Middle English Dictionary Entry

stō̆nden v.(1)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

Note: Cp. astonden v., at-, ayen-, bi-, for-, in-, i-, of-, out-, over-, under-, up-, with- & onstanden v.
(a) To assume or maintain a standing position, stand upright; stand in a place; -- also used of an idol [quot. a1480]; also, be on foot (as opposed to on horseback); (b) ~ afote, ~ on fot (fet), ~ up (upon) fet, to stand on (one's) feet, stand upright; ~ on shankes, stand on (one's) legs; ~ on tipton, stand on tiptoe; ~ upon on fot, stand on one foot; ~ up to the kne (armes), stand in water up to the knee (arms); (c) of a foot, the feet: to maintain a standing position; stand in a place; also, be firmly planted [last quot.]; (d) fig. to stay alive, survive; ~ in dene, stand on earth, live; (e) with inf.: to stand (to do sth.); (f) with diminished force, in conjunction with another verb which conveys the more vivid verbal sense: ~ and biholden (heren, loken, etc.), to stand and behold (hear, look, etc.); also, with pr.ppl. denoting concurrent action: ~ biholdinge (herkeninge, spekinge, etc.), stand beholding (listening, speaking, etc.); (g) in generalizing expressions: gon or riden or sitten or ~, sitten ~ oth-the gangen, etc., to do anything; wher I sit or stond or go, wherever I may be; whether we sitten walken or stonden, whatever we do; (h) in conventional comparisons and proverb.
With selected prepositions: (a) ~ abouten, to stand around (sb. or sth.); ~ aforn (anforngean), stand in front of (sb. or sth.); ~ amidward, stand amidst (sunlight); ~ amonges, stand among (people); ~ at, stand before (sb.), stand at (a door, gate, place, etc.); ~ at-foren, stand before (God's presence); ~ ayen (ayenes), stand facing (sb. or sth.); ~ bi, stand near (sb. or sth.); also, stand watch by (a coffin during a vigil); ~ biforen, stand in front of (sb. or sth.), stand in the presence of (sb., God); also, confront (sb.); also, impers. hit mai not ben stonden biforen, there can be no standing before (God), one cannot stand before (God); (b) ~ in, to stand in (sth.), stand in the midst of (a crowd), stand on (a road, the shore); ~ in wei, stand in (someone's, the) way; ~ neigh-bi (neigh to, ner), stand near (sb. or sth.); ~ nexte, stand near to (sb.); ~ on (upon), stand on (sth.); ~ over, stand over (sb. or sth.); ~ til (to, toforen), stand before (sb., God); -- also refl. [quot. ?1387]; ~ tomiddes, stand among (persons); ~ under, stand under (sth.); ~ with, stand together with (sb.), stand alongside (sb.); ~ withouten, stand outside (a gate); (c) ~ in compas, to stand in the environs (of sth.); ~ in middel (a roue), stand in the middle (a row); ~ in presence (sight), ~ on isighthe, stand in (someone's, God's) presence; ~ in state, stand in a mental state; ~ in (a) studie, ~ in thought, stand thinking; ~ on right side, stand on (God's) right hand; (d) fig. ~ bi, to assist (sb.), support; protect (sth.), defend; maintain (sth.), uphold; ~ biforen, be a servant to (sb.), attend (sb.); be in charge of (persons); ~ bitwixen hope and drede, stand between hope and dread, be uncertain; ~ for, support (sb. or sth.); ~ from sinne, refrain from sinning; ~ in cause, support (love's) cause; ~ in sinne, ~ on the wei of sinnes, be a sinner; ~ in the tobrekinge, stand in the breach; ~ neigh, help (sb.); ~ over, supervise (sb.); ~ under, to defend (the faith), support, adhere to [perhaps cp. OF soutenir (AN sustenir 'support, back, side with, defend'; ME sustenen v.3.(d) 'to support (a cause, etc.)']; ~ til, assist (sb.); ~ to al wei not god, sin in every way; ~ upon, be in charge of (a task); ~ with, support (sb.), make common cause with, side with; (e) in prov. expressions.
