Middle English Dictionary Entry

waxen v.(1)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. forth-waxen v., forwexen ppl., towaxen v.
1.
(a) To increase in size through natural growth, grow; also in fig. context; ~ up; ben (haven) waxen; ppl. waxinge, growing, alive; also in fig. context; (b) haven waxen, to have achieved full growth; ppl. waxen, at full size, fully grown; ful (al) waxen; (c) to coalesce; ~ togeder, be formed, coalesce; of the head of a sore: close up; (d) ppl. waxinge, of flesh: excrescent; waxinge kirnel, a pathological swelling.
2.
(a) Of a person or an animal: to develop physically, grow; grow up, mature; also, age, increase in age; also in fig. context; ~ in age (elde), ben waxen in elde; ~ on honde, ?grow quickly or in due course; ?mature well; (b) ppl. waxen (waxinge), grown; grown up, mature; also, adult; ful (wel) waxen; half waxen, q.v.; litel waxen; (c) litel (yong) waxen, yong waxinge, adolescent, young; waxinge youth, yong) waxinge age, adolescence; waxinge in armes, developing in the use of arms; (d) of a part of the body, hair, the barnacle goose, etc.: to grow out of its source of nourishment, extend outward; also fig.; ben waxen.
3.
(a) To increase temporarily in size or extent, wax;—used esp. of cyclical events; also fig. and in fig. context; ~ and wanen, wanen and ~; ben waxen; (b) of a woman, a woman’s belly: to become temporarily enlarged because of pregnancy; ~ with child (in bering of children).
4.
To increase physically in size, volume, a dimension, etc., expand; also fig. [quot. ?a1425 Orch.Syon]; also, extend.
5.
(a) To increase in amount or quantity; also, increase in number; ben waxen; ~ to, increase, multiply; (b) ben waxen, of the world: to be populated (with animals); (c) ~ at (up to, up in-til), to mount up to (a certain amount); (d) ppl. waxinge as adj.: fecund.
6.
(a) To increase in importance, power, wealth, etc.; flourish, prosper; also, become widespread; ~ in dignites (in malice, on lond, etc.); ben (biren, worthen) waxen; (b) ppl. waxinge as noun: those who prosper.
7.
To increase in degree, intensify; also, become more fierce; ben waxen.
8.
To increase in duration; also in fig. context [2nd quot.].
9.
(a) Of a river, flood, well, etc.: to rise, flood, well; ~ oute; ppl. waxinge as adj.: rising; (b) of a sea in a storm: to grow tempestuous.
10.
(a) To form; spring forth; of a state or condition: arise, occur; also in fig. context; ~ forth (up); ben waxen [sometimes difficult to distinguish from sense 2.(a)]; (b) of a physiological or pathological phenomenon: to form; of a parasite: appear; (c) of a day: ?to dawn; ?advance; the dai waxinge in the yer of bisext, ?leap day; (d) impers. hit waxed dai (night), hit was waxen even (night), day (evening, night) came; also, with inf. phrase as logical subj. of biginnen v.: hit bigan to ~ tempests (derk weder), tempests, etc. began to appear.
11.
Of a mental faculty: to develop.
12.
(a) Of a plant, an animal, etc.: to flourish (in a certain place or environment), thrive; also, be found (in a certain locale);—used with adv. or prep. phrase; ~ ther (ther-inne); ~ in that lond (amonges thornes, on sandie stoue, etc.) [some exx. could also be construed as sense 1.(a)]; (b) ben waxen, to be attached or adjoined.
13.
(a) To change (into sth.), turn; also, swell (into sth. great); ben waxen; also, in impers. constr.: hit waxeth (is waxen), it turns (into evening, into night); (b) to turn into (sb. or sth.), become; take on (a new role or occupation); also in fig. context; ben waxen; (c) to amount to (a certain number).
14.
With adj. complement: to become; ben waxen;—used in senses indicating: (a) a stage in a progressive condition, esp. aging; (b) a change in mental state or attitude; also in fig. context; (c) the development of a condition or the acquisition of a personal attribute; (d) a change in size, number, or magnitude; also, a change in duration; also, a change in shape; (e) the acquisition of or a change in a characteristic; also, in impers. constr.: hit waxeth, it becomes (clear, dark, etc.).
15.
With adv. or prep. phrase as complement: to come to be; go, fare; also in impers. constr. [2nd quot.]; ben) waxen.
16.
As auxiliary verb, in impers. constr.: hit waxeth, it proceeds (to do sth.).

Supplemental Materials (draft)

Note: Addition: Cp. iwaxen v.; some prefixed p.ppl. forms and quotations appear in both verbs.--per REL