partes of Holand in the countie of Lincolne, and also commissioned within the saide partes by auctoritie of the Kyng's Maiesties most gracious commission, to them with others, directed, deputed, and assigned for the practisyng of a contribucion of the Kyngs lovyng and obedient subjectts within the seid partes of Holand, accordyng to certyn Instruccions annexed to the seyd Commission, made the XXXVIII yere of his moost noble reign. And we the seyd Commissioners, after the tenour and effect of the seid Instruccions, have diligently travel'd with the King's maiestie's seid lovyng and obedient subyietts within the seid partes for the graunt and leviying of the same contribuccion, according and after the rats as well of lands, as of goods specified in the seid Instruccions, who have lovyngly graunted the same to be payd and leveyed in five severall monethes accordingly, and have appoynted collectours for the colleccion of the seid contribuccion, so lovyngly graunted. That is to say, Robert Renoldson of Pynchebek for the wapentake of Ellowe, William Bogg of Sutterton for the wapentake of Kyrton, and Peter Blakester of Butterwyk, for the wapentake of Skyrbek, whiche er all the wapentakes within the seid partes of Holand. And delyvered them severall Extractes indented and conteignyng the names and somes of every person chargeable to the said contribuccion, to be leveyed every moneth for the space of five monethes, and thereof to make pament every moneth of the seid five monethes to t'hands of Edmond Peckham, Knyght, Cofferer of the In the Corporation Archives there is an inden- the Mayor and burgesses is also acknowledged: one ture, dated 7 May, 37th of Henry VIII., stating dated 18th May for 1391. 5s. 4d.; eleven separate that Sir John Williams, Treasurer of the Augmenta- ones for 1001. each; and three others for 1001. each, tion of the Revenue, had that day received of the dated 10th May. These, with the 1071. 10s. paid Mayor and burgesses of Boston, for the use of the down, made up the whole of the purchase-money. King's highness, 1071. 10s., in part payment of A full quietus and discharge of the debt was not 1646/. 15s. 4d. due to the King for the gift, grant, obtained until the 4th and 5th of Philip and Miary. &c. of the property enumerated above, which is set Mr. John Windon was solicitor to the Mayor and forth at length, with all the tenants' names in this burgesses. deed. The receipt of the following obligations of

Page  65 CHURCH-BELLS SOLD IN 1554. 65 Kyngs moste honourable houshold, at the dayes prefixed and appointed in the seid instruccions annexed to the Kynge's maiesties seid moost gracious Commission. In witness whereof to this our certificat we have severally sett our sealles the XVth day of Juyn, in the reign of our seid soverain lord Henry the eight, by the grace of God, of England, Fraunce and Ireland, Kyng, Defendour of the faithe, and in erthe of the Churche of England and Ireland supreme hede, the XXXVIII yere." Then follow the signatures. The amount of the contribution for the hundred of Skirbeck was 1411. 3s. 1 1d., of which Boston paid 451. 16s. 0ld., collected from fifty-nine persons. The lands belonging to the town of Boston were assessed at 2461.; upon which the tax paid for the five months was 201. 10s. All the other land in the parish was assessed at 1391. 13s. 4d.; the tax levied upon the land for the five months being one-twelfth of the assessment. The tax levied upon goods was one-twenty-fourth of their value. An annuity of 201. was taxed one-twelfth. Brian Sandford, Vicar, was taxed one-twelfth upon his salary of 231.; and John Gymbelet and William Harrison, Clerks, the same upon their respective salaries or annuities of 81. and 101. Thomas Pulvertoft and Anthony Robertson were the greatest landholders, their estates being assessed at 301. each. John Rede, the next highest, was assessed at forty marks. Nicholas Robertson had the largest stock of goods, it being valued at 240 marks. John Tupholme's goods were valued at 1001. The collector received a commission of two-pence in the pound for collecting this "C contribution;" and it is singular that, although he was considered capable of performing the duties of collector, he was not able to write his name, but signed his accounts with his mark.' Edward VI. confirmed the charter granted by Henry VIII. by letters patent dated Westminster, 16th May, 1547, in the first year of his reign. Edward VI. died on the 6th of July, 1553. Queen Mary was proclaimed at Bury on the 12th of July; and we find it stated in a publication of the Antiquarian Society that "C the first hatt or cape that was caste up in rejoysyng of the Queene's proclamacion was caste up in Lincolnshire."2 Thomas Cony, of Bassingthorpe, held two houses, an orchard, and a pasture, in Boston, together of the yearly value of 41. 16s. 8d. about this time.3 A bill is entered on the Journals of the House of Commons (5 and 6 Edward VI., and 1 and 2 Philip and Mary) as having been passed February 8th; but it is not found among the Statutes of the Realm, either as a public or a private act. This bill is stated to be for the "6Re-edifying Houses in Boston."4 Probably owing to the death of Edward VI. (6th July, 1553), the state of the country at the time as to the succession to the throne, and the great political and religious changes that took place immediately afterwards, this bill never received the royal sanction, and therefore did not arrive at the maturity of an Act of Parliament. Many of the church-bells in the county of Lincoln were during the reign of Queen M'}ary broken up and the metal sold, but to what account the money was placed is not stated. This demolition of bells has proved a considerable loss to the antiquary, as the greater part of them bore arms, rebusses, dates, &c., of great curiosity, which are now lost, or only to be found by chance in old chartularies, registers, &c. We have an account of the delivery of nine bells at Boston to William Townerowe, Sir Henry Hobblethew, Knt., and Jolhn White, merchant, on the 28th July, 1554 (2 Philip and Mary). The aggregate weight Subsidy Rolls, 38 Henry VIII., 1547. 3 CONYS Household Book, p. 32. 2 See Petition of Richard Troughton to the Privy 4 Query Religious HIouses? Council, printed in the Archeeologia. K

Page  66 66 ERECTION LANDS, GRANTED IN 1554. of these bells was 761 lbs.; the largest weighing 149 lbs., the smallest 18 lbs. only.' Queen Mary, in the first year of her reign (1554), endowed the Corporation with the lands, &c., now called the Erection Lands, including the possession of the three then lately-dissolved Guilds of St. Mary, St. Peter, and St. Paul; and the Holy Trinity; in order that they might be the better able to support the bridge and port of Boston; both of which appear, from the words of her grant, to have been at that time in a deplorable state, and causing great charges in their daily reparation. This grant was also made to the Corporation for the purpose of establishing and maintaining a free Grammar-School in the town; and for the finding of two presbyters for the celebration of divine worship in the parish church, and for the maintenance of four beadsmen, " to pray there for ever, for the good and prosperous state of the Queen whilst living, and for her and her ancestors' souls after her decease." In March 1559, the Queen's proclamation " for abstinence from flesh during Lent, and other fastyngs," was published in Boston, and four aldermen and eight common councillors were appointed to be " viewers and presenters thereof." In 1569, the Corporation agreed that Mr. Sowtherne should have "To ferme all the toll within the borough, as well by land as by water, the profit of both the fayres, the market tolls, the donnage of the bridge, the profits of the close called the Holmes, with all other profits whatever they may be, for one year, for 301. rent." 3 In 1564, these tolls, together with the poundage of Estrays, were valued at 601. per annum.4 In 1565, according to a MS. in the British Museum, the population of Boston consisted of 471 families, or probably of about 2380 persons. The first lottery in England upon record was brought forward in 1567 by the Queen's authority. In the proposals it was called " a rich lotterie general, without any blanks, the prizes being in money, plate, and various kinds of merchandise." The highest prize was 50001.,-consisting of 30001. in money, 7001. in plate, " gilt and white," and the rest in " good tapestry and linen cloth." The second prize was 35001., in about the same proportion. Then succeeded 29,998 other prizes, gradually reducing in value from 20001. to 14s.; then followed 370,000 prizes of 2s. 6d. each. The tickets, 400,000, were sold at 10s. each, raising 200,0001.; whilst the whole amount of prizes and estimated charges amounted to 100,0001., thus leaving a balance of 100,0001. for the government,-a very large amount at that time, which was to be spent " in the restoration of havens, and strengthening of the realm, and towards such good public works." The scheme did not, however, take well with the public, and the drawing was deferred for a time. In the meanwhile papers were sent to the principal gentlemen in the different counties, accompanied with a letter under the Queen's sign-manual, urging them to " arrange and exert themselves " to dispose of the unsold tickets. One of those royal circulars was received by Mr. WILLIAM DERBY, an alderman of Boston, who laid it before the Corporation. The result was, that the Corporation took thirty tickets, and various inhabitants thirty-three more, the whole cost being 311. 10s. The lottery was drawn in 1569; and the Boston adventurers received, in 1570, for their 311. 10s., -" in part recompence for their money," —41. 18s. Gd.5 The earliest record of attention COTTON MSS. British Museum, Tiberius E., says, "A great lottery was holden at London, in iii. p. 67. 1569, in Paul's Churchyard, at the west doore. It 2 Corporation Records. 3 Ibid. was begun to be drhwne the lth of January, and 4 Account of the Income of the Corporation, in the continued day and night till the 6th of May, wherein Archives. the sayd drawing was fully ended."-Annals, Edition 5 See Mr. BRAY'S account of this lottery in the 1631 p. 663. Archaeologia, and the CorTporation Records. STOW

Page  67 SUPPLY OF WATER IN 1568. 67 having been turned to the subject of procuring water from a distance for the use of the inhabitants of Boston, is in 1568, - "When four aldermen and four common councillors were appointed to consider by what manner water might be brought from Kele Hill, and what any man's benevolence hath granted to the same, and to report to the house as soon as practicable. The Mayor and William Derby were appointed at a subsequent meeting to travel with the Commissioners of Sewers, to see whether fresh water may be conveyed out of Hilldyke to the borough of Boston, and so for the further, as shall be thought good by the said Commissioners of Sewers." I There is not any later notice of either of these projects. How the town was supplied with water at this time is not known. In 1554, it is stated that " two persons were appointed to gather the water-tolls." Many persons fled from the Continent to England about this time in consequence of religious dissensions, and some, it appears, found their way to Boston; for, in 1569" Two persons were appointed to ride to Norwich to ascertain how, and in what manner, certain Flemings and other strangers are used there and employed in their faculties and occupations; so that certain persons of the same description lately come into Boston, may be set on work, by such strangers as the said persons visiting Norwich may move to come to Boston." 2 In the same year" Mr. William Derby was directed to move Master Secretary CECrn, and know his pleasure, whether certaine strangers may be allowed to inhabit and dwelle within the borough without damage of the Queen's lawes." 3 The first precautions against fires were taken in 1571, when four dozen of leather buckets were purchased by the Corporation to be used in case of need. This was followed by an order in 1575, that " six clamps or hooks should be provided to pluck down houses on fire," and each member of the Hall was ordered " to keep a ladder of twelve staves to be ready in case of fire." The poor at this time appear to have been supported by voluntary contribution, for the Corporation directed, on the 16th November, 1571, that" The names of all the inhabitants who neglected to give their charity towards the relief of the poor should be certified to the Bishop." 4 Queen Elizabeth's Charter of Admiralty Jurisdiction was granted to Boston 10th February, 1568. This charter appears to have given rise to much expensive litigation for many years, on various points relating to the extent and nature of jurisdiction; and numerous entries in the Journals of the Corporation show the nature of the disputes, which extended over a period of 150 years; the last entry on the records relating thereto being dated 1716. The profits to the Corporation appear to have been extremely variable. In 1624, there is entered, " Profits of the Admiralty this year, 1841. is. 8d., out of which 201. was paid to Sir Stephen Cotterell for the rent of the Admiralty of the County." In 1650, the half-year's profit of the Admiralty was only 31.! and the profits were rented in 1653, for three years, at 61. per annum. In 1680, the Admiralty was rented for 231. 13s. 4d. Many charges of abuses of their power were brought against the Boston authorities; one of which was, that the Vice-Admiral of the port"Called before him for service, such poor fishermen as have their only relief and maintenance from fishery, and there imposed such penalties upon them, as that they refused to travel to the sea. doubtless to the hurt of the town and country adjoining, since thereby the price of other victuals is inhanced."5 Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. p. 282; endorsed, Articles against the Oficers of the 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. Admiralty in Lincolnshire, 11 June, 1592.' Additional MSS. British Museum, No. 12,505,

Page  68 68 TEMPEST IN 1571. A most dreadful calamity befell this district on the 5th of October, 1571 (13 Queen Elizabeth). This was a violent tempest of wind and rain, which seems to have been productive of equal damage both by sea and land. Hollingshed gives the following account of this awful visitation; and although the whole of the extract does not relate to this district, still the account comprehends so many particulars relative to the effects of this storm on the county at large, that no apology appears necessary for inserting it here:"Account of the Damage done in the County of Lincoln, by the Tempest of Wizd and Rain which happened on the 5th of October, in the 13th year of the reign of Queen Elizabeth (1571). " Mumby Chappell, the whole towne was lost, except three houses. A shippe was driven upon an house; the sailors, thinking they had bin upon a rocke, committed themselves to God: and three of the mariners lept out of the shipDe, and chaunced to take hold on the house-toppe, and so saved themselves: and the wife of the same lying in childbed, did climbe uppe into the toppe of the house, and was also saved by the mariners, her husband and child being both drowned. Item. The church was wholly overthrown, except the steeple. "Between Boston and Newcastell, were threescore sea vessels, as small ships, craires, and such like, lost upon the coastes of Boston, Humerston, Marshe Chappelle, Tetney, Stepney [Saltfleetby], Nercots [North Somercotes], Kelby [Keelsby], and Grimsby, where no shippe can come in without a pilote, whych were all lost, with goodes, corne, and cattell, with all the salte cotes, where the chiefe and finest salt was made, were utterly destroyed, to the utter undoing of manye a man, and great lamentation of old and yong. " Wentford [Wansford] bridge, being very strong, of eight arches in length, had three of the arches broken and clean carried away. "Maister Smith, at the Swanne there, hadde his house (being three stories high) overflowed into the third storie; and the walles of the stable were broken down, and the horses tyed to the manger were all drowned. " Many men had great losse, as well as sheep, kine, oxen, great mares, coltes of the breede of the great horses, and other cattell innumerable, of which the names of many of them shall here followe. "Maister Pelham lost eleven hundred sheepe at Mumby Chappell. " In Sommercote were lost five C (500) sheepe, that were of the inhabitants there. " Item. Between Humerston and Grimsby were lost eleven C sheepe of one Mr. Spicers, whose shepherde, about mid-day comming to his wife, asked his dinner, and shee, being more bolde than mannerly, sayd, he should have none of hir; then she chaunced to look toward the marshes where the sheepe were, and sawe the water breake in so fiercely, that the sheepe would be lost, if they were not brought from thence, sayd, that he was not a good shepherde that would not venture his life for his sheep, and so he went straight to drive them from thence; both he and his sheepe were drowned, and, after the water was gone, he was found dead, standing upright in a ditch. "1M. Thimbleby lost two C and twenty sheepe. Maister Dymock lost four hundred sheepe. Maister Marsh lost five hundred sheepe. Maister Madison lost a shippe. Maister William Askugh, of Kelsey, Sir Hugh Askugh, Maister Merin, Maister Fitz Williams, of Maplethorpe, lost by estimation twenty thousand of cattell, one and another. "Boorne [Bourn] was overflowed to the midway of the height of the churche. "Steeping was wholly carried away, where was a wayne loade of willowe tops, the body of the wayne with the willowes carried one way, and the axilltree and wheeles another way. " Item. Holland, Leveringto', Newton Chappell in the Sea, Lo'g Sutton, and Holbich, were overflown, andl in thys country also was great losse of cattell. "This calamity extended over many counties: in Bedfordshire, sixty elm-trees were blown down in one yard; in Norfolk, the Cross Keys Wash-house was overthrovwn; in Ely, WTisbich, and all its neighbourhood, was flooded some feet deep; in Huntingdonshire, boats were rowd over the church wall at St. Neots; in Staffordslhire, a man, his wife, and child, were overthrown and slain by force of the wind; in Warwickshire, many cattell were drowned by the overflowing of the Avon; in Bucks, two houses were thrown down in Newport Pannel; in Sussex, a new haven has been opened at Rye, where boats may enter

Page  69 DECAYED STATE OF THE TOWN IN 1571. 69 at low water and ships at high water; in Kent, several thousand sheepe were drowned in the marshes: in Suffolk, at Clay, a house of brick, the walls three feet thick, was washed down; in Oxfordshire, a great part of Maudlin bridge was carried away, and many trees blown up by the roots." The following letter, written by direction of the Corporation to Christopher Audley, an alderman, then employed about the Corporation affairs in London, has relation to the business of the Admiralty, and most clearly shows the decayed state of the town at the time, and the pressing necessity for assistance:"Mr. Audley, "I have now read your sundry letters, perceiving thereby our former letters have come into your hands, and how far you have proceedings therein concerning our suit. And also remembering us of the office of the Admiralty within our liberties, and what privileges and commodity might grow to us by the same (as sundry other ports have the like), which, as you think, might now be obtained for 1001. and under the colour thereof in renewing of our Charter, and enlargement of the same, our liberties may be amended. "Whereupon, having had some consideration, with the advice and conference of the whole house, we find the same no less necessary, mete, and convenient for us, than already you have considered. And, if the state of our town and port were such as the towns you write of and others, would be no small commodity, as ease to us and our inhabitants. But being as we are, and as you know, fallen into such decay, and so destitute of ships and trade of shipping, as first without some provision and means to help and better furnish the same, will that offer be neither greatly commodious to us, nor yet our town continue long without hazard of utter ruin and decay-which, to our powers, we would be glad to help. And, by God's grace, do intend to lend ourselves to the redress thereof. And for that we would be loth to set the cart before the horse. "We are charged to pay Sir Henry Clinton 200 marks for certain wood and timber,' provided for the repairs of our stayths and haven banks, the employment thereof, and other charges about the same will not cost a little. As also this next year must be paid to Master Browne, 2001., which must be paid and provided for. Wherefore we shall hereby require you to have consideration and use your discretion in our suits. Which, if we could obtain, would be so commodious unto us, as we hope will thereby so help us, and furnish a great part of our want. But except we can first find some means for the relief of our decay, by getting something which we cannot devise by any better means than those which we have already taken in hand, in hope well to obtain the same through our friendship in Court, which failing us at this pinch, we are utterly in despair to attempt any further. And then to seek that office to our charge, and as neither in case or ability to take commodity thereby; and to disburse money for the same, which we have not, were common folly! And as we can gather by your last letter, the reversion of the stewardship of our town, upon the talk you have had, is sought for; our liberty wherein we would be loth to lose, in selling the other to our charge. But, once again for our suits, whereof we perceive the license will not be much sticked at. And if the other will not be had, yet go forward with that. But some diligence must be had to have it in time, and with speed before the spring of the year, or else small good will be done thereby, both our suits obtained. And this we are most willing to go forward with, the office of the Admiralty. And upon intelligence from you of the same, will give you further instructions therein, and send you up a draught of the same all ready. Drawing which should have been past long done. And thus having uttered unto you our mind at large, we refer the rest to your good discretion and faithful intent." 2 Letters patent were granted by Queen Elizabeth in the 14th year of her reign (1572) to the Mayor and burgesses of Boston, empowering them and their ashsigns to purchase 20,000 quarters of grain (except wheat), and to export the same from their port, or any of its branches, or from any port in the county of Norfolk, during five years, subject to a duty of 8d. per quarter. This privilege the Corporation assigned in portions to various parties, making a profit of what The Corporation had purchased the wood and 2 Corporation Records. We give this quaint letunderwood growing upon twenty acres of land in ter verbatim. Its purport is obscured by too many Fulnetby Wood, of Sir Henry Clinton. i words.

Page  70 70 LICENSES TO EXPORT CORN, 1572. they received for a transfer of the privilege; and the parties who purchased such privilege, making a profit of the difference between the amount they paid to the Corporation added to the 8d. per quarter duty, which they had to pay the Government, and the amount of the duty of 2s. per quarter, which they would have had to pay had they not purchased the privilege of the Corporation. This license was granted by the Queen to the Corporation — " For the relief and succour of the borough, the inhabitants thereof, being greatly impoverished, and almost utterly declined, as well by reason of the scarcity of traffic of merchandize, as by the great damage and hurt happened to their port, bridge, wharffs, staithes, and sea banks, through the great violence and inundation, both of the salt and of the fresh waters." A part of this license to export was sold to Leven Vandersett; and an action in the Court of Chancery was commenced against him to compel him to fulfil his contract.' This is the first of a long series of licenses granted to the Corporation which we find upon record, and of which we shall give a summary in the section devoted to the commerce of Boston. In 1573" Edward Astell, of Boston, musician, with his several apprentices, were appointed the oaytes' of the borough,- to play every morning throughout the borough, from Michaelmas until Christmas, and from the twelfth day until Easter (certain holidays and Fridays excepted), unless reasonable cause be to the contrary. It was, therefore, agreed by the Mayor and burgesses, that for and towards their paynes and travail in this behalf, every alderman shall pay to the said Edward yearly, so long as he shall continue to be wayte of this borough, 4s., by equal payments at Christmas and Easter, and each of the common council, 2s. annually in like manner. All other inhabitants to pay yearly to the said Edward in like manner, such sums as they shall be taxed by the Mayor, recorder, and aldermen." 2 A license was granted by Queen Elizabeth, on the 15th of February, 1573, which recites that"Certain strangers of Holland, Zealand, and other parts of the Low Countries, the dominions of the King of Spain, being of late years, upon lamentable occasions, come into this our Realm of England, and having continued sithence their coming over at various ports and other places in the same; where divers of them, being fishermen, have used the feate and trade of fishing of herring, cod, mackarel, and other fish, according to the season of the year, after the manner of their country. These persons have made humble suit to us, to grant to them our license and assurance, that they may, to a certain number of Proceedings in Chancery, temp. Elizabeth, vol. i. Thursdays, and Saturdays; for which, and attending p. 50. upon the Mayor, &c., they are to have 40s. each, 2 In 1634, the waytes received 61. 13s. 4d. from and each a livery at their entrance, and every two the Hall, over and above their liveries, and subscrip- years afterwards. tions from private individuals, finding such sufficient " In 1734, the waytes were discontinued, and the music as the house shall appoint. In 1652, 1653, chamberlain paid two musicians a guinea for atand 1656, the zoaytes' coates are mentioned, costing tending on May-day. about 11. Is. each. In 1670, the following entry " In 1741, 201. a-year was directed to be paid to occurs:- four musicians for playing to the Mayor and the " October 21.-The five musicians elected as gentlemen on May-day, Lady-day, the four quarter waites of this Corporation to be paid a salary of 101. sessions, and other occasions. yearly, and to have 40s. each, every second year to " Charge for setting lace on the fiddler's cloak, buy themselves liveries, and they shall each have 11. 5s. the ancient badge or cognizance delivered to them to " 1756.-The old badges belonging to the band wear, as it was formerly used by the ancient waytes of music to be exchanged. of this borough; and that they shall, at Lady-. day "1763.-Six guineas allowed for May-day music. and May-day, and the fairs and marts, attend " 1782.-The Mayor directed to produce an imthe Mayor, and shall play every night to each family provement in the May-day music, at an expense of as hath formerly been done. not more than ten guineas."-Corporations Records. "1679, September.-Four persons appointed com- "The perambulations of' the waits' in London mon waites andt musicians, to play about the town were nightly in 1656, when they were said to be a friom a fortnight after Michaelmas to Lady-day, great preservation of men's houses in the night."four mornings in each week, Mondays, Tuesdays, BURTON'S Diary, vol. i. p. 23.

Page  71 DUTCH FISHERMEN SETTLED IN BOSTON, 1573. 71 householders, quietly and certainly settle themselves in divers towns and other places within our realm of England, and hire and inhabit houses, and use their said trade of fishing. Prepare, pack, and brand the herrings and other fish, which they shall take, after the manner of the said Low Countries. And the same and other their fish so taken to utter and sell, at any place upon the coasts of this our realm, and transport the same into any other realm or country being with us in league or amitie, without contradiction or impeachment. And that the rest, which are not fishermen, may use all occupations which the inhabitants of any town or place where the said strangers shall chance to be placed, do not use. Forasmuch, as we are credibly informed that the said strangers do here live godlily and orderly, and towards our people do behave themselves quietly, and that sundry of them do duly apply their fishing to the benefit of this our realm of England, and instruct our subjects here in their manner of fishing, we, for the help of our borough of Boston, by placing therein certain fishermen, and other persons of certain occupations, and for the relief and succour of the said strangers in their afflictions and necessities, do license and give authority to the Mayor and burgesses of the said borough, to allow forty of the countries of Flanders, Holland, and Zealand, aliens born, not denizens, being all householders, master fishermen, and other handicrafts, to inhabit within the said borough or town as follows. " The Mayor and burgesses to allow and permit the said forty Dutchmen of the said Low Countries, with their servants and families being such people, to inhabit within the said borough. License being granted to lease houses for ten years or under, to the said forty Dutchmen. On the death or removal of any of the forty, the place to be filled with another Dutch alien. Each one of the forty to occupy only one house, shop, &c., and each family not to consist of more than ten persons of their own nation. The fishermen to repair to sea, either in their own boats, or those of other persons, to exercise their trade, and to carry the fish caught and cured after the manner of their own country, to other places along the coast for sale, or to other countries in league and amitie with England." A power was reserved to the Crown to revoke this license at pleasure.' In 1574 and 1575, when the musters for the army were taken, the town of Boston was charged to raise 108 armed men. In 1575, the coasts of Lincolnshire were infested by pirates, some of whom being apprehended at Boston, the following correspondence took place on the subject:" T/efollowing Letter was sent to the Lords of the Counsell by thie JMayor of Boston, and Alexander Skynner, Custovmer of the Port. "Our duties unto your Honors most humbly remembered. Whereas certen Robbers, frequenting the Coastes of Lincolnshyer, do now lye at this presente in the Depes, or Mouthe of Boston Haven, not onely to the great discouraging of honest marchants, but also to the utter overthrowe of all trade in these partes; and further, whereas we have apprehended foure of the said companye, and by their examinacons, fynding them to be Pyrates, have committed them to warde, according to the effect of the Queenes Maties pclamacon Anno XI. in that behalf provyded; we, according to our bounden duties, have thought good to certifye thus much to your honors whereby we may receive your Lordshipp's further directions therein, we being in doubt what order to take with the said prisoners. And thus we beseech Almythye God to preserve your good Lordshipps in helth. From Boston this last day of April. " ANTHONY KYME, Maior, ALEX. SKYNNER, Collector. "To the Right Honorable the Lords of the Queen's most honorable Counsell." " The Queen's Privy ounsehl in answer to the above Letter. "After our heartye commendacons, perceiving by your letters of the last of Aprill the diligence that ye have used for the apprehencon of certen pyrates in the port of Boston; we comend yr doings in that behalf, and render you our harty thanks for the same, and for answer what shall be done with the prisoners apprehended by you; it shall be meete for you to give notice of yr doings to the Lord Clynton, that is Vice Admiral in those parties and to participate with him, all such Examynacons as have been taken of them by yr order, that thereupon they may be ordered by his Lordshipp according to Justice, and by such direccon as by Lawe shall be thought mete unto him. And so much shall you signifye 1 Clharter Book of the Corporation.

Page  72 72 PIRATES IN BOSTON DEEPS, 1575. to his Lordshipp as directed by us, that he may procede accordinglye; and so bid you hartelye farewell. From Greenwich the VIIIth of May, 1575. "Yr loving Frends, W. BURGHLEY, E. LINCOLN, T. SUSSEX, R. LEICESTER, T. KNOLLYS, JAMES CROFTE, T. SMYTHE. "To our lovinge frends the Maior and Burgesses of Boston." "Lord Clynton to the Mayor and Bcurgesses of Boston, for the delivery of certain Pirates the 3d May, 17th Elizabeth. "Mr. MAIOR,-Whereas I have understanding that you have charged yourselves with the custodye of certen prisoners who are suspected of pyracye, and whose causes are not triable, nor determynable within your several Jurisdiccons, but before the highe Admiral of England and his Deputye lawfullye authorized. I have therefore commanded myne officers and Marshall to take them into his custodye, and to receyve them at your hands, excepte you have authoritye for the justefying of their keeping in prison, that you may warrant the same bye; and so referring that to your discretion, I have not to trouble you herein anye further. From Tattershall this IId of Maye, "Yr very loving frend, H. CLYNTON. "To my very lovinge Frends Mr. Maior and the Justices of the burrowe of Boston." 1 We have seen that the port of Boston had gone very nearly to ruin at this period, and the town would, consequently, be lamentably fallen from its former condition and commercial importance. This decay seems to have arisen from great and material alterations in the entrance of the river at the Deeps; and from the want of sufficient sea-marks, for the direction of vessels sailing through those Deeps, towards the port. The alterations in the channel of the Witharn through the Deeps most probably took place from a want of sufficient fresh or back water to scour out and keep the same open and adequate to the purposes of navigation. In the latter part of this Queen's reign, means were taken to increase this back-water; and Elizabeth, in order to enable the Mayor and burgesses of Boston to repair and maintain the sea-marks, granted to them a Charter of Admiralty over the whole of the " Norman Deeps," with the power of levying certain duties of lastage, ballastage, and anchorage, of all ships entering the said Deeps. Elizabethl's charter also gave to the Mayor and burgesses all goods and chattels of felons and self-murderers, within the limits of the port; all wrecks, &c.; deodands and forfeited goods. A curious clause in this charter grants to the Mayor and burgesses the power of punishing "All whoremongers, whores, bawds, panders, and procurers, and all others whatsoever, living lasciviously and incontinently; and also all persons dishonestly and maliciously railing upon every light occasion, which, in English, are commonly called scolds." The charter also forbids any " Ordinary officer to intermeddle in the correcting any such offences, committed within the borough of Boston, and liberty of the same; but, that the Mayor and burgesses and their successors, shall enjoy these authorities, and with all the advantages necessarily belonging to the same, without yielding any account or in anywise paying or doing any other thing for the same, to the Queen or her successors." 2 1 Corporation Records. which confession, the whole body, with one consent, 2 Chaeter Book of the Corporation. The following considering the same offence to be most odious beextracts from the "Corporation fecords" refer to # fore God, and also shameful in this world, to the proceedings growving out of this clause: — discredit of this house, and the wolrshipful companie " 1575, Jan. 16. - —, alderman, in open of the same, have, at this instance, dismissed the court, before the Mayor, aldermen, and common said - of this company as an alderman, and council, did openly coufess with a penitent heart, likewise of the liberties of this house. The Mayor, and lowly submission, that he had committed adul- considering the said was an alderman, and tery and fornication within the said borough. Upon I what slander might ensue to the Corporation if he

Page  73 MERCHANT ADVENTURERS IN BOSTON, 1576. 73 A statute for regulating wages was passed in 1576, and the Mayor directed that the labourers of the borough should be called together to be ordered for their wages accordingly. The company of Merchant Adventurers in London were induced at this time (1576), by means of the Lord Treasurer, to admit ten of the inhabitants of the borough to be members thereof; the Corporation appointed the Mayor (Richard Field), Anthony Kyme, Alexander Skinner (customer), George Earl, Andrew Leake, John Harcastle, Richard Jeffery, Peter Pantoye, and William Field of Boston, and William Evans of London, to be such members. In a letter, addressed to the Lord Treasurer, dated 7th November, 1576, the Mayor says, after mentioning the names of the persons appointed, " And because they be somewhat weak in knowledge and ability (and yet very willing to revive the decayed trade of this port to their power), therefore we beseech your Honour to stand so much the rather their friend." The Corporation of Boston wished that Hull, Lynn, and Lincoln, would nominate "Some mete merchants not free of Boston, but whom they offered to make free, but could obtain none, they were therefore driven to make a hard choice among their own townsmen." In another letter the Mayor states, " That the last seven persons mentioned above were to receive the license money for the exportation of 3000 quarters of grain wherewith to pay their several fines (entrance subscription) to the Governor and Fellowship of the English House, and their other expenses beyond the sea." The Mayor adds, "God be praised there is great plenty of grain, and the price now of barley and beans not above 9s. or 10s. the quarter." In a postscript it is added, that "Mr. Dunstayne Anyes, the Queen's Majesty's grocer, wished to have the privilege of exporting 1000 of the above-mentioned 3000 quarters of grain, great part of it in beans, which could best be spared, and to transport the same to the town of Bayona in Gallicia; for which he could give his bond to return the same in reils of plate into her Majesty's Mint, and in other commodities of Portugal."' There is nothing further relative to the proceedings of these merchants in the Records of the Corporation. The poor appear to have been treated with very great rigour at this time; whenever any one applied for relief from the money gathered for the poor, the collector, with one or two constables, went to the house of such applicant, " And took an inventory of everything found there, and of everything owing to such poor person; none of the articles included in such inventory to be sold or made away with without the consent of the collector and constables. And when such person shall die, the should put the said - to open punishment for the the Lord of Canterbury the charter concerning the said offences; and also that he found the said -- punishment of lewd and lascivious livers." to have great penitence, and did willingly submit " 1605.-Agreed, that Mr. Irby for the Corporahimself to such punishment as the said Mayor might tion, and Mr. Ellis for my Lord Bishop, shall, the appoint, and for other great signs of penitence which next assizes, consider the validity of the charters might appear in the said -, did refuse to put him respecting the punishment of incontinence, and suchto open punishment, but sentenced him to pay for like crimes, to be inflicted by the Mayor, and, as the said offence the sum of 51. to the poor of the they two shall think fit, for the same hereafter to borough. A certificate was made out under the be ordered." seal of the borough relative to the punishment of "1644.-Agreed, that the charter ordinance for - - for incontinence." the punishment of fornication, &c., shall be duly put "1580, 25th October. - -, one of the into execution." common councilmen, to be dismissed for incon- This is the last notice of the subject in the Retinent life and fornication with one - -, colrds. widow." 1 Corpoeation Records, and Lansdowne MSS. "'1588.-Dr. Browne took to London, to show to No. 22, articles 64 and 65. L

Page  74 74 THE PLAGUE IN BOSTON, 1585, 1586, AND 1587. collector and constables shall make appraisement of such goods, &c., and shall sell the same, and place the proceeds thereof in the chest in the churche provided for the same. And if the deceased leave any children, who are poor and needy, they shall have such relief therefrom as the Mayor, &c., shall judge right."' In 1580, it was agreed "to trayne our soldiers (train-bands) within our liberties, according to our commission and not out of them."2 The Lord Treasurer (Burleigh) represented to the officers of the Customs at Boston, that he had been informed great quantities of grain and provisions, &c., had been lately shipped from Boston to the Low Countries; the officers replied to this charge, under date 16th August, 1584, that no provisions whatever had been transported, nor anything excepting 260 qrs. of barley, malt, and beans, and that by virtue of the Queen's license; nor did they have any suspicion that such shipment was likely to be attempted.3 The town was required, in 1585, to keep a certain quantity of gunpowder and match on hand, and purchased six barrels of the former at 11d. the pound, and 250 pounds of match. During the next year a further requisition was made for gunpowder; and a deputation was sent to the Earl of Rutland to obtain "a mitigation of the provision of gunpowder assigned to the Corporation." A quantity of gunpowder appears to have been kept on hand so late as 1618, and the " matche" is mentioned in 1629. Three barrels of gunpowder were bought by the Corporation in 1626, and " laid in the innermost chamber of the Hall."4 During this year assessors were appointed to levy the Queen's subsidy of a fifteenth upon goods, and a tenth upon real estate. In 1586, the town of Boston was divided into six wards for the better government of the same. Letters were received from Sir Anthony Thorold and Sir Edward Dymock, Lieutenant of the county, " touching Jesuits and seminaries, and loud seditious talk in inns and alehouses, and stating that musters must be drawn."5 CAMDEN (circa 1586) says of Boston, " It is at present handsomely built, and drives a considerable trade, and the inhabitants apply themselves both to trade and grazing of cattle."6 Boston appears to have been afflicted with the plague during the latter part of the sixteenth century. In 1585, " the house of Thomas Preston was ordered to be shut up, being supposed to be infected with the plague." An assessment was made in that year for the " benefit of the persons visited with the plague;" from the words of the following order, relative to this assessment, it appears that the disorder broke out again after it was considered to have subsided; for "it was agreed that half the collection for the late visited people should be applied for the relief of the now visited people, and sundry sums were given by the Corporation for the relief of those visited by the plague." In 1586, additional collections were made, and a house and two acres of pasture were rented for the use of the visited poor. In 1587, the Mayor (Thomas Gresby) was I Corporation Records. 121. 9s. 1587.-An assessment, made for the levy2 Ibid. The following entries occur upon this ing 61. towards the " setting forth of the soldiers." subject. " 1580.-Lord Clinton applied to for a This was in preparation for the threatened Spanish horse for a demy-lance, and furniture for him, which invasion. In 1599, 121. i ls. 8d. was assessed upon he hath promised to the town. Another horse for a the inhabitants of Boston for "trainings." 1626. — demy-lance to be purchased at Peterborough, the The inhabitants of Boston charged to bear arms were price to be 101. in money. The two demy-lances directed to be at Lincoln on the 9th May. It was and two light horse to be kept at the charge of the resolved that such course shall be taken for preventCorporation." In 1584, the county of Lincoln was ing the same as the Mayor and aldermen shall think directed to "trayne up to armes" 270 men; of this fit. number the city of Lincoln trained 10, and Boston 3 Lansdouwn MSS. No. 41, article 36. 20.-(PECK'S Desid. Curiosa, vol. i. lib. 2, p. 25.) 4 Corporation Records. 5 Ibid. 1585.-The setting forth of three soldiers, ordered 6 GOUGeH'S Camden, vol. ii. p. 225. by the Lord-lieutenant (the Earl of Rutland), cost

Page  75 PATENT MONOPOLY FOR MIAKING SALT, 1586. 75 directed to keep his house, " by reason that it was visited by sickness, and not to go abroad in the town until further orders." In 1588, " one Willeman, of Holm, in Huntingdonshire, was sent for, supposed to be skilled in cleansing infected houses; a number of houses belonging to the Corporation in St. John's Row, appear to have been used as pest-houses at this time."' The year 1587 appears to have been one of scarcity or dearth, for the Mayor was allowed three-quarters of wheat in addition to his usual stipend, on account of the hard year.2 Letters patent were granted by the Queen, dated 20th of February, 1586, to Thomas Wilkes, one of the Clerks of the Privy Council, giving him, and his heirs and assigns, the privilege of making white salt in the ports of Lynn, Boston, and Kingston-upon-Hull, for twenty-one years, and to sell and utter the same to their own benefit, paying for the privilege annually into the Exchequer the sum of 61. 13s. 4d. All other persons were forbid, under severe penalties, to make, bring in, or offer for sale, any white salt into any of the said ports, or any of their dependencies. The officers of the Customs, &c., not to permit any entry of white salt ill their books, during the term of twenty-one years, without the permission of the said Thomas Wilkes:-who stipulates, during the term of his patent, tc make and provide good and sufficient white salt for the use of the three ports and their members, and the adjoining neighbourhood. If he fails to do this, then to be lawful for any other person to bring in salt to supply the deficiency, until a sufficient supply shall again be offered by the patentee.3 This chartered monopoly was opposed by the Corporation of Boston, and a suit to test its legality was commenced as early as May 1586.4 In their plea they alleged that the patentee did not keep a sufficient supply of salt, that the price was increased by his monopoly, &c. &c.5 A Scotch vessel, laden with salt, arrived in Boston, 19th May, 1586, and the "Mayor fixed the price thereof according to the ancient custom and usage, because Mr. Wilkes had not provided any salt for the use of the borough." The dealers in salt in the town assisted by contribution in carrying on the suit. It appears, however, that the patentee maintained his privilege, or rather compromised with the Corporation; but in 1599, suit was again commenced, in connexion with the Corporation of Lynn, for the "overthrow of the patent," with what success is not stated.6 A subsidy was assessed in 1591 upon all persons having 100s. annual lands and upwards, and 81. annual profits from goods. To this subsidy Richard Botler, Esq., Margaret Smith, widow, and the Corporation of Boston, each paid 201. Anthony Irby paid 12L1; nine others, various sums from 51. to 81. each. For goods Andrew Briggs paid 161. William Gannock and Richard Stephenson paid 121. each. Henry Ashe, Mayor, William Erle, Francis Gwyne, and William Tyndale, paid 101. each. John Gawdry, 91. Richard Robinson, 91. Thomas Doughty and five others, 81. each; and Margaret Bell, widow, 717 In the year 1591, the ship called"' God's Grace,' of Boston, was stopped to take 200 soldiers into Normandy." The meaning of this most probably is, that the vessel was pressed into the royal service for the purpose of transporting troops into France; for it appears from Queen Elizabeth's Charter to the Mayor and burgesses of Boston, "That it should be lawful for the Admirals of England, or their deputies, from time to i Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. " coal at Sunderland serves to no other use than 3 Lansdown MSS. No. 52. making salt."-Lansdowen MSS. No. 52; Article 4 Corporation Records. 1587. 5 It appears that Mr. Wilkes' principal manufac- 6 Corporation Records. tory of salt was at Sunderland; and he alleges, in 7 Harleian MSS. 366, p. 191. reply to the plea of the Corporation, that the

Page  76 76 A.D. 1591 TO A.D. 1603. time for ever, to enter into the borough, Deeps, &c., and to arrest ships, seamen, and fishermen, in the time of war."' A " hoy," called the " Grace of God" of Newcastle, was also stopped to assist in this carriage of soldiers to Normandy. The amount allowed for each man's passage was 6s. 8d. The entire expense was 1371. 8s. 4d., of which 1201. was repaid 24th September.2 A subsidy was levied in 1593, but the roll is so much damaged that what therein relates to Boston cannot be deciphered.3 A great dearth of corn took place in 1594, when William Gannocke, and nine other persons, agreed, for the relief of the inhabitants and others resorting to the market, to furnish a sufficient supply of barley twice a-week, " until it shall please God to send new corn from the earth," at 10s. per quarter.4 Margaret Lound, widow, had a suit in Chancery about this time with Michael Pannell to recover from him the title-deeds to a messuage in Boston which belonged to the plaintiff's husband.5 In 1594, Lord Treasurer Burleigh wrote to the Deputy-Lieutenants of Lincolnshire, that heretofore the parts of Holland had been charged only one-sixth part of the assessment of the county in the charge towards the wars and otherwise, but that lately for the levy of men and money for Ireland, the parts of Holland were charged a full fourth of the shire, Lord Burleigh, as lord-lieutenant of the county, prayed the deputy-lieutenants to consider the question so as to settle it for the future. In 1598, the Lords Commissioners determined that the rates should continue two-thirds of one-half for Kesteven, and one-third of one-half for Holland.6 In 1601, a mill to grind corn was set up, in which all persons who unlawfully begged, or spent their time idly, were to be employed.7 The custom of taking part of the rent of the Corporation lands in sugar is first mentioned in the case of a lease of three acres of land, the rent of which was fixed at 30s. and a sugar-loaf of six pounds weight annually to the Mayor.8 The Attorney-General brought an action against Leonard Cammock, Mayor of Boston, in 1602, respecting the liberty of fishing and fowling in Friskney and Wainfleet lordships.9 An assessment of the county of Lincoln, circa 1603, gives the following names in Boston: — Richard Bolles, Esq.................................... 40 Margaret Smith, widow...................... 30 Anthony Irby, Esq....................................... 20 Thomas Brown............................................ 20 Thomas Eresbie........................................ 10 The plague raged again in 1603, and the Mart was not held in consequence; a correspondence was held with Lord Burleigh on the subject, which will be found in a subsequent chapter. In the old comedy of "A Mad World my M~asters," written by Thomas Middleton, about this time, the author makes one of his dramatis personce say, in reply to being told that a party with whom he has met are Lincolnshire men," Oh, the honestest thieves of all come out of Lincolnshire; the kindest-natured gentlemen! they'll rob a man with conscience: they have a feeling of what they go about, and will steal with tears in their eyes. Ah, pitiful gentlemen! "l In connexion with this dramatic reference, it may be observed that THOMAS HE~WOOD, a dramatic writer of considerable reputation at this period, was a Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. 6 Old Writing in the Corporation Archives. 3 Subsidy Rolls.'7 Corporation Records. 8 Ibid. 4 Corporation Records. 9 Proceedings in Chancery. Suits in Chancery, Reign of Elizabeth. 10 Act II. p. 303.

Page  77 PRESENTS MADE BY THE CORPORATION. 77 Lincolnshire man by birth; and in his "Funeral Elegy upon the Death of Sir George St. Poole of Lincolnshire," he calls that gentleman " my countryman." The people of Boston appear to have entertained a very humble opinion of the condition of their town at this period; since, in a petition directed to be presented to Parliament in 1607, they ask that " Boston may be put among the decayed towns."' There was, however, a desire to improve the appearance of the town, and to diminish the chance of accident by fire; for, in the same year, a bill was presented to Parliament, ordering that " No man shall pull down a house upon any fore-front within the borough, but he shall build the same again with timber, stone and tile, no more thatch to be used, under pain of forfeiting the whole to the Corporation; and all new houses were to be covered with tiles." 2 This year the chief constables were directed " to assess the west side of Boston, with the hundred of Skirbeck, and not to assess the whole of Boston more than Freiston."'3 The system of making presents to public men of whom any favour was solicited, or from whom any benefit was received, was established very early by the Corporation, and we have a curious list to exhibit in a subsequent section. We impute no improper motives to either giver or receivers on any of these occasions, but merely record them as we find them stated in the Records of the Corporation. James I. granted a charter to Boston, bearing date 17th August, 1604 (second year of his reign), in which he renewed and confirmed the former charters, and endowed the Corporation with fresh privileges and immunities. It appears that a market was about this time held at Swineshead; for the Corporation Records state, that " a commission was appointed in 1613, to take measures for the suppression of Swineshead market, which had been recently established." In this year the Corporation expended 11. 6s. 8d. for "provision behind by this town for muttons and beeves for his Majesty's household." The town asked for relief in 1615, " in respect of provisions levied upon the town." And, in 1618, a letter was addressed to Sir John Langton, Sir John Reed, Anthony Irby, and others, by whom the application on behalf of the town had been made, by Lord Knowles and other members of the Board of Green Cloth. This letter stated " That the inhabitants of Boston had not usually in former times served any provision for his Majesty of pullings (poultry), vwax, or butter, and that they did not think it convenient that they should be charged with provision of that kind." There is no further entry in the record of this demand being continued; at least there is no evidence of anything having been paid. A publication of the year 1614 says: "To the northward of Lynn is Boston, a proper town, and like unto Holland soil for low grounds, and sands coming in; but yet there are few fishermen, although it is a most fit place for busses; if that they had but once the taste of them, they would soon find good liking." 4 There was a great flood "and overflowing of the ground" within the borough in the early part of 1615; and the preceding winter had been very severe, with much frost and snow. And to these succeeded an "exceeding mortality of sheep 1 Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. TLEAN; printed in 1614.-Harleian Miscellany, Old Document in the Corporation Archives. vol. iii. p. 243. 4 England's Way to win Wealth, {'c., by T. GuN

Page  78 78 FORTIFICATION OF THE TOWN, SHIP-MONEY, ETC. 1626. and cattle."' The parish registers show that about the year 1618 the trades of dishmakers, "fret-workers," weavers, and hair-weavers, were rather extensively practised in Boston. The Quarter-Sessions for the parts of Holland had anciently been held at Boston; but it appears that at this time they had been removed, since, in 1622, " the Earl of Exeter was urged that the County Quarter Sessions might be held at Boston as formerly."2 There was an order to partially light the town during the Mart, made so early as 1575, for which see the account of the Mart on a subsequent page; and in 1623 the Corporation ordered " two dozen links to be bought for the town." But nothing further is recorded upon the subject until the middle of the eighteenth century. A Bill was before the House of Commons in 1624 for establishing a free school, and building a house of correction at Boston, but it did not become a law. It appears to have been under discussion on April 26th, 27th, and 28th of this year.' The plague visited the town and neighbourhood in 1625; and the fair, then usually held on St. James's day (25th July), was omitted this year " for fear of spreading the plague, which now is in the City of London and divers other places."4' Letters were received by the Mayor, 28th July, 1626, from the King's Council, " commanding the fortifying the town. These letters were openly published; and it was concluded to have conference respecting them with the justices near adjoining to Boston, before anything further should be done therein." The journals of the Corporation do not show that anything further was done therein. An order was received from the King's Council, 28th July of this year, commanding the town to furnish " A man-of-war, or ship for his Majesty's present service. The Corporation appointed a Committee to proceed to London and to act in the business as best for the town. Letters were written on the 7th August to the towns which were members of the port, concerning their bearing their proportion of the expense of the ship charged upon the port and its neighbours."5 In January 1627, further letters were received from the King's Council respecting this ship, which Thomas Coney (Town Clerk) was directed to reply to. In 1631, Mr. Coney was directed to " pay all the accounts of the Corporation in the Exchequer for the great ship." In 1635, the town of Spalding petitioned against being assessed as a member of the port of Boston towards raising the money levied upon Boston; but the assessment was confirmed.6 In August of this year, the time originally allowed for furnishing the ship was extended; and the Town Clerk was sent to London to petition the Lords of the Council for relief in this matter. And in November, he advised the Mayor that he had obtained a remission of 1301. in the amount assessed. From a subsequent entry (April 19, 1638), it appears that the amount finally paid by the town was 701.7 1 Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. so doing, this shall be your warrant..... These 3 Index to Journals of the House of Commons, 1624, are to be charged with one ship of three hundred 21 and 22 James I. and fifty tons, manned with one hundred and fifty 4 Corporation Records. 5 Ibid. 6 Ibid. men, and double equipages, and with munition, 7 Corporation Records. The following extract wages, and victuals...... from the celebrated writ for levying ship-money Rex, &c., vicecomiti comitatus nostri LINCOLN without the consent of Parliament, contains what Majori, civihus, et hurgensibus civitatis LINCOLN therein relates to the county of Lincoln. "Annoi, et burgensibus burgi de BSTON. Dom. 1635, 11 Charles I. CHARLES, by the grace of Majori, et ballivis burgi de GRIMSBY MAGNA, God, King of England, Scotland, &c., &c. To our ville sive burgi de trusty and well-beloved Counsellor, Thomas Lord STAMFORD. Coventry, Keeper of our Great Seal of England, Aldermannis t burgensibus le sive urgi de greeting:-These are to will and require you, that GRANTHAM, c probis hominibus in eisderi cvifor the safeguard of the seas and defence of the tate burgis, villis, et membis iorunde, et in realm, you issue forth, or cause to be issued forth, comitatu ejusdem civitatis; in villis de SPALDof our High Court of Chancery, these ensuing INo wAINFLEET, GAINS;auno, et LOITH, ac writs in the form following, with duplicates of them in omnibus allis buLgis, villis, villtis, hamlettis, ac under our Great Seal of England, unto the counties, lis locis, in dicto comitatu Lincoln. Salutem." cities, towns, and places hereafter ensuing, and for

Page  79 QUO-WWARRANTO INQUIRY, 1627. 79 The Records state, under date March 2, 1627," There was placed in the great Presse a tally out of the Exchequer, made to Mr. Trollope for the benevolence which was given by this town for the defence of the Palatinate, in the time of King James.' A writ of quo warranto was issued against the Corporation of Boston in the -reign of Charles I.; and pleadings and judgment were had thereon at Trinity Term, 1627. The information charged was, "That the Corporation claimed and exercised the right to be a body corporate, to use a common seal, to have jurisdiction marked out by metes and bounds, to elect a mayor and burgesses, to hold a court, and assemble in a council-house, and elect common council, to make statutes, laws, &c.; to fine and imprison the disobedient, and govern by the statutes; to take money for admission into the Corporation; to exclude and disfranchise whom they please; to have justices of the peace, a recorder, and other officers, a court of record, and view of frank pledge; pillory, tumbril, and gallows, goods and chattels of felons, fugitives, and outlaws, deodands and treasure-troves; to hold a market and fairs, to exclude foreigners from selling in the market, unless admitted and allowed on payment of fines; all of which privileges and liberties they are charged with having usurped, to the injury of the King's prerogative, and contempt of his dignity. They are, therefore, ordered to show by what warrant they claim to have, and to exercise their liberties and franchises." To which the Mayor and burgesses reply and show that " They have exercised, and do exercise, the liberties and franchises alleged; by prescription, as an ancient borough, and that the men and inhabitants, on the 14th May, Anno 37 Henry VIII. (1545), and from time immemorial, were a body corporate; and have used, and exercised within the precincts thereof, two fairs or marts every year; one on the day of St. George and two days next following, and on the day of St. James, and the two days next following; and during that time have had weekly free markets on Wednesdays and Saturdays; and that by immemorial custom, no stranger was allowed to sell or buy of a stranger, except victuals, unless at fairs. That on the 14th of May, 37 Henry VIII. and immemorially, there were public and private ways, and a great bridge, walls, and a sea-bank. Great part of which the bailiffs and burgesses have repaired, and are bound to repair; and towards the repairs and amendments thereof, have been used to receive the various tolls which they have claimed; and as to the other liberties, &c. which they are charged with having usurped, they claim to have them because they are incorporated and seised of the same, under the charter granted them by HENRY VIII. That the said charter granted a reasonable toll for wares and merchandise there bought and sold, and prisage, stallage, pontage, lastage, wharfage, and passage, in like manner as the Mayor and burgesses of Lynn Regis then had, or were accustomed to have. That the Mayor, &c. accepted the aforesaid charter, and hitherto have used the said liberties from the time of making the same. That Queen ELIZABETH, on the 10th of Feb. in the 15th year of her reign (1573), granted the said Corporation the privilege of holding a fair or mart on the feast of St. Andrew yearly, and for eight days continually next following, with tolls of prisage, stallage, &c. That King JAMES I., in the second year of his reign (1604), granted all the liberties above pleaded. That by virtue of these charters the Mayor and burgesses have claimed and do claim the liberties, privileges, &c. which they have exercised; and that they have not usurped by such exercise any of the privileges, or injured the dignity of their sovereign lord the King, as they are charged with having done, and pray the judgment of the Court in their behalf, because they have never used the liberties which they claim contrary to the object for which they were granted." The judgment of the Court was, that" The Mayor and burgesses of Boston should have, enjoy, and use, all the liberties, privileges, and franchises specified within the borough of Boston, and the precincts thereof, except the liberty to imprison all persons as well of the borough aforesaid, as coming or sojourning to, or within the same borough, who shall be disobedient to the statutes and ordinances of the borough." A traveller through Lincolnshire in 1634 thus describes his passage across the country firom Lynn by Wisbeach to Spalding, Deeping, and Sleaford:Corporation Archives.

Page  80 80 CONTEST BETWEEN CHARLES I. AND THE PARLIAMENT. " We thought it not so fit to pass the Washes, being neither firm nor safe for travellers, especially now of late by reason of the new-made sluices and devices for turning of the natural course of the waters near adjoining; and, therefore, we rather choose to go by Wisbech, where we spent the best part of an hour in viewing a little army of artificers venting, contriving, and acting outlandish devices about the same. Thence over Tidd Sluice, the parting of the shires of Norfolk and Lincoln; and so over a rich flat level of ground for Spalding, which we reached at nightfall, and were strongly lodged at the castle. We feared somewhat as we entered the town, seeing the bridge pulled down, that we could not have passed the river; but when we came to it, we found not so much water in it as would have drowned a mouse. " At this the town and country thereabout much murmured; but let them, content themselves, since the fen-drainers have undertaken to make their river navigable forty feet broad and six feet deep, from Fossdeck Slough to Deeping, which they need not be long about, having 600 men daily at work in it. Early the next morning we heard the drum beat, which caused us to inquire the reason thereof, and roused us from our castle; and it was told us, that it was for a second army of water inyeniers. From Deeping we proceeded to Sleaford, where we dined and viewed the fair church and ornaments there. Of the town we can say but little; only this, that it is furnished with a market, and graced. with a session, and also with two knights' houses,-Sir Robert Carr's and Sir Hammond Witchcote's."' We have thrown into a note a narrative of the unfortunate circumstances which attended a number of passengers who took a passage from Boston to Harwich in 1636.2 The plague again visited the town and neighbourhood of Boston in 1637.3 Boston was a place of considerable importance during the contest between King and Parliament at the latter part of King Charles I.'s reign. The first notice relating to this period is in the Corporation Records, under date 20th May, 1641, when there is a charge of 51. for disbursement of soldiers, "who went from Boston to Sleaford; and 20s. for expenses relating to Train Bands." In February of this year, the Commons had appointed the Earl of Lincoln and Lord Willoughby of Parham Lieutenants for the county of Lincoln. The Parliamentary publications, under date 14th July, 1642, say," Information was given that his Majesty intended putting garrisons in Lynn, Boston and other sea towns, whereupon it was directed that a general order be drawn to oppose that illegal act." 011 Tuesday, 29th July, 1642, "an ordinance was made for Boston, in Lincolnshire, as for all other corporate towns, to train and exercise in a peaceable manner, and to preserve their magazines for the King and Parliament.'" 1 BRAYLEY'S Graphic and Historical Illustrator, fourscore men to be shipped at Boston, in Lincoln1834, p. 46. shire, as passengers, with intent that they should 2," One of the most remarkable circumstances be landed at Harwich; for the landing of whom, attending the settlement of New England, is the Sir Henry Fynes, of Kirkstead in Lincolnshire, countenance given to the undertaking by the family Knight, and Robert Hutton of Lynn, in the county of Clinton, Earl of Lincoln. Two ladies of this of Norfolk, by their obligation, dated -th May, in family, Lady Arbella, the wife of Isaac Johnson the twelfth year of Charles, became bound to his Maof Clipstone, in Rutlandshire, and Lady Susanna, jesty in 6001. Now this deponent declares that he wife of John Humfrey, two of the daughters of was one of the said persons so shipped, and for Thomas, the third Earl, removed themselves to the which the said obligation was entered into, and that new country while in the prime of life; the former the said ship and men being in their passage fiom of them as early as 1630. Another of the daughters Boston towards Harwich, they were set upon and married John Gorges, who was much concerned in taken by French pirates, and were robbed and the New England affairs. stripped, both of their apparel and all their other " Their uncle, Sir Henry Fynes, as he was called, goods and provisions in the said ship, and so were rather than Clinton, was a zealous Puritan, as were violently carried away; but it happened that a ship his descendants, and also his near relative, Sir of Dunkirk met with them, and chased away the James Hlarington of Ridlington: and this leads me French ship, and did carry the said ship in which to think that the company of eighty persons, who, this deponent, with the residue of the said pasin 1636, sailed from Boston in the ship Prosperous, sellgers, then were, towards Dunkilrk, but yet, by having been embarked by Harington Fynes, the the said Dunkirker's direction, this deponent and son of Sir Henry, were Puritan emigrants making the residue of the said passengers were set ashore their way for New England. upon the French coast, by means whereof the said " Their unfortunate fate is related in the follow- passengers could not be landed at HIarwich, according deposition made on August 2d, in 1637, by ing to the condition of the said obligation." — Marmaduke Rayson of Hull, gentleman. HUNTER'S Founders of New Plymouth, 1854, p. "' Whereas Harington Fynes, Esquire, about the 196. beginning of May, 12th of Charles 1., caused about 3 Corporation Records.

Page  81 BOSTON FORTIFIED AND HELD FOR THE PARLIAMENT, 1642. 81 A number of associations were formed about this time for mutual assistance and support against the unconstitutional course pursued by the King. OLIvEa CROMrELL was particularly active in organising what was called the " Eastern Association," which at first consisted of the counties of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridge, and Hertfordshire. Huntingdonshire soon after joined; and Lincolnshire was assisted, by Cromwell's operations, to " free herself and to join the Association," which she did in September 1642. We find it stated, in a newspaper dated 19th of that month," That the Cavaliers were quite cashiered in Lincolnshire; that Boston was well fortified by the inhabitants; but that the Earl of Lindsey intended shortly to besiege that town,'owing it a great grudge for having seized some ships laden with corn from Holland, and apprehending some officers intending to assist his lordship: but it is believed he will be very roughly entertained."' The newspapers of the period furnish much information relative to the successive steps which had been taken to place Boston in this position. On the 19th June, 1642," Lincolnshire made known its readiness, alacrity, and cheerfulness, to yield obedience in speedy putting the ordinance for the militia in execution. The Lord Willoughby of Parham also further intimated the intention of that county to defend his Majesty's person, and to preserve the privileges of Parliament, and to oppose all such as endeavour to separate his Majesty from his great counsel of Parliament."2 " 18th July, Master Speaker declared to the House of Commons, that he had received a letter from the High Sheriff of the county of Lincoln, enclosing a petition of a very strange nature and language, from divers gentlemen of the county (the greater part whereof were Papists), to desire the Commons would comply with the King's demands in the delivery up of Hull to him, and to adjourn the Parliament to some other place, whereby his Majesty might, with more security, come to them, and some other requests much of that nature. Upon which petition there was a great debate, for that there was none appeared to avouch the same (as is the usual way), whereupon it was ordered the same should remain in custody of the Clerk of the House, and the said High Sheriff3 called to answer the same. Then, also, was presented a petition, signed by thousands of the freeholders and gentry of the county, against the Commission of Array, and in favour of the ordinance for the militia."4 On the 26th July, Sir John Monson brought the following propositions from the King to the Mayor, aldermen, and inhabitants of Boston: " First, his Majesty required that you suffer not any further mustering or training of men, countenanced by any authority whatever, contrary to his commands. Secondly, that you declare your unanimous resolution to resist the landing or taking in of any forces without his Majesty's allowance; and if any such thing should be attempted, that you desire the contribution of his power, and the county's force, to assist you in so great and necessary public duty, tending to the preservation of the public peace: and his Majesty will be forbearing to send any force amongst you." The Mayor and aldermen replied as follows," They said they were not in fear of any forces coming to their town, in opposition to his Majesty; and, therefore, did not conceive need of any to be sent thither. But thought it would be of ill consequence to these parts, and would fill the minds of his peaceable and quiet subjects with new fears and jealousies. And they declare themselves, that they would not receive any forces under the command of any against his Majesty and the peace of the kingdom; but will resist the same to their powers: and touching the mustering of men within the borough, contrary to his Majesty's command, they conceive the Mayor and aldermen have already satisfied his Majesty concerning the same, acnd the Mayor and aldermen will endeavour to make good what they have therein already sent to his Majesty."5 Pe;fect Diurnal, Sept. 19, 1642. 5 More, Later, and Truer Newes, from Somerset2 VICARS' Parliamentary Chronicle. shire, Boston, ~c. London: Printed for R. A. 3 Sir Edward Heron. August 16, 1642. 4 Perfect Diurnal, 18 and 25 July, 1642.

Page  82 82 A.D. 1642. A letter from Boston, dated 29th August, 1642, says,"This day there came an honest man to this town, in all haste, to tell us that the country did rise about Skegnesse on our Lincolnshire coast, and had apprehended Colonel Sir William Ballingdean, Major Killegrew, Captain Dolman, and eight other Cavaliers, that were newly landed there from Holland. And had also seized upon twelve trunks and hampers heavily laden, and had put them all into a small vessel, to send them to Boston, to secure their persons and goods, that they might be sent to the Parliament. Our Boston men, having notice thereof, presently manned out a good vessel with volunteers and victuals, took the prisoners into her, and sent them by sea to London: by land they could not bring them, for the Nottingham Cavaliers. But, by the way, let me tell you, that one canonical parson, and one Ellison, servant to the Earl of Lindsey, railed at us for being so officious, threatening us with revenge; whereupon we unhorsed them both, bound them in a cart, and sent them on board the vessel, to be carried to London with the rest. We expect the Cavaliers here to annoy us; we have 100 fighting men well provided, who will give a good account of this town for the King and Parliament." I September 1. This day a letter from Boston about a ship driven into that harbour, which has been seized for the King and Parliament, in which were six trunks filled with money and some ammunition, which are bringing up to London.2 We next find that the Mayor received a letter from the King, requiring him to release the gentlemen that came out of Holland, and those goods they brought with them, belonging to Prince Rupert,3 which were stayed. The Mayor returned an answer to his Majesty, that the men and goods were shipped in a vessel well manned and victualled, and sent up to the Parliament. That his Majesty need not doubt of the affections of that town to serve him and his Parliament; and beseeching his Majesty to favour their zeal in doing those things which they conceived conduced to the peace of the kingdom and his Majesty's safety; and particularly for their preparations to defend that town against all opposition in these dangerous and distracted times. Before this letter was written, " Intelligence came that the Cavaliers were coming with 300 horse to burn and pillage the town, for the staying of these Cavaliers which came from Holland. Whereupon we sent to Lynn, who furnished us with five pieces of ordnance, guarded with 1000 volunteers of the county, well armed; and within six hours after, 1000 more of the neighbouring townes came to assist us. We mounted our ordnance, planting them in the passages into the town, and were all put in readiness for the encounter. We sent out our scouts, but could not hear of the Cavaliers approaching. I am confident our Boston men, with the volunteers that came to help us, would not have proved short of the Brummaagemn and Coventrqy men, that so courageously beat and repelled the Cavaliers; all the country about us are so forward to help us, that we are glad to send to them to stay at home, and am confident that in six hours warning we may have 4000 men to aid us. But if a Cavalier came for help, unless it be from one of Balaame's priests, Papists, or delinquents, he will find no shelter."4 " This day, Sept. 2, there was a ship brought into the harbour at Boston, and seized for the use of the King and Parliament (five more ships were discovered upon the sea, which are not yet taken), laden with provision of arms and powder, and six trunks filled with money, which are likewise bringing up to the Parliament."' The King was so much offended with the people of Boston for apprehending the Cavaliers, that he sent warrants throughout Lincolnshire, making it unlawful for any one to aid and assist that town; and also commanding all persons to forbear taking up arms on any pretence whatever, without express warrant under his Majesty's own hand. "But the whole body of that county stand very well affected to the Parliament; and, notwithstanding these warrants, the Cavaliers dare not enter Boston."6 1 From a newspaper of the period. Special Pas- 4 Special Passayes and Certain Inforlmation, 6th sages. September. 2 A True Diurnal, September 1. 5 True and Pesfect Relation, &c. London: printed 3 Robert, in one paper. for T. S., September 2, 1642. 6 Pee fect D)iurnal, September 10, 1642.

Page  83 A.D. 1643. 83 This account is corroborated by VICARS, who says, "Lincolnshire was declared most resolute for the King and Parliament, and had raised great sums of money, plate, horse, and arms for the Parliament, and had well-nigh quitted all their parts of the Cavaliers. Some persons, who had before engaged to lend money, plate, and horse to the King, had relinquished that intention, and most willingly underwritten to lend horse and money to the Parliament's use."' "Sir EDWARD HERON, High Sheriff of Lincolnshire, was charged with being a great disturber of the peace of the county, and proclaimed as such; and all that adhered to him were declared to be traitors. Sir Edward was taken prisoner by the well-affected people of the county, as he was conveying a load of ammunition to his own house, intending to stand upon his guard there, and to join the rest of the malignants as soon as he could." He was taken to Boston, and thence to London with a guard; he was brought before the Parliament, and, after examination, committed to the Tower.2 On October 8th, Parliament resolved that the expenses of apprehending Sir Edward Heron and bringing him to London should be defrayed out of the money, plate, and goods seized in his house by Sir Anthony Irby,3 or his officers. And that the arms taken from Sir Edward Ayscough's house by the Under-Sheriff, being the public arms of the county, be made good out of the goods, &c., seized in Sir Edward Heron's house, and restored to the custody of Sir Edward Ayscough.4 At this time the bridge at Wainfleet was considered a very important pass; and a guard was, in consequence, frequently maintained there.5 A rate was laid upon Boston this year to raise 1001. is. 4d. for the service of the Government, being the last portion of four subsidies previously granted. Thomas Coney, of Boston, was the collector. The Corporation of Boston, and Sir Anthony Irby, Knt., were each assessed 41. for their lands, valued at 101. per annum. John Hobson and John Lyens each held lands; the former was assessed 31. 4s., upon land worth 81. per annum; the latter, being an alien, was assessed 31. 4s., upon land valued at 41. per annum. Nightingale Kyme, Charles Empson, John Whiting, Richard Westland, and Peter Baron, were assessed 11. 4s. each, upon lands worth 31. per annum. And James Whiting, Mayor, John Cammock, Thomas Law, Anthony Tuckney, Clerk, Edward Tilson, William Coney, Thomas Tooley, John Coney, Edmund Adlard, Henry Mowbray, William Middlecott, Henry Kelsey, and eighty-seven other persons, were assessed various sums from 8s. to II11. is. 4d. Three aliens were assessed is. 4d. each.6 The first event in 1643, relating to this neighbourhood, is found in the Journals of the House of Commons, under date February 1st, where it is stated, that the House had received information that a challenge had passed between Lord Willoughby of Parham and the Earl of Manchester: this was evidently a personal affair, Mr. Hollis being appointed to see the parties, " and to prevent any further danger." During this month four ordinances were published " concerning the weekly assessments."7 To these assessments the county of Lincoln was assessed weekly 8121. 10s.; the first weekly payment was to be made the 1st of March, and to continue weekly for three months, unless the King's army should be disbanded in the meantime.8 "Sir John Norris's regiment was early this year sent to Boston, and to join the Lincolnshire forces, who are to go to meet the Scots."9 A letter from Lincoln, dated May 2d, charges the Governor VICARS'S Parliamentary Chronicle. Special Passages, October 6. 2 Pe:fect Diurnal, October 8. Special Passages, 5 OLDFIErnLD'S Wainfleet, p. 176. October 6. 6 Subsidy Rolls. Truee Informer. 3 Sir Anthony Irb)y was at this time one of the s KINeG'S Pamphlet in the British Museum, Members of Parliament for Boston. Press Ff. No. 18. 9 True Informer.

