History of St. Joseph County, Michigan;
Cutler, H. G. ed. (Harry Gardner), b. 1856., Lewis Publishing Company.

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Page  I PREFACE The main interest attaching to a county history depends upon a personal, or individual flavor; it is largely a story of the citizen, the family or the community. But the county can no more cut itself adrift from the great outside world than the individual, in this day and generation, can make a hermit of himself and refuse to associate with the members of his family and his neighbors. The latter statement peculiarly applies to St. Joseph county, and a consistent attempt has been made throughout this work to show its relations to the northeastern and the southwestern regions in whose connecting highway it lay. There is no doubt that this section of southern Michigan owes its early development to the fact that the old Chicago trail from Detroit (whose course was so closely followed in the survey of the Chicago Road) passed through the southern part of the county. That great highway of travel introduced it to a comparatively large acquaintance in early times, and a more intimate knowledge of the country transformed visitors into home-seekers and settlers. In this, as in other matters, the authors have endeavored to arrange the facts so that the picture of the development of St. Joseph county to its present fine proportions shall be revealed gradually and methodically, that the reader may not lose the general lines of growth in amass of details, however interesting and instructive. THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY.

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Page  III ILLUSTRATIONS TITLE PAGE Scene on Klinger's Lake 2 View on Portage River 11 Remains of an Old-Timer 44 Wayne County of 1803-5 76 Old Court House (1842) 86 The Court House of Today 90 Willie White Pigeon 138 Descendants of White Pigeon 140 "Wild-Cat" Money of 1839 150 White Pigeon's Grave 154 An End of Sturgeon Lake 208 Manufacturing Section, Three Rivers 309 High School Building, Three Rivers 323 Riverside Cemetery (G. A. R. Plat in Foreground) 326 The Kellogg Strawberry Farms, Three Rivers 330 Sturgis Union School 358 Oak Lawn Cemetery, Sturgis 362 Methodist Church, Sturgis 364 Bridge and Light and Power Plant, Constantine 382 Mill Dam, Colon 392 The Colon Union School 397 Union School, Mendon 405 St. Edward's Parish Church, Mendon 409 Centerville Union School 424 Burr Oak in the Fifties 429 The Old Mill, White Pigeon 436

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Page  1 History of St. Joseph County CHAPTER I. GENERAL FEATURES. DRAINAGE OF THE COUNTY-ITS LAKES-GEOLOGICAL FEATURES -BUILDING MATERIALS-SOIL AND AGRICULTURE-PEPPERMINT AND OIL-EARLIEST GROWERS AND MANUFACTURERSOIL DISTILLATION-GOOD PIONEERING COUNTRY-" THE ST. JOSEPH RIVER," BY DELIA S. CROSSETTE. The keynote to the history and progress of St. Joseph county is the valley of the St. Joseph river. Its main stream enters the county from the east, passing diagonally through Sturgeon lake, then cutting the southwestern corner of Leonidas township and flowing westward to the village of Mendon; thence in a southwesterly direction across the northwestern corner of Nottawa township and through the northeast, central and western sections of Lockport township to the city of Three Rivers. It then flows in a nearly southerly course from Lockport township to the southeastern section of Fabius township and the eastern portions of Constantine to the city by that name, and passes from St. Joseph county by way of the townships of Constantine and Mottville. DRAINAGE OF THE COUNTY. Each of the sixteen townships which compose St. Joseph county is copiously drained by the main stream of the St. Joseph river, or some of its numerous branches, and the western and eastern townships are plentifully sprinkled with beautiful lakes, Fabius and Colon townships being especially fortunate in this regard. The most noteworthy conjunction of streams in St. Joseph county occurs at the city of Three Rivers, where Rocky and Portage rivers join the main channel of the St. Joseph from the north. Vol. I-1

Page  2 2 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The Fawn river enters the county from Indiana, runs northerly and enters the St. Joseph above Constantine. The Pigeon rises in the same state near the southern lakes of St. Joseph county and enters the St. Joseph below Mottville, running through the townships of White Pigeon and Mottville in a westerly direction. Nottawa creek enters the St. Joseph near the southwest corner of Leonidas township from Branch county, while Hog creek, which rises in the same county to the east, drains Burr Oak, Nottawa and Lockport townships, entering the St. Joseph river on section 30 of the township last named. Swan creek empties into Sturgeon lake near the entrance of SCENE ON KLINGER'S LAKE the St. Joseph and flows through the northeastern portion of Burr Oak township and the southern and eastern sections of Colon. ITS LAKES. As stated, the principal lake surface in St. Joseph county is confined to Colon township in the east and Fabius township in the west; in the former are Sturgeon, Palmer, Long and Beaver lakes and in the latter, Corey's, Pleasant, and Clear lakes, as well as many others of smaller area. Among the other larger and most beautiful lakes in St. Joseph county are Pickerel, Klinger's and Aldrich lakes in White Pigeon township, Fisher's lake in Park township and Portage lake in Mendon township. There are also

Page  3 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 3 numerous small lakes in Nottawa-such as Evans and Sand-and in Sherman, such as Fish, Chapin, Crotch, Thompson's, Johnson's and Middle. It will be at once understood how this network of streams and lakes in St. Joseph county has guaranteed its high standing from the first as an agricultural and fruit raising country, besides contributing to its strength as an industrial section of the state by furnishing its citizens with an abundance of water power. PRAIRIES AND OAK OPENINGS. Perhaps the second most striking physical feature of St. Joseph county is its constant succession of beautiful prairies and oak openings which stretch from Burr Oak township, in the far southeast, to Flowerfield township in the extreme northwest, and along the main valley of the St. Joseph river from Mendon to Mottville township. GEOLOGICAL FEATURES. This peculiar and beautiful feature of the landscape is accounted for by the prehistoric forces of geology. It is a well established fact that lakes Michigan and Huron were at one time connected by a great river, or estuary, which passed almost diagonally across the southern peninsula of Michigan. The present valley of the St. Joseph river, with its numerous branches and network of lakes, was in those times a section of this connecting band between the two lakes, and the floor of its beautiful prairies was laid by deposits which sifted down from these ocean waters which then mingled with the great sea stretching over the northern portion of the United States and the northeastern section of Canada to the British Isles. In many portions of St. Joseph county geologists have found many rare specimen belonging to the Silurian, or reptile age, and the Carboniferous, or coal age, when this section of the country was under the dominion of the sea. A list of some of the more important specimens is here given: Fossils of the Lower Silurian age, Trenton period: Radiatespopyp corals, the petraia corniculum, columnaria alveolata, taeniasta spinoza. Mollusks-chateles lycoperdon or costalis leptaena plicifera, ptilodictya fenestrata, retepora incepta, trilobites, calymene senaria.

Page  4 4 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Hudson period: Radiates-favisstella stellata. Upper Silurian, Niagara period: Radiates-chaeteles-corals, chonophyllum Niagarense, favosites Niag. Mollusks-fenestella. Radiates-crinoids, caryocrinus ornatus. Brachiopods-atrypa nodostriata; spirifer sulcatus occidentalis; 0. testudintaria. Carboniferous: trigoncarpum, tricuspidatum and lepidodendron. Some very perfectly preserved crinoid stems, showing the star-shaped joint most distinctly. Devonian, carniferous period: Radiates-Zaphrentis gigantes, Z. Rafinesquii, Phillipsastrea verneuill; cyahophyllum rugosum; favosites Goldfussi; syringopora Maclurii; aulopora corunta. Following the geological ages when the limestones and other rock deposits were crudely formed in St. Joseph county was what is known as the Glacial epoch, when the great glaciers from the northeast crept over a large portion of Canada and northern United States, not missing southern Michigan or St. Joseph county in their resistless onward movement. It is probable that they assisted in forming the valley of the St. Joseph river and scooping out some of the lake basins. From some cause which is still unsolved by scientists and geologists, the climate of this portion of the globe was so moderated that the glaciers melted and retreated northward, forming gradually, as is supposed, the nucleus of the chain of great lakes. In many portions of St. Joseph county there are abundant evidences of glacial action, the most striking and conclusive being perhaps the presence of huge boulders which are foreign to this part of the state and must have been carried by some other agency than water. It is a peculiarity that, as a rule, they seem to be found rather in the oak openings than on the prairies. On the west side of the township of Constantine, there are large quantities of boulder stone, as also in Nottawa, Leonidas and Fawn River townships. This boulder stone, which is undoubtedly a portion of the glacial drift, is composed largely of flint, granite, gneiss, trap and quartz, some fine garnets being also found imbedded in it. BUILDING MATERIALS. The stone has been used to a considerable extent in building cellars and foundation walls and occasionally an entire building has been constructed of it, as for instance, the Union School House at Centerville. In the bottom of many of the lakes and marshes in

Page  5 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 5 St. Joseph county are also marl beds, formed largely of shells which carry, of course, a large portion of lime. In the early settlement of the county, this deposit was manufactured into a sort of limestone, but since the days of free transportation its manufacture has been abandoned, as the natural limestone is much stronger and more durable. But neither the boulder stone nor marl beds have been found in sufficient quantities to be considered of real commercial value. Building materials have never formed an important item in the natural wealth of St. Joseph county. Its building rocks were too deeply imbedded in the glacial drift, or soil, to be easily reached, and from the first it seemed to be ordained that it was to be an agricultural and horticultural country. SOIL AND AGRICULTURE. The soil is for the most part rich sandy loam, light and warm, and both mechanically and chemically adapted to the raising of fruit. On White Pigeon and Sturgis prairies, this soil changes to a heavier loam, and on Nottawa prairie is noticeably black and reaches to a remarkable depth. It is in the prairie soils that such staple grains as wheat and corn have so thriven, and in the oak openings mint culture has been carried to a remarkable state of perfection. Both the raising of peppermint and its distillation into oil still form a very important industry in the county, although the output, neither of the mint nor the oil, is as large as it was in former years. The raising of peaches received quite a serious setback by the severe winters which followed that of 1850, but the industry has since revived and now St. Joseph county is one of the banner producers of the country. Cherries are also productive and a certain crop. Plums were once the most abundant natural fruit crop of the county. They were also cultivated at quite an early day, but growers were greatly discouraged for a number of years by the ravages of the Corculio. The scientific investigations of recent years have resulted in almost exterminating this pest to plum growers, so that this branch of horticulture is again on the upper grade. PEPPERMINT AND OIL. Peppermint, in the production of which St. Joseph county led the United States for many years, if not any section in the world of

Page  6 6 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY equal area, began to be cultivated in 1835. As is well known, its manufactured product, oil of peppermint, has been an important ingredient in confectionery, perfumery and pharmaceutical preparations for many years. Although the United States produces annually about four fifths of all the peppermint distilled in the world, the banner section of America has been transferred from St. Joseph county, which some forty years ago produced one fourth the amount raised in the United States. Several counties in Michigan have overtaken St. Joseph-Allegan, Berrien, Kalamazoo, Van Buren and Eaton preceding it, with Branch county, to the east, a close competitor. On the authority of Charles W. Schellhous, government oil inspector, it is safe to say that Allegan county now produces about 50,000 pounds of essential oil of mint and St. Joseph about 20,000. In 1865 the county produced 40,000 pounds of mint-oils, and in 1870 only 23,000, while the figures for 1910 will probably be even less than those of forty years ago. Mr. Sawyer commenced the cultivation of mint on White Pigeon prairie, within the present limits of the town of Florence, this pioneer in the combined industry of raising and manufacturing bringing the roots of the plant from Ohio. Before he distilled any of the crop, he sold his farm to Glover and Earle (1836), who continued the culture for a time. But these pioneer cultivators made up their minds that the prairies were entirely unsuited to the growth of mint, and it was discontinued for several years. About 1840, Marshall and Orrin Craw introduced its culture into the oak openings in the northern part of Florence township. This experiment proved such a success that the Craw brothers continued both the cultivation of the plant and the distillation of its essential oils for several years, and their example was followed by many of the settlers in the oak openings, these lands bringing high prices both to investors and those who wished to dispose of them to ambitious cultivators. Ranney & Smith began the culture in 1843, and within the next twenty years the business of raising peppermint and distilling oils from it reached huge proportions. EARLIEST GROWERS AND MANUFACTURERS. Wolf Brothers, of Centerville, were among the early and heaviest growers and manufacturers, and, in spite of the general decline of the industry, retain their supremacy. Thirty-five years ago

Page  7 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 7 they were thus referred to, in a county publication: "Wolf Brothers & Keech (George, Jr.) are the heaviest producers of oils; aside from peppermint, they have probably the largest field of wormwood in the world-twenty-three acres; and the only fields of spearmint in the county, fifty acres. They also cultivate tansy and pennyroyal." At this time Henry Hall, of Three Rivers, was also an extensive dealer in oils, and his son, Robert Hall (ex-mayor of the city) has long been operating perhaps the largest oil distillery in the county, five miles south of Three Rivers. Among the other leading manufacturers and dealers in essential oils of these early and "booming" times were A. P. Emery, of Mendon; William Roys, of Florence; Charles W. Jones, of Sherman, and Daniel Francisco, of Three Rivers. For many years, in St. Joseph county, the mint crops continued to be raised almost entirely on the uplands, but as these tracts commenced to be utilized by fruit growers, grain producers and farmers who had turned to standard and comparatively sure crops, those who still clung to mint culture and oil distillation turned again to the prairies and the lowlands. Improved methods of cultivation of recent years have demonstrated that, with perhaps a little additional expense, mint can be cultivated as successfully on the lowlands as the highlands, and, as Mr. Shellhouse remarks, "'growers show a decided tendency to reach out into the muck lands for their mint fields." OIL DISTILLATION. The ordinary metliod of oil distillation, employed in pioneer times, consisted in cooking the plants in a common iron kettle. After a thorough boiling, the oil was skimmed off the water. When it had been demonstrated that the business was profitable, the regular distillery was introduced which does not differ in its essentials from that of thirty or forty years ago, when the following description of the cultivation of the plant and the manufacture of the oil in St. Joseph county was prepared by Albert M. Todd, of Nottawa: "In addition to peppermint, there are also other essential oils in our county-spearmint, wormwood, pennyroyal, tansy and fireweed-but the combined amount of all these is but a trifle when compared with peppermint; therefore this sketch will be devoted to this oil alone, especially as the process of distillation is the same in all.

Page  8 8 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY "Soon as spring opens, the ground being duly prepared, is marked out in deep furrows thirty inches apart. The roots and creeping tendrils (called runners) which have grown from the settings of the preceding season, being taken from the ground and separated, are packed into large sacks. These are thrown over the shoulders of the workmen in such a manner that there shall be at least one living root or runner the entire length of the row, and these, as they are thrown down, are covered by the feet of the workmen to the depth of an inch. "Cultivation commences as soon as the rows can be distinguished above ground. As the plants advance in growth, a complete network of roots is formed beneath the surface; they also send forth runners above ground in every direction. These, sometimes attaining a length of three feet, completely envelop the ground. As the runners also throw down roots, a second crop will be obtained from one setting, and sometimes a third, should they escape the frosts of the succeeding winters. The height attained by the plants is usually not over twenty-four inches, though sometimes it reaches forty-eight inches. "Distillation commences in August when the plants begin to bloom. The effect produced by a large field of peppermint with its beautiful purple blossoms and rich fragrance is quite enchanting. The process of distillation is as follows: The plants having been cut and having lain in the hot sun for six or eight hours, are taken to the distillery and tightly packed in large vats capable of holding from two thousand to two thousand five hundred pounds each. The vat, when filled, is closed over by a steam-tight cover. The steam being generated in a large engine boiler, is conveyed through a pipe to the plants by means of an opening in the bottom of the vat. The oil, in the form of globules, is contained in minute vesicles on the lower side of the leaves and the blossoms. As the steam is forced through the plants, the globules, being expanded by the intense heat, burst from their prison cells and are carried off in steam, which escapes from an opening in the top into a pipe called the condenser, and thence into its continuation, the worm. "Cold water being constantly pumped over these pipes, the steam inside is re-converted into fluid form. This having reached the terminus of the worm, flows out into the receiver, a deep vessel, from near the bottom of which a spout runs up on the outside to within a few inches of the top. As the fluid flows in, the water and oil separate of their own accord; the oil being lighter rises to the

Page  9 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 9 top and is dipped off; the water, continually sinking to the bottom, is forced by the weight above to flow out through the spout. The time required for steaming the plants is, if they are well dried, not over forty minutes, with a high pressure of steam; but the time varies with the steam capacity of the distillery. "The amount of oil obtained from a given amount of plants varies greatly. If they are fine and well covered with leaves, and are distilled during warm, dry weather, and well dried, ten pounds of oil can be obtained from two thousand pounds of plants; but from coarse, undried plants less than one third of that amount can be obtained. "After the charge is sufficiently steamed, it is lifted from the vat by pulleys attached to a crane, and being dropped upon a car or wagon is run off and used for fertilizing the fields. Our average crop in this county will not exceed twenty pounds per acre, although in other localities double this amount has occasionally been produced upon lowlands. " GOOD PIONEERING COUNTRY. This brief review of the natural features and riches of St. Joseph county is fully explanatory of the favor which it earned in the judgment of pioneers from the eastern states. Coming hither from New England the old middle states, Ohio, Indiana and southeastern Michigan, they found ready at hand and cleared of underbrush and trees, beautiful and fertile prairies and sunny openings in the timberland. Along the streams and dotting the landscape were abundant supplies of oak, beech, maple, hickory, ash, black walnut, butternut, cherry and elm; so that St. Joseph county pioneers found awaiting them a beautiful country with well watered soil and heavy timber, thus assuring them bountiful crops, building material, and a seemingly inexhaustible supply of fuel to guard them against the severe winters of the frontier country. Although in those days the woods harbored wolves and bears, they also abounded in herds of deer, and when the first settlers came, and for several years afterwards, it was an easy matter for the householder, although he may not have been an expert marksman, to bring to his family a daily supply of venison. Wild turkey, geese, ducks and grouse were plentiful in the numerous lakes, and quail, woodcock, plover and snipe haunted the prairies and banks of the streams. The abundance of food supply which St. Joseph

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY county offered its first comers is by no means completed in the above statement, for its lakes and rivers abounded with sturgeon, pike, bass, perch and other rich supplies for the frying pan. The favor with which St. Joseph county was viewed by those seeking homesteads in the early "thirties" is thus indicated by an extract from the "Gazetteer for the State of Michigan and Directory of Emigrants, " published in 1838, only a few years subsequent to its first settlement by white men: "This was formerly considered the best county in the state. The surface of the country is moderately undulating. The soil is exceedingly fertile and consists principally of oak openings and prairies. There is, however, a sufficiency of timber found in the western part of the country as high up as the Portage river and down as low as the Grand Traverse. The principal prairies are Sturgis, White Pigeon and Nottawaseepe, which are not exceeded for their fertility by any in this or any other state. There are innumerable water privileges in the county, especially in the St. Joseph, Hog creek, Crooked, Portage and Pigeon rivers. The public lands are mostly taken up. This county is included in the Kalamazoo Land District. " As at present constituted, St. Joseph county contains about 329,619 acres, of which 319,895 are of land and 9,724 of water. In the early days the prairie surface included about 12,535 acres, the balance of the land being oak openings and heavy timber. Of course within the past twenty or thirty years the proportion of timber to prairie land has been very much decreased. THE ST. JOSEPH RIVER. BY DELIA S. CROSSETTE. In 1671 Pere Marquette founded a mission at St. Ignace, just across from Mackinaw. Two years later he discovered the Mississippi river, the greatest event of his life. On his return to St. Ignace he discovered and explored our river for some distance from its mouth, and named it the St. Joseph river; which name it has borne for two hundred and thirty-three years. But from Marquette's time until settlers came, it was only for the red men and wild animals to enjoy this river and country and hold almost undisputed sway. I can imagine the beautiful deer taking their morning draught of water from the banks of the St. Jo. What was Michigan-at

Page  11 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ].1 least our part-when seventy-eight years ago the first settlers came to make their homes on the banks of this river? For answer, we must go back into the history of the southwestern territory:-A wilderness, whose vast and almost endless forests were as yet a stranger to the white man's tread: no farms, with their white-robed cottages and extensive barns; no cities, no villages, no railroads, no din or confusion of business strife. All was still and solitary, as the time when the stars of the morning first sang together. What a wondrous change this mighty march of progress has accomplished! It is as far removed from its primeval state as the east is from the west. The St. Joseph rippled on then as now; but VIEW ON PORTAGE RIVER there was no Constantine reflected in its beautiful waters. It was thus when Judge Meek pitched his tent in our town in 1828. I have many letters written to relatives here, commencing "Dear Ones in the far West." Michigan was at this time looked upon as the far West; St. Jo county now looked upon as the garden spot of the state. We feel constrained to laud Judge Meek's choice. Prompted perhaps by speculation, more than any other, he selected this spot at the intersection of the Fawn and St. Joseph rivers, as the most desirable place for the then prospective village of Constantine. Meek erected a small saw and grist mill near the site of the present roller mills. This was the starting point and nucleus of the town which was laid out a year or two later. Of all

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the people that settled here in Judge Meek's time, not one or any of their descendants are now living here. I remember some of them. Constantine, situated on the St. Jo river, a stream navigable for small boats, gave her an outlet to the great lakes. This was a matter of no small importance to the surrounding country, and in fact it made Constantine headquarters for trade for a considerable distance round in those early days. The St. Joseph river rises in Hillsdale county, in Bawbees lake. While in Hillsdale, some forty years ago, I crossed our river there between the station and college. It reminded me of a New England trout brook, so clear and narrow then. The river from its source to Three Rivers, runs on in a very crooked way, at Colon passing through Sturgeon lake in front of Colon station, thence on through Mendon to Three Rivers. This part of the river might be called the upper part; the lower part, from Three Rivers, Constantine, Mottville, Bristol, Elkhart, Mishawaka, South Bend, Niles, Benton Harbor and on to its mouth at St. Joseph City, where it empties into Lake Michigan; then finds its way around the chain of great lakes, Niagara river and falls, to Lake Ontaria, down the St. Lawrence river and into the Atlantic ocean to mix with the oceans and seas of this world. A great thing for our lovely river to accomplish! The valley of the St. Joseph river throughout almost its entire length contains abundant and unmistakable evidence of having been the habitation of that unknown and mysterious people, which modern science has named Mound Builders. I so well remember some of the mounds on our farm on the banks of the St. Jo river, where we dug out flint arrows, beads, etc. The first bridge was built on the St. Joseph river at Mottville in 1833, with timbers 60 feet long and 18 inches square, was used twelve years, and replaced by a pile bridge at that point where the Chicago road crossed the river; hence, the need of this bridge. The St. Joseph river was the channel by which the people brought their goods into the country in the early days, and by which they forwarded their products until 1851, when the railroads supplanted the old way. Before the railroads came, merchandise was shipped from New York (by the Erie canal) to Buffalo; then by sail or steamboats around the lakes to the mouth of the St. Joseph river. There it was transferred by keel or flat boats, and finally by steamboats to Constantine, as often as occa

Page  13 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 13 sion required. From Constantine to Three Rivers the water was shallow; in places could not always make the trip there. These steamboats ran on the river from 1842 to 1850, or until the railroads crowded them out. No freight was sent down the river before 1837. The crops were needed at home by the sparse settlement. With little land under the plow, I so well remember the days before the threshing machines were invented or at least came among us. I used to hold the tin lantern, punctured full of holes to let the light through with its tallow candle (our own make) in it to light our barn floor (this barn built in 1833). The neighbors changed work in threshing, going from one farm to another to thresh their wheat, rye and buckwheat on their barn floors with a flail. I love to think of these early privations. They fit one to be happy with whatever befalls afterward. After a good class of mills were built and there was produce sufficient to warrant it, then the flat-boats and arks were built to take the produce to St. Joseph and the eastern markets. An ark would hold some six hundred barrels of flour. After they went to the mouth of the river these arks were either broken up and sold or broken up and sent adrift into Lake Michigan. The millers would ship their flour in the fall or spring and not get returns for the same for six months. Two men living in Colon wanted to purchase seed potatoes and wheat. They went to Allen's lake in Hillsdale county, purchased the wheat and potatoes, built two canoes, loaded their products in, and drifted down Sand lake a few miles into the St. Jo river. This trip back to Colon occupied ten days. "Such was life in a new country." The first dam across the St. Jo was built at Leonidas by Judge Cross. Today many are across the St. Jo, thereby furnishing power for manufacturing and lighting purposes. Before the dams were built fish were larger and more abundant. We do not get any more sturgeon, that used to come from the lake up the river before the dams were built. In writing this sketch, my mind goes back to the crossing and recrossing the river from our farm to visit in Florence; also crossing in lumber wagons with our feet high up on the seats, as the horses had to swim a small portion of the way-so exciting for little folks! Then the picnics! The last one I attended was thirty-eight years ago. We went by railroad to Three Rivers, with fifty of our

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY townspeople, the Constantine band to furnish plenty of good music. After the six boats were made ready we floated down to an island, where we had dinner; and such a dinner! It rained; it poured; but we were provided for this and did not get wet. Of those fifty townspeople I do not believe there are more than fifteen now living that thoroughly enjoyed this day. There are some now that prefer the river for their outings. Surely we are justly proud of our state, St. Joseph county and its river St. Joseph!

