Middle English Dictionary Entry
|Forms||shō̆t n. Also shot(t)e, shoth(e, shoit(h, (SW) ssote, (N) scot & shet(e, (WM) sheot & (early, ?error) eschot, (errors) schoch, soth, soht; pl. shot(t)es, shotus, shettes & shotte.|
|Etymology||OE ge)scot, ge)sceot; forms in -ō- prob. from OE oblique cases; cp. ME scot n.(2), some early instances of which may belong here. Forms of shẹ̄ten v. may have influenced some forms of shō̆t n.; a few quots. with -e- may belong to shute n.|
Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)
Note: Cp. shute n.
(a) A missile, such as an arrow, a dart, spear, cannon projectile, etc.; also fig.; -- often coll.; ~ of honde, darts, javelins, etc.; casting ~, a missile; sheten (oute) ~; (b) coll. weapons that shoot missiles; (c) a bolt or bar for a door or gate; (d) a young branch, shoot; (e) a young weaned pig.
- c1325(c1300) Glo.Chron.A (Clg A.11)11094 : Arblastes sone & ginnes wiþoute me bende, & ssote inward vaste inou atte laste hii sende.
- c1330 Body & S.(5) (Auch)p.34 : When deþ so scharpliche schet his schot, Þer nis non [vr. no helpe] oʒain char.
- (a1387) Trev.Higd.(StJ-C H.1)4.449 : He was ful of arewes and of schot.
- (a1398) *Trev.Barth.(Add 27944)290b/b : The leonesse hatte leena..sche dredeþ nouʒt nouþer spareþ þe schot [L iacula] of hunters.
- (a1398) *Trev.Barth.(Add 27944)299b/a : Suche a bole..putteþ of dartes and schotte wiþ hardnesse of þe bak.
- a1400(a1325) Cursor (Vsp A.3)10036 : Þe berbikans seuen þat es a-bute..wel tas kepe to þat castell For aro, scott [Göt: schott; Trin-C: shet], and for quarel.
- c1400(?a1387) PPl.C (Hnt HM 137)21.294 : Setteþ bowes of brake a brasene gonnes And sheteþ out shot ynowh hus shultrom to blende.
- a1425(c1385) Chaucer TC (Benson-Robinson)2.58 : That Pandarus, for al his wise speche, Felt ek his part of loves shotes keene.
- (1443) Let.Bekynton in RS 56.2248 : The Frensshmen beganne to shete with gunnes and cast with ingynnes in to the castel..they shot xxiiij shotts and cast with ij ingynnes xxij casts.
- a1450(a1338) Mannyng Chron.Pt.1 (Lamb 131)2101 : Þe kyng was slayn þer wiþ a schote [F sajete]; Þe host destruyed ilk a crote.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)8b : He conne wiþ strong myʒt schete his arewe, darte, spere, or oþer schot euene to þe mark þat it is to-ysette.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)18b : There is also anoþer maner of fiʒt þat Romayns vsed..þat is, wiþ dartes and speres leded aboue þe heued..and þat schoot, what for strengþe of schete or þe castere, what for peys of þe leed, þere was none armure þat miʒte wiþstonde þe strook.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)21b : Þe castynge schot þat oure footmen vsed in werres was yclepid Pila, and now it is yclepid a spere oþer a darte..and he were myʒtiliche y-schote in to a schelde, he myʒt noʒt liʒtliche be pullid out.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)39a : Aftir hem were sette liʒt armed men..þe whiche fiʒte wiþ battis of leed, wiþ swerdes, and wiþ schot of hand [L missibilibus].
- a1450(?1420) Lydg.TG (Tan 346)788 : To loue aswel..as þe gret famous Hercules, For Dianyre þat felt þe shottes kene, Riʒt so shal I..hir boþe drede and serue.
- (a1460) Vegetius(2) (Pmb-C 243)454 : It falleth ofte, if other shot ther noon is, Men herneysed in steel may not withstonde The multitude & myghti caste of stonys.
- a1475(?a1430) Lydg.Pilgr.(Vit C.13)7573 : No man may be armyd wel..But he haue on thys haberioun..ffortitudo..Shoot of Arwe nor off quarel..shal nat perce thorgh the maylle.
- a1500(a1450) Ashmole SSecr.(Ashm 396)87/30 : Stablissh..in the myddes a kynde of shoters and of casters of wepen, shetyng fire and al-maner of shot.