Page  84 84 BOSTON STRONGLY FORTIFIED IN 1643. of that place-Sergeanlt-major Purefoy-with having acted treacherously to the Parliament" In holding intercourse with Papists, and granting them tickets to pass the guards and scouts at midnight, by which the intended proceedings of the Parliament had been discovered; twenty articles of accusation had in consequence been preferred against him by the town authorities."' In this month Colonel Cromwell obtained a victory over the Cavaliers at Croyland. VIcARs gives a long account of the battle, and says, "The Croylanders, on the part of the Cavaliers, were armed with hassock knives, long scythes, and other Fennish weapons." On the 27th May, "Master William Bridge, a minister," in writing to a friend in London, says," It is thought our men are 6000 or 7000 by this time at Lincoln. In the army there is good discipline, men punished for swearing, drunkenness, and stealing. I was many meals with them, and never heard an oath sworn by any of the captains or officers. I saw one soldier whipped most severely for thieving. Boston was very loving to our soldiers, sending in much provision. The train-bands of the county came in from all parts, so that, through the prayers of good people, I hope that county will be soon settled in peace."3 The people of Boston also exerted themselves in protecting that town for the Parliament. The Corporation Records state, that, on the 14th April,"Alderman Westland, who had been deputed to procure some ordnance from the Parliament for the safeguard of the town, reported that he had procured sixteen pieces of ordnance, six of which were sent to Lincoln, by order of the Parliamentary Committee; and he had covenanted with the officers of his Majesty's ordnance, to return the said guns and carriages when required." On the 28th April, the Corporation agreed"That, in respect of God's heavy hand upon the kingdom, in the present sad troubles and distractions, the Mayor's Feast (lst May) shall be, for this time, forborne, and that 201. being the expense of the said feast, shall be employed in purchasing two of the pieces of ordnance which came from Lynn, to remain in the town for the use of the house."4 It was certified during this month that Boston was very strongly fortified, and in a very good posture of defence for the King and Parliament.5 About this time, also, the Earl of Manchester received a commission from the Parliament to raise forces in the associated counties of Suffolk, Norfolk, Essex, Cambridge, Huntingdon, &c., which LUDLOW states to have been very necessary; "fthe King being master of all places of strength, from Berwick to Boston, excepting Hull, and two small castles in Lincolnshire."6 A letter of this date also asserts, "The Parliament affairs this summer (1643) have taken a bad course; and, except it be in the Eastern Association, look everywhere declining."7 During the spring of this year a great many persons were indicted at GranPerfect Diurnal. the list of persons in Lincolnshire' of good estates, 2 Parliamentary Chronicle, Part I. p. 325. who had contributed, and had in person taken up arms 3 Printed for Benjamin Allen, Pope's Head Alley, against the King,' is given as proper to be indicted. London, May 27, 1643. The following were inhabitants of Boston and the 4 See Special Passages, 6th September, 18 42 when neighbourhood:-The two membersof Parliament five pieces of ordnance are statedto have been received for Boston, Thomas Welby of Boston, gentleman, from Lynn. Nicholas Norwood of Freiston, gentleman, Thomas 5 Pefect Diurnal. Silons of Boston, gentleman, William Cole of 6 LUDLOw'S Memoirs, vol. i. p. 67. Boston, cordwainer, and Edward Tilson of Boston, 7 CARLYLE'S Cromwell, vol. i. p. 187. "In an linendraper." -From a List printed by Order of the intercepted letter from Sir John Brooks to Sir House, 10th May, 1643. W7illiam Killigrew, dated Newark, 21st April, 1643,

Page  85 BOSTON THE " KEY OF THE ASSOCIATED COUNTIES" IN 1643e 85 tham for high treason, in having sided with the Parliament. The two Members of Parliament for Boston, Sir Anthony Irby and William Ellis, Esq., were of the number. The Parliamentary party was, however, very active in Lincolnshire. Whilst a meeting of the Commissioners of Array, on the part of the Cavaliers, was being held at Louth and settling the array, it was"Set upon by four troops of horse from Lincoln, and three troops from Boston, which troopers took 120 of their horses, and thirty-six of their common soldiers; but the Commissioners escaped, and in their haste left 25001. in money behind them."' Lord Willoughby of Parham had his head-quarters at Boston in July and August of this year; and the Journals of Parliament show that he possessed the "high esteem and good opinion of both Houses."' Four hundred muskets, "C part of those that are in the Danish ship," were to be sent to Colonel Cromwell, who was"Particularly and especially recommended to have an especial care of the safety and security of Boston; and what force he shall send for the defence of Boston, the Committee for the associated counties will take care to replace." 3 On the 8th of August, it is said,"Lord Willoughby, finding the city of Lincoln not tenable with his small forces, because the fortifications are of wide compass and extent, and but slightly made, hath left it and retired, with all his forces, to Boston, which is a town of greater strength, more fidelity, and better manned and fortified, and where, if necessity required, by cutting a ditch, he can drown all that part of the county, for six or seven miles about it. Besides, he hath there the benefit of the sea to have provisions brought to him, when he wanteth, and can make better defence, if he should be invaded by a danger." 4 About the middle of August, a considerable body of the King's troops were in motion towards Boston; 5and the Earl of Newcastle took — "Tattershall, a house of the Earl of Lincoln, well stored with guns and ammunition, and most strongly fortified; the news whereof being brought to Boston, occasioned them to think that their turn was next, and thereupon they sent unto the Houses for supplies of arms and other necessaries to make good the place." General Fairfax, in his memorial, styles "Boston the key of the associated counties,"7 and throughout the remainder of the year, 1643, it appears to have been crowded with the Parliamentary soldiery, and was the head-quarters of Cromwell's army. The number of soldiers in Boston at this time must have been very considerable, since the parish register records the funerals of twentysix soldiers between 20th August, 1643, and January 1st, 1644. A marginal note says,-. "The soldiers buried here this year belonged to the Parliamentary army. At this time the Earl of Manchester laid at Boston, and was joined there by Oliver Cromwell, after the defeat of the Earl of Newcastle's troops near Gainsborough." Many funerals of soldiers are recorded from 1643 to 1653; the last bears date 29th March, 1653. The Register also records the burials of Thomas Watson and Alexander Jolly, gentlemen and aldermen of Lincoln; and also those of Thomas Blood, of Lincoln, and James Longbottam, of Doncaster, and Captain Henry Finnis, brother to the Earl of Lincoln. These persons had, most probably, resorted to Boston, on account of the troubles of the times. 1 Certain Information, June 19. 4 Certain Information. 2 Journals of the Commons, July 18; and of the 5 Parliament Scout. Lords, August 8. 6 Mercurius Aulicus, a Royalist Journal, Proceedings of Palrliament, | 7 Antiq. Repertory, vol. iii. p. 23p

Page  86 86 BATTLE OF WINCEBY IN 1643. The following extracts are from publications of the dav: — "From Norfolk there came certain news by letter this day (29th August) that the Earl of Manchester at Norwich, and Col. Cromwell,' with his forces about Boston and Peterborough, that the associated counties have already completed an army of about 8000 horse and foot; and so soon as their harvest is over (which for the present much retardeth their proceedings), the Earl of Manchester will doubtless have a very brave and considerable army as any in the kingdom." 2 The forces in Lincolnshire were during this month increased, by Fairfax sending sixteen troops of his horse to join Cromwell at Boston.3 The principal object of the Parliament at this time appears to have been a sufficient concentration of their forces to successfully oppose the King's army, under the command of the Earl of Newcastle, and to make themselves master of Lynn. In furtherance of this object, " Sir Thomas Fairfax shipped all his horse at Hull, and landed them at Saltfleet, on the east coast of Lincolnshire, where he joined Lord Willoughby of Parham and Colonel Cromwell." Sir Thomas Fairfax says, "Lieutenant-General Cromwell, who commanded the Earl of Manchester's forces, received us, at our landing, with his troops." Cromwell had about this time been victorious in an engagement near Grantham, although he had only seven troops of his own horse to oppose the twenty-four of "the enemies' horse and dragoons." After this, he attempted the relief of Gainsborough, where Lord Willoughby of Parham was besieged by the royal army, under Colonel Cavendish (brother to the Earl of Newcastle). Cromwell was unsuccessful in his attempt, and retired to Lincoln. This city not being defensible, he marched the next day to Boston, where he formed a junction with the Earl of Manchester's forces, who had marched from Lynn, after reducing that place.4 The Royalist journal says," The gentry of Lincolnshire had at this time put themselves into a posture of defence and raised divers regiments, both of horse and foot, for his Majesty's service, and the preservation of themselves against the Rebels; of whom that county was now wholly cleared, except Boston only, from whence they very rarely peeped out."' This statement must be taken for what subsequent events proved it to be worth. We know that Colonel Cromwell, besides joining the Earl of Manchester's forces at Boston, " found there assembled Lord Willoughby's detachment, and that of Sir Thomas Fairfax, in all making a gallant army." 6 LUDLOW states the number of this concentrated army " to be about six thousand foot, and thirtyseven troops of horse and dragoons."7 He also says, that the Earl of Newcastle, in order to prevent any further addition to the Earl of Manchester's and Cromwell's forces,"Immediately advanced with his troops, and sent a strong detachment of horse and dragoons towards Boston; appearing, by their standards, to be eighty-seven troops, commanded by Colonel Henderson, an old soldier, who, hearing that Colonel Cromwell was drawn out towards him with the horse and dragoons, made haste to engage him before the Earl of Manchester, with the foot, could march up, as accordingly it fell out, at a place called WINCEBY FIELD, near Horncastle."s "In Cromwell's army, if any man swears, he 2 Perfect Diurnal, 29th August, 1643. forfeits his twelvepence; if he be drunk, he is set 3 Ibid. 8th September, 1643. in the stocks, or worse; if one calls the other LDLOWs Memirs, vol. i. p. 68. round-head, he is cashiered; insomuch that the country where they come, leap for joy of them, and Merc. Aul. September 23. come in and join with them. How happy were it 6 Perfect Diurnal, October 9. if all the forces wvere thus disciplined. Colonel 7 LUDLOow's Memoirs, vol. i. p. 69. Cromwell has at this time 2000 brave men with him 8 Ibid. p. 69. in Lincolnshire."-Special Passages, May gth to 16th, 1643.

Page  87 BATTLE OF WINCEBY IN 1643. 87 LUDLOW says that the fight continued only a quarter of an hour, and that the Earl of Newcastle's forces were completely routed, and many of them killed; the victorious Parliamentarians pursued them as far as Lincoln, which LUDLOW states to have been only " fourteen miles off," and in this pursuit many of the Royalists were killed and taken prisoners. The battle of Winceby took place on the 11th of October, 1643. A publication of the day gives the following account of it: " The Earl of Manchester's horse charged Henderson and his troops with such courage, that in less than half-an-hour's fight, they were all routed and run for their lives, although they were two for one. There were slain in the pursuit (which was full six miles) about 600, and many drowned in the chase; one hundred and fourteen were found dead in the waters and mires next day. There were also about 7 or 800 taken prisoners, and eighteen colours at the least; these were brought in the first night, also their waggons. Many more colours it is like were lost in the chase. The horses and arms that were taken were more than the men doubled. I may not omit to relate the valour of Sir Thomas Fairfax, who, when he viewed the enemy, and saw great odds in their number, was so much the more moved with undaunted courage, saying,'Come, let us fall on, I never prospered better than when I fought against the enemy three or four to one.' Also that courageous Cromwell, whose horse in the first assault was killed under him, and when he was mounted on another horse, was again knocked down, yet, by God's mercy, escaped without any wound."' Sir THOMAS FAIRFAX's account of this engagement is as follows:"Chusing a convenient ground to fight on, we drew up the army there. The enemy did so on the side of another hill close by, having a little plain betwixt us. Lieut.-General Cromwell had the van and the reserve of horse, and my Lord of Manchester all the foot. After we had faced one another a little while, the forlorn hope began the fight; presently the bodies met in the plain, where the fight was hot for half-an-hour, but we then forced them to a rout. Above two hundred killed, and two thousand taken prisoners. This was the issue of the Horncastle fight, or, as some call it, Winceby fight." VICARs's account of this battle does not vary materially from the above:" The troops under Sir John Henderson," he says, " consisted of 74 colours of horse and 21 colours of dragoons, in all 95 colours. VWe had not many more than half so many colours of horse and dragoons, but I believe we had as many men, besides our foot, which indeed could not be drawn up, until late in the day. The enemy's word was' Cavendish;' ours was'Religion.' Our men came on in several bodies singing psalms. QuartermasterGeneral Vermuyden, with five troops, led the forlorn hope, and Colonel Cromwell the van, assisted with other of my lord's troops, and seconded by Sir Thomas Fairfax..... Cromwell had his horse killed under him the first charge, which fell clown upon him; and as he rose up he was knocked down again, by the gentleman who charged him, who,'twas conceived, was Sir Ingram Hopton; but afterwards, he, the Colonel, recovered a poor horse in a soldier's hands, and bravely mounted himself again.... Sir Ingram Hopton, who had been so near killing Cromwell, was himself killed." 2 The Royalist journal, however, gives a very different version of the events of this period, and says,"As those at Newberry saved a remnant by their heels, so did Willoughby of Parham, and the rest of the Lincolnshire rebels. For, by an express, we were, on the 7th of October, informed that Colonel Henderson marched towards Horncastle, thinking to come between the Rebels and Boston, and so force them to fight; but fear marcled too fast to be overtaken, for they made such haste that the Colonel could not reach them. Yet at Horncastle he overtook eight troops of Cromwell's and Willoughby's horse under the conduct of one Serjeant-Major Ascue, which on the hill durst not stand to charge, but most shamefully retreated; upon whom he pressed, and put them to a confused flight, and had the chase of them above three miles. After that he rallied his troopers, and secured his infantry in Horncastle, with two pieces of ordnance, ten companies of dragoons, and four troops of horse. Then he went with fifty troops of horse to Bolingbroke, where he thought to have 1 Scottish Dove, October 13th to October 20th, 1643. 2 VICARS' Third Part of the Parliamentary Chronicle, 1645 4to.

Page  88 88 HEAD-QUARTERS OF CROMWELL S ARMY IN 1643. found their general rendezvous, with the whole body of their army, but found only fourteen troops of horse in the fields, which, when he thought to have forced to a stand, they shamefully fled in great confusion into the fens,l where they had the hedges to skulk in, their own chosen security,.... and at a bridge took five colours of foot, and two pieces of ordnance.... Yet the valiant Colonel put them to such a shameful confusion, as he got the standard, one hundred prisoners, and divers killed; being all so frightened, that they never rested until horse, dragoons, and foot, and all, had got through Boston, but whither now their fear hath driven them, he could not tell, but hopes, ere long, to have another sight of them."2 Probably the next sight he had of his opponents was at Winceby, for this confused and one-sided statement evidently relates to events immediately preceding the battle at that place. Another authority says,"The loss at Winceby to the Royalists was 1200 killed, wounded, and taken prisoners; and, as the countrymen report, between 100 and 200 drowned in Horncastle river. This' with some other disasters, arising out of a sally by Lord Fairfax, out of Hull, turned the tables upon the Earl of Newcastle. Cromwell, released by the check given at Winceby from all cares for the Eastern Counties, marches forward to join Fairfax."3 That the people of the neighbourhood of Boston had a share in this Winceby fight is evident by the following extract from the Vestry Book of the town of Frampton:"Oct. 27, A.D. 1643. The accounts of Robert Gostelow and Thomas Graves, the con,. stables. " Item, the said Robert Gostelow sent forth in the said yeare, two carts, gears, and horses, which was lost at Winceby, valued at 241. 4s., which was not put in his former account, by reason of a promise that whatever was lost or wanting, and not restored, should be paid for by the wapentakes of Holland, which promise failing for the present, the said Robert here setts downe the particulars as follows:~ s. d. Christopher Johnson, one cart, with the furniture, prized at...... 5 0 0 Item, one horse and one mayre, at........................ 4 4 0 Lorance Robinson lost one cart and furniture, prized at.......... 5 10 0 Item, one mayre, at........................................ 2 0 0 Thomas Pilgrim, one horse, with gears, prized at................ 4 7 0 Robert Worme, one mayre, with gears, prized at................ 3 3 0 Suma. 24 4 04 The Earl of Manchester's forces, after again defeating the Royalists at Lincoln, appear to have remained in this neighbourhood during the remainder of the year. They are stated to have been near Sleaford in the beginning of December, and one of their advocates writes thus: "The Earl of Manchester's forces, with Colonel Cromwell's, are about Sleaforth, in Lincolnshire, where I hope they are considering of another victory, and how to give Henderson a second part of a routing."3 The head-quarters of the Parliamentary forces in this district appear to have been now removed to Sleaford, where, however, they did not long continue, for FAIRFAX says, 1" On the 29th of December, we got forwards from Falkingham to Nantwich, in Cheshire, with eighteen hundred horse, and five hundred Admitting this statement to be correct, there is 4 It is not evident which side the people of no great act of cowardice in fourteen troops not Frampton aided; we think, however, that, as the waiting to be attacked by fifty. Parliament was so firmly in power in Boston, so 2 Merc. Azl. near a functionary as the Constable of Frampton 3 FAIRFAX Correspondence, vol. i. p. 65. The would not have been allowed to assist the other best account which we have seen of the battle of party. Winceby, and of the events immediately preceding 1 Merc. Britt. 30th November to 7th Decembel, and succeeding it, relating to the county of Lincoln 1 1643. generally, is in WvEIR'S Horncastle, p. 13, et seq.

Page  89 ESTATES CONFISCATED TO THE CORPORATION IN 1645. 89 dragoons;" and on the 7th of January, 1644, Cromwell was at Bedford, having left three troops of horse at Sleaford, which were surprised and taken prisoners by the Newark Cavaliers.1 Early in March of this year, Lord Willoughby and Sir John Meldrum besieged Newark with about 6000 horse and foot.2 The Corporation Records state that Mr. Westland, the late Mayor, was allowed 301. "for his extraordinary charges in entertaining divers lords, colonels, and captains, at his house, during his Mayoralty." On the 13th May, the associated counties were charged by an ordinance to provide a weekly sum, amounting in the whole to 84651., of which Lincolnshire paid 1218l. 18s.3 The other counties were Essex, Suffolk, Norfolk, Hertfordshire, Cambridge and Isle of Ely, and Huntingdonshire. In June of this year, Lincolnshire furnished to the Parliament 1000 horse and dragoons.4 Colonel Rossiter was very active this summer in clearing the country about Grantham of the Royalists; a Captain Mason, " lately a malignant priest, some other officers, and twenty-six privates, were taken prisoners and sent to Boston."5 This shows that Boston was yet on the side of the Parliament; and, on September 4th, "' divers prisoners were taken at Boston, who had plundered divers horses from the country: the horses were re-captured, many of the men were killed, and others taken prisoners, and sent to London."6 A letter written at Boston, in October, says,"' The business of Croyland hath been a distraction in our poor county; for whilst our horse was drawn forth, the Cavaliers have so run over Lindsey coast, that most of the considerable men at Castor, Louth, and other places, were constrained to come to Boston for protection. It is reported that the enemy's horse is about Gainsborough."7 On the 19th October, Colonel Charles Fleetwood took two troops of the Royalist horse near Belvoir Castle, c" and carried them to Boston."8 In the Journals of Parliament for 1645 are the following entries relating to Boston. May 9th, The Commons agreed to appoint a governor for Boston, to which the Lords apparently agreed on the 10th; and on the 26th of that month, " the Committee for both kingdoms " was ordered to grant such governor a commission. In September, the inhabitants petitioned for relief, and an order was made to raise 20001. for the relief of the town, and perfecting the fortifications. This order appears on the Corporation Records as follows: — " Die Jovis, 4th September, 1645. Upon Mr. Wallop's report from the Committee of both kingdoms, it is ordered by the House of Commons, that the Mayor and burgesses of Boston, in the county of Lincoln, shall have the estates of Sir Jarvis Scroope, knight, and Mr. John Oldfield, in that county; and they are hereby authorised to let and dispose thereof, for the best advantage, until 20001. shall be raised out of the said estates, for the relief of the said borough, and for the repairing, maintaining, and perfecting the works and fortifications, at and about the said borough and town."9 The order was left with the town-clerk to be used as need required. A collector of Mr. Oldfield's rents was appointed according to the ordinance of Parliament. The Corporation at this time claimed all wrecks as far as, and including, Wainfleet Haven: and this year a vessel wrecked near that place was brought up to Boston.10 The Parliament appears to have very soon changed its opinion respecting the importance of Boston as a fortified town, for, on the 1st of March, 1646, the town was ordered to be " disgarrisoned and the new works 1 Certain Information, January 13, 1644. 6 Pefect Diurnal, September 5. 2 Perfect Diurnal. 7 PeSfect Passages. 8 Ibid. 3 RUSHWORTI'S Collections, vol. v. p. 621. 9 Journals of Parliamenlt, and Records of the 4 Merc. Britt. 24th to 31st June, 1644. Corporation. 5 Parliament Scout, 27th June to 4th July, 1644. lo Coy]~oration Records. N

Page  90 90 SEQUESTRATION OF THE PROPERTY OF THE ROYALISTS IN 1648. slighted." In the Mayor's accounts, 1645 and 1646, the following items occur,"A present of sack and fish to the Earl of Manchester, 81. 13s. Supper and present to Col. Hatcher,' 41. 4s. 6cl. Entertaining the Scottish Commissioners, at the Crown, 41. 6s. 4d. Wine and sugar to Sir Thomas Fairfax, 18s." The people of Boston at this time appear to have had as great a disrelish for ecclesiastical authority as they had for regal; Dr. Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, when writing to Mr. Ferrers, under date 1646, observes, "You see the times grow high and turbulent, and no one knows where the rage and madness of them may end; I am just come from BOSTON, where I was used very coarsely."e The ministers of the borough were either only paid in part, or altogether unpaid, at this time; for, in July of this year, an order was received from the Committee of Parliament, relative to the 1" plundered ministers," and 1501. was ordered to be paid to them. The town-clerk was directed to apply to the sequestrators of the Dean and Chapter of Lincoln, by whom this 1501. was to be paid to the Corporation, for the use of the ministers of the borough.3 In September, letters were addressed to Sir G. Scroope, and his lady, and their servants, directing them to pay all the rents of their estate in Lincolnshire, coming due at Michaelmas, to the Corporation, or to their receivers.4 In 1648, the Mayor charges in his accounts "Expenses of a messenger to London to the General, on account of the affairs of the Corporation." 301. were "employed in securing the town and country from the common enemy." In November of this year, the Corporation paid 111. 8s. for gunpowder sent to Tattershall, and 11. 4s. for " powther" sent to Bolingbroke. A very extensive system of sequestration was this year put in execution throughout the kingdom: 180 persons in Lincolnshire had fines and sequestrations laid upon themselves and their estates, amounting in the whole to 83,9591. 5s. ld. This was the amount which they paid for their loyalty to the dethroned, and soon-to-be-decapitated, monarch. We have seen that this was a tax which would fall lightly upon the people of Boston, who had very little loyalty to the King as an individual, to pay for; although we are willing to hope, and believe, that they were loyal to the constitution and people of England. There were only four persons in Boston, and not one in the other parishes of the hundred of Skirbeck, who were affected by the act of sequestration: these were,Mr. Thomas Brown of Boston, who paid............ 200 Nightingale Kyme, Gent. ~........................ 68 George Thorold, Esq. ~........................... 330 Joseph Thorold, Gent..... * * - - a - -***. 96 There appear to have been great peculations in collecting these fines and sequestrations; and the Parliament sent messengers, or commissioners, into the different counties to watch the conduct of the committees of sequestration. There is a long and curious letter in the British Museum, written by Joseph Hull, one of these messengers, and addressed to his employers, dated Freiston, 14th September, 1648: "There was so little business to be done at Boston, that no Committee of Sequestration This was most probably the Colonel Hacker 2 Life of Nicholas Ferrers. WORDSWORTH'S who took so prominent a part in the trial and exe- Ecclesiastical Biography, vol. v. p. 190. cution of Charles I. (1649), and who was himself 3 Corporation Records 4 Ibid. executed for having done so in 1660.

Page  91 WOMEN ACCUSED OF WITCHCRAFT IN 1649. 91 sate there; Mr. Thomas Welbye, an alderman of Boston, appears to have been the principal agent of the Parliament, and Thomas Brown and George Thorold, two of the delinquents, complained very bitterly of his exactions. Many members of the Committee made large fortunes, and some never made any returns to Parliament."' A letter, signed by the Mayor and the whole of the aldermen and common council, and addressed to Sir ANTHONY IRBY, one of the Members of Parliament for the borough, and dated December 20th, 1648, clearly indicates the political complexion of the Corporation, since it approves of every act of Sir Anthony's political life during the eight years in which he had represented the borough.o This letter contains so much curious matter, not only showing the feelings and principles of the corporate authorities of Boston, but also in relation to the public and private life of Sir Anthony Irby; and so clearly establishes the consistency and disinterestedness of his course in the support of Parliament, as the constitutional guardian of the rights of the English people, that we have given it at length in a subsequent chapter. Whatever may be thought, however, with regard to the political conduct of the authorities and people of Boston at this period, there will be no difference of opinion respecting the circumstances which occasioned the following entries in the Corporation Records three years afterwards: — "Charges for carrying Allison's wife to Lincoln for witchcraft, 11. 4s. For sugar and wine at the visitting of Dr. TUCKNEYv" (the vicar of Boston), "10s. 10c. Paid Danby and his wife, being witness against Allison's wife at Lincoln Assizes, 18s. Paid Mr. Stearne for the search of Allison.... and Sarah Sewally, accused for witches, 11. 14s."3 "Paid to the searcher for her year's salary, 21."4 We cannot ascertain the fate of these wretched women,5 but these extracts prove that they were tried as witches; that the vicar of Boston at the time —an enlightened and amiable man-in some degree sanctioned the proceedings;6 and that a person received a salary from the Corporation as " the searcher for, and of witches." In 1650, the ordnance and ammunition belonging to the borough were sent to Hull, by order of the general and the governor of Hull.7 The following entries occur in the Mayor's accounts in 1652: " Paid for the soldiers' meat and drink when the presse was, 21. 12s.; spent at the Peacock, when we went about the towne seeking for vagrants and fanatics, 15s. 2cl." In this year also is a charge "for wine, sturgeon, and fish, sent to Sir Henry Vane, 61. 18s.;s and again wine and sugar to Sir Henry Vane, 13s. 4d." In the next year (1653), " Three sugar-loaves, Additional MSS. British Museum, No. 5506, things. Sir Henry Vane then, probably, resided p. 91. at Belleau, near Alford, which, on the confiscation 2 This letter is found in a collection of Broadsides of the Earl of Lindsey's estates, in 16-, had been in the British Museum. See a memoir of the IRBY given to him. The births, &c., of several of Sir family in a subsequent Chapter. Henry Vane's children are registered in the Church 3 Corporation Records, 1651. 4 Ibid. 1656. books at Belleau. Sir Henry was one of the heads 5 Had their trials been recorded, they would be of the Independent party in religion, and during his found in the Records of the Crown Office; those residence at Belleau used to preach to his neighRecords have, however, been examined, but neither bours. He was, after the accession of Charles II., the indictments, nor anything whatever relating to tried for high treason, and executed on the 14th the subject, has been found. June, 1662. He is styled an inflexible Republican. 6 So general was this belief about this time, that He held the office of Treasurer of the Navy in the the very learned Dr. THOMAS BROWNE says, in reign of Charles I., the fees, although arising from his Religio Medici, published in 1642, " For my an allowance of 4d. in the pound, became, during part i have ever believed, and do surely know, that the Dutch War, of the enormous annual value of there are witches,"-and again, "that phantoms 30,0001. He informed Parliament of this, and appear often, and do frequent cemeteries, charnel- observes, "that such profits were a shameful robhouses, and churches I' bery of the public purse; offering to give up his 7 Corporation Records, 1656. patent, and to take in lieu thereof a salary of 2001. 8 We enumerate these presents to Sir Henry a-year for an agent whom he had brought up to the Vane and other leading men of the time of the business." The Parliament assented to the proCommonwealth, with no other view than to show posal, and as a reward for his public virtue settled the custom and fashion of the age. We do not on Sir Henry an annuity of 12001. per annum.infer that they were unduly influenced by such FELLOWES, P. 429.

Page  92 92 A.D. 1652 TO A.D. 1656. weighing 121bs., and costing 20s., were sent to Sir Henry Vane," in 1654; "a present to Sir Henry Vane, 16s. 2d., and wine, 8s." and other presents in 1656 and 1657. Sir ANTHONY IRBY also received presents in money, wine, and sugar, for his great zeal in serving the Corporation in Parliament. Baron THORPE, C"the judge at Lincoln Assizes," was voted a present (not exceeding 51.) in 1653. "Major-general LAMBERT and his lady received a present, which cost 16s. 8d., in 1654; Mr. Solicitor (W. ELLIS, Esq., formerly one of the members of Parliament, and at that time Recorder), received a present which cost 41. 8s., in 1657; and 8s. 6d. was spent the same year at the Peacock with Sir WILLIAM WAILER." Jan. 31st, 1653, a letter was received by the Mayor of Boston, from the Secretary for Corporations, sitting at Westminster, requiring that the charters of the Corporation should be brought before the committee, on the 17th February next," In order that they may be received and held under the authority of the Commonwealth." It was, therefore, ordered, "that the Charters shbould be sent by the carrier to London," to Mr. Cabourne, one of the aldermen then in London, " the Mayor and town-clerk to box the same up," and Mr. Cabourne " to consult with the recorder or other counsel as to what is best to be done." In the Mayor's accounts, June 10th of this year, there is a charge of 21. for "' soliciting on behalf of Lynn and Boston for convoy for the sea trade."' On December 20th, Endymion Clayton was paid 40s. for damages sustained by him during the late war, by pulling down his houses.2 In 1654, when the Protector Cromwell assessed the country for the support of the Government-the whole amount being 120,0001. monthly —Lincolnshire was charged with 46661. 13s. 4d.; being the largest amount, except those paid by Devonshire, Essex, Kent, London, Norfolk, Somersetshire, Suffolk, and Yorkshire. The representation in Parliament was also then apportioned; Lincolnshire returning sixteen members, a number exceeded only by Devonshire, Kent, Somersetshire, and Yorkshire.3 In 1655, General EDWARD WHALLEY was appointed Major-General over the counties of Lincoln, Nottingham, Derby, Warwick, and Leicester; and, in February of that year, he wrote to Secretary Thurloe, stating that," The hearts of many good men formerly, through misunderstanding, dissafected to his Highness, are gayned to him," and also that " we have three or four idle, loose, and desperate rogues in the goale at Lyncolne. We are now attending to the gathering such up..... I pray you cleare our prysons." The General recommends some gentlemen to be put in commission for the county of Lincoln; those for the parts of Holland are," - More, Doctor of Physick, Thomas Tooley, and William Sneath: " the last two resided at Boston.4 Very strict orders were issued to the chief constables at Boston and other places, to keep the peace by " watch and warde; " these were dated March 28.5 In November 1655, a commission was sitting at Lincoln to receive offers of composition for the forfeited estates within the county. The commissioners state, in a letter to Secretary Thurloe, date 24th November, that "they have already summoned threescore of the most considerable delinquents, and charged the tax upon some of them." The commissioners requested instructions upon some points wherein they experienced difficulties.6 GEORGE Fox, the founder of the Society of Friends, or Quakers, passed through Lincolnshire in 1656; he says of his visit to Boston,"We passed from Crowland t'o Boston, where most of the chief of the town came to our inn, and the people seemed to be much satisfied. But there was a raging man in the yard; Pirates infested the Yorkshire coast at that independently constituted that it would have distime. placed Cromwell had he not dissolved it. 2 Corporation Records. 4 THURLoE's State Papers. 3 Mercurizs Politicus. This Parliament was so 5 Ibid. 6 h.

Page  93 THE CORPORATION REMODELLED BY CHARLES II. IN 1662. 93 and Robert Craven was moved to speak to him, and told him,'He shamed Christianity;' which, with some few other words, so stopt the man, that he went away quiet. And some were convinced there also." We find mention again of Colonel HATCHER in 1660, when, under date 31st March, " 51. due from him to the Corporation was remitted."' In this year also,"The Justices of the Peace for the parts of Holland were granted free license to hold the Quarter Sessions for the wapentakes of Kirton and Skirbeck, at the Guildhall. The Serjeant-at-Arms not to arrest any person coming to such sessions on business."2 Charles II. became king de facto 29th May, 1660; and it may be supposed that the course which the town of Boston had taken, from almost the commencement of the dispute between Charles I. and the Parliament, to the death of Oliver Cromwell, did not recommend the people to the very favourable consideration of the newly-ascended monarch, or of those who influenced his proceedings. A remodelling of the Corporation took place in 1662, when a warrant was issued by Sir Anthony Oldfield, Sir John Walpole, Philip Tirwhitt, Thomas Thory, and Francis Wingfield, Esqs., commissioners for the regulation of Corporations, whereby they removed nine aldermen, eight common councilmen, and one serjeant at mace. And by another warrant, bearing the same date, they removed James Preston from being Mayor, and appointed Andrew Slee in his room.' The celebrated JoHN RAY travelled through Lincolnshire in 1662, and says,"' It is truly observed by Camden, that in Holland in Lincolnshire, and generally in all the Fen countries, the churches are very fair, and built of stone, though the country thereabouts, for many miles, scarcely affords a pebble. July 27th and 28th, we lodged at Boston. The town, for that country, is large, populous, and hath a good trade. The steeple, for a tower, the tallest that ever I saw. The church is fair and great. Standing on a level country, it may be seen for many miles, and is also a sea-mark; from the ground to the highest top, the ascent is 364 steps. The lead lanthorn (as they call it) is uncovered, and raised above the leads to a very considerable height, viz. 79 steps. There is a kind of exchange, which they call the Mart-yard (by Camden called the Gild) and a Free-school, and some other buildings which we noticed."4 The following letter, written by the Earl of ALBEMARLE to the Earl of LINDSEY, relates to a troop of horse, which the latter had raised, and which was then stationed at Boston. Why it was raised, or why it was now disbanded, we do not know. The letter is addressed, "To the Earl of Lindsey, or, in his absence, to the officer in chief commanding his troop at Boston:"- "It is his Majesty's pleasure, that on Friday the ninth of this instant, August, you disband your troop of horse at Boston; and that upon their disbanding, you cause them to deliver in to the Mayor of Boston all such arms as you received for them out of his Majesty's stores. To wit, pistols with holsters, backs, breasts, and potts. The said Mayor of Boston being appointed by the Commissioners and by the Lieut.-general of his Majesty's Ordnance, to receive the same for his Majesty's use. You are to apply yourself to Sir Stephen Fox, who will furnish you with money to pay them up to the said ninth of this instant, August, inclusive; and also with 14 days' pay more (beyond that time) for the officers and soldiers of your troop, which his Majesty is pleased to allow them, to defray their charges in returning to their homes. Given under my hand, at the Cockpit, the first day of August, 1667. ALBEMARLE." Corporation Records. 2 Ibid. Anthony Butler) were not permitted to go into elec3 Ibid. Two of the new aldermen (John Empson tion for the mayoralty in 1663, because they had not and William Otter) refused to take the oath of al- taken the sacrament within the year, according to legiance and supremacy, and were-displaced 17th the Act of Parliament for regulating corporations. March, 1663; and two others (Andrew Slee and RAY'S Itinerary p. 136.

Page  94 94 CHARTERS SURRENDERED IN 1684. "Mr. Broxholme of Boston is the person who has orders from Sir Stephen Fox to pay you the monies that are payable to your troop upon their disbanding."' A great tempest and overflowing of the tide caused great damage in Lincolnshire and Norfolk in 1671. The Mayor of Lincoln paid 6s. 8d. annually to the Corporation of Boston, for the passage of Lincoln boats in "the waters of Witham, from Lincoln to Boston," in 1680.2 The Corporation and inhabitants of Boston addressed CHIARLES II. in1 1683, upon the discovery of the Rye House plot, in a strain of loyal adulation, very strongly contrasting with their late anti-monarchical tendencies: — " They are filled with horror and amazement by that late horrid and hellish conspiracy, made by persons of fanatical and republican principles, being known dissenters from the religion established in the kingdom, and not less enemies to monarchy itself, who did traiterously and villainously design the death and destruction of your Majesty; and not contented with the blood of a monarch so matchless merciful, did also contrive the murther and destruction of your dearest brother, JAMES Duke of YORK..... We do humbly and heartily assure your Majesty, that we shall to the utmost, hazard our lives and fortunes, which are your Majesty's by right and by duty, to stand by and defend your sacred person, and your lawful heirs and successors, against this and all other conspiracies and associations whatsoever." After the signatures of the Mayor, &c., and the common seal of the borough, is added, " We, the rest of the inhabitants of the said borough, do unanimously consent and assent to the above address, made to his sacred Majesty."3 After the dissolution of the Parliament sitting at Oxford, in March 1681, the King showed little inclination to call any other, and was prevailed upon to enter into harsher measures than any he had yet taken. The charters of the City of London, and other corporations, stood in the way of an absolute government, and it was resolved to break through this barrier. In order to accomplish this, writs of quo warranto were brought against them; and, in a short time, the charters were either surrendered by the corporations themselves, or vacated in Westminster Hall by a bench of Judges selected for the purpose. It was intended thereby to make future Houses of Commons depend entirely upon the will and nomination of the Prince. The Corporation of Boston agreed, 14th November, 1684, " to surrender the charters with the franchise therewith granted, and thereupon depending, into his Majesty's hands; and the town-clerkl was directed to take the necessary steps for such surrender."4 Charles II. died on the 6th of February, 1685; and on the 16th of that month the Corporation agreed to present an address to his successor.5 King JAmrs II. granted a new charter to Boston, dated 9th March, 1685, by which Sir Henry Heron, K.B., was appointed Mayor; Lord Willoughby of Eresby, Recorder; John Gostelow Snow, Deputy Recorder; the Hon. Peregrine Bertie, Charles Bertie, Peregrine Bertie, jun., Sir Charles Dymoke, Bart., and John Bishop, Esq., were appointed aldermen. Not one of these gentlemen resided in the town of Boston, and several of them had not any visible connexion with it, or interest in its well-being; but they were all undoubted adherents of the dominant powers. Three residents of the town were appointed aldermen,6 and four of the old aldermen continued in that office. Of the common council only two were retained,7 and sixteen new ones appointed. Sir Henry Heron never 1 From the original in FELLOWES'S Historical address; they merely state that the Mayor and Sketches of Charles I., Cromrwell, and Charles II. Deputy-recorder, who were to present it, were not 2 Corporation Records. An old survey of the to exceed in their expenses lOs. a-day each, with 5s. Corporation property mentions this payment as a-day for a servant. having been made in 1590. 6 Adlard Kyme, Thomas Cheyney, and Thomas 3 London Gazette, September 6, 1683. Barber. 4 Corporation Recordcls. 7 John Brown and John Christopher. s Ibid. The Records do not furnish a copy of this

Page  95 NEW CHARTERS GRANTED IN 1685; OLD ONES RESTORED IN 1688. 95 attended the meetings of the Corporation in his official position as Mayor (except when he was sworn into office), but appointed one of the new resident aldermen (Daniel Rhodes), to be deputy mayor in his absence.' The new charter was ordered to be enrolled in the Exchequer, on the 10th January, 1686; and on the 28th September in that year, it was ordered, upon debate,"That it is not convenient for the good of the Corporation (but may prove prejudicial to the same), that copies of the Charters belonging to the Corporation,2 should be given or distributed to any person whatsoever, but what are sworn members of the same."3 The Corporation, thus modelled by James II., did not work according to his wishes; nearly all the non-resident members were either removed or resigned, some in January and April 1687, and others in 1688; and several of the resident ones were replaced by others on the nomination of the King.4 On the 17th October, 1688, a proclamation and order of council were issued, removing all officers of corporations appointed by Charles II. and by James II. since 1679 (this, of course, included the new Corporation of Boston, established by James II.'s charter of 1685), " excepting those of such cities in our proclamation named, whose deeds of surrender are enrolled, or against whom judgments, in quo warranto, were entered." As Boston was not included in either of these lists, it was restored to the condition in which it was during Charles II.'s reign, before the Corporation agreed to resign their charters to that monarch; that is, King James's Corporation was displaced and the old one restored. The King concluded his proclamation, with an announcement of his intention s" to call a parliament so soon as the general disturbance of our kingdom by the intended invasion will admit thereof."5 The members of the old Corporation took their seats again 29th October, 1688, the places of those who had died since the surrender in 1684 were supplied, and the Mayor and town-clerk, at the time of the surrender, were restored to office. The charter of James II. was, by his own proclamation, declared null and void, and the town-clerk was directed to endorse that fact upon the said charter.6 Thus ended the farce of Corporation reform by James II., and thus were its ancient rights and prescriptive privileges preserved to the town of Boston. The particular directions of James II., in his letter to the Corporation, dated 14th January, 1687-8, in which he nominated certain persons as aldermen and common council, are worthy notice. He wishes them to be admitted c" without administering any oath or oaths, but the usual oath for the execution of their respective places, with which we are pleased to dispense in this behalf." He might well wish his nominees to be spared the trial of taking the oaths of allegiance and supremacy usually administered at that period to aldermen and other members of corporations, declaring the " King head over all things, as twell spiritual and ecclesiastical as temporal,"-a hard task for any one leaning to Roman Catholicism to comply with. The alteration which has taken place in the country round Boston, within the last 150 years, may be deduced from the fact, that, in 1699, "the Highway, as it was then called, from London to Boston, instead of coming through Peterborough and Spalding, after leaving Stilton, crossed the river Nene at Gunworth 1 Corporation Records. the King, in the Corporation Archives, proves these 2 The charters directed to be surrendered in facts. November 1684 were returned by the town-clerk 5 Copies of the proclamation, and of the accomAugust 11, 1685. It is probable that the death of panying papers, are in the Corporation Archives. Charles II. in February 1685, prevented the corn- The proclamation is dated 17th October. James II. pletion of the act of surrender. abdicated 11th December, 1688. 3 Corporation Records. 6 Corporation Records. 4 Ibid. A document, under the sign. manual of

Page  96 96 PLANS FOR THE SUPPLY OF WATER IN 1704. Ferry (near Milton Park), thence to West Deeping and Bourn to Boston-the entire distance being ninety-four miles.' The subject of a supply of water for the town appears to have again occupied the attention of the Corporation in 1704, when John Yarnold, and other persons concerned in the water-works, "were excused from breach of covenant in not performing the work agreeably to stipulation." In 1705, leave was given to "Wm. Beale of Doncaster (freemason), for the erection of three pillars in the market-place, to be in addition to the pillars already standing there, upon which is the cistern for the holding of fresh water for the furnishing this borough, and covering the same at top, and carrying up a pair of a stone stairs in the middle pillar, pursuant to a draft now delivered in for doing the same. The said Beale to be paid 701. for the perfecting the work." 2 In 1707, it was ordered that the " additional work to the water cistern in the market-place be laid over with lead on the floor thereof, and the stone pavement thereof taken up."3 An Act of Parliament was obtained in 1711 (10 Anne), for the better supplying the town with water from the West Fen, and granting two acres of land near Cowbridge, on which to erect a water-bouse, or mill, and other edifices, construct a cistern or pond, lay pipes, &c., and do other necessary works; and providing that if these works should be neglected or disused for seven years together, the land should revert to the Crown. It will have been observed that the water intended to be brought into the town by these works was to be kept in a cistern elevated upon pillars in the market-place; and below this cistern, it appears, the butter-market was to be held. In June 1713, however, this plan was rejected, because it was thought that " the market people would always be liable to the droppings from above." The contractor was, therefore, directed to make a cistern elsewhere.4 It is not known where this cistern was situated, but it is asserted by tradition that it was within or near to the building adjoining the churchyard in which the Permanent Library is now kept; from which the water was distributed to other reservoirs in the town; one of which was in Corpus Christi Lane, Bargate, and another in Liquor Pond Street, then called Water Lane. The last record we find respecting these works is dated 4th April, 1720, when a lease of them was granted to John Smith, of Heath, Yorkshire, who stipulated not to neglect or disuse the works, so as to cause the land to revert to the Crown.5 Whatever was the original efficiency of these works, they had certainly ceased to be adequate to the necessities of the town in 1746, when the borings for water in the market-place, under the directions of Thomas Partridge, were made, which will be noticed under the proper date. Dr. STUKELEY, who resided in this town several years, wrote the following account of it about 1719:"C BosTON, Fanumz Sti. Boto2lpli, the saint of sea-faring men. This seems to have been the last bounds northward of the Iceni, in most ancient times; therefore its old name was Icannhoe or Icenorunz munimentum, as Mr. Baxter interprets it in his glossary. I guess the first monastery founded here was on the south of the present church, for I saw vast stone walls dug up there, and a plain leaden cross taken up, in my possession. Many were the religious houses here in superstitious times, whose lands were given to the Corporation by Henry VIII.; as likewise the estate of Lord Hussey, beheaded then at Lincoln for rebellion; he lived in one of the houses where there is a great square tower of brick, called now Hussey Tower. There are many such in this country, as that now called Rochford and sometimes Richmond Tower, which is very high. Queen Mary was a great benefactress to l Almanaclcfor 1699. The route from Londonto 2 Corposration Records. 3 Ibid. 4 Ibid. Lincoln was the same as far as Bourne, where it 5 A square building, called the Waterhouse, was branched off to Sleaford, the whole distance being standing within the last seventy years, near Cowninety-nine miles. bridge, on the borders of the West Fen.

Page  97 BORING FOR WATER, 1747. 97 this Corporation, and gave them lands, called'Erection lands,' to pay a vicar, a lecturer, and two schoolmasters: they have now a revenue of 10001. per annum. The church is, I think, the largest parish church (without cross aisles) in the world: it is 100 feet wide, and 300 feet long within the walls: the roof is handsomely ceiled with Irish oak, supported by 24 tall and slender pillars; many remains of fine brasses in the church. The tower is the highest (100 yards) and noblest in Europe. It is easily seen 40 miles round this level country, and further by sea. The lantern at top is very beautiful, and the thinness of the stone-work admirable. "There was a prodigious clock-bell, which could be heard 6 or 7 miles round, with many old verses round it; about the year 1710, they knocked it in pieces, without taking the inscriptions. Twenty yards from the foundation of this tower runs the rapid Witham, through a bridge of wood; and in the market-place, in my memory, was an old and large cross, with a vault underneath, steps all around it, and at top a stone pyramid of 30 feet high, but at this time quite destroyed. Several friaries here, black, white, and gray, of which but little remains. Oliver Cromwell, then a colonel, lay in Boston the night before he fought the battle of Winceby, near Horncastle, Oct. 10th, 1643. " East of Boston was a chapel called Hiptoft, and in the town a church dedicated to St. John, but now demolished. Here was a staple for wool, and several other commodities, and a vast foreign trade. The hall was pulled down in my time. The great hall of St. Mary's Guild is now the place of meeting for the Corporation and sessions, &c. Here was born the learned John Fox the Martyrologist. Queen Elizabeth gave the Corporation a Court of Admiralty all over the coast hereabouts." The Corporation petitioned the House of Commons, in 1721, to pursue its inquiries into the offences committed in relation to the South Sea scheme.~ An address was presented to his Majesty, in September 1744, upon the then existing posture of affairs; and in October, the Corporation subscribed 1001. towards the payment of the forces to be raised in the county, as agreed upon at a meeting held at Lincoln.3 About sixty of the inhabitants also formed themselves into an armed association, under the command of Bartholomew Barlow, Esq. They had no uniform, and their arms were such as they could individually collect. In 1747, Thomas Partridge was employed to bore for water in the market-place. The attempt was relinquished after penetrating to the depth of 186 feet.4 According to the Records of the Corporation, this experiment cost 801. The regiment of dragoons, called HAWLEY'S Regiment, was quartered in Boston in January and February 1749; and the parish-register states that six of the privates thereof were married to women of Boston during those months. On the 25th February, 1750, considerable damage was done to this town and neighbourhood by a great flood; and on the 23d of August in the same year, a smart shock of an earthquake was felt throughout this district.5 About this time the trade of Boston seems to have been reduced to a low ebb, through the ruinous state into which the river and haven had fallen, in consequence of neglect and mismanagement, and from errors committed in the execution of works of drainage, &c. In 1752, an application was made to Parliament for an act for the more speedy collection of small debts in Boston and the parts of Holland. 1 STUKELEY'S Itinerary, p. 32. STUKELEY observes, that this earthquake extended 2 Corporation Records. 3 Ibid. itself to Coventry, Derby, Nottingham, and Newark; 4 Corporation Surveyor's Report, 28th November, then came eastward to Harborough, Towcester, 1756. Northampton, Kettering, Wellinghorough, Oundle, 5 "At Spalding, forty-five minutes past six in Uppingham, Oakham, Stamford, Bourn, Grantham, the morning of the 23d August, 1750, the air mild Spalding, Boston, Lincoln, Holbeach, Peterborough, and calm, and the sun shining bright, a shock of an and WVVisbeach, together with all the adjacent places. earthquake was felt, attended with a loud crack; it Then it passed over the wvhole breadth of Ely Fen, continued some seconds. This earthquake was felt and reached to Bury in Suffolk, and the country through the whole county of Lincoln, above seventy thereabouts. An extent from Warwick to Bury, of miles, but more strongly on the coast. The weather about 100 miles in length, and, generally speaking, had been for some days calm, and an aurora borealis forty miles in breadth; and all this vast space was appeared, vertically shooting rays of all colours shocked at the same instant of time."-Gentlema.n's around, which turned to a very deep red. Dr. Magazine, June 1753. O

Page  98 98 INCLOSURE OF HOLLAND FEN, 1767. This neighbourhood suffered much from a flood which took place in the winter of 1763 and the spring of 1764. This calamity was not occasioned by any high tide, but seems to have arisen from the imperfect state of the drainage, and from the unusual quantity of rain which had fallen during the preceding summer and autumn. Some idea of the state the country was in, may be gathered from a statement, that the water was on a level with the threshold of the door of the White Horse Inn, in West Street, and extended from thence to the high land near Garwick. The country continued in this state several weeks. On the 2d December, 1763, much damage was done by a violent storm of wind and rain. An enumeration of the inhabited houses and population was taken in 1767: the former were found to be 832, the latter 3470. In 1767, an Act of Parliament was passed for the inclosure of the HLauteHuntre, or Holland Fen. The bringing this immense tract of land into a state of profitable cultivation tended very materially to the advantage of Boston: for the produce of the inclosed fens had no other market, and of course the trade and general prosperity of the town would be very much increased. Few general advantages can be brought about without infringing upon either the real or the assumed privileges of individuals; and the inclosure of the Holland Fen appears to have been considered as affecting the rights of the small commoners and others, who derived a profit from stocking the fen, and from other advantages, of which they would be deprived by the inclosure. Considerable tumults and riots were the consequence of this feeling, and many depredations were committed during the years 1768, 1769, and 1770. In 1769, a subscription was entered into to defray the expense of providing all adequate number of watchmen for the security of the town during the night. In 1770, a sloop was engaged to cruise within the Admiralty Jurisdiction of the Port, to examine vessels coming therein from foreign parts, and cause them to perform quarantine.' An Act of Parliament was passed in 1776, for lighting and watching the town of Boston. This Act was amended by another for the same purposes, which was passed in 1806. A tremendous gale of wind, accompanied with a consequent high tide, took place 1st January, 1779, and occasioned much loss in Boston and its neighbourhood. Many vessels were stranded on the Lincolnshire coast, and a great number of cattle destroyed. The lower part of Boston was overflowed by the tide, which rose higher than it had ever been remembered to have done, but it has been exceeded several times since. In 1779, a proposition that the Mayor should subscribe 501. towards ascertaining the best mode of bringing fresh water into the market-place, was negatived in the Common Hall.2 An endeavour to raise 2001. towards bringing water from the New River, to a conduit to be erected in the market-place, was also unsuccessful. In 1783, and the two succeeding years, the Corporation spent 4401. in another attempt to procure water for the town; the depth then reached was 478 feet, when, there being no prospect of success, the design was abandoned. A particular account of the facts which this experiment developed, will be given in the section upon the Geology of the district. Another high tide occurred on the 24th January, 1782, which caused much distress to the inhabitants and considerable injury to property. An Act of Parliament for the better paving and cleansing the streets of Boston Corporation Records. 2 Ibid.

Page  99 INCLOSURE OF EAST, WEST, AND WILDMORE FENS, 1802. 99 was passed in 1792. By this Act, all sign-posts, porches, steps, and other encroachments upon the streets, were removed, and many very excellent regulations were provided for the comfort of the inhabitants. This Act was amended and rendered more effectual by another, which was passed in 1806.1 The " Boston Armed Association " was formed 5th May, 1798. The corps provided its own arms, ammunition, accoutrements, and clothing, and took no pay for its services. Its object was to assist the civil power in any part of the borough or hamlet of Skirbeck Quarter in case of invasion, rebellion, insurrection, civil commotion, or any other case of extraordinary emergency. It consisted of three companies of fifty men each. In 1799, the Spalding troop of' Yeomanry Cavalry was called in to aid in suppressing a rather serious riot which took place in Boston, in consequence of some misunderstanding about balloting for the militia. The rioters were chiefly from the neighbourhood. The inclosure of those immense tracts of land, the East, West, and Wildmore Fens, which commenced in 1802, in pursuance of an Act of Parliament passed the preceding year, added much to the commercial importance of Boston, as well as to the salubrity, pleasantness, and productiveness of the district. A full account of this great national improvement will be given in the section respecting the Fens. The Iron Bridge, which was completed in 1806, was an improvement of very great importance; the old bridge having long been regarded as a discredit to the town, very inconvenient, and not altogether secure. The account of this bridge and of the various previous ones in or near the same locality, will be given in the " Walk through Boston." The Act for the Recovery of Small Debts, which had been passed in 1752, was repealed in 1807, and a new one procured of more general application; the operation of which extends also over the hundreds of Skirbeck and Kirton, excepting the parishes of Surfleet and Gosberton.2 The question was again stirred this year respecting the practicability of conveying water by pipes from Hagnaby to Boston, but it was thought that it could not be done.3 Sir Joseph Banks was consulted, and he is stated to have expressed an opinion c" that it would not be practicable to convey water by pipes to so great a distance."' On the evening of November 30th, 1807, the tide rose so high at Boston that very few houses near the river escaped its effects; the water flowing in many instances more than a foot above the ground-floor. The streets were in many places impassable; when at its height, the tide was four inches higher than the great one of the 19th of October, 1801; at the west end of the church it was two feet six inches deep, and flowed up as far as the pulpit. In its progress considerable damage was done; and it being what is called " a stolen tide," the country was not prepared for it; in consequence many sheep in the marshes were drowned. This tide is said to have been seven inches higher than one which occurred in October 1793. The calamitous effects of the great tide which took place on the 10th of November, 1810, were of a more extensive nature than those of any hitherto recorded. The whole of that day was very rainy and tempestuous; the wind blew impetuously from the E.S.E., and gradually increased in violence till the evening, when it became a perfect hurricane. The consequence of this continued gale was, that the evening tide came in with great rapidity, and rose to an unprecedented height, being four inches and a half higher than that of November The average annual amount of the paving-rate 3 Corporation Records. collected for the seven years previous to 1855, was 4 Corporation Records. This does not correctly 9801. express Sir Joseph's opinion, which had evidenliv 2 This Act is superseded by the County Courts Act. relation to the want of asufficient fall.

Page  100 100 THE HIGH TIDE, NOV. 10, 1810. 1807; whole streets in the vicinity of the river were completely inundated, and many parts of the town, which had hitherto escaped the effects of a high tide, were on this occasion covered to a considerable depth with water. Owing to the sea-banks having given way in many parts of the neighbourhood, and an immense quantity of water having spread itself through these breaches over the adjacent country, which on the ebb of the tide had to return the same way until it had reached their level, the water in the streets of Boston did not perceptibly abate for nearly an hour. In all probability, the sea-banks giving way saved the town of Boston from almost entire destruction; for, had the tide flowed on in its accustomed channel until it had spent itself, it must have risen considerably higher, and the extent of the mischief that would have been occasioned in Boston is not to be easily defined. As it was, the town was saved, but the surrounding country was deluged. The old sea-banks were insufficient in height, and the surge dashed over them for nearly their whole extent, and in its fall scoured away the soil of the bank on the land side from the summit to the base, by which means the breaches were occasioned. The whole extent of country from Wainfleet to Spalding shared in this calamity; great numbers of sheep and other cattle were drowned; corn and haystacks were swept away; and property to the following amount destroyed: ~ s. d. Individual losses.................................. 16,840 10 0 (Of which 80001. belonged to persons who were either totally ruined, or materially distressed thereby.) Injury to public sea-banks.......................... 3500 0 0 Ditto private sea-banks......................... 8000 0 0 28,340 10 0 A subscription was entered into to relieve, in some degree, the distresses of those who had been injured by this great calamity; and a committee was appointed to ascertain the actual losses sustained by the indigent only, which was found to be 39281. 18s. 6d.' A still higher tide, however, occurred on the 2d March, 1820; it is said to have exceeded that of 1810 by several inches. The private banks enclosing the out-marshes from Butterwick to Wainfleet were all considerably injured. The additional height and strength which had been given to the old sea-banks since 1810, saved them from any material injury. An Act for lighting the town with gas received the royal assent May 2d, 1825; and the works which have since been completed have added much to the comfort, convenience, and security of the inhabitants.2 Great improvements commenced in the market-place about 1819. These were, replacing a row of very inferior buildings, which extended nearly from the end of Angel Lane to the corner of Church Lane, on the west side of the market-place, with a range of good houses and handsome shops; taking down the Market Cross, which occupied the centre of the market space, and erecting the Assembly Rooms at the north-east angle of the bridge. These improvements will be particularly described in another Division. l~~ z~~~~~ s. d. Other parishes smaller amounts. —From a StateWyberton sustained of this...... 631 11 0 ment published at the time. Fosdyke,,,,...... 816 11 o 2 The annual average of the rate collected for Alderchurch,,,,...... 261 14 0 lighting the town for the seven years previous to Surfleet,,,,...... 601 5 0 1855 was 8601. Fishtoft a,,,...... 1277 2 6 Frampton,,,...... 143 15 0 Kirton,,,...... 100 5 0

Page  101 TOLL CASE, REFORM BILL, ETC. 101 The right of the Corporation to exact certain tolls upon horses, cattle, and sheep, wool, carts, waggons, &c., passing the bridge into or through the town, or unloading therein, had long been doubted;2 and a meeting of the inhabitants was held in June 1828, when a petition was addressed to the Corporation, asking that body to take the subject into consideration and abolish the tolls. The Corporation replied, that the said tolls were given to the Mayor and burgesses by charters, and that they had an unquestionable right to demand and enforce the same; that the said tolls were granted for the benefit and advantage of the freemen, and to protect them against strangers, who might otherwise come and trade in the town to the disadvantage of the freemen; that the Mayor and burgesses were, by their oaths, bound to protect and preserve the rights and privileges of the freemen, and therefore could not abandon the tolls. Actions were subsequently brought by the lessees of the tolls under the Corporation against parties who doubted the legality of the tolls and resisted their payment. In March 1829, the Corporation appointed a committee to protect and assist the lessees in these actions; and in December 1830, Lord Tenterden gave a verdict of non-suit on the merits of their case against the lessees of the Corporation. By this verdict the above-mentioned tolls were done away. We have not the means of estimating the amount which had been collected yearly, because we cannot ascertain the lessees' receipts.3 Another high tide occurred August 30th, 1833; it was accompanied with a perfect hurricane of wind, which occasioned much injury and loss, not only along the coast, but also to a considerable distance up the country. Wormgate, and several other portions of Boston, were flooded by the tide-water. The first election of members of Parliament after the passage of the Act for reforming the representation of the kingdom took place in December 1832;4 when, in consequence of the extension of the electoral franchise, 788 persons voted; at the last election previous to the passage of this Act, the number who voted was only 501. At a subsequent election in 1841 the number of persons voting was 921. This is the largest number upon record. Until the passage of the Act of Parliament for the regulation of corporations, the governing body was a self-elected one; the inhabitants having no vote or choice whatever in its appointment. The Act which was passed 5th and 6th William IV. (June 18355), placed the election of corporate authorities, all over the kingdom, in the hands of the people. One particular effect of this Act, so far as respects Boston, has been to place the large amount of annual income derived from the Erection Lands granted by Philip and Mary for specific purposes, and all other charitable bequests, until that time managed by the Corporation, in the hands of a board of charity trustees, appointed for life by the Lord In 1825, a motion was made to print a schedule both the fayres, the profits of the market toll, the of the tolls and duties which the Corporation was donnage of the bridge, the profits of the close called entitled to receive, but it was negatived in the Hall. the Holmes, with all the profits, whatever they be, -Corporation Records. for one year for 301." In 1564, they rented for 601. 2 In 1738, the Corporation indemnified the lessee In 1612, the bridge and crane rented for 421. In of the tolls (Mr. W. Wayet) " against any suit 1639, all the tolls and the crane rented for 651.; which Mr. Lot Maile, of Spalding, may bring in 1673, for the same; in 1700, for 1001.; in 1725, for against him for detaining any of his horses, sheep, 1251.; in 1748, for 1001.; in 1767, for 1281.; in 1782, or other goods, for tolls due for passing the bridge, for 1321. and seven pounds of sugar.-Corporation provided that the said lessee has not demanded any Records. other tolls than the Corporation schedule warrants.' 4 The Act received the royal assent June 7th, -Ibid. 1832. 3 The bridge and stallage rent paid by the lessees 5 All ratepayers who have been so three years are to the Corporation in 1828 was 4101. Now the burgesses, and entitled to vote in the election of the bridge-toll is done away, the stallage rents for 1601. town council, whatever may be the amount of the We cannot ascertain what these tolls had formerly rent or the rates which they pay. In 1855, the numbeen rented for, since they were always blended with ber of burgesses in the West Ward was 889; those other things. The earliest record of the tolls is in in Bargate Ward, 702. 1562, when Mr. Sowtherne rented the " profits of

Page  102 102 WATER-WORKS ESTABLISHED, 1845. Chancellor. A scheme for the annual appropriation of these funds has been agreed upon, to which we shall attend in the section respecting Charities. In 1836, the subject of a supply of water was again agitated, and meetings were held to consider the practicability of procuring such supply from Keal or Bolingbroke, but these meetings did not produce any useful result. In 1844, the first mention of railways in connexion with Boston occurs in the Corporation Records. Several schemes for railways to pass through, or to be connected with, the town, were then in agitation; and the Record states the "importance of having a station or terminus as near as possible to the centre of the borough." The subject of a supply of water was revived in 1845; and this important matter, which had been scarcely ever lost sight of for a period of 277 years,' was now destined to be set at rest by a most successful solution of the question. A report was made upon the subject, in October 1845, by an experienced engineer,. which was adopted at a meeting of the inhabitants, and a company formed, and a capital raised, to carry its suggestions and recommendations into execution. The report stated that the water of all the drains in the neighbourhood of Boston, as well as that of the Witham, was unfit for domestic or culinary purposes; that the East-Keal water was too low to be brought to Boston without the aid of expensive steam power; that the water at Partney Mill was also too low; and that the Bolingbroke water would require filtration. The water at Miningsby was 250 feet above the level of the pavement at Boston, from which it was twelve miles distant, and might be conveyed there in sufficient quantity through twelveinch pipes at an expense of 30,0001. The recommendations of the report were most successfully carried into execution, and the works were opened in July 1849. The inhabitants of Boston have, since that time, enjoyed as ample a supply of pure sparkling water as any community in the kingdom. The supply has never for a moment indicated any symptom of failure; and the long, dry summer of 1854 probably put the works to as severe a test as they are ever likely to experience. The engineer states that the supply of water is equal to the wants of a population double that of Boston in 1849; and the pressure suffi-.....; _<. _= The subject of bringing water from Keal Hill was discussed in the Common Hall in 1568. 2 M. THoMAs HAwKsLEY, M.I.C.E.

Page  103 INCOME AND EXPENDITURE OF THE TOWN COUNCIL, 1854. 103 cient to carry the water to the top of every four-storied house in the town. The Revesby Beck, which supplies this water, being a mountain stream, might be dry once in every twenty years; hence, Mr. HAWtKSLEY observed, the necessity for a reservoir.l The reservoir, constructed before the opening of the works, is capacious enough to supply the town for 180 days, or half a year; so that, if no rain should fall during a period of that extent, the supply would, of course, cease,-a circumstance not likely to occur. Thus, the supply being certain, and the quality unexceptionable, nothing more can be required in regard to this great necessity of life-good water. The loop branch of the Great Northern Railway, extending from Peterborough through Boston to Lincoln and Grimsby, was opened on the 17th October, 1848, and placed Boston in communication by railway with nearly every part of the kingdom. From 1848 to the present time nothing has occurred relative to Boston that does not more appropriately connect itself with other sections of this publication. The INcorME and EXPENDITURE of the Town Council, for the year which ended September 1854, were as follow:INCOME. ~ s. d. Rents received one year to Lady Day, 1854.............. 2861 5 0 Sheep and hog-pens, and fish-stalls, one year............ 461 15 6 Interest on turnpike and other securities................ 261 3 1 ~3584 3 7 This constitutes what is called the Borough Fund, and was this year expended under the following heads:~ s. d. Annuities principally payable for money borrowed by the old Corporation for corporate purposes.............. 1045 11 10 Salaries, pensions, and allowances...................... 728 2 8 Rents, rates, taxes, and insurance...................... 211 6 11 Police....................................... 735 8 5 Payment to Paving Commissioners...................... 154 12 0 Administration of justice.............................. 52 2 2 Repairs............................................. 261 10 7 Expenses attending markets and fairs.................. 144 2 5 Printing, law, and miscellanies........................ 530 3 1 ~3863 0 1 The Town Council have power to cover all excess of expenditure by a Borough Rate. Under the Harbour Act,~ s. d. The tonnage and lastage received, was................. 2029 15 8 Wharfage.................................. 311 8 3 Rent of marsh-land................................. 70 0 0 ~2411 3 11 1 This reservoir covers an extent of upwards of MiningsbyorRevesbyBeck, and alsoanother stream, forty acres; it is not formed by an excavation, but called the Claxby Beck, pour their waters. by an embankment across a valley, into which the

Page  104 104 AREA, POPULATION, ETC. The amount received from these sources is annually disbursed for improvement of the haven and port, and in repayment of loans previously contracted for the same purpose. AREA, POPULATION, &c. AREA. The Parish of Boston, on the east side of the water, contains,A. R. P. A. R. P. Old inclosures and commons lately enclosed.......... 1338 0 0 Allotment in the West Fen........................ 913 2 36,, in the East Fen........................ 397 0 5 Old bed of the River.............. I...... 74 0 28 - 2722 3 29 On the west side of the water,Old inclosures and commons now enclosed.......... 401 2 30 Allotment in Holland Fen......................... 1513 3 14 Banks of the river and drains...................... 40 0 0 - 1955 2 4 Extent of the parish.......................... 4678 1 33 POPULATION. 1565. Houses, 471, 41 inhabitants to each................... 2091 1678. Inhabitants and sojourners assessed to the Poll-tax, granted to Charles II. (all said to be included).......... 2070 1709. Population taken by the Rev. E. Kelsall, vicar 2.......... 3008 1767. Population....East side of the water............ 1962 West side of,,............ 1508 3 -- 3470 1778. Population stated at................................ 5476 4 1871. The number of houses assessed to the House and Window Taxes, was,-469 1801. Inhabited Houses........ 1252, Population........... 5926 1811,........ 1837,,............ 8113 1821 -,,........ 2185,,............ 10,373 1831,,.,....................11,240 1841,,......................12,939 1847,,....... 2700,,............ 13,500 1851,,........ 30675,............ 14,997 In 1851, Males, 7149; Females, 7848. Increase of population during the last ten years, 2058, or 159 per cent. Harleian MSS. No. 618. 13 Presbyterians, 10 Papists, and 4 Methodists; this population 131 were Presbyterians and Inde- inhabited houses are stated to have been 832. pendents, and 62 Antipeedo-Baptists; 10 were 4 This statement is taken fiom a document in Quakers, and 4 Papists; in all, 207. In this account the Church Archives. We think the population is the children of Dissenters (who are too young to over-rated. choose their religion themselves) are included, and 5 The inhabited houses were 3067, the uninhahelp to make up the numbers, as being too likely to bited 135, and there were 25 building. The number be influenced by the zeal and inclination of their of separate occupations was 3136. parents the wrong way." All the statements since 1781 are taken from the 3 Of these 73 are called Anabaptists, 17 Quakers, official returns.

Page  105 BAPTISMS, ETC. FROM 1560 TO 1854. 105 BAPTISMS, MARRIAGES, AND FUNERALS. The following Tables have been compiled from the Church registers until 1837; and since that year, from the Registrar's accounts:Year. Year. ~~~~~~~~ Year. n, r~~ ca z a 1560 to 1570......... 98 97 In 1807.......... 338 94 205 1570 to 1580....... 73 88,, 1808.......... 357 88 194 1580 to 1590......... 98 161,, 1809.......... 310 64 208 1590 to 1600.......... 87 78, 1810.......... 340 98 301 1600 to 1610......... 100 77, 1811.......... 350 119 201 1610 to 1620......... 88 108,, 1812........ 349 101 156 1620 to 1630.......... 112 132,, 1813......... 341 111 226 1630 to 1640......... 122 157,, 1814.......... 376 109 178 1640 to 1650......... 140 154,, 1815.......... 359 101 132 1650 to 1660.......... 107 179,, 1816.......... 308 76 153 1660 to 1670.......... 95 23 180,, 1817.......... 358 98 195 1670 to 1680..... 99 19 179,, 1818 343 83 224 1680 to 1690......... 96 26 162,, 1.819.......... 331 129 184 1690 to 1700.......... 93 35 130 I,, 1820.......... 372 103 196 1700 to 1710.......... 96 25 137,, 1821... 396 105 197 1710 to 1720.......... 100 62 138,, 1822.......... 375 99 191 1720 to 1730.......... 102 59 162,, 1823.......... 362 96 160 1730 to 1740........... 112 40 146,, 1824.......... 364 111 187 1740 to 1750....... 88 36 118,, 1825......... 370 93 230 1750 to 1760......... 83 91,, 1826.......... 369 110 256 1760 to 1770........ 121 135,, 1827.......... 310 101 258 1770 to 1780........ 157 173,, 1828.......... 358 120 203 In 1781.............. 136 40 195,, 1829.......... 380 104 265. 1782............ 133 44 176,, 1830.......... 366 124 180 1783.............. 162 44 148,, 1831.......... 368 117 237 1784............. 147 48 202 1,, 1832......... 366 98 206 1785.............. 168 50 121,, 1833......... 338 118 213 1786....... 152 46 112,, 1834.......... 353 108 233 1787.......... 168 54 128 I,, 1835.......... 401 98 272, 1788.......... 181 49 145,, 1836.. 400 105 231,, 1789.......... 184 59 185,, 1837 379 94 270 9,, 1790............. 204 48 126,, 1838.......... 407 99 289. 1791.... 218 64 93 1839.......... 352 97 289 1792............ 212 39 152,, 1840.......... 373 92 368,, 1793.............. 195 58 140,, 1841.......... 414 109 344,, 1794,...........197 60 147,, 1842...... 458 82 270 1795.......... 217 55 161 i,, 1843.......... 393 72 306 1796........... 214 57 205,, 1844.......... 435 90 294 1797.............. 240 66 166,, 1845.......... 427 75 300 1798.......... 227 78 111, 1846.......... 406 62 322 1799............. 229 85 133,, 1847.......... 430 87 339 1800............ 225 49 144,, 1848......... 444 128 436 1801............. 251 50 105,, 1849.......... 465 105 418 1802... 246 77 190 ) 1850.. 490 88 314 1803.. 296 68 158. 1851.......... 498 73 304 1.804... 322 83 139,, 1852......... 549 91 329 1805.... 303 68 150,, 1853..... 509 83 337 1806.316 100 169,, 1854.......... 470 80 368

Page  106 106 STATISTICS OF BIRTHS, DEATHS, ETC. From 1781 to 1800 inclusive, the whole amount of burials was 2990, of whom 1518 were males, and 1472 females. The total number of baptisms during that period was 3809, of which number 1946 were males, and 1863 females. From 1800 to 1812 inclusive, the total number of funerals was 2320, of whom 1202 were males and 1118 females. We think the annual deaths in Boston are not accurately stated in this table, since it includes only the funerals solemnised by the services of the Established Church, until the Registry Act came into operation in 1837. There were, during a portion of this period at least, several persons annually interred in the Dissenters' burial-ground; and others who died in Boston and were interred in other places. Thus, in 1811, the funerals are recorded in the table as having been 201; but there were also twenty persons who died in Boston and were interred in other places; there were also six funerals in the Dissenters' burialground. We cannot ascertain the number who died in other places and were buried in Boston; but this statement shows, that, including these latter persons, the deaths in 1811, instead of being 201 (the number of funerals in the table), were in reality 227. Probably, if fifteen were added to the number in the table for each year from 1781 to 1800, and twenty for each year from 1800 to 1837, a tolerably accurate statement of the annual deaths would be afforded. From 1837, the accounts being furnished by the Registrar, the tabular statement must be correct. We do not think that in this district any season is, during a succession of years, very decidedly more healthy than any other, whatever may have been the case before the drainage and inclosure of the Fens. We find the baptisms and burials during the four quarters of the year, at four several times since the inclosure of the Fens, to have been as follows:1811. 1841. 1851. 1854. M C First Quarter............ 101 47 121 115 116 96 126 102 Second Quarter.......... 80 54 101 90 129 68 86 85 Third Quarter 78 42 97 61 126 65 114 69 Fourth Quarter.......... 91 58 95 78 127 75 144 112 The Rev. SAMUEL PARTRIDGE, who, whilst Vicar of Boston, paid particular attention to this subject, says,"It appears from the registers of this parish, that nearly one-twelfth of the persons buried there in the fifty-four years preceding 1803, died by the small-pox; and that the mean population during that time was 4120." He adds,c "It also appears that of the persons buried in Boston within the five years preceding 1805, nearly half were infants under three years of age, which was about one-fourth of the whole number baptized." The parish registers of Boston, and those of some of the neighbouring villages, show many instances of great mortality, which, except during the prevalence of the plague, we have no means of accounting for. It frequently occurs, also, that

Page  107 VISITATION OF THE PLAGUE, ETC. 107 the mortality is. represented as having been very great in one parish, whilst during the same year it is below the average in a neighbouring one. For instance, the burials in Boston in 1570 were 152, or more than fifty per cent above the average of the ten preceding years; whilst in Kirton the number of burials was barely above that average. Many other similar cases could be quoted. The mortality caused by the plague in Boston in 1587 and 1588 was very great, the funerals being 372 and 200 respectively; whilst the average of the eight preceding years was only 122, and that of the twelve succeeding ones only 84. A similar mortality, most probably from the same cause, occurred in several neighbouring parishes. The funerals in Leake were 104 from November 1587 to November 1588; whilst, in the preceding year and the two succeeding ones, they averaged only 24. In Frampton the greatest mortality took place in 1586-87, when 130 funerals are recorded, the average of the five succeeding years being only 30. The greatest mortality in Kirton about this period was in 1590, when 102 funerals are recorded; those of 1589 having been only 57. Other visitations of the plague, or some violent epidemic, occurred in Bostoll in 1637, raising the funerals about 45 per cent; and in 1658,1 1666, 1667, and 1668, when the funerals were 30 per cent above the average. The registers show that the mortality was very high in Boston in 1643, 1652, 1656, and 1657; also in 1680, 1691, 1701, 1704, 1719, 1741, 1763, and 1780;2 and in Kirton in 1719 and 1724.3 The small-pox was frequently epidemic in England in the 17th and 18th centuries, and probably was the cause of some of these increased mortalities. In 1782, a note in the Boston Register states,"The influenza raged generally through the kingdom this year, particularly in the north, and was fatal to many. Forty-five burials took place in Boston in the month of April owing to this disorder. It extended also through most of the northern parts of Europe." As regards the present sanitary position of Boston, it may be stated that the average mortality of 1851, 1852, and 1853, was 323, the average population being 15,222. The deaths, therefore, were about 1 in 47, or 28 per cent. The average mortality of England is estimated at 1 in 45, or 2- per cent. So that Boston, in this point of view, is, at least, equal to the average of the kingdom. I This was not the plague, but probably a " severe than the usual sickness (disorders) during the year. epidemic or influenza, which occurred generally The summer was very hot and dry, and the preceding throughoutEngland duringthe year." "Theearth winter also dry. The deaths in Kirton were unwas covered with snow from the ides of December usually few." almost to the vernal equinox, and the north wind 3 Both the Boston and the Kirton registers reconstantly blowing. In some towns, in the space ceived particular attention from the Rev. John Cal. of a week, above a thousand people fell sick al- throp, who held the vicarages of both parishes for together; it was very fatal to men of declining nearly forty years. In one of the Boston Register age."-See Dr. WILLIS'S Practice of Physic; Lon- books there is a parallel statement of the annual don, 1684; and Dr. THEO. THOMPSON'S Annals baptisms and funerals in Boston and Kirton from of Influenza, p. 11. 1550 to 1780. According to this statement, the 2 The number of burials this year was 272; " a funerals in Kirton in 1559 and 1560 were 83 and 69 very unusual number," says the Register, " espe- respectively, when the population was very little over cially as there was no general sickness in the town, 1000; whilst in Boston, where the population was except the measles, which carried off a few children. about 2100, the funerals in 1559 were only 35; and The medical men stated that there had been less in 1560, 75.

