Middle English Dictionary Entry

shulen v.(1)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

1.
(a) To owe (sb. money, a debt, etc.); owe (tribute to sb.), have to pay (a sum to the king or an official); ~ to, owe (tribute) to (the government); also, owe (a duty, fee) for (the customs, weighing); (b) to owe (allegiance, honor, etc. to a governing authority), owe (an obligation to one's neighbor); -- also without obj.; owe (love, etc. to God); fig. owe (penance, a debt of sin to God); (c) in oaths and asseverations: bi the (that) feith i shal to god, bi the treuth that i shal to mahoun, etc., by the faith that I owe to God, etc.
2.
(a) To be suitable for a particular purpose; of a remedy: be efficacious, effective; ~ for, constitute a suitable exchange for (sth.); (b) ~ to, to pertain to (sth.), be part of; be needed or appropriate for (an occasion); ~ up to, ?be allotted to (sth.); (c) to be entitled to (sth.).
3a.
As modal auxiliary expressing what is appropriate, reasonable, right, prudent, etc.: should (do sth., be so, etc.): (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form with present meaning with implied inf.; (e) past form with past meaning; (f) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
3b.
As modal auxiliary expressing duty, responsibility, or secular obligation: ought (to do sth.), should (do sth., be of a certain nature, etc.): (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form with present meaning with implied inf.; (e) past form with past meaning.
3c.
As modal auxiliary expressing moral or spiritual obligation or compliance with religious belief or practice: ought (to do sth.), should (do sth., be of a certain nature, etc.): (a) present form; ~ for to heren; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) present form in past context; (d) past form with present meaning; (e) past form with present meaning with implied inf.; (f) past form with past meaning; (g) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
4a.
As modal auxiliary expressing an order, a commandment, direction, etc.: must (do sth., be sb., etc.), will: (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form in dependent clause; (c) present form with implied inf.; (d) present form with past meaning; (e) past form with present meaning; (f) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: a1150, 2nd, 3rd]; sholde mouen; sholde to lernen.
4b.
As hortative auxiliary expressing advice, counsel, suggestion, etc.: should (do sth., etc.): (a) present form; we shullen, let us (do sth.); (b) past form with present meaning; (c) past form with past meaning.
5a.
As modal auxiliary expressing certainty, belief, assertion, intention, determination, assurance, etc.: will (do sth., be so disposed, etc.), shall: (a) present form; ~ mouen; ~ to flen; (b) present form, expressing divine intention, assurance; also in questions by or to God; ~ connen; (c) present form with implied inf.; ~ mouen; (d) present form with past meaning; (e) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: c1250, c1450]; (f) past form with past meaning; sholde mouen; sholde to ben; (g) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
5b.
As modal auxiliary expressing a threat, warning, curse: will (do sth., be in a certain state or condition): (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) present form with past meaning; (d) past form with present meaning; (e) past form with past meaning.
6.
As modal auxiliary expressing prophecy, prediction, annunciation, etc.: shall (do sth., be in a certain condition, etc.), will: (a) present form; ~ connen (mouen); (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) present form with past meaning; (d) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: c1430, 1473].
7.
As modal auxiliary expressing fate, destiny, etc.: to be ordained (to do sth.), be destined or doomed: (a) present form; also with past meaning [last quot.]; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: a1325(c1250)].
8.
As modal auxiliary expressing necessity, constraint, inevitability, etc.: to be constrained or compelled (to do sth.), have; must (do sth., be sth., etc.): (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) present form with past meaning; (d) past form with present meaning; sholde to ben; (e) past form with past meaning; sholde to prechen; (f) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
9.
As modal auxiliary expressing consuetudinal or iterative action, action under normal circumstances or resulting from natural inclination, etc.: to be wont (to do sth.), be apt: (a) present form; also with implied inf. [quots.: a1225, a1393]; (b) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: c1230, 2nd & a1300]; ~ for to gronen; (c) past form with past meaning; (d) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
10.
As modal auxiliary expressing futurity: shall (do sth., be so, etc.), will: (a) present form; ~ mouen; also, phrase shal ben used as noun: future [quots.: 1340, 2nd & c1425]; (b) present form with implied inf.; ~ mouen; (c) present form in past context; (d) past form in present context; (e) past form in past context; (f) past form in past context with implied inf.
11.
As modal auxiliary expressing imminence: to be about (to do sth.): (a) present form; also with past meaning [quot.: c1375]; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: c1300, Otuel & R.].
12.
As modal auxiliary expressing action or event expected, set, or appointed: to be scheduled (to do sth.), be due: (a) present form; also with past meaning [quot.: 1440]; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with past meaning; (d) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
13.
As modal auxiliary expressing future contingency in clause of result or purpose: would (do sth., be in a certain state or condition, etc.): (a) present form; also with implied inf. [quot.: c1150]; ~ connen (mouen, willen, etc.); (b) past form with present meaning; sholde mouen; sholde for to dissolven, sholde to loven, etc.; (c) past form with past meaning; sholde mouen; (d) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
14a.
