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1. a- pref.(1), in verbs

4 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
In verbs inherited from OE:(a) From OE ā-: a-biden, a-breken, a-fallen, a-reren, a-risen, a-senden, a-waken, a-winnen, and many others. (b) From OE on-: a-biden (also an-biden), ppl. a-knoue(n (also…

2. a- pref.(2), in adverbs

3 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
From early ME a prep., derived from unstressed an before nouns, adjs., and advs. beginning with a consonant [OE on, an]. (a) Orig. noun phrases: a-beggeþ, a-bedde, a-blode, a-clokke, a-dai(es,

3. a- pref.(3)

1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
Occasional variant of i- [OE ge-] in past ppls. and in some other words, as anough beside inough, enough; aware beside iware.

4. abǒute(n- pref.

Additional spellings: abouten-
23 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) In vb., ppl., adj.: aboute- beren, to carry (sth.) hither and thither; aboute- brennen, envelop (sth.) in flames; aboute- clothed, covered by clothing, enveloped, wrapped about; aboute- comen

5. abǒve- pref.

11 quotations in 1 sense
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(a) above- comen, to come upon, fall upon, attack; above- bringen, above- leden, bring upon, visit upon; above- growen, grow on the land; (b) higher on the written page; earlier in a document…

6. ac- pref.

0 quotations in 0 senses
No definition available (stub entry)

7. ad- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words taken (a) directly from Latin, as ad-ducen, ad-juren, ad-mitten, or (b) from Latinized Old French, as a(d)-joinen, a(d)-journen, a(d)-monesten. In ME, ad- has no meaning, except as it…

8. af- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in af-(h)ingred starved, and afirst thirsty (vr. of of-thirst, a-thurst).

9. af- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
Only in words taken from Latin or from Latinized OF, as af-fect, af-firmacioun, af-fluence, a(f)-fiaunce. In ME, af- has no meaning, except as it distinguishes af-fect from ef-fect, af-fluence from in

10. afōre- pref.

44 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
Ahead (in space); afore- rider, one who rides ahead of the main body of an army, ?a scout, ?one of the vanguard.

11. afō̆rn- pref.

6 quotations in 1 sense
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(a) Forward (in space); aforn- rider, one who rides ahead of an army; ?a scout, ?one of the vanguard; (b) previously (in time); (c) at any earlier place in a book or document; aforn- rehersed

12. after- prefix

68 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
Verbal cpds.: (a) after- bending, the second bending, a bending back (of a bow); prob., the shaping process which gives the ends a curvature the reverse of that at the center; after- berende, bearing…

13. al- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words taken from Latin or Latinized Old French, as al-legorie, al-legacioun, a(l)-lien, a(l)-louen. In ME, al- has no meaning except as it distinguishes a(l)-lien from re-lien, al-legacioun fr…

14. alder- pref.

35 quotations in 2 senses
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With the superl. of an adj. or adv.: of all, very; alrebest, best of all, (the) very best; alre-erest, alder- first, on alre-erst, first of all; alder- hext, highest or greatest of all; alder- last

15. an- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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(a) Prior member of cpd. advs. & preps. whose second member begins with a vowel: an-ent [OE on efen], an-inne [OE on innan], an-under, an-uppe, etc. [cp. the pre-consonantal variant in a-bǒute, abǒve

16. an- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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(a) In several nouns: an-sene appearance, an-velt anvil, an-wald power; (b) in the adj. an-lich 'like, similar' and its derivatives anlicnesse & anlicni.

17. an- pref.(3)

1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) In words inherited from OE: an-biden, an-elen kindle; (b) in words not attested in OE with this prefix, but occurring in early ME up to c1225: an-belʒen, an-bursten; also an-ēlen kindle, an-hongen

18. an- pref.(4)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Examples: an-amelen, anclosen, an-egren, an-ointen, anjoinen, anvie.

19. an- pref.(5)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words from Latin or Old French, as in a(n)-nexen, a(n)-nullen, a(n)-nunciacioun.

20. and- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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(a) In the nouns an(d)-ʒit, an(d)-let, and-seche, an(d)swere; (b) in the adjs. an(d)-sete, an(d)-weard; in the verbs and-ʒǣten, an(d)-sweren.