Page  108 DIVISION IV., OTHING is known of the monastery which St. Botolph founded in Boston, excepting that the period of its foundation was A.D. 654, and that of its destruction 870. Dr. STU1KELEY conjectured, that its site was " on the south of the present church," and states, that he " saw vast stone walls dug up there, and a plain leaden cross, which he had in his possession." St. BOTOLPH was buried in this monastery A.D. 680. His remains were removed to Ely and Thorney about the year 970. GouoG says, that the old house which formerly stood on the north side of the church on the ground in the front of the Sessions House, and long occupied by the Pacey family, was " some remains of St. Botolph's Priory;" but he does not give any authority for this assertion. There was nothing in the appearance of this house which indicated such remote antiquity. It is probable that the DoMINICAN or BLACK FRIARS were established here very shortly after their introduction into England, which was in the year 1221. Their house, or a great part of it, was burnt down during Chamberlain's riot in 1287 or 1288. The only account which is known to be extant respecting the destruction of this Friary is the following, " A.D. 1288, the church of the Black Friars at St. Botolph's was burnt, together with the refectory and other houses."' This fraternity was re-established very shortly after this calamity; for, in 1291, John of Sutton held a piece of ground in this town, containing forty-four perches, for the "preaching friars of St. Botolph."2 In 1292, a patent was granted to the same fraternity.3 This Friary is said to have been founded by the Tilney family, but the date of its establishment is not known, neither is there anything upon record respecting it. Its site was in South Street, between Shod Friars' Lane and Spain Lane; the building in the former lane, which was latterly used as a gaol, was not a part of this religious house. The front of a part, which adjoined the Custom-house, was taken down about thirty-five years since. In 1 TANNER'S Notitia, p. 283. 2 Escheat Rolls, Tower. 3 Patent Rolls.

Page  109 DOMINICAN FRIARY. 109 the back part of this building is an arched room in tolerably good preservation, and the interior of the upper part contains many remains of columns and arches in a very ancient style of architecture. This building appears to have been the gate-house or entrance into the Friary. This "' gate-house, with four cellars and two chambers, was rented of the Corporation by Sarah Lawes in 1648," and by various other persons afterwards, until it was sold by the Corporation in 1819. In some of the old leases, it is called " The Gate-House and Chimney." Portions of the tracery of windows, and other remains of this establishment, were found on taking up the foundations of the houses opposite the Pack-horse Quay, which were burnt in 1844. It is probable that the burial-ground of this establishment was in Shod Friars' Lane, near to the Public School; for, in digging the well in the school-yard (1816), the workmen found a stone coffin at a considerable depth; and there are many other indications of the ground thereabouts having been formerly used as a place of sepulture. LELAND says, that in the cemetery of this house " lay one of the noble Huntingfields, who was a late taken up hole, with a leaden bull of Innocentius, Bishop of Rome, about his neck." This Friary was granted (37 Henry VIII.) to Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk. The principal part of its site is now the property of the Corporation. At the dissolution the library of this institution was found to contain the following books and manuscripts:"Historia Turpini Rhemensis Archiepiscopi, de Carolo Magno, quomodo terrain Hispaniae de potestate Saracenorum liberavit." c" Chronica summorum Pontificum et Imperatorumn."'" De Gestis Trojanorum." " Historia Graecorum." " Historia Britonum." "Albertus de Mirabilibus." These five were in one volume. " Lugdunensis, de Virtutibus et Vitiis." " Petrus de Tharentasia, super Epistolas Pauli." " Idem Petrus super quarto Summarum." c" Gorham (Gorranus) super Lucam."2 The priors and friars of St. Botolph possessed a messuage and appurtenances in Boston A.D. 1303.3 What order of friars this alludes to is uncertain. The CARMELITE FRIARY is said to have been founded 29 Edward I. (1301), by Sir- de Orreby, Knight.4 In 1305, a patent was granted to the Carmelite or White Friars of Boston. In 1307, they had a license to purchase a piece of land for the enlargement of their house;5 and for the same purpose, according to TANNER, was the patent granted in 1309, and one of the two dated 1316. In 1349, John de Orreby possessed four acres of land in the town of St. Botolph for the prior and friars of Mount Carmel;6 and in 1351, he W1 e give this list, as well as the notices respect- randum, dated 1823, at the commencement. It ing the libraries of the other religious houses in contains lists of the libraries of many of the religious Boston, from one of the additional Harleian MSS. houses in Lincolnshire. in the British Museum, No. 6413, p. 193; it was 2 The library of Deeping Priory consisted at written in the reign of Henry VIII. From a mar- this time of twenty-four volumes, one of which ginal note on page 2, in the handwriting of that was a "History of the Island of Ely." —MiRnYmonarch, it seems to have been transcribed for his WEATHER'S Bibliomania, p. 159. own use, and, probably, formed part of the collec- Escheat Rolls. 4 SPEEDo tions of JOHN LJELAND. This MS. was found 5 Inquis. ad quod damnurnm, Tower. among what had been considered the refuse of the 6 Escheat Rolls. Royal Collection of MSS., as appears by a memo

Page  110 110 CARMELITE FRIARY. obtained a license to alienate and transfer these four acres to the "C fraternity of the order of Mount Carmel in Boston for the enlargement of their house."' In 1350, Simon Lambert, of Kirton, had liberty to give three inessuages and their appurtenances to this monastery: these were held of Lord Roos by the payment of 3s. 4d. annually, and were worth, over and above this charge, 3s. 4d., " and not more," says the jury, " because they are fallen," and in a deserted lane.2 In 1352, two grants were made to this establishment.3 Henry IV. (A.D. 1402), "Granted a license to Raimond de Cromwell, to give to the prior and friars of the order of Mary of Mount Carmel of Boston, five acres of land, with the appurtenances in Skirbeck, for the enlargement of their house." 4 This institution was patronised by Thomas, Earl of Rutland,5 and probably this circumstance induced LELAND to assert that it was founded by one of the Roos family, the ancestors of the Duke.6 This Priory, with its various buildings and gardens, appears to have extended over a very considerable space of ground; one front was on High Street, and reached from opposite Doughty's Quay to the opening into Liquorpond Street; another front was in West Street, nearly opposite to St. Lawrence Lane. Not a single vestige of this Priory is remaining. Various fragments of sculptured stone-work, and parts of pillars, arches, &c., have been discovered on its site. The order of Carmelite Friars was more famous than any other for keeping its records. John de Vinde was a friar of the house at Boston; he was raised to the rank of provincial of his order in England A.D. 1482, being the twenty-eighth person who had held that preferment. He enjoyed this situation fourteen years, until his death in 1496, and was buried at Boston, in the ground belonging to the Priory.7 The famous chymist, George Ripley, was also a member of this house; he died in 1490, and was buried in the cemetery of this Priory. The prior of the fraternity of Carmelites in Boston is mentioned in the " Compotus" of St. Mary's Guild in 1522. We find the following notices of the White or Carmelite Friary in the Corporation Records. In 1560, " a wall of brick and certain foundations and tyles were sold for 51." In 1564, the site was rented to Thomas Welby for 81. 13s. 4d. The following entry, in 1573, shows, that the Friary buildings did not come up to the High Street. In this entry, "a lyttle lane going from the High Street to the White Friars," is mentioned. The record relates to a deed which was given this year to the Corporation by Thomas Doughty, alderman, of his house on the west side of the water, next to the late White Friars. The house was re-granted to Mr. Doughty for 300 years, upon payment of a fine of 2id. yearly to the Corporation, for their manor of Hallgarth. The Mayor and burgesses to have egress and regress by the above-mentioned lane, by cart or carriage, into the inner part of the said Friary, to carry away stone, " which be now standing in pillar and wall above the soil or ground of the said Freres, at the west wall of the inner part of the said Freres." In 1578, " loose stones and bricks, to the number of 2000, lying in the White Friars," were given to the inhabitants towards the walling of a pit at Mr. Kyme's door. In 1585, the "orchard, garden, and site of the White Friars, were rented to Mr. Doughty for 41. 6s. 8d." In 1640, the heirs of Samuel Gannock held "the inner court of the White Friars, situated behind the house then Gannock's, formerly Gross Fines, p. 213. 5 LELAND'S Itinerary, vol. i. p. 104. 2 Inquis. ad quod damnum, 23 Edward III. No. 21. 6 Ibid. p. 105. 3 Patent Rolls, Tower. 7 FULLER'S Church History. 4 Charter Rolls.

Page  111 AUGUSTINE FRIARY. 111 Doughty's."l The White Friars' Church stood on the north side of the inner court. This inner court was held by Norton Bryan in 1674. John Stokes, a Dominican, ridiculed the Carmelites for calling themselves " the brothers of the blessed Virgin," and thence, by consequence, the uncles of Christ, and called upon them to prove their pedigree by Scripture. HIe was answered by John Hornby, a Carmelite, born at Boston; who is called by Bale, Cornutus; and by others, " Hornet-bee, on account of his stinging style." Hornby proved the brothership of his order to the Virgin Mary by visions, and having obtained the Pope's sanction to the truth of these visions, he completely silenced all his opponents.2 The manuscript, which we have previously quoted, says, " There are many books in the house of the Carmelites at Boston, but they are common or printed." At the dissolution, the site of this Priory was granted to the Mayor and burgesses of Boston. The AUGUSTINE FRIARY was founded by one of the Tilney family early in the reign of Edward II.; TANNER says, it was founded by Edward himself. In 1307 (the first year of this King's reign), a license was granted to Nicholas atte Gate to give lands in St. Botolph to the friars of St. Augustine. A patent grant to the friars of this house was issued in 1317; TANNER says, that the purpose of this grant was to allow the friars to purchase five acres of land, and to construct a house to dwell in. This fixes the foundation of this Priory to have been some time subsequent to A.D. 1317. Another patent was granted in 1318; and others in 1320, 1327, and 1342.3 In this latter year, John de Multon, Clerk, and others, held a messuage, "6 containing in itself half an acre, with the appurtenances, for the prior and friars of St. Augustine in the town of Boston."4 Another patent was granted in 1362. In 1360, a "License was granted to Thomas de Wike and others, that they might give to the prior and friars of the order of St. Augustine in Boston three acres of land with the appurtenances, in the said town, contiguous to the house of the said prior; for him and for his heirs for ever," &c.5 The house of the Augustine Friars was situated near to St. John's Churchyard, but there are no remains of it visible. The pasture adjoining St. John's Churchyard is still called the Augustine Friars' Pasture, and was full of inequalities of surface, denoting the remains of foundations of buildings; but there was nothing which could furnish any correct idea of either their extent or form. In 1573, "Anthony Kyme had a lease of all the site and situation of the Austin Friars," the Corporation reserving the trees growing thereon, and all the stone and old buildings. In 1642, the wood growing thereon is described as consisting of hedge-rows, elms, ashes, thorns, &c.'"Mrs. Frances Pinchbeck held one capital messuage, called the Augustine Friars, with the backhouse, stable, garden, and ten acres of pasture il 1680." The house, garden, walls, and out-houses, were sold to David Wayte for 801. in 1725; the ground was ordered to be cleared before Michaelmas of that year.6 The Commissioners appointed to examine the libraries of the religious houses at the dissolution, say of this house, " The library there we have not visitted, by reason of the plague reigning there." Great part of the ancient site of this monastery is now occupied by the Union Poor-house, its yard, garden, &c. Now the property of THOMAS GaE, Esq. 3 Patent Rolls, Tower. 2 FULLER'S History of the University of Ccam- 4 Escheat Rolls. bridge, p. 52. Hornby was living in 1408, when he 5 Charter Rolls. was a member of the Guild of Corpus Christi. 6 Corporation Records.

Page  112 112 FRANCISCAN FRIARY. Some proceedings relative to this house in the Court of Augmentations are recorded in the office of that court, but they are of no interest whatever at the present day. The site of this Friary was granted at the Reformation to the Mayor and burgesses of Boston. In 1619, " the wood growing upon the Augustine friars' pasture was ordered to be cut down;" 1 and again in 1657 and 1725. The FRANCISCAN or GREY FRIARS were established here previously to 1331, when a patent grant was issued for the "Friars Minorites of the order of St. Francis, in the town of St. Botolph:" another patent is dated 1336; and one was issued in 1355 for the enlargement of this house. Another patent is dated 1401:2 this patent was for the enlargement of the house, by the extension of its property, and the grant of lands in Skirbeck. LELAND says, "Marchauntes of the Stiliard cumming by all partes by Est were wont greatly to haunt Boston; and the Gray Freres toke them yn a manor for Founders of their House, and many Esterlings were buried there." STOW says, it was founded by John le Pytehede 22 Edward III. (1349). This person was, probably, only a considerable benefactor, for there is sufficient evidence to prove that it was founded long before that year. Respecting the library of this monastery, the Commissioners say, " The books at the house of the Friars Minor in Boston we have not seen, on account of the absence of the prior of the same house." The Grey, or Franciscan Friars, appear to have been an active and ingenious class of people, and to have possessed more talent and ability than any other of the mendicant orders. They were much celebrated for their annual exhibition of the mysteries, which were called " Corpus Christi plays," from the day on which they were performed. It will be recollected, that the mysteries, or miracle-plays, of the monks were representations of' stories from Holy Writ, or of the wonderful circumstances detailed in saintly legends. The Franciscan Friary was situated in the south-east part of Boston, and extended over the gardens north of the Grammar-school, &c. LELAND saVS, that "there lay in the Gray Freres of the Mountevilles Gentleman, and a VI. or VII. of the Witham's Gentlemen also." A sepulchral stone was dug up on the site of this Priory about sixty years since, on which is engraved the whole-length figure of a man, his feet resting on a dog, and the following inscription round the edges:HIC JACET WISSELUS DE SMALENBURGII, CIVIS ET MERCATOR MONASTERIENSIS, QUI OBIIT FERIA SEXTA POST NATIVITATEM BEATAE MARIA VIRGINIS, ANNO DOMINI MCCCXL. ANIMA EJUS REQUIESCAT IN PACE. AMEN. The order of Franciscan Friars, or, as they were otherwise termed, Grey Friars, or Friars Minor, was divided into seven custodies, or wardenships. The monastery at York, belonging to this order, was the head of one of those wardenships, and had under its custody or management, the house at Boston, as well as those at Lincoln and Grimsby.3 The site of this Priory was also given to the Mayor and Corporation 37 Henry VIII. The Corporation Records state as follows, in reference to the Franciscan friars:-" The Franciscan friars of Boston had 8 qrs. of wheat granted them annually by old custom, by the Lords of the Honour of Richmond." In 1534, these 8 qrs. of wheat were valued at 32s. A lease was granted, in 1570, to Co~poration Records. 2 Patent Rolls, Tower. 3 History of York, 3 vols. 12mo. (1785), vol. ii. p. 2C6.

Page  113 GUILDS. 113 Robert Townley, gentleman, and Joan his wife, of the Grey Friars, with half an acre of pasture in Spain Lane called " Castle Ground." The Grey Friars' Yard is mentioned, in 1627, as containing six acres. In or about 1648, the messuage and five acres of land by computation, were occupied by Adlard Stukeley. In 1650, the house was reported to be so much out of repair as to be in danger of falling. In 1652, the building was taken down, at an expense of 131, 6s. 8d.; and the materials sold for 1001. to Thomas Holderness, who was slain by a piece of timber falling upon him. In 1766, part of the land (1A. 3R. 1P.), belonging to the Franciscan Friary, was sold to Richard Fydell for 1001., and the remainder of the land belonging to the same (12A. 3R. 35P.) was exchanged with Mr. Fydell for land in Skirbeck, the Corporation receiving 27A. OR. 1P., and paying the difference between the value of the two estates; that difference was ascertained to be 3201. " John Parrot" is mentioned by BnowNE WILLIS as prior of Boston 1225 and 1226.1 It is not known to what establishment he was attached. A PRIoRY, dedicated to St. MARY, and founded and endowed by Sir John Morley, Knight, John Bacon, Esq., John Hagon, Thomas Hoke de Spinham, and John Hird, of Boston, is mentioned by many writers as formerly existing in Boston, and its situation is said to have been " near the sea." Nothing certain is known respecting this Priory, either as to its situation or to the time of its establishment, BUScHINGS mentions a NuTNNEiY formerly at Boston; it is generally supposed that the old house, formerly occupied by the Pacey family, and which stood on the north side of the Church, was the remains of this establishment. It is much more probable that such was the case, than that it was any part of the Priory of St. Botolph, as supposed by Mr. GouGH. The religious houses in Boston were evidently of inferior consequence. BROWNE WILLIS found no record of their priors, or anything of importance respecting them. There was a well-endowed HOSPITAL for poor men in Boston before 10 Edward I.; for in this year the master of the Hospital of St. Botolph held onehalf of a fee in Leadenham and Brackland, which was valued at 301. per annum; and in Skirbeck and Frampton, the master of the same hospital held one-half of a fee also valued at 301. per annum. The brethren of this hospital had a pension from the Church of' Kirton, in Holland (20 Edward I.).2 This hospital was in existence in Leland's time.3 6uw+bs+ There has been a good deal of controversy respecting the origin and objects of these institutions. They are said to have had their origin in England during the Saxon Heptarchy. When King Alfred regulated the divisions of the kingdom, each county was divided into hundreds, containing ten towns; and each of these was again separated into ten families of freeholders, called a Tything, the heads of which reciprocally became bound and responsible for each other; so that of every ten householders throughout the kingdom, each individual had nine pledges or sureties for his good conduct. Upon this account, therefore, no person was anciently suffered to remain in England more than forty days unless he was enrolled in some tything; and for this purpose the sheriffs used, at every 1 History of Mitred Abbeys, vol. ii. p. 116. 2 LELAND'S Itinerary, vol. vii. p. 34. 3 Ibid. p. 39. Q

Page  114 114 GUILDS. county court, to take the oaths of allegiance from young persons as they reached the age of fourteen, and to see that they were entered in one or other of these societies: hence the expression View of Frank-pledge. From these tythings of Frank-pledge is imagined to have been deduced the Saxon institution of GuildCompanies, which is deduced from the word guildan, to pay; inasmuch as every person was obliged to pay something towards the support of the company, by which means a common fund was raised for the purpose of making compensation when an offence was committed by a brother of the Guild. This also was the origin of modern trading companies.' But although Guilds were, no doubt, common in the Saxon times, very little is known respecting their constitution and rules until after the Norman Conquest, when they assumed different characters; some being trading companies, established for the furtherance of a general object; others were entirely of a religious nature; and some of them mere friendly associations, formed for the mutual benefit of their respective members. Whatever was their design, it appears certain that the principal intention of their establishment was to promote the general good of their respective members, and to produce by union that which could not so well have been attained by individual exertion. Mr. MADox, a very competent authority, says: "There were two sorts of Guilds, viz., secular and ecclesiastical. The secular Guilds, under their primary acceptation, appear to have included the entire aggregate of tlhe merchants and traders of a city or town, and were called Gilcla /Lercatoria; but afterwards, as the principal trading towns increased in population, the respective craftsmen, artizans, dealers, &c., who inhabited them, obtained charters for incorporating their various callings, or, in other words, for engrossing and monopolising all the business of their own burgh or city, to the exclusion of non-freemen. "Though these associations received the name of JeZerchant-Guilds, yet, in the earlier period of their institution, the maintenance of their peculiar' carts and mysteries' was commonly blended with ecclesiastical observances; and it was not till the times subsequent to the Reformation, that they could be properly regarded as strictly secular. MerchantGuilds were brought into England by the Normans. The earliest notice of such a Guild occurs in the reign of Henry I., when Robert, son of Leuestan, paid into the Exchequer sixteen pounds, as the rent orfermne for the Guild of Weavers of London." 2 The monks are supposed by some to have been the earliest Guild brethren; whatever may have been the general case, they were very probably the first founders of several of the Guilds at Boston. The Guilds of St. Botolph, of Corpus Christi, of the Blessed Mary, of St. Peter and St. Paul, of St. George, and of the Holy Trinity, have been generally regarded as all the institutions of that character in Boston. The register of the Guild of Corpus Christi,3 however, mentions the following additional Guilds, but states nothing respecting them beyond the names. The Guild of St. Catherine, the "Postill" Guild,4 the Htolyrood Guild, the Guild of the Fellowship of Heaven, the Guild of the Seven Martyrs, and the Apostles' Guild. The Guild of the Ascension, that of St. James, and that of St. Simon and St. Jude, also formerly existed in Boston, as is evidenced by certain certificates and other notices to which W'e shall hereafter allude. The Guild of St. Anne of Boston is also mentioned in the index to the Valor Ecclesiasticus; but this is probably a 1 THOMSON on Magna Charta, pp. 256 and 257. CORPUS CHRISTI at Boston."-Commissionerss of 2 Firmi Burgi, p. 191. Public Records; Appendix to First General Report. 3 Harleian MS. No. 4795. "The only chartula- 4 The " Postill Guild" is, probably, only a conries, or historical accounts of the succession, rights, tracted title of the Apostles' Guild. The latter eviforms, and instruments of election of abbots, priors, dently did not refer to the Guild of St. Peter and and other superiors of religious houses, which are St. Paul, since both are frequently mentioned as extant, respecting religious houses in Lincolnshire, separate institutions. are those of Deeping and Spalding, and the Guild of 5 Vol. iv. p. 130.

Page  115 ST. BOTOLPH 98 GUILD. 115 mistake for the Guild of St. Anne at Lincoln. Tradition, however, and the fact that St. Anne's Lane is still found in Boston, favour the supposition that an institution bearing that name once existed in the town. Of the Guild of ST. BOTOLPH it is recorded that in 1349 (23 Edward III.), a patent was granted for making a Guild in the town of St. Botolph; and also, that in the same year Gilbert de Elilond gave to the aldermen, &c., of the Guild of St. Botolph certain lands and tenements in that town.1 In 1392, Philip de Tilney de Boston and others, for the Guild of St. Botolph and the brothers and sisters of the same, held a new messuage and 42A. 3n. of arable land, and 41A. 3R. of pasture of the Honour of Richmond in Boston, Skirbeck, Wyberton, and Kirton.2 A patent in behalf of this institution was granted in 1399.3 Henry IV. granted a license (A.D. 1403), to Thomas de Friseby and others, that they might give to the aldermen and brethren of the Guild or fraternity of St. Botolph in Boston, one messuage, forty acres of land, and twenty acres of meadow with the appurtenances, "which they held of the Lord Bello-monto for services," &c.4 In 1411, the King granted a license to Richard Pynchebek and others, that they should give to Richard Lister, master of the Guild or fraternity in the town of St. Botolph, certain lands, &c.5 It is not known who were the establishers of this Guild, what was the extent of its possessions, or the particular object of its institution. It is most probable, however, that it was founded by a company of merchants, and that its objects were entirely of a mercantile nature. There is no account of any hall or other buildings belonging to this Guild. The Guild of CoRPus CHRISTI was founded by Gilbert Alilaunde, a merchant of Boston, on the 8th of May, 1335 (9 Edward III.) The register gives the names of thirty brethren (including the founder), who formed the fraternity or Guild in the first instance; of whom twenty-six were resident at Boston, one at Lynn, one at Wesenham, one at Threckingham, and David de la Poole. Among the Boston names are those of Sutton, Bayard, Pynson, Burrard, Latoner, Brass, Smith, Horn, Kattison, Taverner, Butt, Bussey, Henry, and Drope. The register is, unfortunately, not complete. It appears to have commenced with an inventory of the goods, &c., belonging to the Guild. Of this only the last two lines are preserved. Among the possessions of the Guild are enumerated C" two golden chalices, twelve silver spoons, and one camisia of St. Patrick."6 The first act of the brethren of the Guild appears to have been to pass an order that a book should be kept, to be called" The Registry of the Guild, or Fraternity of Corpus Christi of Boston; in which register should be recorded the names of all the brothers and sisters of the said Guild at its first foundation, and those of all the other brothers and sisters who should thereafter be admitted, by the alderman and confratres. The names not to be entered according to the dignity or rank of the persons, but according to the order in which they were received into the fraternity. There shall follow in the said register a kalendar, with a space opposite each month, to register the names of the brothers and sisters of the said Guild who shall die, and especially of those benefactors to the Guild who have given, or shall bequeath any memorial to the Guild, or of whose obit 7 the aldermen and brethren hold an annual commemoration. And lastly, in the said register, shall be recorded the rule of all obits, by the alderman and brethren to be held and celebrated. And also to show how much, and in Charter Rolls. his obit, and to observe such day with prayers and 2 InqUis. post Mortem, vol. iii. p. 148. alms, or other commemorations, was called "keep3 Patent Rolls. ing his obit." " In religious houses they had a 4 Charter Rolls. 5 Ibid. register (such as directed above) wherein they en. 6 Dr. STUKELEY, in a letter to Mr. JOHNSON, tered the obits or obitual days of their founders and of Spalding, says:-" Camisia is an Arabic word, benefactors, which was thence termed the obituary." signifying originally a shirt to sleep in, but after- The tenure of obit or chantry lands was extinguished wards applied to any garment worn next the skin." by Acts of 1 Edward VT. c. 14, and 15 Charles II. 7 The anniversary of any person's death is called c. 9.

Page  116 116 CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. what manner, the alderman and brethren, by the different deeds in the Treasury of the Guild, ought to give to the presbyters and clerks, and wandering paupers yearly." The register then goes on, year by year, to enumerate the brothers and sisters admitted each year. The officers of the Guild were an alderman, elected annually, but eligible to re-election; two chamberlains or treasurers (camerarii), and three coadjutores, or assistants. GILBERT ALILAUNDE, the founder, was the first alderman, and he continued to fill that office until 1349. He died 10th Kalends of May, 1353. The number of the brethren and sisters of the Guild was 104 in 1343; among whom were Blanche, duchess of Lancaster, Thomas de Mapletone, rector of Frampton, Adam, rector of Toft, Sir Saier de Rochford, John de Kyme, John Meeres, rector of Leverton, William de Spaygne of Boston, and Alicia his wife, John, rector of Skirbeck, William de Spaygne of Lincoln, and Margaret his wife, John Kynevelles, bishop of Lincoln, Roger Meeres, Roger Cobledyke, and Thomas Derby. In 1347, among the additional members are Ralph Derby, John Barett, rector of the church at Boston, Alicia Lacy, countess of Lincoln, Riseus Pryse, Thomas Derby, Robert Spayne, Dame Margery de Roos, and John de Skirbeck, butler to Edward Prince of Wales. Robert de Spayne was chosen alderman in 1349. In this year Gilbert de Alylaunde, and nineteen other of the brethren, petitioned Edward III. to make and ordain a new Guild or fraternity of themselves and others, in honour of the feast of Corpus Christi, at the town of St. Botolph; and that other certain privileges and licenses should be granted to the said Guild. This new charter, and these additional privileges and licenses, were granted to the petitioners by royal letters patent, dated at Clarendon 19th July, 1350. Among other things in this grant, it was ordered that the said Guild should keep six chaplains, " To pray every day, in some proper place in the said town of St. Botolph, for the health of the King, and Philippa his Queen, and of Edward, Prince of Wales, his most dear son; also for Simon de Islep, clerk, Sir Guido Bryan, knight, Thomas de Brembre, clerk, and the aforesaid Gilbert de Alylaunde, and the rest of the brothers, and sisters, and benefactors to the said Guild, whilst they live; and for the souls of the King and all the before-named, and all the faithful dead." These letters patent were directed to be entered in the book of the statutes of the fraternity, " to be read by such of the brothers and sisters of the Guild as desired to do so." Among the names of the members of the Guild under the new ordinance and letters patent, which were confirmed 24th Edward III. (A.D. 1350), are "Rex Edwardus III., brother and establisher of the Guild, Philippa, Queen, his most benign consort, Edward, their son, the victorious Prince of Wales, Simon de Islepe, clericus, Sir Guido Bryan, knight, Thomas de Brembre, clericus." Gilbert de Alilaunde is here entered on the register as the founder and especial friend of the Guild; who had presented to the fraternity many books, vestments, and jewels; decorated the chapel of Corpus Christi, and erected other fair edifices; also given lands and tenements whilst he lived; and'" amortizando "'1 the same fraternity, and given most largely to the said Guild. Ten assistants to the alderman were appointed in 1350. These were the Duke of Lancaster, John de Bokyngham, bishop of Lincoln, Sir Hugh Willoughby, knight, and Lady To anmortize is explained by COWELL. and others license of the King and the lord of the manor. The as an alienation of lands and tenements in mortmain statute respecting amortizing land wras passed temp. to any corporation or fraternity, and their succes- Edward I. Other statutes upon the subject were sors. COWELI says this could only be done by passed 15 Richard II. c. 5.

Page  117 CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 117 Mariosa his wife, Sir Ralph Cromwell, knight, and Matilda his wife, Sir Matthew Redman, Sir William Skipwith, Sir John de Rocheford, and Sir Ralph de Rochford, knights. Robert de Spayne was appointed alderman 1356; and William Bayard alderman 1357, and four succeeding years. During these years we find among the new members, Sincius, vicar of Freiston, Richard, chaplain of Robert Pynson, John Hale of York, draper, John Wryght, Nicholas Harwoode, Robert Hart, and Richard Dandison of Boston, John Meeres, Robert Derby, Frederick de Tilney, merchant, John de Rocheford, jun., knight, and Richard Chapman of Wrangle. John de Skyrebeck was alderman 1365; and William Harcourt, 1366 to 1371; during which many members were admitted (jurati). Among others the master of the school at Boston: his name is not given. Thomas Mapiltone, rector of Frampton, was alderman 1374; and William de Spaygne in 1376 and 1377. During which years the rector of Wyberton, John Rocheford, jun., and Alicia his wife, William Spaygne of Lincoln, and Robert Derby, were admitted. Also, Matilda Hyptoft, Peter, vicar of Pinchbeck, and Richard de Sleaford, abbot of Kirksteade. William Tolymonde was alderman 1378; Richard de Newton, 1379; andJacob Barber, 1380. Roger Bellers, vicar of Kirton, John Nuttynge, Philip Gernon, Margery, wife of Frederick Tilney, merchant, and Frederick their son, and many other members, were admitted during these years. John Rocheford was alderman from 1381 to 1386 inclusive; and John Dey-nes, rector of Tofte, Richard Swyneshede, rector of Wyberton, Henry Branswelle, commissary' and rector of Benyngton, Richard Ravenshire, archdeacon of Lincoln, the Lord of Eresby, Ralph Copuldyk, and Margery his wife, Reginald Reed, Lady Margaret Howard, John Tylney, Jackmote Saint George, John Strensall, rector of Boston, Sir Philip Tilney, Adam Qwykerelle, spicer, and Joan his wife, the Vicar of Pinchbeck, Thomas Claymond, and others, were admitted members. Nicholas Harewoode was, in 1381, released from his suretyship for certain men. Philip Tylney, knight, was alderman in 1387 and 1388; and Philip Gernon in 1389 and 1390.2 John Curteys, Reginald Curteys, John Sharpe of Toft, John Tylney of Wygnale, Helwyse, the servant of John Rochford, William Anugold, vicar of Whaplode, Robert Hull, rector of Benyngton, Henry, bishop of Lincoln, Ralph Copuldyk of Frampton, and Agnes, servant of Simon Dowode, were among the new members. John Rocheford was again alderman of this Guild from 1391 to 1394; John Bell for the years 1395, 6, and 7; and John Rocheford again for 1397, 8,3 and 9. And among the new members admitted were John Tilney, Richard Pynchebek, William Spaynge, the Lord and Lady of Beaumond, John Gulle of Boston, John Tilney, and Frederick, son of Philip Tilney, and Richard Alkebarghe, vicar of Sybsey. William Spaynge was alderman 1400 to 14034 inclusive; and Hugh Witham in 1404. In which years Thomas, duke of Exeter, "princepsfamosus," Matilda Marfleete, mistress of the school in Boston, Richard Pinchbeck of Boston, vintner, "Commissary," says COWELL, "is a title of 2 Patent grants to this Guild were issued in 1389 ecclesiastical jurisdiction, appertaining to such as and 1392. exercise spiritual control in places of the diocese 3 In 1398, John Strensall, parson of thechurch at distant from the chief city." "A commissary sup.. Boston, and others, held for the aldermen and the plies the Bishop's jurisdiction and office in the out- brethren and sisters of the same, 23s. 4d. rent of a places of his diocese, or in such parishes as be messuagethere.-Inquis. post Mortem, vol.iii.p. 219. peculiar to the Bishop, and exempt from the juris- 4 A patent was granted to this Guild in, 1403o3 —diction of the Archdeacon." Patent Rolls.

Page  118 118 REGISTER OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. and Alice his wife, Thomas Cracofte, and many other brethren and sisters, were admitted. John Symondes was alderman 1405; Thomas Willoughby, knight, 1406 and 1407; John Coke, 1408; John Rocheford, 1409; and Hugh Witham again, 1410 and 1411. In these years were admitted Gilbert Fanne, vicar of Spalding, Henry Cammok, Mabilla Spaynge, John Wassyngton, rector of Toft, Richard Upton, prior of Freiston, Humphrey, duke of Gloucester, princeps gyraciosus, Sir John Copuldlyk, John Hornby, brother of the Carmelites, Roger Meeres, Thomas de la Gotere, William Este of Louth, John Martin of Peterborough, John Balderton of Lincoln, Richard Flemynge, rector of Boston, Margaret, wife of Frederick Tylney, and Margaret, daughter of Sir Philip Tylney, John Pape and Albert von Strode, merchants of Germany, Henry Cayson of Northampton, Thomas Richardson of Harleston, the Ladies Grace, wife of Sir Philip Tylney, and Catherine, wife of Sir William Spaynge, John, son of Sir Robert Leeke, William Wythom of Boston, John, son of Sir Philip Tylney, and others. Richard Flemyng, doctor in theology and rector of Boston, was alderman 1412, 13,1 and 14; John Clerc in 1415; Richard Ayllewarde, 1416; John Henny, 1417; Robert Hulle, rector of Benyngton, 1418; Thomas Wrangle, 1419; and Robert Morton, clerk, 1420 and 1421. In these years the principal members elected were, Ralph Farceux, of Freiston, William Leucampe, merchant of Germany, William Waltham, rector of Algerkyrke, Thomas Lord de la Warre, canon of Lincoln, John Hert of Boston, Helias Castenehet, vintner, of Boston, Henry, bishop of Winchester, David Olton, vicar of Kyrketonr, John, son of Sir John Belle, and William Totyll, rector of Stykney. Robert Dixon was alderman 1422; John Palmer, 1423; Hugh Wythom, jun., 1424; John Gull, 1425; and Richard Flemyng, bishop of Lincoln, 1426. In which years were admitted; among many others, John Ykesworth, rector of Boston, Sir Robert Roos of Gedney, knight, Philip Tilney of Boston, Esq., John Lawes, merchant of Boston, and Alicia his wife, Richard Benyngton, of Boston. Henry, son of Henry Eston of Boston, is called " marcatoris renovator istius registrio" On the 18th day of November, 1426, it was ordained and decreed by the alderman and brethren in a vestry of the said Guild, that in future no brother's or sister's name shall be inscribed in the register until he or she has paid 44s. 4d. for entrance into that venerable fraternity; and Bishop Flemyng, as alderman, confirmed the said statute by his authority, as appears in the book of the statutes of the said fraternity. John Chosell was appointed alderman in 1427; Philip Tilney in 1428 and 1429; Richard Benyngton, 1430; William Glaston, 1431; John Qwykerelles, 1432; John Lewis, 1433; Thomas Fleete, 1434; Robert Ywardby, rector of Toft and Skirbeck, 1435; William Godwyn, 1436; John Harte, 1437; Thomas Haltofte, 1438; John Woodthorpe, 1439; and Thomas Henney, 1440. During these years Robert Ywardby, rector of Toft and Skyrbek, Margaret, mother of Philip Tylney, and Isabella his wife, Robert Cracroft of Lindsey, merchant, Lady Margaret de Roos, John Boston of London, mercer, Richard Layot, rector of Boston, Roger Preste of Horncastle, Joan the wife of Alan Wryght, baker, Andrew Warwyck de Fenne, Richard Tylney, rector of North Creek, Sir Thomas Haltofte of Boston, knight, Simon Eyre of London, draper, Williamn Tylney, brother of Sir Philip Tylney, knight, John Wellhouse of King Henry V. granted a license in 1413 to town of St. Botolph, two messuages, with certain John Barker, chaplain, and JohnWellesby, chaplain, lands, &c., in Boston and Skirbeck. In 1414, another that they should give to the alderman and brothers patent was granted to this Guild.-Charter Rolls. and sisters of the Gluild of Corpus Cllristi, in the

Page  119 REGISTER OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 119 Boston, draper, John Revlynge of Boston, wolmanr, John Leedes, senior alderman of Calais, John Wyles of Wainfleet, John Tamworth of Leake, Thomas Kyme of Friskney, and many others, were appointed. William Thurland was alderman 1441; John Wyles, 1442; John Ryvelynge, 1443; John Edlyngton, 1444; Hugh Wythom, 1445; Robert Cole, 1446; Thomas Kyme, Esq., 1447; Henry Williamson, 1448; Philip Tylney, 1449; Richard Benyngton, 1450. Among the members admitted during these ten years were, Thomas Meeres of Kirton, Richard Luke of Fosdyke, Jacob Wake, master of the Grammar-school in Boston, Frederick, son of Philip Tylney, Alicia, the wife of Thomas Kyme, William Jay, rector of Toft, William Alnewyke, bishop of Lincoln, John Spencer, keeper of the altar of Saint Peter, Lincoln, John Hammonde, rector of Stickforth, Thomas Grundale, rector of Skirbecke, Richard Boston, doctor of theology, rector of Benyngton, John Marshall, rector of Boston, Thomas Goby of London, skinner, John Dymmoke of Friskney, and Richard Perpoynte of London, fishmonger. John Qwykerelle was alderman 1451; William Godyng, 1452; John Woodthorpe, 1453; William Thurland, 1454; John Revelynge, 1455; William Goldringe, 1456; Robert Cokes, 1457; Richard Fendyke, 1458; John Dymmoke, 1459; Richard Boston, 1460. The following among others were appointed members of the Guild: —Robert Tylney, Esq., of Boston, Hugh Tylney, gentleman, of Boston, John Perche, rector of the Church of St. Mary, John Smith of Horncastle, merchant, Thomas Stephenson of Boston, merchant, Richard Thurlinge of Nottingham, merchant, Hugh Reede of Wrangle, John Ludbury, vicar of Louth, William Pycher and William Pykering, fishmongers, of London, Henry Ruston, prior of Bullington, Richard Fendyke of Leverton, Dame Margaret Ermyn, wife of Thomes Meeres, Margaret, wife of Ralph Rochforde, John Swynshede, lord abbot of Swynshede, John Sybsay, draper, of Boston, Richard Chawmbyrlayne, chaplain at Boston, John Rede and William Chapman, merchants of Boston, Sir John Tamworth of Leake, William Spayne, canon of the order of Saint Gilbert, Ralph Cupeldyck of Boston, gentleman, and Jaquetta, duchess of Bedford. William Tolyet was alderman, 1461; Thomas Tolhooth, 1462 - John Sybsay, 1463; Richard Tylney, 1464; HughTylney, Esq., 1465; Humphrey Bourgcheir, 1466 and 1467; John Reede, 1468; Roger Cheschyre, rector of Boston, 1469; Alexander Ferclew, rector of Skirbeck, 1470. Among the new members were, Jacob Symond of Boston, Richard Malton, chaplain of St. John's, Roger Cheschyre, rector of the church of St. Botolph, Boston, William Paynell, gentleman, Margaret, wife of Hugh Tilney, Esq., William Sybsay, merchant, Thomas Colwell, one of the rectors of Leake, John Robinson and William Kawoode of Boston, merchants, Richard Tyde, one of the rectors of Leverton, Ralph Harebottell, abbot of Kirkstead, John Geyger, guardian of the College at Tattershall, Nicholas Robertson, merchant, Thomas Meeres, Esq., John Robynson, merchant, Richard, Lord of Welles and Willoughby, John Boothe, lord abbot of St. Mary's, at York, Sir Robert Welles, Sir Humphrey Bourcher, and Elizabeth his wife, Alexander Ferclew, rector of Skyrbek and professor of sacred theology, Thomas Foderby of Sleford, merchant, William Rede, professor of sacred theology, William Paynell, gentleman, Agnes Massingbird, widow, Sir Robert Markham, knight, John Stanhope, Esq., John Bullynbroke, abbot of Revesby, George Sybsay, gentleman, Thomas Fitzwilliain, Esq., jun., William Warde, vicar of Freiston, John Massingbird, merchant, and Thomas Merphat, rector of Screvelsby and vicar of Frampton. John Smythe, merchant, of Horncastle, was alderman 1471; John Geyger,

Page  120 120 REGISTER OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. guardian of Tattershall, 1472; Leonard Thornburgh, 1473; William Paynell, Esq., 1474; Robert Sutton, 1475; William House, Esq., 1476; John Tamworth, 1477; Robert Williamson, rector of Willingham, 1478; John Stoyle, merchant, 1479; and Nicholas Robertson, 1480. During these terms of office, among others were appointed, Elizabeth Hoose, gentlewoman, of Sleaford, William Ernes, rector of Toft, William Cole, lawyer, John Blake, tailor, Margaret Brawnch, votissa,' Cecilia, wife of George Sybsay, Henry Basse, qnercer, and Katherine his wife, John Lynde, merchant, William Skypwyth, gentleman, Rybert Burne, rector of Skegness, Thomas Ludbury, vicar of Louth, John Akaster, abbot of Tupholm, John Story, fishmonger, Robert Kyrkeby, vicar of Freiston, John Leake of Leake, Esq., Hugh Tapton, chancellor of Lincoln, and Adlard Hoberde, merchant. William Browne of Stamford, merchant, was alderman 1481; Simon Goodyng, 1482 and 1483; John Robynson, 1484; Thomas Wymbysche, 1485; Richard Speerte, 1486; John Hagons, 1487; William Harnes, rector of Toft, 1488; Sir Robert Taylbus, knight, 1.489; and Thomas Welby, 1490. During this period the following were the principal admissions into the Guild: —Robert Bate of Lincoln, merchant, William Skypwyth, gentleman, Richard, bishop of Assabinus, Katherine, wife of John Tamworth, Esq., Garard Delarmounde, Esterling, William Norris, vicar of Bicker, John Rossele, bishop of Lincoln, and chancellor of England, Sir Richard Hastynges, lord of Well, Sir Roland Thornburgh, knight of Rhodes, William Langton, professor of sacred theology, and rector of Skirbeck, Thomas Davis, grand master of St. John of Jerusalem in England, John Vynde, doctor and provincial of the Carmelite Friars in England, Richard Reede of Wrangle, William Hotham, abbot of Revesby, Thomas Multon, prior of Spalding, Alan Browne of Boston, Humphrey Littleberry, of Kyrton, Esq., Thomas Stoyll, professor of theology, and Margaret his wife, before married to Thomas Pyshe, Peter, bishop of London, John Chapell, vicar of Sybsey, William Pynchebek, rector of Surflete, Richard Rawlyn, vicar of Sutterton, John Arevome, abbot of Croxton, William Goodryk of Boston, merchant, John Viscount Welles, and Cecilia his consort, and daughter to Edward the IV., late King of England, Thomas Wright, rector of East-Keale, John Leveryke, rector of Benyngton, William Tymer of Boston, mercer, Sir Robert Taylbus, knight, Roger Shavelock of London, draper, and Joan his wife, John Copuldyke, Esq., of Harrington, Adlard Bate of Boston, merchant, Sir John Boswell and Sir Roland Thornburgh, knights of St. John at Rhodes, Jacob Bolton, master of the order of St. Gilbert of Sempryngham, Edward Pynchbek of Lincoln, gentleman, Thomas Welby, Esq., of Gedney, Thomas Bebesbe, abbot of Barlynges, and Dr. Thomas Hutton, chancellor to the bishop of Lincoln. Robert Bate of Lincoln was alderman 1491; William Sybsey of Boston, 1492; John Gudryke of Bolingbroke, 1493; William Pynchbek, rector of Surfleet, 1494; John Viscount Welles, 1495; John Brown, 1496; John Vynde, provincial of the Carmelite order in England, 1497; William, bishop of Carlenusf, 1498; William Hotham, abbot of Revesby, 1499; and Richard Horncastre, abbot of Bardney, 1500. The admissions were comparatively very few during these ten years; among them were, Richard, bishop of Bath and Welles, and keeper of the king's privy seal, Richard Nanfane, knight of the body to the king and treasurer of the palace, David Philip, esquire of the body to the king, William Smyth, vicar of St. Botolph, Boston, Katherine, wife of Richard Spert, Esq., of Hagworthingham, Augustine, bishop of Leyden, Under a religious vow. 2 Carleolensis, or Carlisle.

Page  121 REGISTER OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 121 Thomas Robertson, merchant of Fossdyke, Lady Matilda de Willoughby, Robert' Horncastre, abbot of Bardney, Thomas Sotby, abbot of Tupholme, John Odlyn, clerk of Boston, Katherine, wife of William Boleyn of Boston, Thomas Robertson, merchant of the staple of Calais, and Elizabeth his wife, William Reede, merchant of the same staple, and Alicia his wife, Peter Shelton and William Saxby, merchants of the same staple, William Murre, draper, of Boston, Henry Straile, merchant of the staple of Calais, Agnes, wife of William Paynell, Esq., Lady Margaret Copuldyke, ElizabeLth, wife of John Robynson, Margaret, wife of William Reede, merchant of the staple, Margaret, countess of Richmond and Derby, and mother of King Henry VII. Robert Witelbery, Esq., was alderman 1501; Adlard Bate, 1502; William Smythe, vicar of Boston, 1503; John Cutlare, treasurer to the Cathedral of Lincoln, 1504; Sir Thomas Tempas, knight, 1505; Sir Robert Dymmok, knight, 1506; Sir John Hussey, knight, 1507; Galfrid Simeon, deacon of the Cathedral of Lincoln, 1508; William Gudryk, 1509; and Sir George Taylboys, knight, 1510. The admissions of new members were still further diminished in 1511, and four succeeding years; the following were the principal ones: —John Kyme, Esq., John Reede, merchant, John Bylby, merchant, Joan Lamkyn, widow, Robert, abbot of Peterborough, Sir Philip Tylney, Richard Baxter, vicar of Holbeach, Margaret Curzon, widow, gentlewoman, Thomas Holand, Esq., John Pulvertoft, gentleman, Eleanor, wife of John Robinson, Esq., Leonard Dymmok, John, abbot of Swyneshed, Richard Robertson, vicar of Gedney. Thomas Robertson, merchant of the staple, was alderman 1511; Lord William Willoughby, 1512; Robert, abbot of Peterborough, 1513; John Robinson, Esq., 1514; Sir Philip Tilney, 1515; Robert, prior of Spalding, 1516; Henry Hornby, doctor of theology, andc guardian of the College of Tattershall, 1517; J ohn bishop of Mayence, 1518; John Tynemouth, alias Maynelyn, bishop of Argolicensis,' 1519; and Galfrid Paynelle, Esq., 1520. The admissions to membership considerably increased during the latter part of this term; among them in 1516, &c., are Robert Wilberfoss, vicar of Boston, Thomas Holandl, of Swineshed, Esq., Richard Reed of Wrangle, Robert Husse, Esq., Robert Brudenell, serjeant-at-law, John Thomson, merchant, Robert, prior of Spalding, Thomas Elys, merchant, Leonard Pynchbek, gentleman, John Reede, gentleman, John Lyttylbury, John Pulvertoft, Richard Whaplod, prior of Freiston, Anna, wife of Sir Leon Demok, John Tynmouth, alias Manelyn, bishop of Argolicensis, and vicar of St. Botolph, Robert Pulvertoft, Sir John Husse and Anna his wife, Edith Marmyon, widow, Galfrid Paynelle and Anna his wife, John Leek, merchant, Thomas Thamworth, Thomas Everard, vicar of Freiston, and Robert Thomlynson, merchant~ Nicholas Upton was alderman 1521; William Jefferay, rector of Wytheam, 1522; William Sutton, merchant of the staple, 1523; John Fulneby, 1524; Richard Robertson, vicar of Pynchebek, 1525; Thomas Elis, merchant of the staple, 1526; George Fitzwilliam, Esq., 1527; Robert Pulvertoft, gentleman, alderman, 1528; William, abbot of Barcdney, 1529; John Merys, Esq., 1530. In these years the new members of the Guild were very few. Among them are found the names of Thomas Paro of Boston, Christina, wife of Robert Roede, Adlard Clamondcl, John Buttre, aliacs Belynga, of Boston, Henry -lornbe, professor of theology and guarclian of Tattershall, Sir Robert Rede, chief justice of 1 The MS. has this name, Richard, in another cian Peloponnesus, east of Arcadia, and south of place. Corinth. Its capital was Argos, the site of which 2 ARGCOLIS was an ancient province of the Gre- is near to Napoli di Romania. R

Page  122 122 REGISTER OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. the King's Bench, and Margaret his wife, George Fitzwilliam, Esq., John Jaudon, prior of Sempringharm, Richard Wheatcroft, merchant, Agnes Pulvertoft, widow, John Hargrave, Katherine, wife of John Littlebury, Esq., Thomas, abbot of Revesby, Maria, wife of Robert Tomlynson, Thomas Garton, vicar of Swynshed, John Bell, rector of Leverton, John Godericke of Kyrkby, merchant, of the staple of Calais, Joan, wife of John Leake of Boston, mercer, Ralph Fairfax, prior of Kyme, Thomas Johnson, rector of Seremby, Roger iMerys of Boston, merchant of the staple of Calais, Philip Claimonde of Wyberton, gentleman, William Martin, abbot of Bardney, Lady Elizabeth Beesbe, prioress of Stanfield, John Wynbych, Esq., Anthony Irby, gentleman, Nicholas Sarot, rector of Ingoldmells, Robert Anderson, rector of Candlesby, William Rede de Womylsted of Wrangle, Galfrid Chambers of London, John Merys of Kirton, Esq., Nicholas Robertson, merchant of the staple of Calais, and Florence his wife, Robert Baryt of Waneflette, merchant of the staple of Calais, and Robert Wallay of Drybe, auditor. Thomas Tamworthe was alderman 1531; Sir Arthur Hopton, 1532; John Nedermill, 1533; John Jordan, prior of Sempringham, 1534; John, abbot of Swyneshede, 1535; Sir Andrew Bilsbee, knight, 1536; John Hargrave, 1537; John Rede, gentleman, 1538; Dr. William Clifton, 1539; and Christopher Massyngberde, vicar of * * *, 1540. Among the new members are, Blase Holand of Swyneshed, gentleman, doctor John Mabeldon, vicar of Boston, John Lade of Yarmouth, merchant, John Hochynson of Boston, and Agnes his wife, Thomas Meere of Boston, roper, Andrew Yonge, rector of Bennyngton, John Welles, abbot of Croyland, Christopher Tamworth, rector of Leverton, John Tamworth of Leke, gentleman, John Friskney of Benington, gentleman, Thomas Robertson, merchant of the staple of Calais, George Sibsey, gentleman, George Browne, doctor of theology, and provincial of the order of Augustines in England, Thomas Derby of Benyngton, and John Taverner of Boston. Sir Robert Hulle, knight, was alderman 1541; Sir William Holles of London, knight, 1542; and Peter Emere, alderman, 1543. He is the last alderman recorded. George Cutteler and John Taverner, gentlemen, were the last treasurers or chamberlains. The only member admitted during the last three years was Thomas Crowe, Chaplain.' It will be observed that the proportion of ecclesiastical members very much increased towards the end of the Register, but the commercial character of the town was then very nearly lost; 2 and it was a natural consequence, that, as the Guild became more exclusively of a religious nature, the number of religious brethren should proportionally increase. The KALENDAR, which forms the second part of the Register, consists of twelve pages-one for each month, Each month is divided, according to the Roman mode, into kalends, nones, and ides. There is a column for the dominical letter, and a broad space for the insertion of the names of the saints to whom particular days were dedicated. On a page opposite to each month are inserted the obits to be observed by the brethren and sisters of the Guild of Corpus Christi. We extract the following:-The obit of RICHARD CHAPMAN and ALICE his wife was held by the Guild on the first dominical clay after the feast of the Epiphany (in 1 This first portion of the Register fills 69 pages bourhood, or which resemble those of families now of MS. folio, and contains the names of about 1450 resident there, and especially those of persons holdmembers of the fraternity, from which have been ing office in the religious institutions of the period, selected those who were distinguished by their as abbots, priors, vicars, rectors, &c. rank and station; those whose names indicate a 2 LELAND, writing about 1530, says," the staple connexion with the ancient, and, in most instances, and the stiliard houses yet there remayne, but the extinct families of note and eminence in the neigh- stiliard is little or nothing at all occupied."

Page  123 OBITS CELEBRATED BY CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 123 the month of January). The obit of the honourable Lord JOHN BARDOLF, who died A.D. 1436, was held annually by the Guild on St. Gregory's day, the 12th day of March; and that of ALICE MARTIN, who died 28th of March, 1377, was held with her husband's in August. The obit of GILBERT ALILAUNDE, the founder of the Guild, who died in 1354, was celebrated on the vigil of St. George, in the month of April. MATILDA DE BnYMBRE, who died 1380, had a yearly obit on the 1st day of May. JOHN HOLMETON, of Boston, who died in 1413, had an annual obit on the 16th of May. FREDERICK TYLNEY, merchant of Boston, and MAR~GERY his wife, had an annual obit on the last day of May. "They gave to this Guild many goods, jewels, and ornaments, vestments, and gold, and also lands and tenements called Hemerycotes, with amortization to sustain the obit in a liberal manner for ever." The obit of RICHARD BENYNGTON1 and JOAN his wife was held annually on the 3d of July; that of WILLIAM THORLANDE and MARGARET his wife on the 13th of that month; and that of HENRY WYSKE on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, the 22d of July. JOHN MARTIN and ALICE his wife had their obit on the first dominical day after the festival of St. Peter ad Vincula in August. The obit of HENRY BASSE, mercer, of Boston, and CATHERINE his wife, was on the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary in the month of August. HENRY ESTONE, of Boston, merchant, who died 1396, and left 20s. to the Guild, had an obit on the 27th of August. JOHN NUTTYNGE had an annual obit celebrated on the first dominical day after the commemoration of the Nativity of the Blessed Mary in the month of September. WILLIAM TOLYMUNDE, sen., and MATILDA his wife, and WILLIAM TOLYMUNDE, jun., had their annual obit on the Monday before the festival of St. Matthew the Apostle, in the month of September. HERMAN STEYNFORDE and ALICE his wife had an annual obit on the dominical day next before the feast of St. Martin in November. JOHN STRENSALL,2 rector of Boston, who died 1408, had an obit celebrated annually on the day after the feast of St. Martin, by the Guild of the Holy Trinity. Sir JOHN ROCEFORDm, knight, who died 1410, had an annual obit on the 13th of December. The latter part of the Register of this Guild is occupied with the rules and regulations with which the annual obits were to be observed, and contains much curious and interesting information. The caption to this portion is in these words:" Here follow the rules of the anniversaries to be held by this Guild, as to on what days and months, also respecting the money to be distributed, and the annual ceremonies to be observed by the alderman and brethren at the time, for the divers lands and tenements which the Guild holds in perpetuity, as it shall continue to observe them." Nearly all the obits recorded in the Kalendar are here treated upon at considerable length; and in addition are given the rules and ceremonies to be observed. At the obit of WILLIAM REEDE, merchant, of Boston, and his wives Alice, Margaret, and Anne, to be observed annually at the feast of the Invention of the Holy Cross, " or at least within four days immediately before or after that feast," 26s. 8d. were to be distributed in the following manner: "In the first place, the bellman (prolinctor), accompanied by the sacristan of the Guild, shall make the circuit of the town, proclaiming at each station,"Ye shall pray for the souls of William Reede, of Boston, and Alice, Margaret, and Anne, 1 The Guild of Corpus Christi is stated (Valor yield more than paid the expenses of his annual Eccles. vol. iv. p. 88), to have been founded by Gil- obit. bert Alilaunde and Richard Bennyngton; the latter 2 JOHN STRENSALL was a brother of the Guild certainly could not be one of its founders, for he of the Holy Trinity, as well as of that of Corpus joined it ninety years after its foundation. Nor Christi. Why an obit celebrated by the former is could he be said to be a benefactor to any extent, inserted in the Register of the latter is not very for the propelrty which he left to the Guild did not obvious.

Page  124 124 OBITS CELEBRATED BY CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. that were his wives, and brother and sisters in Corpus Christi Guild, brother and sisters in Mary's Guild, brother and sisters in St. Peter's Guild, brother and sisters in the Trinity Guild, brother and sisters in St. George's Guild, brother and sisters in KATHERINE'S GUilCd,' to mnorne shall be their yere day.' To have for their trouble, fourpence. The chaplain of the Guilde of Corpus Christi, three shillings. The chaplain of the church of St. Botolph, celebrating and attending the funeral ceremonies and mass in his surplice, fourpence; the bailiff of the Guild for preparing the bier, 3d.; the clerk of the Guild, if present, 3d.; the three clerks of the parish, if present at the funeral ceremonies, 2d. each; the six poor singing clerks, a halfpenny each. An oblation for the mass, 4d. The alderman of the Guild, or, in his absence, the sacristan attending and performing these services, 2d. for his labour. To the poor, infirm, and most indigent in the said town of St. Botolph, 5s. To the chamberlains of the Guild, or, in their absence, to the sacristan for distributing the same, 6d, To the friars minor of Boston, diligently attending to, and singing the funeral ceremonies and mass annually with knowledge, in their own church on the feast of the Invention of the Cross, and preparing a bier in the middle of the quire there, with two candles burning during the time of the exiques and mass, 2s.; and for an offering in that church, 3d. The alderman of this Guild, or in his absence, the chamberlains or treasurers, or in their absence, the sacristan, for offering the said oblation, 2d. The remainder of the said 26s. and 8d. to be given to the poor of the parish by the chamberlains or sacristan of this Guild, on the aforesaid day annually. And in defect of the distribution of the said 26s. and 8d. in the manner aforesaid, the alderman and brethren of the Guild of Corpus Christi shall pay a fine of 60s. to the alderman of the Guild of St. Mary. The whole of these matters are declared in like manner by indentures tripartite, whereof one part remains in the Guild of Corpus Christi, a second with the Guild of St. Mary, and the third with the executors and assigns of the said William Reede." WILLIAM GOODYNG left 20s. to be annually distributed for an obituary service on the first dominical day after the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary, with the same form and ceremonies. He was a brother of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter, St. George, the Trinity, St. Catherine, and of all thle other Guilds. "All the bells were to be rung, and 20d. paid therefor." WILLIAM GAWNTE and ALICE his wife left 10s. for an obit to be annually celebrated on the 18th day of May, with similar forms. He was a brother of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, Our Lady, the Trinity, St. Catherine, the APOSTLES, and THE SEVEN MARTYRS. The bailiff and clerk of Corpus Christi were to have 2d. each for preparing garments and lights, the five bells of the church of Corpus Christi were to be rung, and 20d. paid for the ringing. The alderman was to be fined 50s. to the alderman of St. Mary, in default of those observances. RALPH ELMSALL and MATILDA PARNELL bequeathed 18s. for an obit to be celebrated annually on the 20th of April. They were members of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, Our Lady, and the Seven Martyirs. Among the bequests is id. to the bailiff " for preparing the hearse." For the purpose of this obit, three acres and three roods of arable land in Skirbeck (East), lately belonging to Simeon Goodynge, were left to the Guild of Corpus Christi. JOHN ELAND and ISABELLA his wife, and JENET KYNGE, left 2s. 7d. for an annual obit to be solemnised on the Feast of St. Peter ad Vincula. They were members of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, and the Seven Martyrs; besides the usual bequests, ld. was left for "the preparation of the hearsecloth." For this obit the Guild had two "tenements annexed to it, in the lane of Corpus Christi in the eastern part of the same lane." ADLARD HIUBBARDE, merchant, and MARGARET his wife, left lOs. to be expended in an annual obit on the 5th day of April. They were members of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter, St. George, Trinity, St. KatheLiterally so. in the MS., meaning, this day is their obit, or annual remembrance, or celebration, to be held. This expression is found in all the obituary instructions inserted in the Register.

Page  125 OBITS CELEBRATED BY CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 125 rtne, and all the other Guilds within the parish church qf Boston. All the directions for commemorating this obit are of the usual kind. JOIN ABREs, alias PEWTERAR, and MIARGARET his wife, left lOs. for an annual obit to be kept on the feast of St. Martin in Yeme.l They were brother and sister of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter, St. George, Trinity, St. KIatherine, and thle Seven Mfartyrs. This 10s. was secured upon two pastures in le Forthe Ende; all the forms were of the usual description. TrOMAS TOTTOFTE, Esq., and ALICE his wife, left 16s. 8d. for an annual obit to be observed by the Guild of Corpus Christi on the festival of the Annunciation; they were members of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter, St. George, Trinity, St. Catherine, and all the otler Guilds in the parish church of Boston. There is nothing particular in the forms of the obit. He left to the Guild of Corpus Christi one pasture called Cross-crofte, another called Thorn Green, and a third " little pasture near Berestighte." WILLIAM SMYTHI, Bachelor-of-Law and Vicar of Boston, left 13s. 4d. for an annual obit to be commemorated by the Guild of Corpus Christi on the 13th of April. He was a brother of all the Guilds last enumerated. There is nothing new in the forms of this obit. JOSEPH BENYSON, merchant, and JENET his wife, left 30s. legal money of England, for an obit to be solemnised by the Guild of Corpus Christi on the feast of St. Michael the Archangel annually; they were brothers and sisters in all the Guilds in the parish church. This obit does not vary in its prescribed forms from those already described. The five bells are to be rung, andi 20d. paid for the ringing of them. If the Guild of Corpus Christi did not carry out the bequests of this obit, it was to forfeit 31. to the Guild of St. Mary. RICHARD CHAPMAN and ALICE his wife, whose obit is recorded in the Kalendar as being held annually on the first dominical day after the Feast of the Epiphany, left 6s. 8d. for its celebration. The six " quire-priests of the Guild" are to have 4d. each; 6d. to be paid for ringing the bells, and 2d. to the servants of the Guild for preparing for the anniversary, fixing lights, &c. GILBERT ALILATUNDE, the founder of the Guild, had his annual obit on the Vigil of St. George, in the month of April, when 20s. of the property of the Guild was expended, viz. 13s. 4d. on behalf of the said Gilbert, and 6s. 8d. for all other brothers, sisters, and benefactors deceased. Gilbert Alilaunle was brother of the Guilds of Corpus Christi, St. Mary, and St. George. Among the bequests is 2d. "cuilibet aqutebainlo2 presenti ad exequias;"' and to the servants preparing the vestments and lights, 2d.; for the ringing of all the bells, 20d. FREDERICK TILNEY and MARGERY his wife had their annual obit on the feast of St. Petronilla (the last day of May), when 30s., derived from the rent of lands and tenements called Flemory Cotes (?), was expended after prescribed forms. They were members of Corpus Christi Guild, and those of St. Mary, St. George, and the Holy Trinity. To be paid for holy water, 3d. For the ringing of all the bells, 20d..... "per indenture for ringing, 4d., because there was at that time only the bell in the steeple." To the servants for preparing vestments and lights about the tomb, 2d. And if it should happen that the land and buildings appropriated to this obit should not yield 30s. rent, then the alderman and Guild shall be exempt from expending in this obit so much less than 30s. as shall appear to be deficient. JOHN MAIRTIN and ALICE his wife had an obit, according to the Kalendar, on 1 This was Martin, Bishop of Tours, generally yeme,'? his anniversary being 11th November."described in old records as "St. Mlar tin in the win- NICOLAs's Chronoloy of History, p. 161. ter. " "St. Martin in hyeme," or " St. Martin in.2 Query holy-water?

Page  126 126 OBITS CELEBRATED BY CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. the first dominical day after the anniversary of St. Peter ad Vincula, in the month of August. The prescribed ceremonies of this obit are of the usual kind the money to be expended is not stated. The obit of JOHN NUTTYNG, a brother of Corpus Christi Guild, was celebrated and observed by the brethren of that Guild on the first dominical day after the festival of the Nativity of the Virgin, in this manner:-the bellman proclaimed and pronounced through the town, on the Sabbath preceding, as was customary for other brethren to be made, with expense of vestments and candles, and other solemnities. The chaplains of the said Guild together, or two by two, shall repeat the offices for the dead, in the principal chapel of the said Guild, with a mass for the defunct, on the dominical day following. Also one of the said chaplains on the same day shall offer a special prayer for the soul of the said John in the mass then said. The obit of WILLIAM TOLEMUNDE, sen., of MATILDA his wife, and of WILLIAMi TOLEMUNDE, jun., brothers and sister of this Guild, was annually celebrated by the aldermen and brethren on the Monday before the festival of St. Matthew the Apostle, with 88. and 4d. of the goods of the said Guild: the forms and ceremonies were similar to those of the obit of JOHN NUTTYNGE. The obit of HERMAN STEYNFORDE and ALICE his wife was annually celebrated on the dominical day next before the feast of St. Martin, in the month of November, at the expense of 6s., out of the goods of the Guild. The services the same as the preceding obit, JOHN HOLME TON has a yearly obit on the 16th of May: the services the same as above. "This John Holmeton, at his own proper expense, whilst he lived, amortizavit this Guild with 23s. 4d. rent of assise,' received annually from a tenement called Boston-garth, situated in the South-end of the town of St. Botolph, to be distributed each year as follows. Foi two torches to be provided against the festival of the Nativity, by the chamberlains of this Guild, and to be offered by the same at the chief altar of the parish church in the said town, and burnt there before the sacrament at high mass, at the time of elevating the Body of Christ. To be spent in purchasing said torches annually, 13s. and 4d. and no more. And the chaplain of the Guild shall have at the aniversary obit annually, 3s. and 4d. as above stated. And the alderman, brothers and sisters, shall have for their expenses. 6s. and 8d. Even so as appears by the evidence of the indenture remaining in the treasury of the Guild." The obit of JOHN STRENSALL, formerly Rector of Boston, brother of the fraternity, is celebrated and observed by the alderman and brethren of the Guild of the Holy Trinity, annually, in the morrow of St. Martin in Yeme," in the quire of the principal parish church, or at the altar of the said Guild o! the Holy Trinity there, with 20s. of the goods of the said I-oly Trinity, on that day every year, to be expended in the manner expressed in an indenture tripartite. Penalty in default of keeping the said obit, 40s. to be paid to the Rector of the Church of St. Botolph. WILLIAM THORLANDE, of Boston, merchant, and MARGARET his wife, and his father and mother, had an obit, which was held and observed annually by the Corpus Christi Guild, the 13th day of July, when 31. was expended, ofwhici was received from a certain grange, called Heremitori, or Hermitre, 26s. 8d. William Thorlande and his wife were members of the following Guilds,Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter's, Trinity, St. George, St. Catlherine, the Postill Guild, the Holyrood Guild, the Fellowship of Heaven, and the Sevens Malrtyrs. The obit was also for John and Margaret Thurlande, the father and Quit-rents, manorial or copyhold. 2 See note on preceding page.

