Giles and Eyler The final element of Dewey' s ideas about learning and knowledge that we find relevant to theorizing about how learning occurs in service-learning is his idea of reflective thinking. It is interesting to note that Dewey uses the term "reflective thinking" to connote a type of thinking, and he uses the term "reflective activity" to mean the complete set of activities related to reflection. It seems to us that the specific emphasis on reflective thinking is Dewey's crucial point here; where he uses the term reflective activity it seems to be in a more general and possibly less precise way. What is central for Dewey is that thinking and action are inextricably linked. Evidence of this is that Dewey stated that "reflection includes observation" (1933, p. 102), this being the empirical basis of knowing and also being the link between what is experienced and how that experience is processed to produce learning. "Data (facts) and ideas (suggestions, possible solutions) thus form the two indispensable and correlative factors of all reflective activity" (1933, p. 104). While full explication of Dewey's Five Phases or Aspects of Reflective Thought (1933, pp. 107 -115) is beyond the scope of this work, they are listed below with some elucidation about each. 1. Suggestions-this is the inhibition of tendency to act, to pursue what ever suggestion arises from the situation by stopping to consider more than one course of action. 2. Intellectualization-this is the definition of a problem and the raising of questions about the nature of the problem and possible solutions. 3. The hypothesis-this is the development of the guiding idea based on observation and previous knowledge. 4. Reasoning-this is the development of the hypothesis by applying knowledge and by developing the linkages in the sequence of ideas. 5. Testing the hypothesis in action-this is the verification through further observation or experimentation in which the problem is solved or a new problem is presented. In reviewing these phases it is important to note that Dewey did not see them as linear. In fact, he specifically wrote that the "sequence of the five phases is not fixed," and that they could be collapsed or expanded, but that they were "the indispensable traits of reflective thinking" (1933, pp. 115-116). One important implication of this is that there is no linear movement from the concrete to the abstract any more than there is a preferred movement from the abstract to the concrete. In rejecting both of these dichotomies, Dewey argued that the realities of life demanded a mix of the two, depending on life circumstances, and that the end of education was "to secure a working balance" (1933, p. 228) between the two. This was to be done with respect to individual dispositions toward concrete and abstract thought in the context of social life. Perhaps this reflects an application of the principles of continuity and interaction that were noted above. To close this section, we return to Dewey's central question that we posed at the beginninghow is it that experience is educative? Dewey's practical answer in applying his philosophy of learning and knowledge was in the form of using projects as a means for producing learning from experience. He set forth four criteria (1933, pp. 217-18) that were necessary for "projects to be truly educative:" 1. must generate interest 2. must be worthwhile intrinsically 3. must present problems that awaken new curiosity and create a demand for information 4. must cover a considerable time span and be capable of fostering development over time Application of these criteria involves linking the principles of continuity and interaction, the process of problematization and inquiry, and the phases of reflective thought. These criteria are probably the clearest example of how to apply Dewey's theory to service-learning. Citizenship, Community and Democracy This section draws upon Dewey's social and political philosophy. The primary works considered here are, Democracy and Education (1916), The Public and its Problems (1946b), The School and Society (1900) and Problems of Men (1946a) (While the latter is an anthology of earlier works, it contains an introduction written specifically for the collection). As we move from Dewey's educational philosophy to his social philosophy it is important to note that the major works in this latter area were attempts to link the two; the use 80
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