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1. almes(se n.

Additional spellings: almesse
144 quotations in 7 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) Anything given to relieve those in poverty or distress, any charitable gift or offering, alms; an allotment of alms; eten almes, be dependent on alms; gan on almes, liven bi, of almes, live on…

2. ampulle n.

14 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A small flask [of glass or metal]; (b) a small flask of consecrated water or oil [commonly carried by pilgrims returning from a shrine]; ampulla.

3. anker n.

42 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A ship's anchor; casten, laien, senden out anker; drauen up, halen, highen, pullen up, taken up, weien (up) anker; riden at, bi, on anker; (b) a weight; (c) a fastening device, a mooring.

4. apostle n.

52 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
One of the Twelve Apostles of Christ; apostles twelve; also, a missionary or evangelist of the early Church, such as St. Paul; apostle of Engelonde; apostle of hethen men; apostolene prince.

5. arblast, -blastē̆r n.

Additional spellings: arblaster
35 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A weapon for discharging quarrels, stones, etc., consisting of a bow set crosswise on a shaft; a crossbow, an arbalest; (b) a missile shot from a crossbow; arblast shute.

6. arche-bishop, erche-bishop n.

Additional spellings: archebishop, erche-bishop, erchebishop
45 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) An archbishop of the Roman (or Greek) Church; (b) the see of an archbishop.

7. arche-dēken, erche-dekēn n.

Additional spellings: archedeken, erche-deken, erchedeken
24 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
The chief administrative officer of an archbishop or bishop, who presided over the ecclesiastical court of the diocese, had powers of visitation, inducted candidates into benefices, imposed penance…

8. ark(e n.

Additional spellings: arke
64 quotations in 5 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A chest or box; a large box or bin for storing meal or grain; a coffer for money or valuables, treasure chest; a coffin; (b) ark keper, a treasurer; ark maker, ark wright, a maker of chests or…

9. aube n.

24 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) An ecclesiastical vestment (usually of white linen) reaching to the ankles, an alb; also, the Greek poderis, the Hebrew ephod; (b) aube girdel, girdle used to gather the alb at the waist.

10. aunǧel n.

155 quotations in 9 senses
Sense / Definition
One of the celestial servants of God, an angel.

11. autē̆r n.

93 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The altar of a church; also, the altar placed before the shrine or image of a saint; (b) heigh auter, chef auter, the high altar, the altar on which the Eucharist is offered; sacrement of the

12. ban n.

20 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A proclamation or edict of an overlord; also, a summons by proclamation; crien (blouen) the ban; (b) one of the banns of marriage; asken (crien, greden, spiren) the ban(n)es; (c) a proclamation of…

13. bank(e n.(2)

Additional spellings: banke
10 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
A bench; bank cover [cp. banker].

14. bat n.

28 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A war club or mace; a cudgel or flail; (b) a (shepherd's) staff; a (fuller's) bat; (c) a crosier.

15. batte n.

1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
A type of Flemish ship.

16. bē̆nd(e n.(1)

Additional spellings: bende
83 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A fetter, shackle, chain; also fig.; (b) a band or strap of metal, a hoop, clamp, fastening; (c) a circlet or fillet to confine the hair; (d) a cord for tying or fastening; a bandage, rope, withy…

17. bidel n.

39 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
One who makes announcements or carries messages and performs other services on the authority of a lord, court, guild, etc.; herald, town crier, summoner; bidel hod, a beadle's hood; bidel land (a…

18. ?bin-heie n.

Additional spellings: binheie
1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
An enclosure, pen.

19. bǒket n.

22 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) Water bucket, well bucket; (b) a vessel used for other purposes.

20. bō̆rd n.

285 quotations in 9 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A board, a plank; stif as ani bord, stiff as a board; Estlond bord, board imported from Norway or the Baltic countries; oken (okes) bord, an oak board; wainscot bord; (b) coll. lumber, timber…

21. bō̆rd(e n.