21. ante- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In several words taken from L or ML, as ante-cedent, ante-cessor, ante-theme, anti-cipacioun.

22. anti- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In several words taken from ML, as anti-crist, anti-dotarie, anti-phonere, anti-pope.

23. ap- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words taken from Latin or Latinized Old French, as a(p)-paraunce, a(p)-penden, a(p)-perceiven, ap-plicacioun, ap-probacioun. In ME, ap- has no meaning except as it distinguishes a(p)-penden fr…

24. as- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words from Latin or Latinized Old French, as a(s)-sessen, a(s)-senten, a(s)-signen, as-sumpcioun, a(s)-suren. In ME, as- has no meaning except as it distinguishes a(s)-senten from con-senten,

25. at- pref.(1)

3 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
In verbs of motion or direction: (a) meaning 'away', as in at-blenchen, at-bresten, at-flen, at-wappen, at-winden; (b) meaning 'toward, to', as in at-feng accepted, at-gon approach (beside 'vanish')…

26. at- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in words taken from Latin or Latinized Old French, as at-tempten, at-tenden, at-titlen, at-traccioun. In ME, at- has no meaning except as it distinguishes at-tenden from tenden or ex-tenden,

27. ayẹ̄- pref.

4 quotations in 1 sense
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Again, back; aye- asking, asking repeatedly, ?asking for the return of something; aye- comen, come back, return; aye- coming, home coming, return; aye- rechen, to return (sth.), hand back.

28. ayẹ̄n- pref.

168 quotations in 8 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) In front of, opposite, facing toward; ayen- coupen, intercept (sb.), stop, turn back; ayen- couping, act of blocking or intercepting; also, resistance; ayen- louken, bar the way to (sb.); ayen-

29. ayẹ̄ns- pref.

8 quotations in 1 sense
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In opposition to, against; ayens- crien, to cry out against; ayens- fighting, the act of opposing; ayens- holding, resistance; ayens- seien, forbid (sth.), prohibit; also, refuse (to do sth.); ayens-

30. bī- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Stressed first member of cpd. nouns. Examples: bī-gāte, bī-girdel [OE], bī-leman, bī-live, bī-saue, bī-spel [OE], bī-stī, bī-tāle, bī-wist [OE], bī-word.

31. bi- pref.(2)

8 quotations in 8 senses
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Forming trans. verbs from intransitives, often with specialized (factitive, completive, figurative) meaning (s): (a) Inherited from OE, as bidelven, biflouen, bilaughen, bimēnen, bireusen, bishīnen,

32. bi- pref.(3)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Unstressed first member of cpd. advs. & preps. Examples: bafte(n, bicause, bifōre(n, bihinde(n, bimong, binēthe(n, binnen, bi-north, biside(s, bi-sǒuth, bitīme(s, bitwẹ̄ne(n, bitwix(en, biyond(e,

33. bifōre- pref.

Additional spellings: before-
74 quotations in 4 senses
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In verbs: bifore- barren, prevent, bar; forbid; bifore- comen, come into the presence of; bifore- girden, to gird beforehand, provide; bifore- gon, come into the presence of; bifore- greithen

34. co- pref.

0 quotations in 0 senses
No definition available (stub entry)

35. con-, cǒn- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In many words taken from L or OF, or from both sources, as conceiven, concepcioun; confermen, -firmen, -firmacioun; confessen, -fessioun, -fessour; conqueren, -querour, -queste. Since the L or OF…

36. cǒuntre- pref.

52 quotations in 7 senses
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Against (in position, motion, direction), opposite, counter-; ?back, rear (as opposed to front, forward); countre- filet, some kind of ribbon for the head or headdress; countre- frount, countre-

37. dē̆- pref.

2 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) With depreciative or privitive force: declinen, decresen, decrien, defamen, defectif, degraden, despeiren, desperat, desolat, etc.; (b) in words which as a whole denote something disagreeable or…

38. des- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In many words, such as desarmen, descrien, desdein, deshonour, desparagen, despisen, despit. The prefix des- is synonymous with dis-(q.v.) and is frequently replaced by it in ME, esp. during the later…

39. dī̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In verbs, ppls., and verbal nouns taken from L and/or OF: digest, digesten, digestion, dilacioun, dilaten, diligent, diluvie, diminucioun, dimise, etc. For meanings see dē̆- and dis-.