Page  127 RENTAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD (1489)~ 127 mother to William; and for John and Anes Kyrkton, the father and mother of Margaret Thurland, who were brothers and sisters in Corpus Christi Guild. There is nothing peculiar in the forms and ceremonies of this obit. The obit of RICHARD BENYNTON and JOAN his wife was annually observed in this Guild, on the 3d of July. The expenses of the said obit were provided by rents received from certain lands and tenements, amortizised by him to this Guild, to the annual amount of 30s. He was a brother of the following Guilds,Corpus Christi, St. Mary, St. Peter's, Trinity, St. George, St. Catherine, the Postill's Guild, and the Seven Martyrs. The bellman exhorted the people to pray for all Christian souls, and to say an Ave and a Paternoster for charity's sake. Richard Benynton and his wife had also an obit, held annually on the 20th day of April, by this Guild, at the Friars Minor, in the town of St. Botolph. HENRY WIRIKE, of Boston, merchant, and MARGARET his wife, had an annual obit observed by this Guild on the feast of St. Mary Magdalen, when 13s. 4d. was expended and distributed. They were members of the following Guilds,Corpus Christi, Our Lady's, St. Peter's, Trinity, St. George, and St. Catherine. The obit of HENRY BASSE, of Boston, and KATHERINE his wife, and his parents, was held and observed annually by the Corpus Christi Guild, on the feast of the Assumption of the Blessed Mary, in the month of August. The amount expended was 1 Os. They were members of the Guild of Corpus Christi, and of those of Our Lady, St. Peter, Trinity, St. George, and St. Catherine.l The form and duties of this obit do not vary much from those of preceding ones. There is a fragment of an agreement at the beginning of the Register, which was made A.D. 1383, between the alderman of the Guild (John de Rocheforth), and the brethren, on one part, and William Bevere on the other; by which it was agreed, that in consideration of the long and faithful services of the said William Bevere, the alderman and brethren unanimously agree that they will allow him for his future services, until the termination of his life, 100s. annually, by four quarterly payments -viz. at Christmas, Pasche, St. Botolph's day, and the feast of St. Michael. The said William to have a tunic each year made of the fashion of other chaplains. And the said William agreed, upon these terms, to serve the said fraternity to the end of his life, and not to absent himself from such service for three days together without license of the alderman. We have now given a full account of this very valuable and curious Register. We are fortunate in being able to continue the history of the Guild of CoRPus CHmrSTI by a full copy of the rental of the property which it possessed in 1489 (5th of Henry VII.), when the institution was in a very flourishing condition. The translation is made from the original document, and is verified in many places by passages in the various obits, &c., which we have referred to. 3ental of all rents and farms, lands and tenements, of the Alderman and Fraternity of the Guild of Corpus Christi, in Boston; of all the rents, lands, and tenements of theirs in Boston, Skyrbek, Wyberton, Kyrkton, and Algerkyrke, and all other places within the county of Lincoln, (they are in the charge of Rycharde Claymonde, Bailiff and Gatherer of the said rents and farms,) made and renewed at Boston the first day of December, the year of our Lord God 1489, and in the fifth year of King Henry the 7th.2 St. Catherine's Chapel is in this obit said to be ton, Kyrkton, ande Algerkyrke, ande all other in the Church of Boston. places wt in the counte of Lincolne, the ar in the 2 As a specimen of the spelling we annex the fol- charge of Rychard Claymonde Baly ande Gedderer lowing literal copy of the title or heading - of the said Rentes ande fermes, maide nade renewned "Rentale of all Rentys and Fermes landis ande at Boston the fyrst day Decemb the yer of oure tenements of the Aldman and Fratnite of the Gylde Lorde Gode M.CCCC.1III.IX. ande in the fifte ye of Corpus Xri in Boston of all the rents landes of Kynge Henry the VIIo" ande tenements of yrs in Boston, Slkyrbek, Wyber

Page  128 128 RENTAL OP CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD (1489)., $. M In the first, of one messuage in the Market-stede, some time John ~, late in the tenure of Richard Hardy, the which now William Couper holds, and giveth therefore by year....................................................... 2 4 Also of one tenement, late John Lawes, beside the Lane of the Frers Prechowres [Preaching Friars], in the hold of William Sybsey, by year 28s. 4d. at the feast of Saint Botulfe, Abbot and Confessor........................................ 28 4 Also of one messuage in the Southende of Boston, called Boston Garth, late Hamonde Sutton, by year, at the feast of Saint James................................ 23 4 Also of two tenements in Boston, on the west side of the water, in. Lincoln Rowe, late Thomas Rye, by year, at the feast of Botulfe............................ 0 14 Also of one acre of land, called Swyneshede Land, in Skyrbeke beside Boston Garth, late Robert Sutton, nmarchant, the which John Ptoyle now holds, by year, at the feast of Michael Archangel.............................................. 0 18 Also of two acres of land yonder lygying at Rygdyke, the which Thomas Palman holds, by year.......................................................... 0 18 Also of one Rygge of land in Wyberton, called Pynderrygg, late James Freer, marchant, the which Thomas Blande holds, by year, at the feast of Saint Michael Archangel 0 3 Also of one pasture in Wyberton, called Pottertofte, the which Robert the son of Alayn Was holds, by year, at the [feast] of Saint Michael.................. 0 8 Also of the Manor of Orbe, which some time was Phyllyppis Somervyle, knight, the which Gervayse ClyRfton, knight, holds, by year, at the feast of Saint Michael Archangel............................................................. 20 0 Also of the lands and tenements of the Abbot and Covent of Kyrkestede, called Armetree; and default of stryng [distraining?] yonder, of all the lands and tenements of theirs in Boston, by year......................................... 60 0 Farm of tfhe Tenements in Boston of the East side of the Water. Also of the farm (or rent) of one staythe, aganeth the frontage of the principal mansion of the gyldes called Goldenhows, late in the tenure of Richard, some time at 8s. by year, and now for default of closying it gives not...................... 0 0 Also of the said mansion called Goldenhows, that is to say, the hall, the parlour, the kitchen, 2 chambers, by year, at the feast of Pasche and Michaelmas, by even portions............................................................... 26 8 Also of the farm of 2 chambers yonder, the which John Benyson holds by year, at the said feast, the which paid some time 13s. 4d. by year, and now by year...... 6 8 Also for farm of one other messuage there, the Jeuet sercher' held, with 7s., and now by year............................................................... 4 0 Also for farm chamber there on the same, the which John Stele, Belman, holds, late at 6s. 8d., and now by year.................................. 6 0 Also for farm of one other chamber messuage there, the which Mabille Hopst holds by year.................................................a............ - Also for farm of one other chamber on the same, late at 6s. 8d., and now it is vacant. Also for farm of one chamber messuage there, late at 4s., and now it is vacant. Also for farm of one other chamber there on the same, late at 6s. 8d., and now it is vacant. Also for farm of one chamber messuage there, late at 6s. 8c., and now it is vacant. Also for farm of one other chamber there on the same, late at 6s. 8d., and now it is vacant. It is difficult to give a satisfactory explanation the Guild of Corpus Christi, at Cambridge, in 1355. of the term " Jeuet sercher." He was evidently an The play of " Robert and Marian," performed at officer of the Guild, and, probably, his official duties Angers in 1392, is called by M. LaE GRAND " Le were similar to those of the "' Master of the Plays " Jeu du Berger et de la Berghre.'" About the same at the Guild of St. Mary, mentioned in a succeeding date we have " Le Jeaz du Marriage," " Le Jeu de page. The Guild of Corpus Christi was famous for Pelerine," "Le Jeu d'Adam," "Le Jeu de St. its representation of the ancient mysteries, miracle- Nicholas," et "Le Jets de Personages;'" this last is plays, and moralities; and the " Jeuet Searcher" was, also found under the title "Ludus Personag." The probably, the examiner of these mysteries, &c. pre- miracle of Theophilus is alluded to under the descripvious to their representation. One of the usual tion Jeu. How Jel has been transformned intoJeuet definitions of a searcher is "an examiner." In the in the text is not very obvious.-See WARTON'S medieval ages these dramatic productions were History of English Poetry, vol. ii. p. 20, &c. The called, in English, plays; in Latin, Illdi; and in " Clerkce of Stories," or " Maister of Stories,"' is French,jeux. They are termed leai in the Wardrobe mentioned by Piers Ploughman and Lydgate. Rolls of Ediward III. (1348), and in the account of

Page  129 RENTAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD (1489). 129 Bell-lane. s. d. Also of one tenement there, in Bell-lane, late purchased of Margaret Godyng for 100 shillings, this year at.................................................... 8 0 Chapman-lane. Also of one tenement lying at the West-end of Chapman-lane, with one other tenement lying on the North part of the said lane, the which William Gaunte holds by indenture for the term of 10 years, to pay at 2 terms in the year by even portions, that is to say, the first day of June, and at the feast of Saint Andrew the Apostle...............................................................2. 23 4 Also of two other tenements lying there, the which William Belman late held; and it is vacant. Also for farm of one tenement there, lying beside the Bardyke, the which Thomas Crathorn late held by indenture, with the charge of reparation, for 4s. by year, this year letten to Alson.............................................. 3 4 Also for the farm of one cottage there, the which William Roos holds by indenture for the term of, with the charge of reparation, the which late paid 8s., now by year................................................................ 0 20 Also for the farm of vacant ground lying in Beton-lane; beside Richard Benyngton Toure, late at 10s. by year, and some time at 20s., and now it is vacant. Fccarm of the Tenements in Boston on the West side of the Water. Also of one messuage called Barker-howses, lying on the West side of the Water, beside the 9 Rents of the Lord Cromwell, the which Maister Allyn Broune holds by indenture for the term of 3 years, with all charges of reparation and closyng, paying by year at the Feasts of Pasche and Saint Michael the Archangel, by even portions................................................................ 10 0 Also for farm of one tenement called Strawstonhows, late by year 8s., and now it is vacant. Also for the farm and one parcel of one tenement called Strawstonhows, lying beside Skyrbeke Goot, the [which] William Rochestere holds this year, at Pasche and Michaelmas by even portions................................. 13 4 Also for the farm of one tenement, with one garden thereto lying, called Tolymonde Hows, lying beside the sign of the Bell, the which Henry Smyth holds by indenture [for] the term of 10 years, by year, at Pasche and at Michaelmas Archangel, by even portions...................................................... 26 8 Also for the farm of one other tenement, and one parcel of Tolymond Hows, the which William holds, late at 1.15s., and now by year................ 12 0 Also for farm of one tenement, called Gryshows, beside the Furthende, the which John Botre holds by indenture for the term of 4 years, with all charges of reparation, by year..................... I.................. 13 4 Also for farm of one messuage, with one garden thereto lying, called Newlande Place, in Lincoln Row, the which Richard Whyte holds, by year................. 16 8 Also farm of one little garden there, the which John Bulloke holds by year........ 0 8 Also for farm of the head Mansion of the Gildis, called Corpus Christi Place, the which John Barker [holds] by indenture for the term of 20 years, to pay by year at Pasche and Michaelmas by equal portions................................ 53 4 Farm of Pastures in Boston. Also for the farm of 20 acres pasture, called Christie, the which Dame Margarete Wylke holds by indenture for the term of 20 years, with all charges of reparation and closing, paying therefore by year at Lammas and at the Feast of the Purification of Our Lady, by even portions........................................ 16 0 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture, called Holsyke, with other 2 acres pasture, the which William Racy holds by indenture for the term of 20 years, with all charges and reparations, paying........................................e 20 0 Also for farm of 6 acres pasture, called Spycer Grene, with a merche thereto lying, the which that John Foston holds by indenture, with all charges of closing, for the term of 8 vears, to pay at the Feasts of James and Candlemas, by even portions.. 16 0 Also for farm of 4 acres and 3 stong pasture lying in Butgate, the which John - holds, some time at 26s. 8d. by year, now.................................. 21 0 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture lying there, the which John Strodbe holds, late at 24s., and now by year............................ 18 0 S

Page  130 130 RENTAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD (1489). s. d. Also for farm of 3 acres pasture lying there, the which Wakyn Chubbe [holds], late at 16s. 8d., and now by year............................................. 14 0 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture lying there, called Remyngtoft, the which Felep, patten-maker, holds, paying therefore by year.............................. 20 0 Also for farm of 2 acres lying there, called Whyttofte the lesser, the which Pafe, brewer, holds........................................ 12 0 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture, called Whyttofte the moier, the which Richard Balyson holds this year, late at 28s., and now by year at............... 20 0 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture, called Gaytgrene, the which the said Richard holds this year, some time at 26s. 8cd., and now at............................... 18 0 Also for farm of one acre and one stong of pasture, called Pygotegrene the lesser, and other 2 acres and one stong lying there beside, the which Thomas Blande holds by indenture for the term of 10 years, to pay................................... 16 8 Also for farm of 4 acres and 3 stong of pasture, called Emeretoft, the which John Roger holds by indenture for the term of 7 years, paying at the feast of Saint [Peter], called Lammas, and the feast of the purification of our Lady, by even portions.............................................................. 26 8 Also for farm of 2 acres of pasture lying within the pasture of Robert Willughby Knight, called Roosegrene, that Richard Cust holds, to pay by year............ 5 8 Also for farm of 8 acres, and one half pasture divided, lying in four places within the open field, the which John Benyson holds, late at 30s. by year, and now it pays at James and Candlemas, by even portions.................................... 23 4 Also for farm of 4 acres pasture lying there, the which Maister John Vynde holds this year, late at 26s. 8d., by year, and now it is at................. 20 0 Also for farm of 2 acres pasture, within the pasture of the Lord Cromwell, the which John Botre holds this year, late by year at 8s., and now at............... 6 0 Also for farm of one acre and one half of pasture lying there beside the land of Saint Peter Guild, the which John Pewderer holds, late at 8s., and now it is at........ 7 6 Also for farm of 3 acres pasture, called Dameshower, abutting upon Hamonde Bek, the which Thomas West holds this year, late at 13s. 4d., and now it is at........ 10 0 Farm of Pastures in Skyrbeke, on the East side of the Water. Also for farm of one acre of land there beside the 9 acres, lying near the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem, the which John Robynson, husbandman, holds by year.................................................................. 2 0 Also for farm of one acre pasture, called Perche Acre, lying there, the which John WVarwyke holds this year, late at 4s., and now by year........................ 3 6 Also for farm of 3 acres land, called Walpole land, the which the said John Warwyke holds this year, late at 7s., now it is by year at.............................. 3 6 Also for farm of 3 stong pasture lying there, in the North Field, called Falkertofte or else Brode Enges, nothing paying in divers years past, saying it is Saint land: it is to be enquired on..................................0................ 0 Also- for farm of 2 acres land, called Curson Rygg or else Palmer Rygg, the which Nicholas Phiport holds this year, paying therefore by year....... 5 0 Also for farm of 7 acres of pasture, called Steynforde Greene, the which William Chawney holds this year, late at 24s., and now it pays by year............. 20 0 Also for farm of 3 acres of land there, called Jolyland, lying in Elderowe, the which William Fysher holds this year............................................ 6 0 Also for farm of 3 acres pasture, called Helcroft, lying beside Brodegate End, the [which] John Reid Brazier holds this yea1r late at 16s. 8d., now by year......... 13 0 Also for farm of one acre of pasture, lying within the pasture of John Henny Mchancl [Merchant], lying there beside the Hyghmylne, by year...*......... 3 4 Also for farm of one acre of pasture, called Sutton Grene, lying beside Multon Garthes, the which Stevyn Abraham holds, late 5s., and now by year it pays.......... 3 4 Also for farm of one acre of landc, called Sutton Grene, lying in the Chekere beside Standales, the which John Robynson the younger holds, late at 20dc., and some time at 3s. 4c1., and now by year 0 20 Also for farm of 2 acres pasture, called Pyllet Pasture, and one acre pasture called Sutton Acre, lying beside Rygdyke, the which Richard Abraham holds, by year.. 12 0 Also for farm of 5 acres land and pasture lying there, called Evlholme, the which John Robynson the younger holds, late by year 10s., and now..................... 8 0 Also for farm of 3 acres of pasture there, called Cragges, the which Richard Croder holclds, late at 9s., and now........................................ 6 0

Page  131 RENTAL OF CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD (1489). 131 Farm of Pastures in Skirbeke, on the West side of the Water. s. d. Also for farm of 4 acres of pasture lying at Lychewell Hills, the which Roger Blysbury holds, late at 15s., and now by year................. 13 4 Also for farm of 5 acres of pasture, called Perce Enges, in the tenure of Richard Spyryng... 15 0 Also for farm of 2 acres of pasture, called Adecrofte, lying there, the which John Smyth holds this year, late at 8s., and now by year................. 7 0 Also for farm of one acre and one half of pasture, called Coppyngle, lying beside Lychwell Gate, the which Richard Stekeney holds [this] year, and the year afore that in the hold of William —, letten for 4s. 6d. by the year, and some time at 5s., and now by year........................................................ 4 6 Also for farm of 3 acres pasture, lying beside Tykel-lane, late in the tenure of Maldes Botulph, by year...................................................... 12 0 Also for farm of 10 acres and one half of pasture, called Turncole, the which John Brown, gentleman, holds............................................... 24 0 Also for farm of 6 acres of pasture, lying beside Turncole, called Bungay Toft, the which Henry Jackson holds by indenture for the term of 12 years, paying therefore by year at James and at Candlemas, by even portions............. 15 0 Also for 6 acres and one stong, 13 perches, 4 fott and one half-fott pasture, called Thorndyke, the which the said Henry Jackson holds by indenture, paying at foresaid feasts by even portions.............................................. 8 4 Also for farm of 2 acres pasture lying there in 2 places, the which Nicholace Virley holds to term of his life, paying therefore by year............................ 4' 0 Also for farm of 4 acres and one half of pasture lying in Le Hyrnes, the which the foresaid Henry Jackson holds by indenture the term and feasts above said, by even portions, by year......................................... 7 0 Also for farm of 2 acres of pasture, called Maidenlands, lying there in Le Hyrnes, the which the said Henry Jackson holds the foresaid terms and years, paying by year by even portions.................................................... 7 0 Also for farm of 10 acres and 11 fott of pasture, called Balfiete, the which William Parson holds this year, late at 40s., and now by year.....33 4 Also for farm of one acre and one stong of arable land, called Molflete, lying there, the which the foresaid Henry Jackson holds by indenture the years and the terms above said, paying by year............................................ 3 0 Also for farm of half one acre pasture, lying beside Balflette within the pasture of the Escheat of the Earls Richemonde, the which Aimes Couper holds by year. 0... 0 16 Farm of Pastures in Wyberton. Also for farm of 2 acres of land lying beside Hargate, the which Robert Goston holds byyear...*. —**-e*6 0 Also for farm of one stong of land lying there in more, the which Nicholace Verley holds by the year........................................................ 0 16 Also for farm of 16 acres of pasture, called Gocerdayle, with one sheepcott thereon begytt, with-other 2 acres pasture lying there, the which Symon Jackson holds by indenture for the term of —, paying at the feast of Saint Peter, called Lammas, and Candlemas, by even portions.......................................... 48 4 Also for farm of one place of land, late at 4s. 8d. by year, with one acre pasture, called Coventre Land, the which John Cooke holds, paying therefore by year.......... 10 0 Also for farm of 2 acres pasture, the which John Howson holds, late at 7s., and now by year................................................................. 5 0 Also for farm of one stong pasture there, the which Thomas Donyngton holds, by year.................................................................. 0 10 Also for farm of one rygg land, lying at Newland, the which Lambert -- holds, by year.................................................................. 0 6 Farm of Pastures in Kyrkton. Also for farm of 5 stong of pasture in Kyrkton, beside the Mylnehyll of Thomas Meres, Esquire, by year (this year tenantless)...................... 5 0 Also for farm of one half acre, lying there at Hylterlande-fielde, beside the lands of John Cony, by year (this year tenantless)... 0 18 Also for farm of one acre and one stong pasture, lying within the pasture of the foresaid John, abutting upon Daylle Gate, by year............................... 5 0

Page  132 132 CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. Also for farm of 4 acres and one stong of land, divided there lying, the which the first piece is called Claypole-toft; another piece is called Cony-garthe, containing one acre and 3 stong; and two acres and one stong together yonder, lying in Hylderlande Field, beside the lands of Thomas Fowle, and one stong lying there in Ryskyngore Field, the which John Rowlote holds together for the term of 7 years, paying therefore by year...................................................... 14 0 Also for farm of 5 acres of pasture, called Cragges, in Skeldyke Field, with other 3 stong of land called Orchortofts, the which Humphrey Greyfe holds by year, paying therefore............................................ 4 8 Also for farm of 2 acres pasture, lying in Wythorne-tofts, the which William Fysher holds by year......................................................... 6 2 Also for farm of one stong of land lying in Algarkyke, the which the foresaid William Fysher holds by year.............................................. 0 6 A proclamation was made in the reign of Richard IL, 11 or 12 of his reign, by which the Sheriff of Lincolnshire was required to give notice to the "Masters and keepers of all Guilds and fraternities to certify to the King and his council, before the next feast of the Purification, the mode and form of the foundation of all and every such Guild, and its rules and regulations from the commencement, the manner of living of the brethren and sisters, and the liberties, privileges, statutes, ordinances, uses and customs thereof. And also a full account of all lands and tenements, rents and possessions, and of all goods and chattels of every kind belonging to the said Guild, and the annual rent and produce of the lands, &c.; and the true value of the goods and chattels, under pain of forfeiture and loss of the said possessions." To this Hugh de Tilney, alderman of the Guild, replied in writing. This certificate commences by reciting the patent granted to the Guild 24 Edward III., and no doubt goes on fully to meet the requisitions of the proclamation; but the document is so much defaced as to render the remainder illegible.' In the reign of Edward VI. a jury of inquiry reported that the Guild of Corpus Christi in Boston held lands and possessions of the annual value of 1141. 1.6s. 8d.; that it was a sufficient and perpetual corporation, sufficiently established and erected by divers and various grants of the King's progenitors; and that the Guilds2 in Boston were founded with the intention that a* X X X chaplains should perform rites in the church for the souls of the founders and others publicly for ever; and that these chaplains should from time to time "iDo their utmost diligence in this divine service, that it may be administered in the church aforesaid at suitable and reasonable times, according to the rites and order used in the aforesaid church, and continued from ancient times; and hold the divers anniversaries or obits for the souls of the founders and others, in the said church annually and for ever; and that twelve poor persons of the borough or town, called Our Lady's beadmen, should be supported for ever out of the proceeds and profits of the lands and possessions of the said Guilds." The report then recites the enactments of the charter 37 Henry VIIL, respecting "the sea-banks, harbour, and defences of the town; and the increase of the blessing, quiet, and tranquillity of peace," &co It notices that such grant or patent directs that "No alderman of any Guild within the borough shall take away or diminish any of the observances, solemnities for the dead, charitable gifts, or other things whatever, established and appointed to be done by the last will of any person." Every alderman of the said Guild is charged to maintain and guard the same, and the observances, &c. according to the tenor of such last wills, and agreeably to the laws, statutes, and ordinances in England made or to be made. It was Records in the Tower; Miscellaneous Roll 310.. The Guilds enumerated are those of St. Mary, Corpus Christi, St. Peter, the Holy Trinity, and St. George.

Page  133 CORPUS CHRISTI GUILD. 133 also ordained, that the Mayor of the borough shall, from time to time, see and observe that the said Guild aldermen do maintain such ordinances according to the tenor of the said wills, and shall admonish such as shall depart therefrom. The aldermen of the Guilds were, in future, to be burgesses of the town, and resident therein. It was also then ordained, that the Mayor and burgesses of Boston may at any time acquire to themselves from the aldermen of any of these Guilds any manors, lordships, messuages, lands, possessions, and hereditaments whatsoever, as they shall be willing to give, sell, or bequeath to the said Mayor and burgesses; against which the statute of mortmain shall not be pleaded, and all other acts, statutes, and ordinances to the contrary notwithstanding. The jury also presented upon their oath that the aldermen, guardians, and masters, and brethren, and sisters of the different Guilds aforesaid, have given and granted to the Mayor and burgesses their lands, &c., upon condition that all the observances, charitable gifts, and other things whatsoever ordered and directed by the last wills of those who have given lands, &c., for the due performance of the same, shall be maintained and observed by the said Mayor and burgesses for ever. And it was further reported that " The said Mayor and burgesses have maintained and observed the same according to the tenor and grants aforesaid, up to the feast of Easter last; and still maintain and observe them, in a certain proportion and disposal of the profits and proceeds of the lands and possessions." Seal of the Guild of Corpus Christi. STATEMENT of the EXPENDITURE of Corpus Christi Guild.l ~ s. d. Stipends of seven chaplains, Robert Freeman, Robert Smith, Humlphrey Spenceley, John Stowell, William Boothby,, and William Stevenson................... 39 13 4 Obits and anniversaries.............................. 15 17 2 Keeper of the choir................................. 3 2 11 Date not stated.

Page  134 134 ST. MARY'S GUILD. ~ s. cd. Feast of Corpus Christi................................ 3 17 4 Repairs of houses, and keeping the sea-dyke (bank), sewers, &c. 7 13 8 Fines and amerciaments............................... 1 0 5 Repairs of farms.................................. 5 16 1 Purchase of stores.................................... 1 5 8 Purchases necessary for the chaplains.................. 1 16 6 Extraordinary expenses and payments to the King........ 22 8 14 Bailiffs, auditors, and surveyors' fees.............. 5 2 0 Payments........................ 107 13 2T Receipts......................... 114 16 8 Remains on hand.................. 7 3 5] The Hall of this institution was in Corpus Christi Lane, Wide Bargate there are not any remains of it now visible. The Guild of Corpus Christi paid six presbyters, or clerks, 51. 6s. 8d. each, for salaries and vestments at the dissolution. Its valuation is given by both SPEED and DUGDALE at 22l.2 The alderman of the Guild of Corpus Christi was assessed 11. 10s. to the subsidy raised in 1554.3 In the Corporation Records, under date 1640, mention is made of a place called"Corpus Christi Chantry, situated in a tanhouse-yard, near the lands of Sir Anthony Irby, on the west side of the water. This tanhouse-yard was occupied by him in 1680, when it is stated that two houses there were held by Robert Lavinge, and then used as one, late Sir Edward Carr's, called Barber's houses, once belonging to the Guild of Corpus Christi." 4 The Guild of the BLESSED MARY appears to have ranked highest in commercial importance amongst the Boston Guilds. It was, undoubtedly, the GILDA MEnCATORIA of Boston, although much of its constitution was of an ecclesiastical nature. We find, by the reply made by Peter de Newland, guardian to this Guild in 1389, to the King's writ of inquiry relating to Guilds,5 that the Guild of St. Mary at Boston was founded 1260, by Andrew de Gote, Walter Tumby, Galfrid de la Gotere, Robert Leland, and Hugh Spaynge, of St. Botolph's.6 The MS. is much decayed; but we gather from it, that two priests were on the original foundation; the duty of one is not decipherable; the other was to celebrate.... daily, about nine o'clock in the morning, in the parish church of St. Botolph, for at least one hour. Then follows a long section directing the burning of wax-candles before the altar of the Blessed Virgin, and bearing torches at the funeral obsequies of the members; but the connexion is destroyed by nearly-obliterated passages. A thousand loaves of wheaten bread, costing 25s., and a thousand herrings, are to be given annually to the poor, at the feast of the Purification. The last paragraph certifies that the Guild has not any lands, tenements, or goods, except the ornaments of the Church, nor does it hold any feastings or celebrations, excepting one annual at Whitsuntide, when the newly-elected guardian enters on his office.7 A patent grant was issued for 1 COTTON MSS. Tiberius E, No. III.' See Guild of Corpus Christi on a preceding 2 Valor Ecclesiasticus, vol. iv. p. 88. page. 3 Subsidy Rolls. 6 The Valor Ecclesiasticus says its founders were 4 Corpus Christi day was a high festival of the " HIugh Wythom, Jacob Frere, and John Palmer," Church of Rome, held annually on the Thursday but does not fix any date. Our authority is the after Trinity Sunday, in memory, as was supposed, Miscellaneous Roll, No. 310, among the Records in of the miraculous confirmation of the doctrine of the Tower. Transubstantiation under Pope Urban IlV.-N ARE s' 7 This document is dated at Boston, 20th JanuGlossary, p. 162. ary, 12th Richard II. (1389).

Page  135 ST. MARY'S GUILD; PRIVILEGES, ETC. 135 this Guild in 1393.1 In this year also Margaret, wife of Frederick Tilney, held for the alderman and fraternity of the Blessed Mary of St. Botolph, a messuage on the eastern side of the water, of the honour of Richmond.2 Another patent grant bears date 1445, and a third in 1447. In the. same year, Henry VI. granted a license to "Richard Benynton and others, that they should give to the alderman of the Guild of the fraternity of the Blessed Mary of Boston, in the county of Lincoln, five messuages, thirty-one acres of land, and ten acres of pasture, in Boston and Skirbeck."3 In 1448, Richard Bennynton, Thomas Flete, Robert Cokes, chaplain, and Jacob Lymond, had license to give to this Guild five messuages, thirty-one acres of arable land, and ten acres of pasture, in Boston and Skirbeck.4 Pope SIxTus IV. granted sundry privileges to the brethren and sisters of this Guild in 1475, as appears by the following bull:" SIXTUS the Bishop, servant of the servants of God, sends greeting, and the apostolic benediction to his beloved sons and daughters, the brethren and sisters in Christ, all and every of them of the fraternity of the Guild, named in honour of the Blessed Mary, and instituted in the church of St. Botolph, of the town of Boston, in the diocese of Lincoln. "In consequence of that spirit of true devotion with which you reverence us and the Apostolic See, it is manifestly good and expedient for us favourably to accede to your petition; and for you, with God's blessing, to obtain it for the peace of your consciences, and the health of your souls. "' This is the reason why we have lent an ear to your devout entreaties, because (as you assert) Nicolas V. of happy memory, and Pius II., Roman pontiffs, our predecessors, successively granted to you a certain power of choosing and electing under a certain manner and form, and to all and every the brethren and sisters who shall enter this your fraternity from henceforth for five years, to be computed from the date of these presents; and to each of you, both brethren and sisters too, to enable you and them to elect as your and their confessor, some fit and suitable priest, secular or regular, who having diligently heard your and their confessions, may bestow due absolution, and enjoin wholesome repentance upon you and them for sins committed. And this in cases reserved for the Roman See, once only; but in others as often as it may be convenient. "And we, by the tenor of these presents, do grant to your and their devotedness, that the same or another confessor, whom you or they shall think proper to elect, may have power to grant in apostolic sincerity to you and them, in the article of death, a full remission of all your and their sins, for which you and they shall show a contrite heart, and which you and they shall have confessed with the tongue; that is, if you and they abide in the sincerity of the faith, in union with, and obedience to the holy Roman Church, and in devotion to us and our successors who canonically enter it. On such condition, however, that the same confessor, in cases where satisfaction is to be made to another, shall enjoin on you and them such satisfaction to be done by you or them, if you or they shall survive, or by others, if it then happen that you or they have gone out of this life; and this you or they are bounden to do as is aforesaid. And lest you or they (which God forbid), on account of this our grace, should become more inclined to commit unlawful acts, we will that, if you or they shall depart from the sincerity of the faith, from union with, and obedience to the Roman Church, and from devotion to us or our successors, Roman pontiffs, who canonically enter the same; or if you or they, presuming upon this same concession, shall perchance commit any sins, that then such remission and this present letter shall in no wise plead in your and their favour. And furthermore, we will that you and they shall fast, when there is no lawful impediment, every sixth day in the week, for one year, to be computed from the time when this our present grant shall have come to your and their knowledge. And if, on the aforesaid sixth day, you or they are bound, by command of the Church, to fast by regular observance, penitence enjoined by a vow or otherwise, then you and they shall fast on some other day of each week of the same year, on which day you or they are not obliged to fast. And if in the said year, or any part 1 Patent Rolls. member of the Corpus Christi Guild in 1454. He 2 Inquis. post Mortem, vol. i. p. 412. was probably connected with the chantry of the 3 Charter Rolls. Guild, or with the Chapel of Our Lady in St. Bo4 Inquis. ad quod damnum. John Perche, lately tolph's Church. Rector of the Church of ST. MTARY, occurs as a

Page  136 136 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INDULGENCES, ETC. thereof, you or they shall be lawfully hindered, then in the following year, or otherwise, as soon as you or they shall be able, you and they shall be bound in similar manner to make up that fasting that is wanting. Moreover, if by any chance you or they cannot in any manner whatever fulfil conveniently the aforesaid fasting, in whole or in part, then the confessor aforesaid is empowered to commute the same fasting into other works of piety, just as he may think to be advantageous to the health of your and their souls; and these you and they in like manner ought to fulfil. Otherwise, this our present grant, so far as the plenary remission only is concerned, shall be of no force or weight. "Be it, therefore, lawful for no mortal man whomsoever to infringe this our written grant, or to contravene it by any rash attempt. But if any shall have the presumption to attempt it, be assured that he shall incur the indignation of Almighty God, and of his blessed Apostles Peter and Paul. " Given at Rome, at Saint Peter's, in the year of our Lord's Incarnation, one thousand four hundred and seventy-five, on the Ides of December, and in the fifth year of our Pontificate. " JOHAN DE BURCABELLIS, "A. RAPEZUNTIUS.' P. DE BONROY." Another patent grant was issued in 1483. The Guild also held tenements in Boston, the gift of Thomas Thornburgh, Chaplain and others, in the same year, 22 Edward IV.2 This Guild had a chapel, called "the Chapel of Our Lady," in the church of St. Botolph. This Guild was fortunate enough to obtain other indulgences from the See of Rome, in the year 1510; these were granted by Pope Julius II., and we find the following curious account of them in Fox's Acts and Monuments:"It happened the same time that the towne of Boston thought good to send up to Rome for renewing of their two pardons, one called the great pardon, and the other the lesser pardon. Which thing, although it should stand them in great expenses of money (for the Pope's merchandise is alwaies deare ware), yet notwithstanding such sweetnesse they had felt thereof, and such gain to come to their towne by that Romish merchandize (as all superstition is commonly gainfull), that they, like good catholique merchants, and the Pope's good customers, thought to spare for no cost to have their leave againe of pardons renewed, whatsoever they paid for the fine; and yet was all this good religion then, such was the lamentable blindnesse of that time! - " This then being so determined and decreed among my countrimen of Boston, to have their pardons sued, repaired, and renewed from Rome, one Geffrey Chambers, with another champion, were sent for the messengers with writings and money, no small quantity, well furnished, and with all other things appointed, necessary for so chargeable and costly an exploit; who coming to Antwerp, and misdoubting to be too weak for the compassing of such a weighty peice of worke, conferred and persuaded with Thomas Cromwell to associate him in that legacy, and to assist him in the contriving thereof. Cromwell, although perceiving the enterprize to be of no small difficulty to traverse the Pope's court, for the unreasonable expences of those greedy cormorants, yet having some skill in the Italian tongue, and as yet not grounded in the judgment of religion in those his youthful daies, was at length obtained, and content to give the adventure, and so took his journey towards Rome. "Cromwell, loth to spend much time, and more loth to spend his money, and again perceiving that the Pope's greedy humour must needs be served with some present or other (for without rewards there is no doing at Rome), began to cast with himself what thing best to devise, wherein he might best serve the Pope's devotion. At length, having knowledge that the Pope's holy tooth greatly delighted in new fangled strange delicates, and dainty dishes, it came into his minde to prepare certain fine dishes of gelly after the best fashion, made after our country manner here in England, which to them of Rome was not known or seen before. This done, Cromwell, observing'his time accordingly, as the Pope was newly come from hunting into his pavillion, he, with his companions, approached with his English presents, brought in with a three man's song (as we call it), in the English tongue, and all after the English fashion. The Pope suddenly marvelling at the strangeness of the song, and understanding that they were Englishmen, and that they came not emptiehanded, willed them to be called in. Cromwell there shewing his obedience, and offering Translatedfrom the original in Library at Lambeth, No. 644, 47. 2 Inqzis. post Mortem, vol. i. p. 412.

Page  137 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INDULGENCES, ETC. 137 his gelly junkets, such as kings and princes only, said he, in the realme of England vie to feed upon, desired the same to be accepted in benevolent part, which he and his companions, as poor suiters unto his Holinesse, had there brought and presented as novelties meet for his recreation, &c. Pope Julius, seeing the strangenesse of the dishes, commanded by and by his Cardinall to take the- assay, who, in tasting thereof, liked it so well, and so likewise the Pope after him, that knowing of them what their sutes were, and requiring of them to make knowne the making of that meat, he incontinent, without any more adoe, stamped both their pardons, as well the greater as the lesser. "And thus were the jolly pardons of the towne of Boston obtained, as you have heard, for the maintenance of their decayed port. The copies of which pardons (which I have in my hands), briefly comprehended, cometh to this effect:-That all the brethren and sisters of the Gilde of Our Lady in St. Botolph's church at Boston, should have free licence to chuse for their confessor, or ghostly father, whom they would, either secular priest, or religious person, to assoil them plenarily from all their sins, except only in cases reserved to the Pope. Also, should have licence to carry about with them an altar stone, whereby they might have a priest to say them masse, or other divine service, where they would, without prejudice to any church or chappell, though it were also before day, yea at three of the clock after midnight in the summer time. Furthermore, that all such brethren and sisters of the said Gilde, which should resort to the chappell of Our Lady in St. Botolph's church at the feast of Easter, Whitsuntide, Corpus Christi, Nativity or Assumption of Our Lady, or in the days of them, the feast of St. Michael, and first Sunday in Lent, should have pardon no lesse than if they themselves personally had visited the stations of Rome: provided, that every such person, man or woman, entering into the same Gilde, at his first entering should give to the finding of seven priests, twelve ministers, and thirteen beadmen, and to the lights of the same brotherhood, and a grammar-school, five shillings and eightpence, and for every yeare after, twelvepence. And these premises being before granted by Pope Innocentius and Pope Julius II., this Pope Clement also confirmed, granting, moreover, that whatsoever brother or sister of the same Gilde, through povertie, sicknesse, or any other let, could not resort personally to the said chappell, notwithstanding he should be dispensed withall, as well for that, as all other vowes, irregularities, censures canonical whatsoever, only the vow of going to the stations of Rome, and going to St. James of Compostella, excepted, &c. " He also granted to them the power to receive full remission, a pcena et culpa, once in their life, or at the hour of death. Itemz, That having their altar stone, they might have masse said in any place, though it were unhallowed; and at the time of interdict, to have masse or any sacrament ministered; and also being departed, that they might be buried in Christian buriall, notwithstanding the interdict. Extending, moreover, his grant to all such brethren and sisters in resorting to the aforesaid chappell of Our Lady upon the Nativity or Assumption of Our Lady, giving supportation to the aforesaid chappell at every such festivall day, to have full remission of their sins; or if they for any impediment could not be present at the chappell aforesaid, yet if they came into their own parish church; and there said one Paternoster and Ave Maria, they should enjoy the same remission above specified; or whoever came every Friday to the same chappell should have as much remission as if he went into the chappell of Our Lady called Scala Cmeli.1 Furthermore, that whatsoever Christian people, of what estate or condition soever, whether spirituall or temporall, would aid and support the chamberlain or substitute of the aforesaid Gilde, should have five hundred years of pardon. Item, to all.brothers and sisters of the same Gilde was granted free liberty to eate in the time of Lent, or other fast-days, eggs, milk, butter, cheese, and also flesh, by the counsell of their ghostly father and physician, without any scruple of conscience. Item, that all partakers of the same Gilde, and being supporters thereof, which once a quarter, or every Friday or Saturday, either in the said chappell or any other chappell of their devotion, shall say a Paternoster, Ave fifaria, and creed, or shall say, or cause to be said, masses for souls departed in pains of purgatory, shall not only have the full remission due to them which visite the chappell of Scala Cceli, or of St. John Lateran; but also the souls in purgatory shall enjoy full remission and be released of all their paines. Item>, that all the souls of the brothers and sisters of the said Gilde, also the souls of their fathers and mothers, shall be partakers of all the prayers, suffrages, alms, fastings, masses and mattens, pilgrimages, and all other good deedes of all the holy church militant for ever. "These indulgences, pardons, grants, and relaxations, were given and granted by Pope Nicholas V., Pope Pius II., Pope Sixtus, and Pope Julius II., of which Pope Julius it seemeth that Cromwell obtained this pardon aforesaid, about the year of our Lord 1510, which 1 There was a chapel of this name in the Church of St. Botolph. See the history of that church in a subsequent Division of this work. T

Page  138 138 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INCOME, ETC. pardon againe afterwards through the request of King Henry, anno 1526, was confirmed by Pope Clement VII. And thus much concerning the pardon of Boston, renewed by the means of Thomas Cromwell, of Pope Julius II." This extract contains many particulars relative to the Guild of the Blessed Mary, which was evidently an institution of very considerable importance. It appears, at the time Pope Julius granted his Bull, to have maintained seven priests, twelve ministers, and thirteen beadsmen, and also to have supported a grammar-school. The seats or stalls on the south side of the chancel of the church were, no doubt, erected for the use of the master and brethren of this establishment. The Compoti, or annual statements of the property held by the Guild, and of the receipts and disbursements, from 1514 to 1546, furnish many curious particulars relative to its affairs.' William Atwell was alderman, and Robert Chapman, and John Hutchinson, chamberlains, in 1514-1515. The Guild then held property in Wormgate, consisting of pasture land, gardens, and tenements, and near St. John's bridge, and in South End, Bargate, the market-place, and eight acres of land in Ftlrth-ende, for which 20s. rent was paid. It also held the Fish Staythe and sundry cottages in Lincoln Row. The whole of the property in Boston rented for 351. 12s. 4 d. It also held property in Wyberton, Skirbeck, Benington, Leake, Wrangle, Wigtoft, and the " Long Fenne." The annual value of all the property held in the hundred of Skirbeck of the honour of Richmond was 721. 7s. 91d. In another enumeration of the property, at about this date, Kele-house,'" Raton Rowe," and " Garstone Rowe," in Boston, are mentioned, and an hospicium, called the " Red Lion;" also Olde Rowe, and the Bar-dyke in South End. In the disbursements this year are charged,S s. c. Anniversary of the obit of the founder............................ 1 0 0 Paid to the rode singers...................................... 1 10 5 200 lbs. of white wax for lights................................. 4 12 0 Stipend of William Pynnell, wasmaker............................ 1 6 8 Expenses of the common hall for recreation of the alderman and other confratres........................................ 4 16 54Expenses of the feast of Corpus Christi in the Hall of St. Mary. 21 14 52 Salaries of Thomas Buckingham, sacristan, and nine dapifers of the Guild of St. Mary, and their expenses for wax, and messel bread, and wine............................4....................... 48 17 2 Fee to George Watson, master of the grammar-school, 91., and his vestments, 8s. 4d......................................... —- 9 8 4 Stipends of Thomas Watson, chorister, and five other clerks administering at Boston, and other expenses attending services, commemorations, &c. ~.......................................... — 44 0 0 Fee to John Brooke, custodian of the vestments, &c., and other officers 3 5 4 Provisions and vestments for the choristers, &c.................. 18 13 2 to o,,,, for dapifers, &c......................... 14 14 0 Fees to other preachers, rectors, &c................................ 27 17 4 Total disbursements this year............-.............. 374 2 8 The income of the Guild was returned as................ 425 12 94 The income of the next year is stated to be.............. 456 7 9 This income arose from rents, legacies, and oblations. Estates in Holbeach and Donington are mentioned this year. The expenses in 1515-1516 were 3031. 6s. 9d. Much land was held for the Guild, under amortization, by John Robinson: this land was given by Leonard Dymoke and others. The entire receipts for 1520 were 5451. 6s. 2d., of which only 1621. 8s. was These Compoti are in the Archives of the Corporation, They are very beautifully written, and in fine preservation; the vellum as fair, and the ink as black, as they probably were 300 years ago.

Page  139 ST. MARPY'S GUILD. 139 for rents, In 1521, the income was only 3411. 19s. 4d. In 1522, it was 3201. lOs. 2c.: about this time John Hussey left the Guild much land in Leverton and Leake. In 1524, the anniversary of our Lady Anne, queen of England, first founder of this Guild, is mentioned, and the expenses of its celebration charged as 13s. 4d. The same commemoration, and the same amount of expense at its celebration, are mentioned in 1526. In this year the anniversary of Corpus Christi cost 11. 18s. 2dcl. and that of the benefactors, to the brothers and sisters of the Guild, 301. 3s. 4d. The stipends of the chaplains and other officers of the Guild amounted to 2431. 13s. 8d. The entire income this year was 4161. 9s. 8d. The Conpoti furnish the names and dates of the following aldermen of this Guild: 1514. William Atwell. 1527. Galfryd Estace. 1515. William de Bolle. 1528. Peter, alias Paul Emery. 1516. Leonard Pinchbeck. 1529. Hugh Shaw. 1517. John Husee, knight. 1530. Thomas Robertson. 1518. William Cony. 1531. 1519. Thomas Parrowe. 1532. Robert Thorlyu 1520. ) 1533. 1520..$ John Iobynson. 15334i Nicholas Robertson. 1521. John Robynson. 1534. 15fi152.) 1537. VWilliam Spynke. 1525. Thomas Lunld. 1538 1526. 1546. John Margery. JOHN MARGERY, as alderman of the Guild, surrendered to NICHOLAS ROBERTSON-, first Mayor of Boston, and the burgesses thereof, on the 15th of July, 1546, all the " houses, messuages, churches, chapels, and possessions of the Guild, anld all, the vestments, jewels, and ornaments of silver and gold, belonging to the same." This was confirmed to the Corporation 1st of May, 1554, in the house called Our Lady's Guild House.l An inquisition was taken 23d September, 1554-5 (2 and 3 Philip and Mary), respecting certain estates, formerly the property of John Robynson of Boston, and more lately held "by the lately dissolved Guild of the Blessed Mary, in the town of Boston."-' It was found, that John Robinson, by his will, dated 25th February, 1525, left all his real estate to the aldermen and brethren of the Guild of St. Mary; this estate is enumerated at great length, consisting of the manor of Rippingale, and land and tenements in Boston, Skirbeck, Toft, Benington, Walcot, Dowsby, and many other parishes; to receive the rents thereof, immediately after the death of Eleanor his wife, during the term of ninety years, and 6" to distribute to the same for the salary of a priest and clerk, and other charitable deeds." If the aldermen and brethren, or their successors, could, during the life of Eleanor, his widow, *or within ninety years after her decease, "" lawfully procure the said manor, &c., to be assigned to them for ever, then the same were to be held by them for ever, without any payment to his heirs for the same." If this title could not be so procured, then, at the end of the ninety years, " the alderman of the Guild was to sell the land for as much money as could be procured for it, the money received for it to be employed in providing for the salaries of the priest and clerk, and other charitable deeds as before mentioned." The jury found, that after the death of John Robinson (lst March, 1526), the feoffees to wholm he had enfeoffed his property, for the purpose of carrying out his will, conveyed the same to certain persons to hold the same in trust for the use and intentions of his will. The property was Documents iln the Coloroatio en Archives. knight, John Beaumont, Esq., and Ralph Agard, The writ for this inquisition was issued from who summoned a jury of sixteen to inquire into the the Exchequer, and addressed to John Copeldyke, business.

Page  140 140 ST. MARY'S GUILD. so held by them until the death of the widow in January 1530. After her death, the trustees conveyed the property to the Guild of St. Mary for ninety years. The jury further showed, that on the 15th July, 1546, the aldermen and brethren of the Guild of St. Mary conveyed this property to the Mayor and burgesses of Boston, who held it until Easter, 1547. In November, 1547, it was ordained at Westminster, that an account should be taken of all manors, lands, and goods belonging to the various Guilds and fraternities in England. Lastly, the jury showed that the Mayor and burgesses of Boston held the property to the uses expressed in the will of John Robinson, until the 15th August, 1552; and rendered an account to William Hunston, of Walpole, in the county of Norfolk, on the 20th August in that year; and that they continued to hold the same at the date of this inquisition. It appears, however, that the title of the Corporation to this property was disputed, since, in 1560, "Master Sowthern and Master Foster were employed about the town's business in relation to John Robynson's lands, and Mr. Leonard Irby was requested to take the opinion of the most best and learned men, whether they have good title to the same to begin their suite against Mr. Hunston or not."' In 1561, "a committee was appointed to confer with Mr. Hunston about claims upon the hall and borough;"' and in 1562, "forms of agreement were made with William Hunston relative to John Robynson's land,"' which are stated to be inserted on the next page of the Corporation Records; but both it and the succeeding ones are blank, with the exception of the following note at the foot of the second page: "Gifts by certain persons towards the payment of 901. to Mr. Hunston,~ s. d. Mr. Anthony Claymond......................................... 6 8 4 Mr. Kydd...................10 0 0 Mr. Bell........................................ 40 0 0 John Stamper................................ 10 0 0" On the 13th August, " A bond for 3001. was sealed by the Corporation to Mr. Hunston to release to him all John Robynson's lands, except that which they (the Corporation) have in possession, also a deed to Mr. Hunston of a house and garden, late in the tenure of Alexander Kyme."' On the same day, "A deed was given to Mr. Hunston for a capital messuage, a garthing, and all the lands, tenements, meadows, oind pasture, with the appurtenances in Walcot, called Stone Thynge, or Tolle Thynge."' What part of the property the Corporation retained we cannot with certainty ascertain, nor do the Records afford us any exact information as to the terms made with Mr. Hunston, nor in what position, public or private, he stood in relation to John Robinson's property. So far the relation of the transactions between the Corporation and Mr. Hunston appear to be connected with the history of the Guild of St. Mary. Other transactions between the same parties will be noticed when treating upon the Erection Lands. The will of Eleanor Robynson, widow of John Robynson (dated 1528), and in confirmation of his will, contains some very curious particulars of the manner in which obits were then celebrated. It is singular that, although the property was given to the Guild of St. MIary, the obit for the parents of John Robynson is directed to be held in the chapel of Corpus Christi, in the parish church of The portions of the above within inverted commas are extracted from the Corporation Records.

Page  141 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INVENTORY, -1534. 141 Boston. This obit was to be solemnised on the Feast of St. Dennis, and 11. 6s. 8d. annually spent in its celebration. The obit "For the souls of John Robynson, his wife and children, was, by this will, to be observed annually in the chapel of the Blessed Lady in Boston on the 1st day of March, or thereabouts, during the term of ninety years, solemnly by note, both of quire and mass of requiem; at the which mass the alderman of the fraternity, if present at the said mass of requiem, shall take 8 pennies, or the alderman officiating in his stead shall take them, and every person present at the said mass who has been alderman, shall receive 4d. And at the said obit, there shall be expended yearly 40s., to be given to the alderman, priests, and other persons attending such mass. The said alderman, chamberlains, and fraternity, to find yearly, with the profits of the land bequeathed to them by the said John Robynson, two honest and discreet priests, of good conversation, who call sufficiently sing their plain song, and say mass daily at the altar of Our Lady in the church of Boston. One of the said priests to say mass at the altar aforesaid at six of the clock in the morning daily, so that it be done before seven even. And the other priest to say mass at the same place, between eight and nine in the morning daily, so that it be done before nine, and the usual masses of the day be not letted by the said masses to be done for the said John Robynson. The said two priests to be named John Robynson's priests, merchant of the staple of Calais. And each of them to have for their annual stipend or wages eight marks and a gown, price the yard 3s. 4d. And the said two priests to be at commons up rising and down lying, within the chantry where Our Lady's priests be. And the said priests when they are at mass at their going to the first lavatory, shall turn them to the people, and with a loud voice, pray for the soul of John Robynson, with the prayer of De profundis and a collect. And one of the said priests, when they have said mass after Saint John's Gospel in their albes, shall go to the graves of the father and mother of the said John Robynson, and also to his grave, and say the De profundis and also the collect...... or..... to the people, and also cast holy water upon the said graves. All which obits shall be done and solemnised according as in the will is specified," &c. &c. The wealth of the Guild of St. Mary will be sufficiently evident from a brief enumeration of the goods it possessed, as detailed in the inventoryl which was taken of them 2d July, 1534 (26 Henry VIII.). This inventory is a parchment roll, nine feet in length, and closely written on both sides. Both the beginning and end are so much injured by damp as to have become illegible. The enumeration of the furniture, &c., of the CHANTRY comes first. The contents of the Parlour2, the Buttrey, and the Hall are given; then follow the Kitchen and the Larder-house. " IN THE PARLOUR. "Three throwen chairs. A hanging stained with birds and bestes. A short playne table, with three tressels to the same belonging. " The text of the first part of the Bybill prynted; the gyfte of Sir Robert Wyte. "' A booke in prynt, called Sermones. "An old A ntiphoner.3 " A booke called Legendca S&anctoruzm, wrytten. " A bigger Antiphoner.' An old buffett stoole. A fyre-forke. A payre of tonges, and a fyre-stomrzer,4 3 racons,5 with a payre of galows of yron. 1" IN THE BUTTRE. "A playne armory,6 with three little chambers. A sprewce cheste. A dressynge-borde, with a pryck to hang clothes on. A brake to make vergys' withall. A lyttell forme, and a bynke to sett ale potts on. A salt of tyn with a cover. 2 bell candelstyks. A quantitye In the Archives of the Corporation. 4 A fire-stirrer or poker. 2 Parlour, parld; so called in religious houses 5 Pot-hooks and cross-bar. Racon, from rack from the inmates meeting there to converse with and hooks, as they are yet called in Lincolnshire. one another, or with strangers, silence being im- Armory, alnonrey, or almnbrey, a cupboard for posed in other parts of the building.-RILEY's the cold and broken victuals, given in alms to the 3 The Antiphoner contained the anthems, hymns, p. responses, and all other things pertaining to the Verjuice. chanting of the service.

Page  142 142 ST. MNARY'S GUILD; INVENTORY, 1534. of tabill linen, marked with this letter M, crowned. 2 dozen trenchers. Pewter plates, dishes and sawcers, amounting in weight to 114a lbs. -" IN THE HALL. "A hangynge at the deyte (), 11yardslog, 2 yards long, 2 yards ide. A laver of laten lhangynge, with a chayne of yron. Another steyned hangynge, contaynyng, in lynth 9- yardes, and in deepnes 2 yards and 2. " IN THE KECHYN. "A hen cage, with a shelfe withyn. 2 tubs. 2 sowes.2 A great bolls & a lesser boll. A hogs-hed to put in salte. A market maunde (basket) with a coveringe. 12 brass pots, kettles, &c., weighynge together 167 lbs. A great yron spyt, weighynge 14 lbs. A payre of cobbards4 of yron, weighynge 23 lbs. Other spytts, droppyng-pans, frynge-pans, brandreths,' &c. weighynge 86 lbs. "IN THE LARDYR-HOUSE. "A bultynge pype, covered with a yarde of canvesse. 2 bultynge cloths. A knedynge sheit of calnvesse, conteynynge 3 elles. A knedynge tubbe with a coverynge. 2 vergys barrels. A skeppe." 6 THE CHAMBERS. The beds are described as " a peyre of bedstocks, with a bottom with boordis. Presses of waynscott, a bynke to lay in clothes, and formes," constitute the furniture; no mention whatever of any kind of bedclothes, or linen, or even of a bed. "THE REVESTRYE.7 "Fyrst there is a relike of part of the fynger of Saynt Ann, closed in a hande of sylver and gylt, the wiche hande of sylver with the foresayde pte of the fynger, is set in a sertin pece of sylver and gylte; to the lawde and prayse of Almyghtie God. Wiche hande with parte of the fynger aforesayde, and sylver and gold thereunto anexed, was of the gyfte of Thomas Awbre, and weighs in the wholl, 6 oz. and 3 (I?). "Another relike, honowred with sylver and gylt, with a certen bone of Saynt CRYSTINE (?) with certen other relikes of the same bone inclused; of the gyfte of Robert Coke, prest, and weyinge 5 oz. and -. "A relike inclused in sylver and parcell gylt, that is to saye, a poynt of the fynger of Saynt Ann, with serten bones of the Innocents, weighynge in the whole, 5 oz. and a half. "A case of sylver and parcel gylt, in the whyche is conteyned part of the stone of the Mount of Calvery, and parte of the stone from the whyche Cryste ascended into Heven, and parte of the stone of the sepulchre of Cryste, weighynge in the wholl, 4} ounces. "Another case of sylver and gilte, with the ymage of Our Lady standynge above, with her childe on her hande, of sylver and gylte; in the whyche is conteyned parte of the nylke of Our Lady, weynge in the whole, 4 ounces and a half. " JocAIA (Jewels). "A crosse of sylver and gylt, with 2 braunches and 2 ymages thereupon standynge; that is to saye, the ymage of our Blessed Ladye, and the ymage of St. John, gylt and enameled, weynge in the whole 184 ounces, with a sufferayne s of gold thereto nayled, and offered by John Rede. " A shafte of sylver for the same crosse, with a roll gylte, and three knotts gylt, of the whyche knotts every one hath six roses enamelled with asure, the whyche shafte conteyneth in leynthe 2 yardes and a halfe, and is fylled with asshes, and weis in the whole, 146 ounces and 4. "The beste chalys of sylver and gylt, with a patten thereto belongynge of sylver and gylte, wyth a spone, of the gyfte of Thomas Awbrie, weynge 35 ounces and a quarter. PALGRAVE says the proper spelling is laton, bolting-pipe and clothes were used for dressing the and that it is composed of copper, zinc, and cala- flour before it was made into bread. The kneadingmine, and of a pale yellow colour.-See TWardroobe sheet enclosed the dough whilst it was being kneaded Accounts of Edward IV., p. 206. in the kneading-tub. 2 A large tub, now called a so. 7 Now called the vestry, where the vestments, &c., 3 Bowl. are kept, and where the priests invest themselves 4 Cobbards, the irons by which the spit was sup- before, and re-vest themselves after the service. ported.-HALLIW:LL. s A gold coin current at 22s. 6d. in the early part An iron tripod, on which a pot or kettle is of the reign of Henry VIlI., but reduced in weight placed on the ire. - HALLIWmEL. 34 Henry VIII., when they were current at 20s.6 A; wicker basket, now called a scuttle. The COWELL.

Page  143 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INVENTORY, 1534. 143 "Fyve other chalysys of sylver gylt, with the pattens to them belongynge, weighynge together 90 and a half ounces. "Two crewetts, 2 paxys, and 2 basens of sylver gylt, the basens enameled; weynge 83-4 ounces. " Two payres of censors sylver gylt, weynge together 102 ounces and a halfe. " The beste candelstyk of sylver and parcel gylt, weynge 51 oz. and 3-. " One great mose' (?) with a foote with the ymage of the ascension of our Lorde, of sylver gylte, of the gyfte of Harmon Staynforde, weighing in the wholl 43 oz. and 4. "A case for the Gospell Booke of sylver and gylte, with certen ymages thereon gravyn, of the gyfte of Mr. John Bevell of London, weynge 41 oz. "One lyttell candelstyck of sylver, the gyfte of Sir John Crayne, one of the chaplains, weynge 5~ oz. "A standynge nmaser,2 with a cover and shelle, sylver gylt, the gyfte of John Robynson, Esq., weynge 262 oz. "Fourteen others varyous pices of sylver gylt, weynge together 205 oz. " Total weight of the jewels, 10224 ounces." Part of the following articles were in the chantry-house, and part in Our Lady's quire, in the church; we are not able to make a separation.' A vestment of red bctwdkyn,3 with a blue crosse, sett full of steeres (stars), with albe4 and amysse5 to the same belonging. "A corpus clothe, with the case of red and greene velvet, purled with golde of damask. "An awter-cloth of dyap, containing three yards. " A little missale, prynted on parchment, brought in by Gilbert Dale. " 2 vergys (wands) made for the chamberlains, harnessed at both ends with silver, gravyn at each end wit the letter M, contayning in length a yard and -. "A huntynge horne, harnessed with sylver, with a bokyll and 18 barres, and a syntfoyle with a lyttel chayne, and a pendent of sylver, of the gyfte of David Wragby, sometyme bayly of Wragby, and one of the brethren of this Gylde. " One payre of candlestycks of silver gilt, 96 ounces and 2. "A lyttyll box of yvery, bounde with gymnres of sylver, and wythyn the same 33 small perlls, and a branche of sylver of the great mose, and a pece of the foot of the lyttell pax. " A lyttyll longe boxe of yvery, with a ymrage of Our Ladye of yvory therein ynclosed, wyth a coverynge thereto belongyng, ynclosed in a purse of neyld (needle) work. " One great masar, wyth a singel bande, wyth a prynt in the botham, gylt, with a ymage of Almyghti God syttynge at the Jugement in the myddes of 4 evangelies. The gyfte of James Barber, weying 44 oz. and 2. 7 other masars of sylver gylte, with varyous devyces, and legens, and inscryptyons, weynge tothether, 674 oz. "A great standynge cuppe of sylver and gylt, with a coverynge, standynge upon thre angells with a great knoppe above, enamyled with asure, weyinge togethyr 46~ oz. "A drynkynge horne, ornate wyth sylvyr and gylte in thre partes of yt, wyth 2 feyt of sylvyr gylte, wyth a ston sett with sylvyr and gylt; weynge in the whole 14 oz. and 2. " 2 dozen of spoons, weighing altogether 23 oz." Twelve of these spoons are said to have been delivered to the chaplain of the the Guild.6 " A piece of sylver gylt, with the prynt of the ymage of Our Ladye in the botham. The gyfte of Willm. Aston of Castyr; weight, 7 ounces and 4. I Query, Mosaic. cloth, now called brocade. According to BLOUNT, 2 Mazer, a bowl.' A broad, flat, standing cup the name was derived from Baldaecus, from Babylon, to drink in, often made of the wood of the maple."- whence it was originally derived.-See Walrdrobe BLOUNT. A wooden bowl or cup, madeof the maple- A ccounts of Edwoard IV. (1480), p. 236. t-ree.-ToooNE. 4 Albe, the white dress of bishops and the superior "A mighty mazer bowl of wine was sette." clergy, "differing firom a surplice in having regular SPENCER. sleeves, and being tied round the waist with a girdle 3 Baudkyl, a very rich kind of cloth made of silk or sash."-WHEATLEY. and gold, and sometimes embroidered with peacock's Amisse, properly a priests robe, but used also feathers. The richest kind of stuff, the web being for any vest or flowing garment.-NARES. gold, and the woof silk, with embroidery.-Du- G Part of this plate was the property of the White CANGE, SPELMAN, NARES, &c. Friars, and held by the Guild of St. Mary in pledge, Sir N. H. NIcoLAS says batodkpya was a rich or as a security.-MS. Note on the Daocment.

Page  144 144 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INVENTORY, 1534. " BOOKES. "The pryncypall masse-booke, with 2 claspes of sylver and gylt, wh 2 roses w1 pynnys (pins) of sylver gylt. " A nother grete masse-booke, wh claspes of sylver gylt. "3 cowthorys (?) wyth sylver claspes, and I wh claspes of laten. "A little portuas concrecl,' wh sylver clasps. "A booke called a Manuale, a Dirige booke,2 and a Buryall booke. "A booke of lawe, called Cocdex, the gyfte of John Fleet. 4 prynted masse-bookes of large vellom, and 1 of papyr. 2 _portuacs, bounde wh chayne lynge in the stawles, in Our Lady's quire. " An Englyshe booke called' Liber de divinis virt2utibres,' the gyfte of Dame Joan Grymescrofte, sometyme nonne of Staynfeyld. "C A Direge booke, lyinge bounde in cheynes on the south side of the quire. "A booke called Schoglastic6s Historica, of the gyfte of Mr. John Fysher and Mr. Willm. Mason, priest. " A portuas, wh Sir Otnell toke away. " A booke called the Constituztionis Provinciall. " A Psalter of parchment, with a cheyne. " A booke unbounde, called Breviccriurs supoer toto corpore decretis. " An old Manual bound. An old Graile.3 " A greate egyll of laten standynge on 3 lyons of laten, in the myddies of the quire. "A greate lecterne of laten, standynge where masse and antems are songe, bought when Mr. John Robynson was alderman. " 14 candelstyks of laten, standyng at the altar ends, afore our Ladye, at the highe altar of our Ladye, and on the syde altars. "A carpet, wh two cosshyns of fustyan in napyle (?) to lye before the alderman. "A chaplet of rede velvet for the alderman, with one grete owtle4 on the fronte of the same, of pure golde, and upon the same is sett 3 great perles; and upon the same chaplet, 8 great owtlies of pure golde, with 8 balessers' sett in the mydst of them, and garnished wyth 2 chesseys6 of pearle abowte each of them, with also 10 owthles of sylver gylt, each conteynynlg 5 stones, and also 16 smaller owthes of sylver gylt, with perles and stones. " In the hindermost part of the said chaplet, one great owthe of sylver gylt, garnished wyth perles; the chaplet weynge in ye hole, 8 ounces. "A chaplet of blew velvet, poudered with steeres of gold, for the chamberlain." VESTMENTS. These were very numerous and costly; the principal were,"A white vestyment for pryst, with decons and sub-decons, of white damask, wt eygle of golde standynge on bookes, bearing scriptures on their heddes, and orfrayes7 of the storie of Our Lady, with all other thyngs belongynge. "A whole vestment of black velvet for pryst, decon, and sub-decons, with orfrcyes of tent-work, wt the scryp-ture wryten in them; with the names of John Cowell and Joan his wyfe, and of their gyfte." Other vestments, of white damask, powdered with flowers of silk and gold; of tawny damask, embroidered with gold eagles and emblazoned arms; of green velvet, with roses of gold; of blue, with golden birds and angels; of white, violet, grey, and red, satin of Bruges; and copes8 of white damask, all l A manual or breviary. 5 Balesser, a ruby.-ToONE.. The offices for the dead, hence dirge.-BLOUNT. 6 Chessey, a border. 3 A graile contained all the passages which re- 7 Orfrayes, gold embroidery.-Du CANGE. lated to the quire, at the singing of a high or solemn s Cope (cappe, Saxon), a priest's vestment, fastmass. ened with a clasp before, and hanging down from 4 Owthe, a compound jewel of precious stones and the shoulders to the heels.-BAILEY. A and silver.-BLouNT. Osethe or owche, an CHAUCER. This is still worn by the clergy offiornament of gold or jewels; a supposed corruption ciating at coronations.-Dr. HOOK'S Church Deof tezz-nelosci, a clasp or buckle, but which was after- tionary. wards extended to other ornaments of jewellery. The cope was a sort of robe often richly embroi"Your brooches, pearls, and ozeches." dered, worn by the priest over the alb, when he First Pazrt Henry IV. consecrated the elements. —WHsATLEY on the "And set it full of ouches grete and small." Common Prayer. CHAUCER'S Clerk's Tale.

Page  145 ST. MARY'S GUILD; INVENTORY, 1534. 145 ornamented with gold and various devices. In the Lady's quire many other costly vestments are enumerated. Ten rich altar-cloths are described, of white, tawny, black, and blue damask. One of tawny damask has eagles standing on books, and the letter M richly wrought, and was the gift of John Robinson, Esq., having his arms in the midst of it. One was of red silk, "powthered with flowers, called Boston" (?) There were twelve cases for what were called the corporalia,l one of which was of blue velvet on the one side, with water-lilies of gold and silver, and knots and scriptures of gold; the other side was of green damask, and was the gift of Nicholas Castell, Esq. Another'was of red velvet, "1hochered aboute with 32 belles of sylver gylt," and was the gift of Elizabeth Aylande. A third was of cloth of gold, the gift of William Brassburne of London, for the soul of John Crosby, knight, alderman of the city of London. The others were nearly equally sumptuous. A mose of needlework of cloth of gold, with the letter M crowned all of pearls, and other gorgeous decorations, and numerous splendid curtains, are also mentioned. There were also seven tables with scriptures upon them, " to hange on the altares in the time of the Jubilee, and 16 banneres to change abowte the altars in the time of the Jubilee, whereof 14 of them bore the Pope's armes, and 2 the kinges." Numerous painted or stained cloths are mentioned with representations, events, and scenes, and " storys, and battailes, to hange abowte the quire of owre Ladi." Also a " mantell " of red and purple velvet, with the arms of England thereon,-" the gyft of Thomas Bennett, alias Clarencie, and bayly of this towne." ST. MARY'S HOUSE, or HALL (the Guild-hall), contained a table of alabaster, two yards in length, with altar-cloths and vestments, pix, bells, candlesticks, &c. Also an image of Our Lady in wood, standing in a tabernacle, and a smaller image of Our Lady in alabaster. A printed mass-book is also mentioned with the "C Masse of Saynt Botulph wrytten at the ende of ytt." Six table-cloths are stated to have been renewed in the time of Mr. Tomlynson, alderman. A great quantity of other table-linen is mentioned in this part of the Roll: the table-cloths are of great length, six, seven, and even nine yards long. The furniture of the hall-kitchen is given; amongst which is a great brass pot weighing 100 lbs., another 95, and two others of 60 and 501bso weight. The whole of the brass pots, pans, and kettles, weighed 1053 lbs. The pewter and laten ware weighed about 500 lbs. The three 1" greatt broches (spits) of yron" were each three and a half yards long. A beam of iron with four leaden weights are mentioned; these latter weighing 56, 28, 28, and 14 lbs. respectively. In the hall are enumerated, " five candlestykes hyngynge like potts," whereof the highest had five branches, and each of the others three. A table covered with parchment, "noted with Antems of our Lady, with 3 collecs,"2 and covered with linen cloth. There were eight tables on the north side of the hall, joined and nailed to the tressels, and seven on the south side, similarly arranged, with twelve formns placed by the sides of the tables, and three tables and three forms in the chapel chamber. A "lower kitchen" contained similar articles to the principal one, Corporalia. Articles connected with the host "prycke songe;" that is, the music to which the and the holy elements. choir sung these portions of the service. 2 Anthems and collects, written in what was called U

Page  146 146 ST. MARY'S GUILD. and in addition a great vessel of lead, " a grete cage wherein to put pullen (poultry), a sowe (a large tub), 13 ale tubs, and 20 ale potts." There is another roll in the Corporation Archives which enumerates-in parts where the principal or more ancient roll is decayed —the following articles: - "Torch heads of wod gilte, with gilded shaftes for the same;" a hearse-cloth of red tissue, with "valense" of blue velvet, bordered with " Venys golde, and the ymage of the Resurrection; frynged with sylke, and lined with blue buckram." A cover of wood "for a maser, with knop of silver gilt." A "pomander"' enclosed in needle-work, and a string to hang by." A great flat candlestick, given by Mr. Williamson. " A cheste, carved wyth the twelve Apostells. A payre of organys."2 A long, small chest, standing by Saint Anne's quire. Another cheste at the high quire door. " A lyttell... wyth certyn thyngs supposed to be relics. A register of silver belonging to a portas,3 with an awen at either end. In the quire, four plates of iron for the lecturer to set candles upon in the winter season." In 1534, August 2d, St. Mary's Guild had a license granted to the fraternity to purchase lands.4 In the reign of Edward VI. (circa 1550), a jury of inquiry decided that the Guild of St. Mary in the town of St. Botolph was a sufficient and perpetual corporation, sufficiently erected, and established by divers licenses and grants of the King's progenitors; and held lands and possessions of 3231. annual value in Boston, Kirton, Donington, Quadring, Holbeach, Whaplode, and elsewhere. The same recital is given as is stated in the account of Corpus Christi Guild. The expenditure includes the following items:-rents remitted, and dilapidations and repairs, 371. Os. 2d.; fines, bailiff's fees, and annuities, 171. 12s. 3d.; repairs of houses, sea-dyke, and the estuary sewer, 531. 4s. 2d.; necessary allowances and expenses, 141. 15s. 8d.; obit of John Robinson, 21. 4s.; inspections of disputed lands, 41. 9s.; to the salaries of nine chaplains (one of whom celebrated divine service at the Hospital of St. John of Jerusalem), 511. 4s.; to seven other persons in the church for their services, 321. 6s.; one of the chaplains (William Harrison) is called "Master of the Plaies;" Agnes Willerton for her annuity, 11.; Joanna Vittule, "the old woman in the paupers' house," 6s. 8d.; the washerwoman, 10s. 10d.; the master of the mendicants, 5s. 4d.; the manciple of the chaplains, 11. 6s. 8d.; the commons of the choristers, 11i. 15s.; barber for the poor, 13s.; 5 *, 51. 18s. 1Od.; feast of Corpus Christi, 51. is. 9Id.; payments to the poor, 221. 4s.; fees of the town-councillors, 131. 13s. 4d.; to William Kidd, balance of preceding year's accounts, 261. 14s. 6Id.; to the same as alderman of the Guild, two years, 61. 13s. 4d.; money lent to the same for matters relating to the town, 201.; the exhibition to the choristers, 61. 17s. 10d.; cost of the chantry of the Blessed Mary, 61. 12s. 5d.; coals and charcoal for the chaplains and the poor, the king's subsidy, &c., 321. 14s. Sd.; obits and anniversaries, besides John Robinson's, 121. is. 10c The whole disbursements, according to this statement, are 3931. 12s. ld.; exceeding the income 701. 1 2s. ld. The jury returned the deficiency as only 671. 7s. 5d.5 In 1554, this Guild was assessed 31. 6s. 8d. to the subsidy levied that year.6 Pomander, a ball made of several fragrant 3 A polrtas was a breviary of any kind, not merely perfumes to smell to, or hang about the wrist. — applied to the mass or form of worship, but also as PHILLIPS. a breviary of the accounts, "the pawments of the A receipt for making pomander is given in the Churche." —BALE's Kynge Johan. Secrets of Master Alexis, 1559; and in MARKHAM'S An aween was a pocket; the meaning of the register English Housewife, 1675. is unknown. It was used as a guard against infectious diseases, 4 Patent Grants. and carried in the pocket, or worn about the neck. 5 COTTON MS. iln the British Museum, Tiberius -TOONE. E. iii. An organ. 6 Subsidy Rolls.

Page  147 GUILD OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL. 147 At the dissolution this College, as it was then called, was valued at 241.; and paid to four presbyters or chaplains for salaries and vestments 61. each. John Robinson was alderman at this time.' The Guild-hall of this establishment is still remaining, and will be described in a subsequent section. The Bede-houses formerly attached to this Guild were situated in Beadsman's Lane, immediately south of the Guild-hall. Seal of St. Mary's Guild. GUILD OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL. We find it stated in the certificate of Richard Stevenson, " guardian of the Fraternity of the Apostles Peter and Paul in the town of St. Botolph," made January 24th, 1389, 12th of Richard II., that this Guild was founded -but the date is not stated —by Fulco de Sutton, Thomas Edwards, Simon Lambard, John Hewett, Robert Edmons, John Norys, Robert de Fosdyke, William Cokhede, Simon de Barres, Richard Bokenale, Thomas de Marynge, John de Thorpland, and Luke Puyk, merchants of St. Botolph. These founders directed " That there should be erected in the parish church of St. Botolph, on the north side near to the altar, two images of wood, duly executed and painted; one in the similitude of the blessed Peter, and the other in that of St. Paul, with a wooden perch or support of curious work, placed before the said images, in which should be placed 13 wax candles of 4 pounds weight, to be lighted in honour of the said Apostles every Sunday and festival at morning and evening mass." It was also ordered that two chaplains should celebrate divine worship there, for the well-being and health of the king and queen, and the souls of all I Valor Ecclesiasticuls, vol. iv. p. 88.

Page  148 148 GUILD OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL. brethren, living or dead, who had been benefactors to this Guild. Twelve large torches (tortecei), to be carried in procession every year, at the feast of Corpus Christi, in honour of that holy and solemn festival. The same torches to be lighted every day in Easter week, and carried in procession, all the brethren attending. It was also ordained, that when any brother or sister shall die, the brothers and sisters of the Guild shall assemble at the house of the deceased, and shall from thence accompany the body, which shall not be carried by any persons but brothers of the Guild; and before it shall be borne twelve large lights to the church, where they shall be placed around it whilst the mass is performed and the burial services completed. And at the said mass each brother and sister shall offer an oblation of one farthing for the soul of the deceased. And if any brother or sister shall fall into such poverty that he or she shall not possess sufficient goods to meet the expense of a proper and suitable funeral, then such funeral shall be provided at the cost of the brothers and sisters of the Guild.' "And if by the change of fortune, which often entirely subverts all earthly affairs, any brother or sister shall fall into such distress as that, without the aid of others, he or she shall not be able to live. Then from the alms of the other brothers and sisters he or she shall receive 14 pence weekly, so long as he or she shall suffer such calamity." And it is declared that it is not, nor shall be, the intention of any brother or sister of this Guild to interfere with the right, or to hold or maintain any opinion, or to exercise any powers or privileges which be contrary to, or in derogation of, the dignity of the king. The said guardian, Richard Stevenson, says: " That the aforesaid Guild does not hold any land, or tenements, or rents, or possessions, or goods, or chattels, besides the ornaments of the church. Nor does it congregate to hold any feastings (convivia), except once a-year, on the festival of the Apostles Peter and Paul, in the month of June. On which day the brothers and sisters assemble, newly clothed in appointed garments (vestzra), at morning mass and evening vespers, and at the other religious celebrations of that great festival, and duly solemnize the same, and on the same day also dine together as ordered by the guardian elect, and the chaplains for the next year; and after dinner prayers are made, and wax tapers burnt for the dead, and alms of food and money are given to the Christian poor there assembling. Nothing is undertaken, nor oaths or engagements made, but in good faith, to the praise of God, and the honour of the holy Apostles Peter and Paul. Signed by the aforesaid Richard, with the unanimous assent of all the brothers and sisters present, at St. Botolph, 23d Jan., 12 Richard II. (1389)."2 A patent grant was issued in 1393 for this Guild;3 and a second in 1448.4 In 1525, William Sutton, of Boston, left to this Guild certain lands in Wainfleet - a house, and tenements, and garden, with a stable, and ten acres of pasture ground in Boston, and certain lands in Kirton, of the yearly value of 51. 6s. 8d., for the stipend of an able priest, who was to pray and sing for him in St. Peter's choir in the parish church of St. Botolph in Boston for forty-nine years after his decease, and to have yearly for his wages eight marks. "'And if the alderman of the said Guild can obtain the King's license to amortize the said lands, &c., then he and his successors shall have the same for ever, finding the said priest to sing and pray for me for ever." If the King's license cannot be obtained, then the said lands, &c., to be sold by the said alderman and the chamberlains ofthe said Guild of St. Peter, and six of the most worshipful persons of the said town; and the money received for the same The MS. is very imperfect here, but we have no i 3 Patent Rolls, Tower. doubt this is the intention of this paragraph. i 4 Ibid. 2 Records in the Tower; Miscellaneous Rolls 310.

Page  149 GUILD OF ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL. 149 disposed of in making highways, priest-songqs, and other deeds of charity within the said town of Boston. " And if St. Peter's Guild will not have it," adds the donor, " and do not as aforesaid, then I will that Corpus Christi Guild have it upon the same terms, if it please them."' In 1540, the annual income of this Guild was 371. 7s.; and it was reported by a jury of inquiry to be a good and sufficient Guild, sufficiently erected and established. Its expenditure was: —obits, 91. is. 2d.; keeper of the quire at the feast of Corpus Christi, 31. 14s. 9d.; at the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul, 16s. O —d.; keeping of the sea-dyke, 31. lls. 8d.; of the Grange Sewer, 15s. 9d.; of St. Peter's closes, 1ls. lld.; rents remitted, 11. 8s. 10~-d.; repairs, 21. ls. 6d.; payments to the king, 31. 6s. 2d.; salary of two chaplains (Thomas Augustine and George Hanks), 111. 6s. 8d.; bailiff's and auditors' fees, 21. 8s. 8d.; fines, 7s. 3d.; dilapidations of farms, 11. 6s. 5d.; total, 411. 6s, 91d.; showing an excess of expenditure of 31. 19s. 2 d.2 In 1554, this Guild was assessed 10s. to the subsidy then levied.3 It was called a college at the dissolution, and paid to two presbyters or chaplains, for salaries and vestments, 51. 6s. 8d. each.4 Seal of the Guild of St. Peter and St. Paul. The Hall, Bede-houses, &c., of this Guild, were situated in St. Peter's Lane, Wide Bargate; not a vestige of them remains. The lane is first mentioned in the Corporation Records in 1680; and in 1697, there is an order for the Bede-houses to be repaired. In 1719, they were said to be ruinous, and ordered to be taken down. In 1640, there were " four cottages there, with gardens," the latter occupying the ground now called the Pen Yard. These were held by four poor men, rent free. In 1680, the names of the occupants were, Thomas Comer, Thomas Okerstone, Thomas Cooke, and Roger Clarke.5 1 COTTON MSS. Tiberius E. iii. p. 11. 4 Valor Ecclesiusticus, vol. iv. p. 88. 2 Ibid.' Corporation Records. Su3 bsidy Rolls.

