Middle English Dictionary Entry

tīd(e n.
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1a.
(a) Time; a season, space of time; also, a season appointed to a particular purpose; the season of a natural process; also, a recurring temporal interval, natural period of time; (b) an instant of time; ech ~ and time; (c) the span of time allotted to an individual life, soul, etc.; one's time in this world.
1b.
(a) An indefinite space of time, a while; in (with-inne) a ~; (b) in adverbial usage: a (litel, medmicle) ~, for a (short) while; al ~, for the whole space of time; ani ~, for any amount of time; that tides, at that time.
1c.
A time in history, a period, an age; also, a period of historical time; also, the time after history, eternity; bi olde ~, long ago; in forme ~, in ancient times; this ~, the present time; also, this life; also, in adverbial usage: that ~, in that period, then [quot. a1450].
2.
(a) A time of year, season; also, a time of year designated for religious observance, holy season; holi ~; lentenlic ~, springtime, the season of spring; somerli ~, the summer season, summertime; (b) a time of year reckoned according to the anniversary of a saint, the celebration of a church festival, etc.; al-halwen ~ [see al-halwe(n n. 2.(f)]; halwe ~ [see halwe n. 3.(a)]; hoke ~, the second Monday and Tuesday after Easter; holi rode ~, the Feast of the Exaltation of the Cross, September 14; also, the Feast of the Invention of the Cross, May 3 [quot. ?1473]; lammasse ~ [OE hlāf-mæsse-tīd], Lammas, August 1; marie maudelaine ~, July 22; seinte andreues (botulfes, james, jones) ~, November 30 (June 17, July 25, June 24); seinte jon (thomas) ~, June 24 (July 7); shrof ~, q.v.; whit-sun ~, q.v.; (c) in other cpds. & combs.: estern ~ (dai [see ester(n n. 3.(m), (n)]; freols ~ [OE frēols-tīd], heigh ~ [OE hēah-tīd], a festival, solemn feast; hervest ~ [see hervest n. 1.(c)]; lenten ~ [see lent(en n.]; mid-somer(es ~, midsummer; ?also, June 24; mid-winter ~, Christmas; somer(es ~, summertime; the season of summer [see also somer n.(1) 2.(a), 3.(a), (f)]; winter ~ [OE winter-tīd], wintertime; (d) in adverbial usage: that ~, in that season, at that time of year; the somer ~, during one summer.
3a.
A time of day or night reckoned according to the hours of the day or night or defined by the natural periods of the day; also, a specific clock hour.
3b.
(a) A time of day or night designated for religious observance, one of the seven canonical hours of the day [sometimes difficult to distinguish from (b)]; godcund ~, a divine hour; also, used adverbially: seven tides, at the seven canonical hours [1st quot.]; (b) a divine service, esp. the holy office for a canonical hour; also fig.; also, a prayer, reading, etc. said at an appointed time in a service; a devotional prayer; don tides, seien (iseien) ~, singen tide(s; oure ladie ~, the Office of our Lady.
3c.
In cpds. & combs.: dai ~, daytime; also, one of the canonical hours of the day [1st quot.]; even ~, q.v.; even-song ~, the time of vespers; houre of morwe ~, the time of matins; matin ~, the time of matins; mid-morwe ~, midmorning; morn ~, q.v.; morwe ~, q.v.; night(es ~, nighttime, night; non ~, q.v.; prime ~, the hour of prime, about 6:00 a.m. to 9:00 a.m.; ~ song, q.v.; tenebres ~, the time of the Tenebrae service; undern ~, q.v.
4.
(a) The period of an hour; also, used adverbially: tides thre, seven (two, etc.) ~, for three (seven, two, etc.) hours; on night tides, during the night hours; (b) the period or span of a day or part of a day;—used chiefly in cpds. & combs.; even ~, q.v.; morn ~, q.v.; morwe ~, q.v.; nightes ~, used adverbially: during the period of a night; on nightli ~, during the night, in the period of darkness; thre dai tides, used adverbially: for three full days; (c) the period during which divine service is said; (d) the period of a planet's influence; pl. the hours of variable duration marked off by the nightly movements of the stars and planets; (e) a period of allotted duty, a watch.