Page  15 CHAPTER II MOUND BUILDERS AND INDIANS. ANCIENT GARDEN BEDS-THE COLON MOUNDS-FORTIFICATIONSSACRIFICIAL FIRE-PLACE-NOTTAWA-SEEPE RESERVATION-ARRIVAL OF PATRICK MARANTETTE-PAPER BY MRS. ALICE (MARANTETTE) BOSSET-THE POTTAWATOMIES INV 1830-SAU-AUQUETT RELINQUISHES RESERVATION-LANDED IN KANSASTHE BLACK HAWK WAR-THE FIRST PAYMENT-ATTEMPTED MURDER OF SAU-AU-QUETT-DEATH OF MORREAU-DETAILS OF SAU-AU-QUETT'S MURDER. The advent of humankind into St. Joseph county commences, so far as any records go, with the mysterious Mound Builders, whose impressive marks in the shape of fortifications, altars, gardens and other evidences of an active occupation of American soil are scattered along its great river valleys almost from the Alleghanies to the far western plains. Marks left by the Mound Builders of Southern Michigan lack somewhat the impressiveness and military character of the earthworks and forts found further south in the Ohio valley, and seem to be largely garden plats and mounds of rather small dimensions. In the latter are found bones of animals, which point to the custom of these prehistoric Americans of making sacrificial offerings to their deities. Flints, celts (stone-heads), various utensils evidently of the household, and remains of huge fire-places, indicate that these early inhabitants of the state and St. Joseph county were more devoted to the ways of peace and the excitements of the chase than to the ambitions and horrors of war; but when the Mound Builders first commenced to occupy the fertile soil of this section of the state will probably always be one of the unsolved mysteries. All that archaeologists can see for certain is that their coming far antedates historical records. 15

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ANCIENT GARDEN BEDS. The ancient origin of their works is testified to by the presence of huge oaks growing at times from many feet of soil, and thus proving from what is known as to the age of such trees that the mounds must have been constructed many centuries before the Indians, as the early settlers know them, commenced to occupy the land. In the "Schoolcraft Papers" are several descriptions of the garden-beds prepared by the Mound Builders in the upper St. Joseph valley, which apply closely to those found in the county itself. "Many of the lines of the plats are rectangular and parallel," he says. "They consist of low ridges, as if corn had been planted in drills. They average four feet in width and twenty-five of them have been counted in a space of one hundred feet. The depth of the walk between them is about six inches." THE COLON MOUNDS. In Colon there are several mounds, some of which were excavated years ago by E. H. Crane, a professor of taxidermy and embalming and an archaeologist, who resided at Colon. Mr. Crane opened two mounds on the farm of Phineas Farrand, in which he found all the characteristics of the works of the Mound-Builders, but no bones; the soil of which they were composed being porous and not capable of preserving the latter. He found flints-small ones-and in one, a fireplace. In a mound he opened on H. K. Farrand's farm, he found some remnants of bones, a very beautifully wrought celt, and some flints; and in one opened on George Teller's farm, flints and celts. Mr. Crane found in the mounds he opened in the county nearly every form of implement known to the Mound Builders, some of them very unique and handsomely wrought, and others in the rough, or first stage of work, as well as the partially prepared blocks of stone, for working. FORTIFICATIONS. Within three hours' ride of Colon village, there are no less than six fortifications of these ancient people. One of them is distinctly visible yet, and is in a square form, fronting on the St. Joseph river, with an avenue leading from the rear to Bear creek. Others in Leonidas had breastworks three feet high when first

Page  17 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 17 discovered, with circular entrenchments, and pathways leading into the same, and sally-ports, showing method and skill in their construction. Some of these fortifications had three breastworks or circles, the gateway being at a different place in each, so that an enemy forcing an entrance, must still fight the besieged behind his entrenchments before he could force the second or third entrance. On these breastworks, trees are, or were, growing four feet in diameter, of the same character as those of the surrounding forest in which the entrenchments are now found. SACRIFICIAL FIRE-PLACE. Mr. Crane opened a mound on the banks of Sturgeon lake, which he calls a " sacrificial fire-place, " in which he found the bones of all the animals and fish now known to St. Joseph county, besides some of the extinct animals. He, however, believes this deposit was made by the modern Indians, who in former times used to offer such sacrifices, by building a fire-place and a fire therein, and throw on their offerings of flesh, fish and fowl, and immediately cover the whole with earth, and the charred remains would preserve the bones. Mr. Crane also found in a mound he excavated in Burr Oak copper utensils and the usual flints. These relics are found all over the county, and are to be seen in every cabinet the people have taken the trouble to gather. Dr. Nelson I. Packard, of Sturgis, had some very fine flints, but Mr. Crane had the finest selection, he having paid more attention to the subject. NOTTAWA-SEEPE RESERVATION. The settled occupancy of the soil of St. Joseph county by the aborigines of today commenced in 1821, when by the treaty with the Indians made in Chicago the territory of southwestern Michigan was ceded by the red men to the United States, several reservations, however, being omitted in this important transfer. Among these was the Nottawa-seepe reservation which embraced one hundred and fifteen sections, or 73,600 acres of land, in the northern and northeastern parts of St. Joseph county, and the southern and southeastern sections of Kalamazoo county to the north. The reservation which lay within this county embraced the township of Mendon, a portion of the western part of Leonidas and the eastern part of Park township. Vol. I-2

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ARRIVAL OF PATRICK MARANTETTE. Patrick Marantette, for years afterward one of the leading citizens of the county, acted as government agent of the Nottawaseepe Indians from 1823 to 1833, when they finally ceded their lands to the general government and the state of Michigan. He was therefore the first personage afterwards to become identified with the history of the county who came into intimate contact with the bands of Pottawatomies, Ottawas and Chippewas which comprised the (so-called) Nottawa-seepe Indians. At the time when he first commenced to have dealing with these wards of the government, the Indians had two principal villages in St. Joseph county. The larger was in the present township of Leonidas, on the river, and the smaller on the opposite bank from the present village of Mendon. As has been well stated by an early writer, the reservation comprised some of the choicest lands in St. Joseph county, taking in a portion of Nottawa prairie, the oak openings of Mendon, Leonidas and Park, and the heavy timbered lands to the north; the settlers looked with longing eyes upon the Indians' home and desired to possess it for themselves. THE POTTAWATOMIE NATION. At the settlement of St. Joseph county, the Pottawatomie nation (which preponderated on the Nottawa-seepe reservation) was scattered over a vast territory. A portion remained in Canada, a portion in what is now known as the Upper Peninsula, a portion along the Miami of the lakes and a portion in the state of Illinois, besides the comparatively small branch which remained on the reservation. The separate branches or sub-divisions were governed by their respective head and subordinate chiefs, agreeable to their national policy and the usages, customs and traditions by which they had always been governed. No national measures could be adopted, nor transfer of their hunting grounds be made, without the sanction of the majority of the head chiefs of all the several departments or tribes. PAPER BY MRS. ALICE (MARANTETTE) BOSSET. At this point, the author can do no better than to fall back upon the pen, and reliable information of Mrs. Alice Marantette

Page  19 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 19 Bosset, a granddaughter of Patrick Marantette, the old-time Indian agent and trader mentioned above. She has furnished the following interesting paper, which is reproduced in full, even though some repetition may be apparent: "At the time of the first settlement of Michigan, the home of various bands of Indians, notably those of the Pottawatomie, Ottawa and Chippewa, were in the St. Joseph Valley and they were known as the Nottawa-seepe Indians. In 1821, at the treaty of Chicago, when the territory of this section was ceded to the United States, there were several sections or reservations exempted from the provisions of the general land laws, among them being the Nottawa-seepe reservation which included all what is now Mendon township, the western part of Leonidas, eastern part of Park and the township of Kalamazoo county lying directly north of these lands. On this reservation were the homes of the Nottawa Indians, and their tepees were distributed over its area. One of their villages was in Leonidas, another across the St. Joseph River from the present site of the village of Mendon, called Marantette's old trading post. The lands of this reservation were the choicest ones of St. Joseph county, taking in as it did part of the famous Nottawa prairie, the Burr Oak openings of Mendon, Park and Leonidas, and the fine timber land of Wakeshma and Brady. Therefore, it is little wonder that the warrior in his eager quest for domain, cast longing eyes upon these broad acres that only awaited the hand of husbandry to yield bountiful harvests. From 1823 until.833 the government agent, Patrick Marantette, tried to get the Nottawa-seepe Indians to relinquish to the government the lands that had been so long their forefathers' but without much success. This was partially owing to the peculiar conditions of the Pottawatomie nation and the great area of country covered by it, as well as their national customs, laws and usages. To more intelligently understand the situation and the Indian title of the lands of this reservation, a brief review of the Pottawatomie nation in 1830 is necessary. THE POTTAWATOMIES IN 1830. "Part of this powerful Indian nation was in Canada, some in the Upper Peninsula near Marquette, others in the Miami valley, a portion in Illinois near Peoria, and the small bands on the Nottawa-seepe reservation. Each of these portions had its head men or tribal chiefs, and no measure of national importance, such as sell

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ing their hunting grounds, etc., could be made without the sanction or consent of all the head chiefs. As it was difficult to get them all together, the work of inducing them to relinquish these lands was slow. Nor was this all; the peculiar status of the Nottawas themselves made the question more complex. "The legitimate Pottawatomie chief at this time was Cush-eewees, but he had been supplanted by Pierre Morreau, a native of France and belonging to one of the first families of Canada. Meeting with reverses in Detroit in early life, he came to the banks of the beautiful winding St. Joe. Here he wedded a dusky maiden of the forest, and by his superior wisdom and cunning ways soon gained such ascendency over the poor untutored savages that they renounced the sway of Cush-ee-wees, then hereditary sachem, and installed Morreau in his stead. He reigned over them for many years until the oldest son, Sau-au-quett, became of man's estate and took the reins of government from his father, who was now in his dotage. Thus matters stood at the close of the Black Hawk war; when Gush-oo-woo died and was succeeded by Pee-quoit-ahkissee, a direct descendant of the Pottawatomie sachem. But the tribe, having been under the sway of Morreau and his son a long time, the most of the Indians acknowledged Sau-au-quett as their head man. SAU-AU-QUETT RELINQUISHES RESERVATION. "In the fall of 1833, the government having almost despaired of getting the Indians to relinquish the reservation, induced Sau-auquett and a few others of his followers to cede the lands to the United States. They were to receive about $30,000 and be allotted land west of the Mississippi, whither they were to go by land with their ponies, dogs and other belongings. After two years' peacable possession of their reservation, the first payment of $10,000 worth of calico, beads and other trinkets was made on the reservation near the Marantette homestead, across the river from Mendon village. "The first December of the same year (1883), for nearly a week the Indians were camping on the bank of the old St. Joe, casting eager looks at the bright colored calico, blankets, beads, etc., so temptingly displayed by the government agent, but refusing to confirm the treaty by receiving them, as they had consulted among themselves and had concluded that Sau-au-quett and his followers had no authority to cede their lands.

Page  21 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 21 "Governor Porter had issued proclamations that no liquor should be allowed on or near the reservation, but parties disobeyed the orders and provided the Indians with plenty of fire-water, until at length patience ceased to be a virtue, and Governor Porter commanded his agent, Mr. Marantette, to break in the heads of the barrels containing the whiskey. This was accordingly done and the Indians in their desire for the liquor drank it from the ground and eagerly lapped the place where it was spilled. Subsequently Mr. Marantette was sued for the value of the liquor and forced to pay several hundred dollars, notwithstanding he was obeying explicit orders of Governor Porter when he broke the heads of the barrels; nor was he ever reimbursed for this unjust payment of money. The Indians finally accepted the provisions of the treaty and received their money at the earnest solicitation of Sau-au-quett who said, 'I did sell this land, and I would sell it again for two gallons of whiskey.' The bad blood this engendered among the Indians was only wiped out by the murder of Sau-au-quett. at Coldwater in 1839, by one of his band who opposed the sale. LANDED IN KANSAS. "In 1835, which was the time the Indians were to leave the reservation, they had refused, claiming that the whites had encroached upon their lands and had not lived up to the terms of the treaty. Thus matters went on until 1840, when General Brady with a force of troops compelled them to vacate. The remnants of this once powerful tribe were taken to the Mississippi, whence they were to cross to the borders of Kansas. All went by land on their horses which were well packed for their journey. When arriving at their crossing on the Mississippi, Mr. Marantette and his assistant observed that some of the tribe were trying to escape. Mr. Marantette immediately sent Governor Porter a message apprising him that the Indians were trying to escape, and that the surest and only way to stop them from escaping would be to confiscate the horses of the leading conspirators. Receiving an approval from Governor Porter, Mr. Marantette and his assistants crossed them all on barges over to the border of Kansas, returning their horses after crossing where they settled; but finally their lands became so valuable that they sold them and many went to the Indian Territory. "Thus we have seen that the fair land of St. Joseph county has been inhabited by three distinct nations-Mound Builders, In

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY dians and Caucasians. Two of these races have passed away from this section; one into the darkest oblivion, and the other into a strange land, far from kindred and native hearths. Few of those who now enjoy the benefits of all the institutions of the Land of the Free realize the trials and tribulations of those who prepared the way and laid the foundations of our liberties. The poor savage who at first held possession of the land has gone, and we should fully realize the grand opportunities and possibilities which are before those who now till the soil of the Nottawa-seepe Indians." THE BLACK HAWK WAR. The crushing of Black Hawrk, the great chief of the Sacs and Foxes, as a result of the war which he waged against the United States government, in 1832, led to the cession by most of the Indians of all their lands east of the Mississippi river, and undoubtedly had a bearing upon the relinquishment of the Nottawaseepe reservation. As the warlike tribes led by Black Hawk were in the habit of annually passing through St. Joseph county, along the Chicago trail, to receive their annuities from the British Government, the early settlers became well acquainted with the fierce disposition of their leader, and when war actually was declared by him, they were naturally thrown into a high state of excitement and alarm. The settlers armed themselves in anticipation of Black Hawk's invasion of St. Joseph county, on his way to Detroit, and for several weeks during the progress of actual hostilities in Illinois "business was almost at a stand-still" in this part of Michigan. As an illustration of what a complete cessation was put to the life of St. Joseph county, it may be stated that the stage lines which had been running for a number of years and been well patronized were entirely abandoned during the "war scare," and as a result the principal line, under the proprietorship of Asahel Savery, was thrown into bankruptcy, or at least suspended business; but, as the historian knows, Black Hawk penetrated the country only a few miles east of the Mississippi river, and St. Joseph county soon resumed its accustomed life. Not long after the Black Hawk troubles were quieted, Cushee-wees, the able chief of the Nottawa-seepe Indians, died of consumption and Peequoit-ah-kis-see, the Pottawatomie chief of ancient lineage, succeeded him in name, although in actual authority

Page  23 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 23 Sau-au-quett continued to be the master spirit. It was with the latter that Governor Porter treated in September, 1833, when the chiefs of the Nottawa-seepe Indians were induced to sign their reservation over to the United States government. Although the treaty of cession was made in September 1833, it was not until the spring of 1840 that the Indians really left the reservation. Sau-au-quett had been killed at Coldwater the year before, and it also happens that the last murder committed by an Indian, of which a white man was a victim, occurred in the winter of the same year, so that 1839-40 may be considered the end of Indian occupancy in St. Joseph county. The period covering the six years preceding, in which Sau-au-quett and Marantette appeared to be the central figures, is thus sketched, chiefly on the authority of the Indian agent himself. THE FIRST PAYMENT. The treaty signed, a day for the first payment for the cession was appointed in December following, at Marantette's, near Mendon village. In the conditions of the treaty was one that the Indians should retain quiet and peaceable possession of their reservation for two years before they were removed to a new reservation to be set off for them west of the Mississippi, to which they were to be taken by land, with their ponies and dogs, prepared to provide for themselves as best they could. The day of the "big payment" came, but in the meantime the Indians had been consulting among themselves, and the Nottawa band repudiated the treaty, holding that Sau-au-quett and the men who signed it, had no authority to sell the land, and they would not confirm the sale by receiving the payment offered. Governor Porter had issued his proclamation forbidding the sale of liquors on or near the reservation, but, notwithstanding, parties did bring it, and sold it, thereby getting the Indians drunk. For some days the negotiations went on without success, and in the midst of them Sau-au-quett came, dressed in his gayest apparel, blue military coat, regulation buttons, an immense chapeau with tall plumes, sword, sash and pistols, and mounted upon his horse caparisoned in grand style. Swinging his sword above his head, he exclaimed, "I have sold the land! and I would sell it again for two gallons of whiskey."

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ATTEMPTED MURDER OF SAU-AU-QUETT. Quau-sett stood by his side, and as the chief uttered his last declaration, he sprang forward, and, seizing one of the pistols, aimed it full at the chief's breast, and pulled the trigger. The weapon missed fire, and before Quau-sett could recover himself, Sau-au-quett aimed a sweeping blow with his sword, which, striking on the shoulder of his foe, cut through the blanket which was around him, but a heavy plug of navy tobacco rolled up inside saved Quau-sett's head. Mr. Marantette, who had great influence with the Indians, immediately took Quau-sett in charge, and kept him out of the way. After much delay, the Indians were finally induced, largely by Sau-au-quett, to receive their first payment, about ten thousand dollars' worth of calicoes, trinkets, blankets, knives, tobacco, pipes, saddles, bridles, guns, hatchets, etc., which were distributed to them under the supervision of Governor Porter, by Messrs. Marantette, La Borde and Navarre. The Indians were dissatisfied at the payment, claiming that partiality was shown, but they finally took what was given them, and, as soon as it was possible to do so, squandered it all for drink, or were robbed of it by unprincipled white men. During the deliberations of the Indians, certain persons brought their whiskey, not only up to the reservation, but immediately on it where the council was being held, and, refusing to withdraw, Governor Porter ordered Mr. Marantette to break in the heads of the barrels, which was accordingly done, the Indians falling down on the ground and drinking as much as they could before the earth swallowed it up. Even the heads of the tribe did this worse than beastly thing, much to the disgust of the governor, who had not been intimately acquainted with the red man on his 'native heath."' Mr. Marantette was subsequently sued by the owner of the liquor, and a judgment obtained against him, which went to the circuit court, and, notwithstanding the facts of the case-the orders of Governor Porter-the judgment was affirmed, which, with his attorney's fees, amounted to several hundred dollars; and Mr. Marantette was forced to pay the sum. In 1835, the time set for the Indians' removal, they showed signs of rebellion and reluctance to remove according to the terms of the treaty, claiming that the same had been violated on

Page  25 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 25 the part of the government, in that, though they (the Indians) were to have peaceable and undisturbed possession of their land for two years, yet the settlers had begun locating their lands immediately after the payment, which was true. As soon as it was ascertained that the United States had acquired title to the reservation, the settlers, disregarding the treaty stipulation to the contrary, began at once to make claims of choice locations, and it was but a short time before the better part of the lands were located. This movement closed up the trails of the Indians, circumscribed their hunting privileges, and drove off the game; and the cattle of the settlers trespassed on the fields and gardens of the Indians, which were unfenced. Bad blood was thereby engendered on both sides. Negotiations were entered into to get the Indians together and obtain their consent to move, but no masterspirit was now among them to control them, or rouse their pride. Morreau was dead, Isadore had been poisoned, Sau-au-quette warned by the death of his brother and of the chief, Sag-a-mo, of Chicago, was not able to command the people as before, and it was not until the spring of 1840, as stated, that the Indians were finally induced to leave their homes, and then only by the appearance on the scene of General Brady and a troop of United States dragoons. Sau-au-quett, in 1839, had fallen a victim to the never-dying sentiment and desire for revenge which filled the hearts of some of his tribe. Pamp-te-pe and John Maguago were in hiding, and it was only after the appearance of the cavalry that the Indians saw it was useless to resist any longer, and thereupon submitted to the inevitable, and left their ancient home for their new one in the west. The women and children, the infirm and unhorsed, were carried in wagons, while those who had horses rode them; and thus passed this remnant of the Pottawatomie nation, which was once the lord of every foot of territory they traversed, to their halting-place in Holdeman's grove, La Salle county, Illinois. Here Maguago and his family, fearing assassination at the hands of some of his tribe for his acts in securing their removal, secreted themselves until the search for them was given up, when they retraced their way to the reservation, and his descendants lived for many years thereafter in the township of Athens, Calhoun county. At Peoria the faith of the government agents with the Indians was again broken, and contrary to the agreement that they were

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY to be taken by land to the new reservation, with their ponies and dogs, they were cajoled and driven, at the point of the bayonet, on board of a steamboat, their ponies sold for a trifle, or confiscated; then down the Illinois to the Mississippi, thence to the Arkansas, up the Arkansas to the border of Kansas Territory, the powerless and impoverished people were taken, and disembarked under the superintendence of Buel Holcomb, an Athens man, the agents not daring to put in their appearance. Thence, as stated, in after years they migrated to the reservation provided for them in Indian Territory. DEATH OF MORREAU. The death of Isadore, or Setone Morreau, has been mentioned. He was poisoned by the squaw of a neighboring family, who offered him a drink of whiskey, which he refused to take after smelling of it; but, on being taunted by her of cowardice, he drank, and soon after died. Isadore was as cruel as a savage could well be. He killed his own sister, who was known to the settlers as Bettsher family calling her Nem-ee-na-os-stabbing her to the heart in a drunken frenzy, about two years after the "big payment" in Colon township. DETAILS OF SAU-AU-QUETT'S MURDER. Sau-au-quett had a little squaw, who was quite a favorite with the old chief, who, when everything was pleasant and she was not under the influence of liquor, was comparatively amiable, but at other times was a fiend incarnate. She killed Quau-sett in 1835, the same who attempted to kill Sau-au-quett on the reservation in December, 1833. This murder, however, was condoned by the presentation of a horse, saddle and bridle to the son of the dead man, by Sau-au-quett, in accordance with the Indian custom and laws. Sau-au-quett was killed at Coldwater, in 1839, by one of the tribe who was opposed to the sale of the lands. The old chief was sleeping in his tent when the murderer crept stealthily into the apartment, and, with one blow, drove his knife through the old man's belt and leather shirt, into his bosom to the handle. The chief sprang to his feet, gave one whoop, and fell to the ground dead. The murderer was arrested by the authorities of the county

Page  27 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 27 of Branch, and held in custody. The friends of the murdered chief demanded the murderer, to be dealt with according to their laws and customs, but were refused. After some negotiation they were appeased by the present of blankets, a pony and equipments, whereupon the friends of the prisoner came and demanded his release, the offense having been condoned. But they, too, were refused, unless they would consent to remove, with the tribe, at once from the reservation. This they declined to do; but in the spring of 1840, when the Indians were finally removed, the prisoner was released and went away with them.

Page  28 CHAPTER III. ALONG TRAIL AND RESERVATION. THE OLD CHICAGO TRAIL-BLACK HAWK USED IT-HIS SENSE OF HONOR-SURVEYORS USE THE OLD TRAIL-THE ROAD PUT THROUGH THE COUNTY-FIRST MAIL ROUTE AND STAGESSURVEYORS ADVERTISE THE COUNTRY-WAYNE COUNTY PIONEERS-JUDGE STURGIS COMES-NOTTAWA PRAIRIE SETTLERSSITES OF CONSTANTINE AND THREE RIVERS-CENTERVILLE AND COLON-FRENCH SETTLERS OF MENDON —FIRST COMERS TO BURR OAK TOWNSHIP —THE WASHTENAW TRAIL-SETTLEMENTS ABOUT NOTTAWA-SEEPE GEORGE MATTHEWS-THE DUNKIN BROTHERS-MCMILLAN AND SHERMAN JOSEPH BUTLER-ROBERT COWAN AND WIFE-ANDREW WATKINS. Among the most prominent features which project themselves from the details of the first settlements in St. Joseph county is the fact that the incursion of white men into its present area was by way of the old Indian trail from Detroit. It was also near this historic highway that their first homes were made, the spread of settlement later reaching the borders of the Nottawa-seepe reservation to the north. THE OLD CHICAGO TRAIL. As the St. Joseph valley is the acknowledged keynote to the settlement and development of the county, so was the old Chicago trail-later, the "military road" —the avenue along which the Indian tribes and the first white settlers entered this section of southern Michigan. From the advent of the first Frenchmen and Englishmen who penetrated into the central regions of the United States, until the period of Black Hawk's greatest activities, from 1812 to 1832, the Indian trail around the foot of Lake Michigan had been the highway for the red men of northern America traveling anywhere by land between the regions of the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi valley. When the country became a battling 28

Page  29 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 29 ground between England and the United States, in 1812, and Detroit and Fort Dearborn were recognized as military keys to the occupancy of interior America, the old Indian trail was still the traveled path between those points and was utilized by both white and red men. BLACK HAWK USED IT. In the war of 1812, Black Hawk was the most powerful native ally of the British. He felt that he had good grounds for deserting the Americans, but found, after he had joined the British, that they were not as powerful as he had been led to believe, and soon returned to the home of his people (the Sacs and Foxes). During his absence these tribes had been removed by the United States government up the Missouri river, and Black Hawk found that he had been displaced by the more pacific chief, Keokuk. Through the influence of the two, the Sacs and Foxes were divided into war and peace parties, in their relations to the Americans. After the war of 1812 Black Hawk was in constant communication with the British government, and every year passed along the Chicago trail, at the head of other less noted warriors of the Sac nation, to receive his annuities from his royal patron represented by the authorities at Fort Malden. When the procession began to approach the settlements, runners were sent out to notify the inhabitants along the trail that the main body of dusky warriors was coming and to assure them of the pacific intentions of the Indians. It was rarely that any trouble arose; in fact, for many years previous to the outbreak of the Black Hawk war, in 1832, the sole cause of disturbance between the whites and the Indians migrating along the Chicago trail was "fire water," and all the name implies. From the fact that Black Hawk and his representative men and women made these pilgrimages annually through St. Joseph county, the fierce and able chief was well known to several of its first settlers. BLACK HAWK'S SENSE OF HONOR. Patrick Marantette, the government Indian agent from 1823 to 1833, was particularly well acquainted with the doughty warrior and had this story to tell, which well illustrated the honest streak in the Indian's character, but which, from the best accounts, was largely patched with dishonesty and deception. The scene was

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY laid in the trading post at Coldwater and the time was 1825. Marantette was then about twenty-four. Black Hawk and his people had been to Malden and were on their return home with their annuity. As Marantette 's, at Coldwater, was the last trading post before reaching Chicago, the Indians naturally stopped there. They dismouinted from their ponies, and soon the room where the youth sold his goods was crowded by braves and squaws, all eager to buy. Black Hawk, armed with a long lance, was in the thick of the barter. While the hubbub and the trading were at their height, a squaw offered Marantette a fine deer skin in exchange for something which took her fancy on his shelf. A glance art the skin showed him that it bore his private price mark (sixteen shillings) on one corner, and a closer examination brought the fact to mind that it was one he had bought but a few days before. He therefore seized it and claimed it as his property. But the squaw clung to it, and refused to give it up. In the midst of the wrangle, Black Hawk came up, and without examining into the merits of the case laid his spear on the deer skin, thus claiming it as his own. But Marantette refused to be imposed upon by the squaw or to be bullied by the great Sac warrior, and taking another skin which he had just bought of the Indians made his price mark on a corner of it, and laid it beside the skin in dispute. The young trader pointed to the two marks as evidence of his title, Black Hawk could not but "see the point." and the other Indians in the room, who had gathered around loudly grunted "How! How! How!" which is an equivalent to the English exclamation of approval, "Hear! Hear!' The skin was passed over without further protest to Marantette, the deceitful squaw was driven in disgrace from the trading room, and the Indians approved the sturdy conduct of the young merchant by making the almost unprecedented purchase of five or six hundred dollars' worth of goods. SURVEYORS USE THE OLD TRAIL. In 1825 the congress of the United States appropriated ten thousand dollars to survey a military road one hundred feet in width between Detroit and Chicago. The surveyor made beautiful and elaborate plans for a grand military highway, but after he had progressed a short distance from Detroit found that he was not going to get very far along on his way to Chicago if he cut his road according to his appropriation. He therefore fell back on the