Page  150 150 GUILD OF THE HOLY TRINITY. GUILD OF THE HOLY TRINITY. The first notice we find of this GUILD is in the certificate made in 1389 to the Royal Council, by the brethren and sisters of that institution. They represent that their Guild was merely a fraternity, which arose and was established in honour of the Holy Trinity, and to increase and promote the divine service and worship thereof. That they have no possessions, goods, or chattels, nor any income, excepting an annual subscription of 13d. from each brother and sister, and a chapel in which they worship for themselves and all Christians. That their religious observances consist in burning lights on their festival days, and at the funeral obsequies of any of their members, and to carry tapers in procession on Corpus Christi day, according to ancient custom, at the resurrection of Christ, and each morning in Easter. That they possess one festival vestment complete, and another common one, consisting of a chesible, albe, amise, stole, and favoun;l one missal, one chalice, and one portas, or breviary, and nothing more in common. "These are the objects and the usages, and the possessions of this Guild; and in this manner, and in no other, was it commenced and did arise." 2 Patent grants were issued to this Guild in 1409 and 1411. William Baxter, merchant of Boston, granted, in 1468, to William Sparolke, chaplain and alderman of the Guild of the Holy Trinity, established in the parish-church of St. Botolph, and to John Fenne and William Chebendy, chamberlains of the same, a piece of ground with the buildings thereon, situated in Gascoyne Row,3 on the east side of the water. "The said brethren of the Holy Trinity and their successors to hold an obit annually for the souls of Robert Gedney and Catherine his wife, and for the soul of John Gedney, chaplain, their son; and for the souls of all the faithful dead, on the feast of St. Benedict, immediately after vespers, in the Guild of the Blessed Mary; and on the morrow of such obit at the altar of the Blessed Mary aforesaid, one Mass de Regina, with due obsequies. And at the aforesaid mass and obsequies, 8s. sterling were to be distributed in. manner following:-Two chaplains of the parish, the chaplain of the procurator, the chaplain of the sacristan, five chaplains of the Guild of the Blessed Mary, six other chaplains, and the chaplains of the Holy Trinity Guild, of the Guild of St. George, and of St. Catherine's Guild, who shall perform the obsequies and mass of intercession, shall each have 3d.; the three parish clerks, 2d. each; the ringers of the bells,4 is. 4d.; the alderman and chamberlains for the time being, 2d. each; for oblations to the mass. The Renzano (crier of the parish), for publication and recitation of the names aforesaid about the town, 2d.; and the poor and infirm of the parish, is. in bread. If at any time the alderman and brethren of the Guild of the Holy Trinity neglect to perform this obit on the day appointed, and to disburse 8s. as directed, then the land left by William Baxter aforesaid was to be taken by the Guild of St. Mary upon the same condclitions."5 It appears from documents in the archives of the Corporation, that Stephen Clerke, warden, and keeper of the fraternity of the Holy Trinity, in the town of St. Botolph, together with the brethren and sisters thereof, did surrender to Nicholas Robertson, Mayor, and the other burgesses of the new borough of Boston, all the estates, effects, and property of the said fraternity whatsoever, by deed under the common seal of their Guild, dated 22d July, in the 37th of Henry VIII. (1545). This surrender was formally made in a house, then ] Ancient priestly garments. 3 Gascoynle Row was situated in Wormgate; its 2 Records in the Tower; Miscellaneous Roll 310, exact position is unknown. No. 153. 4 Compulsatorium Campellanorum. 5 Original in the Corporation Archives.

Page  151 GUILD OF THE HOLY TRINITY. 151 called the Trinity Chamber; this was the Hall of the Guild, and was situated in Wormgate.1 In the reign of Edward VI. (1547 to 1553), the Guild of the Holy Trinity held lands, tenements, and possessions, of the annual value of 201. 3s. The expenditure for the year was,-founder's anniversary, 11. 19s. 3d.; keeping Corpus Christi feast, 10s. lid.; Holy Trinity, 11. 7s. 4d.; repairs, 20d.; sea-dyke, 9d.; extraordinary expenses and payments to the king, 21. 5s. 2d.; salary of John Gimlet, chaplain, 61.; fees of collectors and auditors, 13s. 4d.; fines, 6s.; dilapidations of farms, 3s. 7d.; other charges (which are illegible), making a total amount of 161. 8s. 1ld., and having a balance on hand of 31. 14s. l d.' This Guild was taxed 6s. 8d. towards the subsidy levied in 1550.3 The possessions of the Guild were confirmed to the Corporation by -Philip and Mary, 1554. Seal of the Holy Trinity. In 1573, Trinity Hall, and a little garden adjoining the same in Wormgate, were sold by the Corporation to John Slater for 301.4 The charter of Philip and Mary (1554) states, that eighteen presbyters, fifteen clerks, and twelve poor men, were maintained by the Guilds, which were dissolved in Boston in the reign of Edward VI., by which the support of the said presbyters, clerks, and poor men, was withdrawn. But wishing to 1 Corporation Records, 26 October 1563. " John 2 COTTON MSS. Tiberius E., iii. Brown, of Boston, sold to the Mayor and burgesses 3 Subsidy Rolls. of Boston a messuage in Wormgate, called Trinity 4 Corporation Records. Guild"

Page  152 152 GUILD OF ST. GEORGE. provide for the maintenance of divine worship, the support of the poor, and the education of youth and children, as belonging to our royal office and I" function," and upon the"Petition of the Mayor and burgesses of our borough of Boston, and in consideration of the great charges and expenses which the said Mayor and burgesses daily and continually sustain in the reparation of the bridge and the port, do give and grant to the said Mayor and burgesses, as follows:Acres. Houses. Gardens. The late Property of the Guild of St. Mary...... 118, 37 4,,,, St. Peter's and St. Paul's.. 461 12 7 Holy Trinity...... 62 1 227 50 11 These three Guilds became, at their dissolution, the property of William Marquis of Northampton, who being attainted of high treason, the property reverted to the Crown, and was then granted to the Corporation. GUILD OF ST. GEORGE. This Guild was established prior to 1403; for in that year a patent grant was issued, in confirmation of a license for the founding of this fraternity. In 1415, another patent was granted for keeping, or governing, the Guild of St. George, in the town of St. Botolph.1 In one account of this Guild, taken about 1550, we find its possessions stated to be worth, annually, 161. 8s. 10d.; in another only 111. 8s. 10d. Although this fraternity is generally considered to have been a trading company, from its not being mentioned at the dissolution, yet it was, in some degree, an ecclesiastical one; for in the account of its expenditure, about A.D. 1550, we find 11. 6s. 8d. charged for obits kept, and a salary of 51. 6s. 8d. paid to William Ward as chaplain. The expenses of the Corpus Christi feast were 8s. 11d., and those of the feast of St. George, 6s. lId., and the expenses of the choir 6s. 11id. The whole annual expenditure is stated at 111. 6s. 3d., leaving a balance to the Guild-taking the income as 111. 8s. 10d.-of 2s. 7d.2 The Corporation Records contain the following notices of this Guild (1550, 5th June). The Mayor had before him Thomas Wybert, " for the foote of his account," for the late Guild of St. George; the amount he owed was 8d.: 5" he answered that he then had it not; and so daye was gyven, agaynst the next assemblie." St. George's Hall is mentioned in 1568, and St. George's Row in 1585. St. George's Hall is again mentioned in 1615, 1640, and 1647. In this latter year, "a messuage, called St. George's Hall, with a garden and orchard, were held by William Leverington, formerly by John Rysinge, gentleman." In 1674, it was held by Thomas Lodowick. This Hall was standing as late as ] Patent Grants. 2 COTTONlf MSSX Tiberius E., iii.

Page  153 GUILD OF ST. GEORGE. 153 1726, at the bottom of St. George's Lane, between lands formerly belonging to Sir Anthony Irby and Sir Thomas Middlecott.1 Seal of the Guild of St. George. These five Guilds of ConPrs CIHRISTI, ST. MARY, ST. PETER AND ST. PAUL, the TRINITY, and ST. GEORGE, are said to have been the only incorporated ones in Boston, and they probably were. There is a very imperfect MS. in the British Museum, which purposes to give the names of the incorporators of these Guilds, or"By whom they were incorporated, as it appeared to the Commissioners of the Lord King upon the inspection of certain letters patent of the progenitors of the Lord King that now is. This was taken in the reign of Edward VI. as follows below............ at the instance of the church of St. Botolph............Anne Queen, his consort............Incorporation in like manner by the grant of Henry the Sixth, bearing date the xxIII year (1455)........ in the name of the alderman of the fraternity of the Blessed Jiary in Boston. " Incorporation, by the grant of Edward the third, dated in the year of his reign...... at the instance of Gilbert Alilande and others, in the name of the alderman of Corpus Christi Guild. "Incorporation, by the grant of Henry the fourth, dated in the year of his reign.... Master or keeper of the fraternity or Guild.... to the perpetual honour of.... Trinity in the town St. Botulph, and in the name of the brethren and sisters of the same. "Incorporation by grant of Richard II., dated in the.... year of his reign, in the name of the master or keeper of the fraternity or Guild of Saints Peter and.... in the town of St. Botulph, and in the names of the brethren and sisters of the same.... But the existence (corporatio) of the same Guild was by no means made clear and certain to the same Commissioners; nevertheless, it was shown to them that by the license of King Henry V., in the fourth year of his reign, given to Richard Frere and others, that they were empowered to give, grant, and assign lands and tenements to the annual value of 20 marks, which were not held in capite, to the master or keeper of the fraternity or Guild of St. George, in the town of St. Botulph." In the Coeporation Reco'ds, 2 June, 1552, the lands, &c. of St. George's Guild are said to have' purtayned to the Corporation." X

Page  154 154 THE SMALLER GUILDS. The same MS. contains the following memorandum:"That ther be divers other grauntes, licences, and chartures,. pardon made by the Kinges progenitors to the severall incorporacons of the said fyve Guilds, remaining in the custody of the sayd Maior and burgesses, who have received commaundement on the Kinge's Maties behalfe, by the sayd Commissioners, to bring the same to London, redy to be showed, when they shall be demanded, which said grauntes and other wrytynges the said Commissioners, for shortnesse of tyme, were not able severally to examyn. The contentes whereof be not therefor certefied. " The gyfts, chattels, and other ornaments belonging to each of the said Guilds, are particularly specified by the indented inventory remaining in the hands of the supervisor; besides six chalices, one pax, and one cover or lid for the Books of the Gospels, gilt. These pieces weigh 124 oz. and a quarter; and besides two chalices and three paxes of silver, partially gilt, weighing 45 oz. and a quarter. These stand valued at 811."' SMALLER GUILDS. We know very little about the ten smaller or unincorporated Guilds; and of five of them nothing but the names, as we find them recorded in the history of the Corpus Christi Guild; these are, —the Apostles' Guild, the Postill Guild (probably the same), the Guild of the Fellowship of Heaven, the Guild of the Holy Rood, and that of the Seven Martyrs. Of the remaining five,-those of the Ascension, St. Catherine, the Cordwainers', St. James', and St. Simon and St. Jude,-we have a few more particulars. Of the Guild of the ASCENSION there is a certificate presented to the Royal Council in obedience to a proclamation by Richard II. (1389). This certificate states, that the Guild of the Ascension was founded for the sole purpose of'; augmenting and increasing divine service." The Guild did not hold any common property or chattels of any kind; its sole income was derived from an annual payment of 13d. by each brother and sister of the Guild, with which to provide a chantry clerk, and candles and tapers to light at the funeral obsequies of brethren and sisters, and to carry in the procession of the Sacrament on the feast of Corpus Christi, according to usage long observed; and also to be used annually at the commemoration of the resurrection, and every morning during Easter, &c. &c. The Guild of ST. CATHERINE is frequently mentioned in the history of that of Corpus Christi, and also in the Compoti of the Guild of St. Mary. This Guild also made a certificate to the Royal Council, under the proclamation of Richard II. (1389), by William Strug, guardian of the said Guild. The certificate states, that the Guild " Was established as a small and common fraternity in the town of Boston, in the year 1349, in honour of the glorious Virgin St. Catherine, in form and manner following: — First, on festival days at matins and masse, to burn before the image of St. Catherine, in the parish church of St. Botolph, six wax tapers on a perch, provided by an annual payment of 6cl. by each companion of the said Guild." Also, from the same pension are provided twelve tapers to burn at the funerals of companions, male or female, and twelve tapers for the procession on Corpus Christi day, and on the Resurrection day, and on each morning in Easter. The Guild has no other ordinances or customs, nor any lands, tenements, goods, possessions, or chattels. Signed by the guardian, with the consent of the entire Guild, at Boston, 20th of January, 12 Richard II. (1389). 1 COTTON MSS. This valuation makes the silver nearly 10s. the ounce. There is a mistake somewhere. We have correctly transcribed the MS.

Page  155 THE SMALLER GUILDS. 155 The Guild, or Company of CORDWAINERS, was dedicated to ST. JOHN THE BAPTIST. "The members of the Guild provide a chaplain, by the annual payment of 26d. from each brother. The Guild also possesses 2 suits of common vestments, viz. chisebles, albes, amices, stoles, and favones; and one missal, 1 chalice, a pair of pewter candlesticks, and two altar-cloths. It also burns before the altar 12 wax tapers on a perch on each festival day at mass, and 12 tapers at the funeral of each brother, and in the procession of the Sacrament through the town of Boston on Corpus Christi day, and on the Resurrection day, and at Easter. The Guild holds no lands, or possessions, or goods, beyond what is here stated." Signed, with consent of the Guild, by ROBERT TYLTON, guardian, 20th day of January, 12 Richard II. (1389). The Guild dedicated to ST. JAMES THE APOSTLE stated that it held " No lands or goods whatever, and that its income was derived from an annual payment of 13d. from each brother and sister of the Guild, with which it provided a chaplain for the members and all Christians; and 12 candles on a stand or perch for each festival day, and 16 tapers for the funeral obsequies of the brethren and sisters, and to walk with, in the procession of the Sacrament, through the town of Boston, on Corpus Christi day, on the day of the Resurrection, Easter," &c. The certificate of the Guild of ST. SIMON AND ST. JUDE states, that it was founded on the 28th of October, 1368, by Stephen de Holmenlyne, William de Kyme, and six other mariners of Boston, and ordained as a fraternity in the parish church of St. Botolph, in honour of the Blessed Virgin Mary, and the Apostles Simon and Jude, in manner following:-' To have a holy priest to celebrate, and to pray for the benefactors to the Guild, for the members thereof, and for all who were in danger of the sea. It was also ordained, 12 wax tapers of four lbs. weight standing upon a perch in the chapel of the fraternity, to be lighted on Sundays and all festivals during divine service. It was also ordered, that when any brother of the Guild should die in the town of St. Botolph, all the brethren then there should assemble at the house of the deceased on the day of his sepulture, and bear his body to the church, with 12 torches borne in procession..... Twelve torches were also to be carried in reverend procession at the festival of Corpus Christi." It was also determined, that each member of the Guild should pay 6s. 8d. on his admission into the same, and 2s. 2d. each year afterwards, towards the special maintenance and support of these regulations. This account of the five last-mentioned Guilds is principally derived from the manuscript before referred to.' It is very probable, that ST. ANNE'S LANE, at the bottom of High Street, received its name from some religious establishment or Guild, situated thereabouts, dedicated to that saint; but there is nothing recorded respecting any such institution. There is a tradition that a church dedicated to ST. ANNE formerly stood in that neighbourhood. St. Anne's Cross is mentioned in the Corporation Records in 1564, 1588, 1599, 1620, 1680, and 1712. In 1778, it is said, "a cross formerly stood at the foot of St. Anne's Lane." A row of houses on the east side of High Street, and immediately north of St. Anne's Lane, was formerly called the Hospital Houses; the origin of the name is unknown, but its former existence adds to the probability that a religious establishment once stood in this neighbourhood. 1 Records in the Tower; Miscellaneous Rolls, No. 310.

Page  156 156 CHANTRIESS CHANTRIES. A chantry, according to TANNER, " Was an endowment of lands or other revenues for the maintenance of one or more priests to say daily mass for the souls of the founder and his relations. Sometimes at a particular altar, and oftentimes in a little chapel added to cathedrals and parochial churches for that purpose."' Excepting a vague mention in the Corporation Records (under the date of 1640) of a place called the Chantry of CORPUS CHRISTI, situated on the west side of the water, near the site of the ancient residence of the Irby family, we have no notice whatever of any chantry in Boston, excepting the one attached to the Guild of ST. MARY, to which reference has been made in the account of that institution. In the deed of Philip and Mary, 1553-54, among the property belonging to St. Mary's Guild, is included " The Chantry House in South End," which is said to be occupied by George Hanks, chaplain. We find nothing further relative to this building until 1704, when the following entry occurs in the records of the Corporation," At this assembly a grant, bargain, and sale of one messuage, yard, garden, and key, in the South End, called the Charity,2 is granted to Anne Pettinger for 99 years, at 251. fine, is. yearly rent, and 1 lb. of sugar." The following entry occurs in the Corporation Lease-Book:-" Anne Pettinger, widow, holdeth a grant, bargain, and sale of one messuage or tenement in South End, called the Charity, Corporation Lands, from Lady day, 1694, for ninety-nine years;" terms as already stated. In 1705, the purchaser is called Edward Wilson. In 1726, there is mention made of a " piece of ground in the South End belonging to the Old Charity." On the 16th January, 1778, a committee of the Hall reported the above facts,3 and added, that the house and property were then supposed to be in tenure of Mr. John Lowder. This long account of the Boston Guilds has an appropriate termination in an extract from an account of the sale of their "Ornamental plate and jewels. Those which belonged to the fraternities or Guilds, being only Guilds collective, frequented, maintained, and kept without any Corporation, admitted by the King's letters patent, but only by devotion and usage, within the parish church of the borough of Boston," had been ordered to be sold in July 1543: the sale, however, was not completed until March 1545. The sale of the ornamental plate and jewels of the incorporated Guilds was ordered to be made in April 1546. The document4 states, that the sale was made to meet in part the obligations which the Corporation had given to the King for payment of 15471. for the property of the religious houses, &c.; and for the " Payment of other debts and money lent, and for the receiving and entertaining sundry surveyors sent hither by the King's council, to survey the property conveyed before its l "A chantry," says the Valor Ecclesiasticus, the original design, but often presenting features of "is a private foundation for the commemoration of great architectural beauty, and of which the age the dead."-Pre/bce, p. 5. may not unfrequently be determined by this record. The notices of chantries in the Vatlor Ecclesiasticus 2 A corruption of chanitry. fix the purposes and the era of those chapels which Corporation Records. we find attached to many of the parish churches of'' In the Corporation Archives. England, injuring their symmetry, and obscuring

Page  157 SALE OF THE PLATE, ETC., OF THE GUILDS. 157 alienation; and for the reward of divers and sundry councillors and learned men, the payment of sundry fees and salaries, for the'exployte' of sundry the common and necessary affairs of our new borough; and having also an urgent necessity to have in readiness the money required for the present great charge of repairing, building, and amending many ruined and decayed houses, part of the purchase from the King..... And forasmuch as unfeigned and true necessity requireth no secrecy, but abideth to be plainly beholden by all men; we, the said Mayor and burgesses, have determined, judged, and decreed, that a schedule shall be annexed to these presents, containing an account of the weight, rate, and value of the said ornaments, plate, and jewels so sold, both of the collective or petyte Guilds, and also of the Guilds corporate, within the borough, and how and by whom, the sums of money arising therefrom have been dispensed and bestowed." The account annexed is signed by John Windon, who was appointed to sell the plate. According to the dates in John Windon's account, the plate of the unincorporated, or small Guilds, consisted of199 oz. of white plate. 7101,, party gilt. 999~,, gilt plate. 19083 in all, which produced...........~428 16 8 The incorporated or principal Guilds had242 oz. of white plate. 3592,, party gilt. 5824,, gilt plate. 2,, base gold. 118631 in all, which produced.................. 250 10 9 3095 oz. sold for..............................679 7 5 The white plate sold for from 3s. 8d. to 3s. lid. per oz., party gilt,, 3s. 9d.,, 4s. 1d.,,,, gilt plate, 4s. 2d.,, 4s. 5d.,,,, base gold at 33s. 4d.,, Mr. Windon states, that he paid 4631. is. 41d., part of the above amount, " about the affairs, charges, and suits of the purchasing of the new Corporation," and the remainder, 2681. 7s. 4d., to Sir John Williams and other officers of the King; these amounts make 7311. 8s. 8~d., considerably more than the amount of the produce of the sale.2 Several Companies of tradesmen, or artisans, existed in Boston in the sixteenth century. These Companies, as well as the smaller Guilds, "Appear to have been friendly associations, made for mutual aid and contribution, to meet the pecuniary exigencies which were perpetually arising from burials, legal exactions, penal mulcts, and other payments or compensations."3 Nearly all the Boston ones, however, appear to have been established for the purpose of exercising and maintaining the rights and monopolising the privileges of a particular trade, which the Corporation at that period secured to the freemen of the borough. The clergy had at this time a Guild at Canterbury.4 1 We think there is an error in this division of 2 Mr. Windon was Mayor of Boston in 1548.the quantity of plate between the two varieties of See his schedule in the Corporation Archives. Guilds, for it will be remembered that the inventory 3 TURNER'S Anyal-Saons, vol. i. p. 144. of St. Mary's Guild stated the amount of plate in Ibid. that Guild to be 1022 ounces.

Page  158 158 TRADESMEN'S COMPANIES. We find the following particulars of these Companies in the Corporation Records: TAILORS' COMPANY. "1552. Certain articles were read, concerning the occupation of taylours, which were deferred to further consideration. " 1562. April 7. A Corporation for the Company of Taylors in the town was sealed. "1571. An agreement was made with the Company of Taylors, that when any of the l)orough shall need a taylor to work at his house, applications shall be made to the wardens of the Company, who shall appoint a sufficient workman to work in the house required. " 1575. The wardens of the Taylors' Company paid 6s. 8d. for the profits of the Corporation. "1606. Several persons, who had been made free of the Taylors' Company, were admitted freemen of the borough upon paying 3s. 4d. each." In 1629, new orders were granted to the Tailors' Company. In 1646, the Company was directed to commence suits in the name of the Corporation against such tailors as infringe upon the rules and regulations of the borough. In 1171, "tthe Society of Tailors applied for new regulations respecting their trade and calling. The application was referred to a committee." CORDWAINERS' COMPANY. 1555, 26th October, a charter for the Cordwainers and Curriers was sealed. 1564, "Received of the guardians of the Shoemakers, 4s. 6d." 1613, " The wardens of the Cordwainers' Company to pay quarterly all penalties incurred by their company." In 1776, the Cordwainers' Company refused to attend the Court of Pie Poudre. The following concise abridgment of the charter of this Company may serve to show the nature and object of these institutions: — "' That there are to be elected on the Monday before the feast-day of St. Martin, by the said Company, two wardens, who shall chuse a person as beadle, to be an attendant on the said wardens. " That the officers are to be presented before, and sworn in by the Mayor for the time being, on the feast-day of St. Andrew, to serve their respective offices for one whole year. " That the said wardens shall have authority over all manner of persons that useth the occupation or mystery of cordwainer in the said borough of Boston. "That no person or persons shall set up within the said borough as cordwainers, until such time as they can sufficiently cut and make a boot or shoe, to be adjudged by the said wardens, and are made free by the Mayor, aldermen, &c. of this said borough, upon pain of forfeiting three pounds, six shillings and eightpence, to be paid to the use of the Company, or to suffer imprisonment; this said fine and imprisonment to be levied so often as any person shall attempt the same. " That if any foreigner, or person who did not serve his apprenticeship in the said borough, shall be admitted to his freedom by the Mayor, &c., that he shall then pay to the wardens three pounds, six shillings and eightpence, before he shall be admitted a fellow of the said Company. " That no fellow of this Company, his journeyman or servant, shall work on the Sabbathday, either in town or country. "That the wardens of the said Company shall have power, once a month at least, or oftener if required, to search throughout the whole Company of Cordwainers and Curriers for unlawful wares or leathers."

Page  159 TRADESMEN'S COMPANIES. 159 BAKERS' COMPANY. In 1569, the Bakers and Brewers had a license granted them " to be a commonaltie of themselves for their maintenance and good order."' 1635, the Bakers petitioned for a charter; the petition was not granted, since, in 1638, they " desired some order to be made by the house for the better ordering of the trade. The town-clerk and recorder were directed to prepare a draft of some fitting orders, which the house will consider." There is not any record of further proceedings. GLOVERS' COMPANY. The warden and fellowship of Glovers, and Whit Leather Tawers, are mnentioned January 11th, 1569. A Glovers' Company was licensed in 1573. In 1570, it was ordered, that "no person, being a stranger, shall sell gloves or whit-leather wares on the market-days, to the injury of the Glovers, being freemen." This prohibition did not extend to fair-days, or during the mart. A charter was granted to the Glovers' Company in 1614. SMITHS' AND BRAZIERS', &c. COMPANY. It was agreed, 13th January, 1581, "that the Smyths, Armourers, Ferrors (farriers), Braziers, and Cutlers, and Saddlers, shall have a Corporation of themselves." In 1598, the Smiths, Farriers, Braziers, and Cutlers, had an ordinance granted to them, " allowing them to form a separate fellowship or company." BUTCHERS' COMPANY. This Company was established in 1606, but there is nothing further upon record respecting it. In 1714, the CARPENTERS and JOINERS complained that certain persons who were not free, exercised their trade within the borough to the prejudice of their privilege; but it does not appear that any charter or ordinance was held by them. Also, in 1715, "the COBBLERS and TRANSLATORS"v petitioned that sundry shops occupied by persons not freemen, exercising their trade, be shut up; which was granted. This was done, however, in protection of the parties as freemen, not on account of any privileges which they possessed through exercising their particular trade. 1561. Richard Robynson was fined 20s. for lator, as " a new vamper of old shoes;" and HALselling light bread; " he, being one of the common LIWELL, in his Archaic Dictionary, says, "' Transcouncil, for his courses was put out of the hall."- lator, a cobbler." It is so given in the Dictionary of Corporation Records. the Craven Dialect. 2 BAILEY gives one of the definitions of trans

Page  160 DIVISION V CHURCH OF ST. BOTOLPH. I,' 5-g )intelligent resident in the district, and the stranger..C,~Tsof ten bee n a pulationq, dthe a thet ___2< P l \ travelling through it,-How was the money raised to build the magnificent churches in this neighbour( hood, so very disproportioned in their size to the population residing there at the time of their erec~! (, tion? A respectable authority,' after stating the mode of raising the funds to build the cathedral " of St. Magnus at Kirkwall in the Orkneys, in 1138, says,"If it was a practice in those ages for the feudal lord to impart to his vassals full hereditary rights to their lands in consideration of a payment which he laid out in pious uses, such as the building of churches, it is evident that the quality of the land, and value of the right ceded to the vassal, would have more to do, than the number of the inhabitants, in determining the size and number of their parish churches; and it is precisely in the rich alluvial lands gained from the rivers and fens, in which the feudal lord had a title to the new land found contiguous to his vassal's land, that the most of such parish churches as were evidently not erected with any reference to the population of the parish, are found. The land being gained gradually from the fen or marsh, could never have been cultivated so as to have employed a large resident population. The erection of so many churches in such a tract has, therefore, been probably connected with the grants of the land as it was gained from time to time from the water." This is an ingenious, and not improbable mode of solving the difficulty in part. But we think one other circumstance, at least, had a share in it. The foundation of the present steeple of Boston Church is said to have been laid in 1309, although the tower was not carried up until a considerable time afterwards. The nave and aisles, and part of the chancel,"Appear, from the style of the architecture, to have been built in the reign of Edward III., a period during which a great movement in the way of church-building seems to have taken LAING'S ResidLence in Norway, referring to the Orkneyinga Saga, p. 362.

Page  161 ST. BOTOLPH'S CH URCH. 161 place throughout this district, as nearly every church in the neighbourhood appears to have been, either wholly or in part, rebuilt at the same time."' This was during the period when Boston was one of the ten shipping ports of the kingdom, and the principal one as to the extent of its shipments. At that time it had an immense trade in wool, leather, hides, &c,; and many merchants from Calais, Cologne, Ostend, Bruges, and other Continental towns, resided there. The merchants of the Hanseatic League had their guild or house there. It is traditionally said, that the foundations of Boston steeple were laid upon woolsacks, and this is, probably, figuratively correct; for it may be doubted whether those foundations would have been laid, had it not been for the woolsacks which then contributed so largely to the wealth of the town. Among the merchants who about that time resided in Boston and Skirbeck, were the families of Tilney, Spayne, Sibsey, Pescod, Derby, Emery, Robinson, Whiting, and Dutchfeldt. Merchants and other persons connected with the trading Guilds had their residences in all the villages in the hundred of Skirbeck; and, no doubt, by the liberality of these persons the erection of the other churches, as well as that of Boston, was materially assisted.2 The earliest notice we have found respecting a church at Boston, is the gift of the church of St. Botolplh to the abbey of St. Mfaryat York, by Alan Rufus, Earl of Brittany, in the year 1090.3 As has been already observed, it is impossible to determine whether this church was one dedicated to St. Botolph, or the parish church of St. Botolph's town; if the former, then there were two churches here, for St. John's is said by LELAND' to have been the mother church," and the one thus given to St. Mary's at York was an inferior one, standing on the site of the present chtrch, and, as LELAND describes it, "a chapel of ease to St. John's." In the charters of the Earls of Brittany to the same abbey in the reign of Henry II., this grant is confirmed; with the additional clause, that the monks of the abbey of St. Mary "shall have leave to erect commodious booths on the outside of the churchyard of the aforesaid church, during the time of the fairs," &c. The church here alluded to was, no doubt, a smaller building upon the site of the present one. In 1298, when the tenths of all ecclesiastical benefices were granted by the Pope to Edward I. for six years, towards defraying the expense of an expedition to the Holy Land, the taxation upon the full value of the church of St. Botolph, as taken by the King's precept, was 511. 6So 8d. 1 Rep(ort for Repairing and Restoring Boston workmen were digging to prepare for the new floors, Church, by GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, architect, it was found that the ancient level was four feet 1843. below the present one. From the singular manner The families of Paynell, Willoughby, De Fenne, in which one of the present piers is built upon an Robinson, and Rochford, resided in Fishtoft; those earlier one, it is most probable that the old church of Pech6, Poynton, Westland, and Coupledyke, in was allowed to stand whilst the new one was actually Freiston; that of Pinchbeck in Butterwick; those being built over it. No doubt the new church was of Bell, Packharness, Bennington, Friskney, and some years in building, and during this time the old Winceby, in Bennington; the Bohuns, Busseys, one was still in use." Fendykes, and Oldfields, in Leverton: the Leakes, Mr. PLACE calls this an Anglo-Norman church Julians, Mosses, and Pedwardines, in Leake; and of about 1150 (but the church given by the Earl of the Reeds and Friskneys in Wrangle. Brittany to St. Mary's at York existed in 1090); 3 Undoubted remains of an ancient church were and that its dimensions were, —the nave about 25 discovered during the repairs and restorations of feet by 60, aisles 12 feet by 60, and tower 9 feet the present church in 1851, &c. Mir. PLACE says, square. Several Norman stone coffins were found "' The church of St. Botolph appears to have been during the progress of the late restorations, one of (originally) of an ordinary description, possessing which is now placed in an arched recess in the south nothing remarkable either as to its size or the style aisle. Under the third pillar, on the south side of of its architecture. the nave, was found the base of a Norman pillar. "During the late restoration I discovered con- The nave of old St. Botolph is said to have been siderable portions of the early church. It was very almost identical with that of the church at Sibsey. similar to the church at Sibsey. It appears to have Both churches were probably built by the same perconsisted of a nave, with aisles, tower, and chancel; son,-certainly about the same time. the style Ang]o-Norman, not massive, but light, CZCltio EcCles., Pope Nicholas, p. 62. having tall columns and a lofty interior. When the BY

Page  162 162 ST. BOTOLPHI'S CHURCH. The first stone of the steeple was laid in 1309, and STUIELEY gives the following particulars of the ceremony:"Anno 1309, in the 3d. yeare of King Edward ye. 2d. thle foundation of Boston steeple, on the next Munday after Palm Sunday in that yeare, was begun to be digged by many miners, and so continued till Midsummer following; at which time they were deeper than the haven by 5 foot, and they found a bed of stone upon a spring of sand, and that laid upon a bed of clay, the thickness of which could not be known. Then upon the Munday next after the feast of St. John Baptist was laid the first stone by Dame nMargery Tilney, and thereon laid shee five pound sterling: Sr. John Truesdale, then parson of Boston, gave also 51.; and Richard Stephenson, a merchant in Boston, 51. more. These were all ye. great guifts at that time." In 1321, Roger Gernon had permission to grant to John Barrett, parson of the church of St. Botolph, three roods of land, to construct a house upon for himself and his successors in perpetuity.1 In 1347, Saier de Rochford, knight, had license to give a piece of ground sixty feet in length, and twenty-one in breadth, near the churchyard in Boston, for the enlargement thereof;3 and, in 1410, Roger de XWelby, Richarcl Pinchbeck, and others, had license to give to Richard Flemyng, parson of the church of St. Botolph, and his successors, a messuage and an acre of land.3 In 1428, the King, on the petition of the Bishop of Lincoln, granted a license to the abbot and convent of St. Mary at York, to establish a college in the church of St. Botolph at Boston, under the title of the College of the Blessed Mary and St. Botolpb, at the town of St. Botolph; the same to be under the patronage of the Bishop of Lincoln, and to consist of one deacon, one precentor, and a certain number of prebends and canons, according to his discretion;- the said College to be endowed by the abbey of St. Mary, with lands and tenements of the annual value of 40l.4 In 1478, the abbot and convent of St. Mary at York granted the aclvowson of the church of Boston to the King and his heirs for ever.5 In consideration of this grant, Cardinal and Archbishop Bourchier and others, who were feoffees in trust for certain property of the duchy of Lancaster, released to the said abbot and convent 80 marks yearly, being part of a pension of 200 marks, which the abbey of St. Mary then paid to the duchy for the manor of Whitgift, and other lands in the county of York. The advowson of Boston was obtained from the King, in 1483, by the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem, in exchange for certain lands in Leicestershire, called Beaumond's Lee.6 The Knights of St. John petitioned for the rectory to be appropriated to their order, the better to enable them to support the heavy expenses they were burthened with, in keeping hospitality, repairing their conventual church and belfry, maintaining divers priests and clerks to celebrate the divine office, &c. This was granted to themn, and they possessed the rectory until the dissolution of the religious houses, when the advowson was given to the Mayor and burgesses. The living was then formed into "a vicarage with an annual stipend of fifty marks; the vicar to have the rector's house near the church for his residence." The Mayor and burgesses held the patronage of the living until the passage of the Municipal Reform Bill, 5 & 6 William IV. (1835). This measure took from corporations all church patronage and right of presentation, vesting such as they then possessed in the Bishop of the diocese; but allowing the corporations to sell such advowsons under the Inquis. ad quod dameum, 14 Edward II. 4 Petitions in Parliament, 6, 7 and 8 Henry VI. No. 71. vol. iv. p. 363. 2 Ibid. 20 Edward III. rNo. 36. 5 Close Rolls, 20 Edward IV. m. 22 d. 3 Ibid. 11 Henry IV. No. 21. 17 n 436 Reliquic Galene, p. 90; andParliamentary Rolls,

Page  163 INVENTORY OF CHURCH PLATE, ETC. (1552). 163 directions of the Act. The patronage of the vicarage of Boston was sold in 1853 to Herbert Ingram, Esq., for 10501. Two vacancies, however, occurred between 1835 and 1853, which were supplied by the nomination of the Bishop of Lincoln. One of the purposes for which the large grant was made by Philip and Mary to the Corporation, in 1553, was for them to find two presbyters for the celebration of divine worship in tEle parish church; and the principal part of the present income of the vicar and lecturer is paid from the annual receipts of the property included in this royal grant. We have next a series of notices respecting the church and vicarage, from the Records of the Corporation. In 1549, "By the King's inquisition, every town was commanded to pay to the parson or proprietors, for the charity of the communion, every Sunday, such sums of money as before was accustomed to be bestowed on holy bread. It was, therefore, ordered by the Mayor and his brethren, that each inhabitant of the town who was returned worth 40s., shall pay every Sunday 8d. when it shall come into his course at the receiving of the communion, and when he pays the 8d., to give the clerk a penny." In 1550, Goodlakle Chapman, Christopher Hixe, and Thomas Warre, are the first churchwardens mentioned. In the same year directions were given respecting the "whytynge of the church and whytynge of the hie qluire and St. Peter's." There is in the British Museum a curious document entitled, "C The inventory of all the goodes, juelles, plate, and ornaments perteynyng to ye parishe churche of Boston, in the countie of Lyncoln." It bears date 17th August, 6 Edward VI. (1552), and was taken by the churchwardens by the command of the Mayor (Henry Wood) under the orders of the King. The inventory is succeeded by an account of the sale of the goods, &c. Among other articles enumerated are "C a chalice sylver and gilte, with a paten weying xxiii ouncez, for the furniture of ye communion." There is also "A crismatorie of sylver and gylt, weighing xxxII ouncez, valued at IIIIS. and viII the oz. argent; and a crismatorie or pixe of sylver weying 12 ounces. There are also fyve great belles in the steple there, and one scanctus belle, valued to the somme of one hundred markes, safely and surely to be kept to the Kynge's majestie use, until his highnes' plesure be further knowen." In the sale of the vestments and ornaments are enumerated, " An egle for a lectern," sold for 40s. " Two pelles to lay before the alter, 13s. 4c1. Sixe altire clothes of sylke, sundrie colours, 40s. One vestmente for deacon and sub-deacon of blake worsted, with copes of the same, 20s. A sute of red bvcdelcyn, 13s. 4d. A sute of blewe silke and a blewe bawdekyn cope with unycorns, 23s. 4d. Another sute with half mones, 8s. A sute of satten of Bruges, and two copes with garters, 16s. One sute of barred sylke with pellycanes, 10s. Two copes of red velvett embrodered with egles, 30s. Three redde sylke vestmentes, with moun and sterres, 6s. 8d." A number of other vestments, altar-cloths, hangings for lecterns, " copes of white bustion," &c., are enumerated. The entire produce of the sale of vestments, &c., was 161. 15s. The remainder of the plate and goods was sold by the Mayor and burgesses, and is probably included with the general sale of the goods of the other religious houses, as stated in a preceding page. Attached to this inventory is a petition to the King, from the Mayor and burgesses, representing that the money received for the plate and goods so sold, had been employed upon "The Kynge's Majestie's affayres, and the great and importunate charges by them sus

Page  164 164 ST. JOIHN9S CHURCH TAKEN DOWN (1626). teneydce in the churche, brydge, and wharffes ther, for the preservation of the said towne," as follows;~ s. d, Repairs of the north side of the church, with lead............... 24 9 4 Covering the steeple with lead, in 1547........................... 10 0 0 Repairing " the grounde work " of the church, and of the windows, and the walls, in 1549........................... 14 0 0 Mending the south side of the church, 1550..................... 13 8 0 "Expended in and about the settyng furth of sauldiers into Norfolk, to serve the Kyng under the Lord Willoughbie, in the tyme of the commocion ther, and for gunepowder and other municions for the warre, 1549'.................. 14 0 0 Repairs of the brydge 1546, 1547, 1549, and 1550............... 58 16 0 Mendyng the churche staythe2....................................... 20 17 10 It was agreed, in 1577, to levy a double rate upon the inhabitants, "to repair the steeple now in decay." In 1578, the tithes were fixed by the Corporation at 3d. per acre for meadow-land; every seventh calf and every seventh lamb; for each calf under seven, is. 2d., and for every lamb under seven, one halfpenny, and 2d. for each milch-cow. In 1582, it was ordered, that all persons having the great bell tolled for them "at their extremitie of sickness, shall pay 4d. for the same for the use of the church over the usual fee that is due to the clock-keeper." In 1602, the church was ordered to be repaired "with the lead which belonged to the Corporation, the churchwardens paying for the same." The chancel was also repaired in 1604, 1606, and 1608. In 1604, it was ordered that "Whenever any alderman or common councilman should die, or the wife of either of them, within the borough, that the four junior of the common council, then being at home, and having no reasonable excuse of absence, shall attend at the ringing of the bell, to carry the deceased to the church, under a fine of 5s." Williams, Bishop of Lincoln, granted, in 1626, a license to the churchwardens to take down "the ruins of the church or chapel of St. John, and to employ or convert the same towards repairing the parish church of St. Botolph." The certificate of the lIMayor and aldermen applying for this license, states, " That the large, spacious, and magnificent church of St. Botolph is able and fit to contain all the whole people and congregation of Boston to hear divine service, &c.; that it was in so great need of repairs that the inhabitants were not able to supply the defect thereof." And further, that " the late church or chapel of St. John had not been employed to any divine use for the space of 200 years or thereabouts." In 1627, the Corporation directed 61. 13s. 4d. to be spent annually for the repairs of the chancel; further repairs were made in 1631 and 1635. It appears, that two parish clerks had been employed until 1643, at a salary of 31. per annum each: it was this year ordered, that one clerk should perform all the duty, and receive 61. yearly salary. Further repairs were made in 1648 and 1651. We do not understand the following entries, not finding any clue to their meaning in the history of the town or of the period. The Corporation Records state, that Mr. Edward Gaylord was appointed on the 6th August, 1648, to perform the 1 This was the insurrection headed by KETT the 3 We do not find this gentleman's name connected tanner. in any other way with the town. Dr. TUCKNEY 2 The Church Quay was repaired by the town in was Vicar of Boston at this time. Mr. John NAY1754, and again in 1756, when a house standing LOR was appointed "Lecturer or Preacher " in 1645, thereon was ordered to be taken down. The quay There is probably a mistake in the name. was again repaired in 1789.-Vestry Book.

Page  165 FUNERALS FORBIDDEN IN ST. BOTOLPH'S CHURCHYARD (1637). 165 ordinance of baptism within the borough for one year; this was continued in 1650, when Mr. Edward Naylor was also appointed to preach within the borough every third Thursday during the year, and to "6 have for his labour and pains one chaldron of coals; and a fitting room to be provided for the examination of such persons (parents) as have children to be baptized; the said money to be paid quarterly;" no amount is mentioned. In 1652, "11Mr. Barrett, minister of Butterwick, was appointed to baptize the children (infants) in Boston for one year, his salary to be 201." Mr. Barrett did not agree to the arrangement, and the order was consequently cancelled. On the 5th March, 1652, Mr. Jeremiah Vasin, minister of Skirbeck, was applied to, to baptize children for 251. per annum; whether he accepted the appointment or not is not recorded. In 1657, it is stated, that " The churchyard was declared not large enough for the necessary purposes of the parish without danger of infection to the inhabitants, and further funerals were forbidden for the present. A piece of ground, called the Orchard, belonging to the friars, and the property of the Corporation, to be used for the present burial-place. Burials to take place in St. John's churchyard, upon paying 4cl. for each grave. No person to be buried in the church or chancel, except 40s. be previously paid to the churchwardens." Further repairs of the chancel were made in 1663, 1666, and 1674. The Records contain the following curious entry respecting funerals, under date January 6th, 1654:" Ordered, that from henceforth when there shall be any funerals within this borough to which the Mayor, aldermen, and common council, shall be invited, that the householders where such funeral shall happen to be, shall so order the same, that the corpse may not fail to be at the grave, or on the way there, within two hours next after the time appointed for the company to meet; and that this order may be the better observed, one of the officers is to set an hour-glass at the beginning of the said two hours; and when the hourglass is out run, or sooner if the occasion be, they shall begin to serve the company. And whenever any room is once fully served, and the servers gone out of the room, they are not to return to it, to serve any one that may come afterwards, thereby prolonging the time. But when the second hour is ended, then forthwith the Mayor, aldermen, and common council then present, are to come away, that so the rest of the company may do the like. The officer aforesaid having given notice to them of the house to bring away the corpse, this order to be published throughout the town." In 1708, a bill was brought into the House of Commons'" to enable assessments to be made for repairing and keeping in repair the parish church of Bostonm" The preamble to this bill recites, "By reason of the peculiar circumstances of the said parish, it appears that the legal method of laying such assessment (which has already obtained in England) is unfit to be followed; and other methods have, therefore, been long time used in the said parish; and there being diversity of opinions amongst the parishioners concerning the same, by reason whereof suits and controversies are likely to arise, and some have arisen in relation thereunto, and the said church is thereby in danger to become ruinous. For preventing whereof, and that a sufficient church assessment may every year be effectually laid and collected for the uses aforesaid, with as much equality and exactness as the nature of the thing will permit. Be it enacted," &c. &c. The remedy proposed was the election annually by the parishioners, of a certain number of such parishioners, to be called vestrymen, who should make annual estimates of the necessary expenses for the repairs of the church, and should assess the same upon the inhabitants, &c. This bill was brought in, read a first and second time, committed, and amended, and ordered to be engrossed; it then appears to have been dropped, for there is no entry on the Journals of the House of its having been read a third time. The preamble to this bill is curious, showing that the general law respecting the reparation of

Page  166 166 ENLARGEMENT, ETC., OF THE CHURCHYARD (1774). churches did not apply to the parish of Boston, and that, as respected churchrates, the town was at that time an exception to the general rule; what was the nature and ground of that exception we are not informed. The chancel was again repaired in 1712 and 1717. On 25th February, 1713, it was agreed at a parish meeting, that the House of Commons should be petitioned to grant a duty upon coal imported into the port of Boston, not exceeding 4d. a chaldron, towards repairing the church and steeple. The history of this petition is unknown; if presented, the prayer was not granted. In 1715, Henry Heron and William Wynn, Esqrs., the members for the borough, gave 501. each towards whitening and cleaning the parish church and pillars. The Corporation subscribed 501. towards the purchase of a new altarpiece in 1724. The old altar-piece was sold to the parish of Gedney, in 1740, for 201. The chamberlain was directed to pave the quire of the church in a new and regular way in 1732; in 1740, the half-window on the north side of the quire was directed to be glazed, and the lead and work on the south side of the chancel was repaired in 1751. Repairs were ordered to be done to the stone-work of the steeple and the roof of the church in 1749, and the roof of the middle aisle repaired in 1750. In 1774, the churchyard was considerably enlarged, by the gift of Mr. John Parish, who gave a public-house, called the Ostrich, and several messuages and shops adjoining, for this purpose, upon the condition that the Corporation would give the old gaol and two shops, which then stood on the south side of the churchyard, for the same use. Behind these houses, there was a part of the churchyard, called the Half-Crown Hill, which had long been used as the burial-ground of the lower classes of the inhabitants, and where, in consequence, the ground had been raised, until it was level with the windows of the Ostrich looking into the churchyard. This hill was levelled, the houses taken down, and the iron gates and palisadoes next the Market-place erected; the plan was not completed, however, until 1781, when several other old buildings belonging to the Corporation were taken down, and the area of the churchyard thrown open as at present. The church was broken into during the night between the 28th and 29th November, 1775, and the whole of the communion-plate stolen; a reward of 501. was offered by the churchwardens, but the perpetrators of this sacrilegious felony were not discovered. The plate stolen consisted of two 1 large silver flagons chased and gilt, one weighing fifty-eight ounces, the other fifty-five; a large silver dish, chased and gilt, and a large silver cup and cover, all presented to the church by Lord COLERAINE; and two smaller silver cups; an ancient silver patine; a large silver dish, inscribed Elizabeth Woodland; and two smaller ones, inscribed Lenox Jackson. In August 1776, the parish replaced the necessary plate for the communion-service; and 1001. given by Mr. Amcotts, one of the members for the borough, was expended in the purchase of two silver flagons gilt, "as ornamental plate." In 1781, the roof of the chancel was repaired by Silvester Obbins. In 1783, the ceiling of the roof of the middle aisle was found to be greatly decayed, and was ordered, at a vestry meeting, to be thoroughly repaired. Dr. Bestoe gave 501. towards the expense, which was not to exceed 2501., for repairs and painting. The roof of the church was discovered to be on fire about two o'clock in the afternoon of the 23d Maay, 1803, occasioned, as is conjectured, by the carelessness of some workmen who were employed in repairing it. Although the fire An entry in the Vestry Book, in 1754, leads to chased by the churchwardens with the produce of the inference that only one of the flagons was the some old plate sold at this time. gift of Lord Coleraine, and that the other was pur

Page  167 GENERAL RENOVATION OF THE EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH (1843). 167 had spread itself over one-third of the length of the roof, before it was discovered, it was fortunately completely extinguished by the exertions of the inhabitants. The repairs rendered necessary by this fire amounted to about 5001. In 1834, the town-clerk was directed to procure a translation of the original endowment of the church for the use of the Corporation. In 1836, the steeple was struck by lightning, but the damage done was not great. In 1843, a subscription was commenced for the repairs of the church, which had for several years past suffered much from decay and neglect. The object of the subscription was not mere ordinary repairs only, but the general renovation of the entire edifice (the chancel excepted, the repairs of which were the duty of the Corporation as lay impropriators), in strict accordance with the age and style of the architecture of the church. An eminent architect' was consulted, from whose able report we gather the following particulars of the condition of the building. The roof timbers were much decayed, the ends of many had completely perished, " so much so, that, but for some rather clumsilycontrived precautions, which had from time to time been taken for their support, they could not have retained their position, but must have fallen in." The external stone-work was much decayed, particularly the smaller portions of the ornamental work, pinnacles, finials, &c. The stair-turrets, originally belonging to the nave (having existed before the tower was built), were in a very shattered condition. The windows in the clerestory were much out of repair, both in the mullions and the tracery. In the interior, the entire surface of the freestone work needed cleansing of the yellow-wash and paint with which it had been disfigured. The ceilings wanted painting. The stone floor was much broken; the glazing of the windows in a very imperfect state, and much weakened by the removal of the upright iron stanchions, and the use of glass in squares instead of diamonds. In the tower, the western doorway was in a most dilapidated state. The pinnacles to the buttresses, some wholly lost, the others in a very shaken condition. The parapets and windows in the ringing-chamber story needed repairs; the same was the case in the belfry story, and the lower story of the lantern. Under the direction of Mr. SCOTT, the immediately: GEORGE GILBERT SCOTT, Esq. His report, to which this spirit has been carried, and of the dated 25th September, 1843, is rarely to be pro- mischief it has caused, can only be appreciated by cured. The following sentiments are so very just those who are constantly in the habit of visiting and and important, that they cannot be too widely dis- examining ancient churches. The havoc it has made seminated:- amongst the most valuable remnants of ancient art "There is no subject on which an architect can is truly deplorable; so much so, that a restoration be called upon to give an opinion which involves at carried on in the heartless and ignorant manner in once such deep interest and such serious responsi- which they have too generally been undertaken, is bility as the restoration of an ancient church. When more to be dreaded, and has often been more fatal called upon to report upon the condition of an ordi- in its consequences, than centuries of spoliation and nary building, we treat it as a common matter of neglect. business, condemning without ceremony all that is "The object of every repair should be the faithful defective, and suggesting any improvements of which restoration of those features of the original building it may appear to us that the design is capable; or, which yet remain, and their preservation from furpossibly, we recommend the whole to be taken down, ther injury or decay; and no alteration should be and rebuilt on a more modern or economical plan. attempted which is not the renewal of some ancient Indeed, without respect to the intentions of the ori- feature which has been lost, or absolutely necessary ginal builder, we suggest what appears to be most for rendering the building suitable to the present convenient to the present occupant. wants of the parishioners; and this should be done " This principle has, unfortunately, been in too in strict conformity with the character and intention many instances acted upon by those engaged in the of the building. repairs of our churches, without the thought ever "The importance of acting upon correct princioccurring to them that these glorious monuments of ples is, in the present instance, greatly increased by the devotion and skill of our forefathers are to be the magnitude and splendid character of the buildhandled with one whit more reverence or caution ing, which exceeds almost every other parish church than a building of the most ordinary description, in the kingdom. Its value, therefore, as a specimen and for the most common-place purposes. They of architecture, and as the great ornament of the condemn in toto what appears defective, suggest town, gives it a double claim on the care and attenmodern modes of replacing it, and recommend fan- tion of the inhabitants, while it adds greatly to the cied improvements of their own, with as little cere- interest which must be felt for its proper restoramony in the one case as in the other. The extent tion."

Page  168 168 RENOVATION, ETC., OF THE INTERIOR OF THE CHUERCH (1851). necessary portions of the repairs were attended to, and also so much of the restorations which he suggested as the probable fund which could be raised would admit of. The roofs were thoroughly repaired and painted. The stair-turrets and staircases, and the exterior stonework of the church generally, were also repaired, and the pinnacles and finials restored. The plastering, &c., were removed from the interior; the stonework, thus covered, was found to be picked, to make it receive the plaster. This was tooled off, which still, however, left the walls very rough. "Indeed," says Mr. SCOTT,'"they were so in most parts in the original building." A large portion of the clerestory walls was found to be faced internally with brick, which was cut away, and stone ashlaring substituted. The whole of the common square glazing of the windows was taken out, and new glazing, in diamond quarries, with new iron-work, introduced. The three lower windows of the tower were re-glazed, and their stone-work repaired. These, and other minor repairs, were executed during the years 1844 and 1845, at an expense of 33641. Is. 4d., which was raised by voluntary subscription. The Town Council also appropriated 4601. for the repairs of the chancel. The expense of the repairs being 4671. 9s. A glazed oak screen across the two arches opening from the vestry into the nave, was also erected, at an expense of 601., which was raised by a subscription by the ladies. The entire expense of these repairs and restorations being 38911. 10s. 4d. In 1844, the vicar and lecturer were authorised to introduce gas in lighting the interior of the church. Mr. SCOTT'S able report had suggested many repairs and restorations, which it was not thought prudent to undertake until the more necessary ones, which we have recapitulated, were executed. These were, however, only deferred until a more convenient time. A meeting of the parishioners was convened on the 20th March, 1851, when it was agreed to enter into a subscription to carry out further restorations and repairs, and a committee was appointed to cooperate with the vicar and churchwardens in the management and execution of the work. As soon as a sufficient amount of subscriptions was guaranteed to warrant proceeding with the undertaking, it was placed under the management of G. G. PLACE, Esq., as architect, and G. G. SCOTT, Esq., consulting architect, and the work commenced. The plan now entered upon embraced the fitting up the entire nave with convenient seats, affording accommodation for 2000 persons; the removal of the organ and the gallery in which it stood, and placing the former in a building to be erected for its reception at the north-west corner of the chancel. The east window to be filled with coloured glass, and the mullions and tracery-work restored. The chancel stalls cleaned and refitted, and as many carved oak canopies erected as could be supplied by individual presentation. The ringing-floor removed, and the tower opened by the construction of a magnificent groined stone vaulting at the height of 156 feet from the pavement. The upper windows of the tower re-glazed. The floor lowered and relaid with concrete, and a hot-water apparatus introduced, sufficiently powerful to warm the whole interior of the building. These and many other works of a minor character will be more particularly attended to when describing the interior of the church. These repairs and improvements were executed at an expense of 71051. 7s., making, in all, the amount of 10,9961. 17s. 4d. expended upon the church since the commencement of the works under Mlr. SCOTT's directionS in 1844. The restoration of the southwestern Chapel,l and of the western doorway,2 with some additional repairs to 1 Provision is made for the repairs and restoration doorway, with its rich fa.cade, originally decorated of this chapel.-See a subsequent page. with statues, pinnacles, finials, &c., and part of the 2 The elegant arch and tracery of the western door itself, are evidently more ancient than any

Page  169 NEW CEMETERY, CHAPELS, ETC. (1854). 169 the porch, all of which would not require more than 10001. to accomplish, would place this noble building in as complete a state as its most enthusiastic admirer could desire. The church was reopened after these extensive works of restoration and adaptation on the 12th of May, 1853, with highly interesting services. A congregation of nearly 3000 persons assembled in the morning; among whom were about 160 of the clergy of the town and county. The BISmoP of LINCOLN (the Right Reverend JoHN JACKSON, D.D.) preaching the sermon; the first, we believe, his lordship preached after his installation as Bishop of the diocese. The want of a commodious and properly located public burial-ground, or cemetery, was long felt in Boston; and in May 1854, a meeting of the inhabitants agreed to expend 35001. in the purchase of the necessary X. land for that purpose, the erec. - tion of chapels, &c.: this was __ =..... afterwards increased to 50001. to cover the entire outlay. The - __-__: _ cemetery is situated on the west _ - side of the road from Bargate "" _ —Bridge to Cowbridge, about half a mile from the former. The _ _':: location is very eligible, and the -- _ _...... - position of the land -twelve _,__ -___ acres in extent-and the nature _ of its soil, well adapted for the uses to which it is appropriated& __ The first stone of the chapel ad for members of the Established _-_ Church was laid by the Mayor (Frederick Cooke, Esq.), on thee 7th of November, 1854. The foundation of that for the use of persons of all religious cree ds and opinions, was laid by that gentleman on the 20th of the Cemetery Chapel. same month. The chapel and land appropriated to the Established Church were consecrated by the Bishop of Lincoln on the 13th of August, and the whole of the cemetery and both chapels opened for funerals 15th of October, 1855.1 The chapels were erected from the designs of Mr. J. P. Pritchett, of Darlington; they are exactly similar, and 200 other part of the tower, and, no doubt, formed part the late restorations; and that two smaller arches of the church before the tower was erected. They, were formed between this column and the sides of probably, originally occupied the same position un- the present arch, and within each of these smaller der the west window of the nave as they now occupy arches one of the doors was suspended. An inspecbeneath the west window of the tower, forming in tion of the present doors will, we think, justify this both eases the western entrance into the church; opinion, additional portions of quite a different chaand were removed from the former to the latter racter having been added to the florid work of the position when the tower was erected, and the west old doors, to adapt them to their present position. window of the nave cut down to form the present 1 The burial of William Daulton was the first communication between the nave and the tower. which occurred in the Cemetery grounds, that of We think it very probable that the present doorway Richard Sweet the second, both on the 15th of arch was originally divided by a central column, as October, 1855. the base stone of such a column was found during

Page  170 170 VICARS OR RECTORS BEFORE TIHE REFORMATION. feet apart. The style of their architecture is the "late decorated;" the walls are of white brick; the open parapets, pinnacles, and spires, of Ancaster stone. The chapels are thirty-six feet long and twenty feet broad, the towers and steeples seventy feet high. The interiors have groined ceilings, springing from carved corbels, and are fitted up with open seats, having carved ends and stone reading-desks: each chapel will seat sixty persons. The cost of each about 6001. VICARS OR RECTORS OF BOSTON BEFORE THE REFORMATION. 1309. Sir John Truesdale, parson. 1321. John Barrett, rector of Boston church, Register of Corpus Christi Guild, 1346, and again mentioned as rector of St. Botolph in 1362. 1381. John Stransgill, rector of Boston, according to the Subsidy Roll of this year. He is called Strensall in the Register of the Corpus Christi Guild in 1385 and 1398. He was assessed in the Subsidy 51 Edward III., 1377, as a beneficed clerk, and was also a member of the Guild of the Holy Trinity in Boston, and died in 1408. 1409. Richard Flemyng, rector of Boston; his name is in the Corpus Christi Register of this year, and is mentioned, in 1415, by INGULPHus, " as an excellent doctor of holy theology." He was appointed Bishop of Lincoln May 12th, 1420, and founded Lincoln College at Oxford in 1427; he died at Sleaford, 143 1. He was in early life a warm supporter of the doctrines of John Wickliff, but was afterwards as strenuous an opponent of them. Baker says, " he wrote divers books, one' Of the Etymology of England.' " 1424. John Ickworth, rector, and member of Corpus Christi Guild. 1431. Richard Layot, rector, and memnber of the same Guild. 1452. John Marshall, rector, and also member of the same Guild. 1462. Roger Cheschyre, rector, and, in 1469, alderman of the Guild of Corpus Christi. 1492. William Smyth, vicar of Boston, and alderman of Corpus Christi Guild in 1503. Died 13th April, 1505; he was prebendary of Hather. 1513. Robert Wilberfoss, vicar of Boston, and member of Corpus Christi Guild. 1518. John Tynmouth, alias Manelyn, vicar of St. Botolph and Bishop of Argolis,' alderman of Corpus Christi Guild in 1519. Under the name of JOHN of TYNMUOUTrr, he is supposed to have written a life of St. Botolph. 1531. Doctor John Mabledon, vicar of Boston, and member of Corpus Christi Guild. Salary in 1538, as vicar, 50 marks. 1545. Baron Sandford, vicar of Boston. Salary 231. The Corporation Records, under date June 1552, order " communication to be had with Vicar Suneforthe (Sandford) for surrendering his benefice."2 This John Tynmouth was a Franciscan at Lynn The Bishop of Argos was a suffragan of the in Norfolk, and educated at the Franciscan Convent Bishop of Lincoln, as were also the Bishops of (now Sidney College) at Cambridge, and afterwards Leyden and Mayo. There was another John of among the members of his fraternity at Oxford. He Tinmouth, who is described as a "Chronicler of the was appointed Vicar of Boston about 1515, and soon fourteenth century."-See CHURTON on EarlyEngafterwards made a suffragan bishop. He died in lish Churches, p. 229. 1524, and was buried in the churchyard at Boston. The dates prefixed to these names are those at He bequeathed five pounds to each of the Franciscan which we find the parties mentioned as holding office, houses at Lynn, Carmbridge, and Oxford.- See and not those when they were respectively apWOOD'S Ath. Oxon. vol. i. p. 566; and DODD's pointed. Church HEistory, i. p. 187.

Page  171 VICARS SINCE THE REFORMATION. 171 OTHER CHAPLAINS, &c. 1404. John Edlynton, chaplain. 1412. Robert de Felde and Richard Orre, chaplains. 1491. Master John Odlyn, clericus de Boston. 1547. John Gymblet and William Harrison, clerks. 1547. Ralph Cockerell and John Bell, chaplains. VICARS SINCE THE REFORMATION. 1554. ROBERT RICHARDSON, clerk; elected vicar by the Corporation. 1559. ROBERT SKARLYTT, alias FISKE, elected. In 1569, he "was said (see Corporation Records) to owe the Queen's Majesty 201., which the Corporation agreed to pay, and to deduct 30s. a quarter from his salary until it was repaid." 1571. HENRY HOLLAND, B.D., appointed; he was of the family of Holland of Estovening. 1584. JAMES WORSHOPPE, M.A. 1592. WILLIAM ARMSTEAD; he resigned 20th December, 1593. 1594. SAMUEL WRIGHT, B.D. 1599. THOMAS WOLLES, M.A. 1612. BENJAMIN ALEXANDER, elected; he did not accept. 1612. JOHN COTTON, M/.A., see a subsequent page for a memoir of this gentleman; he resigned July 1633. 1633. ANTHONY TUCKNEY, D.D., was born at Kirton, near Boston, 1599, where his father was minister: he was appointed Mayor's chaplain, or preacher, at Boston, in 1629, and succeeded Mr. Cotton, as vicar, in 1633. He is said to have been a cousin of that gentleman. It is certain that their families corresponded many years after Mr. Cotton removed to America. Before Mr. Tuckney came to Boston, he resided for some time in the family of the Earl of Lincoln. When the Assembly of Divines was held at Westminster, lie was one of the two representatives sent from Lincolnshire. He was appointed Master of Emanuel College, Cambridge, in 1644, and Master of Trinity in 1653; and Regius Professor of Divinity in the University of Cambridge, in 1655. The duties of these offices probably interfered with his satisfactory discharge of those which his parishioners at Boston expected from him; since the Corporation Records show, that on the 8th of April, 1659, a letter was addressed to him, asking him to resign the office of vicar. This he did not do, however, until August 1660, when " OBADIAH HOWE of Gedney, clerk, was appointed to succeed him, if approved of by Mr. TUCKNEY. If he disapproved, then he was requested to provide a most fit man as vicar of the borough." Mr. Howe " was not disapproved of by Dr. Tuckney," and was consequently elected. Dr. Tuckney was one of the most learned and eminent divines of his day. He was the author of several sermons, &c. The time of his death is not stated. Mr. Tuckney's salary, as vicar in 1639, was 1001. 1660. OBADIAH HOWE, D.D.; he was the son of the Rev. Williamn Howe, minister of Tattershall (see " Magna Britannia," Lincolnshire, p. 1444); he was minister of Stickney at the time of the battle of Winceby (1643), and is said to have entertained the leaders of the Parliamentary forces the day before the fight at that place. He was afterwards minister of Gedney, and then removed to Boston. Mr. GOODWIN says of him, though an opposer of his doctrines,"That he was a person of considerable parts and learning, but thought so most by himn

Page  172 172 VICARS SINCE THE REFORMATION. self. He wrote several treatises, viz.'The Universalist Examined and Convicted,' &c.; in answer to a book entitled,' The Universality of God's Free Grace in Christ.'' The Pagan Preacher Silenced,' in answer to John Goodwin's book, called' The Pagan's Debt and Dowry;' two sermons, entitled'The Royal Sermon, preached on Isaiah, xvi. 13, at Boston, at the Archdeacon's Visitation;' and'Elohim, or God and the Magistrate,' on Psalm lxxxii. 6. He was much respected for his learning in Lincolnshire, and dying, Feb. 27, 1682-3, was buried in his church at Boston." 1683. HENRY MORLAND, M.A., died April 1702. 1702. EDWARD KELSALL, M.A., died August 1719. 1719. SAMUEL CODDINGTON, M.A., died January 1732. 1732. JOHN RIGBY, M.A. Mr. Rigby was also Master of the Grammarschool, and published, in 1731, a pamphlet, called " Insolence Rebuked; or, an Answer to a Letter on the subject of Infallibility." He died March 1746, aged forty-five. 1746. JOHN CALTHROP, M.A., elected April 11th; salary as rector, of the tithes belonging to the parish, 331. 6s. 8d. As vicar, paid annually by the Corporation, 661. 13s. 4d. In 1751, the Corporation allowed Mr. Calthrop to take down the old Vicarage-house, and to build one according to a plan; he was allowed 1301., and the use of the old materials, and was to spend 1001. in addition, in the rebuilding. He died in August 1785, and was buried at Gosberton; he was thirty-nine years vicar of Boston and forty of Kirton. He was also a prebendary of Lincoln. 1785. SAMUEL PARTRIDGE, M.A., F.S.A. The salary of the vicar was increased 1001. in 1803, and again 751. in 1815. 1817. BARTHOLOMEW GOE, B.A. 1838. JOHN FURNESS OGLE, M.A. Salary, 3001. 1851. GEORGE BEATSON BLENIcN, M.A. MAYORS' CHAPLAINS. 1567. JAMES KAY. 1572. WILLIAM HARRISON. 1578. JAMrES WORSHIPPE, M.A., of Cambridge.' 1584. HENRY MARTIN.!' 1588. Rev. Mr. VAUGHAN. He was appointed October 2, with a stipend of 101., his board at the Mayor's table, and a gown, and his chamber by the year. He probably did not accept the office, for, on the 25th October, in the same year, Mr. WILSON was sent for to occupy it, with a salary of 121., and the other perquisites. 1591. WILLIAM JEFFEREY,,"a preaching minister. Allowed 101. from Mr. Fox's land, 201. from the Erection Lands, and 101. from the Corporation." 1595. Rev. Mr. EASTON. 1595. JOHN JAMES. 1597. JEFFEREY GREEN. 1610. Mr. ALEXANDER. Salary, 401. Mr. WORSHIPPE was to receive 201. per in Lent, and on one Friday in every month, to annum "to serve in the Churche as minister, and bestow a sermon in consideration of his wages." preache there, and attend upon Mr. Mayor, when 1582, Nov. 13, "Mr. Worshippe allowed 31. in he is called." In 1580, it was ordered "that the addition to his salary as Mayor's Chaplain."' Preacher of the Borough' shall, at the burial of 2 1584, Mr. MARTIN, the Mayor's chaplain, to any of the aldermen or common councilmen, or have a "gown cloth of 40s. price, and a chamber their wives, bestow a sermon, if no other be ap- allowed him." pointed to occupy his place. Also on every Friday

Page  173 MAYORS' CHAPLAINS AND LECTURERS. 1173 1618. Mr. EDWARD WRIGHT, chaplain. Salary, 401. He died in 1629, when he was styled " the Preacher." 1629. ANTHONY TUCKNEY, B.D., Fellow of Emanuel College, Cambridge, was elected town preacher on the death of Mr. Wright, at the same stipend. Mr. Tuckney was appointed vicar in 1633, but did not surrender the office of Mayor's chaplain until 21st March, 1634; we do not find any successor appointed as Mayor's chaplain or preacher, until 1651. 1651. BANKES ANDERSON, who was paid 701. per annnm. He was "preacher" in 1662, receiving the same salary.1 The Corporation Records do not supply any other names as Mayor's chaplains until 1851, when the Rev. WILLIAM SINGLETON was appointed to that office by the vicar. He was succeeded by the Rev. ABRAHAM DUNLIN PARKINSON in November 1852. LECTURERS. 1645. JOHN NAYLOR, M.A., is the first person we find to whom the title of " Lecturer" is applied. He was appointed this year "one of the ministers of the town, at a yearly salary of 1001." 1675. HENRY MORLAND, Fellow of St. John's College, Cambridge. Salary, 701. He was appointed vicar in 1683. 1683. WILLIAM GIBBS. Salary, 901. He was buried 18th January, 1683. 1685. ISRAEL JACKSON, Fellow of Peter House, Cambridge. 1707. JOHN PIMLOW. 1729. JOHN T:HOMPSON, died 6th February, 1753, aged 49. 1753. JOHN LINTON, jun. 1773. WHARTON PARTRIDGE. Salary, 1001. 1795. JOHN WAYET. Salary raised in 1802 to 1701. 1834. MATTHEW ROBINSON, resigned 1843. 1843. JOHN HENRY OLDRID, B.A. The following notices relative to the parsonage, rectory, and vicarage, are extracted from the Records of the Corporation:The parsonage or rectory was farmed for 261. 13s. 4d. in 1557, it had previously been rented for 171. In 1560, Mr. Draper rented it for 601. In this year there was a dispute with the parson of Coningsby whether Armtree Fen was a part of the parish of Coningsby or not. The tithes of Armtree Fen were at this time held by the Corporation of Boston as appertaining to the rectory, and were valued at 10s. per annum. The parsonage and priory of Boston are mentioned in 1578. In 1585, November 30th, a letter was read from " the Lord Treasurer concerning the parsonage, and it was agreed that the parsonage should go from mayor to mayor, the recorder to obtain the Lord Treasurer's consent thereto." In 1596, " the parsonage was leased for ten years at 601. a-year and a hogshead of wine;" this was allotted to the Mayor as his annual fee. The Mr. ANDERSON died in September 1668; his a declaration of faith; he was one of the "Elders" second wife was Mary Whiting of Boston, to whom summoned to attend. His letter in reply is given he was married in September 1645. He was a in PECK'S Desiderata Curiosa, vol. ii. lib. xiii. member of the Independent or Congregationalparty p. 25. William Sheldrake of Wisbeach, and Edin the Church; and when, in 1658, the Protector ward Reyner of Lincoln, were two other ministers Cromwell resolved upon calling a convention or addressed in a similar manner, and their replies are synod of the Independent ministers to be held at also given by PECK. the Savoy in September of that year, to draw up

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF THE RECTORY, ETC. hogshead of wine was valued at 51. In 1600, the tenant of the rectory or glebe-lands, besides 501. a-year rent, paid all charges belonging thereto, the repairs of the chancel excepted, and kept up the sea-banks belonging to the parsonage-grounds. In 1624, the parsonage, which had hitherto been allotted to the Mayor "towards his house-keeping," was appropriated to the general purposes of the Corporation, and 801. a-year paid to the Mayor. From 1624 to 1650, the rent of the glebe-lands varied from 601. per annum to 1501. In 1639, the vicarage was taxed 61. 13s. 4do in aid of his Majesty's royal expedition to the north. In 1667, the glebe-lands rented for 1401. and two fat pigs. In 1674, the tithes and profits of the parsonage were as follows: — ~ s. d. Tithe wool in kind, 121 stone.......................... 51 8 6 Composition for wool and lambs........................ 40 1 1 Rent of glebe-lands............................. 24 7 2 Corn and mills........................................ 4 18 0 Mortuaries and Easter offerings...................... 15 14 11 Strangers for " Arriage" (?)........................... 6 7 6 Marriages and churchings............................. 2 10 0 Tithes for cows and calves............................ 0 11 4 Tithe hemp........................................... 018 0 ~146 16 6 The parsonage rented from 1675 to 1715, for various sums varying from 901. to 1301. and four fat pigs. In 1717, the living of Boston, being under the value of 801. per annum, claimed. to be exempt from first-fruits and tenths, and a committee attended the com — missioners at Sleaford to prefer such claim. From this time to the end of the eighteenth century, " the parsonage impropriate"I rented for from 901. to 1201. and( four "fat or sucking-pigs." The last rent recorded is in 1796, when the tithes (exclusive of the glebe-lands) were rented by Mr. Nightingale Kyme for 1001., and Il. or "'four fat sucking-pigs." In 1813, on the inclosure of the Fens, the Corporation received an allotment of 364A. 3n. 29P. of land in the East Fen, and 36A. OR. 26P. in the West Fen, in lieu of tithes. The advowson of the vicarage of Boston was stated to be worth, in 1851, 3701. per annum; of which 331. 6s. 8d. arose from the original ancient endowment of fifty marks per annum; 2661. 13s. 4d. paid to the vicar as one of the presbyters under the charter of Philip and Mary, by the municipal trustees of Boston, out of the rents of the lands granted by such charter, which produce a gross rental exceeding 14001. per annum; 211. per annum arising from various rent-charges and benefactions, and the residue from surplice-fees. This is exclusive of the vicarage-house and garden. The lecturer, who is the other presbyter named in the charter of Philip and Mary, receives 2501. per annum out of the rents of the land comprised in that charter, and 101. per annum from a bequest. The Mayor's chaplain receives 1201. a-year from lands bequeathed by Henry Fox for the support of such chaplain or curate. A full account of the arrangement of the charity-fund made in 1850 will be found in a subsequent section. Hlaving given a history of this magnificent building, from its first erection until the completion of the late extensive and judicious repairs and restoration, so far as we have met with materials enabling us to do so, and also a brief enumeration of its principal ministerial officers, we will proceed to a description of 1 Impropriate, "Impropriations, i.e. Lay-im- [ Mr. SINGER'S note to his edition of SELDEN'S propriations. Appropriation being the proper term Table Talk, p. 153. for any benefice given into clerical hands." See

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Page  175 DESCRIPTION OF THE EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 175 the church in its present restored state. The greater part of the following account of the exterior has been furnished by the able architect under whose directions the restoration of the interior was accomplished. THE EXTERIOR. The present plan of this very beautiful building consists of a nave, with north and south aisles, a spacious chancel, the great west tower, a south porch, and a chapel at the south-west angle of the south aisle. The east front of the chancel contains a well-proportioned window of seven lights, with flowing tracery in the arch, and highly moulded jambs and label. The buttresses which flank this window are plain decorated work below, whilst the upper portions are in the light perpendicular style. The gable coping of the cross is also perpendicular. Previous to the late restoration this east window was a very inferior one, the cill having been raised several feet, and the mullions and tracery very deformed and imperfect. The new tracery is studied from the existing decorated tracery in the church, but the old window did not originate the present design. When the chancel was lengthened two bays during the perpendicular period, the architect was careful to remove and reconstruct the decorated east wall; for the present east end of the chancel, except the pinnacles and the coping, is the decorated one, rebuilt in the perpendicular period, but on new foundations two bays farther east than where it formerly stood. The south side of the chancel exhibits five bays, each containing a fourlight window. The three most westwardly bays show by the window tracery the extent of the original decorated chancel, and the other two as plainly indicate the perpendicular addition in the tracery of the windows. There is here done what was not often done; a decorative addition was made during the perpendicular period, with all the constructive details, except the window tracery, exactly similar to the decorated work. The parapet and pinnacles of the chancel are of perpendicular work, and have been pronounced too light. The priest's door is on this side; it was repaired and enlarged about a hundred years ago. The buttresses appear to have been altered, and shorn of some of their ornaments, and the pinnacles upon them are paneled, embattled, and crocketed. The cornice-noulding contains heads and bosses set alternately. The parapet of each bay is in six divisions, having alternately a square with a boss in the middle, and a square divided into three arched panels with trefoiled heads. In front of the two most western windows on the south side of the chancel formerly stood the vestry or sacristy, which was taken down about a century ago.1 Against this vestry and the east end of the south aisle, formerly stood a building called Taylor's Hall; this was taken down by an an order of the vestry in 1725; 2 and the windows blocked up by this building were opened and glazed like the other windows in the south aisle. The east end of the south aisle has a window of five lights, with perpendicular tracery. The buttress is crowned by a square pinnacle of elaborate design, the sides of which are paneled, and contain niches with canopies for statues. The parapet of the gable is composed of quatre-foiled circles of open work. The south aisle contains five bays, the porch, and the chapel. The windows are of four lights each, varying alterVestry Book, 29th April, 1761, "a building on ing adjoining the church, known as Taylor's Hall, the south side of the Church, used as a vestry, but i be pulled down by the churchwardens, and the maoriginally erected as an oratory or private chapel, terials thereof applied to the use of the said church; directed by a license granted by the vicar-general to and that the window blocked up by the said building the churchwardens, to be taken down." be opened and glazed as the other windows in the 2 Vestry Book, 1725. "Ordered that the build- south aisle."

