History of Detroit and Wayne County and early Michigan: [Vol. 2]
Farmer, Silas, 1839-1902.

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Page  I H ISTORY OF Detroit;/ WZiayne County AND EARLY A Chronological MICHIGAN Cyclopedia of the I Id -t PAST AND PRESENT By SILAS FdRMER, City Historiograiher "native here and to the manner born" ~o mruhitp anb ito~ortapitmal iqbtitol ~a. PUBLISHED BY SILAS FARMER & CO CORNER OF MONROE AVENUE AND FARMER STREET, DETROIT FOR MUNSELL & CO., NEW YORK 1890

Page  II COPYRIGHT, 1884, BY SILAS FARMER. COPYRIGHT, I889, BY SILAS FARMER. COPYRIGHT, I890, BY SILAS FARMER. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Electrotyped and Printed by THe DETROIT FREE PRES8 COMPANY.

Page  III PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION. The insertion of biographical sketches in the first edition of this work was suggested to the author, but it was deemed best to postpone the preparation of such material until the subject could be given greater attention. The successful sale of the first edition, and the gratifying demand for a second, has now given opportunity for this addition, which is certainly appropriate in a local history; for without citizens there would be neither city nor history, and brief biographies of representatives of various classes of its business and professional men will give a fairly representative idea of the city. Some of the biographies are of necessity brief, as no other facts could be obtained. In gathering material for several of the biographies, I am indebted to Lanman's Red Book of Michigan, to the American Biographical History (Michigan volume), and to the Magazine of Western History. Many other names might have appeared with propriety; indeed, other biographies were prepared, and other portraits engraved, which, almost at the last moment, were omitted, as it was found that they would increase the volume to an unreasonable size. In addition to the large amount of entirely new matter, the work as a whole has been thoroughly revised. THE AUTHOR.

Page  IV PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION. In preparing the third edition of this work, the aim has been to embody all the desirable facts that could be obtained, concerning the history of the several townships of the county. Diligent efforts have been made to secure material, very many of the older residents have been interviewed, and all the township records examined. The history of each township is so related to the general history of the county, and to Detroit, that very many facts that might as appropriately have been given in the township histories, are given in various Chapters in the first volume, and to these, and especially to Chapters twenty, twenty-one and twenty-two, the reader is referred. The author assumes no responsibility for the accuracy of the personal sketches at the close of the volume, as they were collected by the firm of Munsell & Co., for whom this third edition is printed. THE AUTHOR.

Page  V TABLE OF CONTENTS. PART XIII- BIOGRAPHICAL. CHAPTER XC. Mayors of Detroit.-Solomon Sibley - Elijah Brush - John R. Williams - Henry J. Hunt - John Biddle - Jonathan Kearsley - Marshall Chapin - Levi Cook - Charles C. Trowbridge - Andrew Mack - Henry Howard - Augustus S. Porter, - Asher B. Bates - DeGarmo Jones -Zina PitcherDouglass Houghton - James A. Van Dyke- Frederick Buhl- Charles Howard - John LadueZachariah Chandler - John H. Harmon - Oliver M. Hyde- Henry Ledyard -John Patton-Christian H. Buhl - William C. Duncan -Kirkland C. Barker - Merrill I. Mills - William W. WheatonHugh Moffat- Alexander Lewis-George C. Langdon - William G. Thompson - Stephen B. Grummond - Marvin H. Chamberlain - John Pridgeon, Jr. 1031-1050 CHAPTER XCI. Governors, Senators, Bankers, and Capitalists.-Russell A. Alger - John J. Bagley - Henry P. Baldwin - Lewis Cass - S. Dow Elwood - Jacob M. Howard - James F. Joy -Henry B. Ledyard - James McMillan - Hugh McMillan - John S. Newberry - John Owen - David Preston - Thomas W. Palmer -Francis Palms - Martin S. Smith —William H. Stevens - William B. Wesson - William Woodbridge. 1, 051-1077 CHAPTER XCII. Authors, Editors, Publishers, Physicians and Military Officers.-Hugh Brady-James B. Book - William H. Brearley - J. Henry Carstens - Henry A. Cleland - George Dawson - Arent S. DePeyster - John Farmer - Charles Hastings - Edward W. Jenks - Herman Kiefer - Alexander Macomb - Frederick Morley - Rollin C. Olin - John Pulford - William E. Quinby - James E. Scripps - John P. Sheldon - Morse Stewart - Francis X. Spranger - John Trumbull - William A. Throop - Henry O. Walker - Anthony Wayne - Richard S. Willis - Orlando B. WilcoxHal C. Wyman - Charles C. Yemans. I078-II09

Page  VI vi TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER XCIII. Judges and Lawyers.-John Atkinson - Levi Bishop -James V. Campbell - Don M. Dickinson - Julian G Dickinson -- Samuel T. Douglass - D. Bethune Duffield - Henry M. Duffield - Edmund Hall - DeWitt C. Holbrook - George H. Hopkins - Willard M. Lillibridge - George V. N. Lothrop William A. Moore - George F. Porter- Ralph Phelps, Jr.- James A. Randall- Charles I. Walker — Edward C. Walker - William P. Wells - Albert H. Wilkinson - James WitherellBenjamin F. H. Witherell. 1110-II34 CHAPTER XCIV. Merchants.-Henry J. Buckley-James Burns -William K. Coyl - Thomas R. Dudley- William H. Elliott-James L. Edson-Jacob S. Farrand-John Farrar-Benjamin F. FarringtonDexter M. Ferry- Aaron C. Fisher - Richard H. Fyfe- Rufus W. Gillett- Henry GloverJeremiah Godfrey — Bruce Goodfellow-Theodore P. Hall-George H. Hammond-Samuel Heavenrich - Emil S. Heineman - Chauncey Hurlbut -- Joshua S. Ingalls - Charles S. Isham - Richard Macauley - Thomas McGraw - Nicol Mitchell - George F. Moore - James V. Moran Cyrenius A. Newcomb - Henry A. Newland - Thomas Palmer - George Peck -James E. Pittman -William Reid- William D. Robinson - Alanson Sheley-Osias W. Shipman — Aaron L. Watkins - Frederick Wetmore -George C. Wetherbee - H. Kirke White. I135-1174 CHAPTER XCV. Manufacturers and Inventors.-William S. Armitage - Absalom Backus, Jr. -Carleton A. Beardsley -Thomas Berry - Calvin K. Brandon - William A. Burt - Wells Burt - John Burt - George S. Davis — Solomon Davis - Alexander Delano - Jeremiah Dwyer -- Jacob B. Fox - George H. Gale - John S. Gray - Thomas F. Griffin - Gilbert Hart - Samuel F. Hodge - F. A. HubelJames McGregor - Joseph B. Moore - Michael J. Murphy - David O. Paige - Hervey C. Parke Hazen S. Pingree - David M. Richardson-Fordyce H. Rogers-Frederick Stearns - Joseph Toynton -J. Hill Whiting. I I75-I207 CHAPTER XCVI. Land Dealers, Lumber Manufacturers, Vessel Owners, Railroad and Insurance Managers, Etc.-Francis Adams — James A. Armstrong- Stephen Baldwin- Edmund A. Brush — William N. Carpenter - John P. Clark- E. W. Cottrell - Darius Cole - Alfred A. DwightEralsy Ferguson - Moses W. Field - George S. Frost- J. Huff Jones- Edward Lyon - Charles Merrill- Franklin Moore - Stephen Moore - John B. Mulliken - Joseph Nicholson - Charles Noble - Charles W. Noble - Charles L. Ortmann - Samuel Pitts - John E. Potts-Henry P. Pulling - David R. Shaw - Elliott T. Slocum - Giles B. Slocum - John D. Standish — Isaac N. SwainAnson Waring- Jared C. Warner - Deodatus C. Whitwood - Eber B. Ward - Emily Ward. 1208-1236 CHAPTER XCVII. Merchants and Manufacturers.-John Brennan - Conrad Clippert- Victor Colliau - Sidney B. Dixon -Walter John Gould - DeWitt C. Gage - John Allen Gray - William A. Gray - Anthony F. Grosfield - Edward W. Leech - Charles H. Preston-John V. Ruehle -Henry Spitzley. 1237-1244

Page  VII TABLE OF CONTENTS. vii CHAPTER XCVII1. Township and Biographical.-Brownstown.-Canton: Biographies of John Huston, Orlando R. Pattengell, Robert Crawford Safford.-Dearborn: Biographies of Elizur R. Carver, William Daly, James Gardner, Edward Sparrow Snow, John B. Wallace. - Ecorce: Biographies of Jerome Holland Bishop, George Clark, Thomas D. Evans, James T. Hurst, F. A. Kirby, Walter C. Lambert, Theophilus J. Langlois, Hyacinthe F. Riopelle, Alexis M. Salliotte.-Greenfield: Biography of James McFarlane.-Grosse Point: Biography of Amandus Vandendriessche.-Hamtramck: Biographies of Christopher Damitio, John E. Edwards —Huron.-Livonia: Biography of William M. Shaw.-Monguagon: Biographies of James Woodruff Clark, John Clee, Isaac Callendar Saunders, Phineas Earll Saunders.-Nankin: Biography of Ebenezer O. Bennett.-Plymouth: Biographies of Jared S. Lapham, Theodore C. Sherwood, John Marcus Swift.-Redford: Biographies of Felix Gauthier, George C. Gordon, George C. Lawrence.-Romulus.-Springwells: Biography of Joseph H. Clixby.-Sumpter.-Taylor.-Van Buren. I247-1383 Personal Sketches. 1385-1473

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Page  IX PART XIII. BIOGRAPHICAL.

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Page  1031 CHAPTER XC. MAYORS. SOLOMON SIBLEY was born in Sutton, Massachusetts, October 7, 1769. He came to Detroit very soon after the Territory was surrendered by the English, and in January, I799, was elected a member, from Wayne County, of the General Assembly of the Northwest Territory, and was largely instrumental in procuring the passage of the Act of 1802, incorporating the town of Detroit. In recognition of his services the electors of the town, at the first election, conferred upon him the freedom of the corporation, and after the second election he became Chairman of the Board of Trustees, and under the first city charter of 1806, was made Mayor of the city. He also held numerous other offices, serving as Auditor of the Territory from I814 to 1817, was United States Attorney from 1815 to 1823, and Delegate in Congress, from Michigan, from 1821 to 1823, and one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Territory from 1823 to 1837. The recital of the offices he filled, is abundant indication of the esteem in which he was held, and in ability he was the peer of any who were then in office in the Territory, or citizens of Detroit. He was married in October, I802, to Sarah Whipple Sproat. They had eight children, as follows: Colonel Ebenezer Sproat Sibley, of United States Army; Katherine Whipple, wife of C. C. Trowbridge; Henry Hastings Sibley, ex-Governor of Minnesota; Augusta, wife of James A. Armstong; Mary, wife of Charles S. Adams; Alexander Hamilton Sibley; Sarah Alexandrine Sibley, and Frederic Baker Sibley, of Detroit. Solomon Sibley died at Detroit, April 4, 1846. ELIJAH BRUSH was born at Bennington, Vermont, and came to Detroit in I798. His father was a Colonel in the Revolutionary Army, and took part in the battle of Bennington. Elijah Brush graduated at Dartmouth College, began the study of law, and was admitted to the bar. He first practised his profession in Detroit. In 1803, within five years after he arrived in Detroit, he was elected a trustee of the town cor poration, and in the same year served also as supervisor. In I805 he was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel of the Legionary Corps of Territoriai Militia, and under the Act of I806 was appointed the second Mayor of Detroit. In 1806 he was also appointed Treasurer of the Territory, and served until December 13, I813, and from i81I to I814 also held the office of United States Attorney. After the surrender of l)etroit to the English, in 1812, Colonel Brush with other citizens was compelled by General Proctor to leave the Territory. Reaching Toronto, then known as York, he met his brother-in-law, a British officer, through whose interposition he was paroled, and sent within the American lines. In October, 1813, with General Harrison's troops, he re-entered Detroit, and in December, 1813, he died. Colonel Brush married Adelaide Askin, a daughter of John Askin, of Detroit, and in I806 became the owner of the Askin, afterwards known as the Brush Farm. He left three sons and a daughter. JOHN R. WILLIAMS was born at Detroit, May 4, 1782, and was the only son of Thomas Williams, a native of Albany, New York, who came to Detroit in 1765, and married a sister of the late Joseph Campau. He received an appointment in the Army in 1796, and entered the service under General Wilkinson, at Fort Marsac, on the Cumberland River, in Tennessee. In 1799 he resigned, at the solicitation of Mr. Campau, and returned to Detroit, to engage in business. They formed a partnership to engage in the Indian trade, and Mr. Williams went to Montreal to purchase goods. While on board a small sloop at Queenstown, he became engaged in an altercation with a Frenchman named La Salle, a descendant of the renowned navigator and explorer. It resulted in their fighting a duel across a table, in LIo311

Page  1032 1032 MAYORS. which La Salle was shot and severely wounded, Mr. Williams was arrested and carried to Montreal, where he remained under bail for several months, but was finally discharged. In 1802 he returned to Detroit, and embarked in the fur trade and general mercantile business. During the war of 1812 he was made Captain of an artillery company. At the time of Hull's surrender he became a prisoner, but was paroled, and moved with his family to Albany, where he remained until 1815, when he returned to Detroit and resumed business. In the year I8I 5 he was appointed Associate Justice of the County Court, and in 1818 was made one of the County Commissioners, and in the same year was also appointed Adjutant General of the Territory, and served until I829. He was the author of the City Charter of I824, and served as the first Mayor under it, and was elected to the same office in I830, 1844, 1845, and 1846. He served as President of the Constitutional Convention held at Ann Arbor in 1835, and was active at all times in all political matters. He was also always interested in military affairs, and at the breaking out of the Black Hawk war was in command of the Territorial troops, and went to Chicago to aid in defending the western settlements. He owned a large amount of real estate, and his name and the names of members of his family are perpetuated in the names of several of the streets of the city. He married Mary Mott, daughter of Major Gershom Mott, on October 25, 1804. They had ten children, viz.: Ferdinand; Theodore; G. Mott; Thomas; John C.; James Mott; J. C. Devereux; Elizabeth, first wife of Colonel John Winder; Cecilia; Mary C. A., married first to David Smart, second to Commodore J. P. McKinstry; she died in 1876. Mr. Williams died at Detroit, October 20, I854. HENRY JACKSON HUNT was the eldest son of Colonel Thomas Hunt, of the Revolutionary Army, afterwards Colonel of the Second Regiment of the United States Army, who died in St. Louis. It fell to the lot of his son, Henry Jackson Hunt, to care for the orphaned children. He came from New York to Detroit soon after the Americans obtained possession, and served as Colonel of the Militia during most or all of the time from 18o0 to 8 r3. He was a leading merchant and also held various offices; was one of the Judges of the County Court in i8I5, City Assessor in 1817, Trustee of the University in 1821, one of the Trustees of the Corporation of Detroit in 1823, and in i826 was elected Mayor of the city, and died on September 15, 1826, before the expiration of his term of office. He was universally esteemed as a citizen and was prominent in all the literary, philanthropic, and religious projects of his time, and few persons in Detroit were as well and favorably known. He was almost universally spoken of as Henry I. Hunt, but his middle name was Jackson. He had but few relatives in Detroit. Cleveland Hunt, a nephew, is the only representative left in the city. JOHN BIDDLE was born in Philadelphia in March, 1792. He was the son of Charles Biddle, Vice-President of Pennsylvania during the Revolutionary War, and a nephew of Commodore Nicholas Biddle, of the Revolutionary Navy. He graduated at Princeton College, and a few years later entered the United States Army. During most of the War of 1812 he served tinder General Scott upon the Niagara frontier, during a portion of the time attached tc his staff, and was promoted from a Captain of Artillery to the position of Major. His brother, Major Thomas Biddle, was also in the United States Army, and served in the same campaigns, and an older brother, Commodore James Biddle, was a noted naval officer. At the close of the war, Major Biddle was stationed at Detroit. After some years he resigned his commission and went east. In 1819 he married Eliza F. Bradish, of New York, and, returning to Detroit, made quite extensive purchases of lands. In 1823 he was appointed Register of the Land Office for the district of Detroit, and held the office until 1837. In 1827 and 1828 he served as Mayor of Detroit, and from I829 to 183I was a delegate in Congress from Michigan, and in 1841 served in the State Legislature. He took great interest in political matters, and was President of the convention which framed the State Constitution of 1835. He was a fine scholar, wrote easily and fluently, and his literary productions were always valuable. HIe was a member of St. Paul's P. E. Church and interested in all the general religious and philanthropic reforms and efforts of his time. He was President of the original corporation that built the Michigan Central Railroad, and also in 1838 President of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank. In his later years he spent much of his time on his farm, which covered the site of the present city of Wyandotte, and also traveled extensively. On his return from a trip to Europe, in 1859, he spent the summer at White Sulphur Springs, Virginia,

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Page  1033 MAYA where he died suddenly on August 25, after taking a cold bath. He had a large family several of whom survived him. Among these were the widow of General Andrew Porter, William S. Biddle, Major James Biddle and Edward I. Biddle. JONATHAN KEARSLEY was born in Dauphin.County, Pennsylvania, on August 20, 1786, and was the son of Captain Samuel Kearsley, an officer of merit and distinction in the Revolutionary war. The son graduated at Washington College, in Pennsylvania, in May, I81I, and about a year later, on July 6, 1812, he was commissioned by President. Madison as a First Lieutenant in the Second Regiment of Artillery. He was soon after appointed Assistant Deputy Quartermaster-General and attached to the staff of Colonel Izard, at Philadelphia. In 1813 he was appointed Adjutant of the regiment commanded by Colonel Winfield Scott, afterwards Lieutenant-General Scott. He accompanied this distinguished officer at the storming of Fort George, crossing the river in the same boat. He was shortly after engaged in the battle at Stony Creek, and was brevetted Captain for his gallant conduct on that occasion. He also served as Garrison Major under General Porter and Brigadier Major under General Williams. He was with the army in the descent of the.St. Lawrence under General Wilkinson, and participated in the action at Chrystler's Field. On April 21, I814, he was transferred to the Fourth Rifles, and during the following summer was in the left division of the northern army, until in a skirmish on August 20, preceding the sortie at Fort Erie, he was so badly wounded that it became necessary to amputate his leg. He was subsequently commissioned Assistant AdjutantGeneral with the rank of Major, to take effect from the day of the action in which he was wounded. Soon afterwards he was appointed to the charge of the State Arsenal at Harrisburg and was also made a Collector of the internal revenue taxes. On March 20, I819, he was appointed Receiver of Public Moneys at Detroit and removed to this city. He held the office until 1850. He also served as Recorder of the city in 1826 and as Justice of the Peace in 1827. In 1829 he was elected Mayor of the city, and from I836 to 1850 served as one of the Regents of the University. Major Kearsley was twice married. The name of his first wife was Margaret Hetich, daughter of George Hetich, of Chambersburgh, Pennsylvania. They had three children, one of whom died in childhood; a son, Edward R. Kearsley, lives in ORS. I033 Crawford County, Ohio, and a daughter, the late Mrs. M. Howard Webster, lived in Detroit. The second wife of Mr. Kearsley, Rachel Valentine, was the daughter of Robert Valentine, of Chester County, Pennsylvania. She died on January 6, 1859. Mr. Kearsley died on August 31 of the same year. MARSHALL CHAPIN, M. D., was born in Bernardstown, Massachusetts, February 27, 1798, and was the son of Caleb and Mary Chapin, who had nine children. His ancestors l:ved in and about Springfield and the Connecticut River Valley for over 200 years. His father was a physician, but owned and operated a farm. The family removed to Caledonia, New York, and after having attended the usual schools of that day Mr. Chapin took a medical course at Geneva. He subsequently studied with his uncle, Dr. Cyrenius Chapin, of Buffalo, New York, and graduated at the age of twenty-one. In 1819 he established, with the help of his uncle, the first drug store in Detroit. Very soon after coming to the city he became prominent in public life. He served as Alderman at large in 1826 and 1827, and as Mayor of Detroit in 1831 and 1833, and as Chief Engineer of the Fire Department in 1832. In 1832, during the first visitation of the cholera, he was appointed City Physician and won golden opinions from all classes by his faithfulness and devotion; and two years later, when the scourge again appeared, he was equally active and efficient. In addition to his professional labors he gave close attention to his drug store, and under the firm names of J. Owen & Co., T. & J. Hinchman, and T. H. Hinchman & Sons, the business has been continuously maintained; but for more than two score of years has been exclusively a wholesale establishment. As a physician Mr. Chapin was greatly beloved, and he invariably refused all compensation for his services from those not readily able to pay. He was married in 1823 to Mary Crosby. They had four children. Their names were: Louisa, who married Theodore H. Hinchman; Helen, who married Norton Strong; Charles, who died when twelve years old; and Marshall, now dead, who served as a Colonel in the Union army. Dr. Chapin died December 26, 1838. LEVI COOK was born December I6, 1792, at Bellingham, Massachusetts, and came to Detroit in 1815. The same year he became one of the Trustees of the city and continued to hold from one to several offices almost every year thereafter. In 1822 he served as City Treasurer; from 1824

Page  1034 1034 MAYORS. to I827 as County Commissioner; as Superintendent of the City Poor in 1827 and 1828, and also as Alderman at large in 1828. He served as Treasurer of the Territory from 1830 to 1836, and as Chief Engineer of the Fire Department during the same period. In 1834 he was Supervisor of Detroit, and in I835 and 1836 Mayor. In 1838 he represented Wayne County in the House of Representatives, and in 1840 and I841 served on the Board of Review of the city. He was prominently connected with various banking organizations, was a Director in the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank in I829, and President from 1838 to 1845. He was a leading and very influential member of the Masonic body, and was tall, portly and commanding in appearance. He married Eliza Sanderson. He died December 2, I866, but left neither wife nor children. CHARLES CHRISTOPHER TROWBRIDGE was born in Albany, New York, on December 29, I8oo, and was the youngest of six children. His father, Luther Trowbridge, who died in 1802, was a native of Framingham, Massachusetts, and when the Revolution broke out was a law student, but immediately volunteered in the army. At the age of seventeen he received an Ensign's commission in the Massachusetts' line and continued in the service until peace was declared, when he retired with the rank of Brevet Captain and Quartermaster. After the war he settled at Albany, where his wife (whose maiden name was Elizabeth Tillman) had relatives. Here he held various offices, was prominent in public affairs, and died greatly respected. After his death the children were scattered, Charles C. finding a friend in Major Horatio Ross, of Owego, who proposed to initiate him into mercantile life. In accordance with this plan his first year was spent at Elmira; the next year he was taken into the family of Major Ross, where he was treated as a favored son. The business troubles that followed the peace of 1815 ruined his patron's business, and the creditors put the property into the hands of Mr. Trowbridge, who was then not quite eighteen years old, and he went down the Susquehanna with a cargo of salt, gypsum and lumber, disposed of it in Pennsylvania and came back safely with the proceeds. The next year Mr. William A. Ely, of Owego, engaged him to go as supercargo to Havre de Grace and Baltimore. Shortly after his return from Baltimore he decided to seek a home in Michigan. Some of his friends, through the intervention of Rev. John Monteith, secured him an appointment under Major Thomas Rowland, who was then holding various offices, and in the fall of 1819 Mr. Trowbridge came to Detroit. He was soon on intimate terms with the best and most inlluential persons in the city, and in 1820 was selected as one of the party to accompany Governor Cass on his exploring expedition to Lake Superior. The trip made Mr. Trowbridge intimately acquainted with Governor Cass, and he became and continued through life a kind and helpful friend. On his return from the expedition Mr. Trowbridge was sent with Colonel Beaufait, an Indian interpreter; to make a payment to the Saginaw Indians, and soon after his return he began to act as private secretary to General Cass, and in that capacity wrote from dictation various public documents and literary productions, and was also employed in other positions of great responsibility. In 1821 he was made Secretary of the Board of Regents of the University, holding the office until I835. In December, 1823, he was employed by the Secretary of War under the direction of General Cass to take down, from the Indians, statements of the relation of different tribes to each other, and the character and resemblance of their customs and languages. In December, Mr. Trowbridge set out for White River to spend the winter with William Conner, a Delaware interpreter and agent who lived about eighteen miles from the town of Indianapolis. On returning from the winter's work he employed himself, at General Cass's request, in visiting the old French people and taking down their recitals of events occurring during the Pontiac War. During this same year he was sent to Fort Wayne to make further investigation among the Miamies. In 1825 Mr. Trowbridge was made cashier of the Bank of Michigan, serving until 1836, and as President in 1839. In 1833 he, with several Boston capitalists, laid out the village of Allegan. He was also interested during the next few years in many similar enterprises. In 1844 he was made President of the Michigan State Bank, and continued to serve until the winding up of its affairs in I853. He then became Secretary and Treasurer and afterwards President of the Oakland & Ottawa Railroad Company, and its successor, the Detroit & Milwaukee Railway Company. The only political offices he held were those of Alderman of Detroit in 1833 and Mayor in 1834. During this period he greatly served the city by the introduction of system in the keeping of the various accounts. The early months of his mayoralty were burdened by cares growing out of the prevalence of the cholera. While the plague remained he gave personal

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Page  1035 MAYORS. I035 attention without stint to the suffering, and when it ceased he resigned the office of Mayor. He was one of the organizers of Elmwood Cemetery-one of the original trustees-and remained actively interested as an officer of the corporation until his death In 1847 he was influential in securing large donations from Detroit and Michigan for the starving poor of Ireland. He took a lively interest in everything which was calculated to promote intellectual, moral and religious culture, was active in the promotion of various local schools and seminaries, served as President of the Detroit Association of Charities, and indeed there seemed no limit to his cheerful helpfulness in any and every department of social and religious reform. He was always attentive to the poor and found time to receive kindly and entertain cheerfully the numerous visitors who sought information or help from him. He was one of the earliest members of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church and subsequently one of the organizers of Christ Church, and from the time the Diocese of Michigan was organized was a member of the standing committee, and was also a member of every General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church from 1835 up to the time of his death. In all of the affairs and interests of the church of his choice he took a deep and continuous interest, and was also always evidently gratified at the growth and progress of other evangelical denominations; indeed, he did not know how to be narrow or mean-spirited, and his nature was broad and generous in an eminent degree. The esteem in which he was universally held was emphasized in a remarkable manner in the banquet tendered him on the occasion of his eighty-third birthday, and participated in by a class of citizens whose very presence was in itself an honor. Within a few months after this event, on April 3, I883, the public was called upon to mourn his decease. He was married in 1826 to Miss Catherine Whipple Sibley, eldest daughter of Judge Solomon Sibley. She died on March 24, i88o. Mr. Trowbridge left five children, viz.: Mrs. Sidney D. Miller, Mrs. William D. Wilkins, Mrs. George Hendrie, Miss Mary Trowbridge and Mr. Harry Trowbridge. ANDREW MACK was the son of Stephen Mack and was born in New London, Connecticut. In his early manhood he became a sailor and eventually captain of a vessel, and sailed three times around the world. In I808 he took a drove of sheep from the east to Cincinnati and settled there, and in the war of 1812 was captain of a company and subsequently a member of the Assembly of the State of Ohio. He came to Detroit about 1830, and in that year kept the Mansion House Hotel. He was connected with the Territorial militia and was generally known as Colonel Mack. In I830 he was one of the proprietors of the Detroit Free Press, and in 1834 was elected Mayor of the city to fill out the unexpired term of Mr. Trowbridge, who resigned. From 1829 to I839 he served as Collector of Customs, and in the latter year represented Wayne County in the State Legislature. He eventually moved to a farm on the St. Clair River, in the town of St. Clair, and died there in 1857, when seventy-five years of age. The business enterprises in which he was engaged and the positions he held indicate that he was capable, energetic, and well-informed. HENRY HOWARD, who served as Mayor during 1837, came here with Ralph Wadhams from Geneva, New York. They were in partnership in the dry goods trade in the old Smart Block, and subsequently had a warehouse at the foot of Randolph street. Mr. Howard served as Alderman at large in i834, and at the time he was Mayor was in the lumber business and lived at No. 290 Woodbridge street east. He also served as State Treasurer from 1836 to I839. AUGUSTUS S. PORTER was born in Canandaigua, New York, January I8, 1798; graduated at Union College in I818; studied law as a profession, and practiced for twenty years in Detroit. He was Recorder of the city in I830 and was elected Mayor in 1838, and in the same year was one of the proprietors of the Daily Advertiser. In I840 he was elected United States Senator from Michigan and served until 1845. In 1846 he removed to Niagara Falls, the residence of his father. In i866 he was a delegate to the Philadelphia National Union Convention. He died about I873. ASHER B. BATES was born at Le Roy, Genesee County, New York,on May 2, I81o. He came here as early as 1831. In 1833 he was serving as a Justice of the Peace, and in 1835 was City Attorney. In 1838, on the resignation of Augustus S. Porter, he was elected Mayor of the city. In the summer of 1848 he went to the Sandwich Islands, where he became Attorney-General, and remained until 1863 or 1864, when he moved to San Francisco, where he died on June i, I873.

Page  1036 Io36 MAYORS. He was married to Lucilla Beals in Canandaigua, New York, on October 24, I832. She died at Detroit in I839, leaving one son, Dudley C. Bates, now a resident of San Francisco. He was married to Elizabeth G Judd, of Troy, Oakland County, Michigan, on December 6, I843. She was living in 1887. DE GARMO JONES was born at Albany, New York, November I, 1787, and came to Detroit a few years subsequent to the War of 1812, and soon became, and for many years remained, a prominent factor in many of the business enterprises of Detroit and Michigan. It was through his sagacity and means that the plaster beds on the Grand River were first brought to light. He purchased at an early period the farm that bears his name, and it made him and his heirs wealthy. He was one of the first stockholders of the Bank of Michigan, was one of the contractors for the building of the old Capitoi, and was largely interested in vessels at an early date. He was also engaged in the forwarding business and owned and occupied a large warehouse. In 1835 he was one of the first Directors of the Detroit & St. Joseph, now the Michigan Central Railroad. He served as Alderman at large in 1827, I830, and 1838; as Adjutant-General of the State during part of the year I829; as Mayor of the city in I839, and as State Senator in I840 and I841. He was well educated, active in moral reform, a Trustee of the First Protestant Church in I820, and universally esteemed. He died November I4, 1846. His son, bearing the same name, served with credit as an officer during the Rebellion. ZINA PITCHER, M. D., was born at Fort Edwards, Washington County, New York, April I4, I797. He received a common-school education, and at the age of twenty went to the Castleton school to attend a course of medical lectures After having completed his term at Castleton he went to Woodstock, Vermont, where he graduated in 1822, and was shortly afterwards appointed by President Monroe Assistant Surgeon in the United States Army. He was subsequently promoted by President Jackson to the position of Surgeon. While in the army he saw much service in the far southwest, the south and the southeast, as well as in the country of the Great Lakes In 1835 he became President of the Army Medical Board, and upon his resignation, after fifteen years' service, his rank was within two or three of that of SurgeonGeneral. In 1836 he fixed his permanent residence in Detroit, and from 1837 to 1852 served as Regent of the University of Michigan, and took an active part in the organization of the Medical Department. In 1840, I841 and 1843 he served as Mayor of Detroit; in 1845 as County Physician; in 1847 as City Physician, and from 1848 to 1867 he was the physician and surgeon of St. Mary's Hospital, and from 1857 to I86i of the United States Marine Hospital. During all these years he did not neglect his engagements as a private practitioner, and found time to prepare various professional and literary papers for publication, and to attend at least nine of the annual meetings of the American Medical Association, and was president of the meeting held in Detroit. As a physician he was a type of the best ever produced-careful, skillful, gentle, kind and courteous; his very presence was reassuring to his patients, and few, if any, ever had occasion to regret that they were under his care. Throughout his long residence in Detroit he possessed the confidence of the whole people. His integrity. probity and faithfulness to every obligation were proverbial. In social life he was ever the courteous gentleman. He died on April 4, 1872, leaving two children, Nathaniel Pitcher and Mrs. L. E. H igby. His name is fitly preserved in the name of one of our streets and in the Pitcher School. DOUGLASS HOUGHTON was born in Troy, New York, September 2I, I809. He was educated for a physician at the Rensselaer Institute and graduated in 1829. The following year he was appointed Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Natural History in the Institute, and while occupying this position he came to Detroit, by request of a number of citizens, to deliver a course of lectures on scientific subjects. In 1831 he was appointed surgeon and botanist to the expedition sent out by the Government to explore the sources of the Mississippi River. On his return he settled in Detroit and practised as a physician. In 1833 he was elected President of the Young Men's Society, and in 1837 was appointed State Geologist, and continued to hold the position until his death, doing much to develop the resources of the State, and being instrumental in attracting the attention of many capitalists to its mineral wealth. He also served as one of the Professors in the University. He was a member of the National Institute in Washington, of the Boston Society of Natural History, and an honorary member of the Royal Anti

Page  1037 MAYORS. 1037 quarian Society of Copenhagen and of many other scientific and literary associations. He served as Mayor of the city in I842. He was drowned in Lake Superior, near the mouth of Eagle River, during a violent storm, on October 13, I845. The body was recovered and he was buried at Detroit on May 15, I846. His death was deemed a great public loss. Houghton County in Michigan is named after him and fitly perpetuates his memory. Three children are living-Douglass Houghton, Jr., of Detroit; Mrs. Harraun, of Santa Fe, New Mexico, and Mrs. F. E. Morgan, of Coldwater. JAMES A. VAN DYKE, for many years a prominent member of the Detroit bar, and closely identified with the earlier history of the Fire Department, was born in Mercersburg, Franklin County, Pennsylvania, in December, I813, and was the son of William and Nancy (Duncan) Van Dyke. His education commenced under private tutors at Mercersburg, and at the age of fifteen he entered Madison College at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, graduated in 1832, and commenced the study of law in the office of George Chambers, at Chambersburg, Pennsylvania, where he remained one year. He then went to Hagerstown, Maryland, where he continued his legal studies under the direction of William Price, and subsequently went to Baltimore, where he remained some months. In I834 he came to Detroit, entered the law office of A. D. Fraser, and within six months was admitted to the bar, and entered upon the practice of his profession. In 1835 he formed a partnership with Charles W. Whipple, which lasted until the latter's election in 1838 as one of the Judges of the Supreme Court. Mr. Van Dyke then entered into a partnership with E. B. Harrington, which continued until the death of Mr. Harrington in I844, after which Mr. Van Dyke became a partner of H. H. Emmons, which relation lasted until the practical retirement of both gentlemen from general practice in 1852. Mr. Van Dyke was then appointed attorney of the Michigan Central Railroad. In 1835 and again in 1839 he was appointed City Attorney, and in I840 received the appointment of Prosecuting Attorney of Wayne County. During the two years he held the latter office he conducted the criminal prosecutions with such energy and success as to merit public approval. In I843 he was elected an Alderman from the Third Ward, and again elected to the same position in 1844. His public services as chairman of the Committee of Ways and Means at this period, when the city was in financial straits, was especially beneficial to Detroit and did much to avert financial disgrace. His subsequent election as Mayor in 1847 enabled him to perfect the system of recuperation he had so well commenced, and to mature permanent plans for the future prosperity of the city, and his entire administration was marked by close and careful superintendence of city affairs. From 1853 until his death he served as a member of the first Board of Commissioners of the Detroit Water Works. He was best known, however, from his connection with the early history of the Detroit Fire Department. His name was enrolled on the list of members composing Protection Fire Company No. I, the first duly organized company in Detroit, and until his death no man in the city took a more active interest in building up and extending the usefulness of the Fire Department. He served as President of the department from 1847 to 185s, and to his financial tact, energy and determination, no less than to an honest pride in the Fire Department, all citizens are greatly indebted. In I840 he framed and procured the passage of the law incorporating the Fire Department, and it was largely his efforts that secured the erection of Fireman's Hall. His death, which occurred May 7, I855, was an especially severe loss to the Fire Department, the feeling being fitly expressed in the following resolutions adopted by its officers: " Resolved, That in the death of Mr.Van Dyke the Fire Department of Detroit has lost one of its benefactors; that his name is so closely interwoven with its fortune, from its origin as a benevolent and chartered organization, through the vicissitudes of its early and precarious existence until its successful and triumphant development as one of the prominent institutions of the city, that it may with truth be said that its history is almost comprised within the limits of his active participation in its affairs. "Resolved, That as a fireman, beginning and serving his full term in one of the companies of this city, his aim seemed to be rather to discharge well the duties of a private than to accept the proffered honors of this company, save as trustee in the Board. But of those duties he had a high appreciation, deeming it a worthy ambition, as inculcated by him in an address to the department, ' to dedicate one's self to the work with heart brave and steadfast, tenacious of obedience to law and order, with an elevated and stern determination to tread only the paths of rectitude.' " In order to further honor his memory the Fire Department issued a memorial volume containing the proceedings of the department, of the Detroit bar. and of the Common Council, relative to his death, as well as several tributes to his memory from those who knew him best. As a lawyer, Mr. Van Dyke occupied a leading place at the Detroit bar. He early gained notoriety as a ready and powerful debater, and showed marked ability and taste in his public addresses. By his learning, talents and perseverance, and more than all else by his spotless integrity, he rapidly obtained the highest honors of his profession and had an enviable reputation as a sound, judicious lawyer and able and eloquent advocate. Few men had in so strong a degree the

Page  1038 1038 MAYORS. power to win and retain friends; and among his professional brethren he was not only respected for legal ability, but was beloved as a friend and companion. He was courteous in manner and of winning and gentlemanly deportment. The following tribute of respect to his memory was adopted by his associates of the Detroit bar at a time when the bar of Detroit had a larger proportion of worthy and honorable men than it now contains: "Resolved, That we, who have been witnesses and sharers of his professional labors, can best give full testimony of the genius, skill, learning and industry which he brought to that profession to which he devoted the chivalrous fire of his youth and the ripe powers of his manhood, in which he cherished a manly pride, and whose best honors and success he so rapidly and honorably achieved. "Resolved, That while we bear this just tribute to the fine intellect of our deceased brother, we turn with greater pride to those generous qualities of his heart which endeared him to us all as a companion and friend, which left tender memorials with so many of his younger brethren of grateful sympathy and assistance, rendered when most needed, and which made his life a bright example of just and honorable conduct in all its relations. "Resolved, That though devoted to the profession of his choice, yet he was never indifferent to the wider duties devolved upon him in society at large; and he filled the many public stations to which he was called by the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens with an earnestness, purity, and ability which were alike honorable to himself and useful to the public." For many years he occupied throughout the State of Michigan a prominent position politically as a conservative Whig, but with the exception of his election to the mayoralty he never suffered his name to be used as a candidate for public office. His sympathies were easily excited. His donations to charitable and religious objects were generous and liberal, and his home life ideal in its domestic happiness. In the early prime of life he had gathered riches, fame, and honors to an extent rarely found save in connection with gray hairs. He left a name dear to his friends and a rich inheritance to his children, consecrated by the remembrance of the genial qualities and virtues with which he was so richly endowed. He was married in I835 to Elizabeth Desnoyers, daughter of Peter J. Desnoyers. They had eleven children. Philip J D., their third son, died in 1883. He was a lawyer by profession and in great measure inherited his father's legal ability. He was Prosecuting Attorney for two terms. The living children are: George W.; Mrs. William Casgrain; Rev. Ernest, pastor of Pro-Cathedral Catholic Church; Mrs. Henry Brownson and Madame Van Dyke, Superior of Sacred Heart Convent, Grosse Pointe. FREDERICK BUHL was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania, November 27, 806. His parents were natives of Saxony and emigrated to this country prior to their marriage. Frederick was the second son in a family of eleven children and received comparatively little schooling. At the age of sixteen he went to Pittsburgh to learn the jeweler's trade, but ill-health forced him into other pursuits, and in 1833 he came to Detroit, where he formed a partnership with his brother, C. H. Buhl, and embarked in the fur and hat business. The firm remained in existence for twenty years. At thetend of this time his brother retired and Mr. Buhl continued alone, until he became one of the largest shippers of furs in the country, as well as an importer and manufacturer of everything pertaining to furs. For many years this house was known under the firm name of F. Buhl & Co., Mr. Buhl being actively connected with the firm until February, 1887, when the business was sold to his son, Walter Buhl, and is now conducted under the name of Walter Buhl & Co. For more than half a century, Mr. Buhl has occupied a prominent position among the active, aggressive business men of Detroit. Possessed of quick discernment, sound business judgment, with the power of close application, accompanied with ceaseless energy, he has accumulated a comfortable fortune. During the years of his business life he has occupied many positions of trust and honor. He and his brother, C. H. Buhl. have both served as Mayors of the city; and it is doubtful if there is another instance in the country where two brothers have both occupied the highest municipal office in the gift of their fellow-citizens. Frederick Buhl served as Mayor in 1848 and C. H. Buhl in 1860 and I86I. Frederick Buhl has been connected with various business enterprises pertaining to Detroit. He has been Director of the State Bank; President of the FortWayne & Elmwood Railway Company; Director of the Second National Bank of Detroit, and President of Harper's Hospital. He was one of the original Directors of the Merchants' Exchange and Board of Trade organized in 1847, and has ever been ready to lend a helping hand to all commendable public projects. A consistent Christian, he has rendered willing and substantial aid to religious and charitable work. From its incipiency he has been a warm friend of Harper's Hospital; as an officer rendering valuable aid in its management by his wise counsel, while his contributions of time and money have been generous and liberal. As a public official his course was marked by good judgment and a firm and inflexible purpose. Public station or official position was not congenial to him, and only assumed when to have refused would have been an evasion of duty. As a business man his life has been marked by singular probity, honor, and high-mindedness. Positive and direct in all things, no one could put a doubtful construction on his actions. He is benevolent and kind of heart and in social life is affable and approachable.

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Page  1039 MAYORS. 1039 He has found leisure amid the cares of business to travel quite extensively through Europe and the United States. Of a robust constitution, which right living has kept unimpaired, his more than fourscore years rest lightly upon him, and he enjoys mental and physical vigor which belies his years. He was married in 1836 to Miss Beatty, of Butler County, Pennsylvania, and has had five children. His wife died March I, I884, The oldest son, Captain F. A. Buhl, entered the Union Army at the breaking out of the civil war. He was wounded and died at Annapolis. Maryland, in September, 1864. The remaining children all live in Detroit. CHARLES HOWARD was born August 7, 1804, in Chenango County, New York. When a lad his parents moved to Port Jervis, New York, where they remained several years. Mr. Howard began business in Sackett's Harbor and afterwards moved to Oswego, where he invested in marine interests, and for a long time was a member of the well-known firm of Bronson, Crocker & Co. In 1840 Mr. Howard came to Detroit and engaged in the forwarding and commission business. Subsequently, he and N. P. Stewart engaged in business as railroad contractors, and constructed a large portion of the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee Railroad between Pontiac and Corunna. From 1846 to I851 he was President of the Farmers' and Mechanics' Bank, and in 1849 became the first President of the Peninsular Bank and served until 1857. In 1848 he was elected Mayor of the city, and his administration was careful and conservative, In business life he was methodical, active and generous. On December o, I834, he married Margaret Vosburg, who was a direct descendant of Everardus Bogardus, the first minister in Manhattan, now New York City. He died November 6, 1883, leaving two children Mrs. William J. Waterman and Bronson Howard, the well-known dramatic author. JOHN LADUE was the son of Peter and Mary (T;allman) Ladue, and was born November, 1803, at Lansingburgh, New York. He was married in 1827 to Mary Angel, daughter of Thomas Angel, of New York. In 1847 he came to Detroit and engaged in the manufacture of mrorocco leather and in wool buying. He soon became popular with the business men, and within three years after his arrival was elected Mayor. During his term of office there was much excitement over the arrest of a fugitive slave, and Mayor Ladue was compelled to request the military to preserve the peace. His action met the approval of many citizens, and a vote of thanks was tendered him by the council, He died in 1854. His wife and the following children are living: John T., E. A., Charlotte M., George N, nd Austin Y. Ladue. ZACHARIAHI CHANDLER was born in Bedford, New Hampshire, December jo, 1813. He came to Detroit in December, 1833, and engaged in the dry goods business. His first store was on the site of the present Biddle House; from there he moved to the block on the west side of Woodward avenue between Woodbridge and Atwater streets. The establishment which he founded has been managed under different firm names, but for many years past has been conducted under the firm name of Allan Shelden & Co. Mr. Chandler was very successful in his business affairs and was known as a wealthy merchant within a few years after his arrival in Detroit. He was also known as a publicspirited citizen, and in 1848 served as Treasurer of the Young Men's Benevolent Society, and in the same year was influential in the building of several plank roads that greatly served the city In I851 he was elected Mayor of Detroit, and in 1857 succeeded Lewis Cass as United States Senator. As an aggressive, fearless Republican he soon made himself felt and feared in the Senate. He had courage of a high order, and a fearlessness and frankness of utterance that were especially needed at the time he took his seat in the Senate. The administration of President Buchanan began simultaneously with his career as a Senator, and the vacillation and shuffling of the President afforded a sharp contrast to the boldness and high patriotism of Mr. Chandler. Among the principal speeches which he made during the administration of President Buchanan were those in opposition to the admission of Kansas under the Lecompton Constitution; in opposition to the annexation of Cuba to the United States; and in favor of appropriations for the construction of a ship canal through the St. Clair Flats. He also made a vigorous protest against the partisan character of the standing committees of the Senate under Democratic rule. Mr. Chandler was re-elected to the Senate in 1863 and in I869, and in all served eighteen years. It was upon his motion in December, I86i, that a joint committee of the Senate and House of Representatives on the conduct of the war was appointed. This celebrated committee was continued until after the close of the war, many changes taking place among its members; but Mr. Chandler remained and was always the ruling spirit, and his abilities and methods were effective in securing the unity of the Republican party in its war measures. When the Republican party obtained control of the Senate, Mr. Chandler was made Chairman of

Page  1040 o040 MAYORS. the Committee on Commerce, and held that position until March 3, I875, when his term expired. He was at all times an earnest and efficient supporter of the administration of President Lincoln and also of President Grant, and possessed their full confidence. The most notable speech delivered by Mr. Chandler was in relation to the conduct of the war. In this he severely criticised General McClellan's military career as Commander of the Army of the Potomac, and his speech undoubtedly had much to do with the transfer of General Grant to that command. Mr. Chandler had no sooner entered political life than he showed that he possessed great ability as a politician, and when his advice was followed, party success was generally assured. He was among the foremost of those who favored the overthrow of slave power, the preservation of the integrity and honor of the country, and the protection by law of all the rights of the humblest citizen. He was Chairman of the Union Congressional Committee for four years, and was a member of the National Republican Committee'in 1876. On October I9, 1875, he was appointed by President Grant, Secretary of the Interior, and held the position until after the inauguration of President Hayes. His careful and personal administration of affairs in connection with the position was a surprise to all, and gained him praise even among those of opposite political faith. He introduced and carried out a series of reforms in the Indian Department, the Land and Pension Offices, and exhibited an amount of personal knowledge concerning the affairs of his office, and displayed a moral courage that were like a revelation to corrupt officials. Mr Chandler died on November i, 1879, at Chicago. He left a wife and one daughter, the wife of Eugene Hale, Representative to Congress from Maine. JOHN H. HARMON was born in Portage County, Ohio, June 21, 1819. His father, John Harmon, a native of Connecticut, emigrated to Ohio in 800oo and was for many years the publisher of a newspaper at Ravenna. The son entered his father's office and became an accurate and skilful printer. In 1838 he came to Detroit and was employed on the Detroit Free Press. Four years later he became one of the publishers, and continued as such until I850. In his career as a publisher and journalist Mr. Harmon was very prosperous, and he personally exerted a wide influence in political matters. He served as an Alderman in 1847, and in I852 was elected Mayor of Detroit, serving two years. In 1853 he was appointed by President Pierce, Collector of the Port of Detroit, and served for four years. From 1857 he spent most of his time in Washington City, and was an influential factor in connection with much of the national legislation. He was always prominent as a Democrat, and his personal acquaintance with the prominent and public men of the nation was probably unequaled. He was married in 1841 to Miss Sarah S. Rood. He died on August 6, i888, leaving three children, namely, John Harmon, Mrs. S. H. Bell and Miss Emma Harmon. OLIVER MOULTON HYDE, born at Sudbury, Vermont, March Io, I804, was the third son of Pitt William Hyde, a descendant of William Hyde, a noted landlord of Norwich, Connecticut, who emigrated to this country in 1633. His earlier years were spent at the homestead acquiring such education as a village school and the seminary at Castleton could afford. When twenty-three years of age he married Julia Ann, daughter of Daniel Sprague, of Poultney, and subsequently engaged in the dry goods business at Castleton, Vermont; but feeling a desire to engage in more extended enterprises, when about thirty years of age he sold out his store in Vermont and removed to Mt. Hope, New York, where he established and successfully managed two large blast furnaces. After a few years he became possessed with what was known in those days as the "western fever," and being influenced by his brother-in-law, Benjamin F. H. Witherell, he located in Detroit. Here, in I838, he first engaged in the hardware trade, opening a store on Woodward near Jefferson avenue. Subsequently he established an extensive foundry and machine shop on Atwater street near Riopelle, where for several years he manufactured engines and steamboat machinery. In 1852 he associated himself with Captain Eber B. Ward in the construction of a floating dry-dock, a venture that was at that time considered of much importance. The dock was launched amid great excitement on December 10 of that year. a Mr. Hyde's personal popularity and admirable capacity for business brought him into official positions that were oftentimes assumed much against his inclination. Being a staunch member of the Whig and afterwards of the Republican party, he was frequently forced to accept office in political emergencies to save his party from defeat. He was repeatedly a member of the Common Council, was elected Mayor of Detroit in 1854, serving again in I856 and 1857, and was Collector of the Port under the administrations of Presidents Taylor and Fillmore. During his term as Mayor, in 1857, he recom

Page  1041 MAYORS. I041 mended the establishment of a House of Correction, and his communication to the Common Council is the first link in the chain of events that secured the establishment of the present Detroit House of Correction, which has a national reputation for its completeness and the satisfactory results it has exhibited. Mr. Hyde had rare energy of character, untiring industry, wonderful application and activity; and with great aptitude for business he accomplished very much more than many persons would have done under the same circumstances. His private life was simple and unostentatious, and his home was at the disposal of any one claiming his acqaintance, however humble, his unbounded hospitality often causing comment. Upon one occasion, while on his way home from the City Hall building, expecting to meet at dinner the Mayor of London, Ontario, who with his son had that morning arrived as guests, he was accosted by a man with carpet bag in hand, evidently just from the country, requesting to be shown the way to Hyde's. Mr. Hyde replied that he was then going in that direction, and as they walked along he engaged the stranger in conversation, and learned that he had been assured by country acquaintances of a hearty welcome if he applied directly to the Hyde homestead. Much to the stranger's surprise, on being seated at the dining-table, he found his companion of a few moments before to be also his host, and upon his right was the Mayor of London. This latter gentleman, not being accustomed to such open hospitality, could hardly understand it. On November 25, I863, in the zenith of his popularity and usefulness, Mr. Hyde was stricken with paralysis. From that time, though only partially disabled by this first shock, he was almost entirely confined to the house. Four years later a second shock resulted in his being made completely helpless. In this condition he remained for three years. Although so suddenly and completely separated from active life and the busy world, he preserved in a remarkable degree the pleasant, genial disposition which characterized his former years. He was cheerful, uncomplaining, interested in the affairs of his household and in the outside world, keeping himself thoroughly posted on what was transpiring. Upon the breaking out of the civil war, he deeply deplored his inability to be of some service. Believing, however, that an earnest expression by the older citizens would result in an increased interest on the part of those younger and more able, he aided in organizing a company of the older citizens, styling them the "Silver Greys." The qualifications for membership were that the applicant should be over fifty years of age, and prepared to enter service, should occasion require. During the entire war the office of Mr. Hyde was at the disposal of the United States Recruiting Service. He lived to see the successful termination of the struggle for national existence, and in the early morning of June 28, 1870, he quietly passed away without pain or struggle. He is remembered chiefly as a kind, charitable neighbor and as a man of warm affections and unbounded liberality. Few citizens who have passed away have been more generally mourned. Hundreds had been aided by him. By advice, by sympathy, by gifts of suitable and necessary articles, by credit, and by the loan of money, he had, in innumerable instances, aided those whom he knew or believed to be deserving. His charities were so large and frequent as sometimes to lead to his own personal embarrassment, but he never closed his hand or heart to the appeal of distress. The relief that he gave was not through public channels, or by recorded subscriptions, or through the instrumentality of societies; he gave directly on personal application, after an examination of the necessities and merits of the applicant. His nearest friends, even his own family, never knew the full extent of his benefactions. The love and esteem of his fellow-citizens were cordial in the extreme, and frequently found expression in gifts of rare value. His intimate friends included the most prominent men of that period; among them were Zachariah Chandler, Lewis Cass, William A. Howard, Horace Greeley, and others. Besides his widow, there survived him two sons and a daughter. The oldest son, Henry S. Hyde, is a resident of Springfield, Massachusetts, and is one of the most prominent men of his State, ranking ahnong the highest in banking and other financial circles. The daughter, Hattie S., is the wife of Asa D. Dickinson, a resident of New York. The youngest son, Louis C., was with his father through his entire sickness, and afterwards joined his brother in Massachusetts in one of the largest manufacturing interests in New England. HENRY LEDYARD, one of the early Mayors of Detroit, was born in the City of New York on the 5th of March, 1812. Among his ancestors were men who had occupied important positions of public trust, and who had achieved distinction in the service of the country. His grandfather, Benjamin Ledyard, was Major of a New York regiment of infantry in the Revolutionary war, and was one of the original members and founders of the New York State Society of the Cincinnati in 1783. He was a cousin of John Ledyard, the traveler, and of Colonel Wil

Page  1042 1042 MAYORS. liam Ledyard, who, while in command of Fort Griswold at Groton, Connecticut, was treacherously killed by a British officer at the time of the memorable massacre of the garrison in 1781. His father, Benjamin Ledyard, was a well-known lawyer of New York City. His mother was Susan French Livingston, a daughter of Brockholst Livingston, who graduated at Princeton in 1774, served as azde-de-camtf to General Schuyler and General St. Clair, and became a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1778. After the close of the Revolutionary war Brockholst Livingston practised law in New York City until I802, when he became one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of New York, an office which he held until his appointment as one of the Associate Justices of the Supreme Court of the United States in I807. He held this office until his death in 1823. Henry Ledyard's great-grandfather was William Livingston, the third son of Philip Livingston, who was the second lord of the manor of Livingston, and whose eldest son was the third and last lord of the manor, and whose second son, Philip, was one of the signers of the Declaration of Independence. William Livingston graduated at Yale College in 1741, became a member of the Middle Temple, London, in 1742, a member of the Colonial Assembly of New York in 1759, from his brother's manor of Livingston (which at that time had the privilege of representation under its patent), removed to New Jersey in 1772, was a member of the Colonial Congress from New Jersey in 1774-75, and was recalled from Congress, June 5, 1775, to take command of the New Jersey forces as Brigadier-General. He became Governor of New Jersey in 1776, and held that position continuously until his death in 1790. After graduating from Columbia College in 1830, Henry Ledyard entered upon the practice of the law in the City of New York. When General Lewis Cass was appointed Minister to France, Mr. Ledyard was attached to the Legation. A gentleman of elegant manners and high culture, he was eminently qualified for a diplomatic position. In I839 he became Secretary of Legation, and in 1842 Charge d'Affaires, a position which he filled for about two years with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his country. On the 9Ith of September, I839, he married Matilda Frances, daughter of General Cass. On his return to this country in 1844, Mr. Ledyard took up his residence at Detroit, where for nearly twenty years he took an active and prominent part in all that concerned the welfare of that city. In 1845 he was one of the founders of the State Bank; in I846, one of the original promoters and trustees of Elmwood Cemetery, serving for many years as its Secretary. In I846-47 he was a member of the Board of Education, and was largely instrumental in introducing and establishing the system of Union Schools which has ever since been in operation. The year 1847 was a memorable one on account of the dreadful destitution which prevailed in Ireland. Contributions for its relief were called for all over the country, and Mr. Ledyard, in conjunction with Mr. C. C. Trowbridge, was especially active and successful in gathering funds and supplies to be forwarded from Detroit and other parts of Michigan. He was one of the first to realize the great advantages to be gained by the city through improved means of communication with the interior of the State. In 1848 he became one of the promoters and corporators of the first Plank Road Company organized in Michigan, and for many years he was a director in the various enterprises of this character. In 1849-50 he was a member of the Board of Aldermen, and when the Board of Water Commissioners was organized he was one of the original Commissioners named in the act creating the Board, of which he continued to be a member from 1853 to I859. In 1855 he was elected Mayor of Detroit, and in I857 State Senator. When General Cass became Secretary of State under Mr. Buchanan's administration, Mr. Ledyard accompanied him to Washington, where he remained until 1861. He then removed to Newport, Rhode Island, and continued to reside there until his death in I880. Mr. Ledyard was distinguished by a deep sense of public duty and a broad and well-considered charity, and during his residence in Newport he found employment for his active and energetic temperament in untiring efforts to promote the public good. Ie became a member of the Commission appointed by the Mayor to prepare a new charter for the city. Chiefly through his efforts, a large fund was raised for the establishment and maintenance of the Newport Hospital, and he became its first President. He also took a prominent part in the organization and maintenance of various societies for the relief of the poor and unfortunate. Although a great sufferer during the later years of his life, his zeal for the welfare of others showed no abatement. No considerations of personal discomfort or inconvenience deterred him from his active efforts of benevolence. He was a daily visitor at the hospital which he had established, and many a sufferer within its walls gained renewed hope and life from his tender sympathy and cheerful words of encouragement. It was said of him that his presence in the hospital was felt as a benediction. A great lover of books, and possessed of a fine

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Page  1043 MAYORS. IO43 and critical literary taste, he was an earnest advocate of the usefulness of public libraries as a means of education for the people, and for many years he took an active interest in the management of that venerable institution in Newport, the Redwood Library, and was at one time its President. In works such as these the last twenty years of his life were passed. His death occurred on the 7th of June, I880, at London, during a brief visit to Europe. JOHN PATTON was born in the county of Down, Ireland, March I, 1822, and is one of the six children of James and Eliza (Cathcart) Patton, both of Scotch descent. At eight years of age John Patton came with his father to Albany, New York, and they were followed by the mother and the rest of the children the ensuing year. At seventeen years of age John was apprenticed to the trade of carriagesmith, and in I843 came to Detroit, followed his calling for two years, and then started in business for himself; the same year, on March 3, I845, he married Eliza J. Anderson. His business grew, and he carried on the business of carriage manufacturing on a large scale, and continued it until a few years ago. Mr. Patton has a genial nature, and that he has the faculty of making friends is evident by the numerous offices he has held. He was Chief Engineer of the Fire Department from 1852 to 1854, and President of the department from 1855 to I857. In I853 and 1854 he was Alderman from the Third Ward, and in I858 and I859 Mayor of the city. From I864 to I869 County Auditor, in 1869 and I870 Sheriff of the county. and since I880 he has been a Justice of the Peace. CHRISTIAN H. BUHL is one of the oldest merchants of Detroit, there being few others having as many years of active experience in mercantile life. His record covers a period of fifty-five years, and during all of that time he has been continuously identified with the city as a leading merchant. His father, Christian Buhl, was born in Germany in I776, came to America in I802, and settled in western Pennsylvania, where he died in 1864. He was a merchant and farmer, and gave his sons not only a common school education, but a business training that has been well improved. Christian H. Buhl was born in Butler County, Pennsylvania, May 9, 1812. The first business he learned was that of a hatter. At the age of twenty-one he was proficient in the trade and set out to explore the west, reaching Detroit in 1833, where he decided to remain, and joined his brother Frederick in the manufacture and sale of hats and caps. Detroit was then too small a town to support two per sons exclusively engaged in the hat and cap business, and the two brothers engaged also in the fur trade, and in this department Christian H. was, at first, the leading spirit. Their operations in furs steadily broadened and strengthened, and ere long covered the entire northwest. In I842 they joined the successors of the American Fur Company in the purchase of furs throughout Canada and the states bordering on the Great Lakes, and for ten years they carried on an extensive and profitable business. The combination then terminated, and in I855 Christian H. Buhl retired from the firm of F. & C. H. Buhl, and with Charles Ducharme established a wholesale hardware store. They soon succeeded to the extensive trade of Alexander H. Newbold and Ducharme & Bartholomew, and created one of the most extensive establishments in the west. In 1873 Mr. Ducharme died, and was succeeded in the firm by Theodore D., a son of Mr. Buhl. A second son, Frank H., was subsequently admitted, the firm since then being Buhl, Sons & Co. In I863 Mr. Buhl and others bought the Westerman Iron Works at Sharon, Pennsylvania, and the name was then changed to the Sharon Iron Works. At these works upwards of one thousand men are employed, and the average daily output is over one hundred tons of merchant bar, sheet and pig iron, and nails. The firm also mine coal quite extensively for use at these works and for the market. In 1864 Mr. Buhl purchased a controlling interest in the Detroit Locomotive Works, and put not only more capital but renewed vitality into the concern, and for fifteen years or more it was largely profitable to the stockholders and of much advantage to the city. In I880 these works were incorporated as the Buhl Iron Works, with Mr. Buhl as President. About I88 he organized the Detroit Copper and Brass Rolling Mill Company, and serves as President. The corporation began in large buildings on the corner of Lamed and Fourth streets, but in a few years outgrew these limits, and in 1887 new works were constructed on the River Rouge, near the city limits, and the business is carried on with greatly increased facilities. In addition to other enterprises, Mr. Buhl has had much to do with Michigan railways. He was chiefly instrumental in the building of the Detroit, Hillsdale & Indiana and the Detroit, Eel River & Illinois Railroads, and for many years was President of both companies. He has also been actively connected with the banking history of the city. In 1845 he, with several others, revived the old Michigan State Bank, and thirty-eight years later took a prominent part in the organization of the Second National Bank of Detroit, and when its charter expired assisted in

Page  1044 1044 MAYORS. organizing its successor, the Detroit National Bank, and in 1887 was elected President of the same. He has large interests in real estate, and has been exceptionally fortunate in securing desirable locations. Mr. Buhl has been a Republican since the birth of the party, and has taken a strong interest in political affairs, but has never in any sense been a politician. In 185I he was elected Alderman from the Second Ward, and from I860 to I862 was Mayor of the city, and it was during his term that the erection of the present City Hall was begun. Mr. Buhl has always responded to the demands of charity, and has made liberal donations to Detroit institutions. He also gave a very valuable and complete law library to the University of Michigan. He was one of the original promoters of the Art Museum, a Trustee of the original Detroit Medical College, and is prominently identified with the Fort Street Presbyterian Church. He was married in 1842 to Miss Caroline DeLong, of Utica, New York. They have had five children, two of whom are now living —Theodore D., who has charge of the firm's interests in Detroit, and Frank H., who lives at Sharon, Pennsylvania, and looks after the branch of their business located in that place. WILLIAM C. DUNCAN was born in Lyons, New York, May 18, 1820. His father's family removed from Lyons to Rochester, New York, about I825, where he remained until I841, when he secured employment on one of the passenger steamers plying on the lakes. While thus engaged Mr. Duncan aided in taking the "Julia Palmer" across the Portage at the Sault Ste. Marie. She was the first side-wheel steamer that ever floated on Lake Superior. In I849 Mr. Duncan became a permanent resident of Detroit and engaged in the brewing business. He was elected an Alderman in I853 and served for five years, and in 186I was elected Mayor of the city, serving in 1862 and 1863. In the fall of I862 he was elected State Senator. In i865 Mr. Duncan engaged in the banking business, the firm being Duncan, Kibbee & Co. They soon dissolved, and he gave his attention to the care of the property he had accumulated, and twice visited Europe for health and recreation. He died December I9, I877. KIRKLAND C. BARKER was born September 8, i8I9, in East Schuyler, Herkimer County, New York. He was the second son of Mason Barker, who emigrated from Massachusetts to Central New York early in this century. The elder Mr. Barker was a practical builder and a contractor for the buiding of canals and railroads. He died at the age of seventy-three years. His wife survived him some years, but also died at the age of seventy-three. The son, Kirkland C. Barker, received the rudiments of an English education in the old red school house of his native village, and when fourteen years of age attended a manual labor school at Whitesboro. After leaving this school he entered a store at Frankfort, New York, and served as clerk for about a year, and then went to Utica, where he filled a similar position. When he was eighteen years of age he went to Cleveland, Ohio, where in the house of a relative he found a home, and obtained employment in a public warehouse. His business ability was soon recognized and he was often sent to New York in charge of a vessel. Leaving the house in Cleveland, he became a traveling salesman for a tobacco house at Logansport, Indiana, but lived in Detroit. After becoming well acquainted with the trade he determined to go into business for himself, and while on his way to New York for goods he stopped at Utica and there entered into partnership, and established stores in Detroit and New York and a factory in Jersey City. The business did not prove successful and the partnership was dissolved. Mr. Barker then concluded to start anew in Detroit. He was successful in his plans, paid off the indebtedness of the old firm, and established the firm of K. C. Barker & Co., the predecessor of the American Eagle Tobacco Company. Mr. Barker served as Alderman of the First Ward in 1863, and in 1864 was elected Mayor of the city, serving two years. -He was married in 1847 to a daughter of Gilbert Bedell, of Ann Arbor. He died on May 20, 1875. His death was in part the result of an accident. While sailing a small yacht opposite his residence at Grosse Isle he had an attack of apoplexy and fell into the water. The boat capsized, and when he was taken out of the river life was extinct. He left a wife, two sons, and a daughter-Mrs. Charles B. Hull. MERRILL I. MILLS was born November 4th, I819, in Canton, Connecticut, and was one of the many sons of the far east who have had much to do with the development and prosperity of the city. In obedience to his father's desire that he should enter a professional life, he took a course at the Connecticut Literary Institute at Suffield, preparatory to a course at Yale. He, however, had little taste for college life, and expressed strongly his preference for a business career, and in 1833 he joined his father in the manufacture of gunpowder. For five years he was actively engaged in the practical departments of that business, and in 1838 went

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Page  1045 MAYORS. 1045 to Southern Alabama, as the representative of his father in a mercantile establishment there located. In 1840 he was called home by his father's illness, and for the next five years remained in Canton, devoting himself to the management of his father's business. By this time New England methods had ceased to suit his ambition. He had gained practical experience as a merchant and manufacturer, and turned to the west as an inviting field for more extended enterprises. He carefully studied the field and its prospects, and, determining to give his attention to merchandising through the west, he set out in 1845 for Fort Wayne, Indiana. The close of navigation stopped the transit of his goods at Detroit, and this fact caused a radical change in his original purpose. He saw in Detroit a promising city, and without much delay decided to locate here. Establishing himself as a dealer in Yankee Notions, he pushed the business energetically, and extended his trade to many points in the west. He employed a number of teams and wagons, and they traversed the interior of several western States, and especially the fur regions. He exchanged his goods largely for furs, and incidentally built up a fur trade of extensive proportions, shipping liberally to foreign markets. Prosperity attended his efforts and he became one of the best known traders in the States of Michigan, Ohio and Indiana. About I850 he began the manufacture of cigars, sold large quantities throughout the west, and continued the cigar and fur business, in connection with later and more important enterprises, up to the time of his death. In 186I he joined the late Frank Nevin in the manufacture of tobacco. This enterprise was prosperous from the beginning, and the firm continued until the death of Mr. Nevin in 1878. Mr. Mills then took as an associate the late W. H. Tefft, and organized the Banner Tobacco Company, of which he was chosen president and manager. He was also prominently identified with other manufacturing interests. In I867, with W. H. Tefft and Jeremiah Dwyer, he organized the Detroit Stove Works, and in I872, with Charles Ducharme and Jeremiah Dwyer, the Michigan Stove Company. He was made vice-president of each company and held both positions until his death. He organized and was for many years president of the Detroit Transit Railway Company. He was also vice-president of the Frankfort Furnace Company, the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and president of the Eldredge Sewing Machine Company of Chicago, and was for many years a director of the First National Bank of Detroit. He was active in public affairs whenever his aid and counsel were needed. In politics he was a staunch Democrat, and was a prominent factor in the political field. In I857 and 1858 he was chairman of the Democratic State Committee. During the late war he was among the most earnest workers in the cause of the Federal Union. His means, his influence and his time were all enlisted in the recruiting and equipment of regiments in Detroit. He served as Mayor of the city in i866 and 1867, and his administration was marked by watchfulness and a conscientious regard for the promotion of all measures that promised to benefit and develop the best interests of the city. In 1868 he was the Democratic nominee for Representative to Congress from the First District. The District had. in 1866, given a Republican majority of four thousand five hundred. Mr. Mills was not elected, but he won a notable triumph in reducing the Republican majority to fifteen hundred. He was subsequently a member of the. Board of Estimates, and in 1876 was a delegate-at-large to the Democratic National Convention which nominated Samuel J. Tilden for the Presidency. The same year he was appointed by Governor Bagley one of the Centennial Commissioners for the State of Michigan, but except that in I88i he served as one of the first Board of Park Commissioners, the Centennial year marked his retirement from politics. He had participated to the full extent of his inclinations, and was content thereafter to leave to others the winning of honors in that field. About 1880 the cares of a busy life brought indications of failing health, but, like all active spirits, he protested against yielding to the statement that his physical infirmities called for a halt. He did, however, in obedience to the advice of his physician, journey to Manitou Springs, Colorado. The journey proved a fruitless one, and he returned home in a feeble condition, and, amid his family and friends, passed away, September I4th, I882, leaving as survivors his wife and two children. The extended and important business interests left by Mr. Mills fell at once in charge of his son, Merrill B. Mills, who had entered upon a business career at an early age, and his father's death consequently found him fully equipped for the duties which had devolved upon him. He is president of the Banner Tobacco Company and Frankfort Furnace Company; treasurer of the Michigan Stove Company; vice-president of the Detroit Stove Works; a director in the Detroit Transit Railroad and in the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company. WILLIAM W. WHEATON was born in New Haven, Connecticut, April 5, 1833, and is the son of John and Orit C. (Johnson) Wheaton, and a direct descendant of Captain William Wheaton, of Revolutionary celebrity. He attended school in Hart

Page  1046 I o46 MAYORS. ford and also in New Haven, and at the age of sixteen entered the wholesale house of Charles H. Northam & Co., of Hartford. In 1853, when twenty years old, he came to Detroit,and entered the employ of Moore, Foote & Co., wholesale grocers. In 1855 he became the junior partner of the firm of Farrand & Wheaton, wholesale druggists and grocers. From I859 to I862 Mr. Wheaton was in business by himself. In I862 the firm name was Wheaton & Peek, and in 1863 he established the firm of Wheaton, Leonard & Burr. the firm changing in I869 to Wheaton & Poppleton. In I867 Mr. Wheaton was elected Mayor of the city, and re-elected in I870, serving two terms. He subsequently served as chairman of the Democratic State Convention. In 1873 and for several years following he served as treasurer and general agent of the Marquette and Pacific Rolling Mill Company, and of late years has been engaged in a variety of enterprises. HUGH MOFFAT, late Mayor of Detroit, was born at Coldstream, Scotland, in the year I8io. Early in life he migrated to the United States, settling first in the City of Albany, New York. In the year 1837 he sought to better his fortune by moving to the City of the Straits. Commencing business here as a carpenter, he soon achieved eminence in his employment through the erection of many of the prominent buildings of other days. Some of these structures still stand as monuments of his honest skill. In later years he was the architect and superintendent of the elegant and substantial building that bears his name. From the building business he, in I852, drifted naturally into the lumber trade, purchasing large tracts of pine land and in his own mill transforming the rough logs into lumber, continuing alone in the business in 1878, when he formed a copartnership with his son Addison, and Florance D. Eatherly, the latter having been, for many years previous, a confidential employee and faithful friend. In connection with his business, one of his last enterprises was the erection of a very extensive and complete saw-mill, one of the best in the State. It occupies the same site as his two previous mills, the first of which was burned, and the second removed to make room for the new structure. In the lumber traffic Mr. Moffat was even more successful than in his previous occupation, and year by year he saw his wealth increase. This, however, did not have the effect of making him either haughty or vain. He always retained a profound sense of a common brotherhood with all sons of toil. Connected with this feeling was an abhorrence of all sham or pretense. If a man was really willing to work and could prove his willingness, he could always depend on fair treatment and honest compensation; but if there seemed a disposition to shirk a duty or conceal indifference, it was sure to be reproved in words that would scorch and wither. He was an early and active member of the old Fire Department Society, and influential in the Mechanics' Society when it was in its best estate. He was also a leading member of and served as president of St. Andrew's Society. A typical Scotchman, he was as sturdy and strong as one of the oaks in his native land. He had little sympathy with the weak and vacillating, but once convince him that a person or a cause was worthy or deserving and his sympathies were warm and active. Always acting upon the idea that what was worth doing was worth doing well, all.who did business with him found that his part was honestly performed-that his word was as good as his bond. He possessed unbending courage, high intelligence and marked firmness of purpose. Enjoying his privileges as a responsible citizen, he acted with the Republican party, but he was in no sense a politician, and his party fealty never interfered with or hindered him in the discharge of any public duty. These characteristics specially fitted him for the position he was destined to occupy. In 1871 his fellow-citizens elected him Mayor, because they thought his firmness and integrity were then particularly needed. It certainly seemed as though he came "to the kingdom for such a time." A crisis was at hand in municipal affairs, and it is certain that no Mayor, before or since, had so good an opportunity to serve the taxpayers of the city, and also to serve the best and purest of all faiths, and no one could have more fully and perfectly met the responsibility than did Mr. Moffat. During the first year of his service as Mayor he undoubtedly saved hundreds of thousands of dollars to the citizens by reason of his numerous vetoes of resolutions for paving the streets, the resolutions vetoed being clearly drawn in the interest of those who would have made large fortunes by foisting upon the public a score of new-fangled and untried methods of paving. A second occasion in which he demonstrated his fitness for the position of Mayor occurred in connection with a proposal and effort to compel the city to purchase grounds in Hamtramck for a park. It seemed clearly evident that a majority of the citizens did not approve of the proposed purchase; and although a majority of the Common Council favored the proposition and ordered the issue of bonds to make the purchase, Mayor Moffat, with true Scotch grit, refused to sign the bonds, declared that the Council could not compel him to do so, and when legal process was invoked to compel him to sign

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Page  1047 MAYORS. 1047 them, he, at his own expense, carried the case to the Supreme Court, and a decision was rendered which clearly stated that the Legislature had no power to direct that the city issue bonds for a purpose not necessarily connected with the government or good management of the city, and that the Council were in error in assuming that the issue of the bonds was mandatory. Mayor Moffat was thus triumphant and unjustifiable legislation was very properly rebuked. The question of Sunday observance and a decent respect for the proprieties of American civilization was also a leading issue during his mayoralty. The subject came up in the form of a resolution passed by the Common Council authorizing the saloons to keep open on Sunday afternoons. Although repeatedly passed, Mayor Moffat did not dodge the issue, but each time vetoed the resolution which authorized and attempted to legalize the business of selling liquors on Sunday. For his action on this question he merits grateful remembrance from all who have at heart the best interests of the city. After having served two terms as Mayor, Mr. Moffat's characteristic traits became so well known that citizens generally spoke of him as "Honest Hugh Moffat," and this cognomen is one of the noblest legacies that he left. He died August 6, 1884. Several of the courts immediately adjourned as a mark of respect and various associations passed resolutions testifying to his worthy life. Mr. Moffat was married three times. His first wife, whose maiden name was Margery McLachlan, was of Scotch descent, and her parents came from Callander, Stirlingshire. They were married at Albany, November 23, 1836. She died June I6, I856. His second wife, a cousin of the first, was Miss Isabella McLachlan. They were married on July 14, 1859, at New York. Ten years later, in August, 1869, she passed away. Her remains were taken to Greenwood, Long Island. On January 21, 1879, he married Mrs. Julia E. Hubbard, sister of Thomas W. Palmer. She died November 20, I88o. His son, Addison Moffat, died about two months before his father, leaving as his widow Mrs. Grace Buhl Moffat. Hugh Moffat left three daughters and one son, viz., Mrs. George McMillan, Mrs. Edward W. Bissell, Miss Alice E. Moffat and William Moffat, all of them residents of Detroit. ALEXANDER LEWIS was born at Sandwich, Ontario, October 24, 1822, and is the son of Thomas and Jeanette (Velaire) Lewis. The family on the father's side were originally from Wales and came to this country early in the seventeenth century. The mother's family, as the name shows, were from France. Thomas Lewis was born at Three Rivers, Canada, and his wife at the locality formerly known as Ottawa, part of which is now Windsor. Alexander Lewis came here when a boy of fifteen on May I, 1837, and began clerking in the store of E. W. Cole & Co., on the corner of Woodward avenue and Atwater street, remaining about two years, and then entering the employ of G. & J. G. Hill, Druggists, on Jefferson avenue, between Woodward avenue and Griswold street. Two years later he left this firm and went to Pontiac, where he remained until 1843, when he returned to Detroit and entered the forwarding and commission warehouse of Gray & Lewis, the firm consisting of his brother Samuel Lewis, and Horace Gray. Two years later, in I845, he went into the forwarding and commission business with H. P. Bridge, under the firm name of Bridge & Lewis. They began at the foot of Bates street on the east side, and from there removed to the foot of Randolph street. The firm continued seventeen years, and then, in 1862, Mr. Lewis established himself in the flour and grain business at Nos. 44 to 48 West Woodbridge street, and continued there until 1884, when he gave up active connection with that line of business, and since then has devoted himself to the care of various property interests. He is one of the directors of the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company and of the Detroit National Bank, is President of the Detroit Gas Light Company, and is largely interested in real estate. He served as President of the Board of Trade in 1862, as Police Commissioner from I865 to 1875, as Mayor of the city in 1876 and I877, and as one of the Commissioners of the Public Library from 1881 to 1887. Mr. Lewis was elected as Mayor of the city under circumstances of the highest possible honor. The distinct issue in the election was as to whether the laws should be observed, and especially whether the law providing for the proper observance of the Sabbath, should be enforced. Mr. Lewis, as the candidate of those who favored law and order, was supported almost unanimously by the religious and moral elements of the community, was triumphantly elected, and fully and squarely and repeatedly opposed the violation of law, successfully carrying out the desires of those who elected him. As a leading and influential member of the Democratic party, he thus conferred upon it a lasting laurel. He believes in his party, but evidently holds that the title of true manhood and good citizenship is a higher title than that of a partisan. He is eminently a reliable and responsible citizen, and compels the

Page  1048 Io48 MAYORS. respect of all with whom he comes in contact. He is a member of the Roman Catholic Church and one of the oldest members of the original parish of Ste. Anne's. He was married on June io, I85o, to Elizabeth J. Ingersoll, daughter of Justus Ingersoll. They have had thirteen children, eight of whom are living: Ida Frances, wife of W. P. Healy, of Marquette; Edgar L., of Detroit; Josephine, wife of Clarence Carpenter; Hattie I., wife of Cameron Currie; Harry B., Julia Velaire, Marion Marie and Alexander Ingersoll. GEORGE C. LANGDON was born in Geneva, New York, in 1833. He attended school in Batavia, New York, and afterwards in Farmington, Connecticut, where he remained until he was eighteen years old He then became a clerk in the wholesale dry goods house of Lord, Warren, Slater & Co., of New York. After about a year he returned to Geneva, and his father, who was largely interested in Michigan lands, sent him to Flint to engage in farming. He remained there three years and then came to Detroit and entered Gregory's Commercial College, where he soon mastered the art of bookkeeping. After leaving the college he obtained a position as bookkeeper in the Copper Smelting Works at Springwells, and was afterwards bookkeeper for S. H. Ives & Co., bankers. -From there he went into partnership with Captain Carey in the commission business. In I864, with N. G. Williams, he purchased the Central brewery, which was operated under the name of Langdon & Co. In I870 he became sole proprietor of the business, and a few years later he sold out and engaged in business as a maltster. In I877 he was elected Mayor of Detroit and served during 1878 and I879. He married Miss Fannie Vallee, of this city. She died in May, I887, leaving two daughters. WILLIAM G. THOMPSON was born in Lancaster, Pennsylvania, July 23, 1842. His father was a lawyer in that city. Mr. Thompson was educated at Amherst College, Massachusetts. In I86I, at the age of nineteen, he enlisted in the Fourth Pennsylvania Cavalry for three months. When his term of enlistment expired he removed to Toledo at his mother's request, who imagined that he would have less chance of contracting the war fever in a western city. But when Colonel Arthur Rankin organized a lancer regiment he came here, received a commission as First Lieutenant, and spent the winter of I861-62 in Detroit. The lancer regiment was disbanded and he went back to Lancaster, and was subsequently appointed an aide-decamp with the rank of Second Lieutenant in the Sixth New Jersey Infantry. He was severely wounded at Chancellorsville and won his grade as First Lieutenant by gallantry on the field. When his regiment was mustered out in 1864 he studied law in New York for a time, and then came to Detroit and entered the law office of D. B. & H. M. Duffield. In 1867 he was admitted to the bar, and in the same year he married Adelaide Mary Brush, daughter of the late E. A. Brush. Mrs. Thompson died in 1875, leaving one daughter. In November, 1878, Mr. Thompson married Adele Campau, daughter of the late D. J. Campau. He served as one of the first Board of Estimates in I873, as Alderman of the Third Ward in 1874 and- 875, and as Mayor of the city from 1880 to 1884. STEPHEN BENEDICT GRUMMOND, of Detroit, widely known in connection with extensive interests in lake navigation, was born near what is now Marine City, on the St. Clair river, September 18, 1834, and is the son of Stephen Benedict and Mary (Harrow) Grummond. His father, who was born in the western part of NewYork State, came to Michigan in I807 and settled near Marine City, where he was engaged in farming, and kept a general store, the first on the river. He was successful in business, accumulated a competency, and was respected as an influential and useful citizen. He died in I856. His wife, who died in 1877, was of Scotch descent, and was the daughter of Alexander Harrow, who came to Michigan while it was under British rule. For many years he was connected with the English navy as commander of His Majesty's sloop "W' elcome" and other war vessels. He became one of the best known navigators of the lakes, and rendered efficient services to the English government. S. B. Grummond's early life was passed in St. Clair county. Possessing a restless and ambitious nature, at the age of fifteen he began his business career by securing a position on a vessel engaged in lake navigation; but when navigation closed, spent the winters at school. At the age of twentyone, with the savings from his own industry and a little aid from his father, he purchased a vessel and sailed her for several years. In 1855 he retired from the command, came to Detroit, bought another vessel, and has ever since been engaged in buying, selling and running vessels of various kinds. His business has extended from year to year, until at the present time he is one of the principal owners of lake vessels, and his line of boats is well known and largely patronized. He is the proprietor of Grummond's Mackinac Line of steamers, and does the largest tug and wrecking business on the lakes. His efforts have resulted in the accumulation of a large fortune, which is invested in Detroit real

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Page  1049 MAYORS. 1049 estate and in various business enterprises. His success can be attributed to thorough mastery of his business, practical experience in all its details, good judgment and judicious management. Originally a member of the Democratic party, ever since the election of Abraham Lincoln he has been an earnest supporter of the Republican party. His connection with political affairs as a public officer has not been the result of any desire on his part for political honors. Official trusts have only been assumed upon the urgent request of friends, and when he honestly believed the public good would be advanced thereby. In 1879 he was elected a member of the Board of Estimates, and at the expiration of his term in I88I was elected a member of the newly created City Council or Upper House for the long term. After two years'service in this capacity he was made without solicitation on his part, and even against his wishes, the unanimous choice of his party as its candidate for Mayor. He was successfully elected, and during his term of office fulfilled the duties of the position in such a manner as to win the approval of the best element of the city. A practical business man, his administration was marked by the same good sense and sound business principles which in his private career had ensured success. He used all his influence towards getting the city affairs into a sound financial condition, and against public clamor had the courage to veto measures he believed against the public good; the result in almost every case has proved that the course he favored was both wise and prudent. His administration met the approval of the people generally, regardless of party. Near the close of his term of office the Detroit Free Press, the leading Democratic paper in the State, said: He has been in the main an excellent Mayor, and has discharged the duties of his office, as he understood them, with painstaking fidelity, entire honesty, and no greater display of partisanship than would be naturally expected of an official chosen by partisan vote." This, from a paper politically opposed to him, was praise indeed. As a business man, Mr. Grummond's main power lies in the spirit of perseverance with which his plans are pursued. That his undertakings, both in public and private affairs, have been sagacious, is undeniable, and his success in various directions has vindicated his business foresight. He is independent and courageous, but modest and unassuming; dislikes publicity, finds his chief enjoyment in the prosecution of his numerous business ventures, but is public spirited and progressive in his ideas, and readily gives his support to deserving public enterprises, and by his ability and integrity commands the confidence of his fellow citizens, He was married December 12, I86I, to Louisa B. Prouty, of Detroit. They have had eleven chil dren, seven of whom are living, four girls and three boys. M. H. CHAMBERLAIN was born in Woodstock, Lenawee County, Michigan, November 5, 1842. His father, Philonzo Chamberlain, was born in New York State in I804, and, at the age of eighty-four, is hale and hearty. Mr. Chamberlain is of the English family of Chamberlain, whose descendants came to America early in old colonial times. His great-grandfather was. a soldier in the Revolutionary war and fought at Bunker Hill and on other bloody fields. The gun used by him at Bunker Hill is now in the possession of the family, who jealousy guard it as a memorial of great value. Mr. Chamberlain's maternal ancestors came from Scotland. His mother was born in New York State in I798 and died in Detroit, January 25th, 1884. Early in life she and her husband settled in Niagara County, New York, and in 1835 removed to Michigan, purchasing a farm in Lenawee County. Their. next home was in Litchfield, Hillsdale County, and in the spring of I869 they located in Detroit. M. H. Chamberlain is the youngest in a family of eight children, six boys and two girls, seven of whom are living. He attended a district school until about fifteen years of age. In the winter of I859-60 he taught school in Lenawee County, and in the spring of I860 entered Hillsdale College. Soon after leaving college he taught school in Oakland County. In I864 he came to Detroit, attended a commercial college until May, I865, and then took a position in the office of F. A. Stokes, on the corner of Jefferson avenue and Wayne street. During the first year he was employed as bookkeeper, and the year following as traveling salesman. In November, I867, he, with his brother, Mr. A. H. Chamberlain, purchased Mr. Stokes' interest in the business, and the firm of M. H. Chamberlain & Co. was formed. Starting with comparatively small capital and only a few months' experience in the business, their success has been quite remarkable, and in their line they are among the leading firms in the country. In the spring of 1873 the Chamberlains organized the Fearless Tobacco Company. Mr. M. H. Chamberlain continued as a partner until March, 1876, when he sold his interest to his brother. In I874 Mr. M. H. Chamberlain, with others, organized the Commercial Travelers' Association of Michigan, and he was elected its first president. In I882 he was elected to the City Council, and in 1885 was made president of that body. In the fall of I885 he was elected Mayor of Detroit on the Democratic ticket by a majority of about eighteen hundred over the Republican nominee. When a boy he was a recognized leader among

Page  1050 1050 MAYORS. his playmates. At school he was always prominent in debate, is said to have been very fond of speechmaking, and is possessed of a remarkable memory. He is agreeable, well-informed, tenacious in following out a purpose, and possessed of excellent judgment. These characteristics, with other advantages, had naturally much to do with his election to the position of chief municipal officer of the city. He was married to Miss Ellen Wilson, of Niagara County, New York, in 1876. JOHN PRIDGEON, JR., was born at Detroit, August I, I852, and is the son of John and Emma (Nicholson) Pridgeon. His father is of English descent and has been for many years largely interested in vessels of various kinds. John Pridgeon, Jr., attended the public schools of Detroit, and about 1871 was first employed as clerk on one of his father's boats, continuing in this position about five years. From 1876 to 1879 he was agent at Port Huron of the Chicago and Grand Trunk line of steamers running between Chicago and Point Edward. When this line was discontinued he came to Detroit and has since been interested with his father in their extensive business of buying, selling, and operating tugs, sailing vessels,and propellers In 1885 he was elected a member of the City Council, serving two years, and in the fall of 1887 was elected Mayor of the city. He was married in December, I874, to Cora Edgar. She was born in Pittsburgh. They have had two sons, neither of whom are now living. His wife is a member of St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church.