Additional spellings: borde
3 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A strip of embroidered stuff; (b) a border (of plants).

22. box n.(1)

19 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The box tree (Buxus sempervirens) or its wood; box tre; box table, a tablet of boxwood (for inscriptions); (b) rendering L sambucus 'elder' erroneously.

23. brēch(e n.

Additional spellings: breche
44 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The act of breaking something; breakage, fracture; (b) the breaking (of waves).

24. brinie n.

37 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A coat of mail; corselet, cuirass, hauberk; brouden brinie; -- also pl. for sg.; (b) brinie hod, a coif of mail.

25. Britaine n.

29 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
The island on which England, Cornwall, Wales, and Scotland are (or were) situated, or those parts of the island held by Celts after the Anglo-Saxon conquest; also, specif., Wales, Cornwall; Britaine

26. Britǒun n. & adj.

31 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A native of the British Isles, a Celt; Britones se, the Britons' (or Bretons') Sea = Brittish se, the English channel; (b) a Breton; (c) a Breton apple.

27. bush n.(1)

73 quotations in 5 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A woods, grove; thicket, underbrush; bank and bush, hill and (wooded) dale; under the bush, in (the shelter of) the woods; (b) rank growth.

28. calketrappe n.

19 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
Mil. A device with sharp iron spikes set on the ground to cripple the feet of an advancing enemy; similar device used against trespassers, etc.; fig. a spiritual trap or pitfall.

29. calle n.

38 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A net for the hair, a kind of headdress; (b) comeli under calle, beautiful in one's headdress; uncomeli under calle; maken (sb.) a houve aboven a calle, to make a fool of (sb.); (c) ?a hood, ?a…

30. candel n.

97 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A candle, a taper; wax candel [see also wax n.(1), sense 2a.(a)]; (b) a medicinated candle; (c) a candelabrum; (d) fig. a star; candel of jelousie, the sun.

31. canker n.(1)

53 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A cancer, carcinoma; also, an ulcerated non-malignant tumor, a spreading ulcer; (b) ulceration of a wound, gangrene in a wound or ulcer; (c) a sore in the mouth, ?canker sores; ?also, an abscess…

32. canǒun n.(1)

41 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) Ecclesiastical law, canon law; also, an authoritative statement or writing of the Church; (b) a rule or principle; also, a rule or set of rules in written form, an authoritative statement.

33. cāpǒun n.

55 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A capon; (b) capoun de haut grece, capoun of hegh grece, a fat capon; capoun in concis (conisie, consi, councis, couns), a dish made of capon with the chopped whites of boiled eggs added and the…

34. cat n.

95 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A domesticated cat; fig. cat of helle, the Devil; (b) in proverbs, etc.: brenned cat dredeth fir, a singed cat dreads the fire; cat loveth fish but he nel his fet wete, the cat loves fish but…

35. celidoine n.(1)

33 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
The greater celandine (Chelidonium majus); also, any of its parts used medicinally.

36. celle n.

61 quotations in 7 senses
Sense / Definition
A subordinate monastic establishment.

37. chā̆vel n.

38 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A jaw; nethere (over) chavel, lower (upper) jaw; (b) chavel bon, jawbone, jaw; (c) the toothed jaw-like front (of a reaper).

38. chough(e n.

Additional spellings: choughe
20 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
One of several birds of the crow family: chough, jackdaw, jay; Cornish chough; co-brid.

39. clerk n.

132 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A member of the clergy (as distinguished from the laity), an ecclesiastic, cleric; clerk possessioner, a member of one of the endowed orders; (b) one of the secular clergy (as distinguished from…

40. cok n.(1)

81 quotations in 7 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The male of the common domestic fowl: cock, rooster; cok chike(n, ?a young cock; cok tord, a cock's excrement; (b) the male of other birds; culver cok; fesaunt cok; mor cok (q.v.); po cok (q.v.)…

41. cok n.(4)

3 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A shellfish: cockle; (b) in a name.