Page  176 176 EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. nately in the design of the tracery. There is a buttress between each two windows, the top canopy of which has boldly projecting gorgoyle figures. The buttress next to the porch contains a beautiful niche, with crocketed pediment and canopy; and it may be inquired whether the other buttresses had not formerly the same ornament. The south porch is two stories in height, and has an imposing effect. The lower story is of decorated work, the upper one ii excellent examples of decorated detail. In the east wall and adjoining the not very obvious the walls of the church, anointing the same with reaon eisedfo tisireglait, bthearbishpcnertdteata tnadatrad not very obvious. the walls of the church, anointing the same with~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~I; There'! isapancoscti h toeo h hiri h om facos vrosprs

Page  177 EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 177 aisle is a staircase which leads to the upper room. The mode of adding the perpendicular work of the upper story to the lower one is curious, especially in the south face, where the low arch with hanging tracery surmounts the pointed decorated one. It is shown by the arch in the interior of the church immediately over the south door, that the porch was originally constructed with a room over it; but, as first built, this room was no doubt partly in the highpitched decorated roof. The upper parts of the buttresses are simple and plain, but the lower stages contain very elaborate canopied niches, clearly showing where the new work is engrafted into the old. The buttress at the south-east angle of the porch was raised at the late restoration to its former height: it is hoped that the opposite buttress will soon receive its appropriate addition. The upper parts of the buttress pinnacles were probably cut down in 1663, when new battlements were erected to the porch. The upper room is chiefly lighted by a handsome south window of five lights. The east wall of the porch has undergone much alteration, and was, probably, formerly occupied by a chapel. There are now four small square-headed windows in the upper part of the eastern wall of the porch, and a roof of low pitch covers it.' The apex of the gable received the addition of a handsome large stone cross at the late restoration. Attached to the west wall of the porch is a large chapel of the same date as the decorated portion of the church, as is shown by the arches which connect it with the church. This chapel is three bays in length, and is lighted on the south by windows of three lights. The general details of the chapel are plainer than those of the church. The west end contains a well-proportioned window of four lights, having perpendicular tracery. The roof is also a good specimen of perpendicular paneled work. The west end of the south aisle contains a window of five lights, with perpendicular tracery. The south clerestory has twice the number of bays and windows as the aisle; and where the clerestory is not lofty, this is a pleasing and good arrangement. The windows are of two lights, and of two patterns of tracery, used alternately. The buttresses are of slight projection, and contain brackets and canopies for statues, although there are no niches for the figures. The effect of this arrangement of sculpture is very good, and it is to be lamented that so few of the very graceful and beautiful statues remain. The parapet is of very good detail. The carving of the brackets under the statues, and of the canopies of the buttresses, is very curious and remarkably well executed. The great beauty of the tower of Boston Church consists in its magnificent and grand proportions, and in the true relations which it bears to the body of the church, to which it was an addition. It is divided in its height into four stories; the first being carried up as high as the ridge of the roof of the nave. churches, as in the Cathedral at Salisbury, and the of the floor, but the latter has evidently been conchurches of Edenton in Wilts, Cannington in Somer- I siderably raised. The cross very much resembles setshire, and Brent Pelham in Hertfordshire, mark the Maltese cross; no other similar mark has been the spots anointed with chrism."-GAGE, see Ar- i discovered in the church. The outline of a handchceologia, p. 243. i bell, of comparatively modern shape, is traced upon There is a Pontifical, printed at Rome in 1595, each of the two central pillars on the north side of in the British Museum, which says, " the Bishop is the nave; the origin and purport are unknown. enjoined to mark, with his thumb dipped in the i' "In the west buttress of the south front of chrism, twelve crosses on the walls of the church, the porch is a grating with an arched entrance and and others on the doors, altars, &c." The Rubric stone stairs leading to the crypt below." This requiring that these crosses shall be 10 palms was formerly used as a rain-water cistern, and (7 feet 5 inches English measure), above the floor. called "the Church Well;" it now contains the -Ibid. p. 277. apparatus for heating the church, and is a room of The cross in the porch of Boston Church is only about eighteen feet square. (at present) four feet seven inches above the level AA

Page  178 a78 EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. It contains the great west window, and two others on the north and south sides, as well as the west door. The second story, or lower lantern, contains eight windows, two to each of the walls, and is a most magnificent feature of the design, both externally and internally. The third story consists of the bell chamber, and is lighted by four large windows; at the base of this story an external gallery is continued round the tower. The fourth story consists of the upper lantern, which makes a most elegant termination to this grand and majestic campanile.' The whole of the external surface, except the part immediately below the octagonal lantern, is covered with panel-work, and the arrangement and treatment of the buttresses are particularly pleasing. The series of base-mouldings are bold and well designed, whilst the shafted buttresses of the first story, with their statues, have a very good effect. The western door, though now much mutilated, contains some beautiful work. The lightness of the second story, with its double windows canopied, cannot be too highly praised. The pinnacles and battlements of the bell-chamber story are of excellent design. The octagonal lantern is exceedingly beautiful, whether considered in the elegance of its appearance or the lightness of its construction. Each face contains a two-light window, divided by transoins into three stages, and there is a marked similarity between these and the windows of the second story, both in the design and general treatment. The parapet, with its richly-ornamented gables of open tracery-work, along with the eight pinnacles, and the gilded vanes, have a very elegant and light appearance. The west end of the north aisle is similar to that of the south, whilst the general details of this aisle are plainer than those of the south, as may be seen in the window-jambs and the base-moulding. The curved heads set in the tops of the window-arches are remarkable and uncommon. Here is a north door without a porch.2 The parapet of the east end of this aisle is a piece of remarkably rich and delicate late perpendicular work, —indeed such as has, The editor of the Lincolnshire Churches, in the the immense foundation, the courses of which have Division of Holland, justly says, " The lightness been found to extend under the river. The archiand elegance of this part of the church, its admirable tect has taken equal care that the tower should not proportions, the thinness of the stone work, and its depend for any support on the nave; for we find richdecorations, are subjects of general encomiums," the buttresses contracted on that side, so as to Mr. BRITTON says,- make the elevations of the sides rather irregular. "The base of the lantern is formed by arches The lantern, no doubt, was intended to be lighted turned diagonally over the angles of the tower, at night for a sea-mark. The church of All Saints reducing the upper part to an octagon; so that at York has a lantern very much resembling this of four of its sides rest on these arches, and four on Boston;'and tradition tells us that anciently a the main walls. The roof of the tower and the large lamp hung in it, which was lighted in the gutters round the lantern are formed of stone, very night time, as a mark for travellers to aim at, in curiously contrived and put together. The whole their passage over the immense forest of Galtree, to structure of the lantern is admirably light and this city. There is still the hook of the pulley on beautiful. It is pierced with eight windows, of which the lamp hung in the steeple.'-DRAKIE'S nearly the same form as those of the clerestory, but York, p. 292. And STOW tells us that the steeple having one pane more in height. The corners are of Bow Church, in Cheapside, finished about 1516, supported by arch-buttresses, springing in pairs had five lanterns; to wit, one at each corner, and from the four great pinnacles of the tower; these one on the top, in the middle upon the arches. rest against the slender buttresses at the angles,' It seemeth that the lanterns on the top of this which rise into tall pinnacles. The summit is steeple were meant to have been glazed, and lights crowned by a lofty parapet of open tracery, which in them to have been placed nightly in the winter; rises in the centre on each side into a carved gable, whereby travellers to the city might have the better originally finished with a vane. All above the flat sight thereof, and not miss their Ivay.' —-Surey, roof over the bells is now open to the sky; but it is p. 542." plain tbat the lantern has been roofed, and divided 2 Near this north door there was formerlyv a charinto two floors; stone trusses for the beams, and nel-house, which is shown in STENNETT'S View of doors from the staircase, which is carried up in one the Church. It extended from the west end of the of the angles, still remaining. The masonry of this north aisle across the most westwardly bay of the noble structure is worthy of the design, scarcely aisle, and was about half as broad as it was long. any crack or settlement being perceptible; the It was originally erected as an oratory or private latter defect, indeed, was amply provided against by chapel, and was taken down in 1761.

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Page  179 EXTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 179 probably, no superior, or even equal.- The pinnacle adjoining is of equal beauty. The north clerestory has more statues remaining than the south, though, in all other respects, it is similar. At the east end of the north aisle, and occupying the west bay of the chancel, is erected upon the foundations of a former building the new room for the organ.2 The north side of the chancel is similar to that of the south. Although the various writers upon the subject have expressed their opinions respecting the period when this church was erected in different words, we think when these opinions are compared with each other they will be found to coincide. The year 1309 is generally taken as the date when the foundation of the steeple was laid, but the building of this noble structure was not advanced above the foundation for probably more than a century after that date. The late Mr. BRAND thought no portion of the body of the church was built until about fifty years after that date; namely, about 1360. This would very probably be the case; we know that expensive buildings at that period went on very slowly, and we have seen that the first contributions were small. Mr. BRAND also thought that the lantern was not older than the middle of the fifteenth century, if so old,-that is, 100 years later than the nave. "The nave and aisles, and part of the chancel," says Mr. SCOTT, " appear to have been built in the reign of Edward III." (1327 to 1377), Mr. PLACE says, " The present nave and chancel formed the first design; about 100 years later the unrivalled west tower was added and the chancel lengthened." Mr. BRITTON says the nave and aisles were erected about the middle of the fourteenth century. The editor of the " Lincolnshire Churches, Division of Holland," says,"From the changes of architecture which are visible in the building, it took two hundred years in erecting, and was carried forward during the reigns of ten different sovereigns. How much longer it would have occupied, or what other additions or alterations it was intended to undergo, we have no means of ascertaining; but from the putlogholes still remaining in the lantern, we are of opinion that it was never actually completed. This supposition is considerably strengthened by the fact that in the interior of the belfry there are stone springers, which show that it was originally intended to have had a roof of that material. " The construction of this roof formed a prominent part of the late restorations. 1 " The parapet, which is of a late perpendicular pended; this was the sanctus or sacringe bell, thus period, of the time of Henry VIII., is divided into placed, that, being near the altar, it might be the three unequal compartments by square turrets. more readily rung when, in concluding the ordinary These compartments are again subdivided into of the mass, the priest pronounced the Ter-sanctus, square panels, having net-like tracery of a very to draw attention to that more solemn office, the minute and delicate design, exceedingly well sculp- canon of the mass, which he was now about to comtured. This tracery has been compared to that of mence. It was also rung at a subsequent part of Henry the Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, which the service, on the elevation and adoration of the it certainly resembles in richness. The square tnr- host and chalice after consecration; but though the ret at the north-east angle has canopies and niches, arch remains on the gable of the nave of many containing figures of knights, which have not es- churches, the bell thus suspended is retained in few; caped the visitation of the Puritans, who appear to generally, however, a small hand-bell was carried, have beheaded them. There is another turret at and rung at the proper times in the service by the the angle of the west wall of the north aisle, with acolyte."-BLoxAM's Gothic Architecture. (originally) two tiers of statues. Several of these 2 In 1717, it was ordered that " the ruins of the remain, and are admired for their minute yet per- old chapel adjoining upon the parish church, near to fect workmanshllip.'"-Liacolnshire Churches, p. 30. the staircase leading to the organ-loft, be taken At the apex of the parapet at the east end of the down, and the materials applied to the parish use, nave is an opening for the sanctus bell, over which and to repair the defects in the north wall occasioned rises a neat cross. —Ibid. by the taking down such ruins." There was a bell of this description suspended On the west side of the buttress, near the north here in 1553.-See page 163. door of the chalcel, is the following inscription:" Outside the roof of some churches, on the apex "Near this place (April 19th, 16&0) was interred of the eastern gable of the nave, is a small open arch the body of Roger Grant, gentleman, father of Roger or turret, in which formerly a single bell was sus- Grant, Esq. now oculist to the King, 1722."

Page  180 180 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. Mr. PLAC says, — " The church of St. Botolph at Boston is the most magnificent parochial edifice in this kingdom. Its actual admeasurements exceed those of most other parish churches. Grantham, Coventry, Bristol, Newark, Louth,' &c., are far surpassed by the splendid proportions and the gigantic dimensions of St. Botolph's. Its nave is of greater width,2 and its tower of more glorious architecture, than is to be found in any of the English cathedrals. Before the building of the tower the four great angles were adorned with turrets, as at King's College Chapel, Cambridge. The tower, the roofs, and some minor details, are of the perpendicular period, and the rest of the church is of remarkably fine decorated work. "The nave, and the north and south walls of the aisles, are' Decorated Gothic,' the prevailing style when the foundations were laid. As the body of the church gradually progressed towards completion,' Perpendicular Gothic' was introduced in several places, until its predecessor being laid aside, the tower was raised in this style alone; however, in part of the parapet of the north aisle another change is perceptible, for here the rich'Tudor Gothic'3 of the time of Henry VII. and VIII. is engrafted." 4 THE INTERIOR. In the description of the interior of this magnificent building, we shall (with permission) adopt as our text that which is given in the "Lincolnshire Churches, in the Division of Holland," with the necessary alterations to adapt it to the present state of the church; information from other sources will be given in the notes. The iFont. Entering by the porch, we find an object of attraction in the elaborate oak It is said that Boston and Louth churches were the ceiling, 61 feet; height of the steeple, 292 feet built by the same architect. 9 inches." 2 Mr. GOUGH gives the following as the dimen- We believe, in modern architectural parlance, sions of the church. The height of the tower and the " Decorated Gothic" style is called the " Midlantern is 300 feet, the length 245 feet in the clear, dle Pointed," and the'"Perpendicular Gothic" and it is 98 feet broad. Mr. BRITTON says,- termed the " Third Pointed," and the "Tudor "Church, width 99 feet; length of the whole, Gothic," held to be a somnewhat "' debased areli282 feet 6 inches; viz. steeple, 40 feet 3 inches; tecture." nave or body, 155 feet 5 inches; chancel 86 feet 10 4 Licoinsidre Chlzuches, p. 20. Boston. inches; height of the nave fiom the pavement to

Page  181 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 181 carving of the south door, of two different designs, in the decorated style, where the beautiful forms and ramifications of this era of Gothic architecture are displayed to unusual advantage. Passing this excellent specimen of ancient workmanship, we come to the font, the gift, in 1853, of A. J. BERESFORD HOPE, Esq. It is capacious in size and of elegant decorated work; the wreath of vineleaves round the bowl being a beautiful specimen of carving.It stands on a basement of four courses, exactly between the north and south entrance-doors, and in the centre of the west end of the nave," A situation originally selected by the fathers of the church, for the administration of the first sacrament of Christianity, as emblematical of the spiritual warfare on which the young aspirant for a celestial inheritance had then entered, who was required, in his progress through this life towards an everlasting habitation, to fight his way like a good soldier of Jesus Christ against the three great adversaries which were continually opposed to his success, the world, the flesh, and the devil. Thus, in pursuance of the same metaphorical imagery, the nave was termed the church militant, and the choir or chancel the church triumphant." Over the font hangs a beautiful "corona," a choice specimen of modern metal work.2 The tower is roofed with a magnificent stone vaulting, at the height of 156 feet above the floor of the church, so that many spires would stand beneath the The Groined Vaulting of the Tower. 1 This font is made from a block of Ancaster 2 Whilst we admit that this object may be stone, and has been more than once supposed to be " beautiful in design, and of velry exquisite w-orkCaen stone, or Alabaster. manship," we are of opinion that it does not har-.

Page  182 182 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. sculptured bosses of this, in some respects, unequalled vaulting. The centre boss before it was carved weighed six tons, and bears the "Agnus Dei." The four other principal ones, the emblems of the Holy Evangelists, the next four exhibit angels bearing the words, "O0 Lamb of God." It has been observed that this roof must be seen before it can be appreciated.1 Certainly, considering it as a work of bold construction in its elevated position, and, independent of position, as a work of art, it is entitled to great praise. The effect of this part of the church is very imposing, occasioned by its great height and the magnitude of the west window with its beautiful tracery. How grand and magnificent it appears when the setting sun pours his softened rays amongst the dim and gloomy, yet appropriate atmosphere of the interior, throwing a rich and mellow tint over the paneled surface of the surrounding walls! A modern writer has observed of Gothic architecture, that"If the highest display of elegant combination be not found in the ever-varying designs of its windows, in the diversified exuberance of its foliage, bosses, and crockets, of the cornices, ceilings, and pinnacles,-in the undulating forms of its mouldings,-in the clustered richness of the tall pillar, or the sweeping arch,-in the luxuriant tracery, or branching ribs of the vaulted ceilings,-or in the elaborate varieties of screen, niche, canopy, altar, and stall, —it is to be-found nowhere. Nor is the excellence of this style less in the command which it has of the picturesque, in the external distribution of its masses, its shadowy or its flying buttresses, its dignified porches, its rising gables, its varying outlines of plan, broken only to enhance the interest, and its elegant and airy finishings of battlement, pinnacle, and tower, by which the eye is carried off into the clouds. But of all the combinations in which this great style displays its master-power, there is none so impressive as the effect of a well-composed interior." In these it may be truly said the Gothic architects displayed their power. It was in these that art and science brought all their aid towards decorating the temple of religion; and they did it not in vain, for who that has entered one of our ancient cathedrals has not been impressed with feelings of devotion and awe, —who has not been amazed at the stupendous mass of stone which appears to have grown up by itself, so well does every part harmonise with the whole, —who has not admired the clustered pillars of giant height and massive strength, from which spring richly moulded arches, proportionate in height and span, and groined roofs winding in endless ramifications? "Where light and shade repose, where music dwells, Lingering —and wandering on as loth to die; Like thoughts whose very sweetness yieldeth proof That they were born for immortality." The nave is separated from the aisles by seven pointed arches on clustered pillars, with plain moulded bases and caps; between the clerestory windows is a monise with what is around it, nor is it appropriate from whence those lately introduced into our parish to the place. churches have been copied."-Hon. ROBERT CURWe are supported in this opinion by the following zoN'S Ar}menia, p. 7. very competent authority: —" I am not aware where 1 This is, undoubtedly, correct; but, unfortuthe authority is to be found for introducing the nately, the difficulty of seeing it is so great, that we quantity of coronas which are now hung up in fear very few persons will have a chance of appremodern antique churches in England. I never saw ciating its excellencies. The vaulting can only be one in any Latin church, except at Aix-la-Chapelle; seen by those who stand immediately belowzo it; and there are, I presume, others, but they certainly even from that point of view, the head must be never were common or usual anywhere in Europe. thrown back so far as to cause great personal pain All those I know of are Greek, and belong to the and inconvenience, to enable any one to get a view Greek ceremonial rite. I have never met with an of the vaulted roof. The only way to see it with ancient Gothic corona, and should be glad to know ease, would be to lie on the back upon thefloor.

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Page  183 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 183 kind of impost, from which spring the arches of the groined ceiling, formed of oak, ornamented with ribs, and the intersections terminating in minutely carved bosses: the effect of this roof is slightly marred by the want of height, but it appears that this was an addition to the original design of the builders; for the nave, with the aisles and chancel, were formerly covered with flat paneled ceilings, filled in with paintings of various scriptural and historical subjects: part of one of these paintings still remains on a tie-beam of the nave roof; under these beams, on each wall, is a cornice of stone with bosses, which were anciently seen in the interior of the church.1 The whole of the nave is fitted up with open benches of oak, all facing east, with the exception of those in the easternmost bay, which face north and south, and have poppy-heads. The pulpit is placed against the first pillar from the east end on the south side; it is made of dark coloured oak, with fluted columns of the Ionic order, and semicircular arches on pilasters. It is hexagonal, and is embossed with carving of the time of Queen Elizabeth. In the south aisle, near the east end, are three stone stalls, with pointed arches cinque-foiled, on clustered pillars; the mouldings of the arches spring from corbel heads; east of them are a piscina 2 and credence-table. Near the sedilia 3 are two niches, with elaborately sculptured pedestals and canopies, and between them is a broad recess with a pointed arch. Here, before the Reformation, was probably a private chapel4 or additional altar. In this and the opposite aisle5 are several of these broad recesses; two of them in this aisle are occupied by altar-tombs, one a knight of alabaster in his harness, lying recumbent on the tomb, " In the nave of the magnificent church of which the people were continually coming in pilSt. Botolph, Boston, the wooden vault of the grimage, and offering at the altar. Most people nave roof destroys the effect of the clerestory, desiring to have masses sung for them there, or to and occupies twenty-two feet of height, which be buried in the cloister of Scala Celi, that they can ill be spared. It is quite certain that this might be partakers of the many pardons and indulroof was originally an open timber one, for gences granted by the Popes to this place, this being painted shields still remain between the vault and the only chapel (except that of the same name at the upper roof, which could not otherwise have Westminster, and that of our Lady in St. Buttolph's been visible. Church at Boston), that I find to have the same " It seems to me equally clear that the present privileges and indulgencies as the Chapel of Scala Tupper roof is not the original open roof intended to Cell at Rome. These were so great as to make be seen, for it is wholly without decoration, the all the three places aforesaid so much frequented; timbers not even being moulded. It was, probably, it being so much easier for people to pay their set up at tile same time with the present vault, and devotions here, than to go so long a journey to both w-ere the result of necessary repairs. It would Rome."-History of Norfolk, vol. iv. p. 60, 8vo. be a most happy event if the vault should be re- edition. placed by anotlier open roof appropriately deco- This chapel was, probably, separated from the rated.'"-Rev. J. AYLIFFE PooLE,,LincolnDiocesan rest of the church by a screen, the lower part of Architectural Society Reports, p. 390, vol. ii. 1853. panel, the upper of open-work tracery of wood or I A piscino is a stone basin generally formed stone; in fact, the pillars between it and the nave, within a recess in a wall, with an orifice communi- as well as the south wall of the aisle, bear marks of cating with a drain. In this were placed such having formerly sustained some erection of this portions of the consecrated elements as were not kind. used, to be carried off by the drain to prevent their This chapel appears to have occupied the two pollution by irreverent hands. easternmost bays of the aisle. In the south 3 The ancient stone seats on which the priest, wall, near the former western boundary of the deacon, and sub-deacon sat, whilst the "' Gloria in chapel, is a doorway, now closed, which conducted excelsis," and some other parts of the service, were by a spiral staircase within the wall to an opening chaunted at the celebration of mass. They are into the aisle, which, no doubt, was formerly the always placed near the altar on the south side of entrance into the rood-loft, or singing gallery of the chancel. the chapel. This loft extended across the west end 4 This was, we have scarcely a doubt, the CHIAP:EL Of the chapel. Part of the iron-work by which it OF OUR LADY alluded to in the bull of Pope was supported yet remains. Julius iI., which we have given at length in 5 In the three recesses in the north aisle there pages 135, 136. BLOMEFIELD says,'" That which were found, during the late restoration, stone cells brought most profit to the Church of the An- built of small blocks of stone, each containing a gustine Friars at Norwich was the Chapel of perfect human skeleton. Our Lady in that Church, called Scala Cell, to

Page  184 184 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. which is also formed of alabaster, paneled in front, with angels bearing shields, under ogee canopies crocketed and finialed, and separated by buttresses in two,! -l' IIj'I_ _n _ _ _ / f J Altar Tomb of a Knight. divisions; the other is an alabaster figure of a lady on a tomb of black marble, ornamented in front with quatrefoiled circles enclosing shields.' These aisles, as mentioned above, had formerly flat paneled ceilings; these were taken down in 1781, and the present groined roofs erected, which display considerable skill, although some of the details are rather faulty. The chancel is ascended from the nave by a row of two steps, through the gates of an elaborate screen, the block part of which is only at present conmpleted. The tracery of this screen is of brass, of beautiful design and workmanship. I These tombs and figures were very artistically "Mawde Tilney, who layid the first stone of the repaired and restored in 1850, by Mr. ABRAHAM goodly steple of the paroche chirch of Boston, lyith KENT of Boston; we are not aware, however, of buried under it,"-from which it may be inferred his having any authority to place the Tilney arms that she was interred under the steeple. Sir John upon the tomb of the female. It is probable from Truesdale was " Iperson of Boston," and the effigy the armour of the knight, and the dress of the in question has nothing about it indicative that the female, that these figures were executed early in the person for whom it was designed belonged to any fourteenth century. They were removed about ninety religious class. There is, however, reason to sipyears ago from the eastern end of the north aisle; pose that the male figure represents a knight of and tradition states that they were brought from Malta, since a Maltese cross is suspended from the St. John's Church when that building was taken neck. Our opinion is, that it is the memorial of a down in 1626. Another account is, that they are member of one of the ancient families of WESTON the effigies of Dame Margery Tilney and Sir John or DINELEY, both of which resided in Boston, and Truesdale, two of the principal subscribers to the were connected with the order of St. John of foundation of this church; but this is improbable, Jerusalem. Several members of these families were for LELAND, in his Itin. vol. vii. p. 204, says, that knights of Malta. See page 197, note 1.

Page  185 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 185 The ancient stalls still remain, and have recently been restored and cleansed from the numerous coats of paint with which they had been covered. Nine of il Ilj _ _ _' __ Altar Tomb of a Lady. the canopies have been restored by private subscription, and more are about to be added. It has been conjectured "that these were probably designed for the use of the masters and brethren of the religious Guilds formerly existing in Boston." It appears, also, that the chancel was before the Reformation divided by a screen into two parts, near the three steps which run across from the north and south doors. In the Corporation Records, mention is made of this circumstance, and they are called " Our Ladye's quere and St. Peter's quere," and HoLLEs, in his manuscript notes, has the description of a brass which at that timne existed, "In choro Sanctorum Petri et Pauli, ad boreamo" They are seventy-seven in number, and are by the members of the choir. The following orders ranged in two rows on each side, from the west end respecting the seats of the Mayor, &c., are from of the chancel to the north and south doors. In the Corporation Records. In 1591, they were to 1558, the Corporation Records state, that it was sit "in the loft in the church." In 1601, " seats ordered, "the alderman shall sit with the Mayor in were ordered to be made in the church for the Our Lady's quire in the church, and the common Mayor, &c. at the cost of the Corporation." In council in St. Peter's quire on the north side 1627, " a lock, and keys, and a bolt, were ordered thereof. None of the House to talk in the church, to be provided for the seats belonging to the com~ to the ill example of others." Most probably the pany in the church." brethren and sisters of the Guilds of the Blessed In 1656, the sum of 21. l0s. 4d. " was paid foe' Mary, and of St. Peter and St. Paul, occupied these cloth and mending the Mayor's seat, which was stalls during the ceremony of high mass and other cut off and stolen away." In 1743, the Corporation portions of the Roman Catholic ritual. The stalls seats were rebuilt at a cost of 751. In 1756, "the on the north side of the chancel are now occupied chamberlain to line the seats in the church where during divine service by the Mayor and town the ladies of the aldermen and common-council sit." council, and those on the south side of the chancel The aldermen's wives were called " alderesses." BB

Page  186 186 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. The seats are placed in double rows on each side of the chancel.' The subsellas, or small seats with which the stalls are furnished, move on a hinge, and when turned up, exhibit carvings in bold relief, and either refer to ancient legends of the saints, or the local history of the place, or display in symbol or caricature the pursuits or propensities of individuals. The floor of the chancel is paved with Yorkshire stone, crossed at intervals with encaustic tiles.2 The communion-table, of English oak, is large and massive, and is approached by a flight of eleven steps from the nave. The space within the enclosure is paved with rich encaustic tiles in patterns. The iron rails, erected in 1754, before the communion-table, have been painted blue and goldo Two large candelabra, twelve feet high, with seven lights each, stand between the rails and the communion-table. In the north and east walls are "aumbries,"3 and in the south wall a piscina. " The east chancel window is filled with elaborate painted glass,4 designed with a view of combining the genealogy of our blessed Lord with his great and everlasting glory, and the artists have availed themselves of the architectural disposition of the openings to produce the best arrangement possible. There are seven main lights of large dimensions, and through the three central openings there is a treatment of' The Jesse Branch.' The subject of the window commences at the base of the centre opening with the figure of Jesse, from whom issues the radix branch, enclosing above the figures of David and Joseph at each side of the Blessed Virgin, who is represented as holding the infant Jesus, to whom the Magi, or three Eastern Kings, are offering gifts. Immediately over this is our blessed Lord crucified; at each side of him are standing figures of the four Evangelists, the great recorders of the sacrifice and of the events relating to it. Above the Crucifixion is a grand figure of our blessed Lord seated in majesty upon his throne; he holds the orb and cross in one hand, whilst the other is raised in the typical act of benediction; at each side of this representation are two angels, gracefully grouped, bearing palms in their hands, and in attitudes of adoration. Full front figures of the Apostles standing under good early canopies in the four outer openings, form an appropriate finish to this part of the general design. All those figures are of large size, in proportion alike with the openings of the window and the very fine building they are placed in. " The subject of the tracery (which is very rich and well filled with openings flowing and elegant) is a representation of' The Heavenly Hierarchy,' founded on good ancient examples, consisting of the archangels Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael; seraphim, cherubim, and, over these,' A choir of Angels,' with musical instruments. The combination of foliage and canopy work, an abundance of most carefully executed grisaille; great richness, purity, and peculiarity in the tints, show how much artistic effect may be produced with this difficult material in the style adopted. Ancient authorities from works of art in the county have been freely used; for the grisaille, from Lincoln Minster; for details and treatment of foliage in the Jesse branch, from Gedney, Lincolnshire; for border, from Pinchbeck, in the same county. The character of the drawing throughout is severe, without grotesqueness. "The stone tracery of this window is entirely new, and harmonises well with the other windows in the church." The large gallery which contained the organ,5 and stood across the chancelThe small shelving stool which the seat of the 3 A closet wherein plate, &c., was kept; probably stalls formed when turned up in its proper position, a contraction of almonry. is called a' miserere.' On these the monks and 4 Executed by Messrs. M. and A. O'CONNER, of canons of ancient times, with the assistance of their London. elbows on the upper parts of the stalls, half sup- The following notices, respecting the organ, ported themselves during certain portions of their organist, &c., are extracted from the Corporation long offices, not to be obliged always to stand or Records and the Vestry Books:-January 6th, 1589. kneel. This stool, however, is so contrived, that if Ordered that " the orgayne-loft in the church above the body became supine, it naturally fell down, and Mr. Mayor's quire shall not be removed or stirred, the person who rested upon it was thrown forward but remayne as it still doth." into the middle of the choir."-MILNEa'S Win- "' 1590, February 23d. Ordered that the great chester, vol. ii. p. 36. orgaynes shall be sold for the benefit of the church." 2 Mr. BRITTON says, "The choir was new roofed " August 5th. A suit had been brought before at the same time as the aisles, and by the same the High Commissioners for ecclesiastical causes, artist. It is arched across without groins, the against Mr. Erle, Mr. Hicks, and Mr. Parrowe, sides spring from stone cornices of ancient work; members of the Hall, and Mr. Worshippe, Vicar, it is decorated with carved bosses and ribs in a very for taking down the loft wherein the organ stood in good style." the church, agreeably to an order of the Hall.

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Page  187 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. 187 arch, was removed at the late restoration of the church, and the organ placed in a recess in a building prepared for it on the north side of the chancel, immediately over the first six stalls to the west on that side. The organ-case, executed under the directions of the --- architect, is very handsome, harmoonising well with the stalls and canopies below. The lessons from the Holy Scriptures are now read from a handsome brazen eagle lectern, which was placed in the centre aisle of the nave during the late restoratelon. The floor of the nave has been completely relaid upon a bed of concrete. It is almost entirely composed of ancient ledger stones, some of them of great interest, particularly the Pescod Brass in the north side of the nave.2 X The room over the southern porch is said to have been used, previous o to the establishment of the parish _ library, as a school-room "cfor the teaching of petty scholars." The first notice we fincd of this library is -~`j in 1635, when, upon the request of S'o18 the Rev. Anthony Tuckney-, vicar ali " That the roome over the porch of the saide church shall be repaired and decently fitted up to make a librarye to the end that, in case any well and charita- bly disposed person shall. hereafter bestow any books to the use of the parish, they The Organ. may be there safely preserved and kept." Anthony Tuckney, the founder, contributed largely in books.. Among the contributors to this library were, Sir William Massingbird, 501.; Henry Heron, Those parties agreed to set it up again in such eon- repairs of the organ. In 1819 and 1820, no less venient place as the Hall shall determine." There is than 8381. 3s. 6d. was spent upon repairs of the not any subsequent mention of an organ until 1713, organ. The Corporation paid 4001. of this, 1101. when a Ms. in the possession of the Vicar states that 3s. 6d. was raised by private subscription, 3281. Henry Heron and Richard Wynn, Esqs. M.P. for paid out of the church-rate. At the late repairs the borough, gave 1001. each towards building an or- 3111. 19s. was paid for a new swell, regilding the gan; Henry Pacey,Esq.,gave501.; CharlesWood, pipes, and removing and refixing the organ. Esq., 501.; and John Brown,Esq., 201. Thisorgan' The only other mention of a lectern connected was repaired by Mr. Martin, 1724, and again re- with this church is in 1153, when, in the account of paired in 1739. In 1741, JohnWebber, organist, and the sale of the vestments and ornaments of the other officers of the church, were indemnified by the church in that year, one item is, " y n eple for i be comnmenced by Mr. Righy, or any other person 2 The brasses, as enumerated in the Proceedings breaking open the door of the organ-loft in the were the very fine one ofWalter Pescod and his parish church. Mr. WebHer was the first organist wife (her figure lost), date 1398; a large figure of appointed by the Corporation; his salary was 201. a priest, clothed in a cope and stole, about 1410. a-year. He died in May 1741, and gas succeeded Portions offigures ofa civilian and two females, by Mr. James Allen. In 1754, John Mitchell, under a small triple canopy, about 1420, and a lady Esq., gave 401. for the regilding the organ-pipes. (no inscription), about 1460. In 1811, the Corporation subscribed 501, towards

Page  188 188 INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH. Esq., 501.; Richard Ellis, Esq., 101.; William Thornton, Esq., 101. In 1720, the Corporation gave 501. "towards the purchase of Mr. Kelsall's library to be appropriated to the parish, and kept in the library of the parish church;" and, in 1724, " a catalogue of the books of the parish library, towards the purchase of which the Corporation subscribed 501., was brought into the Hall." In 1766, "the lead and roof of the library were ordered to be repaired, the books thoroughly cleaned, and regularly piled up again." In June 1854, the number of books in the library was about 970,1 principally consisting of classics and old divinity, with a few books of travels. Many books had the name of Dr. Tuckney written in them. Others were contributed by Sir Anthony Irby, Dr. Baron, G. Marshall, rector of Fishtoft, and -- Hervey, rector of Wyberton.2 A painting by P. Mequignon, from the celebrated work of Rubens, in the great church at Antwerp, was presented to this church by William Smith, Esq.; it is placed over the south door of the nave in the arch which connects the library with the nave of the church. This painting is in three compartments, and represents the Crucifixion, the Annunciation, and Presentation in the Temple; and before the late repairs and restoration it was placed at the east end of the chancel behind the communion-table. The chapel on the west side of the porch opens into the nave through two arches, the lower parts of which are fitted with a neat wooden screen, and are now used as a vestry and record-room: it is traditionally called the Founder's Chapel, we do not know upon what authority. It was formerly used for the teachfoundedbyMr. John Laughton, in 1707.3 The vestry-books, &c., are now contained in a fine old oak-chest, which is The Oak Chest. here represented. 1 A catalogue of the books in this library was 2 The oldest printed book is, probably, Arrian de taken in July 1819, at the request of the Arch- Ascensu, 1535, from the library of Mr. Kelsall; deacon of Lincoln (Dr. Goddard). This catalogue and the most valuable, a copy of Edward VI.'s contains the titles of about 1500 different works,- Booke of the Common Prayer, and Administraof course the number of volumes was considerably tion of Sacraments, &c., printed by Edmund more. The gentleman who made this catalogue Whitchurch, small folio, 1549. A copy of this book has informed the author that " he took down and was sold in London, in July 1854, for 511. 10s. examined every volume;" there were, therefore, There is also a curious copy of CHAUCER'S Poems certainly not fewer than 1500 volumes in the library in folio: no date. It contains the folio plate of the at that time. "The archdeacon threw out many portrait, descent and tomb of Chaucer, and also books, which he denominated' trash,' which were that of the Kings and their consorts, from John of sold." It is not known that any list of these rejected Gaunt to Henry VIII. There is also in this library books was taken, but the same authority informs a copy of CLEMENT COTTON'S Concordance, 2d us that " the number of volumes thrown out was edition, printed in London 1635, folio. This book from 150 to 200." If we suppose the number of Dr. STUKELEY attributed to John Cotton, vicar of volumes in the library, in 1819, to have been only Boston; and also one of the Preelectiones Theologice, 1500-the very lowest supposition-and the number by ANTHONY TUCKNEY, vicar of Boston, published thrown out by the archdeacon to have been 200- in 4to. in 1679, by Stephen Swart of Amsterdam. the highest number stated-there ought to be 1300 These last two books are very scarce. The only volumes in the library at the present time; but in MS. in the library is a copy, with illuminated June 1854 we found only 970 (the editor of the "Ac- capitals, of St. Augustine upon Genesis, written, count of the Churches in the Division of Holland," apparently, about the commencement of the 15th published in 1842, estimated them at "about 800,") century, in folio. This was the gift of Mr. William -the difference, 330 volumes, has to be accounted Skelton, M.A., rector of Coningsby. A copy of for. We are afraid the unexplained diminution this MS. is mentioned among the books belonging since 1819 is, in fact, not very much short of 500 to the Abbey of Glastonbury at the dissolution. volumes I 3 This chapel is about to be completely repaired

Page  189 INTERIOR OF THE CnURCH. 189 At the west end of the nave are two spiral staircases leading to the roof and tower; on the door of one is a beautiful bronze handle: the ring, formed of two lizards, is held in the mouth of a lion, wrought in full relief. " The bells are covered with a flat leaded roof, placed level with the transom of the windows of the upper story of the tower; on the west side is a low, broad door, opening into a gallery, which continues quite round the outside of the belfry: this door seems to have been intended for the occasional removal of the bells."1 The first mention of the bells is in 1553, when it is said there were " 5 great bells in the steeple, and a sanctus bell." The Corporation Records state, that the bells were repaired in 1627. A sixth bell was added previous to 1709; for, in that year, a faculty or license was granted to recast the " Immense old bell2 hanging in the tower, which was of little use and imperfect sound, and publishing the holy hours imperfectly, and of the metal of the said bell to make three smaller ones. Two of these bells to be added to the six now in the tower, and the third bell to be for the clock to strike upon; and to tell the hour to the people loudly and clearly, and to place the same on the lantern or highest part of the tower, to place and suspend the same for the better and more audibly hearing of the sound thereof." The large clock-bell, directed to be melted and recast, weighed above 4000 pounds. The new clock-bell, at that time cast from part of it, weighed only 533 pounds. The large clock-bell was of the kind called, from the shape, a saucer bell. It was suspended in the tower-lantern. The new clock-bell, cast in 1709, was suspended below the leaden roof of the belfry: this bell is said to have been cracked in 1754. In 1758, a new clock-bell was directed to be made, the weight of which was not to exceed 1000 lbs. It is upon this bell that the clock strikes at present. The clock and chimes are first mentioned in the Corporation Records in 1614, when John Tomlinson was admitted a freeman gratis, " he agreeing that he will, during his life, keep the clock and chimes in order, and all the ironwork and wires belonging to the same, and to keep all the chambers and belllofts clean during his life." In 1732, new chimes were ordered, they struck upon the eight-peal bells. They became imperfect, and ceased to play in 1832. In 1825, the Corporation subscribed 1001. towards a new clock. This clock was fixed in the ringing chamber in 1827. The entire cost attending it being about 9001. It was refitted in 1853, and fixed in the bell-chamber; the cost of refitting and refixing being 851. 3s. lOd. The quarters strike upon the two bells cast out of the great bell in 1709. The old figures, called " quarter-jacks," were sold in 1853. The second bell of the six in the tower, being cracked, was also recast in 1709, and the eight bells were first chimed in the steeple December 17th, 1710. and restored. This very laudable design originated line. It is designed to restore the very handsome in the following circumstances:-Many citizens of window at the west end of the chapel, and to fill it the United States, particularly from Massachusetts, with appropriate stained glass. To place a handvisit Boston, prompted, no doubt, in a considerable some marble tablet on one of the walls, bearing a degree by the long connexion which subsisted suitable inscription, in honour and remembrance of between the Rev. JOHN COTTON and this town and Mr. Cotton. To repair the other windows, level and church. Many of these visitors have expressed relay the floor, scrape and clean the walls, restore surprise that no memorial of Mr. Cotton is to the ceiling, and fit up the entire chapel as combe found in the church, and several intimated a pletely as all the other parts of the church have desire to contribute towards the erection of one. been. The work of reparation will commence early It was suggested, in June 1854, that this chapel in 1856. would be a very good locality in which to place a l Mr. BRITTON. memorial of Mr. Cotton; and a correspondence 2 This was the bell which, Dr. STUK-EFLEY says, was opened with Boston, Massachusetts,upon the "could be heard six or seven miles round, with subject, which has resulted in the very liberal sub- many old verses upon it, and which was knocked scription there of more than 400/. towards carrying to pieces about 1710, without taking the inscripout the object in view-many of the subscribers tion." being descendants of Mr. COTTON in the female

Page  190 190 TRACES OF THE NORMAN CHURCH. The sixth bell was recast, and the bells generally put in 6rder in 1758, by Thomas Eyre, of Kettering. Mr. SCOTT says, "' The bells were originally rung from the little stone galleries, which run round the second story of the tower, on the level of the window-cills, the ropes passing through the heads of the windows, thence, for a considerable height, through the interior of the wall, and over blocks or pulleys set in openings of the walls of the belfry. The holes through which they passed, may yet be seen in each window-head, and also in the belfry above."' The editor of the " Account of the Churches in the Division," says, the bells bear the following dates:First bell, 1785; second, 1785; third, 1772; fourth, 1710; fifth, "'Glory be to God on high," G + 0 1617; sixth, Thomas Eayre, Pyrotechnus de Kettering, fecit 1758; seventh, 1772; eighth,"All men that heare my mourniful sound, Repent before you lie in ground." G + 0. 1617. These dates show, that only two of the old bells are at present existing, and that all the others, with the exception of the fourth, were recast late in the last century. The ringers now stand on the groined stone roof. The tenor bell of the present peal weighs 2400 lbs. The re-hanging of the bells in 1853 cost 851. Until about fifteen years back a bell used to be rung about five o'clock in the morning; this originated, probably, in an intent to call labourers, and workpeople, and servants, to their daily toil. The same bell was rung again at eight o'clock in the evening; this was, no doubt, the continuation of the ancient curfew-bell.2 Now, although in this utilitarian age, the practice of continuing memorials of by-gone customs has become unfashionable, we think the tolling of these bells may be defended upon utilitarian principles. The morning-bell prepared those whose inheritance is labour for the commencement of that labour; whilst the evening bell marked the termination of the active period of another day in a salutary and impressive manner, and had a tendency to excite feelings and thoughts which every one would be made better by indulging in. There are many things of great utility which have very little to do with those harsh exponents of value,-pounds, shillings, and pence; and we think the customs to which we allude are of the number. The recent removal of the floor of the nave, and excavating below it, have fully established the fact, that the present church occupies the site of a much smaller and far more ancient edifice. Several stone coffins were met with of an undoubted Norman date, one of which is placed in a recess in the south aisle. Others were found beneath the pillars of the present church, to which they had been used as foundations. The base of a Norman pillar was found under the third pier from the west, on the south side of the nave, showing that the level of the floor of the old church was four feet below the present one. An arch, with a six-feet opening, was discovered under the first southern window in the chancel, a passage or Report, page 16. his father's enactment respecting it three years An old recordtells us that ALFRED THE GREAT, after he came to the crown. Henry I. abolished not WTLLIAM THE CONQUEROR, established the the curfew; for though it is mentioned in the curfew, for the former ordered a bell to be rung at English laws for a full century afterwards, it was Oxford every night, and ordained that all the in- rather as a known time of night, than to mark any habitants of the city on hearing it, should cover cup particular custom.-THOMSON'S Magna Charta, their fires and go to bed. At the time of the p. 401. In the old play of The Merry Devil of Norman Conquest, our ancestors had learned to sit Edmonton, written before 1600, a country sexton is up later, and eschewed enforced obedience to the made to say, " Well,'tis nine o'clock,'tis time to custom. So earnest was their opposition to this ring curfew." bell, that the popularity-seeking Henry I. repealed

Page  191 SMALLER ANTIQUITIES DISCOVERED. 191 drain has evidently formerly run directly across that part of the church. The smaller antiquities which were discovered were neither numerous nor of much interest. They consist of a long silver pin with a large gilt knob, covered with circles and studded with small knobs, probably of the earlier part of the fifteenth century. A gold ring of the fifteenth century, of very simple and elegant design, with the legend, "A vous piecer," the last word scarcely decipherable. Part of the clasp of a cope of silver-gilt, with the letter M on the square portion, and a double rose on the circular end. The foot of a candlestick of laten, with two coats-of-arms, each repeated three times. lst. Two dolphins haurient between three trefoils slipped. 2d. A double embattled bend. The foliage appears to be of the fourteenth century. Two ancient knives were found below the floor of the chancel; one about seven inches, the other eight inches, in length; both had been highly ornamented with gold and silver. The lesser one was probably the knife formerly used to cut the sacramental bread; there are knives a good deal resembling it, which were applied to that purpose, yet remaining among the ancient sacramental utensils, &c., of some churches. The following coins were found: —Six Nuremberg tokens; two coins with the legend, " Ave Maria gracia plena;" a half-groat of one of the Edwards; a groat of Henry VIII.; a copper token issued at Boston 1667; a Dansk skilling of Frederick III. 1659; a farthing of William and Mary; two other coins, legends illegible; a bone-bead, and some pieces of metal. The church is warmed by heated air conveyed by flues laid under the pavement, and lighted with gas.l The gas-fittings are elegant in themselves, but it would be difficult, perhaps impossible, to make anything of the kind harmonise with the style and capacity of the building. The following armorial bearings and monumental inscriptions existed in this church about the year 1640, according to the MS. collections of Mr. HOLLES:In Fenestra australi Cancelli. Barry of 6 arg. and az. in chiefe 3 lozenges Ricus Flemming epus Lincoln. quondam G. A mitre on the 2d bar. 5 Rector istius ecclesie. Sa. a crosse engrayled, or. i Ufford. Quarterly.. 3 waterbougets, arg.-Ros. Arg. a fesse betw. 2 bars gemells, G. -Badlesmere. Quarterly. Sa. a cross engrayled, Willuhby G. a crosse sarcely, arg. fBeke. W Quarterly. { Arg. a chiefe, az. over all a bend, G. —Crumwell. Chequy, or, and G. a chiefe, ermine. Tateshale. In Fenestra boreali Cancelli. Or, a lion rampant, double queve, sa. Welles. Welles, with a labell of 3, arg. Welles. paled. tQuarterly. ijio r d. ~~~~Empaled. B l.Beke. In Fenestra occidentali ex dextra Ca2mpanilis. Sa. a crescent, or, between 2 roses in cheife, and a mullet in base, arg. Arg. a fesse, and a mullet in cheife, sa, bis. Before the introduction of gas, the church was of these chandeliers were given by Conradus Claw. lighted by brass chandeliers suspended in the middle son, Mariner, Mr. Peter Bird, Mr. John Laughtoxn aisle, each supporting a number of candles. Five, Mr. John Thorold, and Mrs. Falkner.

Page  192 192 HOLLES' CHURCH NOTES. In Fenestris Camrpanilis. Sa, a chevron between 3 bells, arg. Plures Fenestrce Camparcnis circuluectce. Sa, a crescent, or, between 2 roses in chief, and a mullet in base, arg. Quarterly. { Bore. Wiltzughby. The crest a Saracen's head. G. 3 waterbougets, arg. Ros. Quarterly. I Arg. a chiefe, G. over all a bend, az. — Crumwell. Chequy, or, and G. a chiefe, ermine. - Tateshale. Arg. a chevron betw. 3 rams' heads erased, G. Tumulus iMarmoreus Erefixus. Hic jacet Willus Smithe quondam Vicarius istius ecclive, in decretis Baccalaureus, et Proebendarius Preebend. de Hather, Preebend. in cathedral. ecclia Linc. qui obiit 130 die Aprilis, Anno Dni 1505, cujus, &c. Tiumuli Mfarmorei in Terra. Hic jacet Dnuis Willus Bonde Baccalaureus Theologim, quondam Rector eccli'e de Stekeney, qui obiit 150 die Decembris, Anno Dni 1485, cujus animure, &c. Hic jacet Dnus Willus Newton, Rector medietatis Ecclie de Leverton, qui obiit 160 die Novembris, 1545. In Choro Majori versus austrum. Ricis Bolle de Haugh filius Rici, & Mariannce uxoris sume filime Johis Fitz-William de Mabberthorp, bis vicecomes comitatfts Lincolniee, sepe provinciam gerens in Scotia et Anglia, obiit 60 die Februarii Anno Dni 1591. Jana filia Willi Skipwith Militis prima uxor, per quam Carolus, Maria nupta Antonio Tourney de Cavenby, Anna Leonardo Cracroft, Gertruda Leonardo Kirkeman de Keale, et Ursula Johi Kirkeman desponsate. Anna, 2da. Uxor, per quam nullus exitus; Margareta, 3tia. Conjux, per quam Ricus, Johes et Johanna. Robtus Townley, Contrarotulator Portas et Aldermannus, Boston obiit 8o die Martii, Anno 1585. Johanna uxor ejus relicta Rici Skepper de East Kirkeby, sepulta jacet apud East Kirkeby. (Arg. a fesse, in cheife, 3 mullets, 1 To. Quarterly. ~ sa. a crescent for difference., T e Sa. 3 goates saliant, arg.- Grateford. Johes Nutting obiit in Crastino Nativitatis beatoe Mariae, 1380, litera Dnicalis G. Agnes Uxor ejus obiit 260 die Novembris, Ano. 1420. The mortal corps, that lyeth here under stone, Was of Roger Shaueloke the wife clepyd Jone; Of London he was Citizen, on Pilgrimage he went To Our Lady of Walsingham, with full good intent; And so, reader, to their country, disporting in their life, But cruell death, that spareth none, he tooke away the wife, In the year of our Lord 1488, the day of ascention, All good Christian people pray for hir of your devotion. Johes Leeke, Mercator de Boston, obiit ultimo die Februarii Ano Dni 1527. Alicia et Johanna uxores ejus. Hic jacet prostratus Ricardus Frere tumulatus, Gildam delexit, quam munere sepe provexit. Anno milleno C. obiit quatuor et duodeno, Bis Julii senoque die migravit ameno. Mr. HOLLES is decidedly wrong in his desig- Townley. The brass plate containing these arms nation of these arms; those of the 1st and 4th has been found, and a new one, bearing the inscripquarters being Dineley. Those of the 2d and 3d, tion, supplied, and the entire memorial repiaced.

Page  193 HOLLES9 CHURCH NOTES. 193 Uxor et Alicia sepelitur juncta Johanna, Spreverunt vitia, gustant caeli modo manna; Audit quique. piae missam cumr voce Marie, Alte cantatam per Gildae vota locatam Papa dies donat centum veniseque coronat Nonus ei vere Bonifacius, hunc reverere. Johes Dale, Mercator Stapulase (Fenestrarum reparator), obiit 160 die Februarii, Ano Dni 1482. A fesse and a crescent in chiefe. -Dcae. Ricus Brigges, Aldermannus Boston, erexit quatuor ~..- - 230 die Martii, 1584. In choro Scorum Petri et Pauli, ad Boream. Ut referunt metra, Mercator olim vocitatus Pescod sub petra Walterus hic est tumulatus, Qui quinto Julii discescit ab orbe Kalendas M. C. ter Octo cui nonageno mage-prendas, Multa Petri Gildoe bona contulit ex pietate. Vestis, et versus Pisis intertincta. Requiescens in Dno Henricus Butler obiit 11o die Augusti, Anno 1601, retatis suzv 30o. Arg. on a chevron, az. 3 cups covered, or, betw. as many demy lyons passant guardant, G. an annulet for difference. To his crest, on a torce, or and az. an horse's head erased quarterly, arg. et sa. -Butler. Fenestra cumn limbo Clavium, et Glcadliorum a litera, P. pendentium, viz. Alanus filius Robti Lamkin, quondam Canonicus professus Monasterii beatin Maribe de B]arlinges, obiit undecimo die Maii, Anno Domini 1498. In Navi Ecclice. Thomas Gull obiit 70 die Decembris, Ano Dni 1420. Thomas Robertson, Mercator Villae Calisim, obiit - - - die Mensis - - - et Elizabetha uxor ejus, que obiit 250 die Aprilis Ano Dni 1495, et Maria uxor altera, quae obiit 20 die Julii Ano Dni 1520. Johes Robinson, Arm. Mercator Stapulke Tillke Callisiae (Anna, Elizabetha, et Alianora, uxores ejus), Fundavit duos Capellano in Gilda beatie Maribe Virginis in Ecclia Parochial. Sci Botulphi de Boston in perpetuum celebraturos pro animabus, &c. &c. obiit circa annum vetatis suse 72, primo die mensis Martii, Anno Dni 1525. A fesse dancett6e betw. 3 falcons. Athelardus Kate, Mercator Stapulhe, Aldermannus Gildse Corpus Christi, obiit in vigilia Sci Matthiae Ano Dni 1501, uxores ejus Anna, ac Dna Elena. Hic jacet Willis Reade de Boston gen. qui obiit Ano 1400. Quarterly. A fesse between 3 griphons heads erased. uarterly. ~ 2 chevrons with an annulet. Robtus Trygge, Mercator de Boston, et Alicia uxor ejus. Obiit ille 250 die Augusti Ano 1436. Ecce sub hoc lapide Thomas Flete sistit humatus, Vi mortis rapidae generosus semp. vocitatus; Hic quisquis steteris ipsum precibus memoreris, Sponsam defunctam simul Aliciam sibi junctam. M. C. quater quadringeno quoque deno, Martia quarta dies exstat ei requies. Here appears to have been a sumptuous monument of Dame Margery de Orryby, which was erected very shortly after the building of the church; no CC

Page  194 194 EXISTING MEMORIALS IN THE CHURCH. traces of it are now visible. The following extract from BURTON'S Monasticon Eboracense, p. 366, relates to this monument:"Lady Ross of Orryby, by will, proved 29th August, 1394 (18 Richard II.) ordered her corpse to be laid by her husband, Sir John, in the monastery of Reival in Yorkshire; and ordered 1001. for a marble tomb, like that of Dame Margery de Orryby, her mother, in Boston church." None of the monuments mentioned by Mr. HOLLES can now be identified, although the floors of the nave and aisles are filled with slabs on which were formerly figures and inscriptions. We have alluded to the few brasses or portions of them which at present remain. The inscriptions on the principal monuments now existing are as follow: - -In VNave, on the Floor near the Font. Ar. on a chevron gu. 3 escallops. CREST. A stork with an escallop in its bill. Johannes Tooley Armiger, Integer vitae scelerisq; purus Coniux fidessimus Pater charissimus Amicus certissimus Comes svavissimus Propinquorum delicium Egenorum pruesidium Bonorum desiderium Non eget Monumento rare perenniori Bona Pietatis et Charitatis opera. Beatam nominis memoriam,Eternitate consecrarunt Obiit Julij 25 Anno Dom. 1686' /Etatis sume 64. Other memorials of John Tooley, son of the above, who died 20th Febriuary, 1718, aged seventy, and of Isabella his wife, who died 6th January, 1722, aged seventy-two, and of John Tooley, their son, who died 20th September, 1746, aged sixty. Also of Elizabeth, who was the wife of William Otter, Obadiah Howe, D.D., and John Tooley, who died February 26th, 1688, aged fifty-nine. On Brass in the North TWall. A fess between three wolves' heads. Abdias Howe, S.S.T.P. Ecclesie Bostoniensis Prrepositus In elucidandis Scripturis peritissimus In adstrvenda pvra Evangelii doctrina eximie pollens, In revincendis Erroribvs solide acvtvs; Hanc postqvam Ecclesiam XXII annos salvtifero Dei verbo fidissime parit Vitre probitate spectatissima ervdivit Morvm gravitate, et avthoritate colendissima Decoravit, Summa deniq; prvdentia moderatvs est, Morte tandem non opinata sed nec immatvra ereptvs est; In ccelestis Ecclesie sortem cooptatvs,

Page  195 EXISTING MEMORIALS IN THE CHURCH. 195 Lvctvosvm svi desiderivm bonis omnibvs relinqvens Et Relictvrvs Desiit esse mortalis Feb. XXVII. A.D. MDCLXXXII. JEtat. svwe LXVII. Hoc qvicqvid Monvmenti dilectissimo suo conivgi Vxor mrcestissima posuit. VNorth Aisle -Tablets on the Wa4cll. Ar. two bars gemel, vert. In chief, an anchor between two birds of the second. In base, a lion passant gardant, gules. Fydell. Over all, an escutcheon of pretence. Ar. a chevron between three lions heads, sa.Hall. In the recess beneath are deposited the remains of Mrs. Elizabeth Fydell, the relict of Richard Fydell, Esq., with whom she lived in the happiest union forty-one years; and having for a short time survived him, she passed from this vale of mortality, 26th January, 1783, in the sixty-third year of her age. ( 1 and 4. Arg. two bars; in chief, an anchor between two birds az.: in base, Quarterl a lion passant gardant, gu. -Fydell. 2. Ar. a chevron between three lions' heads, sa..Hall. 3. Ar. a fesse crenellee betw. three Catherine-wheels, sa. Ccrtwright. Over all an escutcheon of pretence. Ermine on a bend vert, three pheons or. —Carleton. Sacred to the memory of Mrs. Elizabeth Fydell, wife of Samuel Richard Fydell, Esq., eldest daughter of Thomas Carleton, Esq. and Elizabeth his wife, and one of the three coheiresses of Lough Carleton, Esq. She departed this life on the 29th of April, 1816, aged forty years. FYDELL, with a'scutcheon of pretence, a chevron between three lions' heads erased.Hall. Sacred to the memory of RICHARD FYDELL, Esq., who, with great natural abilities, improved by a liberal education and with unbiassed integrity, sustained and adorned the various and important characters of a British senator, a magistrate, a gentleman, and a merchant, and in whom (distinguished as he was by the purity and elegance of his manners, a man of sound piety and enlarged benevolence, happy in himself and delighting always to make others happy) the world saw and admired the fairest example of social and domestic virtue. He died, beloved and lamented, on the 11th day of April, 1780; in the 70th year of his age. 1 and 4. FYDELL. Quarterly. - 2. Ar. a chevron sa. between three lions' heads, erased, sa.,,Hall. 3. Or, a fesse crenelle between 3 Catherine-wheels, sa.- Cartwright. Over all an escutcheon of pretence. Or, three garbs, gu.- Preston. THOMAs FYDELL, Esq., thrice Mayor of this borough, and five times elected a member of parliament for the same, died April 6th, A.D. 1812, in 72d year of his age. Mrs. ELIZABETH FYDELL, his relict, second daughter of Samuel Preston, Esq., and Susanna his wife, died November 10th, A.D. 1813, in the 74th year of her age; both of them deeply regretted by affectionate relatives and numerous friends. Or, on a cross gu.: and azure, a lion passant in chief, two squirrels sejant in fesse, and an endless serpent in base, all of the first. Pacey. On an escutcheon of pretence Barry of six, ar. and sa. on a chief gules, a saltire, or. — Hzrst. Underneath are deposited the remains of Henry Butler Pacey, Esq., who departed this life 8th December, 1785, to the great grief of his family and friends. He was deputyrecorder of this borough, and an active magistrate for the division of Holland. Also, Hannah his wife, a daughter of William Hurst, Esq., of Carlton, in this county, who died 24th May, 1813.

Page  196 196 EXISTING MEMORIALS IN THE CHURCH. In the floor are memorials of Henry Pacey, Esq., who died 10th December, 1729, aged 60; of Elizabeth, his wife, who died 3d April, A.D. 1716; and of their children Rosamund, Rosa, Arabella, Samuel, and Charles, who all died young. Also of Cassandra, his second wife, interred March 18th, 1730; and of their son Reginald, who died 1728, aged 12; also of Richard, son of Henry and Elizabeth, and of William their son, who is buried in St. Andrew's Church, London, and of John, their son, who died abroad. There is also a memorial of Henry Butler Pacey, one of the Prothonotaries of the Court of Common Pleas, who died January 2d, 1754, aged forty-nine years, and of Margaret his wife, who died January 24th, 1785, aged seventy-seven years. South Aisle-Tablets on the Wall., - 7o MEMORILE SACRnV, THOMAS LAWE,1 SENATOR BOSTONIENSIS POSTQYAM TER PRiEFECTVRAM HVJUS BVRGI ORNAVERAT ET LXXI ANNOS IN VIVIS COMPLEVERAT NATURE VECTIGAL EXOLVIT ANNo SALVTIS MDCLVII. 3" DIE OcTOBRIS MORTALITATIS SVIE SPOLIA, RESVRRECTIONIS ET IMMORTALITATIS PIGNORA HIC DEPOSVIT THOMAS LAWE, FILIVS EJVS NAT'V MAXIMVS AD HVC MXERENS HANC CEREAM PATERNO SEPVLCHRO ACCENDI CVRAVIT AO. STIS. M.DCLIX. X". DIE. AYGSTI At the east end of the south aisle are two hatchments with their coats. 1. per bend indented or, and az. two crosses pattee counterchanged.-. Sminth of Boston. Quarterly. 2. Ou. a chevron betw. 9 crosslets, or. - K-fyne. 3. Gu. on a cross, or; 5 mullets, sa. Carr. L4. Ar. an eagle displayed sa.; on its breast a trefoil slipped, or. -- tukeley. 1. As in the above. — Sith of Boston. Quarterly. 52. Ar. a bear rampant, sa. collared, muzzled and chained, or. 3. As in the above. Carr. 4. Or, three bars sa. There is a tradition that this person was a during the Protectorate; nor is the name mentioned Member of Parliament during the Protectorate of in BUrTON'S Diary of the Proceedings of those OLIVER CROMWELL, in which capacity he is said Parliaments. Mr. LAWE was elected an alderman to have been a great opponent and annoyance to of Boston in 1632, and filled the office of Mayor in that personage. We do not, however, find the 1635, 1645, and 1652. The Corporation Records name of Lawe in the lists of the Parliaments held make very little other mention of him.

Page  197 EXISTING MEMORIALS IN THE CHURCH. 197 Ar. a fesse, sa. in chief 3 mullets. Motto, Honora Patrem et Matrem. GULIELMI DINLEII,' ex agro Lancastrensi Maric{q; lectissimm conjugis, quicquid in ccelis non est sub hac terra coditur. Una in Domino requiescunt qui vitam totam duxerunt sine querula. Epitaphio non indigent: Resurgere mallent, quam nosci. Sed in eorumrn memoriam Joannes utriusque Fil. ad huc moeres ac tam pius genitoribus reddi cupiens hoc posuit parentavit. Anno post pa. obitum xx. post ma. xiv. Dominique nati MDCXXVI. A handsome brass plate bearing the arms and motto of the Kyme family, and the following inscription, has lately been placed at the east end of this aisle: Nightingale Kyme Armiger ab antiqua stirpe Baronum Kyme de Kyme in agri Lincolniensi longe ordine ortus et (sic creditur) ultimus superstes hweres. Ob. apud Boston, Mai xxv. MDCCCXIV. Anno LXIV. natus. Hujus Ecclesise extra muros sepultus jacet Elizabetha uxor ejus Ob. Sept. xxIII, MDCCCI. an: nat: LVI. Hanc tabulam in memoriam attavorum P. C. Carolus Wright Aldermannus de Boston IDCCCL. Mr. HOLLES gives the inscription, which then existed, in Latin, as a memorial of Richard Bolles, Esq., of Haugh, but he does not notice a most brilliant coat-ofarms upon a brass plate, with real metals and tinctures enamelled, as old as the reign of Elizabeth. This has, probably, been renewed since Mr. HOLLES made his collections-the inscription in memory of Mr. Bolles being now in English, Mr. HOLLES gives it in Latin. The coat-of-arms contains sixteen quarterings, and is placed on the wall of the south aisle.2 The quarterings are as follows: 1. Sa. 3 lamps or, flame, ar. Q t 2Ar. 3 * * * sa. Quarterly. 3. Ar. a chevron between 10 cross crosslets, sa. —Kynze. ( 4. Sa. a chevron between 3 bells, or. The Dyneley or Dingley family was formerly of PERCY's Reliques, vol. iii. p. 234); he (Sir John) very great consequence in Boston. died November 3d, 1606, leaving three sons, viz., Thomas Dingley, knight of St. John of Jeru- Sir Charles Bolles, who was slain at Winceby, salem, and son of John Dingley, Esq., and Mabel, whilst fighting as a Royalist, in October 1643; daughter of Edmund Weston of Boston, and sister Colonel John Bolles, slain at Alton near Winof Sir William Weston, grand prior of St. John of chester, in the same cause, in 1643; and Edward, Jerusalem, throughout England, held the Com- who died in London, but was buried at Louth, mandery of Shengay in Cambridgeshire, and was 1683. Elizabeth Bolles, the daughter of Sir Charles, at Malta in 1531. Sir John Dyneley held land married Thomas Elsey, and their grand-daughter, on the west side of Wide Bargate, in 1640; and Sarah, married Richard Wright, the ancestor of the in the Corporation Records, under date May 18, Rev. Thomas Bailey Wright, the present rector of 1686, the will of Sir John Dingley, knight of East Wrangle. Some of the presents made by the Sheen, Richmond, dated 9th October, 1668, is in- Spanish Lady to Sir John Bolles, on his leaving serted. The will recites that he was born at Cadiz, are yet in the possession of Mr. Wright's Boston, and that "he leaves 2001. to the Corpor- family. ation to be expended in the reparation of the church, There was a Richard Bolles, Esq., living in the market-cross, and the bridge, for ever." Boston in 1591; he paid 201. towards a subsidy 2 This RICHARD BOLLEs was the grandfather levied in that year. Richard Bolles was also of Sir John Bolles of Thorpe Hall, near Louth, the assessed 401. in 1603 to a county subsidy. hero of the legend of the Spanish Lady (See

Page  198 198 EXISTING MEMORIALS IN THE CHURCH. 1. Barry of 6 ar. and sa. in chie, 3 bezants. 2. A chevron between 3 escallops in chief, and a cross fitch~e in Quarterly. base, sa. 3. Party per-pale dancettee, sa. and or. 4. Sa. a chevron ermine, between three wings, ar. C1. Ar. 3 foxes passant, sa. 2. Cheque, or and sa. a chief ermine. Quarterly. < 3. Fretty ar. and sable. 4. Ar. a chevron between 3 cross crosslets, sa. on a bordure of the second entoyer of bezants. 1. Pretty sa. and ar. a canton of the last. 2. Ar. 3 chevronels sa. in chief a fleur-de-lis, or. Quarterly. 3. Sa. a chevron, between 3 crosslets, or, in chief a lion passant of the second. 4. Ar. two bars engrailed, sa. CREST.-A demi-boar ar. armed and unguled or, vulned in the breast with a boar-spear al. and imbrued.1 On the south wall, near the vestry door, is this hatchment,Vert, on a chevron ar. between 3 stars of 6 points ar. as many mullets gu. impaled with 8 quarterings. 1. Gu. a saltire erm. 2. Fretty ar. and gu. a canton erm. 3. Gu. a sem6e of ermine spots, or, over all a lion rampant. 4. Ar. four fusils in fess. gu. 5. Gu. a chief, ar. 6. Ar. a saltire engrailed, sa. 7. Erm. a chief sa. 8. Gu. a saltire erm. For Richard Smith, who died A.D. 1626. Underneath is the following verse and legend, and a death's head with a heart in the mouth:My corps with kings and monarchs sleeps in bedd; My soule with sight of Christ in heaven is fedd: This lump, that lamp shall meet and shine more bright Than Phcebus when he streams his clearest light. Omnes sic ibuit, sic imus, ibitis, ibunt. Arg. a chevron between three bugles, sa. over a memorial to John Wayet, twice Mayor of the borough, who died 10th February, 1784, aged 84. Of Mary his wife, who died 3d May, 1780, aged 70; of John Wayet their son (twice Mayor), who died 17th November, 1813, aged 81; of Anne his wife, who died 29th June, 1796, aged 65; and of John Wayet, son of the Rev. John Wayet, and Elizabeth his wife, who died 2d May, 1825, aged 17. The following memorials are in the vestry:Thomas Laughton, died February 19th, 1681; Mary his wife, interred July 2d, 1676; Caroline Gilbert, died April 28th, 1682; W. Pannel died February 20th, 1681. The following notices refer to the churchyard. The Corporation Records state that in 1711 a lease was signed to Mr. James Whiting of a messuage or tenement, with the place called the Shoemakers' Hall, and chambers, and shops, and warehouses, together with the quay or wharf adjoining the same in the chutrchyard, for ten years at 51. per annum. In 1725, it was ordered that no graves be made near the walls of the church. The churchyard was much improved in 1854 and 1855 by the aid of voluntary subscriptions. 1 Lincolnshire Churches. Division of Holland, Boston, p. 59 (1843).