Page  31 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 31 old Chicago trail, which became thenceforth the center line of his survey. The flagmen were sent in advance as far as they could be seen, the bearings taken by the compass, and the distance chained and marked; then the flag was advanced as before, the trees being blazed fifty feet on either side of the trail. With the exception of a single mile in Washtenaw county, every bend and angle of the Indian trail was followed by the government surveyors, from Tecumseh to Chicago. THE ROAD PUT THROUGH THE COUNTY. The Chicago road was not put through St. Joseph county until after tht Black Hawk war, but the first settlers filled up the marshes and bridged most of the streams along the route before the government put the finishing touches to their work. The stage companies also found it necessary to build more bridges and make the road more substantial, and in 1833-4 the government completed the road through Branch and St. Joseph counties. The "hundredfeet highway," as provided by the 1825 congress, was divided into three sections; for thirty feet the Chicago road was grubbed and leveled, for another thirty feet the trees were cut low, and for forty feet the trees were cut down to "ordinary height." The Chicago trail and the Chicago road entered St. Joseph county on the east line of the southeast quarter of the southeast quarter of section 25, Burr Oak township, running southwest across the southeast corner of the township into Fawn River township, thence westerly between Sweet and Honey lakes to the present village site of Sturgis, and thence through the northern portions of the townships of Sturgis, White Pigeon and Mottville, south of Klinger's lake, and through the present sites of the villages of White Pigeon and Mottville. As far as White Pigeon, it substantially followed the route of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, passing south of it almost to the line between Sturgis and White Pigeon townships, and leaving it where the iron way bends northward from White Pigeon village to Constantine. FIRST MAIL ROUTE AND STAGES. In 1829 the first mail route in St. Joseph county was established on the Chicago road, from Tecumseh to White Pigeon, the contractor being John Winchell, of the latter place, who bound

Page  32 32 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY himself to carry the mail weekly each way in summer and twice a week in winter. In 1830 two-horse stages were run over the route to Niles by Asahel Savery and the Stewarts, twice every week. In 1832 the frequency of the trips was increased to two per week, but during the several weeks covering the Black Hawk war the coaches were deserted, although they continued their regular trips. SURVEYORS ADVERTISE THE COUNTRY. When the government surveyors, following the old Chicago trail, ran their lines through the southern sections of the present St. Joseph county, they saw the country was most fair to look upon, and also brought back to Detroit most enthusiastic reports of its fertility, the abundance of the game and fish which crowded its woods and lakes, and the manifold excellencies of the country as a site and a creator of homes. These enthusiastic representations found a fertile soil among the pioneers of Wayne county, with its great, malarial-breeding marshes and its dank, heavy forests, and among the prospectors who followed closely on the heels of the surveyors of the national "military road" were John W. Fletcher, George Hubbard and Captain Moses Allen. In the early summer of 1826 they started from the Detroit end of the Chicago trail, followed it to Bertrand's, on the St. Joseph river, no cabin of a white man greeting them at this time west of Ypsilanti. Continuing their southwesterly course, in southwestern Michigan they finally sighted to the north the beauties of Nottawa prairie, which stretched toward the Indian reservation occupied four years before. As Nottawa prairie had not then been surveyed and Indians were still numerous, although they had their special reserve, the Wayne county prospectors failed to make any location. But in the spring of 1827 two Wayne county men actually settled in St. Joseph county with their families, thus forming the first nucleus of its population. WAYNE COUNTY PIONEERS. On April 10, 1827, John Winchell made his home on the west end of White Pigeon prairie, deserting Wayne county for the purpose. In May, Leonard Cutler, of Indiana, and his family of boys settled on the eastern edge of the same prairie, and not long

Page  33 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 33 afterward Arba Heald, also a Wayne county man, made his home not far from Cutler's. The story is current that these three pioneers of St. Joseph county divided White Pigeon prairie among themselves by running two furrows across it from north to south. The next comer to the prairie after the tripartite division of the land was Dr. David Page, who arrived later in the summer of 1827. He was the first physician in the county, unmarried, extremely youthful in appearance and was accompanied by a brother, Reed Page. They built themselves a house of logs not far west from the present village of White Pigeon. JUDGE STURGIS COMES. In August, of the same year, John Sturgis, afterward first judge of the county court, and George Thurston, a younger man, came from Monroe, in the Lake Erie region, broke up ten acres on the eastern edge of Sturgis prairie (now in Fawn River township), and sowed the tract to wheat. In the spring of the following year Mr. Sturgis brought his family to the locality to reside, but in August, 1829, took up homestead land in section 4, now Nottawa township and then near the southern border of the Nottawa-seepe reservation. NOTTAWA PRAIRIE SETTLERS. About the same time John W. Fletcher, who went out from Wayne county with the first band of prospectors, located on Nottawa prairie, finished a cabin in October, and celebrated Christmas eve by bringing his parents and two sisters to occupy it. Mr. Fletcher lived on this homestead for more than fifty years. Others who came to Nottawa prairie in 1829 were Amos Howe, Henry Powers, Russell Post and Dr. Alexander McMillan, the last named living with his family all that winter in wagons. SITES OF CONSTANTINE AND THREE RIVERS. Captain Alvin Calhoon came to White Pigeon prairie in 1829, locating within the present limits of Florence, and probably at even an earlier date William Meek, of Wayne county, selected land at the intersection of the St. Joseph and Fawn rivers, on the site of Constantine village. Vol. I-3

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY In the spring of the same year Jacob McInterfer and his family also migrated from Wayne county to locate on the section of land west of the Rocky river, which the head of the household had selected in the previous year. The Third ward of Three Rivers now occupies a portion of the McInterfer homestead. While he was erecting his permanent log house, his family lived in the wagons in which they had journeyed from near Detroit, and the cooking was done in an improvised shanty which he had thrown together between two trees. CENTERVILLE AND COLON. The coming of Judge William Connor to Nottawa prairie, in 1829, soon followed by the advent of Judge John Sturgis, Henry Powers, Henry Post and others, gave white men a foothold on the fertile acres of Nottawa prairie. Centerville, the county seat, came into being in November, 1831, when the original plat of the village was surveyed and recorded, one of its proprietors, and really the only active one, being Robert Clark, Jr., a government surveyor. The Schellhous family was also established on Nottawa prairie in 1829, when Roswell of that name came from Ohio. In the following year three other brothers arrived, George being one of the chief projectors of the village of Colon in 1832. FRENCH SETTLERS OF MENDON. The first settler of Mendon township was Francois Moutan, who came to the Nottawa-seepe reservation in 1831, as the agent of the Godfroi trading post situated on the south bank of the St. Joe, opposite the site of the present village of Mendon. His daughter, Frances, afterward married Patrick Marantette, who became the agent in August, 1833, after he had served for ten years as Indian agent at Coldwater. Mr. Marantette was born of French parents, near Detroit, where his father had long been a trader and in daily contact with the Canadian Indians, whose confidence in him was unbounded. It was this paternal prestige which enabled young Marantette to receive the appointment of Indian agent for the Nottawa-seepe Indians while he was yet a mere youth, in 1823. He bought a section of land in the reservation, which was reserved to him when the Indians disposed of

Page  35 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 35 their lands to the government in 1833. Two years afterward he married Mr. Moutan's daughter, was one of the founders of the village of Mendon in 1845, and in everything which constituted a pioneer tradesman, a good and generous citizen, stood among the foremost during his long and active life. Certainly no man in St. Joseph county had a stronger or a better influence with the Nottawa-seepe Indians, or was more instrumental in finally inducing them to leave the country to the superior development of the white man. Peter Neddeaux came to the reservation in 1833 and located near the fort. He was also a Frenchman, as was the next comer, Leander Metha, who came from Monroe in 1834, and settled on the north side of the river, on the present site of Mendon. There he built a rough log cabin, which was afterward used for school purposes. FIRST COMERS TO BURR OAK TOWNSHIP. In 1831 Burr Oak township received as its first settlers, Samuel Haslet and family and George Miller, a bachelor, who settled upon land long known as the Elder Farley farm. The village of Burr Oak was not laid out until twenty years afterward: so that compared with the other villages of the county, it is quite immature. A more detailed account of the settlement of the different townships of the county will be found in the sketches devoted to these civil sections. In the foregoing narrative it is evident that the pioneer settlements of St. Joseph county first followed the Chicago trail, and then spread northward along the borders of the reservation and the valley of the St. Joseph river. Outside of the reservation, the lands were surveyed into townships in 1825-6 and subdivided into sections in 1828. The only settlers who occupied their land before its subdivision into sections were Winchell, Cutler and Heald. THE WASHTENAW TRAIL. Some of the earliest settlers of St. Joseph county who entered land and came hither to make homes for themselves took a more northerly route than the Chicago road, following what was known as the Washtenaw trail. This approached St. Joseph valley from Calhoun county, entering from the northeast corner of Leonidas

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY township, thence running in southwesterly direction to Nottawa prairie and thence, via Centerville, to White Pigeon. The Washtenaw trail was made the basis of a territorial road from Jacksonburg (now the city of Jackson), via Spring Arbor, the north bend of the St. Joseph river, through Nottawa prairie and Centerville, to White Pigeon. In April, 1833, it was laid out by Commissioners Edgar McCawley, Hiram Thompson and Milton Barn. SETTLEMENTS ABOUT NOTTAWA-SEEPE. It has been stated in a general way that a number of the earliest settlers of St. Joseph county located along the borders of the Nottawa-seepe reserve, waiting for the lands to be thrown open to the settlement of the whites. Some of these early pioneers, who thus looked with longing eyes across the border, are mentioned by William H. Cross in a paper which he has contributed to the "Michigan Pioneer Collections." It is given below because it is both interesting and historically valuable: "In 1829, Judge Connor had built his cabin, put in some crops, and was about to go to the landoffice at Monroe, to enter his land, and had saved a few dollars to pay necessary expenses there and back. One day in coming in from his work, he found his cabin had been entered, and on examination found his money gone, and could only imagine who was the thief, nor did he ever find out, but he consoled himself that it was only the expense money and not the means to pay for his land that was taken away from him, he not doubting that the robber, knowing of his intention to buy his land, had expected to find that there; but the judge had ordered the sum for the land payment to be sent him at Ypsilanti, where he could get it on his way to Monroe, and the only inconvenience was short rations and close times on the trip to the landoffice and back, which, however, he accomplished, and saved that much desired home. This, so far as is known, was the first crime to be committed by a white man against a settler in Nottawa. GEORGE MATTHEWS. "When in 1831 George Matthews, from Zanesville, Ohio, came to Leonidas, he settled on the east half of section 32, just south of the St. Joseph river, and above the ford known as Appletree ford, where he built his cabin. The village of the Nottawa

Page  37 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 37 Indians was on the river some distance below, generally on the north side, but at some seasons on the south or prairie side; on the river some half mile above was the trading post of Thomas Hatch, the Indian trader, and in passing from one to the other, Matthews' cabin was on the route. One day when Matthews was sick with chills and fever, and his wife also sick with fever in her bed, a drunken Indian came riding on his pony, whooping and yelling to the door, and calling him out. He tried to quiet him and have him leave, but he would not. Then Matthews' spirits rose above his chills and he went out and told him to go; but not starting, he was pulled off his horse and his face slapped. A few days after he returned with a number of Indians and squaws, and told Matthews he had insulted him when drunk, and must now fight him when sober; there was no dissent from the offer, only asking how they should fight. Rifles were chosen by the Indian, and with his rifle in his hand they went a short distance to where the Indians were seated under some trees. Mrs. Matthews, fearing something wrong, took their hunting knife under her apron and went along. When they got where the others were Matthews says, 'Come, where we stand.' The Indian looked at the determined white man and quailed, saying he would fight with knife. Matthews said: 'Well wife, go bring me my hunting knife.' She at once produced it from under her apron and he told his foe to come, but he did not. Then Matthews stepped out and cut a hickory switch, and stepping up to the fighting Indian, laid it with no light power over his shoulders. With which the Indians and squaws yelled out 'squaw!' to the Indian, and applauded the brave white man and his courageous wife; and no kindness or favor was too much for the Nottawa Indians to render to the fearless 'Chemokeman' and his noble squaw so long as they were allowed to remain on their reservation. THE DUNKIN BROTHERS. "Among the very early settlers on Nottawa prairie was James B. Dunkin and his brother Samuel, who, with their aged father, bought and settled on sections two and three. They were Virginians, and with more than usual means for early settlers, and Dr. James B. soon made good improvements and raised grain to spare when the settlers in Leonidas and on the Reserve came in. It was often times very hard for them to get enough to eat,

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and often times without money to buy with. At a time of great difficulty to procure supplies, application was made to the doctor for some of his grain, and he asked the person applying, 'Have you got the money to buy with?' and the man's reply was 'Yes sir, I have the means to pay for what I need.' Then said Neighbor Dunkin, 'I cannot let you have any; for you can get it elsewhere. I am going to keep what I have got for those that have no money to buy with, and they will pay me in work when I want it, or when they can earn it. Their families must have it.' MCMILLAN AND SHERMAN. "In the first settlement of southwestern Michigan, it was deemed right and proper that the first person who settled on a piece of land should be entitled to the right of purchase of the same when it came into market by sale at the United States landoffice of the district; and it was held unjust for any person to in any way interfere with the squatter's right. In 1828 Dr. McMillan settled with his family on the southeast quarter of section 4, on the prairie, and in the early summer of 1829 Benjamin Sherman, of Mt. Morris, N. Y., was looking in the country for a location, and the beauty of this section attracted his attention, and on his way homeward he went to the Monroe landoffice and entered the land. Soon after, he came on and took possession, and the fact of his so doing was known from Niles to Tecumseh, among all settlers, and a prejudicial feeling created that prevented Mr. Sherman, who was a man of more than ordinary education and ability, from ever becoming a popular or highly esteemed citizen among us; and to-day, among the old settlers, when that piece of land comes to mind, that act is brought to remembrance. JOSEPH BUTLER. "In 1830 Joseph Butler settled on the east half of northeast quarter of section 10, in Nottawa, which he bought of another man who was on it. The next spring he had decided to purchase the east half of the northwest quarter of the same section, the lot joining him having been taken by Mr. Dunkin. One morning he was told that a man decided to buy that lot, and had just left for the landoffice on horseback. Butler went to his house, provided himself with moccasins for the journey, and on foot started on

Page  39 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 39 the race for his land. He could track the horseman and followed as best he could, and between Tecumseh and Monroe, while the horse and man were eating, he passed them, and without loss of time entered Monroe, found the land register, made his application for his land, stepped to the receiver's office, paid his money, got his duplicate for his land, and just as he crossed the Raisin bridge on his return, met his horseman friend going into town. He took it more leisurely home. Soon after, he built on that land, which was ever after his home until his death. ROBERT COWAN AND WIFE. "Robert Cowan says: 'I arrived at White Pigeon, November 14, 1831, having traveled on foot from Cleveland and from Detroit, on the line of the Chicago trail; and at Nottawa creek in Leonidas, on the 15th, got ready to raise a log cabin on the 16th; asked every man within ten miles; six came and got it half up, then it set in cold, and we, being close by the Indians' summer village, went into an Indian wigwam and did not get into our cabin until April. In the spring of 1832, while at work, I heard an axe, went to see who it was, and found Alfred Holcomb of Dry Prairie, felling small trees on which to cross the creek; he had his plow irons on his back, going to Prairie Ronde, nearly thirty miles. After five days he got back. My brother James, needing a small hook in our sawmill, walked to White Pigeon, was gone five days, and expenses four dollars, for fifty cents worth of work. In 1833, I was reduced very low with sickness. Good Mother Fletcher, of Nottawa (now seventy-five years of age), rode ten miles on a buckboard behind a yoke of oxen, on Tuesday, stayed and nursed me with a mother's care until Thursday, then rode home on a load of lumber, and all this on very slight acquaintance.' "Mrs. Jane Cowan, wife of Robert, relates the following: 'In the fall of 1838, Mr. Cowan went to Pennslyvania on business and was taken sick and detained. Every person in the neighborhood and country was taken sick and there was no medicine in the country; our two children, the youngest some two months old, and myself were sick and no one well enough to take care of us. It was now October, and the nights became chilly, I was not able to bring in wood; I saw a number of Indians passing on a hunting excursion, and crawling on my hands and knees to the door, beckoned them to come to me. They came in, a dozen or more, great, tall

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Indians with their guns and knives. I did not fear them now. I made signs to them to bring in some wood, telling them as well as I could, that chemokeman (white man) was not at home, gone far away, back paw-maw (by-and-by), then come home and mill make naponee (flour), and I would pay them. They brought in a nice lot of wood, and when Mr. Cowan came home and started the mill, they came and got their flour. I relate these incidents to show the kindness of the Indians if they are properly and kindly treated.' ANDREW WATKINS. "Andrew Watkins, of Leonidas, gives us this: 'In the fall of 1833 I was living at Dry Prairie, and Benjamin Ferris, of Sherwood, was taken very sick. I was sent for, and found Ferris very sick with pleurisy, and in great pain, and the nearest doctor, William Mottraw, of Nottawa. I at once took my Indian pony and started for the doctor, at his home; I found he had gone to Pigeon. I kept on, and at Pigeon learned that he had left for Sturgis. At Sturgis, he had just started for Bishop's in Burr Oak, and there I found him, and he inquired how he could get to Ferris'. I said I would lead him and we started, and taking my course we forded the St. Joseph river above Sturgeon lake, some two miles, and got to Ferris' soon after sunrise the morning after I had started; riding about sixty miles in the day and night, and much of it guided only by my knowledge of the country and of the course of the Indian trails and their fording places of the streams. We found Ferris had suffered severely, but had vigor and strength enough, with good care and the doctor's aid, to pull through and recover.' "

Page  41 CHAPTER IV. PIONEER THINGS AND EVENTS. FIRST LAND ENTRIES-LAND OFFICES-FIRST ORCHARDS-PIONEER AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS-FIRST MILLS OF THE COUNTYFIRST REAL GRIST MILL-OTHER EARLY INDUSTRIES-COMMENCEMENT OF BUSINESS-THE HOTEL APPEARS-ENTER POSTOFFICE AND MAIL ROUTE-LIFE AND DEATH-COUNTY SEAT LOCATED-CIVIL, POLITICAL, JUDICIAL-RELIGIOUS-EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL-MEDICAL SOCIETY AND PHYSICIANS -COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY-"THE OLD LOG HOUSE," BY L. D. WATKINS IN "PIONEER COLLECTIONS"-"PIONEERING IN SOUTHERN MICHIGAN," BY PROFESSOR J. W. BEAL"OLD TIMES FROM A WOMAN'S STANDPOINT," BY MRS. HENRY CHURCH —"M APLE SUGAR MAKING," FROM "ST. JOSEPH COUNTY REPUBLICAN. " Without making any pretense at close classification, the following array of "first things" will form a fairly accurate account of the planting of the seeds of progress in St. Joseph county up to the final relinquishment of the soil by the Indians in 1840. FIRST LAND ENTRIES. The first land entry was made by Ezekiel Metcalf, of Cattaraugus county, New York, on the 14th day of June, 1828, of the east half of the northeast quarter of section 1, township 8, south of range 10, west of the principal meridian, in what is now known as the town of Sturgis. Metcalf sold his tract to DeGarmo Jones, of Detroit, November 3, 1830. A portion of the tract is included in the corporate limits of the village of Sturgis. The other entries made in 1828 were as follows: John Sturgis, October 22nd, southwest quarter of section 6, Fawn River town41

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ship; October 24th, Arba Heald, east half of southwest quarter section 5, White Pigeon township; Robert Clark, Jr., west half of the southwest quarter of the same section and the east half of the southeast quarter of section 6, White Pigeon; John W. Anderson and Duncan R. Clark, west half of the same quarter, and Asahel Savery southwest quarter of the same section (6), October 24th; George Buck, west half of the southeast quarter of section 1, Sturgis, on November 24th, and on the 29th of the same month Luther Newton and John Winchell, east half of the southeast quarter of section 9, White Pigeon; Leonard Cutler, on December 11th, east half of northeast quarter, section 6, same township; Ruth A. Clarke, east half of the southwest quarter of section 1, Sturgis, and Hart L. Stewart, west half of southwest quarter of same section, on December 18th; on that day, Alanson C. Stewart, west half of northeast quarter and east half of northeast quarter, section 7, Fawn River. In the year 1829 one hundred and sixty entries were made, among the principal being the locations of Judge Meek at Constantine; Henry Powers, Henry and Russell Post, William Connor, William Hazzard and John W. Fletcher, Nottawa prairie; Jacob McInterfer, at Lockport and Three Rivers, and Joseph R. Williams, Robert Clark, Jr., and the Stewarts, at Mottville. LAND OFFICES. From their first settlement until June 1. 1831, the pioneers of St. Joseph county were obliged to go to Monroe to enter their lands; but at that time a land office was established at White Pigeon, of which Abram S. Edwards was register and T. P. Sheldon, receiver. In 1834 the office was removed to Kalamazoo. It is said that the United States surveyors took advantage of their knowledge of the lands they had surveyed, and entered for themselves and their friends some of the best sections in the county. Among them were Robert Clark, Jr., Prange Risdon, Musgrove Evans and John Mullett; and the above statement is no intimation of dishonest conduct, for since the United States government has sent out its surveyors, the practical use of the knowledge which they gain in the course of their professional work has always been considered one of the chief advantages of their position in a new and unknown country.

Page  43 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 43 FIRST ORCHARDS. Leonard Cutler planted the first apple seeds for nursery purposes, in the spring of 1828. When three years old, the young trees were grafted by a Mr. Jones, who on Cutler's arrival in 1831, transplanted them on the Disbrow farm five miles east of White Pigeon. Many of the first orchards in the county were supplied from this nursery. The first orchard in the county was set out in 1829, by Mr. Murray on White Pigeon Prairie. The trees came from Fort Wayne. IMPROVED LIVE STOCK. The first improved live stock was introduced by Elisha White from Connecticut, in 1835-6. He first brought some short-horn cattle and an improved breed of hogs to his farm on White Pigeon Prairie. The hogs were known as White's breed. The father of J. J. Davis, of White Pigeon, brought the first blooded horse on that prairie for stock purposes, from Ulster county, New York, in 1833. PIONEER AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENTS. The first plows used were of cast iron, but soon thrown aside. In 1841, A. C. Fisher invented a plow with heavy castings and timber, measuring about fifteen feet from handle to clevis and requiring ten yoke of oxen to work it. The first grain was cut with cradles. The first reaper was brought into the county in 1842, but did not work well, and was discarded. The next year a McCormick was introduced which frightened the horses so that they ran away, breaking the machine, and they had to finish the work with the "Kirby," which they had discarded. FIRST MILLS OF THE COUNTY. In the summer of 1823 Arba Heald, living near the east end of White Pigeon prairie, put up against a tree near his house a large pepper mill, with double cranks for two persons, which would grind about half a bushel of grain in half an hour. It was purely a neighborhood affair, and evidently built on very small lines. Also in the summer of 1828, Judge Luther Newton built a sawmill one mile south of the Chicago road on Fawn river, then called

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Crooked creek; but the dam went out, the mill was undermined and fell into ruins before any work was done. It was rebuilt, however, in 1829, and the first sawing was done in the fall of that year. The mill was built so a run of stones for gristing could be added, but no grinding was done until after Judge Meek's mill commenced' operations at Constantine. FIRST REAL GRIST MILL. The first grist mill worthy of the name was the one put in operation by Judge William Meek, in 1830, on Crooked creek, f, REMAINS OF AN "OLD-TIMER" near the present site of the railroad bridge at Constantine. He located the water-power and mill site June 15, 1829, and in the following spring built a mill, or rather, Hugh Wood erected it, and from him the historian obtained a description of this pioneer industrial "plant" of St. Joseph county. The mud-sills of the dam were large logs sunk to the bottom of the stream and puncheons hewn out of other large logs, pinned upon them. Then a large log was placed on either side of the creek, one of them forming the foundation of the mill. Upon these two logs was hung the water-wheel, which was eighteen inches long and six feet in diameter. Brush and straw were thrown in above the mud-sills, and the water was thus raised

Page  45 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 45 about eighteen inches to form the current, or water-power which carried the wheel. The wheel-shaft was a hewn log, with arms mortised into it, upon which the floats or buckets were withed. The gudgeons were made of wood, banded with iron that had performed a similar service for water-wheel hubs. The bed-stone was made of a flat boulder found in the river, about two feet in diameter, and the runner was made of a similar one taken from the creek about three miles up. The wheels by which the stones were driven were entirely of wood. The wheel was stopped by floating a log under it, and when motion was again required, the log was drawn out. The mill structure was a log building eighteen feet square and a story and a half high. St. Joseph's first grist mill was completed in twenty days of the spring of 1830. Originally it had no bolt, but Judge Meek made one himself, consisting of flattened poles covered with ash bark; there was no iron in the bolt except the spindles. The meal was carried by hand from the stones to the bolt, which was turned by the hands of the owners of the grist, whether male or female. During the second season, the proprietor made a permanent improvement of his water-power, putting in a more substantial dam just above the first mill across Fawn river, digging a race and taking the water to the bank of the St. Joseph, where he built a saw mill. Into one end of it he put the stones of the primitive mill for a short time. He then erected a small building into which he put a run of good burr stones, subsequently enlarging the building and installing two runs. The saw-mill went into operation in the summer of 1831. OTHER EARLY INDUSTRIES. The first wool-carding and cloth-dressing factory in St. Joseph county was built by W. W. Bliss, on Pigeon creek, in 1831. First fanning mill made in the county, at White Pigeon, in 1830. First wood corded by W. W. Bliss,. in 1831, east of White Pigeon. Samuel Pratt and Philander A. Paine made the first brick, in 1829. Edwin Kellogg, at White Pigeon, was the first shoemaker in the county. The first distillery was built on Crooked creek in 1832, by Mr. Reed.

Page  46 46 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The first wagon shop, built in 1830, was on White Pigeon prairie. The first founderies were put in operation in Constantine, Flowerfield and Sturgis in 1836. The first flour barrels were made at Centerville in 1834. COMMENCEMENT OF BUSINESS. The first stock of goods for sale in the county were brought to White Pigeon by Hart L. and Alonzo C. Stewart in 1829, but before being opened for sale were transferred to Mottville, where the Stewarts were located. It consisted of codfish, one keg of tobacco and five barrels of whiskey. The business of the pioneer merchant was almost entirely conducted by exchange. Money was scarce and the dealers took wheat, had it made into flour, and shipped to their eastern creditors. The first and only safety-fund bank was chartered in 1836, at Constantine. THE HOTEL APPEARS. The first hotel was a log house erected in 1828 on the present site of the Union school, in the village of White Pigeon, called "Old Diggins," built by A. Savery, and kept by him as long as he lived in the county. The first postoffice was established on White Pigeon prairie in 1828; the second on Sturgis prairie in 1829. For some years the mails received at each place were kept in candle boxes. ENTER POSTOFFICE AND MAIL ROUTE. The first mail route was established from Tecumseh to White Pigeon in 1829, by John Winchell, of White Pigeon. He was required to carry the mail once a week each way in summer, and once in two weeks in the winter, the service being performed on horseback. The proprietor of the "Old Diggins" owned and operated the first stage coaches on the Chicago road in 1831-2, and himself

Page  47 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 47 drove, cutting out the roads and building bridges to get through from Tecumseh to Niles. FIRST RAILROAD. The first railroad in the county was the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern, then known as the Michigan Southern, which was completed through Sturgis and White Pigeon in 1851; the Grand Rapids & Indiana in 1867, and the Michigan Air Line in 1871. The Goshen & Battle Creek was built in 1888. LIFE AND DEATH. The first couple married in the county were Joseph Knapp and Martha Winchell, daughter of John Winchell, the only magistrate in southwestern Michigan at that time, and by whom they were married. It had not been definitely ascertained as to the first white person born, but the honor seems to lie between Selinda Reichert and a child born in Leonard Cutler's family, both births occurring in 1829. In the same year the first deaths recorded were George Buck and Levi Waterman, who were buried in a well they were digging. The funeral service was the first ever held on Sturgis prairie by the whites. COUNTY SEAT LOCATED. In 1830 the governor appointed a commission to locate a county seat, and a report was made recommending what was then called George Buck's village, and now Lockport or Second Ward of Three Rivers, the proprietors, George Buck and Jacob McInterfer, donating the necessary lots. The location not proving satisfactory to the county at large, the legislative council set aside the report and appointed a new commission, which reported in favor of Centerville, and on November 22, 1831, the governor, by proclamation, officially declared Centerville the county seat. CIVIL, POLITICAL, JUDICIAL. First deed recorded 1830, Allen Tibbitts to Hubbel Loomis. First mortgage given by A. Heald to Nehemiah Coldrin in 1830.