42. cō̆liẹ̄r n.

13 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) One who makes and sells charcoal, collier [see other examples in Fransson ME Surnames 174]; (b) in place names.

43. cǒule n.(1)

22 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A garment: cloak; (b) the hooded cloak worn by monks, cowl; coule cloth, cloth for cowls; (c) a nun's cowl; a woman's gown; (d) ?an ecclesiastical vestment, ?cope.

44. cǒvel n.

20 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A tub, vat, or bucket; (b) covel staf, covel tre, a pole for carrying a two-handled tub or vat.

45. cresse n.

40 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A plant of the mustard family, a cress; esp., the common water cress (Roripa nasturtium aquaticum, Nasturtium officinale); also, the garden cress or garden peppergrass (Lepidium sativum); cresse

46. crisme n.

30 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A mixture of oil and balsam consecrated for use by the church, chrism; (b) a sacramental anointing; esp., baptism and confirmation; (c) a convert to Christianity.

47. crisopās(e n.

Additional spellings: crisopase
11 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
A precious stone, chrysoprase.

48. cristal n.

61 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The transparent form of crystallized quartz, rock crystal; (b) some material resembling crystal; (c) fig. the clear part of the eye [see cristalline]; (d) in comparisons: bright as cristal, cler

49. Cristen adj. & n.

101 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) Of persons: Christian; Cristen soule, Christian soul; also, a Christian; (b) Cristen man, a Christian.

50. crǒuche n.

69 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The cross of Christ; exaltacioun of the holi crouche, a festival, Sept. 14; (b) fig. the burden of a Christian.

51. crucet-hūs n.

Additional spellings: crucethus
1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
[A kind of torture chamber.]

52. crūet n.

20 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A small vessel for sacramental wine, holy water, or chrism; (b) a jug, bottle, or bowl (as for water); (c) fig.

53. culter n.

18 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The colter of a plow; also, a plowshare; (b) a knife; (c) ?a sharp stake or peg.

54. cuppe n.

92 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A drinking vessel; a bowl, goblet, cup, etc.; also, a receptacle for fruit or confections; (b) stonding cuppe, a cup with a foot or base; trussing cuppe, ?a cup or chalice for traveling; (c) a…

55. discī̆ple n.

47 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) One of the personal followers of Jesus; esp., one of the Twelve Apostles or one of the Seventy (seventy-two) sent out to spread His teaching; a disciple; (b) a personal follower of one of the…

56. Ēǧipcien, -ian n. and adj.

Additional spellings: Egipcian
20 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
As noun: a native of Egypt, an Egyptian.

57. epistel n.

51 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
A letter, or a literary work composed in the form of a letter (sometimes in verse).

58. fēd(e n.(1)

Additional spellings: fede
11 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) Mortal enmity, hostility, hostile conspiracy; revengeful spirit, homicide committed in revenge; (b) a mortal enemy; one of the three enemies of mankind (i.e. the flesh, the world, the Devil).

59. fēnix n.

12 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The Phoenix [see the Barth. quots.]; also a representation of it; (b) said of a woman of unique beauty; applied to the Virgin Mary; (c) said to be the name of a long-lived palm tree.

60. fēver n.

91 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
High bodily temperature, fever; a disease of which fever is a symptom; an attack of fever, a paroxysm of ague; (the) feveres, (malarial) chills and fever, ague.

61. fleil n.

25 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) Instrument used for threshing grain, a flail; (b) cap of a fleil, fleil cap, one of the bands of wood or leather (fastened about the end of the flail staff or the end of the swingle) through which…

62. flōte n.(1)

33 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A fleet of ships, esp. of warships; (b) company, troop; army; (c) herd of animals; (d) ?a set (of fishing nets).

63. font n.

27 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A receptacle for the water used in baptizing, a baptismal font; (b) font halwing [OE fant-hālgung], act or ceremony of blessing, or reconsecrating, a font.

64. fō̆r(e-land n.