Page  199 DIVISION VI. ath llft tirogtlj Ntsi. OSTON had evidently no existence as a separate parish or town when the Domesday Survey was )~l ltl Ml _ z~,~~/taken. The exact time when it became one is unknown, but it had attained that distinction before the commencement of the thirteenth century, since, K,!~l /; 11 e Jj (1t in 1204, it was a place of high commercial importK ance. However this may be, the original boundaries between Boston and the parish of Skirbeck, besp w from which it was separated, may at this day be very accurately determined. These boundaries were, the natural drain or creek, then called Scirebeck, on the north-east and east, the river Witham and Old Hammond Beck on the south-east and south, and the Holland Fen on the west and north. These boundaries are very nearly those of the present day; for, although the ancient bed of the Scirebeck has now become dry land, the former course of that stream may yet be traced without any great difficulty. The Scirebeck' originally rose near High Hills, thence it flowed along very nearly in the present line of Robin Hood's Walk, crossing the road from Maud Foster's Drain to the Grand Sluice, at the east end of Robin Hood's Walk; it then slanted across to the Cowbridge Road, which it reached near the site of the Catholic Chapel. It ran along the south side of this road until it reached the east corner of the row of houses which, on the west side of the Bargate Road, faces the south; it then crossed Bargate, and kept eastward, partly along the bed of the present Maud Foster's Drain, and partly on the west side of it, so that three or four pieces of land on the west side of the drain are in the parish of Skirbeck. It quitted the line of the drain near Mount Bridge, and From the Anglo-Saxon SCIR, pure, clear, spring of water, sufficient to fill a tube of thirty bright, and the Danish BrECK, a brook, or the inches in diameter. The stream continues to run Teutonic BEKE, a small rapid stream. See VERS- for several weeks together from a place where, at TEGAN.-Scir also means a division, partition, &c. other times, there is not the slightest appearance of "At Haugham, near Louth, is a hill called Skitr- a spring."-A LLl.N'S Lincolnshire, vol. ii. p. 196. beck, out of the side of whiclh occasionally rushes a

Page  200 200 THE OLD SCIRE-BECK. crossed the Skirbeck Road near the end of the serpentine Lane,' bounding the Augustine Friars' Pasture, it entered the river by one outlet near the Gallows' Mills, and by another not far from the old Maud Foster's Gowt.~ Scirebeck, where it crossed the road between the Cowbridge Road and the sluice, was passed by a bridge called Hallow or Hollow Bridge; and in a plan of the parish of Skirbeck, dated 1725, the inclosure to the north of Robin Hood's Walk is called ~Hallow Bridge Dale. This stream crossed Bargate at a place called Pedder's Bridge; in the neighbourhood of which, near to where Millhill is now situated, was a cross called Pedder's Cross, both of which are mentioned in the Corporation Records about the middle of the sixteenth century. Near to the end of Bargate the Butts were placed, and there is mention made of a building for " making of ropes being erected near the Butts at Bargate end," in 1619; work was "to be foreborne in this building on market-days, and the tenant was not to use any tarring about the same." These Butts were on the right side of the road between Pedder's Bridge and Maud Foster's Drain, although they existed long before that drain was made. Pedder's Bridge is called Peter's Cross Bridge in an ancient survey of the parish of Skirbeck, and that, most probably, was its proper name, derived from its proximity to the Guild of St. Peter and St. Paul. The parish of Boston, as it is now constituted, is partly within the wapentake or hundred of Skirbeck, and partly in that of Kirton, the river forming the boundary between them. The latitude of the church is 530 10' North, the longitude 0~0 25' East. Boston is 116 miles North from London, and 36 miles S.S.E. from Lincoln. The town on the east side of the river principally consists of one long street, called Bargate, the market-place, and another street, called South Street, leading into South Place, and on the western side of the river, of a long street, called High Street, formerly Gowt Street, and a shorter one called W~est Street, formerly Ford-end Lane, branching from it at right angles. A number of other less important streets, lanes, &c., are situated on both sides of the water, which will be noticed in the course of our survey. We will begin this survey at Maud Foster's Bridge, although the boundary of the town, as determined by the old course of the Scirebeck, is a short distance south of that bridge. The present bridge, and the walls on both sides of it, were erected in 1807 and 1808. The first mention in the Corporation Records of Maud Foster's Drain occurs in 1568, when it is stated "the new cut to Cowbridge was made;" and it was ordered on the first of November in that year, C" that the dykinge of the new cut (dreyne) to Cowbrygge shall be doon with such spede as may be convenientlie; and for the charge thereof it is agrede, that the Mayor shalle disbourse of the towne's money the sum of twentie marks, till further order be taken." In 1569, " the surveyors of the high-waies" were ordered to attend to the completion of the "snew dreyne" and the repairs of the highway adjoining. We have taken a good deal of trouble to ascertain how this noble canal received the name which it has long borne, but have not succeeded. MAuD FOSTER herself; That this lane was the original boundary be- furrows. Both COLES and HALLIWELL agree tween Boston and Skirbeck, and that it was for- with this definition, and BLOUNT says nearly the merly a water-course, is evident from the Corpor- same. A selion appears to have been what in a ation Records, which state, both in 1640 and 1680, ploughed field is now called a land, or the space that a selion of land in the said pasture, which between two furrows. formerly belonged to another proprietor, abutted 2 The common drain that leads to Maud Foster's upon the common sewoer between Boston and Skir- Gowt is mentioned in the Corporation Records beck on the East. in 1640, and again in 1680; this was, undoubtedly, COWELL says a selion is a piece of ground of Maud Foster's Drain. uncertain quantity-a ridge of land between two

Page  201 MAUD FOSTER S DRAIN. 201 however, has ceased to be a myth, for we find frequent mention of her in the Corporation Records. But we cannot connect this person with the Drain, so as to discover any reason why it should bear her name.' Tradition asserts, that Maud Foster was the owner of land through which the new cut would pass, and that she gave consent to its passage upon very favourable conditions, one of' which was, that it should bear her name. Our readers must take this tradition for what it is worth, we cannot strengthen it by any facts. In the earlier editions of CAMDDEN'S "Britannia," the map of Lincolnshire does not contain any trace of Maud Foster's Drain, or of any other drain in that direction, which we wonder at, for we have seen that this drain was made in 1568; and CAMDEN'S first edition was published in 1586. DUGDALE, in his first edition (1662), calls Maud Foster's Gowt a work of Sir Anthony Thomas; this is wrong: it was part of Sir Anthony's plan to enlarge and deepen this drain, but it existed as MAUD FOSTER'S DRAIN when he commenced his operations in 1631, and it has uninterruptedly borne the same name to the present period. In CAmDEN;'s earliest map of Lincolnshire, " the outfall from Cowbrigg is by New-gote," which is almost a proof that M/laud Foster's Drain was not considered a leading work of drainage at that time. There was, probably, a natural drainage by the old Scirebeck in DUGDALE'S time, as he mentions Maud Foster's Gowt as a "6C natur outfall." The building represented below formerly stood on the west side of the road Heron's Hall. leading to the sluice near the west end of North Street. It had evidently been The Corporation Records state, that it was suretie to the Mayor and burgesses, to pay 101. to agreed in 1568 (the year the new cut was ordered the Corporation immediately afterher decease."' In to be made), that MAUDE FOSTER " shall have two 1580, Maud Foster " was discharged of sundry tenecellars and one cottage, and three acres of pasture, ments, a garth, and three acres of pasture in the being the town's, during her life, for the yearly rent Holms, and a house and cellar next the Grete hedd (?) of 49s. 5d., to be paid on the usual days. She to if she will not repaire the same." The Parish bear all reparations and charges. And, in consider- Registers show that she was buried 10th November, ation thereof, she has promised, with Richard 1581; and, in 1582, her land, &c., were rented to Audley, her suretie, to be bound in obligation in the Gregory Hill. In 1590, a house and cellar belongsum of xx. marks, on the condition to pay 101. ing to Maud Foster's assignees paid 5s. fee-farm to the town's hall, within one month next after her rent to the manor of Hall-garth; and in the same decease." In 1570, it was ordered that " Maude year a house in Fish Row is mentioned as once the Foster shall give an obligation, with sufficient property of Maud Foster. DD

Page  202 202 FISHTOFT HUNDRED. a mansion of some consequence and considerable extent; it was generally called Heron's or Heronshaw1 Hall, but why it was so called is not known. Tradition reports this building to have been erected with the stones taken from the church, &c. of St. John of Jerusalem; a stone in the northern gable of the house bore the date 1659, and the initials W.E.R. Heron's Hall was taken down in 1811. We know nothing either by record or tradition, respecting the origin of the name " Robin Hood's Walkf," which is now given to a portion of the bed of the Scirebeck. We find it mentioned in the Corporation Records in the year 1633. The chapel used by members of the Roman Catholic faith is situated at a short distance from Bargate Bridge by Me side of Maud Foster's Drain. It is a neat brick building, and is dedicated to St. Mary; it was built at the sole expense of the Rev. BERNARD A)DIs, who was the first priest that officiated therein. It was opened in 1827, and will hold from 450 to 500 persons, but will not furnish that number with seats. The succession of officiating priests has been as follows:1827. Rev. Bernard Addis. 1829. Rev. Joseph Postlewhite. Rev. Charles Lomax. 1838. Rev. John Scott. 1854. Rev. John Rigby. The present minister is benevolently engaged in endeavouring to raise funds to provide for the education of the poor children (about 100) belonging to the congregation. About half-a-mile from Bargate Bridge on the road to Spilsby, the road branches off to the eastward towards Wainfleet; and at the angle formed by the two roads, a large detached portion of the parish of Boston commences: this is bounded by the road to Spilsby on the west, by that to Wainfleet on the south, by that to Freiston Ings on the east, and by Boston Long Hedges to the north, where its boundary again meets the Spilsby Road at Hill Dyke Bridge. The area included in this circuit formed anciently the hundred of Fishtoft, and part of the hamlet of Fenne, as will be described hereafter. It now comprehends Boston Fen End, Willoughby Hills, and the Long Hedges. We find the "Long Fenne in the Fenn End" mentioned in 1515, when the Guild of St. Mary held property there. In 1524, "the Long Fenne" is said to be "in Toft, near Boston." In 1594, the Corporation had a farm there, which rented for 81. There appears to have been a dispute about this time concerning the parochial appropriation of this district; for, in 1581, the Corporation agreed to hold the collectors of taxes harmless for having levied distress for taxes in the hundred of Toft. In 1625, the Fen Ends and Willoughby Hills are mentioned as parts of Boston. In 1680, the Fen Ends are said to be in the hundred of Fishtoft; and, in 1690, Long Hedges and Fen End are described as parts of Boston. Perhaps there is no incompatibility in these various statements, for these districts are nowhere said to be in the parish of Fishtoft. Their connexion with the hamlet of Fenne, and with Fenne Chapel, which was a chapel-of-ease to Fishtoft Church, will form a part of the account of Fislhtoft. The angle where the Spilsby and Wainfleet Roads separate is called Burton, Corner. In 1611, the heirs of Richard Wyles held a mansion called The Parish Register contains the following October, 1701. John Heronshaw and Mary Howentries relative to this family:- sam married 15th April, 1702. Elizabeth HIeronAudrey, daughter of John and Dorothy Heron- shaw, buried 17th August, 1705. shaw, baptised 4th December, 1698. Mary, wife of John Heronshaw, died Ist January, Dorothy, wife of John Heronshaw, died 16th 1730.

Page  203 THE FEN-END, LONG HEDGES, ETC. 203 Barnhain House, which is said to have been situated at a place called Broken Cross, at Boston-Long-Fenne-end; they paid a quit-rent to the lords of the manor of Poyvlton Hall, Freiston, of 10Ud., and half a pound of pepper. In 1650, this estate was held by Bridget Wyles; in 1661, by Andrew Burton; in 1676, by John Burton, who died in 1691, and was succeeded by his son of the same name, who paid the above quit-rent in 1692. It is probable that the house now standing near Burton Corner is the Barnham House above alluded to. Burton Corner House. In 1661, four messuages and land are described as situated at Boston-LongFenne-end, in the respective occupation of John Hobson, Thomas Brown, An1thony Kellett, and Andrew Burton, the latter property belonged to Thomas Baron. In 1680, Daniel Cabourne held a mansion at the Fenne End in the hundred of Fishtoft. The premises are described as consisting of a house, containing eight bays and two outshots; a barn, containing three bays and one outshot; and a stable at the end of the barn, an orchard, a garth, and one close of pasture-land lying underneath it, containing altogether eight acres. This property is said to have been purchased of Alvinglham Abbey, and rented to John Orresby, of London, in 1640. The Vestry-Book of Boston contains ain entry, under date 1768, stating that the boundary-post between Boston and Fishtoft was called Jobson's Pound, and was situated on the road leading from Burton Corner. Sir Arthur Ingram held land in Long Hedges and Willoughby Hills in 1611, and Sir Robert Addey was then a considerable proprietor in both places. Returning to Bargate Bridge, we find, on the eastern side of the road, a cluster of houses called Mill Hill. The Corporation Records state that, in 1640, Nathaniel Malkinson held, in fee-farm, one piece of waste land in Bargate, whereupon was lately one windmill and tenement. Mill Hill in Bargate, and the waste land beyond it, are mentioned in 1676. The hill was occupied by William West in 1680, and is described as having then a messuage and several tenements upon it. In 1711, the Corporation leased part of Mill Hill to be built upon. On the east side of Bargate, nearly opposite Mill Hill, is St. Peter's

Page  204 204 WIDE BARGATE, SHEEP-PENS, ETC. Lane, which now fronts an open space called the Pen Yard; this was formerly occupied by the Bede-houses and gardens belonging to St. Peter's Guild. The houses were taken down in 1719. The Hall, and other buildings belonging to the Guild, formerly stood in this neighbourhood; a public-house near it yet bears the sign of the Cross Keys, the usual badge of St. Peter. The open yard in front of St. Peter's Lane, called the Pen Yard, is used to pen or fold sheep in during the great cattle-markets. The whole of the large area of Wide Bargate is also appropriated to this purpose. It appears by the Corporation Records that sheep-pens were first erected here in 1623. These pens were then represented as sufficient to rent for 51. per annum. The progression of the Sheep and Cattle Market is stated below.1 At present there is space and accommodation for 30,000 sheep, and the number brought to market annually is estimated as being 90,000. The space appropriated to the Sheep Market is occasionally found to be inconveniently small. At the May fair of 1855, pens were required for 32,000 sheep, and the requisite room was obtained with great difficulty. This was a larger number than had been shown in Boston at one time since 1827. About 15,000 sheep were penned in the market a fortnight afterwards. At this fair, one proprietor penned nearly 2000 sheep, and another about 1.500. The horned cattle annually exhibited are about 6500, and the pigs 15,000. There is a fat stock-market-first established in 1847-held every Wednesday. There is no toll levied upon horned cattle or horses. The Town Council have at present (1856) the tolls in their own hands, which are collected by a person employed on their behalf. The trees round the Sheep Market were planted in 1822, and the cost (about 501.) raised by subscription. The care and maintenance of these trees were undertaken by the Town Council in 1836.2 Proceeding along the eastern side of Bargate we reach Pen Street, which was commenced about the beginning of the present century. Pen Street opens into Grove Street, and a number of smaller streets, and at its southern extremity falls into Main Ridge. There was not a house upon all this space a little more than half a century ago, the site was then a garden; and the same may be said of the principal part of Main Ridge, and all the various lanes, &c., west of it. I In 1676, the sheep-pens in Bargate were rented per annum, equal to the pennage of 84,000 sheep. at 12d. each annually, and all pens previously erected The absolute number folded in 1816 was 99,160. by individuals ordered to be taken down. In 1720, In 1821, the existing pens were far from being the present Pen Yard was ordered to be fenced and sufficient for the number of sheep brought to the let for a sheep-market; the number of pens to be market. 160, and the pennage of sheep fixed at ld. each. In 1822, the pens were rented for 5901., which A lease of the pens and pen-yard for ten years was would require the annual pennage of 141,600 sheep, granted to Henry Kinnersley, at the yearly rent of but the lessee lost money by the contract. In 511. 10s., and 5 lbs. of sugar, and to charge ld. each 1824, the Corporation resolved to hire a pasture as and no more; this was equal, without any profit near Bargate Drain as possible, for the cattleto the lessee, to the pennage of 12,400 sheep. In market to be held in; but the tradesmen and 1730, the pens were rented for 771. and 7 lbs. of property-holders in Strait and Wide Bargate petisugar, equal to the pennage of 18,550 sheep. In tioned against the measure, and the resolution was 1740, the rent was 731. and 7 lbs. of sugar, and all rescinded. In 1825, the lessee of the tolls petiparish rates and assessments. In 1742, complaints tioned for a reduction of his rent, stating that since were made that William Cooke of Bardney, and the commencement of his lease, markets for sheep James Hancock of Horncastle, infringed upon the had been established at Bolingbroke, Tattershall, rights of the lessees, by setting up a market in Donington, Croyland, and Long Sutton, to the Skirbeck, where sheep were exposed for sale with- injury of Boston market. He further stated that out being brought into the market at Boston. In besides his rent of 5901., he paid annual parish and 1750, the sheep-pens were retted for ten years for other rates amounting to 751.; this made his annual 901. and 7 lbs. of sugar, equal to 21,600 sheep. In payments equal to the pennage of 159,600 sheep. 1767, the rent was 1381., equal to 32,200 sheep. In 1838, the pens were rented for ten years at 4301., In 1777, the rent was 160/., equal to 38,650 sheep. and in 1848 for 3501., equal (without the town In 1792, the rent was 180/., equal to 43,200 sheep. rates) to 103,200, and 84,000 sheep respectively. In 1805, it was 230/., equal to 55,200 sheep. In 2 Mr. ChristoDher Blades originated and carried 1815, the pens were rented for three years at 3501. out this improvement.

Page  205 GROVE STREET CHAPELI. 205 In Grove Street, a chapel for the use of the CoNGRR3GATIONALISTS or INDEPENDENTS was opened on the 7th of October, 1819. It is a plain, commodious building, and was built by voluntary contributions. It is believed to be the first chapel of this denomination established in the town.1 It will hold a congregation of about 700 persons, and was erected at an expense of nearly 16001. The succession of ministers has been as follows: —Rev. Thomas Haynes, 1819 to 1836. Rev. Isaac Watts, to 1850. Rev. H. L. Holmes, to 1854. Rev. John Keynes, present minister. Sunday-school rooms have been erected in connexion with this chapel. In Chapel Row, leading from Main Ridge, a small chapel was built, in I804, for the use of the UNITARIANS, who continllued to occupy it until 1819, when they removed to a larger and more commodious chapel in Spain Lane. The Rev. John Platts was minister of this chapel from 1804 to 1817; when he went to Doncaster, and was succeeded by the Rev. David W. Jones, who continued with the congregation after its removal into Spain Lane. The chapel in Chapel Row has, since the Unitarians left it, been successively occupied by the Quakers and Particular Baptists, and is at present used by the Radical or Reformed Methodists. Returning to Bargate, and passing along the eastern side of that street, we come to CoRPus CHRISTI Lane, which derived its name from the Guild so called, formerly in Boston; there are at present no ancient buildings within it. Remains of Pescod House.' The Paish Registers record the burials of many far back as 1709, it is stated that there were "131 persons called'" Independeats " during the eight- Presbyterians and Independents in Boston;" and eenth century-say fiom 1750 to 1771. "The wife in 1784, " Anabaptists and Independents" are freof - Watts, an Independent minister," is re- quently mentioned. corded as having been buried 14th May, 1763. So

Page  206 206 WIDE BARGATE. This lane is also called Water Lane, from one of the water-houses already mentioned having been formerly situated there. A narrow lane called Silver Street, but formerly known as Thieves' Lane, diverges from Wide Bargate near the entrance into Bargate, and ends in Pump Square and Main Ridge. Thieves' Lane is mentioned in 1564. There were some capital messuages in this lane in 1640. Mitre Lane, called Petticoat Lane in 1741, another ancient avenue of the town, runs in the same direction as Silver Street, and enters the Pumps by means of Pescod Lane. The remains of Pescod House, the residence of the family of Pescod, are at the upper end of this latter-mentioned lane. What remains of this ancient house is represented in the engraving in the previous page. In 1581, Mitre Lane was known as Pescod Lane, the latter name being now appropriated only to the southern portion of this communication. There formerly was a large orchard in this lane, which, in 1640, belonged to Alice Akerley; it and two tenements belonged, in 1581, to the Draper family, and in this year Mr. Draper had permission "to put up a pair of gates in Pescod Laine, in Bargate, for the cleanly keeping of the same; the gates to be kept in repairs by him and his heirs. The passage through the said lane to the Town's Grounds(?) to be had without disturbance or hindrance." The Carr family (baronets) had also property in this lane; and, in 1680, a person named Scroope Snowden held houses in it. We will now return to the north end of Bargate, and begin a survey of the western side. A large public-house called the Bell stood very near the end of the street on the west side in 1564, when it was held of Halltoft Manor. In 1674, it was occupied by widow Baker. The Pig Market was placed in its present position in 1799, and ld. each fixed as the charge for foldage. The Earl of Lincoln held a house, and two acres of land, and two gardens, on this side of Bargate in 1598, when he had " License given him to add to his Lordship's pales before his house so much as shall make up 71 yards in length, and bearing the same breadth from his Lordship's manor-house that the old pales at present do stand; a footway to be left for passengers from one end of the pales to the other, paying yearly to the burgesses 4d." Samuel Cust, Esq., held this property in 1640. Sir John Dyneley also held land in Bargate in 1640. This was situated south of the Earl of Lincoln's property, and probably near the site of Dr. Bestoe's house. The Dyneley family held this property in 1594. There was also a large public-house, called the Ram, situated hereabouts in 1564; it was held of the Manor of Hallgarth. The Monastery of Kyme held a house and ground in Bargate in 1564; and the Priory of Nun Ormsby formerly held a house and grounds in this street. In 1601, the Corporation is stated to have held four acres of land in Bargate. The Corporation, in 1622, directed the causeway to be repaired in Bargate from Barbridge to the drain (Scirebeck), on this side Pedder's Cross. It had been previously repaired in 1596. In 1640, Bargate is called in the Corporation Records Barbridge Street. A horse-pit is also mentioned in Bargate in 1554.1 A pound for stray cattle stood in Bargate near the north end of the sheep-pens in 1741. Proceeding up the west side of Wide Bargate, and immediately adjoining Bargate, is an opening to a yard5 now filled with stables, &c., in which, about thirty years ago, were many buildings of considerable antiquity, as were also the houses at the entrance from Bargate; these have all been removed. A plan of Boston, i In 1554, " the Horse-pit in 13argate is directed This cleansing and repairing was repeated in 1657. to'be dyked and scoured;" this is repeated in 1570, -Corporation Records. when it is called the " pit at Bargate end." In 2 Formerly called the Deal-yard. 1619, it was again cleaned, costing 61. 5s. 10d.

Page  207 BARGATE. 207 published in 1.762, mentions a chapel belonging to the Baptists then situated in this place. The Bar Ditch, or fosse of the town, crosses Bargate at its junction with Wide Bargate; and here, for reasons already stated, we think there was formerly a gate or barrier across the street. If it ever were so, all traces of it have been long removed. That there was formerly a bridge here across the ditch is proved by numerous entries in the Corporation Records. There is at this time " a stone tunnel of large dimensions about fifteen feet in length, with the stones dressed at each end, which has undoubtedly been a bridge."' In 1659, there is mention of anl acre of ground near the turnpost on Barbridge; in another place the turnstile is mentioned; this was most probably a protection for a side road across the bridge for foot-passengers; but where the acre of land could be placed we cannot imagine. Having mentioned the Bar Ditch, we will place below in the form of notes what the Corporation Records state respecting it.2 We are now in Bargate proper, on the west side of which we find the RED LION Tavern. This is recorded in the Compotus of St. Mary's Guild for 1515 as " the Hospitium of the Red Lion in Bargate." It then belonged to that Guild, to which it paid 31. 6s. 8d. annual rent; and the same in 1524. In 1586 and 1590, it was licensed by the Corporation to sell " Lincoln and other beer brewed out of the borough." The IRed Lion is mentioned in 1640 as having formerly belonged to the Sibsey family: it was sold by Ralph Poole to Richard Sibsev and Johan his wife in the reign of Elizabeth. The FALCON was also, probably, an inn of great importance prior to and during the sixteenth century; it had, ill 1611, a frontage and gateway on Bargate, very near to, if not adjoining, the Red Lion. It was then the property of John Orresby, whose executors sold it to Matthew Foxley in that year for 1601. The Corporation purchased it in 1617 for 1201.; and used it, or part of it, as a granary in which to lay up corn to be sold without profit to the poor. In 1622, the great chamber at the "" Fawcon " was used as a wool-chamber. The house was ordered to be repaired in this year. In 1624, "The chamber over the great cellar of the Falcon was rented to Sir Thomas Middlecott, and so much ground belonging to the said Falcon as the Mayor and three of the aldermen shall think meet and convenient, with the aforesaid great chamber, shall be granted to him and his heirs for ever, upon condition that he shall build an hospital upon the said ground for the relief of ten poor people of Boston for ever." It was afterwards thought that'"Sir Thomas's building will darken and shadow the mansion-house called the Falcon too much." The bargain, however, was confirmed, but the buildings were never erected, probably owing to the death of Sir Tllhomas, Middlecott in 1626o In 1635, the "message called the Plhalcon " was sold to Robert Harle for 1401. In 1640, there were two shops 1 Respecting the Bar-bridge the Records state,- of the two Clowes at the ends of Bardyke, to keep 1562, a tenement mentioned as being near Bar- them open or shut as occasion may arise, for the bridge. 1572, Barbridge alluded to, and again in course of the water to wash and scour the Bardyke." 1639, and again in 1655. 1664, "a shop lately 1585, the Bardyke to be scoured out from St. built over Bardyke, near Barbridge, rented." John's Bridge to Dipple Gote (Wormgate), by the 2 1561, a committee appointed to view the Bar- frontages. 1652, repairs of the Bardyke wall, dyke, and to see how it may be made to run " ebbe 11. 5s. 2d. For mending Bardyke, 61. 18s. 1676, aold fludde" 1567, the Barditch ordered to be persons who have caused obstructions or nuisances cleaned out before Trinity Sunday. Every frontage over Bardyke, to be reported to the house. 1693, on the said ditch being cleared by its owner; he March 20. The chamberlain directed to pay to on one side scouring or casting out, he on the other John Bourne of West Keal 101. " for his damages carting away: penalty of Is. per foot for neglect. and charges sustained by breaking his thigh, through 1569, again ordered to be cleaned by frontages, falling into Bardyke last December." 1723, leave "from St. John's Brygge to Simon Turpyn's given to Mr. Cheyney to arch over apart of the Barcorner, and thence to the great pit at Wormgate dyke; this is a proof that other parts were then end, at the cost of the borough." 1570, " Edrmund open. In 1801, the Bardyke, in the neighbourhood Paynter to receive 10s. annullly for taking charge I of the Red Lion pastures, arched over.

Page  208 208 WESLEYAN CENTENARY CHAPEL. over the Falcon gateway, and the principal part of the building stood back from the street. The gateway and shops were rented in 1680 by William Turner, and were the property of Robert Harle. The house was again in the hands of the Corporation in 1718, when the chamberlain was ordered to support the building over the Falcon gate. This gateway was standing within the memory of people of the last generation. Although we have called this house an inn, there is nothing ill the notices which we have quoted which mentions it as being used as one. Yet, we think, from its name, and the circumstance of an inn called the Falcon now standing very near the ground which it occupied, that if it was not so used in 1611 or subsequently, its original appropriation was in that capacity. NEW STREET branches off from about the middle of the western side of Bargate, and leads into several other new streets connecting with Fountain Lane and Wormgate. The first stone of the WESLEYAN METHODISTS' CENTENARY CHAPEL, in Red Lion Street, was laid September 27th, 1839; and the chapel was opened for service October 1st, 1840. 11111- ___.l -- -[_... The Wesleyan Centenary Chapel. This building is admitted to be the most spacious and handsome chapel in the county, and has not many rivals in the kingdom. The filont presents an Ionic colonnade of four massive pillars with antwe; winged by two square towers, which stand several feet forward, and screen the body of the chapel. Within these towers are the principal staircases to the gallery, and above them several class-rooms. The interior combines great neatness with elegance, and contains a capacious gallery, a large organ, an oak pulpit, and oak framed pew work next the aisles. The ceiling is formed of doubly sunk panels, with ventilating bosses; the cornice is blocked and supported bby pilasters between the windows. The organ is placed at the east end of the gallery behind the pulpit, and is one of the largest in the kingdom, combining great power with fine tone and sweetness. The choir organ was, when erected, the largest in the country. The general plan of the instrument is similar to those of the great organs at Haarlem, Frankfort, and others on the Continent. The total number

Page  209 CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. 209 of stops is forty-nine. The dimensions of the instrument are twenty-six feet high, twenty-three feet wide, and eighteen feet deep. It contains 2490 pipes. The largest metal pipe being nearly eighteen feet long, and nearly three feet in circumference, and weighs about three hundredweight. The dimensions of the building are,-extreme length, 115 feet, width of front, including the towers, eighty-nine feet, of the body, seventy-five feet. Length within, 100 feet, breadth seventy feet, height from floor to ceiling, forty-three feet. The chapel will seat 2300 persons; there are 500 free sittings. The chapel groumd is more than an acre in extent; the north-western portion was used as a cemetery until 1856. The chapel stands back seventy-five feet from the street. The entire cost was upwards of 11,0001. The Wesleyan day-school, with class-rooms, and a detached house for the master, were erected in 1849, behind the chapel, for the education of children of parents of all religious denominations on the Glasgow system; the children being required to attend some place of religious worship on the Sunday. The course of instruction embraces all the branches of a good English education, including vocal music upon Hullah's system. There is also an infant-school, in which each child pays 2d. per week, the other scholars paying 4d. per week; this includes the use of books, maps, apparatus, &c. The schools are subjected to Government inspection and examination; the cost of their erection was upwards of 15001., which was raised by voluntary contributions, aided by a grant from Government. Mr. Thomas Vent left a legacy of 191. 19s. to this school in 1852. The chapel originally used by the Methodists was situated in Wormgate, and was erected about 1764; but being found inadequate to the purposes of the congregation,-as it would seat only 170 persons, —a new chapel was built by subscription, and opened in 1808: this chapel was situated in Red Lion Street. Although it would seat 770 persons, it was found to be too small, and an addition was made to it in 1818, which increased its capacity to the extent of seating 1100 persons; this chapel also became insufficient for the increasing congregation, and the present spacious edifice was erected.l The CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH in Red Lion Street was opened November 21st, 1850, by the Rev. Dr. Thomas Raffles, of Liverpool. The church was erected from the designs of Mr. Stephen Lewin, and occupies the site of the theatre, which was purchased by the trustees, and the materials thereof re-used where suitable in the new building. The plan consists of a tower and spire at the north-west angle, schools for 400 boys and girls on the ground-floor, and the church above the same having a semicircular apse at the end. The church is approached by a flight of seventeen steps, sixteen feet long, and the tower contains a staircase for the accommodation of the schools. The main entrance is under a semicircular-headed doorway, the jambs of which are recessed with moulded brickwork. On each side of the entrance are blank recesses; and above, a moulded cornice with the gable perforated by a large rose window, divided by turned columns, with caps and bases, into sixteen lights. The side walls of the church are divided by buttresses of three divisions (which belong, by the way, to a later style) into five bays, having a square-headed window in the lower part to light the schools, and above, a moulded cornice, with a semicircular-headed window lighting the church. The semicircular apse is pierced by three windows on the ground-floor, and above are seven windows in the church. The tower, with the exception of the The Methodists are first mentioned in the records of Boston in 1768, when it is stated that there were four persons of that denomination in the town. EE

Page  210 210 CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. sills to the windows, is entirely constructed of brick, of a tint approaching that of stone. The whole of the columns, caps, bases, cornices, arches, buttresses, &c., are of brick, moulded and burnt for the purpose. The lower part of the tower has a deeply-recessed doorway, forming an entrance to the schools and churchstaircase. The last story of the tower has square piers at the angles with moulded caps and bases, above which are turned semicircular arches: the whole is crowned with a corbelled cornice, from which rises the spire, finished with an ornamental vane. The interior of the church is divided by two aisles into three divisions of seats, the whole of the centre seats on a level, the side tiers rising above one another with semicircular seats at end: the pul-...._____ -...-pit is placed slightly within ______ ___ _ the apse, with seats round /1-_________.- __ ~' - the same; the whole of the /______:__?seats are without doors: the __ —________ church is spanned by an open roof without a tie-beam; it is divided by trusses into five arches formed by ten thick_____ nesses of inch deal, eight inches The congregatiol Cuwide, with wall pieces, hamr The Rev. ISACWATSWAteirtmer beams, and principal rafteers in proportion. purlin' The exterior length of the paid~~- toth sholase fr h carechurch is 62 feet, the width ~-C"namid37g feet 6 inches, the internal ~ ~ ~~~l ~ il;Y nlength 56 feet 8 inches, the ide walls from pavemente, 31 _eet_ _he height of gables, 46 feet; te tower height, 62 feet; The Congegational Church te spire and vane, 48 feet, or a total of 110 feet.' The Rev. IsAAc WATTS was the firsth and is the present minister of this church. Being now on the site of the latest existing theatre in Boston, we willgive the best history we can of the dramatic performances and establishments connected with the town. The earliest notice relative to the subject occurs in 1w56, when v14s. were paid to the schoolmaster for the charges of his play; and bls. to the wates of Cambridge." This play was acted in the old grammar-school, and the expenses paidl by the Corporation. In 1578, it was ordered "that there shall be no more 1 This account is abridged from the Bpeilder of November 9th, 1850.

Page  211 HISTORY OF THEATRICAL AMUSEMENTS IN BOSTON. 211 plaies nor interludes in the Church, nor in the Chancel, nor in the Hall, nor in the Scole House."' In 1579, this order was cancelled " at the request of divers of the borough; and it was agreed that the play of the Passion bf Christ shall be suffered to be played in the Hall yearly, at Easter or Whitsunday, when they shall be most meet and prepared for the same." This license was continued, at least until 1587, for in that year "the play of the Passion was acted in the Hall-garth (the presentgrammar-school yard), at Easter." In 1614, 40s. were paid by the Hall to the "Queen's players."2 In 1620, c" money was given to the players to rid them out of the town;" and in 1624 " money was paid to the players:" the amount is not stated in either case 3 It does not appear that any regular theatre existed in Boston prior to 1777, although a company of comedians used to perform in a building in the Red Lion yard so long since as 1740. A granary near the Pack House Quay was afterwards adapted and used for this purpose. The theatre built in 17774 was erected at the expense of the Corporation, and was very neatly fitted up. A respectable company of comedians used to perform there for about six weeks every year, until 1806, when the late theatre was opened. This was a plain, substantial building, with nothing attractive in its external appearance; but its internal arrangement was judicious, and well adapted for scenic representations. The part appropriated to the audience was calculated to contain 1079 persons; and the amount of the whole admission at full price was 1061. 4s. 6d. The external dimensions were 80 feet by 45. Theatrical affairs were tolerably flourishing for a few years after the erection of this building;5 they had very much declined, however, in 1819, and continued to be gradually further depressed until 1850, when the theatre was sold and taken down, as already stated. The only remnant of this once polite and intellectual recreation in Boston, in which many of the best and wisest of its inhabitants had taken pleasure, is now to be found in a large temporary wooden building erected in the Pen Yard in Wide Bargate, where the degraded drama of the day is annually exhibited for a few weeks. The Blue-Coat School, a very useful and well-conducted charitable institution, is held in a building in Red Lion Street, erected for that purpose in 1805.6 From Red Lion Street we enter the northern extremity of Wormgate; and, turning to the right, arrive at a row of handsome and pleasantly-situated houses called Witham Place; behind which, and farther north, are a number of smaller streets and houses, all erected within the last sixty years. Opposite the north end of Witham Place, the Bar-ditch enters the Witham by a gowt, or clowe, called Depul-gowt, or Dipple-gowt. This was erected in 1569, when an order of the Corporation directed that "a clowe should be set at Wormgate End, against the great pit there, at the cost of the Borough." In the Compotus of St. Mary's Guild, 1516, Dipple Gate is mentioned; probably the whole of Wormgate was then called Dipple, or De Pul Gate (Deep Pool Gate), as a house in Depul Gate is then mentioned as Willan's house. This seems to be confirmed by the Compotus for 1523, where we find 6" De-pul Gate or Wormgate." There was a bridge over the Bar-ditch, where it crossed the road to fall into the river, which was widened to ten feet in 1764, in order to allow waggons to pass. The Broad Marsh at Wormgate End is mentioned as containing sixteen 1 In 1575, the players were expelled the limits of 3 The above notices are principally from the Corthe City of London by the Lord Mayor and alder- poration Records. men. 4 The receipts of the theatre during this season 2 The plays acted at this period were called were 3721. 8s. mysteries, andwere either representations of stories 5 The entire receipts for 1806 exceeded 11001. from Holy Writ, or founded upon the legends of the 6 A full account of this excellent institution is monks. given in a subsequent page, under the head of Charities.

Page  212 212 WORMGATE. acres in 1583, when it was leased for 81. annually. In 1633, it is called the Great Marsh. It is mentioned again in 1672 as the Broad Marsh, and said to contain sixteen acres.' We find also the following notices respecting Wormgate. In 1591, there was a windmill in Wormgate, which was leased in 1642 together with five acres of land there. In 1705, " Mill Hill" in Wormgate was ordered to be removed. In 1600, an acre of land in Wormgate is said to belong to the parsonage. The turnstile in Wormgate is mentioned in 1720. In 1758, a lease was granted of five acres of land, called the Limekiln Pasture. This was called Harrison's Marsh in 1763, when a large portion of it was sold to the Commissioners of Navigation. (For an account of the Grand Sluice see the history of the Witham in a subsequent page.) Returning to the northern end of what is now called Wormgate,2 we reach the sites of some of the ancient buildings mentioned in the following extracts from the Corporation Records; but no trace or tradition of their exact locality now exists. The Priory of Bridlington formerly held a cottage and garth in Wormigate.a The Priory of Durham held a tenement with a stable and yard near the Trinity Hall in Wormgate. Fountains Abbey held a house in Wormgate called the Sword, and a windmill and six acres of pasture, with a cottage on it, and fifteen other tenements and lands in Wormgate. Kvyme Monastery held, in 1564, five houses...... ~-~~ in Wormgate, one of them near the Sword, and a piece of ground called School-house Green. The Priory of Stainfield held seven cottages called c" Woolwynders, or the woolwynders' houses." The Earl of DEvONSHIRE had a house in?Wormgate prior to 1674. A house called'Greenpoles," with an orchard and garden, was held in 1674 in Wormgate by Thomas Lawton. The Sword Inn mentioned above is noticed several times afterwards in the Corporation Re-:'obabl- originally a cords. In 1586, it was licensed to sell " Lincoln and other e' ~hinkbeer brewed out of the town;" and again in 1590. In 1603, it is called a mansion, with a yard, garthstead, and stable; and was leased, with other property belonging to the Corporation, to Thomas Wardell. It is called the Hanging Sword in Old Building in Archer Lane. 1628 and 1635. A messuage Corporation Records. now Worm gate. See Placita de quo Warranto, 2 In 1281, the river witham was called the Wyme, p. 427. probably originally a contraction. The street a This priory also owned in Boston a house in now called Wormgate runs parallel to the river, and tenure of the "Merchant Staplers," and a piece of opens to it at its northern end; hence it was first land "wheron a mill formerly stood:" their situcalled, we think, Wlitham gate, then Wyme gate, and ation is not known.

Page  213 OLD GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 213 at "Wormgate End, called Wayne House," is mentioned in 1571, 1590, and 1600. In this latter year "it was taken down and set up at the Fen End." A wayne house was said to be in Thieves' Lane in 1564; and in 1639, 1640, and 1661, 6Waine-House Close in Wormgate," containing seven acres of land, is noticed. We think all these were accommodations for the waggoners (their horses and waggons) coming into Boston with corn, wool, &c., from the northward. We have lately heard a very old person say that the Little Peacock public-house in Wormgate was " formerly a great waggoners' house;" and that the Dog and Duck public-house, also in Wormgate, was the resort of the boatmen from Dogdyke.' All that is recorded about the Hall of the Guild of the Holy Trinity has been stated in a former chapter. It stood in Gascoyne Row, Wormgate. The only unappropriated vestige of antiquity which we can find in Wormgate is the old building in Archer Lane; we do not presume to give it a name. The General Dispensary, which was formerly kept in Wormgate, will be noticed among the charitable institutions of the town. LAUGHTON'S Charity School, which for a long time was held at the old Church-house at the southeast corner of Wormgate, is still kept in Wormgate. A full account of it will be given among the Charities. In Philip and Mary's grant to the Corporation (A.D. 15545), there is mention of "one -Wl house in which the Grammarschool is held; " this was situated at Wormgate End, "with a certain piece of giround near the same, within the::__'__ same. This house is fre- quently mentioned in the Cor- poration Records. In 1570, it is said that Mr. Bonner purchased this house, paying 81. for the fee simple thereof.. The property, however, proved h'av g to be copyhold; and in Decem-: - her, 1572, a lease for ninety- nine years was granted him,.' renewable (no fine mentioned), - \,,.1 hepaying Id. annual rent. In _.. 1640, John Whiting, gentle - - NWi man, held by lease, and used for a "mault-house," the house riPi ii sometime a grammar-school, " at the further end of Wormgate, for ld. rent. In 1680, a.. it is called the "Old School.... House, corner of Wormgate, held by Mrs. Susan Sumpter." The Old Grammar School. Can the term Dogdyke house have gradually changed to Dog and Duck house? 2 It is there called "Scola Litterato2 ia in Wormgate."

Page  214 214 THE OLD VICARAGE HOUSE. When a Committee of the Corporation reported in 1778 respecting the old leases granted by the Corporation, they stated that the house then in tenure of widow Stanwell was "the old School House." This house is yet standing, and is represented in the preceding page. This house formerly stood open to the churchyard, all the buildings between it and the churchyard being comparatively modern. It is now reached by a narrow alley leading from near the south end of Woringate on the west side, and is the property of John Goodbarne's heirs. We find the following entries in the roll of the Guild of Corpus Christi:1368. Magister Scolarum Boston, a member of the Guild. 1400. Matilda Marfute, mistress of the school in Boston; a sister of the Guild. 1445. Jacob Wake, lately master of the Grammar-school in Boston; a member of the Guild. We do not know with what institution these persons were connected; but they afford evidence of the existence of a grammar-school inl Boston at a very early period. The ancient house here represented was called the Old Vicarage, and regarded The Old Vicarage. as having been the dwelling-house of the Rev. JOHN COTTON, whilst he was vicar of this town It stood a little east of the south end of Wormgate, and was latterly reached by a narrow court. It had formerly, no doubt, an entrance from the churchyard. It was taken down in 1850. It is not known when this house ceased to be inhabitecd as the vicarage. A house on the site of the present vicarage was afterwards occupied for that purpose. The vicarage house was much in need of repairs in 1680 and 1732,

Page  215 THE CHURCH HOUSE. 215 since the incumbents at those periods asked the Corporation to repair it. Mr. Calthrop made the same request in 1751, when the house then occupied was taken down and the present one erected. "Before the Reformation there were no poor's-rates, the charitable doles given at religious houses, church ales, &c. in every parish, supplied their place. There was a church-house in every parish, to which belonged spits, pots, &c., and every necessary article for cooking provisions. Here the housekeepers met, were merry, and gave their charity. The young people came there too, and had dancing, bowling, shooting at butts," &c.' And here, at stated times, the poor and needy came, to receive an apportionment of what had been given in money, or a division of the doles of bread, meat, ale, &c., which had been left for distribution. These church-houses were nearly the only alms-houses before the time of Henry VIII.2 There was a poor man's box in every church, and one also at each principal inn; these alms were distributed at the church-house, which was always near the church. The Church House at Boston is mentioned twice, and both'times after its original functions had ceased; that is, after poor's rates were established; first in 1578, when the " Church House was ordered to be appointed and made mete for a house of correction, according to the statute then lately made;" and again in 1582, when the Church House was ordered to be repaired. It was now put in order and intended to be occupied by the master of the Grammar-school, then established in South End; and Mr. Woodruffe, the master, was "directed to take his house at the North Church Stile, in Wormgate." In 1639, it is called " the house in the churchyard, commonly called the Schoolmaster's house, belonging to the Corporation." Tradition asserts that the old house at the south-east corner of Wormgate, where Laughton's School was taught for many years, was the old Clhurch House, )c _ — The Church House. 1 AUBREY's Collections, Antiquarian Repository, vol. i. p. 72. 2 Mr. ATWOOD, on the authority of AUBREY.

Page  216 216 THE SESSIONS HOUSE. and afterwards the Schoolmaster's House; and there is much probability that it was so. It formed part of the bequest of Philip and Mary, and remained in the possession of the Corporation and the Town Council until 1853. The present vicarage house is situated on the north side of the churchyard; it is a substantial and comfortable house, but presents nothing particularly striking in its external appearance. The residence of the PACEY family, which adjoined it on the east, was a building of very considerable antiquity. It was thought to have been the remains of a religious house, and the general conjecture is, that it was the nunnery mentioned by BusICHINGs. Over the entrance to this ancient house was an antique bust in a niche, of a man with his hand on his beard. The building formed a quadrangle, and, in spite of modern alterations, exhibited many marks of great antiquity. At the northern boundary of the garden is a narrow winding lane, called Fountain Lane, in which the large foundation stones of ancient buildings have been frequently dug up. This house was taken down in 1841, and upon its site was erected the Sessions House for the hundreds of Kirton and Skirbeck, represented below. ~ Z~ I ~~' L _L..... ________________.'- L-7: 10,0001., and is allowed to be well adapted to the purposes for which it is designed.' It was opened for public business 17th October, 1843. Adjoining the eastern entrance to the churchyard was until lately an old building, which is supposed to have been one of the water-houses we have alluded to. The site is now occupied by the reading-room,., of the PTTh LAYSessions House. This institution was founded as a perma nent libr ary accordin 1799. Theom was added in 1805. The library is extensive and valuable; the present number of members is 100. The southern end of Fountain Lane is next to the 1 The uarte Seplssions of the D ivision of North missioners of the Property and Income-tax and of Holland, and th allowed to be same. The the Land and Assessed taxes, and other public meetings of the County Cort and of the hurchyard business connecte d w ith the county, are held here

Page  217 OLD GAOL IN THE MARKET-PLACE. 217 Permanent Library. This lane is mentioned in the Corporation Records in 1562, and again in 1586, and the gardens near Fountain Lane in 1593. The inhabitants of Boston were indicted, in 1661, for not repairing this lane. Much of the property in Boston which belonged to Fountains Abbey is supposed to have stood in this lane towards its western end, next Wormgate, and it probably derived its name from that circumstance. This locality is mentioned again in 1640 and 1680. The accompanying engraving represents the Market-place The Old Gaol and Market-Place. adjoining the churchyard as it appeared in 1774, before the Ostrich publichouse, the Gaol, &c., were taken down, and their site thrown to the burialground. The Gaol represented in this engraving was first used as such between 1552 and 1572; for, in the former year, it was ordered that the " kitchens under the Town Hall, and the chamber over them, shall be prepared for a prison, and for a dwelling-house for one of the serjeants," and, in the latter year, "Robert Ward was appointed gaoler and keeper of the Queen's prison in the borough of Boston." The prison, or counter, in the Market-place, and four shops, are mentioned in 1600, and again in 1640, as having belonged to Alvingham priory, and to have rented, in 1564, fobr 61. 14s. 8d. No part of it was, therefore, used as a prison at that time. In 1573,'" the gaoler was appointed to order, dress, and make clean, all such arms, harness, and other artilerye of arms, belonging to the borough, as shall be delivered to him by direction of the Mayor, for which he was to be remitted 41. of rent, and to have a chaldron of lime for repairs of his house, and to receive 40s. yearly and a linsey gown, such as the serjeants-at-arms wore," in which he was to attend upon the Mayor at Lady day and May day, and the fairs, marts, and sessions. This gaol was "made strong" in 1584. This prison was not, however, a very secure place of confinement in 1603, since in that year the Corporation Records state that,"Stephen Murryell, who was in the gaol of the borough, in executionfor a great sum~ of Poney, was ordered to have irons pla~ced uport himfor his more safe keeping; and for the better security and indemnity of the Corporation, to have a man to watch and look to hinl, if the mayor and justices think fit." FF

Page  218 218 BUTCHERY, ETC. This order was made 15th December. On the 6th June following this person was removed to London, where, we hope, in a more secure prison, he endured confinement with less personal degradation and suffering. In 1635, the gaol and the prison therein, called Little Ease, were repaired. In 1665, a pair of stocks was ordered to be made for the place called " Little Ease" in the gaol, for the punishment of prisoners convicted whilst in prison, C" on the information of the gaoler, of swearing, cursing, debauchery, drunkenness, or other misdemeanours whatever." This was placing a very vague and illdefined power in the hands of the gaoler; but had the power been ever so well defined, it was one which he ought not to have possessed. In 1670, the gaoler brought in the following list of articles belonging to the gaol: —3 locks and keys for the windows and chimneys, 10 horse-locks, 4 pairs of cross fetters, 2 chains, one being long, 3 pairs of handcuffs, a pair of pothooks with two rivets and shackles, 5 pairs of iron fetters and shackles, and a " brand to burn persons in the hand." To this pleasant list of articles another " burning iron was added in 1703, and in 1722 a pair of thumb-screws." The burning irons and thumb-screws were omitted in the inventory of 1735; but " Little Ease, brands, and thumb-screws," appear again in 1739. These things are enumerated occasionally until 1765, after which they are not mentioned. In 1771, it was resolved, that in future no woman shall be appointed to either of the offices of Gaoler, or keeper of the House of Correction (this was a prison for minor offences), on any account whatever. In 1775, the gaol was ordered to be removed to the House of Correction-of which an account will be given in another place-and united therewith under one officer; and in 1776, the gaol was ordered to be taken down. The office of keeper of this gaol appears to have been held for a long time by one family, that of Thomlinson or Tomlin. Thomas Thomlinson, or Tombling, having been appointed in 1693, Richard Tomblinson in 1741, and Gamaliel Thomlinson keeper of the United Gaol and House of Correction in 1776, with a salary of 51. He was removed, on account of his age, in 1800, and his son Charles Tomlinson elected in his place, with a salary of 151.; he continued in office, however, only until 1801. THE BUTCHERY was situated near the north-west corner of the Market-place. We find the following notices connected with this building, and the trade of butchering in the town. Fleshe Rowe is mentioned in 1554. In 1562 (4 Eliz.), a committee was appointed "to search for all those who have offended in cutting or dressing any flesh contrary to the Queen's Majesty's proclamation in that behalf provided." Bochier's Row is mentioned in 1564. A house was licensed for the country butchers in 1608. In 1623, two rows of shambles were built. In 1624, the butchers' shambles were rented to W. Barnabie for 161. per annum. In 1625, an allowance of 41. 15s. was made in the rent of the shambles, on account of fastdays. The Butchery is described, in 1640, as containing twenty-two standings or stalls, with the chamber over them, in the Market-place, before the Gaol, abutting upon the Hemp Market, and the Skin Market, east; the way to church, west; and the Market-place towards the cross, south; the Market-place and the way to the Gaol, north; annual rent, 161. In 1660, the butchers asked for a charter for the regulation of their trade. In 1665, a lease for ten years was granted of the Butchery at 201. yearly rent, 701. fine, and a copy of tlhe Statutes at Large (the lessee was a bookseller). The shambles were rented for

Page  219 CORN-MARKET, PILLORY, ETC. 219 ten years in 1706, at 521. per annum. The Butchery was rebuilt in 1707. In 1711, the freemen butchers complained of an infringement of their rights by " foreign" (that is non-freemen), butchers; the complaint was referred to a committee. Profits of the Butchery this year, 791. 12s. 3d. In 1748, the Corporation passed a law to compel the butchers to sell their meat within the Butchery. In 1751, a " counsillor's opinion " was taken whether the butchers could be compelled to sell their meat within the Butchery. It appears that this opinion was favourable to the Corporation, since in the next year the seal was affixed to the bye-law relating to the Butchery, and notice thereof given to the butchers. From this time until the Butchery was taken down in 1790, a perpetual war of litigation appears to have been carried on between the butchers and the Corporation. The removal of the Butchery closed the question, and the butchers have, since that time, disposed of their meat either in their own shops, or on moveable stalls in the Market-place, at their pleasure. THE CORN-MARKET. In 1568, the executors of William Kydd-late an alderman of the boroughhad liberty to build a cross upon the common Corn Hill, on the east side of the Market-place; the said cross to be kept in repair by the Corporation. In 1640, the Mayor was requested to view a place on the west side of the water near the bridge for a Corn Market; this was intended for a flour (or meal) market, and is mentioned as existing in 1709, 1711, and 1735. This market on the west side of the water was replaced by shops in 1748. In 1783, the Corn Cross in the Market-place appears to have been appropriated to other purposes, since an order was made that it should not be used for horses,l or hanging out clothes, or any other nuisances. In 1790, the Corn Cross was taken down, the materials sold for 801., and the ground cleared. In 1611, a place near the Corn. Cross, in the Market-place, was appointed for the sale of hemp and hemp-seed. In 1.739, what is now called Petticoat Lane, at the north-east corner of the Market-place, was called Smock Alley, and a piece of waste ground near it is mentioned. The Skin Market was formerly held in this locality, and it is called Skin Hill in 1688; in 1731, it was ordered to be paved over. The Pillory and Pillory Pit are mentioned in 1564 and 1580 as being in this neighbourhood; in 1593, the hollow way from the Pillory Pit to the Corn Market was paved, and in 1593 the pit was scoured. In 1612, the Pillory Pit was walled round, with a mouth at the east end, made fit for horses to go into the same to be washed; a large dunghill near the pit was removed about this time, and the Pillory taken away to be erected afterwards where the Mayor directed. The pit is mentioned again in 1636,-1640, 1652, and 1655. In 1655, it is ordered that a pillory be provided and " set in the usual place as the law directs." In 1720, the Corporation ordered that the Pillory Pit should be filled up and paved, " it being a common nuisance." Part of the Pillory is mentioned as being among the Corporation property in the storehouse in 1783, and in many subsequent years. The chamberlain was ordered "to provide a pair of stocks" in 1766. A poultry market was ordered to be kept near the Corn Cross in 1746. The Corporation directed that a "ducking-stool for the punishment of 1 Horses probably meant the wooden frames on which clothes are hung to dry, called clothes-horses ia this district.

Page  220 220 NEW CORN EXCHANGE. scolds" should be provided and set in the usual place (the Pillory Pit), "C as the law directs," in 1665. Part of this ducking-stool is mentioned among the town stores until nearly the close of the last century. The hurry cart I was another part of the machinery of legal punishment formerly used here, and a portion of one is stated to have remained in the town stores so late as 1795. A public-house, called the Green Dragon, was lately removed, and its site is now occupied by the Athenaeum Rooms and the new Corn Exchange. The Green Dragon is supposed to have been the house mentioned as the "Green Hunde,"2 or Hound, 1590, as one of the five houses licensed to sell ale or beer, brewed out of the town. It is mentioned under the same name in 1674. It is a curious coincidence that the Corn Exchange of 1855 should be situated so near the site of the Corn Cross of 1568. The new Corn Exchange consists of a spacious hall, ninety-three feet long, forty-nine feet six inches wide, twenty-eight feet in height to the eaves, and forty-three to the crown of the roof. The building also contains a committeeroom, two waiting-rooms, convenient offices, &c.; the whole being generally admitted to be well adapted for its intended purposes. The roof of the hall is glazed with strong plate-glass with a rough surface. The ornamental groins, pediments, cornices, &c., of the western front, are of fine Ancaster stone, and the entrance by a flight of nine steps of superior Yorkshire stone. There is an open area of eighty feet by forty in front of the building. The hall is well warmed and ventilated. It is said to be well adapted for musical entertainments, giving full effect both to the voice and the instrumental orchestra. On these occasions it is brilliantly illuminated with gas. The BosTON ATHEN UM was established in 1851 by the amalgamation of the Public Library and the Mechanics' Institution: the former founded in 1830, the latter in 1837. The number of members of the Athenaeum was, at its commencement, 270; it is now nearly 500. The Library contains about 2000 volumes. The leading object of the institution is the diffusion of useful knowledge among the mass of the people by means of a reading-room, a library, lectures on popular subjects, and classes for the pursuit of distinct branches of knowledge. The want of suitable rooms and accommodations has hitherto materially impeded the successful operation of some of these branches, but there is every prospect that the arrangements now being carried out will fully develope the great practical utility of the institution, and ensure its permanent success. The Athenseum building is in front of the Corn Exchange, on a line with the eastern side of the Market-place, and occupies an area of sixty feet by thirty-six feet, with a height of fifty-three feet. Twenty-six feet of the ground-floor is occupied as a shop, and the remaining ten feet form an entrance or gateway, both to the Athenseum rooms and the Corn Exchange behind them. The first floor contains the reading-room, library, &c. The second floor, the lectureroom, apparatus, instruments, &c. The front of the first floor is ornamented with handsome Ionic columns; that of the second, with columns of the CorOffenders against the laws were formerly fre- 2 The Greyhound was formerly called the Green quently sentenced to be "whipped at the cart-tail:" hound, with allusion to the kind of ground over which the " hurry cart" was the vehicle used on such it generally ran, for the same reason that verdurers occasions. The culprit was taken round the town,! of forests were formerly called Green men.-DuT attached to this cart, and received a portion of his FRESNE, ad verbum, and Gentleman's Magazine, punishment at the door of every alderman. We September, 1790. have conversed with persons who had witnessed the ceremony.

Page  221 ATHENAUM. 221 inthian order, supporting a decorated cornice with modillions, dentils, &c. The whole is stone, and forms a very handsome elevation. ----— A-mI'\I II~I " il m _______ Ji/ I - E'if 11il iIl The Front of the Athenaeum. Proceeding along the eastern side of the Market-place, the next lane arrived at was, in 1640X called LEAKE Lane, from the circumstance of the ancient family of Leake of Leake having formerly had much property in it, and the large house in the Market-place, at the south-west corner of the lane, also once lelonged to this family, though in 1640 it belonged to the Whitings. This lane was called Hutter Lane in 1750. The house at the north-west corner was a public-house in 1756, and called the Joiners' Arms; it had formerly been called the Crooked Billet. There was a public-house on the east side of the Marketplace in 1640; its site is not known. The next lane on this side of the Market-place is Dolphin Lane, which is first mentioned in the Records nder theat title in 1721. We do not know its earlier designation. It, no doubt, was formerly one of the principal arteries of the town, for the use of foot passengers, opening, as it does, the most direct communication between the Market-place and the villages east of Boston. The public-house, now called the Indian Queen, was formerly known as the Three Kings of Cologne. At the east end of Dolphin Lane we come to an open space or square, called —

Page  222 222 PESCOD LANE, ETC. THE PUMPS, OR PUMP SQUARE. In nearly the centre of this square are two subterranean rooms, or vaults, of neat workmanship, with arched roofs; one room is considerably larger than the other, and leads to the smaller one by a descent of two or three steps; these rooms are now used as a reservoir of water, and a pump communicates with them, furnishing the inhabitants of the neighbourhood with a supply of good water, which has seldom been known to fail. It is not known what was the original use of these rooms, but as upon digging at about six feet below the surface of the ground, the stone floors of several rooms communicating with each other have been discovered;' it is evident that a building of considerable magnitude was once situated in this place. It is not unlikely that this was the ancient prison of the town, and that the subterranean rooms were cells, in which the most incorrigible criminals were confined. It has been stated that a spring of water is continually flowing through the floor of the lower room, and that the business of the persons confined was to raise the water to the surface by pumps, for the use of the inhabitants. From this circumstance the place seems to have derived its name. It is mentioned as " the Pumps " in 1600, when much of the property in the neighbourhood belonged to the HMLTOFT family. A large pit hereabout is mentioned in 1564, under the name of the'c Coye Pitt," and again in 1593, when it was ordered "to be repaired with a curb, as it was before. The inhabitants dwelling by the said pit, and taking benefit thereby, to be asked for their benevolence towards the said repairs, which, it is thought, indeed, they ought to make."2 Tile pumps and pits, of which at this period there was a considerable number in various parts of the town, were, in 1567, the subject of an order, which prohibited any person from washing any clothes at them, or within twenty-four feet of them, on forfeit of is. for every offence. In 1640, "John Tooley held a messuage, sometime Hilltofts, having a way leading to Main Ridge on the north, and a highway near Coypit west, and land of Mr. Tilson east, in tenure of Widow Pishey. In 1640 and 1680, the merchant staplers also held a house near the Coye Pit. There was a way leading from the Market-place to Staplers' Hall." This house was rented in 1674 by John Atkynn, gentleman.3 Pescod Lane opens on the north-west corner of Pump Square, and leads near to the remains of Pescod Hall, already mentioned. We have taken considerable pains to find some traces of the ancient family of Peascod or Pescod, but with very indifferent success. We have only once met with mention of the family, which was in 1333, when, according to the Subsidy Rolls, Richard Peascod resided at Leverton.l4 The BOSTON NATIONAL SCHOOLS, which were originally held in buildings on the Skirbeck Road, South End, were removed in 1850 to more commodious and better situated rooms, erected at the south-east angle of Pump Square. These buildings cost 19171. 6s., and are every way adapted to their intended purpose, as well as ornamental in their appearance. A detailed account of this valuable institution will he given in the Section relating to the Charities. Main Ridge MS. collections of the late W. CHAPMAN, Esq. ton in the Pirescotts of Driby near Alford; but the 2 Corporation Records. arms respectively borne by the families,, are too 3 Ibid. An old document dated 1600 says, this decidedly different to warrant any such conclusion. property formerly belonged to Swineshead Abbey, The only Pescods we find are those of Newton when it was called Tomlynson's place. Valence, in Hampshire, but their pedigree does not 4 In HATTON'S "Nezo Viezo of London," 1700; ascend beyond 1530, leaving a chasm of two centuries and, in an old map of London, circae 1720, the between them and the latest Pescods in this neighstreet, now called Great Prescott Street in Good- bourhood. The name of Peasgood occurs in some man's Fields, London, is called PiESCOD Street. parts of Lincolnshire. This may be a corruption STOW also says, " Pescod or Prescott Street." of Pescod. "JOHN PRESCODI, gen." was one TWe thought it possible that as Pescod had slid of the committee formed at Louth, in June 1643, into Prescott inthe name of a street, it might have on behalf of the King and Parliament against the done the same in that of a family, and that we might King's alrmy. The committee consisted of gentlepossibly find the descendants of the Pescods of Bos- men of the parts of Lindsey.

Page  223 OLD MARKET CROSS. 223 commences at the north-east corner of Pump Square, and continues to Maud Foster Drain, which it crosses by an iron bridge for foot-passengers to Fishtoft, Freiston, &c. Returning to the Market-place, and proceeding up the east side, we come to a narrow alley which leads to Crown Court, wherein formnerly stood an ancient inn called the Crown, which is mentioned in the Compotus of the Guild of St. Mary, A.D. 1516. It was occupied by Edward Lampage in 1522, and by - Dochfield in 1524. The Crown was licensed to sell country beer in 1586 and 1590. It is called an inn in 1621 and 1640. "'A dinner at the Crowne " is mentioned in 1654. "s Crown Green, at the end of Maine Ridge,'" occurs in 1586. The structure here represented formerly stood in the Market-place, near the site of the present ornamental and very useful lamp.l It was used as a market cross, and is described by Dr. STUIKELEY: it was taken down in 1730. I IThis cross is mentioned in 1639, 1645, and 1654, but there is no account of its erection. The Corporation appropriated 6301. for taking down the old transac ting public bousiness, and holding public meetings of various descriptions. It was completedin172 The tarket and clock, with the wind dial, were addedss. in 174. This cossbuilding is represementionnted in 1639, 1645, apagd 16, but there it was taken down in This was presented to the town by HENRY ROGERS, Esq. formerly Town-clerk, in 1842; it was enlarged with four additional lights by the Lighting Commissioners in 1848.

Page  224 224 BUTTER CROSS, ETC. 1822, and the extensive area of the Market-place thrown open, adding much to its beauty and convenience. The Butter Cross. We will now cross to the western side of the Market-place, and, commencing our survey near the church, we arrive at the site of the old building repreThe Old Three Tuns.

Page  225 COUNCIL CHAMBER; JOHN FOX'S HOUSE. 225 sented in the engraving in the preceding page; it stood at the south-east corner of Church Lane. In this house OLIVER CROMWELL slept the night before the battle of Wincebyat least so says tradition: we do not know whether it was a public-house at that time, but it was one in 1799, and had been so for many years, and known as the Three Tuns. It was taken down with a number of inferior houses adjoining, and the present more commodious and appropriate ones erected about 1820. In 1610, the Corporation determined to erect a new place of meeting for the Mayor and Justices in the Market-place; this was sometimes called the Council Chamber, and sometimes the House of Assembly; it was erected in 1611, at a cost of 401., and was used for the same purposes as the Cross Chamber afterwards was. When this latter was built, the Council Chamber, having fulfilled its public functions, was, in 1748, converted into three butchers' shops; but in 1763 it was ordered that they should not be any longer occupied by butchers; and the whole were sold, in 1772, for 1401., to be rebuilt according to a plan, with a front to the Market-place. The Council House or Chamber had a public-house called the Peacock, west; the Market-place, east; a highway called the Peacock Lane, south; and lands of William Cooper, north. It evidently stood on the site of the houses now occupied by Mr. Beverley and the Angel Inn. The old Peacock was immediately behind the Council House, facing west the lane, afterwards the Angel Lane, but then called the Peacock Lane. The Council House had an inner room which, probably, was part of the Peacock. This portion of the Market-place was at this period so different to what it is now, that we scarcely know how to make ourselves understood when attempting to describe it. The house now fronting the Market-place, and called the Bell, was then a private house, in a narrow lane, at what was then the northwest angle of Peacock Lane and the Butcher Row, and afterwards the same Vii'~~==. I: John_ Fox's~ House~iVl_-._ _L-__._ john Fox's House.

Page  226 226 THE MIARKET-PLACE (WEST SIDE). angle of Angel Lane and Church Street. This is a house of great antiquity, since in it, in the year 1515, was born the celebrated JOHN Fox, the iJcartyro-. logist, an account of whose life we shall give in another place. This house, as it appeared in 1799, is represented in the preceding page. The annexed view of this part of the Market-place will give a correct idea of its appearance prior to 1710. Next the river, but not close upon it, extending southwardly from near the foot of the old bridge, was a row of mean houses called Mercer's Row in 1564, and Barber's Row in 1590; these were taken down before 1772; opposite to Barber's Row stood a line of houses fronting the Marklet-place, called (we think) Cooper's Row, at the south end of which, and extending beyond the present Peacock Inn, the Fish Market of the day, then called the Fish Stones,' was placed; and between Barber's Row and Cooper's Row was a narrow street called Bridge Street. The only mode at that time of getting to the bridge from the eastward was by entering this Bridge Street, nearly at the entrance of South Street, and passing along it to the bridge foot. A street, called Coney Street, is mentioned in 1534, 1562, and again in 1640, as being " near to a lane leading to the old bridge:" we do not know the position of this street. It appears from the Corporation Records that the Market-place __________ _ _ _ Market Place, Fish-Stones, &c. These Fish-stones, or stalls, are mentioned in In 1711, these new stalls were rented for 51. to 1636, 1671, and 1676. In 1709, they are said to Benjamin Parkins, "he taking ld. toll for a small have been "hitherto regarded asprivateproperty;"' lot of fish, and ld. for others, and keeping the but by a report to the Corporation made at that shambles clean." This very indefinite mode of time, they were considered "as part of the profit of levying the toll made the lessees' bargain an unthe market, and the property of the Corporation, as productive one, and his rent was lowered first to 31., owners of the market." In 1710, the chamberlain then to 11. los., and finally to 20s. In 1726, a new was directed to take down these fish-stalls, and to cover was placed over the fish shambles, and in 1772, provide accommodations for the sale of fish near the they and the adjoining houses wvere removed. sanme place, receiving a reasonable toll for the same.

Page  227 ASSEMBLY-ROOMIS, ETC. 227 was very inadequately paved towards the close of the sixteenth century; since, in 1580, it was directed that the causeway on the east side of the cross in the Market-place, should be made withl coggles, and also the high causeway against the Pillory. In 1769, the attention of the Corporation was turned to the improvement of this part of the Market-place; and between this date and 1772, the old Fish Stalls, and Barber's, and Cooper's Rows, were removed, and the approach to the old bridge made clear and direct. All the buildings represented in the preceding engraving, excepting the two at the right hand, were cleared away, and the excellent row of houses, the centre of which is the present Police Office, erected. The remainder of the houses between the bridge foot and Angel Lane were taken down in 1812; and this improvement swept away every portion of the annexed view, excepting the house at the extreme right, and that has long since been replaced by the present Angel Inn. In the wall of one of these last-mentioned houses, was a stone with an antique head upon it, and the inscription " Antiquarian Coffee-house." This place was formerly occupied by a person of whom Mr. Johnson of Spalding, when, writing to Mr. Gale, under date the 3d April, 1741, respecting a copper coin of Otho, says, "it belongs to poor Charles Little of Boston, an illiterate coffee-house keeper, who has begged and bought up as strange a farrago of a collection as ever was beheld."l The New Assembly-rooms and Market-house were opened on the 1st of April, 1822. Their exterior appearance is handsome, and their interior arrangement The New Assembly Rooms. is well adapted to the uses for which they are intended. The only subject which remains to be noticed on this side of the Market-place is, we think, the Gully-mouth, which is the name given to the entrance into the river, of what' ReliqoiMe Galeaneo Dun ~~~~~~~_ — _:_~-~-=L ~ -=- ~ ----------- ~~~:~~~~~_ —---- -__~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~_ __ ~ ~ ~ F; _..:~-L _~ --------------- ---- - - -— ~-~-~- i- - - Wm- -

Page  228 228 THE GULLY-MOUTH. was once a natural gully, or creek running into it. It is now converted into a sewer and drain, and arched over to the river, the tide-water of which is kept out by a pair of doors, although open to that tide until the middle of the sixteenth century, to which period it is probable that the boats of the fishermen landed their cargoes near to the ancient Fish-stones. This Gully-mouth now enters the river a little south of the bridge, although several houses and shops stood between the Gully-mouth and the old bridge. The house represented below was standing near the Gully-mouth in 1750, when it was rented to John Ashley, stone-cutter, and was directed to be taken down and rebuilt, and the tenant had leave " to build chambers over the Gully-mouth, to be joined to the messuage lately rented to him;" and also to contract the present passage into the Gully-mouth, "so as to leave it 8 feet in breadth, and the gates the same height that they now are."l C- L Old House, Gully-mouth (taken down in 1750). The following notices of the Gully-mouth are down to the haven south, the highway leading to from the Corporation Records. The first mention is the bridge north, the highway east, and the haven in 1562, when the " Gresyng " there is alluded to. west." Edward Britton then held the stone-house " A gresyng" was a flight of steps. Hence an old (the one represented), by fee-farm rent of the manor poem says,- of Hallgarth, and Britton Jeary, or Jer ry, in 1680. " For truly one to suppose himselfe wyse, The Records also state that there was in 1640 a Is unto folysshenes the very fyrste gryce," staythe running from Parker's staythe (now called the Packhouse, or Packhorse, quay), to the Gullythat is, the first step. In 1607, a shop near the mouth; and in 1680, Jerry's house near the GullyGully-mouth is alluded to, and again in 1625, when mouth, is mentioned in connexion with Parker's it is called Dandy's shop. In 1645, the house near quay; this shows that there was then an open the Gully-mouth (probably the one represented staythe, or quay, from the Gully-mouth to the above) was rented for 40s. the year, and a pound of Packhouse quay, The houses and shops near sugar, and a fine of 61. 13s. 4d. In 1647, a lease Gully-mouth are mentioned again in 1720, 1742, was granted of all the shops and houses between the and 1750. In 1772, the Corporation covered the Gully-mouth and the bridge. In 1660, these houses Gully-mouth with the new buildings, and the erecwere ordered to be rebuilt. In 1640, seven shops tion of the Iron bridge in 1807 brought it in close and other houses stood "between the Gully going proximity with that elegant structure.

Page  229 EAST SIDE OF THE MARKET-PLACE. 229 We will now cross to the east side of the Market-place, which we left at Crown Court. The next opening was, until late years, called Cockburn Lane, but is now named Cornhill Lane; it opens by a covered passage into Dolphin Lane, near the eastern extremities of both.l South of Cockburn Lane is what is now called Still Lane, we do not know its ancient name; in Hall's MIap of Boston, published in 1741, it is called Still Lane. The next lane coming south is now called Grant's Lane. In 1564, it was called Gaunt's Lane, and also in 1584, 1660, and 1674. Richard Jeffereys resided in this lane when he was elected Mayor in 1584, and "C had liberty to build a permanent porch to his house, in consideration of his strait rooms." In 1640, the families of Tilson, Whiting, Leake of Leake, and the heirs of William Coney, and Andrew Baron, held property in this lane. Craythorne Lane took its name from the family of Craythorne, who resided at the south-west corner of it, near the Market-place, for many generations. Of this family, Nicholas Crathorne was connected with St. Mary's Guild in 1522; Alexander Craythorne was a member of the same Guild in 1534; and Robert Craythorne is mentioned in the Subsidy Roll of 1547: he was buried 17th February, 1564. The arms borne by this family were argent, on a saltire gules, five crosses flory, or. The Craythorne property was held of Hallgarth Manor. In 1640, it belonged to John Oresby of Hadley. The property adjoining this immediately north of Sibsey Lane, belonged to the Tilson family in 1640. Opposite Craythorne Lane, on the west side of the Market-place, the BOSTON SAYINGS' BANK is kept. This well-managed institution has been in operation since 1817. The number of depositors, on the 20th November, 1854, was 2937; and the amount of their deposits, 69,0261. 4s. 10d. The POST OFFICE adjoins the Savings Bank. The next lane is Sibsey Lane, so called from the ancient family of SIoSEY, which is first mentioned in connexion with Boston in 1338, when Richard de Cybecy was assessed to a subsidy. John Sypey was chamberlain of the Corpus Christi Guild in 1458. His name previously occurs in a writ, Inquis. ad quod damnunm, in 1448. George Sibsay was chamberlain of the Guild of Corpus Christi in 1461; and William Sibsay, merchant, was a member in 1465, and alderman of the Guild in 1492; George Sibsey, of Boston, gen-m tleman, was a member of this Guild in 1533. Amya Sibsey is mentioned in a Subsidy Roll, dated 1547. Many of this family resided in Boston during the seventeenth century. The arms of the Sibsey family are argent, on a bend azure five crosses formee, or. Crest, a griffin's head erased, gules. A survey of the town in 1640 says, " A messnage, a garden, and a great orchard under it, once SIBSEY'S; this was on the north side of Sibsey Lane, and was surrounded by Edward Tilson's orchard and gardens (late Hilltofts), and the Staplers' orchards and gardens on the north; and the orchard of Mr. Thorold (late Gannock's) on the east; and the Staplers' and Mr. Tilson's warehouse on the west." This description of the Sibseys' residence is more full than perspicuous, but the account of the dwellings of the ancient merchants of Boston, from Pump Square to Spain Lane, leads to the inference, that about the middle of the seventeenth century the entire space was a succession of highly respectable mansions, surrounded by gardens and orchards. " Sibsey Place" is mentioned in 1564, as paying rent of assise to Hallgarth Manor. An old building on the south side of this lane, and which was supposed to 1 This lane is not mentioned in the Corporation is mentioned in 1597; but it was on the west side Records. The Priory of Kirkstead held tenements of the river, near the bridge. The name "Cocks and a garth in Cockber's Lane; a place called Cocklers I burn Lane" has been very lately restored.