40. dīa- pref.

79 quotations in 1 sense
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Med. In names of pharmaceutical preparations, or drugs, usually indicating that the herb or the like which follows is the chief ingredient: (a) dia- bardich, some kind of drug; dia- borago, a drug…

41. dif- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Only in some words taken from L and/or OF: difference, differren, difficultẹ̄, diffinen, diffinicioun, diffusioun. For meaning, see dis-.

42. dis- pref.

2 quotations in 2 senses
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(a) In many verbs, verbal nouns, and verbal adjs. taken either from L or OF, dis- clearly has adversative or privitive force, as in disal(l)ouen, disavauntage, disavouen, discomfort, disconsolat,

43. ē̆- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix occurring only in words adopted from Latin or Old French, e.g. ējecciǒun, eloquence, eloquent, ērect, ēvicten, evidence.

44. e- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Variant of i- pref.: (a) prefix of the past ppl. in early ME and also in later Southern texts; (b) prefix of verbs in very early ME.

45. ed- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Not a live prefix in ME. It survives in a small number of words from OE: ed-bōte expiation, ed-groue second growth, ed-lēn reward, ed-wīt reproach, ed-cenned reborn, ed-lǣchen to repeat, ed-wīten

46. ef- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix occurring only in words adopted from Latin or Old French, e.g. ef-fect, ef-ficient, ef-flūence, ef-fūsiǒun.

47. em- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix occurring as a variant of en- in words whose primary element begins with a labial stop, e.g. em-baumen, em-belishen, em-brācen, em-pēchen, em-pēchement, em-perǒur, em-prīse, em-plēden. In…

48. en- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix of many verbs, action nouns, and agent nouns (and of some adjs.) adopted from OF or formed in ME. In OF the chief function of en- [L in-] is to form verbs from nouns and adjs. These verbs are…

49. encǒuntre- pref.

0 quotations in 0 senses
No definition available (stub entry)

50. enter-, entre- pref.

Additional spellings: entre-
1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix of verbs, action nouns, and agent nouns in words adopted from OF, e.g. enter-chaunǧen, -comūnen, -dīten, -medlen, -mēten; enter-cǒurs, -dīt, -lūde, -prīse, -mētǒur. The original meaning of…

51. epi- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix occurring in some learned words adopted from OF or ML (orig. Greek): e.g. epi-cicle, epi-glote, epi-lence, epi-loge, epi-thime.

52. es- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix of verbs and action nouns adopted from OF, e.g. es-cāpen, es-chaunǧen, es-pleiten, es-soinen. It is not formative in ME. as- and a-, the AF variants of this prefix, occur alongside the CF…

53. ēth-, ẹ̄th- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Combining form of ethe easily, as in eth-bete, -finde, -sene, etc.

54. ex- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix in verbs, ppls., post-verbal nouns, etc., taken from L (often by way of OF). This prefix is not formative in ME (aside from a few nonce formations). In L the prefix occasionally has the force…

55. for- pref.(1)

3 quotations in 3 senses
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In verbs the prefix denotes (a) intensive or completive action or process, or (b) action that miscarries, turns out for the worse, results in failure, or produces adverse or opposite results. In…

56. for- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix in several verbs and nouns taken from OF: for-juǧǧen [OF for-jugier] condemn, convict, banish; for-lancen [OF for-lancer] flush game; for-loinen [OF for-loignier] forsake, stray from; for-f

57. fōr(e- pref.

Additional spellings: fore-
1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prior member (a) in cpd. verbs, (b) in related action and agent nouns, and (c) in other nouns. All types are inherited from OE, but type (c) is more common in later ME. fōr(e- bears the main…

58. geder- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare combining element or quasi-prefix expressing mutuality or translating Latin com-, co- (see gedercoming ger.)

59. grǒund adv. or pref.

6 quotations in 1 sense
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Very, extremely; fully, abundantly; ground filled, ground laden; ground hot.

60. hund- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix occasionally affixed to numerals which are multiples of ten; cp. hund- seofenteoða, etc.