Additional spellings: fore-land
17 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
A headland, a promontory.

65. forke n.

30 quotations in 5 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A farming tool with two or more prongs used for digging or for handling hay, dung, etc.; bot forke, muk forke, pik forke, q.v.; (b) a pronged utensil of metal usually used for stoking fires; fir

66. fullere n.

20 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
A fuller of cloth; also as surname.

67. gāble n.(1)

30 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A gable of a building; also, a façade; (b) gable ende, gable wal, gable wough, the end wall surmounted by a gable, gable end; gable forke, a gable; gable windou, a window in a gable; (c) in place…

68. gā̆l(e n.(1)

Additional spellings: gale
15 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) Song, singing; (b) outcry; noise; (c) speech, talking; (d) joy, happiness, merriment [2nd quot. may be gāle n. (2)].

69. ǧēaunt n. & adj.

50 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A fabulous manlike creature of great size; also, a man of extraordinary size or strength; geaunt berd, a giant's beard; geauntes fight, the war of the giants against the Greek gods; fig. Genesis

70. ǧemme n.

35 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A precious stone, gem; (b) fig. a precious thing, a virtue; (c) fig. an illustrious or precious person.

71. Ǧenesis n.

9 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
The first book of the Bible, Genesis.

72. ǧinǧivere n.

57 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The root of the plant Zingiber officinale or of a related species, ginger; poudre (of) gingivere, finely ground ginger; race (rote) of gingivere, a root of ginger; (b) grene gingivere, gingivere

73. gōt(e, gǒute n.

Additional spellings: gote, goute
26 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A stream of water; watercourse, brook; a current or swell of the ocean; also, a stream of blood; (b) a channel, ditch, drain; a sluice; (c) got nail, some kind of nail; (d) in place names [see…

74. gref(e n.

Additional spellings: grefe
5 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
A writing or engraving instrument, a stylus.

75. hal(le n.

Additional spellings: halle
171 quotations in 7 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A large private residence, a manorial hall; a royal residence, palace, castle; (b) a large public building for the transaction of business, holding court, worship, etc.; [see also both hal, mot

76. harp(e n.

Additional spellings: harpe
69 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A harp; also, any of several ancient stringed instruments; in harp, with the harp, to the accompaniment of a harp; in proverb [see asse 1. (c)]; (b) harp long, the large harp; harp smal, a small…

77. harper(e n.

Additional spellings: harpere
44 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) One who plays the harp, one who sings while accompanying himself on the harp, a minstrel; smal harper, one who plays a small harp; (b) in surnames; (c) in place names [see Smith PNElem. 1.240].

78. hasp(e n.

Additional spellings: haspe
41 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A fastening for a door, gate, chest, etc.; a hasp; up bi the hasp, unfastened, unlatched; barre and hasp, stapel and hasp; (b) a fastening for a garment or a helmet; ?a buckle, ?a lace; (c) a hank…

79. hauberk n.

41 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A coat of mail; also, plate armor or a coat of mail reinforced with plates; -- sometimes used interchangeably with habergeoun; (b) chain mail worn over a hair shirt as a form of penance; (c) fig.

80. hei(e n.

Additional spellings: heie
51 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A hedge or fence; (b) an enclosed plot of land; field, yard; also, an enclosed hunting park in a forest; chirche hei, q.v.; (c) cpds. & combs. hei brer, some kind of briar growing in hedges; hei

81. hẹ̄r(e n.(2)

Additional spellings: here
81 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A stiff and coarse cloth made of hair, haircloth; (b) ?pl. for sg.

82. here-barde n.

Additional spellings: herebarde
3 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
Some pathological condition, ?fever.

83. hē̆ring n.

70 quotations in 3 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A herring Clupea harengus; (b) red hering, smoked herring; whit hering, herring salted but not smoked; (c) hering barel, a cask for herring; hering breder (carter), one who roasts (hauls) herring…

84. hough n.(1)

49 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
A promontory, cliff; mountain or high hill with steep sides; bi hilles and houes, in hurstes and houes, over hil and hough, over hill and mountain, everywhere.