Page  230 230 OLD HOUSE OF CORRECTION. have been part of the Dominican Friary, but which, we think, was an ancient warehouse, was fitted up in 1595, at the expense of the Corporation, as a Jersey School for "twenty poor boys and twenty poor maidens to be taught spinning of Jersey work, the said poor people to be kept by the Corporation." This Jersey School is mentioned again in 1618. In 1619, the following entry occurs in the Records: " The Jersey School and House of Correction, said to be much neglected by the default of the principal man employed there; by which means the poor, who are fit to be employed, wander abroad, and idle and unruly people do grow more insolent and dissolute. It is, therefore, thought fit and agreed upon, that the same should be forthwith set on foot again." It was then determined that the House of Correction should be supported at the charge of the wapentakes of Skirbeck and Kirton and the Corporation of Boston. In the same year, " the Jersey man" (master of the Jersey School) "to deliver unto the overseers of the towns that will resort to him, wool and yarn to set the poor at work, and to give them such wages as he doth to the poor of Boston. The said overseers securing the Jersey man of the wool and yarn delivered to them from time to time." In 1620, a master was provided to instruct the poor children in knitting and spinning. Thomas Gaynor is mentioned as keeper of the Jersey School in 1620, and John Brown in 1654. In this year a considerable expense was incurred in the purchase of additional wool-wheels, &c. This institution appears to have been at first designed to teach children to spin "jersey or worsted," and soon afterwards to have been a place of confinement, where petty offenders were kept to hard labour. In 1668, in an enumeration of the articles belonging to the " House of Cor-~ rection," are mentioned 4"four hemping-wheels, two long blocks (to beat hemp upon), a pair of stocks, a whipping-post, a clog and two locks." The'" Gaol was removed to the House of Correction in 1776;" but this building was soon afterwards regarded as inadequate to discharge both functions; since, in February 1779, the Mayor reported that the Gaol was not sufficient for the safety of the prisoners, and " Mr Preston was requested to state what he would take for his estate in Meeting-House (Spain) Lane." This estate consisted of a portion of the old warehouses, and " a yard adjoining the Guild Hall, between fifty and sixty feet square." The building had been used as a meeting-house for the Baptists; it is said, " and the walls of the old Meeting-house were between two and three feet thick, and sound." The Mayor recommended the purchase, but the Hall thought the price asked (15001.) too much. The surveyor, however, reported a plan for converting the property into a gaol, and the expenses which would attend the alteration, but nothing further was done. In 1784, 21. 6s. 5d. was paid to Mr. Matthew Ives for femble for the use of the Jersey School.1 The building in Sibsey Lane continued to be occupied as a gaol until 1818, when the gaol in St. John's Row (taken down in 1853) was erected. The old prison in Sibsey Lane received very considerable repairs in 1712, at which time it is very probable that the northern wall was built; the interior, at least the ground-floor, appeared to remain in nearly its original state. On returning into South Street, we pass the ancient house represented in the next page. We have not even any tradition respecting the former occupants or proprietors of this very ancient building; and, turning down Shocd Friars' Lane, arrive at the 1 Femble is female, or seed bearing hemp (hemp, Cannabis satira, being a dioecious plant), having a stronger fibre than the Calrl, or male hemp. Fimnrel (GERMAN), female hemp.

Page  231 SOUTH STREET. 231 PUBLIC SCHOOL, which was established in 1815, upon the plan of the British and Foreign School Society, for the gratuitous education of poor children of every religious denomination. This valuable institution will be noticed at length under the head of Charities. i n tI IL Ili ii IIIi i!!ii'l~ 1,[! Old House, South Street. The residence of the Tooley family was formerly in this neighbourhood. YOREiu says, the arms borne by this family were argent, a chevron engrailed sable; three escallops, or.l The family of Tooley was numerous in Wyberton towards the close of the sixteenth century, and in Frampton and Wrangle about the middle of the seventeenth. The family is first mentioned in Boston in 1640. Thomas Tooley is mentioned in the Subsidy Roll for Skirbeck, in 1642; and Samuel Tooley was rector of Wyberton 1683. The Tooleys of Boston intermarried with the families of Whiting, Martindale, Truesdale, and Bestoe. A portion of the exterior of the Dominican Friary yet remains, and may be seen from the yard of the London Tavern. A little beyond Shod-Friars' Lane, towards South End, are the remains of what is supposed to have been the gatehouse of the Friary. The front of this building was taken down and modernised in 1820; but the interior yet contains many interesting architectural portions of the old building, in arches, and columns, and parts of the old walls: these are probably the only remains of the ancient monastic establishments of the town. 1 This does not agree with a shield of arms in the escutcheon are, a bend-encotised, charged wvith east side of the London Tavern, at the head of the three escallops, three escallops in chief, and three lane, which has been supposed to represent the in base. Another shield bears the letters and date, Tooley arms, and to indicate that their mansion T E T 1662. formerly stood near this ground. The arms on this

Page  232 232 SPAIN FAMILY. Immediately adjoining is the CUSToM-HousE for the port. The building used as a Custom-house in 1590 stood at the south-west corner of the Mart-yard, probably on the site of the house of the schoolmaster of the Grammar-school. It remained in this locality in 1640, but was removed from thence before 1662, when " all the chambers near the Mart-yard, formerly used as a Custonm-house," are mentioned. A building on the site of the present Custom-house was purchased about this time by Colonel Thomas Thorpe for the King, of William Foxley, a merchant of Boston. This building was in a ruinous state in 1725, when it was taken down and rebuilt at an expense of about 3651. The present building is plain and substantial, and well adapted, we believe, to its purposes. It was broken into on the night of the 14th December, 1764, and about 1001. in money taker away; and narrowly escaped destruction by a fire which occurred in the neighbourhood in 1844. Opposite to the Custom-house is the Packhouse, or Packhorse Quay, the principal place for the delivery of goods from vessels in the river.1 This quay received very extensive repairs and alterations in 1814 and 1815, when the wall fronting the river was built, the surface considerably raised, &c. The large warehouse on the quay, in the northern end of which are the pilots' and wharfingers' offices, was erected in 1817. Opposite the southern extremity of the quay is Spain Lane,2 which is supposed to have derived its name from the family of De Spayne. This family was very early connected with the trading Guilds in Boston. In 1314, the name of Hugo de Spayne, of Boston, occurs in a writ of Intquis. ad quzod damnznm. Thomas de Spayne is named in the Subsidy Roll of 1333. William de Spayne was a member of Corpus Christi Guild in 1335, and Robert in 1346. DUGDALE mentions Robert de Spaigne as a " commissioner for the south side of the Witham to a place called the S1tqtf" in 1354 (28 Edward III.). William is mentioned in 1360; and was alderman of the Guild in 1376, and sheriff of the county in 1378. Sir William de Spayne is named in 1385 and 1411. A William is also mentioned in an tnquis. ad quod damnum in 1448. Another William is called a canon of the order of St. Gilbert in 1456; and William Spayne, knight, occurs in 1468. We do not find the name again until 1711 to 1720, when a family called Spain, of which Monmouth Spain was the head, resided in Skirbeck. In 1720, he is called "a servant to Mr. Love." The residence of the Spayne family appears to have passed into the possession of the Earls of Richmond, since, in 1500, Spayne's Place, in Boston, is mentioned as the property of the Countess of Richmond, mother to Henry VII. The arms borne by this family were, This quay is called, in the Corporation Records, the bridge, is mentioned. In 1667, " One ChrisParker's Stayth in 1579, 1601, and 1607. In 1610, tiana, a Dutchman, and engineer, living near Wisit is called Packer's Stayth; in 1628 and 1637, beach, is desired to come to this borough, to be Parker's Stayth; in 1657 and 1666, Packharth's advised with concerning the reparation of the staiths Key, when it was repaired at an expense of 1681. or banks adjoining the Butcher's Row." 10s. 1id. In 1704, it is called Packhearth's Key. 2 We find the following notices of Spain Lane in In 1707, Packhouse Key; in 1717, Packhorse Key the Corporation Records:-In 1564, the Corporation in 1725, Packer's Key; and since then Packhouse held four cellars, a yard, and a store-house, in Spain Key. We find the following notices of other staythes Lane, called Castell Lands, having been purchased or quays, at localities where nothing of the kind of Leonard Castell. In 1590, the great cellars in now remains. Spain Lane were pulled down towards building 1578, the new staythe to the Gully-mouth, shops in the Hall-Garth (the Mart Yard). In before the Angel door, to be repaired. 1584 and 1609, the cellars in Spain Lane were to be rented 1612, the staythe at the back of the Nine Rents only to Freemen. In 1640, an oil-rmill stood at the mentioned. In 1590, a survey was directed to be east end of Spain Lane. In this year, also, the Cormade of all " bankes, sellers, stacythes, and houses, poration held two cellars in Spain Lane, formerly that are in ruin." In 1631, the repairs of the belonging to Kirkstead Abbey. We have before stayth near Rodman's Place, cost 851. 3s. 5d. In stated that this lane was called Meeting-house Lane 1633, there was a long staythe, or rather a succes- in 1779. Spain Lane is mentioned in the Records sion of staythes, at the south side of the west end of St. Mary's Guild as early as 1522. of the bridge. In 1641, the Dyers Staythe, near

Page  233 SPAIN LA:NE. 233 argent, a fesse dancett' between three Talbots' heads erased, sable. Although much of Spain Lane is at present composed of buildings of great antiquity (see the following engraving), yet there is nothing which resembles the remains of a dwelling-house of any importance. These buildings, as well as those which!- N'=:lilili; i. Old Buildings, Spain Lane. lately stood at the upper end of the northern side, were doubtless the warehouses of the Guild merchants. On the southern side of Spain Lane is an opening called Spain Court; and in the wall of one of the houses therein is inserted the monumental stone which is mentioned at page 112, as having been dug up on the site of the Franciscan Friary. Nearly opposite to Spain Court is the Unitarian Chapel, represented in the next page. This chapelwas erected, in 1819, at a cost, including the site and burial-ground, of 16551. Its dimensions are 42 feet by 32 feet within, and will accommodate a congregation of about 500 persons. It was built by private subscription, and opened 21st June, 1820, with services conducted by the Rev. Thomas M/adge, then of Norwich. The following is a list of the officiating ministers since the establishment of Unitarian worship in Boston: Rev. John Platts officiated in the chapel in Chapel Row from its opening in 1804 until 1817, when he removed to Doncaster. There was then no regularly Ex

Page  234 234 UNITARIAN CHAPEL. appointed minister until 1818, when the Rev. D. W. Jones entered upon that The Unitarian Chapel. ofice. He removed with the congregation in 1820, and continued their minister until 1826. Since then, 1826, Rev. George Lee, 1830, Rev. Griffiths Roberts, 1837, Rev. John Jenkyns, 1839, Rev. James Malcolm, 1851, Rev. Abraham Lunn, 1854, Rev. Peter William Clayden. On returning again to South Street,l and passing along its eastern side, we come to the ancient Hall of the Guild of the Blessed Mary, the western front of which is represented in the engraving in the following page. We have given the ancient history of this building so far as it can be ascertained in our account of the Guild of St. Mary. It, with the other possessions of that Guild, became the property of the Corporation, in trust for certain purposes, by the grant of Philip and Mary. This Hall was used by the Corporation as their place of assembly for public business from the date of the royal grant until the passage of the Municipal Reform Bill in 1835. The Quarter Sessions for the borough were also held in it; and also those for the hundreds of Kirton andcl Skirbeck since 1660, when, at a common-hall, "it was resolved that the justices of peace for the parts of Holland in the county of Lincoln, should have free license and liberty, whensoever they should please, to hold the general quarter-sessions of the peace for the wapentakes of Kirton and Skirbeck at the Guildhall; and that the selrjeant-at-mace within the borough should forbear to arrest any person resorting to the said sessions for any business there to be done, Near this locality, certainly between it and ago to designate private houses by what we should South End, the Corporation Records mention the now call a sign-the Angel, 1578; the Draon's following houses —we kInonr not whether they were Head, 1564; the Great Head, 1568; and the Globe, all public-houses, as it was the custom two centuries 1674.

Page  235 GUILDHALL. 235 during the time of his necessary abode, and being within the said borough, for the causes and ends aforesaid." The dinners and balls given by the members of Parliament for the borough, and the civic entertainments of the Corporation, used also to be held here.1 It —'r ~# -- _____ 17 KIn1;&e\ 1/ i ( The Guildhall. In 1552, it was ordered that the kitchens under In 1720, Convenient stairs made to the chambers, the Town Hall and the chambers over them should be and the Low Room paved with Holland pavings." prepared for a prison, and a dwelling-house for one In 1722, " Sash-windows to be put in the Hall." of the seijeants. In 1583, the inner chamber of In 1723, the Town Hall to be made fit for comthe Town Hall was repaired and made strong for a pletely cooking the May-day dinner; linen tableCouncil House. In 1665, the use of the Town cloths provided for that occasion, and for the enterHall allowed to Samuel Rhodes (the Mayor elect), tainments at the Mayor's own house. In 1724, it for the entertainment of the company (the Cor- was ordered that the spits in the chimney of the poration), and such others as he shall please to Town Hall should be lengthened, and made to be invite to his table, on Monday next. In 1667, both turned on the outside of the wall. In 1738 and the outer and the inner rooms to be used for the 1739, there was a great dispute in the hall about next May-day dinner. In 1717, a new chimney the payment for two smoke-jacks which the Mayor made and other work done, to make the Town Hall had ordlered. convenient for the entertainment of the Corporation.

Page  236 236 SOUTH SQUARE. was also used to hold public meetings in, and charitable and other assemblies, &c. It is now, under the direction of the Charity Trustees, used for meetings of the Town Council, for public meetings of the inhabitants, for lectures, &c. The great west window of the hall is filled with tracery of the early perpendicular period, and many remnants of ancient stained glass. The centre of the lower division of this window has, no doubt, contained a statue of the patron saint; a handsome canopy and pediment yet remain. The paneled parapet on the south side of' the gable is also in nearly a perfect state; that on the north side entirely destroyed. Massy pinnacles formerly decorated the sides as well as the centre of the gable; these are now too much dilapidated to furnish any idea of their original construction. The side pinnacles rested upon heavy gurgoyle corbels. The whole of this front exhibits marks of its original elaborate decoration. The interior of the building is so completely modernised, that nothing of the original but the construction of the roof is visible, and this does not present anything peculiar. Immediately south of the Guildhall is Beadsman's Lane; on the south of which were the Beadsmen's houses and gardens. There is nothing upon record respecting the houses; the garden formed part of the grant of Philip and Mary to the Corporation.' Between the east end of Beadsman's Lane and Spain Lane there was formerly a mansion house of the Westland family, which was afterwards owned and occupied by Dr. Peter Baron and his son Andrew. In 1680, it was held by Andrew' Slee. Its site cannot now be traced. South Street leads into South Square, a very pleasant, open, and airy part of the town, although the increasing corn-trade of the place has, within the last half century, a good deal changed the character of the locality, by causing the sites of many of the private residences to be occupied with granaries. The building represented below formerly stood at the north-western corner of the square.,3 Gysors' Hall See the succeeding Section on the Charities, &c. piece of ground in the Town Hall Lane, South End, In 1550, it was agreed that the Beadsmen's garth. or was rented by William Jugg, and sold to Mr. Israel garden, should be let out to farm. In 1660 and 1689, Jackson (lecturer), for 201. and 12d. per annum, a garden near the Town HLall is mentioned as having rent, doing suit of court to the courts baron, been leased with the Peacock Inn. In 1706, a holden for the three manors. —Corporation Records.

Page  237 GYSORS' HALL. 237 This building was, no doubt, the remains of the house which John de Gysor held of the honour of Richmond in 1282, for which he paid a yearly tribute of one pair of hose and one pair of gilt spurs.' Simon Gysors held the same in 1298, of Robert de Tateshall, the then representative of the Richmond family. William Gysors, his son, was living in 1309. The following ancient proceedings, relative to this place, are so very curious, and throw- so much light upon the history of Boston, that we venture to state them at considerable length. In 1372, John of Gaunt, King of Castile and Leon, and Duke of Lancaster, upon whom his father, Edward III., had conferred the Richmond estates, petitioned that he might cause the tronage and pesage (Custom duties so called), which had formerly been levied at the mansion of the Manor of Boston,2 to be removed unto another place, belonging to the said King of Castile, called Gisors' Hall; a Jury de Inquirendo decided that such removal would not be to the injury of any one, and the petition was therefore granted. In 1427, upon the death of Thomas Duke of Exeter, who held, under the Duke of Bedford, holder of the honour of Richmond of the King in capite, the King's Escheator was directed to inquire what property the said deceased Duke of Exeter so held. He was found, among other property, to hold a messuage, called " Gisours' Hall," in Boston, with the customs and franchises thereto belonging; and a certain office, called the " Office of Tronage and Pesage" in the said town of Boston, and the profits thereof.3 In 1546, an inquisition was made of the lands lately held by Margaret Countess of Richmond (grandmother to the King); and the amount of the profits " in rents and farms and profits of courts, and other casualties of the manor of Boston (Hallgarth), was found to be 441. 4s. 3d., and those of Jeser Hall l. 2s. 11 d." These the King had vested in the Mayor and burgesses of Boston, by letters patent, dated 28th May, 1545; holding the same of the King in fealty, only in free burgage, and not in capite, and paying yearly to the King 211. 12s. at the feast of St. Michael.4 In 1564 and 1587, this building is 1 John Gysors was Mayor of London in 1245. A small house occupied by ~ s. d. Simon Gissors is mentioned in 1275. In 1311 Sir the lord for placing and John Gysors was Mayor of London, and Constable keeping the measures. of the Tower in 1326; and in 1329 William Gisors Issues of the Beam (the was Sheriff of London. Many others of this family Steelyards) 0 1 8 are mentioned by STOW, the last of whom was John,, oftronageof236sacks Gisors, in 1386. The family of Gisors held Gisors' and 2 of wool weighed in Hall (since corrupted into Gerrard's Hall), Bread the manor of Hallgarth, Street, London.-STow's London. The Gysor at 21d. per sack, half to family was, no doubt, connected with the ancient Hallgarth manor, and merchant Guilds of Boston, and probably came half to Jesar's Hall acoriginally from Gisors, a town fourteenleagues from count................ 1 4 741 Neufchatel in Normandy, a place of considerable Receipts......~6 6 34 importance during the siege of Rouen, circa 1591.- Disbursements, — CAMDEN Miscellany, vol. i. p. 79. RentresolutetoLordCrom2 The Manor of Hallgarth. well. 13 4 3 Escheat Rolls. Decay of rent.... 1 16 8 4 Minister's account of the possessions of the late (The Crane Chamber in Countess of Richmond at Boston, 37 Henry VIII. hands of the lord.) The following account is given from an old docu- Thomas Benolke's salaryv ment in the Archives of the Corporation, of the asbailiff, Clarencieux,&c. 1 10 0 duties received at Jesar's Hall in 1534. The clerk for making this The bailiff of the honour of Richmond stated the account.... 0 1 0 following as the receipts and disbursements on Payment to JamesMorrice, account of Jesar's Hall, for 1534:- receiver for the lord.... 2 5 34 ~ s. d. ~ s. d. — ~6 6 34 Rent of 2 cellars............ 10 0 Pesage of petty wares generally received at Of 3 chambers.......... 0 10 0 Jesar's Hall, as of the price of butter, cheese, wool, For the farm of one tene- and hemp,-weight for every barrel ld., and for all ment on the west side of wares weighed, each sack lrd. of old custom, as is the water, called Dare's contained in preceding accounts; nothing was reHouse.............. 2 0 0 ceived in 1534, because the said place called Jesar For acellarrentedto Hum- Hall was unrepaired during that year, but lately phrey Claymond... 1 0 0 was 20s. yearly.-Accounts of Margaret, Countess of - 5 0 0 Richmond, 1534.

Page  238 238 DUCHEFIELDE FAMILY. called Jezar's Hall; in 1589, "John Jessard's Hall;" in 1602, in a deed from William Gannocke to the Mayor and burgesses, it is called the Staple-Houtse Cellar, and was then occupied by William Gannocke. In 1640, it is called a Storehouse for the Corporation. In 1650, Jesar's Hall. In 1670, and 1686, and 1707, the same. It was repaired in 1672, 1714, 1767, 1786, and 1788, and sold, in 1791, to Mr. Fydell for 4001., and an annual rent of one shilling. Jesar's Hall was taken down in 1810, and its site covered with a granary, part of the stones of the old building being used in the erection of the new one. Proceeding along the east side of South Square, we find immediately south of the house occupied by Mr. Yeatman (in HALL'S map of Boston, published in 1741), a lane called Berry Lane; and in Duckfield Lane we find a short passage to the left, conducting to the continuation of Berry Lane, which formerly opened at its west end into South Square, between Mr. Yeatman's house and office. Duckfield Lane was called Dutchfield Lane in 1600, and Duchefielde Lane in 1564; from the family of Duchefielde, formerly residing there. Bernard Duchefield was bailiff and collector of St. Mary's Guild in 1516, and Reginald Duchefielde is mentioned in 1534. Tilney Lane is stated to be in South End in 1534, and 1564. White Cross Lane is mentioned in 1564, and, in 1657, a messuage and garden near the White Cross are alluded to. In this year it was ordered, that " the Joiners, Coopers, Basket-makers, and all who sell wooden ware at fairs and marts, do henceforth carry such ware to the White Cross, in South End, to make sale thereof; being the place anciently appointed for that purpose." The lane leading to the Grammar School was formerly called the Grey Friars' Lane, and led directly to the Grey Friars' House. This establishment stood nearly north of the present Grammar School, a little more east. The Earl of Lincoln had formerly a house with a long garden in South End, which were held by Samuel Gannocke in 1640. In 1590, the Earl of Lincoln occupied a large cellar in Spain Lane, which was then ordered to be taken down, but cellarage was to be provided convenient for him, in which to place his goods and merchandise brought to the town. This probably implies, that the Earl had large quantities of goods and merchandise frequently deposited in Boston, for the use of his establishments in the county. The mansion-house of Hallgarth Manor was situated, according to an old survey of the Corporation property, between Bardyke on the east, the site of the present Grammar School on the west, the Grey Friars on the north, and the heirs of Christopher Cheyney on the south: it was standing in 1640, and rented for 40s. It appears to have been in a dilapidated condition as early as 1334, when it was stated to be worth nothing, except the two shops which were standing near the gate of the said messuage (the old entrance into the Mart Yard), which were rented during the fair time. The manor of Boston Hallgarth, and the mansion, are mentioned as a parcel of the honour of Richmond, in 1564. The Manor House was ordered to be repaired in 1624, when it was leased to Mr. J. Cammack.1 The Manor House of Hallgarth is again mentioned in 1665. The Grammar School occupies part of the IHall-garth, standing immediately west of the old Manor House; the present building was erected in 1567 and 1568, at a cost of 1951. Os. 1 Id. The early foundation of this school, with lists of the masters and ushers, will be given in the succeeding section. The present school-house is a plain substantial brick building on a stone foundation, with stone quoins at the angles; a large square-headed window of five lights, with stone mullions and label, at the north end; and five windows, of three lights each, on each side, with stone mullions and label. The centre window on the 1 He was Mayorin 1623. His father, Leonard Cammack, was Mayor in 1602, 1614, and 1624.

Page  239 GRAMMAR SCHOOL. 239 west side being larger than the others, and contained in a rectangular projection from the main building, with an embatteled parapet. Over the door of the entrance porch, which was erected in 1850, is the following inscription:Hanc Scholarm, primi et secundi Philippi et Mariae charta dotatam, anno autem Elizabethae nono conditam, Burgenses, quibus in tutelam venerant agri in pios usus Bostonime dicati, Hoc Vestibulo augendam et intus denuo instruendam curaverunt, A.D. TMDCCCL. Georgio Edvino Pattenden, A.M., Archididascalo. Johannes Rawson, ilfaior. Jacobus Reynolds. Thomas Small. Johannes Caister. Johannes Noble. Ricardus H. Dawson. Thomas Smith. Johannes iobson. Samuel Veall. Carolus Wright. Johannes H. Thomas. Simpson G. Pape. Over the entrance into the school-room is the following inscription:Ao 1567. —Reginae Elizabethse nono, Maior et Burgenses Bostonire, uno et eodem consensu puerorum institutionis gratia in piis litteris hanc aedificaverunt Scholam Gulielmo Ganocke stapulk mercatore et tune Maiore existenti. The Grammar School. The school-room is spacious, airy, and lofty. The windows were formerly ornamented with stained glass, and contained the following arms:-:3mpaled G. 2 lions passant or, a border arg. Or, a chevron G.- Xtafford. Arg. a fesse, and 3 martlets in chief, sa. Or, on a chevron G1. 3 mlartlets arg. between 3 fleurs de lis rert.' HOLLES' Notes.

Page  240 240 GRAMMAR SCHOOL. The number of scholars at present (1855) is ninety-seven, who are educated under the regulations stated in the section on Schools, &c. There are many curious entries in the Corporation Records respecting this school, some of which will be found below.1 The enclosure in which the Grammar School is situated was called the Mart Yard, and the great annual fair or mart was formerly, and for a very long period, held here. The history of this fair properly belongs to the Commerce of the town, and will be found in the section dedicated to that subject. The Gate House to the Mart Yard was formerly situated near the site of the house now occupied by the master of the Grammar School; it was taken down in 1726, and in the succeeding year it was ordered, that "the Mart Yard should be enclosed in front with a handsome brick wall, having a pair of handsome gates in the centre, with a wicket-gate in one of them." The last shops were taken down in 1758, and with them vanished the sole remaining memorial of the ancient purposes and uses of this enclosure. In 1767, it was ordered, " that the Mart Yard should not be rented to any person whatever;" and, in 1773, " that no soldiers should be allowed to exercise in the Mart Yard," it having been latterly used as the drill-ground for such soldiers as were quartered in the town. The front wall of the yard was removed when the house for the master of the Grammar School was erected in 1827. The town arms, at present placed over the entrance into the school-yard, were formerly attached to the centre of the screen in the church, which separated the part of the nave that contained the pews from the open portion at its west end. The " old chambers " used as a custom-house, about the end of the sixteenth century, formed part of a tenement which stood at the south-west corner of the Mart Yard. The Chantry House attached to the Guild of St. Mary, of which a full account has been given in a preceding section, formerly occupied the site of the house immediately south of that now occupied by the schoolmaster. An old plan of the town shows, that a lane formerly led from South End to Hussey Tower; it was situated near the north side of the enclosure now used as a bonding-yard for timber. In 1581, this piece of ground was called Cold IHarbour,2 and was said to conIn 1578, it was agreed "that a Dictionarye 2 There is much uncertainty as to the origin of shall be bought for the Scollers of the Free Scoole; this name. Parts of the parishes of Benington, and the same bohe to be tyed in a cheyne, and set Freiston, and Wrangle, are so called; there is a town upon a deske in the scoole, whereunto any scoller of this name near Grantham, and one in Cambridgemay have accesse as occasion shall serve." In shire, and one also at the foot of Leith Hill, in 1590, "' convenient seats for the schoolmaster and Surrey. There was also a house in London belongthe scholars to be placed in the church." In 1601, ing to Bishop Tunstall, in the reign of Henry VIII., the Corporation purchased two dictionaries, one which was called " Coal," or "Cold Harbour." Greek, the other Latin, for the school. The school- This house afterwards had the privilege of being a master to keep the same for the use of the scholars. sanctuary, or protection, to people in deb;. "Hence," In 1640, the school is said to stand in the Hall- says HEALEY, in his Discovery of a New World, garth, with twenty-four shops, the Grey Friars' " Coal-harbour bears the name of the Prodigal's land, north, the Hallgarth Manor-house, east, and Promentorie, and being as a sanctuary for banquethe High Street, west. In 1642, the master had a rapt detters." Bishop HALL says in his Satires house of 41. per annum, rent-free. In 1662, the (circa 1640):master received the following books for the use of " Within the cold Coal-hlrbour sanctuary." the school. " A folio English Bible, a Scapula Lexicon, a large Calepinus Dictionary, Holyoak's iIALLIWELL merely says,' Coal Harbour, a English Dictionary, large quarto, Homer's Iliad, corruption of Cold Harbour, an ancient mansion in and Tully's Six Orations. In 1680, the Grammar Dowgate Ward." In TOONE'S Glossary, 1834, it School and twenty-five shops are mentioned as is called a "place of sanctuary," and he quotes being in the Mart Yard. In 1681, Mr. Edmund from the old drama in proof that it was so, deriving Boulter, citizen of London, presented the school that privilege from having been an episcopal resiwith the following books: —Scapula's Lexicon, dence. To show the caprices of etymologists, it Cooper's Phrases, Erasmus' Adagies, Goldman's may be mentioned that a writer in the Gentlemana's Dictionary, Coxford's Epithets in Introduction to Magazine, September 1853, p. 258, says, " Cole the Grammar, Screvelius' Lexicon, Greek and Harbour is a name which always indicates a Roman Latin. In;1707, the Chamberlain was directed to site of some kind or other;" another correspondent provide a large bible for the use of the school. at p. 290 of the same number, says, "a place

Page  241 ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. 241 sist of " three tongsl of land," and was then sold to Richard Stevenson, except a " right of way with carts, carriage, drift, drove, and highway, as have been used to Hussey Tower." The southern extremity of the Bar Ditch falls into the river at the angle where the road to Skirbeck turns to the eastward. Before the ditch was arched over, it was crossed at this place by a bridge, called ST. JOHN'S BRIDGE. It was so called in 1567, when it was ordered that a clow should be placed there. It is again called so in 1569 and in 1717. ST. JOHN's Row is mentioned in 1635 and 1640; in the latter year it contained eleven tenements, " formerly used as pest-houses, and four acres and three roods of land adjoining, belonging to the parsonage." There were sixteen houses in St. JOHN'S Row in 1680. It is mentioned in 1690; and, lastly, in 1711, when it was directed that the "alms-houses there should be repaired." There is very little on record respecting ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. The first notice we find of it is in 1281, when, according to the Assise Rolls, a jury found, that "Robert de Sudbury had taken sanctuary in this church." The following names in connexion with this church occur in the Subsidy and Guild Rolls:1381. William —, chaplain in chapel of St. John. 1453. Another William, chaplain of St. John. 1462. Richard Malton, chaplain. Nothing is known respecting this building, either as relates to the date of its erection, its size, its form, or the character of its architecture. LELAND says, it was the chief parish church, St. Botolph's being only a chapel-of-ease to it, and that it was in existence when he wrote, which was about 1530 or 1540.; though St. Botolph's, he says, " is so risen and adournid, that it is the chiefest of the towne." Several of the Witham family- among others a Sir John Withamwere buried in St. John's Church. This family was very numerous in Boston in the fifteenth, and early part of the sixteenth century.2 The arms of the Withams were: — Sable, two roses in chief argent; in base, a crescent, or; crest, out of a ducal coronet, or; a deini-peacock, azure. The Corporation Records furnish the following notices:In 1571, an order was given to inspect St. John's Church, "c and to cause it to be mended where necessary." 1575, " agreed that the Church of St. John, in the south end of Boston, shall be repaired and amended with all convenient called Cold Harbour, where there are remains and tong is a corruption) is a term of measurement, traditions of unrecorded Glass-works." Again, and means a rood of land." Vol. ii. p. 797. Professor LEO, of Halle, in his Nomenclature of 2 We find the following names:the Anglo.-Saxons, says, places called Cold Harbour 1401. Hugh Witham, Member of Corpus Christi are generally in sheltered situations, and called so Guild, and Alderman, 1404; Joan his wife, ironically; and that in Germany such places are a member in 1402. called" Kalle-herburgs." Lastly,Mr.F. CROSSLEY, 1413. William Wytham de Boston. in that useful miscellany, Notes and Queries, vol. xii. 1411. William Wytham; 1418, Matilda his wife. p. 293, says, "I am of opinion that the right 1414. Hugh, son of HughWitham; 1426, Margaret etymology of Cold-harbour is Cul-arbhar, pro- his wife. nounced Col-arvar, i.e. a place of safety for grain. 1430. Hugh, son of Hugh, Jun., Alderman of It is probable that the ancient Britons had ap- Corpus Christi. pointed places all over the country for stowing 1430. William Wytham, one of the founders of grain. On digging on a piece of ground called St. Mary's Guild. Cold Harbour, at Arundel, in Sussex, a massive 1445. John Witham, who had a dispute with the foundation composed of blocks of white chalk was Abbot of Croyland.-See INGULPHUS, discovered, and traces of a well-formed trench, p. 414. which had at one time surrounded the Cul-arbhar, 1453. Sir Hugh Witham.-See DUGDALE. which was in the form of a square of considerable 1517. Hugh Witham, and Bettina his wife. dimensions." We incline to this last opinion, for 1520. Heirs of Sir Hugh Witham had land in it appears that the house in London bore the name Skirbeck. of Cold Harbour before it became a sanctuary to 1524. Hugh Witham, Knight, and Catherine his persons in debt. I wife. HALLI'WV.LT. says, "Stang (of which tang or II

Page  242 242 ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. speed, and that there shall be weekly service there done by a minister, commonly called the Mayor's Chaplain; that is to say, on the Sunday, the Wednesday, and the Friday in every week, and that there shall be a common assessment made amongst the inhabitants of the borough for the charge of the same." About this time the churchyard was rented for 10s. per annum. This repair could not have been made, since nine years afterwards (in 1584) it was agreed that the body of St. John's Church should be taken down to the chancel door, and that the chancel should be repaired with the produce of the materials of the part taken down, and that if that should be found insufficient, the Corporation would defray the remainder. The lead taken from the part " plucked downe" weighed six fodder and a half, and it "was laid up in the revestry of the Church of St. Botolph." In 1585, "the chancel was finished, as it had been begun, with the proceeds of the timber, stone," &c. In 1588, the churchyard is said to contain two acres of land, and to be part of the parsonage ground. In 1607, the churchyard was leased for ten years, rent not stated. In 1623, the Mayor petitioned for leave " to take down the decayed chancel of St. John's Church, and appropriate the materials in the repairs of the great church (St. Botolph's), and the church-staythl" This leave was obtained in 1626. The license from the Bishop of Lincoln states, " There is in the parish of Boston a church or chapel called St. John's, the body whereof is utterly destroyed, and only part of the chancel standing, but very ruinous, and ready to fall; no manner of people nor maintenance belonging thereto, nor means to rectify, repair, or support the same." After reciting that St. Botolph's is in great want of repairs, and that the Mayor, aldermen, and parishioners, have requested a license to take down the ruins of St. John's Church or Chapel, and to employ the materials in the repairs of St. Botolph, and that the said ruin had been viewed by a commission appointed by the Bishop, who reported that the church or chapel of St. John " had not been employed for any divine use for the space of 200 years, then last past, or thereabouts," leave and license was granted to take the ruins down, and use the materials as requested. The Corporation Records mention "two long pieces of wood in the floor and roofs of St. John's, to be used in the repairs of the bridge." Nothing further is recorded until 1827, excepting several rentings of the churchyard. In 1827, an acre of land was taken from the Augustine Friars' Pasture, and added to the burial-ground of St. John. The church stood on the northern side of the churchyard. In digging graves there, a pebbled pavement was discovered, leading, as has been conjectured, from the road to the north door of the church. A black marble slab was also found at the depth of three feet, which, from its situation, seems to have been within the walls of the church. On the west side of the churchyard, the foundations of buildings are found, which are conjectured to have belonged to the old Poor-house.l All that remains of the residence of the HuSSEY familv in Boston is the brick Tower represented in the next page. It stands immediately north of St. John's churchyard, and east of South End, in an enclosure in which may be traced many ancient foundations. The wall of the enclosure is ancient. The Corporation —to whom the estate of Lord HUSsEY in Boston was, not long after his attainder, granted by Henry VIII.,-sold the Court-house belonging to the estate to John Wylkynson, alias Jackson, for 104 marks: this was in MS. Collections of the late WILLIAM CHAPMAN, Esq.

Page  243 HUSSEY TOWER. 243 1562. Hussey Tower is called "Benyngton" Tower' in 1564, when the Tower and the pasture under it were rented for 56. per annum. The fore-house, called ~ — i- -- _rrl,, —,~"S - Hussey Tower. the Gate-house, was taken down in 1565, — this fronted, we think, on South End,and the remainder of the residence was repaired by the Corporation. In 1656, a committee was appointed to survey the Tower and adjoining grounds, when it was found that C" they were much prejudiced by salt water, which had overflowed the same, spoiled the pits, and injured the ground;" many repairs were stated to be necessary: the yearly value of the whole was 331.; it was then rented by Joseph Whiting.2 In 1702, the "brew-house" was declared ruinous, and it and the " mill-house" were directed to be sold and taken down, and a good and substantial gable ordered to be built at the end of the house left standing. In 1725, the house and building adjoining Hussey Tower were ordered "to be sold and removed to the ground;" there was after this nothing attached to or near the Tower except a stable. The buildings removed sold for 751. HIusSEY HALL, which stood adjoining the road leading to Skirbeck, almost immediately at its junction with South End at this time, is represented in the engraving in the following page. In 1728, the lead and timber of the Tower were taken for the use of the Corporation. In 1773, part of the premises was leased to a sail-maker; and, in 1779, a survey was made of the Tower 3 (most probably the old hall), with a In the rental of the Guild of Corpus Christi acres of pasture, in 1715, the rent being 141. and (1489), " Richard Benyngton Toure" is mentioned, 7lbs. of brawn per annum. The first year's rent and stated to be near "vacant ground in Beton was allowed for repairs. Lane." 3 Lord COLERAINE, in 1730,informed the Gentle2 The Whiting family occupied this property from man's Society at Spalding, of which he was a member, 1627 to 1668, except for a short period, when John that "he had in his possession a gold ring formerly Tooley rentedthe Tower and part of the land. Mr. enamelled, with the Blessed Virgin and Child, beButler rented it in 1671 for 10, fine, 131. annual tween another holy lady and St. Michael, supposed rent, and a collar of brawn of 14l1bs. weight. John to have belonged to a nun, and found in the old Brown, beer-brewer, rented it in 1683; and Mr. brick towerofBoston."' —SadingSociety'sMinutes. William Hart was tenant of the Tower, and five

Page  244 244 HUSSEY HALL. view of converting it into a gaol. In 1792, the enclosure in which the Tower stands was exchanged for other lands with Mr. Fydell; 1" the Tower and all the manorial rights of the Manor of Hussey Tower being retained by the Corporation, and Mr. Fydell engaging to keep the Tower in its present form as a ruin." Hussey Hall. It is impossible to trace either the form or the extent of Hussey Hall when inhabited by Lord Hussey; the Tower and the Hall were most probably at that time united; nor have we any record of the removal of the Hall, or of its gradual change and dilapidation, since the first half of the eighteenth century. A very considerable mass of building remained in 1741; and there must have been a large portion of it remaining in 1773, when it was rented to a sail-maker. A large house, or part of a house, was taken down about 1780, and another building, which had been latterly used as a sacking manufactory, was removed about the commencement of the present century. There was a workhouse for the poor in St. John's Row in 1655. In the Mayor's accounts for that year, 14s. is charged for six wheels for the workhouse. In 1723, the Poor-house in St. John's Row was ordered to be repaired. This appears, however, to have been insufficient, since at a public meeting of the inhabitants held on the 11th April, 1726, it was unanimously resolved, " that a workhouse for the maintenance and better supplying the poor of this parish, be built in the pasture lying near St. John's Row, which is allowed by the Corporation to be built upon; and that the materials of St. John's Row be used towards the building of the same. And that such workhouse be built according to a plan which shall be agreed upon by the managers, so as not to cost more than 6001." If this resolution was carried out, the building did not cost the parish anything, for the Hon. Albemarle Bertie and Sir Richard Ellis, Bart. subscribed 6001. towards the expense of it. This building was used as the parish poor-house until 1837, when, upon the new Poor-Law system coming into operation, and

Page  245 UNION WORKHOUSE. 245 the building of the Union WVorkhouse, this house was taken down, and the materials and site sold. The workhouse for the Boston Union was opened in 1837.' It is erected upon a portion of the Augustine Friars' Pasture, two acres of which were purchased of the Corporation for this purpose, and for the necessary yards, &c. &c. View near the Union Workhouse. The house is calculated to accommodate comfortably 450 persons. The board-room and chapel are on either side of the entrance; the rooms are well ventilated, and the classification as perfect, and the dietary as gocd and sufficient, as are generally found in the best-regulated houses of this description. The average number of pupils in the girls' school is about sixty, in the boys' school about seventy.2 The routine of education for the children, and of employment for the more adult, appears to be exceedingly well adapted to promote those objects. The greatest number of inmates at one time, in each vear since the establishment of the house, was as follows:1837...... 225 1843...... 338 1849. 351 1838. 2... 289 1844.... 317 1850... 389 1839. 236 1845.... 352 1.851...... 421 1840...... 210 1846...... 380 1852....... 394 1841..... 225 1847.... 390 1 1853...- 338 1842...... 320 1848.344 1854...... 333 1 The Boston Union contains the following containing anagregateof 97,250squareacres, and a parishes: —Boston, Skirbeck, Skirbeck Quarter, population, in 1851, of 38,312 persons, dwelling in Fishtoft, Fi'eiston, Butterwick, Benington, Lever- 7831 houses; there were also 319 uninhabited ton, Leake, Wrangle, Carrington, Frithville, Lang- houses, and forty-three houses building. The total rickville, Thornton-le-Ville, Westville, Swineshead, receipts of the Union in 1853 were 19,7121. ls., the Bicker, Wigtoft, Brothertoft, Dogdyke, Wyberton, expenditure, 19,4061. 8s. Frampton, Kirton, Sutterton, Algarlkirk, Foscdyke, 2 An infant-school was added in 1856; it conand Sibsey, and the hamlet of Hart's Grounlds; tains about thirty pupils.

Page  246 246 UNION WORKHOUSE. In August 1853 the House contained 221 paupers, under the following classification:MEN. I WOMEN. Temporarily disabled - 5 Temporarily disabled.... 10 Old and Infirm... 44 I Old and Infirm... 24 Able-bodied....... Able-bodied...... 5 Youths from 9 to 16.....42 Girls, 9 to. 16......19 Boys from 2 to 9... 34,, 2 to 9..... 31 Infants under two years of age.......... 7. RECEIPTS and EXPENDITURE on account of the Poor for the Year 1853, for the Town of Boston and the Hundred of Skirbeck. The Hundred Boston. Hundred Skirbeck. RECEIPTS: ~Z s. d. ~ s. d. From poor-rates............. 543 14 0 4841 3 0, Receipts in aid............. 126 5 0 90 9 0 X7669 19 0 ~4931 12 0 Entire Receipts... 12,601 11s. EXPENDITURE: Maintenance in the House............ 573 7 0 402 0 0 Out-relief............ 3468 7 0 2046 12 0 Workhouse loan repaid.181 15 0 122 19 0 Salaries of officers............ 492 4 0 283 2 -0 Other expenses............... 574 17 0 400 6 0 Total Expenditure connected with Relief. 5. A5290 10 0 ~3254 19 0 Law expenses.................. 94 5 0 40 3 0 Constables............... 75 8 0 130 18 0 Vaccination................ 10 12 0 15 2 0 Registrar's fees........ 57 4 0 31 13 0 County, borough, and police rates.......1752 10 0 1190 3 0 Municipal and Parliamentary registration.. 60 3 0 52 19 0 Other charges.......... 191 1 0 50 16 0 ~7531 13 0 ~4766 13 0 Total Expenditure'...... ~12,298 6s. The town of Boston and the hundred of ville, Thornton-le-ville, and Westville, containing Skirbeck, including the Fen allotments, contained together 10,420 square acres, and a population of together 38,491 square acres, and a population 1132 people, living in 192 houses. The receipts of (in 1851) of 24,582 persons, living in 5083 houses. these five townships in the year 1853, in connexion There were also 201 uninhabited houses and thirty- with the Poor's Union, were 6381. 6s., their expenthree houses then building. This does notinclude the diture, 6131. 14s. new townships of Carrington, Frithville, Langrick

Page  247 MUSTER ROLL HIOUSES, ETC. 247 The remainder of the Augustine Friars' Pasture is occupied by the Guardians of the Union for purposes connected with that establishment. Passing along the road to Skirbeck, on the north side of that road, and near the west bank of Maud Foster's Drain, we find a range of twelve neat small residences, which was erected in 1845. These are called the MERCHANT SEA~MEN's, or MUSTER ROLL HOUSES, having been built at a cost of 20001., from a fund raised under the directions of an Act of Parliament, and called the Merchant Seamen's Fund. To this fund all seamen belonging to the port contributed monthly, the fund being managed by a Board of Commissioners. As vacancies occur, those seamen who have contributed the longest to the fund, or their widows, are appointed to the occupation of these houses rent-free. Returning to the extremity of South End, and passing on southwardly, we find a row of pleasantly situated houses called ST. JOHN's TERRACE. A bowlinggreen, which formerly occupied part of the site of this terrace, is first mentioned in the Corporation Records in 1705. The ancient Steel-yard or Custom-house, first mentioned in 1585, formerly stood near this place; an acre of land " at the Steelyards," is mentioned in 1601. In 1660, the reversion of a messuage called the Steelyards, and'"four acres of Hempland, called Steelyards' Green," were purchased by the Corporation of Mr. Earl for 2601. In 1663, the Steelyards and cellars, orchard, garden, and an acre of land, were rented for 201. In 1674, "' two jetties were put down at the Steelyards," and in 1693, " the materials of the Steelyards building were sold to Francis Ayscough for 1201." This building is mentioned by LELAND as standing in his time, but it was "little occupied." A new gaol for the use of the borough, and of the hundreds of Skirbeck and Kirton, was erected on the Steelyards' Green in 1818, at a cost of about 30001. The Quarter Sessions for the borough continued to be held in Boston until 1836, when they ceased as a separate court. In 1837, the Corporation resolved to close the gaol as a prison for the borough, it having become unnecessary in conseqence of the cessation of the Quarter Sessions; but the correctness of this decision was doubted, and it continued to be occupied as a prison. In 1842, the Council petitioned to have liberty to hold a separate Quarter Sessions, but the request was not granted. The same result attended a petition, in 1848, to have the Sessions restored. In 1848, also, the division magistrates refused to hold the gaol in joint occupancy with the borough magistrates; and in July 1848, the Inspector of Prisons reported, that the gaol was not large enough for a prison for both the division of Holland and the borough; and that it was not in such a condition for the purposes of the borough alone as would warrant a grant of Quarter Sessions. The gaol ceased to be occupied as a prison in 1851,and was taken down in 1853, the materials having been sold for 3981. in November of that year. The enclosure beyond the Steelyards' Green, or, as it is now called, the Gaol Pasture, was in 1562 called the HoLMs, but in 1564 it was called the Docm's PASTURE, from docks which ran up towards it from the river, across what was then open marsh, and is now the site of the Bath Gardens. These docks, however, were not of much value, since one of them rented in 1602 for 2s. 6d. annual rent; they were, probably, nothing more than creeks up which small vessels could be taken for repairs. In 1640, " two ship docks in South End" rented for 6s. 8d. annually. In 1566, the Dock's Pasture was again called the Holms, and the point where the river bends to the south-east, was called IHoms Point, and is called so as late as 1730. The Holms is stated to be held of the manor of Hallgarth in 1566; the rent paid for it at that time was 141. 6s. In 1582, the Holms is said to contain seven acres, and was rented to the Mayor for the time being for 5i. per annum, and to the succeeding mayors at the same rent, at the pleasure of the house. In 1824, this enclosure was again called the Dock's Pasture, and rented for 601. per annum.

Page  248 248 APPROACH TO THE BRIDGE, FROM 1772 TO 1812. Near the entrance to the Bath Gardens, on the left hand, may yet be seen a slight circular elevation. This elevation, then more considerable, and called Mill-hill, was the site of a mill in the fifteenth century. According to the Compotus of St. Mary's Guild, the mill " had fallen to the ground " in 1534. The hill is mentioned in 1601, when it rented for los., and probably a mill was then standing upon it, or it would not have rented for so much. A mill is mentioned in 1651 and 1657 in this locality; and again in 1680. The last mill was removed from this hill about thirty years since. The promenade garden, in which the Public Baths are situated, was formed in 1832, by the enclosure (with the consent of the Corporation) of the marsh between the river and the Holms, or Dock's Pasture. This was done by the erection of a bank, commencing near the Mill-hill and terminating at Holms' Point. Space was left for two pieces of water, into which the tide flows at every flood, the depth being regulated by sluices; one of these is used as a public bathing-place. The remainder of the ground has been planted with ornamental shrubs and trees, and laid out with grass borders and gravel walks, and forms a very pleasant promenade, particularly at the time of high water. Private baths for warm and cold bathing have also been erected, and the whole establishment is a great public convenience and ornament to the town. The cost was defrayed by a stock raised in shares of 101. each. The Garden and Baths were opened in August 1834. Proceeding along the bank of the river, we come to two windmills, known as the " Gallows' Mills." There is an old deed of sale in the archives of the Corporation of a piece of land near Galtre-lead, dated 1554. The description of the boundaries of this land clearly identifies Galtre-head with the neighbourhood of these mills, and leads to the inference that a gallows (Gallows-tree) formerly occupied their site, or very close neighbourhood. We have seen that some of the early lords of the various manors in Boston held from the Crown the privileges " ad furcam, fossamn, et tumbrellamng' and the place of execution was probably in this locality, being near the ancient boundary between Boston and Skirbeck. A little further on the river bank, we come to the outfall of Maud Foster's Drain, the present boundary of Boston in this direction. Having completed the survey of the town on the east side of the river, we will return to the bridge. The following engraving shows the approach to the bridge from the Market-place as it existed from 1772 to 1812. ~ —~ —~- — ~-W

Page  249 'rTE BRIDGE. 249 Previous to crossing the bridge, we will examine into its history. Alan de Croun is said to have defrayed the expense of building a great sluice, or flood-gate ("q magnam exclusam sive catteractam"), in the middle of the river Witham, in the 7th of King Stephen (1142). "CThis pier was erected where the hundreds of Kirton and Skirbeck meet within the town of Boston." The general supposition respecting the site of this sluice is, that it stood about 120 yards above the present iron bridge. There is not any mention of a bridge having been erected over this sluice. The motives for erecting this sluice were, "for the increasing the force of the waters where the haven is issued, which, by the quantity of rubbish and sand brought up and cast in by the daily flowing of the sea, was nearly stopped and lost; and to the end that the channel might be thereby made deeper, that the waters from the marshes of Lindsey, Kesteven, and Holland, and the lands of all the country, might descend more easily to the sea." It is not very evident how these effects were to be produced by the erecting of a pier or pile in the middle of the river, and therefore it appears a fair inference that the structure erected by Sir Alan was literally a sluice across the river. The first mention we find of a bridge at Boston is in a petition of John de Brittany, earl of Richmond, 33 Edward I. (1305), for pontagc e to be granted him for the repairing a bridge at St. Botolph's across the river, between the lands of the said Earl and those of William de Ros and the heirs of Robert de Tatershall. The petition was granted, and he was allowed to levy certain tolls upon saleable articles passing over the said bridge, and under the same, for three years from the 18th March, 1305.1 On the 22d May in the same year, a similar privilege was granted to William de Ros of Hamlake for the same purposes for five years.2 The tariff of customs to be levied was identically the same, and it was not intended that there should be any conflict between the grants. The intention seems to have been, that William de Ros should take the duties upon goods passing from the west to the east, his land being on the west side; and the Earl of Brittany receive the customs payable upon goods passing from the east, where his land was, to the west. Each to repair the side of the bridge joining upon his estate. We suppose that no material difficulty arose, since several other grants of tolls with a concurrent operation occur afterwards. The articles included in the schedule of customs granted to the Earl of Brittany and William de Ros, are, in many instances, the same as those included in that granted in 1285, for the repairs of the walls of the town, as mentioned in Division III. under that date; the rate of duty is, however, much higher in the schedules now alluded to. Among the additional articles in these latter schlledules are the following:"Duty on lamb, goat, and rabbit skins per 100, one halfpenny. For every timber: of catskins, one-halfpenny. For every 100 woolfels, Id. Woad per quarter, one halfpenfiy. Ale per ton for exportation, Id. Oak boards coming from beyond sea, one halfpenny per 100. Deal boards per 100 from beyond sea, 2cl. Every horse-load of linen serges, grey cloths, and linen cloths, Id. Canvas from beyond sea, one halfpenny per 100 ells. Pottery, Id. per hundredweight. Cloth of Flanders dyed, 2d. per piece. Cloth passing through for exportation beyond sea, 6d. English dyed and russet cloth, Id. per piece. Scarlet cloth, 4d. each piece. Summer cloth, coming from Stamford, Northampton, or any other place in England, one halfpenny each piece. Wool, 2d. per sack. Sea-coal, 2dc. each ship. Turves, ld. each load. Hay, 2d. per skiff. Wheat, one farthing the quarter. Barley, m.ixtel, beans and pease, one farthing per quarter. Oats, one farthing for four horseloads. Each horse of the price of 40s. one penny; below that value, one halfpenny. Oxen and cows, one halfPatent Rolls. 2 Ibid. 3 A timber of skins consisted of forty skins.-HowELL's Lazw Dictionary. Ki K

Page  250 250 THE, BRIDGE. penny each. One halfpenny for every 10 sheep. Every cartload of fish, Id. Salt salmon, Id. per dozen. Mullets, one halfpenny for 25. Haddocks (salted), one halfpenny per 100. Herrings, one farthing per 1000. Salt lampreys, one halfpenny per dozen. Salt eels, one halfpenny per 1000. Sturgeon, 1d. for every 100 pieces. Stockfish, one farthing per 100. Onions, one farthing per seam. Garlic, one'farthing per seam. All other merchandise, one halfpenny for every 20s. worth." Another grant of pontage for the repairs of the bridge and the pavement of the town was made to the Earl of Brittany in 1308, to continue five years;1 and one to William de Ros, in 1312, for five years.3 John de Brittany had also a grant of pontage in 1312 for five years. The sluice erected by Alan de Croun appears to have fallen into a dangerous state of decay in 1316, when presentments were made of its ruinous condition and the consequent danger to which the country was exposed. These presentments state, that " many posts are wanting, and 500 stakes, of which number the pile was constructed; there are also wanting foreign workmen to make joints and joists of beams of timber." The same presentment adds, " that the great sluice or pyle in the river Witham, within the town of Boston, is in decay, on the presentment of the whole county, lest the dykes (banks) be destroyed above and below the pyle aforesaid, whereby quickly all the marshes in the parts of Lindsey and Kesteven would be suddenly drowned, and much other damage be brought upon all the country by the force of the salt waters rushing in." Pontage, and a schedule of duties and tolls for the repairs of the bridge and pavements, were granted to William de Ros de Hamlake, for five years, in 1319; another grant of the same kind was made to him for three years in 1328, when the bridge is spoken of as being broken up, and dangerous to pass over. This grant was renewed for three years in 1331. Among the articles upon which duty is now directed to be paid, are horse and ox-hides, "C flesh-meat," fresh salmon, squirrel-skins, diaper and baudelkyn cloth, and cloth of silk and gold, alum, copperas, and verdigrease; mill-stones, billet-wood, horse-shoes, and cleet-nails for carts; brass, copper, and steel; hemp, stock-fish, and Aberdeen (salt cod-fish).3 John Earl of Richmond had a grant of pontage tolls, in 1337, for five years, when the bridge was declared to be "ruinous and broken up." Oil, and an article called "Tcln," are now introduced among others to pay duty for either passing over the bridge or along the river under it. The Earl of Richmond had another grant of pontage duties for five years in 1358, in aid of newly erecting and supporting the bridge, and paving the town.4 The bridge now erected appears to have been a stable construction, for nothing is recorded about its needing repairs until 1500, when HAIcu built the sluice across the Witham, very near the site of the present bridge.5 The old sluice, built by Alan de Croun, is not mentioned in any of the documents which we have quoted; it is, therefore, very probable that the flood-gates, and that structure generally, were, and had been for some time, so much in ruin as to permit the tide to flow up to the river. The massy pier upon which the wooden bridge rested, and which was removed when the present iron one was erected, was part of the construction of May Hake in 1500. In the 34th Henry VIII. (1543) this sluice, under the bridge, was in a very bad state, and an order was made by the Commissioners of Sewers that it should be repaired at the charges of the wapentakes of I(irton and 1 Patent Rolls. 2 Ibid. the Presentment in 1316, which is taken from a 3 Aberdeen was then famous for the curing of document in the Court of Sewers. cod-fish.-See HALL'S Setires. See History oftheWitham in a subsequent Divi4 The recital of all these grants is made from sion. translations of the original Patent Rolls, excepting

Page  251 THE BRIDGE. 251 Skirbeck for the one half, and the wapentake of Elloe and the town of Boston for the other half.1 All previous repairs of the bridge and sluice appear to have been executed at the cost of the Countess of Richmond. Between 1-546 and 1550, the Corporation spent 481. 16s. in the repairs of this bridge; and in 1550 it was viewed, and orders given for its repairs. It was evidently in a very bad state in 1553, when Queen Mary made her grant of the Erection Lands to the Corporation; one of the purposes of this grant being, to enable the Corporation to support the bridge, which then "needed daily reparation." This bridge (according to the Corporation Records) fell on Sunday, 22d March, 1556. A. toll had been received at this bridge from 1549 to the time of its fall. A new bridge was commenced in 1557. Gates were erected on this bridge in 1562, to facilitate the collection of toll. The right to take toll appears to have been questioned so early as 1583, and the Corporation Records show that evidence was taken in defence of the practice during that year; but it only proved that Lord Ros had collected toll at the west end of the bridge; but this he did in virtue of the grants which we have recorded, and which were only for a limited time. It was also proved that the Corporation collected toll at the east end of the bridge circa 1550, but without exhibiting any authority for doing so. The bridge was repaired in 1567, 1584, and 1588. In 1626, "the bridge was in great decay," and the Chamberlain was directed to repair it, but not to meddle with the repairs of the sluice, " because such repairs belong to the lords, landholders, and commoners in Lindsey, Kesteven, and Holland." St. John's Church was taken down during the year these extensive repairs were in hand, and it appears that some of the materials of that church were.employed in the repairs of the bridge; for when the eastern abutment of the old bridge was taken up in 1815, various fragments of pillars, and carved remains of arches, were discovered. The bridge being in a very ruinous state, and in danger of falling, was taken down in 1629, and a new one erected. During the building of this new bridge, the passengers were ferried across the river by a boat, furnished at the expense of the Corporation. This bridge had a stone gateway standing across it, and it is probable from this circumstance, that the lane called Stanbow Lane, which would be very near the western extremity of the bridge, has derived its name. The new bridge was opened in 1631. There was a house standing, in 1640, upon the pier in the river,e on the south side of the centre of the bridge, which rented for 13s. 4d. This house was in 1680 rented by the farmer of the tolls. In 1642, the bridge was again in a bad state, the pier and sluice were also very much decayed; the whole was directed to be repaired, the expense of which was in part borne by the Corporation. The Corporation Records mention the repairs of the draw-bridge in 1652. Large repairs were made in 1654, when the Corporation spent 1001. upon the stone-work of the bridge. It was also repaired in 1661, 1669, 1670, 1674, and 1681. The centre pier was repaired in 1696, and the bridge new planked in 1702, and again in 1711. In 1736, "the crown of the arch of the bridge was lowered to prevent its falling." In 1741, Mr. William Jackson made a proposal to the Corporation to rebuild the bridge for 3601., which was accepted; and Mr. William Stennet was appointed surveyor of the work on the part of the Corporation. The taking down the old bridge was commenced on the 10th June, 1642. During the building of the new bridge passengers were ferried across for a halfpenny each. The total cost of the new bridge was 396/. 14s. 6d., Mr. Jackson having been allowed 361. 14s. 6d. for an alteration in the plan made by the Corporation. The bridge now erected 1 DUGDALE on Embankment, p. 204, 2 The pier of May Hake's sluice.

Page  252 252 THE OLD BRIDGE. was of wood, and rested upon the massy pier of Hake's sluice, which stood at about two-thirds of the breadth of the river from the west side; the crooks upon which the doors of this sluice were suspended were remaining in the stone-work a very few years before the old bridge was taken down. This bridge certainly had no just pretensions to either elegance or commodiousness, although the description of it in Gazetteers, &c., would lead a stranger to suppose that it possessed both these attributes in a pre-eminent degree. I-Iproper depth of water secured in dry seasons. Mr. LANGLEY EDWARDS, of Lynn, - i — _ -..... I ITS The Old Bridge. in 1757, a propositionts weras made by the proprietors of land on the east side of te ed, itan 1800, to thheCorporation of Boston, to dgset down, and to sea-doors at withe bidge to strucop the tide." his the Corporation acceded to, upon condition that the passae of boats throughl such proposed sluice should be provided br, and a ptoper deptld of water secured in dry seasons. Mnr. LtNhLEY EDWasRDs of Lynn, wastento ne brde wrond e bl the engineer consulted by the Coporation, and he stated thatboth these objects might be attained. No further proceedings upon the subject are mentioned. The bridge was reported to be in a dangerous state in 1771. In 1772, great improvements were made in t he apprroach to the bridlge fiom the Maket-place. After many expensive repairs, the last of which, in 1795, cost about 500/., it was agreedl, in 1800, to take the bridge down, and to replace it with a more commodious structure. In Aiugust 1800, the Corporation determined the new bridge should be of iron, and the building thereof commenced in 1802; the site of it is a little south of the old one, which remained standing until the new one was completed~ The abutmnents of the new bridge were founded fbur feet below the deepest part of the bed of the Withain, and every precaution was taken to render the IBundations and the superstructure secure. The new bridge, which was opened for carriages 2d of May, 1807, consists of one arch of cast-iron. The arclb which is the small segment of a circle, is

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Page  253 TIHE NEW BRIDGE 253 eighty-six feet six inches in span; and the breadth of the bridge, including the cornice on each side, is thirty-ninefeet. The whole is exceedingly commodious and elegant; and although a greater degree of the latter quality might, probably, have been obtained, by placing the abutments of the arch higher, this could only have been accomplished by sacrificing the greater part of the former. As it is the abutments are placed so low, that the convexity of the arch scarcely offers any obstacle to the passage over the bridge, which is carried across in very nearly a horizontal direction.' The exense of erecting this bridge, including the purchasing the site for the abutents, and the buildings to be removed for approaches, was nearly 22,0. Much difficulty was experienced in taking up the foundation of the pier of the old bridge; this undertaking, however, after several unsuccessful attempts, was accomplished; and the last of the piles forming the foundation was drawn up in the summer of 1818. Crossing the bridge, we find Stanbow Lane a little to the right of its western extremity. This lane is mentioned in 1577; it turns almost immediately at right angles to the north. There are several ancient brick houses near e angle; among others one which belonged to the Robinson family, formerly of great distinction and influence in this place and at Fishtoft. An immense open fireplace, and other marks of antiquity, yet remain in a room at the back of this house. The Robinson family is said to have descended from Riseus Price who was a member of the Corpus Christi Guild in 1346, and whose memory is preserved in the parish of Fishtoft by the name of Rise ap Rise attached to a farm there, upon which formerly stood a mansion of some consequence. Part of this family lived at Alderchurch; Nicholas Robertson,3 merchant of the Staple of Calais, died there in 1498; he and John Robertson were members of the Corpus Christi Guild in Boston in 1466. Thomas Robertson was a merchant of the Staple of Boston in 15 18. John Rohynson is mentioned in the Subsidy Roll in 1523; and Nicholas Robertson in 1544: he was the first Mayor of Boston; and held that office in 1545: he was assessed to the subsidy in 1547, when his goods were valued at 240 marks. Anthony Robertson, of Boston, was also assessed to the same subsidy. The Robertson family were connected with -the Guild of St. Mar~y, and several of them were aldermen of that institution. John -Robertson left much land to this Guild, which afterwards became the property of the Corporation. There was a good deal of dispute and litigation about this iland, the particulars of which are stated in the account of St. Mary's Guild, and in the Section relating to the Charities. There is a pedigree of this family in the British Museum,4 which goes back to the year 1208, and makes Johne Robinson of Donlington, who married the daughter of Thomas Paul-, its founder. The arms of the Robin sons, and many particulars more immediately connected with Fishtoft, will be given in the account of that parish. The manor-house of the Roos or Ros family, which was purchased by the Corporation of the Earl of Rutland, in 1556, was situated somewhere in this' neighbourho'od; traces of its name may be found in Rose-garth Lane and Rose-garth Pasture, most probably originally Roos

Page  254 254 ST. GEORGE'S HALL; CRIPPLE HALL ETC. garth. The property is described as Roos Hall Court-house, with the manor of Roos Hall, alias Ros Manor in Boston with all its lands, tenements, &C., fines, woods, and fisheries, court-leet, and view of frankpledge, &c., in Boston, Wyberton, and Skirbeck. The Corporation paid 3001. for thi rty. In 1561, a piece of ground, part of this estate, is described as "lying beside the Town House." Ros Hall and Ros Garth are mentioned in 163. In 1564, Allyland Place, Newland Place, St. George's Hall, a house called the Brew-house, the Court-house, and a house called the George, are stated to be held of this manor. In 1661, "Roos Garth" is said to contain three acres of pasture, abutting on "Further-end Lane" on the south. We cannot fix the exact locality of any portion of this property. Lawrence Lane and Pipemaker's Lane contain nothing of interest. In Pinfold Lane, a pond, attached to the manor of Roos, was formerly situated. On the north side of Pinfold Lane, in what is now called St. George's Court, is an ancient house, called Lodowick House, but said, by tradition, to have been St. George's Manor-house, or more probably Hall, for we have not any account of a manor being attached to the Guild. A stone shield in the front of this ouse bears the Lodowick arms; a fesse bordered, three martlets, two in chief, one in base. The letters T. L. and R. L. at the base of the shield denote Thomas and Rachel Lodowick. An old deed states that the house was built in the reign of Henry V. The first mention of the Lo)owIcK family is in 169, when Hercules odowick held a messuage of the Corporation on the west side of the Haven he died in Otober 1588, Edmund and William Lodowick died in 193. Thomas Lodowick " held the fold-green in Forden Lane," and owned property in Lincoln Row in 1640: he died in 1657. In 1661, his son Thomas held an acre of land called "c St. John of Jerusalem," abutting upon the Haven Bank, and owned forty acres of land on the west side of the river. He was one of the Common Council in 1666, and was Chamberlain in 1673; hie held St. George's Hall in 1674; he died in 1687, and is the last of the family recorded, either in the Corporation Records or the Parish Register. A sluice, called Lodowick's Sluice, is frequently alluded to in the Records, the last time in 1760, in which year St. George's Lane is called Lodowick's Lane. St. George's Hall is mentioned as standing in St. George's Lane in 1668, 1616, 1640, and 1646: this it might do, and yet have a front on Pinfold Lane. In 1640, the Hall, with a garden and orchard, were held by William Leverington, form,,erly by John Rysinge, gentleman, and was situated between lands of Sir Thomas Middlecott and Sit~ Anthony Irby. A house called Bell's House is mentioned asben in St. George's Lane in 1646. In 1647, the Corporation.sold to Thomas Hodress seven cottages, and an old house called the Town'swork House, situated in St. George's Lane. Lincoln Lane is the most northwardly lane on this side of the river. Lincoln Row, and the lane leading to it, are mentioned in 1664, and also in 1640. Alvinghain Priory had property in Lincoln Row in 1664. A large brick building, known as Cripple Hall, stood on the south side of the west end of Lincoln Lane, at the beginning of the present century. It is said to have. beeno the- res~Pidencof' Dr. S'TUXEYwhenV he111 was1 -7an inaitn of Boston,

Page  255 IRBY HALL. 255 we believe, nearly the last person in Boston in the occupation.1 A small building at the end of Lincoln Lane was formerly, and for a long timne, used as a meeting-hose by the Society of Friends: it is now converted into two tenements.2 RBY HALL, the residence of the family of that name, which was for many generations most honourably connected with, and highly respected in, this town, was situated nearly opposite to the west end of the church, in an enclosure adjoining the river at the extremity of Stanbow Lane; marks of the foundations lof buildings are yet visible; nothing now remains of the edifice, or its appendages, but part of the garden walls. This mansion is said to have been a very extensive one, and to have had "a gallery with a fretwork ceiling, and on painted glass in the windows were several coats-of-arms of the Irbys; some impaled, others quartered with those of other families in this and the adjacent counties, with whom they intermarried." Sir Edward Irby resided in this house in the early part of the last century, and was the last of the family who lived there; the house was afterwards let for several years. There were scarcely any remains of it, excepting a chimney, in 1776. It is said that some of the glass with the larms is in a window of one of the churches at Stamford. ~~~Irby Hall~, as it appeared in 1770 is represented below. _ _~~~~~~_ Sir nthoy Iry's ardeni is mentioned in 1633, as having been'anciently * figrin h goo,,ds.,v7 + NTAC U 110I; there, bewe 1703 andn 1780. aly 2~ Thi Soita uyn-rudaou af h odytrmis

Page  256 256 HIGH STREET. Irby's," occurs in the Records 1690. It is stated to be at the north end of Lincoln Row. Sir Anthony Irby held a piece of land on which stood a house called Newman's or Newland's House, and which an inquest, held in 1640, describes as situated between the lands of Sir Anthlony on the north and south, and also on the east and west. This piece of land, the jurors say, was eaten away by the haven. It is not easy to perceive how this could be done, if, as they state, it was surrounded by Sir Anthony Irby's land. There is nothing known respecting the locality of this house and land.1 The Grand Sluice will be described in the account of the Witham. Near the Grand Sluice are situated the works of the Boston Gas-light and Coke Company. The first meeting of the inhabitants respecting lighting the town with gas was held 24th June, 1824, and the Company was established in 1825. The original capital stock of the Company was 80001., in shares of 501. each. The increase of the town rendering an extension of the works necessary, an Act was applied for in 1856, authorising the Company to increase its capital to 20,0001. The gas, at the first establishment of the works, was sold at 12s. 6d. per 1000 feet; the present price is 4s. The gasholders are capable of storing 115,000 cubic feet of gas; and the coal and coke stores, of holding 2500 tonls of those articles. The consumption of coal at the works was (1855) 2500 tons. Returning to the western extremity of the bridge, we reach the upper end of High Street, or Gowt Street, as it was called in the Records in 1690, and as it continued to be called within the last seventy years. At the south-western corner of the old bridge, and very nearly upon the opening of the present bridge into High Street, formerly stood an open shed-like building, called the Meal Cross; to which place the millers used to bring their flour, &c., to sell, there being at that time no regular shops in the town for retailing these articles. This building, and five small shops adjoining, were burnt down in 1748. Nearly opposite the bridge is Emery Lane. In 1600, Thomas Alderchurche held lands in Emery Lane, "nigh the Forde-ende Gate" (Furthend Lane), which formerly belonged to Thorneholm Priory; and, in 1640, a house near the Buttery Pit, which, in 1564, is said to be near the bridge end, belonged to this priory. Emery Lane took its name from the family of Emery, which resided here early in the fourteenth century. Roger Emery of Boston occurs in the Subsidy Roll in 1333. Thomas Emery was a member of the Corpus Christi Guild in 1364, and Walter Emery in 1384 and 1393. Jolhn and Thomas Emery are mentioned as of Boston in an Inquisitio post mortemn 17 Richard II. (1393). Peter Emery was a member of Corpus Christi Guild in 1525, and Chamberlain of the same 1534, and Alderman in 1543, and Alderman of St. Mary's Guild in 1528. Ralph Emery died in 1602, and Jacob Emery in 1611. It is probable that the ancient brick house near the east end of the lane, now inhabited by Mr. Hobson, was the residence of the Emery family. Bridge Street, which connects High Street with West Street, occupies the site of a large inn and its appendages (the White Hart), which was taken down about the commencement of the present century. Some ancient building of considerable extent appears to have formerly stood here; for upon opening the ground for the formation of the present street, great quantities of stone foundations of buildings were taken up. The offices of the Withan Commissioners were erected in Bridge Street in 1 Sir Anthony Irby held in 1640 a piece or garth of land which formerly belonged to Haverholm Abbey; it laid near his property on the west side of the river.-Corjporation Records.

Page  257 WEST STREET. 257 1817. The White Hart Inn, which formerly stood at the High Street end of Bridge Street, is mentioned, in 1564, as then held of the manor of Hussey Tower. In 1594, it belonged to the Willoughby family; and in 1640, to John Ryseinge, gentleman. A Sessions' dinner is mentioned as being held there in 1652; in 1674, it was the property of Thomas Richmond. The Saracen's Head is mentioned as an inn in 1564, as held of the manor of Hussey. In 1586, it was licensed to sell "beer brewed out of Boston." It was again licensed, in 1590, as the Sarson's Head, as one of five houses to be a "tipler," or "seller of ale and beer brewed out of the borough." It belonged to Francis Empson, formerly Doughty, in 1640; and is then described as being situated between the White Hart and Furthend Lane end, consequently must have been very near to the White Hart. In 1674, it is called the Serjeant's Head, and was then owned by Peter Bird, who also at that time occupied the White Hart. Nearly opposite to the east end of Bridge Street, on the east side of High Street, is a narrow alley leading to the river; there was formerly a quay or wharf, leading from the bridge-foot to this alley, which, in a plan of the town published nearly two hundred years ago, was a tolerably wide lane leading from High Street to the river. The house on the south side of this alley is of considerable antiquity. West Street was called Forde-end Lane in 1575 and 1590; Forthe End in