With selected adverbs & adverbial phrases: (a) ~ abouten, to stand around, stand nearby; ~ afer (of ferrom, on fer), ~ ferrene (to, stand at a distance; ~ alone, stand alone; ~ ayen, stand up (in the face of a storm), keep one's feet; ~ bi (bisides, neigh, ner, to), ~ neigh abouten, stand near, stand by; ~ bihinden, stand in the rear; ~ hole, stand in a body; ~ ifere (togeder), stand together; ~ on, refl. stand alone; ~ right up (streit up, upright), stand upright; (b) ~ seur, to stand securely; ~ stif (stout), stand sturdily, stand firm; ~ stille, stand without moving, stand in place; also, stand silently, stand without speaking; -- also refl.; ~ ston-stille; ~ thikke, stand thickly crowded together; (c) fig. ~ bi (neigh, to), to assist; ~ biforen, have charge (of sb.), preside (over sb.); ~ in, attend (to sth.); ~ slider, stand precariously, be in a precarious state; ~ upon, be in charge (over sb.), have supervision (of sb.); (d) in conventional comparisons, proverbs, and prov. expressions.
With adj. or p.ppl.: (a) with adj. [in some instances it is difficult to distinguish adj. from adv.]: ~ blithe (ille, unfain), to stand happy (unhappy); ~ helples (hungrie, naked, etc.), stand helpless (hungry, naked, etc.); ~ hole, stand healthy, stand cured; stand unharmed; also, in conventional comparisons: ~ as domb as a tre; ~ as hende as hauk in halle; (b) with p.ppl.: ~ armed (astoned, cursed, etc.); ~ went in-to a ston, to stand turned to stone.
(a) To take up and hold a place for selling wares; ~ in the place (porche, toun); (b) ~ at bord, to serve at a table; ~ at messe, celebrate mass; ~ upon pillorie, stand in the pillory; (c) ~ in, to stand dressed in (a color, garment), wear; be clad in (richness of array).
(a) Of an animal: to be stabled, stand in a stall; also, be made to stand in view as a prize [2nd quot.]; of a hawk: be kept (in a cage); ~ upon a flok, of birds: stand in a flock, flock together; maken ~ aside, force (lambs) apart from the flock, set aside; (b) ~ at abai, of dogs: to surround the quarry; of a hunted animal: stand at bay, be unable to escape the hounds; also, fig. of a person: be unable to escape, be at the mercy of an enemy.
With adverbs or prep. phrases implying movement to a position or place or change of position: (a) ~ afer (after, aroume, bak, etc.), to stand back, stand off, fall back, move away; ~ aside, step aside; ~ forth, step forward, move forward; ~ to bataille, go to battle; ~ to ship (shipward), go to (toward) a ship; (b) fig. and in fig. context: ~ abak, to fail, lack success; ~ bihinden, commit apostasy; also, lag in a spiritual battle [last quot.]; ~ forth, succeed as king (in someone's place).
(a) To rise to one's feet from a seated or prone position, get up, stand up; ~ on fet; ~ on stirop, stand up in one's stirrups; (b) ~ up, to stand up, rise to one's feet; also, arise from sleep, get up [quot. a1325]; also, straighten up (from a bow) [quot. ?a1425]; ~ up on fet, rise to (one's) feet; of a toad: rear up on the (hind) feet; ~ up in stirop (on stiropes), stand up in one's stirrups; ~ heighe up on ton, ~ up on tipton, rise up on tiptoe; (c) ~ o rode, of Christ: to mount on the cross; (d) of spring water: to well up, rise; ~ faire and cler.
(a) To make a stand in battle, stand and fight, resist an enemy in battle; also fig.; ~ at (to) fens, ~ at (in) defense, take up battle position, fight defensively; also fig. & iron. [see also defense n. 1a.(a)]; ~ in bataille; ~ in stoures (mani a stour), fight battles (many a battle); ~ in strife, fig. fight a spiritual battle; ~ til dede, withstand an encounter, stand up to a battle, offer forceful resistance; (b) with adverbs: ~ ayen, to put up a defense, fight back, offer forceful resistance; also, protest [2nd quot.]; ~ forn ayenes, stand in opposition; (c) with selected prepositions: ~ ayen (ayenes), to fight against (sb.), withstand (sb., a blow, a weapon); ~ with, struggle with (sb. or sth.); (d) ~ anentes (ayen, ayenes, onyen, toyen, yen), to resist (sb. or sth., God, Christ, the devil, etc.), oppose; ~ in laue ayenes, ?encroach upon the legal rights of (sb.); ~ up biforen, confront (sb.), take a stand against; (e) to withstand (sb., a blow, stroke, an assault, etc.); ~ him ani buffet (a strok), withstand any blow (a stroke) from him; ~ hem a pul, withstand an assault from them [see also pul n. (a)]; ~ partie ayen, fig. take sides against (reason), stand in opposition to; (f) to prevent (sth.), forestall.