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Page  1051 CHAPTER XCI. GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS, AND CAPITALISTS. RUSSELL A. ALGER, recently Governor of Michigan, was born in the township of Lafayette, Medina County, Ohio, February 27, i836. On the paternal side the genealogy of the family can be traced through English channels to the time of William the Conqueror. The earliest of the name in this country was John Alger, the great-grandfather of R. A Alger. He served in the Revolutionary war and took part in many of its battles. Russell Alger, the father of R. A. Alger, married Caroline Moulton, a descendant of Robert Moulton, of England, who came to Massachusetts in 1627 in charge of a vessel laden with ship-building material and having a number of skilled carpenters as passengers. It is probable that the first vessel built in Massachusetts was constructed by Mr. Moulton. Both in England and America the Moultons are numerous and many of them have attained distinction. The Alger family went to Ohio in 18o0 and took a leading part in the development of that now great State. When he was eleven years old, the parents of R. A. Alger died, leaving dependent upon him a younger brother and sister. With a cheerful and heroic spirit, an important element in his after successes, he at once engaged in farm work, and during the greater part of the next seven years worked upon a farm in Richfield, Ohio, saving his money and applying it for the benefit of his brother and sister. In the winter, during the suspension of farm work, he improved his time by attending the Richfield Academy, and by self-denial and hard work he obtained a good English education, and at the age of eighteen secured a position as a teacher, and taught school during the winter months for several years. In March, i857, he entered the office of Wolcott & Upson, at Akron, Ohio, and began the study of law, remaining until I859, when he was admitted to the bar by the Supreme Court of Ohio. Soon afterwards he removed to Cleveland and entered the law office of Otis & Coffinbury, remaining but a few months, and retiring in the fall of I859 on account of ill-health caused by hard study and close confinement. This retirement from the pursuits of a profession which had proved uncongenial was final, as he soon after removed to Grand Rapids, Michigan. where he engaged in the lumber business. He had but fairly begun to obtain a foothold in business when the war with the South began, and in August, 1861, he responded to his country's call, and from the time of his enlistment until he left the service the record of his heroic military service is a record of honor. He first enlisted in the Second Michigan Cavalry, and in the autumn, when that regiment was mustered into service, he was commissioned as Captain and assigned to the command of Company C. His first important service occurred on July I, I862, at the battle of Booneville, Mississippi. That engagement, which was one of the most important minor battles of the war and fought against tremendous odds, arose from an attack made by General Chalmers, of the Confederate service, with seven thousand mounted men-eleven regiments and portions of regiments-upon Colonel Philip H. Sheridan with two small regiments, the Second Iowa and the Second Michigan Cavalry. Sheridan's command from the start fought desperately. Seeing that he was outflanked and in danger of being surrounded, he sent ninety-two pocked men, commanded by Captain Alger, with orders to make a circuit and charge the enemy upon the rear with sabers and cheers. The cheers were to be the signal for Sheridan to simultaneously charge the enemy in front. The brave ninety-two charged as ordered and Sheridan immediately dashed upon the front, and so well executed were the two movements that the Confederate forces- broke and ran. One hundred and twenty-five of the enemy's killed were buried upon the field, and a large number of their wounded were carried away. The ninety-two sent on this forlorn hope lost forty-two killed and wounded. Captain Alger was both wounded and captured, but escaped in the confusion of the rebel stampede. For his gallant service in the battle he was pro15I1

Page  1052 1052 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. moted to the rank of Major, and it was in this battle that Colonel Sheridan gained his earliest fame and was soon after promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. Major Alger continued to merit the approval of his superior officers, and on October I6, 1862, was promoted to the Lieutenant-Colonelcy of the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, and on June 2, I863, to the Colonelcy of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, his regiment being in General Custer's famous Michigan cavalry brigade. On June 28, 1863, Colonel Alger's command entered the village of Gettysburg, being the first of the Federal forces to reach that place and receive definite information as to the movements of the enemy. In the great battle, then so little expected, which was fought at the very doors of Gettysburg, he with his regiment did most effective service. In General Custer's official report of the part taken by the cavalry at Gettysburg, the name of Colonel Alger frequently appears, and acknowledgment is made of the distinguished part he bore in the engagement. On July 4, 1863, during the pursuit of the enemy which followed the battle, Colonel Alger led the advance with the Fifth Michigan Cavalry, and when near Monterey, on the top of South Mountain, Maryland, with great daring and equally great confidence in his men, he dismounted, crossed a bridge guarded by more than 1,500 infantry, and succeeded in capturing the enemy's train, together with, 500 prisoners. On July 8, 1863, at the battle of Boonsboro, he was so severely wounded as to be unable to assume command of his regiment until the following September. His subsequent famous charge with his regiment at Trevillian Station, Virginia, on June I, 1864, when with only three hundred men he captured a large force of the enemy, is memorable as one of the most brilliant and daring deeds of the war. General Sheridan's report concerning this engagement, on file in the War Department, says: " The cavalry engagement of the eleventh and twelfth was by far the most brilliant one of the present campaign. The enemy's loss was very heavy. My loss in captured will not exceed one hundred and sixty. They are principally from the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. This regiment, Colonel Russell A. Alger commanding, gallantly charged down the Gordonville road, capturing 1,500 horses and about 800 prisoners, but were finally surrounded and had to give them up." During the winter of 1863 and 1864 Colonel Alger was assigned to special service, reporting directly to President Lincoln, and while so engaged visited nearly every army in the field. It was his fortune to serve in or command regiments better armed than most, and they were frequently engaged in fatiguing and perilous service. At first he served in the west and south, but from the invasion of Maryland by General Lee in 1863 until the day of his retirement, Colonel Alger was with the Army of the Potomac and in constant service except when disabled by wounds. His brigade accompanied General Sheridan to the Shenandoah Valley in I864, and served through that campaign. On September 20. 1864, he resigned on account of physical disability, and was honorably discharged, having during his period of service taken part in sixty-six battles and skirmishes. At the close of the war he was made Brevet BrigadierGeneral for gallant and meritorious services to rank from the battle of Trevillian Station, and on June 11, 1865, he was made Brevet Major-General for gallant and meritorious services during the war. When he returned from the field of strife he removed to Detroit, and in company with Franklin and Stephen Moore engaged in the lumber trade, dealing especially in long pine timber, and also in pine lands. After a few years the firm of Moore, Alger & Co. was succeeded by the firm of Moore & Alger and then by R. A. Alger & Co., which continued until 1874, when the corporation of Alger, Smith & Co. was organized with General Alger as President. In these various business associations he has displayed remarkable ability, and the corporation of which he is the head has become the largest operator in pine timber in the world. The corporation own extensive tracts of pine lands in Alcona, Alger, Chippewa,and Schoolcraft counties in the Upper Peninsula, and on the Canadian shore of Lake Huron. In addition to the interests above named, General Alger is President of the Manistique Lumber Company, organized in 1882 with a capital of $3,000,000. He also has large investments in red wood lands in California and Washington Territory, and in the pine lands of Wisconsin and Louisiana, and is largely interested in an extensive cattle ranch in New Mexico, and is President of the company. He is President and the largest stockholder in the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad, and owns a large amount of stock in the Peninsular Car Company, the Detroit National and State Savings Banks, in which he is a Director; he is also a stockholder in the Detroit Copper and Brass Rolling Mills, and in several other extensive corporations. Coming to Detroit at the close of the war, rich only in honors gained in fighting the battles of his country, he entered the business world, and by his exceptional native abilities he long since gained a foremost place among the business men of Michigan. He is a man of strong will, resolute courage, great tenacity of purpose, a high order of financial generalship and rare administrative ability. When a course of action has been determined upon, he is self-reliant and trustful of his own judgment, and inspires others with perfect confidence in his capacity to accomplish what he undertakes. He is

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Page  1053 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. '053 not discouraged or baffled even by the most formidable obstacles, but is fertile in resources, prompt in action, energetic in execution and uniformly successful. He has been a Republican ever since he reached his majority, and constantly active in the service of his party. Though possessed of a strong taste for politics, his time has been so completely engrossed by business responsibilities that until recent years he avoided the cares of office. He was a delegate to the Chicago Convention of 1884 that nominated Blaine and Logan, and in 1884 was elected Governor of Michigan. His administration of state affairs was in all respects equally as successful as his management.of his personal interests, and that is almost ideal. Keen, sagacious and penetrating, the business interests of the state were carefully guarded and all the charitable and educational institutions fostered, protected and enlarged. Combining the practicalities of a thorough business man with the training of a lawyer and the experience of a soldier, his state papers were models of clearness, simplicity and force. At the end of his term he laid aside the duties of his gubernatorial position, secure in the confidence of the people, whose good opinion he had so richly earned. In i888 he was a leading candidate for the presidential nomination, and if he had been a resident of a really doubtful Republican State would probably have received the nomination. In personal appearance General Alger is tall, slender in form, with an erect, dignified bearing. He is quick and incisive in speech, never brusque, but approachable, courteous and considerate toward all. He begets and retains warm friendships, and those who are numbered among his friends and confidantes are sure to be profited by his judgment and helpfulness. Although so deeply engrossed with business duties, he is a lover of books and a devoted patron of art, and is among the first to respond to deserving public enterprises. Possessed of a generous and sympathetic nature, he is ever attentive to the needs of those less fortunate than himself, and does not wait for others, but seeks out opportunities for doing good, and thousands of people have reason to feel grateful for timely benefactions received from him. In public life and in his private affairs his achievements, coupled with his irreproachable life, reflect credit upon the state and city of his adoption. Hle was married in I86I to Annette H. Henry, of Grand Papids. Their family consists of three daughters and three sons. JOHN JUDSON BAGLEY, formerly Governor of Michigan, was born at Medina, Orleans County, New York, July 24, I832. He was a descendant of the Bagley family who came from England early in the seventeenth century. His grandmother, Olive Judson, was a daughter of Captain Timothy Judson, a soldier of the Revolution. The Judsons were a prominent family in Connecticut, descended from an old English family in Yorkshire, who came to America in I634 and first settled in Concord, Massachusetts. There were many ministers in the family, among them the Rev. Adoniram Judson, the noted foreign missionary. Mr. Bagley was also a direct descendant of Rev. Thomas Hooker, who came from Hertfordshire, England, and established the first church in Connecticut. John Bagley, the father of Governor Bagley, was born in Durham, Greene County, New York. He established himself in business at Medina, but afterwards moved to Lockport. His wife was a native of Connecticut, a woman of education and refinement, with great strength and force of character. Both parents were devout and active members of the Episcopal Church. John was one of a family of eight children, and his mother intended to educate him for the ministry; but financial reverses came to the family, and they found what in those days was considered a fortune suddenly swept away. Michigan had recently been admitted as a State, and John's father, hoping to regain what he had lost, moved from Lockport to St. Joseph County, in this state, stopping a few months at Mottville, and then going to Constantine, and from there to Owosso, in Shiawassee County. John J. Bagley attended school at Constantine, White Pigeon and Owosso. He began his business life in a country store in Constantine, and after the family moved to Owosso he was engaged as clerk in the firm of Dewey & Goodhue. In these country stores everything was sold from calico to drugs, and here he received his early business training. The hours of work were early and late, but a little time could always be found for reading and study. When fourteen years of age he left Owosso and found employment in the tobacco store and factory of Isaac S. Miller, in Detroit. In 1853, when twenty-one years of age, he established a manufactory of his own on Woodward avenue, below Jefferson, and started the well-known "Mayflower" brand of fine-cut chewing tobacco. As his business prospered he engaged in other important enterprises. He possessed wise forethought, good judgment, and keen perception, grasped great affairs and managed them with a skill that commanded confidence and success. He was one of the organizers of the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, and served as President from I867 to 1872; was one of the original stockholders and for several years President of the Detroit Safe Company; he was a corporator of

Page  1054 1054 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. the Wayne County Savings Bank, and one of the charter members of the American National Bank; helped to organize the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Exchange, and was actively interested in the creation of Woodmere Cemetery, and served as its first President. Soon after he cast his first vote he was elected a member of the Board of Education from the Third Ward in the City of Detroit, and remained a member from 1855 to I858. He served as a member of the Common Council in I869 and I861, and did much to secure the establishment of the Detroit House of Correction, and was one of its first Inspectors. As a member of the Council he recognized the necessity of a more thorough and efficient police system for the city. For him to see was to act, and he rested not till the plan which he drafted was a law, and the present metropolitan police system organized. He was one of the original Commissioners and remained on the Board from February 28, 1865, to August 24, I872. In all public affairs he weighed carefully the opinions of others, formed his own convictions and followed them. Long before he had attained his majority he was a pronounced Whig, although his father was a Democrat. He was an active Republican from the organization of the party, his name appearing among the signers to the call for the Convention which organized the Republican party, and he was one of the most zealous and efficient in the preliminary work of the organization. In 1868 he was made chairman of the Republican State Central Committee. At the breaking out of the rebellion he was one of the most active citizens of Michigan in everything looking to a vigorous prosecution of the war. During those sad days he seemed to lead a double life. All the time and energy that any man should give to business he gave to his, and yet he seemed to devote all his time to his party, his state and his country. He was frequently at Washington and with the armies in the field, giving aid, comfort and counsel when most needed. In 1872 he became the Republican candidate for Governor and was elected by nearly 60,000 majority, receiving I,400 more votes than the Grant electors, a plurality which at once proved the strength of the party and his personal popularity.. He was renominated in I874, and although the Democrats swept the whole country that year, carrying more than two-thirds of the House of Representatives and electing a Governor in Massachusetts, Governor Bagley's personal popularity saved Michigan to his party by a majority of 6,000 over the Democratic candidate. In January, 1880, he was a candidate for United States Senator from Michigan, and came within one vote of receiving the nomination by the Republican caucus of the Legislature. While serving as Governor he manifested the same intelligent force that had made his many business ventures a success. With a zeal rarely found he gave both time and money to promote the welfare of the various educational and charitable institutions of the state, and his gifts were always made for such definite objects that it was evident careful thought and a well recognized need had prompted the gift. During his administration the State Militia was reorganized, a new life infused into its membership, and for the first time it was placed upon a serviceable footing. He was an earnest advocate of the tax system as applied to the liquor traffic, in place of the then inoperative prohibitory system, and presented strong reasons for the change. The State Reform School was through his efforts relieved of many of its prison features, and made more of an educational institution. The law providing for a Board of Charities and Corrections, and the present system of dealing with juvenile offenders through county agents, was originated during his administration, and received his hearty support. He inspired and directed a wise amelioration in the methods of the Reform School, the State Prison and the House of Correction, and by his personal influence and private benevolence adorned their walls with beautiful pictures, stocked their library shelves, and regaled them with luxuries not provided by the State, the influences of which have left their imprint for personal good upon thousands of characters. He was one of the original Board of Control of the State Public School at Coldwater, and suggested and applied many important changes in its organization. The plans of the building were adopted and the institution located there, when he was a member. He subsequently, as Governor, became an ex-officio member of the Board and acted as such up to the time of the opening of the school for the children in May, 1874. After retiring from the Board he was a frequent and welcome visitor, and every Christmas day the scholars were remembered in a substantial manner. A fountain was given them, to ornament the grounds, illustrative of child life, and one thousand dollars as a perpetual fund, to be held in trust by the Board and its successors, the interest each year to be expended on Christmas for the individual benefit of the children. This gift is known as the Kittie Bagley fund, in memory of'a little daughter of the donor, who died some years before her father. Among the notable measures of his administration was the entire revision of the general railroad laws and the bringing of all the companies under the supervision of a State Commissioner. As

Page  1055 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. Io55 chairman of the State Centennial Board he worked indefatigably to insure the success of Michigan's representation in Philadelphia, giving largely of his own private means for that purpose. His state papers were models of compact, business-like statements, bold, original and full of practical suggestions, and his administration will long be considered among the ablest in this or any other State. The planting of "Centennial trees " was one of the many "happy thoughts" that he formulated while Governor, and the idea was approved and acted upon all over the Union. During his leisure hours, especially during the last few years of his life, he devoted much time to becoming acquainted with.the best authors, and biography was his delight. He was a generous and intelligent patron of the arts, and his elegant home was a study and pleasure to his many friends, who always found there a hearty welcome. He never flagged in any task he undertook, but worked unceasingly and with a determination that knew no such word as fail. It led him to labor beyond his strength, to do in a brief time what he might better have taken months or years to accomplish. Such determination won rapid success, but it caused the wick to burn low and go out at an age when most men are just beginning to see a bright prospect ahead. His nature was many-sided, and there was something in him with which everybody could feel at home. Every line of his genial face was honest and true, and his clear eyes looked through all hollowness or sham. He had a very tender love of home, and one of his favorite mottoes was, "East or West, Home is best." The city where he lived was his larger home, to which he always returned with satisfaction, and for the welfare of which he loved to labor Although born and educated as an Episcopalian, he connected himself with the Unitarian Church as most nearly expressing his ideas; but his interest was not confined to that denomination. Wherever good men and women met and worshiped the Living God, there was his church; such he was ever ready to join in every good word and work. For many years he was connected with the Unitarian Conference as Vice-President and President. In 1855 he married Miss Frances E. Newbury, of Dubuque, Iowa, whose father, Rev. Samuel Newbury, a Presbyterian clergyman, was one of the pioneers in the establishment of the educational institutions of the State, helping to do in Michigan what his friend and correspondent, Horace Mann, did in Massachusetts. Mr. and Mrs. Bagley had eight children. Seven of them are living and in Detroit, namely: Mrs. Florence B. Sherman, John N. Bagley, Mrs. Frances B. Brown, Margaret, Olive, Paul Frederick and Helen Bagley. With a large, powerful frame and great bodily strength, Governor Bagley seemed the embodiment of health and cheerfulness, until the winter of 1876-77, when he felt the first indications that his strength was giving way, and at no time afterwards was he a well man. In September, 1880, he had a slight stroke of paralysis, and from this he never fully recovered. Early in the spring of i88i he journeyed to California to try the climate of the Pacific coast, but it brought no permanent relief, and he died in San Francisco, July 27, I88I, at the age of forty-nine. Governor Bagley's will was characteristic of the man, containing bequests for many local charities, Catholic and Protestant being alike remembered. He also made generous gifts to all who had been in his employ for five years or more, and left the sum of $5,00oo with which to erect a public drinking fountain in Detroit. The fountain was erected on the open square at the head of Fort street west, and was unveiled on May 30, i887. The hundreds who daily quench their thirst at this elegant memorial are constantly reminded of the liberal donor. HENRY P. BALDWIN. Ex-Governor and ExUnited States Senator, is one of the oldest living residents of Detroit, his residence covering a period of fully fifty years. He traces his ancestry in this country to Nathaniel Baldwin, an English Puritan, who settled in Milford, Connecticut, in I639. One of his descendants was the Rev. Moses Baldwin, who in 1757 received the first collegiate honors that Princeton College bestowed, and for upwards of half a century was pastor of a Presbyterian church in Palmer, Massachusetts, where he died in I813. One of his sons, John Baldwin, who graduated at Dartmouth in 1791, and died in North Providence, Rhode Island, in I826, was the father of Henry P. Baldwin. On the maternal side the ancestry of Mr. Baldwin is traced to Robert Williams, a Puritan, whose place of settlement in 1638 was Roxbury, Massachusetts. The Governor's maternal grandfather was the Rev. Nehemiah Williams, a Harvard graduate. He was pastor of the Congregational church at Brimfield, Massachusetts, for the space 6f twenty-one years, and died at that place in 1796. Henry P. Baldwin was born at Coventry, Rhode Island, February 22, 1814. He received a public school education, supplemented by a brief academic course. The death of both his parents forced him, at an early age, into active service for the gaining of a livelihood. He went into a store as clerk and remained there until twenty years of age, when he engaged in business on his own account at Woonsocket, Rhode Island. Three years later, in 1837, he made a visit to the

Page  1056 Io56 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. west, and during that trip became so impressed with the commercial advantages of Detroit that, in the spring of 1838, he located permanently in the city. His career as a merchant covered a record of many years. Beginning in a small way, he broadened his business plans and pushed them rapidly forward with unfaltering energy. He became a prosperous and progressive citizen and identified his name with the mercantile history, not only of Detroit, but of the Wtest. Retiring, a few years ago, from active participation in the establishment he founded, he left it to his successors as a valuable heritage. From the year 1860 Mr. Baldwin has been prominently identified with the political history of the State. He was chosen to the State Senate and served during the years I86I and 1852. During his term of service he was chairman of the Finance Committee, a member of the Committee on Banks and Corporations, and chairman of the Select Joint Committee of the two Houses for the investigation of the acts of the State Treasurer. He was likewise chairman of the legislative committee charged with the important work of improving the Sault Ste. Marie ship canal. This was the chief work in the line of internal improvement then under the control of the State, and Mr. Baldwin was influential in the prosecution of the work. In I868 he was elected by the Republican party to the office of Governor of Michigan, and two years later re-elected, thus serving four years as the chief executive of the State. The period of his incumbency was marked by the establishment and improvement of several public enterprises. He assisted materially in the advancement and in broadening the scope of the State Charities. He founded the State Public School for Dependent Children, which is a model of its kind. He also secured the permanent organization of a commission to supervise the State Charities and Penal Institutions. He recommended the establishment of the Eastern Insane Asylum, the State Board of Health, and the State House of Correction. He obtained appropriations for the enlargement of the University and was instrumental in the erection of the elegant State Capitol building at Lansing. He not only recommended the' appropriation for its construction, but the contracts for all the work were let under his administration, and he appointed the building commission under whose direction and supervision the Capitol was begun and completed. During his last term the fires of 187I destroyed the city of Chicago, and other fires swept, with devastating consequences, through the State of Michigan. Governor Baldwin issued a call to the State of Michigan on behalf of the western metropolis, and it is a matter of history that that call was nobly answered. Soon afterwards he issued a similar appeal in aid of the people of his own State,. and supplemented it with such admirable and systematic methods for the collecting of donations and administering relief, that within three months he was enabled to make the gratifying public announcement that no further aid was needed. In I876 Mr. Baldwin served as a member of the Republican National Convention which nominated R. B. Hayes for the Presidency. In I879 the sudden death of Senator Zachariah Chandler created a vacancy in the United States Senate, and Mr. Baldwin was appointed to fill the position, and did so with great credit and ability. In addition to other engagements Mr. Baldwin has, for nearly forty years, been conspicuously identified with the banking history of Detroit. He was a director in the old Michigan State Bank up to the time the charter of the bank expired. In I863, upon the organization of the Second National Bank of Detroit, he was chosen its President and remained so until the reorganization of the institution in 1883, as the Detroit National Bank, when he was again elected President, which position he retained until I887, when he resigned because of proposed absence on on extended tour to the Old World. His connection with the affairs of the Protestant Episcopal Church of Detroit has had much to do with the remarkable prosperity of that denomination. When he first came to Detroit he joined St. Paul's Church, which was then the sole occupant of the Protestant Episcopal field in Detroit. He was soon chosen vestryman and warden, and has ever since filled important positions in connection with the church. In I858 he, with other churchmen, organized a new parish called St. John's. In 1859 work was begun upon the church building, chapel,and rectory, at the corner of High street and Woodward avenue, and a very large proportion of the entire expense of the undertaking was cont ibuted by Mr. Baldwin, with whom it has ever been a principle to bestow a liberal portion of his income in religious enterprises. In the history of the Diocese of Michigan he has been an important factor. For more than forty years he was a fellow-member, with Charles C. Trowbridge, of the Standing Committee of the Diocese, and with him bore the burden of active labors in an endeavor that achieved much in the way of useful and valuable results, and both of them were continuously appointed to represent the Diocese in the General Convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Mr. Baldwin is still a member of the Standing Committee of the Diocese. In I852 his health led him to seek rest and recreation abroad, and he made an extended tour of the European continent. In I864 and 1865, accompanied by the Rev. Mr. Armitage, Rector of St.

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Page  1057 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1057 John's, he made a second European trip. In the winter of I862 and I863, in pursuit of relaxation from business cares, he made a sea voyage to California via the Isthmus. The steamer in which he was a passenger was captured near the West Indies by the Alabama, a Confederate vessel. This mishap resulted in a detention of two days, but the captives were finally released upon the officers of the steamer giving a bond to pay ransom money after the acknowledgment of the independence of the Confederate States; fortunately for the officers of the steamer, and for the country as well, the conditional pledge never became an obligation. In addition to his connection with the political, religious and financial history of the city and State, Mr. Baldwin has -had much to do with the social life of the city. He served as President of the Young Men's Society, and also of St. Luke's Hospital and Church Home, and has for several years been President of the Michigan Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Association. He has been prominently identified with the Detroit Museum of Art, his interest in art matters is not of a recent date, and for a number of years he has possessed many valuable works obtained by himself, and by Major Cass while United States Minister in Rome. His social qualities make his company desirable. He is frank and outspoken, but dignified, courteous and generous, and any one who has him for a counselor and friend is fortunate indeed. LEWIS CASS, second Governor of the Territory of Michigan, was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, October 9, 1782, and his ancestors were among the early pioneers of that State. His father, Major Jonathan Cass, joined the Patriot Army the day after the skirmish at Lexington, and fought for the independence of the Colonies at Bunker Hill, Trenton, Princeton, Germantown, Saratoga and Monmouth. Lewis Cass received a classical education in Exeter Academy, and after teaching school for some time in Delaware, his father being then stationed there under General Wayne, he set out, in his nineteenth year, for the Northwest Territory and crossed the Alleghanies on foot. He studied law under Return J. Meigs at Marietta, and was admitted to the bar in 1802, His success was rapid, and in 1806 he was in the Legislature of Ohio. The following year he was appointed Marshal of Ohio, and filled the office until the War of I812, when he resigned his commission, and, at the head of the Third Regiment of Ohio Volunteers, marched to the frontier, and there is every reason to believe that, if he had been in command instead of Governor Hull, Detroit and Michigan would not have been surrendered. In the subsequent recapture of the city he rendered efficient service, and at the close of the campaign was appointed Governor of the Territory, serving until 183 r, a period the length of which has rarely or never been equalled in the governorship of any territory. Soon after his appointment as Governor he removed his family to Detroit. One of the earliest acts passed under his administration was the law of 181 5 which restored the control of local affairs to the people of Detroit. In the year I820, with the approval of the Secretary of War, he organized a canoe expedition to Lake Superior and the source of the Mississippi, with the special object of establishing friendly relations with various Indian tribes. The expedition was notably successful, and as on previous occasions Governor Cass proved himself an adept in managing the wily and much-dreaded red men. During his administration he negotiated no less than twenty-one treaties with the Indians. In I831 he became Secretary of War under President Jackson, and served until 1836, when he was appointed United States Minister to France. During his residence at the French court the English Government sought to secure the adoption of a treaty by the several European powers that would have conceded the "right of search " as to American vessels. Mr. Cass was determined to defeat the project and made a formal protest against the ratification of the treaty by France, and wrote a pamphlet on the "Right of Search," which was generally read by European statesmen, and as a result the treaty was defeated. While serving as United States Minister, General Cass visited various portions of Europe and also Palestine. He returned to this country in 1842. In 1845 he was elected to the United States Senate, but resigned in I848 when nominated for the Presidency, but the next year was re-elected as Senator, serving until 1857, and then entering the cabinet of President Buchanan as Secretary of State. The cares and anxieties of the office during the closing period of Buchanan's administration, and General Cass's lack of sympathy with the methods of the President, caused him to resign, and he returned to Detroit quite feeble and broken in health. The writer well remembers a brief interview with him soon after his return. He seemed to be oppressed with the dangers that threatened the Government and with tears in his eyes said: " Sixty years ago I crossed the Ohio river with all that I had in the world tied in a handkerchief. Since then I have witnessed the unparalleled growth of this great nation and have been greatly honored by the people, but now it almost seems as though they were willing to destroy it or let it crumble into ruin." Fortunately for all people his fears were not realized. He grew somewhat stronger physically. and, on April 25, I86I, addressed a public meeting

Page  1058 Io58 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. in favor of the preservation of the Union and was permitted to witness the close of the war. He died on June 17, i866. For over sixty years he was a prominent figure in the military and political life of the nation and was almost uniformly successful in his undertakings. He was a careful student, an elegant writer, and thoroughly familiar with the literature of his day. While residing at Detroit he was actively interested in various literary endeavors, wrote numerous articles for the North American Review and delivered addresses on a variety of topics. He was the author of a volume, entitled " France, its King, Court, and Government," and the Detroit Gazette, the first successful newspaper in Detroit,was begun and continued under his special patronage. Socially he was warm-hearted and of great service to those privileged with his acquaintance. He was an earnest believer in the Christian faith and was one of the corporators of the First Protestant Society of Detroit. His possession of the Cass farm, the name of one of the public schools and also the name of a leading avenue, perpetuate his memory in Detroit, and the State has recently provided for the placing of his statue in the capitol at Washington. S. DOW ELWOOD was born on Christmas-day, 1824, in Otsego County, N. Y., near the historic Mohawk Valley, and is the son of Daniel and Hannah (Bushnell) Elwood. His paternal ancestors emigrated from Holland early in the seventeenth century; and his mother's family were pioneers in New England. While he was still an infant his father died, and a few years later his mother remarried and moved to Oneida Castle, N. Y., where she died in 1838. His parents were in modest circumstances and after their death he was left alone in the world. Fortune, however, interposed in his behalf and he found a home, with all that the most sacred and tender significance of the word suggests, in the family of a friend and neighbor, by the name of Patten. Though many years have passed he does not fail to cherish the memory of the noble souls who gave him so abundantly of their love and care. Mrs. Patten still lives, and it is one of his valued privileges to contribute to the comforts and pleasures of her declining years. He attended school at Oneida Castle, and a few years later, at the age of eighteen, in the same building, he found himself the proud occupant of the master's chair. That spot is one of the loveliest in the most attractive section of the Empire State, and as the scene of his childish struggles and the arena where his ambitions first took form, it is revisited as often as his busy life will permit, and always with increasing interest. In I844 he moved to Rochester, N. Y., where two paternal uncles, John B. and Isaac R. Elwood, and his two older brothers were living. He soon found employment as clerk in a grocery house, and the following year received an appointment as clerk in the United States Post Office. He remained in this position about a year and was then promoted to the position of U. S. Railway Mail Agent, and continued in this office without interruption until March 7, I849. A Whig administration then succeeded the Democratic under which his appointment was made, and he was removed. In September, 1849, he joined the Argonauts and sailed to California in search of the "Golden Fleece." Reaching California he engaged in trading in the mines and also established an Express between San Francisco and the southern mining region via Stockton. The California episode covered a period of one year, at the close of which he returned to Rochester, and in February, I851, was married to a daughter of the Hon. E. M. Parsons. He soon after came to Detroit and engaged in the book and stationery trade, continuing in it until 1866. He then sold out and visited the Canadian oil region and, as a careful survey of the grounds satisfied him that it possessed favorable business prospects, he opened a banking office at Petrolia, where he remained about four years, prospering steadily. In 1871, having in the meantime resumed his residence in Detroit, Mr. Elwood interested several business men in the establishment of the Wayne County Savings' Bank. This institution has grown to large proportions and is regarded as one of the strongest financial institutions of Michigan's metropolis. Its deposit account aggregates $4,ooo,ooo, and it has been in every sense a notable success. It is due to Mr. Elwood to say that he has been its principal manager from its organization to the present, and to it he devotes all of his business hours and most of his thought. Politically, Mr. Elwood is a Democrat. His earliest remembered affiliations and convictions were of the democratic order, and he has been uninterruptedly loyal to that party. He is extremely averse to notoriety, and it is a matter of common knowledge that he has, more than once, put aside the offer of political preferment and declined many a nomination that would have been equivalent to an election- the sole exception in the way of office holding being a three years' term in the Board of Aldermen-serving from 1863 to I866-most of that time in the President's chair. The sincerity of his political preferences is so fully believed, and so resolutely has he always defended them, that even those most opposed to him in these matters are glad to be enrolled among his personal friends. His sagacity as

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Page  1059 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1059 a politician and his devotion to his principles were abundantly illustrated during his career as chairman for six years, of the Democratic State Central Committee of Michigan. When the Young Men's Society of Detroit was in its best days, he was at its head as President. As the possessor of abundant means, in a characteristic and unobtrusive way, he has all his life been a liberal giver, a bountiful friend. In his personality, he is affable and among his intimates, distinctly "sociable." He never forgets to be courteous, kind and considerate, and not only enjoys the companionship of his friends, but attaches them strongly to himself. For many years he has been an adherent of the Unitarian Church and a regular attendant upon its services. Mr. Elwood's family is composed of his wife and one daughter, now nearing womanhood. JACOB M. HOWARD was born in Shaftsbury, Vt., July 10, 1805, and was educated at the Academies of Bennington and Brattleboro, and at Williams College, where he graduated in 1830. He studied law and engaged in teaching for about two years and in 1832 came to Detroit; was admitted to the bar in 1833, and was soon prominent among the leading young men of the city. In 1834 he was made City Attorney and in 1838 was a member of the State Legislature; from I841 to 1843 he served as Representative in Congress; in I851 he appeared for the people in the great trial known as the Railroad Conspiracy Case; in 1854 he was elected Attorney-General of the State and was twice re-elected, serving in all six years. In 1862 he was elected as U. S. Senator from Michigan, in place of K. S. Bingham, deceased, and in 1865 was elected for the full term, serving until 1871. While acting as Senator he served as chairman of the Committee on the Pacific Railroad, and as one of the Committee on Military Affairs, Judiciary Private Land Claims, and Library, and also as one of the Special Joint Committee on the Reconstructed States. He received from Williams College, in I866, the degree of LL. D., and was a delegate to the Philadelphia "Loyalists' Convention" of the same year. In I847 he published a translation of the ' Secret Memoirs of the Empress Josephine." He drew up the platform of the first convention of the Republican party in 1854, and is said to have given the party its name. Whether this be so or not, there can be no doubt that he was one of the ablest leaders the party ever possessed, and, indeed, his equals were few in number. During the war for the Union he rendered the country great service by his ability and patriotism, and all felt that when he died a statesman had passed away. He died on April 2, 187I. His.wife's maiden name was Catherine A. Shaw. The children living.at the time of his death were Mrs. Mary E. Hildreth, wife of Joseph S. Hildreth, Col. J. M. Howard, of Litchfield, Minnesota; Hamilton G. Howard, Charles M. and Jennie D. Howard, now Mrs. Samuel Brady. JAMES F. JOY, whose name for nearly fifty years has been a household word in Detroit and for nearly the same length of time also well known throughout the country, is of New England ancestry, and was born in Durham, New Hampshire, December 2d, i8Io. His father, James Joy, was a man of much enterprise and intelligence, was decided in his opinions and character, a Federalist in politics, and a Calvinist in religion, whose influence for good was felt by all to whom he became known. He had a large family, and the characters and careers of his children were largely shaped by his influence, teaching, and example. He was a blacksmith by trade, but later in life became a manufacturer of scythes. The maiden name of his wife was Sarah Pickering. James F. Joy attended a common school until he was sixteen and was then sent to an academy, and in two years was well fitted for the college course and able to enter Dartmouth College, He graduated there at the head of his class in 1833 and immediately commenced the study of law in the Harvard Law School at Cambridge, with Judge Storey and Professor Greenleaf as his instructors. After remaining there a year he became principal of the academy at Pittsfield, in his native state, and remained there some months. He was then appointed tutor in the Latin language in Dartmouth College, which position he retained for about a year. He then resumed the study of law at Cambridge; was admitted to the bar in Boston, and immediately went west, landing in Detroit in September, I836. Here he entered the office of Augustus S. Porter, where he remained till May, 1837, when he opened an office for himself, and in the fall of that year George F. Porter became associated with him as a partner in business. They continued in practice for about tweniy-five years, and were eminent in their profession. Their most important early client was the old Bank of Michigan, and subsequently "The Dwights," so-called, then well known men of ability and wealth who were engaged in banking in Massachusetts, Michigan, and Ohio. About this time Gen. Jackson removed the public money from the United States Bank, the state banks became its depositories, and the Bank of Michigan received about $I,2oo,ooo of government money. These public funds were deposited in local banks all over the country, and as a result there

Page  1060 Io6o GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. was vast speculation everywhere, and soon a panic and almost universal bankruptcy. The Dwights undertook to sustain the Bank of Michigan, they loaned it about $40ooo3, and took its suspended debt, secured by mortgages, on the property of its debtors. All of these assets came into the office of Joy & Porter for collection, and the litigation growing out of these collections was a source of much profit and gave the firm a wide reputation as lawyers. In I846 when it was proposed to sell the Michigan Central Railroad to a corporation, Mr. Joy was employed in the interest of the proposed company. He largely framed its charter and organized the company which purchased the road of the State, and undertook to build it through to Chicago. It was the important litigation of that company in Michigan, Indiana, and Illinois which drew Mr. Joy away from his practice in Detroit. He was also compelled to shape the legislation in Indiana and Illinois, under which the road was finally extended to Chicago. The history of the controversy, with regard to the extension of the road to Chicago, is full of interesting detail, and its importance was such as to compel Mr. Joy to make railway law a specialty, and he soon became, and for a long time continued, perhaps the most noted lawyer in railway litigation in the country,and for many years his practice was both extensive and profitable. From serving as their counsel he was drawn into their management, and by degrees became prominent in extending railway connections, and in their management and construction. One of his principal clients was the Illinois Central Railroad Company, and the entrance of their road into Chicago was attended with much difficulty and litigation. The most celebrated suit, however, which he was called upon to manage was that of George C. Bates against the Michigan Central and Illinois Central Railroad Companies, involving the title to all the station grounds of both companies in that city. The occasion of the suit was as follows: In the early days of Chicago, before the harbor was built by the Government, the Chicago River, at its mouth, ran south for more than a mile below where the harbor now is. Outside of the river and between it and the lake was a wide sand bar; this bar had been platted into city lots and contained a good many acres of land. The Government excavated a channel across it, and built its piers directly through it into the lake. As the pier was extended the southward current (produced by the winds on the west side of the lake running south past the end of the pier) caused an eddy on the south side which began to wear away this sand bar, and in the course of six or eight years it entirely disappeared. When the Illinois and Michigan Central Com panies reached Chicago they located their station grounds in the lake exactly where this sand bar had been, deposited earth upon it, raised it and erected freight and passenger houses upon the ground. Mr. Bates bought up the titles to the lots and property located on the sand bar, and brought a suit to recover the grounds. A very interesting and important question then arose as to who really owned this land. Mr. Joy took the position that when the water had gradually worn away the land all private titles went with it, and that when it all had disappeared under the water all private ownership to it, however perfect, was lost, and that the railway companies, having occupied the site under the authority of the State, and filled it up, were the legal owners. The litigation as to its ownership was long and complicated. It was twice tried by and finally settled by the United States Supreme Court, the position of Mr. Joy being sustained. The value of the property involved was about $2,000,000. It is a curious fact that the law relative to riparian rights is based upon a decision made at Rome in the time of Augustus by Trebatius, a learned prator, to whom Hbrace addressed one of his satires. The principles of the decision of Trebatius were adopted by the English courts, and its authority prevailed in the Chicago case, which is one of great celebrity. Mr. Joy now became extensively identified with the railway interests of the country, and was largely engaged in extending their lines. He organized and for many years was at the head of the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad Company. Under his charge it was planned and constructed to Quincy and Omaha. The country through which it passed was rich but largely undeveloped, but soon after the road was built, it was rapidly settled, and the enterprise, all the time he was connected with it, was the most successful and profitable to its security holders of any similar enterprise in the country, and it has been good property ever since. The railroad from Kansas City to the Indian Territory is one among many enterprises of the kind that he promoted. With other inducements to build it was a tract of 800,ooo acres, called the neutral lands, belonging to the Cherokee Indians. These lands, by a treaty between the Senate, the Indian Nation, and himself, Mr. Joy purchased. The road was to be built across these lands, which were, to some extent, occupied by lawless squatters, who undertook to prevent the construction of the road unless Mr. Joy would give them the lands they occupied. Their demands led to violence, the engineers of the road were driven off, and ties and timber designed for the road were burned. It was only through the aid of two cavalry companies of United States

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Page  1061 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAI'TALISTS. io6t troops, stationed there by the Government, that he was enabled to complete the road. He also built the first bridge across the Missouri River at Kansas City, and the building of the bridge gave a great impetus to the progress of that now large and prosperous city. While he had been acting as counsel for the Michigan Central Railroad Company, he became connected with the project of building the Sault St. Mary's Canal. The Government had granted the State of Michigan 75o,ooo acres of land to aid in the construction of the canal. The grant was several years old and various attempts had been made to induce parties to take the land and build the canal. About I857 Mr. Joy, in connection with J. W. Brooks, then managing the Michigan Central, concluded to undertake the work. The requisite legislation was secured, and they organized a company to undertake the enterprise, and a contract was made with the authorities of the State to build the canal and take the land in payment. The work was undertaken, and within two years from the date of the contract the first ship canal between Lake Superior and the St. Mary's River was open, and the advantages of the route thus opened are not second to those afforded by the more celebrated, but not more useful, Suez Canal. After having been several years connected with roads farther west, Mr. Joy, about 1867, returned to Michigan and became President of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, which had many years before employed him as its counsel. The great civil war was over, and the country was beginning to spring forward to new life. Not much progress had been made in railroads in Michigan for ten years. The Michigan Central was an iron instead of a steel road. Its equipment was about the same as it had been ten years before, but its business had increased very largely, and it was necessary that it be rebuilt with steel rail and newly equipped. It was equally desirable to so shape and control the railway construction of the State, that it should be the least detrimental to, and most promote the interests of the Michigan Central, which was by far the most important road in the State. In accordance with his plans the Michigan Central was rebuilt, largely double-tracked, and every department renewed and enlarged and made adequate to the demands of the times. This was done at great cost, steel rails then costing in gold something more than $I30 per ton. During these. years- Mr. Joy promoted the building, and finally obtained control, of the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw road from Jackson to Saginaw and Mackinac, and also of the road from Jackson to Grand Rapids. He also raised the money for and built the Detroit & Bay City Railroad, in order to secure the best connection between Detroit and the northern part of the State by connection with the road to Mackinac. All these lines were secured for the Michigan Central, thus continuing its prestige as the most important road in Michigan. While they promote the interest of the country through which they run, these several roads have also largely contributed to build up the city of Detroit. Meantime the parties who had undertaken to build the Detroit, Lansing & Northern road, failed in their effort. Mr. Joy then took up the enterprise, raised the money, built the road, and it has become an important element in the prosperity both of the State and city. Several other enterprises, valuable to the State and the west, are also the result of his efforts and of his ability to command capital. The last public enterprise with which he has been connected is the effort to secure a connection with the Wabash system of railroads for Detroit, and provide adequate station buildings and grounds in Detroit for its business. In furtherance of the object he, with Messrs. C. H. Buhl, Allan Shelden, James McMillan, R. A. Alger and John S. Newberry, of Detroit, furnished most of the money with which to build the road from Detroit to Logansport, and Messrs. Joy, Buhl, Shelden, McMillan and Newberry built the Detroit Union Depot and Station Grounds, and the railroad through the western part of the city connecting with the Wabash road. These local facilities are now partly leased to the Wabash Company, and furnish adequate grounds, freight house and elevator for the accommodation of the business of Detroit in connection with that railway. It rarely happens, that a few men such as Mr. Joy and his associates are able and willing to hazard so much in promoting the interests of the city and State in which they live. Mr. Joy's life has been a very busy and useful one and of great advantage to the city and State in which he lives, and to the city of Chicago and the country west as well. Few men have had it in their power for so many years, to guide and direct the investment of so large an amount of capital. Although Mr. Joy has led so active a life, and been engaged in so many and important enterprises, he has not neglected mental recreation and improvement, but has at all times kept up his early acquaintance with the ancient classics and with those of modern times as well. His large library contains the choicest literature of both ancient and modern times, including all the Latin and French classics. His chief recreation in all his busy life has been in his library, and his case is a rare instance of a busy life closely connected with books, not only in his own, but in foreign and dead languages. He has been often heard to say that he would willingly give $i,ooo for the lost books of either Livy or Tacitus. He attributes much of the

Page  1062 10o62 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. freshness of his mind, and even much of his health, to his recreation in his library. Notwithstanding he is nearing fourscore his health is robust, and his faculties all seem as perfect as at any time in his life. His strength holds good and he is, perhaps, as active and vigorous in business as at any time in his career. He has had the happy faculty of always putting business out of his mind when the hour for business was past, and has never carried his cares home with him. In his long life he has met with many and large losses, but it is believed that however great they may have been there never was an evening when he would not lose all thought of them in reading the pages of some favorite author. He is a man of regular habits, has never used tobacco in any form, and has never been in the habit of drinking anything stronger than coffee and tea. During most of his life he has been in the habit of taking exercise for an hour or two each day, and his favorite method is walking. He has never sought political honors, but when it became evident that there was to be a great civil war he was elected to the Legislature. He accepted the position and aided in preparing the State for the part it was to take in that great contest. He was in old times a Whig, but in time became a member of the Free Soil party, and afterwards an earnest Republican. Mr. Joy has been twice married. The name of his first wife was Martha Alger Reed. She was the daughter of Hon. John Reed, of Yarmouth, Massachusetts, who was a member of Congress for several years, and served also as Lieutenant-Governor of that State. The maiden name of his second wife was Mary Bourne, who was a resident of Hartford, Connecticut. The children of Mr. Joy are as follows: Sarah R., wife of Dr. Edward W. Jenks; Martha A., wife of Henry A. Newland; James, Frederick, Henry B., and Richard Pickering Joy. HENRY BROCKHOLST LEDYARD, son of Henry and Matilda (Cass) Ledyard, was born at Paris, France, on February 2oth, 1844, during the residence of his father in that city as Secretary of the United States Legation. After the return of his father to Detroit, he attended the. excellent and well known school of Washington A. Bacon. From here he went to Columbia College at Washington, where he spent two years, and from there to the West Point Military Academy. He was appointed as a Cadet at Large by President Buchanan in 1861. He entered as a. cadet on July Ist, I86I, graduated on June 23d, I865, and on the same day, by two different commissions, was appointed Second and then First Lieutenant in the Nineteenth U. S. Infantry. He was first sent to Fort Wayne near Detroit, from thence to Augusta, Georgia, with recruits, and then to Newport Barracks, Kentucky, where he served during October and November, 1865. From November 20th, I865, to September 6th, 1866, he was Quartermaster of his regiment, and from September 6th, 1866, to November 2d, I866, he was Quartermaster of the third battalion. During this period he was at Newport from November, I865, to March, I866, on frontier duty at Little Rock, Arkansas, in May and June, i866, in charge of rebel prisoners at Columbus, Ohio, from June 15th to July loth, I866, and then again at Little Rock in July, August and September, acting during a portion of the time as Chief Commissary of the Department of the Arkansas. From October, i866, to February, I867, he was at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. Meantime, on September 2ISt, I866, he was transferred to the Thirtyseventh Infantry, and served as Quartermaster of the regiment from November 2d, I866, to February 25th, 1867. He was then transferred to the Fourth Artillery and served on General Hancock's staff as acting Chief Commissary of Subsistence of the Department of the Missouri in the field in an expedition against hostile Indians on the plains. In 1867 he was ordered to West Point as Assistant Professor of French, and in I868 joined his battery at Fort McHenry, Maryland. Three years later, in I870, when the army was reorganized, seeing but little prospect of promotion, and acting under the advice of Gen. Sherman, he obtained leave of absence for six months and entered the Engineering Department of the Northern Pacific Railroad, then under construction. His preference being for a connection with the operating of a railway rather than with its construction, he applied for a position with James F. Joy, then the foremost railway manager of the country, being President of the Michigan Central, Chicago, Burlington & Quincy, and several other important western railroads. Mr. Joy, who had been for many years a warm personal friend of his father's, offered him a position as clerk in the office of the Division Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad. He entered the service of that company in July, I870, and in November of the same year resigned ITis commission in the army, and was honorably discharged from the service, in accordance with the Act of Congress. Two years afterwards he was made Assistant Superintendent of the road, and in 1873 became Division Superintendent of the Eastern Division. In October, I874, Mr. Joy offered the position of General Superintendent of the Michigan Central to W. B. Strong, then Assistant General Superintendent of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Rail

Page  1063 GOVIERNORS, SENATORS, B. road (now President of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe Railroad). Mr. Strong accepted the position, and persuaded Mr. Ledyard to accompany him as Assistant General Superintendent, and in the following spring he also assumed the duties of Chief Engineer. In 1876 Mr. Strong resigned to accept the General Superintendency of the Chicago, Burlington & Quincy Railroad, and Mr. Ledyard was appointed as his successor. The appointment came from Mr. Joy, and Mr. Ledyard ascribes much of his success to the valuable aid and wise counsel of this experienced financier. In 1877, Mr. Ledyard was made General Manager of the Michigan Central Railroad, and in 1883 on the retirement of W. H. Vanderbilt from active railway, management, succeeded him as President of the corporation, being probably the youngest President in the country of so large a corporation. His military and engineering education give him special qualifications for the position he occupies, and these with rare administrative ability, insure method and accuracy in all that he attempts. These qualities largely account for his rapid advancement to his present position. It would be difficult to find in the United States his superior in knowledge in all departments of his work, as he is one of the few skilled railroad presidents in the country. His memory is amazing with regard to the history of railroad agreements, bonds, pools, and other complexities, which during the last twenty years have become such an intricacy that few minds can disentangle or trace them; his memory is equally good in general intellectual and literary matters. It is his nature to be aggressive, and he keeps his railroad in the front rank by instinctively doing in advance what necessity would compel later on. His labors are in the highest degree intelligent, and he mastered all the details of the whole intricate and comprehensive system of railway management. He does not fear responsibility, but having confidence in his own powers, he readily assumes additional responsibilities, his grasp becoming more comprehensive and his abilities rising as occasion demands. Although of a nervous temperament, he is by no means a nervous man, but his feelings are constantly on the alert. It is not his habit to consult others on the bearing of facts and conditions. His natural perception is remarkably quick and accurate; he grasps readily the ideas of others and has a wonderful retentive memory concerning all things brought to his attention, and is always prompt and self-reliant, and there is apparently no limit to his powers of endurance, and yet he is always eminently modest,, neglecting almost constantly rights and honors belonging to him as the president of a great and wealthy corporation. ANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1063 He is especially careful of the interests of others, gives patient consideration to all suggestions of proposed improvements and almost by intuition selects those of value. His prompt methods of doing business, and the rapidity with which he arrives at a decision, causes him to be sometimes misunderstood, but this, only for a moment, or by those who have no real opportunity of knowing him. Those who are brought into close relationship with him always learn to appreciate his courtesy and the consideration which he constantly bestows upon the welfare of all the employes of the road, and they know that he is as lenient as is possibly consistent with wise and judicious management. Socially, Mr. Ledyard is distinguished for sincerity and a thorough devotion to his friends. He has little love for the formal round of fashionable living, prefers home to all other places, and at his own fireside, or with a circle of familiar spirits, his kindly sentiments, genial humor, and rare intellectual gifts make him a delightful companion and a universal favorite. He was married on October I5th, 1867, to Mary L'Hommedieu, of Cincinnati, daughter of Stephen L'Hommedieu, the projector, and for twenty-five years the President of the Cincinnati, Hamilton & Dayton Railroad. Their children are Matilda Cass, Henry, Augustus Canfield, and Hugh. JAMES McMILLAN was born May 12, 1838, at Hamilton, Ontario, and is the son of William and Grace McMillan of Scotland, who emigrated to Canada and settled in Hamilton in I836. William McMillan was a man of exceptionally strong and symmetrical character and of the highest integrity. His business connections were wide and his identification with many important enterprises made his name well known throughout Ontario. From the inception of the Great Western Railway Company until his death in 1874, he was one of its officers. James McMillan began his educational course in the grammar school at Hamilton, a preparatory institution of the Toronto College, presided over by Dr. Tassie, an able and well known teacher. At the age of fourteen, having acquired a thoroughly practical education, he began his remarkably successful career. Entering a hardware establishment, he spent four years in learning the detail of the business, and then removed to Detroit and obtained a situation in the wholesale hardware store of Buhl & Ducharme. At the end of two years' service he was appointed to the position of purchasing agent of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway. While performing these duties he attracted the attention of an extensive railroad contractor and was employed by him to secure men, purchase supplies, and care for the finances in connection with the execution of a large

Page  1064 Io64 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. contract. At this time he was only twenty years old, but proved abundantly able to fulfill the duties required of him, and the experience gained during this period was especially profitable as a preparation for his future career. When the contracts upon which he was engaged were completed, he again obtained the position of purchasing agent of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway. In I864 Mr. McMillan associated himself with Messrs. Newberry, Dean and Eaton, in the formation of the Michigan Car Company, from which has grown the immense industrial enterprises which have made the names of Newberry & McMillan famous in financial circles throughout the country. Among the most important of their enterprises are the Detroit Car Wheel Company, the Baugh Steam Forge Company and the Detroit Iron Furnace Company. Of all these immense concerns Mr. McMillan is president and the principal owner. The business of these establishments varies from $3,500,0oo to $5,ooo,ooo annually, and the number of employees averages over 2,500. Mr. McMillan's car building enterprises have not been confined to Detroit. He was long prominently connected and heavily interested in car works at London, Ontario, and St. Louis, Missouri, both of which enterprises are indebted largely to his sagacity and administrative ability for their success. He is also largely interested in the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railway, and has been its only president. In addition to this line he is actively engaged in the furthering of other railroad lines that are destined to be of great service both to Northern Michigan and Detroit. He is a large stockholder in the Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Company, in the Detroit Transportation Company, and in other freight and passenger lines, and is a director in the First National Bank, and the Detroit Saving Bank, besides being largely interested in other banks. He is prominently connected with the Detroit City Railway Company, with the D. M. Ferry & Co. Seed Company, the Detroit Railroad Elevator, the Union Depot Company, and with numerous other large enterprises in Detroit and elsewhere. For many years he has owned a large amount of centrally located business property, and the business blocks he has erected have added greatly to the architectural beauty of the city. In fact his aggressive energies have been felt in many directions and wherever exerted have been rewarded with large and merited success, and thousands of individuals and the city at large have been profited by the results of his sagacity. He has not sought to keep his gains to himself, but has always liberally and judiciously expended a large share of them for the promotion of the public good. Added to the strong sense and clear foresight derived from his Scotch parentage, he obtained a business training that step by step has prepared him for every change and made him master of each successive situation. An executive ability of commanding character, with wonderful power of concentration upon any given subject, capacity for complicated details, ability to keep in mind the whole field of his immense interests without losing sight of a single important link in their best and most profitable relation, serve in a measure to explain the results he has secured. He is quick and sure in his judgment of character, trusting fearlessly when he has once given his confidence, thus enlisting' the loyal and sympathetic support of those who labor with him. He is ready in decision, broad, clear and liberal in his views and wise and just in administration. Thoroughly quiet and unostentatious in manner, he has a heartiness of greeting and a genuine love of humor, that makes him an agreeable friend. Despite the arduous work he has performed, he has kept the physical man in the best of conditions, and as a result his natural kindliness of disposition remains unchanged, and he never shows the fatigue or impatience that so often repel. At all times approachable and agreeable, he is an ideal business man. His charities are numerous, unceasing and extensive. He is a member of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church and is notably liberal, not only to that church, but to other denominations, and indeed to religious and philanthropic movements of any kind. One of his most recent benefactions is the gift of $1oo,ooo for the erection of a Free Homoeopathic Hospital in Detroit. He is ever ready to lend a helping hand and many young men have cause to remember his timely assistance. A Republican in politics, he has been actively interested and influential in the success of his party, giving freely of both money and time. For several years he was Chairman of the Republican State Committee, and his genius for thorough organization was a valuable factor in securing party victories. He is regarded not only as a consistent and very valuable party man, but as one of no slight authority upon general political matters. He has thus far refused the proffered nomination by party friends to high and responsible official position, contenting himself by aiding effectively in the election of his friends, but it is none the less certain that his abilities admirably qualify him for any position in the gift of the State or Nation. Although only in middle life, he has reaped a princely fortune and is secure in the respect and esteem of his fellow citizens. He was married in I860 to Mary L. Wetmore of Detroit. They have five children living, four sons and one daughter. The eldest son graduated from

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Page  1065 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. io65 Yale College and is interested in various enterprises in connection with his father. The second son graduated also from Yale and is now studying law. HUGH McMILLAN is among the foremost of the comparatively few young business men of Detroit who have won distinction in the establishment of large business enterprises. His business life has exhibited tireless energy, unyielding perseverance, a keen foresight of events and the intelligent use of definite means to accomplish a well defined purpose. He was born at Hamilton, Ontario, September 28, 1845, and is a son of William and Grace McMillan, both natives of Scotland. His father was born in Glasgow, where for several years he was engaged in mercantile pursuits. In 1836 he emigrated to Canada, settling in Hamilton; became one of the first officers of the Great Western Railway Company, and continued as such until his death in I874. He was a man of broad ideas, great moral courage, perfect confidence in his own judgment, well informed and possessed of a genial sunny disposition, good presence, and ready natural wit. Through his extensive business transactions he became well known throughout Ontario and was everywhere highly esteemed. Hugh McMillan, the fifth son in a family of six sons and one daughter, began his educational course in the public school and continued his studies until he graduated in Phillips' Academy, at Hamilton. Early in life Mr. McMillan determined to devote his energies to a business career and at the age of fourteen obtained a clerkship in the Great Western Railway, and after two years' experience as bookkeeper was induced in I86 to go to Detroit. Here he became a clerk in the office of the General Superintendent of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railway, and remained in the employ of the road for three years, and then thinking that a mercantile life offered greater inducements than a railroad career, he became a clerk in the hardware store of Ducharme & Prentice. In 1872 he became associated with his brother, James McMillan, accepting the position of Secretary of the Michigan Car Company, which was just beginning to assume large proportions. Those essential qualities of executive ability, good judgment and quick perception, so requisite in the building up of extensive enterprises, were soon manifested, and his indefatigable exertions contributed greatly to the success of the company. Some years after he became connected with the company he was made Vice-President and General Manager, positions which he still retains. In the Detroit Car Wheel Company and the Baugh Steam Forge Company, established about the same time, connected with the Michigan Car Company and virtually under the same management, he has been greatly influen tial. He is Vice-President and Manager of the former and Vice-President and Treasurer of the last named corporation In every stage of the rapid growth of these establishments, the personal energy and arduous labors of Mr. McMillan have been manifest. A fair idea of the growth and present condition of the three enterprises with which Mr. McMillan is so inseparably connected can be gained by the fact, that during the first year of his connection with the Michigan Car Company 2,000 cars were built, while of late years the yearly product has averaged over 7,000. The business of the establishments named aggregates several millions of dollars yearly, and thousands of employees are constantly engaged. In the construction of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad, Mr. McMillan was a leading spirit. This road is 150 miles in length, extends through a large part of the upper peninsula of Michigan, and opened up a tract of country practically a wilderness, and to-day flourishing villages exist and valuable land is being rapidly devoted to profitable farming purposes, greatly aiding the material wealth and prosperity of the State. It was commenced in 1877 and finished within two years, and from its inception Mr. McMillan was a director, secretary and treasurer. During I886 a syndicate of Chicago, Detroit and New York capitalists formed the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic Railway Co., with a capital of $I0,000,000, for the purpose of purchasing the road and constructing some two hundred miles of additional road in order to connect it with the western terminus of the Northern Pacifie line at Duluth and eastern railroads at Sault Ste. Marie. As the financial agent of the syndicate, Mr. McMillan in October, I886, completed the negotiations for the purchase of the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad of the bondholders for a sum exceeding $3,000,000. This undertaking is opening for business and settlement a large area of new country and cannot fail to be of great benefit to the State of Michigan. In the organization and development of the Michigan Telephone Company in 1877, Mr. McMillan was actively engaged, and by his personal exertions obtained, fortunately for those who listened to him, many subscriptions to its stock when doubts were entertained of the success of the undertaking. Of this corporation, which owns and controls the entire telephone business of the State of Michigan, he is secretary and treasurer. The establishment and prosperity of the Commercial National Bank of Detroit is also largely owing to his business sagacity and financial direction, and he has been its President from the beginning. When the establishment of this bank was

Page  1066 1066 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. determined upon, few were able to foresee the success which has accompanied it during the seven years of its life, a success accompanied by so large a share of public confidence that it has been for some time past recognized as one of the leading institutions of Detroit. Mr. McMillan feels a natural pride in the establishment and development of this bank, and it is not among the least of his successes. He is also an active director and large stockholder in the State Savings Bank of Detroit, an institution which is recognized as one of the most reliable and conservative in the country, and is the depository for thousands of mechanics and working people in the city of Detroit and throughout the entire State of Michigan. The various interests enumerated comprise but a small part of the complicated and varied enterprises in which he is engaged. He is Vice-President and Treasurer of the Detroit Iron Furnace Company and of the Newberry Furnace Company; Vice-President and General Manager of the Detroit Pipe and Foundry Co., Vice-President of the Detroit Iron Mining Co., and of the Fulton Iron and Engine Works, and President of the Hamtramck Transportation Co., and Red Star Line of steamers. Mr. McMillan is also officially, or as a director, connected with and largely interested in the following substantial and successful corporations: The Detroit Railroad Elevator Company; Detroit Electrical Works; Detroit & Cleveland Steam Navigation Co.; Duluth & Atlantic Transportation Co.; Mackinac Transportation Co.; and the Detroit Transportation Co. The qualities which have contributed to his success embrace not only the highest order of executive ability, but quick apprehension, easy grasp of details, a retentive memory and keen sagacity. The ability to thoroughly systematize every department of large enterprises and to select capable subordinates has had much to do with his success. Naturally unostentatious, a lover of books and society, his friends find him at all times an affable and agreeable companion. He was President of the Detroit Club for three years. His home on Jefferson avenue and country residence near Lake St. Clair reflect a cultivated and artistic taste. He is a member and officer in the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, and takes an active interest in its welfare. He was married May 2, 1867, to Ellen Dyar. They have one daughter and three sons. JOHN STOUGHTEN NEWBERRY, for many years one of the chief factors in the industrial affairs of Detroit, was born at Waterville, Oneida County, New York, November I8, 1826, and was the son of Elihu and Rhoda (Phelps) Newberry, both of English parentage and natives of Windsor, Connecticut. His father was a descendant of Thomas Newberry, who emigrated from England in 1625, and settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts. John S. Newberry, at the age of five, accompanied his parents to Detroit, and a few years after to Romeo, Michigan. His rudimentary education begun at Detroit was continued at Romeo, where he prepared for the Michigan University, and graduated in I845, taking the honors of his class. He early developed a taste and aptitude for the practical sciences, and following the natural bent of his mind acquired a thorough knowledge of civil engineering and surveying, and for two years was employed in the construction department of the Michigan Central Railroad, under Colonel J. M. Berrien. He subsequently spent a year in traveling, and then entered the law office of Van Dyke & Emmons. He was admitted to the bar in 1853, and at once commenced practice with that energy and ability which distinguished him in all his undertakings. At that time the commerce of the lakes was just beginning to assume an importance in maritime affairs, and appreciating the future possibilities of admiralty business, he devoted his attention to that branch of practice, and as the maritime interests increased in importance, he acquired a large practice in the United States Courts. He was one of the first to contribute to the legal literature of the West an authoritative compilation of admiralty cases arising on the lakes and western rivers. This volume was of great practical use, and still serves a valuable purpose as a standard work of reference. At different times Mr. Newberry was associated with several prominent practitioners of the Detroit bar. He was first a partner in the law firm of Towle, Hunt & Newberry, later on he was associated with Ashley Pond, under the firm name of Pond & Newberry, and then as Pond, Newberry & Brown, the latter member being Henry B. Brown, the present judge of the United States Circuit Court at Detroit. After Mr. Pond withdrew from the firm, the style was changed to Newberry & Brown. It was while a member of this firm that Mr. Newberry's attention was turned to manufactures. In I863 James McMillan, then purchasing agent of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad, became associated with him in a contract with the Government for the building of a large number of cars for use in the Southern States for the transportation of soldiers and munitions of war. This venture proved a success, and was the beginning of the several immense industrial enterprises with which he became connected. In 1864, Mr. Newberry assisted in the establishment of the Michigan Car Works, and at that time withdrew from the practice of law, that his time and energies might be fully devoted to this

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Page  1067 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1067 interest. In this great enterprise his business ability was tested in many ways, and aided by his strict surveillance the business grew rapidly, and at the time of his death was the largest manufacturing establishment in Detroit. He was also largely and influentially interested in the various industrial undertakings operated in connection with the Michigan Car Company, such as the Detroit Car Wheel Company, the Baugh Steam Forge Works, the Fulton Iron and Engine Works, the Missouri Car Company of St. Louis, the Detroit Mining Company, and the Vulcan Furnace Company, at Newberry, Michigan. He was also a director and treasurer of the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad, a director in the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette Railroad Company, as well as in the Detroit and Cleveland Navigation Company, the Hamtramck Navigation Company, the Detroit Transportation Company, and the Detroit National Bank, and had a financial and advisory connection in numerous other interests. As a business man he possessed rare ability; his judgment concerning the merits of new and untried enterprises was seldom at fault; his intuitive power of foreseeing the possibilities of every venture, gave him boldness in the execution of plans which needed only time to vindicate their wisdom. His self-control was perfect; he never lost his balance, and no matter how harassed or perplexed he might be, he held himself beyond any exhibition of temper or impatience. He had that magnetic power over men which commands esteem, and is only possessed by men of great character and force. His name was the synonym of business strength and integrity. So well managed were all his business ventures, involving millions of invested capital, that at his death they were in a condition to be continued without change. In political affairs he was at first a Whig, but from i856 was a member of the Republican party. In 1862 he was appointed by President Lincoln the first Provost Marshal for the State of Michigan, with the rank of Captain of Cavalry. This position he held for two years, and during that time he had charge of two drafts, and enrolled and sent to the field the drafted men and substitutes. During his busy life he had little time had he possessed the ambition for political position. He sought political preferment but once, when he was elected to Congress from the First District, and served with credit for a single term, his most notable effort being an able speech on the national finances. At the end of his term of service he declined a renomination, and from that time until failing health compelled him to desist, his time, energies and ability were given entirely to the management of his various business interests. About two years before his death, Mr. Newberry was attacked by a complication of ailments, which baffled medical skill. After traveling extensively to vai. ds health resorts, in hope of receiving relief, he returned home, where the last few months of his life were passed, surrounded by his family and friends. He died on January 2, 1887. The death of one who had been so thoroughly identified with the greatest industrial enterprises of his city and State, called forth widespread expressions of genuine sorrow; and this was especially true in Detroit. For many years his life had been closely interwoven with the city's growth and prosperity, while his active mind, tireless energies, and rapidly accumulating wealth gave him a prominent place among the citizens of Michigan, and his honest and high-minded business methods inspired unlimited confidence and trust. At the age of fourteen he united with the First Congregational Church of Romeo, but during the entire period of his residence in Detroit he was a member of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, to which denomination he was a most liberal contributor, and for many years a worker in benevolent enterprises. He accumulated one of the largest estates in Michigan, and his wealth was invested in channels which gave prosperity and comfort to thousands of his fellows. He was generous in support of every public enterprise, and one of the last acts of his life was to join with James McMillan in the establishment of a Homoeopathic Hospital in Detroit, to the endowment of which he contributed $roo,ooo. By his will more than half a million was bequeathed to various charitable objects. Of his personal characteristics much indeed might be said. He was a man of fine attainments, and by study and extensive travel had acquired a wide and varied education. In social life he was generally regarded as austere and unapproachable, but those who enjoyed his friendship knew that he possessed a kindly disposition, and his family life was pleasing in its love and devotion. He lived a pure and noble life: was brave, generous, and true to his convictions of duty, and the work he accomplished for the good of his city and State gives him a worthy place among the most distinguished citizens of Michigan. He was twice married, first in I855 to Harriet Newell Robinson, of Buffalo, who died within a year, leaving one son, Harry R. Newberry. In I859 he married Helen P., daughter of Truman P. Handy, of Cleveland, by whom he had three children, Truman H., John S. and Helen H. Newberry. JOHN OWEN was born near Toronto, Canada West, March 20, I809, His father died when Mr. Owen was quite young, and in the year I818, with his mother, he came to Detroit. Soon after coming here he began to attend school in the old University

Page  1068 io68 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. building on Bates street, paying for his tuition by services rendered the preceptor. When twelve years old he became an errand boy in the drug store of Dr. Chapin, remaining with him several years, and mlaking himself so useful that when only twenty years old he was taken in as a partner, his energy and faithfulness being placed against the capital of his former employer. Subsequently the firm became J. Owen & Co. In 1853 he retired from trade, and the present firm of T. H. Hinchman & Son is the successor of the old firms of Chapin & Owen and J. Owen & Co. After he retired from mercantile life, Mr. Owen gave 'his attention largely to vessel and banking interests. He was one of the earliest and largest stockholders in the Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Company, and for many years president of the corporation. He is also largely interested in the Detroit Dry Dock Company. He was president of the Michigan Insurance Co. Bank, and of its successor, the National Insurance Bank, and in 1857, while serving as president of the first named institution, it was the unbounded personal confidence that the people had in him that enabled the bank to go safely through those perilous times, and his integrity and good name was the wall that prevented the financial breakers from overwhelming not only the bank but scores of individuals as well. It was also fortunate that he was at the head of the State treasury from I86 to I867, for in the first years of the war, without his personal credit and well known honesty, it would have been almost impossible for the State to have met the demands then made upon it in paying for the equipment of the troops. Aside from the office of State Treasurer, the only public offices he has held were those of Alderman at Large in 1836, and of the First Ward in 1844 and I845. He also served as one of the School Directors in 1839 and 1840, as Commissioner of Grades from 1859 to I870, and as one of the Board of Water Commissioners from 1865 to I879. From I841 to 1848 he was one of the Board of Regents of Michigan University. During his earlier years he was a member of the Volunteer Fire Department, serving as foreman of Company No. I in I837, and as president of the Department Society from 1841 to I843. He has also been actively interested in various philanthropic and patriotic societies, serving as treasurer of a State Temperance Society in 1837, as president of the Michigan Soldiers' Relief Society in I864, and as trustee and treasurer of the corporation of Elmwood Cemetery from its organization, for over forty years. His connection with the Central Methodist Episcopal Church as trustee and treasurer covers even a longer period, and he dij more than any other person during a period of nearly fifty years to protect and preserve its credit, by the prompt payment of all bills, without regard to the possession of church funds at the time. During all this time he was recognized as the foremost member in the State of the church of his choice, and contributed very largely to its building up, not only in Detroit, bht. in the State at large. He is one of the principal trustees of Albion College, and has given largely to that institution. His benefactions have not been confined within denominational lines, but whenever time and influence and means could help solve social problems, he has been ready to help. His long residence in the city, his upright life and careful judgment, and the many services he has rendered the public, have made his name a synonym for character and worth, and he occupies a position that comparatively few attain. DAVID PRESTON was born September 20, 1826, in Harmony, Chautauqua County, N. Y., and was the son of Rev. David Preston, for thirty years a member of the Erie Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. He was educated in that vicinity and his earliest occupation was that of a teacher, in which he continued four years. In I848 he came to Detroit and found employment in the banking office of G. F. Lewis. He remained with him four years, his total salary for that time being $950. Out of this amount he saved a few hundred dollars, and in May, I852, began business as a banker and broker. From the very outset he was successful, and from time to time was compelled to change his location in order to obtain room to meet the demands of his growing business. His longest tarry and most successful years were while located on the southeast corner of Woodward avenue and Lamed street, and while there located, in connection with S. A. Kean, he established a banking office in Chicago. During his stay in the location named, John L. Harper was a partner with him, the partnership being dissolved in i88I. The Chicago bank was organized as a National bank in 1884, and the Detroit bank as the Preston Bank in 1885, and after his death reorganized as the Preston National Bank. During his entire career as a banker Mr. Preston possessed the almost unlimited confidence of the public, and even those who differed from him in judgment were compelled to respect his evident sincerity and honesty of purpose. In addition to his banking business he was a very large dealer in pine lands as well as in city real estate. The only municipal office he ever held was that of Alderman of the Fifth Ward of Detroit in 1872 and 1873. He voted and worked with the Repub

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Page  1069 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. o69 iican party until a few years prior to his death when he gave his time, and money, and influence, to the full, to the cause of Prohibition, and this not as an office-seeker, but because he believed that through that party the liquor traffic could be destroyed. His labors were ardent, unceasing, and laborious, especially in trying to promote the adoption of a constitutional amendment to prohibit the sale of liquors, and there is little doubt but that those labors were the immediate cause of his death. His health had been poor for several years and he had made two trips to Europe to secure needed rest. Both journeys resulted in good, but he was not strong enough to endure the fatigue of the duties which his prominence in the church and in the cause of prohibition imposed upon him, and he might have said truthfully, " the zeal of thine house hath eaten me up." It is safe to say that up to the time of his death no other person in Detroit was as widely known, for general and generous benevolence. He gave liberally, he gave unostentatiously, he gave systematically, he gave constantly, and it may be doubted whether he ever refused any legitimate call for aid. The local charities, patriotic memorials, and benevolences of every kind were all gladly aided. In his own denomination he stood at the head of all the givers in the State. Through his own efforts, in 1873, he raised $60,00o for Albion College, and in the raising of funds for the building of the various Methodist Episcopal churches of Detroit he was particularly useful. His manner of presiding and his methods at any meeting where money was to be raised were peculiarly his own. His appeals were unique and sometimes wonderfully thrilling and persuasive, and he not only induced others to give, but always gave himself. Although a zealous member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, he was large hearted in his feelings towards those of other creeds and often helped in their plans. In 1869 and 1870 he served as president of the Y. M. C. A., and was always interested in its work. Personally he was simple hearted and approachable, with a warm and kindly nature. He was-often humorous in his remarks and yet apparently always devotional and considerate. His place was rarely vacant, either in the public services or in the prayer meeting. He held for many years the offices of trustee and class leader in the Central Methodist Episcopal Church, and his departure was regarded as a personal loss by the entire membership. He died on Sunday, April 24, I887. He was married to Jane B. Hawk, of Conneaut, Ohio, on May 5, 1852. They had a large family of children of whom seven are now living. Their names are: William D., Frank B., and Ellery D., Mrs. F. W. Hayes and Misses Minnie, Mabel and Bessie Preston. THOMAS WITHERELL PALMER was born in Detroit, January 25th, 1830, and is the only surviving child of the nine children of Thomas and Mary A. (Witherell) Palmer. Part of his boyhood was spent in the village of Palmer, now the city of St. Clair, where he attended a school taught by Rev. O. C. Thompson. He subsequently entered the University of Michigan, but owing to ill health did not fully complete his course and received no degree until he had proved his fitness for it by travel and experience in the broader university of the world. On leaving Ann Arbor he visited Europe, traveled through Spain on foot, and subsequently spent several months in South America. Returning to Detroit in 1853, he engaged in buying and selling pine lands, and soon became a partner with the late Charles Merrill, a large operator in pine lands and lumber. Mr. Merrill, Mr. J. A Whittier and Mr. Palmer were engaged for years in the manufacture of lumber at East Saginaw, and on Mr. Merrill's death the business was continued under the old firm name of C. Merrill & Co., Mrs. Palmer inheriting her father's interest. Mr. J. B. Whittier has since been added to the firm. In addition to other business interests, Mr. Palmer is a director in the American Exchange National Bank, the Wayne County Savings Bank, and the Security and Safe Deposit Company, and the Gale Sulky Harrow Company, and is interested in the Detroit Steam Navigation Company, the Michigan Lake Navigation Company, the Frontier Iron Works, the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, the Iron Silver Mining Company of Leadville, Colorado, and other important and profitable enterprises. He is fortunate in being able to have no less than three residences. One of them, an elegant house with extensive grounds is in Detroit, another a log house, that cost many thousand dollars, is located a few miles out of the city in Greenfield, on his farm of about a mile square, a third, a palatial establishment, is located in Washington. His log house, and the 657 acre farm upon which it is located, are his especial pride. Here he has scores of valuable Percheron horses, and Jersey cows, and all the appurtenances of a large stock farm, which is kept up in the most admirable manner. Mr. Palmer's natural disposition did not lead him into public life, but he has been gradually pushed into it, and once in the arena he has been kept there. His first political office was as one of the first Board of Estimates elected from the city at large in 1873. In 1878 he was elected to the State Senate from the city of Detroit, and while there he introduced, and pushed to its passage, the bill creating the reform school for girls, and aided by Representative E. W. Cottrell, he secured the passage of the bill providing for a bouleva d about the city of Detroit. He

Page  1070 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1070 also served as chairman of the caucus which nominated Z. Chandler to the United States Senate. In 1883 he was elected by the Legislature as the successor of Thomas W. Ferry in the United States Senate. In this body he ranks easily with its best speakers and most influential members. One would think that with means to gratify every wish, and with strong literary tastes, he would be unwilling to serve in any position involving so much self-denial and labor. He, however, seems to enjoy what to many would be martyrdom, and being independent in all his thoughts and actions, he is able to serve his native commonwealth as well as any of its previous Senators could have served it in the same period. A thorough philosopher, he accepts the inevitable gracefully, and somehow or other reaches the goal. Some would say of him he is "lucky," but his luck is of the kind that is born of sound judgment and a general mastery of the situation. His addresses give evidence not only of wide reading but of extensive travel, thoughtful observation and a clear conception. His thoughts and words are neither plain nor monotonous, but full of brightness, beauty, and vigor, and abundant in sentiment and sagacity. His language is always clear, choice, forcible, elegant, and especially noticeable for perfect classical allusions and abundant historical references. His illustrations and figures are his own, and always appropriate, effective, and pleasing. He is by turns humorous, grave, and pathetic, and his addresses withal are packed with facts, and if need be, with statistics, in support of his positions. His principal addresses, and the occasion of their delivery, have been as follows: Oration on Decoration Day, May 30, I879, at Detroit; speech on Universal Suffrage in the Senate, February 6, 1885; response at reunion of the Army of the Cumberland, at Grand Rapids, on "The Soldier as a Schoolmaster," September 17, 1885; speech on " Governmental Regulation of Railroads," in Senate, April 14, I886; speech on "Dairy Protection," in Senate, July 17, i886; eulogies on "John A. Logan, of Illinois, and A. F. Pike, of New Hampshire," in Senate, February 9 and I6, 1887; address on "Relation of Educated Men to the State," delivered at the semi-centennial celebration of the University of Michigan, June 29, I887; "The Soldier Dead," a response made at the banquet of the Army of the Tennessee, at Detroit, September I5, 1887; speech in support of his bill for the restriction of immigration, January 24, 1888; address at Arlington Cemetery, Virginia, May 30, I888, on "The Nation's Dead and the Nation's Debt." Ile was the first to suggest the erection of a soldiers' monument in Detroit, and was the first secretary of the organization that secured the erection of that memorial. Mr. Palmer has also for many years served as president of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. In his social life he is an excellent conversationalist and entertains generously. He is broadly philanthropic, earnestly patriotic, and thoroughly democratic in all his thoughts and doings. In religious views he is a cosmopolite, believes in all the virtues, and practices most of them, and perhaps all. An ardent admirer of his mother, he commemorated her memory in a church largely erected at his expense. He makes friends, not through his wealth, but because his wealth does not prevent him from acting the part of a whole-souled, manly man. He is so universally esteemed, that nothing but strict party discipline would prevent those of opposite political faith from praising and endorsing him. He was married on October I6, I855, to Miss Lizzie P. Merrill, who makes and retains friends universally, and although they have no children, they contrive, by gathering in young and old, to keep the spirit of youth in their home. FRANCIS PALMS, for many years the largest land owner, and one of the most prominent factors in the commercial affairs of Michigan, was born at Antwerp, Belgium, in IgIo. His father, Ange Palms, was a commissary in the French army, while the first Napoleon was in the zenith of his power. Mr. Palms followed the fortunes of his great commander until the disastrous battle of Waterloo put an end to the Emperor's career. He then returned to Antwerp, and engaged in manufacturing and conducted an extensive business. In I831 the entire establishment was destroyed by fire, and he gathered the remnant of his fortune and with a family of four sons and two daughters came to America, settling in Detroit in the summer of I833. The father remained here a few years, and then with all his family, except Francis and his daughter, the late Mrs. Daniel J. Campau, he removed to New Orleans. Establishing himself in a manufacturing business, he remained there until his death, in I876, at an advanced age. Of his children the only one now living is Ange, who resides in Texas. Francis Palms received a liberal education in the public schools of Antwerp, and when a young man of twenty-three began his business career in Detroit as a clerk for a Mr. Goodwin, but soon after commenced the manufacture of linseed oil at the corner of Gratiot Avenue and St. Antoine Street. Discontinuing this enterprise in 1837, he entered the employ of Franklin Moore & Co., wholesale grocers, and remained in their service until 1842, when he became a partner in the reorganized firm of Moore, Foote & Co., remaining four years, and

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Page  1071 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1071I during this period acting as financial manager of the house. His connection with this firm proved a profitable one, and upon his retirement, with the capital he had accumulated, he began buying and selling land. Perhaps the largest of his early land transactions was the purchase of 40,000 acres of government land in Macomb and St. Clair counties, a venture made when the State of Michigan was still suffering from the panic of 1836-7. In the tide of prosperity ten years later his lands were readily sold, and it is said he realized from this transaction alone between $300,000 and $400,000. The success of this venture was the stepping-stone to great wealth. It revealed to him the vast possibilities lying in the pine forests, which then covered nearly three-quarters of the State of Michigan. He immediately invested all his means in pine lands, obtaining the title to immense tracts in the States of Michigan and Wisconsin, and became not only the largest land owner in the northwest, but possibly the largest individual land owner in the United States. At one time he owned a large tract of timber land in Wisconsin, on a river which another company unlawfully assumed to control and obstructed, rendering navigation impossible. Mr. Palms ordered his foreman to get force enough to cut away the obstructions. The foreman replied that the opposing company had 250 men. Mr. Palms then said, "get I,ooo men if necessary, but the river must be opened." The contest cost him $250,000; but the river being opened his lands increased in value $800,000. In many cases he sold only the timber, and retained the fee interest, especially when there was any evidence of mineral deposit. His foresight in this was evinced by the subsequent discovery of many valuable mines in lands thus retained. All of his vast property was under his personal care and supervision. Aided by careful and thorough methods, and a wonderful memory, with little assistance he was able to thoroughly grasp and manage every detail. A few years ago, finding his business very much extended and involving an immense amount of attention, he began contracting his land business and investing in Detroit city property. He built the block on Jefferson Avenue now occupied by the Heavenrich Brothers, and also the large block occupied by Edson, Moore & Co., on the corner of Jefferson Avenue and Bates Street; the block opposite the Michigan Exchange; two large blocks on Gratiot Avenue, and numerous smaller business buildings in various parts of the city. -He was also largely interested in manufacturing enterprises and touched the business life of Detroit at many points, and wherever his energies were directed he was a helpful factor. For many years he was the president and largest stockholder in the People's Savings Bank, and in the Michigan Stove Company; president of the Michigan Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and interested in the Galvin Brass and Iron Company, the Union Iron Company, the Vulcan Furnace and the Peninsular Land Company. His largest railroad investment was in the Detroit, Mackinac & Marquette road, of which he was vicepresident and director. He also had large interests in other railways in the Upper Peninsula. In I875 Mr. Palms was prostrated by a paralytic stroke, and from that time his physical force gradually declined. His mind, however, remained vigorous, and to the very end he participated in numerous business projects. For several weeks preceding his death he suffered from disease of the heart, but attended to his usual business, and only two days before his death walked from his residence to the People's Savings Bank, to attend a meeting of the directors. He died on Wednesday, November 4, I886. Long one of the most prominent characters of Michigan, his death called forth wide comment. The officers and stockholders of the People's Savings Bank, with whom he had been long and intimately associated, adopted the following tribute to his memory: Resolved, That we learn with deep sorrow and regret of the death of our late president and associate, Francis Palms. He was a man of high honor, strict integrity of character, and "honest in allthings," diligent in the fulfillment of every duty, and punctual in the discharge of every obligation. Characterized by gentleness and amiability of manner, and of a modest and retiring disposition, he was incapable of inflicting injury on any man, yet in defense of justice and fair dealing he exhibited cool and stern determination, unflinching courage, and remarkable strength of character. Clear-headed and prompt in arriving at conclusions, patient, persevering and resolute in purpose, he was a man of indomitable will, of great intellectual force, of broad and comprehensive mind, and of unusual foresight. Physically Mr. Palms was of slight figure and rather below the medium height. The expression of his face indicated a man of great character and force. He was polite, affable, and approachable, never haughty or arrogant, and self-conceit or false pride was foreign to his nature. Every person intent upon, business, no matter how trifling the matter to be presented, was invariably treated with attention. Among his friends he was social, and being a man of classical education and an accomplished linguist, he was a delightful companion with those who shared his full confidence. In religious faith he was a Catholic, and a regular attendant at the church of SS. Peter and Paul. He was married in I836 to Miss Martha Burnett, a lady of refinement and culture. They had one son, Francis F. Palms; shortly after his birth Mrs. Palms died, and three years later Mr. Palms married the daughter of the late Joseph Campau, by whom he had one daughter, Clothilde Palms. Soon after his father's second marriage, his son became an inmate of his grandfather's family at New Orleans, and on

Page  1072 1072 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. the outbreak of the war of the rebellion he entered the Confederate Army, and remained in the field until the war ended in I865. For several years prior to his father's death he was closely associated with him in the management of his various enterprises, and inherits his father's genial and careful nature. The Palms estate, aggregating in value several millions of dollars, was equally divided between Francis F. Palms and his sister, Clothilde Palms. MARTIN S. SMITH was born at Lima, Livingston County, New York, November, 12, 1834. His parents, Ira D. and Sarah Smith, were natives of Columbia County, New York. When M. S. Smith was but a small child his parents removed to Geneseo, Livingston County, New York, and when he was ten years old, he accompanied them to Michigan.. where they located near Pontiac. His early education was received in the district school. When fourteen years old he commenced work in a clothing store at Pontiac and was afterwards employed in the office of the Pontiac Gazette, then owned by William M. Thompson. At end of two years he left the Gazette to accept a position in the dry goods store of J. C. Goodsell, where he remained about a year. In I85I he came to Detroit, and after one year's service in the dry goods house of Holmes & Co., he became a clerk in a jewelry store, and after nearly eight years' experience in this line of trade, during which he became proficient in every department of the business, he purchased with limited capital the stock and business of his employers and began business for himself. As the result of his diligence and thoughtfulness his success was rapid and uninterrupted, and for many years the house of M. S. Smith & Co., of which he was long the recognized head, has held the first place among the jewelry firms of Michigan. From the small trade of 1859 the business has increased to about half a million dollars yearly. Their first store was located at No. 51 Woodward Avenue. In I863 it was moved to the northwest corner of Woodward and Jefferson Avenues, remaining there until 1883, when the fine building on the corner of Woodward Avenue and State Street was completed and occupied. In 1879 the firm was incorporated under the name of M. S. Smith & Co., and at that time Mr. Smith retired from its personal management and has since devoted his time to other important business interests. His substantial and well earned success in the jewelry trade gives but a limited idea of the versatility of his business capacity. For many years his active energies have been directed to other channels, where his success has been even more marked. In 1874 he became a member of the lumber firm of Algef, Smith & Co., which owns extensive tracts of land in Alcona, Alger, Chippewa and Schoolcraft Counties, in the Upper Peninsula, as well as in Canada, on the north shore of Lake H-uron, and deal very extensively in long timber. Mr. Smith is also one of the directors and treasurer of the Manistique Lumber Company, which was organized in I882 with a capital of $3,000,000 and owns 80,000 acres of timber land. He is president of the American Eagle Tobacco Company, president and treasurer of the Detroit and St. Clair Plank Road Company, vicepresident of the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railway Company, vice-president of the American Exchange National Bank, and also vice-president of the State Savings Bank, and a director in the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, and in the Woodmere Cemetery Association. In all these various enterprises the force of his personal efforts and wise counsel have been helpful factors and have largely conduced to their success. Indomitable will and energy, unflagging industry and clear perception, have placed him among the foremost of the business men of Michigan. In the conduct of his business he has been always progressive, almost to radicalism, and has gained the first and largest profit from the adoption of new lines of policy, in which others followed after their safety had been proven by his success. He possesses the business courage which comes from faith in his own abilities and judgment. A self-made man in the best sense, he is unassuming in demeanor, but firm and persevering in a course he decides to be right. Thorough and earnest in every undertaking, all his affairs are conducted with systematic exactness. There has been nothing sensational or speculative in his career, and he has used his large fortune in ways that have contributed much to the material advancement of Detroit, and is enthusiastic in every undertaking by which the best interests of the city can be advanced. A natural lover of art and a discriminating critic, his daily occupation for many years compelled an attention to its details which would have educated a less sensitive eye and he has naturally given generous encouragement to the art movement in Detroit, aiding in securing the erection of a permanent museum. Personally he is an agreeable, courteous gentleman, and easily makes warm friends. Generous and warm hearted, and possessing a kindly and sympathetic spirit, he has been a liberal contributor to all worthy and benevolent enterprises. He is a regular attendant at the Fort Street Presbyterian Church, but is in no sense denominational in his sympathies and gifts. In sterling good sense, genuine public spirit, thorough integrity and a private life above reproach, he is one of the very best

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Page  1073 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. I0o73 representatives of Detroit's most honored citizens. He is prominently identified with the masonic fraternity and has filled the office of Grand Treasurer of the Grand Commandery of Michigan. His political affiliations have been with the Republican party, but he has manifested no ambition for political honors and has never held an elective office. In I872 he was appointed Police Commissioner to succeed the late Governor John J. Bagley, and has held the position ever since. He was married in 1862 to Mary E. Judson of Detroit. WILLIAM H. STEVENS is the grandson of Phineas Stevens and the son of Phineas Stevens, Jr., and was born September I3, 1820. Phineas Stevens served as a soldier in the Revolutionary War, and after the war settled in the city of Geneva, New York, and there became the proprietor of a large landed estate, upon which he raised his family. In the war of 1812 he and four of his sons enlisted, served during the war,and were honorably discharged in 1816. One of the sons, Phineas Stevens, Jr., married Rhoda Glover; entered into the lumbering business on the Chemung, Canisteo, Conhocton, and Tioga rivers and their tributaries, and from year to year increased his business until he became one of the largest lumber and timber dealers in western New York. His first son Alexander C. Stevens, was born in 18i8, and was also engaged in the lumber trade, and about the year 1827, when he had a very large stock of lumber, timber and shingles, a financial panic swept over the country, and his stock, which he had rafted to tide-water, would not bring what it cost at the point where it was manufactured, and within two or three years the falling off in the price of his goods, caused him to lose all that he had made and left him in debt, and under the iniquitous laws of that period, as he could not pay, he was sent to jail, and his family left in such straitened circumstances that his wife was obliged to engage in various sorts of employment in order to support the family. His son, William H. Stevens, at the age of eleven engaged with a farmer and worked for his board for two years. When thirteen years old he commenced to learn locomotive engineering; served four years in the shop and on the road and was soon promoted to run a wrecking train. He then secured a freight train, and finally, before he was eighteen years old, ran a passenger train. Afterwards he served as head fireman on a steamboat plying between Horseheads and Geneva, and followed that occupation during the season. At the close of navigation he commenced to learn the business of a locomotive fireman on a railroad running between Geneva and Rochester, New York, and in the spring of 1839 was again employed as fireman on a steamboat running between Buffalo and Chicago. In all these operations Mr. Stevens was not merely learning a business, but was employed in solving the problem of burning Blossburg bituminous coal for steam purposes on locomotives and steamboats, and he solved the problem so successfully that the Blossburg coal interests became of immense value. During the year I839 he quit steamboating and in the spring of 1840 began taking cattle and horses from Ohio, Indiana and Illinois to Wisconsin. In the winter of 1841 he returned with the remnant of his herd to Chicago, and wintered them on prairie hay. After selecting and breaking a team for his own use, he traded off the remainder of his herd for land warrants and located government lands near Chicago and also near Big Foot Prairie, on Geneva Lake. At the last named place he broke up the prairie and farmed for about three years, and then went on an exploring expedition in the Northwest, and finally settled in the Lake Superior region, where he remained for twenty years, being employed in exploring timber lands and in mining. After being identified with explorations as a woodsman and axeman for some time, he became an explorer of pine lands, becoming acquainted with scientific and experienced men and gathering valuable information in regard to timber, minerals and the geology of the district. His abilities were soon recognized, and he entered into an arrangement with several parties, under which he was to explore for, select and obtain the title to valuable lands and become jointly interested with the parties who furnished the capital, they agreeing to give him twenty-five per cent. of the profits arising from said explorations. This arrangement continued until I86I, during which period he gave his undivided time and attention to the exploring, working, opening and developing of the mines that he had discovered. Between i86I and 1864 he closed up Jhis accounts after a faithful service of about twentyfive years with the parties forming the association, his proportion of the profits during the period amounting to about $300,000. In the meantime, in I857, he was married to Ellen Petherick, and in 1862 he concluded to wind up his mining business and remove to Philadelphia, his wife's first home in this country. After living a retired life for a year or two, he again entered into active business, and hearing very favorable representations of the mines and minerals in the Oregon mountains, and after studying the mineralogy and vein phenomena of that great range, he again entered the field, and with rare energy and determination he for many years endured great risks, privations and dangers in making geological examinations in search of metalliferous

Page  1074 Io74 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. zones, mineral deposits and lodes, examining a range of country extending north and south from Oregon Territory to Old Mexico, and east and west from Colorado to Nevada, traversing a range of mountain country of an area of about a thousand miles in length by about six or seven hundred miles in breadth, which for the most part was an unbroken mountain wilderness. During his explorations he met with many hostile tribes of Indians, with whom he had to contend for the right of way through their country, and he was often involved in skirmishes with their war parties, greatly delaying his plans and sometimes reducing him almost to starvation. During his travels for weeks and months he depended for his support entirely upon his pistol and fish-hook. He was also oftentimes in great peril from the desperadoes of the West, who lie in wait upon the trails, and who do not stop at murder if necessary to secure their booty. In what was literally the " wild West;" he traveled hither and thither in search of mineral deposits with varied success, experimenting with various kinds of minerals, gold, silver, lead and copper, and considering their accessibility and prospective value, sometimes settling down at certain points for one, two, or three years, and making it profitable, and at other times losing. He also often experimented with new methods of separating, refining and treating ores of various kinds and frequently made a perfect failure of what was represented as a very available process. His success in the discovery and development of argentiferous lead mines in Montana was quite satisfactory in quality and in value, but not quite so in points of accessibility, as it was about four hundred miles over the mountain ranges, valleys, canyons and rocks, and the locality could be reached only with mule teams. Concluding to make further researches for minerals more accessible, he left the Montana mines for future consideration and development and visited Utah, New Mexico and Colorado. While in Colorado he discovered several valuable locations and in 1873 located the most accessible and promising one near Ore City, now known as Leadville, and between the years 1873 to I876, he built an extensive canal or ditch, some fourteen miles in length, for the purpose of placer mining. In the meantime, in I875, he discovered the so-called carbonate of lead mines in that district. In I875-6, he continued his explorations in the placer mines and also to some extent developed his carbonate of lead mines. The development proving satisfactory, he made application to the government for title, made expenditure sufficient to comply with the law, secured his government title and began to ship ore from the mine. When it was discovered by others that he had secured the title to mineral lands of value, opposition began to be manifested by the bunkos, mine-jumpers and highwaymen who had flocked to that country during the war. Their endeavors caused much litigation and heavy expenditure to defend the rights of the legal and moral owners of the mining estates, as well as of the corporations which succeeded them. In the end, however, the company which had been organized was successful not only in defending their rights, but in the management and working of the mine. The company which Mr. Stevens organized is known as the Iron Silver Mining Company, and has realized from the sale of ore over six millions of dollars. Over $2,444,000 of this amount has been earned profits and dividends, and has been divided among its shareholders. In the meantime, during all the period alluded to, Mr. Stevens was engaged in various other enterprises. He is a large land proprietor, with heavy interests in steamboats and in manufacturing concerns, and has an extensive stock farm near Detroit. He is also a leading stockholder and the President of the Third National Bank. Notwithstanding the great amount of hard work that he has performed and the many privations he has endured, he is still active and vigorous, and while he has accumulated a large fortune he has exercised so much self-denial in obtaining it that he is entitled to all the satisfaction and comfort it can bring. Personally he is rather blunt in his address, but is thoroughly reliable and is using his means in a way that is an advantage to others as well as to himself. WILLIAM BRIGHAM WESSON was born in Hardwick, Worcester County, Massachusetts, March 21, I820, and is the son of Rev. William B. Wesson, who for many years was pastor of the Congregational Church of Hardwick. The family is easily traced for two hundred years in New England, and some of the name have lived in the same town, and in the same homestead, for nearly a century. The English ancestors are traced for several centuries. The ancient records of the English cathedral of Ely show their names in regular order back to the twelfth century. The American branch of the family dates from the arrival of Wm. Wesson, who came from Ely in I636, and settled in Hopkinton, twenty miles from Boston. His descendants participated in the French and Indian wars, and in the war of the Revolution, and were engaged in many skirmishes with the Indians, and as the country grew prosperous and settled, numbers of the family established new homes here and there in various parts of New England and the west. Mr. W. B. Wesson's connection with Detroit dates from the year 1833. He came when a lad of thirteen with his brother-in-law, the late Moses F.

Page  1075 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALIsT1S. 1075 Dickinson. Soon after his arrival he attended a private school taught by D. B. Crane, in the old University building, on Bates Street, and when a branch of the University was opened in the same building, he continued his studies under the same roof, and, in 184I, entered the literary department of the University at Ann Arbor, being the first member of the Sophomore class, and the only one that year. Before he had completed his studies he was taken ill and compelled to take a rest at his old home in Hardwick, where he remained for six months. On his return he entered the law office of Van Dyke & Emmons, at Detroit, and two years later was admitted to the bar. His attention, however, was almost immediately attracted to the possibilities connected with the real estate business, and he soon formed a partnership with Albert Crane, and entered actively upon an uninterrupted career of success. Their business early assumed such proportions that, practically, they had no competitors. They became the pioneers in the business of subdividing large tracts of land and disposing of the lots, and were the first to sell lots upon long time, with only a small payment down. This method not only created a brisk demand for their property, but by encouraging persons of limited means to become lot holders, they stimulated habits of thrift and industry, and thereby greatly served hundreds of their fellowcitizens. There are many persons in Detroit to-day owning comfortable homes who probably would not be so well situated but for the opportunities offered them by Messrs. Crane & Wesson. Their methods also greatly aided the manufacturing interests of the city, because of the encouragement afforded to laboring men to obtain a home, and many were drawn hither and remained here because of these opportunities. So widely and favorably known did their firm become, that they soon had their hands full of business, investing for others as well as for themselves. They operated not only in Detroit, but in Chicago as well; and after twenty years, when they dissolved partnership, Mr. Wesson's share of the business amounted to over half a million dollars. Mr. Crane removed to Chicago and Mr. Wesson retained the Detroit business, and continued it with constant success, increasing his capital several times over. He has himself erected over a thousand buildings, and probably owns more improved and productive property than any other person in Detroit. The names of scores of streets, dedicated without cost to the city, fitly perpetuate the record of his extensive landed transactions. His long experience in real estate matters has made his judgment almost infallible as to present and prospective values of real estate in any part of Detroit or its vicinity, and his knowledge is frequently utilized in the settling of landed estates, and in the determining of values for various purposes. His investments, however, have not been wholly in the line of real estate, and he has found time to engage in various public enterprises. He was for several years president of the Detroit, Lansing & Howell Railroad, and aided materially in securing its completion, and it may be stated, as a remarkable fact, that his services were rendered to the company for a series of years without drawing the salary attached to the office, and he declined to receive any pay for his services. He was also prominent in the building of the Grand River and Hamtramck street railroads. He has served as president of the Wayne County Savings Bank and of the Safe Deposit Company since the organization of these corporations. He is also president of the Detroit Safe Works, and director and large stockholder in the First National Bank. He is also a large holder of railroad stocks, and owns both wild and farming lands in many counties in Michigan, besides real estate in other States, and hundreds of pieces of valuable property in Detroit, which he is continually improving. His political faith is that of a strong Republican, but he takes little active part in political life. He has been frequently solicited to run for Congress, and could have easily secured a nomination if he would have accepted. In I872 he was nominated for State Senator, and although the district was strongly Democratic, he was elected by a large majority, carrying every ward and town in the district. As State Senator he proved so useful a friend to the University that the faculty, without his previous knowledge of their purpose, conferred upon him an honorary degree. Notwithstanding the care of his varied and extensive business interests, Mr. Wesson never seems to be hurried; each item of business receives its proper share of attention, and each caller as well; he treats all with uniform courtesy, and no one is ever made unpleasantly conscious of the fact that he is dealing with a person possessed of large wealth. He is apparently always even-tempered, friendly, and has no hard lines in his face or disposition. He is always liberal, kind-hearted, generous, and scrupulously unostentatious. He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. In his intellectual life he keeps pace with the best thought of the day, and his library gives abundant evidence of personal and skilled selection. His residence at Wessonside, on the river, in the extreme eastern part of the city, is unsurpassed by any in Detroit in its elegance and in the beauty of its location. The grounds embrace eight acres, slope gently towards the river, and include all that one could wish in way of trees and flowers, with boat

Page  1076 1o76 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. ing facilities and various other enjoyments amply arranged for. Mr. Wesson married Lacyra Eugenia Hill, eldest daughter of the late Lyman Baldwin, in I852. His only surviving child is Mrs. Edith W. Seyburn, wife of Lieutenant S. Y. Seyburn, of the Tenth United States Infantry. Mr. W.sson died June I8, I890. WILLIAM WOODBRIDGE was born in Norwich, Conn., August 20, I780. His father, Dudley Woodbridge, was a graduate of Yale College, and educated for the bar, but the breaking out oi the Revolutionary War about the time he was ready to practice, closed the courts of justice, and he abandoned his profession, and became one of the " minute men " of Connecticut. After the war he emigrated from Norwich, Conn., to the Northwest Territory, and became one of the earliest settlers of Marietta, removing his family there as soon as a residence could be provided. Three of his children, including William, were left at school in their native State, until a few months before St. Clair's defeat in I791, when William was brought to Marietta, and for a time attended a school in the Block House, taught by a Mr. Baldwin. IHe remained four or five years in the Territory, spending a year at school among the French colonists, at Galliopolis. From there he went back to Connecticut, where he remained until I799. He then returned to Marietta to assist his father, who was then engaged in mercantile affairs. As the population increased his father's business enlarged, and he constructed a vessel, loaded it with furs, and, taking advantage of the freshets, sent it to France, making a successful voyage. This ship was the first square-rigged vessel that ever descended the falls of the Ohio. In I802 William commenced reading law and subsequently entered the celebrated Litchfield, Conn., law school, where he remained nearly three years, and was then admitted as a member of the bar of Connecticut, and soon after, upon his return to Ohio, he was admitted to the bar of that State, and immediately commenced his professional career. In I807 he was sent as a Representative to the General Assembly of Ohio, and took a leading part in the discussion of many important questions. Early in 18o8 he was appointed Prosecuting Attorney for the county in which he resided, and held the office until he removed from the State. In I809 he was elected a member of the State Senate, an office which he continued to occupy for five years. - Late in the autumn of I814 he received notice of his appointment, by President Madison, as Secretary of the Territory of Michigan, and in addition was also appointed Collector of Customs at Detroit. In I819 he was elected delegate to Congress from the Territory of Michigan, and during his term in Congress the project of fitting out an expedition for exploring the Indian country around the borders of Lake Superior and along the valley of the upper Mississippi was matured and determined upon. Through his efforts also, Congress made appropriations for the Chicago and Grand River Roads, and for the road through the Black Swamp. After his return to Detroit in 1820, he again became Secretary of the Territory of Michigan, holding the office altogether for eight years, and oftentimes in the absence of Governor Cass, performing the duties of Governor. In the beginning of 1828, Judge James Witherell, who had been for many years the presiding Judge of the Territory, resigned his position, and Mr. Woodbridge was appointed by President John Quincy Adams as his successor. Mr. Woodbridge entered upon his duties in 1828, was made the presiding Judge of the court, his associates on the Bench being Henry Chipman and Solomon Sibley, both of whom were men with whom it was a source of gratification to be associated, and it has been said that the Bar of Michigan, at that particular period, was not surpassed in ability by that of any State in the Union. The term of office of Mr. Woodbridge expired in January, I832, and he resumed the practice of his profession. In I835 he was elected a member of the convention to form a State constitution, and was the only Whig elected in the district in which he resided, and one of the only four members of that party in the convention. He was also a member of the first State Senate of I837, and two years later was elected Governor of the State. He entered upon his duties as Governor in January, I840. In I84I he was elected as United States Senator from Michigan, and took his seat on the fourth of March. From the beginning of the session he entered with activty into its proceedings. He was made chairman of the committee on the Library of Congress, and was appointed a member of the standing committees on Agriculture, Claims, Commerce, Manufactures, and Public Lands. The reports submitted by him on various subjects were numerous and invariably commanded attention, and the Journal of the Senate shows that during his six years of service, he was attentive and industrious. His senatorial term ended in I847, and he returned to Detroit, resumed his professional pursuits and cultivated the extensive farm that still bears his name. In addition to the offices named, he held various city, county and State offices and served as Trustee of the University. He was always interested in the educational and religious welfare of the city, was one of the first officers of the local Bible 4

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Page  1077 GOVERNORS, SENATORS, BANKERS AND CAPITALISTS. 1077 Society, president of the association that established the first Sunday school in Detroit, and one of the corporators of the First Protestant Society, and in later years gave several lots in order to encourage the erection of churches of various denominations. In his business career he was actively connected with the organization of the Bank of Michigan, the first successful bank in Detroit. It is a notable fact that with his own hand, as Collector of Customs, he noted the arrival at this port of the first steamboat that ever moved through the river. A deep grief came to him by the decease on February 19, I860, of his talented wife. They were married on June 29, I8o5, at Hartford; his wife's maiden name was Juliana Trumbull; she was a daughter of John Trumbull, the author of "McFingal," and other poems. She was born in Hartford, Connecticut on April 23, 1786, was highly educated and inherited a large share of the genius of her father. Mr. Woodbridge had a frail constitution and did not long survive his wife; he died on October 20, i86I. The United States District Court, then in session, the Bar of Detroit, the Grand Jury, and other public bodies immediately adopted resolutions in testimony of the public bereavement. In one of the addresses Senator Howard gave the following personal testimony as to his worth: " He was a man of very thorough professional attainments, familiar with all the standard English writers, and with the principles of English and American law. He loved law books, and especially old ones, and delved with alacrity into the oldest reports and treaties. But it must not be inferred that he was inattentive to modern decisions, whether English or American, or to the general progress of the science of jurisprudence. He was a scholarly, able man. In the conduct of a case at the bar, though always earnest and persevering, he was uniformly courteous. No opponent ever had cause to reproach him with the slightest remissness in his intercourse as counsel. His learning, his wit, and his gentlemanly manner always won for him the admiration of the bench, the bar, and the bystanders. He was not, perhaps, the most powerful advocate in analyzing testimony and exposing falsehood or improbabilities, but rather relied for success upon his points of law, which he certainly put with great force and clearness, and yet his efforts before a jury were so persuasive, kind and smooth that he seldom lost a verdict. His taste was highly cultivated and refined, and rather easily offended by coarse expressions or unbecoming conduct." He was always prominent at the term of the Supreme Court, and took part in most, if not all, the important cases of his time. In writing, his style was clear, perspicuous and attractive, and in all his literary productions he represented the best intelligence and most cultivated thought of his New England ancestry. His law library was very complete and valuable, and he prized it as the apple of his eye. He was uniformly distinguished for courtesy, integrity, fidelity, learning, industry, and great ability. As a lawyer, he was faithful to his clients, but always in subordination to his conviction of what was required by law and justice; strong in his dislikes and frank in the expression of them, they were always founded in his own sincere views of what was equitable and proper. He possessed great social and conversational powers, and could sit for hours at a time and discuss a subject with the utmost vivacity. His love for his family was deep, strong, fervent, almost passionate. He was a great lover of the quiet of home and was eminently kind, patient, and loving in all his intercourse with his family and with his neighbors also, and was sincerely loved by all who knew him intimately. At the time of his death he had three living children, namely: Mrs. Ienry T. Backus, Dudley B. Woodbridge, and Wm. Leverett Woodbridge. A daughter, Mrs. Lucy M. Henderson, died about six months before her father.