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY First election, at which fourteen votes were cast, was held at White Pigeon. First sheriff was Elias Taylor, of Mottville. First judge of probate was Hubbel Loomis, of White Pigeon. First term of court was held at Centerville, 1833. First county judge was Epaphroditus Ransom, holding office from 1833 to 1845. First jail built of logs, in Centerville, 1833, burned in 1854. First divorce granted to Catherine Hecox from Adney A. Hecox in 1834. RELIGIOUS. The Methodists organized the first church society at Newville, about two miles east of White Pigeon, in 1829, David Crawford being leader. The first Sunday-school, organized at White Pigeon in the early days of the Methodist and Presbyterian churches. was a union school and well attended; date not known. First cemetery laid out in White Pigeon, 1830. EDUCATIONAL AND PROFESSIONAL. White Pigeon has the honor of building the first school-house, which was constructed of logs, in 1830. The same year a school was taught in the upper room of the double log house of Philip H. Buck, in the village of Sturgis, (then called Sherman) by Dr. Henry. In 1832 a log house was built on the east side of Nottawa street, as now laid out. White Pigeon claimed the first physician, Dr. Page; also the first lawyer, Neal McGaffey. The first newspaper was called the Michigan Statesman and St. Joseph Chronicle, issued in 1833; edited and owned by John D. Defrees a few months, then sold to Henry Gilbert. The St. Joseph County Temperance society was organized March 25, 1835. The society flourished for a time. This was followed by the Washingtonians, Sons of Temperance, Good Templars, Red Ribbon and White Ribbon movements, and lastly by the Woman's Christian Temperance Union. MEDICAL SOCIETY AND PHYSICIANS. The St. Joseph Medical Society was organized about 1835. It was succeeded by the St. Joseph Valley Medical Association.

Page  49 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 49 The first physician to practice in St. Joseph county was Dr. Page, who came to White Pigeon prairie in the fall of 1827, fresh from an eastern college. Although he was twenty-five, he was at first considered remarkably "fresh" by the bluff old pioneers of the county. The story told of his first coming into these parts is almost too good to be true; it is to the effect that he was once directed to a spring by the "blazed" trees around it, and returned after some time from an unsuccessful hunt for burning trees. In the summer of 1828 Peter Klinger was injured by falling down a well he was digging for Judge Sturgis, and Dr. Page performed the first surgical operation in the county, when he set some of Mr. Klinger's misplaced bones. In 1828 Dr. Hubbel Loomis located at Newville for a time, but subsequently moved to White Pigeon, and combined the duties of a probate judge with those of his profession. Dr. Alexander McMillan, who came to Sturgis paririe in 1829, spent more time in working out his various theories of life than in the practice of medicine, but was a well-meaning gentleman. Dr. W. N. Elliott, who settled at White Pigeon in 1832, practiced for fifty years. During the Civil war he went out as surgeon of the Eleventh Michigan Infantry. Dr. Watson Sumner, who came to Constantine in 1834, was noted both as a physician and a politician, but his health failed, after several years of activity, and he left the county. Dr. Nottram was a widely known member of the profession, who practiced on Nottawa prairie from 1834 to 1850. Dr. Cyrus Ingerson, Dr. Johnson and Dr. S. W. Truesdell represented the profession at the county seat after 1834. Dr. Truesdell died in 1844, while holding the office of judge of probate. Dr. Ira F. Packard was one of the ablest physicians in the county, his best and most active work being accomplished at Sturgis from 1839 to 1850. His son, Dr. Nelson I., went out with the Eleventh Michigan regiment as assistant surgeon. Dr. Van Buren was probably the first homeopathic physician who practiced in the county, settling at Centerville in 1836. Dr. Eagerly became a resident physician of Three Rivers in 1836, and Dr. Hurd about the same time. Among those of a later day, but still of an early date, to settle in that city were: Dr. C. W. Backus, Dr. E. B. Graham, Dr. Lawrence D. Knowles, Dr. Vol. 1-4

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY William M. Ikeler and Dr. W. A. Clark. Dr. Ikeler located in 1873, and died December 12, 1902. Dr. A. W. Scidmore, the mayor of the city, came to Three Rivers in 1889. Dr. Edwin Stewart and Dr. Hyatt were early physicians of Mendon, and Dr. Isaac Sides, Dr. A. J. Kinne and Dr. Mitchell of Colon. Following is a list of the practicing physicians of St. Joseph county: Leon S. Barney, Leonidas; P. Leroy Hartman, Charles Stockhouse,Edward L. Godfrey and W. E. Doran, Colon; Blanche M. Haines, Thomas J. Haines, Lawrence D. Knowles, Whitman E. Clark, F. K. Meyer, Arthur W. Scidmore, John H. O'Dell, Ray E. Dean and Guy L. Bliss, Three Rivers; John R. Williams, William C. Cameron and William H. Snyder, White Pigeon; Samuel R. Robinson, John H. Moe, Fred W. Robinson, William H. Howard, Peter H. Van Vleek, David V. Runyan, Peter Radebaugh and David M. Kane and Alfred A. Wade, Sturgis; Samuel H. Bennett, William A. Royer and James W. Barnebee, Mendon; Homer H. Throop, Edward P. Partlow, Leal K. Slote, Bela P. Scoville and Amar J. East, Constantine; Marden Sabin, Darius C. Gee, Bryant Weed and Frank Allen, Centerville; Charles E. Barringer, Parkville; John C. Rollman, Charles D. Parsons, Rozilla Crofford, J. J. Kelley, Carl J. Rollman and Floyd W. Clements, Burr Oak; John J. Sweetland, Mottville. COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. The St. Joseph County Agricultural society was organized November 27, 1849, by several citizens of the county, who met at the courthouse in Centerville and elected Mark H. Wakeman chairman. Mr. Wakeman was the first president; Samuel Chipman, treasurer, and J. Eastman Johnson, recording secretary. The first fair of the society was October 22. 1850, the prizes including not only rewards for the best live stock and agricultural implements on exhibition, but for the most meritorious specimens of patchwork contributed by the women and girls. Hon. Joseph R. Williams, of Constantine, delivered the first address. For many years the fairs were well attended, the grounds including about twenty acres adjoining the village of Centerville. Of late years there seems to have been a~ gradual falling of interest, and the society is in rather a torpid state.

Page  51 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 51 Since 1860 the presidents of the society have been as follows: Jere H. Gardner, Charles Betts, Samuel Frankish, Henry Tracy, J. B. Dimick, N. S. Johnson, David D. Antes, Thomas Cuddy, Volney Patchm, H. S. Leinbach, Alonzo Palmer, Joseph Farrand, Henry Sevison, A. Sharp, A. W. Scidmore, Bruce Hart, F. S. Cummings, W. F. A. Bolender and Jeff Hull. President Antes held office from 1869 until October, 1880 (with the exception of one term), when he moved to Mississippi. THE OLD LOG HOUSE. BY L. D. WATKINS IN "MICHIGAN PIONEER COLLECTIONS." "The old time log house was the typical modern house of the early settlers. Note the porch in front and the huge raintrough reaching along the entire end of the house. You can hardly see the latch-string that comes through the hole in the door above the wooden latch, or the great wooden hinges on which the door swung. The latch-string above referred to served a double purpose-to open the door and to fasten it shut at night, or when desired. All that was necessary was to pull it through from the inside, and the great wooden latch did the rest. Hence, when the door was not fastened, was inaugurated the old saying, 'the latchstring is out.' "These log houses were built just high enough for a bed to stand along the side of the chamber, and so near was the sleeper to the roof that he could easily touch the 'shakes' (long shingles) with the hand without rising. Early settlers will remember the tremendous clatter of rain storm upon these 'shakes,' or the snow sifting through the roof, sometimes in such quantity that in the morning there would be an inch or two all over the chamber floor and bed. The only safe place to deposit our clothing was under the bed. It would be hard to make people realize the delight in making a toilet in a room the temperature of which is near zero, and the putting on of clothing filled with sifted snow. "Still more vivid will be the recollections of the lower story with its great stick chimney built of split sticks laid up cob-house fashion plastering with clay on both sides; a fire back was built of undressed field stones, against which a great log was placed, 'the back log,' with a smaller log in front, 'the fore-stick.' Between

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY these smaller wood was piled. At night the remnants of the logs were covered with ashes to keep the fire over night. In the olden time, neighbors borrowed of each other in case their fire went out over night. This was before matches were invented. In one corner, pinned to the wall, was a ladder to climb to the chamber above. A partition was made across the end opposite the fire; this was again divided and one-half used for a bed-called a bed-sink-the other part for a pantry. The bed-sink referred to was simply a space in the board partition the length of the bed and was closed by curtains from the one main room. It was in this ltttle space that there was often found the bedstead with one post only. This bed-,stead was a great puzzle to the uninitiated; letters to their old eastern homes often told how impossible it was to get furniture (in fact, there was none to sell or buy) and that they slept upon a bedstead having but one post. This was true. It was made by boring holes in the logs at a suitable height for a bed, in a corner of the house, the side pieces were fitted, one end to these holes and the other to the straight post, making a one-post bedstead. The overhanging roof, making a rustic porch, was often omitted, though a luxury. "There was still a lower story in the old log house, the only entrance to which was by a trap-door formed by sawing a section about three feet square from the floor, that was formed into a door which was made to swing upward by a strap or ring. A ladder instead of stairs gave access to the cellar bottom which was a square hole under the center of the house, far enough from the outer walls to be safe from caving, as there were no walls under the house or around the cellar. "In this cellar was stored the vegetables for the winter, the housewife's crocks of butter, lard, jars of wild honey and fruit, and in one corner stood, high above all others, that king of kings, the old time pork-barrel. None but pioneers can fully comprehend the importance of the pork-barrel to the early settlers. Even in the villages there was no such thing as a meat market known; but the pork barrel reigned supreme. From its briny depths came the crisp and savory accompaniment of every morning meal and dinner of baked beans and boiled vegetables. It seems to me today that there was never a more delicious dish served than the buckwheat griddle-cakes, garnished with pork gravy, having the rich savory taste of the hickory nut, beech nut and sweet acorn which formed the fattening food from which the winter pork was

Page  53 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 53 made in pioneer days. And finally we must say to the old log house, farewell, for its day has passed. The next generation will only know of its existence through the pictures and pens of the pioneers. PIONEERING IN SOUTHERN MICHIGAN. Land was to be had of the United States for a dollar and a quarter per acre. In numerous instances people spent most of their money for land and had not enough left with which to buy an outfit for farming. Then they were said to be land poor. Everything was to be done in a new country. There were no houses, no fences, no roads. Most people had little money. ANOTHER LOG CABIN. At first small unhewed logs were laid up cob-house style, excepting that notches were cut near the ends of the logs, so that cracks between would not be large. The cracks were chinked with strips of wood and made tight each fall by plastering with wet clay. The roof consisted of "shakes" split from oak. They were about two and one-half feet long and not shaved or smoothed. They were held in place by horizontal poles, one coming over the laps of each two rows of shakes. These poles on the sloping roof were kept in place by numerous short props, the lower ones of which were near the eaves of the house. Sometimes bark or elm or basswood was used for a roof. No nails were used, as none were to be had. Floors were at first made of puncheons, which consisted of plank split from soft wood and hewed, but saw mills soon made it possible to secure boards. The door was hung on home-made wooden strap hinges. The catch and latch were of wood. To lift the latch from the outside, a string went through a gimlet hole a little above. To lock the house at night, the latch-string was pulled in by those inside, but the latch-string was usually left outside at all times, as tramps and thieves were almost unknown. To permit the cat to go in and out at all times of day or night, a small notch was cut near one of the lower corners of the door and the piece of board was hung over the opening so it would swing in either direction. This was known as the cat hole. One window containing four lights of glass, six by eight or eight by ten, was considered generous.

Page  54 54 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY At one end of the house was a huge fire-place five to six feet across, the back consisting of flat stone, the sides or jambs of curved beams, above which rested a square stick chimney, the slender sticks piled up cob-house fashion often on the outside of the house. The inside of these sticks were well plastered with clay mud, in which was mixed a little chipped hay or straw. As this clay was washed off by rain, it was replaced. Sometimes the sticks would get bare and catch on fire. To use in case of such emergencies, a squirt gun was kept handy with which to shoot water up the chimney and put out the fire. Stones or rough andirons kept large sticks of wood three and four feet long up out of the ashes. Over the fire-place swung a great iron crane or bar, on which were hung half a dozen more or less of S-shaped pot-hooks and short pieces of chain. These hooks the housewife used supporting kettles, pots, tea-pots, and griddles. The crane was swung out, the kettles hung on the hooks, and back again went the crane with pots over the fire. Pigs, chickens, and spare-ribs were roasted splendidly by suspending them by a wire before the fire. In some places baking was mostly done in the old-fashioned brick oven. Johnny-cake (corn cake) was often baked on one side of a small board tipped up leaning toward the fire. Potatoes were baked or roasted in hot ashes. A little later tin bakers were in vogue, in which the baking tins were supported about eight or ten inches above the hearth, while slanting above and below were tins for reflecting the heat from the fire to the baking tins. At best, cooking over an open fire was no easy or pleasant task. Still later, but not much later, crude cookstoves arrived, costly, clumsy, heavy, and inefficient. PROVISIONS AND OUT-DOOR SUPPLIES. The provisions in store consisted of wheat flour, corn-meal, salt pork, potatoes, dried pumpkins, and sometimes a few dried blackberries. In summer or fall there were to be had wild plums, blueberries, black raspberries, red raspberries, huckleberries, and cranberries. Salt was often very scarce, at one time costing $21 a barrel. But little attention was paid to vegetable gardens, partly because cabbages, beets, onions, peas, parsnips, squashes, cucumbers, and the like were considered mere luxuries, partly because the people were very busy raising staple crops, and partly because they hadn't been trained in such work and looked at it as pottering

Page  55 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 55 business. Trees for bearing apples, peaches, cherries and pears were set out very soon among the stumps, though the quality of most of them was very inferior. Occasionally in autumn some person would bring, in open wagons, apples from Monroe to western Lenawee, a distance of about sixty miles, over bad roads. Overhead in the house were small rough beams supporting a chamber floor. On the sides of these poles were wooden hooks made of pieces of small trees with some of the limbs. These fastened to the beams held the gun, powder-horn and sundry other articles. Small poles on such hooks held seed corn, onions, and circles of pumpkin to dry for use in winter as sauce or pies. There is no use in denying the fact that swamps were numerous in many places; in fact, surveyors had said that Michigan consisted of scarcely anything more than swamps. Mosquitoes swarmed everywhere. There were no screens for windows or doors. At evening a smudge of decaying wood or chips was kept going until late into the night. Where people had not become used to it, they were not infrequently up once or more in the night hunting mosquitoes and scorching them with a lighted candle. To this day I know just how a singed mosquito sounds as it drops from the flame of a candle. At evening the light was dim and sometimes flickering, depending on whether it came from a protruding rag in a saucer of grease, or blazing wood in the fire-place. The people were not accustomed to reading much. There were no magazines and few books or newspapers. In the evening men told stories, made plans for the next day or week, visited with neighbors who may have come in from six miles away, or they dozed by the fire, or went early to bed. The women usually finished some work or sat knitting the supply of stockings for the family, using every spare moment that no time be lost. Many farms contained an abundance of maple trees, and in spring these were tapped with an ax, the sap running over spouts into small wooden troughs or dugouts. The sap, collected in pails and carried by aid of a wooden "neckyoke" on the shoulders, was boiled in open kettles hung on poles over a fire. It was not usually very clean, but it was highly prized by people, who could not afford to buy sugar from the market. LIGHTS. Light was not furnished by electricity, gas, or coal oil. Candles were becoming common, and they were handmade. About

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY twenty candle rods were made twenty inches long and a little larger than a leadpencil. On each of these were hung by a loop surround ing the stick, about ten twisted pieces of eandle-wicking, each for the skeleton or frame-work of a candle. In a deep kettle was placed some hot tallow, reaching to the top. The expert dipped in the dry wicks, or got them into tallow in some way. These were shaped by thumb and finger as the tallow cooled. After dipping awhile the tallow became cooler and lower in the kettle. To warm it up and raise the tallow, hot water was poured in, going to the bottom because it was heavier than tallow. Rod after rod was placed in turn over the tallow and the young candles dipped in, sometimes two candles sticking together, needing to be separated by hand. Very naturally, gravity assisted the lower part of the candle to become larger than the top. To remedy this to some extent, the lower ends were held in the kettle occasionally to melt off a little of the tallow. Later, candles were made in what are known as candle-molds. In connection with candles came the need of candlesticks, snuffers, and sometimes extinguishers; the latter of which, your "ma," when a little girl, called the overshow to the candle. In the '30s such matches as we now have were not known. It was the custom to take such pains in preserving fire buried in ashes. I remember to having gone half a mile to the house of a neighbor to get a new stock of fire. By use of flint, steel, powder, cotton and punk, one could usually secure fire. Scrolls of paper in a vase were made with which to light candles instead of live coals held by tongs. ALL KINDS OF COMFORTS. Home-made bedsteads were constructed of four-by-four scantling, or nice poles from the woods. In either case holes in the sides and ends were made through which a bed-cord was strung "crisscross," with meshes about eight inches apart. On this rope was placed a bed-tick filled with straw for use in summer, and above the straw tick was placed a feather bed, if the family was well-todo. To economize space, a low, small bed, the trundle-bed, was kept during the day beneath the larger bed, and at night drawn out for the use of the children. Soft soap was home-made of lye from wood ashes and refuse grease. Blankets were made of wool or flax mixed, spun or woven by the woman of the house, or by someone in the neighborhood. Clothing was nearly all home-spun from wool or flax.

Page  57 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 57 A few black sheep were kept that the wool could be mixed with white wool, and thus save dyeing the yarn. It was not long before material for striped shirts could be had. Women bought calico for dresses. Suspenders were made of woolen yarn, and if a button gave out, a small stick or a nail took its place. An itinerant shoemaker spent a week or more in the fall at a house measuring and fitting and making the winter supply of footwear. At the same time he probably repaired or made harnesses for horses. The local tanner tanned and dressed hides for the farmer. If the housewife did not possess the required skill, a woman tailor sometimes went from house to house, making clothes for the children. CLEARING THE LAND. Much'of the land was covered by a heavy growth of timber which had to be hewn down and gotten rid of that the farmer might grow wheat, corn, potatoes and other crops. The bushy growth, "underbrush," was cut and piled, then the trees were attacked. The expert woodchopper who knew his business, could usually fell his trees in one of three different directions of the compass. He usually felled them so that a number of tree-tops would come close to each other, making one round or long pile, thus saving the labor of handling them all over to make a pile. Most of the logs were cut into pieces of 15 to 20 feet. Some very large ones, of little use, were not cut at all, but allowed to rest where they fell, and were destroyed by piling and burning smaller timber next to them. Some of the best oaks were cut 11 feet long and split into rails of irregular shape, each about the size of a four-by-four scantling, and laid up seven to eleven rails high in a zig-zag or worm fence. It was considered important that the rails be evenly laid so that a bullet would hit every corner when shot on one side of the fence. A rail splitter would cut his timber and split 100 rails in a day, and an expert 200, receiving therefor one dollar a hundred, and board himself. He needed an axe, a wooden beetle or very large mallet with an iron ring on each end, two or more iron wedges, two or more wooden wedges (gluts) of ironwood, 18 inches long, 3 or 4 inches in diameter, and a handspike. When enough timber had been cut to make a new field for crops, and the weather became warm and dry, the torch was applied to one

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY pile of brush after another till all were fired. The leaves and small sticks were mostly consumed. Later the charred logs and poles received attention. Then some morning came a gang of men with sleeves rolled up, driving one or more teams of oxen, most of these men carrying each an axe and a handspike or lever of ironwood. The logs were drawn and rolled into piles located in hollows. Poles and rubbish were carried by hand to the logheaps. When many heaps had been made and the wind was right and the weather dry, they were set on fire. It was a grand and unique sight never to be erased from the memory of the person who had seen a group of log-heaps burning in a dark night. As the logs were burning, a man went from place to place to roll the fragments together. Timbered land thus cleared, only needed a rough, stout A-shaped harrow containing nine to eleven teeth, each stout enough to stand the strain of a yoke of oxen as they pulled among the roots and stumps. After the team had jerked the harrow in every direction over the land, it was ready for a crop of corn, wheat, or potatoes. There were very few weeds and not a foot of sod of any kind. It was too rooty to admit of plowing. If a man was ill, sometimes the neighbors turned out, making a bee and doing the logging for him. Two or three or more sowed or hoed crops, often followed in succession without seeding to clovers and grasses. As the smaller roots and stumps decayed, some rough plowing was done. On oak openings, the underbrush and the scattering trees were cut and burned, after which the land was broken up (plowed) by the use of a very stout plow, and three or four, sometimes as many as seven, yoke of oxen, hitched one team ahead of another. This stout plow was almost always a homemade affair, constructed of wood, excepting the coulter and the share. This plow cut off and turned over oak-grubs (small stumps and roots) that were three or four inches in diameter. An axe was carried along to cut off obstructions and to release the plow when caught by roots. The driver carried a whipstock eight feet long, holding a lash made of home-tanned woodchuck skin. He went back and forth along the team, touching up Bright, Broad, Brim, Tom, Jerry, and the rest, as necessity seemed to dictate, seeing that each did his part of the work. A breaking-up team had a regular vocation, like threshing machines of today, and went from place to place at about five dollars per day.

Page  59 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 59 After stumps were partially gone. it was often the practice to use a yoke of oxen next the plow and a horse-team ahead, driven by a boy of 17 to 20, and he soon regarded it as a sleepy job of little interest. The man at the plow had all he could attend to in looking out for stumps, stones and roots. Sometimes they stirred up a nest of yellow-jackets or bumblebees that had to be humored, or exterminated when possible. This served to break up the monotony. I remember to have seen a plow with a wooden moldboard and only one handle. Wood's patent was the first plow with a castiron moldboard that I remember to have seen or used. I have read of a prejudice among farmers against using an iron plow on the ground that it poisoned the land for crops, but I never heard of this among the farmers of southern Michigan. A friend from North Carolina told me that in his state the wooden moldboard was often covered with the hard skin of a garpike or bill-fish, and that it was a great improvement over wood alone. On rough, new land the farmer required a boy to ride and guide the horse, as he looked after the shovel plow. Heavy ox-carts were not uncommon, as they could get about rough ground to better advantage. Sleds were mostly home-made, the runners being natural crook for the turned-up apex, and shod with ironwood or cast-iron shoes, made at the nearest foundry. A cart or wagon could not be bought of a dealer or manufacturer, as there were none, at least not in our part of the state. When wanting a wagon, the farmer held a council with a wheelwright, who had his shop near a blacksmith shop. The wagon-maker got up the wood-work to order, the farmer bought his iron, and the blacksmith ironed the vehicle, and one of the three put on a coat or two of red paint. In the '30s wild flowers were abundant almost everywhere. There were a few scattering weeds, mostly natives of the neighborhood. PESTS AND ANNOYANCES. Potatoes knew no blight, no sun scald, no scab, no rot; the Colorado beetle had not migrated eastward. In leaf mold of the virgin soil the potatoes were unmolested and abundant, often crowding each other in the hill. Wheat rusted, but the midge and the Hessian fly had not arrived. Smut was uncommon, and yet the wheat crop was not without its enemies. While seeding in

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY autumn the farmer had often to guard his recently-sown wheat by killing or frightening wild pigeons which appeared in immense flocks. In October, deer frequented the young wheat to gather flesh for a long winter. In some portions of the southwestern counties in open winters, wild geese trampled down and fed on the wheat when not too far from a lake or pond. In cold weather the geese kept swimming about to keep the ice from closing in. Spring frosts were more troublesome than now. Black, gray, and red squirrels carried off some wheat. At times of corn-planting, chipmunks (striped ground squirrels) must be shot or caught with a trap, consisting of a short board under which was a baited figure-four trap. Larger squirrels and coon were sometimes very annoying, as they were fond of roasting ears or even older corn. On one frosty morning a man, of course without club, gun, or dog, found five coons on one corn shock. The coons all escaped, instead of having their hides nailed on the north side of the house or barn. In the fall and winter, large flocks of quail, and occasionally flocks of wild turkeys, ate some of the corn left in the shock on account of mismanagement or illness of the owner of the farm. At one time my brother and I made a trap about eight feet square, of sticks, covering well with corn, unhusked. In a day or two, watching from the house, we saw eight turkeys not far from the trap, and not long after, we were delighted to see the trap spring and only seven turkeys depart. We had caught a turkey! This was as good as a circus for the boys. THE LIVE STOCK. During winter and spring when fodder became scarce, trees were cut down, and the cattle were driven to the tree tops to browse on the buds and tender parts of the limbs. The young branches of black ash were the favorite for this purpose, as they were very large and tender. Wheat was cut with a cradle, sometimes with a sickle, and raked and bound by hand. It was threshed with a flail and cleaned by tossing up a shovelful at a time, where it was exposed to a strong wind. Later the open threshing machine, having no carrier or separator, was employed. Cheap mills soon sprang up over the country, where farmers had their wheat ground by giving one-tenth toll for the work. Horses were a mixed lot, mostly of an inferior grade; cattle were also a mixed lot, many of them entitled to the name "scrub."