(a) To stand trial; also, with inf.: be liable (to be sued); ~ at answere, be on trial before God, be called to answer at Judgment Day; ~ at (in, to) jugement, ~ at the barre, be on trial; ~ in dom (ple, pledinge), plead in court; ~ in help (maintenaunce), stand in (someone's) support (at Judgment Day); ~ to dom, be liable to legal judgment, stand trial, be tried; (b) of a guarantor: to guarantee (sth.); ~ to, go surety for (sth.); (c) ~ ayen, to stand against (sb. at Judgment Day); ~ ayenes, prevail against (sb. accused of a crime), bear witness successfully against (sb.); ~ adversarie ayenes, stand as adversary against (sb. at Judgment Day).
(a) With prep. phrases: ~ at (til), to abide by (a law, judgment, God's will, etc.); ~ to, abide by (an agreement, a command, decision, etc.); be bound by (someone's oath); abide by the authority of (sb., the church), obey; submit to (correction); accede to (sth.), accept; be subject to (a loss, gain); ~ to chaunce, submit to (one's) fate or lot; also, take one's chances; ~ to (unto) peril, be at (one's) risk; ~ unto, be subject to (the king's will), submit to (someone's decision), abide by (an agreement); ~ upon, be subject to (correction); ~ with, bear the brunt of (loss), endure; (b) to abide by (an oath, ordinance); ~ and kepen (obeien); (c) ben stonden to the opinioun of, to be bound by the decision of (the more numerous party).
(a) Of a city, structure, etc.: to stand, be erected; be in a state of completion; also, remain standing; ~ on, be supported on (pillars), rest upon; leten ~, let (a city, structure, etc.) remain standing, leave unassaulted or intact; leven stondinge, leave (a tent) pitched; maken ~, cause (a structure) to be erected; restore (gates, bars) to a standing position; (b) with complement: of a city, structure, dwelling, etc.: to stand in a specified state or condition, be built or erected in a specified way; also, remain standing in a specified state; also in proverbs; ~ bar (desolate), stand bare (desolate), be left standing in ruin; ~ desolate of comfort; ~ long (brod, etc.), be long (broad, etc.); ~ noble (stable, etc.); be nobly (stably, etc.) built, stand noble (stable, etc.); (c) ~ aboven (forth), of a tower: to rise up (from another structure), be raised up.
(a) Of a ladder, siege engine, stake, cross, etc.: to extend upward, be set upright; of a sheaf, stalk, etc.: stand erect; stand on end; of a cliff, hill, parted waters, etc.: rise up, extend up; of a sail: remain aloft; also fig.; ~ up (upright, upon loft); ~ forth, of a plant: grow upright; ppl. stondinge as adj.: upright, erect; stondinge coler, a turned-up collar; stondinge ston, a standing stone, monolith; (b) ppl. stondinge as adj.; of a piece of furniture: standing on a base, having legs or feet; of a vessel: having a stem and base, footed; of a candlestick: having a foot or feet; (c) of a chest: to stand in a specified state; ~ ful of god; ~ hole and sound; (d) of light, a beam of light, steam, breath, etc.: to issue forth, shoot out; ~ a stem, shoot out as a beam; ~ in-to, shine to (a place), reach; ~ toforen, issue forth from (sth.); ~ up (on heigh, shoot up, rise; (e) of ears, horns, hair: to stand erect; of the penis: be erect; of a man: have an erection; ~ croked (oute), of the nose: be crooked (jut out); ~ up, of hair, feathers: stand erect; of flesh: swell up; of the penis: be erect; ppl. stondinge as adj.: erect, upright; mid stondinge nekke, with an unbending neck, proudly; stif stondinge her, bristly hair; (f) to make (sth.) stand upright, hold upright.