Page  1078 CHAPTER XCII. AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. HUGH BRADY, Major-General U. S. A., was born at Standingstone, Huntingdon County, Pennsylvania, July 29, I768, and was the fifth son of John and Mary Brady. His father was a Captain in the Twelfth Pennsylvania Regiment of the Revolutionary army. He, with two of his sons, was killed by the Indians,and his wife left a widow with two sons. As he grew to manhood, Hugh frequently joined small parties who retaliated on the Indians for their misdeeds, and early gained an insight into their manners and habits of warfare. In I792 he received from General Washington a commission as Ensign in General Wayne's army, was made Lieutenant in I794, and took part in his celebrated western campaign of that year. In I799 he received from President Adams an appointment as Captain, and subsequently undertook the improvement of a lot of land located on a branch of the Mahoning river, about fifty miles from Pittsburgh. He remained there until 1807, and, becoming convinced that his fortune could not be made at farming, he removed to Northumberland, where he remained until I812, whef he received a commission from Mr. Jefferson, and again joined the army. He was soon promoted to the command of the Twentysecond Regiment of Infantry, and received, at the battle of Lundy's Lane, a wound which disabled him for further service during the war. In I819 he was transferred to the Second Infantry, then stationed at Sackett's Harbor, New York. In 1822 he was promoted to the rank of BrigadierGeneral for ten years' faithful service. In 1828 he was in command at Detroit, and in 1837 was placed in command of Military Department No. 7, having his head-quarters at Detroit. He continued in command seven years, and during this time superintended the removal of several tribes to the country west of the Mississippi river, and did much to allay the troublesome border difficulties known as the "Patriot War." At the breaking out of the Mexican war, although past the age for active field service, he took a prominent part, superintending the raising and equipment of troops and shipping supplies to the seat of war. He was made a Major-General in 1848. As a soldier, he was eminent for his bravery and faithfulness; and as a citizen, he was free from reproach, and won the esteem of those with whom he was associated. He was married in October, I805, to Sarah Wallis. They had six children, namely: Sarah Wallis, wife of Colonel Electus Backus; Samuel Preston; Mary Laithy, wife of Colonel Electus Brady; Elizabeth Hall; Jane, wife of Captain James L. Thompson; Cassandra, wife of B. J. H. Witherell. He died at Detroit, April 15, I851, his death being caused by his horses running away. JAMES BURGESS BOOK, M. D., was born at Palermo, Halton County, Canada, November 7, 1844, and is the son of Johnson and Priscilla Book, both of German descent. His father was an extensive speculator in real estate and laid out several towns in Halton County. The son received his education at the Milton County Grammar School, from which he graduated in I858. The same year he entered the literary department of the Toronto University, and at the end of the Sophomore year began a course of study in the Medical College connected with the University; but before completing the course, having decided that it would be to his advantage to graduate elsewhere, he left that institution and entered the Jefferson Medical College at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He graduated from there in March, I865, and then returned to Toronto and completed his medical course at the University. In the fall of the same year he began the practice of his profession at Windsor, Ontario, but after a few months he crossed the river, settled in Detroit,and for a year pursued professional duties with good success. Anxious, however, to still further perfect and extend his knowledge of medical science, he went to Europe in 1867 and attended a full course of lectures at the celebrated Guy's Hospital Medical School, one of the oldest medical institutions in London or the [CI781

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Page  1079 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1079 world. His studies were further supplemented by a year's attendance at the tcole de Medecin of Paris, and with three months' practical experience in the General Hospital at Vienna. In I869 he returned to Detroit,and as a result of thorough preparation, coupled with exceptionally good professional judgment, his practice has grown to large proportions. He served as Professor of Surgery and Clinical Surgery in the Michigan Medical College until that institution consolidated with the Detroit Medical College, forming the Detroit College of Medicine. After the consolidation he continued to serve as Professor of Surgery, and' is one of the largest stockholders in the college. From 1872 to 1876 he was surgeon of St. Luke's Hospital and is now attending surgeon of Harper Hospital, and has been surgeon-in-chief of the D., L. & N. R. R. since 1882. He is a member of the Wayne County Medical Society, of the Medical and Library Association, and of the State and American Medical Associations. He is also medical director of the Imperial Life Insurance Company of Detroit, organized in I886. He is a frequent contributor to the medical journals,and among the more important of his contributions may be named, an article on "Nerve Stretching," recounting a series of experiments in this comparatively new departure in surgery. The titles of some of his other articles have been as follows: " Old I)islocations, with Cases and Results," "The Influence of Syphilis and Other Diseases," "Fever Following Internal Urethrotomy," "Idiopathic Erysipelas," "Malarial Neuralgia," and "Inhalation in Diseases of the Air Passages." Although his practice is general in its character, it is more especially in the difficult and delicate branches of surgery that he excels. In this department he has gained deserved distinction and has an enviable reputation in his profession. A notable instance of his skill was furnished in 1882, when he successfully performed an operation before the students and faculty of the Michigan College of Medicine, requiring the removal of the Meckels ganglion. It was the only case of its kind ever treated with success in the west and but few similar instances are reported in surgical history. Dr. Book is a close and careful student of medical subjects and professionally a hard worker. A sincere liking for his profession, an extended and diversified course of instruction in this and other countries, and the experience of many years of practice, have given him a prestige equalled by few among the many notable physicians of Detroit. Dr. Book has taken an active interest in home military organizations and was elected Surgeon of the Independent Battalion of Detroit in I88r, and since that organization became a part of the Fourth Regiment of the State militia, he has served as Regimental Surgeon. He is a Republican in politics but has never taken an active interest in political affairs. In 1881 he was elected an Alderman of the Third Ward at the first election held under the present division of the city wards. He resigned his aldermanic position in i882 to accept the position of Police Surgeon, an office he still retains. Socially agreeable, frank and candid in his manner, he makes friends easily, and retains their esteem. WILLIAM HENRY BREARLEY was born July I8, 1846, at Plymouth, Michigan, and is the son of Joseph and Hannah (Van Etten) Brearley, who were both natives of Lyons, New York. Their children were John Harrison who died in 1832, E. Cordelia, Kate, Sarah A., who died in I842, a son who died in infancy in 1844, William H. and Minnie. James Brearley, an early English ancestor, was born at York, England, in 15I5. One of his descendants, John Brearley, the great-great-greatgrandfather of Joseph Brearley, came to America with the Duke of York about I680, and became the possessor of several thousand acres of land between the Three and Five Mile Runs on the Assanpink River, midway between Trenton and Princeton. and also of a tract of sixteen hundred acres ten miles south of Newton, New Jersey, besides a 500 acre plantation on the Delaware river, near the Washington Crossing. He died near Trenton, New Jersey. in I710. He was a slaveholder and his house is still standing five miles west of Trenton and is over two hundred years old a "new part " was added to it by General Joseph Brearley in 1784. The most prominent representative of the family was Judge David Brearley, who was born in 1745 and died in 179o. He was a Colonel in the Continental Army and afterward the first Chief Justice of New Jersey. He was a grand master of the masonic bodies of that State, and one of those who, in 1787, framed and signed the Constitution of the United States. Joseph Brearley and Hannah Van Etten were married May 12, 1830, and removed to Plymouth, Michigan, in 1837, and there, on August 8th, 1852, the mother died, leaving the care of the two younger children to the two older sisters, who continued this responsibility until I859, when the eldest, Cordelia, married Rev. A. C. Merritt, now of South Haven, Michigan, and the next in age, Kate, now Mrs. H. A. Ford, of Detroit, went with the two younger children to the State Normal School at Ypsilanti. The instruction of his sisters at home and about three years in the public school at Plymouth, enabled W. H. Brearley, at the age of thirteen, to enter the second class at the Normal School, he being several years younger than any other member of the class.

Page  1080 1080 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. On account of delicate health, the summer of 86o was spent on a farm near Coldwater. He returned to the Normal School in the fall, but as his health again failed he resumed farm work, this time with his brother-in-law, Rev. A. C. Merritt, near Flint, Michigan. On the breaking out of the war in the spring of I86t, he attempted to enlist in the I4th and then in the I6th Michigan Infantry, but his father's permission could not be obtained, as he was but fourteen years of age. He, however, felt an increasing conviction that his duty required him to become a soldier,and walked four miles several times a week, in the evening, to Flushing, to get the Detroit daily papers, that he might obtain and devour the war news. In May, 1862, when fifteen years old, he learned through Professor Austin George of the organizing of a company among the students of the Normal School. This time permission to enlist was reluctantly given by his father, and on August 15th, he was enrolled as a member of Company E, I7th Michigan Infantry, being smuggled in through an "error" of the enlisting officer, who entered his age on the rolls as 18. The day of large bounties had not then been reached, and the company was officered by an election at a company meeting when the older and more advanced pupils were complimented with being selected as officers. On August 27 the regiment took part in the demohstration in honor of the return, on that day, of General 0. B. Wilcox, and in the evening, after having been well drenched by a heavy fall of rain, they embarked on the Cleveland steamer en route for Washington, sleeping on the wet lower deck. Reaching Washington, the 17th Michigan began active service at once by participating in the battles of South Mountain and Antietam on September 14 and 17, 1862, and continued with the 9th Army Corps, going in January to Newport News, thence west to Kentucky, and then down the Mississippi to Vicksburg, back again to Kentucky and over into Tennessee, and finally back to the Army of the Potomac in the east, where Mr. Brearley participated in all the engagements of the "Grant" campaign. This service included the twenty-four battles of South Mountain, Antietam, Fredericksburgh, the siege of Vicksburg, Blue Springs, Lenoire Station, Campbell Station, siege of Knoxville, Wilderness, Ny River, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Bethesda Church, Cold Harbor, Petersburgh, The Crater, Welden Railroad, Ream's Station, Poplar Springs Church, Pegram Farm, Boydton Road, Hatcher's Run, Fort Steadman, and the final assault on Petersburgh, besides many skirmishes. At the close of the war the regiment returned to Detroit, arriving June 7, 1865, and on July 10 following it was paid off and discharged. Soon after his return Mr. Brearley entered Gold smith's Business College, went through the course of studies and was subsequently engaged in the office of the Detroit Locomotive Works, afterwards known as the Buhl Iron Works, where he remained nearly five years. He spent the winter of I870 and 1871 in Kansas, and after returning to Detroit visited New York, Philadelphia, and Boston in the interest of the Detroit Tribune, Post, and Free Press, and three months later he was offered and accepted an engagement on the Tribune, by which he was to receive a stipulated salary and a percentage upon all the advertising receipts in excess of the highest average received for several years preceding. The year following the receipts of the Tribune were nearly doubled. His success and income, however, led to complications that were followed by the withdrawal of both Mr. J. E. Scripps and himself, and they united in establishing August 23, I873, the Detroit Evening News. Mr. Scripps edited and printed the paper and Mr. Brearley was its sole customer for advertising, paying his own canvassers, bookkeeper and collector, and taking his own risk upon all accounts. The paper was started about two weeks before the "panic" of 1873, which brought scores of business houses to bankruptcy and nearly swamped the new enterprise. The point of danger was, however, at length passed and the tide of success set in. After being connected with the paper fourteen years, on May I, I887, Mr. Brearley withdrew from the News,and seven days later purchased the entire stock of the Detroit Journal, a rival evening paper, which had been established September ISt, 1883, and which under Mr. Brearley's management and an editorial force that is second to none in Detroit, has achieved a leading position. Mr. Brearley's connection with the Detroit Museum of Art is indicated elsewhere in this work. He began by interesting Thomas W. Palmer, James McMillan and others in the project,and on December 6, 1882, at a meeting of ladies called at the residence of Mrs. James F. Joy, Mr. Brearley gave an outline of his plans for an Art Loan Exhibition, to awaken an interest in art, to be followed by the raising of money and establishing a permanent Museum of Art. He personally advanced the $io,ooo needed to erect the building,and the exhibition was carried through successfully, and created an interest in art that was before unknown in the city. Mr. Brearley was subsequently the principal instrument in raising $roo,ooo for the erection and endowment of the Museum, giving about one tenth of the whole amount himself. There can be no question but that to him more than to any other person is to be attributed the successful completion of the project, and he succeeded by dint of sheer purpose and untiring determination.

Page  1081 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. I08i He is a member of the First Baptist Church and is active in various departments of church and Sunday school work. In 1878 while Associational Superintendent of Sunday school work, he visited the thirty-three Sunday schools of the lichigan association, and noticing the lack of convenience for holding their services, he designed and copyrighted a set of six church plans, which have been adopted by over I20 churches in all parts of the country. In 1872 he invented for the use of newspaper men a diary of peculiar construction which he calls an "office systematizer," and over fifteen hundred are in use in various newspaper offices. In I877 he inaugurated a series of summer excursions to the White Mountains and sea-shore, and during the seven years ending in I 883, he took east thirteen largely patronized excursions. He originated and planned the successful national organization, known as the American Newspaper Publisher's Association, with head-quarters now at I04 Temple Court, New York. Its first meeting was held at Rochester on February I, 1887, and during its first year he was one of the executive committee and served as secretary. He also suggested the idea of a Press Brotherhood, prepared a ritual for the same, and an organization was effected on July 26, 1887, and at this and also at the meeting of June 30, i888, he was elected president of the society, which is in a prosperous condition and expected to spread throughout the United States. He is a member of the Detroit, Grosse Pointe and Rushmere Clubs, and of the Michigan Yacht Club; also of Detroit Commandery of Knights Templars, and of Detroit Post G. A. R. His business career abundantly evidences his business foresight and push, and his success in overcoming obstacles in various directions, shows that he possesses high courage and an obstinacy of devotion to whatever he undertakes, that could hardly fail to win. As is usually the case with those who possess such marked persistency of purpose, he does not count upon every person as a friend, but his record will bear examination, and he has proved a better citizen for Detroit than many who have had larger opportunities. He is genial among his friends, liberal in his gifts to worthy objects, and zealously' alive to all the interests recognized as contributing to the well-being of society. He was married August 27, i868, to Miss Lina De Land, of East Saginaw, daughter of Milton B. De Land. Their oldest son, Harry C., born October 2, 1870, is assistant manager of the Detroit Journal. Their three other children are named Rachel, born May 30, 1873, Benjamin W., born September i, 188I, and Margaret, born September 2, 1883. J. HENRY CARSTENS, M. D., of Detroit, was born June 9, I848, in the city of Kiel, in the German province of Schleswig-Holstein. His father, John Henry Carstens, a merchant tailor, was an ardent revolutionist and participated in the various revolts in the memorable years of I848-49. He had been captured and was in prison when his son was born; after some months he was released and began attending to his business, but fearing that he might be again imprisoned, he packed up a few goods, and with his family left in the dead of the night for America, and on his arrival settled in Detroit, where he has since remained. One of his grandfathers was an architect and builder, another a ship builder; many of his uncles, with other relatives, were officers in the army and navy, and nearly all of them participated in the revolution and were forced to leave Germany and come to the United States. J. H. Carstens is the eldest of two children. His earlier education was received in the public schools of Detroit, supplemented by six years' attendance at the German-American Seminary. While receiving instruction at the latter institution, his parents lived on a farm four and a half miles from the city, which distance he was compelled to walk twice a dav. He evinced even as a boy an eager desire for intellectual work, excelled as a student and took high rank in his studies, especially in those pertaining to natural sciences and mathematics. Before he had attained his fifteenth year, he was compelled to engage in business, and after some time devoted to lithography, he entered the drug store of Wm. Thum, and afterwards served in Duffield's drug store, and with B. E. Sickler. He became proficient in the various details of the business, served one year as prescription clerk in Stearns's drug store, and then began the study of medicine, his name being the first on the matriculation book of the Detroit Medical College. Even before graduation he had charge of the college dispensary, and after his graduation in I870, he was immediately put in charge of the dispensary, and a few years later held the same position in St. Mary's Hospital Infirmary. He was appointed lecturer on Minor Surgery in the Detroit Medical College in 1871, and afterwards lecturer on Diseases of the Skin, and Clinical Medicine. He has lectured on almost every branch of medical science, the most important subjects so treated being, Diseases of Women and Children, Differential Diagnosis, Nervous Diseases, Physical Diagnosis, Pathology, Chemistry, Materia Medica, and Therapeutics. His taste and practice gradually tended to the diseases of women. and after holding the professorship of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in the Detroit Medical College for some ycnrs,

Page  1082 1082 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. in i88I he accepted the professorship of Obstetrics and Clinical Gynecology, a position he has ever since held, and on the consolidation with the Michigan College of Medicine, he was appointed to the same position in the Detroit College of Medicine. As a lecturer on medical subjects he has performed most satisfactory labors, is thorough in his investigations and in the application of knowledge gained by practical experience and unremitting research. He is terse, clear, and practical, and easily wins the respect of those who come under his teaching. In view of the experiences of his father, it is but natural that Dr. Carstens should have a strong taste for politics. Ever since he has been old enough to understand the political situation in this country he has been a staunch Republican. Before his twentieth year he delivered political speeches, and this he continued for many years, speaking in either English or German in many parts of the State of Michigan. In 1876 he was elected chairman of the Republican City Committee, and at the same time was a member of the County Committee. During the year he held these positions, he materially assisted in securing Republican control of the city and county. Both as an organizer and as an earnest, effective worker, he has rendered valuable aid in gaining victories for his party, and has been often tendered party nominations. He has, however, thus far refused to become a candidate for office, with the exception of a nomination as member of the Board of Education, to which he was elected in I875 and re-elected in I879. In 1877 he was appointed president of the Board of Health, and during his term of office rendered valuable assistance in checking the spread of small-pox, which was then prevalent. On the organization of the Michigan Republican Club, he was elected a director. His rapidly increasing professional duties, of late years, have prevented active political work, and with the exception of an occasional speech, his whole time has been devoted to his profession. His contributions to medical literature have been various and extended. He has reported many clinical lectures and has translated various articles from German and French medical journals. Among the more important of the articles written by him may be named: Cleftpalate and Iodoform, Medical Education, Embolism, Vaccination, Household Remedies, Phantasia, Clinical Lectures. A Case of Obstetrics, Dysentery cured without Opium, Strangulated Hernia. Hemorrhoids, Clinical Lectures on Gynecology, A Case of Epilepsy caused by Uterine Stenosis, Three Cases of Battey's Operation, Uterine Cancer, Menorrhagia and Metrorrhagia, Cancer, Ergot in Labor, Mechanical Therapeutics of Amenorrhoea, A Different Method of Treating a Case of Freshly Rup tured Perineum, Fibroid Tumor Removed by Laparotomy, Vesico-Vaginical Fistula, Loewenthal Theory of Menstruation, Mastitis, Laceration of the Cervix Uteri, A small Book on Amenorrhoea, Dysmenorrhoea and Menorrhagia. Nearly all of his articles have been extensively copied by medical journals in this country, and some by European journals. He holds the position of gynecologist to Harper Hospital, attending physician at the Woman's Hospital and obstetrician of the House of Providence. He is a member of the American Medical Association, and of the Michigan State Medical Society, of which he was vice-president in I885, president of the Detroit Medical and Library Society, a member of the Detroit Academy of Medicine, and of the British Gynecological. Society, honorary member of the Owosso and Kalamazoo Academy of Medicine and the Northeastern District Medical Society, and vice-president of the American Association of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. His advance as a physician has been steady and sure; he has been a'continuous student and a hard worker; his practice has grown into an extensive and remunerative one and he finds his time and hands fully occupied. He has given to certain diseases close and special attention and has worked out for them peculiar, independent, and successful modes of treatment. Among his professional brethren he holds the place due to his talents and manly character, and is ever ready to aid any enterprise that may be originated for the good of the public. Although his professional duties are onerous, he finds time for general reading and keeps well informed in a wide range of intellectual culture; is thorough and earnest in all that he undertakes, and has the undivided good will and respect of the community in which he dwells. He was married October I8, I870, to Hattie Rohnert, who had for some time been a teacher in one of the public schools. HENRY ALEXANDER CLELAND, M. D. of Detroit, was born in Sterling, Scotland, March 14, I839, and is the son of Henry and Mary Young) Cleland, and a lineal descendant of William Cleland, the covenanter, who during the sixteenth century was a conspicuous character in the war of the covenanters, having great influence as a leader of the West country Whigs. In 1689, when the extortion and persecutions of Viscount Dundee, to whom King James entrusted the management of affairs in Scotland, had justly aroused the anger of the covenanters, it was William Cleland, then living in Edinburgh,who became the recognized head of the movement which for a time threatened to destroy the forces of Dundee. At that time, says Lord Macauley in his History of England, " the enemy whom

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Page  1083 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1083 Dundee had most to fear was a youth of distinguished courage and abilities, named William Cleland. * * * Cleland had, when little more than sixteen years old, borne arms in the insurrection at Bothwell Bridge. He -had since disgusted some virulent fanatics by his humanity and moderation, but with the great body of Presbyterians his name stood high. With-the strict morality and ardent zeal of a puritan he united accomplishments of which few puritans could boast: his manners were polished and his literary and scientific attainments respectable. He was a linguist, a mathematician, and a poet, and his poems written when a mere boy, * * * showed considerable vigor of mind." He was killed in 1689, at the age of twenty-seven years. His namesake, an uncle of Henry Cleland, was for many years a prominent merchant of Wishaw, Lanarkshire. The ancestors of Dr. Cleland's mother were farmers for many generations in the town of Stirling of the immediate vicinity. Henry Cleland spent the earlier years of his life in London, England, where he learned the business of a cutler and instrument maker. At the age of twenty-five he went to Stirling and began business for himself, and died there in 1844, at the age of forty-five, leaving his widow with eight children and with but limited means for support. The family remained at Stirling until 1851, where Henry A. received his rudimentary education in the grammar school. The family then removed to Glasgow, and here for one year young Cleland attended St. James's Parish School. He then became an errand boy in a paint and music store, but diligently pursued his studies, attending the evening schools and the Mechanics' Institute, and later, the Andersonian University, and managed to secure not only a good English education, but a fair knowledge of the classics, physics, and natural sciences. Believing that superior advantage existed in America for advancement, he left Scotland in I858 and came to Detroit, where an elder brother, named William, had located a few years previously. Here he at first secured employment in the insurance office of M. S. Frost, but after a few months' service, he entered the office of Dr. Richard Inglis, to take charge of the financial management of his practice, and upon his advice soon began the study of medicine, and in 1859 became a student in the Medical Department of the University of Michigan. He graduated in I861, and soon after enlisted as a private in Co. I, 2d Regiment of Michigan Infantry, and after a short period of service was made hospital steward. During the Peninsular Campaign of Gen. McClellan he acted as assistant surgeon of his regiment, and was slightly wounded at the battle of WiJliamsburgh. At the battle of Charles City Cross Roads, he was taken prisoner,and for four weeks was confined at Libby Prison, when he was exchanged, rejoining his regiment just prior to the second battle of Bull Run. lie continued with his regiment until the battle of the Wilderness, when he resigned his commission and returned to Detroit to take charge of the medical practice of Dr. Inglis, who on account of ill health desired to retire from professional work. Since then Dr. Cleland has been constantly engaged in the practice of his profession, and it has steadily grown in extent. He has a natural liking for his calling, and possesses an untiring, painstaking, and studious nature; these qualities with a high order of skill, good judgment, and pleasing address, attract confidence and trust, and easily account for his success. He is modest and retiring in his nature, and his patients esteem him,not only as a physician but as a friend. He has cultivated a family practice, and his professional labors have resulted in securing a large competence which has been judiciously invested in real estate in Detroit. His time is thoroughly engrossed in his professional duties and he finds little opportunity for any projects not connected with his profession. He is a member of the State Medical Association, and is a charter member of the Detroit Academy of Medicine, the oldest medical society of Detroit. In 1873 he went to Europe, and remained one year, spending considerable time in the hospitals of London, Edinburgh, and Paris. At one time he was a member of the staff of St. Mary's Hospital, and is now connected with Harper Hospital. He was married in I865 to Agnes M. Cowie, daughter of Wm: Cowie, President of the Detroit Dry Dock Engine Works, and sister of Dr. Henry Cowie, Dentist, of Detroit. GEORGE DAWSON was born at Falkirk, Scotland, March 14, 1813. His father was a bookbinder, and resided near Edinburgh. He was married in I8Io to Mary Chapman and removed to Falkirk, where George was born. The father came to America in I816, and found employment in New York. Two years later he removed to Toronto, and subsequently to Niagara County, New York. While there, when he was eleven years old, George was entered as an apprentice in the printing business in the office of the Niagara Gleaner, and remained two years. In 1826, with his father, he went to Rochester, where he entered the office of the Anti-Masonic Inquirer, then conducted by Thurlow Weed, and in March, 1830, he aided Weed in starting the Albany Evening Journal. In 1836 he became editor of the Rochester Daily Democrat, but in September, 1839,left it to become editor and proprietor, with Morgan Bates, of the Detroit Daily Advertiser, and continued to manage that paper nearly three

Page  1084 1084 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PIUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY Oi: FICERS. years, and his labors on the Advertiser had very much to do with the prosperity of the W hig cause in Michigan. After the fire of 1842 had destroyed the Advertiser o:fice, he sold out to his partner,and returned to Rochester to resume control of the Democrat, and subsequently went to Albany and again connected himself with the Journal. In I861 he was appointed postmaster of Albany, and served six years. He retired from editorial work on the Journal on September 2, I832. He ranked high as a journalist, was elegant and and graceful in his style, and made a very honorable record. He was domestic in his tastes, fond of angling, and wrote a little work "On the Pleasures of Angling." As a politician he firmly adhered to his principles, but was always gentle and pleasant in asserting them. He became a member of the Baptist church in I831, and ever remained an earnest and consistent Christian. He married Nancy M. Terrell in June, 1834, and died on February 17, 1883. COLONEL ARENT SCHUYLER DE PEYSTER, whose name is associated with Detroit during its early occupancy by the British, was the second son of Pierre Guillaume de Peyster, of New Amsterdam. His ancestors were driven from France by the persecutions of Charles IX. and several of them settled in Holland. Johannes de Peyster,the founder of the family in this country, was an eminent merchant in New York in the seventeenth century. He was born at Harlem early in that century, and in 1653, although he had just arrive:l in this country, he offered an amount only exceeded by twelve of the richest settlers, toward erecting the city palisades. He died about I686, after a long life of activity and usefulness. His second son, Isaac, was for many years a member of the Provincial Legislature, and one of the aldermen of New York from I730 to 1734. His third son, Johannes, in I698-9 was at the same time Mayor of the City of New York and a Representative of the municipality of the Provincial Legislature. The fourth son, Cornelius, was the first Chamberlain of the city, and was Captain of the Fifth Company of Foot, in the regiment of which his eldest brother was Colonel. Colonel de Heer Abraham de Peyster, the eldest son of Johannes, was a prominent politician, and possessed of great wealth, being one of the largest owners of real estate in his native city. He was born in New Amsterdam, July 8, I657. On April 5, 1684, at Amsterdam, in Holland, he married Catharine de Peyster. He filled many prominent offices, and died on August 2, 1728. His eldest daughter, Catharine, married Philip van Cortlandt, whose son was the well-known Lieutenant-Gov ernor Pierre van Cortlandt, of Croton. His second daughter, Elizabeth, married John Hamilton, Governor of the Province of New Jersey. His seventh son, Pierre Guillaume, married Catherine Schuyler, sister of Colonel Peter Schuyler, famous for his influence over the five nations of Indians. The second son of Pierre Guillaume was Colonel Arent Schuyler de Peyster, whose picture accompanies this article. His nephew, namesake, protege, and intended heir, was a veritable rover, by sea and shore. In the course of his wanderings, he sailed twice around the world, doubled the Cape of Good Hope fifteen times, visited most of the Polynesian Islands, and in passing from the western coast of America to Calcutta, discovered the group of islands since known as the DePeyster or Peyster Islands. He married Sarah Macomb, the sister of Major General Alexander Macomb, of the United States army. He had in his possession an elegant testimonial given by the merchants of Michilimackinac to his uncle, as a token of their grateful appreciation of his efforts to protect and prosper commerce, and conserve the English interests in that region. The funds collected for the testimonial were sent to England to secure a service of plate, but the gift never reached the hands for which it was intended. By the time the silver was shipped, the Revolutionary War was raging throughout the thirteen colonies, and a privateer belonging to Salem, Massachusetts, captured the vessel and the silver also. The service remained in the family of the owner of the privateer for some years and was eventually distributed among various persons. The punch bowl forming part of the service was sent to New York to be sold, and was purchased by Captain de Peyster; in the course of its wanderings the cover had been lost. The bowl is about fifteen inches high and nearly fifty inches in circumference; it is said to have cost a hundred guineas, and a more beautiful specimen of the silversmith's art is seldom seen. It bears a figure of a tortoise or turtle, which was the emblem of Mackinaw, and in French the following inscription: Thine image, Tortoise, ever will a fond memorial be, My sphere of duty and my home were six long years with thee. FROM THE MERCHANTS TRADING AT MICHILIMACKINAC, To A. S. DE PEYSTER, ESQ. Major to the King's or 8th Regiment, as a testimony of the high sense they entertain of his just and upright conduct, and the encouragement he gave trade during the six years he commanded at that post. Colonel de Peyster came to Detroit in I776. and

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Page  1085 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. Io85 was here most of the time up to 1784, and his connection with this city is alluded to in various places in other parts of this work. Soon after the conclusion of the Revolutionary war he settled in Dumfries, the native town of Mrs. de Peyster. Iuring the French Revolution, his zeal and talents were called into exercise for the training of the first regiment of the Dumfries volunteers, Robert Burns himself being a member of the company, and a warm friend of the commanding officer. Colonel de Peyster was tall, soldier-like, and commanding; in his manners, easy, affable and open; in his affections, warm, generous and sincere; in his principles, and particularly in his political creed, firm even to inflexibility. He died on November 26, 1822. The remains were interred in St. Michael's churchyard. The late Frederick de Peyster, President of the New York Historical Society, was a relative; his son, the well-known author, General J. Watts de Peyster, has preserved many memorials of his distinguished ancestor. JOHN FARMER, engraver and publisher, was born at Half Moon, Saratoga County, New York, on February 9, 1798. His paternal ancestors for two generations bore the same christian name and were natives of Boston, Massachusetts. His father removed from Boston to Long Island about I770. He was a staunch, warm and zealous friend of the American cause, and upon the British invasion of Long Island in 1776 he was captured and confined, at first in a dungeon and then on one of the British prison ships, and when released was so nearly dead that only the most careful medical attendance preserved him. In order to secure his release, Richard Sands, of the well-known firm of Prime, Ward & Sands, of Brooklyn, with Joshua Cornwall and Henry Sands, gave bonds in the sum of L,5Soo, for his continuance within the British lines during the war. After the war he married Catharine Jacokes Stoutenburgh, widow of Dr. Abraham Stoutenburgh, and settled in the town of Malta, Saratoga County, New York. Iiis son, the engraver and publisher, was educated in the vicinity of and at Albany, New York, and taught a Lancasterian school in that city. By invitation of Governor Cass and the Trustees of the University of Michigan, he came to Detroit from Albany in 1821 to take charge of one of the University schools, the said schools being the nucleus of the present University of Michigan. Within two or three years after his arrival at Detroit, Mr. Farmer was engaged in surveying and preparing hand-made maps of the territory. In 1825 he published the first map of Michigan, and the certificate of copyright bears the signature of Henry Clay, who was then Secretary of State. He subsequently published, under various titles, twelve different maps of Michigan, Lake Superior, and Detroit, most of them being engraved by his own hand, and all who are acquainted with his works concede that they have never been excelled, and rarely if ever equaled in accuracy and completeness. He was a remarkably elegant penman, and as a surveyor and draftsman had no superior in his day. In I831 he compiled and drew for the Governor and Judges the first and only map transmitted by them to Congress, and that map is to this day the only legal authority and guide as to the surveys in the older portions of the city. It was accepted by Congress as authoritative and is reproduced in Volume V of the American State Papers, Public Land Series. In January, 1835, he issued the first published map of the city, which showed the size and correct outlines of the several lots, Iis early maps of the Territory and State were sold by the thousands in all the leading eastern cities, and are conceded to have been greatly influential in promoting the extensive immigration to Michigan between the years 1825 to I840. In I83o, at Albany, New York, he issued the first Gazetteer of Michigan, a work relatively as complete as any gazetteer since issued. He served repeatedly as District, City, and County Surveyor, and laid out many of the earlier roads and villages. He had much to do with early educational matters in Detroit and was the first chairman of the first Board of School Inspectors in the city and was continued in the office of chairman for four successive years, retiring in I842. He subsequently served as a member of the Board of Education, and also as City Treasurer in I838. He was one of the corporators of the first Methodist Episcopal Church of Detroit and one of its earliest trustees. He took an active part in discussing the interests of, and in moulding the affairs of the city, especially during the years from I830 to 1850, and was energetic and successful in whatever he undertook. He was intense in his convictions, and in expressing his opinion was always clear and forceful. He was an early advocate of the abolition of slavery, and would have sympathized with any and every effort made by the slaves to secure their freedom. In his profession as an engraver and publisher, he had a passion for accuracy and a tireless energy that hesitated at no expenditure of time or money to secure perfection of detail, and accuracy of information, and it may well be doubted whether any person ever labored more assiduously in the prosecution of their vocation. He seemed to love work for work's sake and seldom spent less than twelve to fifteen hours per day at his desk.

Page  1086 IO86 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. As a neighbor and friend he was trusted and esteemed, and to him home was the most desirable of all places. He was married on April 5, I826, to Roxana Hamilton, of Half Moon, Saratoga County, New York. Her father, Dr. Silas Hamilton, with his father and brother, were in the Revolutionary army and participated in the battles of Bennington, Ticonderoga, and in other campaigns. Mr. Farmer died on March 24, I859, leaving three children, John H., Esther A., and Silas Farmer. His wife is still living, and has been a resident of Detroit for over sixty years. CHARLES HASTINGS, M. D., was born in Junius, Seneca County, New York, September I, 1820. In early youth he was thrown upon his own resources, and by his industry and studious habits acquired the education which fitted him for his chosen profession. He studied medicine with Dr. N. W. Bell, at Geneva, New York, and graduated at the Columbian (allopathic) College of Medicine, and also at the Cleveland Homoeopathic Medical College. After practicing for some time in Cleveland and going through the cholera epidemic at Sandusky, where he was at one time reported as dead, he came to Detroit in 1852 and practiced here for over thirty-four years, and at the time of his death was the oldest homeopathic physician in the city. In 1853 he was appointed by the Board of Auditors, County Physician, and was the first of his school to receive an appointment to that position in Detroit. He was subsequently an officer of the Detroit Homceopathic Institute, and did much to sustain it. He was also a prominent member of the State Homoeopathic Medical Society. His practice was large and required close and laborious application, but in the midst of exhaustive professional duties he devoted much labor to the defense of the principles which underlie his school of practice, and was among the ablest exponents of those principles, both in professional success and in the strength and cogency of the arguments which he employed. He wrote many letters and articles which bear marks not only of his scholarship and comprehensive knowledge, but above all, of that candor and courteous demeanor toward opponents which always distinguished him. He read many papers upon different medical topics before the societies to which he belonged, and took a leading part in their discussions and always aimed to elevate the standard of the profession. He was an avowed opponent of all superficial and sensational methods in connection with the profession of medicine, which he ever regarded as a sacred trust, and was always planning for the welfare of the profession and particularly of his patients. Possessing a knowledge of both schools, he was free from the prejudices of either,and was liberal and catholic both in his sentiments and aims. He was influential in getting the homceopathic department established in the State University, and by his weight of character, no less than by his success in practice, did much to remove the prejudice which had existed against the system he represented. Though known as a strict homoeopathist, he had the respect and confidence of the profession generally, and was often called to consult with allopathic physicians. He had a quiet and somewhat retiring disposition and made but few intimates, but by those who knew him best and in his family, where he was a kind father and devoted husband, he was dearly loved. St. John's commendation of Gaius; " Thou doest faithfully whatever thou doest to the brethren and strangers," applied with truth to Dr. Hastings. The characteristic of his self-centered, well-poised, reticent nature, was faithfulness. To his patients, his steady, discriminating watchfulness, was a source of comfort and confidence.-. It was no unusual thing for him, when anxious about a patient, to go during the time between midnight and morning, when the tide of life runs low in the human frame, to the house, and whatever the weather, to watch outside. If all seemed quiet and the indications favorable, he returned to his house, and the patient was never conscious of the visit. The tenderness and enduring patience endeared him in an unusual degree to those that depended upon his skill for themselves or those dear to them. During his many years of practice in Detroit, many of the families to whom he had ministered continuously had experienced various vicissitudes of fortune; to those to whom reverses had come he was an unfailing friend-sympathy, counsel, medical service and help were given as freely and cheerfully as though prompt payment and future reward depended upon it, and he possessed the love and veneration of many of his patients. Into his inner religious life few were admitted, but it is known that the desire for a higher faith was ever present. The integrity of his life and intense scorn of sham or cant, gave to his manner, at times, an austerity that might have impressed strangers with an idea of harsh judgment and impatience of opposing opinions, but those that knew him, knew how instantaneously and genially he responded to any truth or goodness in the lives or words of others, and how strongly he held to truth wherever found. Those who knew how bravely he responded in his early manhood to the urgent call from cholera infected Sandusky, and how unselfishly, without thought of reward, he gave weeks of work and

Page  1087 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1087 nearly gave his life, honor him as his heroism deserves. It may be said of him that he was faithful to every trust, faithful in every relation of life, faithful to his own clear idea of right, and faithful to the end. He was married in 1849 to Miss Anna E. Coman, of Luzerne, New York. She died in Detroit in I859, and in I86I he was married to Miss Mary L. Kirby, daughter of Geo. Kirby of Detroit. He died May 23, i886, leaving his widow and four daughters, Mrs. Louis Hayward and Misses Louise M., Lizzie K. and Sarah B. Hastings. EDWARD W. JENKS, physician and surgeon, was born in Victor, Ontario County, New York, in 1833, and is the son of Nathan and Jane B. Jenks. His father was of Quaker descent and a leading merchant of Victor for many years, and became the purchaser of large tracts of land in Northern Indiana, particularly in LaGrange County, where he laid out the village of Ontario. In I843 he removed there with his family, and established and endowed the LaGrange Collegiate Institution, which for many years maintained a high reputation in Indiana and adjoining States. At this institute Edward W. Jenks received his earlier school training, which was supplemented by instruction under private tutors. He began the study of medicine in the medical department of New York University, but before completing the course his health failed and he was obliged to return home. In July, I855, he left home, expecting, after spending a vacation in New England,to resume his studies in New York University, but was induced by friends to attend the Castleton Medical College, which he did in the latter part of the summer and autumn of I855, graduating in November, I855, and immediately proceeding to New York to carry out his long cherished purpose; but after remaining at the University about a month he found himself so much enfeebled by long confinement and study that he followed the advice of friends and returned home, and was soon employed in a country practice, which greatly improved his health. From 1853 to 1864 he was engaged in the practice of medicine in LaGrange County, Indiana, in the adjoining county of St. Joseph, Michigan, and in Warsaw, New York, then the home of some of his family. After the establishment of Bellevue Hospital College in New York, chiefly owing to the fact that his former preceptor, the distinguished surgeon Dr. James R. Wood, was one of the professors in its faculty, he entered this institution instead of returning to the New York University. In I864 he received the Ad Eundem degree from Bellevue Hospital College, and during the same year removed to Detroit. Here he rapidly secured a large practice and re ceived the recognition genuine ability is sure to command. He was one of the founders and for four years one of the editors of the Detroit Review of Medicine, the predecessor of the present American Lancet, and in 1868 was elected Professor of Obstetrics and Diseases of Women, and President of the Faculty of the Detroit Medical College, of which institution he was the projector and one of the founders. He held the chair of surgical diseases of women in Bowdoin College, Maine, lecturing in that institution each year in the spring months after the close of the college session in Detroit. He resigned in 1875, owing solely to the labor it involved. He was for many years surgeon in the department for diseases of women in St. Luke's and St. Mary's Hospital and consulting surgeon of the Woman's Hospital of Detroit. From its organization till his resignation in I872 he was one of the physicians of Harper Hospital. For several years he was Surgeon-in-Chief of the Michigan Central Railroad and President of the Michigan State Medical Society in 1873, and after his removal to Chicago was elected an honorary member thereof. He has also been President of the Detroit Academy of Medicine, is an honorary member of the Maine Medical Association, of the Ohio State Medical Society, of the Toledo Medical Association, the Cincinnati Obstetrical Society, the Northwestern Medical Society of Ohio and of several minor medical organizations. He is corresponding member of the Gynecological Society of Boston, a Fellow of the Obstetrical Society of London, England, an active member and one of the founders of the American Gynecological Society, and of the Detroit Medical and Library Association. In I878 he was chairman of the obstetrical section of the American Medical Association. In 1879 Albion College conferred upon him the honorary degree of LL.D, and in the same year he was selected to fill the chair of medical and surgical diseases of women and clinical gynecology in the Chicago Medical College, which the distinguished surgeon, Dr. W. H. Byford had resigned, to accept a similar position in another medical college. The selection of Dr. Jenks was warmly endorsed by medical journals all over the country. The Michigan Medical News said: " During the past year a similar position has been offered him in no fewer than three of the leading medical colleges in the country, and his conclusion to go to Chicago is the result of mature deliberation. While congratulating Dr. Jenks on his advancement, we cannot but regret the removal from our midst which his appointment will necessitate. During his residence of fifteen years in this city Dr. Jenks,besides establishing a national reputation in his specialty, has not been ' without honor in his own country,' but

Page  1088 0o88 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. has by his uniformly courteous demeanor and his scholarly attainments won the respect and admiration of the profession of this city. In leaving for his new and enlarged field of labor he will carry with him the kindest regards and the best wishes of all with whom he has had either professional or social relations. Few men remove from a place and leave so few enemies behind." Dr. Jenks removed to Chicago and entered upon his new field of labor in October, 1879, and in addition to his college duties, opened an office and soon established a lucrative private practice. His health now became impaired, and in I882 he was obliged to resign his position in the medical college. During the same year he established a private hospital for the treatment of the diseases of women at Geneva, Illinois,^but continued to reside in Chicago. Success followed his labors, but his health was not equal to the strain, while the climate of Chicago did not agree with him or with his family, and in 1884 he returned to Detroit, where he has since resided. In I888 he was nominated by the Medical Faculty of Michigan University to fill the chair of Obstetrics and Gynecology. While Dr. Jenks has been successful as a general practitioner, it is to the departments of obstetrics and gynecology that he has devoted special attention, and in these departments he has gained a national reputation as a skillful operator, teacher, and author. His numerous articles on these subjects have been widely circulated, and are considered valuable additions to medical literature. Among the most important of these contributions may be named: "The use of Viburnum Prunifoliumn in Diseases of Women," a paper read before the American Gynecological Society, and reprinted by nearly all American and very many European medical journals; "The Cause of Sudden Death of Puerperal Women," a paper read before the American Medical Association; " Perineorrhaphy, with Special Reference to its Benefits in Slight Laceration and a Description of a New Mode of Operating," "On the Postural Treatment of Tympanites Intestinalis following Ovariotomy," "The Relation of Goitre to the Generative Organs of Women," "Atresia," a paper read before the Chicago Medical Society in 1880; " The Treatment of Puerperal Septicemia by Intra-Uterine Injections, "The Practice of Gynecology in Ancient Times," translated and published in the Deutsche Archiv fiir Geschichte der Medicin und Med. Geographie, by Dr. Kleinwachter, to which an extended introduction is given, warmly commending the research and investigation of Dr. Jenks; "On Coccygodynia," a lecture before the Chicago Medical Society in 1880; " New Mode of Operating in Fistula in Ano," "Report of a Successful Case of Caesarean Section after Seven Days' Labor," "Contribution to Surgical Gynecology," read before the Illinois State Medical Society in I882. He is also one of the contributors to 1'epper's System of Practical Medicine, one of the largest treatises by American authors. During the last year he has written two articles for the System of American Gynecology, a work of two volumes just prepared by well known specialists in this branch of medical science. He is also a contributor to the Physician's Leisure Library Series on the "Disorders of Menstruation." Some of the most distinguished members of the medical profession have expressed in high terms their appreciation of his professional excellence. Said Dr. I haddeus A. Reamy,of Cincinnati: "His reputation as a writer is so thoroughly international that we need not speak of it, for I could add nothing to it. His articles show great research, especially in classic history along the line of obstetrics and gynecological art and literature. He has long since proved himself an able teacher. He is a skillful operator in gynecological and obstetric surgery." " I have known Dr. Jenks," says Dr. W. H. Byford. "for many years as a writer, teacher and gynecologist. His reputation in all these is national in extent." In 1887 Dr. Jenks established a private home for the medical and surgical treatment of diseases of women, at 626 Fort Street West, known as "Willow Lawn," putting into execution a plan which he has long entertained. He has given himself to his profession with undeviating attention, and has not allowed the allurements of public or political life to come between him and his work. His chief relaxation from professional duties is found in study and investigation, ranging through a wide range of literary subjects. His extensive medical library is the result of patient, careful work of years, and his varied collection of books reflects a cultivated literary taste rarely found in one who has gained distinction as a specialist. Naturally a student, a lover of books, a great reader, and possessed of a fluent command of language, he is a graceful writer, an entertaining lecturer, and an instructive conversationalist. He is a strong, positive character, arrives at a conclusion after careful deliberation, but has the moral courage to readily change a line of action when convinced he is in the wrong. The social element in his character is strong and conspicuous. Not that he cares for what is generally termed society. but in the little coterie where friend is knit to friend by sincere affection, his light is always brilliant. He is charitable, but with judicious selection and from a sense of duty, and never with vulgar and ostentatious parade. His home. his family, and all the quiet comforts of the domestic circle are dear to him. Here all the reserve of his nature among strangers vanishes and he reveals the genial, social

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Page  1089 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. IO89 side of his nature and that kindness of heart which endears him to those who know him best. He was first married in 1857 to a daughter of J. H. Darling, of Warsaw, New York, who died soon after his removal to Detroit. In 1867 he married Sarah R. Joy, eldest daughter of James F. Joy. They have two children, a son and a daughter. HERMAN KIEFER, M. D., was born November I9, I825, at Sulzburg, Grand Dukedom of Baden, Germany, and is the only son of Dr. Conrad and Frederica Schweyckert Kiefer. His academic and professional studies were thorough and liberal. He first attended the high school of Freiburg, beginning at his ninth year, and afterwards in turn those at Mannheim and Carlsruhe, completing his preparatory course at the age of eighteen years. He then began the study of medicine at the University of Freiburg, continued the following year at Heidelberg, and later attended the medical institutions at Prague and Vienna. At various times he was under the instruction of such distinguished masters of medical science as Arnold, Henle, Oppholzer, Stromeyer, Pitha, and Scanzoni, and in May, 1849, was graduated with the highest honors upon his examination before the State Board of Examiners at Carlsruhe. Such a degree received from such a source implies a prolonged and assiduous study, which America is but now beginning to appreciate, and, in a modified degree, to imitate in its requirements. The venerable institutions at which Dr. Kiefer spent fifteen years of his boyhood and young manhood, stand before the educated world as favorable examples of the vast and perfect machinery, by the agency of which, Germany has so well earned the name of being a nation of scholars. There is very slight probability that Dr. Kiefer would ever have become an American but for one agency-the same which has given to the United States much of the best blood and best brains of Germany -that of revolution. He had scarcely received his doctorate when the revolution of 1849 occurred. In common with thousands of his fellows among &he educated youth of his country, he embraced the side of the people with all the ardor and enthusiasm of his years, flinging his future carelessly aside to espouse the cause of a downtrodden race, against the almost invincible power of organized authority. He joined the volunteer regiment of Emmendingen, and was at once appointed its surgeon. With that regiment he was present at the battle of Phillipsburg, on June 20, 1849, and at that of Upstadt, on the twenty-third of the same month. It was at the former engagement that Prince Carl, afterwards Field-Marshal of Germany, was wounded and narrowly escaped cap ture by the regiment to which Dr. Kiefer was attached. When the revolution was suppressed, Dr. Kiefer, in common with thousands of others, was compelled to flee the consequences of his patriotic service. He took refuge in the city of Strasburg, then under the dominion of the French Republic, of which Louis Napoleon was President. Even there he did not find a safe asylum, for the Republic declined to shelter the refugees from Baden. The spies of Napoleon-a tyrant under the cloak of popular leadership- discovered his place of concealment, arrested him, and he was again compelled to fly. Making his way to the sea-board he took passage upon a sailing vessel for the United States, leaving port August i8, and arriving in New York on the nineteenth day of September, I849. America was then far less cosmopolitan than now, and lacked much of having attained its present advanced standard of professional and general scientific attainment. It did not present a promising field to a highly educated German, and we can imagine that the necessity for leaving behind him the possibilities of success and distinction in his' own country must have been a bitter one to an ambitious young man, fresh from the scholastic atmosphere of Heidelberg and the gaiety of Vienna. Still, there was no question of the necessity, and he made the best of it. After a brief sojourn in New York, he turned his face westward, intending to establish himself permanently in St. Louis. On the way, however, he met a countryman who had lived for several years at Detroit, and was led to change his intention and turn aside to that place. The population of Detroit in the autumn of 1849 was little more than twenty thousand. Michigan was still provincial, and neither social nor business methods had outgrown the crudity of its earlier days. Less than five months before, Dr. Kiefer had stood before the state examiners at Carlsruhe, and received his diploma, with no other thought than that he should live, work, and die in Fatherland. Since then he had been a soldier, a fugitive, and now found himself, by force of circumstances, an alien in tongue and blood, facing fortune in a very American western city. He opened an office for the practice of his profession on October 19, 1849, and, in spite of all his disadvantages, soon won a pronounced success. His practice, almost from the first, was sufficient for his needs, and grew year by year, until it came to be exceedingly absorbing and lucrative. Dr. Kiefer has always held very dear, and given every effort to preserve the spirit and the literature of the Teutonic race. That he is also a thorough and loyal American is only an apparent anomaly. His devotion to the country which gave him shelter in

Page  1090 IC90 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. his exile, is not at all impeached by his desire to see the language, the grand literature, and the social and historical traditions of Germany, perpetuated among his compatriots. He has always taken a deep interest in educational matters. He was one of the founders of the German-American seminary, a school incorporated by the State for finished instruction in all departments of learning, to be given equally in the German and English language, so far as practicable or desirable. Of this institution he was President and Treasurer from the time of its foundation,in I86I, until 1872, when he resigned, and severed all connection with it, because of a disagreement with other members upon what he regarded as a vital matter of educational ethics. It has always been his belief that no teaching of religious doctrine or creed should be introduced into school instruction. His associates proposed to make tle seminary a sectarian institution, and his withdrawal was the consequence. During the years 1866 and 1867 Dr. Kiefer was a member of the Detroit Board of Education, and used his utmost influence to induce that body to introduce the teaching of German into the public schools of the city. He made repeated efforts in this direction, urging his point upon the grounds of the practical utility of the language, and also as a right which German citizens were justified in demanding. In spite, however, of his utmost efforts, he failed to secure the desired legislation. In I882 Dr. Kiefer was elected a member of the Public Library Commission, to fill a vacancy for a period of one year; in 1883 he was re-elected for the full term of six years. When he assumed this office there were very few German books in the library, and the fine and thoroughly representative collection of works in that language now upon the shelves, was almost entirely selected and purchased under his personal supervision. Considering the number of volumes and the sum expended, it would be difficult to find a library which better illustrates the thought and literary methods of Germany, in science, history, and the belles lettres, and Dr. Kiefer deserves thethanks,not only of Germans, but of all scholars and investigators, for the important service thus rendered. Dr. Kiefer is a member of the Wayne County and the State Medical Societies and the American Medical Association. He is recognized at home and by physicians throughout the country as a skillful, successful, and scientific physician. Until recently he has been devoted to his practice with the greatest assiduity, finding time only for the public services mentioned. This close attention to his professional duties has prevented his making any elaborate contributions to medical literature, but his papers in various periodicals devoted to the interests of his profession, have been many, and have done no little to spread his reputation in other cities and States. For many years Dr. Kiefer has held a representative position among the German citizens of Detroit and Michigan, and has, upon all occasions, been their champion. In all his public life he has endeavored, by tongue and pen, to convince the public that the German born population of the United States should be respected as fully equal to the native born people. He claims nothing for his countrymen as Germans, but as citizens of the United States defends their rights to the fullest political and social recognition. Among the claims which he makes for them are recognition of their language and social customs, and the right to pursue their happiness in any way which shall not infringe upon the equally sacred rights and liberties of others. In his own family Dr. Kiefer has paid a tribute to Germany by insisting upon the exclusive use of its language, and this influence he has supplemented by educating several of his children in the schools of his native land. He has been an active member of many of the German societies of Detroit, and has represented his countrymen upon various important occasions. He took a prominent place at the Singers' Festival held at Detroit in 1857; at the festival commemorative of Schiller's centennial in the year I859; at the festival of Humboldt in 1869; and in 1871, when all German America was wild with joy at the successful ending of the Franco-German war, he acted as President and orator of the day at the peace celebration held by the German citizens of Detroit on the first day of May. In politics Dr. Kiefer has been a steadfast and consistent Republican since the organization of that party in I854. There is nothing in his character that would render "trimming" or vacillation possible to him, no matter how dearly his political allegiance might cost him. During the futile campaign made by the Republicans in 1854, he was chairman of the German Republican executive committee of the State of Michigan. In 1872 he was one of the Presidential electors of the State, and in 1876 was a delegate to the Republican National Convention held at Cincinnati. At that convention, when after four ineffective ballots the delegates were seeking to unite upon a compromise candidate, he was influential in inducing the Michigan delegation to give their united support to Rutherford B. Hayes. In every Presidential campaign from I854 until I880, he worked actively for the success of the Republican party, going upon the stump and exerting his influence very effectively among the German citizens of the State. He is an

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Page  1091 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1091 eloquent speaker, recognized by all as holding his opinions with as much honesty as tenacity, and his leading position among his compatriots gives him an influence which has been invaluable to the Republican party. In spite of his long and arduous service, Dr. Kiefer has held but one federal office, and that very recently. During the month of July, I883, he was appointed by President Arthur Consul to Stettin. Once before, in 1873, he had revisited his native land, spending six months in travel, but his return as an official representative of the United States to the Fatherland, which he left as a political fugitive less than twenty-five years before, was an especial gratification to him. The office, too, was much to his taste. He did not make a holiday of his residence at Stettin, but gave a close attention to his duties and an intelligent study to political, social and trade conditions, the results of which he transmitted to the Secretary of State in a large number of valuable reports, many of which were published by the Government. Among these may be named his "Report on Beet Sugar," published in Volume XXXIX of the United States Consular Reports; "Report on Base Burners," in Volume XL; "Report on the Extension of European Trade in the Orient," in Volume XLII; " Report on American Trade with Stettin," in Volume XLVI; " Report on Agricultural Machinery," in Volume XLVIII; " How Germany is Governed," in Volume L; "Report on Labor in Europe," published by the Department of State in a separate volume. These are by no means all the reports made by Dr. Kiefer, during an official service of but eighteen months, and they furnish a sufficient evidence of the activity and zeal with which he performed his duties. Upon the election of a Democratic president, Dr. Kiefer was one of the first officials to resign his office. This he did in a characteristic letter, addressed to the Department of State immediately after the election, and while the cabinet, of course, was still Republican, in which he expressed his unwillingness either to be "a. victim of the political guillotine or to see civil service reform managed by the Democrats." On the twenty-first of January, 1885, he retired from his office. For several months thereafter he remained in Europe, traveling extensively upon the continent. In September of the same year he returned to America, and, upon his arrival at Detroit, was complimented with two formal receptions-one tendered by his fellow physicians and the other by German residents of the city. He brought with him, from his brief official life, an enviable reputation for the zeal and ability with which he had dis charged its duties. During I886 he made a prolonged visit to California. Dr. Kiefer was reared a Protestant, but his views have greatly changed, and he now disavows any religious belief, holding that every individual must be judged purely by his own acts. Soon after coming to America, Dr. Kiefer was joined by his mother, who was accompanied by Francesca Kehle, to whom he was affianced in Germany. The two were married July 21, 1850. During the year I851 his father also came to Detroit, but both father and mother returned to the old country after a brief residence in America. Dr. and Mrs. Kiefer have passed together nearly thirty-six happy and prosperous years. They have had seven sons and two daughters, and of these five sons and one daughter are now living. These children are: Alfred K. Kiefer, who is connected with the Wayne County Savings Bank of Detroit; Arthur E., Manager of the Detroit Edge Tools Works; Edwin H., a resident of New York; Edgar L., of the firm of Kiefer & Heyn, of Detroit; Minnie C., the wife of Dr. C. Bonning, Dr. Kiefer's partner, and Guy Lincoln, now at Ann Arbor University. For the foregoing biography we are indebted to the Magazine of Western History. ALEXANDER MACOMB, Major-General U. S. A., was born in Detroit on April 3, 1782, and was the son of Alexander Macomb, a prominent merchant of Detroit in Revolutionary days. His mother's maiden name was Catharine Navarre. He received a good education and in 1779 was enrolled as one of the " New York Rangers," a volunteer colonial corps. He subsequently served on the staff of General North, and with General Wilkinson in the southwest, and was for a time connected with the Academy at West Point, where he compiled a treatise on martial law, which was published in 1809. He became a Captain in I805, a Major in I808, commanded an artillery corps in 1812, and won special renown at the battle of Plattsburgh in September, 1814, receiving the thanks of Congress, accompanied by a gold medal. From 1815 to 1821 he was in command of Military District No. 5, with head-quarters at Detroit. In 1821 he was made Chief Engineer of the Army and removed to Washington. Before leaving Detroit he was presented by the citizens with a silver tankard and several engravings as a testimonial of their esteem and regret at his departure. In 1835 he was made Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the United States. He was universally respected as a model and accomplished soldier, a worthy and honorable

Page  1092 1092 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. citizen and a useful and agreeable friend. He was married on July t8, I803, to his cousin, Catharine Macomb, the third daughter of Wm. Macomb, of Detroit. She died in September, 1822, and on April 27, 1827, at Georgetown, D. C., he married Mrs. Harriet Balch Wilson. He had twelve children, as follows: Catharine, wife of John Mason, of Virginia; Alexandrine, wife of General Henry 4tanton, U. S. A.; Czarina Carolina, wife of General John Navarre Macomb, the sixth child of J. N. ilacomb and Christina Livingston; Alexander Saranac, husband of Susan Kearney, daughter of General Philip Kearney, of New York; William Henry Alexander, husband of Mary Eliza Stanton, second daughter of General Henry Stanton; Jane Octavia, wife of Lieutenant Morris L. Miller, U. S. Artillery, and Sarah, married first to Captain H. W. Stanton, of the U. S. Dragoons, and after his death to J. C. Devereux Williams, of Detroit. The other children, Robert Kennedy, Alexander Catawba, Anna Matilda, Francis Alexander Napoleon and Octavia Eliza were unmarried. Only Mrs. Alexandrine Stanton and Mrs. Jane Octavia Miller are living. General Macomb died in Washington on June 25, 1841. FREDERICK MORLEY, the Nestor among the newspaper publishers of Detroit, was born in Derby, England, December 23, 1821. His father was a Baptist minister and with his family came to this country in 1830. Their first home was in Wayne County, New York, and in an adjoining county, at Seneca Falls, Mr. Morley learned the "art preservative of all arts." In 1841, when only nineteen years of age, he became one of the publishers of the Wayne County Whig, issued at Lyons, New York, and four years later, in May, 1845, at Palmyra, in the same county, he established a new paper named the Courier. In 1853 he left New York State and came to Detroit, and a few months later engaged with Rufus Hosmer in the editorial management of the Detroit Inquirer, which was first issued on January I8, 1854. During his connection with the Inquirer he had much to do with the work that inspired the Republican movement of 1854 and brought it to the front, and in point of fact is one of the several fathers of the Republican party. Mr. Morley retained his position with the paper until a month or two prior to its consolidation with the Free Democrat, when he left to engage in the book and stationery trade, under the firm name of Kerr, Morley & Company. His love for the editorial tripod soon took him back into the profession, and in I858 he became editor and publisher of the Daily Advertiser, and continued in the position until near the close of the year I861, when he sold out his interest to Messrs. Geiger and Scripps. In May, 1862, he was appointed Assistant Adjutant General under the administration of Governor Blair, and initiated and organized the system which gave to the State its detailed military record, and after five years in the office, in April, 1867, he retired. In the meantime the Daily Post had been established as a Republican paper by persons who were dissatisfied with the management of the Advertiser and Tribune. It was edited by Carl Schurz, and the first issue was dated March 27, I866. Differences, however, arose between him and the stockholders, and after serving one year, on March I, 1867, Mr. Morley became his successor and also had the care of the business management, continuing in charge of the paper for nine years, or up to January I, I876. During this period it is safe to say that no other paper in Detroit approached the Post in completeness of its news, attractiveness of its make-up and general typographic excellence, and as a stalwart Republican organ it was never excelled. While at the head of the Daily Post, Mr Morley also from 1871 to 1876, served as Register of the United States Land Office of Detroit. After leaving the paper he was appointed by President Grant and confirmed by the Senate, as Consul General to Egypt, but personal reasons induced him to declne the position. During 188I and 1882 he served as Commissioner of Immigration for the State of Michigan, and in the discharge of his duties aided by the efficient and accomplished Assistant Commissioner, Charles K. Backus, prepared the most complete compendium of the advantages and resources of the State ever issued. It was circulated very extensively, especially in the Eastern States, and probably no public document was ever of more service to the State. In the fall of 1883 he became editor and business manager of the Post and Tribune, and held the position until August, I, 1884, when he withdrew from active participation in the conduct of any newspaper. He ever and anon, however, finds himself writing out some interesting reminiscences, and his matter is so instructive and entertaining, and style so clear and captivating, that whatever he is willing to write, the public are willing to read. Always unpretentious and always able and ready to convey information upon many subjects of interest, he is an excellent conversationalist and has the rare gift of being an equally good listener, and is thus doubly qualified to serve his friends and associates. He was married at Lyons, New York, on January 12, 1843, to Eleanor Ninde, daughter of Rev. Wm. Ninde, a Protestant Episcopal minister

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Page  1093 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. IO93 of Maryland, and aunt of Bishop W. X. Ninde of the Methodist Episcopal Church. ROLLIN CHARLES OLIN, M. D., of Detroit, was born near Waukesha, Wisconsin, August 17, 1839 His parents, Thomas H. and Sarah (Church) Olin, were of Welsh-Irish descent, and their ancestors settled in Vermont at an early date. The great-great-grandfather of R. C. Olin settled in Rhode Island. and was a revolutionary soldier under General Greene. Thomas H. Olin was a farmer, and when his son was five years old, removed with his family to Waukesha, and was for several years engaged in the milling business. He afterwards settled on a farm in Northfield, Minnesota, where he remained until a short time before his death, in July, 1883. His wife is still living and resides with her son in Detroit. R. C. Olin remained at home during his earlier years, receiving the best educational advantages that the schools of his native place afforded, and subsequently attending for one year Carroll College at Waukesha. He then decided to adopt the calling of a teacher, and as a preparation to that end entered the State Normal School at Winona, Minnesota. At the end of his second term the war of the rebellion began, and in August, 186I, he enlisted as a private in Company B, of the Third Minnesota Infantry. Promotions to a Second Lieutenancy and then to a First Lieutenancy soon after followed, and while acting in the latter capacity he took part in the battles of Pittsburgh Landing, Shiloh, and Murfreesboro. In the last named engagement his regiment was captured, and all of the officers then present except Lieutenant Olin and two others, were sent to Libby Prison. Lieutenant Olin was paroled with the regiment and sent to the parole barracks at St. Louis, remaining until September, 1862, when the regiment, with himself as the only commissioned officer present for duty, was ordered to the Minnesota frontier to aid in subduing an insurrection of the Sioux Indians, his command forming part of the Army of the Northwest, commanded by General Pope. During the campaign Lieutenant Olin was appointed Judge Advocate of the military commission which tried four hundred Sioux Indians for insurrection, twenty-eight of whom were executed. While acting as commander of the regiment in the notable encounters at Yellow Medicine and Lone Tree Lane, where many Union soldiers were killed, Lieutenant Olin attracted the favorable attention of General Sibley, and after this campaign he was appointed on his staff as Adjutant General, with the rank of Captain, and served in this capacity during General Sibley's subsequent expedition against the Indians on the Missouri River in I863, in which three pitched battles were fought. In the winter of 1862-3, General Sibley took up his headquarters at St. Paul, Minn., where he remained until the opening of the campaign in May, 1863. In September he returned to St. Paul, where he remained until relieved by General John M. Corse, to whose staff Captain Olin was transferred. In February, 1865, Captain Olin resigned from the army and in the spring of the same year he went to Savannah, Georgia, with the intention of embarking in the lumber business, but being unable to secure a favorable opening, returned to St. Paul, and in partnership with E. H. Burrit established a bookstore, which was continued until 1868, when he went to Owatonna, and for four years was employed as teller of a bank. He then came to Detroit and began the study of medicine, and after a full course of instruction in the Medical Department of the University of Michigan, he graduated in I877. He adopted the homceopathic school of medicine, and immediately after graduation entered upon the duties of his profession in Detroit, and in a comparatively few years has gained an extensive practice, being remarkably successful. He is possessed of unusual power of application, quick discernment, and is ready in analysis, qualities that are specially helpful in medical practice. He is essentially a family physician, and enjoys in a marked degree the confidence and respect which should be possessed by those holding such a relation. His success is largely due to the devotion with which he has adhered to his work, and to the trust his ability and conscientious fidelity, have inspired in his patients. The tenets of his medical principles are founded on broad, liberal, and honest convictions, and he is far removed from the unjustifiable prejudices which animate many of his profession. He is a member of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Michigan, and of the Homoeopathic Medical Society. His standing, and the regard in which he is held by his professional brethren in the State, was attested by his election as President of the State Society in May, 1887, and he is also a member of the military order of the Loyal Legion. The rapid growth of his practice, and the demand it has made upon his time,have given him little opportunity for work outside of his professional duties, but he takes a commendable interest in all projects of a public nature. He is a Republican in politics, and is in hearty accord with the efforts of his party. He is of a sanguine temperament, kindly and genial in nature, and a citizen of irreproachable character. Among the members of the medical fraternity of Detroit, of every school of practice, he is no less respected for professional attainments than for his personal worth. He was married at St. Paul, Minnesota, on Octo

Page  1094 1094 AU''HORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. ber 30, 1865, to Georgie A. Dailey. She died at Detroit on September 8, I88I, and on June 15, I887, he married Grace Eugenie Hillis, of Syracuse, New York. JOHN PULFORD, Colonel United States Army and Brevet Brigadier-General, was born in New York City, July 4, 1837, and is the seventh son of Edward and Sarah Lloyd (Avis) Pulford; the former a native of Norwich and the latter of Bristol, England. They emigrated to New York City in 1833, and in 1838 removed to Essex county, Ontario, and engaged in farming. John Pulford was educated in the public schools and when thirteen years of age came to Detroit; sailed on the lakes in the summer and in the winter read law. In 1854 he became proprietor of a hotel and continued the business until the breaking out of the civil war, when he and Edward T. Sherlock organized a military company, tendered their services to the General Government and Mr. Pulford was appointed First Lieutenant in the Fifth Michigan Volunteer Infantry. He entered upon service June 19, I86i, in the camp of instruction at Fort Wayne, Michigan, where he remained until September 1, and was then with his regiment ordered to the front. During the fall and winter following he aided in constructing Forts Richardson and Lyon, part of the defenses of Washington south of the Potomac. In March, I862, he left with the Army of the Potomac for Fortress Monroe, Virginia, doing camp and picket duty in front of Hampton. In April, 1862, he moved with his company and regiment to Yorktown and assisted in the construction of earthworks, preparatory to laying siege to that place, and while there performed important picket duty. At Williamsburgh,Virginia, on May 5, he participated in a charge on the' enemy at the point of the bayonet, and captured the works and a number of prisoners. In this charge over three hundred Confederates were killed by the bayonet in front of his regiment, and soon after this engagement he was promoted to a Captaincy. He took part in the battle of Fair Oaks, his company acting as skirmishers, and losing heavily. He was also engaged in all the movements of the Army of the Potomac in the seven days' fight before Richmond, including Peach Orchard, Charles City, Cross Roads, and Malvern Hill. Soon after he went into action on the morning of July I, he was struck by a partially spent cannon-.ball which fractured his collar-bone and broke his jaw. He was left on the battle-field for dead, captured by the enemy and taken to Richmond, where he was kept a prisoner for eighteen days, when he was exchanged and taken to the hospital at Baltimore. After ten weeks spent in the hospital, he was so far recovered as to be able to return to duty. His friends had procured a detail for him on the recruiting service, but he refused to listen to any proposition which would take him away from his command and active field duty. On the 13th of December he was in the battle of Fredericksburgh, remaining on the battle-field until the I6th. His company and regiment suffered severely during this engagement, and the regimental commander having been killed, Captain Pulford, although one of the junior captains, -was soon afterward appointed Major, the officers of the regiment having petitioned the Governor for his promotion. He took part in what is known as Burnside's mud march, in the Battle of the Cedars, on May 2, 1863, in which he assisted in the capture of the Twenty-third Georgia Infantry; and in the brilliant night charge when Stonewall Jackson was killed. This was one of the shortest and most terrific encounters of the war, as the charge was made to reopen communication with the army from which the Third Corps had been cut off late in the evening. The next day he was engaged in the battle of Chancellorsville, where Lieutenant-Colonel E. T. Sherlock was killed, after which Major Pulford assumed command of the regiment, although suffering severely from a wound he had received. The officers of his regiment now petitioned the Government to appoint him Lieutenant-Colonel of the regiment, and he was appointed, his commission dating from May 3, 1863. He was next engaged with his command in several skirmishes with the enemy on the march to Gettysburgh, and opened the engagement at that place in front of the First Division, Third Corps. After the regiment had been assembled from the skirmish line, they fought as heavy infantry in almost a hand to hand conflict, and Colonel Pulford was severely wounded in the thigh and slightly in the right hand, and his horse was killed, but the Colonel did not leave the field nor his command. Of the fourteen officers of his regiment present in this battle, eleven were either killed or wounded. The brigade commander, in his report of this engagement, says: " The unflinching bravery of the Fifth Michigan, which sustained a loss of more than one-half of its members without yielding a foot of ground, deserves to be especially commended." Colonel Pulford with his regiment, also participated in the battle of Wapping Heights, the regiment acting as flankers and skirmishers during the march from Gettysburgh to White Sulphur Springs. On the 16th of August, 1863, he went in command of his regiment, to New York City, as a guard against threatened resistance to the draft, and thence to Troy, for the same purpose, returning to the Army of the Potomac, September i8, 1863. He was in command through the actions at

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Page  1095 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1095 Auburn Heights, Kelly's Ford, Locust Grove and Mine Run. His regiment having re-enlisted as a veteran organization, Colonel Pulford took it to Detroit, where a public reception was given them. They returned to the Army of the Potomac on the 19th of February, 1864, and Colonel Pulford participated in all the actions and movements of that army, including the battle of the Wilderness, at which time he was severely wounded, his back being broken and both his arms partially disabled. On June Ioth, I864, he was appointed Colonel of the Fifth Michigan Veteran Volunteers Infantry, Colonel Beech having been mustered out of the service on account of having been absent from duty two years by reason of wounds received. The Third Michigan Infantry Volunteers having been consolidated with the Fifth Michigan Infantry, Colonel Pulford commanded the regiment in the siege of Petersburgh, from June 27, 1864, to April 3, I865. During the greater portion of the time he was in command of Fort Davis, having as a garrison the Fifth Michigan Infantry, the First Regiment of United States Sharp-shooters, the One Hundred and Fifth Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry and a battery of artillery. He was general officer of the day for the Second Corps at the engagement at Deep Bottom, Virginia; was engaged at Petersburgh, July 30, commanding the Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Corps; he commanded Birney's Division of the Tenth Corps, for a short time, at the battle of Strawberry Plains, Virginia; the Fifth Michigan at the Battle of Poplar Springs' Church; the first line of battle of the Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Corps, at Boydton Plank Road, October 27, 1864, where hewas wounded in the right knee. At Hatcher's Run, on March 25, I865, he commanded the Fifth Michigan, together with the First Massachusetts Heavy Artillery, and at Sailors' Creek and New Stone, Virginia, the Fifth Michigan Infantry, and was general officer of the day for the Third Division, Second Corps, at the surrender of the insurgent armies at Appomattox Court House, April 9, 1865. In June, of the same year, he was appointed by the President, Brigadier-General of the United States Volunteers, by brevet, to rank as such from the 30th of March, I865," for gallantry in action and efficiency in the line of duty and commissioned to date, March 13, I865, for good conduct and meritorious services during the war." After the general review of the armies of the United States at Washington, he proceeded in command of the Fifth Michigan and several other Western regiments, to Louisville, Kentucky, and commanded the First Brigade, provisional division, Army of the Tennessee, at Jeffersonville, Indiana. The Fifth Michigan Regiment, having been mus tered out of service on July 5, 1865, he brought it to Detroit, where it was disbanded on July 17th. Returning to private life, in October following Colonel Pulford was admitted to the bar, but having acquired a strong taste for military life, he applied for a commission in the regular army, and on February 23, I866, was appointed Second, and afterwards First Lieutenant, Nineteenth United States Infantry, being assigned to the command of Company G., third battalion of that regiment. On the 28th of April following he was stationed at Newport Barracks, Kentucky. He was in command of his company en route to and at Little Rock, Arkansas, until August 3, and was soon after assigned to the command of the post at Duvall's Bluff, Arkansas. On the 2ISt of September he was transferred to the Thirty-seventh United States Infantry, stationed at Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, and engaged in General Hancock's expedition against hostile Indians, and commanded a detachment of troops who were guarding the United States mail route from Indians, between Forts Lyon and Aubrey, Kansas. He was Acting Quartermaster, Commissary of Subsistence and Disbursing Officer from November I, 1867, until May 31, 1869. He was awaiting orders and on reconstruction duty in Mississippi until December I3, I869; on recruiting duty at Newport Barracks and Atlanta, Georgia, and awaiting orders until December, I870. Under section 32 of the Act of Congress, approved July 28, I866, on a record of six wounds received in action, he was retired on the rank of Colonel United States Army. He risked his person, as an officer, in double as many engagements and actually commanded a regiment in more battles than the oldest regiment of the regular United States army ever participated in from the time of the original organization of the army in I790. He received four out of six wounds while doing another olfficer's duty in battle. In 1873 he was appointed by Governor Bagley as Judge Advocate of Michigan. He was reduced to the rank of a LieutenantColonel by the operation of the so-called " Crawford Act," of March 3, 1875, and unjustly remained for several years under the mortification of being reduced from a rank fairly won by conspicuous gallantry and a steady fidelity to duty which resulted in a permanent disability of the severest and most painful character. His disability being fully proved by the testimony of the late Dr. D. O. Farrand, as well by other eminent surgeons, on a showing of the facts to Congress, that body very justly, by a special act on March 13, 1878, restored him to the rank of Colonel United States Army retired. It is eminently true that he possesses an army record that many a

Page  1096 IC96 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. West Pointer might covet. In 1856, he married Sarah L. Lee, daughter of Peter Lee, of Detroit. She died in 1875, leaving one son and three daughters. In 1883 Colonel Pulford married Mrs. Emma Cady, daughter of Alexander Cady, a merchant of Rochester, New York. They have one son, John Pulford, Jr. WILLIAM EMORY QUINBY was born in the town of Brewer, Maine, December 14, 1835. His father's name was Daniel Franklin Quinby and his mother's maiden name, Arazina Reed. They were married in 1834 and moved to Detroit in 1850, where he, in connection with J. K. Wellman, established a periodical known as Wellman's Literary Miscellany. Mr. Quinby had charge of the editorial department and secured a list of contributions that would be notable even in this day of greatly increased literary activity. In I851 Mr. Quinby became one of the owners and in 1853 sole proprietor. The magazine was subsequently sold to other parties and finally discontinued. These facts indicate a natural beginning of the literary tastes of William E. Quinby. Coming with his father, he attended the literary department in connection with Gregory's Commercial College, in the Odd Fellows' Hall on Woodward Avenue, and was also employed in the office of "The Miscellany." After his father sold the magazine he entered the University at Ann Arbor and graduated in the class of i858. He then took up the study of law and the following year was admitted to the bar, and for part of two years practiced his profession. His inclinations, however, were towards literary work, and when in i86I Wilbur F. Storey, then publisher of The Free Press, tendered him a~position on the paper, he gladly accepted the offer and since then his connection with the paper has been continuous. In I86I Henry N. Walker became proprietor and he made Mr. Quinby managing editor, and in 1863 Mr. Quinby purchased a quarter interest in the paper. In 1872 Mr Walker retired from the active business management and Mr. Quinby was chosen general manager. He soon purchased another quarter of the stock of the corporation and in January, 1875, bought a large part of the remaining stock, and since that date has been the chief owher and manager, and under his direction The Free Press has attained a circulation and influence enormously in advance of any previously possessed. His plans and management have made the paper and the city in which it is published a household name, not only in all parts of the United States, but in the British Isles as well, and indeed all over the world where there are any large number of English speaking people, and in this respect it is without a rival in either England or America. The success attained by Mr. Quinby indicates the possession of extraordinary executive ability, rare literary and commercial foresight, great comprehensiveness of detail, a fine sense of adaptation of means to an end, and a distinct and definite grasp of all the forces needed to insure success, and the paper of which he is the head. with its Detroit and London editions, has achieved a success that is without a parallel. Only clear, practical and well devised plans could have secured the result that has been obtained. Personally -Mr. Quinby is as modest as he is energetic. He seems destitute of self-assurance but is full of nerve and confidence; is always suave, patient, methodical and at the helm. He is a warm friend, an agreeable companion, a graceful writer and reliable in judgment. He was married on April 4, I860, to Adeline Frazer. They have six children, namely: Theodofe E., who is one of the editorial staff of the Free Press, Henry W., Winifred, Herbert, Florence and Evelyn. JAMES E. SCRIPPS was born in London, England, March 19, 1835, and is the son of James Moggs and Ellen Mary (Saunders) Scripps. The records of Trinity parish, Ely, Cambridgeshire, England, as far back as 1609, contain the names of members of the family, who then spelled their name Crip and Crips, but as early as 1633 they began to spell it as it is now written. The father of J. E. Scripps was a bookbinder and emigrated to America with his family in 1844, settling in Rushville, Illinois, where,on November 26, 1844, he married, as his third wife, Julia Adeline Osborn, who was born at Ogdensburgh, New York. He possessed great mechanical ingenuity, coupled with rare skill, a high order of intelligence, and was of irreproachable character; he died at Rushville on May 12, I873. James E. Scripps came to Detroit from Chicago in 1859. In October, I86I, he, with M. Geiger and S. M. Holmes, became proprietors of the Daily Advertiser, and in July, 1862, Mr. Scripps was made general manager. In February, 1865, he purchased a large amount of additional stock, and under his management the paper was very successfu. Believing that he saw a favorable opening for a cheap evening paper, he retired from the Advertiser. and on August 23, 1873, issued the first number of the Detroit Evening News. The paper was almost immediately successful, and its circulation increased so enormously and constantly that he soon made an ampfle fortune, and his wealth is constantly increasing. He is inclined to liberality, and has made large gifts to the Museum of Art, and in many ways has

Page  1097 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1097 been a helpful factor in promoting the growth of the city. In addition to his regular literary work, he was one of the publishers in I873 of a very complete State Gazetteer, and the same year issued an outline History of Michigan in pamphlet form. His letters from Europe, printed in the Evening News during I881, were republished in book form in 1882, under the title of "Five Months Abroad." He was married at Detroit on September I6, I862, to Harriet Josephine Messinger. They have had five children, four of whom are now living. Their names are Ellen Warren, Anna Virginia, James Francis, and Grace Messinger Scripps. JOHN P. SHELDON, founder of the Detroit Gazette, the first successful newspaper published in Detroit, was born in 1792, and came to the city from Rochester, New York, in I817. Prior to his arrival here, he had served in the militia during the war of I812, and in 1814 was working as a printer in Utica, removing from there to Rochester, and then to Detroit. During Mr. Sheldon's management of the Gazette, he maintained a very independent attitude, and on one occasion, for certain strictures upon the Supreme Court of the Territory, he was fined, Put refusing to pay the fine he was arrested and confined in jail. The fine was subsequently paid by his friends, and he was released. \Vhile in jail he continued to edit his paper, and his connection with it was continuous until 1830, when the office of the paper was destroyed by fire, and the publication ceased. On June 2, i831, within a month after it was first issued, Mr. Sheldon became editor of the Detroit Free Press, remaining about six months. In 1833 he was appointed Superintendent of the lead mines west of the Mississippi, and removed to Willow Springs, Wisconsin. From 1835, to I840 he served as Register of the United States Land Office, at Mineral Point, Wisconsin, and subsequently for many years was a clerk in one of the departments in Washington, resigning in I861. During his residence at Detroit he held various public offices, serving as one of the Trustees of the city, in 1823, as one of the County Commissioners from 1822 to I825, and as Alderman at Large in 1828. He died at the residence of his daughter, Mrs. Thomas Drummond, of Winfield, Illinois, on January I9, I871. MORSE STEWART, A. M., M. D., was born July 5, 1818, in Penn Yan, Yates County, New York. He is the third son of George )orrance Stewart, a lineal descendant in the third generation of Robert Stuart, who came from the north of Scotland to Connecticut in 1725, with his wife, whose maiden name was Elizabeth Dixon. 'Iheir first and only surviving child was Samuel Stewart, of New London, Connecticut, who married Elizabeth Kennedy. Of this marriage there were twenty-four children, eighteen of whom reached mature life, and ten lived to be over seventy-three years of age. Samuel Stewart was a man of liberal fortunes and godly life. He was hospitable and brave and lived upon his estate in the comfort and luxury of his time, and established well his many children around him, or on less stubborn soil. His second son, Samuel Stewart, Jr., with the enterprise that was in the blood, located in St. Lawrence County, New York, near Ogdensburgh, where nine children grew up about him. The eldest son, George Dorrance, having the true spirit of a pioneer, pushed westward into Yates County, New York, where he laid the foundation of a great fortune, in lands and business enterprises. He died at the age of forty-two years, leaving four sons and three daughters, the eldest but nine years of age. Morse Stewart, when eleven years of age, was sent by his mother, Mrs. Harriet Benham Stewart, to the High School at Pittsfield, Massachusetts, an admirable and justly celebrated academy for boys, established by Rev. Chester Dewey, D. D., who had attained a wide reputation as a scientist. At the end of three years he passed from the hands of this gentleman into those of Professor David Malen, whose training fitted his pupil to enter Hamilton College at the age of sixteen. Four years later he made choice of the medical profession, and after some preliminary study with Dr. Samuel Foot, of Jamestown, New York, he attended two courses of lectures in the College of Physicians and Surgeons, of Western New York. His third course was taken at the Geneva Medical College. At the close of the session of 1840-41, he passed an examination for his degree of Doctor of Medicine, and soon after came to Detroit and spent some months in professional study under Dr. Zina Pitcher, returning to the Geneva Medical College in the autumn of the same year, and taking a further partial course. After this thorough preparation, on November I5, 1842, he left his home for Detroit, where he had decided to locate. Arriving here on the i9th, he found the late Wm. N. Carpenter on the dock waiting to welcome him, and the friendship which began at the time of his first visit continued until they were separated by Mr. Carpenter's death. At that early day the medical profession of Detroit was represented by a most distinguished looking body of men, all of them in their prime. 'Under these circumstances it was not easy for the young physician with his painfully distant and cold manner to gain a foothold, but being in possession of means and indomitable perseverance, they carried

Page  1098 1098 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. him through seven years of waiting and then he stood secure. During those first seven years his patients were almost exclusively the extremely poor, who often needed pecuniary assistance as well as medical attendance. Realizing to the full these needs of the poor, Dr. Stewart in 1848 was one of the prime movers in establishing the Young Men's Benevolent Society of Detroit, and for several years it accomplished great good among worthy emigrants who had stranded here during their first winter in America. Upon his arrival in Detroit Dr. Stewart made the acquaintance and secured the friendship of the late Rev. George Duffield, D.D., became at once one of his parishioners, and in 1852 married his only daughter, Isabella Graham Duffield, who after thirty-six years of a notably useful life, having been instrumental in the establishment of many useful charities, and all through her life having been full of deeds of charity, on May 27, 1888, was called from earth. The year previous to his marriage Dr. Stewart had purchased a home on the corner of Congress and Brush Streets, and there five of his children were born. Morse Jr., George Duffield, Isabella Graham Bethune and Mary Bronson. A sixth child, Robert, was born after the removal of the family to the Stuart homestead, at No. 440 Jefferson Avenue. On Congress Street Dr. Stewart's practice grew to very great proportions. It is said that every generation has its doctor, but in this case three generations have had the care of the same physician. Dr. Stewart's cases for forty-five years show that many a mother. daughter, and granddaughter have known his skillful aid, and side by side with the record of new lives runs the sadder duty of closing forever the eyes of the aged, or speeding some parting soul with the breath of prayer. The minister or priest and the doctor went hand in hand through the cholera season of I849 and 1854, and through the various epidemics of small-pox, contagious fevers, diphtheria, etc. When Dr. Stewart came to Detroit there were no medical societies, and no protective legislation in Michigan for medical men, and therefore no means of ascertaining a man's fitness for, or worthiness of, fraternal relations. To meet this deficiency the profession came together and organized the Sydenham Society. After its demise in I848, the Wayne County Medical Society was organized. Of this society Dr Stewart was repeatedly president and continuously a member until 1876, when it disbanded. His political views like his religious convictions are the result of earnest thought and thorough principle. In his youth he saw manifested in the church of which he was a member, the bitter and malignant spirit of abolitionism, and so cast his first vote and interest with the Whig party, and when the affiliation of the Whigs with the Abolitionists brought forth the Republican party, he enrolled himself as a member of the Democratic party, believing that it represented the only conservatism in the country. He was one of the "sixty-nine" who, in 1856, publicly came out and declared and defined their separation. During the years from I86o to I870, the political intolerance of the party in power amounted almost to ostracism, but in those very years Dr. Stewart found the largest measure of success and usefulness. In 1868 Dr. Pitcher waited upon Dr. Stewart and tendered him in the name of the truest men in the medical profession, an invitation to prepare and read an article on criminal abortion. It was a distasteful subject and involved sharp definitions of right and wrong that were sure to prove offensive, but his paper met with the warmest encomiums from eminent medical men and journals, and placed him mentally, morally, and as a scientist, in the front rank of his brethren. His hard and increasing labors, however, left him no time for the literary work he was so well calculated by his experience and attainments to perform. A few monographs and addresses indicate what it might have been. To him the advancement of scientific benevolence has always been an object of practical interest and desire. It was as the result of a suggestion made by him that the Rev. Dr. Duffield turned the contributions of Walter Harper from the channel of a trades' school for boys, to that of a Protestant hospital. Dr. Stewart also furnished the data for the medical requirements of a well conducted hospital, and they are embraced in the deed of trust. He also aided in inducing Mrs. Nancy Martin to bestow her gifts in the same direction. Even when most occupied Dr. Stewart found time from I860 to 1862 to act as a chairman of the Board of Trustees of the First Protestant Society (First Presbyterian Church). Assuming this duty when the church was in an unfinished state and the society in debt, at the end of his term of office he tendered his resignation with the building in perfect order and full provision made for the debt. In I874 the burden of work which had been carried day and night for thirty-three years, with scarcely a week's intermission, began to tell even upon his wiry and elastic constitution, and his medical advisers ordered a period of positive rest abroad. The year from the spring of I875 to 1876 was therefore spent with his family in England and on the Continent. During this season of rest he studied the system and teaching of the medical

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Page  1099 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. I0)99 universities of Wurtzburg and Heidelberg, and took a prolonged course of the water and baths of Kissengen. Wintering in Dresden, his tastes led him to a somewhat close observation of that admirable art gallery, which was supplemented during his stay in Paris by an equal interest in the gallery of the Louvre. Returning home with entirely restored health, he has since been enabled to pursue his profession with undiminished vigor. In 1874 he was largely instrumental in perfecting the organization of the Association of Charities, and has greatly furthered public interests on many occasions, but he has never sought personal honors, and such as he has received were pressed upon him. In 188o an epidemic of small-pox having broken out in Detroit, Drs. Stewart,. Flinterman, and Foster were named by the Common Council as a temporary Board of Health, and asked to look after the thorough vaccination of the city, as well as the management of the small-pox cases. There being at that time no hospital for infectious diseases, one of tents was at once extemporized, which, with the nursing and care of the Sisters of Charity, gave very successful results. The succeeding year the Mayor named Dr. Stewart as one of the three physicians constituting the permanent Board of Health. Here as elsewhere he has been faithful to his duty, and tenacious as to the rights and responsibilities of that Board, and has spared no pains or personal service to preserve the city from pestilence, and to establish sanitary regulations to prevent the introduction or spread of disease. Believing in the high and dignified value of the profession of medicine, he early determined to see it recognized and respected in his own city as both a science and an art, and knowing that men valued what they paid for, he led off in I864 by increasing the standard of his own charges a hundred per cent., which example resulted in the adoption of a Fee Bill by the Wayne County Medical Society, which has continued to be the standard of charges. Dr. Stewart began life as he will close it, with a nervous temperament, that has often made his words sharper than the thought behind them. Governed by a self-sacrificing singleness of purpose that demanded his own work to be honest, clear and thorough, he has been content with nothing less in others. Intolerant of shams, no trimmer, fearless in maintaining what he believes to be the side of justice and truth, it is scarce to be wondered that he has often found arrayed against him the influence of money and place. Integrity and truthfulness have been in all his transactions with his fellows, a high and scrupulous sense of honor governing every thought, as well as act. Success with such a character is achieved in spite of preju dice, and the many antagonisms it is sure to encounter. Dr. Stewart stands secure in the esteem of his patients and of the public as well, because he has gone forward promptly, habitually, and conscientiously during all the years to his daily duty, with an eye single towards God and towards man. FRANCIS XAVIER SPRANGER, M. D., is the son of Lawrence and Mary (Schuster) Spranger and was born in the kingdom of Bavaria, Germany, on March 13, I840. His parents emigrated to America when he was nine years old and soon after he entered the Benedictine College at Carrolltown, Pennsylvania. He then took a course in Latin and at seventeen years of age commenced the study of medicine under the direction of Dr. H. Hoffman, and afterward became the pupil of Dr. J. M. Parks, of Cincinnati, Ohio. In August, I862, he graduated with the degree of M. D. at the Cleveland Homceopathic College, and immediately established himself in Detroit, where he has since continued the practice of his profession. He was one of the organizers of the Detroit Homoeopathic College, and Professor of Pathology and Physical Diagnosis during its four terms, and President of the college during the last term. He believes that "szinilia simzilibus curantur" is an essential, but not the only law of cure, and also believes that no physician should adhere exclusively to one theory or mode of practice, but should be cosmopolitan in his profession, accepting all facts which experience furnishes, regardless of the source from which they emanate. Like other sincere physicians, he is conscious of the fact that his first duty is to his patient, and that "pathics," " isms " and ( ethics " are only of subordinate importance. Dr. Spranger has a very large practice, to which he devotes his entire time, and among his patrons he has a large number of the wealthiest and most influential citizens. His consulting practice is very large and possibly unrivalled in the city, and many patients come from distant places. He has always made a special study of diseases of the heart and lungs, and his large practice and many years of experience have furnished him sufficient material for the practical study of diseases to make him a diagnostician second to no other. He is a member of the American Institute of Homoeopathy, the State Medical Society, and the Detroit College of Physicians and Surgeons, and is connected with a number of benevolent, musical and social societies. An ardent lover of music, he introduced and made the zither popular in Detroit, and as an amateur performer on that instrument has few equals. In social life he is of an affable, genial temperament, and is sure to win the confidence, esteem and even warm regard of those who become acquainted