61. i- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix with various meanings affixed to various parts of speech: (a) in nouns from OE (rare after 1300): ibeat, ibedde, ibere, ibird, ibrotheren, iclova, icomp, idrevednesse, ifere, ifo,

62. in- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix in nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, gerunds, participles, and prepositions; also in place names [see Smith PNElem. 1.281]. It is frequent in words of OE origin: (nouns) inborgh,

63. in- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Negative prefix in nouns, adjectives, adverbs, verbs, participles, and gerunds. It occurs in many words of L or OF origin: (nouns) ignoraunce, imbecilite, immoderaunce, impietie, importunite,

64. in- pref.(3)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Intensive prefix in a few ME adjectives: ingodli, inheve, inred, inwise; also in a few adverbs: inricheli, inthorouli.

65. inter- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Prefix found in nouns, adjectives, verbs, and gerunds; occurring chiefly in words from L or OF: (nouns) intercepcioun, intercession, interjeccioun, interspace; (adj.) intercise, interliniare,

66. kine- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A derivational prefix, with the sense 'kingly, royal', in words from OE or in ME formations [see below].

67. mal(e- pref.

Additional spellings: male-
1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix appearing in nouns of OF origin: maleaventure, malecheif, Malebouche, malefortune, malengine, malese, malfetour, maltalent, maudisour, etc.; occasionally in adjectives: malapert, maleureux

68. mid adj. & pref.

64 quotations in 2 senses
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(a) Middle, mid-; mid strem, the middle of the stream; mid theigh, the middle of the thigh; in the mid se (sheld), in the middle of the sea (shield); in the mid side, ?in the middle; to the mid shaft

69. mis- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix with a wide range of pejorative meanings: evil(ly, sinful(ly, wicked(ly, false(ly, unjust(ly, illegal(ly, bad(ly, harmful(ly, painful(ly, wrong(ly, incorrect(ly, mistaken(ly, unwise(ly…

70. of- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A common prefix, frequent in words of OE origin, esp. verbs: ofanimen, oflien, ofrechen, ofsen, ofsenden, ofsetten, ofslen, ofstingen, ofthenchen, ofthinken, etc.; also participles: oflonged,

71. on- pref.(1)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A derivational prefix appearing in all parts of speech except pronouns, but most frequently in verbs. It is found in words descended from OE: (verbs) onblowen, onbrirden, onhauien, onheven [see…

72. on- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare derivational prefix appearing chiefly in verbs of OE origin: oncnawen, ondreden [orig. *and-rǣdan], onfon, onfongen, onʒiten. It probably appears in the nouns onsaue & ontinkel and in the…

73. or- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare derivational prefix of nouns, adjectives, and their derivatives: (of OE origin) ordal n., orgel n.(1), ortroue n., ortrouen v. & (no longer in use after 1300) orgelnesse n., ormēte adj., or

74. ǒut(e- pref.

Additional spellings: oute-
1 quotation in 1 sense
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A common prefix appearing in nouns, adjectives, adverbs, and verbs of OE origin; imparting a sense 'out, outward, outer, forth, away': outfangene-thef, outlep, outrune, outsiht, outware (nouns)…

75. over- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A derivational prefix which appears in more than 70 words inherited from OE: oferhudiʒen, ofermetto, oferten, overdriven, overet, overgangen, overhelen v.(2), overhoue, oversitten, oversleie,

76. par- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare prefix occurring almost exclusively in words of French or Latin origin; e.g., paramoure, parclose, pardoun (nouns); parboilen, pardounen, pargeten (verbs); paregal, parfit (adj.)…

77. para- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A very rare prefix found in a few learned words: parable, parabolik, paradise, paralisie, paralitike, etc. It was not a living prefix in ME.

78. per- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A common prefix in words of French or Latin origin; e.g., percepcioun, percussioun, perjurie, permanence, perpendicle, perspicuite (nouns); perdurable, permanent, perpetrat, pertinent (adj.)…

79. peri- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare prefix found in a few learned nouns, chiefly borrowings from L or ML; e.g., pericardium, pericraneum, periferie, perimetre, periode, Peripatetike(s, peripleumonie, peritoneum, etc. It was…

80. prē̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A common prefix in words of Latin or French origin; e.g., precellence, precessioun, precognicion, predicament, prelacie, prerogatif, prevaricatour (nouns); precise, prefinite, prejudicial,

81. prō̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A common prefix in words derived from Latin or French; e.g., probleme, processionarie, progenitour, pronosticacioun, propugnacle, prosperite, provincial (nouns); profounde, prolixe, propicious,

82. prōtho- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare prefix occurring in a few ME nouns & adjectives: prothogol, prothomartir, prothonotarie; prothopaciens, prothopassive. It was not a living prefix in ME.