(a) Of an island, a country, city, hill, structure, etc.: to be situated, be located, lie, stand; occupy a place; also, with selected prepositions: ~ ayen, occupy a place opposite (sth.); ~ bi (onfast, neigh), be situated near (sth.), lie beside (sth.); ~ bitwene, be situated among (hills); ~ from, be located (a specified distance) from (sth.); ~ in, be situated in (a country, the sea, etc.), lie on (the coast, earth, etc.), be located on (a road); ~ on, be situated on (a hill, etc.); ~ oute of, be located outside (sth.); ~ toward, lie toward (the east); ~ up (upon), lie close beside (the sea, a stream, etc.), occupy (a piece of land); (b) with adj. or p.ppl.: ~ riche, of land: to be fertile or prosperous; ~ formed, fig. lie created; (c) of a tree, grove, plant, etc.: to grow (in a place), be located; also, in prov. expression [quot. a1393]; with adj. or p.ppl.: ~ blouen, be in bloom; ~ boued, be bowed down, be bent; ~ drie, grow in a dry place.
(a) Of an object, a piece of furniture, window, etc.: to be situated (in a specified place), be located; be positioned, be placed; lie, stand, rest; also fig.; of food: be set (before sb.); of an altar: be placed (toward the east); maken ~, have (sth.) placed (in a place); stondinge alofte, of a gem in a ring: set prominently, set so as to stand out; (b) of water: to lie (about the earth, upon rocks); of a flood: stand (upon the ground); also of wind, in proverb [quot. a1500(a1450)]; ~ in contrarie, of two winds: be in opposition; (c) of a hood: to lie (close to someone's cheek); (d) anat. & physiol.: of a bodily organ, member, etc.: to be situated (in a place or part of the body), be fixed; of the head: remain fixed (on the body); of a swelling, an ulcer: be located (in a place); ~ even, of teeth: stand evenly aligned; ~ heighe, of sweat: lie thick (around a horse's breastplate); ~ in ouen kinde, be in normal position; stondinge depe in, deep-set, embedded; (e) of a vessel: to be set (on a footed base); ~ on fet (upon fot); (f) of a lock or bar of a door: to be set (against sb.).
Of a ship: to ride at anchor.
Of a celestial body: to be in a particular position; also, appear stationary in the sky; astrol. of the heavenly bodies: be in a particular position (so as to affect events, personal destiny, etc.); ~ after the treuth, be accurately positioned (on an astrolabe); ~ assised, be positioned in the sky; ~ derked, of the firmament: grow dark, be darkened; ~ louest, be nearest to earth; ~ south, appear in the southern sky; ~ stille, remain in a place in the sky without apparent motion.
(a) To be written in a text, be set down in writing; have position in a text; also impers.; of writing, a letter: be written (on a wall, in a corner of a page); of a letter: have position (in the alphabet); of a number: have position (in a row of numbers); ~ iwriten, be written; stondinge materialli, standing as an example (in a grammatical demonstration); (b) to be painted, carved, inscribed, or embroidered (in or on sth.); ~ engraven, be engraved.
(a) Of a person, an animal: to come to a stop, stop moving, halt; also, as a command to an animal: whoa! halt! stay!; ~ stille (stilli); stondinge hous-hold, the staff of a royal household permanently attached to a residence (as opposed to those servants who travel with the lord); (b) of a wagon, Noah's ark: to come to rest, stop moving; of a moving star: stop in the sky; of Fortune's wheel: stop turning, become stationary; of a cart: become stuck [quot. c1395]; ~ stille, stop; of a clock: stop working; ppl. stondinge as adj.: stationary; stondinge bed, a bed on a stationary frame; stondinge prike, a stationary target; (c) of a blow or stroke of a weapon: to come to a stop (at the chin, in the skull, etc.); (d) of flood waters, a liquid: to stop increasing in volume; remain at a certain level; of dysentery, menstrual blood: cease, stop flowing; ~ stille; ~ of boillinge, of the sea: cease from surging, become calm; (e) of a symptom, sickness: to be arrested, stop progressing; ~ stille; (f) of a medicine: to inhibit or stanch (flowing blood), cause to stop; (g) fig. ?to bring (prosperity) to a standstill.