5a.
(a) An occasion in the course of time, an instance, a time; a recurrent or potentially recurrent occasion, any of several occasions;—often with number denoting frequency or order of occurrence; in (on) a ~, on som ~, upon a ~, on one occasion, at one time, once; (b) an opportune moment, a time, a chance; ~ other time; (c) an event, a course of events; a circumstance.
5b.
A specific point in time; also, the definite time of a pending event, an appointed hour; also, the time appointed for the completion of a task; mel ~, the appointed time for a meal; terme of the ~, the appointed hour.
5c.
In misc. prepositional phrases: (a) at ~ and houre and time, at a stipulated time; at ~ and time, as the occasion warrants; at everi (everi a) ~, at alle tides, on ilke ~, at all times, always; at non ~, at no time, never; at terme and ~, at fixed times of the year; bi time bi ~ bi dai and night, always; in ani ~, at any time; in everi ~, always; in som ~, at some time, eventually; on ~ and of ~, in and out of season, at all times; (b) at (in) that ~, on that (than, thare) ~, at that time, in that hour, on that occasion, then;—usu. in rime position with diminished semantic content; at that same ~, in the same ~, at the same time; simultaneously; in ~, ?in company, ?together; (c) ere this ~, before now, previously; in (unto) this ~, on thas ~, at the present time, at this time, in this hour, now.
5d.
In adverbial constructions: (a) ani ~, at any time, randomly; everi ~, always; mani a ~, often; on other ~, on another occasion [quot. a1425(?a1400)]; som ~, at one time or another, sometimes; that (this) ~, at that (this) time, at that (this) hour, on that (this) occasion, then;—usu. in rime position with diminished semantic content; that ech (ilke) ~, at the same time; this ~ nightes, ?at this hour of the night, at this time nightly; (b) ~ and time, at all times, always; ~ nor time erli nor late, at no time, never.
5e.
In relative constructions: (a) with rel. clause following, introduced by a rel. pron. or adv.: ~ that (the, whanne), ~ ..that, ~ and time..that, etc., the time when (sth. occurs), the hour when; also, in adverbial usage: ~ or time that, at the time when (one should do sth.); (b) with rel. adj. preceding: on which ~, at what hour (sth. should occur), when; also, in adverbial usage: what ~ or time so that, what time or ~ that, at whatever time (one does sth.), whenever.
6.
(a) The time of a tidal phenomenon, the hour of ebb, flood, etc.;—usu. pl.; bitwene the time and ~, ?as the time of the tide permits; from ~ to ~, ?from the time of one tidal maximum or minimum to another; (b) ?the interval between high tides; (c) in cpds. & comb.: ~ axe, axe pro le ~, an ax prob. for use in repairing bridge piles; ~ man, q.v.
7.
(a) The tide of the sea; also, the flow of the tide, a tidal current; also, a maximum of the tide, full tide; half ~, the state of the tide halfway between ebb and flood; quartere ~, the state of the tide when ebb or flood is one-fourth complete; (b) fig. and in fig. context: a mutable state or condition; also, a situation which permits progress; (c) a ship's passage on the tide, sailing, crossing; also, ?the time of sailing [quot. c1436]; stoppen ~, to prevent a ship from being carried by the tide, ?drop anchor.

Supplemental Materials (draft)

Note: Remove the three quots (and any corresponding forms from the form section) with dai ~ from senses 3c. and 4.(b), namely a1225 Wint.Ben.Rule, (1444) *Doc.Maldon, and 1450(c1410) Lovel. Grail. This compound now has its own entry.--per MLL

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • a1400 Roy.17.A.3 Artist.Recipes (Roy 17.A.3) 239/24 : Lete þi boon or þi tre seþe al a tyde til it be reed jnouʒ.
  • Note: ?New cpd.: al a ~ = 'for a while'; or ?modify sense 1b.(a).
  • a1400 Roy.17.A.3 Artist.Recipes (Roy 17.A.3) 239/29 : Seþe it in þat alum water or in good lye al a tyde of a day or more, and þanne cole it þoru a clooþ.
  • Note: ?New cpd.: al a ~ of a day = 'for a whole day'.