Page  1100 1100 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. with his abilities and character. He dislikes all sham and pretense, has never taken any prominent part in politics or sought for public position. In 1868 he was appointed one of the city physicians and held the office for six months, or until the term expired. In I854, in company with his parents, he visited Nicaragua, and was present at the bombardment of Greytown, on July 14 of that year. He was married in 1858, at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, to Miss Mary Sattig. They have had seven children, four of whom are living. JOHN TRUMBULL, author of "McFingal," and the only son of a Congregational minister, was born April 24, I750, at Watertown, Connecticut. He was an exceedingly precocious child, and at the age of seven years was qualified to enter Yale College, but on account of his youth did not enter until he was thirteen years old. He graduated, in 1767, with the degree of Bachelor of Arts, and for the three years following served as a tutor, turning his attention chiefly to polite literature, and the Greek and Latin classics. He and Timothy Dwight were tutors at the same time, became intimate associates, and were lifelong friends. In 1772 he published the first part of a poem entitled "The Progress of Dullness," but having determined to enter the legal profession, he was admitted to the bar in I773. He then went to Boston and continued his legal studies under John Adams. While in Boston he wrote an " Elegy on the Times," in sixty-eight stanzas. It treated of the Boston Port Bill, the Non-importation Associations, and the strength and future glory of the country. In 1774 he went to New Haven, where he remained and practiced his profession until he moved to Hartford, where he became distinguished for his knowledge and ability as an advocate. His "McFingal" was completed and published at Hartford in 1782. Mr. Trumbull was soon afterwards associated with Humphreys Barlow and Dr. Lemuel Hopkins in the production of a work which they styled "The Anarchiad." It contained bold satire, and exerted considerable influence on the popular taste. In 1789 Mr. Trumbull was appointed State Attorney for the county of Hartford, and in 1792 represented that district in the Connecticut Legislature. His health failing, he resigned his office in 1795, and until 1798 refused all public honors. In May, i8oo, he was again elected to a seat in the State Legislature, and in the following year appointed a Judge of the Supreme Court of Connecticut. From that time he abandoned party politics, as inconsistent with judicial duties. In 18o8 he was appointed Judge of the Supreme Court of Errors, which office he held until I819. In 1820 he revised his works, and they were published at Hartford by Samuel P. Goodrich. I-e removed to Detroit with his wife in 1825. They made their home with their daughter, Mrs. William Woodbridge, wife of Governor Woodbridge. The maiden name of Mr. Trumbull's wife was Sarah Hubbard. She was the daughter of D. Leverett Hubbard, and it is a curious and well authenticated fact that she was a lineal descendant of William the Conqueror, King of England. Mr. Trumbull died on May 10, 1831, and his remains are now in Elmwood Cemetery. He is recognized as being, after Phillip Freneau, the earliest American poet, and his "McFingal" was the most popular of all the poems of revolutionary days. It passed through thirty editions in America, and was twice reprinted in England. The city of Detroit was honored by his residence here for the last six years of his life, and honors itself by preserving his memory in the name of one of its finest avenues. WILLIAM A. THROOP, was born at Schoharie Court House, Schoharie County, New York, July 26, 1838. Seven years later, with his parents he removed to Syracuse, New York, and in 1855 came to Detroit, where his parents had removed some years previously. Soon after his arrival in Detroit, he entered the bookstore of John A. Kerr & Co., and retained this position until President Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers, when he was the first citizen in Detroit to respond, enlisting for three months as Second Lieutenant of Company A, First Michigan Volunteer Infantry, on April 16, 186I, four days after the first gun was fired upon Fort Sumter, and the next morning after the President's proclamation. His regiment arrived in Washington on May I6, 186i, being the first troops west of the Alleghanies to arrive at the capital. It was assigned the honor of leading the Union forces on the soil of Virginia, and on May 24, i86, drove in the enemy's picket, capturing x50 rebel cavalry and the city of Alexandria. In the battle of Bull Run on July 2I, Lieutenant Throop and his comrades in General Heintzelman's division, were in the hottest of the fight. Lieutenant Throop's period of enlistment expired on August 7, 186I, and ten days later he again enlisted and was mustered in as Captain of ( ompany F, of the First Michigan Volunteer Infantry. IDuring the winter of 1861-2, this regiment was assigned to duty at Annapolis Junction, to guard the railroad between Washington and Baltimore. In the following spring his command moved to Fortress

Page  1101 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1 IO Monroe, and joined the Army of the Potomac, and Capt. Throop thus shared in the engagements which followed at Mechanicsville, Gaines' Mills-where he was severely wounded-Peach Orchard, Savage Station, Turkey Bend, White Oak Swamp, Malvern Hill, and Harrison's Landing. At Gainesville, on August 29th, 1862, Captain Throop was especially distinguished in the heroic charges made upon the enemy's batteries on the Warrenton and Centerville turnpike, where eight officers and half of the regiment fell. For his bravery and daring in this engagement he was promoted on August 30, I862, to the rank of Major. He subsequently participated in the battle of Antietam and Shepard's Ford, and in the fierce winter contests of the same year at Fredericksburgh and United States Ford. At Falmouth, Virginia, on March I8, 1863, he was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Michigan Regiment and at the same time his command was assigned to the first brigade, first division, fifth Army Corps of the Potomac. This brigade, by eleven successive days of continuous field service, before and during the hard fighting at Chancellorsville, won the appellation of the " Flying Brigade." This service was followed, after a few days' rest, by participation in the battles of Kelley's Ford, Aldie, Ashley Gap and Gettysburgh. In the latter battle the Colonel of the First was wounded soon after the opening of the engagement, and the command of the regiment was assumed by Lieutenant-Colonel Throop. In this battle the First Michigan did most effective service, and as a part of the Fifth Corps, against overflowing numbers, stubbornly resisted the enemy, and thus enabled General Howard to hold Gettysburgh, Lieutenant-Colonel Throop, though wounded in the first day's fight, not only held his place on the memorable July 3d, but joined in the pursuit of the enemy on July 5; shared in the action at Williamsport, July 12; recrossed in Virginia, July I8th; and aided in driving the rebels through Manassas Gap in an engagement at Wapping Heights, on July 2ISt. He afterwards took part in the battles of Beverly Ford, and a few days later, with his command, joined the Eighteenth Massachusetts, and with a squadron of the Second Pennsylvania Cavalry crossed the Rappahannock, and occupied the town of Culpepper, doing provost duty. In February, 1864, he, with two hundred and thirteen of the First Michigan, re-enlisted as veterans, and in the following April returned to their former camping ground at Beverly Ford, and formed part of the Third Brigade, first division, in Grant's great campaign of 1864. At the battle of Cold Harbor, Lieutenant-Colonel Throop received a third wound, and at the siege of Petersburgh, July 30, I864, his fourth wound in action. Two days after the latter battle he was commissioned Brevet Colonel of United States Volunteers, for brave conduct and efficient service in the battles of the campaign, and took command of the First Brigade, first division, of the Fifth Corps. On November, 30, 1864, he was appointed acting inspector of the first division of the Fifth Corps, and on January 6, 1865, was honorably discharged. He faced bravely the dangers of more than fifty battles, and bore the scars of four wounds. The first, received at Gainesville, proved more serious than at first suspected, and was lasting in its ill effects. Never a day of his subsequent life was he free from pain on account of this injury. On March 13, I865, he was commissioned Brevet Brigadier-General United States Volunteers, for attention to duty and discipline, and in i866 was tendered by the Secretary of War an appointment as Captain of the Twentyeighth Infantry, regular army, but declined on account of business engagements. After the war he returned to Detroit, and engaged in the stationery business., On September 12, 1870, he was appointed by Governor Baldwin, Quartermaster-General of the State of Michigan. This office he efficiently filled for five successive years, and during this time devoted much time and attention to bringing into existence the State museum. In 1873 he was appointed Receiver of Taxes of the city of Detroit; held the office for four years, and then devoted himself principally to real estate business and the collection of war claims. A few months prior to his death he again engaged in the stationery trade. He was highly esteemed as a business man, was scrupulously honest in every transaction, and possessed the warm friendship of many of Detroit's best citizens, while his heroic services as a soldier entitle him to grateful remembrance. He was married July 30, I866, to Mary J. Porter, only daughter of the late George F. Porter. He died October 2, 1884, leaving his wife and one child, who bears his name. HENRY O. WALKER, M. D., was born in Leesville, Michigan, December x8, 1843, and is the son of Robert E. and Elizabeth (Lee) Walker, both of whom were natives of Yorkshire, England. His father was born February 22, 1816, came to America in I837, and settled in Wayne County. He was a farmer and brick manufacturer, and was for many years engaged in both avocations at Leesville, where he still resides. His wife was born December 13, i818. She came to America with her parents in 1833, and they were among the earliest settlers of Leesville, which is named in honor of her father, Charles Lee, who died at an advanced age in I869. He was highly respected, a man of

Page  1102 I 102 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. devout religious convictions, an influential member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and well known in all the community as "Father Lee." Until his sixteenth year Henry O. Walker lived at home assisting in the labors of the farm and in the manufacture of brick. His rudimentary education was received by attendance at the district school during the winter months. In 1859, when the Detroit High School was established, he was one of the first students. After remaining at the High School two years he attended Albion College, returning home at the end of a year, and for a year following taught a district school, after which he returned to Albion College and pursued his studies through the Sophomore year, and then after spending one term at the Medical Department of the Michigan University, he entered the office of Dr. E. W. Jenks, and at the same time received a practical experience in surgery and medical practice at Harper Hospital, then used by the United States for invalid soldiers. In January, 1866, when the hospital was opened for ordinary patients, Dr. Walker became its first house surgeon. After several months' service he entered Bellevue Hospital Medical College, New York, from which he graduated on February 28, I867. Returning to Detroit he immediately opened an office, and has been in continuous practice ever since. He was appointed Demonstrator of Anatomy in the Detroit Medical College in I869, and served until 1873. From 1873 to I879 he was Lecturer on Genito-Urinary Diseases in the same institution, and in I881 was elected Secretary of the College, member of and Secretary of the Board of Trustees, and in the same year was appointed Professor of Orthopedic Surgery, Genito-Urinary Diseases, and Clinical Surgery, positions which he retained until the amalgamation of the Detroit and Michigan Medical College and the creation of the Detroit College of Medicine. In the new College he was elected a member of and Secretary of the Faculty and Board of Trustees, and was appointed and still retains the same professorship he had so ably filled in the Detroit Medical College. In 1873 and I874 he was City Physician. He has also served as County Physician and member of the city Board of Health. He was for several years a member, and has served as Secretary and President of the Academy of Medicine. He is a member of the Detroit Medical and Library Association, and was President in 1887. At the annual meeting of the Michigan State Medical Society, in 1887, he was elected one of its Vice-Presidents. He is also a member of and one of the Vice-Presidents of the American Medical Association, and at the meeting held in 1884, at Washington, D. C., was Secretary of the Surgical Section, and at the meeting of the medical editors at New Orleans, in I885. was elected President. He is surgeon of Harper and St. Mary's Hospitals, and of the Polish Orphan Asylum, and consulting surgeon in the Detroit Sanitarium. From 1872 to I874, he was surgeon of the Michigan Central Railroad, and for several years has been surgeon of the Wabash Railroad. While Dr. Walker has been engaged in a general medical and surgical practice, it is more especially in the line of surgery that he excels, and in many instances of perilous delicacy, requiring the highest order of skill, he has performed successful surgical operations, which have attracted wide attention, and deservedly given him a leading position in his profession. In 1882 he established the Detroit Clinic, a medical journal, with which the Detroit Medical News was subsequently merged in the Medical Age. His contributions to medical literature have been numerous, and have mostly pertained to surgery, especially in the line of genito-urinary subjects. In the latter branch of medical science he has been a most devoted student, and the results of his investigation and practical experience have greatly enriched the field of surgical science. The high standing he enjoys for professional abilities has been attained by patient, persistent endeavor, allied to natural aptitude for his calling. No member of his profession has pursued his work with more singleness of purpose, and to the exclusion of conflicting interests, and the position he holds, both as a physician and citizen, has been attained by his own exertions. Affability and congeniality, with trusted friends, are prominent traits in his character, and his frank and candid nature invites trust and insures warm attachment. In every relation of life he has made an honorable and manly record. He was married November 13, I872, to Gertrude Esselstyn, of Detroit. They have one son, Elton, born December I5, I874. ANTHONY WAYNE, Major-General U. S. A., was born at Waynesborough, Chester County, Pennsylvania, January I, 1745. His grandfather, Anthqny Wayne, a native of Yorkshire, England, commanded a squadron of dragoons under King William, at the battle of the Boyne, and held various civil offices. He emigrated to Pennsylvania in I722, and his son, Isaac, was a member of the Provincial Legislature, and served as an officer in several expeditions against the Indians. He was a man of great industry and enterprise, and not only carried on an extensive farm, but a tannery as well, which was probably the largest in Pennsylvania. Both the farm and tannery became the property of Anthony Wayne on the death of his father, in 1774. Anthony was educated at a school kept by his

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Page  1103 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILI IARY OFFICERS. I o03 uncle, and at noon, in place of the usual games, he had the boys engaged in throwing up redoubts, skirmishing, and other warlike practices, and was inclined to neglect his studies. His uncle complained to his father, and he reprimanded Anthony severely, and from that time there was a marked change for the better in his habits. From his uncle's school he went to the Philadelphia Academy, where he remained two years, devoting most of his time to his favorite studies of mathematics, mechanics, optics,and astronomy. When he was eighteen years old he returned to Chester County and began business as a surveyor. While thus employed, he became acquainted with Dr. Franklin, and a strong friendship soon sprung up between them, which continued through life. Through the influence of Mr. Franklin he secured an appointment as agent of a Philadelphia association, formed to purchase and settle a tract of land in Nova Scotia. He visited there in 1765, and again in 1766, and superintended the affairs of the colony until the following year, when he returned to Pennsylvania, married a daughter of Bartholomew Penrose, an eminent merchant of Philadelphia, and established himself on a farm in his native county. He was soon holding various county offices, and took an active part in the troubles between Great Britain and the colonies. In 1774 he was one of the Provincial Deputies who met in Philadelphia to deliberate upon the affairs of the country. In the same year he was elected a member of the Legislature, and in the summer of 1775 was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety, with Dr. Franklin and others; but in S'eptember he relinquished an civil employment, and devoted his time to military drill and the study of tactics.. He then set about raising a regiment of volunteers, and was elected their Colonel. Meantime the congress, sitting at Philadelphia, called upon each of the colonies for a certain number of regiments to reinforce the Northern army, and Wayne's regiment was selected as one of the four required from Pennsylvania, and he was commissioned by Congress on January 3, 1776. Early in the spring he proceeded with his regimentalready one of the best disciplined in the service-to New York, and soon after was ordered to join General Sullivan in Canada. His first engagement with the enemy was at Three Rivers, and in that disastrous battle his intrepidity in attack, and his skill in covering the retreat, were equally conspicuous. On the withdrawal of the American army from Canada, the fortresses Ticonderoga and Mount Independence were committed to his care, with a garrison composed of his own and four other regiments. He remained in charge of these posts until May, 1777, and in the meantime was promoted to the rank of Brigadier-General. He then joined General Washington in New Jersey, and assisted him in driving the enemy from that province. At the battle of Brandywine, on September 11, he commanded a division of the army, and was stationed at Chadd's Ford to oppose the crossing of the river by Howe's right wing. He fought until after sunset, and was then compelled to retreat to escape being flanked by Cornwallis. Nine days after, while seeking an opportunity to cut off the baggage train of the British army, he was attacked by superior numbers, guided by American tories, and defeated near Paoli, with some loss. The disaster was, at Wayne's request, made the subject of a court-martial, and he was found to have done everything that could be expected of a brave and vigilant officer. During the ensuing winter, when the American army was suffering intensely at Valley Forge. Wayne was dispatched to New Jersey, within the British lines, for supplies, and succeeded in bringing into camp several hundred head of cattle, together with a number of horses suitable for cavalry service, and a large quantity of forage. His bravery and skillful maneuvering at the battle of Monmouth also contributed largely to the success of the American arms. On July IO, 1779, an interview took place between Washington and Wayne, in which they discussed the project of storming Stony Point. In the course of their conference, Wayne expressed his willingness to undertake the perilous enterprise, and is said to have remarked, " General, if you will only plan it, I will storm Hell." No record has been found of his storming the latter place, but, on the night of July I5, 1779, he surprised the fortification at Stony Point, and took the entire garrison prisoners. This was the most brilliant affair of the war, and for desperate daring has never been excelled. It occurred at a gloomy period in the colonial struggle, and greatly revived the patriots of the revolution. The victory was deemed so great that resolutions of thanks were passed by Congress, and the Legislature of Pennsylvania, and Wayne was greatly applauded. His services in the north were exceedingly valuable, and in January, 1780, he displayed remarkable skill and decision in the suppression of a mutiny which broke out at Morristown, because of the poor food and clothing supplied to the troops. In February of that year he was ordered to join the Southern army, and at the battle of Green Springs, Virginia, July 6, I780, by a prompt attack with a part of his brigade, he prevented a meditated maneuver that would probably have been disastrous to the force under Lafayette, and by this move he aided in the subsequent capture of Cornwallis at Yorktown. Soon after that event General Wayne

Page  1104 1104 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. received orders to prepare to join the Southern army under command of General Greene. He reached the camp of the army about June I, 1782. On February 19, 1782, he crossed the Savannah river, and effected a landing in Georgia, and after routing large bodies of Indians, on their way to re-enforce the British, he succeeded in driving the enemy from the State. For these services the Legislature of Georgia gave him a vote of thanks, and granted him a large and valuable tract of land. He continued with the army at the South until the month of July, 1783, when he took passage for Philadelphia, and subsequently retired to his farm at Waynesborough, and also took measures to improve his Georgia lands. He began the movement to improve the navigation of the principal rivers of Georgia, and proposed the connection of the waters of the Delaware and Chesapeake Bay by canal. He was brevetted a Major-General by Congress, October 10, 1783, and in 1784 and 1785 served in the General Assembly of Pennsylvania. In 1787 he was elected a member of the convention which adopted the Constitution of the United States. In April, 1792, after the defeat of Generals Harmar and St. Clair, he was appointed commander-inchief of the United States Army. On May 25 he was furnished by the Secretary of War with the instructions from the President to conduct a war against the hostile Indians in the West, and on August 20, 1794, he gained a brilliant victory over the Miamis, compelling them to sue for peace. He was shortly afterwards appointed commissioner to treat with the Indians of the Northwest, and to take possession of all forts held by the British in that territory. The ability, determination and promptitude with which he managed affairs, impressed the hostile tribes with a dread, which operated as a wholesome restraint long after his death. In pursuance of his duties, General Wayne reached Detroit early in August, I796, and was presented with an address by the citizens, who selected the name of Wayne for the new county established during his stay in Detroit. This was doubtless the first county in the United States named after him, but now there are numerous counties by this name in the Western States. Having put things in a proper state, he left Detroit between November 14 and 17, 1796, for Presque Isle. On the way, on the 17th, the day before he landed, he was seized with an attack of the gout, and on December 15, 1796, he died. His remains were temporarily deposited at Presque Isle, from whence they were removed in 1809, by his son, Isaac Wayne, to the cemetery of St. David's Church, near his old farm in Chester County. General Wayne was one of the most brilliant officers of the revolution, and brave to a fault, insomuch that he gained the sobriquet of "Mad Anthony," yet he was really discreet and cautious, fruitful in expedients, quick in detecting the purpose of an enemy, instant in decision, and prompt in execution. In person he was above what is termed the middle stature, and was well proportioned. He had dark hair, his forehead was high and handsomely formed, his eyes were of a dark hazel color, intelligent, quick, and penetrating. His nose approached the aquiline. The remainder of his face was well proportioned, and his whole countenance fine and animated. His natural disposition was exceedingly amiable. He was ardent and sincere in his attachments, of pure morals, and his manners were refined. RICHARD STORRS WILLIS is a descendant of George Willis, a Puritan of distinction, who arrived from England as early as 1626, took the Freeman's oath in Cambridge, Massachusetts, and was elected as deputy to the General Court in I638. Richard Storrs Willis was born in Boston, Massachusetts, February I o, 819, and is the son of Nathaniel and Hannah (Parker) Willis, and the youngest brother of Nathaniel Parker Willis and "Fanny Fern." He belongs to a long line of editors and authors whose record extends back in unbroken succession for one hundred and twenty-five years and includes many of the most popular writers our country has produced. It is a singular coincidence that from 1776 to I800 his grandfather, Nathaniel Willis, edited, three newspapers: The Independent Chronicle, The Potomac Guardian and the Sciota Gazette; from 1803 to I860 Nathaniel Willis, his father, founded and edited three newspapers: The Eastern Argus, The Boston Recorder (the first religious newspaper in the world) and The Youth's Companion (the first newspaper for youth); from 1830 to I866 Nathaniel Parker Willis, his brother, edited three papers: The New York Mirror, The Corsair and The Home Journal; and from I851 to I863 Richard Storrs Willis edited three papers: The Musical Times, The Musical World and Once a Month. Richard Storrs Willis was a student at Chauncey Hall, later was at the Boston Latin School, and entered Yale College in I837. In his sophomore year he was chosen President of the Beethoven Society, which was composed of all the musical talent of the college, its members doing service at the chapel choir, and furnishing the music at the annual commencements. Mr. Willis composed industriously for the college choir and orchestra, and arranged and harmonized many German partsongs, the words of which were translated for the purpose by the poet Percival. Among other

Page  1105 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. IIO5 instrumental pieces he wrote the "Glen Mary Waltzes," which for a quarter of a century were published by Oliver Ditson & Co. After graduating in I841 Mr. Willis went to Germany and devoted himself to the study of musical science at Frankfort-on-the-Main. He completed an elaborate course in harmony and musical form under the direction of the venerable Schnyder von Wartensee, and in Leipzig a course on counterpoint and instrumentation with Hauptmann, Professor in the conservatory, and Cantor of the "Thomas Schule." Subsequently he had the good fortune to pass a summer in the Taunus Mountains in company with Mendelssohn, the poet Freiligrath, Gutzkow, the dramatic author, and the.professor-poet, Hoffman von Fallersleben. Mendelssohn reviewed some of the work Mr. Willis had done with Schnyder, and revised his compositions. These manuscripts bearing Mendelssohn's pencil marks, together with a canon which the great composer wrote in Mr. Willis's album at parting, form a highly valued souvenir. While passing a winter in Homburg, Mr. Willis's familiarity with German enabled him to do some literary work for Gustav, the reigning landgrave of Hesse-Homburg, who conferred upon him a diploma with the honorary title of Professor. Returning to America after six years of absence, Mr. Willis visited Yale College and for a time occupied himself with a class of tutors and professors who desired to practise colloquial German. He afterwards went to New York, where he became connected with the press, and wrote for the Albion, the Tribune, the Musical Times and the Catholic World. He subsequently bought and edited the Musical Times, which later on was consolidated with the Musical World. After some years he started a magazine called Once a Month. It was devoted to the fine arts. He also wrote a work entitled "Our Church Music," which met with high commendation from the London Athenaum. He next brought out a volume of " Church Chorals " and numerous " Student Songs," and " Miscellaneous Lyrics." During the war he competed for a prize offered for the best national song, and his "Anthem of Liberty," to which he also composed the music, was pronounced best by the committee. Richard Grant White, in his subsequent collection of these songs gave it enthusiastic praise. Mr. Willis afterwards wrote the song "Why, Northmen, Why?" and others of a patriotic type which were rehearsed in schools and sung at public gatherings. In 1851 Mr. Willis married Miss Jessie Cairns, of Roslyn, Long Island. Mrs. Willis died in I858. Her pure and lovely nature is tenderly delineated in her husband's "Memorial," and the pages also contain lines from William Cullen Bryant, "Fanny Fern" and other eminent persons. In I86I Mr.Willis married Mrs. Alexandrine Macomb Campau, of Detroit. During a four years' residence in Europe, where he went for the education of his children, while residing in Nice, he collected his national songs and miscellaneous lyrics into a volume, entitled " Waif of Song," which was published by Galignani, of Paris. The first volumes of the book were sold during the Nice carnival of 1876, for the benefit of the poor, by Mrs. Willis, who presided over the American Kiosque in the public square. While in Europe, Mr. Willis's three daughters Annie, Blanche and Jessie, married three officers of the United States flag-ship "Franklin," then lying near Nice, under command of Admiral Worden. Annie married Lieutenant Ward; Blanche. Lieutenant Emory (since then widely known as commander of the " Bear" in the Greely relief expedition); and Jessie, Lieutenant Brodhead, son of the gallant Michigan cavalry colonel in the War of the Rebellion. During late years Mr. Willis has resided almost continuously in Detroit, and has devoted his time to literary pursuits, publishing among other works a volume of lyrics, entitled " Pen and Lute." In 1887 he was elected one of the Commissioners of the Public Library. He is thoroughly identified with the city, and his recognized ability, high social position and pure character, have made him a wellknown and esteemed citizen. ORLANDO B. WILCOX, Brigadier-General, and Brevet Major-General United States Army, was born at Detroit, April i6, 1823. He graduated from West Point in 1847, was appointed Second Lieutenant Fourth Artillery and served in the Mexican war as Lieutenant in Lloyd Tilghman's Maryland Volunteer Battery, and in Lovell's Fourth Artillery Battery on expedition to Cuernaraca, Mexico, and in I850 was with the same battery under General Sumner in his campaign against the Arrapahoe Indians, and was then on sea-coast and lake artillery service up to I856. During the Burn's Riot in Boston, in 1854, he rendered valuable service in preserving the peace. On January I, I858, he resigned his commission and commenced the practice of law at Detroit, and continued therein until the war with the South began. He was among the first to offer his services to the Government, and on May I, I861, was appointed Colonel of First Michigan three months' volunteers, and with his regiment left the city for Washington on May 13. He participated in the capture of Alexandria and Fairfax Court House, and at the first battle of Bull Run, on July 21 st, commanded a brigade composed of the First and Fourth Michigan, the Eleventh New York Fire Zouaves, and the Thirty-fourth Pennsylvania.

Page  1106 I IO6 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. In this engagement he was badly wounded, captured, and held as prisoner of war, being part of the time in the hospital at Richmond, at Charleston, S. C. Jail, Castle Pinkney, Columbia Jail, Libby Prison and Salisbury Prison as hostage for privateers, etc. He was released on August I8, I862, and returned to Detroit on August 27. His return being anticipated, arrangements were made for giving him a public welcome, and it is safe to say that no such hearty and general welcome was ever before extended to any citizen of Detroit. There was an immense procession, arches were erected and an address of welcome delivered. In testimony of his gallantry at Bull Run he was appointed Brigadier-General August 20, 1862, to rank from July 2I, I86r. After his release he served with distinction at the battles of South Mountain and Antietam, in command of the First Division of the Ninth Corps, and in command of the Ninth Corps at the first battle of Fredericksburgh. He marched in command of the Ninth Corps to Kentucky and commanded successively the Ninth Corps and the District of Central Kentucky and the District of Indiana and Michigan during the drafts riots and Morgan's Raids, and the District of the Clinch, in Cumberland Mountains, East Tennessee, holding communication open between Kentucky and East Tennessee, during the siege of Knoxville and successfully repulsing separate attacks at Walker's Ford and Strawberry Plains, and remained in command of the Division of the Ninth Corps to the end of the war. He fought in the battles of the Wilderness and at Spottsylvania; was in skirmishes on the Talopotomy, battle of Bethesda Church and participated in attacks on and operations around Petersburgh, and in actions on Norfolk and Weldon roads, and at Gurley House; was at Pegram Farm and Hatcher's Run, and at the seige of Petersburgh, his division was the first to break through and receive the actual surrender of the city. He commanded the Detroit Department of the Lakes, with headquarters at Detroit, from December 26, 1865, to January 15, 1866. He was brevetted Brigadier-General for "gallant and meritorious service in the battle of Spottsylvania Court House," and Major-General "for services in the capture of Petersburgh," and MajorGeneral of volunteers for his participation "in the several actions since crossing the Rapidan." On January 15, I866, he was mustered out of volunteer service and returned to Detroit. On July 28, following he was reappointed in the regular service as Colonel of the Twenty-ninth Infantry, and was afterwards transferred to the Twelfth Infantry. From November, 1866, to March, 1869, he commanded the District of Lynchburgh, Va. From April, 1869, to April, 1878, except fifteen months' recruiting service as Superintendent, he commanded a regiment on the Pacific coast and then served in and commanded the Department of Arizona for four years and a half, suppressing Indian hostilities of Chimehuevas, Apaches, etc., in Arizona and Southern California, operating in New Mexico, on Mexican frontier, Colorado and Gila Rivers, etc., and received therefore the thanks of the Legislature of Arizona. From September, 1882, to October, I886, he was in command of his regiment and post at Madison Barracks, New York. He was promoted to be a Brigadier-General on October 13, 1886, and assigned to command of the Department of the Missouri. On April I6, 1887, he retired from active service and returned to Michigan, stopping for a time in Ann Arbor and then going to Washington, D. C., where he is acting as Superintendent of the Army and Navy Bureau Department of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York. In his earlier life he found time to indulge in literary pursuits and is the author of stories entitled, "Walter March" and "Foca." He also wrote "Instruction for Field Artillery." He was first married in August, 1852, to Marie Louise Farnsworth, daughter of the late Elon Farnsworth. His children by this marriage are Lieutenant Elon F. Wilcox, Sixth Cavalry, United States Army; Marie Louise, wife of Lieutenant S. C. Miller, Twelfth Infantry; Grace North, wife of E. T. Comegys, Assistant Surgeon United States Army; Orlando B. W., Jr., law student at University of Michigan, and Charles McAllister, cadet at Orchard Lake M ilitary Academy. After the death of his first wife in November, 188I, he married Julia Elizabeth Wyeth, daughter of John McReynolds, of Detroit. They have one child, Julian Wilcox. HAL C. WYMAN, M. D., was born March 22, 1852, at Anderson, Indiana. His ancestors emigrated to New England in 1638, and his father, Dr. Henry Wyman, was one of the early physicians of Michigan, and gained distinction not only by his successful practice, but more especially as a sanitarian. He was the chief originator of the so-called " Swamp Land Laws" of Michigan, under which the swamps were drained and the healthfulness of the peninsula vastly improved, and among the early benefactors of Michigan there was no man, perhaps, to whom the inhabitants are more deeply indebted. Hal C. Wyman was educated in the public schools and at the Michigan State Agricultural College. He began the study of medicine with his father, and subsequently attended the medical department of the University of Michigan, and

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Page  1107 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. I 107 graduated in I873. He then went to Europe and studied medicine and surgery in the schools of Edinburgh, Berlin, and Paris, and on his return commenced practice at Blissfield, Michigan. Leaving Blissfield he assisted in the organization of the Fort Wayne Medical College, in Indiana, in which he held the chairs of Pathology and Clinical Surgery until I879. He was then invited to Detroit to fill the chair of Physiology in the Detroit Medical College, and after a time accepted the same chair in the Michigan College of Medicine, and discharged the duties it involved until 1885, when he resigned in the interest of a large and increasing practice, which has since occupied his entire time. In i886 he was appointed by the Trustees of the Minnesota Hospital College, at Minneapolis, Special Lecturer on Surgical Physiology, and early in the same year Governor Luce, of Michigan, appointed him a member of the State Board of Charities and Corrections. The Michigan State Board of Agriculture conferred upon him the degree of Master of Science for researches and investigations in animal physiology. He is full of philanthropic zeal, and is the founder and President of the Board of Trustees of the Detroit Emergency and Accidental Hospital, one of the most useful humanitarian institutions in the city. He is also Professor of the Principles of Surgery and Operative Surgery of the Michigan College of Medicine and Surgery, established in i888. He is a member of the local State and National medical societies, and holds honorary titles from leading foreign medical and scientific societies. In all that pertains to medical science, Dr. Wyman is a close and thorough student, and is a notably successful practitioner. W hile familiar with the various branches of medicine, his special studies have been in surgery, and his writings and numerous scientific papers have been mainly upon surgical subjects. His practice is also largely surgical, and by his skill and success he has attained;high rank in the profession, both at home and abroad. Professionally and socially he is one of the most genial of men, and society loses much from the unremitting labor which his large practice imposes upon him. He is thoroughly conscientious in his practice, carefully, zealously and studiously considers the welfare of his patients, and is large-hearted in all his dealings with them. He has large capacity for the discharge of professional work, and is a ready, fluent, and effective speaker, as well as an able, scholarly, and vigorous writer. He was married October 30, 1879, to Jennie L. Barnum, of Adrian, Michigan. They have three daughters, Gladys Prudence, Carrie Louise, and Jennie Abigail Wyman. CHARLES CHESTER YEMANS, M. D., was born at Massena Springs, St. Lawrence County, New York, May 24, 1834. His ancestors were among the pioneers of New England. His grandmother Yemans was a daughter of Judge Daniel Carpenter and sister of Governor Dillingham, of Vermont. His father, William Yemans, was born at Norwich, Vermont, in I8io. He was a builder by profession and erected rolling m'ills at Wyandotte, Chicago, Milwaukee and in other cities. His mother's maiden name was Nancy Lockwood. At the time of her marriage she was teaching school at Massena Springs. The name Yemans is prominent among the original settlers of Taunton, Massachusetts, and Tolland, Connecticut, and as early as 1742, the name was spelled interchangeably Yemans, Yeomans or Youmans. The grandfather of C. C. Yemans moved from Tolland, Connecticut, to Norwich, Vermont, and from there in I836, his son William Yemans moved with his family to Russell, Geauga County, Ohio, and thence in the following year to Chagrin Falls, Cuyahoga County, Ohio, where the family remained ten years. His wife died at Chagrin Falls in 1846, and the next year the father removed to Cleveland, Ohio, leaving C. C. Yemans at the home of a farmer, where he was expected to work for his board and have the privilege of a few months' schooling during the winter. Not relishing this arrangement, the son during 1847 secured the position of cabin boy on board the screw steamer Boston, Captain Munroe, plying between Buffalo and Chicago, and continued on the lakes for seven years, becoming acquainted, by actual experience, with all the hardships and privations connected with a sailor's life. During the winter months of this period he' lived for the most part at Chagrin Falls and attended the public school and Ashbury Seminary. In 1854, by means of money saved from his pay as a sailor, he entered a private academy at Chagrin Falls, conducted by the Rev. F. D. Taylor. From this institution he graduated in April, I855, sailed part of the following season as master of a vessel and in the autumn began teaching a winter school in Flat Rock, Wayne County, Michigan. The following summer he resided at Wyandotte, superintending for his father the erection of the rolling mill at that place. The succeeding winter he taught school at Ecorse, and afterwards in Wyandotte and Trenton, pursuing as best he could the preparatory studies for the University. At this time valuable assistance was rendered him by Dr. E. P. Christian, of Wyandotte, with whom he began the study of Latin, and also by Dr. Nash, with whom he studied algebra and logic. In the fall of I859 he began a classical course in the Ypsilanti -Union Seminary,

Page  1108 108 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. under the tuition of Prof. Estabrooke, remaining two terms and then going to Dearborn, where he taught for one year. Returning to Ypsilanti he pursued his studies until the fall of I86I, and was then prepared to enter the University, but not having sufficient means he was compelled to abandon his cherished plan and instead thereof he entered the ministry the same fall as a member of Detroit Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, his first pastoral appointment being at Southfield, Oakland County. In the fall of 1862, before his pastoral term had ended, he volunteered as a private soldier, and was soon afterward mustered into the Union service as Second Lieutenant of Company D, Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry, commanded by Colonel Henry A. Morrow. The Twenty-fourth Regiment was brigaded with the Second, Sixth and Seventh Wisconsin and Nineteenth Indiana, which brigade was known as the Iron Brigade, and took part in the battle of Fredericksburgh. In February, 1863, Lieutenant Yemans was appointed anaide-de-camp on the staff of General Meredith and acting assistant inspector general, and as such participated in the battles of Fitzhugh Crossing and Chancellorsville. After the battle he was taken ill with a fever and sent to Georgetown Hospital, and in July, I863, to St. Mary's Hospital, Detroit. In August following, though far from well, he rejoined General Meredith at Cambridge City, Indiana, and after remaining about a month, his health continuing feeble, by the advice and recommendation of ExSurgeon-General Dr. Tripler, he resigned his staff commission, a step he has since regretted as illadvised. After his resignation he resumed his. ministerial duties and was appointed pastor of the Methodist church at Minnesota Mine, Lake Superior, and was subsequently stationed at Commerce, Plymouth, Negaunee and Ishpeming. At the two latter places he secured the erection of churches that now have large and prosperous congregations. In 1867 he served as secretary of Detroit Conference, in session at Ann Arbor, and in I870 was appointed associate pastor with Rev. W. X. Ninde. D. D., at the Central Methodist Episcopal Church, Detroit, and in this year Lawrence University, at Appleton, Wisconsin, conferred upon him the honorary degree of A. M. Having previously studied and practiced under preceptors during his residence in the Lake Superior country by assisting the mining surgeons, during his pastorate at Detroit he continued the study of medicine in the Detroit Medical College and graduated in 1872. The same year he was appointed city physician, served for three months, and was then appointed assistant surgeon under Dr. James A. Brown to the Detroit House of Correc tion, serving as such until 1876. He was then made surgeon-in-chief, a position he retained until 188o, when he resigned his commission in order to devote his time to private practice. During his term as assistant surgeon he rendered especially valuable service to the institution through two epidemics of small-pox. In 1873 he was appointed assistant demonstrator of anatomy, and in 1875 lecturer on chemistry in the Detroit Medical College, and in 1882 was appointed United States Pension Surgeon. He was one of the organizers of the Michigan College of Medicine and held from the first the position of professor of diseases of the skin, resigning May ist, 1887, for the purpose of devoting his entire time to special practice in dermatology. He is a member of the Detroit Academy of Medicine and was its Vice-President in 1876, and in September, 1887, was elected President He is a member of the Wayne County Medical Society, and was its President for two successive years; and is also a member of the Detroit Medical and Library Association and of the Michigan Medical A ssociation. His practice has been general in its character, but has pertained largely to the diseases of the skin, a branch of medical practice to which he has given attention, and in the treatment of which he has been very successful. He has written several articles pertaining to this subject which have been widely circulated and favorably noticed by several medical journals. He is a member of Fairbanks Post No. 17, G. A. R, and of the military order of the Loyal Legion, and President of the Twenty-fourth Michigan Veteran Association. During the period of the great Chicago and Michigan fires in 1871 he had charge of the contributions made by the Young Men's Christian Associations of the State in aid of the sufferers, and was very energetic and successful in securing and distributing the needed goods and money which relieved thousands of cases. Of late years he has been an extensive purchaser of real estate in the northeastern part of the city, and numerous advantages in the way of new streets and other improvements have been obtained as the result of his exertions and good judgment. While these improvements have contributed to his own financial advancement, his projects have been of a character to profit others also; and as a business man his counsel is often sought. In 1887 he was the Republican candidate for Mayor of Detroit. It is greatly to the credit of Dr. Yemans that he has obtained his position solely by his own exertions. He had neither patrimony nor influential friends to aid him, but he has been persistently studious and laborious, and these qualities have perhaps served him better than would other ad

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Page  1109 AUTHORS, EDITORS, PUBLISHERS, PHYSICIANS, MILITARY OFFICERS. 1109 vantages. During the years when he was slowly building up the present large practice, he made substantial use of his knowledge of Greek, Latin, German,and mathematics, supporting his family in part by giving private instructions to a number of young men in Detroit who have great reason to thank him for his patient care and attention. He has rare powers of persuasion, penetration and push, and has triumphed over obstacles that would have conquered hundreds of weaker spirits, but aided by a competent helpmate and with unfaltering courage, he has gone steadily forward, and though he may have enemies there can be no doubt of his ability to win and retain the friendship of many persons who are as warm and appreciative as any could desire. He was married at Flat Rock, Michigan, in April, i856, to Miss Mary Chamberlain; they have had four children. Dr. Herbert W. Yemans, their eldest son, was born in I857; graduated from the Detroit Medical College in 1878, and the same year was appointed surgeon of the English steamship Palestine. Resigning his position when on the other side of the Atlantic, he entered the medical department of Strassburg University, where he remained a year and a half, becoming an accomplished German scholar. He then returned to Detroit and for a year continued his medical studies. In July, I877, he was appointed surgeon in the United States Marine Hospital Service, and was assigned to duty at Sitka, Alaska. He has made two voyages into the Arctic Ocean under the direction of the government, and is now located at Galveston, Texas. A daughter, Thena, now Mrs. Robert Henkel, resides in DIetroit. A son, Charles, was killed in 1875, in a railroad accident. A third son, C. C. Yemans, Jr., is in school at Saratoga Springs, N. Y.

Page  1110 CHAPTER XCIII. JUDGES AND LAWYERS. JOHN ATKINSON was born at Warwick, Lambton County, Canada, May 24, 1841. His father, James Atkinson, was born in Ireland, January I, 1798, and was a man of liberal education and a surveyor by profession. He married Elizabeth Shinners in 1823. She was born in the County of Clare, near the city of Limerick, Ireland. Her mother, Lucy O'Brien, was a distant relative of William Smith O'Brien, the distinguished leader in the Irish Rebellion of 1848. In 1832 James Atkinson, with his family, emigrated to the New World, first settling at Prescott, Canada, afterwards at Toronto, then at Warwick, and finally at Port Huron, Michigan. During the earlier years of his experience in the West, his profession afforded him but limited employment, and with all the vigor and energy of the early pioneer, he turned his attention to clearing land. During the latter years of his life, especially while at Port Huron, where he located when his son John was thirteen years old, he devoted his time entirely to surveying. He had eleven children, nine of whom reached maturity. Patrick, the eldest, during the War of the Rebellion, was a member of Company C, Twentysecond Michigan Volunteer Infantry, was captured at the battle of Chickamauga, September 20, I863, and died in Andersonville Prison, June 22, I864. O'Brien J., the eldest living son, was the first graduate of the Michigan Law School, and is practising law at Port Huron. Thomas is a carpenter, at the same place. William F., a lawyer at Detroit, served in the Rebellion as Captain of Company K, Third Michigan Volunteer Infantry. James J., also a lawyer in Detroit, was Adjutant of the regiment in which his brother William served. The early education of John Atkinson was mostly obtained at home, under the direction of his father and mother, both of whom were liberally educated, and had taught school in Ireland. He commenced the study of law when he was less than sixteen, in the office of William T. Mitchell and Harvey McAlpine, of Port Huron. He took care of the office and did all the copying required in an ex tensive business, receiving a salary running chrough the years of his minority, of from $60 to $Ioo per year. Through the kindness of the firm he was allowed to be absent for two terms of six months each, which he spent at the law school at Anni Arbor, where he graduated in 1862. The day he became of age he was admitted to practise in the Supreme Court, sitting in Detroit, and immediately began business in partnership with William T. Mitchell, with whom he had previously studied. He, however, had hardly entered upon the duties of his profession before the War for the Union began to assume the magnitude of a great conflict, and to engage the attention of every well-wisher of his country. On July 25, 1862, Mr. Atkinson was commissioned Second Lieutenant, and in the following ten days he organized Company C, of the Twentysecond Michigan Infantry, of which company he was elected Captain. This company left for the front September 4, I862, under the command of ex-Governor Moses Wisner, became a part of the brigade of General Judah, and was placed on the heights of Covington for the defense of Cincinnati, then threatened by General Kirby Smith, of the rebel army. At the end of a month it was sent upon an expedition against General John Morgan, passing through Williamstown, Cynthiana, Mount Sterling, and Paris, reaching Lexington, Kentucky, about the last of October. It was then assigned to the brigade of General Green Clay Smith, and to the division of General Q. A. Gilmour. Up to this period several skirmishes had taken place, but no pitched battles. While with General Gilmour, the regiment took part in the battle of Danville, and in the campaign which followed, including the slight engagements at Lancaster and Crabb Orchard. In the early part of I863, the Twenty-second regiment was sent to Nashville, and joined the Army of the Cumberland, serving in the division of General James E. Morgan. At the time of the advance upon Chattanooga, Captain Atkinson was assigned to staff duty on the staff of General R. S. Granger, which position he held at the time of the [II~o].

Page  1111 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I I I battle of Chickamauga and therefore did not take part in that engagement. Immediately after this battle he rejoined his regiment at Chattanooga, as Captain of Company C, and was in command at the siege of that place. The first important battle participated in by his regiment occurred during the efforts made to open up communication with General Hooker's army, approaching from Alabama. The Twenty-second regiment had charge of the pontoon bridge where General Sherman and his army crossed the Tennessee river, but was in the reserve during the battles of Mission Ridge and Lookout Mountain. After the latter battle it was assigned to the reserve brigade, and attached to General Thomas' headquarters, and with him participated in all the fighting from Chattanooga to Atlanta. In front of Atlanta Captain Atkinson was promoted to be Major of the Twenty-second regiment, and assigned to recruiting service in Michigan. He came to Detroit, and late in the summer of 1864 was placed in command of the camp at Pontiac, with instructions to organize the Thirtieth regiment Michigan Volunteers. During the following thirty days he organized seven companies, four of which were assigned to the Fourth Michigan Volunteers, then being reorganized at Adrian, and the remaining companies to the Third Michigan, being reorganized at Grand Rapids. Major Atkinson was made Lieutenant-Colonel of the latter regiment on October 13, 1864, the rank to date from July 29, 1864. He accompanied the Third regiment to the Army of the Cumberland, stationed at Nashville, and participated in the engagements with Hood's army, on its way to Nashville, at Decatur, Alabama. His regiment formed a part of the force defending Murfreesboro against General Forrest's cavalry, during the battles of Franklin and Nashville. After the battle, the Third regiment moved with the Army of the Cumberland to Chattanooga, and into East Tennessee as far as Jonesboro, and was at the latter place at the time of the surrender of General Lee's and General Johnston's armies. From there the Third returned to Nashville, and was immediately sent to New Orleans, to take part in the campaign against General Kirby Smith. It remained at New Orleans until August, I865, when it was sent to Indianola, Texas. From there it was ordered to San Antonio, Texas, where it remained until mustered out of service in the spring of 1866. Colonel Atkinson participated in all these marches and maneuvers, and while at Austin, Texas, served on the staff of General Custer as Judge Advocate. He was mustered out of the service February 24, 1866, and his military career then ended, except as he served as Captain of the Detroit National Guards in I872. Shortly before leaving the service, on February I, I866, while at San Antonio, Colonel Atkinson married Lida Lyons, a native of Texas, daughter of Dr. James H. Lyons, a surgeon in the Southern army, and at one time Mayor of San Antonio. He now returned to Port Huron and renewed his law practice in partnership with John S. Crellen and his brother, O'Brien J. Atkinson. Mr. Crellen died soon after, and Cyrus Miles took his place as partner, but the partnership was soon dissolved, and Colonel Atkinson entered into partnership with Anson E. Chadwick, under the firm name of Chadwick & Atkinson. They continued together until 1870, when Colonel Atkinson came to Detroit. Here for one year he practiced alone, after which he formed a partnership with General L. S. Trowbridge, which continued until 1873, when Colonel Atkinson became editor and manager of the Daily Union, a Democratic journal, of which he had become the principal owner. He proved himself to be a fearless and able journalist, but the venture was not a financial success, and at the end of three months the publication was discontinued, leaving Colonel Atkinson deeply in debt, and although he could have legally avoided liquidating certain obligations, his sense of honor would not permit such a course, and he eventually discharged every dollar of the indebtedness. Returning to the practice of law he became a partner with John G. Hawley, under the firm name of Atkinson & Hawley. In I875 James J. Atkinson, his brother, was admitted to the firm, and in 1876, having been elected Prosecuting Attorney, Mr. Hawley retired from the firm. J. T. Kenna was next associated with the firm as partner, remaining until I88I, when he retired, and William F. Atkinson was admitted, and the next year Colonel Atkinson retired. In 1883 he formed a partnership with Judge Isaac Marsden, who had just resigned his position as one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan; this last partnership continued until March i, I887, when Colonel Atkinson retired from the firm and gave up office practice. At present, while still active in the profession, he confines himself entirely to the trial of important cases. He takes an active interest in politics, and acted with the Democratic party until I88i, although he frequently protested against and sometimes actively opposed its candidates. He was appointed Collector of Customs at Port Huron by Andrew Johnson in i866, served until March 4, 1867, and was rejected by the Senate on purely political grounds. He was nominated for Attorney-General in 1870, and for State Senator in 1872, but declined both nominations. He was, however, left upon the ticket, and defeated with his party. He was elected a member of the Board of Estimates, and served one term, during which he

Page  1112 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I I2 opposed the abolition of the Central Market and advocated the purchase of Belle Isle. In I88I Mr. Atkinson assisted the Republicans in their municipal campaign, and helped to elect William G. Thompson Mayor over William Brodie. In 1882 he supported the Republican State and local ticket, and in 1883 received the unanimous vote of the delegates of Wayne County in the Republican Convention for Justice of the Supreme Court, but declined to be a candidate. In I884 he was nominated for Congress in Wayne County on the Republican ticket, but his opponents used the fact that he was a Roman Catholic very successfully against him, and he was defeated by a large majority. In 1887, Wayne County, after a spirited contest, gave him fifty-nine out of her sixty-nine votes in the Republican Convention for Justice of the, Supreme Court. He received nearly three hundred votes in all, but was defeated by Judge James V. Campbell. In his profession Mr. Atkinson has never followed any specialty. He has been engaged in many important land cases, has gone through several great will contests, and has been particularly prominent in defending libel cases. He defended the News in its great case with Hugh Peoples, in which it was successful, and in its equally great case with Dr. Maclean, in which it was beaten. He has defended Luther Beecher in many cases brought by ex-Mayor Wheaton, and has always succeeded in preventing a recovery. One of Mr. Atkinson's most important cases was the defense of Mr. Babcock, of St. Johns, for accusing a Congregational minister of not believing the Bible to be the work of God. Under his crossexamination, the plaintiff made such admissions that the jury found the charge sustained. In the practice of his profession, as in his political life, Mr. Atkinson has provoked some strong antagonisms. Like most men of warm temperament, he is sometimes unnecessarily severe, using words which he afterwards deeply regrets. Other characteristics, however, coupled with his really superior abilities, make him a desirable friend, and among his associates he is deemed a most agreeable companion. For the land of his ancestors he cherishes the most tender feelings of sympathy, and as a member of the American Land League has taken a warm and active interest in the struggles made by the conservative leaders of Ireland, to'mitigate, if possible, by peaceful measures, the horrors of English misrule. During the summer of I886 he made an extended tour through Ireland, not alone for recreation, but more especially to become, by personal investigation, familiar with the conditions of the people. He returned increasingly convinced of the injustice with which Ireland has been treated by the English Government, and can well afford to entertain an opinion, the truth of which is conceded even by Gladstone. Since his residence in Detroit, Mr. Atkinson has been a member of St. Patrick's Catholic Church. He has had ten children, seven of whom are living LEVI BISHOP was born at Russell, Hampton County, Massachusetts, October I5, I815. His father, Levi Bishop, and his mother, Roxana (Phelps) Bishop, were both descendants of early puritan settlers of New England. His father was an independent farmer and gave his son the usual advantages afforded by the schools of that period and locality. When hardly twenty years old the speculative fever of 1835 drew him to the west, and on June Ist of that year he arrived in Michigan. After prospecting here and there he located permanently in Detroit in 1837, and two years later began the study of law in the office of A. S. Porter, subsequently studying in the office of Judge Daniel Goodwin. Within three years, in 1842, after passing a highly creditable examination, he was admitted to the bar. He became almost immediately prominent in his profession; was made a Master of Chancery by the Governor on March 3, 1846, and appointed to a similar office in connection with the United States Courts on June 19, I85I. He early became zealously interested in the cause of public education and served as a member of the Board of Education continuously for ten years, from 1849 to 1859, and from 1852, for a period of seven consecutive years, was the President of the Board, holding the office for nearly twice the length of time that any predecessor or successor enjoyed the honor. No one in all the years labored more effectually and intelligently than he to promote the welfare of the schools. The memory of his labors is appropriately commemorated in the school building which bears his name. His time was always gratuitously given in public affairs and he rendered services without fee or reward that in later years have cost the city many thousands of dollars. He was compelled under the system then prevailing, to assume heavy responsi bilities and disburse large amounts of money, and every trust, either public or private, was faithfully and honestly administered. His connection with educational affairs was fitly closed with his election as Regent of the State University. He held the position from I858 to I864, and was influential in various ways in promoting the welfare of the institution. In 1855 he was president of the Young Men's Society, then in the zenith of its usefulness and strength. From i876, up to the time of his death, a period of six years, he held the position of City

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Page  1113 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I1I3 Historiographer, and did much to awaken interest in historic research. He was chiefly instrumental in the organization of the Wayne County Pioneers Society in 1871, and served as its president for ten years. He may also be properly styled the founder of the State Pioneer Society, as his efforts, more than those of any other person, secured its establishment. He presented many valuable papers and documents to both societies and his presence was much sought at local gatherings of pioneer citizens. Through his literary productions he achieved more than local fame. His most elaborate work, an epic poem in twenty-eight cantos, descriptive of Indian life and character in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, is entitled, "Teuschsa Grondie." It was published in an octavoof about 6o0 pages and at least three editions were issued. He also wrote many other poems and prose articles on a variety of historic subjects, besides translating several French plays, and was especially well versed in French literature and conversed with ease in that language. His abilities were recognized outside of his own circle, and he was honored with a membership in the Royal Historical Society of Great Britain, and in 1876 was appointed a delegate to the International Congress of Americanists, at Luxembourg. In 186I he went abroad and traveled entensively on the continent, and his letters home, published in the Advertiser, showed that he possessed rare powers of observation and description. It should not be forgotten, however, that his connection with the law preceded and kept pace with his special literary pursuits. As a lawyer he evinced great natural ability. He was a diligent student, a comprehensive thinker, always loyal to his clients, fond of debate, and almost invincible before a jury with language that was forcible and elegant. He possessed an indomitable will, with a determined and courageous spirit, that overcame any obstacle. He was high-spirited, ardently interested and absorbed in whatever he undertook, but always genial and accommodating, and a strong and devoted friend. Politically he was a Democrat, and during 1863 and 1864 served as chairman of the State Central Committee. His religious convictions were strong and clear, and he was a regular attendant upon the services at St. Paul's Protestant Episcopal Church. He married Janet M. Millard, daughter of Colonel Ambrose Millard, of Tioga, Pennsylvania. He died on December 23, i881, at the residence on Jefferson Avenue, where the family had lived for many years. JAMES VALENTINE CAMPBELL, for nearly a generation a judge of the Supreme Court of Michigan, was born in Buffalo, New York, on Feb ruary 25, 1823. As his name shows, he is of Scotch descent, and there are family traditions of an ancestor who, under an arrangement with the crown, brought many Scotch emigrants to this country. These colonists settled in eastern New York, a region in which to this day the Campbell clan is conspicuous. The judge's father, Henry M. Campbell, married Lois Bushnell. She was born and brought up in Vermont and belonged to a family whose name was familiar in New England from the days of the Mayflower. Its most fatnous representative is, perhaps, the celebrated Congregational divine, Horace Bushnell, who was a first cousin of the judge. Henry M. Campbell removed to western New York before the War of I 812. During that war the family suffered considerable loss, and in 1826 they moved to Detroit. Mr. Campbell had been a county judge in New York and a like judicial position was conferred on him in Michigan. He sent his two sons, Henry and James V., to St. Paul's College, at Flushing, L. I., an Episcopal institution of high rank, and presided over by the late Dr. Muhlenberg. James V., the younger of the two, graduated in 1841, returned home and studied law with the firm of Douglass & Walker. In I844 he was admitted to practice and became one of the firm. The senior partner, Samuel T. Douglass, afterwards one of the judges of the Supreme Court, married Elizabeth Campbell, the judge's sister. Henry N. Walker, the other partner, became Attorney-General. Both were early reporters of M\ichigan decisions and there is reason to believe that much of the \work on Walker's Chancery Reports was done by the junior member of the firm. About this time the University of Michigan was reorganized and Mr. Campbell became the Secretary of the Board of Regents and continued to serve for a number of years. When the Law Department was established in I858 he was appointed to the Marshall professorship and held it for twenty-five years, and in I866 the first honorary degree of Doctor of Laws that the University conferred, was bestowed upon him. He was always efficient in all efforts for the advancement of education and letters. In I848 he was elected as a member of the Board of Education of Detroit, and served also from 1854 to I858, and one of the schools for many years has very fitly been designated by his name. He was long a member and served as President of the Young Men's Society of Detroit in I848. This organization, though now defunct, was a power in its early days and established a large and valuable library. In I88o, when the Public Library was put under the control of a commission, Judge Campbell was made president of that body and still continues to hold the position.

Page  1114 1114 LAWYERS AND JUDGES. 1114 LAWYERS AND JUDGES.~~~~~~~~~~~~ --- —---- In I858 the Supreme Court of the State was first organized as an independent body,- and although less than 35 years old, Mr. Campbell was chosen one of the four judges, and has since been four times re-elected and is now in his fifth term, having served continuously for thirty years. His opinions begin in the fifth volume of the reports and are to be found in more than sixty of the regular series. When Judges Christiancy, Cooley, and Graves were his associates the court ranked among the first of the final tribunals of the several states. It has been considered doubtful if it was surpassed by even the National Supreme Court. Judge Campbell's most conspicuous characteristics, while on the bench, have been his conscientious adherence to the common law, his familiarity with the English decisions,and his jealous protection of the rights of local self-government. The language of his decisions, as is apt to be the case with those who are familiar with classical and foreign tongues, is extremely simple. He is a ready, rapid and fluent public speaker, even when he has had little chance for preparation. He is as ready in literary composition. and his brethren of the bench have often marveled at the rapidity with which he wrote. He is frequently called upon for addresses on public occasions, and a number of these have been issued in pamphlet form. He has also contributed to various periodicals. His only extended work is a handsome octavo entitled, "Outlines of the Political History of Michigan." It was produced in the course of a few months in I875-6, and in compliance with an official request, that he should write an account of the State for the Centennial year. Although prepared in a short time it is the most complete and comprehensive history of Michigan ever issued and contains much rare and valuable material not found elsewhere. In addition to his public literary work he has also often amused himself and entertained his children at the Christmas season by describing in verse, that is sometimes suggestive of Scott and sometimes of Macauley, the dress, customs, and traditions of the early inhabitants of Michigan. Several of the historical poems, through his courtesy were reproduced in the original edition of Farmer's History of Detroit and Michigan. Since his judicial life began he has of course held no so-called political office, but in December, I886, by appointment of Governor Alger, he represented the State at the meeting held in Philadelphia to arrange for celebrating the Centennial of the National Constitution. He has always been ready to identify himself with, and aid every benevolent, patriotic, religious, and literary endeavor. He has been a vestryman of St. Paul's for many years and whenever neces sary for the good of the church has taken an active and conspicuous part in its management. Indeed, his relations to St. Paul's recall the interest that Chief Justice Jay used to show in old Trinity, and like Chief Justice Jay, his efforts and example have been in opposition to inroads of mere ritualism. He has been for thirty years the secretary of the Standing Committee of the Diocese. Both nature and education have combined to make Judge Campbell one of the notable citizens of Detroit. He is wonderfully gifted with the art of pleasing and profiting those who are privileged with his acquaintance. His manner is so agreeable, his spirit so friendly, and his ability to instruct so varied, that one easily respects and admires him, and he is apparently always at leisure to do a favor or furnish information, and those who come in contact with him would be cold blooded indeed if they did not learn to love him for his courtesy and kindness. He was married November 8, 1849, to Cornelia, a daughter of Chauncey Hotchkiss, the descendant of an old Connecticut family. She was born at Oneida Castle, New York, August 17, 1823 and died at Detroit, May 2, I888 They have had six children, five sons and a daughter who took her mother's name. Two of the sons, Henry M. and Charles H., are lawyers, practicing in Detroit; James V. is a banker, Douglas H. is a devoted naturalist, who has made a specialty of botanical studies which he has followed in Germany; Edward D. is a mining engineer and metallurgist. Judge Campbell died March 26, 1890. DON M. DICKINSON was born at Port Ontario, Oswego County, New York, January 17, 1846. His father and mother were both of long lines of sturdy American descent. One of his ancestors was with General Wolfe when that brave officer fell on the Heights of Abraham, and another withstood the rigors of Valley Forge with Washington. His father was Colonel Asa C. Dickinson, a man of sterling ability, capacity and character, who came to Michigan in 1848, and was a resident of the city of Detroit for nearly forty years. His mother was a daughter of the Rev. Jesseriah Holmes, a latterday Puritan clergyman of Pomfret, Conn., widely known and esteemed for his learning and devout piety. The younger Dickinson came to Detroit with his parents in 1852, when he was six years old, and has ever since made the city his home. His earlier education was acquired in the public -schools. He proved a bright, studious, persevering, successful scholar. After passing through the public schools of Detroit he studied under a private tutor and prepared for the University of Michigan. He

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Page  1115 LAWYERS AND JUDGES. I I I 5 graduated from the Michigan University Law School in the class of I867, but was unable to spare the necessary time to finish the classical course at the same institution. In his young manhood he had for a time to engage in manual labor to acquire the means for his education, and it is the testimony of those cognizant of the fact that he worked with characteristic zeal and energy. As soon as he became of age he began the practice of the law in Detroit. Soon afterward, June I5, I869, he was married at Grand Rapids to Miss Frances Platt, daughter of Dr. Alonzo Platt, and granddaughter of the late Dr. Phillip Brigham. Extraordinary capacity for and thoroughness in work, with a courage never shaken, fine knowledge of the law and alertness of mind, added to thorough integrity and fidelity to trust, were the qualities with which Mr. Dickinson engaged in the practice of his profession at the age of 2I. He early showed remarkable aptitude in the conduct of cases and for business management, which, combined with clearheadedness and great energy, soon brought him prominently into public notice. He rose very rapidly in his profession and soon became a leading practitioner in the courts. Before he was twenty-five, he was one of the prominent, and before he was thirty, one of the most prominent members of the Michigan bar. For nearly eighteen years Don M. Dickinson has been on one side or the other of nearly every important case in or from Michigan. and his clientage has for a long term of years been the largest in the State, and one of the largest in the Northwest. The diversity and importance of his cases have taken him many times into the Supreme Courts of other States, and he has long been prominent at the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. Among the many famous litigations in which he has been counsel there may be mentioned the great ship canal cases involving property now worth $20,000,000, and a series of suits lasting nearly a decade, involving a conflict of jurisdiction between the Federal and State courts; the Campau will case, the Ward case, the Mamie-Garland collision cases, the Pewabic Mine case, and the Bates case against the People's Savings Bank. All of these causes reached the Supreme Court of the United States, except some of the will cases, and Mr. Dickinson was signally successful in all of them. A great number of minor cases have been taken by him to the Supreme Court with marked success. In the famous case of Paris et al. vs. Wheeler et al., in the Supreme Court at Washington, he defeated the Michigan Prohibitory law by a position originated by him, and which he clung to in the face of general professional opinion, until success was achieved, with that tenacity which is one of the distinguishing characteristics of his life. In the State and Federal cases referred to most of the leaders of the bar were against him, and threefourths of the Federal and the county circuits, the Federal courts, with a full bench, including Justice Swayne, were the other way. The United States Supreme Court, on the preliminary hearing, in which the brilliant Senator Matt. Carpenter was with Mr. Dickinson, clearly ruled against his position. He kept steadily on his way, however, and finally in the Le Roux case he triumphed with a unanimous bench and an opinion which itself acknowledged the courts' error at the earlier hearing, and the correctness of the fundamental principle for which Mr. Dickinson had contended in favor of the independence of the State courts of Federal control. His most widely known, and perhaps his greatest effort at the bar, up to the present time, was his brief and argument for Drawbaugh in the noted telephone cases. His oral argument is printed in full in I26th U. S. Supreme Court Reports. While the defense was overruled by a majority of four to three, yet of the many defenses in the Supreme Court in these cases the I)rawbaugh case was the only one not overruled by a unanimous bench, and for that defense Mr. Dickinson made the only brief. Senator Edmunds, also counsel for Drawbaugh, offered Mr. Dickinson a portion of his time on the argument, and afterwards many times complimented his effort in the highest terms. Associate Justices Field, Harlan and Bradley dissented, and their opinion is on the lines and theory of Mr. Dickinson's brief. In the Palms will case-a cause c6dlbre in Detroit -Mr. Dickinson gave the will a rigid examination, and embodied his views in an elaborate written opinion to the contestant, in which he expressed the belief that the will was valid. After this the contestant insisted that he should proceed with the contest, offering a large retainer. He declined because of the opinion he entertained, and assured her that her suits would fail. The Supreme Court ultimately ruled substantially in accordance with Mr. Dickinson's opinion, and the contestants wasted $50,000 in a suit that he advised against. While Mr. Iickinson's services have always commanded large retainers, and while he has built up a great business, he has not been counsel for great corporations and monopolies, and he is singularly free from legal associations with them. In many notable instances his services have been enlisted against them, and he has won a large number of important cases against corporations. Mr. Dickinson has often tendered valuable services to deserving claimants who were not able to properly compensate him, won their just causes for

Page  1116 I 16 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. them, and declining compensation, received in return only the gratitude of his clients for his greatheartedness. In the fall of I889 he undertook the task of securing the rights of the homesteaders who had settled on the forfeited land grants of the Ontonagon & Brule railroad, in the Upper Peninsula, fought their cases gallantly through all the higher courts, and saved them from eviction from their humble homes, without rendering any bill for his services. Mr. Dickinson, while yet a young man, made a close study of the Constitution, and formed strong political convictions before he attained his majority. His interest was enlisted in political affairs before he was 21, and as soon as he reached that age an active participation begun which has never since lagged. Profoundly believing in the fundamental principles of his party, Mr. Dickinson is a Democrat after the order of Thomas Jefferson, and his ideal living representative of the ancient and immortal principles of Democracy is Grover Cleveland. He cast his first vote for Horatio Seymour in I868, and has been a sturdy, consistent, self-reliant and progressive Democrat ever since. His elevation to prominence in public life was as rapid as his rise at the bar. In I872, at the age of twenty-five, he was chosen by the Democratic State Convention a member of the State Central Committee for the First Congressional District, and was subsequently made Secretary of the committee. In this capacity he took a leading part in the Michigan campaign for Horace Greeley. He threw himself into the work of the canvass with ardor and energy, and did the hardest portion of the campaign work. While the Iemocratic party was conspicuously unsuccessful at the polls that year, the canvass laid the foundation for the remarkable growth which it showed in Michigan within a few years. The young Democrat, who is the subject of this sketch, had been personally devoted to Horace Greeley, and was so deeply grieved over the death of that distinguished man after the great disappointment of his life, that he resigned his position as Secretary of the State Central Committee, in a letter in which he criticised those members of his party who had not supported Greeley. This letter was long afterward sought to be used to show a lapse from the Democratic faith at that time, but the publication of his pathetic tribute to Greeley, and stirring and prophetic words about the future of his party, and the clear negation of any thought of affiliation with the Republican party, only served to increase the number of his friends. Instead of withdrawing from the party, he re-affirmed his fealty to it, under the revivifying and progressive leadership of Tilden, and he continued to take higher rank among its leaders in the State. Mr. Dickinson was chosen Chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee of Michigan in the great campaign of 1876. He was then twentynine years old, and the youngest man ever elevated to this party eminence in the State. He conducted a brilliant campaign for Tilden that year. The Democratic party was for the first time thoroughly organized in the State, and the splendid canvass made by the young chairman resulted in almost doubling the Democratic vote cast at the preceding Presidential election, and in hammering the vast Republican majority of nearly 60,ooo down to less than 5,000. The Democratic vote was 5,000 in excess of the highest vote ever before polled by the Republicans. From this time Michigan began to be considered a doubtful State, and from this time Mr. Dickinson was universally recognized as the leader of his party in the State. Before the campaign he became personally acquainted with the sage of Gramercy, and one of his trusted national lieutenants, and the warm friendship began between them which did not terminate until the death of the hero and martyr of the stupendous wrong of i876, ten years afterward. Mr. Dickinson was elected first delegate-at-large to the Democratic National Convention at Cincinnati in I880, and acted as Chairman of the Michigan delegation on the floor of the convention. He strongly advocated the nomination of Governor Cleveland for the Presidency in 1884, and was Chairman of the State Convention that elected the delegates to the National Convention of that year. At the convention he was unanimously chosen Michigan's representative upon the National Democratic Committee. In this new post of party duty Mr. Dickinson rendered splendid service, and in the campaign of that year the Republican majority almost reached the vanishing point. Michigan entered upon an era of unprecedented political importance in the spring of 1885, and for the next few years she reaped many more political rewards than had fallen to her lot in previous years, and became of much more importance politically than she had been for many years. These facts were due largely to the exercise of the growing influence of the Michigan member of the National Committee with the new administration. Mr. Dickinson in every way merited the confidence reposed in him by the President when he accepted him as a special adviser and representative in Michigan. Not only were the offices within the State filled with representative men of ability and excellent reputation, but the State received an unusually large number of first-class Federal appointments general in their character. Among these may be mentioned the Mission to Russia, Governorship of Alaska, Supreme Justiceship of the District of

Page  1117 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I 17 Columbia, Inter-State Commerce Commissioner, Commissionership.of Patents, Assistant Indian Co(mmissionership, Mission to Belgium, British Treaty Commissioner, and a large number of other important places. Mr. Dickinson had throughout his life persistently refused the use of his name for any elective or appointive public office. He had never asked or anticipated reward for his political services. What he did was done for the love of doing. He had a reputation as one of the finest political organizers in the United States, and — what was far more unique - of being a prominent politician, who would neither ask nor accept a public place. The Legislature of 1885 was the closest politically that the State had chosen for many years, and the campaign in I886 was a very animated one. Many leading Democrats announced Mr. Dickinson as their choice for United States Senator in the event of the election of a Democratic Legislature, and he was accepted with pleasure by the party as its prospective Senator. All this, however, was without either his assent or approval, and in the middle of the campaign he clearly defined his position in a letter to the Democracy of the State, published in The Detroit Free Press, in which he said: "Such a candidacy would be false to the wishes I have professed for the last twelve years-since the redemption of Michigan, and the election of a I)emocratic Senator have seemed to me probable. Since then I have never been conscious of any faltering in my hope, of any abatement in my trust, that when victory should come the party would adorn the House of Senators by placing there one of the Silver Greys who taught us and led us in the dark days of disaster and defeat, when the only light of the way was high principle, and the only reward of good fighting a clear conscience." His name was also several times considered by President Cleveland for important places, and their tender prevented only by Mr. Dickinson's assurance that he preferred private life. In the fall of 1887 President Cleveland tendered Mr. Dickinson the position of Postmaster-General in his Cabinet. Mr. Dickinson was at first averse to accepting the trust and declined it. As one of the most distinguished men of Michigan has put it " he idealized President Cleveland as the living representative of all that he believed good for the people accordiug to his convictions on fundamental principles of government. But when the President tendered him this position he declined it, and only reconsidered the refusal and took the office when he became convinced that the President felt that he actually needed him." And even then he only accepted it upon the assurance that he would not be called upon to continue in the service of the President after the end of that term. Mr. Dickinson's name was sent to the Senate as the successor of Gen. Wm. F. Vilas, as PostmasterGeneral, Dec. 5, 1887. After a delay of about six weeks, caused by the consideration of the Lamar case, he was unanimously confirmed by the Senate on the motion of Thomas W. Palmer, then senior Senator from Michigan. He was the youngest member of President Cleveland's Cabinet, and the fourth citizen of Michigan to attain a seat at the great round table of a President of the United States. He was seven years younger than Gen. Lewis Cass when he entered the great Jackson's Cabinet as Secretary of War, and thirty-three years younger than the same ripe.statesman and scholar when he became the premier of James Buchanan. Mr. Dickinson was also seven years younger than Governor Robert McClelland when he entered Pierce's Cabinet as Secretary of the Interior, and twenty years younger than Zachariah Chandler, when he took his seat in the same capacity under President Grant. In the dual capacity of member of the President's privy council, and executive officer of one of 'the most important departments of the government, Mr. Dickinson became one of the chief figures of the strong, virile administration of President Cleveland. In the larger field of duty as an adviser of the President upon great questions of national executive policy, he rendered distinguished public service. A warm personal friendship existed between President Cleveland and Mr. Dickinson, and he served "the Great Chief" with entire devotion and singleness of purpose. No President ever received a more loyal and unselfish service than that rendered Grover Cleveland by Don M. Dickinson. The Post-office department is one of infinite detail, but Mr. Dickinson thoroughly mastered its work. He did not depend on the machinery of Assistants Postmasters-General, Chiefs of Division, etc., etc., as had been the case with many of his predecessors. He was something more than a mere writer of autographs at the foot of official communications to Congress, formal reports and the other state papers of his department. His signature was attached to no official document until he was thoroughly familiar with it. He was undoubtedly one of the most indefatigable workers in any of the modern Cabinets. The Post-office department, under Mr. Dickinson's administration made a better showing than ever before in its history. The business of the department not only greatly increased, but it was conducted at less expense. He made hundreds of influential friends throughout the country by his energetic and statesmanlike conduct of his high office. lie was business-like, courageous and forci

Page  1118 II18 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. ble. He was the first Postmaster-General to strike the mammoth mail subsidy jobs in Congress. Perhaps his strongest state paper was a letter against steamship subsidies which he'sent to the House of Representatives, and which carried a large Republican vote in the House against the bill, after it had passed the Republican Senate as a party measure. The bill failed in the House by a large majority and the Postmaster-General was universally credited with having caused its defeat. During his term the great western strike of 1888 occurred, and while it was in progress PostmasterGeneral Dickinson established an important precedent relative to the transportation of the mails by railway corporations. He took the position that the Postoffice department had nothing to do with the strike of the engineers, and that the Atchinson, Topeka & Santa Fe road was under contract for the transportation of the mails, and it was its duty to transport them. The railroad company sought with some adroitness, to transfer the contest from one between itself and its engineers to one between the engineers and the government. But in the correspondence between the department and the railroad officers, the Postmaster-General declined to become a party to the contest between the corporation and its striking employees. Postmaster-General Dickinson simply declared that the mails must go. If the company did not move them the department would adopt other methods. But in any event the mails would go. The striking engineers tendered their services to man the necessary engines to transport the mails, and the department signified its confidence in the striking workingmen by saying that it would use them. The railroads were thus placed in a position where they could not decline to carry the mails. They then demanded extra compensation for transporting them on the ground that they were obliged to run trains especially for them. But this Postmaster-General Dickinson declined to allow, holding that the railroad company's contract required it to transport the mails <" at the prices therein provided." The railroad corporation then unconditionally surrendered. It wisely concluded that it would accept the services of its striking engineers and forward the mails. Thus the valuable precedent was established that the railroads of the country must carry out their contracts with the government, particularly in connection with the transportation of the mails, under all circumstances, and that the strikes of the engineers or other employees of any company does not relieve them from the responsibility. It also demonstrated that the government had confidence in the integrity of striking workmen. As Postmaster-General, Mr. Dickinson was an earnest advocate of the postal telegraph, of government proprietorship of public buildings as a means of stopping the wasteful rent system, opposed the authorization of indemnity and guarantee corporations created under state laws to become sureties on official bonds required by Federal statutes, and favored many other decided reforms in the department, a large number of which were earried into effect during his administration. Prior to the assembling of the Democratic national convention of I888 the name of the Postmaster-General was widely discussed for the nomination for the Vice-Presidency on the ticket with President Cleveland. Chairman Barnum, of the Democratic National Committee, Hon. W. L. Scott, and many others of the most conspicuous Democrats in the country declared in favor of his nomination. When the convention met there was a strong undercurrent favorable to his selection. But the Michigan delegation, which was devoted to him, did not present his name to the convention, thus serving him with more fidelity than if his name had been offered. The Michigan delegated voted for Allen G. Thurman, of whose nomination Mr. Dickinson had been one of the original and most earnest advocates. During the campaign Mr. Dickinson visited Michigan for a short time, and made a few notable speeches, one of which-a peculiarly forcible review of James G. Blaine's public career-played an important part in the canvass, and was credited with being one of the strongest speeches of the year. Postmaster-General Dickinson retired from the Cabinet, March 5th, I889, as he had intended to do in the event of the President's re-election. He soon afterward made a short trip to Cuba with President Cleveland and some of his late associates in the Cabinet, and then returned to his home in Detroit. He refused several brilliant offers to engage in practice in New York, preferring to continue at the head of the old firm of Dickinson, Thurber & Stevenson, in Detroit, and to enjoy a great and constantly increasing business, the income of the firm being larger than ever before. He has always taken a keen interest in the welfare of his city, and has been one of the most publicspirited of its citizens. No man ih the city has warmer oragreater number of personal friends. He is closely identified with nearly every enterprise designed to promote the prosperity of Detroit, and has in addition to his fame as a statesman and great counselor, gained a reputation as a public-spirited, progressive citizen in all the extensive ramifications of his business. Ten years ago a prominent Michigan man writing of the subject of this sketch said: "He has

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Page  1119 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 1119g habits of patient, intelligent and thorough research, intense application and splendid judgment. His generosity leaves no room for jealousy; his fairness, no cause for carping, and his inbred courtesy demantds kind regard. The primary cause of his success is his unswerving integrity. The right never appeals to him in vain for a defender, and the wrong never finds in him an advocate. He has energy, clear judgment and personal magnetism. With his cultured mind, generous heart, unsullied reputation and masterful purpose, he is destined to stand among the guardians of the country." What was true then is true now. It is even more true, for the things predicted of Don M. Dickinson have transpired. He has taken his place among the foremost citizens of the Republic. His repuitation is national as a man of brilliant attainments, intellectual rectitude, convictions on fundamental principles of government, fealty to the Gospel of the Constitution and abiding faith in the wisdom of the people. His political career is regarded by his friends in his state and throughout the country as having but just begun. F. H. HI. JULIAN G. DICKINSON, attorney and counsellor at law, was born at Hamburg, New York, November 20, I843. His parents were William and Lois (Sturtevant) Dickinson, and of their family, Julian G. and Dr. J. C. Dickinson, of Detroit, are the only survivors. In 1852 the family removed from New York to Michigan; residing at Jonesville until 1857, and at Jackson until I865. Julian G. Dickinson received his rudimentary education in the Union Schools of Jonesville and Jackson. He enlisted July IT, 1862, as a volunteer in the Fourth Michigan Cavalry, which joined the Army of the Cumberland near Louisville, Kentucky, in October, 1862. He served three years with that command in the field, and participated in eighty battles and in ten thousand miles of marching. He was appointed Sergeant-Major, and after the battle of Kingston, Georgia, upon recommendation of his commanding officer for "good fighting and attention to duty," was commissioned First Lieutenant and Adjutant of the regiment. He participated in General Wilson's campaign with the Cavalry Corps from Chickasaw, Alabama, to Macon, Georgia, and was commended for "bravery and efficiency." He was present on the staff of General B. D. Pritchard at the capture of Jefferson Davis, and arrested that distinguished fugitive who was seeking to escape from his camp in female attire. For this service he Was mentioned to the Secretary of War by General Pritchard and General J. H. Wilson, was commissioned Brevet Captain United States Volunteers, and was subsequently commissioned Captain of Cavalry by Governor Crapo. At the close of the war on August 15, I865, he was mustered out of service. In October of the same year he entered the Law Department of the University of Michigan, and in 1866 came to Detroit, and entered the law office of Moore & Griffin, where he remained until I868. He was admitted to the bar, upon examination before the Judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan at the October term of 1867. In 1868 he formed a law partnership with Horace E. Burt, under the firm name of Dickinson & Burt, and acquired a successful practice. In 1870 he became a partner with Don M. Dickinson, the firm name being Dickinson & Dickinson; dissolved in I873. He was for some years interested in the banking business of E. K. Roberts & Co., of Detroit, having the largest interest in that house until 1877. In 1882 he was admitted to the bar in the Supreme Court of the United States, and conducted the first case on an appeal to that court from a judgment of the Supreme Court of Michigan. Besides his practice in the courts he is counsel for a large and important clientage. The record of his cases in the Supreme Court is highly creditable for the character and importance of the cases and for the honorable and successful manner in which they have been conducted. A hard and close student and a careful observer, he is not disposed to lower the standard of his profession, and his manifest aim is to do justly and to promote the real welfare of his clients. In disposition, he is known by his friends to be warm-hearted and appreciative. He was married June 25, 1878, to Clara M., daughter of H. R. Johnson, of Detroit. They have four children, William H., Alfred, Thornton, and Julian. Both Mr. and Mrs. Dickinson are members of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church. SAMUEL T. DOUGLASS, one of the oldest living members of the Detroit Bar, was born at Wallingford, Rutland County, Vermont, February 28, 1814, and his ancestors were among the early settlers of New England. While he was a child his parents removed to the village of Fredonia, t hautauqua County, New York, where he received an academic education and studied law in the office of James Mullett, for many years a judge of the Supreme Court of New York. In the year I832 Mr. Douglass went to Saratoga and continued his law studies under the preceptorship of the distinguished Esek Cowen.. Five years later he removed to Detroit, where he was admitted to the bar and soon after began to practice at Ann Arbor. In 1838 he returned to Detroit and became a member of the firm of Bates, Walker & Douglass, his partners being Asher B. Bates and

Page   1119A III9A JUDGES AND LAWYERS. Henry N. Walker. Mr. Bates retired about 1840 and the firm became Douglass & Walker, so continuing until 1845, when James V. Campbell, who had been a student in the office, was admitted to partnership, the style of the firm being 'Walker, Douglass & Campbell. In 1845 Mr. Douglass became State Reporter, and two volumes of reports bear his name. In I85I he was elected Judge of the Circuit Court of the Third Circuit, and during his term served not only as Circuit Judge, but as one of the judges of the Supreme Court, which was composed of the judges of the several circuit courts. He took his seat as Judge of the Supreme Court on January i, I852, and served until 1857, when a change in the political control of the State caused his retirement, and he resumed his profession. As a lawyer he has been almost uniformly successful, and has been connected with many of the most important cases in the State; he is especially strong in analysis and argument, and is often retained in equity cases. He is an excellent judge of human nature and when he gave more attention to jury trials had great influence over a jury, due rather to his thorough mastery of his case, and his candor, sincerity and earnestness, than to the graces or arts of oratory. As an adviser, he is calm, thorough and conscientious, and when he has thoroughly mastered a case and decides upon the course of procedure, it is quite safe to look for favorable results. His written opinions upon law points are models of clearness and completeness; he constructs carefully and evidently with laborious and painstaking care. He was one of the earliest members of the Board of Education, serving in I843 and '44, and also in I858 and '59, and has always taken special interest in the advancement of the school system. During his last term on the School Board, the litigation with the county was instituted which resulted in the obtaining, by the city, of a large amount of money which had accrued from fines and penalties, and which had previously gone into the county treasury and been diverted to other purposes than those contemplated by law. The money belonged of right to the district library funds, and the result of the litigation, in which Mr. Douglass took an active part, secured a large amount of money for the Public Library of Detroit. Aside from the offices already named, the only public positions he has held were those of City Attorney for a few months in 1842 and President of the Young Men's Society in 1843. His political allegiance has always been given t6 the Democratic party, though always with frank avowal of his dissent from what he deemed its errors; and he can hardly be said to have been an active politician. His duties as a judge and his extended legal practice, prevented his entering for any length of time, into the arena of active political life. He has always been a student and interested not only in legal lore, but in the wide'range of subjects interesting to all persons of culture. His tastes have especially led him to the study of natural science and this fact in part, doubtless, originated in his early and intimate acquaintance with his relative, Dr. Douglass Houghton, with whom he made some exploring tours in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan when it was almost entirely unsettled. His delight in nature and in the infinite opportunity that occasional retirement affords for reflection and rest, has been abundantly satisfied in the management of a farm on Grosse Isle, which he has owned for over a quarter of a century and upon which much of his time has been spent. Socially, he is frank, courteous and agreeable. He is independent in thought and speech, an interesting companion and a true-hearted friend; these qualities, with sterling integrity and mental vigor and ability that are universally conceded, are endowments that justify the esteem in which he is held. He was married in I856 to Elizabeth Campbell, sister of Judge James V. Campbell. They have three children. Their names are Mary C., the wife of Dr. Fred. P. Anderson, of Grosse Isle; Benjamin Douglass, a civil engineer now in charge of the bridges of the Michigan Central Railroad and its connections, and Elizabeth C., now the wife of Louis P. Hall, of Ann Arbor. DIVIE BETHUNE DUFFIELD was born in Carlisle, Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, August 29, 1821, and is the son of Rev. George Duffield, D. D., and Isabella Graham (Bethune) Duffield. As a child he was a remarkably apt scholar. Entering the preparatory department of Dickinson College, at his native place in his early youth, at the age of twelve, he was prepared to enter the Freshman class of the collegiate department. The rules of the College forbade the admission of students less than fourteen years of age, and without doubt to his subsequent advantage he was compelled to curb his ambition. After the removal of his parents to Philadelphia, in 1835, he studied in that city and entered Yale College with the class of I840 -Unforeseen family circumstances compelled him to leave without then completing his college course; but he afterwards received the degree of A. B. from Yale. From the first, he manifested a taste for the study of both ancient and modern languages, polite literature and English composition in prose and verse, the gratification of which has formed the relaxation and unfailing pleasure of his life. His

Page   1119B JUDGES AND LAWYERS. III9B familiarity with Hebrew, Greek, and Latin has increased with every year, and in French and German he is proficient. In I839 he came to Detroit, his father, the year previous, having been settled as pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. Soon after his removal here he became a student in the law office of Bates & Talbot, both of the firm being leading members of the Detroit bar. His experience as a law student gave him renewed longings for Yale and a profession, and in I841 he entered the law department of the Yale Law School, and graduated after taking the courses of both classes, and before he had attained his majority. The greater portion of the same year he spent in the Union Theological School of New York, when, his health failing, he returned to Detroit, and in the fall of 1843 was admitted as a member of the bar of Detroit. In the spring of I844 he formed a law partnership with George V. N. Lothrop, afterwards Minister of the United States to Russia. This connection continued until I856. After the dissolution of the partnership, Mr. Duffield continued alone in his profession until after the war, when his youngest brother, Henry M. Duffield, became his legal partner, and this relationship continued for ten years. The firm for several years past has been composed of himself and son, Bethune Duffield, under the firm name of Duffield & Duffield. Mr. Duffield is a habitual worker, and his career has been constantly marked by industry, ability and success. In 847 he was elected City Attorney, and for many years he was a Commissioner of the United States Court, these being the only offices he has ever held in the line of his profession. For a score of years or more he has been the Secretary of the Detroit bar, an office which, with his own high standing, has long made him a leading and one of the most widely known lawyers of the city. In 1847 he was elected a member of the Board of Education of Detroit, and his services were almost continuous in that body until I860, and during several of these years he was President of the Board. During this period he recast the whole course of study in all the departments and grades, providing for the regular progression of the pupils, and the chief features of his plan are still in force. He was especially active in securing the establishment of the High School, and so thoroughly was he identified with its origin that he is frequently referred to as the "Father of the High School." As President of the Board he took a leading part in the successful effort to compel the city to pay over to the Library Commission the moneys received from fines collected in the city criminal courts. The favorable result of this litigation made possible the excellent public library of which Detroit is justly proud. After his temporary retirement from the Board, in 1855, in consequence of a contemplated trip to Europe, the Board of Education, in token of appreciation of his services in behalf of educational interests, named the then new Union school building on Clinton street the "Duffield Union School." In addition to the labors incident to a large professional practice, he has found opportunity to lend a helping hand in nearly all matters affecting the moral, mental and religious interests of the community. From his early manhood he has been an active member and is officially connected with the First Presbyterian Church, of which his father was so long pastor, and has ever been actively interested in Sunday-school work, and particularly in mission schools, of which he was one of the earliest advocates. In the various phases of temperance reform he has been especially prominent. He was the first President of the Red Ribbon Society, which in I877 had 8,ooo members in Detroit. He is in sympathy with all efforts that restrict or regulate the traffic, and has especially championed the so-called Tax Law of Michigan, which is believed by many of the best and purest of citizens to be one of the most effective of instrumentalities in the diminishing of the traffic and curtailing its power for evil. Believing thus, he in 1887 opposed the prohibitory amendment to the Constitution of the State in numerous public addresses, and his opposition did much to secure the defeat of the measure. All citizens who are acquainted with him know that he was thoroughly conscientious in his views, and that he has always been zealously foremost in advocating and urging the adoption of all measures which could be clearly shown would conserve the greatest good of individuals or the State; and it is doubtful if any citizen on any question has acted more conscientiously than did Mr. Duffield in this campaign. He rendered valuable aid at the time of the organization of the Harper Hospital, perfected its incorporation, and for several years was its Secretary. He was also an active member of the Young Men's Society, and its President in I850. In politics he was a Whig from the time he cast his first vote until the organization of the Republican party in I856, when he became, and has since remained, an active and leading member of that party. He has persistently declined to become a candidate for office, save the purely local ones already mentioned, but has upon the stump and rostrum, in every important political campaign since he became a voter, earnestly and eloquently advocated his party candidates, freely giving his time and service to the work. During the war he was especially active in sup

Page  1119C I I I9C JUDGES AND LAWYERS. port of the Government and the cause of the Union. As a speaker and writer, he constantly sought to uphold the Federal cause, and did much to encourage enlistments and inspirit both soldiers and citizens in the great struggle for the Union and the Constitution. Mr. Duffield's literary accomplishments have made him widely known. Naturally gifted with fine literary taste and discrimination, his education and home influences tended to its development. While quite a youth he was a contributor to the Knickerbocker Magazine, published by Willis Gaylord Clark, and has since written occasionally for other periodicals, in prose and verse, and as early as 1860 was classed among the prominent poets of the West. Not a few of his fugitive pieces have been published in various Eastern publications, but not always has he received the proper credit. Though often solicited he has as repeatedly refused to publish his collected poems, and those which have seen the light have been such as he believed timely and calculated for some distinctive end. Of the latter class may be mentioned, his historical poem, "The Battle of Lake Erie," delivered upon the occasion of the laying of the corner stone of the Perry monument at Put-in-Bay, a poem at the opening of the Law School building in Ann Arbor, and his " National Centennial Poem," delivered at the celebration in Detroit, on July 4, I876, each of which were highly commended as having permanent value. In quite a different vein is his "De Art Medendi," prepared for the fourteenth annual commencement of the Detroit Medical College, a poem combining wit, humor, feeling and reverence, and described as suggesting the nonchalant afterdinner verse of Dr. Holmes. His various poems delivered before the bar of Detroit are of similar character, and are pleasantly remembered by his professional brethren. For many years he has been privileged with the friendship of Premier Gladstone a distant relative of his mother-and the acquaintance has been cemented by occasional correspondence. This fact easily accounts for his poem of "America to Gladstone," a warm tribute from an ardent admirer. With his professional brethren Mr. Duffield has always stood in the front rank, as well for legal attainments as for industry and fidelity, and that high professional courtesy which is characteristic of the true legal gentleman. In his professional labor he is prompt, clear and incisive, and a constant worker, his literary labor being merely as a pastime. He comes to conclusions only after mature deliberation, is positive in his convictions, and bold and independent in defending them. When he espouses any cause it is done earnestly and without regard to personal results, and no citizen is more implicitly trusted or stands higher in the estimation of his fellows than he. His private and professional life is without blemish, and in all respects he is a true, high-minded, Christian gentleman. He was married in 1854 to Mary Strong Buell, daughter of Eben N. Buell, of Rochester, New York, and his family consists of two sons, George Duffield, already prominent as a member of the medical profession, and Bethune Duffield, his partner and associate in business. HENRY M. DUFFIELD was born in Detroit, May 15, 1842. His father, Rev. George Duffield, D. D., was born at Strasburg, Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, July 4, I794. He came to Detroit in I838, and until his death, in I868, was the honored and influential pastor of the First Presbyterian Church. VShortly after his arrival he was appointed Regent of the State University, and no man did more to shape and promote that now widely-known institution of learning. The father of Rev. George Duffield was at one time a prominent merchant of Philadelphia, and for nine years Comptroller-General of Pennsylvania. His grandfather was the celebrated Rev. George Duffield, who in conjunction with Bishop White served as Chaplain of the first Congress of the United States, and subsequently of the Continental Army. A reward of 50o was offered by the British for his head. His fame as a preacher and fearless and eloquent advocate of liberty is well known to all students of American history. Isabella Graham (Bethune) Duffield, the mother of Henry M. Duffield, was born October 22, 1799, and died in Detroit, November 3, 1871. She was a daughter of D. Bethune, aprominent merchant of New York city, and a grand-daughter of the widely known Isabella Graham, whose memory is fragrant in the churches of Scotland and America. Her brother, George W. Bethune, was the distinguished orator and lecturer of New York. Henry M. Duffield received his earlier education in the public schools of Detroit, graduating from the " Old Capital " school in 1858. After one year's instruction in the Michigan University, in 1859 he entered the junior class of Williams College, Massachusetts, then under the management of Mark Hopkins. He graduated in 1861, and enlisted as a private in the Ninth Regiment Michigan Infantry in August of the same year, being the first student from Williams College to join the Union army. A short time after enlistment he was made Adjutant of the regiment. While acting in this capacity he, with his regiment, in July, I862, participated in the bloody fight with the forces of the rebel General N. B. Forrest, at Murfreesboro, Tennessee, and during the engagement was by the side of his brother, General W. W. Duffield, when the latter was twice

Page  1119D JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I 9D wounded, and as then supposed mortally. So severe and close was the contest that it was impossible to carry his brother from the field until the repulse of the enemy. In this battle Colonel Duffield was taken prisoner, but was exchanged in September of the same year. After his release he was detailed as Assistant Adjutant-General of all the United States forces in Kentucky. He was afterwards appointed Assistant Adjutant-General of the Twenty-third Brigade, Army of the Cumberland. In the campaign from Nashville to Chattanooga in 1863, he was attached to the headquarters of General Geo. 11. Thomas and was present at all the important battles of the campaign, including Stone River and Chickamauga. At Chattanooga, on October 23, I863, during the siege of that town by the rebel forces under General Braxton Bragg, he was promoted to Post Adjutant. As Post Adjutant of Chattanooga he issued, by order of General John G. Parkhurst, commander of the post, the orders for the Chattanooga United States cemetery, giving particular directions as to its purpose and plan of management. The general plan was subsequently adopted by General Thomas, and from it grew the system of national cemeteries which are at once a testimonial to the heroic devotion of the gallant soldiers buried therein, and to the gratitude of their countryman. When Major-General George H. Thomas assumed command of the Department of the Cumberland, Mr. Duffield was appointed on his staff as Assistant Provost Marshal General of the department, in which capacity he served until the end of his term of service. During the memorable campaign of General Thomas from Chattanooga to Atlanta, Colonel Duffield was detailed as Acting Provost Marshal General vice General J. A. Parkhurst, disabled, and participated in nearly all the hard fought battles of this gallant Union commander, including Resaca, Missionary Ridge, Peach Tree Creek, and Jonesboro, a campaign which resulted in the final capture of Atlanta. During the battle of Chickamauga, which was one of the most severe engagements in which he took part, he was wounded. His term of service ended at Atlanta, and he was mustered out October 14, 1864. R eturning to Detroit in November, i864, he be-gan the study of law in the office of D. Bethune I)rffield, and in the following April was admitted to practice. Soon afterwards he formed a partnership with his brother, D. Bethune Duffield, which continued until 1876, since which date Colonel Duffield has had no associate partner. His position as a lawyer is a desirable one, and as counsel in mnany important cases he has achieved notable triumphs, both in the highest court in the State and in the Supreme Court of the United States. He was attorney for the Board of Education of Detroit from 1866 to I871, and it was at his suggestion and under his conduct, that the Board brought suit against the city and county to recover the fines collected in the municipal courts for the benefit of the library fund. The case was strongly defended by William Gray, Theodore Romeyn and other eminent lawyers. The Circuit Court decided against the claims of the Board, but upon appeal to the Supreme Court this decision was reversed, and a judgment entered for the Board. As the fruits of this litigation upwards of $27,000 for back fines was collected, and the right of the Board of Education to all future fines was fully established. This decision had much to do in preparing the way for the larger usefulness of the public library. In i88I Colonel Duffield became City Counselor, serving three years, and during this time represented the city unaided in all its litigation, both in the Supreme Court of the State and of the United States. During this period, among the most important cases argued and won for the city were: The Mutual Gas Light Company vs. Detroit, in which the opposing counsel were Edward W. Dickerson and George Ticknor Curtiss; the City Railway tax cases, defended by F. A.. Baker and George F. Edmunds. Both of these cases were argued in the United States Supreme Court, and involved large amounts pf money and important principles of law. In his private practice Colonel Duffield has been connected with some of the most important cases which have arisen in the legal history of Detroit. He assisted in the argument of the famous Reeder farm cases, and in the Rothschild tobacco fraud case. He succeeded in defeating the claims of the holders of the notorious "Stroh-Hudson-Windsor crooked paper," and as solicitor of record in the Hunt and Oliver litigation, which was pending for seventeen years in the Circuit and Supreme Court of the United States, he obtained a final decision favorable to his clients in the Supreme Court of the United States. Colonel Duffield possesses naturally those qualities of mind indispensable to a high degree of success in the legal profession. In temperament he is cool and collected, and in the midst of the most exciting and trying ordeals, readily detects the weak and strong points of a case. To this admirable quality he unites a retentive memory, power of close and continued application, and convincing and persuasive abilities as an advocate. That he has succeeded in gaining a foremost place among his professional brothers in Detroit is but the natural sequence of the best use of these powers. He is a Republican in political faith, and for more than twenty years has been an active and helpful factor in the efforts of his party in this

Page   1120 1120 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. State. He was nominated for Congress by the Republican convention of this district in I876, against General Alpheus S. Williams, the Democratic nominee, and although defeated in the election ran 1,300 votes ahead of his ticket. The use of his name has also been solicited by his party as candidate for Circuit Judge, Justice of the Supreme Court of the State, as well as for high political positions, but he has uniformly declined. He has been a member of the Military Board of Michigan since 1874, and from i880 to I887 was President of the Board, and takes a warm interest in the State militia. He has also been an active trustee of the Michigan Military Academy for the past ten years; is interested in several business enterprises in Detroit, being a stockholder in the Bell Telephone Company, of Massachusetts, the American Exchange National Bank, the Detroit Bar Library, Detroit, the Rio Grande Live Stock Company, and the Eureka Iron Company. He is a member of the Society of the Army of the Cumberland, and was the orator at the annual meeting of 1887. He was married December 29, 1863, to Frances Pitts. They have had seven children, Henry M., Jr., born August 9, 1865, at present a student in the class of I890 in Harvard College; Samuel Pitts, born January 22, I869, and Divie Bethune, born March 3, I870, both attending Philip's Academy, Exeter, Massachusetts; William Beach, born March 2, 1871, died'July Jo, 1876; Francis, born October 23, I873; Morse Stewart, born September 29, 1875, and Graham, born November 21, i88r. EDMUND HALL was born on the 28th of May, 1819, at West Cayuga, New York. His father was of that family of Halls which traces back to Wallingford, Connecticut, and which, in revolutionary times, was sufficiently divided to furnish a Signer to the Declaration of Independence, while the Signer's cousin, who was Mr. Hall's grandfather, was an energetic adherent of the British. His mother's ancestry ran through the Worths and Folgers to the first white couple married on Nantucket. With his mother, brother, and three sisters Mr. Hall came to Michigan in i833, their route being by the Erie canal to Buffalo, and from there by schooner to the mouth of the Detroit river, where they landed, settling where Flat Rock now stands. They were pioneers and poor, but energy and hard work made them independent enough to face even the panic of 1837 without flinching. Some time before that crisis, it had been the cherished hope of the mother that her oldest boy should have a college training, and it was in the midst of the hard times that he acquired it. The nearest preparatory school was at Elyria, Ohio, and there he fitted for Oberlin. Six months' work in 1835, at eight dollars a month, furnished the first instalment of funds to pay the cost of a higher education, and his alternate labors as a stone mason and as a country school teacher supplied him with funds until in 1843 he was graduated with high standing. Mr. Hall has had little to do with party politics, but has always taken a deep interest in the great reformatory agitation which resulted in the overthrow of slavery. As early as 1841, and while a student, he canvassed the State as an anti-slavery lecturer, and again, in 1844, when studying law, he went on the stump as a volunteer champion of Birney, the candidate of the liberty party. In political economy, however, he was trained as a free trader and in consequence a Democrat. But the great anti-slavery uprising could not for any length of time leave an Oberlin student on any low plane of party politics. Still, it was as a Democrat that he was chosen to the only office he ever held, that of School Inspector in the Board of Education of Detroit, from I859 to 1863. He studied law in the office of George E. Hand, was admitted to the bar in 1847, and began practice in company with Judge Hand, but subsequently practiced for many years alone, until the increasing demands which his varied real estate investments and other business enterprises made upon his attention rendered professional labor impracticable. While in the Board of Education he did the public a very distinguished service as one of the principal agents in the establishment of a free public library upon the constitutional and statutory basis of the fines collected in the Police Court. The police judge had regularly absorbed the fines he had imposed, so that there was a heavy deficit for which, as matters stood, the county was accountable to the city. The supervisors would not make good the squandered fund unless compelled to, and proceedings were instituted in the Supreme Court to compel them. The Board of Education was the moving party, and their case was successfully presented in a brief drawn up by Mr. Hall. The critical character of this proceeding,-for a lower court had already ruled against the library,-fairly entitles him to such credit as belongs to one of the founders of a great public institution. He was Secretary of the Board the same year, and the records of that body show an elaborate plan which he drew up for the working of the library. It was at about this time that he began his lumbering operations. His principal camp is in Isabella county, though he has large interests in pine lands in the northern part of the State, besides a mill and salt works at Bay City. He keeps a large farm, well stocked with Jerseys and short horns, at Gibraltar, where he first landed as a boy, and there he

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Page  1121 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I2I1 has a country house where he spends the most of each summer. He has been twice married, first in I846, to Miss Emneline Cochran, of Frederick, Ohio, who died in 1879, leaving a married daughter, Mrs. Henry A. Chaney. Her only son, George Edmund Hall, died in I875. In i88I Mr. Hall married Mrs. Mary H. Vreeland. They have had one child, whose name is Frederick. DE WITT C. HOLBROOK was born in Riga, Monroe County, New York, on August 22, 18I9. His father, Benajah Holbrook, was formerly a resident of Berkshire County, Massachusetts, and emigrated to New York early in the century. His son, D. C. Holbrook, received the usual education supplied through the district school, and in August, 1832, came to Michigan, and was engaged in his brother's store in Plymouth. In June, 1836, he came to Detroit a total stranger in search of employment, served as clerk in a dry goods store until July of that year, and then obtained a situation in the Detroit postoffice, where he remained until December, 1837. He next became a teller in the Detroit City Bank, remaining until I840, when he entered the office of the late Alexander D. Fraser as a law student. Mr. Fraser stood in the very front rank of lawyers composing the Detroit bar, which, in those days, was almost entirely composed of men of finished education, nearly every one being a graduate of an Eastern college. Mr. Fraser was a severe legal instructor, eminent as a chancery lawyer, and in his office and under his eye Mr. Holbrook, by the time he finished his term of study, had ripened into an accomplished lawyer, and he has maintained that reputation through a professional life of forty years or more. Soon after his admission to the bar in 1843, he was appointed Assistant Register of the old Court of Chancery, which office he held until January I, 1847, when he became County Clerk. He was nominated for the last office without his knowledge, and was the only candidate elected on the Whig ticket. He served in this capacity for two years, and, under the law, was also at the same time Clerk of the Circuit Court, and when his term ceased he had an extensive knowledge of the practice of the courts of chancery and of law. On January I, 1849, he entered into partnership with Alexander Iavison, and commenced the practice of law. He subsequently engaged in practice in connection with William A. Howard and Levi Bishop. Mr. Howard withdrew in 1860, and for some five years the business was carried on by Holbrook & Bishop. In I872 Mr. Holbrook was appointed City Counsellor, which office he creditably filled for six years. His industry, faithfulness and loyalty to his clients, accompanied always with a fearlessness that quailed before no opposition, and a spotless integrity, not only endeared him to his clients but commanded, at all times, the respect of his fellows, and the confidence of the entire community. Added to these traits of character there might also be accredited to him those graces that are born of a generous heart, and which adorn every man who wears an open genial nature. No one who knows Mr. Holbrook well would hesitate to bear testimony to the uprightness of his character, the industry of his daily life, his faithfulness to all trusts and duty, and all would award him the record of an able lawyer, upright citizen, and honorable man. Mr. Holbrook was married to Mary A. Berdan, September 26, 1850. She died in I858, leaving one son, De Witt C. Holbrook, Jr., of Montana Territory, and three daughters, Mrs. Col. F. W. Swift, Mrs. Frank Walker, of this city, and Mrs. White, wife of Rev. John H. White, of Joliet, Illinois. GEORGE H. HOPKINS, the son of Erastus and Climene (Clark) Hopkins, was born in the township of White Lake, Oakland County, Michigan, November 7, 1842. His ancestors were among the earliest settlers in Connecticut, coming from Coventry, Warwick County, on the Sherbourne, England. The name was originally spelled Hopkyns. The family, according to Burke, was of established antiquity and eminence, enjoyed for a long series of years parliamentary rank, served a succession of monarchs, and acquired civil and military distinction. In the sanguinary wars of York and Lancaster, which for thirty years devastated the fair fields of England, this family is traditionally stated to have taken a prominent part, and to have experienced the inevitable consequences-incarceration, decapitation and confiscation. They were prominent in the affairs of Coventry in the latter part of the sixteenth century, one William Hopkins, Jr., having been Mayor in 1564, and persecuted for heresy in I554. He had two brothers, Richard and Nicholas, both Sheriffs of the same town in 1554 and I56 respectively. Richard had two sons, Sampson, his heir, and William, proprietor of the lordship of Shortley. Sampson was Mayor in 1609. He had three sons, Sir Richard, Sir William, and Sampson, the latter being Mayor of Coventry in I640. The eldest became eminent at the bar, attained the rank of Sergeant at Law, was Steward of Coventry, and represented that city in Parliament at the Restoration. Their estate, by intermarriage, passed to General Northey in 1799, and he assumed the surname and arms of Hopkins upon inheriting the estate of his maternal ancestor, who was known as Northey Hopkins of Oving House.