(a) Of a body of water, a liquid: to remain motionless, be unmoving, fail to flow; ~ stille (as ston; ppl. stondinge as adj.: not flowing, motionless, still; also, stagnant; stondinge se; stondinge water(es; (b) of blood, a humor, fluid: to collect and remain (in an organ or a place in the body); ~ stille; (c) of a liquid, an ingredient, a vessel and its contents, etc.: to be left undisturbed, be left unshaken or unstirred; ~ tempered, be left to moisten; leten ~, let (sth.) stand undisturbed, leave alone; let (a broken bone) remain immobile; leten ~ infuse, let (sth.) marinate; ppl. stondinge as adj.: kept undisturbed, stored; stondinge water, ?water that has been left undisturbed in a vessel for some time; (d) ~ fermeli (stabli), of a patient: to hold the head firmly positioned during an eye operation.
Of a mixture of ingredients, a dish: to thicken; become stiff; ~ bi (with), be thickened with (sth.); ppl. stondinge, stiff, thick, viscous.
(a) Of a person: to remain in a place, stay; stay behind in a place; linger, tarry, delay; with inf.: wait (to do sth.); ~ faste, fig. stay put; ~ idel, loiter; ~ in stalle, remain in (one's) place; ~ on hors-bak, linger on horseback; ~ on on stede, stay in one place; (b) of an object, plant roots: to remain in place; ~ stille; leten ~, let (sth.) remain, leave in place; leave (sth.) where it is; (c) ~ on, to dwell on (sth.) in a narrative; leten ~, leave off (discussion of sb. or sth.), let (a topic) drop; (d) of a weapon: to remain fixed, remain (in sb. or the body), stick; also fig.; (e) of the eyes: to be steady or fixed; ~ stille; (f) to abide, dwell; also fig.; abide (in a moral or spiritual state).
Fig. of the heart: to be inclined (to sth.), long (for sth.).
With prep. phrases: (a) ~ bi (of, on, upon), to consist of (sth.); ~ in, consist of (sth., a group or class of beings, etc.); consist in (sth.); also, with whan clause: consist in (sb. acting in a certain manner) [quot. ?a1425 Orch.Syon, 2nd occurrence]; (b) ~ bi (in, on, to, upon), to depend on (sb. or sth.); ~ upon bileve, be thought possible; that stondeth upon thin ouen wil, that is up to you, that is your option; (c) ~ upon, to be guided by (sb. or sth.), trust to, rely upon; (d) ~ on, to be based upon (stability, change), be rooted in, rest upon; (e) ~ upon destine, ?to contain (someone's) destiny.
(a) To last, endure; continue; also, continue in office [last quot.]; of bodily vigor: remain strong; ~ ful, remain at the full; ~ hole, remain intact or untainted; (b) with prep. phrases: to continue (in a state or condition), persist (in an action); also, be vested (in sb.) [quot. a1400, 2nd]; ~ in certain (approved) thinges, fig. follow time-honored or established practices; ~ in first avis, continue to hold an initial opinion; ~ in god governaunce, med. maintain a suitable regimen; ~ in minde, be remembered; ~ in o degre, remain the same; ~ in reputacioun with, share a reputation with (sb.); ~ in studie, be in doubt, hesitate; ~ to lif, remain alive; (c) with inf.: to continue (to do sth.), persevere (in doing sth.); (d) to prevail; predominate; (e) ~ with, to subsist on (sth.), continue a regimen of; (f) ppl. stondinge in absol. constr. with noun: stondinge his godhede, while his divinity endured, with his divinity continuing unimpaired; (g) with adverbs: ~ in, to continue; also, with inf.: continue (to do sth.); ~ in in-to, make a practice of (sth.); ~ in to, persevere in (prayer); ~ to, continue (doing sth.); (h) with pron. in dat.: of health, a voice: to remain (to sb.).
(a) To be valid, be or remain in force; of a compact, law, bequest, etc.: stand, hold good, be observed or enforced; of a baptism: be valid [quot. a1333]; ~ in effect (force, strengthe, etc.); ~ for (in) laue, be in force in law; ~ for nought, ~ in non (strengthe nor) effect, ~ of non effect ne force, be invalid; (b) ~ available (effectuel, ferme, god, stable), to be valid, continue to be in force; ~ voide, be invalid; ~ to tealt, of a baptism: be of too uncertain validity; (c) maken ~, to establish (a covenant).
