The University of Michigan Medical School, as an established leader in medical education and biomedical research, is committed to preparing physicians for academic careers. Research is the currency of academic medicine. Physicians in practice are expected to contribute to the advancement of science through peer review; yet, physicians rarely receive formal training in critical review of scientific literature. While medical students often participate in research, few intentional efforts focus on teaching academic communication skills. The Michigan Journal of Medicine (MJM) seeks to address these challenges.

MJM is a peer-reviewed, student-led publication for medical research. MJM is committed to providing a vehicle for publication of student research as well as giving detailed critiques of work submitted. Students supply content and, with guidance from U-M Medical School faculty, assume editorial leadership roles for the journal, including management of the peer review and editorial process. Editorial roles are held by fourth-year medical students who take part in the Academic Communications course to receive training in evaluation, writing, and presentation of scientific research. MJM is in its third year, and we are pleased to present an edition worthy of the most scrupulous scholar.

We congratulate Joseph Linzey and David Cron, the journal’s Editors in Chief, and the entire editorial team on the publication of this issue. We thank them for their hard work. We are delighted to be working with such enthusiastic and talented students, and we look forward to future issues of MJM under the leadership of the incoming editorial team. Likewise, we express our gratitude to our publishing partner Michigan Publishing Services, a unit of the University of Michigan Library.

Emily Stucken, MD

Assistant Professor of Otolaryngology


Michael Englesbe, MD

Darling Professor of Surgery


Jasna Markovac, PhD

Department of Orthopaedic Surgery