Middle English Dictionary Entry

tọ̄ adv.(1)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

In expressions of motion: (a) to a place; to this place, here; to that place or person, there; also used redundantly following prep. phrase with to [last 2 quots.]; hard in goinge ~, hard to get at, difficult to attack; (b) bringen (beren, taken) ~, to bring (sth.) to a place; drauen ~, attract (sb. or sth.) to a place, draw in.
(a) In a direction toward or away from some point of reference; forward, forth, out; away, back; bouen ~, to roll down;—used fig.; loken ~, look down (from heaven); wenden ~, approach; also, with ppl. as noun: takinge ~, those who take away (boundary markers); (b) ~ and fro, ~..fro, to and fro, here and there, hither and yon, back and forth; also fig.; also, from one thing to another [quot. c1475]; one way and then another [quot. c1475(a1449)]; in every way [quot. a1450(a1338)]; ~ ne fro, here nor there, anywhere; also, in any manner, under any circumstances [quot. c1400]; fer and ~, far and near, everywhere.
(a) At or in a place, here, there; also, in position; ~ and fro, everywhere, all over; stonden ~, to stand still, stand fast; (b) leiinges ~, offerings (of food placed on a grave), servings.
In expressions of contact: (a) on; brennen ~, of a boiling mixture: to burn on, scorch; leien ~ with hondes, strike with the hands, assault; (b) putten (setten) ~ sele, to set (one's) seal, affix (one's) seal in confirmation of a document; honginge (puttinge, settinge) ~ of sele, puttinge ~ sele, the act of setting (one's) seal, the affixing of (one's) seal to a document; also used redundantly following prep. phrase with to [quot. c1460]; (c) eccl. puttinge ~ of honde(s, the ritual laying on of hands; (d) med. & surg. leien (putten, setten) ~, to apply (sth., a medicament, etc.) to a wound, part of the body, etc.; leiinge (puttinge, settinge) ~, the act of applying (sth., a medicinal preparation) to the body, a wound, etc.; the application or administration (of sth., a medicament).
To a closed position; clappen (shitten, steken, etc.) ~; also fig. [1st quot.].
In expressions of utterance: forth, out; bringen ~, to set forth one's case; speken ~, speak out, exhort; taken ~, take up (a lamentation, parable), begin to utter; puttinge ~, an allegation, accusation, a charge; takinge ~, a revelation, prophecy.
(a) To a plan or an endeavor, for that; gon ~, to get on with an action, go ahead, get busy; leien (fon, setten) ~, set to work, undertake a task, get started at something; takinge ~, an undertaking; (b) with inf. preceded by to verbal particle or forto particle: bouen ~, to bestir oneself (to do sth.); comen ~, undertake (to do sth.); also, come to the point (of doing sth.), be able (to do sth.) [quots. a1425]; leien (setten) ~, undertake (to do sth.); (c) leien ~ herte, to set (one's) heart (that sth. be done), determine; leien honde ~, leien ~ honde, exert oneself, take action [see also leien v.(1) 9.(a)]; with inf. preceded by to verbal particle: undertake (to do sth.); putten ~ honde(s, get busy, bestir oneself, take action; (d) thereof.
In temporal expressions: (a) until a time indicated by the context; ben longe ~ er than, to be long before (sth. happens), be long until; er hit be longe ~, before long; (b) comen (ben comen) ~, of a time or point in time: to arrive;—also impers. [last quot.; 1st 2 quots. could also be construed as impers. with postposed prep.]; (c) ~ or fro, ever, at any time.
In verbal expressions denoting addition: (a) in addition; ben set ~, of a people: to be added; casten ~ upon, leien ~ on, add to (one's sins); clouten (putten, throuen) ~, add (sth.); leien ~ bi enviroun, putten ~ bi compas, add (figures) all around (on an ornamental stand); (b) further; adden (putten) ~, of a speaker or writer: to add to what has already been stated, state further; leien ~, speak further, speak again; setten ~, set down (sth.) further in a text, add; addinge ~, an additional legal provision, addendum; (c) anat. puttinge ~, an appendage; (d) cook. & med. alaien ~, to mix in (an ingredient), add; don ~, add (sth.) to a mixture; addinge (puttinge) ~, the act or process of the adding (of sth.) to a mixture.
With reduced force in misc. combs.: (a) in expressions of acquisition: geten ~, to acquire (sth.); taken ~, grasp; grasp (sth.), seize; also, appropriate (sth.), plunder; (b) in expressions of consumption or assumption: taken ~, to consume (food); put on (a garment), don; also, assume the blame or punishment for (someone's wickedness), take upon oneself; (c) in expressions of association: ben taken ~ in matrimoine, to be taken in marriage, be wedded; taken ~, gather (a number of troops), assemble; take (sb.) along (to a place), carry (sb.) off (to heaven); of the Spirit of God: lift up (someone's spirit); (d) in expressions of use: putten (taken) ~, to make use of (sth.), utilize; (e) in expressions of assistance: don help ~, to give help; stonden ~, give assistance; also, stand by (for sb.), be supportive [quot. a1382, 2nd]; taken ~, help (the poor), aid.
With little or no semantic force: leien ~, ?to continue (to do sth.); leven ~, with inf. preceded by to verbal particle: fail (to do sth.), neglect, omit; also, used redundantly following prep. phrase with to: taken ~, entrust (the waging of war to sb.).