Page  61 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 61 Most of them ran at large, picking a living wherever it was to be found. One of the leaders was supplied with a bell, which told where the herd could be located, if they were not lying down. Sometimes they strayed away. Usually most of them were unruly, and would let down and jump fences to beat all. To prevent animals from jumping or crawling through a fence, almost everything had on its head or neck a poke or yoke of some style. This was true of cattle or horses. Pigs had a yoke on the neck which stuck up above and below the head to prevent them from crawling through the fence. The pigs were often very slim and hungry. I have heard that in some places they kept pigs from getting through a rail fence by tying a knot in the tail, but I never actually saw a pig so hampered. Geese had their necks adorned with yokes. Pigs were variable in quality, and got much of their living in the woods, especially in fall and early winter, eating beechnuts and acorns. Nearly every farmer knew enough to butcher pigs and cattle, but experts of a crude sort were to be had in almost every neighborhood. The United States mail soon penetrated every new settlement. There were very few letters or papers. Once a week the mail bag was taken on horseback over the route. Postage on a letter was twenty-five cents and was paid by the one receiving it. Each person had to learn how to fold a letter written on fools-cap paper, as there were no envelopes. It required about a month to get a letter from Western New York to Southern Michigan, a distance of about 500 miles. When a person was to make a visit to his friends in the east, all the neighbors took advantage of the fact and sent letters by the traveler. EDUCATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS. There were very few papers, no such thing as a magazine, and very few books to be found in the houses of the pioneers. I remember only two books that could interest young persons; one of them was Robinson Crusoe, the other was an account of a man by the name of Robinson, who kept a diary while he was wandering about the Sahara desert as a captive by Arabs. The schoolhouse was cheap, home-made, and inconvenient, and school was taught by most anyone who could be found willing to undertake the job. The benches consisted of slabs, supported

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY by legs inserted in auger-holes from the round side of the slab. There was a chance to write in a copy book, the teacher making pens out of goose-quills. School tax was paid by rate bills, a rule which was favored by most of the wealthiest men, especially those with small families. There was no grammar taught and no blackboard on the walls. The teacher usually boarded around. Attending college was not thought of. Science was crude and elementary. No women served as clerks in stores or anything of the kind. Amusements were very few and simple in character. There were tea parties, quilting, husking, logging bees, and barn raisings. Boys were enthusiastic over washing sheep, visiting a neighboring lake for a swim, and for catching fish. Science had not yet become prominent enough to prevent the reign of superstition. Farmers relied on the almanac for the phases of the weather, and the moon, learning by these rules when to plant potatoes, kill hogs and other operations. Gradually a kind of aristocracy crept in, the first symptoms of which were the possession of a large brass kettle, and a large iron kettle, known as a potash kettle. This was convenient for scalding hogs, cooking food for cattle, and for various other purposes. Later, some of the wealthiest purchased some silver-plated knives and forks, and a silk dress now and then. Religious exercises were usually held in the nearest schoolhouse about once a month or once in two weeks. The country doctor rode on horseback for long distances, carrying medicines in saddlebags. The roads were almost always poor, and often terrible. People frequently went on foot from place to place, or rode in lumber wagons, sometimes over a road of poles on stringers a quarter of a mile long, without dirt or gravel on top. This was a corduroy road, long to be remembered by anyone who has ever ridden over such a thing in a wagon without springs.-Written by Professor W. J. Beal, of the Michigan Agricultural College, and published in "Pioneer Collections." OLD TIMES FROM A WOMAN'S STANDPOINT. BY MRS. HENRY CHURCH. The following paper was written by Mrs. Henry Church, a pioneer of the county, at Emporia, Kansas, and delivered by Mrs.

Page  63 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 63 J. J. Packard before the Woman's Club of Sturgis, in March, 1910. The editor of the St. Joseph county history is especially indebted to Mrs. George B. Reading and Mrs. R. C. Hamilton for a copy of the reproduced paper. "Madam President and Ladies: "I labor under great difficulty in furnishing incidents of pioneer life, with all records of the same hundreds of miles away, and only a desire to once more contribute in a place where I have ever found benefit and happiness could tempt me to write under such adverse circumstances. "From memory, I can relate, as told at pioneer meetings, of the long journeys over nearly impassable roads as they dragged their weary way, with wives and children nearly exhausted and of the joy when they reached their destination; of the hastily built cabins; of the wandering away of the stock not yet wonted to the new home and of the precious time lost in hunting it; of the malaria that came from the newly broken sod, causing fever and ague, freezing first the very marrow in their bones, followed by a burning fever and racking pain; after which, pale and trembling the victims would take up their work till a recurrence of the same and so for weeks many times until the disease would wear itself out. Of nights, when the wolves, fierce with hunger, would howl around them to be driven away, only by hurling firebrands in their midst, from which they would slink away in terror. "One thing I would state, that while the records only tell of the struggles of men in the new life, that brave as he may have been, the wife who followed was also worth her full meed of praise; she, who with tear-stained cheeks turned her back on parent and friends and left the endearing associations of a lifetime to face the vicissitudes of an untried life. "In the absence of facts, will describe things as they were used, showing not so much the pioneer life as the advancement in every direction that has been made and which attribute much to applying the power of steam to machinery, cheapening production and placing the blessings of life in the hands of many, and to the busy brain so fertile in its power of intuition. I will simply describe things as I remember them, hoping, if I fail to interest, that you will patiently listen between naps until the reading is ended.

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY " While I now quote a letter I have before me, giving a description of the beautiful prairie which now makes our home, I will state that the letter was written with a pen from a quill plucked from a goose-they had no other kind-made with a penknife, sharpened and kept for the purpose. Beside the writer was a little dish of black sand brought from far away and only found in one place in the world. As there were no blotters, this was sifted over the paper as the ink flowed too freely to absorb it. Afterward every grain had to be gathered up to be used again. At that time there were no envelopes and the last sheet was left blank and the letter folded so this sheet would slip over to be fastened by wafers. The postage was twenty-five cents, too much for poor pioneers. So my father would take a newspaper and write with skimmed milk, which, when held to the fire, would scorch and thus show the writing, bringing happiness at the expense of our dear Uncle Samuel. " I now quote: 'I have a most beautiful situation in the center of a small prairie about two miles across; a small village, three stores, three taverns and three doctors. This is one of the finest countries I ever saw, being the most productive. Good water, distance sixty feet. Good wheat, old, seven shillings per bushel; corn, three to four shillings per bushel. Dried apples, $3.00 per bushel. " 'If you could see this prairie, as it is now, covered with fields of wheat, corn and oats, frequently from one to two hundred acres in a field! Inhabitants are beginning to set out orchards, etc., etc.' "This village was called 'Sherman' the part lying east of Farr's hotel; and 'Ivanhoe' the part lying west of that place. Eighteen hundred and thirty-eight, the year before the letter was written, was ever known as the sickly season. There were not enough well to care for the sick. There were two men who were coffin makers. I might say right here, these coffins were of wood widening to give room for the shoulders, then tapering to the feet, lined with glazed cambric and pinked to relieve its bareness. The men worked at them by night, and by day went from house to house to relieve the necessities of the sick. A friend of mine buried her mother in the cemetery, marked the grave by those around it. Sickness prevented her visiting it for two weeks; then the graves had so multiplied that she never found her resting place. Physicians were compelled to hire drivers so they could sleep while riding. Do not think of them starting out with a

Page  65 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 65 nice little case filled with nicer medicines, but with a pair of uncouth saddlebags with sloping covers fastened with a strap and united with a strip of soft leather six or eight inches wide and long enough to rest each side of the saddle if riding on horseback. Inside were many packages of roots and herbs, replaced now by fluid extracts, quantities of calomel and jalap, and pills almost indescribable in their horrid taste and tremendous size. No spoon of sauce would be great enough so they would not sicken, and worse still, it seemed, it would take hours to remove the taste from the throat. An old man put one in a tumbler with a little water to carry it down. For hours it lay in his throat, driving sleep away. When he arose in the morning he found it in a dish where he had placed it the night before. Afterwards there was sickness but never to such an extent. "One other incident of pioneer life seldom mentioned, yet, as far as I know, ever present was the bed bugs. Only by boiling water and eternal vigilance were they subdued. It is said they were found on the bark of forests and even on fence rails. Fleas also kept humanity lively in those earlier days. "One more scourge I will mention. One season the country was invaded by the army worm; a worm as large as your little finger, reddish brown in color which came in such hordes, that entering a field would strip it of every vestage of green. It was found before the season ended that by plowing a trench around the field the worms would tumble into it and be killed. "But we will leave the disagreeable things outside and step inside. Would you look at the bed? If in the rooms that had to be passed through, they were surrounded by curtains, the lower part below the bed by valances, or little curtains, falling to the floor fastened to the bedstead with tacks. There were holes bored through the bedstead at equal distances and a rope passed back and forth, securely fastened. This supported a straw tick which was to be filled twice a year, making it fragrant, sweet and clean. Above this, a feather bed of the lightest kind of feathers, sufficient for many pillows. The patchwork quilts and woven comforters with sheets, etc., and perhaps, some of you remember, too high for children to clamber on. "For our tables, it was steel knives, forks and dinner plates. No individual sauce dishes or butter plates, or any of the dainty conveniences of the present day. The white sugar came in a shaped loaf and was kept on an upper shelf, only to be taken down and Vol. I-5

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY chipped off for extra occasions. Dried fruit and preserves served for our sauce, the preserves being made by cooking slowly on the back of a stove for hours, then placed in a jar covered by a paper tightly tied over and closely watched lest fementation take place when they would have to be scalded. They were delicious and my mouth waters at the thought of them. Pie was used three times a day on the table. They had cake, I know and for teasing for it when callers were present, my mother took me across her knee and I, being at a tender age, such a glowing impression was made upon me that it was never forgotten. "They used pearl ash, a cruder article than our baking soda, and sour milk for baking; failing many times to be dissolved, our biscuit would be specked with it and many times too yellow. It is said when out of pearl ash, cob ashes would be used, but of this I do not know. They had only candles for lights, either run in molds or dipped by placing a number of wicks on sticks, dipping one lot while cooling another. Spermaceti candles could be procured for extra occasions. At the very first months or years there were no matches, and to light these candles, a coal of fire held up by the tongs and blowed upon until the wick would ignite was the only recourse. The supper fire needed to be left with beds of live coals or brands of fire to be carefully covered up with ashes to keep for the coming day. For years after matches were produced, no matter how stifling the heat of the summer day, the old custom of burying the fire was adhered to by many. The most of the thread was bought in a skein, doubled and twisted at home, if I am not mistaken. One woman, after cloth was donated to clothe and make her children comfortable whined because the thread was not made ready for her use as she had no wheel. Nearly if not all stockings were knit at home. These were fastened two or three inches below the knee. If well dressed a pantalet was worn over them about eight or ten inches wide, with embroidery at the bottom, both held in place by a green worsted garter some wider than the modern dress binding; long enough to wind around numberless times, with the end skillfully tucked under made it always secure. "As to dress, I will tell a little incident that will show that fashion had its arbiters even then. At a party of the elite the question arose as to the suitability of a calico dress being worn to church after it was washed. It was decided in the negative. My mother denounced such extravagance and said a calico dress unless faded was good enough to be worn anywhere.

Page  67 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 67 "In many of the intervening years, up to the time of the Civil war, the Fourth of July, when celebrated was a great event. Ushered in by the firing of cannons, bringing crowds of people from every direction, the grand feature of all, was that the young ladies of the community were invited to march with the procession and to represent the different states of the Union, with the name to designate printed on ribbons pinned to the shoulder. We were dressed in pure white, with a green wreath upon our heads. Our dignity was only surpassed by the marshal, who, erect upon his steed, put even royalty in the shade, or by the home talent employed in reading the Declaration of Independence before the oration of the day. With the music and the marching and the booming of the cannon and the oratory, the day was spent, after which came the ball. "Invitations for this were always printed on good paper in this form: 'A Fourth of July ball will be held at the Assembly room of McArthur & Ellis. Yourself and lady are respectfully invited to attend.' Mangers were chosen from White Pigeon, Centerville, Lima and the country around. With room managers this invitation would sometimes have the name of the lady written on the back; oftener not. This was handed to her when the invitation was given. "From the time of my remembrance, square dances were the rule, like cotillions. The floors would be cleared sometime in the evening for the benefit of the older people, when they would form on for 'Money Musk,' or 'Opera Reel,' with others acquainted with the dance; while the younger ones would move with a gliding motion, those older with a springing step and with the spirit with which they entered into it, give animation to the scene. The best of music was provided, and perfect order maintained. "Fearing that I have exhausted your patience, I will close by saying that over it all, scenes past and gone, there rests a halo, its skies were clearer and its sunshine brighter, and I say with the poet: "'We are better and stronger, Under manhood's sterner reign, Yet we feel that something sweet, Followed youth with flying feet, And it never comes again.

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY " 'Something beautiful has vanished, And we sigh for it in vain, We behold it everywhere On the earth and in the air, But it never comes again.' MAPLE SUGAR MAKING. This is still the sugar camp, with the shivering woods around it, Where the eager, early alders loosen first their kerchiefed curls, By the distant, russet ranks of the dripping maple bounded; Hither, in the April weather, come the country boys and girls. Out across the olive down, still the lagging feet are guided To the fire of shattered branches, lightning-riven long ago; By the narrow bubbling brook, field and forest stand divided, With the scarlet maple blossoms whirling in the pool below. Here they feed the open blaze; here they build the shelter lightly; Here they swing the gypsy kettle-merry-hearted Jack and Sue; Here they follow one another through the dusky forest nightly, While the silver April crescent drops to westward in the blue. Still the buckets back and forth to the heavy kettles bringing, Fain to hear the squirrel's warning, or the sparrow's note of war, Treading to the broken pulses of a robin's careless singingSuch a rhythm, such a measure, never dancer listened for. Soft and sultry are the days that the watchers spend together, With the stolen sweets of April-month of promise and delay; And the searching winds of night touch with frost the ardent weather, Ere the little play is ended, with the coming of the May. -St. Joseph County Republican, June 16, 1883.

Page  69 CHAPTER V. THE CIVIL BODY. SOUTHERN MICHIGAN A MILITARY KEY-BRITISH LOTH TO WITHDRAW-BRITISH-AMERICAN LAND COMBINE-CONGRESSIONAL INTRIGUE-DOWNFALL OF CONSPIRACY-NARROW ESCAPE FOR SOUTHERN MICHIGAN-AMERICAN CIVIL JURISDICTION-WAYNE COUNTY ORGANIZED-FIRST LAND TITLES AND SURVEYSTOWNSHIP OF ST. JOSEPH-COUNTY GOVERNMENT INAUGURATED-THE ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS-FIRST ELECTION IN COUNTY PROPER-CHANGES IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT-SUBDIVISION OF ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS-FIRST TOWN MEETINGS-WHITE PIGEON, TEMPORARY COUNTY SEAT -CENTERVILLE, PERMANENT COUNTY SEAT-JAIL, FIRST COUNTY BUILDING-OFFERED BRIBE TO BE RE-JAILED-A TERRIFYING LOCK-NEW JAIL ERECTED-TEMPORARY COURT HOUSE-TWO " PERMANENT" COURT HOUSES-PROTECTING THE COUNTY RECORDS-FAMOUS ROBBERY OF RECORDS-CARE OF THE COUNTY'S POORCOUNTY OFFICIALS (1830-1910) —EDUCATION IN THE COUNTY -BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF PIONEER SETTLEMENT. By the treaty of 1753, the territory now included in. St Joseph county passed from France to England, and thirty years later the fortunes of war transferred it from England to the United States. In the meantime several of the colonies had obtained certain vested rights from the mother country for the lands northwest of the Ohio river, and the last of these so-called "crown lands" did not pass from the state owners to the general government until 1787. Two years before the government had commenced to treat with the Indians for the extinguishment of their title to lands northwest of the Ohio, and in acknowledgment of the justice of their claim, that the United States could obtain a 69

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY valid claim to this section of its domain only after their rights had been alienated. Congress and the state of Michigan continued its negotiations for half a century with the tribes which laid claim to the southern peninsula and St. Joseph county. SOUTHERN MICHIGAN, A MILITARY KEY. Southern Michigan was the theater of some of the most important of these conferences and treaties, and as it was also so important as a military vantage ground, proved to be the prize of a great plot on the part of British schemers who, even after the close of the Revolutionary war, were loth to relinquish it. The Wayne treaty of 1795 was hardly signed before they commenced to lay their plans for this master move against the territorial integrity of the United States. This historical chapter, which includes St. Joseph county in its scope, has been so well written by a contributor to the "' Michigan Pioneer Collections" (J. V. Campbell), that it is reproduced. It is worthy of note that little reference is ever made to the incident in histories of Michigan, and none whatever in any history of St. Joseph county, which has come to the attention of the author. It is not generally known that Michigan was at a very early day the theater of some of the most extensive land speculations ever known in this country. One which was brought to the attention of congress in 1795, was so remarkable in some of its features that it is singular it should be so generally unknown. BRITISH LOTH TO WITHDRAW. When General Wayne brought his Indiana campaign to a successful termination, he appointed a time for the tribes to meet him at Greenville, to conclude a definite treaty. This council opened in June, 1795, and continued into August. It is well known that the hostilities were kept alive by the covert interference of the British, and that Detroit was the source whence this influence was exerted most powerfully. In spite of the treaty of peace at the close of the Revolution, the British, on one pretext or another, kept possession of the country; and it was not until Jay's treaty provided definitely for its cession, that any steps were taken towards its possession. The British merchants, who were largely interested in the fur business, were very reluctant to see the American dominion established; and there is no doubt

Page  71 HISTORY OF. ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 71 that, by this means, disaffection was long kept up among the Indians. Immediately upon the conclusion of Wayne's treaty (which put an end to all private dealings with the Indians for the purchase of land), an agreement was made between several prominent inhabitants of Detroit and several persons from Vermont and Pennsylvania, which, if it had proved successful, would have made an entire change in the destiny of this region. BRITISH-AMERICAN LAND COMBINE. Ebenezer Allen and Charles Whitney, of Vermont, and Robert Randall, of Philadelphia, who were professedly American citizens, entered into a contract with John Askin, Jonathan Schifflin (Schieffelin), William Robertson, John Askin, Jr., David Robertson, Robert Jones and Richard Patterson (Pattinson), all of Detroit, and all attached to Great Britain, the terms of which were in effect as follows: They proposed to obtain from, the United States the title to all the land within the limits of the present peninsula of Michigan, then estimated at from eighteen to twenty millions of acres (excepting such parts as were appropriated along the settlements), upon the understanding that they would themselves extinguish the Indian title. They meant to secure the purchase from congress at a half a million dollars (or a million at the outside), by inducing that body to believe that the Indians had not really been pacified by Wayne; and nothing but the influence of the Canadian merchants could bring them to terms or render the important interests of the fur trade safe under the American rule. But they relied upon a more potent method of persuasion in secret. Their enterprise was to take the form of a joint stock company, divided into forty-one shares. Five shares were allotted to the Detroit partners, twelve to the others and the remaining' twenty-four were to be divided among members of congress to secure their votes. The connection of the Canadian proprietors with the scheme does not appear to have been made public; and it was probable they were not intended to appear until the scheme was consummated. CONGRESSIONAL INTRIGUE. Immediately after the plan was concocted, the three American partners set about operating upon the members of the next con

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY gress. They associated with them Colonel Pepune and others; Jones, of Massachusetts, aiding them in their honorable work. Whitney first applied to Daniel Buck, a member from Vermont, and was indiscreet enough not only to inform him pretty plainly of the plan proposed, but also to show him the articles of agreement. He also applied to Theodore Sedgwick, more cautiously, but allowed enough to be drawn from him to expose the true character of the plot. Mr. Sedgwick quietly put himself in communication with the Vermont members to promote its progress. In the meantime, Randall approached the southern members and laid open his views to William Smith of South Carolina, William B. Giles of Virginia, and Mr. Murray of Maryland. These gentlemen, after consulting with the president and many other persons of character and standing, determined to throw no obstacle in the way of a presentation of a memorial to congress, desiring to fix the parties where they would be sure of exposure. DOWNFALL OF CONSPIRACY. The confederates, blindly imagining that they were on the highway to success, put into the hands of the members whom they approached the fullest information concerning all but the names of their Detroit associates, and assured Mr. Giles that they had secured a majority of the votes in the senate and lacked only three of a majority in the house. On the 28th of December, 1795, Messrs. Smith, Murray, and Giles announced to the house of representatives that Randall had made proposals to them to obtain their support to his memorial, for which support they were to receive a consideration in lands or money. Mr. Buck also stated that Whitney had made similar proposals to him and he supposed him to be an associate of Randall. Randall and Whitney were at once taken into custody, and an investigation was had, in the course of which, several other members came forward and testified to similar facts. Whitney made a full disclosure and produced the written agreement. Randall made no confession, but contented himself with questioning the witnesses. He was detained in arrest, but Whitney, who appears to have been less guilty, was discharged very soon after the investigation closed. The memorial never made its appearance. The partners at Detroit had not been inactive. They, or most of them, had already, from time to time, obtained from the Indians

Page  73 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 73 large grants of land, in the hope, doubtless, that the purchase might be ratified by the authorities. Schifflin (Schieffelin) in particular had acquired enormous grants in this way. There is, however, much reason to believe that these grants were not all obtained from the recognized Indian rulers. An examination of the records shows that one of the largest was made under very peculiar circumstances. We have seen that the council in Greenville was in session from June till sometime in August. While this treaty of Greenville was in progress and the tribes were represented there by their chiefs and head men, a private council was held in Detroit on the first day of July, 1795, by the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattomies, as high contracting parties on the one side, there being present as witnesses, the Askins, Henry Hay, the oldest son of Governor Hay, and himself a British officer, and some others of the principal British residents. The purpose of the council was private in its nature, and under the treaties then existing, the British authorities could not well have acted as principals on such an occasion. Certain chiefs, purporting to act for their tribes, there named, granted to Jonathan Schifflin (Schieffelin), Jacobus Visgar, Richard Pattinson and Robert Jones a large tract of land, embracing thirteen or fourteen of the oldest and best counties in the present state, for the expressed consideration of twenty-five pounds sterling. We can readily imagine that if their plan had succeeded in congress they would have had little difficulty in buying up the Indian claim to the whole peninsula. It may not be out of place to state that, in spite of their ill success, the four gentlemen named sold their Indian title, just mentioned, in 1797, for two hundred thousand pounds of York currency, amounting to half a million dollars. Whether the purchaser expected to claim against the treaty of Greenville, we are not informed. This formidable title has never turned up since. Whether disgusted with the experience of republics, or some other cause, the Detroit partners in the joint stock company all elected, under Jay's treaty, to become British subjects. The annals of our country have never shown a more extensive or audacious plan of bribery, and the public suffered no great detriment by their defection.

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY NARROW ESCAPE FOR SOUTHERN MICHIGAN. Had the plan of these confederates received the aid of congress it is difficult to imagine the importance of such an event in its bearing on the future of the peninsula. The circumstances render it highly probable that it was intended to retain a footing for the advancement of the British interests, in the northwest. Be this as it may, the evil effect of having so large a proprietary monopoly, covering the whole country, cannot well be estimated. Neither the United States nor the future state would have owned any lands in the lower peninsula of Michigan; while we should have been subjected to all the evils which abound when the tillers of the soil are mere tenants, and not freeholders. Such a domain would have been a powerful barrier against the increase of the union in this direction, and would have kept up a border population of a character by no means to be admired. The important and singular facts referred to should not be lost sight of by the historian who may narrate the annals of our state.-J. V. Campbell, August 11, 1857. AMERICAN CIVIL JURISDICTION. While these British schemes were falling flat, southern Michigan and St. Joseph county were first being brought under the domain of civil government; for in 1796 the acting governor of the northwest territory proclaimed the bounds of Wayne county as embracing a considerable section of northwestern Ohio, west of Cleveland, quite a slice of northeastern Indiana and the entire southern peninsula of Michigan. WAYNE COUNTY ORGANIZED. The document by which Wayne county was brought into civil existence was to this effect: PROCLAMATION BY WINTHROP SARGENT, ACTING AS GOVERNOR OF THE TERRITORY OF THE UNITED STATES NORTHWEST OF THE RIVER OHIo-To all persons to whom these presents shall come, Greeting: Whereas, By an ordinance of congress of the 13th of July, 1787, for the settlement of the territory of the United States northwest

Page  75 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 75 of the River Ohio, it is directed that for the due execution of process, civil and criminal, the Governours shall make proper divisions of the said territory and proceed from time to time as circumstances may require, to lay out the same into counties and townships; and, Whereas, it appearing to me expedient that a new county should immediately be erected to include the settlement of Detroit, &c., I do hereby ordain and order that all and singular the lands lying and being within the following boundaries, viz.: beginning At the mouth of the Cuyahoga River upon Lake Erie, and with the said River to the portage between it and the Tuscarawa branch of the Muskingum-thence down the said branch to the forks at the carrying place above Fort Lawrence-thence by a West line to the Eastern boundary of Hamilton county (which is a due North line from the lower Shawonese Town upon the Sciota River)-thence by a line West-northerly to the southern part of the portage between the Miamis of the Ohio and the St. Mary's River-thence by a line also west-northerly to the southwestern part of the portage between the Wabash and the Miamis of Lake Erie, where Fort Wayne now stands-thence by a line west-northerly to the most southern part of Lake Michiganthence along the western shores of the same to the northwest part thereof (including the lands upon the streams emptying into the said Lake)-thence by a due north line to the territorial boundary in Lake Superior, and with the said boundary through lakes Huron, St. Clair and Erie, to the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, the place of beginning Shall be a county, named and henceforth to be styled the County of Wayne-which said County shall have and enjoy all and singular the jurisdiction, rights, liberties, privileges, and immunities whatsoever to a county appertaining and which any other county that now is or hereafter may be erected and laid out, shall or ought to enjoy conformable to the ordinance of Congress before mentioned. In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and affixed the seal of the territory this fifteenth day of August, in the twenty-first year of the Independence of the United States, A. D. one thousand seven hundred and ninety-six. WINTHROP SARGENT. FIRST LAND TITLES AND SURVEYS. In the "American State Papers," Vol. I, under the title "Public Lands," it is stated in the report of a commission on land claims in Michigan, that there were but eight legal titles passed during the French and English occupation of the country. The Detroit land office was established in 1804, and the evidence in


Page  77 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 77 support of the various land claims up to that time was gathered and submitted to congress, which subsequently vested the right to their lands in actual settlers who could show a reasonable color of title thereto. Thus early in the history of national legislation was the American principle promulgated that the best interests of the country were jeoparized by allowing land to get into the hands of speculators, instead of into the possession of those who wished to make them the basis of homes and industry. The first survey of public lands in the state of Michigan was made in 1816, on the Detroit river and vicinity. The principal meridian followed the west line of the present Lenawee county, and was run due north to the Sault Ste. Marie; the base line commenced on Lake St. Clair, between Macombe and Wayne counties, and was extended west to Lake Michigan. A portion only of the 1816 survey was brought into the market in 1818, all within the Detroit land district. In 1821, by the treaty of Chicago with the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatomies, all the country west of the principal meridian, south of the Grand river to the Indiana state line and west to Lake Michigan, with the exception of a few reservations, was ceded and confirmed to the general government. This tract included, of course, St. Joseph county, with the exception of the Nottawa-seepe reservation, which was cleared of its Indian title in 1833. In 1823 the Detroit land district had been divided, and an office established at Monroe, in the county of that name, near Lake Erie. Up to 1831, all land entries west of the principal meridian were made at this office; then a land office was opened at White Pigeon, which was moved to Kalamazoo (Bronson) in 1834. TOWNSHIP OF ST. JOSEPH. Another advance in civil government was made on November 20, 1826, when the legislative council of the territory of Michigan attached to Lenawee county all of the territory to which the Indian title had been extinguished by the treaty of 1821, and on the following 12th of April created the township of St. Joseph, with boundaries including the area thus cleared of Indian claims. The first town meeting of the new civil division was ordered to be held at the house of Timothy S. Smith, situated on the site of the present town of Niles, Berrien county. On September 22,

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1828, the lands ceded by the treaty at Cary's mission, the same year, were attached to Lenawee county and made a part of St. Joseph township, and on October 29th, of the following year the council of Michigan constituted the territory within the lines of townships 5, 6 and 7, and fractional 8, south of the base line in ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12, west of the principal meridian, into the county of St. Joseph. COUNTY GOVERNMENT INAUGURATED. On November 4, 1829, actual government was inaugurated within the present limits of St. Joseph county by an order which also issued from the territorial council for the holding of a circuit court at the house of Asahel Savery, on White Pigeon prairie, and also for the establishment of a county court with the usual jurisdiction and functions. The following day witnessed the attachment of the following territory to the county: The counties of Kalamazoo, Barry, Branch, Eaton and Calhoun and all the country lying north of the townships numbered 4, west of the principal meridian, and south of the county of Michilimackinac and east of the lines between ranges 12 and 13 and Lake Michigan where said line intersects the lake. THE ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS. This great civil division of Michigan, the original St. Joseph county, was divided into five townships. White Pigeon township embraced the present townships of Lockport, Florence, Fabius, Constantine, Mottville and White Pigeon; Sherman township included the township by that name, as well as Colon, Nottawa, Burr Oak, Fawn River and Sturgis; the Flowerfield of 1829 included the townships (as they are now known) of Leonidas, Mendon, Park and Flowerfield; Brady township embraced the counties of Kalamazoo and Barry; and Greene township, the counties of Branch, Calhoun and Eaton and the country north of Eaton. Elections were ordered held in the three original townships of the present St. Joseph county at the following places: White Pigeon, at the house of Asahel Savery; Sherman, at the house of John B. Clark, and for Flowerfield township, at the house of John Sturgis.