Fig. (a) Of a person: to be steadfast; stand firm; of a kingdom: be stable; ~ in feith (treuth, etc.), be steadfast in faith (truth, etc.); ~ in (on) purpos; ~ in testament, keep (one's) covenant; ~ on rote, stand firm; (b) ~ faste (ferme, stable, stedefastli, etc.), to be steadfast, stand firm; also, with adj. or ppl.: ~ fix to, be firmly set on (a conclusion), adhere to; ~ parfit (treu, etc.); (c) ~ stille, to be unchanged; ppl. stondinge as adj.: stable, unchanging; (d) to be virtuous; resist temptation, sin, etc.; ~ heighe (upright, wel).
To be insistent, importune; with adverbs: ~ in, insist; ~ in upon, urge (sb.) on, press; ~ on, with inf.: insist (upon doing sth.); with that clause: insist (that sth. happen, that sth. is the case).
Fig. To be prosperous; be fortunate; ~ constaunt, be secure in good fortune; ~ upright, prosper; ppl. stondinge, prosperous; also, as noun: those who are prosperous or fortunate.
(a) Of weather: to be favorable, be fair; of wind: blow favorably; ~ at lust (on wille), blow where someone wishes, blow favorably; ~ at wille, be favorable; blow favorably; ~ with, be favorable to (sb.); (b) of wind: to be favorable to (sb.); ~ on honde, ~ to wille, blow (sb.) where he wishes, be favorable to (sb.); ~ on wille, of weather: be favorable to (sb.).
(a) To be; exist; also, be present [quot. a1400]; -- usu. with prep. phrases: ~ as on, be as one, be united; ~ at large, be at (one's) liberty; ~ in, be in (sb. or sth., a place); be in (a situation, state, etc.); also, be visible in (a face) [quot. a1393, 2nd]; ~ in cas of, be governed by (a principle); ~ in strengthe, be in a state of prosperity; ~ in wei, with inf.: be in a position (to do sth.), be about (to do sth.); also, with adv. & prep. phrase: ~ in in, of a person: be in (a state); of a soul: be in (peril); of faith: be in (sb.); gret peril bitwene hem stode, they were in great danger; ppl. stondinge, being, living; (b) ~ at mischef, to be in poverty, be impoverished; ~ at periles, experience dangers; ~ in arrai, be in a condition or plight; ~ in aventure (daunger, peril), be in danger; also, with inf.: be at risk (to die), be in danger (of being banished or lost); ~ in balaunce, be in jeopardy, be at risk; also, be subject to fate or chance [quot. a1500 Now god þat syttest]; ~ in (gret, heigh) degre, be of (a high) rank or position; ~ in disjointe [see disjointe n. (a)]; ~ in honoure, be honored; ~ in hope, with clause: hope (sth. will happen); ~ in indignacioun, incur divine wrath; ~ in jupartie, be imperiled, be in danger [see also jupartie n. 1. (c), 3. (b)]; ~ in mischef [see mischef n. 1a. (c), 1b. (b)]; ~ in plight [see also plight n. 1. (a), 2. (a), (b), (c), (d), (e)]; ~ in poverte (prosperite), be poor (prosperous); ~ in pris, have (someone's) esteem; ~ in repreve, be in disgrace, be despised; ~ in trouble, be endangered; ~ in trust, with inf.: trust (to do sth.), believe (one will do sth.); ~ oute of herre (peril), be out of order (danger); ~ to peril of los, be in danger of incurring a loss; ~ under areste, fig. be in the custody (of death); ~ under proteccioun, be protected; ~ under a vou of, be sworn concerning (sth.); (c) ~ in aue, to be afraid [see also aue n.3. (g)]; ~ in balaunce, be in a state of uncertainty; ~ in disese, be upset; ~ in (o) doute, ~ in (a) fere, ~ mid drednesse, be in a state of fear, be afraid; ~ in drede, be in dread; also, with inf.: be afraid (to do sth.), hesitate (to do sth.); ~ in ese (joie, miserie), be in a state of ease (joy, misery); ~ in loves cas, be in love; ~ in peine (perplexite), be in pain (confusion); ~ in quiete (quietnesse, pes), be untroubled, be contented, have peace of mind; ~ oute of doute (fere), have no fear; (d) ~ at dissencioun, to be in disagreement; ~ at on accord, ~ in concord, agree, be in agreement; ~ in contrarie, be in opposition; ~ in even [see even adj. 15. (a)]; ~ in quiete (pes), ~ on sibbe, be at peace, be in harmony; ~ upon congruite, be in grammatical agreement, be