Page  1122 1122 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. The early Hopkinses of New England are of this family. The date of the arrival of John Hopkins, the progenitor of the Connecticut line, is not definitely known, but it was not far from the year 1632. About that time the increasing numbers of the colonists suggested the formation of new settlements farther westward, and as a result Hartford colony was established, and in the colonial records John Hopkins is spoken of as the original owner of the lands then settled. The line of genealogical progression from John Hopkins to Erastus, the father of the subject of this sketch, is as follows: John Hopkins, who was made a freeman of Cambridge March 4, 1635, removed to Hartford the same year, and died in 1654, leaving a widow, Jane, and children, Stephen, born about 1634, and Bertha, about I635. The widow married Nathaniel Ward, of Hadley. Bertha, in 1652, married Samuel Stocking, of Middletown, and subsequently James Steele, of Hartford. Stephen married Dorcas, a daughter of John Bronson. He died in October, 1689, leaving six children, John, Stephen, Ebenezer, Joseph, Dorcas, wife of Jonathan Webster, and Mary, who married Samuel Sedgwick. His widow died May 13, 1697. The son John had eight children, one of whom, Samuel, was a graduate of Yale College in 1718, and a minister of West Springfield. Another son, Timothy, was the father of Samuel Hopkins, the celebrated divine, known as the founder of the Hopkinsian School. He was the author of several well-known works, and a prominent character in Mrs. Stowe's "Minister's Wooing." The widely known Mark Hopkins, President of Williams College, was of the same family. Another son was named Consider. He had a son, Consider, Jr., whose son Mark was the father of Erastus Hopkins and grandfather of George H. Hopkins. Three of his uncles were in the Continental army during the Revolutionary War. One was captured by the British and starved to death in the " Jersey Prison Ship" in New York harbor, and another was killed by Tory " Cow Boys" while at home on a furlough. Erastus Hopkins was born in Oneida County, New York, in 1804, and moved with his family from Steuben County, New York, to White Lake, Michigan, in 1834, going in an emigrant wagon the whole distance. He cleared a farm in the wilderness, and lived to see the entire neighborhood settled, remaining upon the farm until his death in 1876. His wife died in I864. His son, George H. Hopkins, was at home till his eighteenth year, and then became a student at the Pontiac Union School for two terms, and in the winters of I860-6i and 186I-62 taught a district school in Oakland County. In April, 1862, he entered the Michigan State Normal School, but in August of the same year left that institution to enter the Union army, enlisting in the Seventeenth Michigan Infantry in a company largely composed of students of the University and of the Normal School, and remained with his regiment until the close of the war. It was known as the "Stonewall" regiment, and saw as severe campaigning and fighting as any regiment in the Union service. Mr. Hopkins's brother, Dan G. Hopkins, a member of the same company, was mortally wounded in the celebrated charge of the regiment at South Mountain, September 14, 1862. Another brother, William W., was a member of the Fifth Michigan Cavalry. The Seventeenth Michigan was in active service in Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky, Mississippi, at the siege of Vicksburg and Knoxville, Tennessee, and again in Virginia during the last year of the war. Soon after the close of the Rebellion, Mr. Hopkins returned to the Normal School and graduated in the class of I867. He afterwards entered the Michigan University, remained one year in the Literary Department, and graduated in the Law Department in 1871. In I870 he was Assistant United States Marshal, and took the United States census in one representative district of Washtenaw County, and in a portion of a district in Lapeer County. After his admission to the bar he entered upon the practice of his profession in Detroit, and for eight years was assistant attorney of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Company. During Governor Bagley's term of four years he was his private Secretary, and at Governor Croswell's request served again in the same capacity. At the State election of 1878 he was nominated by the Republicans on the legislative ticket, made an exceptionally strong run and was elected, though the city went Democratic on the State ticket. In the legislative session of 1879 he was Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs, and also served on the Committee on Railroads. He was re-elected to the Legislature in I880, and served through the session of I88I and the special session of I882, and was again re-elected in 1882. In the session of I88i he was Chairman of the Committee on the University and a meffber of the Committee on Railroads and Apportionment. On the organization of the session of 1883 he was chosen speaker pro tempore, and as presiding officer made a most commendable record as an able parliamentarian. He was also Chairman of the Judiciary Committee and member of the Committees on State Library and the State Public Schools. During his legislative career Mr. Hopkins was an active and earnest worker, and recognized as a safe and careful leader. His previous services in the office of the chief executive made him familiar with the needs and requirements of the State, and his experience

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Page  1124 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I I23 in State affairs caused his counsel to be often sought. As Chairman of the Committee on Military Affairs he was prominently instrumental in securing the passage of the laws by which increased provisions were made for the maintenance of the State militia under which it is now so admirably organized. He also rendered valuable aid in the passage of the law for the erection of a new University library building. On all local measures his actions were wise and liberal, and revealed a painstaking interest and good judgment. He was the author of the bill for the purchase of Belle Isle, and secured its passage against the most strenuous opposition of many of the leading citizens of Detroit. Although largely interested in corporations, he has always insisted that corporations should bear their full share of the burden of taxation, and is the author of several laws which have put many thousands of dollars annually into the treasury, and thereby reduced the taxes to be paid by individuals. The law providing for the jury commission of Wayne County, which has done much to improve the jury system for the city and county, is one among many of the acts of a local nature which he secured for his constituency. Mr. Hopkins has always been a Republican, and has for many years been an active spirit in party management. During the political campaigns of I882 and 1884, he was Chairman of the Wayne County Republican Committee, and proved himself an efficient organizer and manager. He also served, in 1878, as Chairman of the State Central Committee, and again, in i888, conducting the campaign in Michigan, which closed so successfully for the party by the election of General Benjamin Harrison as president. He has always taken a warm interest in military matters, and served as one of the military staff during the administration of both Governors Bagley and Alger. For several years prior to the death of Governor Bagley he was intimately associated with him in the management of various business enterprises, and by his will was made one of his executors and trustees. The duties connected with this trust are so onerous that he has been obliged to retire from the general practice of his profession, and most of his time is now devoted to the care of the Bagley estate. He is interested in numerous business projects in Detroit, being director and treasurer of the John J. Bagley & Co. Tobacco Manufactory, and the Detroit Cyclorama Company; director in the Detroit Safe Company, Standard Life and Accident Insurance Company, Michigan Wire and Iron Works, Lime Island Manufacturers' Company, the Woodmere Cemetery Association, and the Longyear Iron Mining Company, and was one of the incorporators and a director of the American Banking and Savings Association, and of the American Trust Company. In the management of the complicated business enterprises with which he has been entrusted, Mr. Hopkins has displayed singularly good judgment and commendable faithfulness and integrity, and the honorable position he holds has been justly won by personal worth and a high degree of business tact and ability. WILLARD MERRICK LILLIBRIDGE was born at Blossvale, Oneida County, New York, April 26, 1846, and is a son of Ira and Sophronia (Merrick) Lillibridge, whose ancestors settled in Rhode Island and Connecticut as early as the year 1700. His great-grandfather, Rev. David Lillibridge, was a Baptist minister at Willington, Connecticut, and served in the French and Indian War, and his grandfather, Clark Lillibridge, was a soldier in the War of the Revolution. His father settled at Blossvale about I824, and reared a large family. Willard M., the youngest but one, attended school at Blossvale, prepared for college at Whitestown and Cazenovia Seminaries, entered Hamilton College in I865, and graduated in I869. Soon after graduating he accepted the position of Superintendent of Public Schools at Plattsburgh, New York, which position he held for two years. In 1871 he went to St. Louis, where he spent one year in the study of law and then came to Detroit, completed his studies in the office of Walker & Kent, and was admitted to the bar in I873. He entered at once upon the practice of his profession, and has continued it ever since, practicing alone until 1880, when he became the head of the firm of Lillibridge & Latham, and so continued until 1887, when the firm was dissolved, and Mr. Lillibridge has since practiced by himself. He has been almost uniformly successful, and has built up a prosperous law business, having a large clientage among the business firms and corporations of the city. He is a studious, hard-working lawyer, is well read in all the principles of law, and familiar with books and authorities. He has a clear and forcible style, and a pleasing manner at the bar, and succeeds by the thoroughness of his preparation and his devotion to the interest of his clients. He has been engaged in many important cases, among which may be mentioned the Southworth will case, tried in the United States Circuit Court at Milwaukee in I883, and the mandamus case of Richardson against Swift, argued in the Court of Errors and Appeals of Delaware, in i886. Mr. Lillibridge is a diligent student of classical and general literature, believes in a broad culture, and is liberal in his opinions.

Page  [unnumbered] 1124 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. In political faith he is a Republican, but not a politician. In 1874 and 1875 he served as a member of the Board of Education of Detroit, but has not sought nor desired office. He is quite largely interested in real estate, is a stockholder in several corporations, and Vice-President of the corporation of Samuel F. Hodges & Co., foundrymen and machinists. He was married December 5, 1882, to Katharine Hegeman, daughter of Joseph Hegeman, of New York. They have one daughter, Aletta A. Lillibridge. He and his family attend St. John's Episcopal Church. GEORGE VAN NESS LOTHROP was born in Easton, Bristol County, Massachusetts, August 8, 1817. He received a classical education and graduated at Brown University, in 1838, and the same year entered the Harvard Law School, then in charge of Judge Story and Professor Greenleaf. Within a year, his health becoming somewhat impaired, he left school, came to Michigan to recuperate, and made his home with his brother, Edwin H. Lothrop, of Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo County. He remained two or three years, occupying himself partly in farm work. In the spring of 1843 he came to Detroit, and resumed the study of law in the office of Joy & Porter. While yet a student, and before his admission to the bar, by special permission of the Supreme Court, on the application of James F. Joy, he appeared in the celebrated case of the Michigan State Bank against Hastings and others. So ably was his side of the case presented that the Judges openly expressed their admiration of the effort, and predicted for him a brilliant career. In the spring of 1844 he was appointed a Master of Chancery for Wayne County, and in company with D. Bethune Duffield commenced to practice in Detroit, the firm continuing until I856. In April, 1848, he was appointed Attorney-General of the State, and held the office until January, I85I. About this time the subject of a division of the public school moneys between the public and Catholic schools was quite actively discussed, and the regular nominees of the Democratic party at the city election of 1853 were generally believed to be in favor of such division. In opposition to any such plan, Mr. Lothrop was nominated on an independent Democratic ticket, and elected by a large majority. He was one of the Michigan delegation at the Charleston National Convention in 1860, and was active and earnest in support of the Douglas sentiment in that body. From July, 1863, to May, 1872, he served as one of the inspectors of the Detroit I-louse of Correction. In 1867 he was a member of the State Constitutional Convention; in 1873 he was tendered, but declined, an appointment as a member of the Constitutional Commission, and from 1880 to 1886 served as one of the Commissioners of the Public Library of Detroit. In May, 1885, soon after President Cleveland was elected, he nominated Mr. Lothrop as United States Minister to Russia, and he was duly confirmed by the Senate. His acceptance of this office, and consequent temporary departure from Detroit, called forth many expressions of regret. He was so universally esteemed as a high-minded citizen and friend, and his eminent legal and social qualities so generally known and appreciated, that his absence made a noticeable vacancy both in legal and in social circles. Many evidences of this feeling were manifested, and it is certain that no United States Minister ever went abroad accompanied with warmer or more hearty good wishes, and no one ever left behind a greater number of appreciative citizens, neighbors, and friends. In the fall of i888 he resigned his position, and on his return to Detroit was tendered a public reception, and warmly welcomed. Mr. Lothrop has always been zealously interested in whatever concerns the moral or literary welfare of the city. In 1853 he served as President of the Young Men's Society, and for several years served as President of the Detroit Association of Charities. During a quarter of a century he was attorney of the Michigan Central Railroad Company, and at various periods of time was counsel for the Detroit & Milwaukee, Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, and Detroit, Lansing & Northern Railroads. He is a holder of considerable real estate, both in Detroit and in the neighboring townships, and has besides some investments in bank, railroad, and other stocks. His reputation as a lawyer is not confined to his own State, but is really national. In Michigan he has few peers. It seems almost needless to say that such a reputation has not been gained without reason; indeed there are many reasons for his standing at the bar. With a mind clear and penetrating, with ability to grasp great questions, and at the same time consider the smallest details, with a graceful and fluent vocabulary of the purest and most classical English, and with physical vigor and a presence and manner that would command attention in any place, he is both naturally, and by study, fitted for the position he occupies. In addition to all these qualities, he is so transparently sincere, courteous, kind, and genial, that he easily wins esteem. In all literary matters his taste and discernment are highly cultivated, and he aims to keep abreast with the progress of scientific research. He has frequently been the choice of his fellow

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Page  1125 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I1125 citizens of the Democratic party for the highest political honors, and all who know him must concede his ability to fill any position in the gift of the people. He was married at Detroit, on May 13, 1847, to Alnira Strong. They have four sons and two daughters; the sons, George Howard, Charles Bradley, Henry B., and Cyrus E., all living in Detroit and well known in its society. The daughters are named Anne and Helen. The first named in October, I888, became the wife of Baron Barthold Hoyningen Huene, First Lieutenant of the regiment of Chevalier Guards of Her Majesty, the Empress of all the Russias. WILLIAM AUSTIN MOORE was born near Clifton Springs, Ontario County, New York, April 17, 1823. He was the seventh son and eighth child of William Moore and Lucy Rice. His ancestors on his father's side were of Scotch-Irish descent. His great-great-grandfather was one of the McDonald clan which was slaughtered at the massacre of (;lencoe, in Argyllshire, Scotland, on the morning of February 13, I692. His great-great-grandmother, after the murder of her husband, concealed herself and two daughters in a malt kiln, and on the night following the murder gave birth to a son, whom she named John. The widow, with her children, fled to Ireland, and settled at Londonderry, where they remained until I718, when they emigrated to America, and were among the first settlers of Londonderry, New Hampshire. John subsequently married and had a family of seven children, the third of whom William, married Jane Holmes, on December 3, 1763, and removed to Peterboro, New Hampshire. He was in the War of the Revolution, and fought at the battle of Bennington, July 19, I777. They had twelve children. The youngest, William Moore, was the father of the subject of this sketch, and was born April 9, 1787. At the age of eighteen he removed to Phelps, Ontario County, New York, where, on November 7, 80o6, he married Lucy Rice, formerly of Conway, Massachusetts, and who was a niece of the eccentric Baptist preacher, John Leland, of Cheshire, Massachusetts. William Moore was a farmer by occupation, and held various local offices. He was in the War of I812, and was at the burning of Buffalo and at the sortie at Fort Erie. In the summer of 1831 he removed his family to Washtenaw County, Michigan, and was one of the early settlers of that section. In I832 he was appointed justice of the peace, which office he held until Michigan became a State, and afterwards held it by election for twelve years. He was a member of the convention called for the preparation of the first constitution of Michigan, a member of the first Senate after Michigan became a State, and represented Washtenaw County in the House in I843. William A., during his boyhood, worked on his father's farm, and his earliest educational advan, tages consisted of a few weeks' schooling during the winter. When he was twenty years of age, he determined to follow the profession of law, and in April, 1844, he began a preparatory course of study at Ypsilanti, where he remained two years. He then entered the freshman class of the University of Michigan, and graduated in I850, a member of the sixth class which left that institution. For a year and a half after graduation he taught school at Salem, Mississippi. In April, 1852, he prosecuted the study of the law in the office of Davidson & Holbrook, and was admitted to the bar on January 8, 1853. He immediately entered upon the practice of his profession, in which he has since been actively engaged, and by incessant, persevering and painstaking labor, has built up a profitable business. When he began his professional career, admiralty practice formed an important feature in the legal business of Detroit, a branch of work to which he gave special attention and in which he became proficient. For many years no important collision case was tried in the State of Michigan in which he was not retained, and he was often called to Buffalo, Cleveland, Chicago and Milwaukee in his practice. From deep-seated convictions Mr. Moore has ever been a staunch supporter of the Democratic party, but his tastes do not run in the line of public station or political office. The only offices he has ever held have been those pertaining to local government. From 1859 to I865 he was a member of the Board of Education, and during this period he served two and one-half years as secretary and three and onehalf years as president of the Board. He has been the attorney of'the Board of Police Commissioners since 1879. In I88I he was appointed a member of the Board of Park Commissioners, and was re-appointed in 1884. He was twice elected president of said Board, but resigned before the expiration of his second term, it was thought, because his action on the question of the sale of beer and other intoxicating drinks on Belle Isle Park was not approved by the City Council, which refused all appropriations until the sale of beer should be permitted, although his action was sustained by the best public sentiment of the city. He was one of the organizers of the Wayne County Savings Bank, and of the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and has been a member of the board of directors, and the attorney of both of said corporations since their organization. He is also one of the directors of the American Exchange Natiopal Bank. From I864 to

Page  1126 II26 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I868 he was Chairman of the Democratic State Central Committee, and was the Michigan member of the Democratic National Executive Committee from I868 to 1876. During the late civil war he was a warm friend of the Union cause, and while disagreeing with many of the measures and methods pursued by the administration, he never wavered in his allegiance to the government. He gave liberally to aid in securing enlistments and for the relief of the wounded, and since the close of the war has ever been among the foremost in every movement in recognition of the service of the veterans, and is now a trustee of the Soldiers' Monument Association. Public-spirited and progressive, he readily aids every movement designed to advance the welfare of his fellows. He was one of the promoters of the Art Loan Exhibition, was one of the founders and a contributor for the erection of the Museum of Art, and is now its treasurer. As a lawyer he has achieved success in the trial of cases, but is especially in demand and appreciated as a counselor. He unites to a judicial and independent character of mind, long familiarity with the principles of law, excellent foresight, sound judgment, and above all, unquestioned integrityqualities which admirably fit him to act the part of conciliator and harmonizer of conflicting interests. His convictions are slowly formed, but a stand once taken is not abandoned for any mere question of policy or expediency. All his influence has been cast on the side of morality, good government, obedience to law, and the elevation of his fellows. No responsibility that has ever been laid upon him has ever been neglected or betrayed. Many persons with far less of worth have attracted a larger share of public attention, but there are few who have done more to conserve in various ways the best interests of the city. Reared in the Christian faith, he has always had deep reverence for religious principles, and since 1877 has been a member of the Lafayette, now the Woodward Avenue, Baptist Church. His friendships are strong and enduring, and in both public and private life he is a cultivated, genial Christian gentleman. He was married December 31, 1854, to Laura J. Van Husan, daughter of the late Caleb Van Husan. They have one son, William V., who is now associated with his father in the practice of his profession. GEORGE F. PORTER, for many years one of the leading lawyers of Detroit, was born in the town of Broome, New Hampshire, in 1803. The educational privileges of his youth were limited to the district schools of his native town. At an early age he left home to begin life's battles for himself, and from the savings 'his industry acquired, he se cured the means for obtaining a liberal education, studied law, was admitted to the bar and soon after, in 1829, emigrated to the Territory of Michigan, and settled in Detroit. Here he immediately secured a responsible position in the counting room of Dorr & Jones, at that time one of the leading mercantile houses of Detroit. In this establishment he acquired those accurate business habits which distinguished him through life. After spending some years with Dorr & Jones, he was employed by the old Bank of Michigan, and for several years was cashier of the branch at Kalamazoo. In 1837 he became associated with James F. Joy in the well remembered legal firm of Joy & Porter, which continued for nearly twenty years, and during that period was represented in most of the important litigations in the courts of Detroit and Michigan. Mr. Porter's commercial accuracy, excellent business methods and high attainments as a lawyer were of great value to the firm, and were in a large degree the cause of its success. His portion of the work of the firm pertained almost solely to office practice, and as a counselor and interpreter of intricate, difficult and close questions of law, requiring deep penetration, a wide general knowledge and a certain judicial quality of mind, he particularly excelled. He was an indefatigable student, and was naturally of an analytical and critical mind —qualities which made his opinion much sought and esteemed. The firm of Joy & Porter became the oldest legal partnership in Detroit, and was not dissolved until Mr. Porter's health began to fail and Mr. Joy became prominently connected with railroad management. Mr. Porter was one of the agents of the State in negotiating the sale of the Michigan Central Railroad; was prominent in the reorganization of the Michigan State Bank in 1845, and was one of the first directors of the first free school system established in Detroit. He was also one of the original anti-slavery men of Michigan, having been one of the organizers and officers of the first anti-slavery society formed in the State. His interest in the great political question was deep, and during the days when to be opposed to slavery was to arouse the popular prejudice, he manfully and unequivocally took sides against a state of affairs the existence of which he believed to be a national disgrace. He did not live to see slavery abolished, but in the beginning of the national struggle which it aroused, and which he foresaw meant its downfall, he gave his loyal support to the Union cause. He was a firm believer in Christianity, a consistent supporter of every good cause, and in every relationship of life an exemplary citizen, husband and father. For several years before his death his health had been gradually failing, and his death,

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Page  1127 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. I 27 which occurred on August 21, I862, was lamented as a public calamity. His prudence, energy, and close attention to business, enabled him to acquire a competency, but he left a name more precious than his fortune, and the record of a life of punctilious honesty in spirit and deed, a business and personal career without spot or shadow, and an example worthy of imitation. Mr. Porter was married October 26, i828, to Eliza Smith Cove, of Rutland, Vermont, who died in January, 1879. The result of this marriage was eight children, but two of whom survive, Arthur C. Porter and Mary J. Throop, widow of the late General William A. Throop, of Detroit, Michigan. RALPH PHELPS, JR., was born in Detroit, on November 14, 1859. He is the son of Ralph and Jane Phelps, and his ancestry in America dates back to the time of the War of the Revolution. He was educated in the public schools of Detroit, graduated from the High School, subsequently going to Ann Arbor, where he attended the law department of the University of Michigan and graduated in March, I879. He immediately entered upon the practice of law and rapidly acquired a large clientage. In 1883 he was elected by the largest majority of any member to the Upper House of the old Common Council, and two years after taking this position was unanimously elected President of that body, fulfilling the duties of the office in a manner highly satisfactory to his colleagues and creditable to himself. Whilst President of the Council he was called upon to act as Mayor for a considerable time on account of the illness of Mayor Chamberlain. During his term as President of the Council plans for a new post-office building were submitted to the people of Detroit. These plans showed a very common-place building proposed to be erected upon half of the block bounded by Fort and Lafayette, Wayne and Shelby Streets. Much dissatisfaction being generally expressed both on account of the plans and site, Mr. Phelps, as acting Mayor, called a meeting of the citizens to protest against them and to take steps to secure a structure in keeping with the demands and necessities of Detroit. As a result of this meeting a Citizens Post-Office Committee of ten persons, with Mr. Phelps as one of the number, was appointed to take charge of the matter, and by their activity and persistence in Washington, together with assistance they received from the members of Congress of this district, they Succeeded in having the appropriation largely increased, secured the whole of the block for a site, and had new plans prepared. Much credit is due Mr. Phelps for the great assistance he rendered in securing these results. In I886 he was elected Treasurer of Wayne County, receiving the largest majority of any candidate of either party, and two years later was reelected by a majority nearly four times larger, having a majority of 5,833 votes. His management of the office has given universal satisfaction, and almost any political office seems within his reach. In the fall of I889, he went to London, England, as the representative of large Detroit brewing interests, and successfully closed negotiations for the sales of several of the breweries of this city, a business transaction which had been long pending between Detroit brewers and English capitalists. He is now a director and legal adviser for the Goebel Brewing Company, which, controls four breweries, and is also a director and counsel for the Detroit Electric Light and Power Company, which has secured the contract for lighting the city for the next three years. He is a prominent secret society man, and belongs to nearly all the leading organizations. He is a member of Detroit Lodge, No. 2, F. & A. M.; Monroe Chapter, R. A. M.; Monroe Council, No. I, R. & S. M.; Detroit Commandery, No. i, K. T.; Michigan Consistory, A. & A. S. R., 32~, and a Mystic Shriner, and is also Treasurer and leading member of the benevolent order of Elks of this city. He is also a member of the Detroit Board of Trade, and of the Rushmere and other Clubs. For five years, from 1884 to I889, he was President of the Detroit Light Infantry, the crack military company of Michigan, and during his term of office the agitation for a new armory was started which resulted in the erection of the fine and commodious quarters which the company now occupies on Congress Street. Mr. Phelps possesses an accommodating spirit, and a frank, open-hearted disposition that makes him exceedingly popular. These traits of character, coupled with strong purpose, and much more than average ability, make him a leader in whatever project he becomes interested. He possesses strong financial instincts, which have been trained from an early year by the management of large business interests, which, owing to his father's poor health, had devolved in a great degree upon him. His integrity as a business man and lawyer is unquestioned, and his fidelity to friends and uniformly polite treatment of all with whom he comes in contact, has secured to him a host of friends. He is progressive and enterprising, and is always warmly interested in anything that concerns the welfare of his native city, and his success in the past gives promise of greater achievements in the future. JAMES ANDRUS RANDALL was born in Detroit, on December 15, 1848, and is a son of

Page  1128 I 1128 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. James Janeway and Caroline M. Randall. He was educated in the old Capitol School, near which the home of his father stood, and at the Goldsmith, Bryant & Stratton Business College. He graduated from the latter when but sixteen, and went to Nashville, Tennessee, for a visit. While there, Governor Brownlow took a great fancy to him, and, despite the disparity in their years, the two became fast friends. As an evidence of esteem the Governor issued to young Randall a commission as Major in the Sixth Tennessee Volunteers, and later detailed him to serve on the executive staff. Returning to the north in I866, Mr. Randall read law in Lamed & Hebden's office, was admitted to the bar in I869, and began practicing before he was a voter. He had always been fond of politics, and when he had made a name by handling successfully several large cases, he found himself agreeably drawn into the fascinations of political life. He was a Democrat, and, in I874, his party made him Circuit Court Commissioner. He so well fulfilled the duties of the office that he was twice re-elected, each time by largely increased majorities, and in I88I his friends wished to present his name to the Democratic nominating convention as one of the judges of the Third Judicial District, to fill a then existing vacancy, but he declined. A year later, however, he came before the regular convention called to nominate a candidate for the full term, but he was not its choice. In the spring of 1887 he was chosen by an overwhelming majority of the hundred and twenty delegates to the Democratic judicial convention, called for the purpose of placing in nomination a bench of four judges, and was nominated three successive times, but was counted out by unscrupulous tellers, and the officers of the convention, which had been organized against his candidacy. In the fall of 1887 he was chosen a member of the Board of Estimates, and in 1888 elected to the lower house of the State Legislature, where he at once became leader of the Democratic minority. Mr. Randall has always been a firm believer in the splendid possibilities of Detroit, and has labored unceasingly to make those possibilities realities. His chief work has been for public improvements. In I884 he took hold of the almost unknown Boulevard project, and was chiefly instrumental in advancing it to its present state. A prejudiced Council, ignoring the claims of the grand Boulevard, considered $i5,ooo to be sufficient for the work of improvement during the year i888, while they allowed $23,ooo for continuing the improvements on Belle Isle Park. As a member of the Board of Estimates, Mr. Randall denounced the disparity between the two appropriations, and despite the fact that a large majority of the Board had been elected as anti-boulevarders, and the persistent opposition of one of the leading journals of the city, his masterly and eloqu6nt presentation of the merits of the Boulevard as a necessary public improvement, and the unjust discrimination made against it in favor of Belle Isle Park, he had the Park estimates cut down to $I5,ooo to harmonize with the Boulevard allowance. Mr. Randall next went to the Legislature and passed a bill consolidating the Park and Boulevard Commissions so as to avoid future antagonism between those two public improvements; introduced and passed a bill authorizing Detroit to issue bonds to the amount of $500,000 for the purpose of improving the Boulevard, and drafted the bill authorizing the issue of $400,000 in bonds to complete the improvements of Belle Isle Park. But Mr. Randall's legislative labors were not concentrated upon these measures alone. The Democratic minority in the House of Representatives, recognizing his fitness, nominated and voted for him as their candidate for speaker of the House. He was the means of passing the bill allowing Detroit to issue $500,000 in bonds for constructing new trunk sewers. He introduced and passed the new registration law for Detroit; he framed and introduced a general election law for Detroit, the adoption of which would insure pure elections, the registration feature of which passed the House. He fought hard for the passage of his bill repealing the law taxing mortgages and other mere evidences of debt, and fought valiantly for its adoption; and, in short, gave intelligent attention to all measures of importance that came before the Legislature, and rendered capable service on the judiciary and municipal corporations committees. Mr. Randall, though a lawyer, has many other business interests. He is a large holder of real estate, is Vice-President of the Cole Conduit Company, of Detroit, also of the Detroit Graphite Electric Company, a director in the Put-in-Bay Hotel Company, First Vice-President of the Home Loan and Building Association, and is a director in and large owner of the Kansas City News. Personally he is of a jovial disposition, accepting both reverses and success with philosophic calm. He is the personification of frankness in everything, a strong speaker, and effective; a ready debater, a * logical thinker, a good fighter and a hard hitter. The secret of his success lies in his steady perseverance and resolute determination. Of a portly build, he has a fresh blonde complexion, a pleasant face and distinguished appearance. Although comparatively a young man, he has attained prominence both in the professional field and in business pursuits. W. C. G.

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Page   1128A JUDGES ANI) LAWYERS. I 128A JOHN WINDER, of Detroit, was born at Uniontown, Pennsylvania, in I805, His father, James Winder, was a native of Virginia, and his mother a native of New Jersey. He received a thorough English education in his native town, and in I824 left home for Detroit, in the employ of Major Thomas Rowland, who was then United States Marshal. In 1826 he was appointed Clerk of the Supreme Court of the Territory, and held the office until 1840 In I837 he was appointed Clerk of the United States Circuit and United States District Courts for Michigan. He held one of these offices until I870. He is a man of robust constitution, is social and genial in nature, and has a host of friends. CHARLES I. WALKER, one of the best known and most prominent lawyers of Detroit, was born at Butternuts, Otsego County, New York, April 25, 1814. He is a descendant of a sturdy old New England family, admirably fitted for the furnishing of such elements as are needed to command success amid the hindrances of a new and growing country. His grandfather, Ephraim Walker, was born in I735, and married Priscilla Rawson, a lineal descendant of Edward Rawson, who graduated from Harvard College in 1653, and for nearly forty years was secretary of the Colony of Massachusetts, and while holding the office took a bold stand against the usurpation of Governor I)udley. He built a family mansion on the corner of Westminster and Walker streets, at Providence, Rhode Island, and there, during the year 1765, Stephen Walker, the father of C. I. Walker, was born. In I790 he married Polly Campbell, who died in I795, leaving two children. In the following year he married Lydia Gardner, a Quakeress of Nantucket, who became the mother of eleven children, of whom C. I. Walker was the ninth in order of birth. Of this large family, the youngest had reached the age of twenty-one before death invaded the household. Stephen Walker was a house builder, a man of thrift, energy and high principle, who gave his children every advantage in his power. A writer in the " Book of Walkers " says: " He was a man of fair abilities, sterling good sense, honest, temperate, and remarkably industrious. He labored for the good of his family, and his ambition was to train them in the path of honor, usefulness and piety." His wife "was strong in person and character; a woman of inexhaustible energy and resources, and the care of thirteen children set lightly upon her." The family resided at Providence until 1812, when they removed to Butternuts, where the boyhood of Charles I. Walker was passed. He obtained his primary education in the district school in his native village, supplemented by one term at a private school at Utica, New York. At the age of sixteen he became a teacher, and a few months later entered a store connected with a cotton mill at Cooperstown, New York, where he remained four years. In 1834 he left this employment and made his first journey to the West, going as far as St. Joseph, and on his way passing through Detroit. In the spring of 1835 he returned to Cooperstown, and on his own account engaged in mercantile business, but sold out the following year to remove to the West. In prospecting for a home he visited Michigan, Indiana, Illinois and Iowa, and finally settled at Grand Rapids, where he became a land and investment agent and built up a good business, but the suspension of specie payment and the period of financial depression which ensued, compelled him to discontinue. In December, 1836, he was elected a member and was chosen secretary of the Territorial Convention to consider the question of the admission of Michigan into the Union. He was subsequently for two years editor and proprietor of the Grand Rapids Times, the only paper then published in that now thriving city. In 1838 he was elected justice of the peace, and then left journalistic life and began the study of law under the guidance of the late Chief Justice Martin. In I840 he was elected a member of the State House of Representatives from the district comprising Kent, Ionia, and Ottawa Counties, and the territory to the northward not yet included in any county organization. In the fall of the following year he removed to Springfield, Massachusetts, in order to complete his law studies. He became a student in the law office of Henry Morris, afterwards a judge of the Court of Common Pleas, remained in Springfield until the spring of 1842, and then studied law under the preceptorship of Dorr Bradley, of Brattleboro, Vermont. In the following September he was admitted to the bar, and at once entered into partnership with Mr. Bradley. In 1845, Hon. Daniel Kellogg, of Rockingham, Vermont, having been elected justice of the Supreme Court, Mr. Walker obtained his practice and business, remaining in Rockingham three years, and upon the completion of a railroad to Bellows Falls, Vermont, he removed to that place. By this time he had acquired a large and growing practice, extending into the adjoining counties, but the West attracted him, and in 1851 he returned to Michigan and settled in Detroit, where his brother, E. C. Walker, had already established a successful legal business. They entered into partnership, and in July, 1853, Alfred Russell was admitted as a partner, the firm name being Walkers & Russell. Their practice was principally in collections and commercial business. and Mr. Walker, desiring to devote himself principally to trial of causes and

Page   1128B II28B JUDGES AND LAWYERS. argument of law cases, withdrew from the firm in January, I857, since which time he has had no partner in the practice of his profession. Soon after his second coming to Michigan, Mr. Walker began to direct his attention to the early history of his adopted State. In I854 he was elected president of the Young Men's Society, which at that time wielded a strong influence. During 1854 he delivered the opening lecture of the society course, taking for his subject "The Early History of Michigan," in the preparation of which he was assisted by General Cass. In 1857 he was prominent in the re-organization of the Historical Society of Michigan. In July, I858, on the one hundred and fifty-seventh anniversary of the founding of Detroit, Mr. Walker read an elaborate paper devoted to the " Life of De La Motte Cadillac and the First Ten Years of Detroit." Among his other historical papers are "The Early Jesuits of Michigan," "Michigan from 1796 to I8o5," and "The Civil Administration of General Hull." In I871 he read before the Historical Society of Wisconsin a paper on "The Northwest Territory During the Revolution." It excited wide attention from the many interesting facts it contained-never before printed; was published in the third volume of the Wisconsin Historical Collection, and has since been reprinted in the collections of the Pioneer Society of Michigan. Mr. Walker's taste for historical research led to the collection of a choice library of books and manuscripts relating to the early history of Michigan and the Northwest, which were of real service to the author of this work in the preparation of the first edition of the History of Detroit. Mr. Walker has taken a warm and active interest in educational matters; was elected a member of the Board of Education in I853, and during much of the time since then has been officially connected with the Board, serving as president at two different times. His vote and influence are ever given to the broadest and most liberal provisions in all matters relating to educational affairs. In the spring of I859 he was appointed one of the professors in the law department of the Michigan University, a position which he ably filled for fifteen years, and then failing health and the demands of business forced him to resign. On the death of Judge Witherell in I867, Mr. Walker was appointed by Governor Crapo judge of the Wayne County Circuit Court to fill the vacancy. At the time of his acceptance of the office a proposition to increase the salaries of circuit judges was pending in the Constitutional Convention, but, upon its rejection by the people, Judge Walker, after having held the office about ten months, resigned, as he could not afford to sacrifice a lucrative practice for the small salary then attached to this judicial position. Since that time he has devoted himself very closely and laboriously to his large law practice, and though now past three score and ten, is regularly at his desk or in court, clear and vigorous in mind, and with bodily strength apparently equal to many years of work. Under a joint resolution of the Legislature in I869, he was appointed by Governor Baldwin one of the commissioners to examine the penal, reformatory and charitable institutions in Michigan, visit such institutions in other States, and report the results to the Governor. The commissioners made extensive examinations and an elaborate report, which led to the passage of a law creating a Board of State Charities, of which Judge Walker was appointed a member and acted as chairman many years. He represented the Board at the National Prison Reform Congress at Baltimore in 1872, and at St. Louis in 1874. Into the scientific consideration of the great problems of charity and correction, Judge Walker has gone with his whole heart, and has been justly recognized as an authority in various branches of these important questions. He was reared in the faith of the Quakers, and continued to observe their forms until he left home. He then became a member of the Presbyterian Church. When at Grand Rapids he gave his aid in the organization of an Episcopal Church, was one of its officers and a regular attendant while a resident there. While in Vermont he attended the Congregational Church, and on returning to Detroit became a member of the First Congregational Church. He is not strongly denominational in his feelings, his church relationships having been determined principally by circumstances. Politically he has ever been a Democrat. He is a strong believer in the morality and advisability of free trade, and an equally strong opponent of the centralization of political power. When twentyone years of age, he was a member of the AntiSlavery Convention at Utica, New York, which was broken up by a mob, but reassembled at Petersborto by the invitation of Garret Smith. While an inflexible anti-slavery man, he was in sympathy with the Free Soil party in I848, and supported Van Buren. He was a hearty supporter of the government war measures from I86I to 1865, and in the war meetings held in that critical time to raise funds or volunteers to prosecute the war he was a frequent and influential speaker. Personally he has a pleasant, agreeable manner, with inflexible integrity and strong common sense. His life has been characterized by faithfulness in every trust committed to him. His private life has been without reproach, and in public affairs he has been unusually active, influential,and useful.

Page   1129 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. II29 He was married in 1838 to Mary Hindsdale, sister of Judge Mitchel Hindsdale, a pioneer of Kalamazoo County. She died in May, 1864. In May, I865, he married Ella Fletcher, daughter of Rev. Dr. Fletcher, of Townshend, Vermont. By his first wife he had one son and by his second, two children, the younger of whom, a son, is a student at Yale College. EDWARD CAREY WALKER, the youngest of the thirteen children of Stephen and Lydia Walker, was born at Butternuts, Otsego County, New York, July 4, 1820. At an early age he became an inmate of the family of his brother Ferdinand Walker, then living at Hamilton, Madison County, New York. He prepared for college at the academy of that place, but at the age of fifteen left his studies to accept a position in an engineer corps engaged in building the Chenango canal under the charge of William A. McAlpine, afterwards so distinguished as an engineer. After two years' service, a broken knee, the result of being thrown from a carriage, unfitted him for further work in his chosen profession, and in September, I837, still suffering from his injury and obliged to use crutches, he came to Detroit to visit his sister, Mrs. Alexander C. McGraw. Mr. McGraw advised him to renew his studies, and offered to send him to college at his own expense. He accepted the offer, attended the branch of the University then at Ietroit, conducted by Rev. Chauncey W. Fitch, afterwards Chaplain in the United States Army, and in I840 entered the junior class of Yale College and graduated with honor in 1842. He then returned to Detroit, taught school for a time in the branch of the University, and then began the study of law in the office of Joy & Porter, and subsequently spent a year in study under Judge Story at the Harvard law school, and was admitted to the bar in 1845. He at once began the practice of his profession in Detroit and has since continued therein with success and honor. In I850, at his request, he was joined by his brother, Charles I. Walker, under the partnership name of C. I. & E. C. Walker. In 1853 Alfred Russell became a member of the firm, and so continued until I860, when he became United States District Attorney. In the meantime, in I857, C. I. Walker retired from the firm, and for fifteen years following Charles A. Kent was associated as a partner with E. C. Walker, under the firm name of Walker & Kent. At the present time, and for several years, Mr. Walker's only son, Bryant, has had a partnership interest in his father's legal practice, Walker & Walker becoming the firm name. Mr. Walker's practice has largely pertained to commercial business and the management of prop erty interests for eastern parties. His knowledge and skill as-a lawyer, combined with his high personal integrity, have eminently fitted him for this branch of practice. In matters connected with land titles, and in questions affecting the rights and responsibilities of corporations, his counsel is much sought and highly esteemed. Painstaking labor, persevering and incessant effort, have been rewarded by a large and profitable business in the line of his profession. He has manifested a warm interest in educational matters, and has particularly interested himself in the advancement of the Detroit public schools. For many years he was a member and Secretary of the Board of Education of Detroit, and though during late years not officially connected with the Board, he has been enthusiastic in support of all measures designed to increase the efficiency of the educational institutions of the city. He has ever been active in benevolent and reformatory work, freely giving his time and money to every project he deemed to be for the public good. He is a strong advocate of temperance, and in 1846 was secretary of one of the first temperance societies organized in Detroit, and through the various phases of this reform has been a staunch supporter of the principle of total abstinence. He has served as president of various literary and religious societies, and has long been a member and elder of the Fort Street Presbyterian Church, and actively interested in the management of the church. He is a Republican in political faith, was for four years Chairman of the Republican State Central Committee, and has had many opportunities to enjoy political honors, but for the most part has declined, preferring the more congenial work of his profession. In 1863 he was elected by the popular vote of the State a regent of the University of Michigan, and drawing by lot the short term, served two years, and was then re-elected for eight years, and again elected for the same period in I873. He was chosen to represent the city of Detroit in the Legislature of I876, his most important service during his term being as chairman of the Judiciary Committee of the lower house. During the War for the Union he was a persistent and conscientious supporter of the federal government, and gave liberally of time and money to aid the Union cause. He was one of the organizers in 1863 and chairman of the Michigan Branch of the United States Christian Commission, which sent delegates to the hospitals and fields, and expended over $30,000 in ministering to the welfare and comfort of the Union soldiers. As a member of the commission, Mr. Walker personally spent six weeks in caring for the wounded after the battle of the Wilderness.

Page   1130 I130 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. During a residence of half a century in Detroit, Mr. Walker has sought and served the public weal in many ways, and every trust, either of a public or private nature, committed to him, has been zealously guarded and faithfully executed. He possesses naturally a kindly, sympathetic, and genial nature, that kindles responsive feelings in those with whom he becomes associated. All his influence is on the side of morality, temperance, good government, obedience to law, and the elevation of his fellow citizens. Other citizens have attracted a larger share of public attention, but few persons have exerted a more helpful or manly influence in the community where he has so long resided, and where he is justly respected and esteemed. He was married in 1852 to Lucy Bryant of Buffalo, New York. They have had two children, Bryant, now his father's associate in business, and Jessie, wife of Rev. Wallace Radcliffe, D. D., of Detroit. WILLIAM PALMER WELLS, the son of Noah Burrall and Phcebe Palmer (Hewitt) Wells, was born at St. Albans, in Franklin County, Vermont, February 15, 1831. His father, a lineal descendant of Thomas Wells, an early Governor of Connecticut, was born in Old Canaan, Litchfield County, Connecticut, in '794, and settled in St. Albans, Vermont, in I812, where he was engaged in mercantile pursuits until his death in I857. His mother was born in Pawlet, Vermont, in i8oi, and was a descendant of the Palmer family of Stonington, Connecticut. She died at Detroit in I882. William P. Wells took a preparatory college course at the Franklin County Grammar School at St. Albans, and then entered the University of Vermont at Burlington, and after spending four years, graduated with the degree of A. B. in I851. After graduation he commenced the study of law at St. Albans. In 1852 he entered the law school of Harvard University, and in I854 graduated with the degree of LL. B., receiving the highest honors of his class for a thesis on "The Adoption of the Principles of Equity Jurisprudence into the Administration of the Common Law." The same year he received the degree of M. A. from the University of Vermont, and in 1854 was admitted to the bar of his native State at St. Albans. In January, I856, he settled in Detroit, entering the law office of James V. Campbell. In March following he was admitted to the bar of Michigan, and in November of the same year became a partner of James V. Campbell, the partnership continuing until Judge Campbell's accession to the bench in 1858 as one of the judges of the Supreme Court of Michigan. From that time to the present Mr. Wells has continued the practice of law alone in Detroit. His legal talents early won just recognition, and his practice has extended to all the courts of the State and United States. He has been counsel in many of the most important litigations of the past twentyfive years, notably in cases involving the constitutionality of the War Confiscation Acts, heard in the Supreme Court of the United States in I869 and 1870. He was a member of the Legislature of Michigan in I865-6, as a representative from the city of Detroit. As a member of the Committee on Elections, he took an active part in the contested election cases, and made a report strongly urging the Legislature to follow the decision of the Supreme Court upon the "Soldier Voting Law." He was a member of the Board of Education of Detroit in 1863-4, and chairman of the Committee on Library. In the latter capacity he made an elaborate report in favor of the foundation of a library which became a basis for the plan of the present Public Library, and at its opening in March, I865, he made the principal address. In I874-5, during the leave of absence of Judge Charles I. Walker, Kent Professor of Law in the University of Michigan, Mr. Wells was appointed to the vacancy. On Judge Walker's resignation in I876, Mr. Wells was appointed to the professorship, a position he held until December, 1885, when he resigned because of the interference of its duties with his legal practice. The subjects assigned to this professorship, and of which Mr. Wells had charge, were Corporations, Contracts, Commercial Law generally, Partnership, and Agency. Upon his resignation an address was presented him by the students, and resolutions of commendation adopted by the Regency. From January I, 1887, to the close of the college year, Mr. Wells held the position of Lecturer on Constitutional History and Constitutional Law in the University of Michigan, temporarily discharging the duties of Judge Cooley, Professor of American History and Constitutional Law in that institution. In June, 1887, he was again called by the Regency to the Kent Professorship in the la\w school, and he now holds that position. The subject of Constitutional Law was added to those of which he has charge. Outside of his professional work, Mr. Wells has given attention to general studies within the wide range of intellectual culture, and is often called upon for addresses upon literary and other occasions. At the commencement of the Law Department of the University of Michigan, in I870, he delivered an address on " The Public Relations of the Legal Profession," and in 1875 one on "The Relations of Educated Men to American Politics," before the Associate Alumni of the University of Vermont; in

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Page  1131 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. 113I I876 on "The Civil Liberty of New England" before the New England Society of Ann Arbor, and on " The Relations of Lawyers to the Reform of the Law," at the commencement of the Law Department of the University of Michigan in I883. At the Legislative Reunion at Lansing in June, i886, he delivered an address upon "The Legislative Power in a Free Commonwealth;" also memorial addresses in Detroit, on Decoration Day, 1883 and 1884. Always an earnest advocate of the free trade policy, he is vice-president of the American Free Trade League, and an honorary member of the Cobden Club of England. He was one of the earliest members of the American Bar Association, organized in 1878, which holds its annual session at Saratoga, N. Y., and for several years has been a member of the General Council; and in 1888 was elected chairman of the General Council. At the meeting in I886, he presented a paper on "The Dartmouth College Case and Private Corporations," which has been reprinted from the transactions of the Association, and widely circulated, attracting much attention. Among the members of the legal profession, Mr. Wells stands in the front rank. As an advocate, a lecturer, and a gentleman of broad and liberal culture, he holds a place among the best, and his legal attainments, tested by long practice in important cases, justified his selection as an associate with Judges Cooley and Campbell in the law faculty of the University. His legal studies, however, have not fully engrossed his attention, and the intervals of freedom from pressing professional duties have been devoted to following avenues of intellectual culture opened by a liberal education. Naturally a clear and vigorous thinker, and possessing the valuable gift of clear and forcible expression, he needed only the opportunities he has enjoyed to secure eminence as an orator, alike at the bar, in the political arena, and in the halls of the University. For his duties in connection with the University he possesses special fitness, and it is by that work that he will be most widely remembered. The professional successes of a lawyer, however useful or beneficial, are comparatively ephemeral, but the teacher who has been the means of giving an intellectual impetus, and who has imparted the clear light of absolute knowledge to the inquiring mind, is sure of being held in grateful remembrance. That Mr. Wells has been greatly successful as a professor is conceded by all who have any knowledge of the University, and especially by the students who have been fortunate in having him as an instructor. His abilities are such as to command acquaintanceship with many persons distinguished in professional and political life. He has long taken an active and leading part in party politics; he is, however, always dignified, selfrespecting and courteous to his political opponents, and incapable of descending to the ignoble practices so common in the political arena. His party affiliations have always been with the Democratic party, and he has been prominent and active in its councils and efforts in Michigan. During the War for the Union he was a strong War Democrat and ably supported the Government in the suppression of the Rebellion. In 1866 he was a delegate from Michigan to the Union National Convention in Philadelphia. In I868 he was a member of the Democratic State Central Committee, and in 1883 and in I888, President of the Democratic State Convention. Often urged by his party, especially since its accession to control in the Federal Government, for high positions, he has steadily refused to seek office. His religious affiliations are with the Protestant Episcopal Church, and he is a member of St. Paul's Parish. He was married October 14, I857, to Mary Campbell, youngest daughter of Henry M. Campbell. They have had four children, of whom only one, Charles William, is now living. ALBERT HAMILTON WILKINSON was born at Novi, Oakland County, Michigan, November 19, I834. His father, James Wilkinson, was of English descent, and was born in Henderson, Jefferson County, New York, February 24, I8oo. In I825 he purchased from the Government a tract of land in Novi, upon which, as one of the earliest pioneer farmers, he continued to reside until his death on February 3, 1872. The maiden name of his wife was Elizabeth Yerkes. She died in I863. Her ancestors were of German descent, and came to America in the Colonial period. James Wilkinson had six children, five of whom reached mature age. The eldest was Harmon, who died at the age of nineteen. The other children, in their order after A. H. Wilkinson, were James Milton, now a banker at Marquette, Michigan; Melissa, wife of Homer A. Flint, Register of the Probate Court of Detroit; William Lewis, deceased, and Charles M., a lawyer, at Minneapolis. Albert H. Wilkinson was reared in the country, but early in life evinced a taste and desire for a professional career. His education began in the district school, and was continued at the Cochrane Academy, at Northville, Michigan, conducted by the father of the late Lyman Cochrane, first Judge of the Superior Court of Detroit. After leaving Northville, Mr. Wilkinson conducted a winter school in Milford Township, Oakland County, and subse

Page  1132 1132 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. quently entered the State Normal School at Ypsilanti, being one of the earliest students of that institution at its opening in the spring of I853. At the end of a year and a half he left the Normal School to accept the position of principal of the Union Graded School at Centreville, St. Joseph County, Michigan. Being determined to perfect himself in his studies, he remained only five months at Centreville, and then, for the purpose of studying Greek, went to Rufus Nutting's Academy at Lodi Plains, Washtenaw County. From there, in I855, he entered the Michigan State University, graduating in the classical course in 1859. He then attended the law department of the University, remaining during the school year, afterwards studying in the office of Judge M. E. Crofoot, of Pontiac, and in June, I860, was admitted to the bar. In the fall of I860, and for a short period thereafter, he practiced in partnership with Henry M. Look, and afterwards with Oscar F. Wisner. In August, I86I, he came to Detroit, and for the following five years continued the practice of law with W. P. Yerkes, Probate Judge. On January I, 1866, with Hoyt Post, he established the law firm of Wilkinson & Post, which was continued until 1873, when Mr. Post retired, and Mr. Wilkinson formed a partnership with his brother Charles M., under the firm name of A. H. & C. M. Wilkinson. In 1877 Mr. Post again became a partner of the firm, and from that time until 1884, when Charles M. Wilkinson retired, the firm was known as Wilkinson, Post & Wilkinson. Since I884 it has been Wilkinson & Post. Mr. Wilkinson's practice has been general, but of late years has pertained largely to the settlement of estates. His party affiliations have been with the Republican party. He has been a member of the School Board from the Fifth Ward, and from 1873 to 1877 served as Judge of Probate. He was one of the organizers of the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company and of the Michigan Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and has been attorney and director of both companies. He was also one of the organizers of the Michigan Savings Bank, and has always been its attorney. When quite young he became a member of the Baptist Church, and is art earnest and influential spirit in that organization, and for several years has been a trustee and deacon in the First Baptist Church. He has been active in Sunday School work, and for many years was Superintendent of the First Baptist School, and also of t'he Clinton Avenue Mission School. He assisted in the organization and was the first president of the Detroit Baptist Social Union. His reputation in the community is that of an upright, consistent Christian gentleman, an honest, painstaking lawyer, a good neighbor and a firm friend, and he has received and fulfilled many important trusts faithfully and honorably. He was married July 4, I859, to Elvira M. Allen a graduate of the State Normal School in 1858. JAMES WITHERELL was born in Mansfield, Massachusetts, June 16, 1759. His ancestors came from England between i620 and I640. In June, 1775, when only sixteen years old, he voluntarily enlisted as a private in a Massachusetts regiment, and served at the siege of Boston and entirely through the War of the Revolution. He was severely wounded at the battle of White Plains, was at the battles of Long Island, Stillwater, and Bemis Heights, and present at the surrender of Burgoyne. He was also with the army at Valley Forge when it endured the severest of its sufferings, and the following summer fought at the battle of Monmouth. During the latter part of his services he held a commission of Adjutant in the Eleventh Massachusetts Regiment. He witnessed the execution of Antre, at Tappan, and with other soldiers participated in the final disbanding of the Continental Army in 1783, at Newburg. On being mustered out of service, he found himself in possession of seventy dollars in Continental scrip. With this sum he settled in Connecticut, studied medicine, and after about five years removed to Vermont and engaged in the practice of his profession. Here he rose rapidly in the esteem of his fellow-citizens, and was called upon to fill a number of public offices. He served in the Legislature of Vermont from I798 to 1803, was County Judge for the two following years, and State Councillor for the three years following 1804. In I807 he was elected to Congress, and in I808 had the pleasure of voting for the Act which abolished the slave trade. While in Congress, on April 23, I808, he was appointed by President Jefferson one of the Judges of the Supreme Court of the Territory of Michigan. Soon afterwards he resigned his seat and started for the then almost unknown region. Arriving here, he found the duties of his office arduous and perplexing. He was not only one of the Chief Judges, but the Governor and Judges together constituted the Territorial Legislature, and they also acted as a land board in adjusting old land claims, and in laying out anew the City of Detroit. From the time of his arrival in Detroit until his decease, Judge Witherell was prominent in all public affairs. As one of the Judges he did more than any one else to squelch the fraudulent Detroit Bank, and he aided materially in bringing the chaotic laws of the Territory into somewhat of symmetry, and was the author of the "Witherell Code." His family, who had been residing at Fair Haven,

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Page  1133 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. II33 Connecticut, did not come to Detroit until i8Io, and they remained only about a year, the unsettled state of affairs with the Indians, and their threatening attitude, causing them to return to Vermont. The next year after their return the War of 1812 began, and Judge Withcrell, who, in the absence of Governor Hull, was the only Revolutionary officer in the Territory, was placed in command of the Territorial militia. On the arrival of General Hull and the almost immediate surrender of Detroit, Mr. Witherell refused to surrender his corps, but allowed them to disperse. He, with his son, James C. C. Witherell, who was an officer in the volunteer service, and his son-in-law, Colonel Joseph Watson, became prisoners, and were sent to Kingston, Ontario, where they were released on parole. They then went to West Poultney, Vermont, and after being exchanged, the Judge returned to his duties, and continued in the same office until February I, I828, when he was appointed Secretary of the Territory. Judge Witherell was about six feet in height, erect in form, and possessed a positive character. His correspondence shows great facility of expression, a wide range of words, and that he was a student of books and men is abundantly evident. It was said of him, by one of the most eminent statesmen of the age, that "he possessed as pure a heart and as sound an intellect as is ordinarily given to human nature." His sterling integrity, moral worth, and prompt attention to official duties, made him an acceptable judge. He was a man of few words, but of clearly defined opinions, and possessed an almost inflexible will. These qualities of mind, guided by his strong common sense, enabled him to exert a leading influence in whatever position he was placed. In 1813 he bought what is known as the Witherell Farm, and resided upon it until I836. He then. removed to a residence on the site of the present Detroit Opera House, where he died on January 6, 1838. The Legislature was then in session in the city, and both it and the Supreme Court of the State passed eulogistic resolutions, and adjourned as a mark of respect. Judge Witherell was married to Amy Hawkins, on November 11, 1780. She was born in Smithfield, Rhode Island, and was a descendant of Roger Williams. Her father's name was Charles, her mother's maiden name, Sarah Olney. They had six children: James C. C., born July 14, 1791; he entered Middlebury College in 1803, but went with the family to Detroit, arriving in a government sloop on June 20, I8Io; he died at Poultney on August 26, I813. Sarah Myra was born September i I792, married Colonel Joseph Watson, and died in Poultney, March 22, 1818. Betsey Matilda was born in 1793, married Dr. E. Hurd, and died at Detroit in 1852. Mary Amy was born in October, 1795, married Thomas Palmer in i82i, and died in Detroit, March 19, 1874. Benjamin F. H. was born in 1797, and died June 22, 1867. James B. was born May 12, 1799, became a midshipman in the United States Navy, and died of yellow fever on board the United States ship Peacock, during a passage from Havana to Hampton Roads. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN HAWKINS WITHERELL was born at Fair Haven, Vermont, August 4, I797, and was the second son of Judge James Witherell, one of the Judges of the Territorial Supreme Court of Michigan. He was educated chiefly in the East, under the tuition of Dr. Beaman, and in 1817, on the permanent removal of his father's family to Detroit, he commenced the study of law in the office of Governor Woodbridge. In I819 he was admitted to the bar of the Territorial Court, and entered upon the practice of his profession in Detroit. On the motion of Daniel Webster, he was subsequently admitted to the bar of the Supreme Court of the United States. He began almost immediately to be sought for public office, and was appointed a Justice of the Peace in 1824, and Recorder of the city in 1828. In 1834, and during the most of the year 1835, he served as Judge of Probate and from 1835 to I839 was Prosecuting Attorney for Wayne County. In I843 he became District Judge of the Criminal Court, the district consisting of the counties of Wayne, Washtenaw, and Jackson, and held the office for four years, and until the Court was abolished by the Constitution of I850. In J857 he was chosen Circuit Judge of Wayne County to fill the vacancy made by the resignation of Judge Douglass, and was re-elected to this office for two successive terms, serving in all some ten years. During his term as Circuit Judge he also, in I858, under the law, served as one of the Judges of the Supreme Court, and from I862 to 1864 was Judge of the Recorder's Court. In addition to the above he served as a member of the convention of 1836 at Ann Arbor, which resulted in securing the admission of Michigan as a State; he was also a member of the Constitutional Convention of I850. He served as State Senator in 1840 and 1841, as Regent of the University in 1848, and as Historiographer of the city of Detroit from I855 to 1867. He also held at various periods of time the military offices of Judge Advocate General, Brigadier-General, and Major-General of the militia, and was President of the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument Association at. the time of his death. He was President of the State Historical Society for many years, and wrote numerous articles illus

Page  1134 II34 JUDGES AND LAWYERS. trative of the history of Michigan, and in his day no one was better acquainted with the history of Detroit than himself. Many of his recollections were published in the Detroit Free Press, over the signature of Hamtramck, and a number of them were republished by the State Historical Society of Wisconsin. He was one of the corporators of the First Protestant Church of Detroit, and one of the first trustees of the First Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in 1822. He was active and influential in all moral reforms, helped to organize the Bible Society in I83r, and was one of the earliest to aid in establishing the common school system of the city. In his prime he was over six feet in stature, genial and kindly in his disposition, and universally esteemed as an upright and honorable man, and had a host of warm personal friends, especially among the French residents. He was married in I824 to Mary A. Sprague, of Poultney, Vermont. They had four children, namely, Martha E., James B., Harriet C. M., and Julia A. His wife died in August, I834, and in I837 he married Delia A. Ingersoll. They had one child, Charles I. Witherell. The wife and mother died in 1847, and in 1848 he married Cassandra S, Brady, who died in March, I863. Mr. Witherell died on June 26, 1867.

Page  1135 CHAPTER XCIV. MERCHANTS. HENRY JAMES BUCKLEY was born in the city of Baltimore, in 1822, and in 1838 came to Detroit, and entered the employ of Gurdon Williams & Co., produce merchants and forwarders, who were largely interested in the Detroit and Pontiac Railroad, then in process of construction. The same firm were pioneers of the Lake Superior trade, and loaded and sent the first propeller that ever cleared for that region, and, in addition to all their other enterprises, were the owners of the Bank of Pontiac. Growing out of his connection with the firm, Mr. Buckley, in I839, served for a time as conductor on the railroad, and, subsequently, as teller in the Bank of Pontiac. At this time he was only seventeen years old, but he had given such satisfactory proof of his integrity and business talent that he won the unlimited confidence of his employers. The amount of labor performed by him would seem incredible, to those unfamiliar with his astonishing capacity for business at that time, and which was even more fully exemplified in his after life. He performed almost the entire official business, DFoth of the bank, and the railroad, regularly going the rounds of the stores and warehouses, to look after shipments, when the other duties of the day had been performed. In i854, the firm of Gurdon Williams & Co. withdrew from the business of produce and forwarding, and were succeeded by a new firm, consisting of G. 0. Williams, H. J. Buckley and N. G. Williams. Further changes took place in I860 and 1864, and, after the last date, the style of the firm became "Buckley & Co.," their operations being carried on at the identical stand at the foot of First Street where Mr. Buckley had commenced work. The business of the house steadily increased, and with its growth, Mr. Buckley became by degrees closely identified with the interests of the Upper Peninsula, and invested a large share of his earnings in developing the resources of that important portion of the State. His proclivities were proverbially of an adventurous character, and the many mining enterprises of that region presented a fine field for their exer cise. He operated, however, with tact and good judgment, seldom risking largely where the investment was not proved judicious by actual results, and very few copper mines were ever started to the development of which his means and influence were not contributed. His landed property in the mining region grew to large proportions, and his interests there, at the time of his death, were doubtless more diversified than those of any other man ever connected with the Lake Superior trade. He was always well versed in mercantile values and shrewd in making a bargain, and, when made, no man was ever more faithful in abiding by a contract. He had a high ideal as to what constituted mercantile integrity, and would sacrifice thousands of dollars rather than forfeit his honor, and this not in a vainglorious spirit, but simply as a matter of integrity. He belonged to the Democratic school of politics, and although warm and enthusiastic, his preferences and convictions were never tainted by bigotry. At the State election, in I870, he was a candidate for Representative in the State Legislature, and although some of his colleagues upon the ticket were men of great personal popularity, he received more votes than any other candidate on the ticket, and was one of the two Democratic Representatives chosen. In I865 he was unanimously elected President of the Board of Trade. He was a genial companion, and his manner was always deferential, which rendered him a pleasing associate, and it is worthy of note that in social life he never spoke sneeringly or deprecatingly of others. If he could not speak well of the absent, he would say nothing. He was married on November 3, I858, to Mary Williams of Detroit. She is still living, and also their four children-Mary, Henry, Cornelia Williams and James Pinkney. Henry resides in Santiago, California. Mr. Buckley died November 27, 1870. The Board of Trade and other bodies passed highly commendatory resolutions, and the attendance of business men at his funeral was the largest seen up to that time in Detroit, and included over [11351

Page  1136 1136 TMERlCHANTS. sixty members of the Board of Trade, who marched in procession the entire distance to the cemetery. JAMES BURNS was born November Io, I81o. At the age of nine years he left his home in Lewis County, New York, started in life for himself, and in 1826 commenced to learn the trade of a carpenter and joiner, in Turin, New York. Subsequently he attended the Louisville Academy, studying in the winter, and in the summer working at his trade. In I834 he came to Detroit, where he pursued his trade for a year. The succeeding year he traveled on horseback over a large part of the wilds of Michigan, and bought for himself and others large amounts of wild land. He afterwards became clerk in the dry goods house of Olney Cook, and after two years' service became a partner, under the firm name of Cook & Burns. For seven years they transacted business in a store on Jefferson avenue, where the Old Masonic Hall now stands, and during that time their establishment became one of the best known business houses in the city. After several years Mr. Cook retired, and T. L. Partridge was taken into partnership, and the firm then became James Burns & Co., and under this name carried on a very successful business for fully twenty years. In I850 the business was removed to the east side of Woodward avenue, just north of Jefferson avenue. In 1866 Mr. Partridge retired, and Lucien A. Smith was admitted as partner, the firm name changing to Burns & Smith, and remaining thus until I874, when Mr. Burns retired, having been in the dry goods business in Detroit for nearly forty years. In I86I, when the first Board of Review for the city was provided for by the Legislature, Mr. Burns was nominated by Mayor C. H. Buhl as a member of the Board, was confirmed by the Council, and served in this position twelve years, having been nominated and re-nominated by five successive Mayors and appointed by five successive Councils of different political principles from his own. He resigned in I873, when elected as Representative in the State Legislature. As a member of that body he was appointed upon the Committee of Ways and Means, and on many of the most prominent special committees, and strove to make himself useful rather than conspicuous. In 1873 he erected the Burns Block on Griswold street, and in 1877, with Mr. Buhl, he erected a block on Woodward avenue, on the site of the old Odd Fellows' Hall. In I876 he was appointed, by the Governor, a member of the Board of Coi trol of the State Public School at Coldwater, and in 1877,was elected Presi dent of the Board, retaining the position for several years. Mr. Burns was married on April 20, I838, to Aurilla A. Bacon. They were members of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church of Detroit for over forty years, longer than any other married couple in a membership of over seven hundred. During this time the location of the church was changed three times, each time being moved northward on Woodward avenue. Mr. Burns filled many of the most prominent positions in the church, and always gave largely towards its support. As a business man, Mr. Burns's unfailing characteristics were industry and integrity. As a citizen, he took a spirited interest in everything that tended to the prosperity of the city, doing much towards its material improvement by the erection of fine buildings, and contributed freely of his means to worthy and benevolent enterprises. In all his intercourse with others he was plain and unassuming; his advice and judgment on business matters was frequently sought, and he was eminently methodical in the management of his own affairs, and trusted and esteemed as a man and a Christian. He died on December 7, 1883. His daughters, Mrs. Henry A. Newland, Mrs. Rev. J. M. Buckley, and Mrs. A. M. Henry, all died before him. His wife and three grandchildren are still living. WILLIAM KIEFT COYL only son of James Coyl, sea captain, and Lydia (Hicks) Coyl, was born in New Haven, Connecticut, February 13, 1808. The first years of his life were spent in New York City with relatives, descendants of the early settlers of New Amsterdam, after one of whom he was named. Among his earliest recollections was the crowd which ran through the streets crying Peace! Peace! after the War of I812 which left him fatherless. In his tenth year he went to live upon a farm near New Haven, where in spite of a toilsome life and few opportunities for study open to a country boy at that time, he managed to obtain a fair education. It has been truly said that " the man is best educated who by any means has made his powers available," and energy, clear thinking, and prompt decision, were qualities brought West by this young New Englander. His first location was with Mr. John Deusler, near Canandaigua, New York, where he learned the trade of making grain cradles and other farming utensils. In his twenty-second year he came to Birmingham, Michigan, built a saw mill, and, in connection with Mr. John Benjamin, commenced the manufacture of agricultural implements, and there produced the first iron plows made in this State. While in Birmingham he married Jane Bell, and shortly after, in I836, moved to Detroit. His first enterprise here was the bu lding of the " check

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Page  1137 MERCHANTS. 1I 37 ered store" on Woodbridge street, between Woodward avenue and Griswold street, where he carried on a grocery and hardware business, and kept the adjoining hotel. To this house, in February, 1838, many of the wounded in the Patriot War were brought for surgical treatment, receiving from him, and other well known citizens, substantial aid and sympathy. The records of the Pioneer Society show, that it was mainly through his "energetic efforts in raising money and employing teachers," that District School No. I was opened and kept in operation. His account book of I838 contains an interesting statement of the running expenses of this small beginning of our present fine public schools. Other entries in the old book show that this gratuitous work was done at a time when he was sustaining heavy losses in the so-called wild-cat money of the time. Later on he moved to Woodward avenue, where he was burned out in the memorable fire of i842. An estimate of this loss closing with the pathetic words, " I have lost all that I ever made. and now begin again," reminds one of Emerson's definition of manly courage:-" It is directness, the instant performance of that which he ought." In I844 he moved to the then farthest up-town store, on the corner of Woodward avenue and Campus Martius, conveniently near the Pontiac and Michigan Central depots, fronting on the Campus. Here he shipped green and dried fruits, cheese, and other produce of Eastern States, to dealers in the interior of Michigan, and later on, was the first to undertake the shipping of fresh meat to Boston. His business increasing, he moved to the warehouse at the foot of Bates street, and afterwards to the foot of Wayne street, also occupying the north half of the Michigan Central freight depot, on Third street, where he stored and shelled over half a million bushels of corn, the first important shipment of grain ever received from the interior of Indiana. The biography of any old merchant is also a history of the business methods of his time, and the books kept by Mr. Coyl show that the grain, produce and forwarding business was then carried on in an entirely different manner from transactions ingrain at the present day. Farmers brought their produce directly to the warehouse, where, in one busy day, six thousand bushels of grain were bought and paid for, the teams waiting to be unloaded extending, in a double line, from the dock to the Franklin House, at the corner of Bates and Lamed streets. The capacity of the largest vessels then running to Buffalo and Oswego was about o0,000 bushels, and it took forty-eight hours to load this amount, by means of box-shaped hand-carts. New inventions have lightened labor and increased trade, but a wise writer has said " the machine unmakes the man." The qualities then brought into exercise in overcoming difficulties, attending to numberless details, and in handling many men, developed strong characters; men of unquestioned integrity, who took especial pride in the fact that they "always paid one hundred cents on the dollar." Mr. Coyl was of a retiring disposition, and, although an earnest whig in early life, had no desire to become prominent in local politics or societies. The only office he ever held was that of member of the Board of Estimates. In I856 he retired from active business in the city, and became interested in Iowa lands. In I860 he built the block corner of Woodward Avenue and Campus Martius, subsequently improving other property, and, with business caution, entering into all plans for the welfare of the city. When the war opened, his two sons were among the first to respond to the call for volunteers. William H. Coyl, a student of scarcely twenty when commissioned Major, left a brilliant record as Lieutenant-Colonel of the 9th Iowa Infantry, and Judge Advocate of Kentucky. He died in i866 of disease of the lungs, the effect of a wound received at the battle of Pea Ridge. During the war, Mr. Coyl spent much time in seeking out and assisting sick and friendless soldiers, and, in later life, a fondness for young men became characteristic. His pleasant office made attractive with means for social games and current literature became a resort for young men of all professions. Such companionship, like mercy, "is twice blessed." He found diversion and kept pace with the times in reading and discussing with "the boys " the social, scientific, and religious questions of the day. In him they found a sympathetic friend, and often a wise helper, but he was so quiet in his benefactions that few uesides the recipients knew of them. He died August I3, 1883. Samuel B. Coyl, and a daughter, Jean L., are the only surviving children. THOMAS ROBERT DUDLEY was born in Hunton, Kent County, England, December I, 1833, and is the son of Robert and Elizabeth (Boughton) Dudley. His paternal ancestors lived in Kent for centuries, while his mother represented one of the oldest Yorkshire families. His father, a prosperous farmer, died in early manhood, leaving his widow with three children, of whom Thomas was the youngest. The family after the father's death lived with the children's grandfather, Robert Dudley. Thomas R. Dudley attended the village school until he was ten years old, and then entered the Clapton School, of London, where he remained five years. Equipped with a fair education, he then began his business career as clerk in a provision store. While thus engaged, a gentleman from Cincinnati, connected with the provision trade, visited his em

Page  1138 1138 MERCHANTS. ployer, and, in his hearing, spoke so enthusiastically of the opportunities for advancement for young men of energy in the New World, that Mr. Dudley determined to start for America as soon as possible. He induced his brother, George P., to agree to accompany him, and in I85I, drawing from the bank the small sum of money left them by their father, they secured passage on a packet ship plying between Liverpool and Philadelphia, and after a voyage of forty-five days, landed at the latter city, where Thomas soon secured employment in a banking house. In the meantime, his brother obtained a situation in a furniture factory, but, in I852, came to Detroit, and here he was shortly after joined by Thomas, where the latter immediately began to learn the wood carving trade, in the furniture factory of Weber & Stevens. After serving his apprenticeship, he entered the sale department, and for twenty-three years, through the several changes in the personnel of the firm, remained with the same house, serving in all departments of the business. In January, 1876, he went to Philadelphia, and, with George W. Fowle, began the manufacture of fans, on an extensive scale. The venture was not particularly successful, and was discontinued in September of the same year. Mr. Dudley then returned to Detroit, and opened a small wholesale and retail furniture store, in the Strong Block, on Jefferson Avenue. With a perfect knowledge of the demands of his trade, acquired by long experience, rapid success followed his undertaking, and his trade increased so rapidly, that in the following MArch, it became necessary to secure larger quarters, and he removed to 129 Jefferson Avenue. At the same time George W. Fowle became a partner, under the firm name of Dudley & Fowle. Their business continued to grow until it has reached really large proportions, The warerooms consist of seventeen floors, each 8ox1oo feet in dimensions, and their sales amount to nearly a quarter of a million dollars annually, and extend over Michigan and several adjacent States, giving employment to a large number of men. Active and progressive, the members of this firm have made the name of their house well-known to the trade, and in the space of ten years, from a small beginning, with limited capital, they have attained a leading position in the furniture trade of Detroit. This is due in great measure to the energy and business sagacity of Mr. Dudley, who has been untiring in his exertions, and his efforts have exhibited good judgment. He has invested largely in real estate, and by the erection of many fine residences has aided in beautifying the city. Socially he is a genial companion, and personally enjoys the friendship of a wide circle of friends, while his business integrity com mands the respect of the commercial community. He is a Democrat in politics, but, aside from loyally supporting the candidates and principles of his party, has taken no active part in politics. Although not a member of any religious denomination, he is an Episcopalian from early training and faith, and renders substantial support to religious and charitable work. His business partner, Mr. Fowle, was born in Geneva, New York, but for many years has been a resident of Detroit, and in numerous ways has aided the prosperity of the firm. Mr. Dudley married Sarah Marie Lawhead, of Brighton, Michigan. They have had three children. Charles Edward, the only one living, is an assistant in his father's business. WILLIAM H. ELLIOTT was born near Amherstburg, Ontario, October 13, I844, and was employed on a farm and in a store until he was fourteen years old. His education was obtained in the schools of that locality. His parents, James and Elizabeth (Pastorius) Elliott, removed to Kingsville, a small village in Essex County, where his father engaged in mercantile business and in milling. At the age of sixteen William H. entered a store at Amherstburg, where he remained until 1864, when he came to Detroit and engaged as clerk in a small dry goods store on Jefferson avenue. In I866 he became a clerk for George Peck, in one of the stores on Woodward avenue which he himself now occupies. In 1871 he was admitted as a partner with Mr. Peck; the firm being George Peck & Co. The partnership continued until I880, when Mr. Elliott withdrew from the firm and established business for himself at I39 Woodward avenue. In I884 he bought out a dry goods store adjoining him, known as No. 137, in which he had been engaged as clerk in I866, and by this operation more than doubled the volume of his business. He continued to prosper, and in 1887 added the next store on the west, and his establishment now includes the three stores, 135, 137 and 139 Woodward avenue, and is one of the largest retail houses in Detroit. His success has been really remarkable, and it is noticeable that it has been achieved in the same locality, and literally in the same block, where his business life has been chiefly spent. This has given him a large acquaintance with the purchasing public, with whom he has always been popular, and whose confidence he early secured by honorable dealing, and has as surely kept. He has adhered strictly to a cash business and to the one-price rule, and has never been sensational in his advertisements or methods. Although diligent in business, and successful in building up a large trade, he has not been lacking in public spirit nor unmindful of duties and interests in other directions. Since 1884 he has

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Page  1139 MERCHANTS. II39 been a director in the Dime Savings Bank; since I886 a director in the Imperial Life Insurance Company, also treasurer and director of the ThomsonHouston Electric Light Company, and from its organization a director in the Preston National Bank. He is the President of the Michigan Club, and one of the trustees of Harper Hospital, also a member of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Clubs. Much of his leisure time is spent in looking after his farm and improved stock in Oakland County. He is a Republican in politics, and an earnest supporter of every movement that gives promise of good to the city or nation. As a business man, he ranks among the ablest in the city. Coming here without means, he has carved out his own fortune by energy, enterprise, good management and courteous demeanor towards all, and there are few if any but rejoice in the success which has crowned his efforts. He is esteemed as a manly man, a trustworthy citizen, and a devoted friend. Liberal towards all worthy charitable objects, he has shown himself especially helpful to deserving young men, who by good conduct have commended themselves to his confidence. He has been twice married, first in 1870, to Lena Caverly, who died in March, 1871. On April 21, 1874, he was married to Fidelia, daughter of the late Rev. Dr. William Hogarth, formerly pastor of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, of which congregation both himself and his wife are members. JAMES LAFAYETTE EDSON was born at Batavia, Genesee County, New York, July 31, I834. His father's name was Lewis M. Edson. His mother's maiden name was Sarah A. Flint. They had five children, three boys and two girls, James L. being the eldest. The family were descendants of early puritans, the mother being from Massachusetts. The elder Mr. Edson contracted the yellow fever while on a visit to the South, and never fully recovered from its effects, and in consequence of this fact he and his family made frequent changes of residence while searching for a favorable climate. They finally located at Akron, in New York, about twenty-five miles east of Buffalo, and there, in I859, the father died. The two brothers of J. L. Edson, John M. and Dallas M., enlisted in the War of the Rebellion, the former dying at Fortress Monroe, and the latter a few days after reaching home. The mother and one sister, Mrs. Charles M. Rich live at Akron, New York. The year following his father's death, James L. Edson, who was then sixteen years old, became a clerk in the store of Charles M. Rich, the leading merchant in the village. He was in the employ of Mr. Rich four years and then went to Buffalo, where he remained about a year. While in Buffalo he became impressed with the larger business opportunities afforded in the West, and determined to make a venture elsewhere. With this idea he left Buffalo, without deciding definitely as to where he would settle; and on December 7, 1855, arrived in Detroit. Reaching this city an entire stranger, and with but little means, he sought employment and secured a situation with James Stephens, in the then widely advertised and well-known ' Checkered Store," located on the site now occupied by the stores of J. L. Hudson. He remained in this establishment about two years, and in 1857 secured a place in the largeR wholesale dry goods house of Orr, Town & Smith, who had succeeded Zachariah Chandler & Co., at 23 Woodward avenue, Mr. Chandler, who had been elected to the United States Senate, retaining an interest as special partner. In the spring of I866 Mr. Edson was admitted as a partner in the business, the name of the firm being changed to Allan Shelden & Co., the partnership continuing for six years. In February, 1872, in connection with George F. Moore, Ransom Gillis. Charles Buncher and Stephen Baldwin, Mr. Edson organized the firm of Edson, Moore & Co. They began business at Nos. I88 and I90 Jefferson avenue, on the west side of Bates street, and in 1882 removed to the building Nos. I94 to 204 Jefferson avenue, which was erected especially for their occupancy. In this place the success of the firm has been quite exceptional, and no house of the kind in Detroit does a larger business, and few dry goods houses in the West sell as many goods yearly as are marketed by their establishment. The extent of the business affords ample scope for business management of the highest order, and the success achieved affords abundant evidence of the possession of these qualities by the persons chiefly interested. In social life, Mr. Edson is known as a warm friend and generous companion. He is liberal in his benefactions, appreciative of good endeavors, discriminating in judgment, and is highly esteemed as a progressive, successful and public-spirited citizen. Politically he is a Republican, and has served as President of the Michigan Club. In addition to his regular business interests, he is a large shareholder in the Brush Electric Light Company, and a director in the People's Savings Bank. He was married in August, 1857, to Julia A. Collins. They have two living children, Mary A. and Lillian E. A third daughter, now deceased, was the wife of E. T. Adams. JACOB S. FARRAND was born in Mentz, Cayuga County, New York, May 7, I815. His parents came to Detroit in May, 1825, but after a few months removed to Ann Arbor. While living

Page  1140 I 140 MERCHANTS. at Ann Arbor, Mr. Farrand, then a boy of thirteen, carried the mail on horseback between Detroit and his home. Two years later in I830 he came to Detroit, where he secured employment in the drug store of Rice & Bingham. After six years' service, having attained his twenty-first year, he formed a partnership with Edward Bingham and embarked in the drug business and continued therein for five years. He was then appointed deputy collector of the port and district of Detroit, then extending below the city and around the shores of Lakes Huron and Michigan and including the city of Chicago. During the year of I84I he also served as military secretary of the Governor. After four years' service as deputy collector he again entered the drug business and has since continued actively engaged therein. As senior member of the wholesale drug firm of Farrand, Williams & Co. he has seen the business grow from a few thousands yearly to an amount exceeding $I,ooo,ooo annually. The high standing of the house in commercial circles has been largely due to the untiring energy, careful management and unsullied business probity of Mr. Farrand. His active energies have also been directed to other business channels where equal success has followed his endeavors. For many years he has been treasurer of the Detroit Gas Light Company; a director of the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company; at present vice-president, and from its organization a director of the Wayne County Savings Bank; from the beginning connected with the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company and for many years its president. For years he has been a director of the First National Bank and was its president from 1868 to I883, holding the position at a time when able financial management and the full confidence of the people were especially needed. His wise counsel, good judgment and far-seeing ability as well as his personal worth inspire the fullest trust in all the institutions under his control. In a monograph on Banking in Michigan, prepared by Theodore H. Hinchman, he pays Mr. Farrand the following well deserved tribute, " Jacob S. Farrand was president of the First National Bank from the death of S. P. Brady in 1868 until the expiration of its first term in 1883. He is of medium height, slender with strong regular features and pleasing address. His well known reliability and integrity commended the bank to public favor and aided in securing to it a large business. Careful, conscientious, faithful attention to duties, combined with good sense, entitled him to a high position as a bank officer. His kindly deportment and benevolent impulses have won many friends. He is one of those rare good tempered persons who have no quarrels and consequently have no enemies. At the same time he is not over credulous or liable to imposition." His taste and disposition do not run toward public station nor official life, but on several occasions he has waived his personal preferences and accepted public duties. From I860 to 1864 he was a member of the Common Council. During this period he served for one year as president of the Board and for a short time was acting mayor. When the Metropolitan Police law was enacted he was appointed Police Commissioner for the long term and served eight years all the time as president of the Board, after which he was solicited to continue in office but declined a re-appointment. For twenty years he has been a member of and has served as president of the Board of Water Commissioners. He has ever evinced a warm interest in educational projects, and as a member of the Board of Education was for several years a helpful factor in securing liberal provisions for the maintenance of public schools, and is president of the Detroit Home and Day School. From boyhood Mr. Farrand has been a member of the first Presbyterian Church of Detroit, and since i856 an elder. His efforts in religious and charitable work have been founded on deep and conscientious convictions of duty. He was a member of the committee to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church, which met at Dayton, Ohio, in I863, at New York in I869, and at Detroit in 1873. He took a prominent part in the action which brought about the union of the new and old schools of Presbyterians of the United States, having been a member of the joint committee on reunion appointed by the Assemblies in I866 and also of the committee of conference on the same subject appointed by the Assemblies of 1869. He was on the committee for the reorganization of the Board of Home Missions and for many years was receiving agent in Detroit for the American Board of Commissioners of Foreign Missions. In July, 1877, he was a delegate to the Pan Presbyterian Alliance held at Edinburgh, Scotland. In local church work in connection with the Presbyterian denomination, he has been as active as the most critical could desire, both by gifts of money and of personal service. For many years he has been a Sunday school teacher, in one of the most needy fields of mission labor and in temperance work was active at an early day, when to be so was to be singular, and his labors in this direction and in favor of Sunday observances are well known matters of record. He has been from the first actively and earnestly interested in the furtherance of the interests of Harper Hospital, serving as trustee and for several years as President of this most worthy institution. He is also a trustee of the State institution known as the Eastern Asylum for the Insane at Pontiac.