Page  79 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 79 FIRST ELECTION IN COUNTY PROPER. On the 4th of November, 1829, when the civil courts came into being, the temporary seat of justice for St. Joseph county was located at White Pigeon. The first election ever held in St. Joseph county proper was the town meeting of April, 1830, conducted in the townships of White Pigeon and Sherman, in pursuance of the organizing acts passed by the territorial council. Besides the township officers, John Winchell was elected county treasurer, and during this and the preceding year Governor Cass appointed Dr. Hubbel Loomis, probate judge; John W. Anderson, register of probate; John Sturgis and Luther Newton, county judges and E. Taylor, sheriff. The first meeting of the board of supervisors of St. Joseph county was held at Savery's house, at White Pigeon, on the 19th of April, 1830. Luther Newton, the representative of White Pigeon, and Henry Powers, of Sherman, gathered together, but not being sure whether two would be considered a working majority of the board agreed to adjourn until the 23rd. On that day they were joined by William Duncan, supervisor of Brady township (Kalamazoo county), organized, and appointed Neal McGaffey, clerk. Afterward they proceeded to assert their rights as free-born American citizens by levying a tax of one hundred and eighty dollars for county and township purposes-fifty for the former; fifty for White Pigeon township, thirty-five for Sherman, thirty for Brady and fifteen for Greene. They also instructed the assessors in the several townships for the year 1830 to return horses at thirty dollars each, oxen at forty dollars per yoke and cows at ten dollars, all animals taxed being over three years of age. Land was valued at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. Thus were the courts and the finances of St. Joseph county put in motion, and the county seat had a statutory location at least; pretty good start for any western county. Before proceeding further with the history of'events in the development of St. Joseph county as a civil body, it is thought best and logical to briefly note the changes in her system of government. CHANGES IN COUNTY GOVERNMENT. In April, 1825, the territorial council gave the people the right to elect the county commissioners, treasurers, coroners and con

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY stables. During the continuance of the territorial form of government, the governor had the power to appoint the judges and the clerks of the several courts of record, and sheriffs and justices of the peace, but under the constitution of 1835 the people were given the power of electing all county officials, with the exception of the circuit, or chief judges of the circuit court and the prosecuting attorneys. Under the first state constitution the county officials were associate judges of the circuit court, judges of the county court, judge of probate, sheriff, two or more coroners, county clerk (ex-officio, clerk of both the circuit and county courts), register of deeds, surveyor, treasurer and three county commissioners, who afterward gave place to the board of supervisors. Under the constitution of 1850 the same officers were provided for except the associate judges of the circuit court, judges of the county court and county commissioners, and prosecuting attorneys were made elective. The official term of all was fixed at two years, with the exception of the judge of probate, whose term was four years, with the privilege of an indefinite extension based on popular demands as expressed through the ballot. Under the territory, the township government was vested in a supervisor, clerk, collector of taxes, from three to five assessors, three commissioners of highways, two overseers of the poor, and constables, overseers of highways, fence viewers and pound masters, according to the necessities of the case. The first state constitution provided for a supervisor for each township, clerk, treasurer, three assessors, one collector, three school inspectors, two directors of the poor, three commissioners of highways, not to exceed four justices of the peace and constables, and as many overseers of highways and pound masters as were necessary to keep the roads in repair and four-legged animals within reasonable bounds. Under the second constitution, the town clerk and one inspector were made to do the work of the former three school inspectors, and only one commissioner of highways was allowed the people. Otherwise, there was virtually no change in the composition of the officials.

Page  81 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 81 SUBDIVISION OF ORIGINAL TOWNSHIPS. Taking up the subdivision of the original three townships which embraced what is now known as St. Joseph county, it is learned that the first to be added was Nottawa, which was created July 28, 1830, and constituted the present townships of Colon and Nottawa. On March 3, 1831, the council of the territory attached to the county all that part of Cass county lying east of the St. Joseph river and west of the township line, and made it a part of White Pigeon. This addition included a portion of the Mottville township of today. Colon came into civil existence March 21, 1833, but then included the present towns of Leonidas and Colon, and Mendon, as it is now known, was added to Nottawa. The territory in-, eluded in Fabius and Lockport was taken from White Pigeon and formed into Buck's township, reducing Flowerfield to the area now included in Flowerfield and Park. FIRST TOWN MEETINGS. The first town meetings in the new sovereignties were ordered to be held at the house of Robert Shellhouse, in Colon; at the cabin of George Buck, in Buck's township, and at Joshua Barnum's, in Flowerfield. In 1841, the year after the organization of Lockport township, Buck's was changed in name to Fabius township, with its present dimensions. Leonidas became a township in 1836, and Constantine, Mottville and Florence in 1837. Constantine and Florence were unchanged in territory, but with Mottville it was different; she gave to White Pigeon the eastern tier of sections of township 8 south, range 12 west, and received the triangle of the same township east of the St. Joseph river, originally part of Cass county. Mottville and Constantine held their first town meetings at the school houses in the villages by those names, and Florence, at the house of Giles Thompson. Burr Oak, Park and Fawn River were created as townships, in 1838, and in April of that year organized their governments in the house of Julius A. Thompson, for Burr Oak, at the residence of James Hutchinson, for Park, and at the home of Freeman A. Tisdel, for Fawn River. Vol. I-6

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Lockport came into the sisterhood of organized townships in 1840, and Solomon Cummings threw open his house to its first legislators, while in the following year Alfred Poes made his home the headquarters for the first town meeting of Fabius (old Buck's). In 1843 Wakeman township appeared on the county map, but the name did not please her people, who changed it to Mendon in 1844. In 1845 Sturgis township straggled along, as the last of the sixteen in St. Joseph county. Thereafter, there were no changes in the territory of the townships, with the exception of Lockport and Florence; in 1856 the former relinquished the east halves of sections 25 and 36 to Nottawa, and the latter. sections 34, 35 and 36 to White Pigeon. WHITE PIGEON, TEMPORARY COUNTY SEAT. White Pigeon was selected as the temporary seat of justice of St. Joseph county, for the very good reason that it was the only settlement worthy of the name which had thus far appeared on the landscape. It was recorded as a village plat, May 7, 1830 -the first in the county; Mottville being the second to assume this formal dignity on the 31st of the same month. But as the settlements spread northward, there was a demand for a more central location. The commissioners appointed by the governor to locate the county seat had made a report, in 1830, favoring Lockport, or George Buck's village, but the territorial council wisely set aside the report and appointed a new commission, consisting of Thomas Rowland, Henry Desbrow and George A. O'Keefe. The report of the first commission had been set aside by the council's decree, March 4, 1831, and in November of that year Centerville was platted as a forecast of the prevailing sentiment which demanded that the county seat should be located near the geographical center. Its proprietors offered more liberal inducements, chiefly in the shape of land donations, than came from the owners of White Pigeon or Buck's village, and the territorial commissioners therefore made their recommendations to the governor accordingly. CENTERVILLE, PERMANENT COUNTY SEAT. On the 22nd of November, 1831, the governor of Michigan issued his proclamation locating the county seat at Centerville;

Page  83 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 83 but the proclamation had resulted in no court house, or other provision for the conduct of the county government, by the following spring. The legislative council thereupon ordered the courts to be held at the academy in White Pigeon, or such other suitable place as could be procured by the sheriff, pending the time when Centerville should really come to the front as the county seat. JAIL, FIRST COUNTY BUILDING. At the meeting held by the board of supervisors, at White Pigeon, in May, 1832, it was voted to build a county jail at Centerville. In July, 1833, it was completed by A. H. Murray, and was the first building erected by the county. The jail was built of hewn timber, a foot square, and consisted of two square blocks, with a space of eight feet between; two stories, fourteen feet high, the entire structure covered with a shingle roof. The lower floors were of the same thickness as the framework (a foot), the second floor eight inches, and the third, six inches. The doors were of four inch plank and the windows grated. It was a good, solid building, and evidently hard to get out of, through the walls or floor; but Contractor Murray overlooked the fastenings on the doors and windows, and the county refused to settle with him in full until he had made the jail more tight. OFFERED BRIBE TO BE RE-JAILED. It appears that the first man incarcerated in the jail committed his offense when neither warrants for his arrest nor justices of the peace were convenient to send him there, by "due process of law." He had assaulted Thomas W. Langley, the landlord, and was "collared" by Sheriff Taylor. This first offender against the peace and dignity of Centerville, after she had her jail, was thrust into one of the two "squares," or cells, above mentioned, and the door was closed but not locked after him. Being decidedly tipsy and finding a nice pile of shavings on the floor, he found everything so much to his liking that he was soon snoring like a contented pig. Sheriff Taylor had informed Jailer Walter G. Stevens that he had his first boarder, but the latter forgot all about it until noon the next day. Stevens then went over to the log jail to investigate, but found his prisoner

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY gone. At night the offender against the law routed up the jailer and offered him a quarter of a dollar to let him sleep in the county strong-hold again. The old log jail did service for twenty-one years, when it was condemned. The supervisors refused to repair it, and on August 14, 1854, it was burned, with one of the three prisoners (DeForest), who is supposed to have set it afire. A TERRIFYING LOCK. It is said that the most remarkable thing about the first jail accredited to St. Joseph county was the lock by which its front door was secured for so many years. It was a most intricate and ingenious combination of wards and bolts, made by E. C. White, the gunsmith of the village, and none but the most expert locksmith could pick it, even with the key. The mechanism weighed twenty-five pounds and was proof against either rapid entrance or exit; this fact may have accounted for the death of Prisoner DeForest. That old lock is believed to have terrified more criminals in the early days of the county than its best sheriff or constable. It disappeared after the fire, and years afterward was fished out of the St. Joseph river by some boys at Mendon, who sold it to Orlando J. Fast, prosecuting attorney in the late seventies. NEW JAIL ERECTED. In 1853, the year before the burning of the old jail, the board of supervisors appointed a committee to draft plans and specifications for a suitable building; but the brick jail opposite the court house on the east was not completed until 1856-7. The building committee-Mark Wakeman, Edward S. Moore, George W. Beisel and Judge Connor-was limited to an expenditure of $4,000 or $5.000, either way. As finally completed, it cost the greater sum; the main building, two stories in height, was thirty-two by fortyfive feet, and there was an extension to the south, one story, twenty by forty-eight feet; the jail proper had ten cells and the family residence of the sheriff, nine rooms. TEMPORARY COURT HOUSE. But in the midst of the interest which attaches to the old jail, the writer has lost sight of the court house of the county, which

Page  85 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 85 is the outward evidence of its government. On January 23, 1833, Governor Porter issued a proclamation directing the courts to be held at the "court house at the county seat." As Centerville had provided no court house, the gubernatorial order stirred the county authorities to brisk action, and, as stated in the chapter on the "Bench and Bar," the board of supervisors soon leased an upper room in the first and only frame building in town-the two story affair built by Thomas W. Langley in the fall of 1832, located on the corner of Main and Clark streets. This served the courts and the county officials until the first court house erected by the county was completed in 1842, especially as the entire building was purchased and utilized by the county. Two "PERMANENT " COURT HOUSES. On February 22, 1841, the county commissioners resolved to build a wooden court house in the center of the public square of the village plat, the limit of whose completion was to be three years. Judge Connor was appointed to draft plans and specifications and furnish a bill of materials for the proposed structure, and on the basis of his report, made March 12th, the commissioners ordered contracts to be made for one hundred thousand feet of lumber. The expense was to be met by the appropriation of all money on hand from the sale of lots, the balance to be raised by direct taxation. Judge Connor was appointed superintendent of the work and Judge Bryan was awarded the contract for the building of the superstructure at $43,200. The materials which went into this first court house were generally purchased by the county and the labor done by contract. The building was completed and accepted in the fall of 1842, cost altogether about seven thousand dollars, and, with some alterations, served the county until the erection of the substantial court house now occupied. The corner-stone of the latter was laid by the grand lodge of Masons of the state of Michigan, September 7, 1899, and it was completed in the following year, while William E. McKee was chairman of the board of supervisors. PROTECTING THE COUNTY RECORDS. Previous to the erection of the present-century court house, the principal improvements on the old accommodations were made for


Page  87 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 87 the purpose of protecting the records and other valuable official papers. As early as April, 1846, the people voted against a proposition to raise $41,000 for the erection of fire proof buildings for the county offices, but in December, 1859, the supervisors voted to erect brick offices for the county on the north side of the square. They were built by William Laffey and Isaac R. Belote, under the supervision of a committee consisting of Supervisors William Allman, Comfort Tyler and William H. Cross. They cost $3,200, covered forty-four by twenty-four feet, and were considered secure enough until the famous robbery of the records from the register's office in 1872. After that, a fire-proof vault was added to the quarters of that official-a case of locking the door after the stealing of the horse. FAMOUS ROBBERY OF RECORDS. The case to which reference has been made is so remarkable that it forms an inalienable portion of the official history of St. Joseph county. The robbery was committed on the night of June 28, 1872, twenty-two volumes of deeds, twenty-two of mortgages, three index books, and about one hundred deeds and mortgages not recorded having mysteriously disappeared. The board of supervisors were called together July 1st, and they promptly took measures to bring the guilty parties to justice and recover the records and papers. The result of their investigations and efforts was the arrest of Anthony P. Fonda (a member of Captain B. C. Yates' private detective agency, Chicago) and his brother, John Fonda, of Three Rivers. They were examined by Samuel W. Platt, of Centerville, and Anthony Fonda was held for trial before the circuit in two thousand dollars bail. The next important move in the case was made by the indicted Fonda, who had the notorious Dick Lane arrested in Chicago, under a fictitious name, for the robbery, but he was discharged under a writ of habeas corpus. But as Lane still claimed to know all about the robbery, Sheriff Elva F. Peirce ran him down, rearrested him and in February, 1873, brought him to St. Joseph county for trial. Soon afterward Fonda had his trial before Judge Cooley and was acquitted. In March, Lane was tried before Judge Brown, convicted and sentenced to five years in the penitentiary. Fonda was defended by Allen, of Chicago, Sadler of Centerville, and Judge Upson of Coldwater. Lane was defended by T. C.

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Carpenter, of Sturgis, and prosecuted by Hon. E. W. Keightly, prosecuting attorney, and Hon. H. H. Riley, of Constantine. The story of the regaining of the records is thus told: "About the 15th of August, 1872, Sheriff Peirce was informed that a party had received a letter from Chicago saying the books would be turned over for $5,000. The sheriff sent a person to Chicago to ascertain what reliance could be placed on the representation, with directions to telegraph the result of the conference. On receipt of the telegram, Sheriff Peirce and William W. Watkinis, one of the supervisors, went to Chicago and to Eldredge & Tourtelotte's law office, where the information originated. Five thousand dollars were demanded for the surrender of the books, and it was agreed to lay the matter before the board of supervisors. This was done, and the board offered three thousand dollars for the return of the books, and privately instructed the sheriff to act on his own discretion, but to get the records at all hazards. "About the first of September, Sheriff Peirce went to Chicago. where he met Mancel Talcott and made arrangements with Eldredge & Tourtelotte for the delivery of the records for three thousand five hundred dollars, and on the 5th of September the sheriff (Peirce), County Treasurer James Hill and Supervisor W. W. Watkins, in behalf of the county, and Eldredge & Tourtelotte, for the thieves, entered into an agreement for the delivery of the records, and deposited with the law firm named the sum specified $3,500), Mancel Talcott being surety for the attorneys. " The records were to be delivered by the 12th inst. They were dug from the earth, where they had been buried since the 28th of June, on the night of the 6th of September, in a badly-damaged condition, and Winslow Hatch notified at 11 o'clock P. M. The sheriff and Mr. Watkins were at the Hatch house in Three Rivers, on their return from Chicago. Mr. Hatch immediately informed them of the exhumation of the records and the sheriff ordered the books taken to the court house. This was done at 2 o'clock A. M. and when the sheriff discovered the terrible condition the records were in, he at once telegraphed to the attorneys, and took the cars at four o'clock for Chicago. On his arrival there, at ten o'clock, he immediately notified Eldredge & Tourtelotte of the damaged condition in which the records had been delivered, and demanded a return of the money deposited; but the attorneys claimed it had already been paid over.

Page  89 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 89 "Suit was then commenced against the attorneys for the recovery of the money deposited, Tourtelotte coming to Centerville November 22, 1872, and registering as Tuttle. Sheriff Peirce happened to see him about 4 o'clock P. M., drove to Sturgis, saw General Stoughton, the county's attorney, came back to Centerville and procured a writ, and then driving to Three Rivers procured the services of the same by Under-Sheriff C. E. Peirce, who had been to that place from Centerville with Tourtelotte. During the drive the Chicago lawyer had had great sport with Peirce about the old sheriff and the records. "The writ was served about 12 o'clock at night. Tourtelotte asked gruffly 'W'ho the h —l are you?' "Peirce replied 'I was your hostler coming over; I am undersheriff now.' " The suit was transferred to the district court of the United States, Grand Rapids, March 19, 1873, tried in September, 1874, and judgment was rendered for the county for the $3,500 with interest. General Stoughton and Hon. H. H. Riley were the attorneys for the county and Eldredge & Tourtelotte appeared in person, assisted by J. B. Church of Grand Rapids. A motion for a new trial was argued and overruled, and an appeal taken to the United States supreme court, which, however, reversed the decision of the lower court. CARE OF THE COUNTY'S POOR. The provision which has been made by St. Joseph county for the care of its poor commenced at an early date, but was not inaugurated on modern methods until 1848. On the first day of that year the board of supervisors ordered the superintendents of the county poor to purchase a farm of from one hundred to one hundred and sixty acres. Before the year closed one was bought of Cyrus Schellhous in the township of Colon, for which the county paid $2,800. In 1857 the old Latta farm in Fawn River township came into possession of the county through the prosecution of its proprietor for counterfeiting and the flight of the criminal from the country. This fine piece of property, comprising two hundred and forty acres of land, was east of Sweet lake, in section 3, of Fawn River township, and section 34, of Burr Oak. The county

Page  90 90 90 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ~H 0 p1 0 H QT 0 P4

Page  91 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 91 poor-house was a large two story building, about seventy by seventy feet on the ground, and accommodated fifty persons comfortably. The unfortunate poor have not only been cared for with humanity from the first, but through the initial efforts of Hon. Isaac D. Toll, while he was a member of the board of supervisors, the dead have been decently buried in Fawn River cemetery-at their graves neat marble headstones bearing appropriate records of the deceased. COUNTY OFFICIALS (1830-1910). The first sheriff elected by the people of St. Joseph county was Edward A. Trumbull, in 1836, his successors up to 1878 being as follows: Charles H. Knox, 1838-42; Horace Metcalf, 1842-3; Horace M. Vesey; John Hull, 1850-4; William Harrington, 1854-8; William K. Haynes, 1858-62; William L. Worthington, 1862-6; William M. Watkins, 1866-70; Alvah P. Pierce, 1870-2; John A. J. Metzger, 1872-4; and Daniel H. Hawley, 1874-6. David Page was the first clerk of the county, being appointed in 1830 and appearing at the first term of the county court. He was succeeded by Isaac W. Willard, who was also the first clerk of the circuit court. On September 6, 1834, Dr. Truesdell assumed the position and retained it until 1838, when he was succeeded by Albert E. Massey, who had been elected at the November election of that year, and held the county clerkship for two years. The place was filled by Asher Bonham from 1840 to 1846; Massey held it again in 1846-8; Charles Upson, 1848-50; C. D. Bennett, 1850-4; Hiram Lindsly, 1860-4; John C. Joss, 1864-76, and R. W. Melendy, 1876-8. John W. Anderson was register of probate from the civil organization of the county until March 21, 1834; T. W. Langley, March, 1834, to April 22, 1835. The first register of deeds was Jacob W. Coffinbury, who served from April, 1835, to December 31, 1838; Allen Goodridge, 1838-46; Edmund Stears, 1847-55; Asahel Clapp, 1855-65; Leverett A. Clapp, 1865-6; Myron A. Benedict, 1866-76; Thomas G. Greene, 1876-82. The first county treasurer of St. Joseph county, John Winchell, was elected in April, 1830, and held the office one term; Isaac I. Ulman, 1833-5; Columbia Lancaster, 1836-8; Alexander V. Sill, 1838-9; W. B. Brown, 1839-40; John W. Talbot, 1840-4; Jacob W.

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Coffinbury, 1844-6; William Laird, 1846-52; William McCormick, 1852-6; William Hutchinson, 1856-60; David Oaks, 1860-1; William Allison, 1861-6; William L. Worthington, 1866-70; James Hill, 1870-8. The first prosecuting attorney elected in the county was E. B. Turner, in 1850; Charles Upson served from 1852-4; William L. Stoughton, 1854-8; William Sadler, 1858-62; Henry F. Severnes, 1862-4; Germain H. Mason, 1864-8; Talcott C. Carpenter, 1868-72; E. W. Keightley, 1872-4; R. R. Pealer, 1874-6; Orlando J. Fast, 1876-8. The first county surveyor elected was James Cowen, in November, 1836, who held the office until 1838; his successor, Hiram Dresser, held it from 1838 to 1840; Hiram Draper, 1840-2; Simeon Gilbert, 1842-4; James Hutchinson, 1844-6; Josiah Knauer, 1846 -50; James Hutchinson, 1850-2; A. F. Watkins, 1852-4; Norman S. Andrews, 1854-62; Hiram Hutchinson, 1862-4; Jere. H. Gardner, 1864-70; John S. Rose, 1870-2; Jere. H. Gardner, 1872-4; Norman S. Andrews, 1874-8. The coroners who have served in St. Joseph county from 1833 to 1878 are as follows: Benjamin Sherman, 1833-7; Samuel Pratt and Isaac G. Bailey, 1837-9; John V. Overfield, 1840; William Thackery and Joseph Pharana, 1840-2; Peter F. Putnam, Charles McNair, Joseph Miller, John Aiken and Lyman Bean, 1842-52; A. D. Sprague and William Morrison, 1852-4; Fordyce Johnson and Orrin F. Howard, 1854-6; John S. Williams and Elisha Foote, 1856-8; H. Brazee and William Arney, 1858-60; Charles E. Simons and Isaac Howard, 1860-2; Isaac Howard and Nathan Mitchell, 1862-4; Joseph W. Pike and James W. Mandigo, 1864-6; Nathan Mitchell and James W. Mandigo, 1866-8; William Harrington and Nicholas I. Sixbey, 1868-70; Isaac Howard and J. A. Rogers, 1870 -2; Isaac Howard and A. C. Williams, 1872-4; L. R. Weinberg and Charles J. Beerstecher, 1874-6; A. C. Williams and Seth W. Keasey, 1876-8. Since 1878, the officers who have served St. Joseph county have been as follows: 1878-80: Sheriff, Charles Coddington; clerk, Levant E. White; register, Thomas G. Greene; treasurer, Amos C. Wolf; prosecuting attorney, Orris P. Coffinbury; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, Leander Weinberg and Daniel W. Shaw. 1880-2: Sheriff, John A. Dice; clerk, Levant E. White; register, Thomas G. Greene; treasurer, Arthur E. Howard; prosecuting

Page  93 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 93 attorney, Daniel E. Thomas; surveyor, Norman S. Andrews; coroners, Oliver S. Norton and John Ferris. 1882-4: Sheriff, Carlos E. Dexter; clerk, Charles A. Sturgis; register, Nicholas Hill; treasurer, Josephus Mosher; prosecuting attorney, David L. Akey; surveyor, William M. McLaughlin; coroners, William F. Arnold and Andrew M. Leland. 1884-6: Sheriff, Carlos E. Dexter; clerk, Charles A. Sturgis; register, Nicholas Hill; treasurer, Josephus Mosher; prosecuting attorney, David L. Akey; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, Jay Seymour and William F. Arnold. 1886-8: Sheriff, John Dunham; clerk, Charles A. Sturgis; treasurer, Henry S. Leinbach; register, Nicholas Hill; prosecuting attorney, Frederick W. Knowlen; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, William F. Arnold and George Start. 1888-90: Sheriff, J. Dunham; clerk, Charles Erbsmehl; treasurer, Charles S. Perrin; register, John B. Handy; prosecuting attorney, Hugh P. Stewart; surveyor, Samuel S. Reed; coroners, Oliver S. Norton and Oscar Hartranft. 1890-2: Sheriff, William Beard; clerk, Charles Erbsmehl; treasurer, Charles E. Perrin; register, John B. Handy; prosecuting attorney, Hugh P. Stewart; surveyor, Oliver H.. Todd; coroners, Oliver S. Norton and Oscar Hartranft. 1892-4: Sheriff, James H. Manbeck; clerk, John Farrow; treasurer, Samuel H. Angevine; register, Josephus Mosher; prosecuting attorney, David L. Akey; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, Edwin P. Wellesley and John T. Masterman. 1894-6: Sheriff, Charles L. Seekell; clerk, Jay J. Stanton; register, Benjamin O. Gladding; treasurer, Alexander Sharp; prosecuting attorney, Bishop E. Andrews; surveyor, Samuel S. Reed; coroners, John G. K. Ayers and James McKerlie. 1896-8: Sheriff, Charles Felker; clerk, DeLacy R. Hazen; register, Leonard Valentine; treasurer, Darius A. Babcock; prosecuting attorney, George H. Arnold; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, John Masterman and Charles L. Hauer. 1898-1900: Sheriff, Fred J. Avery; clerk, J. Mark Harvey, Jr.; register, Henry H. Ruggles; treasurer, Fabius A. Fisk; prosecuting attorney, Wilbur F. Thomas; surveyor, Samuel S. Reed; coroners, Frank H. Church and George E. Grout. 1900-2: Sheriff, William R. Addison; clerk, Edward F. Hackman; register, William W. Slote; treasurer, Byron D. Goodrich;

