Middle English Dictionary Entry

rọ̄de n.(5)
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Entry Info

Definitions (Senses and Subsenses)

An instrument of capital punishment, a cross.
(a) The cross on which Christ died; also, the Crucifixion [quot.: a1450]; (b) a vision of Christ's cross; ~ token.
In phrases: (a) don o (in, on, upon) ~, hongen o (on, upon) ~, pinen o (in, on) ~, putten (quellen, renden, slen, etc.) on ~, to crucify (Christ); strecchen on (upon) ~, stretch (Christ, Christ's arms) on the cross; (b) dien (sterven) on (upon) ~, letten lif o (on) ~, tholen deth on ~, ben ded on ~, to die on the cross; hongen o (on) ~, resten on ~, endure crucifixion; tholen pine upon ~, throuen on ~, suffer on the cross; (c) fastnen on ~, nailen o (on, to) ~, to nail (Christ) on the cross; (d) bleden blod on ~, bleden on (upon) ~, rennen on ~, sheden blod on (upon) ~, yeten blod upon ~, to bleed while on the cross; (e) bien o (on, upon) ~, forbien (alesen) on ~, to redeem (sb., mankind) by enduring crucifixion; offren o ~, offer (oneself) on the cross; offren upon ~, offer (Christ) on the cross; also, offer (oneself) on the cross; (f) in oaths and asseverations.
In cpds. & combs. relating to Christ's cross: (a) ~ fot, the base or foot of the cross; ~ pine, the torment of crucifixion; ~ tre, q.v.; (b) ~ marke (tokninge), the sign of the cross made across the body with the right hand or fingers; rode(s-token [OE rōde-tācen], a cross-shaped mark used to solemnize a document; also, the sign of the cross; (c) fig. ~ sheld (staf), the cross viewed as a defense against the devil.
Bodily or mental pain, tribulation, viewed as a reflection of Christ's torment on the cross; beren ~.
(a) A crucifix; ~ crucified; (b) a large crucifix placed on or above the screen between the nave and the choir, a rood; ?also, the figure of Christ on such a crucifix; ~ hed, the figure of Christ's head; ~ token; (c) a particular crucifix; ~ of bromholm (chestre, etc.); (d) a representation of the cross or the crucifix on a coin; (e) ~ bem, a beam forming the header of the screen between the choir and the nave, a rood beam; ~ cloth, a cloth used to cover the crucifix during Lent; ~ ele, a transept [cp. cros ele, s.v. cros n.9.(b)]; ~ gilde, a guild established in honor of the cross; ~ light, a candle placed before the rood; ~ loft (soler), a gallery above the rood screen and choir, a rood loft.
(a) A linear measure; = rod(de n.4.(a); (b) a measure of land, properly one rod by forty rods and equalling one quarter of an acre, a rood; ~ of lond; bede ~, a manorial service requiring some part of the haymaking duties for the space of a quarter-acre; (c) ~ fal, a square measure, esp. one equalling a square perch.
In place names [see Smith PNElem.2.87].

Supplemental Materials (draft)

  • a1500 *Medulla (Cnt D.2) : Collusus..est res in memoriam mortui facta, vt tumulus ymago et crux, a crudde.
  • Note: New spelling: (error) crudde. (Based on the quot., this error seems to have arisen when the scribe combined the "c-" of "crux" with the form "rudde".)--per MLL
    Note: Sense: not clear whether "crudde" refers to a cross or a crucifix, but it is used as a memorial for the dead. IF a cross, perhaps belongs to sense 2a. with a separate lettered sense; if a crucifix, belongs to sense 4. with a separate lettered sense.--per MLL
    Note: Stnh: Colosus: þyd, made of bon; Hrl. 2270: Colosus: id est res in memoriam factam vt tumulus ymago; Hrl.2257: Colosus..thing made of boone; St. John's: Colosus..a thyng mad a bone; Add. 33534: Colosus: a thing mad of bon.