- a1500(?a1450) GRom.(Hrl 7333)4 : If þou do þus, no doute of þou shalt stonde aʒenst all the shotis þat þe devill can shete to þe.
- a1500 ?Ros Belle Dame (Cmb Ff.1.6)145 : But euer in one he sette his ye stedfaste On hir..And of his yen the shot y knewe anon, Which federid was with right humble requestis.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)46b,47a : Hem nediþ to haue grete schot þat neiþer habirgeoun ne schelde mowe wiþstonde, as springolis, trepegettis, bowes of brake, arblastes, bend wiþ vise..and..xj men assigned and ordeyned to kepe þe schot, to bende it and to schete it when time is best.
- (1469) Paston1.344 : For thei haue sent for gonnes to Lynne..þat wyth ther gret multitude of gonnes, wyth othere shoot and ordynaunce, ther shall no man dar appere in þe place.
- (1375-6) Rec.Norwich 244 : [In expense of the Tolbooth, as in reed, clay, rods..] shottis, sneckis.
- a1450 Gener.(1) (Mrg M 876)196 : The shottes of the gates opened she And sett open the gates wide That the king in might ride.
- ?a1475 PParv.(Win)315 : On-doyng, or onpynnynge schettis [Hrl 221: schettellys] or sperellys: Apparicio.
- c1450 Treat.Fish.(Yale 171)149/19 : Take a feyr schoyt of blake thorne, crabtre, medeler, or geneper cut yn þe same sesun.
- (1408) Invent.Jarrow in Sur.Soc.2981 : Item, in porcaria xlviij, scilicet, iij boris, vj sues, x galtis, xvj schotys, xiij piggis.
- (1413) Acc.R.Dur.in Sur.Soc.9954 : In i porcell..In i Schoyth empt. 22 d.
- (1451) Lin.DDoc.51/26 : I will..my Swynnard iiij Swynne, schotes of halfe ʒere old.
- (1465) Acc.Howard in RC 57296 : Item, the same day my mastyr paid her for vij yonge shotes v s.
(a) Shooting with a bow, an arbalest, a siege engine, etc.; casting with a sling; the throwing of a dart, javelin, etc.; the discharge of a missile; also fig.; also, coll. discharges, shots [some quots. in 2.(a) & (b) may belong in 1.(a)]; (b) ~ of arblast (boue, gonne), gonne (gonnes) ~ [see also gonne n.2.(d)]; ~ man, folk (men) of ~, a soldier (soldiers) using missile weapons; blind ~, a blind shot; -- used fig.; geten a ~, to get a shot; sheten al at a ~, all shoot at once; (c) shooting of game.
- c1380 Firumb.(1) (Ashm 33)3179 : Þe tour schaltou þanne assaille wyþ schot & cast of gynne.
- (a1387) Trev.Higd.(StJ-C H.1)4.431 : Þere fil so gret strengþe of castynge and of schot of Titus his side þat þe noble knyʒht of oon of Iosephus his felowes was i-smyte of þat place wiþ a stoon and flyʒ over þe þridde forlong.
- (c1390) Chaucer CT.NP.(Manly-Rickert)B.4539 : O Gaufred..That, whan thy worthy kyng Richard was slayn With shot, compleynedest his deth so soore.
- (a1393) Gower CA (Frf 3)2.2238 : He hath so wel his schote timed That he him thurgh the bodi smette.
- (a1398) *Trev.Barth.(Add 27944)172b/b : For þe shot o arowes shulde nouʒt ben y-lette with greete breestes, in þe seuenþe ʒere..þey brennen offe þe brestes.
- c1400(c1378) PPl.B (LdMisc 581)20.224 : So seide sexty of þe same contreye And shoten aʒein with shotte many a shef of othes And brode hoked arwes goddes herte & his nayles.
- c1425(a1420) Lydg.TB (Aug A.4)4.3441 : For in þe feld þei myʒt not perseuere Only for shot of þe strong archeris Of Perce lond and þe arblasteris.
- c1425(c1400) Ld.Troy (LdMisc 595)7724 : Al was of man bothe nese & throte And fyngres als for his schote.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)40a : Alle þilke þat occupie schot, as bowemen, alblasteres and bowes of braak and slyngeres wiþ hand slynge & staf slynge, þese ben clepid þe liʒt armure; þese schulliþ..tarre þe enemyes wiþ schot and cast of stones.
- a1450 Castle Persev.(Folg V.a.354)2050 : Þis day fallyth on us þe lot Mankynd for to schylde and schete Fro dedly synne and schamely schot.