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Page  1141 MERC HANTS. t I14I Mr. Farrand is simple in his taste and habits, modest and retiring in disposition, conscientious and careful in his doings. His religious views are the result of the clearest and most deliberate convictions, but he is full of generous and charitable impulses and includes in his fellowship all who believe in and practice the Christian virtues. As a business man he is conservative and cautious, yet when he has once embarked in an enterprise he has the courage to see it through to the end. He is one of those who know how to be independent without being obstinate. Although conservative, he is not harnessed to dogmas or rules; is seldom aggressive, but is never crowded from the platform of his own judgment. He never arouses antagonism by arrogant or dogmatic pursuance of a project, but a course of action decided upon, although pursued with persistency would be so manifestly fair as to be accepted by all the right thinking as wise and just. In matters of great interest, and in times of great excitement, his equanimity is undisturbed and his judgment unclouded. His deep interest in the material prosperity of Detroit has been proved in many ways. Personally he is genial and pleasant, enjoying the society of his friends, and living loyally up to every duty of his public, business, and private life. More could be said of him in commendation; less could not and do justice to one who for so long a period has rendered constant, devoted, and efficient service to many agencies that have aided in the enlightenment and uplifting of his fellow-citizens. He was married August 12, I84I, to Olive M. Coe, of Hudson, Ohio, daughter of Rev. Harvey Coe, a pioneer of the Western Reserve, well known to many of the older citizens of this city. Their children are: Mary C., wife of Rev. James Lewis, of Joliet, Illinois; W. R. Farrand, J. S. Farrand, Jr., and Ollie C., wife of R. P. Williams. JOHN FARRAR, of Detroit, traced the family ancestry to John Farrar, of Lancashire, England, who, with his younger brother Jacob, settled at and were among the first proprietors of Lancaster, Massachusetts, which town was incorporated on May I8, I653. On the twenty-fourth of September, I653, they were leaders and signers of what was called "a covenant for the better preserving of the purity of religion and themselves from the infection of error, and for- the exclusion of excommunicants or otherwise profane and scandalous persons, or anyone notoriously erring against the doctrine and discipline of the churches and the State and the government of the commonwealth." During King Phillip's War, on February o1, I675, the town was nearly destroyed by the Indians and several of the family were killed by them. The Far rars of Lancashire, England, are descended from the Farrars or Farrers of Eawood Hall, Halifax, Lords of the Manor Wortley, in Yorkshire, of which family the head in I863 was James Farrar, of Ingleborough County, York, Deputy Lieutenant for West Riders and County Durham, and formerly Member of Parliament of South Durham. From this Yorkshire family came Robert Farrar or Farrers, Bishop of St. David and Canon of St. Mary's, who was martyred in the reign of Queen Mary. They were descended from Henry de Ferrers, son of Walchelin de Ferriers, who was a Norman Knight, and a conspicuous leader in the army of William the Conqueror in Io66; his name is on the roll of Battle Abbey and in the Doomsday book. The Lordship of Etingdon was given him in Normandy after the conquest. He was created Lord of Tutbury, County of Stafford, and his son Robert, Earl of Derby, by King William. The family originally took its name from Ferriers, a town in the Gastenois, France, celebrated for its iron mines. Arms, crests and mottoes are numerous in the early history of the family. The descendants of John and Jacob Farrar have been in all the wars incident to the United States; have served as judges and filled various professorships at Dartmouth, Andover and Cambridge. John Farrar, of Lancaster, Massachusetts, died November 3, 1669. His son John was born in England between 1640 and I650 and had a son John who was born about I670, who left a son also named John, born about 1700. He married Anna Chandler. In 1758 he joined the British Army under General Braddock and is supposed to have been killed at the taking of Quebec in 1759. His son John, born about 1732, married Anna Whitney; he was in the War of 1776. His son, Captain Asa Farrar of Rush, now Avon, New York, formerly of Lancaster, Worcester County, Massachusetts, was born in Northfield, Massachusetts, June I6, I760, died at Avon, January 18, 1829. He married Dorinda Pearsons, a relative of Rev. Abram Pearsons, first President of Yale College. In May, 1777, at the age of seventeen, he joined the Continental Army and was three years in Captain Hodskin's company, under Colonel Timothy Bigelow, and three years in Colonel Crane's regiment of Massachusetts Artillery, and for his services received a pension. His son, John Farrar, of Detroit, was born June 27th, I793, in Rutland, Massachusetts, but spent his childhood with his parents on their farm at Rush, New York. His education, which included private instruction in surveying and architecture, was completed at Canandaigua, New York. On July I, 8I12, when nineteen years old, he entered the American Army and served in Captain James

Page  1142 1142 MERCHANTS. McNair's company of Colonel Philetus Swift's regiment of volunteers. He was stationed at Black Rock, on the Niagara frontier, most of the time during the summer and autumn of that year. On the sixteenth of October, the sailors, under the command of Lieutenant Elliott, boarded and cut loose the brig " Adams" and the schooner " Caledonia," then lying at anchor at Fort Erie, to send them over Niagara Falls. The " Adams" grounded on Squaw Island and was burned and the ' Caledonia" landed off Long Battery. In this affair John Farrar took a prominent part. While serving under General Scott he participated in and was wounded at the battle of Lundy's Lane and at the close of the campaign was among the troops left to guard the Niagara frontier and remained there through the winter of 1813. For these services he received a pension and a grant of land. On June 15, I8I5, at Canandaigua, New York, he became a member of the Masonic body. In the two following years, business called him to Canada, where he gained many friends through his connection with that society. He received the degree of Master Mason on November 6, I820, at Ontario Lodge, No. 23. He subsequently became a member of Zion Lodge, No. I, at Detroit; filled all the offices and was one of the founders of Detroit Lodge, No. 2. The petition for the charter of this last Lodge was signed by John Farrar, Levi Cook, John Mullett, Marshall Chapin, Jeremiah Moors, Charles Jackson, and three others. During the anti-Masonic excitement their lodge meetings were discontinued, but after a lull of fourteen years they aided in re-establishing Masonry and administered the Royal Arch degree from memory, each one recalling a part of the ceremony. John Farrar was High Priest of Monroe Chapter in I825-26, a Knight Templar and a member of Monroe Council, R. A. S. M., and various other bodies of the order and Senior Grand Warden of the Grand Lodge of Michigan. At the time of his death he was one of the oldest members in the United States, and a year before was received with honors-at the Grand Chapter. He arrived at Detroit, May 22, 1817, and became a useful citizen and merchant. During territorial times he was an intimate friend of General Cass and was chosen by him to represent the territory in the erection of the Court House or Capitol, which duties he performed from October I, I826, to July I, 1827. Prior to this he had given most of his time to building and surveying and was frequently called upon to pass judgment on structures for the city, territory or State. He was alderman at large in 1828, '31 and '36, assessor and collector of the Second Ward in 1843-44; was collector in 1832, '38 and '48. He was one of the first projec tors of the Detroit Mechanics' Society and was their bondsman for the construction of their first building on Griswold Street. He was President and Secretary of that society in 1836, and 1841 to 1853, and from I854 to I860, and librarian for the thirty years preceding his death. He favored education; was one of the committee who selected the University grounds at Ann Arbor, and in 1834 was one of the committee that established the first district school in Detroit; it was conducted by Charles Wells in the old academy on Bates Street. He was commissioned to the second lieutenancy in the militia by acting Governor Stephen T. Mason, on May 23, 1832, and was first lieutenant in Captain Charles Jackson's Dragoons in the Black Hawk War of 1832, under General John R. Williams, and one of the escort that accompanied Colonel Edward Brook, Major Charles W. Whipple and Major M. Wilson, to Chicago, to assist in the protection of that town from the Indians. The command escaped conflict but were voted thanks by the corporation of Chicago for the prompt response to their call for help. They remained some weeks awaiting developments of the war, and during the time made a reconnaissance of Napier settlement, a point then threatened by the Indians. After the capture of Black Hawk they returned. For his services in this war, Mr. Farrar received a grant of land. After his return he purchased a building on the corner of Bates and Atwater Streets, the last named street then being the chief business thoroughfare, and in 1836 opened a general store with dry goods, hardware and groceries, doing what was then considered a thriving business. At the great fire of April 27, 1837, the store and all its contents were burned. Mr. Farrar was brought up a rigid Puritan but became a more liberal thinker and in 1831, with two others, purchased the First Presbyterian Church and removed it to the corner of Bates Street and Michigan Grand Avenue, with the expectation of its being used as a Universalist Church, but the project failed and the building was sold to and occupied by the Trinity Catholic Church. He was thoughtful of the needs of others, a liberal giver to charities and a great entertainer, and many families emigrating to Western homes found an asylum with him. His homestead was at the corner of Bates and Farrar Streets, which latter street perpetuates his name. He had a very retentive memory, possessed a fund of information on matters connected with the military and political history of the United States, and took great delight in relating incidents connected with his personal and ancestral history, to relatives and intimate friends. He was naturally of

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Page  1143 MERCHANTS. II43 a retiring disposition and although importuned to become a candidate for prominent positions, he steadfastly refused, yet he filled several municipal offices with honor and trust and with a zeal that was eminently characteristic. He was a Whig in politics and when that party ceased, became a Republican. He married his first wife, Mrs. Hannah Mack, on March 27, I822. She died at Avon, New York, November 6, 1824. They had one daughter, Delecta Ann, who married Rev. Jackson Stebbins, of Iowa On May 29, 1825, he married Anna Mullett, of Darien Centre, New York. She was born at Halifax, Vermont, September 4, I792, and died at Detroit, July I8, I872. She was a sister of the late James Mullett of Fredonia, and Buffalo, New York, and of John Mullett, one of the pioneers of Detroit, from whom the Mullett farm and street take their names. Their parents, Robert and Elizabeth Gibbons Mullett were from Milton Abbas, England, and descendants of William Malet de Graville, whose name appears on the roll of Battle Abbey. John Farrar died at Detroit, January 14, 1874, aged 80 years. He was buried in Elmwood Cemetery with Masonic honors. The children of John and Anna Farrar were Francis Mullett Farrar and Chileon Cushman Mullett Farrar, of Buffalo, New York; Huldah Mullett Farrar, wife of Jerome B. Starring, of Detroit; Harriet Mullett Farrar, of Detroit, and John Perry Farrar, of Chicago, Ill. BENJAMIN F. FARRINGTON, for several years one of the leading wholesale grocers of Ietroit, was born near Albany, New York, June 30, 1834, and was the son of Robert and Clarissa Farrington. When he was five years old he accompanied his parents to St. Clair, Michigan, where, after completing a brief course of instruction in the public schools, he became a clerk in a dry goods store. He remained at St. Clair until 1855, when he secured employment as clerk in the general merchandise store of J. L. Wood & Co., at Lexington, Michigan, and his services were so highly appreciated that in 1862 he was offered and accepted an interest in the business. Three years later, as he desired to enter a wider field, he severed his connection with the above firm, and came to Detroit. For three years, from I865 to I868, he served as traveling salesman for Underwood, Cochrane & Co., boot and shoe dealers. In 1868, with A. D. Pierce and Hugh McMillan as partners, under the firm name of Pierce, Farrington & McMillan, he embarked in the dry goods business. They occupied for a short time a store on the east side of Woodward avenue, just below Jefferson avenue, but subsequently removed to 77 and 79 Jefferson avenue. Here, in 1870, their store was destroyed by fire, after which the affairs of the firm were amicably settled, but business was not resumed. During the same year Mr. Farrington, with J. T. Campbell as partner, established a coffee and spice store on Woodward avenue, just south of the Finney House, under the firm name of Farrington, Campbell & Co. They soon removed to a store under the Michigan Exchange, and from there, in I878, to Nos. 73 and 75 Jefferson avenue. In I880 Mr. Campbell retired, and the firm name was changed to B. F. Farrington & Co., and in 1883 the business was removed to the large and commodious business stores at Nos. 54 and 56 Jefferson avenue, which had been erected by Mr. Farrington. He was one of the organizers of the Merchants' and Manufacturers' Exchange, a man of great business ability, and of indefatigable energy. In a few years he succeeded in building up a large and profitable business, and it is doubtful if any commercial house in this section of the country made more rapid and substantial progress in the same period of time. The personal labor he expended in accomplishing this was done at the expense of health. His overtaxed physical force produced an affection of the brain, which resulted in his sudden death on November 2, I886. He was an exemplary citizen, an honorable, straightforward business man, and of irreproachable moral character. His disposition was kind and genial, and his sunny temperament made him socially an agreeable companion, and he possessed many warm friends. Mr. Farrington was married September 23, 1862, to Emma Fletcher, of Mount Clemens, Michigan, who still survives him. Their one child, a son, died in infancy. DEXTER MASON FERRY was born at Lowville, Lewis County, New York, in I833, and is a son of Joseph N. and Lucy (Mason) Ferry. The name marks the family as originally French, yet its first appearance in America was in 1678, when Charles Ferry came from England and settled in Springfield, Massachusetts. Dexter Mason, maternal grandfather of D. M. Ferry, represented for several terms the ultra-conservative district of Berkshire, in the Massachusetts Legislature, and was a cousin of the late Governor George N. Briggs, of that State. The paternal grandparent of D. M. removed from Massachusetts to Lowville,New York, where his father, Joseph N. Ferry, was born, reared and lived until his death in 1836. Shortly after his death the family removed to Penfield, eight miles from Rochester, in the county of Monroe, New York. D. M. Ferry passed his boyhood at Penfield, and at the age of sixteen began life on his own account by working for a neighboring farmer at the

Page  1144 "44 MERCHANTS. moderate wages of ten dollars a month, spending two summers in this way, attending the district school during the winters. In 1851 he entered the employ of Ezra M. Parsons, who resided near Rochester, his object being to secure the benefits of the more advanced schools of that city. The following year, through the influence of his employer, he obtained a position in the wholesale and retail book and stationery house of S. D. Elwood & Co., of Detroit, where he was first errand boy, then salesman, and at last bookkeeper. In I856 he was one of the organizers and junior partners of the firm of M. T. Gardner & Co., seedsmen. The partnership so formed continued until 1865, when Mr. Gardner's interest was purchased, and Mr. Ferry became the head of the firm. Eventually the firm of D. M. Ferry & Co. was formed, composed of D. M. Ferry, H. K. White, C. C. Bowen, and A. E. F. White. Mr. Ferry, however, is the only person who has been continuously connected with the business from its beginning in 1856. In 1879 the organization absorbed the Detroit Seed Company, and the business was incorporated, retaining the name of D. M. Ferry & Co., with a capital of $750,000. Mr. Ferry retained the largest amount of the stock, and became the president and manager. To build up this, the largest and most successful seed establishment in the world, has required immense labor and skillful business methods and mercantile generalship of the highest order. The business was begun on a very small scale in a Monroe Avenue store; its entire sales for the first year were about six thousand dollars, and its market was confined to a very limited territory. To-day the sales extend to almost every township in the United States and Canada, and even reach many foreign countries, and have amounted to over a million and a half dollars in one year. The importations from English, Dutch, French, German and other European concerns, are the largest of any house in this line of trade in the country. The corporation supplies over eighty thousand merchants with a complete assortment of seeds for retailing, and also ships large amounts to dealers and jobbers in bulk, the shipments averaging more than three car loads of seeds every day in the year. The concern grows enormous quantities of seeds, but the great proportion of the stock is raised and cared for under contract by seed farmers in many parts of the United States and in various sections of Canada and Europe. On the first day of January, I886, their fourstory brick warehouse, containing about five acres of floor space, was destroyed by fire. The building occupied the easterly half of the large block bounded by Brush, Croghan, Lafayette and Randolph Streets, and every building save one was destroyed. The loss by this' fire was the most severe ever suffered in Detroit, and of this the Ferry Company's share reached the sum of nearly a million of dollars. The recuperation from this stunning blow was amazing, and is to be credited to the presence of mind and unlimited resources of Mr. Ferry and his corps of able assistants. From every source of supply, seeds were gathered and hurried to Detroit. Several large buildings were leased, and the various departments of the company were organized, and within a few days, work was going on with almost its normal efficiency, an accomplishment which best illustrates the business energy which has ever characterized Mr. Ferry's career. Not one of their great army of customers knew by any delay, failure or defect of quality, that on the first day of the year the whole working machinery of the company was swept out of existence. A new six-story warehouse, larger and more complete than the old, was erected in 1887, on the site of the one destroyed, and is elsewhere shown. The building up of this great industry, which is far-reaching in its influence, and contributes not only to the prosperity of Detroit and to an army of employes, is doubtless a more beneficent factor in commercial affairs throughout the country than almost any other establishment in the West. In its management from the beginning, Mr. Ferry has had a decisive influence, and that its great success is largely attributable to his persistent energy, sagacity, integrity and rare talent for organization and administration, is freely and readily acknowledged by those most conversant with its beginning, growth and development Through this extensive commercial establishment his name and work have been made more widely known than those of almost any other merchant in the United States. His efforts have been justly rewarded in the accumulation of a large fortune, nearly all of which is invested in various financial and manufacturing enterprises in Detroit. His most prominent real estate investment is the magnificent five-story iron building on Woodward Avenue,' erected in I879, and occupied by Newcomb, Endicott & Co. He is the largest stockholder in the National Pin Company, established in 1875, and has been its president from the first. He is a director and vice-president of the First National Bank; was one of the organizers, and from the beginning has been a trustee of the Wayne County Savings Bank, and of the Safe Deposit Company. He aided in organizing the Standard Life and Accident Insurance Company of Detroit, of which he is president. He is also president of the Gale Sulky Harrow Manufacturing Company; vice-president of the Michigan Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and director of the Detroit Copper Rolling Mill Company, the Fort

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Page  1145 MERCHANTS. 1145 Wayne & Elmwood Railroad Company, and of several other corporations. His own taste, as well as the engrossing demands of a great business, have prevented Mr. Ferry from entering the field of active politics. He is a strong and steadfast Republican, but has rarely been a candidate for an elective office, and has held public place only when it came without solicitation on his part. He was made a member of the Board of Estimates in 1877-8, and at the end of his term declined a renomination. In 1884 he was appointed a member of the Board of Park Commissioners by Mayor Stephen B. Grummond. During his term he strongly opposed the sale of beer and other intoxicants on Belle Isle Park, and with William A. Moore, another member of the Board, defeated such a prostitution of this public recreation ground, and his course met the approval of the best public opinion of the city. His term of office expired in 1885, and he was again nominated by Mayor Grummond. His conscientious and praiseworthy action in regard to the intrusion of beer in Belle Isle Park, which had earned him the gratitude of the respectable element of the community, had, however, excited the enmity of the small politicians who sat in the Council, and his nomination by the Mayor was defeated. This action was denounced, not only by the public press regardless of party, but by a large mass meeting held in April, I886, which adopted a resolution thanking Messrs. Ferry and Moore for their stand in the interest of the public good. With commendable public spirit he gives his influence freely to every project, business, social or charitable, that promises to be of public benefit, and his private charities are large, discriminating, and entirely lacking in ostentation. In 1868 he became connected with the management of Harper Hospital, and in I888 was elected Vice-President of Grace Hospital, and is also a trustee of Olivet College. He has taken much interest in the art movement in Detroit, and was one of the original contributor to the building fund, by which has been insured to the city a permanent museum of art. He was reared in the Baptist faith, and when quite young united with that church. In later years he became connected with the Congregational denomination, and is now a trustee of the Second Church of Detroit. He is broad and liberal in religious views, and strongly opposed to extreme sectarianism. No person in Detroit is more important as a factor in its commercial prosperity, and Mr. Ferry's success has been so justly earned, and so well does he use it, that none begrudge him his good fortune, and all rejoice that Detroit possesses such a citizen. He is natural and unaffected in manner, and one to whom false pride is unknown. Always affable and pleasant, he is kind and considerate to those in his employ, and easily wins their confidence and respect; is equally popular with the public at large, and possesses a host of close friends. He is an industrious student, and even while deep in the cares of business, finds time to keep up with the current thoughts of the day. His life, public and private, viewed from all sides, furnishes us with one of the best types of mercantile life to be found in any country. He was married October I, I867, to Addie E. Miller, of Unadilla, Otsego County, New York. They have four children living, three daughters and one sol. AARON CODDINGTON FISHER, the fourth son in the family of twelve children of Jeremiah and Hannah (Coddington) Fisher, was born in Somerset County, New Jersey, September 22, 1820. His father was a descendant of Hendrick Fisher, of Bound Brook, New Jersey, who was born in I703, the year that Hendrick Fisher, Sr., arrived at that place. The elder Hendrick Fisher died on October I7, I749. From an old number of the Messenger of Somerville, New Jersey, we gather the following particulars concerning the son: Hendrick Fisher was a man of earnest piety, and much respected. He was one of the founders of Queen's, now Rutger's College, and was a noted man in the province for many years. He possessed great intelligence and energy, and was always on the patriotic side in every controversy, and of an irreproachable character. He earnestly supported his pastor-the Rev. Theodore J. Frelinghuysen —in his efforts to introduce a strict evangelical life in his church, and perhaps no person had more influence than he had in securing the results that were reached. When the oppressive acts of the King and Parliament aroused the Colonies to resistance, he, in company with Joseph Borden and Robert Ogden, represented the province of New Jersey in the Congress known as the " Stamp Act Congress." He was a delegate to the Provincial Congress of New Jersey, which met at Trenton in May, 1775, of which important body he was elected President, and in his opening address set forth in a forcible manner the grievances of the American Colonies. He was Chairman of the Committee of Safety, exercising legislative authority during the recess of Congress, and held other offices of honor and trust. He was a member of the Assembly previous to the breaking out of the Revolution, and in the Provincial Congress at Trenton, in December, 1775, moved that the delegates to the General Congress be instructed to use their influence in favor of a Declaration of Independence, and when the immortal document was received, he

Page  1146 1146 MERCHANTS. was the first to read it to his neighbors and constituents. When he had finished, so great was their joy, that they mounted him on their shoulders and paraded him through the street (there was but one —the great Raritan Road) in triumph. The old bell of " Kets" Hall, which then hung in the belfry of the Presbyterian Church, was rung, cannon were fired, and the patriots drank toasts at the bar in the tavern of Peter Hardending. He died on the tenth of May, 1779, leaving two sons, Jeremiah and Hendrick. The former was probably the greatgrandfather of A. C. Fisher. The mother of the last named was born in New Jersey in 17 92, and his parents were married in i8i i. About the year 1825 the family moved from New Jersey to Genesee County, New York, and lived there about twelve years. In 1837 they moved to Monroe County, Michigan, where they remained three years, and then moved to Mount Vernon, Ohio, remaining there seven years, and then in 1847 cQming to Detroit. Here, in 1853, the elder Mr. Fisher died, and on April i6, 1883, the wife and mother also passed away. In his youth Aaron C. Fisher attended school in the winter, and in the summer worked on the farm. As he grew to manhood he not only provided for himself, but assisted his parents also. Wages at this time were so low that, at the age of seventeen, he worked a whole month for a barrel of flour. At this period he was already learning the rudiments of his subsequent occupation as a builder, and was employed in a brickyard at sixteen dollars per month and his board. When he had reached his eighteenth year he began to feel anxious to settle down in some permanent occupation and in the Spring of I839, seeing no other opening, he commenced to learn the business of an iron molder and served an apprenticeship at the business, following the same nearly seven years, but disliking this occupation he began to look around for one that suited him better. His elder brother being a bricklayer and builder in Mount Vernon, Ohio, where he was then living, he at intervals turned his attention to the art of bricklaying and became a thorough and practical workman. In I847 he came with his father's family to Detroit, and during the first year after his arrival here he worked about six weeks at molding in O. M. Hydes' foundry near the old Water Works. He then turned his attention to building, and in the year 1848 entered into partnership with his brother Elam, who was also an expert bricklayer, and the firm soon became prominent builders and contractors. The partnership continued under the name of E. & A. C. Fisher for about seventeen years, and was dissolved in i865. During the continuance of the partnership the firm erected many prominent structures, and scores of buildings of their erection are still standing; among them may be named the building on the northwest corner of Jefferson Avenue and Griswold Street, occupied by A. Ives & Son, bankers, also the block opposite on the northeast corner, erected for the late John S. Bagg; they also built the "Rotunda," formerly standing on the site of the present Newberry & McMillan Building; also the north half of the Merrill Block, formerly known as the Waterman Block, on the corner of Woodward Avenue and Larned Street. Later on they built the north half of the entire block on the east side of Woodward Avenue, between Congress and Lamed Streets, also the block on the corner of Monroe Avenue and Farmer Street, running down to the Kirkwood House. They also erected the residence of the late Zachariah Chandler, the Fort Street Congregational Church, the First Presbyterian Church, on the corner of Farmer and State Streets, and the Fisher Block, facing the Campus Martius. After the dissolution of the partnership in I865, A. C. Fisher carried on the business on his own account until the Spring of 1867, and then, with David Baker, he embarked in the carriage hardware trade, under the firm name of Fisher, Baker & Co. The firm continued until March i, 1882, when Mr. Fisher sold out his interest to Baker, Gray & Co., and since that date he has given his entire time to the care of his own large landed interests and to the administration of the large estate left in his care by his deceased brother Elam. Mr. Fisher is modest, quiet, and retiring in disposition, prompt in his business engagements, faithful in the discharge of whatever trusts are confided to him, and is in every way a worthy and estimable citizen. He has been a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church since he was eighteen years old, and for the last thirty-five years has been an official and leading member of the church in Detroit, and at present is President of the Board of Trustees of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church. He is a liberal giver, conscientious in his duties, and a wise counsellor. Until five years ago he voted with the Republican party. He then united with the Prohibition party, and upon this issue ran for State Treasurer in I886, and gives, and lives, and labors in the hope of the final triumph of Prohibition. He was married March 21, 1844, to Eliza L. Willis. They have had three children, Adelaide, Mrs. Lottie F. Smalley and Mrs. Charles B. Gray. The last named is the only one now living. RICHARD HENRY FYFE traces his ancestry to Scotland. His grandfather, John Fyfe, the first of the family who adopted the present mode of spelling the name, was a son of John Fiffe, of the

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Page  1147 MERCHANTS. 1147 county of Fife, in Scotland. He emigrated to America about a year before the commencement of the Revolutionary War, and served in the colonial forces while the seat of war was near Boston, Massachusetts. On February I, I786, he married Elizabeth Strong, and shortly after moved to Otter Creek, Salisbury, Vermont. His wife represented one of the most distinguished of the early New England families, and several of his descendants have been eminent in literature and science. John Strong, the progenitor of the American branch of this family, came from England, settled in Massachusetts in 1730, and assisted in founding the town of Dorchester. A history of the descendants, written by Benjamin W. Dwight, forms a large volume, embracing nearly 30,000 names. It says: " The Strong family has been one of the largest and best of the original families of New England. They have'ever been among the foremost in the land to found and favor those great bulwarks of our civilization, the church and the school. Many have been the towns, the territories and the states into whose initial forms and processes of establishment they have poured the full current of their life and strength. Few families have had more educated or professional men among them. The list includes scholars, physicians, lawyers, teachers, preachers, judges, senators, and military officers." John Fyfe died on January I, I813, and his wife, in November, 1835. They had seven children, four sons and three daughters. The youngest, Claudius Lycius Fyfe, was born January 3, 1798. On April 6, 1825, he married at Brandon, Vermont, Abigail Gilbert, whose parents were among the first settlers of Genesee County, New York. His early life was spent in agricultural pursuits, but his latter years in the leather and tanning business. He removed with his family to Knowlesville, New York, in 1830, three years later he moved to Chautauqua County, New York, and then back to Knowlesville. In 1837 he emigrated to Michigan. Soon afterwards he returned to New York, but eventually settled at Hillsdale, Michigan, where his last years were passed. His wife died in 1848, and he in I88I. They had six children, all girls except the youngest, Richard Henry, who was born at Oak Orchard Creek, Orleans County, New York, January 5, I839. After his parents returned to Michigan, Richard H. Fyfe attended school at Litchfield, but at the age of eleven, through unfortunate business speculations of his father, he was obliged to begin life's battle for himself, and became a clerk in a drug store at Kalamazoo, and subsequently at Hillsdale. During his period of clerkship at the above places he spent much of his leisure time in study, and although his business has demanded close attention, he has always taken time for reading and study, and is more than usually well informed in current and general literature. In 1857 he came to Detroit from Hillsdale and entered the employ of T. K. Adams, boot and shoe dealer. He remained with Mr. Adams about six years, after which he served in a similar position with the firm of Rucker & Morgan, who were in the same line of trade. In I865, with the savings which his industry and economy had accumulated, he purchased the business of C. C. Tyler & Co., who had succeeded T. K. Adams. The establishment was located on the site of store No. ioi Woodward Avenue, still occupied by Mr. Fyfe. With limited capital, he was environed by difficulties, but through native pluck and careful business management from year to year his business steadily increased, until he is at the head of his line of trade in Detroit. Commencing with a small retail and custom trade, the latter branch of his business has grown to such proportion that at the present time he probably manufactures more of the finest grade of custom boots and shoes than any other concern in the United States. On the site where he began business, a five-story building, 22XI00 feet in dimensions, was erected in I875. In I88I he bought out the boot and shoe establishment of A. R. Morgan, successor to Rucker & Morgan, located at o06 Woodward Avenue, and from that date until I885 conducted a branch establishment at that location. At the latter date he opened a branch store at 183 and I85 Woodward Avenue, and at these two establishments about one hundred persons are employed. Since 1873 Mark B. Stevens has been a partner in the business, under the firm name of R. H. Fyfe & Co. Mr. Fyfe's success in business, although rapid, has been healthy and natural. He has been both progressive and practical, giving his whole time and attention to building up, enlarging the scope and improving the character of his work. He was married October 27, 1868, to Abby Lucretia Albee Rice, daughter of Abraham W. Rice. She was born in Marlboro, Massachusetts. A member of no religious denomination, Mr. Fyfe is in hearty sympathy with all church work. For the last twelve years he has been a Trustee of the Westminster' Church, and has been largely instrumental in promoting the financial welfare of that organization. He served for a number of years as a Trustee of the Michigan Medical College, in the success of which he took great interest, and did much towards strengthening that institution by aiding in introducing practical business methods into its management. He was instrumental in effecting its consolidation with the Detroit Medical College, which resulted in the establishment of the prosper

Page  1148 1148 MERCHANTS. ous and successful Michigan College of Medicine, of which he is also a Trustee. Politically Mr. Fyfe has generally acted with the Republican party, but aside from representing his party in State and other nominating conventions, he has had little to do with party management. Socially, he is a pleasant and affable gentleman, and a prominent member of the Detroit, Lake St. Clair Fishing, and the Grosse Pointe Clubs, but is best known as a successful, self-made business man, and one who extends willing and ready aid to all projects that pertain to the advancement of the city. RUFUS W. GILLETT was born at Torringford, Litchfield County, Connecticut, April 22, 1825. On the paternal side his ancestors were French Huguenots, while his mother represented one of the early Puritan families. John Gillett, the first of the name in America, came from England and settled in Dorchester, Massachusetts, in 1634, and was the founder of a family which has given to New England and other parts of the country a large number of enterprising business men, and a number of prominent and influential members of the clerical.nd medical profession. Mr. Gillett's grandfather, John Gillett, was a minute man at the battle of Bennington, and served as Lieutenant of a company until the close of the War of the Revolution. John Gillett, the father of Rufus W. Gillett, was born in Torringford in I776, and died there in 1857. He was a farmer, but engaged in numerous other business enterprises, possessed rare good judgment, and was a prominent factor in the political history of his native town and county. He was a man of sterling integrity, his judgment was consulted in all local public affairs, and he held the most important town offices, and for twenty years represented the county in the State Legislature. For many years he was the home agent for a land company in Ohio. His wife's maiden name was Mary Woodward. She was a daughter of Dr. Samuel Woodward, for many years a leading physician of Torringford, whose ancestors settled in Massachusetts in I632. Four of his sons were physicians, and all of them became well known in New England as possessing a high degree of professional ability. The family was also related to Judge A. B. Woodward, at one time Chief Justice of the Territory of Michigan. The boyhood days of Rufus W. Gillett were passed upon a farm. He was educated at the common school and public academy of his native town, and at the age of seventeen years, became a clerk in a country store at Litchfield, Connecticut, where he remained two years. The next five years were spent as a merchant and farmer in his native town, and for the three years following he served as agent of New York and Connecticut cutlery manufacturing companies. In i856 he was appointed Secretary and Treasurer of the Woolcotville Brass Company, retaining the position until January, 1862, when he came to Detroit. Here he embarked in the grain commission business, as a partner of A. E. Bissell, under the firm name of Bissell & Gillett. This partnership was continued for six years, after which Mr. Gillett, with Theodore P. Hall as partner, founded the well known grain commission house of Gillett & Hall. The business interests of this firm have grown in volume from year to year, until at the present time the extent of their operations excel those of any firm in the same line in the State. Besides their regular commission business, they buy large quantities of corn and oats in Missouri, Kansas, and other Western States, for eastern sale and for export. Mr. Gillett has been prominent in the management of the affairs of the Chamber of Commerce, and has served as President for several successive years. He has been President of the Preston National Bank since its organization. He is VicePresident of the Detroit Copper and Brass Rolling Mill Company. He is also Vice-President of the Gale Harrow Manufacturing Company, a Director in the Standard Insurance Company, and is connected with several other business interests in Detroit. He was one of the corporators and is President of the Woodmere Cemetery Association. Politically he has always been a Democrat, but although interested in the maintenance of good government, has preferred to discharge his political duties as a private citizen. Repeatedly offered party nominations in the municipal government, he has always refused to become a candidate. He has, however, served on the Board of Estimates, and, in I88o, was appointed one of the Board of Fire Commissioners, which position he still occupies. During his quarter of a century's residence in Detroit, he has been eminently successful in business, and has the full confidence of the business public. His evenness of temper and natural affability attracts friends, making him socially popular and his company desirable. In business matters, that person is fortunate indeed who can command his esteem and co-operation. He comes from a long lived ancestry, from whom he inherited a robust constitution, and he continues so hearty and vigorous that he has seemingly many years of active life before him. Mr. Gillett was married May 26, 1847, to Charlotte M. Smith, a daughter of Nathaniel Smith, a merchant of Torringford, who was postmaster for over forty years. He held many other responsible positions, and was a prominent citizen of that part of the State for many years. Mr. Gillett has had three

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Page  1149 MERCHANTS. II49 children. The eldest, Mary Woodward, married Henry K.Lathrop, Jr., of Detroit; the second,Charles Smith, died at Detroit, October 18, 1876, at the age of twenty-six years. The youngest daughter, Hattie Winchell, married William R. Ellis, of Detroit. HENRY GLOVER was born April 30, I812, in De Ruyter, Madison County, New York, a State to which Michigan is indebted for a large portion of its staunch and sturdy citizens. His mother died when he was but two years of age; his father was a mechanic in moderate circumstances but gave his sons a good common-school education. His best gift, however, was a robust and sound constitution, and the invaluable principle of early self-reliance, with habits of industry and strict integrity, which were instilled by example, as well as by precept. At twelve years of age, Henry Glover was apprenticed to the tailors' trade, and by the time he was twenty-two, by close application and economy he had saved $700-no small amount for a young man to have earned and saved in those days when wages were so light. Feeling the necessity of a better education than he possessed, which feeling he attributes to the early adoption of the Christian faith, and which has permanently influenced his life, Mr. Glover determined to add to his prospects of usefulness and success by securing such intellectual discipline as was within his reach. He therefore entered the academy at Homer, New York, and spent several years in diligent study, paying his way with the money he had saved. After his academic course he went to Syracuse, and engaged in the dry-goods business, but did not meet with much success, owing to his lack of capital and his limited mercantile experience. Believing that he possessed the elements of success, he determined to seek new fields where the outlook was more encouraging, and consequently embarked at Buffalo for the West, on the steamer De Witt Clinton. After a trip of three days' stormy weather, Mr. Glover landed in Detroit, on October 15, 1836. The town then numbered but six thousand inhabitants. He put up at the American Hotel, kept by Petty & Hawley, located on the present site of the Biddle House, and at once commenced business as a merchant tailor, determined from the start to keep the best goods only and to do the best work. He often saw dark days, but little by little he added to his small savings and laid the foundation of a comfortable fortune. He had no inclination for political honors, the only office he ever held being that of School Inspector. In 1843 he became a member of the firm of Smith, Glover & Dwight, the firm doing a large business in handling general merchandise and lumber. After about two years Mr. Glover withdrew from the firm and resumed his former business. In religious belief he has ever been a staunch Baptist, having united with that denomination in Ithaca, New York, in 183I. He has been steadfastly loyal to the truth as held by that denomination, but gladly fraternizes with all Christian believers. He possesses strong convictions of truth, and conscientiously adheres to what he believes to be right, whether popular or not. During all the years of his residence in Detroit he has been looked to and relied on for contributions to denominational and other charities, both in the city and in the State. Having confidence in the future of the city, he invested in real estate, and was soon able to retire from mercantile life. He was among the first, if not the first, to see the possibilities of Jefferson Avenue as a wholesale and jobbing street, and in i865, when the greater portion of the avenue was lined with mediocre stores and shanties, he bought of Daniel Scotten a lot corner of Jefferson Avenue and Wayne Streets, then covered with rookeries of the worst possible character. These were cleared away and a substantial brick block erected. It was first occupied by John James & Son, hardware dealers, who were probably the first jobbing firm in that neighborhood, if not on the avenue. Mr. Glover also built a four story building on the opposite side of the avenue, and a large brick dwelling on the corner of Fort and Sixth Streets, and a substantial dwelling-house on Edmund Place, where he resides. During the fifty-one years that he has been identified with Detroit, he has seen it grow from little more than a village to the most beautiful metropolis of its size in the country, and to-day may take a pardonable pride in reflecting that he has been, to some considerable extent, influential in its growth and prosperity, and it can be conscientiously said of him-that what he has done, he has tried to do well. He was married, in I839, to Miss Laura Dwight, an estimable lady, who nobly discharged the duties of wife and mother, and who actively engaged in all works of charity. They began housekeeping at the corner of Lafayette Avenue and Griswold Street, where the McGraw building now stands, directly in front of which was the Michigan Central Depot. He has had seven children, two of whom died in infancy, and two others, Frank D. and Arthur Y. Glover, in early manhood, when full of promise for the future. Three children are still living. Two of them, James H. and George D. Glover, being engaged in drug manufacture. The daughter, Clara, is the wife of John M. Nicol, cashier of the American Banking and Savings Association. All of the children are residents of Detroit. He was married the second time, in 1885, to Miss Imogene

Page  1150 1150 MERCHANTS. S. Dimmock, of Maine, a cultured and Christian woman. JEREMIAH GODFREY, who was one of the oldest and most respected citizens of Detroit, was born in Thompson, Sullivan County, New York, February I6, 1814, and was the seventh son of a family of thirteen children, all of whom lived to mature age. His ancestors were English, and came to America prior to the Revolution. Mr. Godfrey came to Detroit in 1835, and engaged in the painting business, forming a partnership, in 1838, with John Atkinson, under the firm name of Atkinson & Godfrey. They were located at the corner of Lamed Street and Jefferson Avenue until the year 1850. At an early day Mr. Godfrey connected himself with the volunteer Fire Department, and performed active service until the present system was organized. In 1843, nearly ten years before his retirement from active business, he was selected as Assessor for the Sixth Ward. In 1853, the year after he retired from business, he served as Collector for the Fifth Ward. The satisfactory way in which he performed the duties of these offices, his excellent judgment in the valuation of real estate, and his superior business ability, caused him, in 186i, to be selected as one of the members of the first Board of Review, under a new system of assessing property. He held this position until 1863, when, on the invitation of the late Francis Eldred, then City Assessor, he entered that office, and remained during that gentleman's administration, a period of three years, and continued in a similar relation with Mr. A. A. Rabineau for the five years following. Upon the resignation of Mr. Rabineau, Mr. Godfrey was unanimously chosen by the council to fill the unexpired term, and was afterwards appointed by the Mayor as the head of the department, remaining three years longer, thus making in all some twenty years' continuous service in that office. In the administration of public affairs Mr. Godfrey applied the same rules of economy that he practiced in his private business. His broad and correct judgment, his unswerving integrity, and his excellent business habits, rendered his services in municipal affairs of great value, and the City of Detroit never possessed a public servant who labored more conscientiously than did Mr. Godfrey for nearly a quarter of a century. He seemed to have a genius in real estate matters, and his judgment in that line of business was regarded as infallible. While looking over his paper one morning in January, 185I, he noticed that the property on the southwest corner of Woodward and Grand River Avenues was advertised for sale. He immediately started out, and, within an hour, purchased the property, and soon after began the erection of the block which bears his name. Mr. Godfrey was a staunch Democrat and always acted with that party, with the single exception of the campaign of I860, but held in supreme contempt all arts of the politician which looked toward personal advancement. He always manifested a keen interest in everything that affected the public welfare; his purse was always open to calls for charity, and he contributed to many public enterprises. He was married December 29, 1836, to Mrs. Sophronie Fletcher, of Detroit. He died March 9, I882. His wife, one daughter, Mrs. Jesse H. Farwell, and one son, Marshall H. Godfrey, survive him. BRUCE GOODFELLOW, the present head of the widely known house of Mabley & Company, has contributed largely, by his energy and enterprise, to the successful progress of mercantile interests in his adopted home. He was born October 6, i850, in Smith's Falls, Ontario. His paternal grandfather (William), the pioneer of the family in America, was born in Scotland, in 1783, came to this country in 1822, made a settlement at Smith's Falls, Canada, and died in I855. His son, Archibald, was born in Hawick, Scotland, in I8II, and lived in Canada from 1822 to his death in 1877, and was for many years a well known government contractor, in charge, mainly, of canals. He was married, in I836, to Martha Kramer. She was a native American, but of German ancestry. Her father, Laurence Kramer,was born in Germany, in 1745, was an officer in the German army, and later in the British army. He saw General Wolfe fall at Quebec, and served under General Burgoyne during the American Revolution. He died 'in I839. She has resided upon the old homestead at Smith's Falls fifty-three years. Bruce Goodfellow, the son of Archibald, even in his youth, had a stirring, restless, and ambitious spirit. He chafed under the restraints of school discipline, and at the age of fourteen left home rather than remain under the control of the pedagogue who taught the Smith's Falls Grammar School. Having somehow conceived a desire for work connected with machinery, he induced the proprietor of a woolen mill to give him employment, and his experience of woolen fabrics dates from that time. His father, however, soon appeared upon the scene, intending to compel his return home. Bruce begged to be allowed to stay and earn his own living, and the mill proprietor joined in the appeal, promising that if the boy was left with him he would make a man of him. His father finally consented, and Bruce entered fully upon an independent career, and from that day depended for a

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Page  1151 MERCHANTS. I 5I livelihood solely upon himself, and refers with pardonable pride to the fact that, since he reached his fourteenth year, he has not owned a dollar that he did not earn himself. For eighteen months he divided his time at the mill between carding and bookkeeping, and then, tiring of the business, he determined to seek his fortune elsewhere. His father desired and offered to give him a classical education, but Bruce preferred to enter active life at once, and journeyed by canal to Kingston, where his courage was sorely tested, for he tramped the streets of Kingston two days vainly searching for work, and finally, almost disheartened, he set out for Toronto in search of what he had failed to find in Kingston. This time he was successful, but the position was neither lucrative nor pleasant, it being that of a bundle boy in a store, at three dollars a week, and as it cost him four dollars a week for board, it was apparent that at that rate his fortune would be long on the way. Faithful service, however, soon brought increased compensation and valuable experience, and when his employers failed he immediately obtained a place as salesman with a haberdasher, and subsequently served as salesman in the same line of business in Toronto, Coburg, and Peterboro, and having risen to the dignity of a salary one thousand dollars a year, he began to look toward the States as a field big with promise of larger reward, and decided to go to Chicago. While on the way thither, he turned aside at Detroit, to look up a brother then living here, and was so pleased with the city that he decided to remain here permanently. His brother being the only person in Detroit known to him, the finding of employment was a difficult as well as a discouraging task, but le was bound to have work, and for want of something better, became a peripatetic vender on the streets of a patent ink eraser, and was afterwards the first salesman in Detroit of the patent folding dinner basket, now in common use. Although fairly successful in these ventures, the business did not suit him, and he was glad of a chance to work as clerk, at eight dollars a week, for George Gassman, a Jefferson Avenue tailor, and it is an interesting fact that, a few years later, Mr. Gassman was in his employ. In September, 1870, while Mr. Goodfellow was at C. R. Mabley's store on a business errand, Mr. Mabley noticed him and said: " Young man, where are you from, and where have you worked?" " I'm from Canada, and have worked for Hughes & Co., of Toronto." "Well enough, my boy; if you are good enough to work for Hughes, you're good enough to work for me." As the result of, that conversation, he entered Mr. Mabley's employ the Same month, as a clerk in the furnishing department, and within two weeks was placed in full charge of the department. Mr. Mabley was evidently increasingly pleased with his protege, and when he opened the furnishing store under the Russell House, in 187 5, Mr. Goodfellow was given full charge, and was afterwards appointed general manager of the entire concern. In February, 1884, when the firm of Mabley & Company was incorporated, Mr. Goodfellow was chosen Secretary and Treasurer. On June 30, 1885, C. R. Mabley died, and Mr. Goodfellow succeeded him as President of the company. The estate retained Mr. Mabley's interest in the business until May 3, 1886, when it was purchased by the stockholders, Mr. Goodfellow remaining at the head of what is well.known as one of the best and most important business enterprises in Detroit or Michigan. The trade of the house reaches into the far and near portions of the State, and attracts many thousands of people yearly to the metropolis. The successful administration of its affairs requires great judgment, energy, and business nerve, and in these Mr. Goodfellow is not lacking. He was nurtured and trained under watchful eyes, came rapidly forward in the grades of promotion, and being ever mindful to improve the opportunities of experience, was peculiarly competent to fill the place made vacant by the death of Mr. Mabley. The continued prosperous management of the business of Mabley & Company afford ample evidence that no similar house is more ably or safely directed. Mr. Goodfellow has conducted the affairs of the company so successfully that the business has steadily increased, the sales for the year 1887 amounting to upwards of a million and a quarter of dollars. In 1887 he was appointed one of the Commissioners of the Detroit Fire Department, succeeding Jerome Croul. Mr. Goodfellow was married April 7, 1884, to Mrs. T. W. Davey, of Windsor, Ontario. Although his early life was a constant struggle, his ambition and indomitable will showed him the road, and urged him forward, and he has been remarkably and deservedly successful. His spirit is of the sort that would make him a leader everywhere and in everything, and all who have business or social intercourse with him willingly concede that he well deserves all the good that has or may come to him. THEODORE PARSONS HALL was born at Rocky Hill, near Hartford, Connecticut, December I5, I835. He is a lineal descendant of John Hall, of Coventry, Warwickshire, England, who arrived at Boston, Massachusetts, in 1634, joined Rev. Mr. Davenport's New Haven Colony in r638, and became one of the founders of Wallingford, Connecticut, when that town was "set off" from New Haven in 1669. The cemeteries of Wallingford and its adjoining town, Meridan, bear abundant

Page  1152 I152 MERCHANTS. testimony to the number and worth of John Hall's descendants in the past, and Yale College has inscribed among her honored graduates the names of a score or more of them. In recent days N. K. Hall, Postmaster-General under President Fillmore; Admiral A. N. Foote, Professor Asaph Hall, the astronomer, and many others of like note have traced their descent from this early settler of Connecticut. His grandson, John Hall, one of the Colonial judges and governor's "assistant," was one of the wealthiest and most influential of the early Colonists. Among the children or grandchildren of the latter, were Lyman Hall, Governor of Georgia, and signer of the Declaration of Independence; Benjamin and Elihu Hall, Kings' attorneys, judges, and prominent in the Revolution; Colonel Street Hall and Rev. Samuel Hall (Yale, 1716), first minister of Cheshire, Connecticut. Eunice Hall, sister of the preceding, was the wife of the Colonial Governor, Jonathan Law. Rev. ~Samuel Hall married Anne Law, daughter of the Governor by his first wife, Anne Eliot (a granddaughter of Rev. John Eliot, the Apostle, and of Wm. Brenton, Governor of the Colony of Rhode Island). Brenton Hall, founder of Meriden, was a son of Rev. Samuel Hall and father of Wm. Brenton Hall, M. D. (Yale, 1786). The latter resided at Middletown, Connecticut, where he is remembered for his heroism during an outbreak of yellow fever. He married Mehitable, daughter of Major-General Samuel Holden Parsons, a descendant through her mother, Mehitable Mather, of the families of Rev. Cotton Mather and Governor Mathew Griswold, of Connecticut. General Parsons was in command of the Connecticut troops during the Revolutionary War, and later was appointed by Washington first Chief Judge of the Northwest Territory. He settled at and was a founder of Marietta, Ohio. The son of Dr. Wm. B. Hall was Samuel Holden Parsons Hall, State Senator of New York and Judge of the Court of Errors after i846. He was a man of wealth, interested in educational matters, a promoter and director of the Erie Railway, and various other lines centering at Binghamton, New York, where he resided. His wife was Emeline Bulkeley, of Cincinnati, a lineal descendant of Rev. Peter Bulkeley, founder of Concord in 1635, and of Rev. Charles Chauncey, President of Harvard College. Theodore P. Hall, the subject of this sketch, was a son of Samuel IH. P. and Emeline Bulkeley Hall. His ancestors, as may be seen from the foregoing, were of New England Puritan stock, and practiced the old faith with earnestness and zeal. Mr. Hall received his preparatory education at the academies of Binghamton and Albany, New York; entered Yale College in I852, graduating in j856, in the class with Judge H. B. Brown, Hon. Chauncey M. Depew, General Wager Swayne, Judge Benjamin D. Magruder, and others of note. He subsequently spent a year in the study of law, assisted in the management of a newspaper, acquired some banking experience in the Central Bank of Brooklyn, New York, and later in the office of Thompson Bros., brokers of Wall Street. In 1859, with L E. Clark and others, he established the State Bank of Michigan, which was later merged into the Michigan Insurance Company and First National Bank of Detroit. In I863 Mr. Hall entered into active business on the Detroit Board of Trade, and for twenty years, since I868, has been in partnership with Rufus W. Gillett, under the firm name of Gillett & Hall, for years the leading commission grain house of Detroit. Of late he has retired from active participation in the affairs of the firm and has devoted his time to travel, literary pursuits, and to the improvement of his handsome place at Grosse Pointe. He enjoys making researches in the fields of history, biography, and genealogy, and is a member of several historical societies. He possesses excellent taste, fine powers of analysis and description, with a rare ability in the way of generalization. He often lays his friends -under obligation because of work done in their behalf, and for their advantage, and the public is probably unfortunate in that his possession of abundant means precludes the pectniary stimulus which might compel him to engage in definite and continuous literary labors. He is emphatically a lover of books, has accumulated a choice library, and possesses a scholarship competent to appreciate a wide range of subjects and authors. Socially he is modest, free-hearted, agreeable, and makes warm friends. He was married to Alexandrine Louise Godfroy, of Detroit, January lI1, 1860. They have three married daughters, Marie Stella, wife of Wm. Tone St. Auburn, of California; Josephine Emeline, wife of Lieutenant R. J. C. Irvine, of Augusta, Georgia; Nathalie Heloise, wife of James Lee Scott, of Ballston, New York; also three unmarried daughters, Alexandrine Eugenie, Marie Archange Navarre, and Madeleine Alacomb. Their only son, Godfroy Navarre, died in 1885. The Godfrov family were among the early French settlers of Canada, coming from near Rouen, Normandy. Several branches of the family were ennobled by Louis XIV. fpr bravery in the early Indian wars. The founder of the Detroit branch was married at Trois Rivieres, Canada, in 1683, and his eldest son, Jacques Godfroy, came to De, t oit with the founder, Cadillac, and died here in I730. His son Jacques, born at Detroit, 1722, married the daughter of a French officer stationed at 1 ort P'ot

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Page  1153 MERCHANTS. I 53 chartrain (Detroit). The latter's son, Colonel Gabriel Godfroy, also born here under French rule in 1758, was Colonel of the first regiment of Territorial troops organized here, and was Indian agent for forty years. Htis son, Pierre Godfroy, one of the first Representatives chosen when the Sate was organized, was the father of Alexandrine Godfroy (Hall), who is also lineally descended through her mother from Robert Navarre, first French Interdant and Notaire Royal, at this place. The name of Godfroy is a familiar one in the Records of Detroit, and is attached to two of the old farms now included within the limits of the city. GEORGE H. HAMMOND, for years one of the most extensive dealers in dressed beef in the world, was born at Fitchburg, Massachusetts, May 5, I838, and his parents, John and Sarah (Huston) Hammond, were of Puritan ancestry. His maternal grandfather, a native of Maine, served eight years as a soldier in the War of the Revolution, and lived to be ninety-four years old. The father of George H. Hammond was a builder, and erected numerous houses in the vicinity of his home. Until his tenth year, George H. Hammond attended the common schools, and then, preferring business to school life, began making leather pocketbooks for a Mr. Barrett, of Ashburnham, Massachusetts, a few miles from his native place. His employer soon gave up the business and Mr. Hammond, then only ten years old, continued it for about a year, employing twelve girls, and doing a profitable business. Steel clasp pocket-books then began to supersede leather goods, and he discontinued the business, and for a few months was employed in a butcher shop, and then for three years following, worked at Fitchburg, in the mattress and palm leaf hat factory of Milton Frost, at a salary of forty dollars per year, with the privilege of going to school three months in each year. At the age of fifteen, he purchased the business of his former employer, but at the end of six months sold out and came to Detroit, arriving here in I854. For a short time after his arrival he was engaged in his old occupation, and then for two years and a half he worked in the mattress and furniture factory of Milton Frost. He then started a chair factory on the corner of Farmer and State Street. Six months later, when he was only nineteen years old, the establishment was destroyed by fire, and after settling with the insurance company, he found his entire capital to consist of thirteen dollars, and a note for fifty dollars. With this amount he at once opened a meat store near the southwest corner of Howard and Third Street, and the venture was an immediate success. In I860 he erected a brick building on the adjoining corner, to meet the de mand of his trade. His business rapidly increased, and in I865 he removed to No. 38 Michigan Grand Avenue, where he built up a large and prosperous establishment. In the meantime he engaged extensively in beef and pork packing, forming in I872, a partnership with J. D. Standish and S. B. Dixon, under the firm name of Hammond, Standish & Co. The firm erected large packing houses on Twentieth Street, and the business grew so extensive, that for several years preceding Mr. Hammond's death, they did the largest business of the kind in the city. One of the latest ventures of the firm was the establishment of one of the largest and most complete meat stores in the city, on Cadillac Square, opposite the Central Market. Although substantial success followed Mr. Hammond's exertions in his regular line of trade, it is chiefly in connection with the transportation of dressed beef that he exhibited the largest business capacity. From the incipiency of the undertaking until he changed the method of carrying on the beef trade of the United States, his energy was the chief factor in the undertaking. The problem of how to preserve meats, fruits, and like perishable products for any length of time in transportation, without affecting their quality or flavor, had been practically unsolved until 1868, when William Davis, of Detroit, built the first successful refrigerator car, and until I869, tried in vain to induce capitalists to take hold of the invention. Finally Mr. Hammond had a car fitted up expressly for carrying dressed beef to the eastern markets. The experimental trip was made in May, I869, from Detroit to Boston, and was a complete success. Mr. Hammond, with characteristic boldness aud far-seeing business sagacity, soon after purchased the right to the exclusive use of the invention, and with Caleb Ives formed the dressed beef transportation company of Hammond, Ives & Co., which a few years after was changed to the firm name of George H. Hammond & Co. They commenced with one car, and the second year eleven were required; the third they used twenty-one, the number yearly increasing until, at the time of Mr. Hammond's death, eight hundred cars were in constant use in their fresh meat trade with the Atlantic coast, and they sent three ship-loads weekly to transAtlantic ports. They established slaughter houses at Hammond, Indiana, and Omaha, Nebraska, actually founding and building the first named city, which now has a large population and all the usual accompaniments of a thriving city. At this immense establishment, fifteen hundred to two thousand head of cattle are killed each day, the business transacted reaching the sum of $I2,000,000 to $ 5.ooo0,000 annually. The creation of this business was almost entirely due to the enterprise and sagac

Page  1154 1154 MERCHANTS. ity of Mr. Hammond, and the results accomplished have been of great benefit to the commercial world. In many respects Mr. Hammond was a remarkable man. He scarcely had a boyhood; beginning life's battles when ten years old, before he was twenty he carried upon his shoulders responsibilities that would test the powers of many mature men. His practical business training was supplemented while yet in his teens, by a course of study in Goldsmith's Commercial College, begun and completed in the evening, after the toil of the day was finished. These studies, with his practical business experience, gave him a knowledge of accounts that was of immense value. He was shrewd and careful, but clear business perception gave him courage and boldness. At forty-eight he had not only become one of the wealthiest men of Detroit, but one of the best known business men in the United States, and the central figure in a gigantic system of operations of which few people in Detroit realized the extent and which revolutionized the beef trade of the country, and made his name well known and respected in commercial circles in Chicago, New York, and Boston. He was a large real estate owner, investing extensively in suburban property in and near Detroit, and realized so fully that his success was gained here, that he desired that the city should be advantaged by his success. He was Vice-President of the Commercial National Bank, a director in the Michigan Savings Bank and Detroit Fire & Marine Insurance Company, and in innumerable ways was a reliable factor in the prosperity of Detroit. In the full tide of his success, when wealth and honor had rewarded his efforts, and when seemingly he could be so illy spared from the management of the great interests his genitus had developed, the end came suddenly and unexpectedly. Naturally of a strong, robust physique, the hard work and unremitting toil of many years appeared to fall lightly upon him, but disease of the heart, baffling medical skill, terminated his life on December 29, i886. He was confined to the house only a few days, and although he knew the shadow of a great danger overhung him, he faced it bravely, and as death came he was prepared to calmly accept whatever might befall. His death caused deep and genuine sorrow wherever he was known, and the community in which he had long lived, mourned the loss of one whose name was the synonym of business honor, whose private life was unexceptionable, and whose future promised so much of good to the public. He was not a member of any church, but made especially liberal gifts to church enterprises, and his contributions to charitable and benevolent objects were many, but unostentatious. He was reserved in manner, and gave his confidence only to a few, whom he implicitly trusted and in whom he created unbounded faith. His chief pleasures were found in the domestic circle, and he was able to leave the perplexing, annoying cares of business outside of his home, where he was the ideal father and husband. He was fond of travel, going twice to Europe with part of his family, visiting also California and the South, and frequently visited for pleasure or business, various parts of the United States. Dying in the prime of life, he left the impress of his work upon the commercial history of his generation, and to his family the rich legacy of a spotless reputation. He was married in 1857, to Ellen Barry. They had eleven children, eight of whom are living. SAMUEL HEAVENRICH was born in Frensdorf, Bavaria, June 15, I839, and is the son of Abraham and Sarah (Brull) Heavenrich. Hiis parents were both natives of Bavaria, his father being born in Frensdorf, in I799, and his mother in Lichtenfels, in 18 o. Mr. Heavenrich attended school in his native town until twelve years of age, and was then sent for two years to a school at Regensburg (Ratisbon\, Germany. In I853 he left home, came to this country, and took up his abode in Detroit, where he has since remained. Upon his arrival here he entered the store of S. Sykes & Company, wholesale and retail clothiers, near the southeast corner of Jefferson Avenue and Bates Street, the firm subsequently removing to No. 92 Woodward Avenue. He employed his evenings to good advantage, studying English and bookkeeping at Cochran's Business College, and improved so rapidly that he became of great service to his employers, and remained with the firm for seven years, during the last year as junior partner. In 1862 he bought out the firm of S. Sykes & Company, and took in as a partner his brother, Simon H., who had been in business at Leavenworth, Kansas, forming the firm of Heavenrich Brothers, which has continued since that time. In I867 they gave up the retail trade, and devoted their entire attention to the manufacturing and wholesale business, and in the spring of I871 found themselves so crowded for room that they removed to the stores known as 134 and 136 Jefferson Avenue. Their business continued to prosper, and on February i, 188I, they moved into their present elegant and commodious quarters at 138 and 140 Jefferson Avenue. The building was erected by the late Francis Palms, expressly for their use, and is a model of excellence. It is six stories high, is nearly fire proof, and extends from Jefferson Avenue through to Woodbridge Street. Here the business of the firm has grown to enormous proportions; they employ about three hun

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Page  1155 MERCHANTS. 'I55 dred and fifty hands, and manufacture an immense amount of men's, youth's, boys', and children's clothing, most of the cutting being done by steam cutting machines, the only ones of the kind in the State, and well worth an inspection. They will cut through two inches in thickness of cloth, and make two thousand revolutions per minute. The buttonholes in all of their goods are made in the basement of the building, on machines run by an electric motor. Their sample room is a model of excellence, and is second to none west of New York. It occupies the entire second floor, and contains a sample of every piece of goods they have in stock. By their thrift, perseverance, and strict attention to business, both members of the firm have acquired a competency, and their business represents a capital of about $250,000. Mr. Samuel Heavenrich was a member of the Detroit Light Guards for six years, but has mingled but little in general public affairs. Inclined to be conservative, he has uniformly declined the use of his name for political offices, but his courtesy, integrity, fidelity, industry, and great natural ability, are such that any trust committed to him would be carefully and successfully administered. He has been President of the Phcenix Club for five years, and is a director of the American Exchange National Bank, President of the Marine City Stave and Salt Company, and Vice-President of the Dexter Consolidated Iron Mining Company, and has held various offices in other corporations. He has ever manifested a special interest in the welfare of young men, and has been a benefactor to many. Possessing a social and genial disposition, his habits have often caused him to forego his own pleasure in order to be of service to others. By systematic efforts of this sort he has helped to brighten the path of many less fortunate than himself. His friends and acquaintances are well aware that any service he can render, when they are sick or in need, will be heartily and cheerfully rendered, without considering his personal ease or comfort. He is a highly worthy representative of the Hebrew nationality, is a member of the Congregation Beth El, and commands the esteem of his business associates and of the public generally. He was married March 21, 1866, to Sarah Trounstine, at Cincinnati. She is a daughter of John and Elizabeth (Guiterman) Trounstine, of Bavaria. They have had six children, namely, Blanche, Walter S., John A., Carrie H., Edith R., and Herbert S., all of whom are living at home with their parents. EMIL SOLOMON HEINEMAN was born December ir, 1824, at Neuhaus on the Oste, near the port of Hamburg. His father, Solomon Joachim Heineman, was born in 1780, in the Bavarian village of Burg Ellern, where his ancestors had lived in peace for many years, until compelled to seek another habitation through the religious intolerance which was then directed against persons of the Protestant and Jewish faith, to the latter of which Mr. Heineman's family had always subscribed. Seeking a home in the more northerly part of Germany, near the seaport of Hamburg, where cosmopolitan ideas had prevented the lodgment of intolerance, he established himself at Neuhaus, and by hard work and honest endeavor became in time the foremost merchant of the place, and amassed what was then a more than comfortable fortune. He held for many years an honorable civil appointment from the government He married Sarah, the daughter of Leeser Franc and Regina Josef, and became the father of ten children, Emil S. being the fourth of five brothers. It those days it was the custom, upon the expiration of his school days, to send a boy to some tradesman in another city, either to be taught a handicraft or to be given a business education. Accordingly, in 1840, when he was sixteen years old, E. S. Heineman was sent to the city of Oldenburg to learn the practical duties of business. The Revolution of 1848 raised hopes in the hearts of young men that Germany would become a united and great nation, but the reaction in I850 dispelled these hopes, and Mr. Heineman determined to seek his fortune in the New World. Obtaining a reluctant consent from his father, he took passage on the Washington, the pioneer trans-Atlantic steamer, and after a phenomenally short trip of two weeks, landed in New York in the spring of I851. Going from there to Cincinnati, after a short stay in the latter city he came to Detroit, where he secured employment in David Amberg's clothing store, in the old Smart Block, on the present site of the Merrill Block. His fellow clerk here was Edward Breitung, afterwards a prominent resident of the Northern Peninsula, and its representative in Congress. The commercial training and the instruction in the English language which Mr. Heineman had received at home, enabled him in I853 to engage in business on his own account, in the same block where he began as a clerk. The fire which in I854 destroyed the old Presbyterian Church, and the block in which his business was located, necessitated his removal, and for many years he occupied one or more of the stores under the National Hotel, now known as the Russell House. At the outbreak of the Civil War, he became interested in furnishing military clothing to the State, and later to the General Government, and after this time was engaged solely in the wholesale trade. His two brothers-in-law, Messrs. Magnus and Martin Butzel, were admitted to partnership in 18;2, and the firm,

Page  1156 1156 MERCHANTS. since known as Heineman, Butzel & Company, removed to the upper floors adjoining Messrs. G. & R. McMillan's present store, remaining there until I871, and then removing to their present location on Jefferson Avenue. Thus for thirty-five years Mr. Heineman has been engaged in mercantile life in Detroit, and during this period has witnessed almost the entire growth of the city's industries. He has been eminently a business man, and while not neglecting political duties, has never accepted party nomination or appointment, but has been a staunch Republican ever since the founding of that party. He has been connected with many of the representative corporations of the city, and was among the first subscribers to the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and one of its directors since its organization. In like manner he became an original subscriber to, and director of the Michigan Life Insurance Company, and of the Fort Wayne and Elmwood Street Railway Company, of which he is at present Treasurer. He is known as a conservative in his business and investments, and judicious in his selection of real estate. In I885 he erected a fine building on Cadillac Square, and has always had faith in the growing prosperity of the city, is known as a public-spirited citizen, and no more worthy representative of his nationality can be found anywhere. Mr. Heineman, is almost as active as ever in business, not remiss in social duties, and is a man of quiet tastes and retiring disposition, to whom home presents the highest ideal of happiness. Almost any afternoon, in summer, he may be seen busy among the flowers in his garden, which is one of the most attractive in the city, and its care is one of his favorite pastimes. He is a lover of books, and has given some attention to numismatics, having a very interesting and valuable collection of coins. He was married in I86I, to Fanny Butzel, of Peekskill, New York. The year following he purchased his present homestead on Woodward Avenue. He has two sons and two daughters. CHAUNCEY HURLBUT was born in Oneida County, New York, in 1803, and came to Detroit with Cullen Brown in 1825. He worked at his trade of harnessmaker for a few years, and then in company with Jerry Dean, carried on a saddlery and harness store for three years. Mr. Hurlbut then decided to go into the grocery business with his brother-in-law, Alexander McArthur. The latter soon left the city, and in I837, Mr. Hurlbut built the store at 50 Woodward Avenue, where he engaged in the general grocery trade and continued in business up to a short time before his death. From the year 1839 he served almost continu ously in some public capacity. He was successively foreman, chief engineer, and president of the old Fire Department. From 1839 to 1841 he was Alderman from the Second Ward. In 1835 he was President of the Mechanics' Society. When the Board of Trade was organized in 1847, Mr. Hurlbut was chosen one of the directors. He was one of the original stockholders in the Second National Bank, and was a director during the twenty years of its existence. At the time of his death he held the same position in its successor, the Detroit National Bank. He was a Sewer Commissioner from 1857 to 1859. In I86I he was appointed as one of the Water Commissioners, serving two years and being appointed over and over again after that time. From 1872, until his death, he continuously held the presidency of the Board and gave almost his entire attention to the improvement of the Detroit Water Works system. His public duties were all fulfilled with a sturdy adherence to the maxim that "public office is a public trust." In I841 he returned to the President of the Fire Department a warrant for one hundred dollars, which had been sent him for services as chief engineer, remarking that he was a believer in Franklin's doctrine, that no man should grow rich by emoluments of office. Mr. Hurlbut was an ardent Republican from the organization of the party, and a regular contributor to campaign funds. He was not demonstrative in his politics, however, and seldom attended caucuses or other party meetings. He was noted for his remarkable memory, and his extensive reading on historical and scientific subjects, had made his mind a cyclopoedia of facts. He died on September 9, I885, and his widow followed him a few months later. He left almost all of his estate, nearly a quarter of a million dollars, to the Board of Water Commissioners, to be expended in maintaining a library and improving the grounds belonging to the commission. JOSHUA S. INGALLS was born in the town of Johnson, La Moille County, Vermont, February 12, 1833, and is a son of Simeon and Rhoda (Smith) Ingalls. His ancestors came from England, and settled at Andover, Massachusetts, in 1690. His father was a farmer, and his son passed his earlier years upon the farm. The dull, prosaic life of the average New England farmer's boy, and the limited school advantages there obtainable, however, illy suited his active temperament, and at the age of fourteen he left home, determined to secure an education by his own efforts. Going to Johnson village, a few miles from his father's residence, by working after school hours and during vacations he obtained three years tuition at the Johnson Academy. Deeply regret

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Page  1157 MERCE ting his inability to pursue his studies further, he then began his business career by becoming a clerk in a general country store at Concord, Massachusetts, conducted by John Brown. His diligence, close attention to duties, and natural business aptitude, won the confidence of his employer, and at the end of a year he provided him with capital to start a general store at Acton Centre, Massachusetts. He managed the store for a year, and then disposed of his interest for a farm. Subsequently he was employed as a salesman in Boston, Massachusetts, and at Akron and Cleveland, Ohio. At the latter place, after several years as clerk in a crockery store, he became a partner in the firm of Fogg, Ensworth & Company, crockery merchants. The business was successfully continued for two years, and then in I860 the firm was dissolved, and Mr. Ingalls entered into partnership with Philip Thurber, under the firm name of Thurber & Ingalls, and established a crockery and glass store at Jackson, Michigan. At the end of a year and a half Mr. Thurber retired, and A. A. Bliss became a partner, under the firm name of Bliss & Ingalls. They continued together until I869, when the firm dissolved. In the meantime, as early as 1862, Mr. Ingalfs had established at Jackson the first oil agency ever started in the State of Michigan. He continued it with success until I869, when he went to Cleveland, and in partnership with a Mr. Olliphant opened a crockery store. This venture did not prove advantageous, and in 1872 the firm discontinued business, and Mr. Ingalls spent the next two years as a traveling salesman for a Cleveland crockery firm. In I875 he came to Detroit, and with C. C. Bloomfield established the oil agency of Ingalls & Company. The business was almost immediately successful. In I884 the company was incorporated as Ingalls & Company, and in 1886 was consolidated with the Standard Oil Company, under the corporate name of the Ingalls Oil Company, and is now the distributing agency of the Standard Oil Company for the State of Michigan. The development of the business in Detroit is largely due to Mr. Ingalls's business foresight and judgment, and through his efforts, Detroit has become one of the largest distributing points for kerosene oil in the whole country. Since 1882 Mr. Ingalls has also been largely interested in an extensive lumber company, of which he has been the President since its organization, and is now sole manager and owner, and makes large shipments of Michigan pine to the New England and Eastern States. Mr. Ingalls's business SUccess is the result of persistent and hard work. He is independent and self-reliant, and, when determined on a line of action, pursues it with bold TANTS. 1157 ness and vigor. Although on two occasions his earlier business ventures turned out disastrously to himself, he allowed no one else to be a loser, but, when prosperity was again achieved, he paid in full every dollar of his old indebtedness, an example of absolute honesty worthy of universal imitation. He has never held public office, but takes a deep interest in political movements, and is an enthusiastic Republican. Honest and straightforward in business transactions, with excellent financial abilities, pleasing address and courteous manner, he is a good type of the business men who create and sustain the commerce of the city. He was married in 1862 to Amelia H. Thurber, of Syracuse, New York. She died in i885, and the following year their daughter, Florence, married Oakes Ames, of Boston, Massachusetts. Mr. Ingalls's home being broken up, he decided to retire from active business and make his home in New England. Leaving Detroit in 1887, he went to Boston, and before many months was again persuaded into business life, and became one of the proprietors of the Albion, Michigan, Milling Company, and controls its large New England business. CHARLES STORRS ISHAM was born in Hudson, Ohio, January 16, I835. He is a son of Warren and Melissa (Parsons) Isham, who had four children, namely, Warren, deceased; Jane L., widow of the late David Crane, of New York; Maria P., who in 1847 married Wilbur F. Storey, of the Chicago Times, and is now residing in Europe, and Charles Storrs Isham, who was the fourth and youngest child. Warren Isham, the father, was a Presbyterian minister, and a writer of considerable note. He was born at Watertown, Jefferson County, New York, was a graduate of Union College, and established, at Hudson, the Ohio Observer, the first religious newspaper in Ohio; he published it until 1835. He was afterwards widely known in Michigan as the editor of the Michigan Observer, and also of the Michigan Farmer. In these papers he displayed marked ability. About 1853 he published a volume of travels in Europe, Egypt, and the Holy Land, and also a volume entitled " The Mud Cabin," an expose of the lower stratum of English life. Both of these works were quite popular and financially successful. The last years of his life were spent at Marquette, Michigan, where he published the Marquette Journal, and was engaged in other literary work. He died at that place in 1863. His wife, Melissa Parsons Isham, was related to the Bardwells of England. She was born in Belchertown, Massachusetts, in 18oo; was a woman of strong character, great family pride, an earnest Christian, and unwearied in her devotion to the welfare of her

Page  1158 1158 MERCHANTS. children. She died in Detroit in i88o. Several of the family inherited the literary taste and talent of their father. Warren, the eldest son, attracted much attention as a writer in connection with the editorial staff of the Detroit Free Press and the Chicago Times. His writings were noted for the humor which they contained, and he especially distinguished himself as war correspondent of the Chicago Times during the early years of the war. Some of his communications were disapproved by General Grant, and he was imprisoned several months, but released without any charges being preferred against him. He was then re-employed on the staff of the Times, and promoted to the chief editorial charge under Mr. Storey. In I863, soon after his father's death, he went to Marquette to see about his father's affairs, and on the return trip, on board of the ill-fated steamer " Sunbeam," was lost on Lake Superior. As a writer, he owed little to study or application, but with the spontaneity of true genius he excelled in whatever he undertook, and his earliest efforts had all the ease and polish of a practiced writer. Charles Storrs Isham was brought to Detroit by his parents when he was a small child, and before the age of six attended the private school of Mrs. Campbell, now Mrs. Solomon Davis. When he was six years old, his parents removed to Jackson, where he attended school six years, and afterwards spent one year in the schools of Springfield, Massachusetts. At the age of fourteen he was placed in a store at Jackson, Michigan, and remained three years. He then returned to Detroit, and from 1852 to 1854 was engaged as traveling agent for the Free Press. The following year and a half he spent in traveling in Louisiana and Texas, and gained much knowledge of the condition of the Southern States during a most interesting period. In the fall of I856 he entered the wholesale dry goods house of Carter, Quinine & DeForest, in New York City, and was engaged as clerk, and during the winters as traveling salesman for the house in the West. He occupied the position about four years, and then engaged with a merchant to go to Galveston, Texas, with the intention of making his home in the South; but, just as he was about to depart, he received a telegram from his brother Warren, urging him to come to Detroit; he concluded to do so, was released from the engagement, and came here. During the first three years of his residence he was engaged in the dry goods store of Farrell Brothers, the predecessors of Newcomb, Endicott & Company. In 1864 he formed a partnership with George I. Major, in the commission and forwarding business, under the firm name of Major & Isham. This firm has been in business twenty-four years, and is one of the few in the city that has remained unchanged for that length of time. Mr. Isham has attended strictly to his business, and has not sought outside work or duty of any sort. In politics he is a Democrat. As a business man he is prudent and conservative, sound in judgment, and of large energy and perseverance; his integrity is undoubted, and he is genial and courteous towards all with whom he comes in contact. He has traveled extensively in the United States, and in 1884 made a trip to Europe, spending a large part of the year at different points on the continent. He was married July 9, 1864, to Lucy B. Mott, daughter of the late John T. Mott, of Detroit. They have four children, Charles Storrs, Jr., Fred. Stewart, Jennie M., and Warren Parsons. Charles S., now in the commission business in this city, spent two years on the Chicago Times as a reporter and foreign correspondent, and was entrusted with the special correspondence of the paper in Mexico. Fred. Stewart graduated from the High School at sixteen, and at once became a reporter for the Detroit Free Press, remaining there until I884, when he went to Europe. He spent one year in Paris, a year at Munich, and two years in London, studying art and music under the best masters. While in London he made his first venture in book authorship, in an ingenious novel entitled "The Twice-Seen Face." It has passed through the first edition and is entering upon the second. Mr. and Mrs. Isham are both members of the Westminster Presbyterian Church. RICHARD MACAULEY was born in Rochester, New York, November 28, 1838, and is the son of Richard and Jane (Maguire) Macauley. His father was one of the early millers at Genesee Falls, an interest which had much to do with the building up of the city of Rochester, which is known everywhere as the Flour City. Mr. Macauley was educated in the public schools and at the Academy in Rochester, and was known as a diligent student. He was offered a college education, but preferred to enter at once into active business life, and in 1859 became a clerk in the large dry goods store of Hubbard & Northup, at Rochester, where he secured an excellent business training, and was brought into social and religious circles which largely shaped his future. While thus engaged he became a member of the Fifty-fourth Regiment of National Guards, which was occasionally called into active service until the close of the war. In 1864 he resigned his commission of Captain in the regiment, and went to Cairo, Illinois, where he engaged in the wholesale and retail book and stationery business, his employers doing a large

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Page  1159 MERCHANTS. I159 business throughout the West and South. Mr. Macauley, however, was not able to endure the malaria prevalent in that region, and the next year returned to Rochester and secured employment in the wholesale millinery house of Edward Wamsley, as traveling salesman in the Lake States. In visiting Detroit, he saw that this was a favorable location for a wholesale millinery house, and in I870, in connection with his former employer, he established the first exclusively wholesale millinery house in Michigan, under the firm name of Macauley & Wamsley. Two years later he bought out his partner's interest, and with his brother, Alexander Macauley, formed a new firm under the style of Macauley Brothers. One year later his brother retired from the firm, and the business was continued under the name of Richard Macauley for eight years with unabated success, and he gained a high reputation with merchants, importers and manufacturers at the East, and with the trade generally throughout the West, as a successful merchant in a line of trade in which others had frequently failed, and which requires exceptional forethought and judicious management. In I880 he admitted Edwin Jackson, of Toledo, and his brother, Alexander Macauley, into the firm, which was changed to Richard Macauley & Company. Since then there has been no change, except the retirement of Mr. Jackson in I887, and the success of the house has been permanent and continuous, and it has grown to be the largest of the kind in the State. In addition to his interest in the Detroit house, Mr. Macauley owns the entire interest in, and is the manager of a similar house in Toledo, which is quite as successful as the one in Detroit. Mr. Macauley has given his close attention to business interests, is both cautious and enterprising, a good judge of mercantile values, and an excellent financier. He has mastered the details which ensure success, and feels a just pride in the fact that he has always met his obligations fully and promptly. IHe is highly esteemed for his social qualities and for his integrity of character. He is a member of the Detroit Club and also of the Michigan Club. In political faith he is a Republican, and is publicspirited in all matters pertaining to the prosperity of the city. He is a director in the American Banking and Savings Association, and in the American Trust Company, and a stockholder in the Detroit National Bank. He was married July 9, I867, to Josephine A. Foster, daughter of George D. Foster., a prominent merchant of West Winfield, New York. Her mother's maiden name was Emerancy B. Thurston, a direct descendant of Edward Thurston, one of the early colonists of Rhode Island, in 1642. They have three children, George Thurston, Fanny Wood, and Richard Henry. All of the family are members of St. John's Episcopal Church. THOMAS McGRAW, the widely known wool merchant, was born at Castleton, on the River Shannon, County of Limerick, Ireland, September 17, 1824. His father, Redmond McGraw, emigrated to America, landing at Quebec in 1825, and subsequently purchased a tract of land in Essex County, New York, and after clearing it and finding it undesirable, he removed to a point near Ogdensburgh, where he repeated his experience. From this farm he removed to Canada, buying land near St. Thomas, sixty miles from Detroit. In 1835 he sold out his interests in Canada and emigrated to Michigan, and settled in the township of Canon, Wayne County, where he passed the remainder of his days. His previous changes of location were doubtless caused by the fact that in the old country the possession of lands was the most reliable wealth that one could have, and as he had been the financial manager of a very large estate for many years previous to his emigration, it was very natural that his ambition should be in the direction of a landholder, and having no reliable knowledge of the soil and climate of the different sections of America, it was only by several trials that he at last found in Michigan the location he desired. He was a man of liberal education and personal culture, and a steadfast upholder of the Protestant religion. He was born in Ireland in 1777, and died at Canton in 1852. His mother's family were German Lutherans; her maiden name was Elizabeth Faught. She died about three years after her arrival in America. Thomas McGraw did not inherit his father's taste for agriculture, and the greater portion of his time until I840, was spent in study at school and at home. From some romantic source he obtained a favorable idea of a sailor's life, and made up his mind to go to sea. At the age of fifteen he set out to become a sailor, and reached the city of Rochester, New York, before he quite made up his mind that a life spent upon the ocean would not be desirable. In that city he engaged as clerk with a substantial merchant at a salary of ninetysix dollars a year. During his stay in Rochester of a year and a half, he attended a night school, and devoted nearly all his leisure moments to study. In the fall of 1841 he returned to his home in Michigan. The next year he entered into partnership with his brother in clearing twenty acres of land. In the fall of the year they sowed the land to wheat, but the enterprise turned out disastrously, as the severe frost of the following June destroyed the crop, the damage being general throughout the State.

Page  1160 I 6o MERCHANTS. In 1843, at the age of nineteen, Mr. McGraw came to Detroit and took a place as clerk in the office of the Pittsburgh Iron Company, where he remained four years. Leaving Detroit, in 1847, he purchased a small stock of general merchandise, and opened a store at Novi, Oakland County. That county and those adjoining are noted for their productions of fine wool, and Mr. McGraw soon drifted into the wool trade. It was not long before this interest became so extensive that his general mercantile business was only a convenient appendage, and he was compelled to seek a more central location, and removed to Detroit in April, 1864. Soon after coming here he opened a branch house in Boston, Massachusetts His business success has been remarkable, and he has been the largest buyer of wool outside of the Atlantic cities. Although an attentive listener to the opinions of others, he makes a thorough canvass of the information bearing on any question or transaction he is contemplating, and his mind once made up, he never wavers, and, is ever on the alert until the enterprise he has undertaken is finished. His reputation as a wool merchant is such throughout New England that his grades of wool are preferred by manufacturers, as they have uniformly been found to be of the very best quality. His system is such that he transacts his large wool business with ease, and in 1887 his wool purchases amounted to about five million pounds. He has, for years, taken a great interest in Detroit and its institutions, and his chief investments are in business and real estate in the city. He is the largest stockholder in the Globe Tobacco Gompany, and has for many years been its President. He was one of the organizers, and for five years President of the Michigan Savings Bank, and for twenty years a stockholder, and for seven years a director, of the American National Bank of Detroit. In 1876 he purchased the Mechanics' Block, expending large sums for its general improvement, making it thoroughly modern in accordance with the requirements of the times. He has provided in the building, for the free use of its occupants, a fine library of three thousand volumes, known as the McGraw Law Library, and has arranged to lay aside a certain sum each year for the extension and improvement of this library, to the end that it may be one of the leading libraries of its kind. In politics Mr. McGraw is independent, but usually acts and votes with the Republican party. He was for two years a member of the Board of Estimates of Detroit. During August and September, of I886, Mr. McGraw made a trip to Europe, visiting Germany, Belgium, France, England, Scotland, and Ireland. In 1848 he married Sarah I. Seldon, grand daughter of Rodman Hazard, a well known figure in the earlier history of Western Massachusetts, and noted throughout New England as a pioneer woolen manufacturer, and also a politician, having served upwards of twenty years in the State Legislature. One of his lineal descendants was in Frankfort, Germany, during the late Civil War, and used his influence in the early part of the conflict to induce German bankers to purchase American bonds. Mr. McGraw is most esteemed by those who know him most intimately. He is appreciative of whatever is truest and best in those with whom he comes in contact, and his old time courtesy and friendly spirit make it pleasant for those who have social or business relations with him. He is a member of the Protestant Episcopal Church, but his love for Christianity is broader than his love for any one church, and this is doubtless the truest loyalty. NICOL MITCHELL, for many years one of the most extensive builders and contractors of Detroit, was born at Kilsythe, near Sterlingshire, Scotland, November 19, 1821. There he spent his youth and early manhood, and served an apprenticeship at the carpenter's trade. In I847 he emigrated with his family to America, coming directly to Detroit. Here he secured employment as a journeyman with Hugh Moffat, and subsequently rose to be foreman, and when Mr. Moffat abandoned the work of a contractor to engage in other pursuits, Mr. Mitchell succeeded to a portion of his business. A few years after he formed a partnership and engaged in building with a Mr. McDuff, under the firm name of Mitchell & McDuff. In 1863 he became a member of the firm of Morhous, Mitchell & Bryam, and for several years thereafter was more extensively engaged in building than any other firm in Detroit. His connection with the firm ceased in 1874, when Mayor Moffat appointed him a member of the first Board of Public Works, a position for which his practical experience as a mechanic rendered him eminently fitted. He served in this capacity four years, and at the close of his term, one of the Detroit daily papers voiced the opinion of the community in saying: "Mr. Mitchell, who, after four years of faithful service on the Board of Public Works, now retires to private life, is one of the kind of men that few cities are lucky enough to obtain as officers. A successful builder, of enterprise and workmanlike capacity, he was selected for a position that he has filled to the satisfaction of the whole community." At the expiration of his term he again gave his entire attention to building, and during the latter years of his life most of his time was devoted to the

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Page  1161 MERCHANTS. i i6i ------ -- superintendency of the erection of buildings for Messrs. Newberry & McMillan, and during thirty years he personally superintended the construction of many of the largest buildings in Detroit. The following were erected under his supervision: The Detroit Opera House, Fort Street Presbyterian Church, Christ Protestant Episcopal Church, Central Methodist Episcopal Church, St. Joseph's Catholic Church, St. Patrick's Catholic Church, Young Men's Hall, Michigan Central Elevator No. 2, the Union Depot Elevator, the Wabash Elevator, and numerous business blocks. His last work'was in connection with the erection of the Detroit, Grand Haven and Milwaukee Elevator. He was one of the organizers of the Michigan Savings Bank, and from the first one of its directors, and from June, 1878, its vice-president He was an enthusiastic supporter of the Republican party, but never a seeker after political honors. In religious and charitable work he was earnest and active. He was emphatically a God-fearing and devoted Christian gentleman. He became connected with the United Presbyterian Church at its organization, and for over thirty-five years served as an elder. He was a valued member of the Detroit Commandery of Knights Templar, and of the St. Andrew's Society. In the latter society he was three times elected to the presidency. His " brither Scotsmen" in their tribute to his memory, record their high appreciation of his " excellent business ability, rare mechanical skill, sterling integrity, and unflinching devotion to duty." For nearly a year preceding his death Mr. Mitchell had been in ill health, but attended to his business as usual until March 29, 1887, when he was stricken with paralysis, and a few days later sank into apparent unconsciousness, from which he never rallied. He died April IO, 1887. His death was mourned by a wide circle of friends, to whom his many admirable traits of character had become well known. His long residence in Detroit and prominent identification with important trusts faithfully discharged, had made him one of the best known and respected characters in the city. He was practical, straightforward, hard-working, and conscientious, with an unsullied reputation. He loved the vigorous pursuits of his trade, and in the management of large bodies of men was remarkably successful. His kindness and consideration for others were his strongest characteristics. Without early educational advantages or influential friends, by his individual worth and energy, he won a deserving place among the successful business men of Detroit. He was married to Lillie Kirkwood, at Sterlingshire, Scotland, Decemlier 5, J845. They had four children. Their eldest son, William, died in Detroit in 1881, at the age of thirty-one years. The remaining children are Jessie Dean, wife of W. R. Hamilton, Margaret C., and John K., a civil engineer of Detroit. GEORGE F. MOORE, wholesale dry goods merchant of Detroit, was born in Berkshire County, Massachusetts, December o1, 1832, and is one of the twelve children of John and Clara Moore, and of New England ancestry. His grandfather on the paternal side came from Holland, and was among the earliest settlers of Berkshire County, and his descendants have left an honorable impress upon the commercial and political life of New England. Mr. Moore's mother was of Scotch descent, but her ancestors came to America prior to the Revolutionary War. John Moore was a man of sturdy character, and infused into his children those sound principles which have given them honorable and useful positions in the world. He dealt largely in lands, and was also engaged in the coal and timber trade, owning large tracts of land in Berkshire County. He possessed natural business ability, good judgment, was animated by honest and conscientious motives, was highly respected and esteemed, and as a business man was quite successful. He removed with his family to Batavia, New York, in 1847, and died there in 1858. His son, George F. Moore, was educated in the public schools of Berkshire and Batavia, and at the age of eighteen began his commercial career as a clerk in the dry goods house of Wells & Seymour, of Batavia, with whom he remained three years. He then went to Buffalo, New York. and for a year was in the employ of Howard, Whitcomb & Co. His next engagement took him to New Orleans and Memphis, where he spent the winter of 1854. In 1855 he returned to Buffalo, and for three years was in the service of his former employer. His business career in Detroit dates from I859. In that year he entered the dry goods store of Town & Shelden, by whom he was employed for six years, when he and James L. Edson, were admitted as partners. The firm name was Allan Shelden & Co., the late Senator Zachariah Chandler being a special partner., In 1872 Mr. Moore and Mr. Edson retired from the firm and established the present wholesale dry goods house of Edson, Moore & Co. They began business in a building erected for them on the southwest corner of Jefferson avenue and Bates Street, where they remained until 1882, when the growth of their business demanding larger quarters, the building on the opposite side of Bates Street and on the corner of Jefferson Avenue was erected for their use. The growth of their business to its present commanding

Page  1162 1162 MERCHANTS. position among the wholesale houses of the Northwest, has been rapid, at the present time their sales exceed those of any dry goods house in the State, and their establishment is one of the largest concerns in its line west of New York City. In view of these results, it is needless to say that Mr. Moore has had a remarkably busy life, or that he possesses excellent business capacity and judgment. An important factor in his career has been his practical experience since early manhood, with the line of business in which he is engaged. Starting in life without assistance, save what his own industry and worth had justly earned, he has gained a deserving place among the most successful merchants of Detroit. The life and labor of even the most successful business man, made up of daily rounds of duty, would seem to furnish little of note to the biographer, but it should be oftener kept in mind that the growth and good of the nation, and of each individual citizen, is secured through the development of commercial enterprise, rather than by the ready eloquence of mere political place hunters. The mercantile community increases the consumption of raw material by opening new avenues of trade, and by pushing the sale of various products, while the political representative often hinders legitimate commerce by crude legislation and unbusiness-like schemes in the interest of his party. The personal supervision of extensive interests has given Mr. Moore but limited opportunity to engage in other pursuits, but no citizen has shown, in more substantial ways, his deep interest in all enterprises pertaining to the good of Detroit. Progressive and public-spirited, his aid is never refused to any deserving projects. He possesses far-seeing business judgment, the power to thoroughly grasp complicated details, is careful and methodical, and steadily and persistently follows a course he has decided upon, and is not easily turned from a project his judgment approves. His integrity is unquestioned, and upon his business honor there is no stain. Personally he is reserved in manner, but with those who possess his full confidence he is genial and companionable. He is warmly attached to his friends, his home and the domestic ties are especially dear to him, and his chief enjoyment is found in the family circle. For many years he has been'a member of the First Presbyterian Church, and is generous in his donations to religious and charitable objects. He was married in 1855 to Adela S. Mosher, daughter of Amasa A. and Susan Mosher. They have had five children, Edward H. (deceased). George F, Jr., Willis Howard, Harriet L., deceased wife of John Arthur Heames, and Adela S., wife of J. Ledlie Hees. JOHN VALLtE MORAN was born in Detroit, December 25, 1846. He is descended from French ancestors, who were among the early immigrants to the St. Lawrence Valley. Pierre Moran, the founder of the family in America, was born at Batiscan, in I65I, and married Madeline Grimard, in 1678. Their descendants were numerous in Canada, and many of them noted as clergymen, lawyers, and landed proprietors. The name was originally spelled Morand, and it so appears in some of the old records. One of the sons of Pierre Moran, Jean Eaptiste, was married at Quebec, in 1707, to Elizabeth Dubois. Their son, Charles, settled at Detroit in the year I734. In 1767 he married Marguerite Grimard Trembley, whose family possessed the seigneurie de Trembley as early as I68I. She died in I77I, leaving two sons, the younger of whom, Charles, was born in I770, and married, in 1794, Catherine Vissier, dit Laferte, whose only child was the late Judge Charles Moran. The latter was born April 21, 1797, and was married in 1822 to Julie De Quindre, by whom he had five children, of whom only the youngest is living, Mary Josephine, wife of Robert E. Mix, of Cleveland, Ohio. Judge Moran married for his second wife Justine McCormack, of New York. They had five children-James, who died unmarried; William B.; John Vallee; Catherine, wife of the late Henry I). Barnard; and Alfred T. Judge Moran died October I3, 1876, leaving to the above named children and his widow one of the most valuable estates in the city. John Vallee Moran, the third son, received his rudimentary education in Ste. Anne's Church School, then taught by the Christian brothers; he afterwards attended the old Barstow School, and the private school of P. M. Patterson; completed a course in higher mathematics at the Detroit High School, and finished his commercial education by a course at Sprague and Farnsworth's Business College in Detroit. While thus acquiring a theoretical knowledge of business, he had some experience in its practice in connection with the affairs of his father's estate. In I867 he became a clerk in the grocery house of Moses W. Field & Company, at the foot of Griswold Street. In I869 he assumed the position of assistant bookkeeper in the wholesale grocery house of John Stephens & Company, subsequently became shipping clerk in the wholesale grocery house of Beatty & Fitzsimons, which place he retained for two years, at the expiration of which time he purchased the interest of the late Simon Mandlebaum, in that establishment, and became a partner, the style of the firm being Beatty, Fitzsimons & Company. The firm continued without change until Mr. Beatty died, in August, I885; the

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Page  1163 MERCHANTS. 1I63 MERCHANTS. 116 business was then reorganized, and in March, I887, the firm was changed to Moran, Fitzsimons & Company, and the house is recognized as one of the most prosperous in the city. Mr. Moran has also been active in many other enterprises. For many years he was a director in the Merchants and Manufacturers' Exchange, which his firm took a leading part in organizing, and which has been of great benefit to the city. He was one of the organizers of the Gale Sulky Harrow Company, and one of its first directors. He aided in establishing Ward's line of Detroit and Lake Superior Transportation Steamers, and has been a Director and Secretary of the company since its organization. In 1887 he assisted in organizing the American Banking and Savings Association, and the American Trust Company, the latter being the first institution of the kind in Michigan. He is a Director and Vice-President of both companies. He was also one of the organizers of the Detroit Club, and was its first Treasurer and one of its first Board of Directors. He is an enthusiastic boatman, and has been prominently connected with the Detroit Boat and Yacht Clubs, and was a member of the Northwestern Amateur Rowing Association as a Director, and its President in 1886. His political affiliations are with the Democratic party. By appointment of the Mayor, he served as a member of the Board of Inspectors of the House of Correction for two terms, from 188o to I886, and was President of the Board in I88o, and also in I885. He has been from infancy a member of SS. Peter and Paul's Church, is a member of the Parochial School Building Association of that church, and of the St. Vincent de Paul Society. He is methodical and careful in all his business transactions, uniformly courteous, and with an attractive manner that easily wins confidence, while his sterling worth enables him to retain as friends those with whom he comes in contact. He is a good organizer, easily comprehends the minute details of what he undertakes, and is remarkably successful in his business enterprises. His moral character is unblemished; he possesses a high sense of honor, is both just and generous, and few among the younger business men of Detroit are more deservedly popular and influential. He was married November 25, i880, at Memphis, Tennessee, to Emma Etheridge, only daughter of Emerson Etheridge, of Tennessee. Their children are: Frances Valerie, Justine Semmes, Charles Emerson, Etheridge, John Bell Loyola, James Granville and Marie Stephanie. CYRENIUS ADELBERT NEWCOMB, son of Colonel Hezekiah Newcomb, was born November io, 1837, in Cortland, New York. His grandfather, Hezekiah Newcomb, was a well known and influential citizen in Northwestern Massachusetts, and represented Bernardstown and Leyden in the State Legislature or General Court of Massachusetts, for more than twenty years. His father, Colonel Hezekiah Newcomb, also served the State in the same capacity, and was a widely respected teacher, and later on was commissioned as Colonel of one of the regiments of the New York Militia. His mother's maiden name was Rounds. The ancestry of the Newcomb family is easily traced for hundreds of years. The Harlein manuscripts in the British Museum gives the names of the Newcombs of Devonshire from the year ii89. The early history of the Newcombs in this country is connected with various portions of New England and eastern Canada. In the family connection is the name of Abigail Mather, daughter of the noted Rev. Increase Mather. Her mother was the daughter of the celebrated Rev. John Cotton. The earliest known American member of the family, Captain Andrew Newcomb, lived in Boston, Massachusetts, in 1663, and probably emigrated there from Wales or Devonshire. The family, at an early day, were large land owners at Martha's' Vineyard and in other parts of New England, and even in Arcadia, being drawn there by the King's proclamation of I761. They occupied some of the lands from which the French were so remorselessly driven. The old town records of the far east disclose the fact that different members of the family, at various periods, held all the offices within the gift of the people. The Newcombs were originally loyal church members of the old Puritan stock, but in later years some of them became prominent members of the Methodist and Presbyterian Churches. Several were college graduates at an early day, and the ministerial, editorial, and educational professions, as well as the guild of authors, are all represented in the connection, and some of the family have made large gifts to schools and colleges. Travelers and scientists of note are also in the genealogical list. During the Revolutionary War, some members of the family served on the Union side, and others under the British colors. Among the soldiers of the War of 1812, and also in the War with the South, they are also represented. After receiving the usual education afforded by the schools of New England, Mr. C. A. Newcomb began his business career in Hannibal, New York, but when twenty years old he went to Taunton, Massachusetts, where for some nine years he served as clerk in the dry good stores of N. H. Skinner & Company, and, becoming a partner, continued two years longer. He then, in 1868, removed to Detroit, and with Mr. Charles Endicott