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY prosecuting attorney, Wilbur F. Thomas; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, John Masterman and Charles L. Hauer. 1902-4: Sheriff, William R. Addison; clerk, Edward F. Hackman; register, William W. Slote; treasurer, Byron Q. Goodrich; prosecuting attorney, Roy J. Wade; surveyor, Oliver H. Todd; coroners, Charles L. Hauer and John T. Masterman. 1904-6: Sheriff, Mortimer C. Flewelin; clerk, Christ E. Fousel; register, William H. VanBuren; treasurer, Charles O. Boussum; prosecuting attorney, Theodore T. Jacobs; coroners, Gillespie B. Southworth and Bert H. Parker. 1906-8: Sheriff, Carl C. Wing; clerk, Christ E. Fousel; register, William H. VanBuren; treasurer, Charles O. Boussum; prosecuting attorney, Theodore T. Jacobs; surveyor, William P. McCoy; coroners, Bert H. Parker and Albert C. Sheldon. 1908-10: Sheriff, Carl C. Wing; clerk, Herman C. Kaas; register, Charles P. Savory; treasurer, W. Irving Ashley; prosecuting attorney, E. H. Andrews; surveyor, William P. McCoy; coroners, William C. Davis and Lewis J. Twitchell. 1910 (elected in November): Sheriff, George W. Watkins; clerk, Herman C. Kaas; register, Charles P. Savory; treasurer, William Harrison; prosecuting attorney, George H. Arnold; surveyor, George A. Eagleton; coroners, William C. Davis and Albert C. Sheldon. EDUCATION IN THE COUNTY. From the last accessible report covering the statistics relating to the public schools, teachers and pupils, included in the educational system of the county, definite information is obtained and a fair general picture of the entire subject. The last per capita apportionment of the school interest fund indicates that the total school population (from five to twenty years) is slightly in excess of 5,900. There are 123 districts in the county, and the valuation of school property is over $348,000. The number of teachers employed is 217, of whom thirty-six are men; 92 are employed in the graded schools and the balance in the ungraded. The total amount of wages is more than $80,000, the average monthly wages of male teachers being $58 and of female, $40. From the one-mill tax, primary school interest fund, library fund, tuition of non-resident pupils, district taxes, etc., the total receipts amount to more than $121,000; added to this, the money

Page  95 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 95 received from loans and on hand, the total resources available for educational purposes are found to be $178,500. The total ordinary expenditures for the year, including salaries, building repairs and library expenses, are over $92,000. To this are added the $8,600 paid on the principal of the indebtedness and the amount on hand ($58,000) to bring the total expenditures up to $178,500. The total indebtedness of the districts is given at $55,600, of which $51,500 is bonded. It costs the tax-payers of St. Joseph county $23, on an average, to give one pupil the various privileges of the public school system; of this amount more than $16 goes toward instruction alone. The balance is expended on libraries, interest fund, teachers' institutes, etc. The private and parochial schools of the county, according to official reports, do not cut much of a figure in its scheme of education; only four institutions of this character are returned to the enumerators, with an enrollment of 62 pupils. The following interesting statistics are presented in connection with the graded school districts of the county: Property Teachers Annual District Attendance Value Employed Expense Burr Oak 141 $20,000 7 $ 4,195 Constantine 222 25,000 9 5,400 Mendon 164 25,000 7 6,155 Sturgis 689 50,000 18 12,060 Three Rivers 888 80,000 33 26,785 White Pigeon 145 18,000 7 4,259 Colon 214 32,000 7 4,828 The table below shows the school population of the cities and villages of the county, and the enrollment of scholars in the high schools and other departments of the public system: Corporation High School Other Dep'ts Total Three Rivers 148 740 888 Sturgis 100 613 713 Constantine 77 221 298 Burr Oak 66 115 181 Centerville 39 117 156 Colon 59 156 215 Mendon 66 132 198 White Pigeon 67 113 180 Total 545 1,986 2,531

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The total amounts paid in the cities (Three Rivers and Sturgis) and villages of the county for the instruction of pupils are as follows: Regular Corporation Superintendent Teachers Total Three Rivers $1,400 $15,453 $17,518 Sturgis 1,200 6,721 8,348 Constantine 1,000 3,127 4,127 Burr Oak 850 2,237 3,087 Centerville 840 1,845 2,687 Colon 765 2,295 3,060 Mendon 1,000 2,309 3,309 White Pigeon 900 2,295 3,195 The St. Joseph County Teachers' Association was organized in 1860 at Constantine. It meets annually in the different towns where there are union schools. SUPERINTENDENTS OF SCHOOLS. In April, 1867, Charles M. Temple was elected superintendent of schools for St. Joseph county, his successors having been as follows: Luther B. Antisdale, 1867-73; John W. Beardsley, 1873-5; 1875-93-a superintendent of schools elected for each township during this period; 1893-1901, John F. Evert; 1901 to date, Lewis E. Miller. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW OF PIONEER HISTORY. A general, and yet a definite idea of the first settlement of the sixteen townships which constitute St. Joseph county, as well as the platting of its principal communities, may be gained from the following tabular statement:

Page  97 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 97 Township Year First Settled Village or City Year Platted White Pigeon Fawn River Sturgis Mottville Nottawa Constantine Florence Lockport Flowerfield Colon Sherman Fabius Leonidas Burr Oak Mendon Park 1827 1828 1828 1828 1829 1829 1829 1829 1829 1829 1830 1830 1831 1831 1831 1834 White Pigeon Sturgis Mottville Centerville Constantine Three Rivers Flowerfield Colon Leonidas Burr Oak Mendon 1830 1832 1830 1831 1831 1830 1833 1832 1846 1851 1845 In drawing this chronological picture of the pioneer period of the county's history, the year 1840 has been made, substantially, the dividing line, in conformity with the original division made by the Pioneer Society. Vol. I-7

Page  98 CHAPTER VI. COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY. LEADING ORGANIZERS-CONSTITUTION OF SOCIETY-FIRST OFFICERS -ANNUAL MEETINGS FROM FIRST TO THIRTY-SEVENTH (1873 -1910)-CAME PRIOR TO 1840-DEATH OF HON. E. H. LOTHROP (SECOND ANNUAL MEETING)-YEAR 1845 MADE MEMBERSHIP LIMIT (FOURTH MEETING)-SETTLERS OF THIRTY YEARS ELIGIBLE (FIFTH MEETING)-HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN 1880-1 -PETER KLINGER, OF KLINGER'S LAKE-DEATH OF THREE FoRMER PRESIDENTS (FOURTEENTH MEETING)-MINISTER PAID IN CATS AND DOGS-LETTER FROM SAMUEL P. WILLIAMS (TWENTYFIRST MEETING) -DEATH OF HON. ANDREW ELLISON AND HON. S. P. WILLIAMS (TWENTY-FOURTH MEETING)-GREATEST SUCCESS UP TO DATE (THIRTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEETING). The following complete history of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society has been furnished by its secretary, the well-known citizen, son of a pioneer merchant and an associate editor of this work-Charles B. Kellogg. LEADING ORGANIZERS. The St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was organized October 15, 1873, under the leadership of such citizens as J. Eastman Johnson, Louis A. Leland, David Knox, James Thoms, John Loomison, John E. Overfield, James C. Bishop, Elijah Lancaster, Alfred R. Metcalf, William M. Watkins, Edward K. Wilcox, John C. Kinnie, Gersham Doane, Henry K. Farrand, Edmund Stears, John M. Leland, Adam Wakeman, Lorance Shellhouse, Hiram Lindsley, Isaac D. Toll, David H. Johnson, A. C. Prutzman, E. H. Lathrop, Amos Howe, Jonathan Engle, John W. Fletcher, William Hazzard, O. M. 98

Page  99 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 99 Howard, E. C. Wellesley, Ansel Clapp, George W. Beisel, Calvin H. Starr, W. H. Castle, John Hull, Stephen Barnabee, N. S. Johnson, Phineas Farrand, Sam P. Williams, William B. Langley, John B. Howe, Elisha Hill and Samuel Burnell. After spending a time in cordial, kindly greetings and partaking of a beautiful dinner provided at the Reformed church and at the hotel, the meeting, at 2 o'clock P. M., was called to order by Hon. J. Eastman Johnson and upon his nomination, Asahel Savery, of Sturgis, formerly of White Pigeon, was called to the chair. He was assisted by David Knox, of Sturgis, and William H. Cross, Thomas C. Langley, George W. Beisel and George Osborn were appointed secretaries. A committee of three was appointed by the chair to present a constitution for the pioneer society; Judge J. Eastman Johnson, Hon. A. R. Metcalf and John Hull, so appointed, presented the following: CONSTITUTION OF SOCIETY. Preamble: We, whose names are hereto subscribed, having settled in this county previous to the year 1840, do hereby form ourselves into an organization under the following constitution: Article I. This association shall be called the Society of Pioneers of St. Joseph County. Article II. Its objects are to promote the social intercourse of our citizens, to rescue from oblivion the early annals of our county, to obtain written statements from the settlers of the circumstances of their emigration and settlement here, and to promote the general good of the community. Article III. The officers of this society shall be a president, sixteen vice presidents, one from each township, a treasurer, a secretary, and as many assistant secretaries as may from time to time be thought expedient. Article IV. Said officers are to be chosen on the 15th day of October, 1873, for the ensuing year, and at the annual meeting thereafter. Article V. The time of the annual meeting of the society shall be on the second Wednesday of June, and a special meeting in each year at such other time as the president and the majority of the vice presidents may, by six weeks' notice in one or more of the newspapers of the county, designate.

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Article VI. In the absence of the president a vice president may be called on to preside at any meeting of the society. Article VII. The members of this society are requested to prepare a full statement of the circumstance of their settlement here and file the same with the secretary. Article VIII. The business to be done at the annual meeting of the society may be whatever shall be thought most suitable to promote its objects. Article IX. This constitution may be changed at any annual meeting of the society. FIRST OFFICERS. The constitution, after being read and considered was adopted and the following officers elected for the ensuing term (year): President: Asahel Savery. Vice Presidents: Leonidas township, William M. Watkins; Burr Oak township, Samuel Needham; Colon township, Lorensie Schellhous; Fawn River township, Isaac D. Toll; Mendon township, Patrick Marantette; Nottawa township, Amos Howe; Sherman township, Stephen Cade; Sturgis township, Hiram Jacobs; Park township, Isaac P. Ulrich; Lockport township, Edwin H. Lothrop; Florence township, Alvin Calhoon; White Pigeon township, George W. Beisel; Flowerfield township, Challenge S. Wheeler; Fabius township, William Arney; Constantine township, William Hamilton, and Mottville township, Thomas Burns. Treasurer: J. Eastman Johnson, Centerville. Secretary: William H. Cross, Centerville. It was then resolved that the vice presidents act as the executive committee of the society and that, "as those who have borne the heat and burden of the early days, who met the privations, who encountered the dangers and difficulties of the early settlements, we most respectfully ask the board of supervisors of our county such aid and assistance to gather together the incidents connected with such settlement and preserve a history of our county as it was, as is possible for them to render." An adjournment was taken to the annual meeting, second Wednesday in June, 1874. CAME PRIOR TO 1840. Among the charter members of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society, settlers prior to 1840 who enrolled themselves at the meeting of October 15, 1873, were the following:

Page  101 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 101 Lorance Shellhouse; located at Colon in 1831; native of Vermont; died at Colon, June 28, 1877, aged eighty years. Charles H. Thorns; located at Lockport in 1835; native of Switzerland; died in Centerville. Norman Roys; located at Florence in 1832; native of Massachussetts; died at Florence in 1891, at the age of seventy-six years. Alonzo Douglass; located at Sturgis in 1832; a native of New York; died at the age of fifty-seven years at Sturgis. William; H. Castle; located at Colon in 1835; a native of Connecticut; died at the age of sixty-two years at Colon. Ariel C. Chaffee; located at Colon, in 1835; a native of New York; died at the age of sixty years, at Colon. John E. Overfield; located at Nottawa in 1830; a native of Virginia; died at Centerville, January 9, 1875, at the age of seventy years. Thomas Burns; located at Mottville in 1830; a native of Pennsylvania; died at the age of sixty-seven years, at Mottville. Amos Howe; located at Nottawa in 1828; a native of Vermont; died at Centerville, August 24, 1875, at the age of eighty years. James Powers; located at Nottawa in 1830; a native of New York; died at the age of sixty years, at Mendon. Robert K. McMillan; located at Nottawa in 1831; a native of Indiana; died August 7, 1875, at Mendon, at the age of fifty-one years. A. R. Metcalf; located at Constantine in 1834; a native of New York; died at Constantine, at the age of seventy-one years. D. H. Johnson; located at Constantine in 1835; a native of Maine; died at Constantine, at the age of sixty-two years. Samuel A. Fitch; located at Lockport in 1830; a native of Ohio; died at Florence in 1891, at the age of sixty-two years. David Knox; located at Sturgis in 1832; a native of New York; died at Sturgis at the age of sixty-seven years. Dwight Stebbins; located at Lockport in 1836; a native of Pennsylvania; died at Parkville, April 17, 1874, at the age of fiftyeight years. John Lomison; located at Park in 1836; a native of Pennsylvania; died at Park at the age of sixty-six years. John Hutchison; located at Park in 1834; a native of Pennsylvania; died in April, 1874, at the age of sixty-seven years.

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY John Trog; located at Park in 1835; a native of Pennsylvania; died at Park on December 25, 1884, at the age of seventy-one years. Jairus Pierce; located at Leonidas in 1836; a native of Massachusetts; died at Leonidas at the age of seventy-four years. Samuel Tyler; located at Colon in 1834; a native of New York; died at Centerville, aged forty-seven. Ansel Tyler; located at Colon in 1834; a native of New York; died at Nottawa at the age of forty-five years. Asher Tyler; located at Colon in 1834; a native of New York; died in California at the age of forty-one. William Tyler; located at Colon in 1836; a native of Michigan; died at Nottawa, at the age of thirty-seven years. H. W. Hampson; located at Centerville in 1833; a native of Pennsylvania; died at Centerville, May 14, 1874, at the age of sixty-eight years. Thomas Cade; located at Sturgis in 1830; a native of England; died March 9, 1879, at the age of eighty-seven years. Alvin Calhoon; located at Florence in 1829; a native of New York; died at Constantine in 1888, at the age of seventy-one years. Jacob Lintz; located at Constantine in 1835; a native of France; died at Constantine, April 21, 1879, at the age of sixtyone years. Samuel Burnell; located at White Pigeon in 1829; native of England; died at Lima, Indiana, January 7, 1889, at the age of sixty-three years. Samuel Needham; located at Burr Oak in 1836; native of Vermont; died at Burr Oak at the age of sixty-one years. William Connor; located at Nottawa in 1829; native of New Hampshire; died at Saugatuck, Michigan, at the age of seventyone years. J. F. Ulrich; located at Park in 1834; native of Pennsylvania; died at Park, April 17, 1879, at the age of seventy-three years. Cornelius Cline; located at Nottawa in 1839; native of New York; died at Nottawa in 1891, at the age of fifty-seven years. James C. Bishop; located at Burr Oak in 1834; native of New York; died at the age of forty-seven years. H. K. Farrand; located at Colon in 1836; native of New York; died at Colon at the age of sixty-one years. L. W. Ulrich; located at Park in 1834; native of Pennsylvania; died at Parkville at the age of forty-seven years.

Page  103 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 103 J. A. Libhart; located at Leonidas in 1836; native of New York; died at Leonidas at the age of fifty-four years. H. H. Lawrence; located at Florence in 1829; native of Michigan; died at Florence in 1888, at the age of forty-eight years. William Major; located at Lockport in 1834; native of New York;, died December 15, 1876, at the age of seventy-seven years. John Hull; located at Florence in 1837; native of New York; died December 24, 1884, at the age of fifty-seven years. Oliver P. Arnold; located at Constantine in 1839; native of New York; died at White Pigeon, at the age of fifty-seven years. George Pashby; located at Florence in 1834; a native of England; died March 10, 1886, at the age of seventy years. Peter Putnam; located at White Pigeon in 1836; native of New York; died at the age of thirty-seven years, at White Pigeon. J. M. Wetherbee; located at Lockport in 1833; native of New York; died at Three Rivers, at the age of forty-three years. Isaac Crossette; located at Nottawa in 1832; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of forty-nine years. Powell C. Lown; located at Florence in 1836; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of fifty-five years. David Hazzard; located at Nottawa in 1828; native of Michigan; died at Centerville at the age of forty-five years. A. M. Carter; located at Clinton in 1830; native of Massachusetts; died at Tecumseh at the age of sixty-nine years. O. P. Wetherbee; located at Lockport in 1833; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of fifty years. I Alvin Hoyt; located at Colon in 1835; native of New Hampshire; died at Nottawa at the age of sixty years. Gabriel Langdon; located at Florence in 1835; native of New York; died at Mendon February 7, 1875, at the age of sixty-five years. W. F. Arnold; located at Fabius in 1832; native of New York; died at Three Rivers, in 1890, at the age of sixty- one years. William B. Langley; located at Centerville in 1832; native of Pennsylvania; died at Centerville March 1, 1896, at the age of fifty-one years. Thomas C. Langley; located at Centerville in 1832; native' of Pennsylvania; died at Centerville at the age of forty-five years. William N. Elliott, M. D.; located at White Pigeon in 1832; native of New York; died at White Pigeon in 1892, at the age of sixty-six years.

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Southard Chapin; located at Sherman in 1836; native of New York; died at Burr Oak at the age of fifty-one years. J. B. Millard; located at Three Rivers in 1836; native of Pennsylvania; died at Three Rivers at the age of fifty-six years. C. K. Wilcox; located at Leonidas in 1836; native of New York; died at Leonidas at the age of sixty-eight years. David W. Birtch; located at Sherman in 1836; native of New York; died at Sturgis at the age of fifty-seven years. James F. Thoms; located at Three Rivers in 1836; a native of Pennsylvania; died at Three Rivers, at the age of sixty years. Peter Robinson; located at White Pigeon in 1833; native of New York; died at White Pigeon, at the age of sixty years. Alfred Todd; located at Nottawa in 1838; native of New York; died at Nottawa August 17, 1877, at the age of seventyfour years. Henry W. Laird; located at Nottawa in 1834; native of Ohio; died at Mendon in 1882, at the age of sixty years. Stephen Price; located at Fabius in 1832; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of sixty-seven years. C. F. Dickinson; located at Nottawa in 1836; native of New York; died at Nottawa at the age of sixty-six years. Aaron McMillan; located, at Nottawa in 1831; native of New Hampshire; died at Centerville May 19, 1874, at the age of eightyfour years. Andrew M. Leland; located at Park in 1835; native of Pennsylvania; died at Mendon at the age of fifty-seven years. Stephen W. Cade; located at Sherman in 1830; native of England; died at Sturgis at the age of forty-seven years. Zerah Benjamin; located at Florence in 1835; native of New York; died at White Pigeon in 1883 at the age of seventy years. Sutter Graves; located at Burr Oak in 1833; native of New York; died in Burr Oak at the age of fifty years. A. C. Purtzman; located at Three Rivers in 1834; native of Pennsylvania; died at Three Rivers at the age of sixty years. A. Harvey; located at Leonidas in 1837; native of New York; died at Mendon, at the age of fifty-nine years. George McGaffey; located at White Pigeon in 1832; native of Ohio; died at White Pigeon at the age of fifty years. Hiram Draper; located at Colon in 1836; native of Vermont died at Nottawa at the age of sixty-five years.

Page  105 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 105 J. R. Bonebright; located at Constantine in 1829; native of Ohio; died at Constantine in March, 1884, at the age of forty-nine years. John Hamilton; located at Constantine in 1833; native of Ohio; died at Constantine at the age of sixty-one years. E. H. Lathrop; located at Three Rivers in 1830; native of Massachusetts; died February 17, 1874, at the age of sixty-seven years. B. B. Gardner; located at Sturgis in 1831; native of Virginia; died at Sturgis at the age of sixty-four years. A. R. Hunt; located at Florence in 1834; native of Vermont; died at Three Rivers at the age of sixty-three years. Lewis M. Knox; located at Sturgis in 1829; native of New York; died at Nottawa August 23, 1878, at the age of seventy years. Daniel West; located at Leonidas in 1834; native of New York; died at Leonidas at the age of fifty-eight years. William O. Austin; located at White Pigeon in 1834; native of Massachusetts; died at White Pigeon in 1889, at the age of sixtyone years. F. Putnam; located at White Pigeon in 1836; native of New York; died at White Pigeon at the age of fifty-three years. Charles R. Monroe; located at Burr Oak in 1836; native of New York; died at Colon at the age of seventy years. H. A. Hecox; located at Nottawa in 1829; native of Michigan; died at Centerville at the age of forty-eight years. G. W. Buck; located at Lockport in 1830; native of Ohio; still living at Three Rivers. Hirani Lindsley; located at Constantine in 1832; native of New Jersey; died at Constantine June 2, 1878, at the age of sixty-three years. Orrin F. Howard; located at Florence in 1831; native of Connecticut; died at Florence, November 19, 1875, at the age of sixtyone years. Isaac Major; located at Lockport in 1833; native of New York; died at Centerville, March 23, 1877, at the age of eighty-one years. Whitfield Troy; located at Park in 1835; native of Pennsylvania; died at Mendon at the age of fifty-one years. Isaac Runyan; located at White Pigeon in 1835; native of New York; died at Sturgis at the age of fifty-one years. C. F. Runyan; located at White Pigeon in 1835; native of New York; died at White Pigeon at the age of forty-five years.

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY William Hutchison; located at Lockport in 1835; native of Pennsylvania; died at Three Rivers February 15, 1878, at the age of seventy-one years. Josiah Livermore; located at Burr Oak in 1834; native of Massachusetts; died at Burr Oak at the age of sixty-seven years. Asahel Clapp; located at Mottville in 1835; native of Massachusetts; died at White Pigeon, December, 1876, at the age of seventy years. John M. Leland; located at Lockport in 1833; native of Pennsylvania; died at Three Rivers, November 7, 1873, at the age of sixty-six years. Asahel Savery; located at White Pigeon in 1829; native of Vermont; died at Sturgis in June, 1882, at the age of eighty-six years. Adam Bower; located at Colon in 1836; native of New York; died at Colon, in 1889, at the age of fifty-nine years. Joseph Russell; located at Niottawa in 1833; native of Ohio; died at Nottawa at the age of fifty-seven years. Andrew Good; located at Lockport in 1834; native of Pennsylvania; died at Park at the age of seventy-four years. J. C. Stowell, located at Burr Oak in 1835; native of New Hampshire; died at Burr Oak at the age of sixty-three years. L. E. Schellhous; located at Colon in 1831; native of Ohio; died at Parkville, at the age of fifty-four years. Hiram Jacobs; located at Sturgis in 1831; native of New York; died at Sturgis in February, 1884, at the age of seventy-one years. Gilbert Liddle; located at Colon in 1831; native of New York; died at Colon in July, 1884, at the age of seventy-one years. Samuel P. Williams; located at White Pigeon in 1832; native of Connecticut; died in California, in 1897, at the age of fifty-eight years. George W. Beisel; located at White Pigeon in 1832; native of Pennsylvania; living at White Pigeon, aged eighty-nine years. William Minor; located at Leonidas in 1836; native of Vermont; died at Mendon, July 28, 1875, at the age of seventy-six years. Henry Yauney; located at Florence in 1836; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of fifty-one years. Gardner W. Pitts; located at Florence in 1833; native of New York; died at Three Rivers at the age of fifty-one years.

Page  107 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 107 Orrin Arnold; located at Fabius in 1832; native of New York; died in June, 1883, at Three Rivers, at the age of fifty-one years. Andrew J. Knapp; located at Centerville in 1836; native of New York; died at Constantine at the age of forty-six years. William Hull; located at Three Rivers in 1840; native of New York; died at Three Rivers, at the age of sixty-seven years. The following also came to the county before 1840: A. J. Troy, Leonidas, 1835. Mary Ann Middagh, White Pigeon, 1827. Henry Bonebright, first child born in Constantine, 1830. C. B. Kellogg, born February 6, 1840, at White Pigeon. Edmund H. Stears, Mottville township, 1839; living in Constantine. Elizabeth Kellogg, Three Rivers, 1837. J. H. Worthington, born at Mendon, 1837. Caroline Troy, Three Rivers, in 1838. Elizabeth Miller, Three Rivers, 1835. Susan McKinley, Mendon, 1840. Mary D. Dockstader, Three Rivers, 1836. C. G. Langdon, Mendon, 1835. Myra Covey, Leonidas, 1839. Charles King, Colon, 1834. James A. Todd, Burr Oak, 1828. W. B. Corey, Sturgis, 1832. B. F. Fillmore, Nottawa, 1837. Alden W. Chase, White Pigeon, 1839. Henry L. Root, Constantine, 1839. Richard Wade, White Pigeon, 1830. George Lutz, Constantine, 1839. Marvin Cole, White Pigeon, 1835. R. M. Wetherbee, Florence, 1832. Mrs. Salsig, Three Rivers, 1829. Samuel Pugh, Three Rivers, 1837. Ruth Hoppin, Three Rivers, 1837. Rev. A. J. Eldred, now Saginaw, 1834. Mrs. Maria Richards, Florence, 1836. Mary J. Yauney, Florence, 1839. Mrs. Anna E. Austin, Florence, 1839. George W. Buck, Lockport, 1831. L. W. Ulrich, Park, 1834.

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Whitfield Troy, Mendon, 1835. David Handshaw, Mendon, 1836. James C. Bishop, Burr Oak, 1836. Henry Yauney, Three Rivers, 1836. James Yauney, Florence, 1836. George W. Osborne, Parkville, 1838. John Yauney, Florence, 1836. William Slote, Florence, 1837. B. F. Hibbard, Sturgis, 1840. David Beedle, Three Rivers, 1827. F. C. Knapp, Centerville, 1836. David W. Barnes, White Pigeon township, 1837. John J. Peak, Mendon, 1833. John F. Wolf, Lockport township, born at Centerville, 1834. Mrs. E. B. Dewing, Elkhorn, Wisconsin. Joseph Dixon, Seattle, Washington. Mrs. Mary Cook, Seattle, Washington. Lyman Benjamin, Constantine. Joseph R. Watson, White Pigeon. Major Robert C. Knaggs; all through the war of the "Sixties". Mrs. Hannah Harvey, Seattle, Washington. E. B. Gray, Daniel M. Harvey, Mrs. Geo. J. Crossette, Judge E. W. Keightley and Hon., Samuel Gibson. Mrs. Henry Middagh (nee Betsey Klinger), the first white child born in White Pigeon township on the banks of Klinger's Lake, daughter of Peter Klinger (1827). Mrs. James Voorhies, born in 1829. The members of the society who came here previous to 1840 number about' four hundred and fifty. The total membership enrolled, dead and living, to date is about eight hundred. The active membership is about four hundred. The following pioneer members of the society are still living (November, 1910): Mrs. Maria Richards; located in Florence township, in 1836; still living there, 76 years of age. Mrs. Anna E. Austin (daughter of Norman Roys); located in Florence township in 1839; living there, aged 71. Mrs. Mary J. Yauney (daughter of O. F. Howard); located in Florence township, in 1839; living in Three Rivers, 71 years of age.