- c1450(c1400) Sultan Bab.(Gar 140)2605 : The shotte, the caste was so stronge, Syr Bryer was slayn there With dartes, gauylokes, and speres longe.
- a1500(1422) Yonge SSecr.(Rwl B.490)204/13 : The fourth day wyth his Pepill throw the mydstreynthes of Manus Mcmahons countrey Sauely wythout any fyght or Shote of any enemy to the toune of Arthyrde hit repayred.
- a1500(a1450) Ashmole SSecr.(Ashm 396)87/20 : Some with cast of dartes, oþer with shot of arrowes and quarell, some in the foward, some in bataill in the rereward.
- c1330(?c1300) Guy(1) (Auch)2427 : Wiþ loude steuen þan hete he His folk asayl þat cite Wiþ schot of bowe and alblast.
- a1400(?a1350) Siege Troy(1) (Eg 2862)61/744 : Sir Alisaunder lost þat day mony a man Þrouʒ shoote [vrr. scheot, schete] of bow and dynt of ston.
- c1425(a1420) Lydg.TB (Aug A.4)2.6450 : Troyens..made hem plounge lowe With caste of quarel & with schoot of bowe Þoruʒ olietis.
- a1425(?a1400) Epistle DStirrings (Hrl 674)72/12 : Soche a blinde schote with þe scharp darte of longing loue may never faile of þe prik, þe whiche is God.
- ?1435 Lond.Chron.Jul.(Jul B.2)96 : In this same yere..was slayn sir Thomas Movntagu..thruh a shotte off a gonne before Orliaunce, as he lay at the siege.
- c1440(?a1400) Morte Arth.(1) (Thrn)2467 : Thane the price man..Enserches the subbarbes sadly thareaftyre, Discoueris of schotte-men, and skyrmys a lyttill.
- a1450 Castle Persev.(Folg V.a.354)1956 : Schete we all at a schote Wyth gere þat we cunne best note To chache Mankynd fro ʒene cote Into dedly synne.
- c1450(?a1400) Parl.3 Ages (Add 31042)4 : I went..In-to þe schawes my-selfe a schotte me to gete At ane hert or ane hynde.
- c1460(?c1400) Beryn (Nthld 55)241 : The knyʒt..a-poyntid to his sone þe perell & þe dout ffor shot of Arblast & of bowe & eke for shot of gonne Vn-to þe wardis of the town.
- (1465) Event Edw.IV in Camd.10 (Arms L.9)38 : If ye suffre any greet gunne laide unto the wal and be shote..it shall cost yowe the Chiftens hede, and so proceding for every gunne shet.
- c1475(c1420) Page SRouen (Eg 1995)p.15 : For schot of goonne and quarelle bothe Sawe I nevyr gretter wothe.
- c1475 Gregory's Chron.(Eg 1995)119 : Alle so hyt hys accordyd..yf any suche evylle doers ben founde, that thenne the captaynys of men of armys and of shotte do ther on justyfyynge and execusion.
- c1475 Gregory's Chron.(Eg 1995)155 : We..shalle be holdynne to helpyn..hym..with summys of v c men of armys or of folke of schotte.
- a1605(c1471) Arriv.Edw.IV in Camd.1 (Hrl 543)18 : Weninge gretly to have anoyed the Kinge and his hooste with shot of gonnes, th'Erls fielde shotte gunes almoste all the nyght.
- a1605(c1471) Arriv.Edw.IV in Camd.1 (Hrl 543)29 : Edmond..whithar it were for that he and his fellowshipe were sore annoyed..with gonnes-shott..or els of great harte..manly avaunsyd hymselfe.
- a1500(a1455) Let.Marg.Anjou in Camd.86 (Add 46846)91 : We..pray you that the game there be spared..without suffring eny other personne there to hunte or have shet, cource, or other disporte.
The range or distance of a missile in flight; ~ lengthe; arblast ~; flight ~, a bowshot; within ~, within shooting range.
- c1330(?a1300) Arth.& M.(Auch)4920 : Gaheriet on hors his trace Folwed out fram þat ost Wele þe schote of an alblast.
- (c1410) York MGame (Vsp B.12)17 : Þat tyme þei rennen so fast þat an hare shuld haue ynowe to doon to ouyrtake hym wiþ in an haronsblast shoote [F trait].
- (1442) Let.Bekynton in RS 56.2247 : Piers Arnald..ordeined iiij or moo of balasters and logged theym secretly in a chirch, Estrope, not a shot lenght from the gate.