Page  1164 I 64 MERCHANTS. purchased the dry goods establishment and good will of James W. Farrell, and under the firm name of Newcomb, Endicott & Company, the business remained in the Merrill Block, at the stand occupied by their predecessors, for one year. To the surprise of citizens generally, the following year the firm led the march of business up Woodward Avenue, by moving to and occupying the ground floor of the then new Opera House Building, facing the Campus Martius. Remaining here ten years, in 1879 they again led the van in the march northward, and moved to the large building erected for their occupancy by D. M. Ferry, on the east side of Woodward Avenue, just below State Street. Even here they do not find sufficient room for their ever increasing business. Various plans have been considered for enlarging the capacity of their establishment, which is already the largest of the kind in the city. As an indication of the extent of their business, it may be mentioned that of kid gloves alone, although they are not a distinct specialty, their sales have reached as high as forty thousand dollars in a single year. In addition to his extensive interests in connection with this establishment, Mr. Newcomb is a large stockholder in, and President of, the Imperial Life Insurance Company, the Detroit Nut Lock Company, and the Michigan Railway Supply Company. Mr. Newcomb was one of the organizers of the Universalist Church, and contributed largely towards the erection of the elegant church occupied by that society. He can be counted upon as interested in whatever concerns the moral welfare of his fellowcitizens, and, in a practical way, to further every institution that promises to be an advantage to the city. He is pronounced in his temperance sentiments, and in the campaign of 1887, in favor of an amendment to the constitution prohibiting the manufacture or sale of liquor, was an active and influential factor. As a business man, he is modest, sensible, and successful; and conscientiously endeavors to fulfill the duties belonging to good citizenship. In 1867 he married Mary E. Haskell, daughter of William Reynolds Haskell, of Hartford, Connecticut.. Their children are named William Wilmon, Cyrenius Adelbert, Mary Queen, and Howard Rounds. Mrs. Newcomb died November 17, 1887. HENRY A. NEWLAND, senior partner in the wholesale fur house of Henry A. Newland & Company, of Detroit, is the son of Adolphus Thayer and Lucinda (Smith) Newland, and was born at Hammondsport, Steuben County, New York, March 17, 1835. When quite young, his parents removed to Palmyra, Wayne County, New York, where he attended the High School, continuing his studies until he began his very successful mercantile career by becoming a clerk in the store of William H. Cuyler, where he remained seven years. In February, 1854, he came to Detroit, and entered the house of F. Buhl & Company, wholesale hatters and furriers. Within three years he had made himself so useful that in I857 he was admitted as a partner in the establishment, and three years later the name of the firm was changed to F. Buhl, Newland & Company. As a member of this firm, he held a very responsible position, and attended largely to the purchasing of the goods, and was chief manager of the European branch of their large operations, traveling extensively and attending annually the large fur sales at London and Leipzig. In I880 he retired from the firm above named, and established the house of Henry A. Newland & Company, which at once took the leading position in their line, and is now the largest fur house west of New York, employing from one hundred and twenty-five to one hundred and fifty persons. It exports raw furs extensively, and Mr. Newland continues his annual trips to the leading fur markets of Europe. In 1865 Mr. Newland was appointed by Governor Crapo a member of the State Military Board, and aid-de-camp to the Governor, with the rank of Colonel. He served in this capacity during Governor Crapo's first term, and as chief of his staff during his second term. Mr. Newland is recognized as one of the most enterprising and successful of the business men of Detroit. He is possessed of excellent business judgment, gives close attention to all the departments of his establishment, and is one of the best buyers and judges of furs in the whole country. In addition to his regular business, Mr. Newland is interested in the Crystal City Glass Works, of Bowling Green, Ohio. His abilities, and the position he has secured, have not made him unsocial, but on the contrary he is always affable, courteous, willing to accommodate, and, as a natural result, makes many friends, and is a member of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Clubs. He was married March II, 1862, to Emily A. Burns, daughter of James Burns. She died June I8, 1871. Their only surviving child is Helen L. Newland. On March 7, i877, Mr. Newland married Martha Alger Joy, daughter of James F. Joy. Mr. and Mrs. Newland have one living child, Mary Joy Newland. THOMAS PALMER, one of the pioneer American merchants of Detroit, was born in Ashford, Windham County, Connecticut, February 4, 1789. The Palmers were among the earliest of the Puri

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Page  1165 MERCHANTS. I165 tan pioneers. William Palmer, the first of the name that arrived in this country, came in the ship Fortune, in 182I, and settled in what is now Duxbury, Massachusetts. Walter Palmer followed in 1629, coming with John Endicott, who had in charge six ships, containing upwards of four hundred persons. Walter Palmer was one of the original founders of Charlestown, Massachusetts, but after various removals finally settled in Pawcatuch, nowy Stonington, Connecticut, where he was appointed constable in I658. He died there in I661, aged seventy-six years, leaving twelve children, and from these children have sprung over sixty thousand Palmers, whose records are preserved, except in a few instances. The list of descendants contains the names of a large number of persons who occupy prominent places in history, among whom are General Grant, a descendant from Walter Palmer's eldest daughter Grace, General Joseph Palmer, of Boston Tea Ship notoriety, who served during the War of the Revolution, and who was an intimate friend of John Adams. Many other notable names are included in various branches of the family, numbers of the name being clergymen, judges, and civic officers. Thomas Palmer's father married a Miss Barber, and they had six sons and three daughters. The grandfather, Thomas Barber, was engaged in the Indian trade, and came to Detroit as early as 1763, bringing goods from Hartford, hauling them from Hartford to Schenectady with oxen, freighting them by boats up the Mohawk, and thence via Wood Creek, Oneida Lake, and down the outlet to Oswego, and from there by Lakes Ontario and Erie, to Detroit. The goods were bartered with the Indians for furs, and then in turn the furs were transported over the same long and tedious route to Hartford. The story of these adventures, told to his grandsons, kindled in the minds of at least two of them, a desire to seek their fortunes in the West, and in the spring of 1812, Thomas and Friend Palmer brought a stock of goods from the East, and opened a store about twenty miles below Detroit, at Amherstburg, Ontario. On the declaration of war, which occurred soon after, they were both imprisoned as American citizens; but after five weeks' confinement, were liberated and put ashore upon the American side, near Monguagon. They then walked to Detroit, joined a company of volunteers commanded by Shubael Conant, and were present at the surrender of Detroit to the British. After the surrender, being permitted to return to Malden and secure their goods, they went to Canandaigua, New York, where they established a store, remaining about four years. In I8i6, Thomas Palmer returned to Detroit, and opened a store, under the firm name of F. & T. Palmer, Friend Palmer remaining in charge of the store at Canandaigua. The two brothers also established a branch store at Ashtabula, Ohio, built flouring mills at Scio, New York, and for a number of years did a very large and profitable business. They became contractors for public works of various kinds, and constructed many of the roads leading out from Detroit. They also built and owned a number of vessels, among which were the "Tiger" and "Young Tiger," the former commanded by the well-known Captain Blake. In 1820 Thomas Palmer built the first brick store erected in Detroit, and in 1823 was one of the contractors for the building of the Court House or Capitol, which in recent years was occupied by the High School. For erecting the building they received the ten thousand acre tract and several hundred city lots. The crisis of 1824 brought ruin to Thomas Palmer's financial prospects, but he succeeded in paying all his debts, and was soon engaged in new ventures. In I828 he purchased the site of the present city of St. Clair, erected saw-mills and laid out a village, which was known as Palmer, and did a large lumbering business there for many years. From 1845 to 1847, Mr. Palmer was interested in various Lake Superior enterprises, but they did not prove profitable. During this period he coasted from Sault Ste. Marie to the head of Lake Superior, and back, in a six-oared boat. For several years following I849, he was engaged in a general land and insurance business. During his earlier life in Detroit he was prominent in the discharge of the duties of a good citizen. He served as a trustee of the city in 1819, as an Alderman at large from 1826 to 1830, as assessor in 1831, and also at various times filled other minor offices. In social life he was notably genial and kind-hearted, and even in his business affairs humorous and almost playful. If he had been less easy and lenient with those who were his debtors, it would have doubtless been to his pecuniary advantage. He loved an active life, and enjoyed doing business because of the active life it gave him, rather than for the rewards that he obtained or desired. He was one of the corporators of the First Protestant Church of Detroit, and was always interested in the religious and benevolent welfare of the city. In every trial he acted the part of a true man, and throughout life his conduct was irreproachable. In politics, Mr. Palmer was a Whig, but became a Republican upon the organization of that party, and ever took much interest in its success. In 182I he married Mary A. Witherell, daughter of Judge James Witherell. They had nine children, of whom only Thomas W. Palmer, of Detroit, is living. Of the other children, Julia E., who mar

Page  1166 II66 MERCHANTS. ried H. W. Hubbard, and after his death became the wife of Hugh Moffat, died on November 20, I880. Mary W., wife of Henry M. Roby, of Monroeville. Ohio, died in 1854; Sarah C., died unmarried, in I859. Thomas Palmer died on August 3, I868, and his wife on March 20, I874. Mrs. Palmer was for sixty years a prominent member of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Detroit, and in health, active in various Christian and benevolent enterprises. Her memory is fitly preserved in the beautiful edifice known as the Mary W. Palmer Memorial Methodist Episcopal Church, erected in 1884. GEORGE PECK, the founder of one of the oldest and largest dry goods establishments in the State, is a lineal descendant of William Peck, who, on account of religious persecutions, emigrated from London in the year I637, and became, in 1638, with Governor Eaton, Thomas Buckingham, Rev. John Davenport, and other sturdy New England characters, one of the founders of the colony of New Haven. Who that has the blood of the Puritans is not proud of their upright and courageous lives! The State of Michigan is especially to be congratulated that their descendants, in such large numbers, have here found a home. George R. Peck was a farmer, in the town of Lyme, Connecticut, and there, on the fifth of November, 1834, his son George was born. His boyhood was spent on the farm, one of those rocky homesteads so common in New England. He was educated in the district school and at Essex Academy. Owing to an accident, which deprived him of the partial use of one arm, he was obliged to seek some light occupation, and on August 23, I850, he entered the dry goods store of J. B. Wells, of Utica, New York, 'commencing in the lowest position. He gained the confidence and respect of his employer, and was rapidly advanced, and could have obtained an interest in the business, but in the winter of 1856-7 his health failed, and he was compelled to give up his position. He then sought to recruit his health by traveling through the States of Illinois, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Iowa. Returning from the trip and stopping at Utica, New York, he entered into partnership with J. W. Frisbie, and on August 6, 1857, they opened a dry goods house at 167 Jefferson Avenue, Detroit. They had hardly opened before the great financial panic of that year swept over the country, and thousands of firms were ruined. By the hardest of work, however, they were able to weather the storm, and continued in business for three years. The firm was then dissolved. On November i, I860, Mr. Peck started in business alone at 137 Woodward Avenue, and at first it seemed as if fortune was certainly against him, for the following year was probably one of the most trying to American merchants that was ever known. The War with the South began; the banks everywhere failed; gold and silver disappeared, and it is safe to say that no one then foresaw what the end would be. Mr. Peck and his wife, however, hazarded every dollar that they possessed, and were able, through fortuitous circumstances, to continue in business, and at length fortune smiled, the era of high prices was inaugurated, and after that time he was prospered, the only drawback being an extensive robbery of silks which occurred on February 8, 1864. In October, I871, he moved to the new stores, 155 and 157 Woodward Avenue, continuing in business until February, 1877, when he retired on account of failing health. He always conducted his business in an honorable manner, and so carefully was it managed that he has never asked one day's favor of a creditor. Mr. Peck is President of the Michigan Savings Bank and of the Edison Illuminating Company, and a director in the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and in the Pioneer Bank of North Branch, Michigan. He is a leading member, and for fifteen years has been one of the Trustees, of the First Presbyterian Church. His record is that of a careful, successful, and reliable merchant, willing to promote, to the extent of his ability, all legitimate enterprises that look to the prosperity or social advancement of the city. He is a Republican in politics, but has never desired or held any political office. He was married October 28, I858, to Sarah F. Butler, daughter of Samuel F. Butler, of Grand Rapids, Michigan. It may be mentioned, as a singular coincidence, that she was a direct descendant of Thomas Buckingham, one of the founders of the New Haven colony who came over in the ship Hector, with his ancestor, William Peck. Mrs. Peck died February 14, 1872, leaving four children, Julia E., George B., Minna F., and Barton L. JAMES E. PITTMAN has been identified with Detroit since I843. His active life covers a space of upwards of forty years, during more than half of which he has been connected with the military history of the city and the nation. The record of his career is the history of a busy and energetic life, and although he has reached three score years, the characteristics of middle life are still conspicuous, and give promise of vigorous continuance for many years. Mr. Pittman was born in Tecumseh, Lenawee County, Michigan, September 5, I826. His ancestry is English, and on the paternal side of Quaker stock. His father was born in Philadelphia, in 1796, and early in life settled in Kentucky. From thence he

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Page  1167 MERCHANTS. II67 moved to New England, and later on lived successively in Jefferson and Canandaigua Counties, New York. His ambition pointed, however, to the West, and he soon became one of the pioneers of Michigan, and located in Tecumseh. His restless energy was, however, still unsatisfied, and, in 1834, he, with his family, migrated to Texas. In the Border War he joined the army at Austin (now Houston), remained in the service about a year, and then, finding the country too unsettled, he and his family returned to Tecumseh. He died at Ontonagon in 1868. His son, James E. Pittman, after returning to Tecumseh, at nine years of age, attended a private school, and subsequently entered the local branch of the University of Michigan. Among his fellow students were William Gray, Witter J. Baxter, and Joseph Estabrook. At the age of seventeen, Mr. Pittman came to Detroit, and entered the service of Lawson, Howard & Company, grain and commission merchants, at the foot of Shelby Street. When the Mexican War begun, Mr. Pittman was a member of the Brady Guard, afterwards succeeded by the Grayson Guard, and now well known as the Detroit Light Guard, and in December, 1847, he enlisted in the First Regiment Michigan Volunteers, and was made Adjutant of the regiment under Colonel T. B. W. Stockton and Lieutenant-Colonel Alpheus S. Williams. The regiment marched nearly all the way to Cincinnati; from there went by boat to New Orleans, and thence by sailing vessel to Vera Cruz, where they were formed into a division under General Bankhead, United States Army, and were sent to garrison Cordova and Orizaba. The next summer, peace being declared, Mr. Pittman returned to Detroit, arriving in July, 1848. Soon after reaching home, he was mustered out of service, and entered E. W. Hudson's commission house on Shelby Street. Resigning his position here in 1852, he formed a partnership with Edmund Trowbridge and J. Huff Jones, in the commission and forwarding business, under the firm name of Pittman, Trowbridge & Jones. In i855 the partnership was dissolved, and Mr. Pittman joined the late Dr. E. M. Clark in establishing a commission and coal business. In 1856, as Dr. Clark contemplated a European tour, he withdrew, and the business was conducted by Mr. Pittman until May, 1885, when he accepted the appointment of Superintendent of Police. When Mr. Pittman entered the employ of E. W. Hudson, in 1848, he was the only one dealing in hard coal in the city, and in I856, when he entered the coal business on his own account, there were but two or three other dealers in Detroit. When President Lincoln called for State troops, in I86i, Mr. Pittman, with other leading citizens, was summoned by Governor Blair to a confer ence at the Michigan Exchange. As the result of this conference, General Alpheus S. Williams was appointed to organize troops for the State, with William D. Wilkins, Henry M. Whittlesey, and James E. Pittman as staff officers. Soon after this, Mr. Pittman was made a Paymaster of State troops, with rank of Colonel. This appointment attached him to the Governor's staff, and in that capacity he went to the front and paid off the first four Michigan regiments. In the fall of I86r, a School of Instruction was established at Fort Wayne, where the commissioned and non-commissioned officers of the Fifth, Sixth and Seventh Michigan regiments were drilled, and Colonel Pittman was made second in command. General Williams was soon appointed Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and, with Wilkins and Whittlesey, left for the front, leaving Colonel Pittman in command. The following winter he was appointed Inspector-General of State troops, and went with Governor Blair to different parts of the country. In the summer of I862 he was detailed to organize the Seventeenth Regiment of Michigan Infantry, and, after having done so, turned the command over to General Withington. At this period, and for some time thereafter, Colonel Pittman was a member of the State Military Board. In 1865, with Governor Crapo, he went to Washington to attend the grand review of the Union troops. The war having ended, Colonel Pittman resigned his military appointment, and again entered earnestly into business. About I868 Mr. Pittman was appointed, by Governor Baldwin, one of the Trustees of the Michigan Asylum for the Insane, at Kalamazoo. He has also served as one of the Inspectors of the Detroit House of Correction. His extended military experience, and the practical knowledge gained by twelve continuous years of service as one of the Commissioners of Police, by appointment of various Governors, give him especial fitness for his present position as Superintendent of Police. His appointment dates from May I, 1885. He is an active member of the Protestant Episcopal Church. He was married in Pennsylvania in 1851. WILLIAM REID, wholesale and retail paint and glass merchant of Detroit, was born in Mersea, Essex County, Ontario, August 19, 1842. His father, John Reid, was a shipbuilder by trade, and previous to leaving for America, superintended the building of vessels for his father, who owned a shipyard at Stranraer, Scotland, and afterwards on the Clyde. His mother's maiden name was Margaret Bennett. Both of his parents were born in Scotland, but emigrated to this country in 1835, settling at first in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and about I840

Page  1168 1168 MERCHANTS. removing to Western Canada. His father some time later purchased a farm in Tilbury East, Kent County, Ontario. William Reid passed his earlier years working on a farm and attending the public school. He came to Detroit in 186I, attended school for a brief period, after which he returned to Canada and taught school until 1863. He then returned to Detroit, took a course of practical instruction in bookkeeping and commercial business, and early in 1864 secured a clerkship in the office of a prominent law firm of East Saginaw, remaining until the following November, when on account of ill health he was compelled to relinquish work and return home. During the greater part of the following year his health was such as to confine him to his bed, but by October he had so improved that he accepted the position of bookkeeper for the painting and decorating firm of Laible, Wright & Hopkins, of Detroit. After about a year's service, Mr. Laible and Mr. Hopkins retired from the firm and Mr. Reid was admitted as partner, under the firm name of Wm. Wright & Company. Their business at this time was carried on at 197 Jefferson Avenue, but in I868 they removed to ioS Woodward Avenue. In I871 Mr. Wright retired and Mr. Reid and Mr. B. C. Hills assumed control of the business under the name of Reid & Hills. By this time their business had so increased that they were compelled to open branch stores at Nos. I2 and I4 Congress Street East, which were devoted to the paint and glass portions of their business In January. I879, the firm was dissolved, Mr. Reid retaining the sole control of the business pertaining to the paint and glass trade, and continuing the same at the Congress Street stores. Under his energetic management the business increased so rapidly that in 1882, the present wholesale stores, No. 73 and 75 Lamed Street West, were built expressly to meet the demands of his trade, the old quarters on Congress Street being retained as retail stores. An important feature of the business is the plate glass trade, and from 1867 to 1884, nearly all the plate glass purchased by the firm was purchased of New York importers, and for a few years preceding 1884, partly from American manufacturers, and by them cut to such size as wanted. In 1834 Mr, Reid made a new departure and purchased several car loads of American and imported plates, direct from the factories, in sheets as manufactured, thus obtaining as good figures and standing as the New York importers. This bold move offended some of the manufacturers, who for years had controlled the sales of plate glass in the West, and they determined to destroy his business, and as a means to this end, at a meeting of the managers of the four American plate glass factories, representing several millions of capital, held at Chicago, it was determined to reduce the price of plate glass in Michigan and adjoining territory, twenty to twenty-five per cent., and as the margin on plate glass is only about five per cent., they concluded he would be forced to return to his former method of obtaining supplies. They also insisted that the American factory which had entered into a contract to supply Mr. Reid with glass, should cancel the agreement. Mr. Reid, however, did not despair. A conference was held with the managers of the factory who had agreed to furnish him with glass, and he convinced them of the unfairness of reducing prices in Michigan, and the injustice of the means by which it was proposed to crush fair and honorable competition. As the result of this conference, they withdrew from the combination, and he was selected as one of a syndicate to take their entire product. Although thus successful in his plans, Mr. Reid did not attempt to compete in the territory where the remaining three factories for some time maintained reduced prices to their own loss. but he extended his sales from Buffalo to Kansas City, and from Duluth to New Orleans, in fields where fair prices and just competition prevailed, and the unfair attempt to destroy legitimate competition, used against Mr. Reid, resulted in making Detroit as good a plate glass market as there is in the country, and he now sells more glass in a single month than he did formerly in a year. In addition to his sales of plate glass, Mr. Reid is a large dealer and importer of fancy window and colored glass, keeping the largest and best assorted stock west of New York City. As a business man he has shown great energy and sagacity, and has proved himself not only able to develop, but successfully manage large enterprises. He is careful and methodical, but has had the courage to undertake business ventures that some men would not dare to attempt. Always affable, cool and clear-headed, he naturally makes a favorable impression upon those with whom he comes in contact. He has devoted himself to his business with such a singleness of purpose that it has made him a thorough master of every detail, and in his line of trade his firm stands at the head of all establishments west of New York City, He was reared as a Presbyterian, but is now an adherent of the Protestant Episcopal Church. Politically he is a Republican, but takes little part in party management, and has no desire for political honors. He was married to Mary Powell, of Detroit, November 9, 869. They have had seven children, five of whom are living. WILLIAM D. ROBINSON was born in England, March 21, 1839. His father occupied a high

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Page  1169 MERCHANTS. I 69 position under the English Government, and controlled several very extensive sugar plantations in the West Indies. His grandfather was for many years President of the Grand Trunk Canal Company of England. William D. Robinson, learned the retail shoe business in Rochester, New York, and from there he went to Binghamton, New York, and acquired a thorough knowledge of the wholesale and manufacturing business, and came to Detroit in 1862, and for a short time represented a manufacturing house. Upon severing his connection with this firm he went to Boston, Massachusetts, and entered the large manufacturing establishment of Underwood, Cochrane & Company, taking charge of the sales of the house in the Western States. In the spring of i865 he proposed to the firm tCo open a wholesale house at Detroit, and the same year they established a store at 116 Jefferson Avenue, under the firm name of Underwood, Cochrane & Company, the resident members of the firm being William D. and Henry S. Robinson, who had the entire charge of the business. In 1867 the firm was dissolved, and the Messrs. Robinson, with James Burtenshaw, bought out the interests of the Boston partners, and formed a new firm, under the style of W. D. Robinson, Burtenshaw & Company, which continued until I875. During this time they built up a large jobbing and manufacturing trade. In 1875 the firm was dissolved, W. D. Robinson continuing the jobbing interest, under the style of W. D. Robinson & Company, at I80 and 182 Jefferson Avenue, until 1887, and was succeeded by the- New York and New England Shoe Manufacturers' Selling Company, located at 47 Jefferson Avenue. Mr. Robinson's connection with the last named firm closed in I888, and he has since devoted his attention to real estate, and to several corporations in which he has become interested. He is conservative yet bold and enterprising in his business transactions, abreast with modern ideas and improvements, and a close observer. He was married December 22, 1862, to Abigail, daughter of M. Dyer, of Rochester, New York. They have two sons, Charles W. and Edwin S. The former is in the real estate business. Both Mr. and Mrs. Robinson are members of Grace Episcopal Church. ALANSON SHELEY, of Detroit. was born at Albany, New York, August I4, I809. When nine years old, he went to Jefferson County, New York, with his grandparents, who settled in the woods and commenced clearing a farm. Here, until he Was sixteen, he assisted his grandfather in the labors of the farm, attending, as opportunity offered, the district school. His first important enterprise was the taking of a raft of timber from Fisher's Landing, on the St. Lawrence River, to Quebec, successfully "shooting " the rapids, and disposing of the raft at good prices. At the age of sixteen, he commenced learning the trade of a stone-mason and builder, and at the end of three years' apprenticeship was employed as a foreman in the construction of the Rideau Canal, in Canada. In the summer of 1831 he started from Buffalo, on the steamboat " William Penn," and came to Detroit, then the farthest westerly point to which steamboats carried passengers. The following year he received an appointment from the United States Government to superintend the erection of a stone lighthouse at Thunder Bay. The structure then erected is still standing, and is the only one on the lakes, erected at that date, that is now in use. After the completion of the lighthouse, he returned to Detroit, and for several years followed the business of a builder and contractor. In 1835 he became general manager of the Black River Steam Mill and Lumber Company, chartered by the Territorial Government the previous year. He remained with the company until the expiration of its charter in 1855, and for the three years following carried on the lumber business on his own account. In 1859 he entered into a partnership as one of the firm of Jacob S. Farrand & Company, wholesale and retail druggists. The present extensive and well known firm of Farrand, Williams & Company, with which Mr. Sheley is connected, represents the maturity of the same establishment. During the earlier growth of the business, Mr. Sheley was especially active in its financial management, and contributed valuable aid by his good judgment, tireless exertions, and the influence of his widely recognized moral worth. He is a director and shareholder in the First National Bank, largely interested in the Michigan Mutual Life Insurance Company, in the Detroit Fire and Marine Insurance Company, and in the Detroit and Cleveland Steam Navigation Company. He is also an extensive real estate owner in Detroit and Port Huron, and has some valuable pine land investments. Politically, he has ever been an active factor in his city and State. In early life he was a Whig, but assisted in the organization, in I854, "under the oaks" at Jackson, of the Republican party, and has since been one of the staunchest supporters of the principles which it has advocated. During a most active business career, actuated by commendable public spirit, he has served the city and State in several important official positions. For five years he was a member of the Common Council of the city, and for ten years a member of the Sewer

Page  1170 1170 MERCHANTS. Commission and Board of Review. In the latter position, his plain honesty and knowledge of real estate values were of decided worth to his fellowcitizens. He represented the first district of Michigan in the State Senate two terms, serving in the sessions of 1867-68, and I871-72, and his practical, liberal, and broad-minded views of public questions, and pure and disinterested motions, made him a valuable legislator. He is one of the oldest surviving members of the First Presbyterian Church of Detroit, of which for many years he was ruling elder, and for over forty years either assistant or Superintendent of its Sunday-school. He has taken an active part in building up numerous religious institutions, and has contributed liberally to their support. Strong in his personal friendship, and of generous impulses, he is always ready to extend a helping hand to a friend, or to relieve distress. In personal appearance he is over six feet in height, and of large proportions. He has always been a man of great muscular strength, united to fearless physical courage. In early manhood he was very fond of athletic sports, particularly of wrestling. Some of the older citizens of Detroit remember the election skirmishes and collisions which took place at the old City Hall, when the partisanship of the electors was heated to a boiling point. In these contests Mr. Sheley was invariably the recognized leader of the Whig faction. In 1837, at the first,State election, Messrs. Stillson, Mason, and McKinstry, leading Democrats, with their followers, took possession of the polls, and would not allow the Whig voters to deposit their ballots. Among the Whigs present were Zachariah Chandler. Alanson Shelev, John Owen, Jacob M. Howard, George C. Bates, and Asher Bates. In a skirmish which ensued, Mr. Sheley was a tower of strength, but the pressure was such that he retreated to the National Hotel, then located on the site of the present Russell House. There, placing his back to the wall, he withstood, almost alone, the combined assault of those who sought to molest him. His moral courage has ever been as conspicuous as his physical bravery. A cause he considers right, he would defend without wavering, should he stand alone. With great force of character, indomitable perseverance, and rugged determination, he has been especially active in the temperance movement, through the various progressive steps of this reform, aiding both by personal work and by the contributions of money. No braver defender of the cause of temperance, or more consistent advocate of right principles, can be found in all the city. Notwithstanding his advanced age, he possesses vigorous health, and personally attends to his numerous business engagements with zeal and promptness. He lives on spacious grounds on Stimson Place, where, surrounded by his children and their families, he is quietly and unostentatiously spending the latter years of a long and useful life, honored and revered. He was married on September I, 1835, to Ann Elizabeth Drury. They have had eight children, three of whom are living, two daughters, Mrs. D. W. Brooks and Mrs. L E. Clark, and a son, George A. Sheley, who enlisted in February, 1863, as private in the First Michigan Light Artillery. He was promoted in August, I863, to a Second Lieutenancy. His regiment formed a part of General Burnside's Ninth Corps, in East Tennessee, but was afterwards joined to the Twenty-second Corps. He was wounded while scouting in West Virginia, in May, 1864, and discharged, on account of wounds, in September of the same year. OSIAS W. SHIPMAN was born at Pierstown, Otsego County, New York, January 29, 1834, and is the son of Horace and Abby Ann (Williams) Shipman. Soon after his birth, his parents removed to Norwich, Chenango County, New York, where for five or six years his father engaged in milling and in the manufacture of lead pipe, after which he removed with his family to Fort Plain, New York, and there, at the Fort Plain Seminary, O. W. Shipman received the principal portion of his school education. After a residence of four years at Fort Plain, he accompanied his parents to a large farm in Union, Broome County, New York. They resided a year at Union, and then his father purchased from his brother Orlando a grist mill, plaster mill, and farm, at Athens, Pennsylvania, and removed there, leaving 0. W. Shipman and an elder brother to manage the farm at Union. After two years of great success and an immense amount of hard work, they joined their father at Athens, where the subject of this sketch remained until his twenty-first year. He, with another young man, then engaged in the grocery trade at Waverly, a short distance from his father's home, but soon bought out his partner's share and continued the store alone, and by the exercise of good business judgment, and untiring exertion, he rapidly established an extensive trade, and for several years his annual sales exceeded $I25,000 per year. During the extended strike of the Erie Railroad employees in I870, Mr. Shipman's services were secured by the company to assist in operating their line in opposition to the strikers. His efforts in this direction were particularly valuable to the company, but he aroused the illwill of the former railroad employees and some of the more lawless, in retaliation, set fire to his business block and it was completely destroyed. He immediately rebuilt, on a more extensive plan, one of the largest and finest business houses in Waver

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Page  1171 MERCHANTS. II7I ly, but in 1872 sold out his business and went to New York City, and in the interest of New York capitalists, visited Utah to inspect a silver mine, in which, on a favorable report being received, they proposed to invest a large sum of money. Mr. Shipman being convinced that the mine was comparatively worthless, so advised them, and saved them from heavy losses. These same parties were then building a railroad from Newark, Ohio, to the Shawnee coal fields. Mr. Shipman purchased a quarter interest in the Shawnee Coal Company, and after the completion of the railroad, had charge of the coal-fields and shipping department at Shawnee, and during the latter years of his connection with the business, which extended to I88o, he had brought the mines up to the capacity of one hundred car loads of coal per day. In 1874 he established a coal agency in Detroit, but through lack of management on the part of the resident operator, the venture failed of success. During the following year Mr. Shipman removed to Detroit and personally took charge of the business in this city. His relations to the coal company, and the railroad facilities he enjoyed by his connection with the Newark and Shawnee road, made the development of an immense trade possible, and to-day he is the most extensive coal dealer in the State of Michigan, and disposes of 600,000 to 700,000 tons yearly, representing a value of over $I,500,ooO. He supplies several railroads with coal, and his trade extends through Michigan, several Western States and to Canada. He deals in all kinds of coal and firewood, and has recently opened a mine of his own in Athens County, Ohio. He is President of the Frontier Iron & Brass Company, and connected with the Fire Proof Paint Company, of Chicago, and is a stockholder in the Commercial National and the American National Banks of Detroit. As a business man he is possessed of indomitable purpose, is persistent in every undertaking, and cannot be contented unless he has developed every possibility in any enterprise he has undertaken, and he devotes all the power and energy he possesses to achieve his purposes. His exewitivoeandcadministrative abilities have been tested in many ways, and he has been found equal to every occasion. In the commercial community he is justly recognized as an upright business man, while his private life is above reproach. For many years he has taken an active interest in the Masonic fraternity, and has secured the highest degrees possible to be obtained in the United States. He is a member of St. John's Episcopal Church, and for three years has been a vestryman. He was married in June, 1856, to Emily L. Comstock, of Newark Valley, New York. They have two daughters, Mrs. F. B. Stevens and Mrs. H. S. Lewis. of Circleville, Ohio. AARON LANE WATKINS was born at Waterloo, New York, December 26, 1824, and is the son of Stephen and Jane (Clark) Watkins, who were both natives of Philadelphia. They settled in Waterloo at an early day, and had eleven children, three of whom are living —Aaron L., Charles, and Julia Chamberlain, widow of the late J. P. Butterfield, of Goshen, Indiana. Aaron Lane Watkins lived at Waterloo until he was twenty-two years old; he was educated at the public schools of that village and in the Canandaigua Academy, where he acquired some knowledge of the classics and a good English education, his tastes inclining him to mathematics and the exact sciences. After finishing his education he taught school for a time in his native town, and then, as he had determined to enter the legal profession, he studied law at Waterloo, New York, and in 1847 came to Detroit and completed his studies in the office of Chancellor Farnsworth, and was admitted to the bar in 1848. Soon after his being admitted to practice, he went to Grand Rapids for the purpose of engaging in law business with Lucius Patterson, of that city, but being called to New York, he spent. a year there, and on his return to Detroit was for two years engaged in teaching in the public schools. In 1852 he entered the insurance office of Bachman & Fisher, as accountant and bookkeeper, remaining for some time, and then again served as teacher, and from 1855 to 1864 was principal of the junior department of the Barstow School. In I864, with Mr. C. H. Wolff, he engaged in the manufacture and sale of trunks, under the firm name of Watkins, Wolff & Company, continuing until 1870, when he sold his interest and retired from the firm. During his connection with the firm they conducted a large business, that was successful in its financial results. Since his retirement from the firm, Mr. Watkins has not been in active business, but in 1870 became a special partner in the firm of H. F. Swift & Brother, wholesale druggists, and has remained with them and their successors, Swift & Dodds, and John J. Dodds & Company, until the present time. He has also been engaged in the settlement of several estates. He is possessed of excellent business qualifications and of strict integrity, is conservative in the use of his means, but gives to charitable objects which commend themselves to his judgment. Leading rather a quiet and retired life, he spends a share of his time with his books, and is well-informed, both in current and general literature. In political faith he is a Republican, but takes no active part in political affairs.

Page  1172 1172 MERCHANTS. He was married January 31, 1854 to Climena D. Walker, daughter of Levi Walker, of Lyons, New York. They have one child, Jennie Clark Watkins. FREDERICK WETMORE was born in W hitestown, Oneida County, New York, on August 7, 1813. He was a son of Amos and Lucy Olmstead Wetmore, who were both natives of Connecticut. In company with the family of Judge White, they removed to Whitestown after the War of the Revolution. Amos Wetmore was a farmer and mill owner, operating both a grist and saw mill. His eldest son, Charles P. Wetmore, was the father of Charles H. Wetmore, of Detroit, of Mrs. James McMillan, and of the late Mrs. Cleveland Hunt. Frederick Wetmore was the seventh child of a family of six sons and three daughters. In his youth he prepared for college, but ill health prevented him from pursuing his studies, and at the age of seventeen he went to Pittsburgh, and acted as clerk for his elder brother, who was engaged in the crockery business. In 1836 he entered into the transportation business at Pittsburgh, on his own account, continuing it until the fall of 1841. About this time, in traveling to New York, he formed the acquaintance of two English crockery manufacturers. They proposed to join him in business at Detroit, and an arrangement was made by which they shipped their goods direct to his establishment. In 1844 he bought out the interests of his English partners, and for ten years conducted the business alone. His nephew, Charles H. Wetmore, then became his partner, under the firm name of F. Wetmore & Company. For a period of forty-two years, Mr. Wetmore's name was familiar to the people of Michigan, both in business circles and in social and moral enterprises. He was identified with Detroit during the period of its growth, from a frontier town to its present proportions as a metropolitan city-its railroad communications and chief commercial interests being developed in his day. He saw the population several times doubled, with its streets, avenues, parks, and all public and private improvements of the city, keeping pace with its progress in population. It may be-truly said of him: All this he saw and part of it he was, for he was active in many ways in promoting the welfare of the city, as well as honorable and successful in his own private affairs. Aside from his mercantile pursuits, he dealt largely in real estate, owning a farm near Detroit and property in the city, and also in Chicago. As a business man he was strictly honest and upright in all his dealings, and proverbially polite and courteous towards all with whom he came in contact. He was a Republican in politics but took no active part in political affairs. His religious connection was with the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, of which he was an elder for many years. Both in the church and in all his domestic and social relations, his life was singularly pure and exemplary, and he possessed a marked individuality of character, which impressed itself upon all who were brought into intimate relations with him. His natural diffidence caused his voice to be seldom heard in the public meetings of the church, but his counsel and advice were always sought in matters pertaining to its welfare. It was an invariable rule with him to leave his business behind when he left the store, and whether at home or in society, he was always ready to enjoy the domestic or social intercourse of the hour, and his unusual memory, large fund of information and uniform courtesy, made him a desirable companion at all social gatherings. In his own family these traits were none the less conspicuous, and he was respected and loved for traits of character that constrained admiration and regard. Mr. Wetmore was twice married. His first wife was Cornelia P. Willard, a niece of Judge Platt, formerly a resident of Detroit. They were married at Albany, New York, in i845; Mrs. Wetmore died in I848, leaving two sons, one of whom died in infancy, the other, Edward W. Wetmore, late Professor of Chemistry and Philosophy in the Detroit High School, is now at Essex, Connecticut. On August 5, 1850, Frederick Wetmore was married to Anna Mary Curtenius, of Lockport, New York, a lineal descendant of Peter T. Curtenius, of Revolutionary fame, who led the assault on the monument of George III. in Bowling Green, in the city of New York. They had six children, four of whom, Blanche, Ernest Curtenius, John Olmstead, and Frederick Amos, are living. Mr. Wetmore, during early life, traveled extensively in the United States, and some years ago made an extended tour in Europe. He died March 25, 1883, in the seventieth year of his age. GEORGE COLLIDGE WETHERBEE, of Detroit, was born at Harvard, Worcester County. Massachusetts, July 27, 1840, and is the son of Zophar and Sarah (Collidge) Wetherbee. An aptitude for hotel business seems to be inherent in the family. His grandfather formerly kept a hotel at Harvard, and subsequently, for more than forty years, his father was proprietor of the same house. Two of the brothers of Mr. Wetherbee have gained a wide reputation as successful managers of two of the finest hotels in New York, Gardner Wetherbee being proprietor of the Windsor, and Charles Wetherbee of the Buckingham Hotel. Another brother,

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Page  1173 MERCHANTS. I 73 Frederick Wetherbee, is connected with a wholesale dry goods house in the same city. Their parents are still living, the father at the age of eighty-four, and the mother at the age of seventynine. The early life of George C. Wetherbee was without special interest. He attended the district school, and being of an active, restless disposition, engaged in various employments in his native village. At the age of eighteen he went to Boston, and entered a provision store, where he remained about a year and a half, when an injury to his knee obliged him to stop work and return home, where he remained until the breaking out of the War with the South. Almost at the beginning of the strife, he enlisted as a private in Company H, Twenty-third Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, for a period of three years, or until the close of the war. His regiment formed a part of General Burnside's command, and was stationed for a few months at Annapolis, Maryland, then at Hatteras Inlet, and participated in the capture of Roanoke Island and Newburn, North Carolina. At the latter place Mr. Wetherbee was detailed as commissary of the company. After about eighteen months' service, during which he participated in all the campaigns and engagements of his regiment, he was promoted to a First Lieutenancy by Governor John J. Andrew, of Massachusetts, and was shortly after assigned to duty as acting Assistant Commissary of Subsistence, on the staff of General Foster, and ordered to Roanoke Island. Here his services again commanded approval, and on August 19, 1863, he received a commission from President Lincoln, as Captain and Assistant Commissary of Subsistence of United States Volunteers, Subsequently, when General B. F. Butler came to Fortress Monroe, and began the formation of the Army of the James, Captain Wetherbee was ordered to report to him, and was there attached to the staff of General Devens. He served with the Army of the James during the memorable campaign which included the capture of City Points, the especially severe fighting at Cold Harbor, and the capture of Richmond by the combined armies of the James and the Potomac. In the advance on and capture of the latter city, Captain Wetherbee acted as volunteer aid in General Devens's division, and while there, in July, I865, he resigned and was honorably discharged. His military career was recognized by the award, on June 24, i865, of the brevet rank of Major for meritorious services. After a visit of two months at home, in the fall of I865 he canle to Detroit, and with the small sum of money saved from his pay in the service, he engaged in the produce business, but it proved a disastrous investment and he lost nearly all his sav ings. He then embarked in the grocery business on Woodward Avenue, where the Godfrey Block now stands, with S. S. Farquhar, under the firm name of Farquhar & Wetherbee. Continuing the business with success for nearly two years, he then sold out and purchased C. M. Garrison's interest in the wooden and willow ware store of W illiam Saxby & Company, then located nearly opposite the Board of Trade building, on Woodbridge Street. In 1873 he purchased Mr. Saxby's interest in the business, at which time the late Governor John J. Bagley became a special partner, and the firm name of George C. Wetherbee & Company was adopted. In I876 Mr. Wetherbee purchased Mr. Bagley's interest, and continued the business alone until I882, when it was incorporated, since which time he has been President and general manager. Their manufacturing plant, located on Vinewood Avenue, is one of the largest and most complete of its kind in the West. In 1873 Mr. Wetherbee began the manufacture of brooms at the State Prison, at Jackson, and this branch of his business has grown to be the most extensive broom factory in the State, more than 30,000 brooms being turned out every month. In 1883 he was chiefly instrumental in the organization of the United States Truck Company, of which he is President. The success of this enterprise has been great and rapid. He is also President of the Novelty Brush Company, organized in 1887. Over one hundred and twenty-five men find employment in these enterprises, including six traveling salesmen. Their wooden and willow ware trade is confined principally to Michigan and portions of Indiana and Ohio, while the market for their trucks and brushes extends throughout the United States. He is the President and principal owner of the Michigan Elevator and Engine Company, and is also a director in the Manufacturers' and Mutual Insurance Company, of Detroit, and in the Thomas Ink and Bluing Company, of Canada, also a director and treasurer of Detroit Vise Company. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Post No. 348; a member of the Loyal Legion, and of the Ancient Order of United Workmen. The success Mr. Wetherbee has achieved in a line of manufacture requiring untiring and close application to innumerable details, is the best evidence of his excellent business capacity. He has been the main factor in the creation and development of several enterprises, which have not only placed him among the successful manufacturers of Detroit, but have materially added to the prosperity of his adopted city. He is a regular attendant, and for many years has been a Trustee, of the Unitarian Church. His untiring industry, power of close and continued

Page  1174 1174 MERCHAN i S. application, broad business views, and a reputation for unquestioned honor and honesty, have been the secret of his success. He possesses decided convictions, and is not afraid to express them, but has also a warm and social nature, and wins and retains the regard and friendship of business associates. He was married January 22, I867, to Mary E. Phelps, of Springfield, Massachusetts. They have two children, a son and a daughter. HENRY KIRKE WHITE, of the firm of D. M. Ferry & Co., seedsmen, was born in Unadilla Cen ter, Otsego County, New York, May 26, I839. His ancestors were English, and settled in Connecticut at a very early date, his parents living there until 1834, when they removed to Unadilla Center, New York. Mr. White was next to the youngest in a family of six sons and one daughter, and was named after the well-known author. At three years of age he was sent to live with an uncle and aunt whose home had been made desolate by the loss of their only child. The attachment became so great that he continued as a member of their household, and attended the district school at that place until about ten years of age. In 1849 his uncle's family removed to North Walton, Delaware County, New York, and he accompanied them, and there continued his studies until his uncle's death, in I853. His parents then desired him to return home, but, although only fifteen, he decided to start out for himself, and the following summer hired out as a farm hand at six dollars a month and board. In the fall of that year he returned to North Walton, making his home with his aunt, attending the winter term of school, and doing general farm work for his board. The school was of a very high order, and his studies embraced chemistry, algebra, Latin, and other high branches not usually taught in a district school. He was a close student, and midnight often found him pouring over his studies by the light of a pine knot or a tallow dip. The next summer found him working upon a farm with wages increased to ten dollars a month. The savings of the six months' labor this season enabled him to pursue his studies at the academy at Gilbertsville, Otsego County, during the winter. Here he made rapid progress, studying night and day. At the close of this term, his funds being entirely exhausted, he again hired out for four months in the summer, and attended the fall term at the academy. In the winter of 1856 and '57, when but seventeen years old, he taught school, at the same time continuing his studies. His services, as a teacher, were sought for the following winter, but, believing that the western country possessed superior advantages for young men, he started westward on October i, 1857, with twenty-five dollars in his pocket. Arriving in St. Louis, he found that he had but one dollar, and with that he purchased a ticket to Summerfield, Illinois. Soon after reaching this place he secured a teachership in a neighboring school, which place he held for a year and a half, when, his health becoming impaired through the miasma of that section, he decided to visit the home of his youth. Stopping at Detroit to visit friends, he was offered a position with M. T. Gardner & Company, the predecessors of the now famous seed house of D. M. Ferry & Company. IHe began work for the first named firm at twenty-five dollars a month, and and this was the turning point in his life. Believing in the future of the seed business, he continued in their employ, with gradually increasing compensation each year, and in 1865 he was admitted as a member of the firm. In 1879 the firm was merged into a corporation and Mr. White was elected treasurer, which office he has since held. The history of this house since I859, is largely connected with his own. He has devoted his entire time, energy, and thought, to its honor and advancement, contributing his full quota towards bringing it up to its present state of prosperity. In 1877 Mr. White made a European tour, visiting all the principal places of interest, and in I884 again went abroad, accompanied by his family. In January, I886, he was called home on account of the destruction of the seed house by fire, on the first day of that month, his family remaining until July following. Mr. White and family spend the greater part of the summer at the charming village of Siasconset, Nantucket Island, Massachusetts, where he owns fourteen cottages, thirteen of which he rents to families by the season. He is a director and large stockholder in the Merchants and Manufacturers' National Bank, a director in the Michigan Fire and Marine Insurance Company, the Gale Sulky Harrow Works, the Acme White Lead and Color Works, the Leonard Glass Works, and the Detroit Home and Day School. He is also a stockholder in the Detroit Gas Company, and Vice-President of the Eagle Iron Works, He is a member and trustee of Westminster Presbyterian Church, and gave largely towards its erection, and is also a methodical and liberal giver to all worthy causes, giving systematically and conscientiously. He was married to Christine Amanda Fortier, in Monroe, Michigan, November 19, I863. They have had six children, four of whom are now living, three sons and one daughter.

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Page  1175 CHAPTER XCV. MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. WILLIAM SMEAD ARMITAGE was born in Vernon, Oneida County, New York, June I, 1830, and was the son of William and Rosina Armitage. The family were of New England ancestry, but had been residents of Oneida County for many years. He was educated at Vernon Academy and also attended Cazenovia Seminary. In 1853 he entered into mercantile business at Verona, and was thus employed until I865, serving also as Postmaster at Verona from I86I to I865. In 1867 he removed to Oneida, New York, and became a partner in the firm of Seeley & Armitage. They soon became the leading and most influential establishment in Oneida, and did a very large and prosperous business. At the end of five years Mr. Armitage retired from the firm, and came to Detroit to act as Secretary and Treasurer of the American Plate Glass Company. Their works were located at Crystal City, Missouri, and formed one of the many mammoth corporations organized by the late Captain Eber B. Ward. After the death of Captain Ward, Mr. Armitage became Secretary and Treasurer of the Eureka Iron Company, of Detroit and Wyandotte, and acted in that important and responsible position until i885. In that year the corporation known as the Galvin Brass and Iron Works was organized, and Mr. Armitage was made its Secretary and Treasurer, and remained in charge of its interests until shortly before his death. Mr. Armitage was prominent among the business men of Detroit, and was especially at home in manufacturing enterprises, and well informed in all the details pertaining to the manufacture of iron and brass. He was a man of sterling integrity and was the thoroughly trusted custodian of various large and important interests, and proved faithful to every trust. Always energetic, active, methodical and painstaking, he was not satisfied unless he knew that all the affairs with which he had to do were well and properly conducted. In social life he was modest and unassuming, with strong domestic tastes, and a courteous and winning manner, which endeared him to all with whom he was associated. He was an earnest and devout member of the First Presbyterian Church, of Detroit, and his decease was greatly regretted by all who had any knowledge of his worth and many excellencies. He died January 28, 1887. His wife and one daughter are still living. ABSALOM BACKUS, JR.. was born in Herkimer County, New York, September 7, 1824, and is the son of Absalom and Mary (Hildreth) Backus. He attended a common district school until fourteen years of age, and a more advanced school for three subsequent winters, in the city of Auburn, New York. At the age of twenty-one, he engaged in building a telegraph line from Syracuse to Niagara Falls, uniting Canada and the United States by a wire across the river at Queenstown, opposite Brock's monument, and building a line eight hundred miles long in Canada, reaching to Little Mettice, on the Gulf of St. Lawrence. In I848 he married Sarah E. Stevens, of Prattsburgh, Steuben County, New York, and settled in Auburn, New York, as a contractor and builder. In 1853 he moved to Chaumont, Jefferson County, New York, and engaged in the grain, lumber, and farming business. During the war he rendered substantial aid to the Union army by assisting to raise troops, pledging to many men who enlisted to care for their families, which pledge was faithfully fulfilled. In I867 he moved his family and settled in Detroit. The same year, in association with his brother Albert, he formed the firm known as Backus & Brother, built a gang saw mill and large improvements at Au Sable, Michigan, and established in Detroit a lumber yard and planing mill, at the foot of Eleventh Street, on the site of the old Richardson match factory. In I872 he built a large brick planing mill at what is now the foot of Twelfth Street, and purchased and improved a dock at the foot of Eighteenth-and-a-Half Street, Detroit, and also built mills at Taymouth and Harrisville, Mich., and a hardwood mill in Indiana. In I875 he sold the Au Sable mill to J. E. Potts, and the Harrisville mill to George L. Colwell. In [xI75]

Page  1176 II76 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1877 he bought out his brother Albert's interest in the business, and associated his two sons with him in business at Detroit, under the name of A. Backus, Jr. & Sons, and in I885 a stock company was formed. On October 24, 1882, the planing mill was destroyed by fire, entailing a heavy loss, but it was rebuilt and in full operation on March 4, 1883. In rebuilding the planing mill, Mr. Backus constructed a furnace on a perfect combustion principle, which proved a great success, has been applied to a large number of furnaces burning coal, and bids fair to revolutionize steam making. He has secured letters patent for the invention in the United States and also in foreign countries, covering his application of this principle of perfect combustion, and after years of patient toil and large expenditures of money, he bids fair to reap his merited reward. The Backus Perfect Combustion Furnace has been shown to possess great merit, and has proved a perfect smoke consumer and a large economizer of fuel. Besides the interests above' enumerated, Mr, Backus is engaged in several farm improvements, where he has shown great skill as an organizer, and any work planned by him may probably be safely imitated by others. Like many other self-made men, he started in life with no capital save integrity and industry, with a purpose to be prudent and temperate in all things, and he has the satisfaction of knowing that his success is the result of his own thoroughness and practical business methods. He is known and recognized as a live man of energy, with an irreproachable and honest purpose that almost invariably commands success. He is particularly fortunate in having reared two sons, who are fully competent to foster and increase the business he has established. CARLETON ABBEY BEARDSLEY is the second son of Lockwood H. and Catherine (Mlyer) Beardsley, and was born in Castile, New York, October 4, I852. His father was born in Scipio, Cayuga County, New York, March 21, 1822, and now lives at Springfield, Oakland County, Michigan. C. A. Beardsley lived with his parents in Livingston County, New York, from 1852 to i866, when the family removed to Pontiac, Michigan. His early life was spent with his parents on the farm in Western New York, where he was given the advantages of a district school, improving his opportunities with the utmost diligence. In May, I868, he removed with his parents to Pontiac, Michigan, where he entered the graded school. Here he was applying himself closely, when sudden reverses in his father's business made it necessary for him to aid himself. Accordingly, in the winter of I869 and 1870, he taught a district school at Bald Eagle Lake, Oakland County, for a term of four months, receiving as a salary the meagre sum of $126. The effort proved a very successful one, and so well satisfied was the county superintendent, that he recommended Mr. Beardsley as competent to take charge of the schools at Central Mine, Lake Superior, where he went and conducted a successful school. Upon returning home, flattering inducements were held out to him to enter mercantile life, and in preparation therefor, on April 4, 1873, he entered the Ohio Business University at Toledo, and after graduating, returned to Pontiac, where he re-entered his classes in the High School, and by alternately studying and teaching, he was enabled to graduate in I875. His vacations while teaching were spent in the law office of A. C. Baldwin, and in the year I877, he was admitted to the bar, and the following year entered the University of Michigan, graduating from the law department in 1878. In I880 he removed to Detroit, since which time he has pursued the practice of law, also dealing largely in real estate, and engaging in the manufacture of furniture, which, in a large degree, absorbed his time and took him from his practice. His factory has turned out only the finest grade of furniture, and of a design and finish unexcelled in the United States. It has employed one hundred and thirty skilled workmen and five traveling salesmen. He is a member of the Union Lodge of Masons, an honorary member of the Detroit Light Infantry, and of the Pontiac and Cass Lake Aquatic Club, and of several other social organizations. He is a member of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church, and has been a liberal contributor to all worthy objects. In business affairs he is eminently progressive and enterprising, and socially agreeable and well informed. He was married April 2, 1879, to Sarah Hance, of Farmington, Michigan, daughter of Mark and Susan Hance. They have had four children, two of whom are living. THOMAS BERRY, son of John and Catharina Berry, was born at Horsham, England, February 7, 1829, and was the fifth child in a family of ten children. His father, who had been engaged in the tanning business, emigrated to America in I835, and settled in Elizabeth, New Jersey, resuming his regular occupation. His son, Thomas Berry, was educated in the private schools of Elizabeth, but at an early age began to learn the business of his father, and continued therein, going in 1852, to Richmond, Virginia, and there and in other localities in the same State, managing branch establishments owned by his father. He was thus employed

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Page  1177 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1177 until I856, when he came to Detroit, where his parents had removed a short time previously. For a year and a half following his removal to Detroit, he was not engaged in any regular occupation, but spent the time in visiting different sections of the country. Meantime, his brother, Joseph H., had begun the manufacture of varnish at Springwells, and in i858, Thomas became associated with him, and they have since constituted the firm of Berry Brothers. The business was continued at Springwells a few years, and then removed to the present location, on the corner of Leib and Wight Streets. Here, from a small factory with limited resources, their business has grown from year to year, until at the present time they are more extensively engaged in the manufacture of every grade of varnish than any other firm in the world. They have eight branch houses located at New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Baltimore, Rochester, St. Louis, Cincinnati, and Chicago, and the value of their products amounts to about $I,ooo,ooo annually, furnishing employment to one hundred and fifty persons. Their goods find a market in every State in the Union, and in all the principal foreign countries. In this connection, it may be mentioned as a notable fact, that Detroit has an unusual number of men of great organizing capacity and undaunted perseverance, who have materially advanced the prosperity of the city by building up large manufacturing enterprises, and probably no city of its size has so many widely known business establishments. In politics Mr. Berry was originally a Whig, but since i856 he has been a member of the Republican party. The management of extensive business interests has, however, prevented his participating very largely in political affairs, but a keen and lively interest in the maintenance of good city government, has led him to serve in several local offices. In 1876-7, he was a member of the Board of Estimates from his ward, and in I88o a memberat-large. In I88I he was elected one of the councilmen, served three years, and was re-elected in I884. He was also one of the Poor Commissioners in I880, and served as president of the board. Besides his connection with the varnish business, he is a stockholder in the Detroit Linseed Oil Company, a joint partner with his brother Joseph H, in the Combination Gas Machine Company, a director of the Citizens' Savings Bank, and is interested in several minor business enterprises in Detroit and elsewhere, and serves as one of the trustees of the Michigan College of Medicine. He is a member of the Masonic order, belonging to Zion Lodge, Monroe Chapter, and to the Detroit Commandery No. 1, of Knights Templar. He was married in I860, to Janet Lowe, a daughter of John Lowe, of Niagara, Canada. They have had five daughters, four of whom are living. CALVIN KNOX BRANDON was born at New Carlisle, Ohio, September 6, I84I, and is the son of George S. and Nancy (Craighead) Brandon, and is of Scotch-Irish ancestry. His paternal grandfather, Templeton Brandon, was born in Scotland, came to America when a boy, and settled in Adams County, Pennsylvania, where he became a prosperous farmer. His son George S., who was born in I803, was engaged in milling and farming until 1842, when he removed to Indianapolis, Indiana, and became one of the earliest settlers of that city, and was a prosperous merchant. He was a man of strong character and of devout piety, and for many years was an elder in the Presbyterian Church of Indianapolis, presided over by Dr. Gurley, afterwards the distinguished Chaplain of the United States Senate. He died on August 22, 1847. His wife, who survived her husband only one month, came of a family renowned in the ecclesiastical and civil history of Scotland and America. Her great-grandfather, John Craighead, was the youngest son of Rev. Thomas Craighead, a native of Scotland, where he was educated as a physician, but soon abandoned his profession, studied divinity, and for several years was pastor of a Presbyterian church. In consequence of the oppression endured by members of his church, he emigrated to America in 1715, and settled near Boston, Massachusetts. In 1733 he removed to Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, and was very active in planting and building up churches in that region. He died while in the pulpit at Newville, Pennsylvania, at the close of a sermon, in April, I739. He was an eloquent preacher, with marked ability, original in thought, and fearless in the expression of his opinions. His numerous descendants dwell principally in the East and Southwest, where many of them have occupied positions of honor and responsibility. His son, Rev. Alexander Craighead, was a bold and advanced champion of American civil liberty. For several years he preached in Lancaster County, Pennsylvania, but in 1749 removed to Virginia, and in I756 to Sugar Creek, Mecklenburg County, North Carolina, where he died in 1766. During his residence at the latter place, he did much to inculcate sentiments of political liberty among the people of his parish, and to him the people of that region were indebted for the training which placed them in the forefront of American heroes and patriots. His church was the oldest in the upper country, and the parent of the seven churches that formed the convention at Charlotte, North Carolina, which on May 20, 1775, issued the Mecklenburg Declaration of Inde

Page  1178 1178 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. pendence, the first decided avowal of the right of organized hostility to English rule, and the principles then enunciated were substantially embodied in the Declaration of Independence adopted by the first American Congress. After the death of his father and mother, C. K. Brandon went to Adams County, Pennsylvania, and passed his boyhood upon a farm, going to country schools in the winter. At the age of fifteen he went to Cumberland County, Pennsylvania, and for two summers continued at farm work. He then entered Farmer's College, at Bellefonte, Centre County, Pennsylvania, and remained one year, and at the age of nineteen went to Macomb, McDonnough County, Illinois, to look after some land belonging to his father's estate. While there, President Lincoln's call for troops was issued, and on April 13, 1861, he enlisted for three months, in Company A, Sixteenth Regiment, Illinois Infantry, but was mustered in on April 26 for three years' service, and in May following, his regiment was among the first troops of enlisted volunteers to enter the State of Missouri. The Sixteenth Regiment was in General Pope's command during the summer of I86I, and in the winter of I86I-2, guarded the Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad, and subsequently participated in engagements at Palmyra, Monroe, Shelbina, Shelbyville, Liberty and Blue Mills Landing, at the siege of New Madrid, capture of Island No. io, skirmishes before Corinth, and at the battle of Farmington. At the end of his period of service, Mr. Brandon went to Quincy, Illinois, and secured a position as clerk in a wholesale dry goods store, but soon after enlisted in the Fourteenth Regiment Illinois Veterans, and was chosen Captain of Company E. Shortly after he was detailed as commissary of subsistence and general ordinance officer of General Stolbrand's brigade of the Seventeenth Army Corps, and served in this capacity until mustered out of service in September, 1865. Upon leaving the service he removed to Saline County, Missouri, and purchased a stock farm, which he conducted for six years, and then sold out and came to Detroit. His first service here was in the employ of the Detroit Car Works. In I875 he became purchasing agent of the Detroit Stave and Heading Works, then owned and conducted by Frederick Buhl. In 1877 he purchased Mr. Buhl's interest in the business, since which time the growth of the concern has been rapid and remunerative. In 1879, R. S. Keys became a'partner with him, under the firm name of Brandon & Keys, and in I883 the business was incorporated as the Detroit Stave and Heading Works. Its officers have since been C. K. Brandon, President; J. P. McLaren, Vice-President, and R. S. Keys, Secretary and Treasurer. The business has been-a marked success, and its growth has been largely due to Mr. Brandon's energy and careful management. Their plant, one of the largest in Michigan, is located on the corner of Clark Avenue and the Michigan Central Railroad, and covers an area of over twelve acres; Io,ooo,ooo staves and over 700,000 heads are manufactured yearly, and find a ready market all over the United States, and in portions of Europe. From seventy-five to one hundred men are employed. Of late years Mr. Brandon has been largely interested in real estate operations, especially in Hamtramck and Springwells, and is the owner of a number of houses in various parts of the city. A few years ago he purchased fifty-eight acres of land in Hamtramck, divided it into city lots, and it has proved a valuable investment. He is President of the Fontaine Crossing and Signal Company, of Toledo, Ohio, and of the East Detroit and Grosse Pointe Railroad, and is financially interested in various other enterprises in Detroit. He has been a Republican in political faith ever since he has been a voter, and was elected a Representative to the State Legislature from the Third District, in 1884, by a majority of nearly 300. The most important local measure which came up during his term, was the question of the annexation of Hamtramck, Greenfield, and Springwells to Detroit, which he strongly favored, and was successful in effecting. He is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic, the Loyal Legion, and of Detroit Masonic Commandery No. I. He is a member of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian Church, and for several years has been one of its trustees. Habits of trained industry, unquestioned honor and honesty, broadness of views, united with enough conservativeness to prevent his taking undue risks, and great executive ability, are the strongest traits in his character. Personally he is of quiet, retiring disposition; thoroughly domestic in his tastes, fond of his home, and finds his greatest pleasure in the family circle. He was married October 24, 1867, to Louisa, daughter of A. W. Russel, one of the best known and most respected citizens of Lancaster City, Pennsylvania. They have had seven children, five of whom are living, three boys and two girls. WILLIAM AUSTIN BURT was born in Worcester County, Massachusetts, June 13, 1792. His ancestors, representing both English and Scotch races, settled in New England early in the seventeenth century, and he possessed the strong characteristics, mental and physical, of his forefathers. Self-denial, earnestness of purpose, ambition to excel, loyalty to relatives, friends, and his own con

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Page  1179 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1179 victions, and steadfast adherence to right in all things, were prominent traits in the character of his ancestors and himself. As a boy, he possessed strong intellectual powers, coupled with remarkable mechanical ability, and fortunately he was able also to use either hand with equal dexterity, nature evidently having designed him for an inventor. The correctly-geared mills, whittled out with his jack-knife, with which he did the churning for his mother, and his miniature saw mills, made both for entertainment and use, were completed while pursuing his studies in navigation, land surveying, music, and stenography. A note book, which he kept when but seventeen years of age, now in possession of his grandson, Hiram A. Burt, of Detroit, shows that at that early age he had fully conquered all the methods of land surveying then practised; was far advanced in the study of navigation and astronomy; a fair theoretical musician, and that he had invented for his own use, and nearly perfected, a system of stenographic writing. It will be noted, also, that his education had been acquired chiefly through his own efforts, for, aside from about two months at the public school, he received no other training in any educational institution. He was not only studious and thoughtful, but also patriotic, serving in the New York militia for sixty days, in 1813, and again for sixty days in the spring of 1814. He was married on July 4, I813, to Phoebe Cole. In 1815 and I816 he was Justice of the Peace, School Inspector, and Postmaster, in Erie County, New York. He was possessed of a courageous and adventurous spirit, with an almost boundless ambition to see and know, and in 1817, in quest of a personal knowledge of the West, before the days of the Erie Canal, or the era of steamboats or railroads, he made the journey from Buffalo to Cincinnati (by way of Pittsburgh), thence to Jeffersonville, Indiana, Vincennes, and St. Louis, then back to Vincennes, and to Fort Wayne, Fort Meigs, Detroit, and by sailing vessel to Buffalo. Twice during the succeeding seven years he made trips to Michigan, and finally, in 1824, settled in the township of Washington, Macomb County, Michigan. He began business as a land surveyor, mill builder, and farmer, and endured the personal discomforts and hard manual labor, and practised the self-denial that fell to the lot of all pioneers. To these labors he added habits of diligent study, and the varied experiments of an eager, far-seeing mind, never contented unless using its utmost effort towards achieving its best. His facilities for experimental work were very limited, and consisted of a few carpenters' and blacksmiths' tools and utensils. Iron was scarce and very dear, and brass was almost unobtainable; there were no foundries near at hand, and the various metals were not offered in the many convenient shapes now so common. In order to fully employ his time, he built mills here and there, wherever his services were sought, and whenever he wanted a tool for any special purpose, he produced it at his own forge, or bench, and it generally proved that his tools were entirely new additions to the tools of craftsmen. Among these earlier tools and inventions was a compass for striking an oval of varying diameters, a T square of unique construction, and a "typographer," or type-writing machine. The "typographer" was conceived in 1828, patented in I829, the patent having the signature of President Andrew Jackson. The typographer was further perfected in I830, and the records of the Patent Office show that he was the first inventor of a mechanical type-writer. The instrument was exceedingly simple in construction, but for beauty and perfection, the work done by it, as shown by letters written on it in I830, is not equalled by any modern type-writer. Before he had been three years in the Territory, his abilities were generally recognized, and in I826 and 1827 he was elected a member of the Territorial Council. In 1832 he was appointed District Surveyor by Governor Porter, and about the same time he was appointed Postmaster at Mt. Vernon, Michigan, which office he held for twenty-four years. In I833, when he was forty-one years old, he was made Deputy United States Surveyor for all the district northwest of the Ohio River, and held the position until his decease. In I833 he was also appointed one of the Commissioners of Internal Improvements for Michigan, and on April 23, of the same year, was appointed an Associate Judge of the Circuit Court. He held this last position with much credit for several years, and was familiarly addressed as Judge up to the time of his death; but it was as a surveyor and inventor that he gained his greatest renown. As a member of the Board of Internal Improvements, he opposed the visionary schemes of that day, such as the canals at Saginaw and Grand Rapids. As a Government Surveyor, he was noted for integrity, faithfulness, skill, and correctness. Under date of October 8, 1834, M. T. Williams, Surveyor-General of the Northwest Territory, wrote to Senator Lucius Lyon, as follows: -' Your friend, Mr. Burt, proves to be an excellent surveyor; for a first contract, he has returned the most satisfactory work I have yet met with." Mr. Burt had as assistants all of his sons, namely, John, Alvin, Austin, Wells, and William; he also employed other young men, sons of his neighbors, all of whom he trained, and some of them gained enviable reputations as land surveyors. During the several years that he was employed by the Government, Mr. Burt and his sons surveyed much of the

Page  1180 I 8o MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. States of Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, Illinois, and Minnesota, including the sites of the present cities of Milwaukee, Rock Island, and Davenport. On January 14, I840, he was deputized to survey the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and to connect therewith the geological survey then in progress under Dr. Houghton. This work required the services of Mr. Burt and his sons for about ten years, and it was while doing this work that he discovered and reported on fourteen different deposits of iron ore, which, in his opinion, constituted about one-seventh of the total amount. Later developments show that his estimate was approximately correct. In a letter to his wife, written July II, 1846, telling of his work in the Upper Peninsula, he said: "We have found five very extensive beds of iron ore, of an excellent quality, enough, I think, if worked, to build a railroad around the world." Mr. Burt's associate, IDr. Douglas Houghton, having met a sudden death, the labor of preparing the geological report of the survey then in progress, fell to Judge Burt. It is published in Part 3, Executive Document No. I, of Thirty-first Congress, first session, and bears testimony to the thorough character of his knowledge and work. In a letter, written May I7, I835, he says: "The aberrations of the needle are truly perplexing. I have to correct very many of my north and south lines, and it is most annoying, this inability, as yet, to discover a method for doing away with the difficulty or the cause thereof." Under date of April 29, 1835, when engaged on the Government surveys in and about the city of Milwaukee, he wrote to one of his assistants, as follows: " I arrived here to-day, having finished the north tier of townships as far west as the town lines are run. The aberrations of the needle were worse in my last township than in any other I have yet surveyed. * * * In one instance I had to increase the variation one degree for two miles, to keep parallel; the next two miles needed no increase of variation, and for two miles more the variation decreased twenty and thirty seconds. The changes are mysterious, and will probably remain so until some accidental discovery reveals the secret." It thus appears that up to i835 Mr. Burt experienced all the annoyances met with by other land surveyors, in surveying trapezoidal tracts, but, unlike them, he was not satisfied to remain without a remedy for the trouble, and all of his correspondence shows that he was trying hard to evolve a method to do away with the inaccuracies and annoyances due to a sole reliance upon the magnetic needle. Aided by knowledge obtained during many years of work throughout the Northwest Territory, he continued to study and experiment, and at last his researches resulted in the production of the solar compass. In I835, in order to test its principles, he made a model of this instrument, and in the latter part of the same year the first solar compass was made under his supervision, by W. J. Young, of Philadelphia, then the best known and most expert mathematical instrument maker in this country. The new instrument was submitted to a committee of the Franklin Institute of the State of Pennsylvania, and after a full examination of its principles and merits, they awarded the inventor a premium of $20 and a Scott's Legacy Medal. Like most new inventions, the solar compass proved to be susceptible of improvement, and five years later Mr. Burt submitted a new solar compass to the same Institute, and their committee reported that it was a decided improvement, both as to accuracy and simplicity. Mr. Burt, however, was not perfectly satisfied, and in I85i he exhibited, at the World's Fair, in London, a solar compass still further improved as to scope, accuracy and simplicity. This instrument then, and since I850, was known as Burt's Improved Solar Compass, and in its development and construction, Judge Burt was greatly assisted by the suggestions and mechanical skill of his sons, and it may be said to represent the result of their joint labors. For this compass a premium medal was awarded by the Committee on Astronomical Instruments, and the inventor was personally complimented by the Prince of Wales. The premium medal was accompanied by the following certificate: I hereby certify that Her Majesty's Commissioners, upon the award of the jurors, have presented a prize medal to William A. Burt, for a solar compass and surveying instrument, shown at the exhibition. ALBERT, President of the Royal Commission. Hyde Park, London, October 15, 1851. While in London, Mr. Burt had the pleasure of meeting and making the acquaintance of Sir David Brewster, Hugh Miller, Sir John Herschel, and other celebrities in the realm of science, the acquaintanceship was continued, by means of correspondence, for many years, and proved a source of much pleasure. The usual rewyards of the inventor did not fall to Judge Burt in his lifetime, nor have they since been reaped by his heirs. It is a matter of record, that the great value of the solar compass to the United States Government became established at about the time when in order to preserve an inventor's rights, and secure his reward in the usual manner, a renewal of the patent should have been sought. Judge Burt went to Washington for this purpose, but, with the simplicity characteristic of him, was easily persuaded by the Government land officials to believe that if he

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Page  1181 \MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I i8i would allow his invention to become public property, the Government, as the principal beneficiary, would, through Congress, make suitable pecuniary recognition. The petition then filed by Mr. Burt, the inventor, and since his decease several times renewed by his heirs, has been favorably reported on by every committee of Congress to which it has been referred, and a bill has several times passed one or the other branch of Congress making appropriation of money in recognition and satisfaction of this most just claim, but has failed to be given full legal enactment. That millions of money have been saved to the Government in the cost of making original surveys, through the adoption of the solar compass,-is a fact well known to all surveyors-general and deputies engaged in this branch of the Government service. For fifty years the United States had exclusive use of the solar compass. It seems to have been originated for its special purpose, and, in fact, to grow out of the necessity felt by Judge Burt, during his experience as a deputy United States surveyor, for an instrument that should do more accurate work than the common surveyors' compass then in use. That a government founded upon, and actuated by equitable principles, should have so long neglected to do justice to him or his heirs is hardly creditable, but it is to be hoped that the merits of the invention, and the advantages derived therefrom, will soon be appropriately recognized and rewarded. A second important invention of Mr. Burt's, the Equatorial Sextant, was the outcome of his studious endeavor to apply the principles of the solar compass to navigation. On his return from Europe, in I85I, with the idea of perfecting his plans for this instrument, Mr. Burt took passage on a sailing vessel, for the purpose of making observations at sea. The trip was eminently successful, and his studies and experiments brought forth a perfect equatorial sextant. He thus gave to the sailors on the trackless sea, facilities equal to those furnished by the solar compass to the woodsmen in the trackless forest. At this time he retired from active work as a surveyor, and moved to Detroit, to devote himself to giving instruction in its use. He also gave instructions to a class of lake captains in astronomy and navigation, and in the use of his equatorial sextant, and a number of these captains made successful winter trips across the Atlantic with their fore and aft lake schooners, to the great astonishment of the "old salts." In 1852 he was chosen a member of the Michigan Legislature, served during the session of I852-53, and improved the opportunity to advance the project of a canal about the falls of the St. Mary's River of which he was one of the original and most earnest advocates. He was made chairman of the joint legislative committee on the subject, and it was largely owing to his intelligent and energetic efforts that the St. Mary's Ialls Ship Canal was constructed, upon what was then deemed an extravagantly liberal scale. On August I8, I858, he was suddenly stricken down with heart disease. He died possessing the universal respect of all his fellow men, peacefully and contentedly, attended by his wife, who had done well her part during the forty-five years of their married life, and he never neglected to award to her much of the credit of his success. Mrs. Burt did not long survive her husband; she died, on August 23, I864, and was laid by his side in the pleasant little rural cemetery at Mt. Vernon, where they had lived for so many years. A few years later their remains were removed to Elmwood Cemetery, in Detroit. Mr. Burt was not only fertile in ideas, on scientific and mechanical subjects, but he also possessed clear and decisive convictions on religious and political subjects, and had the courage to uphold them. Theories in any direction would not satisfy him; each new topic was taken up with the determination to fully comprehend its meaning and drift, and then to enforce its truth. He was not fanatical, however, and no man was more prompt to acknowledge error of judgment, or more hearty in expressions of satisfaction over the discovery of an error. In company he was modest and unassuming, but able to hold his own with any one in a discus-" sion, and in conversation was brilliant and well informed on a wide range of subjects. He was a consistent and firm believer in the doctrines of the Baptist Church, and was one of the organizers of the Society at Mt. Vernon, Michigan. In politics he was a Jeffersonian Democrat, but aside from the ordinary part taken by every good citizen, did not actively participate in political affairs. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, and one of the founders, and the first Master of the third Masonic lodge organized in Michigan. WELLS BURT was born in the village of Wales Center, Erie County, New York, near the city of Buffalo, on October 25, I820, and was the fourth son of Wm. A. Burt, widely known as the inventor of the solar compass, who came with his family to Michigan in I825, and settled in Washington, Macomb County. The son attended the district schools of that locality through his boyhood, but received his best education through intercourse

Page  1182 1 82 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. with his father, who was a man of rare intelligence and a diligent student, especially in scientific directions. As Wells Burt grew to manhood he learned the science of surveying from his father, who was engaged in extensive surveys of the public lands under contracts from the government, and gained practical knowledge by accompanying him as one of his assistants. Later he took contracts from the government himself for the surveying of thousands upon thousands of acres of the public lands of Michigan and Wisconsin. In the performance of his duties he was painstaking and exact to an uncommon degree, and this trait of faithfulness and conscientiousness was manifested throughout his life, in all his business relations and his intercourse with those about him. His work in the wilds of northern Michigan in those early days, was fraught with many hardships and dangers; often his little party of surveyors being the first white men who had intruded upon the domain of the Indian tribes of that region. But there was also compensation for these trials, for through his work he became thoroughly acquainted with the mineral resources of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan, and was thus enabled to make investments which laid the foundation for a considerable fortune. He had no ambition to gain great wealth, and not having very robust health, preferred for many years to lead a quiet life, comparatively free from the anxieties and cares of more active business life. He was, however, one of the organizers of the Union Iron Company of Detroit, established in 1872, and for ten years its president. He was also largely interested in the Lake Superior Iron Company, of Ishpeming, and the Peninsular Iron Company, of Detroit, and a holder of stock in the Third National Bank and the American Banking and Savings Association of the same city, besides being connected with various enterprises in other places. He was married on February I9, 1851, to Amanda F. Beaman, of Rochester, Oakland County, their early married life being spent in Washington, Macomb County. In 1865 they removed to Ypsilanti, that better opportunities might be afforded for the education of their children. In I88I Mr. Burt came to Detroit, building a beautiful home on Woodward Avenue, where he died suddenly of neuralgia of the heart, on November 29, 1887. At the time of his death he was a member of the First Baptist Church of Detroit. He rarely gave outward expression to his deepest feelings, and his religious life was quiet and undemonstrative, but those who knew him had many evidences of his kindly, loving nature, and Christian character. He was a devoted, considerate husband and father, a true friend, and a good citizen. He performed many acts of benevolence, and gave largely of his money to church and charitable objects in Detroit and elsewhere. He left a widow and five children, namely: W. Clayton Burt, Mrs. Henry L. Jenness, Miss Helen E. Burt, Mrs. Elstner Fisher, of Detroit, and Mrs. C. Van Cleve Ganson, of Grand Rapids. JOHN BURT was born in Wales, Erie County, New York, April I8, I8I4, his father, Wm. A. Burt, was the inventor, and patentee of the solar compass. The family emigrated to Michigan in 1824, coming on the steamer Superior from Buffalo, and landing in Detroit on May 10, and were soon settled in a log house in Washington township, Macomb County. The father's business frequently called him away from home, and, as the eldest of five sons, the mother depended chiefly upon John for assistance, and for six years he was a very active helper in pioneer life. At sixteen years of age, having developed strong mechanical instincts and ability, he was employed by his father to assist him in building saw-mills. His first lessons in mathematics, surveying, engineering,- astronomy, and navigation, were received from his father, but he also attended the district school. In 1835, when twenty-one years of age, he married Julia A. Calkins, daughter of a respected and influential farmer. They settled on a farm and remained five years. Mr. Burt was then persuaded by his father to accompany him as assistant in the work of conducting the linear and geological surveys in the Upper Peninsula. He was fully acquainted with the use and operation of his father's solar compass, and after one season's experience in the woods on May I8, I841, was appointed a Deputy United States Surveyor, and from I840 to 1851 he was engaged continuously on Government surveys in the Upper Peninsula. In I848 he subdivided the Jackson Mine district under a government contract and discovered a numberof new iron deposits, including the Republic and Humboldt mines. He also located accurately several others, discovered by Dr. Houghton in I845. The most remarkable instance known or recorded of the magnetic influence possessed by bodies of iron ore occurred while he was running the west boundary line of T. 46 N. R. 30 W., in which the great Republic Mine is located. This body of ore affected the needle for a distance of 6 miles, and nearly all bodies of iron ore in that region, whether outcropping or not, attracted the magnet, hence the ease with which their presence was indicated by the solar compass, and to its use is justly awarded the credit of the early discovery of the great mineral wealth of Northern Michigan, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and other portions of the West. While Mr.

Page  1183 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1I83 Burt was surveying the iron regions of the Upper Peninsula he obtained and preserved specimens of iron ores and kept notes of where they were found, together with the topographical and geological features and botanical peculiarities of their several locations. These notes were turned over to Messrs. Foster & Whitney, United States Geologists, and in their report of I851, they give him due credit. The valuable knowledge obtained by ten years of work in such a region led him in 1851 to take up what proved to be his life work, namely; the development of the mineral resources of Northern Michigan. He foresaw that the cheap transportation of the ores by lake was to be the greatest factor in their development. He knew that ore in abundance was within comparatively easy reach; with prophetic ken he saw the extent of the demand which would come, and in fact he comprehended as no one else did, the wondrously beneficial influence the development of that country would have on the general welfare of the country especially as to the States west of the Alleghanies. Mr. Burt's intimate acquaintance with the ore lands of the Upper Peninsula, naturally caused him to desire the ownership of a portion thereof, but under the so-called Mineral Land Act, the prices had been so increased as to preclude his purchasing. He therefore applied to the Land office at the "Soo" for an opinion from the Attorney General of the United States as to the character of the iron ore lands and as to whether they were rightly classed as mineral lands. He was informed that iron ore lands did not come under the head of mineral lands, and the officials at Sault Ste. Marie were instructed to offer and sell such lands, as agricultural lands, at $1.25 per acre. The first lands entered under that decision were those entered by Mr. Burt and the entry constitutes a part of the I5,0oo acres, now owned by the Lake Superior Iron Company. It is conceded that the selling of the iron ore lands at the reduced rate and the railroad and canal enterprises originated and pushed to completion by Mr. Burt, were the three prime factors in the present advanced civilization, improvement, and wealth of the Upper Peninsula. Mr. Burt greatly desired that the people of his own State should have control of these lands, and sought earnestly to interest Zachariah Chandler, Henry N. Walker, Eber B. Ward, H. P. Baldwin, and other citizens in his plans, and offered to sell them a three-eighths interest in his purchase, including the property of the present Lake Superior Iron Company now worth several millions of dollars, and a large share of the site of the present city of Marquette forthe sum of $5o,ooo. They apparently failed to comprehend the advantages offered and thus lost an opportunity seldom within reach. Mr. Burt then visited Pittsburgh, where his exhibits and appeals were also unappreciated. The elder Mr. Schoenberger, then the most prominent iron manufacturer in Pittsburgh, said to him; "we have an abundance of good ores in Pennsylvania and have no need of your Michigan ores, besides we will not see a ton of Michigan ore in Pittsburgh market in our day." Mr. Burt replied, "Mr. Schoenberger, you will have it here in five years at the farthest, and beg for it." In just four years from that time Mr. Burt had the satisfaction of seeing 4,000 tons of Lake Superior iron ore pass through the St. Mary's Falls Ship Canal, some of it consigned to Pittsburgh. In the summer of 1851 he returned to Carp River, where the city of Marquette is located, with a force of thirty men, built a dam across the river and also a saw-mill, the first erected in that region, preparatory to the erection of a forge for the manufacture of blooms. While at this work Mr. Burt was casually visited by the late Heman B. Ely of Cleveland, whom he imbued with his own sanguine ideas of the future of the iron interests of that country. Mr. Ely was a railroad man, and it was proposed that they should join forces in the construction of a railroad from the lake to the mines. This was a project Mr. Burt had long had in mind, and the proposition being acceded to, Mr. Burt, Mr. Ely, and his brothers, John F., Samuel P. and George H. Ely began the railway and completed it in I857. Meanwhile, Mr. Burt, the late Captain E. B. Ward, and other gentlemen, foreseeing that the railway would be of little immediate value without a way to get ore laden vessels through the Sault Ste. Marie river, revived the idea of a ship canal around the rapids in that river, and in the winter of 185I and 1852 visited Washington, and. with Mr. Burt's room as headquarters, besieged Congress for a grant of money or land to aid the State in building a canal, and a grant of 750,000 acres of land was made by Act of August 25, 1852, the conditions of which were accepted by the State on February 5, 1853. Under a contract entered into April 5, 1853, between the State Commissioners and Messrs. Joseph Fairbanks, J. W. Brooks, Erastus Corning, August Belmont, and others, the canal was completed and turned over to Mr. Burt, as its first Superintendent, on May i, 1855, and on June 18, following, he had the extreme satisfaction of passing the steamer Illinois, Captain Jack Wilson, as the first boat through the canal. During the remainder of the navigation season, of about five months that year, four thousand four hundred and seventy-four tons of ore were passed through the canal, and in 1887 nearly two and one-half millions tons were passed through. The history of the canal, and the stupendous growth in the ore trade of the Upper Peninsula, is well known, but it is not so generally

Page  1184 I 84 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. known that Mr. Burt was the first to recognize the need of enlarging the canal, that he was foremost in all movements to improve it, and that all grants and appropriations made by the Government were chiefly obtained through his tireless energy and masterly exhibits and arguments. It is also true that the then largest single lock in the world, the canal lock, begun in 1870 and completed in i88I, was built after a plan devised and patented by Mr. Burt. Meantime, from the summer of I85I to 1857, besides pushing the canal project, Mr. Burt gave a great deal of time and energy to the construction of the Iron Mountain Railway, and the improvements at Marquette. After completing his agreement with the Ely Brothers, of Cleveland, contracts were made with the Jackson Iron Company, and with the Cleveland Iron Company, to carry iron over the road for one dollar per ton the first two years, after which fifty cents per ton was to be paid, until, by a graduating scale, each company should ship, per annum, more than one hundred and twenty-five thousand tons, when the price was to be reduced to thirty cents per ton. No charter was then obtainable, as the State had no railroad law, but with these contracts, obtained chiefly by Mr. Ely, as a basis for business, the building of the road was begun as a private enterprise. The lumber for the docks, offices, and other buildings of the railroad company was sawed in Mr. Burt's Carp River mill, and sold for ten dollars per thousand, while the lowest price elsewhere was twenty-five dollars per thousand. In June, 1852, Mr. Burt contracted with the railway company to extend their road two miles farther to the Burt, now the Lake Superior mine, and the railroad company agreed to carry ore for him at the figures named in the contracts with the Jackson and Cleveland companies. Mr. Burt was also the prime mover in the organization of several iron manufacturing companies, all of which use Lake Superior ores. He was a director for thirty-three years in the Lake Superior Iron Company, now incorporated for its second term of thirty years; was President of the Peninsula Iron Company, of this city, for thirty years, and also President of the Marquette Furnace Company, the Carp River Furnace Company, and of the Burt Free Stone Company, of Marquette. On February 12, x855, a general railroad law for Michigan was approved by the Governor, and three days later a railroad company was organized under the name of the Iron Mountain Railroad Company, with Mr. Burt as President. The passage of the railroad law was opposed by all the old railway companies, but was secured through the efforts of Mr. Burt, his father William A. Burt, and Heman B. Ely. During the United States Congress of 1855 and I856, John Burt, aided by the late W. B. Ogden, of Chicago, obtained land grants to aid in the construction of the Bay de Noquette & Marquette road, from Little Bay de Noquette to Marquette, the Marquette, Houghton & Ontonagon road, and the Michigan & Wisconsin State Line road. It will be noticed that thirty-four years ago he had formulated a railway system for the Upper Peninsula, his plans being fulfilled by the completion and operation of the Duluth, South Shore & Atlantic, the Milwaukee & Northern, and the Peninsula division of the Chicago & Northwestern Railroads. The latter road was built with the grants given for construction of the Bay de Noquette & Marquette and State Line roads. Mr. H. B. Ely died in 1856, and Mr. Burt, on February 15, I857, was elected President of the Bay de Noquette & Marquette Railroad, and in 1858 the road was completed to the Lake Superior Company's mine, locally called the Burt mine; this railroad and the Iron Mountain Road were then consolidated, and from that time to the present it has been a very successful enterprise. Mr. Burt withdrew from the company in I863. In 1855 he bought the Lake Superior Journal, then published at Sault Ste. Marie, moved it to Marquette, and published the paper four years, when he sold out to Warren Isham. The paper is now known as the Marquette Mining Journal. It was not alone as an explorer, financier, and organizer, that Mr. Burt excelled; he had a good record as an inventor. He obtained his patent for the canal lock, heretofore alluded to, on May 28, 1867. On January 19, 1869, he obtained a patent on an improvement in the manufacture of iron, by the use of pulverized oxide of iron in the puddling furnace, and his process is largely used in puddling iron throughout the country. On May 25, 1869, he obtained a patent for the manufacture of crude blooms, using oxide of iron by running molten pig metal on to the oxide while in the crucible. On September 7, 1869, he obtained a patent for the manufacture of pig iron, and on December 28, I869, a patent for a finishing case for railway bars. He also obtained a patent for purifying blast furnace gas, which is successfully used in many furnaces. On March 27, 1877, and on October 29, 1878, he was granted patents for a system of ventilation, which has been introduced, in a modified form, in the Capitol at Washington. On April 24, 1883, he was granted a patent on charcoal furnaces, or retorts, for distilling wood and obtaining charcoal for furnace use. In politics he acted with the Democratic party until the passage of the fugitive slave law, and the birth of the Republican party, when he aided in the organization of that party, and continued to work with and for its prosperity as long as he lived. In j1868 he was an elector at large for the Republi

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Page  1185 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 185 cans of Michigan, and was honored by the Electoral College with the duty of delivering to the President of the Senate the vote of the State for Grant and Colfax. Physically Mr. Burt was tall and well built, with a frank, pleasant face, and a very engaging manner. He was a close and almost constant student, and like his father, could not be contented with mere theories. Although to some of his contemporaries he seemed visionary, yet he was only enthusiastic, and this because he saw in advance of his times. He was extremely systematic in his business methods, and in all of his dealings, was the soul of generosity, and quick to recognize and make allowance for disappointment or misfortune on the part of any with whom he had business relations. To his own kith and kin and to those whom he held as his friends, he was always helpful, and without thought of pay, he directed many persons to tracts of land, the purchase of which made them wealthy. He possessed a thoroughly religious spirit, an even temper, and was eminently a trusty friend and an agreeable companion. At the very early age of sixteen he was baptized, and united with the Baptist Church. From that time he felt a deep interest in the cause of Christ, and contributed liberally to all the churches with which he had been connected, and other churches, in his denomination and outside of it, received liberal gifts from him. The First Baptist Church, in Marquette, felt especially indebted to him for his generous gifts to them, and after his death the following resolutions were passed by that church: Resolved, That we extend to the relatives of Brother John 1urt our deepest sympathy in their sad and sudden bereavement. 'Ihat we remember with gratitude his gift to us of a church edifice and ground at an early day in the history of our church and city That we remember his earnest words of encouragement and his prayers full of faith in the final triumph of God's people and of His cause. That in his passing away we mourn in common with our State and the denomination. On Thursday, December 3, 1885, he and his wife celebrated their golden wedding at the handsome family residence at Detroit. The gathering brought their friends to the number of several hundred, from all parts of the State and letters of congratulation and good wishes were received from all over the country, and many testimonials of rare value were presented. A few months later, on August I6, 1886, the community was made sad by the announcement of his sudden death. He died as he had lived, full of religious trust, leaving his wife and three children, namely: Hiram A. Burt, Alvin C. Burt, and Minnie C., wife of Robert Leete. GEORGE S. DAVIS was born in the city of Detroit, May 7, I845, and is the son of Solomon and Anne H. (Duncan) Davis. His ancestors were among the earliest settlers of New England, and were prominent among the active defenders of the American colonies during the War of the Revolution, and distinguished for their piety, honesty, good habits, and longevity. Mr. Davis was educated in the common schools of Detroit, entering the High School the second term after its opening, and graduating from that institution in the year I860. Having the choice of a college education and a professional life, or a commercial career, he decided, on account of the limited means of his father, to engage in mercantile life, and accordingly entered the wholesale drug house of Farrand, Sheley & Company, and systematically studied the drug business, remaining with that firm until 1867, when he purchased an interest in the firm of Duffield, Parke & Company, manufacturing pharmacists. In 1871 the firm name, after the retirement of two partners, was changed to Parke, Davis & Company, under which title, both as a firm and a corporation, the concern has since been known. The enterprise suffered severely during its earlier history, through strong competition and want of proper capital, and though greatly crippled by the condition of commercial affairs incidental to the panic of 1873, it passed safely through the crisis, steadily gaining in prestige and strength. From the year 1877 it has been phenominally successful, and now ranks as the largest concern of its kind in the United States, if not in the world, and has commercial relations with all countries. The history of the growth of this business, from its incipiency through the various stages of its existence to its present world-wide reputation, is partly detailed in connection with the chapter on manufactures, and forms one of the most interesting portions of the manufacturing history of Ietroit. The creation of the forces and agencies which built up this enterprise, over obstacles almost unsurmountable, form the best index to the character and ability of those who have been instrumental in its development. That its success is largely due to the individual efforts of Mr. Davis, will be readily admitted by those most intimately connected with its growth. Coming into active participation in its management at an early period of its history, when it was of small capacity, and unknown beyond a small radius, he gave it a personal supervision and care which has been persistent, well directed, and unflagging. With unusual executive ability, great energy, intuitive knowledge of character, and broad and liberal business judgment, united to a certain boldness and courage, without which great business success is rarely attained, he has been an essential factor in achieving the success that is now established.