83. pseudo- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A rare prefix in Middle English, signifying 'false, hypocritical, counterfeit', appearing chiefly in borrowings from Latin, but occasionally in ME formations modeled on Latin words: pseudofrere,

84. pū̆r- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix found in words of French origin; e.g., purpartie, purseint, pursevaunt, purveiaunce, purveiour (nouns); purveiable (adj.); purchasen, purfilen, purloinen, purpensen, purposen (verbs)…

85. rē̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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In many verbs and derivatives of verbs from L or OF or both, meaning 'back from', 'backwards': rebouten, recurve adj., reflecten, rejecte n., replien, retorte ppl.; 'back to (a place of origin)'…

86. sam- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A native prefix added usually to adjectives, occasionally to nouns, indicating incompleteness, a partial or imperfect condition, etc.: samcrisp, samded, samhale, samlerede, samred, samripe,

87. sāmen- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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An infrequent prefix, attached to adjectives, translating L con-, com-: e.g., samendighte, samenstrengthed, samenthik.

88. sē̆mi- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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Half: (a) in words of Latin (or OF from L) origin; e.g., in nouns: semibrefe, semidiametre, semiton; in adjectives: semicirculer, semicocte, semimature, semivif, semivocal; (b) in ME formations…

89. sǒu- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in nouns derived from OF or formed in ME, usu. denoting subordination in rank of persons: soubaili, soubaillif, soucelerer(e, soudeken, souden, souprior, sousextein, souwardein, and perh…

90. sub- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in words derived primarily from L, occ. from OF, or from both, often with its original meaning still discernible: (a) 'subordinate or inferior in rank' (in nouns): subcelerer,

91. super- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in words derived primarily from L, sometimes from both L and OF, infrequently from OF only, with the basic meaning 'over, above': (a) usu. in the locative sense 'above, on top of, upon', in…

92. sur- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in words derived primarily from OF, occas. from AL (via AF), with senses similar to those of ME super- pref., for example: (a) 'above, on top of, upon, over', in various permutations (both…

93. thurgh- pref.

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An inseparable prefix or a combining element in verbs, participles, and gerunds and a combining element in nouns and adjectives; the prefix is freq. of OE origin for the verbs, occas. of OE origin…

94. tọ̄̆- pref.(1)

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A prefix or combining element in many parts of speech (a) In some forty verbs, four participles, and three gerunds it has the meanings of to adv.(1) and to prep., usu. indicating motion, direction,…

95. tọ̄̆- pref.(2)

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in well over 200 verbs and participles, thirteen gerunds usu. derived from the verbs, and eleven nouns. The prefix has two primary meanings (a) In the great majority of the verbs and gerunds…

96. tọ̄̆fōre- pref.

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A combining element or quasi-prefix in a few gerunds and participles, with the meaning of tofore(n adv. sense 2. or 3.: toforeknouing, toforelivinge; toforegoing, toforeiseid, toforeitolde,

97. tọ̄̆geder- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A combining element or quasi-prefix in a few gerunds and one noun, which are either renderings of Latin nouns with the prefix com-, con- (togederspeking, togederstiring, togederstourbling) or…

98. trans- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix in more than seventy words from L or OF originally meaning 'across, over', 'through, to the other side', 'on the other side, beyond'. The great majority of these words are nouns and verbs…

99. trī̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix or combining element in more than thirty words, chiefly nouns and adjectives, borrowed from L or OF meaning 'three, triple' or 'triply, three times', for example: the nouns tre-foil,

100. twī̆- pref.

1 quotation in 1 sense
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A prefix or combining element in ten words of OE origin, chiefly nouns and adjectives, meaning 'two, double' or 'twice, doubly': the nouns twibil, twihinde, twinter (from the OE adjective), twirædniss