85. imne n.

42 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A song of praise to God or the saints; hymn, psalm; also, a canticle; (b) in Christian liturgy: a (Latin) metrical hymn of the breviary, usually of non-scriptural origin, as distinguished from…

86. ipicche n.

1 quotation in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
A sin.

87. Īrish n.

25 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The Irish people; Irish soldiers or army; wilde Irish; (b) the Irish language; (c) ?Irish linen; (d) as surname [some examples may be OF irais, wrathful, bad-tempered].

88. kīve n.

11 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A tub, vat; ?also, a large, wide-mouthed jar; drenche kive, a tanner's vat for soaking hides; helle kive, fig. the pit of hell; kive fat, a vat; (b) ?a prison; (c) kive man, a maker or seller of…

89. lai n.(1)

20 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) A lake, pond; large pool; (b) lai fen (mire), bog, swamp; also fig.; lai fish, fish from, or living in, a lake or pond; lai water, water from a pond or lake; (c) in surnames and place names [see…

90. lāk(e n.(1)

Additional spellings: lake
122 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) An expanse of water, a lake; also as surname; bi lond and lak, everywhere; the Flood [quot.: Cleanness 438]; (b) a pond, pool; cistern, reservoir; small artificial pool or basin; (c) in proverb.

91. Lā̆tī̆n n.

57 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The Latin language; fals Latin, incorrect Latin; latines leden (lore, tonge), the Latin language; Latin makere (wright), one who understands or writes Latin; (b) Latin speech or writing; a book or…

92. līne n.(1)

237 quotations in 9 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A cord or rope; a leash, sounding line, etc.; drauen bi o line, to pull on the same rope, pull together; line wie, a towpath; (b) a fishline; also fig.; hok and line, etc.; ground line [see ground

93. līǒun n.(1)

216 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A lion; (b) in comparisons: fers (hardi, wod) as lioun; cruel (real, sterne) as a lioun; strongere than a lioun; proudere (wildere) than the lioun; etc.; (c) in phrases: fers (gredi, grim, lothli,

94. lī̆st(e n.(2)

Additional spellings: liste
74 quotations in 5 senses
Sense / Definition
Border, edge, rim; hem; band, stripe.

95. maister n.

474 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A high official, civil or military; a governor, ruler, leader; also, of a ship: maister of the flete, the flagship; (b) applied to God, Christ, a heathen god; (c) one in charge of a guild…

96. malwe n.

53 quotations in 1 sense
Sense / Definition
(a) The common mallow Malva sylvestris; also, the marsh mallow Althaea officinalis; rarely, the Syrian mallow Hibiscus syriacu; malwe leves, mallow leaves; prob. leaves of the common mallow; malwe sed

97. mantel n.

107 quotations in 6 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) A sleeveless overgarment worn by men and women over a kirtle or tunic; a robe; ?a toga [quot.: c1375]; mantel cloth, mantle; mantel lap, the lower part of a mantle; mantel nok, the corner of a…

98. Marī(e n.

Additional spellings: Marie
90 quotations in 4 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The name Mary; (b) the Virgin Mary; Mari moder; ladi) seinte Mari; maide (maiden, oure moder, virgin) Mari; (c) maries man, a member of the Carmelite order, who promoted and professed a special…

99. mark(e n.(1)

Additional spellings: marke
222 quotations in 12 senses
Sense / Definition
(a) The boundary or limit of a field, mountain, forest, etc.; a border between countries or regions; the shore or bank of a sea or river; mark wei [OE mearc-weg], a road that serves as a boundary…

100. martir n.

50 quotations in 2 senses
Sense / Definition
Eccl. (a) One who suffers torture and execution for the Christian faith, a martyr; -- also used of Abel as a type of Christ; bok of martires, a martyrology; (b) a Christian witness; (c) in title.