correct; ~ with, agree with (sth.), accord with; also, coexist with (sth.); also impers. [quot. c1449, 2nd]; ~ withouten, exist without (sth.), exist independent of; also, lack (sth.), be without; -- also, with adv.: ~ togeder, agree, be congruent; (e) ~ in benevolence (favour, grace, etc.), to enjoy (someone's) good will (favor, etc.); ~ from grace (oute of benevolence), fall out of (someone's) favor; (f) ~ in covenaunt, to be bound by a contract; ~ in debat or demaunde, be the subject of a legal controversy or dispute; ~ in ful estat of, have full legal rights to (sth.); ~ in preferrement, possess a privilege; ~ in the bond of mariage, be married; (g) ~ in doute, to be uncertain; also, med. be uncertain as to outcome; ~ upon debat, be disputed, be uncertain; of the world: be unstable or unpredictable; (h) ~ at herte, to concern (sb.) deeply; ~ bi, be accomplished by (sb. or sth.); also, be closely related to (sth.) [last quot.]; be available to (sb.) [quot. a1450 PNoster R.Hermit]; ~ to, result in (sth.), lead to; belong to (the will), be under the control of; ~ with, be accomplished by (sb.), belong to (sb.); -- also, with adv. & prep. phrase: ~ at (neigh) to, pertain to (sth.); (i) ~ at (on, to) dom, to be under (someone's) control; ~ at (to) stevene, be at (someone's) command; ~ at wille, be under (someone's) command, be at (someone's) mercy; ~ ayen (ayenes) stevene, resist (someone's or something's) power; ~ in charge, be in the charge (of an office); ~ in (o, on) honde, be in (someone's) possession, be under (someone's) control; ~ in hondes (and armes, be under (someone's) control; ~ in merci (wille), be at (someone's) mercy; ~ in might, be under (someone's) control; ~ in obeisaunce, be in subjection; ~ in possessioun and pouere, be in the possession and control (of sb.).
As copula: (a) with adj.: to be (alive, content, equal, empty, etc.); ~ cler, of a person: hold clear right; of property: be clear as to title; of sight: be clear (for sth.); ~ even, be clear of debt; ~ los, fig. be unbound, be absolved; ~ open, of a door, an entrance: stand open; (b) with p.ppl.: to be (bound, discharged, perfected, etc.); (c) with adv. or adverbial phrase: ~ acroke, to be awry; ~ bi, be at hand, be kept ready; ~ char up, of a door: be ajar; ~ freli, be free of undue restriction, be allowed to carry on trade without hindrance; ~ loue, be low; (d) with noun: to be (king, liegeman, etc.); serve as (steward, executor), hold the office of (bishop, prioress); ~ min eldeste, be my eldest surviving child; ~ togeder juge and partie, be both judge and party (to a suit or legal action).
To act, function, serve: (a) ~ as, to act as (a king, lord, etc.); also fig. and in fig. context; of a person: function as (a sturdy wall), be as; ~ in oure ambassade and servise; ~ in office, serve in office, hold office; also, fig. have authority, hold sway [1st quot.]; (b) ~ in the place of, fig. to serve in the place of (sb.), follow in the footsteps of; ~ in stede of, function in place of (sth.); also, with ind.obj.: serve (horses) in place of (sth.); ~ in tokeninge, serve as a sign, betoken; also, serve as a sign (of sth.).
In phrase ~ for: (a) to constitute (sth.); ~ for the sembles, constitute the council, serve as the council; (b) to represent (Christ, a number) by way of a symbol or sign, stand for (sth.); (c) to be counted or considered as (sth.), serve in lieu of (sth.); serve for (sth.); also, fig. serve (sb.) as (a shield); (d) of payment: to be reckoned sufficient for (sb.); (e) ~ for nought, to be of no use, count for nothing; also, avail (sb.) nothing; ~ for ought, count for something, avail something.
(a) Of a situation, case: to be; happen, come about; so stode the cas, such was the situation, so the case stood; (b) as stondeth matere, as the occasion demands, accordingly; elles ivel us stode, otherwise it would go ill with us; ther stode non ho, there was no limit to spending; (c) of a day: to occur (in the beginning of the year).