- a1450(1408) *Vegetius(1) (Dc 291)101a : Bot and þi welle or thi water be out of schot or cast, þan hit nedeþ to make a litel castelle..to defende þi water fro enemyes.
- a1450(c1410) Lovel.Grail (Corp-C 80)12.358 : That Rever, As brod it was As the schot Of An Arwe In eche A plas.
- c1450(?a1400) Roland & O.(Add 31042)1457 : Þaire dynttes felle so sadde & sare þat wele ane alblastire schott & mare þay myghte no wapyns welde.
- c1450(c1425) Brut-1419 (Cmb Kk.1.12)389/19 : He logged hym..more nygh þe toun and his enymys þanne eny oþer man be xl rodez of lengthe, withynne schotte of quarell.
- (1455) Paston2.127 : It was answerid hym ageyn þat he shuld walke forth..and so he dede till he was a flyte shote or more from his place.
(a) A swift movement, rush; (b) a gushing of liquid; (c) an ejaculation of semen; ?also, lechery [last quot.]; (d) a cataract in the eye; (e) physiol. & med. a muscular spasm of the neck or back; a spasmodic pain in the side, stitch; ?also, tetanus; ~ wort, the greater stitchwort (Stellaria holostea), used medicinally.
- a1450(a1338) Mannyng Chron.Pt.1 (Lamb 131)1738 : Al holyke com þer flote In Dertemuthe at o schote.
- a1450(a1338) Mannyng Chron.Pt.1 (Lamb 131)15700 : Cadwalyn was ofte on fflote Wyþ many fair schip on schote, & wel þe wynd gan hym dryue.
- c1540(?a1400) Destr.Troy (Htrn 388)3300 : And þou drunkyn hade dewly as mony du sopis, As shottes of shire water has shot fro þin ene, Thou faithfully were fillid vnto þi faire swyre.
- a1475 Leve lystynes (Brog 2.1)p.31 : Owre syre..pysses his tarse..When men speke of archery, He mon stond faste there-by, Or ellys hys schote woll troke.
- ?a1500 Burgeys thou (Hrl 7578)3 : Burgeys, thou haste so blowen atte the Cole..And haste do so many..shotte and I-stoole That fleesh vppon thy carkeys is theyre noon.
- ?a1500 Burgeys thou (Hrl 7578)39 : If him liste to helth the restore, Thou woldeste neuere shethen afterwarde..'ffrendes, beeth ware of excesse and outerage, Namely, of shote, for it smerteth so soore That it to man doth paie for his waige.'
- ?c1425 Chauliac(2) (Paris angl.25)23/2 : Of sekenesses of þe corne, þe whiche beeþ noumbred ten: First, it schalle be saide of spottes and þan of schotes [*Ch.(1): cataractez; L catharacta].
- (1440) PParv.(Hrl 221)448 : Schote, or crykke: Tetanus.
- ?c1450 Stockh.PRecipes (Stockh 10.90)77/6-7 : For þe schothe: Drynk pigle, þat is, schotworthe, and ambrose and old ale ix dayes.
- ?c1450 Stockh.PRecipes (Stockh 10.90)77/9 : For þe schottes & þe prikkynges in sydes..make þer-of an euyn playster and ley it to þin syde and on þe stommak as hot as ʒe may suffren.
(a) Payment for food or drink at a tavern; one's share of such payment; (b) a festivity; ~ ale, = scot-ale n.(a) & (c); ale ~; (c) fig. a payment for sin, penalty.
- a1500 I shall you tell a full (BodPoet e.1)p.94 : On cast down her schott..'what dyd she paye?' 'Not but a peny.'
- a1500 I shall you tell a full (BodPoet e.1)p.94 : Such gestes we may have i-nowe That will not fore ther shott alow.
- a1500 I shall you tell a full (BodPoet e.1)p.94 : Now rekyn owr shott..What? cost it ich off us but iij pence?
- (1275) Pleas Edw.I in RS 79.361 fn. : Shotthal [Cart.Ramsey: Quando pratum illud falcabunt, tota villata habebit de bursa Abbatis octo denarios ad potationem, ut dicitur, Scotale].
- a1400(a1300) Annal Burton in RS 36.1 (Vsp E.3)307 : An aliqui laici..fieri faciant Schothales.
- c1450 All this day (Cai 383/603)p.307 : Jacke wol pay for my scoth A Sonday atte the ale-schoch.