Page  1186 ii86 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. The business was incorporated in 1875, with Mr. Davis as Secretary and Treasurer. He is also President of the Michigan Phonograph Company, VicePresident of the Imperial Life Insurance Company, and is interested in several other business corporations. In addition to his business as a manufacturer, as is shown in detail elsewhere in this work, he is one of the most extensive medical publishers in the United States, and scores of serial issues, valuable brochures, and books of interest to the medical and scientific world, bear his imprint as publisher, and owe to him the inspiration of their authorship. He possesses large real estate interests, particularly in Grosse Pointe, where he has not only established the nucleus of a suburban village, but has also an extensive stock and dairy farm. He is a Republican in political faith, and earnestly interested in the success of his party, but with the exception of two years' service in the Board of Education, has never held public office. He has been publicly mentioned for various important official positions, particularly as member of Congress, Mayor, and Park Commissioner, but is in no sense an office seeker. He is a director in the Grosse Pointe Club and a member of various social clubs, military and other organizations, and socially is warm-hearted, affable, unassuming, and courteous, and worthy of the esteem in which he is held. He is an attendant of the Fort Street Presbyterian Church, is liberal in his contributions to public objects, and has few equals of his years among the successful business men in the city or State. He is unmarried, and lives with his father's family. SOLOMON DAVIS, one of the oldest residents of Detroit, was born at Rockingham, Vermont, March 17, I792, and was the first son of Joshua and Rhoda (Balcom) Davis. The first of the family, on the paternal side, in America, came from England, and landed in New England about the year 1670. After the manner of many of the pioneers, he moved from place to place, and was actively engaged in the various wars with the Indians. Nathaniel Davis, the grandfather of Solomon Davis, was born in the town of Petersham, Massachusetts, November 13, 1715. He married Susanna Hubbard, who was born April o1, 1720. They settled in Barre, Massachusetts, where most of their children were born. They afterwards, about the year 1758, located at the place now called Charleston, in New Hampshire. It then contained but four log houses, which, on their arrival, Were found to have been ravaged by the Indians, the windows and doors were open, and the floor strewn with various relics pertaining to household occupancy. This fact aided in determining his decision to join the forces raised for the war against the French and Indians. He entered the service, and was wounded in one of the skirmishes in his right shoulder, but succeeded in avoiding capture. At the close of the war he purchased a farm at Rockingham, Windham County, Vermont, where he cultivated the soil under great difficulties, being continually exposed to Indian attacks, and constantly compelled to guard against them. He subsequently purchased a larger and better farm on the north side of the Williams River, near the town of Rockingham, where he resided until his death. He was a very pious man, puritanical in turn, and possessing the fighting qualities so desirable among the early settlers. He had seven children, three girls and four boys. His wife was drowned in I770, while trying to ford the Williams River, at Chester, Vermont. Joshua Davis, his fourth child, was born February 29, 1750. Remaining at home in his earlier youth, he assisted his father until the opening of the Revolutionary War, and then just prior to the battle of Bunker Hill, he joined the colonial forces, and while acting on the staff of the commanding general was severely wounded by a musket ball. On recovering from his wound, he was assigned to a company of the Green Mountain boys of Vermont, and arrived upon the field just after the battle of Bennington. He subsequently served in the army under Gates, Arnold, Washington, Lafayette, and Greene, being actively engaged in many of the battles of the Revolution, and was present at the surrender of Burgoyne. At the close of the war he purchased a farm near Newfane, Vermont, and there at the age of forty married Mrs. Myrick nee Rhoda Balcom. She was a descendant of an English family, which originally resided in a small hamlet in England, called Balcombe, a name derived from the Saxon, signifying a dale or hollow at the foot of hills or highland. The Balcom family are all long lived, and from the first settlement in America have resided in Sudbury, Massachusetts. John Balcom, the first of the family in America, was born in 1657, and died in I742. Henry Balcom, the father of Rhoda Balcom, was born in 1742. He was accidentally killed in I840, being thrown from his horse and dragged some distance with his foot in the stirrup. He married Kesia Stowe in 176I, and had eight children and fifty-nine grandchildren. He served in the Revolutionary War in various capacities, from the day of the battle of Bennington to the close of the war. His father moved with his family from Sudbury, Massachusetts, to Newfane, Vermont, very early, if not prior to the commencement of the Revolutionary War. After the Revolutionary War he moved with his family from Newfane, Vermont, to Oxford, Chenango County, New York, where he remained the rest of his life. He was accidentally

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Page  1187 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I187 killed at the age of seventy-two years, by being thrown from his horse. He had seven children and fifty-nine grandchildren. Two of the latter, Lyman and Ransom, were appointed to the bench, and served as Judges of the Supreme Court of the State of New York, in which State their numerous descendants have principally settled. Rhoda Balcom, wife of Joshua Davis, died in August, i802, and in I804 he married Mary Blake, of Rockingham. It is an interesting fact, as showing her health and vitality, that at the age of ninety she rode forty miles on horseback in one day. She died July 21, I852, at the age of ninety-two years. Her husband, Joshua Davis, had five children, three boys and two girls. He died at Newfane, June 24, 1838. After obtaining as thorough an education as the facilities of that day in Vermont afforded, Solomon Davis engaged in farming, and continued in that occupation until 1813, when, taking advantage of the restrictions placed upon commercial relations with England by the embargo, and the existing need of woolen goods in this country, he invested what capital he had in a woolen manufactory, at Weathersfield, Vermont, and continued the business until about I826, when the resumption of commercial relations with Great Britain, and competition with English manufacturers, compelled him and many other American woolen manufacturers, to suspend. Mr. Davis, however, paid all his debts in full, but had only twenty dollars left as the result of his industry up to that date, and on June 8, 1830, he crossed the Green Mountains on foot, obtained a passage by canal boat to Buffalo, and then embarked on the steamer Superior for Detroit, arriving here on the 24th of June following. Shortly after his arrival in Detroit, he obtained the position of Superintendent of the Detroit Hydraulic Company, organized to supply the city with water. He superintended the laying of the iron and wooden pipes, which, though but three inches in diameter, were considered sufficient for the necessities of the city at that time. During the year he returned to Vermont, and brought back his family. Early in 1833 he established a brass foundry, and continued in this line of business until I879, when he gave up active work. He reared a large family amid comfortable and pleasant surroundings, and in a long life of patient, persistent industry, conscientious devotion to duty, and in an honest, manly character, he gives them an inheritance which is above price. At ninety-six years of age he is hale and hearty, and possesses remarkable vigor of mind and body. He was married in 1825, to Anne H. Duncan. They had eight children, four girls and four boys, five of whom, three daughters, Mrs. George F. Turrill, Mrs. Charles Ketchum, of Detroit, and Mrs. Charles S. Bartlett, of Chicago, and two sons, George S. Davis, and James E. Davis, of Detroit, are living. The mother died on May 28, 1848, and on March I I, 1852, Mr. Davis married, as his second wife, Mrs. Elvira A. Campbell, of Detroit. She is still living, in the best of health and spirits: and in full possession of her faculties, at the advanced age of eighty-four years. ALEXANDER DELANO, one of the leading manufacturers of Detroit, was born in Oneida County, New York, April 25, 1842. His ancestors were Huguenots and came from France to this country early in the eighteenth century, first settling in Massachusetts and afterwards removing to Vermont. His father, Safford S. DeLano, was born in St. Albans, Vermont, in I800. While a young man he located in Massachusetts. In I840 he moved to Oneida County, New York, where he remained about eight years. In I848 he removed to Brooklyn, New York, embarked in mercantile business, and died four years later. His wife, Clarissa Cook DeLano, was born in Berkshire, Massachusetts, in I8oo, and died at Detroit in 1884. Alexander DeLano was the youngest son of eight children, and until about fifteen years of age attended school in Brooklyn, New York. In I857 he started West and at Mt. Clemens, Michigan, engaged as clerk in the dry goods store of Moore Stephens, where he remained about four years. In July, x86I, he enlisted at Fort Wayne, in the Fifth Michigan Infantry, the regiment being assigned to the Army of the Potomac. At the front, Mr. DeLano was soon made Regimental Quartermaster Sergeant, but on account of deafness, contracted in the service, he was unable to fill a higher rank which was offered and the same reason caused him to be honorably discharged in 1863. In the latter part of 1863 he located in Buffalo, New York, and engaged in the hard timber trade. In 1868 he came to Detroit and entered the employ of James McMillan, in the Michigan Car Works, where he remained ten years. In I878, in connection with J. S. Newberry, he organized the Detroit Car Spring Company, of which he was made treasurer and general manager, and in 1881, with others, organized the Detroit Steel Works. In 1883 these two corporations were consolidated under the name of the Detroit Steel and Spring Works, and Mr. DeLano was chosen president and manager. The company employ over three hundred men and turn out from five to six hundred tons of manufactured steel per month. JEREMIAH DWYER was born in Brooklyn. New York, August 22, I837. When he was

Page  1188 i88 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. scarcely a year old, his parents removed to Detroit and settled on a farm in the township of Springwells, about four miles from the city, remaining there until 1848. In that year, while his father was driving a team of spirited young horses near the railroad, they were frightened by a locomotive and ran away, and Mr. Dwyer was thrown out and killed. The family then consisted of his wife, his son Jeremiah, and two younger children, James Dwyer, now manager of the Peninsular Stove Company, and one sister, now Mrs. M. Nichols. After his father's death, Jeremiah, though only eleven years of age, tried for a year or two to aid his mother in managing the farm, but found it unprofitable work, and finally his mother, feeling the necessity of giving her children better educational advantages than could be had in that vicinity, sold their country home, and purchased a residence in Detroit. With the other children Jeremiah now enjoyed a few years' training in the public schools, but as their means were limited, he found it necessary to obtain employment, which he secured in the saw and planing mill of Smith & Dwight, where he remained about a year. At that time it was quite difficult to get an opportunity to learn a trade, but through the influence of friends, Mr. Dwyer secured an opportunity to learn the trade of moulding at the Hydraulic Iron Works, then conducted by Kellog & Van Schoick, and afterwards owned and managed by O. M. Hyde & Co., with the late Captain R. S. Dillon as superintendent. Mr. Dwyer had to agree that he would serve four years as an apprentice and make good all lost time, and did so to the satisfaction of his employers, receiving at the expiration of his apprenticeship a letter of recommendation which he still prizes highly. At the conclusion of his apprenticeship he worked as journeyman in several eastern stove foundries, perfecting himself in his trade. He then returned to Detroit, and on account of poor health, resulting from too close confinement to his trade, accepted a position on the D. & M. R. R. for about a year, and was then offered a position as foreman in one of our leading foundries. About the same time a reaper works and stove foundry was started on the corner of Mt. Elliott Avenue and Wight Street, by Ganson & Mizner, but for some reason was not successful, and the property coming into the hands of T. W. Mizner, he made Mr. Dwyer a proposition to engage in the stove business, and finally they made an arrangement under the firm name of J. Dwyer & Co., which continued about two years. W. H. Tefft then bought Mr. Mizner's interest, but the firm continued under the old name for about a year, and in I864 M. I. Mills joined them and they formed a stock company, under the name of the Detroit Stove Works, with Mr. Dwyer as manager. In 1869 he superintended the construction of the new Detroit Stove Works in Hamtramck, and in the winter of I870, through over anxiety and exposure in moving to and starting up the new works, he took a severe cold which settled on his lungs, and by advice of his physician he went South. Fearing he would not return, he sold his interest to his brother James, but after spending some time in the South, he returned home in the summer of 1871, and through'the persuasions of Alfred and Charles Ducharme, decided to again /engage in stove manufacturing. Associating himself with Charles Ducharme, and with Richard H. Longas secretary, in the fall of I871 they bought the Ogden & Russel property, at the foot of Adair Street, at the outlet of the " Bloody Run," and immediately commenced getting materials together for a new stove manufactory. The winter setting in early, they were unable to start their building as at first expected, and during the winter of 1871-72, the late M. I. Mills proposed to put in his property fronting on Jefferson Avenue and Adair Street, at first cost, and join them in this enterprise. His offer was accepted, and a few months later they were joined by Geo. H. Barbour, and formed the Michigan Stove Company, the officers being Charles Ducharme, president; M. I. Mills, vice-president; George H. Barbour, secretary; R. H. Long, superintendent, and Jeremiah Dwyer, manager. As the spring opened they pushed the erection of their buildings on the corner of Jefferson Avenue and Adair Street, as fast as possible, and here improved and extended their works and facilities as the times would warrant, till to-day this establishment will compare favorably with any works in the world in quality and quantity of their goods. At the death of Mr. Ducharme, Francis Palms was elected president, and on the death of M. I. Mills, in I882, Mr. Dwyer was made vice-president and manager, and after the death of Mr. Palms, in I886, Mr. Dwyer became president, which office he still holds. He was among the first organizers and is still a director of the People's Savings Bank, is vice-president of Bucks' Stove and Range Company, of St. Louis, Mo., and a stockholder in several other enterprises. In the early days of the old volunteer Fire Department, he took an active part and for a number of years was foreman of No. 7, and later was one of the trustees of the Fire Department Society. He holds to the Roman Catholic faith, and is a worthy representative of that church. In politics he is a staunch Democrat, but though often solicited to be a candidate, has been too much engrossed in business to take an active part in politics, entertains no ambition for the distinctions of office, and

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Page  1189 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I 89 with the exception of serving one term on the Board of Estimates, has held no public position. He is liberal-minded in his views on religion and politics, and generous to all charitable institutions; is possessed of sound judgment, and has achieved great success as a manager of men. He is patient, untiring, industrious, modest and practical-a man of deeds rather than words. He has never overreached nor attempted what was beyond his capacity to accomplish, is exceedingly cautious in all business matters, and his work is always so methodical that its results may be anticipated with reasonable certainty. Possessed of a quick and active disposition, with great force of character and genial and happy temperament, he commands the respect of all with whom he is associated. He was married November 22, 1859, to Mary Long, daughter of John Long and Elizabeth (Baisley) Long. They have one daughter and seven sons. JACOB BEALE FOX was born in Louisville, Kentucky, January 12, 1831. His father was of English descent, and died while in California, where he had gone to try and build up his failing health. The son attended school but little after he was eleven years of age, as he was compelled to earn his own living. During the War with Mexico, he enlisted as a soldier in the First Kentucky Regiment, and upon his return from the war, visited California with his father, and soon afterwards started a confectionery business in New Albany, Indiana, but thinking to better his prospects in Kalamazoo, Michigan, he removed there in I856, and ten years later came to Detroit, and with Jacob Bristol established a wholesale confectionery establishment, under the firm name of J. B. Fox & Company. In 1869 the firm of William Phelps & Company became interested in the establishment, and in I870 it was consolidated with the firm of Pilgrim & Gray, and the firm of Gray, Toynton & Fox established. They soon became the largest and most successful confectioners in Detroit, and were widely known for the extent and quality of their productions. Mr. Fox personally superintended the manufacturing department, and invented quite a number of machines for use in the manufacture of confectionery, among them one for stamping out lozenges. He was a man of strict integrity, was a genial companion, and had the confidence of all who knew him. His health becoming impaired, he went South, and while visiting at his sister's, at Samuel's Station, in Nelson County, Kentucky, he was taken violently ill, and died there on May I6, I88i. He was married in 1853, to Marian Epperson, a relative of President Polk. They had three chil dren, two of whom died, George L. Fox, of Detroit, being their only surviving child. On July 12, 1877, he married Mary S. McGregor, a direct descendant of Rob Roy, the noted Scottish chieftain. They had two children. Mrs. Fox and one son, John Murray Fox, are living. GEORGE H. GALE was born in Barre, Vermont, February 23, 1826. His grandfather, Brooks Gale, was one of the first two settlers of Barre, the other being David French; they were both from Massachusetts. George Gale, the father of George H. Gale, was born in Barre, Vermont, and married Harriet Stone. He moved to Hillsdale County, with his family, in 1837, and in I840, established the first plow works in that county, at Moscow. George H. Gale began to care for himself at the age of ten. He had attended a common school and made the best use of his few opportunities. In I845 he removed to Kalamazoo, and engaged with Allen Potter in the hardware business, remaining there until I849, when he went by the overland route to California, and there engaged in mining and other operations for four years. In I854 he returned to Kalamazoo, and resumed the hardware business with Mr. Potter, continuing until 1867. Meantime, as early as I855, he became identified with the manufacture of agricultural implements, in connection with his brothers, Charles, H. J., N. B., and Horatio Gale, who had works at Kalamazoo, Jonesville, and Albion, Michigan. George H. Gale is a stockholder in the Gale Manufacturing Company, at Albion, and in 1883 took a leading part in the organization of the Gale Sulky Harrow Company, of Detroit, became its general manager, and early in January, 1884, removed his residence to this city. The Gale Sulky Harrow is founded upon a patent obtained by his brother, Horatio Gale, in I880. The company own the entire right to manufacture, and have shops for the manufacture of harrows in Canada. Their works, in Detroit, are located on Milwaukee Avenue, in the most advantageous position for the railroads, and they have contributed materially to the building up of that part of the city. They can turn out one hundred harrows a day. Mr. Gale, having assisted his brothers in the development of the patent, has devoted his energies to the organization and management of a company that should utilize it and give its practical benefits to the agriculturists of the country. In this he has been very successful. He is a thorough business man, trained in the school of experience, active, clear-headed, and self-reliant. His opinions are not borrowed from others, but are the result of investigation and consideration. He is courteous

Page  1190 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I go90 and obliging in his intercourse with all, an excellent organizer of labor, and a successful financier. He is a Republican, and formerly gave much time to politics in the Fourth District, but since coming to Detroit has devoted himself exclusively to business, and to the interests of his family. He was married November 5, 1855, to Ellen S. Brown, of Kalamazoo, and has three daughters, Elnora, Winifred, and Blanche. JOHN S. GRAY was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on October 5, 1841, and with his parents, Philip C. and Amelia Gray, came to America when he was eight years old. His father was a crockery merchant in Edinburgh, where his ancestors had lived for many generations. They sailed from Liverpool on April 6, 1849, and soon after arriving here, settled on a farm in Wisconsin. They soon found that farm life did not agree with them, and therefore sold the property, and in May, 1857, moved to Detroit. John S. Gray, who was now sixteen years old, attended the Capitol School, taught by Professor Olcott, and upon the opening of the High School, was one of the first pupils, remaining until the fall of 1858. In the winter of that year he engaged in teaching at Algonac, and while thus employed, his father purchased a small toy store on the west side of Woodward Avenue, near Lamed Street. In the spring of 1859, he entered his father's store, and began a business career that has been remarkably successful. In I86I they sold out the stock of toys, formed a copartnership with C. Pelgrim, under the firm name of Pelgrim, Gray & Company, and manufactured candy in a small way until January, I862, when the store and stock were destroyed by fire. They immediately reopened at I43 Jefferson Avenue, with much enlarged capacity and increased trade, Soon after this the elder Mr. Gray retired from the business, and Messrs.oPelgrim & Gray received into partnership Joseph Toynton, who had previously been in the employ of William Phelps & Company, wholesale grocers, and in 1865, on the retirement of Mr. Pelgrim, the style of the firm was changed to Gray & Toynton. The business continued to increase so as to require an enlargement of their building, which was accordingly made, and in the spring of I870, J. B. Fox was admitted as a partner, the style of the firm becoming Gray, Toynton & Fox. In the fall of 1870, the demands of their business compelled them to seek larger quarters, and they purchased and removed to the building on the southeast corner of Woodbridge and Bates Streets, where they still remain, three separate enlargements having been made to accommodate their ever increasing trade. In the spring of I88I both Mr. Toynton and Mr. Fox died; the respective interests of the deceased partners were soon after withdrawn,-and the firm was succeeded by an incorporated company, under the same name and style. Since I88I an adjoining store has been required to accommodate the business, which gives employment to from one hundred and fifty to two hundred hands, according to the season, and is the largest establishment of the kind in Michigan. Mr. Gray has been President and manager of the corporation since its organization. As a business man, he ranks among the first in the city, both as to efficiency and probity of character. He is careful and economical, yet bold and enterprising, possessing a rare combination of push and conservatism that has made his success certain and continuous. He is well read in general literature, a close student in several lines of thought, and withal an earnest student of the Scriptures. In politics he is liberal and independent, and in the old anti-slavery days was an Abolitionist. He has been a member of the Christian Church since I857, and an active worker in missions and Sunday-schools. To recruit his health, he made an extended tour through Europe and the East in 1872, visiting Egypt, Palestine, and other parts of Asia Minor, as well as his old home in Scotland. He derived so much benefit that he renewed the trip, in part, in 1883, visiting Scotland, France, and Italy, and his health was greatly improved. He married Anna E. Hayward, at Beloit, Wisconsin, on October 31, I864. They have three sons and one daughter. The eldest son, Philip H., is in the office of the company at Detroit; the second son, Paul, is a student in the University of Michigan; the others are at home. THOMAS F. GRIFFIN was born in Limerick, Ireland, December 18, 1826. When about eleven years old, he determined to seek his own and a better fortune in the New World. Accordingly, in the spring of I838, he left Limerick for Liverpool, and at the latter place took passage for America. On the arrival of the vessel at Quebec, he worked his way to Rochester, New York, and that place came near being his permanent residence, for he remained there thirty-five years. His first occupation in Rochester was at general work, in a flour mill. He stayed at this employment about three years, and during the winter months attended the Rochester High School. After leaving the mill, he worked at various occupations, and finally, in I843, went as an apprentice for Messrs. Traver & Benedict, proprietors of the old Rochester foundry, agreeing to remain with them four years. This connection proved a fortunate one. The firm was highly reputable and well known in connection with

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Page  1191 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I 191 the building of the Rochester & Auburn Railroad. By the time he had served his apprenticeship, he was competent to take charge of the foundry, where he remained for over a quarter of a century. Meanwhile, in 1848, soon after his apprenticeship ended, he married, and has six children, two sons and four daughters. Mr. Griffin, as early as 1844, within a year from the time he entered the foundry, was engaged in making the old-fashioned split-hub wheels, zinced and banded with wrought bands around the hubs. Three years later, the first solid hub and double plate car wheels were made in Rochester, by Mr. Washburne, of Worcester, Massachusetts, and almost immediately Mr. Griffin's employers procured wheel patterns, core boxes, and chills, and began the manufacture of said wheels. Since that date, the time and thought, the energy and experience of Mr. Griffin have been ceaselessly devoted to the making of chilled wheels, and for many years before leaving Rochester, he made them under contract. That he has been remarkably successful in producing superior wheels, and in immense quantities, is a fact well known to all interested in the rolling stock of railroads. His success has not been alone his own; his two sons, after completing their education, preferring the business of their father above any other, entered it with the purpose of fully mastering all the details. With this idea Thomas A. entered the foundry in I868, and P. H. Griffin the following year. Both of them, by practical, personal work, became thoroughly familiar with the business, and together father and sons have pushed the business to its present large proportions. Mr. Griffin's coming to Detroit grew out of a visit paid to the city by one of his sons. An interview with Mr. James McMillan resulted in their removal to Detroit early in January, 1873, under a contract with the Michigan Car Company, to put the Detroit Car Wheel Company's shops, at Grand Trunk Junction, in working order, and manufacture all their car wheels and castings, for a term of five years. Mr. Griffin succeeded in having them in full operation in April of the same year. After the completion of the shops, he remained with the company four years, and in September, I877, erected a foundry of his own, in its present location on Foundry Street, adjoining the Michigan Central Railroad tracks. Commencing with only thirty chills and nine men, and turning out but eighteen wheels per day, and no other castings of any kind, the business has steadily increased until the works at Detroit occupy about five acres of ground, with a foundry seven hundred feet long and sixtyfive feet wide, besides other buildings, and can turn out all kinds of chilled wheels and castings, of both iron and brass. Their capacity is two hundred and fifty wheels per day, or seventy-five thousand per year. They also turn out about seven thousand five hundred tons of castings, and employ from two hundred to three hundred men, and sell to the principal railroads in the United States and Canada. An associated corporation, known as the Griffin Wheel and Foundry Company, of Chicago, is controlled and managed by Mr. Thomas A. Griffin, and manufactures about three hundred wheels per day. The Ajax Forge Company, of Chicago, is also under his management, and produces various kinds of railroad necessities, such as frogs, crossings, rail braces, links, pins, etc. This company employs about three hundred men. The extensive foundry in Buffalo, established under the name of Thomas F. Griffin & Sons, which is managed by Mr. P. H. Griffin, is also a part of their system of foundries, and has a capacity of fifty thousand wheels per year and seven thousand five hundred tons of castings, and employs from one hundred and fifty to two hundred men. The St. Thomas Car Wheel Company, of Canada, of which Mr. P. H. Griffin is also manager, is conducted by the Messrs. Griffin, they owning two-thirds interest of the business, and Mr. C. Sheehy, of Detroit, one-third. This establishment has a capacity for two hundred and fifty wheels per day, and about one thousand five hundred tons of castings yearly. These concerns have an average capital of $80,000. The Griffin Car Wheel Company, of Detroit, was organized in October, 1877, with a capital of $30,ooo, all paid in. On March 20, I880, it was increased to $50,000; in July, I88i, to $Ioo,ooo; and in January, 1884, to $15o,ooo. The officers, from 1877 to i88I, were: Thomas F. Griffin, President; Dr. D. O. Farrand, Vice-President; Thomas A. Griffin, Secretary; and P. H. Griffin, Treasurer. After the death of Dr. Farrand, T. A. Griffin became Vice-President, and P. H. Griffin, Secretary and Treasurer. In I886, Mr. P. H. Griffin removed to Buffalo, to take charge of the interests there an4 at St. Thomas, and since then Thomas F. Griffin has been President and Treasurer; Thomas A. Griffin, Vice-President: E. A. Wales, Secretary; and-Joseph P. Cullen, Superintendent. The successful management of large business operations has naturally increased Mr. Griffin's native selfreliance. He has, however, been conservative in his plans, but also quick to take'advantage of favorable opportunities, and has been especially favored in having in his sons the help of capable and progressive coadjutors. He is a member of the Catholic Church, but liberal in his feelings towards those of another faith, and socially, as well as in his family, is a warm-hearted and appreciative companion and f

Page  1192 1192 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. friend. As a business man, his record is without reproach, and is a notable example of success achieved by individual exertion. GILBERT HART was born at Wallingford, Rutland County, Vermont, August I, I828, and is the son of Irad and Lucinda (Wright) Hart. His American ancestors were natives of New England, his grandfather, Amasa Hart, was born at Wallingford, Connecticut, and went to Vermont prior to the Revolution. The early life of Gilbert Hart was spent on a farm. His father died when he was fifteen years old, but his health had been so feeble for many years before his death, that the care of the household devolved in part upon his sons. Gilbert Hart remained in Vermont until the breaking out of the War of the Rebellion, and then in November, I86I, he enlisted for three years in the Third Company of Vermont Sharp-shooters, of which he was elected Captain. This company, after its muster in the Union service, became Company H, of the Second Regiment of United States Sharp-shooters, and formed a part of the Army of the Potomac. Captain Hart served through the campaign of I862, and a portion of the winter of 1863. His health then failed, and being physically unfit for service, he was honorably discharged in January, I863. After his discharge he returned to East Dorset, Vermont, and in 1865, came to Detroit. He possesses natural mechanical genius, and his attention being directed to the manner of producing emery wheels, he worked out several improved methods of manufacture, securing various patents, including one for a process of strengthening, which has proved superior to all other methods in execution of work and durability. He commenced the manufacture of emery wheels in a limited way in 187I, and the business has steadily grown in extent until at the present time it is the largest emery wheel manufactory in the United States, and the only one west of Pennsylvania. The plant on Field Avenue, furnishing employment to about fifty men, is complete in every particular, nearly all the appliances used in the manufacture of emery wheels and the machinery connected with their use, being the result of Mr. Hart's ingenuity. The productions are sold all over the United States, wherever metal is worked. Mr. Hart is the sole proprietor, and in the development of this field of industry has labored persistently and arduously, and his success is alike creditable to his mechanical ingenuity and business ability. In 1884, with C. A. Strelinger, he founded the large retail hardware store of C. A. Strelinger & Company; he has also become financially interested in various business enterprises in Detroit, and in 1888, was elected the first president of the newly organized Central Savings Bank. His time and energies, however, are chiefly given to the manufacturing interest of which he is the creator, and in which he takes a pardonable pride. He is a strong Republican in politics, but is not an active participant in political affairs. He is a member and a regular attendant at the Unitarian Church, is an appreciative friend, has a generous nature, is devoid of all pretense or show, naturally retiring in disposition, thoroughly domestic in his tastes, and possesses the fullest confidence of all who know him. He was married in February, 1858, to Calista Giddings, of Cavendish, Vermont. They have but one child, Frederick P., born in July, 1875. SAMUEL F. HODGE was born in Cornwall, England, March 6, 1822. His father was head blacksmith in a notable mine, and the son naturally gravitated into, and, in fact, grew up in the same line of business. Educated under the eye of his father, he was early initiated into active work, and when but seventeen, was at the head of one of the shops in his native place, and continued in Cornwall until I849, and then, being determined to better his condition, he bid a temporary adieu to his wife and his two children, and emigrated to America, landing at New Orleans in the early part of the year. At New Orleans he took passage on a steamer for the north, and made his first stop of any moment, at Toledo. He soon decided to leave there and came to Detroit. Soon after his arrival here, on November 19, 1849, a fire destroyed the officers' quarters at Fort Wayne, near the city, and Mr. Hodge was engaged to demolish the walls, in order to prepare the way for a new structure. His work was satisfactorily performed, and, his abilities becoming known, he was engaged to make the wrought iron work used in connection with the building of the fort, and was so employed until i85i, and in the meantime he sent over for his wife and children. He was next employed as foreman in the iron foundry of DeGraff & Kendrick, located on the corner of Lamed and Fourth Streets, remaining with them until 1854, and then engaging with their successors, the Detroit Locomotive Works. He remained with this establishment until 1858, when he left to go into business on his own account. The time was favorable for such an adventure. The development of the Lake Superior mines had begun to assume importance, and there was an active demand for improved methods of reducing the ore. Mr. Hodge's early experience now served him well, and being familiar with mining methods in Cornwall, he resolved to devote his attention to mining machinery. Opening

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Page  1193 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1193C an office, he was soon supplying various mines with their mining equipment, and, in fact, served as mining expert, and filled the place of a consulting engineer for several companies. In 1863, the business changes incident to the War with the South led him to discontinue his business as a contractor, and he engaged directly in manufacturing. With William Cowie, T. S. Christie, and William L. Barclay, he organized the firm of Cowie, Hodge & Company, and commenced the manufacture of steam engines and heavy machinery, at the corner of Atwater and Rivard Streets. After two years the firm changed to Hodge & Christie, and four years later Mr. Hodge became sole proprietor of the establishment. His business was continuously prosperous, and in 1876 he erected, on Atwater Street, the very extensive and complete establishment known as the Riverside Iron Works. It has a plant second to that of none other in the city, and possesses the advantage of an extensive river frontage, and all modern appliances for the speedy and perfect execution of work. For seven years after the completion of this establishment he conducted it alone, and then, desiring relief from some of the responsibility of its management, he secured the formation of a corporation, under the name of Samuel F. Hodge & Company, and served as President of the same. Meantime, from I871 to 1879, he served as one of the Board of Water Commissioners, and could have had other important offices had he been willing to accept them. The story of his life clearly indicates great force of character, and mental endowments of a high order. He mastered easily all details connected with the science of mechanics, thought his way clear through the most difficult problems, and was practically, as well as in theory, acquainted with the various details of his business. He was quick to notice any carelessness on the part of his workmen, and equally ready to commend and reward those whose endeavors were worthy of notice. His business success was almost unvarying and entirely the result of his own patient and diligent endeavors. He was not only a worker but a student, and kept abreast of the times in the reading pertaining to his occupation; he was also a lover of the old English classics, and his close reading gave him rare powers of language, and in a controversy upon mechanical subjects, with any foeman worthy of his steel, there was no uncertainty as to the result. He was fearless in his advocacy of what he deemed the truth, scrupulously honest, and his business life was without a stain. He died on April 14, 1884, leaving a wife and five children, his son, Harry S. Hodge, succeeding him as President of the foundry corporation. FREDERICK A. HUBEL was born at Noerdlingen, Bavaria, January I, 1846. His parents, John and Lisette (Moetzel) Hubel, came to America during the year 1852, and soon after their arrival settled in St. Clair, St. Clair County, Michigan, remaining there until the spring of I853, when they moved to Missouri, near Council Bluffs, Iowa. They remained there only about a year, returning in 1854 to St. Clair, where the elder Mr. Hubel engaged in the grocery business. He died in I871, leaving a widow and five children, Frederick A., Charles, Barbara, John, and Augusta. Frederick A. attended the public school at St. Clair until 1862, and then, at the age of sixteen, engaged as an apprentice in a prescription drug store in Detroit, and during the summer and fall of the following year served as cabin assistant on a lake surveying vessel. The following winter he attended the high school at Ann Arbor, Michigan, preparatory to entering the University, but his health failed and he was obliged to give up his studies, and by the advice of his friends, in the spring of 1864, he engaged as an apprentice at sheet metal work, remaining four and a half years. In the fall of I868 he again engaged as clerk in the drug business in Detroit, and in 1871 returned to Ann Arbor University to take a special course in chemistry. After his return to Detroit, in July, 1873, he began, in a limited way, the manufacture of perfumes and extracts. Early in 1874 his attention was called to empty gelatine capsules, as an article which might possibly be profitably manufactured in connection with his other products. He immediately began to experiment in their manufacture by hand, with the assistance of one boy, and continued in this way for over a year, and in 1875 invented and completed the first machine for the manufacture of capsules. He continued to improve his methods of manufacture, adding from time to time new machinery for various details. of the work, all of which he designed and protected by letters patent. In 1876 he employed six persons, and in I888 employed one hundred and fifty. In his factory, shown elsewhere in this work, he manufactures ten sizes of capsules, and sells his entire product to Parke, Davis & Company, who supply the trade. Mr. Hubel is progressive but cautious in his business methods, and remarkably successful, and is justly entitled to credit as the originator and patentee of valuable machinery for the rapid manufacture of a valuable product, by which one can take medicines without of necessity tasting any of their disagreeable compounds. He was married to Camilla Scholes, of Detroit, in 1878. They have four children, Maud, Frederick, Gertrude, and Camilla.

Page  1194 "I94 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. JAMES McGREGOR was born at Kincardine, Scotland, May 10, 1830, and bears the same name as his father. On the paternal side he is descended from Highland ancestry. His father who was a farmer, pursued the trade of millwright and joiner in connection with his farm labors, and emigrated to Canada in 1858, settling on a farm near Hamilton, where he remained until his death in I876. The boyhood of his son, James McGregor, was passed at Kincardine, where he obtained a thoroughly practical education in the excellent parish schools of that place. He then, under his father's direction, commenced a regular apprenticeship as a millwright and joiner. After acquiring his trade he worked at different places in Scotland and England until 1855, and then came to America and settled in Harmilton, Ontario, where he obtained employment in the car department of the Great Western Railroad, remaining four years, the last two as foreman. He then went to Sarnia and took charge of the car department of the Great Western Railroad at that place, where he remained until March, I860, when he came to Detroit and became superintendent of the car department of the Detroit and Milwaukee Railroad, then under the general management of W. K. Muir, retaining this position until March, I879, when he was made general superintendent of the Michigan Car Works, a post he has since most ably filled. With long practical experience in the line of his present work, great natural mechanical skill, and unusual executive force in the management of a large body of men, he has become a valuable factor in the prosperity of the concern with which he is connected. During the period he has held his present position, the capacity of the works has been many times enlarged, at first manufacturing but three cars per day; the works now produce thirty-two per day. Mr. Mc. Gregor is interested with the direct general management of the entire working force of over two thousand men, a work requiring a perfect knowl-' edge of every detail of the business, and the exercise of constant thought and care, as well as the possession of rare judgment and tact. In the performance of these complicated duties, he has been conspicuously successful, and has gained an enviable reputation among the car builders throughout the United States. His time is entirely given to his work with a singleness of purpose and aim which, in a measure, accounts for the high degree of. success he has attained. He is financially interested in several business enterprises, and is the owner of a large farm near St. Clair, on the river, in the cultivation of which he takes great pleasure, and which forms his chief diversion. He is thoroughly identified with Detroit, not only by residence and prominent connection with its greatest manufacturing interest, but in numerous ways has shown himself apublic-spirited citizen, and an eminently worthy representative of Scotch manliness, thrift, and persistent energy, and has achieved a position alike honorable to his ancestry and to himself. Socially, he is an agreeable, affable gentleman. He is a member of the St. Clair Fishing and Shooting Club, has been for many years a member of the Central Presbyterian Church, and for the last twelve years one of the trustees. He was married in 1851 to Susan Christie, of Scotland. They have had seven children, six of whom are now living. His eldest son, James C. McGregor, assists his father at the Michigan Car Works. JOSEPH BERTHELET MOORE was born in Detroit, September 15, 1846, and is the son of J. Wilkie and Margaret (Berthelet) Moore. The first of his paternal ancestors in America, General William Moore, came from London, England, in 1770, settled at Bolton, Massachusetts, and was a brave and distinguished officer in the Revolutionary War. He married Sarah Coolidge. Their son Aaron married Mary Wilkie, of Schenectady, New York, a descendant of Wilkie, the famous artist of Scotland. J. Wilkie Moore, son of Aaron and Mary (Wilkie) Moore and the father of J. B. Moore, was born at Geneva, New York, May 13, I814. He came to Detroit in I833, when Michigan was a territory, the city of Detroit then containing but 2,600 inhabitants. After serving as a clerk for several years, he opened a general store on Jefferson Avenue, and a few years later went into the real estate business, and was quite successful. He was in the United States Custom Service for fourteen years, for three years secret agent of the revenue department, and afterwards United States Consul at Windsor. He was married in I843, to Margaret Berthelet, daughter of Henry Berthelet, a leading merchant of Detroit in its earlier days, a large property owner, and a citizen of wealth and influence. The Berthelets, who were natives of Southern France, were early settlers in Detroit. Mr. Moore still resides here, but for several years has lived a retired life. Joseph B. Moore was educated in the public schools, and graduated from the High School in 1862. He entered upon a mercantile career by becoming cashier in the retail dry goods store of E. S. Parker, known as the People's Store, afterwards conducted by H. Greening. His next position was as assistant bookkeeper for Allan Shelden & Company. A desire to engage in the banking business caused him to leave this position, and being unable to find a favorable opening in Ietroit, in I866

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Page  1195 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 195 i i he went to Milwaukee, and became corresponding clerk, and soon after teller in the First National Bank of that city. Remaining there two years, he returned to Detroit and entered the First National Bank as discount clerk, a position he held for ten years. Meantime, in I875, Messrs. Jarvis & Hooper had established a manufactory of fertilizers at the foot of Leib Street, and in 1878, Mr. Moore resigned his position in the bank, and purchased Mr. Hooper's interest in the firm. The business at the time was conducted in a comparatively limited way. Upon Mr. Moore's connection with it, the capacity of the works was enlarged, additional capital invested, and the company incorporated with a capital of $80,ooo. Deming Jarvis was made president, and Mr. Moore secretary and treasurer. The demand for their productions grew rapidly, and in 1882 it was found necessary to seek larger quarters. The capital stock was then increased to $300,000, and eighty acres of land on the river Rouge, in Springwells township, were purchased, upon which there was erected an extensive plant, especially adapted for the purpose required. The products of the works consist of various kinds of fertilizers, with all grades of glue and bone black, and in the manufacture of the latter article, they produce a larger quantity than any other factory in the world. Thirty tons, or three car loads of animal matter are ground up every day. These are obtained from all over the country, but of late years the principal source of supply has been from the prairies of Texas and the far West. The annual value of their products exceeds $,000,000o, and over two hundred persons are employed. Mr. Moore was indefatigable in the building up of this industry, and the success of the enterprise is largely due to his energy, good judgment, and intelligent effort. He was individually entrusted with almost the entire management of the concern, and the results have been eminently satisfactory. His entire time, up to 1887, was given to the undertaking to the exclusion of conflicting business interests, a fact which, in a measure, explains his success. In 1887 he became cashier of the newly organized Peninsular Savings Bank, and under his excellent management the bank has been remarkably successful, reaching during its first year, a high place among the best of the banking institutions of the city. He is a member of St. Aloysius Catholic Church, and for many years has been President of the Board of Trustees of Mount Elliott Cemetery. Politically, Mr. Moore has always been an earnest and active Republican, and has been a helpful factor in securing victories for his party in local and State elections. As Chairman of the Detroit and the Wayne County Republican Committees, he has evinced excellent ability as an organizer, and is a skillful and successful worker. He represented the old Ninth Ward in the City Council during 1877-78, and was appointed a member of the Poor Commission in I880 by Mayor Thompson, and re-appointed for another term in I884 by Mayor Grummond, and again re-appointed, for a third term, in 1888, by Mayor Pridgeon. By virtue of the latter office, he is one of the County Superintendents of the Poor of Wayne County, to whoni is entrusted the care and management of the Poor House and Insane Asylum at Wayne. As a public official he has been painstaking and efficient. Personally he is an agreeable and pleasant gentleman, social and warm-hearted. He is a member of the Detroit and Grosse Pointe Clubs, also president of the Detroit Catholic Club, and in all that constitutes an upright business man, a public-spirited citizen and a progressive, useful member of the community, is a worthy type of the younger business element of Detroit. He was married May 21, I878, to Elizabeth W. O'Hara, of Cincinnati, Ohio. MICHAEL JOSEPH MURPHY was born at Sarnia, Canada, February 22, 1851, and is the son of James and Catherine Murphy. Both of his parents were natives of Ireland, and were born at Limerick, where their ancestors lived for generations. His father came to America in 1832, and became one of the earliest settlers in Lambton County, Canada, where he remained until 1844, when he removed to Iowa County, Wisconsin, remaining there until 1849, when he returned to Canada, and settled on a farm near the city of Sarnia, where he was married and still resides. His son, M. J. Murphy, after receiving the educational advantages of the excellent public schools of his native place, came to Detroit in 1868, and attended Goldsmith's Commercial College, and after completing his course, spent nearly a year in that institution as a teacher. He then served as bookkeeper for C. H. Dunks, manufacturer of bed springs, and at the end of a year secured employment as bookkeeper in the Second National Bank of Detroit, continuing in such capacity until the latter part of 1872, when he purchased the manufacturing establishment of his former employer, C. H. Dunks, then located on Griswold Street, opposite the present Brunswick Hotel. At this time the manufacture of bed springs, in a limited way, constituted the sole business of the factory. Under Mr. Murphy's energetic efforts, the business rapidly increased in extent, and was soon removed to 32 Woodward Avenue, where he remained two years. The quarters formerly occupied by the Detroit Chair Factory, on the corner of Fourth and i

Page  1196 I 96 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. Porter Streets, were then secured, and in 1878 the manufacture of chairs was there undertaken. This line was not only an immediate success, but gradually superseded the former product of the factory, and for several years has constituted the sole article of manufacture. The superior quality and finish of his work speedily created an extensive market, and business grew so rapidly that, although additional buildings had been repeatedly erected to increase the capacity of his works, larger quarters were found necessary. To meet this demand, in I885 eight acres of land were purchased, upon which two large four-story brick buildings were erected, the capacity of which has since been increased by the erection of other buildings, giving a floor capacity of one hundred and thirty-two thousand square feet, forming one of the best arranged and equipped factories of its kind in the country, and giving employment to three hundred persons. The daily product is one hundred dozen chairs, while the value of the annual production exceeds $300,000. These goods are sold all over the United States, but chiefly in the States of Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and New York. Although known up to I884 as the manufacturing establishment of M. J. Murphy & Company, Mr. Murphy was the sole owner and manager. At the date named, a stock company was formed under the same name, with a capital of $75,000, with Mr. Murphy as President and Treasurer. Every year since its establishment the concern has shown a steady increase in the extent and quality of its productions, with a constantly increasing market. In a comparatively few years Mr. Murphy, virtually single handed, has created an establishment which is a material source of prosperity to Detroit, and it is needless to say he has been an earnest, persevering and intelligent worker. The secret of success in most enterprises can be traced to the individual effort of some one man, and in no instance is this more conspicuous than in this establishment. Its growth and development are the best testimonials of the ability of Mr. Murphy. The forces which have contributed to his success have been concentration of energies to one object, together with persistent and well directed efforts, and ability to forecast business events and to devise means to promptly meet them, coupled with a high order of executive capacity. Few men of his age, dependent solely upon their own exertions, have reached a higher position in the manufacturing world. He is rather inclined to be cautious, but adheres closely to a stand once taken, and wins confidence by his fidelity to every obligation. He is of generous impulses and pleasant disposition, and socially an agreeable companion. Naturally independent in character, the usual party ties and prejudices have little influence over his actions. In business sagacity, integrity, and unsullied private character, he is an excellent representative of the younger element in the commercial activity of Detroit. He was married in 1877 to Eliza Gleeson, of Sarnia, Canada. They have four sons and two daughters. DAVID OSGOOD PAIGE was born in Weare, Hillsboro County, New Hampshire, September 14, 1833, and is the son of Osgood and Martha (Blaisdell) Paige. His father was born at Weare, February I8, 1794, and died in July, 1878. Ilis mother was born January 26, I797, at Hopkinton, New Hampshire, and died in September, 1851. The family trace their ancestry back to John Paige, born in Dedham, England, in 1586, and came to this country with Governor Winthrop, in 1630, settled in the town of Dedham, Massachusetts, and from there his sons settled in Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire. Osgood Paige, father of D. O. Paige, inherited the original homestead, in Weare, and was one of the largest landholders in Hillsboro County. He was a man of ability and influence, strong and active in his religious convictions, and an earnest advocate of temperance and other moral reforms. In I84I the family removed to Manchester, which at that time was in its infancy, and promised to become one of the largest manufacturing cities in the country. Here, as a child, D. O. Paige came under the influences surrounding manufacturing enterprises, and being naturally of an inventive and mechanical mind, early and earnestly sought employment, during his school vacations, in various manufacturing establishments, where he became familiar with the processes and the operation of machinery in the manufacture of fabrics. At the age of sixteen he finished his studies at the Highland Lake Institute, at Andover, and immediately apprenticed himself to the Amoskeag Machine Shops, where he learned the machinist trade in its various branches. At the age of nineteen he was tendered, and accepted, a position as foreman and contractor in the Essex Machine Shop, at Lawrence, Massachusetts, where he remained five years, constantly building up for himself a reputation as a mechanic. Before he left he was offered, if he would remain, the assistant superintendency of the works, which employed at that time about twelve hundred men. He declined the offer, believing that the West promised a larger and more remunerative field to a young man who was willing to work, and early in the spring of 1857 went to Dayton, Ohio, and for one year took charge of R. Dutton & Company's agricultural implement shops. While there he invented and

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Page  1197 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. II97 patented an improvement in wheat drills, which afforded him a handsome revenue for several years. The disastrous panic of 1857 so stagnated the manufacturing business, that Mr. Paige decided to accept a position offered him by the American IPatent Company, of Cincinnati, and was placed at the head of the department for giving practical tests to newly invented machinery and making mathematical calculations for mechanics. While in this business, he became interested in the development and manufacture of bank locks and safes, and obtained a position with Hall, Carroll & Company, where he remained until 1865. During the War of the Rebellion, this firm not only manufactured safes and locks, but did a large amount of work for the Government, altering muskets into rifles, building army wagons, etc., the care of which came largely upon Mr. Paige. In July, 1865, Mr. Paige decided to come to Detroit, and in company with John J. Bagley and Z. R. Brockway established the manufacture of safes, vault and jail work. They organized the l)etroit Safe Company, and immediately commenced work, with Mr. Paige as manager. The company organized with a capital of twenty thousand dollars, and have steadily increased until they are now one of the largest manufacturing establishments in the State, and their products are known all over the world. Mr. Paige is General Manager and Treasurer of the company, and to his efforts, ingenuity, and mechanical skill are due the success they have attained. He has never sought or wished political honor, is prominent socially, and in matters of business and with his friends, is always agreeable and pleasing. He has the power of largely impressing others with his own ideas, is a ready talker, and thoroughly well informed; writes forcibly and well on mechanical matters, has the best executive ability, readily grasps the details that make for success, and by his acquaintances is esteemed as a valuable and reliable friend. Mr. Paige and his family, consisting of his wife and two children, Frederick 0. and Glenna B. Paige, are members of the Woodward Avenue Baptist Church. Mr. Paige was first married January 31, 186i, and to his present wife, January IO, I871. Her maiden name was Abbie H. Rogers. She is the daughter of Amos and Eunice (Hatch) Rogers; her grandfather, Major Amos Rogers, was killed in the battle of Lake Champlain, during the War of 1812. HERVEY COKE PARKE traces his more immediate ancestry to the ancient city of Bristol, England. Early in the last century, his greatgrandfather, Daniel Parke, left that interesting seaport where the waters of the Severn and the Avon mingle with the sea, and sailed for the New World. On his arrival here, he settled on the Connecticut, in the parish of Middle Haddam. He had two children, whose names were John and Daniel. It seems evident that the traditions and habits of his native city clung to him in his new home. Coming from the place that furnished the first ship which touched the continent, and from where Sebastian Cabot passed his early days, from a city full of sea-going life and enterprise, he could not but imbibe its spirit, and if not manifest in himself, he certainly transmitted to his son John a high appreciation of maritime affairs. This son was born in Middle Haddam, and was widely known as an extensive ship-builder at that place, and also engaged in trade with the West Indies. He married Cleantha Smith, and in honor of his wife, one of his brigs bore the name of Cleantha. His children were Hervey Parke, Ezra Smith Parke, Mrs. Cleantha Storm, and Mrs. Lucintha Curtis. In I816, with his family, he removed from Connecticut to New York, and settled in the town of Camden, Oneida County. His son, Ezra Smith Parke, who had been educated in the local schools and academies of Connecticut, studied medicine with one of the older physicians of Oneida County, and eventually completed a professional course at Hobart, then known as Geneva College, where he graduated on June 14, 1819. The year following he married Rhoda Sperry, whose family were formerly residents of Connecticut, and, like the Parkes, had found a home in New York. The Sperry family were, and are well known in connection with the manufacture of clocks in the State of Connecticut. In October, 1822, Mr. Parke emigrated to Michigan, settling at Bloomfield, in Oakland County, and here, on December 13, 1827, Hervey Coke Parke was born. He was named after his uncle, Captain Hervey Parke, well known in connection with the earlier government surveys of Michigan. The ancestors of Mr. Parke were members either of the English or Protestant Episcopal Church, but as the church of his choice had no organization in New York, in the neighborhood where his father settled, the family became connected with the Methodist Episcopal Church and continued this relation after the removal to Michigan. Whether in Connecticut, New York, or Michigan, the family regulations, especially'on Sunday, were modeled after the style of the early Puritans, although somewhat toned down by the spirit of generous patience and love. Filling to full measure his duties as a physician, his father attended unceasingly and conscientiously to the daily round of duties that a country physician in a new and developing country is called upon to perform, but with all his labors there was no

Page  1198 I Io MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. i MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. accumulation of wealth, and in 1856, when, through a singular epidemic, he and his wife both passed away, the legacy of a good name and the loving remembrance of a kind father, was the chief inheritance of his children. Two years before his father's death, Hervey C. Parke went to Buffalo and found employment with a friend of the family, spending a portion of his time in study. An exceptionally good school, with excellent principals, at Bloomfield, and theopportunities at Buffalo, were so well improved that he was well qualified to teach, and from this time earned his own support. Returning to Michigan in 1846, before his father's death, he entered Bidwell's hardware store at Adrian, but within two years was compelled through ill health to relinquish his position. He now returned to Oakland County, and soon secured a position as teacher near his old home, and taught the winter term successfully, leaving this service with much added self-control and a firmer grasp on the studies he had himself pursued. From 1848 to I850, he was employed in the store of W. M. McConnell, of Pontiac. His employer'was a careful, conscientious, and successful merchant, and the practical business training gained in his establishment was of much advantage. In consequence of ill health, Mr. Parke gave up this situation and sought health and employment in Lake Superior, securing a position as financial manager of the Cliff Mining Company. He was for eleven years in this place. and made his home at the mine. In this last position he gained not only health, but, aided by careful business habits, acquired means as well. In 1866, while still a resident of Keweenaw, he married Fannie A. Hunt, daughter of James B. Hunt, who served two terms in Congress, being one of three Michigan representatives from 1843-47. The year following his marriage, Mr. Parke removed to Portage Lake and engaged in the sale of mining hardware. He continued in this line for four years, with much success, and then sold out in order to remove to Detroit. Taking passage on the ill-fated Pewabic, he with his family, were on board when she collided with the Meteor, in Lake Huron. After the accident, Mr. Parke and his family were transferred to the Meteor, and thus escaped the fate that overtook the Pewabic and his original fellow passengers. About a year after his arrival in Detroit, he entered into partnership with S. P. Duffield, M. D., under the firm name of Duffield, Parke & Company, manufacturing chemists. The firm continued about two years, and was succeeded in 1868 by that of Parke, Davis & Company, composed of Hervey C. Parke, George S. Davis, John R. Grout, and William H. Stevens, Mr. Parke then, as nowhaving a third interest. In 1876 the firm incorporated under their original title, and the original paid up capital of $50,000 was increased to $500,000, all of the original parties being stockholders, except Mr. Grout, whose heirs sold his interest to the other partners. In February, I887, the capital was increased to $600,000. Several of the principal employees, with a justice much rarer than it should be, have from time to time been admitted as sharers in the prosperity of the establishment. Mr. Parke has been the president and acting treasurer of the corporation from its beginning. The character of their business demands the utmost integrity in the preparation of their manufactures. In many cases, life itself depends upon the genuineness and strength of a compounded drug, and this fact ennobles the occupation until it almost vies with that of the clerical profession in the opportunity it affords for truth and honesty. They have introduced, and sell, immense quantities of several rare and valuable remedies that had only a local reputation and were generally unknown until their researches brought them into notice. In order to obtain a knowledge of all valuable medical agents, they have a staff of expert botanists and chemists, whose whole time is given to travel and research the world over, for whatever has medicinal value. It is literally true that the products of the establishment are regularly sold and used in all civilized countries, and Detroit may boast that the buildings in which they are prepared are, of the kind, the largest and most commodious in the world. Thoughtfulness, probity, geniality, and enterprise, have all been factors in their success, and Mr. Parke ascribes to his partner, Mr. Davis, a full share of credit for the position the business has attained. Aside from his business, Mr. Parke's chief employment consists in furthering the interests of the Protestant Episcopal Church, with which he has been connected for over a quarter of a century. During most of this period he has been a member of St. John's Church, and for more than twelve years a vestryman. He is one of the trustees of the Diocesan fund for the Diocese of Eastern Michigan, a trustee of St. Luke's Hospital and Orphans' Home, and one of the leaders in the Detroit City Mission of the Protestant Episcopal Church, which aims especially to carry the gospel to the most neglected portions of the city. He is known as a liberal giver, not only to worthy objects connected with his own church, but generally, and this is natural to him, for his instincts are so broad and generous that he could not well do otherwise than appreciate and aid in furthering any good objects by whomsoever inaugurated or established. His first wife died in 1868, leaving three daughters and two sons. Five years later he married Mary M. Mead, daughter of James E. Mead, of Almont,

Page  1199 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I 99 Michigan. They have had five children, four of whom are living. HAZEN S. PINGREE is a lineal descendant of Moses Pingry, who came from England in 1640, and settled in Ipswich, Massachusetts. For the first one hundred and forty years, nearly all of the American branch of the family lived in Ipswich, Rowley, and Georgetown, Massachusetts. Toward the close of the last century, the family had so increased in number, that many of the name sought and obtained new homes in other parts of the Bay State, and in Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, and Nova Scotia, and at the present time descendants of the family are found in nearly every part of the Union. The history of New England furnishes abundant proof that the early male members of this family were men of character and influence, and of industrious and frugal habits. An extended history of the family, by William M. Pengry, says: "No family has made better citizens than the descendants of Moses Pingry. Trained, as most of them have been, to habits of industry, frugality, and uprightness, descended from Puritan ancestry, and embracing much of their strictness, they have always been law-abiding, and ready to contribute of their property and influence to promote the public welfare." The family name for the first two generations was uniformly spelled Pengry; since then the spelling has been greatly diverse, with a strong tendency, during latter years, to adopt the style hereafter used in this article. Hazen S. Pingree was born at Denmark, Maine, August 30, 1842, and is the fourth child of Jasper and Adaline Pingree. His father was a farmer, and resided at Denmark from the time of his birth in i806 until 1871, when he came to Detroit, where he died in I882. Hazen S. Pingree resided with his parents until fourteen years of age, when he went to Hopkinton, Massachusetts, and secured employment in a shoe factory. Here he learned the trade of cutter, at which he worked until August I, I862, when he enlisted as a private in Company F, First Massachusetts Regiment of heavy artillery. This regiment was assigned to duty in the Twenty-second Army Corps, and its first service was rendered in defense of the Nation's capitol. During General Pope's Virginia campaign the regiment was ordered to the front, and participated in the battle of Bull Run, on August 30, 1862. It afterwards returned to duty in defense of Washington, and remained there until May 15, 1864, when the time of service of this regiment having expired, Mr. Pingree, with enough others re-enlisted to keep up the organization of the regiment, which was then assigned to the Second Brigade, Third Division, Second Corps, of the Army of the Potomac, and took part in the battles of Fredericksburg Road, Harris Farm, and Spottsylvania Court House, Cold Harbor, North Anne and South Anne. At the battle of Spottsylvania Court House, his regiment opened the engagement, and lost five hundred men, killed and wounded. On May 25, I864, Mr. Pingree and a number of his comrades, while reconnoitering, were captured by a squad of men commanded by Colonel Mosby. As prisoners of war, they were brought before that rebel officer, who exchanged his entire suit of clothes with Mr. Pingree, but afterwards gave back the coat, remarking that his men might shoot him for a "Yank," a result he certainly did not desire. After his capture, Mr. Pingree was confined for nearly five months at Andersonville, and for short periods was confined at Gordonsville, Virginia; Salisbury, North. Carolina; and Millen, Georgia. At the latter place, in November, 1864, he was exchanged, rejoined his regiment in front of Petersburg, and soon after took part in the expedition to Weldon Railroad, and in the battles of Fort Fisher, Boydton Road, Petersburg, Sailor's Creek, Farnsville, and Appomattox Court House. From the battle of the Wilderness to the fall of Richmond, his regiment lost one thousand two hundred and eighty-three men and thirty-eight officers. It was complimented, in special orders by Generals Mott and Pierce, for particular gallantry in the last grand charge on Petersburg, in which it took a leading part. Mr. Pingree's second enlistment was for three years, or the close of the war, and when the surrender of Lee took place, his regiment was in close proximity. He was mustered out of service on August 16, I865, and shortly after his discharge came to Detroit. Here for a short time he was employed in the boot and shoe factory of H. P. Baldwin & Company. Deciding to embark in business for himself, in December, 1866, with C. H. Smith, he purchased the small boot and shoe factory of a Mr. Mitchell, on the corner of Croghan and Randolph Streets, the entire capital represented by the firm of Pingree & Smith, when established, being but $1,360. The first year they employed but eight persons, and the value of their production reached only $20,000. After a few months' they removed to the Hawley Block, on the corner of Woodbridge and Bates Streets, where they remained two years. During the following three years they occupied the Farnsworth Block, on Woodbridge Street, and in 1871 they moved to the southeast corner of Woodbridge and Griswold Streets, using at that time but onehalf of the building. Their venture was a success from the very start, and has shown a steady increase from year to year. For years they have maintained their position as

Page  1200 1200 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. the most extensive boot and shoe manufacturers in the West, and their factory is excelled by but one or two in the United States. Over seven hundred persons are employed. and their weekly pay-roll amounts to between $5,ooo and $6,000oo. The value of their annual products amounts to about $i,ooo,ooo. Their sales extend all over the West, but are more especially confined to Ohio, Michigan, and the Northwestern States. From the beginning of this enterprise, Mr. Pingree has had general supervision over the complicated details of the entire establishment. Mr. Smith retired from the firm in 1883, but the firm name, Pingree & Smith, has been retained. Mr. Pingree's success has been the result of hard work and good management. In social life he is large hearted and generous, a faithful friend, and a good citizen. He has confined his energies almost solely to the advancement of his business, but has ever evinced a commendable public spirit, and a willingness to do his full share to promote all public projects. He was married February 28, 1872, to Frances A. Gilbert, of Mount Clemens, Michigan. They have three children, two daughters and a son. DAVID M. RICHARDSON is descended from English ancestors, who came to this country about two hundred years ago, and settled in Woburn, Massachusetts. His grandfather on the paternal side was a soldier in the War of the Revolution. His father, Jeremiah Richardson, was born in New Hampshire, December 30, I795. Soon after the close of the War of I812, at the age of nineteen, he settled in the town of Concord, Erie County, New York, thirty miles south of Buffalo, then an almost unbroken wilderness. Having but limited means, he contracted with the old Holland Land Company for one hundred acres of land. He made his way to the locality and commenced the work of making a home. Four years later he returned to Vermont, and on November 29, 1818, was married to Anna Webster, and soon thereafter returned with his wife to his wilderness home. His wife died in 1832, and he subsequently married Jane Ann Woodward, who died in i868. He lived on the old homestead until his death in I879. His son, D. M. Richardson was born at Concord, January 30, I826, and until his twenty-first year remained at home, and during the greater portion of the time assisted his father in farm labors. He received a thorough education in the public schools, and at the Springville academy, in his native town, and at the age of twenty began to teach in the district schools of Erie County during the winter months. His time was thus occupied until the spring of 1847, when he went west to view the country, and possibly locate a future home. He prospected in the States of Illinois and Wisconsin, which were at that time but sparsely settled, and at Burlington, Iowa, began teaching a select school. Towards the close of the summer he was taken ill with cholera, then prevalent in that section, and in September of that year, while still suffering from the effects of disease, he started for Milwaukee, journeying by stage from Burlington to Peoria, by steamer to La Salle, by canal to Chicago, and thence by steamer to Milwaukee. There in November, 1852, he established a school and met with such success that at the end of the summer term he erected a brick building, three stories high, on the corner of Mason and Milwaukee Streets, and conducted a school therein which was incorporated as the Milwaukee Academy. This undertaking was successfully continued until December, 1853, when the building was destroyed by fire, and he suffered a loss of over $io,ooo. Prior to the fire, 300 pupils were receiving instruction in the academy, and five assistant teachers were employed. After its destruction the citizens offered to rebuild the institution at their own expense, but MIr. Richardson, after careful consideration, having determined to embark in mercantile pursuits, declined the offer, and with a capital of five hundred dollars, left him after closing up the business of the academy, went to Madison, Wisconsin, where he established a wholesale and retail grocery on King Street, and for two years did a very profitable business. On January i, I856, he sold out and came to Detroit, and with J. W. Hibbard as partner, under the firm name of J. W. Hibbard & Company, started the first match factory in this city, on Woodbridge Street, at the foot of Eleventh Street. On January i, I858, Mr. Hibbard retired, and M. 1B. Dodge became a partner, under the firm name of Richardson & Company. This firm continued until May i, I859, when Mr. Richardson assumed entire control of the business. On Sunday night, June 3, I860, the factory was destroyed by fire, inflicting a heavy loss, leaving Mr. Richardson deeply in debt, about $19,ooo worse off than nothing. He effected an amicable settlement with his creditors by agreeing to pay twenty-five per cent. of his indebtedness, but within six years he had re-imbursed every creditor in full. After the fire, with the assistance of his friend, N. W. Brooks, he rebuilt on the same site, and the forepart of the following September he again began manufacturing. In March, 1863, he purchased the site occupied by his present factory, on the corner of Woodbridge and Eighth Streets, and in the fall of 1863 erected the main brick building. During I864, he erected a large brick warehouse and as the growth of the business demanded, several additional buildings have been built, until at the present time the factory

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Page  1201 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 120I is one of the largest and best equipped of its kind in the country, and gives employment to about 300 persons. Mr. Richardson was sole proprietor of the business until April I, I875, when a stock company, known as the Richardson Match Company, was formed, which continued the business until 1881. when the concern was purchased by a syndicate known as the Diamond Match Company, Mr. Richardson being the Detroit manager. Mr. Richardson was a pioneer in this industry in the West, and perhaps did as much to make it an important branch of manufacture as any one man in the United States.. Prior to the beginning of his establishment, matches were mostly made by hand, but in no locality had the business become extensive. He did much to develop the methods of making matches by machinery, the only mode now employed, and from I865 until I880, his establishment was the largest and most complete in the United States. The extent of his business will in part be realized by the fact that from I865 to 1883, he paid internal revenue taxes to the amount of over $5,000,000. In 1876 Mr. Richardson, with several capitalists, organized the Union Mills Company. Their flouring mill, erected on Woodbridge Street, was at that time one of the largest and finest ever built in the United States. Mr. Richardson, the largest stockholder, personally superintended the building of the mill. Operations were begun in 1876, but the undertaking, for causes beyond Mr. Richardson's control, was not successful, and as he had become almost sole owner of the concern, assuming heavy liabilities in doing so, at a time when every business was greatly depressed, he was compelled to suspend and make an assignment for the benefit of his creditors. In less than two years after his failure, he made satisfactory arrangements with every creditor, and was enabled to continue his old business, which had temporarily passed into other hands. During all his busy life, Mr. Richardson has been a close student of the causes which tend to foster and protect the manufacturing interests as the great source of national prosperity. As the result of his studies upon social, political, and economic questions, he has prepared several pamphlets containing valuable facts and suggestions upon these topics, which have been widely circulated and warmly commended. Among the subjects which early enlisted his attention was the system of internal taxation adopted by the government for the purpose of raising money to carry on the Civil War. These taxes were particularly burdensome to the manufacturing interests. After the war closed, the manufacturers naturally desired to be at least in part relieved from the burdens that had been imposed upon them. The question was how to relieve the productive industry of the country without impairing the ability of the government to meet its obligations. To the solution of this question, Mr. Richardson gave much time and attention, and in December, 1866, as chairman of the committee on internal revenue taxation, appointed by the Manufacturers' Association of Detroit, he wrote a report on the subject, but his advanced ideas did not meet with approval. The following January he proceeded to Washington, and spent several weeks in examining the methods and sources of revenue of European countries, and the prospective necessities of taxation in our own country, and as the result of his researches, in March, 1867, he made a report to the Detroit Manufacturers' Association, in which he advised that "taxation should be so levied as to exempt all articles of prime necessity to the greatest extent possible, and remain upon articles of luxury, where it will be the least obnoxious to the people." His report included a list of ten sources from which he claimed sufficient revenue could be levied to meet all obligations of the government. This report, which was published, caused considerable discussion all over the country, and in October, I867, he submitted an abbreviated report, embracing the essential conclusion of the original report, and it was adopted by the Detroit Manufacturers' Association, and that body issued a call for a national convention of manufacturers to consider the questions at issue. The convention was held at Cleveland, on December 18 and 19, 1867, and was attended by over six hundred leading manufacturers, from twenty-four States, estimated to represent over $400,000,000 of manufacturing capital. Mr. Richardson's report, as adopted by the Detroit Association, was adopted by a committee of this convention, reported to, and adopted without change by the convention, with only six dissenting votes, and a committee was appointed to present the report to Congress. A similar convention, of over fifteen hundred New England manufacturers also adopted Mr. Richardson's report without material change, and the laws in relation to the internal revenue, passed by the Congress of 1868, embody the essential provisions which he proposed. The prosperity which followed was largely due to the relief thereby offered the manufacturers, and as Mr. Richardson did so much to bring about these results, it is his due that the facts be made known. In December, I869, he issued a pamphlet entitled, " A Plan for Returning to Specie Payment, without Financial Revolution," in which the plan adopted by the government several years after was outlined, but which was not entered upon until after the panic of I873. During recent years he has pre

Page  1202 1202 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. pared and extensively circulated, several pamphlets suggesting methods for the creation of foreign markets, for the surplus products of American industry. As an important aid in this direction, he has urged the construction, at government expense, of the interoceanic canal, via Lake Nicaragua. He has also advocated the adequate defense of our sea coast and a strong navy, the encouragement of ship-building and of ocean commerce by establishing mail transportation in American ships to the leading commercial centers, and suggests various industrial policies which would tend to the betterment of the laboring and producing classes. He is also in favor of liberal government aid to public schools, especially for the late slave-holding States and Territories, and of stringent legislation for the suppression of polygamy. In political faith Mr. Richardson is a Republican. The first elective office held by him was that of a member of the Board of Education of Detroit, representing the Ninth Ward during the years 1863 and 1864. During this period the public school system of the city was greatly improved and the High School established in the old Capitol building. In 1872 Mr. Richardson was elected to the State Senate from the Second Senatorial District, receiving a majority of 1,377 votes over his opponent. During his term he served as chairman of the committee on the State Public School for Indigent Children, at Coldwater, Michigan, and was especially instrumental in securing an appropriation for the purchase of additional land and in increasing the amount of appropriation for the erection of a suitable building and the equipment of the same. He also served as chairman of the committee on the State Capitol. As a member of the committee on the State University, he successfully labored in securing an appropriation to complete University Hall, and to provide for the erection of a new laboratory; he also aided in obtaining the law for a tax of one-twentieth of one mill for the support of the University. He was a member of the committee on railroads, and aided in creating the law relative to the establishment of a Railroad Commission, and the fixing by statute the rates of fare to be charged by railroads within the State, and of the law that lands granted to railroad companies should not be exempted from taxation after the grants had been earned. He also aided in securing the passage of laws establishing the Board of Public Works of Detroit, creating the Board of Estimates, permitting the city to issue $1,0o,ooo0 in bonds to build new water works, and establishing the Superior Court of Detroit. Mr. Richardson is a member of the First Congregational Church, with which he has been connected since 1856. In 1867 he assisted in organiz ing the Ninth Avenue Union Mission School. During the erection of the building, completed in I868, at a cost of $8,ooo, he was chairman of the building committee, and, for the first ten years, acted as superintendent of the Sunday-school. The building was subsequently moved to the corner of Trumbull Avenue and Baker Street, and formed the nucleus of the Trumbull Avenue Congregational Church. Both this church and also the Woodward Avenue Congregational Church, found in him a liberal supporter. Mr. Richardson has been twice married. His first wife was Ellen L. Hibbard, daughter of I. W. Hibbard, whom he married November 23, 1854. She died December 20, I868. Their daughter, Laura M., was born July I4, I856, and died March 26, I876. His second wife was E. Jennie Holliday, a daughter of William Holliday, of Springfield, Erie County, Pennsylvania. They were married May 23, 1871, and have had two children, David M. Jr., who was born May 30, 1873, and died May I, 1876, and Arthur J., born August 12, I876. FORDYCE HUNTINGTON ROGERS was born in Detroit,October 12, I840, and is the son of George Washington and Jane Clark (Emmons) Rogers. His father was born at Vergennes. Vermont, December 14, 1799, and was a descendant of Russell Rogers, who came from England and settled in Vermont prior to the Revolutionary War. He and other members of the family were ardent patriots, and took an active part in the war. George W\. Rogers, who had been engaged in the manufacture of stoves at Vergennes, came to Detroit in 1840, and after his arrival in Michigan established and for several years conducted a general merchandise store in Pontiac, where he died in I860. Mrs. George W. Rogers was a daughter of Adonijah Emmons, and a sister of Judge H. H. Emmons, a distinguished member of the Detroit bar, and one of the circuit judges of the United States courts. Mrs. Rogers died soon after the birth of her son Fordyce H. Rogers. His father's second wife was Harriet L. Williams, a daughter of Oliver Williams, a trader in Detroit and vicinity prior to the War of 1812. Fordyce, or as he is usually called, Ford H. Rogers, was educated in the public schools of Pontiac; came to Detroit in i856 and entered the store of T. H. & J. A. Hinchman, wholesale druggists, where he remained one year. The following year he was employed in the clothing store of Eagle & Elliott. He then went to San Francisco, where an elder brother had preceded him, and was engaged in various occupations until the summer of 1859, when he secured a position with a water company in the mining district of the Sierra Nevada mountains. In the fall of the same year

Page  1203 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 1203 he returned to Pontiac, and until 1861 was engaged in mercantile enterprises at Lapeer and Detroit. The Civil War having then broken out, in June, I86I, he was the first man to join Col. Thornton F. Broadhead, and assisted in raising the First Michigan Cavalry, which was mustered into service in August following. Mr. Rogers, who at this time was a minor, was commissioned as Second Lieutenant, but soon after the regiment arrived in Washington he was appointed First Lieutenant and Battalion Adjutant. The regiment was assigned to the Army of Virginia, under Gen. Banks, and lay in camp at Frederick, Maryland, a considerable portion of the winter of I86I-'62, its principal service subsequently being on the Upper Potomac, in the Shenandoah Valley, and near the eastern slope of the Blue Ridge. It saw very active service, especially during the summer of 1862, when it was assigned to Gen. Pope's division and formed a portion of Gen. Beauford's brigade. Lieut. Rogers, who was naturally of a restless and adventurous disposition, grew impatient under the inaction of army life, and at his own solicitation was frequently entrusted with scouting parties, engaged in secret patrols and special duty. His service in this line of duty proved in many instances of great value to the Union forces, and upon one occasion while Gen. Beauford's brigade was on a cavalry raid in the vicinity of the Rapidan River, he performed an almost invaluable service to the Union army. While on the march, and in close proximity to a large force of the enemy, Lieut. Rogers, left the lines and pursued two mounted rebel officers. The latter, in their flight, led him near the headquarters of Gen. J. E. B. Stewart, who, with his staff officers, being warned of the supposed approach of Union forces, beat a hasty retreat. Lieut. Rogers, who was now all alone, pursued Gen. Stewart for some distance and fired two shots at that rebel officer. He then entered the deserted headquarters and secured a haversack containing all the papers of instruction from Gen. Lee to Gen. Stewart, then in command of the cavalry advance guard of the rebel army. These papers furnished valuable information to the Union army and revealed plans of the rebel commanders, which once known were easily averted, but otherwise. would have been far-reaching in their disastrous effects and might have led to the capture of Washington. Lieut. Rogers participated with his regiment in all its engagements until he was mustered out of service at Washington, September I I, 1862. Shortly after he was mustered out he was tendered the rank of Major in both a Michigan and New York cavalry regiment, but declined. After the close of his army experience he returned to California, and was variously occupied in San Francisco until I865, when he served as bookkeeper in the Pacific Bank of San Francisco; was soon after made paying teller, and from 1867 to 1872 was cashier. He then became interested in mining and stock brokerage, and at one time was secretary and treasurer of thirty mining companies. In I879 he returned to the east and for nearly two years was a member of the American Mining Board of New York City. In I880 he returned to Detroit and purchased the Detroit White Lead Works. The works had been established since I865, but at the time of Mr. Rogers's purchase, through poor management was very far from being a profitable concern. Associating Ford D. C. Hinchman and Horace M. Dean in the enterprise, the business was incorporated under the name of the Detroit White Lead Works. The reputation of the corporation was soon established on a firm basis, and in a remarkably short time the liberal policy and business-like methods of the managers resulted in building up an extensive business. Year by year additional buildings have been erected to meet the demands of their varied line of manufactures, and at the present time their plant is one of the most complete and best arranged for the purposes required, and one of the best in the country. Mr. Rogers, as treasurer and manager of the company, has been indefatigable in his exertions, and the business management has been entrusted almost entirely to him; and to his judgment, ingenuity, and energy, the corporation is largely indebted for the success attained. He is possessed of great executive force, is shrewd and careful in his business habits, and the evidence of his work is seen in every branch of the business, but especially is this true in the selling department, where unlimited competition makes success no easy problem. Fifteen salesmen are employed, and their goods find a ready market all over the country. Personally Mr. Rogers is of a frank, open, generous, social disposition, has a wide circle of friends, and is respected and esteemed not only for his business ability, but for those qualities of mind and heart that distinguish a good citizen and a helpful considerate friend. He is progressive and liberal minded and a sure supporter of every deserving public enterprise. He is a charter member of the Loyal Legion, member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Lake St. Clair Fishing Club, Detroit Club, and a thirty-second degree Mason. Growing out of his former occupation as a bank cashier, one of his amusements has been to collect specimens of all the bank notes of the so-called Wild-Cat banks of I837, and he has succeeded in obtaining a collection numbering several thousand specimens, and by reason of the various facts they exhibit, the collection is of great historic value.

Page  1204 1204 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. Politically he has always been a Republican, and has been an earnest worker in securing victories for his party, but has never held an elective office. His time has been devoted to business interests with such singleness of purpose, that early in life he has achieved a worthy place among the successful manufacturers of Detroit. He was married in I868 to Eva C. Adams, a daughter of Dr. Samuel Adams, the pioneer drug merchant of San Francisco, and a niece of Rev. Nehemiah Adams, D. D., for forty-four years a pastor of the old Essex Street Church of Boston, and an author of considerable repute. FREDERICK STEARNS, for many years a wholesale and retail druggist, and manufacturer of pharmaceutical preparations in Detroit, was born fifty-eight years ago, at Lockport. New York. He is of Puritan blood, being a lineal descendant of Isaac Stearns, who, with Governor Winthrop, and Sir Richard Saltenstall, and other colonists, settled Watertown, Massachusetts. The farm which was occupied by this ancestor is now part of Mount Auburn Cemetery. On the maternal side he is a descendant of Samuel Chapin, one of the earliest settlers of Springfield, Massachusetts. Mr. Stearns early evinced a natural liking for the calling of a druggist. Speaking of his youthful days, he once said: "One of my earliest memories is looking into the windows of Dr. Merchant's Gargling Oil drug store, and wondering at the mystery of the white squares of magnesia and the round balls of cosmetic chalk." At fifteen years of age he was apprenticed to the drug firm of Ballard & Green, in Buffalo, New York. For two years he was the only help the firm had, acting as errand boy, clerk, soda water maker, etc., and was unquestionably one of the busiest boys of that time in Buffalo. He received no wages the first year, and, because of the failure of the house, the same pay the second year. At the end of his apprenticeship, having read, smelt, and tasted everything that came in his way, he made up his mind that what he did not know about the drug business could not be taught. A better situation, with another and more advanced preceptor, soon took away this conceit. After attending a course of lectures at the University of Buffalo, he entered the store of A. I. Mathews, a prominent retail druggist of Buffalo, with whom he remained several years, during the last three as a partner. In I853 he married Eliza H. Kimball, of Mendon, New York, and in the following year, on account of a favorable impression made at a former visit, he decided to locate in Detroit. He arrived at Windsor, January i. I855, on a bitter cold day, and walked across the river on the ice. Soon after his arrival here he was joined by his wife, with their first child, Frederick K. Stearns, and in April following, with L. E. Higby, he opened a retail drug store at 162 Jefferson Avenue, in the middle of the block, owned by Zachariah Chandler, where the stores of Allan Shelden & Company are now located. In 1859 they removed to enlarged quarters in the Merrill Block, and in 1863 to the Porter Block, on the southwest corner of Woodward Avenue and Lamed Street, and here Mr. Stearns bought Mr. Higby's interest. To be a manufacturer of such pharmaceutical preparations, both official and non-official, as were in use as medicine, was always Mr. Stearns's ambition. and in I856 he commenced as a manufacturer in a very limited way, with one room, a cooking stove, and one girl, as a helper. It was his custom at that time, with a small hand bag, filled with samples of his products, to canvass towns on the railroads leading west from Detroit, obtaining such orders as the druggists of the interior were willing to give to a young house struggling to establish a trade for its productions, in a market completely filled with Eastern and foreign brands. From this small beginning has gradually grown a manufacturing business which now reaches large proportions. During these early years, much of the time which otherwise would have been leisure was given to investigation in the line of his profession, and many papers, the result of these studies, were published invarious pharmaceutical journals and society transactions. Introducing steam power, and milling and extracting machinery, much of which was of his own design, he commenced manufacturing on a larger scale. It was at first difficult to introduce his products in the place of goods already established, but these difficulties were gradually overcome. In 187 I, Mr. Stearns's manufacturing establishment was twice destroyed by fire, the second fire resulting in considerable financial lois, but the laboratory was established a third time, on part of the property owned by the Detroit Gas Light Company, on Woodbridge near Sixth Street. During all this period he continued his business as a retail druggist and dispensing pharmacist, retaining, by choice, a prominent interest in his profession, and being vitally alive to its promotion. In pharmacy, however, as in other arts and trades, abuses are liable to creep in; the want of suitable legislative control, the then lack of protection for the educated pharmacist from the uneducated or unqualified person, who might choose to enter upon the business of selling drugs, and the employing of irregular means, thus lowering the standard and the dignity of the calling, were all hindrances to the best development of the art of pharmacy. The practice of quackery, the supplying of secret or so-called patent medicines, which forced upon the druggist the keeping of

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Page   1205 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. I205 L — -- - numberless worthless and high cost compositions, of little profit to the pharmacist, were also evils stultifying the professional attitude of the druggist, and rendering him to a great extent, a mere trader in quackery. In the correcting of these evils, which have threatened to overwhelm pharmacy as a profession and a means of livelihood, Mr. Stearns has rendered valuable service. When he opened his first store in Detroit, he determined not to sell any secret quackery in the way of patent medicines, looking for the ready support and sympathy of the regular medical profession in so doing; but after one year's trial, he found the public had become so accustomed to buying patented medicines, that it was impossible to conduct his business without supplying everything or any article which the public looked to find in a drug store. He was, therefore, compelled to deal in patent medicines, but he always sought, by every means in his power, to lessen the evil. In 1876 it occurred to him that one means for destroying patent medicine quackery would be to put up ready made prescriptions, suitable and useful for common ailments, in neat and portable form, without secrecy; to put the receipt plainly on the label, with simple directions and explanations, and to trust to the good sense and intelligence of the customer to take such ready made medicines, rather than secret nostrums. This idea, acted upon, was an immediate success in his own retail trade, and in that of his near friends and neighbors. This departure was then, and is still, known as the "New Idea." The development of this system has resulted in the establishment of an immense trade, and to-day nearly every retail druggist in good standing in the United States and Canada, representing over sixteen thousand establishments, are customers of the Stearns's laboratory. The one room, I2XI2, of 1858, has been increased to four acres of flooring in the works now occupied on Twenty-first Street; the one helper to over four hundred helpers; instead of the occasional traveler, with his little grip, and that one himself, there are now thirty-five traveling agents constantly employed; from a retail business of $I6,ooo per year, the business has grown to sometimes more than that d2ily: the area visited for trade has expanded from a small portion of Michigan to the " whole unbounded continent," and sales are also made in the Spanish American Republics, the West Indies, and in many English colonies, and notably in Australia. The works on Woodbridge Street, above alluded to, became too stinted in room, even after every available building in the vicinity was obtained, and in 188i and 1882 the new works now occupied were erected, and are described in another portion of this work. After forty years of an active business life, with its usual cares, disappointments, and with some success, Mr. Stearns, in 1887, retired from the management of the business, leaving it in the hands of his sons, Frederick K. and William L., and of the younger associates, who have been with him many years. If he is proud of one thing, it is of the establishment on a firm basis of a legitimate and extensive business, which is an active and practical opponent of quackery in medicine. He has led a remarkably busy life, and his success has been the result of hard work, united to clear and well poised judgment. A man of the most positive conviction, he pursued a purpose believed to be right, regardless of consequences, with a force and directness liable to arouse the antagonism of men of narrow views and prejudices. He is among the first to depart from established custom or practice when new and better methods of procedure are discovered, and it makes but little difference to him whether he is followed or not. Convinced that he is right, he has the moral courage to fight alone, and this admirable quality has been the main secret of his success. To him nothing is more distasteful than sham and superficiality. He is a man of liberal opinion, and has taste and culture, without a trace of pedantry or touch of imperiousness. He is a natural critic, but his criticisms are intelligent, penetrating, and just. He has been a public benefactor, because he has been a creator and promoter of enterprises which have aided in many ways the public good, and is liberal minded toward every good project to advance the best interests of Detroit. Somewhat reserved among strangers, with trusted friends he is a congenial companion. His business career has been honorable, and no one holds more securely the confidence and respect of Detroit's commercial community. JOSEPH TOYNTON was born July 26, I839, at Brothertoft, four miles west of Boston, Lincolnshire, England. He was the son of William and Elizabeth (Ketton) Toynton. His father was a well-to-do farmer, and he received a good common school education. His mother died in 1852, and his father in I873. On March 3, 1853, he left England for the United States, and for about one year after his arrival here he made his home near Rochester, New York. In 1854 he came to Detroit, and entered the employ of William Phelps, then a prominent manufacturer of confections, where he remained eleven years, and acquired a thorough practical knowledge of the business. In I865 he resigned his position and the house of Gray, Toynton & Fox was established, which at once became the leading establishment of the kind in the West. In I860 he married Margaret Hayes, daughter of

Page  1206 1206 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. John and Mary (McMarrah) Hayes. He died July 6, I88i, after a very brief illness. Mr. Toynton was a man of strict integrity in all the relations of life. His genial nature made him a large circle of friends, and his unswerving honesty made his word as good as his bond. He was a leading member and for many years one of the trustees of the Central Methodist Episcopal Church. He was a prominent Mason, a member of Union Lodge of Strict Observance, and of Detroit Commandery. One of his Masonic brethren, in speaking of his death, has well said: He came to this country, and to this city, poor in purse, but rich in the qualities which go to make up the successful business man, the honest citizen, the faithful clerk, the humane employer, the loving and indulgent husband and father, and the consistent Christian. The lesson of his life is one of fortitude, industry, fidelity, humility, charity, kindness, and humanity in all the relations of life. Follow him wherever you would, in the family, the church, in his social relations, or into the counting-house, and you would find the same elements of character dominating his life work. Rising from poverty to a condition of comparative wealth, from the position of servant to that of proprietorship in a large and successful business enterprise, he never, in his treatment of others, forgot the hardships of either poverty or service." JOHN HILL WHITING, grandson of Dr. J. L. Whiting, an early physician and merchant of Detroit, and the eldest son of John Talman Whiting and Mary S. (Hill) Whiting, was born at Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan, October II, 1852. His parents removed to Detroit in I855. Mr. Whiting received the best education that the public schools afforded, and in I869 became assistant salesman, at Ecorse, for the Detroit River Lumber Company. He remained there one year and then came to Detroit, where he was employed for a short time by the lumber firm of D. A. Ross & Company. In I870 he entered the employ of the Detroit Car Wheel Company, for the purpose of learning the business of moulding and casting car wheels, and general foundry business. He, at first, acted in the capacity of timekeeper and general assistant in the office, devoting a portion of each day to work in the foundry, moulding, pouring iron, and in other mechanical labor, devoting his evenings to office work. About three years after he entered the employ of the company, the Moulders Union, of which he was not a member, raised objections to non-union men being employed, and Mr. Whiting, not wishing to antagonize the company, stopped work in the foundry until, through change of Superintendents, the influence of the union became so weakened that he returned to the foundry without opposition. The output of the company was at first quite small, but under skillful management it became a very large and important enterprise. Mr. Whiting kept pace with its growth, developing talents and aptitudes unthought of at the beginning. In one sense it may be said that the business made him what he is, for it gave him the opportunity to develop his peculiar genius for organizing and directing labor. On the other hand, his skill, ingenuity, and practical judgment, made him an important factor in the success of the corporation. In I88o he was appointed Assistant Superintendent, and later, in the same year, under the trying circumstances of a strike, which took out the Superintendent, he was selected to fill the vacancy. His naturally retiring disposition led him to shrink from the responsibility, and he accepted it with many misgivings; but having accepted it he soon proved equal to his task, and has since shown himself equal to all the duties which the position imposed upon him, and has remained in charge of the works, as Superintendent. The growth of the business may be indicated by the fact that in 1870 the capacity of the works was about sixty-five car wheels a day, and fifteen tons of castings; now it is four hundred and twenty-five car wheels a day, and one hundred tons of castings, and the corporation employs between seven and eight hundred men. In addition to the superintendency of this establishment, Mr. Whiting is Superintendent of the works of the Detroit Pipe and Foundry Company, which produce about fifty tons of cast iron pipe daily, and employ about one hundred and fifty hands. He is also Vice-President of the Detroit Foundry Equipment Company, which controls several patents particularly adapted to the improved manufacture and handling of car wheels. He is the inventor of the "Improved Cupola," the "Overhead Steam Crane," a " Transfer Truck," a "Device for Operating Foundries," and a "Reversible Friction Gearing," patented in 1884 and I885. He is a stockholder in all the companies above mentioned, and also in the Michigan Car Company, the Detroit Iron Furnace Company, and the Vulcan Iron Furnace Company, located at Newberry, Michigan. During the seventeen years of his connection with the Detroit Car Wheel Company, he has shown a character for manliness, integrity, and generosity, which has won the esteem and confidence of all his associates. He has for years made the question of the successful handling of labor a study, and has also studied to devise methods and appliances to facilitate profitable production. As his responsibilities have

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Page  1207 MANUFACTURERS AND INVENTORS. 20o7 increased, with the enlargement of the business intrusted to his care, he has developed a capacity adequate to meet them, and now handles a large force of men with as much ease as he formerly controlled a small number. He, however, attributes much of his success to the suggestions, appreciative courtesy, and generosity, with which he has been treated by the chief stockholders in the corporations in which he is engaged, whose confidence has been fully and cheerfully given. Mr. Whiting is a Republican in political faith, but has been too closely identified with business to take any part in political affairs. He was married February 7, I883, to Carrie Florence Spence, daughter of Dr. T. R. Cpence, formerly of Detroit. They have two daughters, Florence Hill and Barbara. He and his wife are members of the Jefferson Avenue Presbyterian

Page  1208 CHAPTER XCVI. LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUF,.ACURERS, VESSEL OWNERS, INSURANCE AND RAILROAD MANAGERS, ETC. FRANCIS ADAMS is a descendant of the Adamses of Braintree, Massachusetts, and is the son of Moses and Nancy (Phillips) Adams. He was born at Ellsworth, Maine, September 13, I831, and at the age of eight years began to care for himself, with such varied experiences as commonly fall to the lot of energetic boys when thrown upon their own resources. When he was nineteen he came to Michigan, but returned to Maine the same year, and in 1853 went to California, where he was engaged in mining and other operations for nearly four years. In I857 he settled in Michigan and entered into partnership with N. W. Brooks in the lumber business. The firm did a large and successful business, operating mills at Detroit, Saginaw, and Jackson, until the death of Mr. Brooks in 1872. Mr. Adams then retired from the lumber business, ard has since been engaged in caring for his property, with occasional ventures in lumber, real estate, and building. He is a stockholder in the Detroit National Bank and Wayne County Savings Bank, and has been a director in the latter corporation since its organization. He has always been a Republican, and while in California voted for John C. Fremont, there being but thirty-seven Republican votes out of over seven hundred in the precinct. The only public offices he has held have been in connection with the city government. From 1873 to I876, and in I879 and 1880, he was a member of the Board of Estimates. In I868, and again in 1871 and I872, he served as a member of the Board of Aldermen, and has also served as one of the Board of Park Commissioners. His services in the Council were highly appreciated for his knowledge of municipal law, and his sound, practical judgment. As a business man, he ranks above the average; possesses a good deal of natural energy, and his self-reliance has been developed and strengthened by the experiences through which he has passed. He investigates for himself, is firm in his opinions, and yet, when convinced of an error, no one yields with readier grace. He is honorable and upright in his dealings, and of unimpeachable integrity. He was married in February, 1862, to Annie M., daughter of James Graves, of Holden, Maine, and has three daughters, Evelyn F., Annie G., and Mary L. His wife died April 3, i885, and on November I7, 1887, he married Isabella Duncan, of Detroit. JAMES A. ARMSTRONG, the eldest son of Orrin M. and Beulah (Hine) Armstrong, was born in Washington, Litchfield County, Connecticut, on November 21, I805. When a boy, he lived part of the time with his grandfather, James Armstrong, after whom he was named. He attended a common school, and soon after the death of his father, entered a store at Newburgh, on the Hudson River. There and in that vicinity he spent his time until 1832, when he came to Detroit. As a young man, he had a bright intellect, and was strictly moral and industrious, and on his arrival here, obtained a situation in the forwarding and commission house of Oliver Newberry, where he remained many years, and subsequently went into the forwarding and commission business on his own account. He afterwards formed a partnership with A. H. Sibley, and later on became junior partner in the firm of Nickles, Whitcomb & Armstrong. In 1846 he organized the forwarding house of James A. Armstrong & Company, and for many years did a large business. From 1857 to 1862 he was the General Freight Agent of the Detroit & Milwaukee Railroad Company, and at the close of his term of service the officers of the company presented him with a token of their appreciation and esteem, in the shape of a fine gold chronometer watch, bearing an appropriate inscription, and dated May 29, 1862. Soon after [12081

Page  1209 LANI) DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. 1209 this he closed his business in Detroit, and went to Buffalo, where, with Henry P. Bridge, of Detroit, he engaged in the business of forwarding and commission. The relation continued until I866, when he returned to Detroit, as the General Agent of the Western Insurance Company, and remained such until the Chicago fire of October, 1871, broke up the company. After this, and until his death, he held the offices of Secretary and Treasurer of the Detroit Car Loan Company, the Detroit Car Company, and of the Marshall Car Company. He was an active member of the Detroit Board of Trade, and one of its original organizers. He possessed superior business capacity, and was scrupulously honest and exact, his accounts showing that when he used the company's stationery and stamped envelopes, for personal correspondence, he charged them to himself at their full price, a little account book, in his own writing, furnishing curious evidence of his exactness in these matters. It is the uniform testimony of those who knew him most intimately, that as a business man, husband, father, and citizen, his character was without reproach, and few men in social or business circles have commanded more fully the esteem and confidence of their contemporaries, or left behind them a brighter example. He was eminently a charitable man, and showed his kindness to the poor in many practical ways, and was always ready to serve a friend, spending much time, for which he received no compensation, in looking up and locating lands in Michigan for parties desiring to purchase or settle in the State. From about 1842, until his death, he was a member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church, and was a zealous and consistent churchman. He was married in the autumn of 1839, to Augusta, daughter of Judge Solomon Sibley. She lived only until March, 1841, and on February o0, 1847, he married Mary E. Bates, daughter of Phineas P. Bates, of Canandaigua, New York, and sister of George C. Bates, of Detroit. He died March 13, 1874, leaving his widow and three children. STEPHEN BALDWIN was born July 3I, 1834, in Lincoln, England, and is the son of Thomas and Hannah (Pickering) Baldwin. Thomas Baldwin, with his family, came to New York in 1835, and went to Chautauqua Lake, where they remained until the summer of 1836, when they removed to Oakland County, Michigan, where they made their permanent home. Stephen Baldwin lived on the farm, attending the best schools of Pontiac until he was seventeen years old, and then for a short time taught school in Oakland County, and subsequently attended Cor son's Select School, at Birmingham. In I861 he entered the establishment of Messrs. Flower & Newton, dealers in agricultural implements at Pontiac, where he remained for a short time, and in the fall of the same year engaged in the produce and commission business in Pontiac, continuing therein until 1864, when his love of enterprise took him to the oil regions, and he engaged in various successful ventures until I866. Meantime, in I865, he assisted in organizing the Second National Bank of Pontiac, in which he was a large stockholder and director, continuing his connection therewith until 1869, when he withdrew. During most of this time Mr. Baldwin was also engaged in buying pine lands, in lumbering, and for a time, in the manufacture of cloth. In I870, in connection with Leander S. Butterfield, he bought the stock and interest of the Detroit Paper Company, and removed to Detroit, where he has since resided. In 1872 he dissolved his connection with the Paper Company, and in February of that year he helped to organize the wholesale dry goods house of Edson, Moore & Company, in which he has since been a special partner. It is one of the largest and most successful business houses in Michigan. In I883 he aided in organizing the wholesale millinery house of Black, Mitchell & Company, now W. H. Mitchell & Company, in which he was a special partner until July I, 1887. During all the time since 1867, he has retained his lumber business, handling large tracts of pine land, both in Michigan and in Canada, and is at present a member of the firm of Baldwin & Nelson, his partner being Ephraim Nelson, of Cheboygan, Michigan. Mr. Baldwin is also largely interested in the Mineral Land Company of the Upper Peninsula. As a business man he has few superiors. Farsighted, experienced, bold, active, and energetic. his quick perception, keen intellect, and marvelous knowledge of the detail of many branches of business, make him a safe counselor and a successful financier. He is able to generalize rapidly and to reach conclusions, which, to slower minds, might seem hasty, but his judgments are unusually sound, and in scarcely any instance has he made a failure in his investments. He believes in integrity and fair dealing as the foundation of business success, and has the reputation of having well illustrated these principles in all his business transactions. He is public-spirited as a citizen, liberal toward worthy benevolent objects, and has used his means freely in helping deserving young men to start in business. In political faith he is a Democrat, and opposed to a protective tariff; has never sought or held any elective office, but since July I, 1885, has been one of the inspectors of the Detroit House of Correction. He was married October 28, 1868, to Gertrude, daughter of Augustine Hovey, of Pontiac, Michigan.

Page  1210 1210 LAND DEALERS, LUMBER MANUFACTURERS, ETC. EDMUND A. BRUSH, the eldest son of Elijah Brush, was born in 1802, graduated at Hamilton College, and upon his return home assumed active charge of his father's estate. He was admitted to the bar, but never practised law. Mr. Brush was early identified with the management of Detroit's municipal affairs. He was City Register in 1823, Recorder in 1832 and 1833, and in I852 was selected by the Legislature as a member of the Board of Water Commissioners, then created for the purpose of enlarging the city Water Works. His services were given to this interest for more than sixteen years, and his counsel and efforts were of great value. In all departments of city administration he was actively and zealously interested, and promoted many measures that tended to the public good, and checked, in a vigorous way, much that promised evil. He assisted in the organization of the volunteer fire department, of which body he was an active member, and was a leading spirit in the promotion of several railroad lines centering in Detroit. His large estate, however, enlisted the most of his attention, and made him one of the very wealthiest landholders that Detroit possessed. In the sale of city lots, he almost invariably made it a condition that the improvements thereon should be in thorough keeping with advanced and liberal enterprise, thus aiding 'not only himself but the city generally. The habits which Mr. Brush formed as a student, during his college days, he maintained to the end of his life. He was devoted to literature, but also found much enjoyment in the amenities of social life. His friendships were strong and deep, and in a large circle he was an honored figure. While quite set in his ways of doing things, he was anything but cold-hearted and ungenerous. He did not parade his charities, but gave very largely and wisely, and relieved many destitute families. He never took advantage of his tenants, nor enforced forfeitures against them, or deprived them of the protection of a home when misfortune prevented them from meeting their engagements. He married Eliza Cass Hunt, daughter of General John E. Hunt, and niece of General Cass. They had five children, only one of whom is living. The death of the others fell with crushing force upon the heart of Mr. Brush, and his grief was so intense, that it is believed his own death was thereby hastened. He died suddenly, July Io, 1877, at Grosse Pointe, leaving his wife and one son, Alfred E. Brush. The next nearest relative is a daughter of William G. Thompson, whose first wife was a daughter of Mr. Brush. WILLIAM N. CARPENTER, the eldest child of Nathan B. and Betsey Carpenter, was born at Cooperstown, New York, July 22, I8i6. His parents removed to Detroit in 1825, and his father, who died in I868, was at the time of his death one of the oldest and best known citizens. He was a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity and of the Mechanic Society, and occupied various positions of honor and trust connected with the city government. William N. Carpenter was educated in the public schools of Detroit, and at the age of thirteen became a clerk in the store of Franklin Moore, with whom he was afterwards associated as partner. He was also employed In the store of Elliott Gray. After acquiring a good commercial education, he began business for himself, opening a dry good store on the south side of Jefferson Avenue, between Bates Street and Woodward Avenue. His business venture was soon rewarded with a substantial success, and in 1834, having accumulated a considerable fortune, he retired from mercantile life. His naturally active temperament, however, demanded employment, and he soon found congenial fields for his business energiesin other enterprises. With ex-Governor Bagley, he became interested in the manufacture of tobacco, and during the earlier history of the extensive tobacco factory of J. J. Bagley & Company, he did much to establish the business on a prosperous basis. He also became a large stockholder in the Peninsular Stove Company, was for several years vice-president, and by his assistance in the management of its affairs, contributed greatly to the success of the corporation. For many years also he was a director of the P'eople's Savings Bank. In connection with ex-Governor Henry H. Crapo, he engaged extensively in the lumber business, and owned large tracts of pine land in the town of Vassar, Michigan. He was also a stockholder and officer in the Eureka Iron Company and held considerable real estate in Detroit. In I879 he erected the large store on the southwest corner of Woodward and Jefferson Avenues. In his varied business projects he evinced excellent business judgment, and his keen business for