As modal auxiliary expressing future contingency resulting from action in hypothetical or conditional clause with but, if, and, etc.: would (do sth., be in a certain state or condition, etc.): (a) present form; ~ connen (mouen); (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; also, with implied inf. [quot.: a1225(?OE)]; sholde mouen; sholde to haven; (d) past form with past meaning; sholde mouen; (e) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
14b.
As modal auxiliary expressing future occurrence or action resulting from action in conditional clause beginning with who-so, who that, etc.: shall (do sth., be in a certain state or condition, etc.), will: (a) present form; ~ connen (mouen); (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form in past context; sholde connen.
14c.
As modal auxiliary in an action concomitant with or commensurate to another: will (do sth., be sth., etc.): (a) present form; (b) past form with past meaning.
15.
As modal auxiliary expressing future contingency resulting from action or occurrence in temporal clause: will (do sth., be so, etc.), shall: (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; sholde mouen; (d) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: ?a1475].
16.
(a) As modal auxiliary expressing future occurrence or action resulting from action in imperative clause: shall (do sth.), will; ~ connen (mouen); also with implied inf. [quot.: c1440] and past form with present meaning [quot.: a1325, 2nd]; (b) as modal auxiliary expressing future occurrence or action resulting from failure to comply with a command or entreaty in preceding imperative clause: shall (do sth.), will; -- with or, elles, other, etc.
17.
As modal auxiliary in conditional, hypothetical, or concessive clause with if, though, etc.: should (do sth., etc.): (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form in parenthetical clause; (c) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: c1325]; (d) past form in past context.
18.
As modal auxiliary expressing hypothesis or future contingency in clause with indefinite relative pronoun as subj., relative clause with indefinite antecedent, etc.: should (do sth.), would, might: (a) present form; also with implied inf. [quot.: Orm., 2nd] and with past meaning [quot.: c1390]; ~ willen; (b) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [last quot.]; (c) past form with past meaning.
19.
As modal auxiliary in temporal clause with whan, thanne, etc.: will (do sth.), would, etc.: (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form with past meaning.
20.
As modal auxiliary expressing possibility, likelihood, etc.: may (do sth., be in a certain state or condition), might: (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form with implied inf.; ~ mouen; (c) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: a1333, Wycl.Possessioners]; sholde mouen; (d) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quots.: 1st, ?a1500(a1471)].
21.
As optative auxiliary expressing hope, wish, request, etc.: wish (to do sth.), shall (do sth., be so, etc.); -- usu. in dependent clause following an expression of hope, etc.: (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) present form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [1st quot.]; (d) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: c1400]; (e) past form with past meaning; (f) past form with past meaning with implied inf.
22.
As modal auxiliary expressing ability or capability: to be able (to do sth.), can (do sth.): (a) present form; (b) present form with implied inf.; (c) past form with present meaning; (d) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: a1420].
23.
As modal auxiliary expressing permission: to be permitted or allowed (to do sth.), may (do sth.): (a) present form; also with implied inf. [quot.: a1393]; ~ mouen; (b) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: a1393]; (c) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: c1230]; sholde mouen.
24.
As modal auxiliary expressing hearsay, report, etc.: to be said (to do sth., be so, etc.), be reported: (a) present form; (b) past form with present meaning; (c) past form with past meaning.
25.
As modal auxiliary expressing an unlikely, improbable, objectionable, or inappropriate condition, a less preferred action, etc.: would (do sth., be sth., etc.), should; -- usu. in dependent clause following an expression of improbability, etc.: (a) present form; (b) past form with present meaning; levere (rather)..than..sholde; god forbid (defend, shild)..sholde, etc.; (c) past form with present meaning with implied inf.; (d) past form with past meaning.
26.
As modal auxiliary in dependent clause following an expression of sorrow, wonder, anger, etc.: should (do sth., be so, etc.): (a) present form; (b) past form with present meaning; sholde geren; (c) past form with past meaning.
27.
As modal auxiliary in rhetorical questions expressing impossibility, unnecessary action, sorrow, despair, etc.: shall (do sth., be in a certain state or condition, etc.), can, could, etc.: (a) present form; ~ mouen; (b) present form with implied inf. [some quots. may belong in 2.]; (c) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: RRose]; sholde mouen; sholde to accomplisshen; (d) past form with past meaning.
28.
As modal auxiliary in semantically empty (or nearly empty) uses; shal ben (signifien, etc.), is (signifies, does signify, etc.): (a) present form; also with implied inf. [quots.: c1410, c1430]; (b) past form with present meaning; also with implied inf. [1st quot.]; (c) past form with past meaning; also with implied inf. [quot.: a1400(c1303)].
29.
Forms of shulen v. used as nouns: (a) the word 'shall'; (b) the word 'should'.

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • c1390 In worschupe (Vrn)58 : Þus þorw monnes false song, Ofte wymmen haþ be schent; Ʒif eny such be in present Stille holde him, I rede, he stell [read:schell] And preise wimmen.
  • Note: Quot was in t̄el(e n.(3).
    Note: MS has "he stell". In 2nd edition, this was changed to 'he schell'.
    Note: Add stell to error forms for sg.1 & 3.