- a1500 Jhesu lord owr (Pen 53A)p.204 : When that ye com to the schott, Loke that ye take yowr part of the pott..Dryngke as a-nothyr doth But nott lest of all.
- c1400 Vices & V.(2) (Sim)48/3 : Þe schot [Hnt: for first he bigynneþ to be a tauerne-goer..and after þat he bicomeþ an harlot, holour, and þef; and so comeþ he to be honged, and þis is scot þat he paieþ comunly].
(a) A royal tax [cp. scot n.(2) 2.(a)]; ~ and lot; (b) lot and ~, municipal charges and taxes; on lot and on ~, liable for one's share of such charges; (c) chirche ~, a customary rent paid in grain [cp. cherset n.]; hundred ~, ?a payment to the bailiff of the hundred for the support of his office; shirreve ~, money to meet the sheriff's expenses, sheriff's aid; soule ~, a payment to a church on the death of a person.
- (a1135) in Rymer's Foedera (1816-69)1.11 : Cives..sint quieti de schot [Chart.Hen.I in Liebermann Gesetze 1: scot, vr. eschot] & de loth & de danegeld & de murdro.
- (a1307) Cart.Ramsey in RS 79.353 : Omnes homines sint quieti ab omni collectione census, quæ geld vel schot Anglice nominatur.
- (1330) Cart.Ramsey in RS 79.392 : Abbas de Rameseye..clamat..esse quietus de geld, schot, et danegeld.
- 1419(a1135) Liber Albus Lond.in RS 12.1128 : Item, quod cives Londoniarum sint quieti de Schot et Loth, et de Danegelde et de murdro.
- c1225 10 Art.Wm.I in Liebermann Gesetze 1 (Tit A.27)487 : Schote [Roch: Omnis Francigena qui..fuit in Anglia particeps consuetudinum Anglorum, quod ipsi dicunt on hlote et an scote, persoluatur secundum legem Anglorum].
- (1351) in Gross Gild Merch.2.376 : Si aliquis natiuus..fuerit in..gilda et hansa et loth et shot cum eisdem hominibus nostris per vnum annum et vnum diem..deinceps..liber in eadem villa permaneat.
- (1376) RParl.2.353a : Les poveres Communes & Comburgeys, payantz a lot & schot & totes autres coustages venantz au Ville, ne puissent avoir atant de Harang come appent a lour estor pur l'an.
- (1459) Doc.in Gilbert Cal.Dublin 1301 : Hit was grawnt..that al tho that ben fre fermes in the contrey..schall ber lot and schot with the citte to al maner workys that schall be don wythin the citte as well as densynys.
- a1200 in Madox Firma Burgi (1726)27 : De Saulesoth [?read: Sauleshoth] vero & de divisis & aliis beneficiis vestris Ecclesiam Sancti Martini, in multis indigentem sicut apparet & vos videtis, rememorare, si vobis placuerit, vos precamur.
- (c1274-5) Hundred R.Tower 1526 : Subtraxit ij d. de turno vicecomitis et ij d. de shireveschot.
- (c1274-5) Hundred R.Tower 1527 : Iidem subtrahunt xij d. de hundredeshot & ij d. de turno vicecomitis.
- ?c1350 Legal Gloss.Jul.(Jul D.7)33 : Chirchesoht [read: Chircheshot]: Une certeine summe de ble batu.
- -?- Legal Gloss.RBEx.(Hrl 848)1039 fn. : Circheschot vel chirkomer vel chirhambre.
A patch of woods.
- c1540(?a1400) Destr.Troy (Htrn 388)330 : Ther were fyldes full faire fast þere besyde..The bourderis about abasshet with leuys, With shotes of shire wode shene to beholde, Grete greues full grene, grecfull of dere.
Supplemental Materials (draft)
- a1400 Lament Berkeley (Mid Mi O1)76 : Sodeynli assailled him a sekenes smert, A sselly shoite, bi my saule, shot vnder his side, Þat bi(re)ued him his rest, oright he moght not ride.
Note: New spelling: Also..shoite
Note: Probably belongs to sense 4.(e)"..a spasmodic pain in the side, stitch". This particular subsense has a field label, physiol. & med.); change it to chiefly physiol. & med.. (If quot belongs here, it is needed for date.)--per MLL
Supplemental Materials (draft)
Note: Med., etc., see further J.Norri, Dictionary of Medical Vocabulary, s.v. shot.