In selected impers. constructions: (a) as hit nou stondeth, as things now stand, as it is; hit stode nought, it would not be the case; hit stondeth not a-right, all is not well; hit stondeth harde, circumstances are difficult; hou hit stondeth, how circumstances are, how things stand; hou-ever (hou-so-ever) it stondeth, whatever the circumstances, however it stands; right as hit stode, exactly as it happened; (b) with so and thus: hit stondeth so (thus), things stand thus; also, with that clause: it is so that (sth. is the case), it is true that; hit mai ~ so, circumstances may be so, it may so be; (c) him stondeth wel, he fares well; hou stondeth hem, how do they fare; with inf.: hit stode hem in wille, they wished (to do sth.); this stode hit me, these were my circumstances.
To fare, get along, get on.
Of a day: to arrive, be at hand; with adverbs: ~ in, of a time: arrive, be at hand; of death, Judgment Day: be or come near (to sb.); ~ neigh, of danger: come near, be near; ~ on, of death, captivity, etc.: be imminent; of a sword's edge: be near; ~ over, of divine wrath: be very near (to sb.), come upon (sb.); also, ppl. stondinge in absol. constr.: stondinge ner the time, the time being near.
(a) Of a person: ~ in aue with, to be feared or respected among (persons), be held in fear or respect by; ~ on aue, hold (sb.) in fear, be afraid of; (b) ~ aue (doute), to be afraid, have fear; with inf.: be afraid (to do sth.), fear; ~ aue for (o, of), ~ drede (doute, eie) of, be afraid of (sb. or sth.); crist ne stode me never aue, Christ never inspired me with reverence or fear; (c) of fear, grief, etc., with noun or pron. in dat.: to afflict (sb.), affect; stondeth him (theim) aue of, stondeth him aue (inca) with, stondeth him (hem, me, man, men) eie of, stondeth him eie to, stondeth hire aue to, stondeth me aue o, he is (they are, I am, etc.) afraid of (sb., sth., God); stondeth hem no doute of, stondeth him no fere of, they are (he is) not afraid of (sb.); stondeth hem no doute, stondeth me non aue (no drede), stondeth us non eie, with inf.: they (I, we) have no fear (of doing sth.); stondeth hem greme of, they are grieved by (sth.); stondeth me the more rape, I am in more of a hurry; stode hem him eie, they were afraid of him.
(a) Impers. hit stondeth upon the nede, the occasion demands, it is necessary; (b) ~ nede, to be in need of help; (c) of need: to be; if nede stode, if there was need, if need be; hire nede stode, she had need, she needed; me stondeth nede, it is necessary for me; nede theim stode, with inf.: they needed (to do sth.).
(a) In phrases: ~ in non availe (no help, no stalle), ~ to non avauntage, to be of no help, be unavailing; ~ in stalle (stede), avail, be of help, be of use; ~ in stede and right, be of help and moral guidance; ~ upon avauntage, be to (one's) advantage; (b) ~ at non availe (in no vail), with noun or pron. in dat.: to be of no help (to sb.), be of no avail; ~ in (in-to) profite, be of spiritual profit (to sb.); ~ in stede, be of help (to sb.), be of use; stand (sb.) in stead; ~ on honde, be of advantage (to sb.); concern (sb.); ~ to availe, be of aid or benefit (to sb.); impers. hit stondeth to no mede, it is no merit (to sb.), it does not avail (them); (c) to avail (sb.), be of use to; (d) ~ stalle, to be of help, be of use; also, with ind.obj.: ~ him stalle (stede), be of use to him, afford him help; ~ him no stalle, stand him in no stead.
Ppl. stondinge: (a) in absol. constructions with nouns: in view of (sth.), considering (sth.), given (sth.); (b) as subordinate conj.: seeing that, considering that, since, inasmuch as; stondinge that.
To cost; cost (sb.); with prepositions: ~ in (on, unto, upon), cost (sb.) in the amount of (a specified sum), stand (sb. some amount); what his hous-hold stondeth upon yerli, what his household costs annually; also, with adverbs: ~ him in, cost him; ~ us wel heighe, cost us a large sum.
To rank, be ranked, have standing; ~ with, be ranked among (persons), be counted among.
In misc. senses: (a) with inf.: to endeavor (to do sth.); (b) ~ upon, to be about to have (sth.).