Page  109 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 109 Frank D. Johnson; born in Florence township in 1845 and still, living there. John Gibson (poet); located in Nottawa township in 1830; living there at the age of 80. Mrs. Delia H. Crossette; born at Constantine, where she is living at the age of 74. E. S. Amidon; located at Sturgis in 1840; still living there. Judge E. W. Keightley; located at Constantine in 1840; present place of residence. Henry Middagh; located at White Pigeon in 1840; still residing there. Mrs. Betsy (Klinger) Middagh, wife of Henry; born on banks of Klinger lake in 1827, where still resides; first native white child of White Pigeon township. Mrs. James (Bonebright) Voorhies; born in Constantine township in 1832; still living there. Henry Bonebright; born in Constantine township in 1830; first native white child of township; still living there. Henry L. Root; born at Constantine in 1839; now at home there. Richard Wade; born in White Pigeon township, in 1835; residing there still. George Lintz; came to Constantine township in 1839; living in village. George W. Buck; located at Three Rivers in 1830; still living there. Samuel Pugh; born at Three Rivers in 1837, and still a resident of city. Edmund Stearns; located at 1Iottvile in 1839; now living at Constantine. Rev. A. J. Eldred; came to county in 1834; a resident of Saginaw, Michigan. David Handshaw; located at Mendon in 1835; still living there (president, Pioneers' Society). James Yauney; located in Florence township in 1836; still a resident of it (ex-president of society). John Yauney; came to Florence township in 1836; resident of Three Rivers. William Slote; located at Constantine in 1837; living in Florence township.

Page  110 110 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY David W. Barnes; located on Klinger's lake in 1837; still living in White Pigeon township. John F. Wolf; located in Lockport township in 1834; resident of Centerville. John J. Peak; came to Mendon in 1833; resident of Three Rivers. Marvin Cole; came to St. Joseph county in 1835; living at White Pigeon. C. B. Kellogg; born at White Pigeon in 1840; living in Florence township (secretary, Pioneers' Society). SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. On Wednesday, June 10, 1874, the society met at the Agricultural Society grounds, in Centerville, for their first annual meeting. The day was very pleasant and a large number of the pioneers and their friends were in attendance. An old-fashioned picnic was organized by the families and enjoyed each in its own chosen way, the early part of the day being passed in friendly greetings and social intercourse. At about two o'clock in the afternoon the society was called to order, and the president, Asahel Savery, being absent, Alvin Calhoon, vice president from Florence, was placed in the chair, with Gen. Isaac D. Toll, vice-president from Fawn River, as assistant chairman. The secretary of the society reported the transactions of the last meeting and the death of members since the previous October. This mortuary list was as follows: John M. Leland, died at Lockport, aged sixty-six years; Russell Post, Nottawa, seventy-five; Edwin H. Lothrop, Three Rivers, sixtyseven; John Hutchinson, Park, sixty-seven; Dr. Aaron McMillan, Nottawa, eighty-four; Margaretta Mathew, Leonidas, seventyeight; Henry W. Hampson, Centerville, sixty-eight. After the report of the secretary was made and accepted, a motion was made to add the following to the constitution as Article X. That an executive committee of five members be chosen at each annual meeting to take charge of the general business of the society and to make arrangements for the history of the early settlement of the county. Whereupon William B. Langley, of Nottawa; Edmund Stears, of Centerville; Ansel Tyler, of Colon; John Hull, of Constantine, and William M. Watkins, of Leonidas, were appointed on said committee.

Page  111 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 111 The following officers were then elected for the ensuing year; president, Alvin Calhoon; vice presidents, Leonidas, Jairus Pierce; Colon, Lorensie Schellhous; Burr Oak, Samuel Needham; Fawn River, George Thurston; Mendon, Patrick Marantette; Nottawa, Amos Howe; Sherman, Ralph Taylor; Sturgis, Hiram Jacobs; Park, Isaac F. Ulrich; Lockport, Elisha Millard; Florence, Norman Roys; White Pigeon, Lewis Rhodes; Flowerfield, Challenge S. Wheeler; Fabius, Stephen A. Rice; Constantine, John Hamilton; Mottville, Edward Gray; treasurer, J. Eastman Johnson; secretary, William H. Cross. DEATH OF HON. E. H. LOTHROP. At the time of the election of vice-presidents, when Lockport was called, General Toll spoke of the departure of one vice-president, Hon. E. H. Lothrop, in a most feeling, appropriate and merited manner, as an honored official in county and state, a loved citizen, a veteran pioneer and a peace-loving and respected neighbor. Resolutions were passed, that, at any called meeting of the vice-presidents, if any are unable to attend personally, they may appoint others to represent them, and that Judge Connor was asked to donate to the society copies of newspapers of an early date, and Messrs. Schellhous of Colon, Ulrich of Park, Toll of Fawn River, and Draper of Colon, presented various statements of facts and manuscripts descriptive of pioneer times, for which a vote of thanks was passed. Pioneer Hazzard, J. G. Wait, Beadle Thurston, Jacobs, Ulrich, Schellhous and Toll made remarks and related incidents of interest and profit to the meeting. Many pledges were given for future manuscripts to be furnished the society. Henry W. Laird, Patrick Marantette, William M. Watkins, S. C. Coffinberry, Joseph Jewett and E. K. Wilcox be a committee to gather together the history of the treaty with the Indians for their removal from the county. Miss Lawrence, of Florence, described how she had labored and enjoyed the trials and privations of pioneer life, and drew a comparison between the wives and women of these early days and the young ladies of the present, not altogether flattering to the latter. FIRST NATIVE MALE SPEAKS. William Hazzard, Jr., was called on as the first male child born in St. Joseph county of white parents. At about five o'clock the

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY society adjourned to meet at the same place on the second Wednesday of June, 1875. THIRD ANNUAL MEETING. The third annual meeting of the society was held at the St. Joseph county fair grounds, Centerville, Wednesday, June 9, 1875, and in accordance with the programme of the executive committee, it was called to order by the president, Alvin Calhoun, at 10 o'clock A. M. Reports of committees were then called for and Henry W. Laird, chairman of the committee on the "History of the Removal of the Indians from Nottawa-seepe Reservation," asked for more time to prepare a more complete report, which was granted. Election of officers for the ensuing year resulted in the following selection: Amos Howe, Nottawa, president; vice-presidents, Edward K. Wicox, Leonidas township; Lorensie Schellhous, Colon; Josiah T. Livermore, Burr Oak; Joseph Johnson, Fawn River; Hiram Wakeman, Mendon; Jonathan Engle, Nottawa; Stephen Cade, Sherman; David Knox, Sturgis; John Lorinson, Park; Jonas Fisher, Lockport; Orrin F. Howard, Florence; John Hotchin, White Pigeon; Leander Weinburg, Flowerfield; Benjamin King, Fabius; Franklin Wells, Constantine, and Edward Gray, Mottville; treasurer, John W. Fletcher; secretary, Edmund Stears; executive committee, John W. Fletcher, James C. Bishop, Isaac D. Toll, Henry K. Farrand and& Elisha Millard. It was decided to meet at the same place on the second Wednesday of the following June, and soon afterward an adjournment was taken to discuss the picnic dinner. Upon re-assembling in the afternoon, the early pioneers took the east end of the grand stand and the entire stand was soon well filled with those assembled. After the secretary's report was read announcing the officers elected for the ensuing year, General Isaac D. Toll arose and after paying a just and beautiful tribute of praise to the two former presidents, related facts and incidents in the life of President-elect Howe that showed him to be in truth the pioneer in very many ways, not only of St. Joseph county, but also of the territory of Michigan outside of Detroit and Monroe.

Page  113 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 113 These interesting remarks were followed by the announcement of the pioneers who had been taken away by death since the last annual meeting, being thirty-four, as follows: John Howard, Hiram A. Pitts, and Mrs. Richard Garton, Florence township; William Klady, Thomas Engle, John W. Talbot, Mrs. John Rutherford, Mrs. Robert McKinley and Mrs Esther Adams, Nottawa township; John Smith Klady, Ben Danberry, Tobias Teller, Charles Rumsey, Christian B. Hoffman, Colon township; Mrs. Betsy Douglas, James Buys, Henry M. Ransom, John Parker and John B. Parker, Sturgis township; Charles Klady, John Mossir, Mrs. Martha Buck, Lockport township; Hosea Barnabee, Moses Taft, Mrs. Moses Taft, William Miner, Joseph Woodard, Gabriel Langdon, Mendon township; William Clark, Mrs. Mary C. Bishop, Henry Burger, Burr Oak township; Isaiah Sweet, Laurine Washburn, Fawn River township; John Hutchinson, Park township. And of those who resided in the county during its early days, but who had left it previous to their death, were: Albert E. Massey, Cleveland, Ohio; John E. Overfield, Missouri, and Edwin Kellogg, Toronto, Woodson county, Kansas. After which announcement, some allusions were made to those departed fellow pioneers and the meeting was open to general remarks by the old settlers. Captain Alvin Calhoon, of Florence township; James Johnson, Fawn River; David Knox, Sturgis; Alfred R. Metcalf, Constantine; Elisha Millard, Three Rivers; George Thurston, Sturgis, and William B. Langley, Nottawa, gave interesting sketches of the early trials and joys, of the days previous to 1835. FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING. The fourth annual meeting was called to order at 10 A. M., June 14, 1876, in accordance with the order of the executive committee, and the president of the society, Amos Howe, of Nottawa, having died, Josiah Livermore, vice president for Burr Oak, acted as president and chairman. The secretary, Edmund Stears, being absent, William H. Cross was chosen pro tern. The following were elected officers for the ensuing year: President, John W. Fletcher, of Nottawa; vice-presidents, Edward K. Wilcox, Leonidas township; Lorensie Schellhous, Colon; Vol. — 8

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Josiah Livermore, Burr Oak; Joseph Johnson, Fawn River; Hiram Wakeman, Mendon; Jonathan Engle, Nottawa; Stephen Cade, Sherman; David Knox, Sturgis; John Lorinson, Park; Jonas Fisher, Lockport; Norman Roys, Florence; John Hotchin, White Pigeon; Leander Wineberg, Flowerfield; Benjamin King, Fabius; Franklin Wells, Constantine, and Edward Gray, Mottville; treasurer, Edmund Stears, Centerville; secretary, W. H. Cross, Centerville; executive committe, John Hull, Constantine; Isaac D. Toll, Fawn River; James C. Bishop, Burr Oak; Henry K. Farrand, Colon, and Elisha Millard, Lockport. YEAR 1845 MADE MEMBERSHIP LIMIT. At this meeting the time was extended to make persons eligible to membership who came here previous to 1845. Hon. Isaac D. Toll delivered an address abounding in historical and most interesting reminiscences of the early days; a song of a pioneer was then read by Hon. John Hull. The names of the officers elected in the morning were then announced. The call for volunteer addresses brought out Judge Johnson, John Hull, William Hayward, William M. Watkins, Daniel H. Johnson, Isaac Kimball, and a few others, after which there was presented to the society a fine photograph of its deceased president, Amos Howe, by his son, William W. Howe, of Burr Oak, as well as one of the first president, Asahel Savery, by William H. Cross. FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING. The fifth annual meeting, June 13, 1877, was held in the fiftieth year of the settlement of the county, and was called to order by John W. Fletcher, president. A full and lengthy report was made by Henry W. Laird, giving a history of the removal of the Pottawatomie Indians from Nottawaseepe reservation. SETTLERS OF THIRTY YEARS ELIGIBLE. The constitution was also so amended that those who had been here thirty years were eligible to membership. The following were elected officers of the society for the ensuing year: President, George Thurston, Sturgis; vice-presidents

Page  115 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 115 E. K. Wilcox, Leonidas township; Lorensie Schellhous, Colon; J. T. Livermore, Burr Oak; James Johnson, Fawn River; Hiram Wakeman, Mendon; Jonathan Engle, Nottawa; Stephen Cade, Sherman; David Knox, Sturgis; John Lorinson, Park; Jonas Fisher, Lockport; Norman Roys, Florence; John Hotchin, White Pigeon; Leander Wineberg, Flowerfield; Benjamin King, Fabius; Franklin Wells, Constantine; and Edward Gray, Mottville; secretary, William B. Langley, Nottawa; treasurer, Edmund Stears, Centerville; executive committee-William M. Watkins, Leonidas township; John Hull, Florence; Isaac Runyan, Sturgis; Thomas Cuddy, Nottawa; Edmund Stears, Centerville. The Constantine cornet band discoursed fine music and the picnic dinner commenced at noon. When the meeting re-assembled in the afternoon Capt. Isaac D. Toll, of Fawn River; Hon. Orange Jacobs, later a delegate to Congress from Washington; John Hull, S. C. Coffinberry; Samuel P. Williams, of Lima, and many others addressed the pioneers. Forty old pioneers had passed away since the last meeting. SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING. President George Thurston, of Burr Oak, opened the next annual meeting of the society, held August 21, 1878, and the following new officers were elected: William Connor, Nottawa, president; vice-presidents-George Benedict, Leonidas; Louis Leland, Colon; Harrison Kelley, Burr Oak; Attorney Wood, Fawn River; N. S. Johnson, Mendon; Jonathan Engle, Nottawa; Joseph Cade, Sherman; Hiram Jacobs, Sturgis; L. E. Schellhous, Park; Samuel Fitch, Lockport; Thomas Stears, Florence; George W. Beisel, White Pigeon; John Nichols, Flowerfield; Alfred R. Metcalf, Constantine, and Samuel Early, Mottville; William B. Langley, secretary; Edmund Stears, treasurer; executive committee-William Watkins, John Hull, John W. Fletcher, Isaac Runyan, and Edmund Stears. A prayer was offered by Rev. A. J. Eldred, of Three Rivers, and speeches delivered by Hon. Wales Adams of Branch county, Hon. E. A. Turnbull of Detroit, Colorado, Charles Dickey of Marshall, and S. C. Coffinbury of Constantine. Forty-five deaths were reported as having occurred since the last meeting.

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The society held its next annual meeting June 11, 1879, at the fair grounds in Centerville. It was called to order by William B. Langley, secretary, in the absence of President William Connor, and John Hull, of Constantine, was chosen president pro tern. After prayer by Rev. A. H. Van Vranken, the society proceeded to the election of officers, with this result: President, Dr. William N. Elliott, of White Pigeon; vice-presidents, same as preceding year; secretary, John Hull, of Constantine; treasurer, William McCormick of Centerville; executive committee-William B. Langley, H. A. Hecox, Edward S. Moore, I. D. Toll, and William M. Watkins. The society adjourned for the regular noon picnic dinner and upon re-convening was regaled with music by the Centerville quartette. The members then listened with interest to addresses by E. A. Turnbull, S. C. Coffinbury, and W. H. Cross. Mr. Cross had just returned from a visit to the Straits of Mackinac and gave an account of the missionary station established there in 1671. The number of pioneers who had passed away since the August meeting of 1878 was forty-two. Addresses were also made at this meeting by Rev. A. J. Eldred, Three Rivers; Hon. H. H. Riley, Constantine; Hon. John B. Howe, of Lima, Indiana; Hon. Edward Moore, of Three Rivers; S. C. Coffinbury, of Constantine, and Oliver Wilcox, of Centerville. Hon. J. Eastman Johnson, attorney of Niles, Michigan, favored the meeting with a fine poem. The meeting was in every way a success, the attendance being about one thousand, and it really seemed good to see so many "gray heads" together. EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING. On June 9, 1880, in the fifty-third year of the settlement of St. Joseph county, the society convened at the Centerville fair grounds, and was called to order by William B. Langley. William Cross was chosen chairman, President W. N. Elliott being absent. Officers elected: President, Hiram Jacobs, of Sturgis; secretary, William B. Langley, of Centerville; treasurer, William McCormick, of Centerville; executive committee-W. B. Langley, E. S. Moore, H. A. Hecox, I. D. Toll, and William M. Watkins. The weather was

Page  117 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 117 so unfavorable (with its downpour of rain) for the picnic dinner that it was decided to adjourn to the court house. The afternoon meeting at the court house was called to order by Dr. William N. Elliott, president, which was followed by music by the band and prayer by Rev. W. I. Cogshall. It was reported that thirty-three pioneers had passed away since the last meeting. HISTORICAL CONTRIBUTIONS IN 1880. It appears from the records that considerable history was contributed to the annals of the society in 1880 and 1881, the following being specimen items: In 1829 Michael Beadle built a grist-mill on Rocky river from stone gotten out of the river, which ran in a hoop, the size of a half-bushel measure to grind grain for flour, and the water was conveyed to the water-wheel through a hollow log. The winter of 1831 was very cold, the St. Joseph river being frozen solid at Knapp's Riffles below Three Rivers mills, and the pioneers had to pound corn and grind buckwheat in a coffee-mill to make cakes. The Black Hawk war now broke out, all the men being ordered to meet at Captain Powers to go and fight the Indians. Jonathan Engle came with his family to Three Rivers, in 1830, and Benjamin Sherman at the same time. Captain Alvin Calhoon came to Michigan October 6, 1829, and traded eight pounds of flour for two acres of wheat on the ground. PETER KLINGER OF KLINGER'S LAKE. Peter Klinger, for whom Klinger's lake is named, came to St. Joseph county in 1827 and located at that locality in White Pigeon township, where his daughter was one of the first born in St. Joseph county. She is still living in White Pigeon, the wife of Henry Middagh, being nearly eighty-three years of age. Afterward Mr. Klinger moved to a farm west of Constantine, some three miles on the north side of the St. Joseph river, and located a flouring mill on a small stream emptying into that stream. This stood and did work for fifty years, being last known as Hayman's Mill, and was finally wrecked by Chet Brown and the old lumber brought to Constantine. An executive meeting of the Pioneer Society was held at the office of Judge William H. Cross, May 11, 1882, to make arrange

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ments for the annual meeting; but there is no record of the latter in that year. TENTH ANNUAL MEETING. On June 13, 1883, however, an annual meeting was held in Centerville, at the fair grounds, the principal address being delivered by Governor Josiah W. Bagley, of Michigan, who came to the territory in 1836. The officers chosen for 1884 were: Samuel Fitch, of Lockport, president; vice-presidents, sixteen in number; William McCormick, treasurer; Calvin H. Starr, secretary; executive committee, Casper Runyan, W. H. Cross, William B. Langley, Marcus Watkins and L. A. Leland. ELEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The St. Joseph County Pioneer Society held its 1884 meeting at the fair grounds in Centerville on Wednesday, June 11th. The day was pleasant and many pioneers were on hand at an early hour. The meeting was called to order, at 10:30 A. M., by President Samuel Fitch, and Secretary C. H. Starr reported seventy-seven deaths in the society since its last meeting. Election of officers for the ensuing year were: W. H. Castle, president; sixteen vice-presidents, one for each township; H. A. Hecox, secretary; W. McCormick, treasurer; executive committee, Casper Runyan, W. M. Watkins, W. H. Cross, Wm. B. Langley and L. A. Leland. Upon re-assembling in the afternoon, Rev. A. M. Wayman offered prayer, the Centerville band furnished music and Hon. William Saddler made an address of thirty-five minutes, followed by five-minute speeches from John Hull, A. C. Purtzman, S. P. Williams, of Lima, and Harvey Kenney. Letters of regret for non-attendance were read from Columbia Lancaster, of Oregon; George Kellogg, of Jackson and A. T. Prouty, and the meeting closed with a song by the ladies' quartette. TWELFTH ANNUAL MEETING. The society met at the fair grounds in Centerville, on June 10, 1885, and was called to order by W. H. Castle, president.

Page  119 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 119 Officers for the ensuing year: President, Asher Bonham; H. A. Hecox, secretary; Harvey Cady, treasurer, and sixteen vice president who represented the townships. From the secretary's report, read in the afternoon, it was learned that fourteen pioneers had died during the past year. The addresses were by Hon. J. Eastman Johnson, Hon. H. H. Riley, Salatheal C. Coffinbury, Hon. A. Chandler, of Coldwater, and S. P. Doan, of Mendon. Before adjournment a floral monument was dedicated to the memory of the departed pioneers who had crossed to "the other side." THIRTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirteenth annual reunion of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held at the fair grounds in Centerville on Wednesday, June 9, 1886, and was called to order by President Asher Bonham. Prayer was offered by Elder A. Fleming, of LaGrange, Indiana, and the following new officers were elected: Edward K. Wilcox, Leonidas, president; usual sixteen vice-presidents; H. A. Hecox, Centerville, secretary, and William B. Langley, treasurer. An adjournment was then taken to Agricultural Hall for dinner, and an assembly of several hundred was called to order by president at 1:30 P. M. The secretary, reported ninety deaths of old pioneers since the last meeting, at an average age of seventy years-forty-eight male members and forty-seven female. The principal address was made by Hon. George L. Yaple, judge of the supreme court. Hon. J. Eastman Johnson presented a newpaper to the society, styled the White Pigeon Republican and St. Joseph County Advertiser, published by Munger Adams in 1838; also copies of the Constantine Republican, published by Daniel Munger in 1838. Judge R. R. Pealer and Rev. Mr. Peek made interesting addresses before the adjournment. ENTHUSIASTIC FOURTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The fourteenth annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held at the fair grounds in Centerville, June 8, 1887. Meeting called to order by the president, E. K. Wilcox, of Leonidas, and prayer by Rev. Mr. Peek.

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The election of officers for the ensuing year was held with the following results: President, William Sturgis, of Sturgis; secretary, William Hazzard, of Centerville; and treasurer, Calvin H. Starr, of Centerville. As was customary, a vice president was elected for each of the sixteen townships of the county. Members of the society, relatives and friends adjourned for dinner at high noon to Agricultural Hall, which proved too small to hold the hundreds gathered on the grounds, and dinner parties were formed outside under every tree and shady spot, the feasts there spread being unknown in the pioneer days. DEATH OF THREE FORMER PRESIDENTS. The afternoon meeting was saddened by the fact that an unusual large number of society members had passed away-one hundred and fifty-among whom were three former presidents of the society-J. W. Fletcher, William H. Cross and W. H. Castle. A fitting eulogy was pronounced upon their lives by Rev. Mr. Peek. Then came a poem, entitled "My Michigan," by James Yauney of Florence, and music by the Centerville Military Band. MINISTER PAID IN CATS AND Doos. The address by Rev. Mr. Eldred was replete with interesting incidents. It related to the pioneer times when, as minister in St. Joseph county, he traveled on a circuit of three hundred miles, on a salary of $250, and took his pay in cats and dogs, maple sugar and cranberries, so to speak; for all money was scarce, except "wild-cat," and as that flooded the country and was based upon little else than "promises" much of it was of less value than mongrel curs. After Mr. Eldred's address and music by the glee club, Hon. J. C. Burrows, congressman, was introduced and held the audience of more than two thousand people almost spell-bound under his eloquent oratory. Hon. J. Eastman Johnson also spoke and Hon. William Hull gave an interesting talk on the reform features of the state administrations of Governor John S. Barry, of Constantine, and Cyrus G. Luce, of Concord. Mr. A. Sharp of Sherman township made some very appropriate remarks and letters of regret were received, because of their absence from the meeting, from Governor Luce, J. J. Woodman, Henry Steel, Col. Isaac D.

Page  121 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 121 Toll, Samuel P. Williams of Lima, and many others. The largest, the most enthusiastic and happiest pioneer reunion ever held in St. Joseph county up to this date then adjourned. FIFTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The fifteenth annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society, which met at the Centerville fair grounds, June 13, 1888, was called to order at 11:00 A. M. by President William Sturgis and the following persons, besides sixteen vice-presidents, were elected for the ensuing year: President, William Arnold, of Three Rivers; secretary, James Yauney of Florence; treasurer, Thomas R. Shaffer of Centerville. At the afternoon session, after prayer by Rev. Mr. Beecher and music by the Marshall band, an account of William Hazzard's pioneer experience in 1828 was read by Rev. J. F. Orwick, and an address delivered by Rev. W. I. Cogshall of Niles. Number of pioneers who had passed away since the last meeting, one hundred and twenty-seven. SIXTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The sixteenth annual meeting of the society was held at the fair grounds in Centerville, June 12, 1889. President William F. Arnold called it to order and the following persons were elected for the ensuing year: President, H. E. Root, Constantine; sixteen vicepresidents; secretary, William Hull; treasurer, C. H. Starr, Centerville. The usual order of proceedings was observed in the afternoon, after dinner, and addresses were made by Dallis Boudeman, J. T. Cobb, S. P. Williams, Flemming Daugherty and others. The day was beautiful and serene and the gathering was said to be the largest ever assembled on a like occasion, estimated at from two the three thousand, mostly aged people. Fifty deaths of members were reported for the past year, at ages ranging from fifty-three to ninety-one years. EIGHTEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. There is no record of the seventeenth meeting, but the eighteenth was held, as usual, on the fair grounds at Centerville; date,

Page  122 122 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 10th of June, 1891. It was called to order by President C. H. Starr, an executive committee of five and sixteen vice-presidents were elected, besides the following regular officers: President, William M. Watkins; secretary, W. L. Worthington; treasurer, William B. Langley. Addresses were made by President Starr and William Saddler, followed by the reading of the names of the pioneers who had passed away. A loss of interest in the objects of the society was apparent from the fact that only eight of the sixteen vice-presidents elected were present. NINETEENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The nineteenth annual meeting, held on the fair grounds at Centerville, June 22, 1892, was called to order by Secretary William L. Worthington, in the absence of President Watkins. William Benjamin was then called to the chair as president pro-tem, and the meeting proceeded to the election of officers, which resulted as follows: President, Stephen W. Cade; secretary, William B. Langley; treasurer, Volney Patchen; also the sixteen vice-presidents and executive committee of five. Interesting remarks bearing on the history of early days were made by Bishop Andrews, William Benjamin, James Yauney, Joseph Langley, D. Millard, William Saddler, Rev. H. H. Rood and others. The death list embraced sixty-nine members, from forty-five to ninety-nine years of age. Attendance not large but interest manifested. TWENTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. On June 14, 1893, the twentieth annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held at the fair grounds in Centerville. The attendance was at first light, about one hundred joined the meeting later. It was called to order by Lewis Rhodes, elected president protem, to fill vacancy caused by death of Stephen Cade. The balloting for 1894 officers resulted in the choice of Mr. Rhodes for president; Samuel Cross, secretary, Henry Levison, treasurer; sixteen vice-presidents and executive committee of five members. Adjourned for dinner. At 1:30 P. M., when President Rhodes called the meeting to order, the audience numbered about four hundred, and near the

Page  123 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 123 presiding officer sat Ex-Governor Cyrus G. Luce, of Michigan, and Rev. C. H. Blanchard, of LaGrange, Indiana. The latter opened the meeting with an earnest and eloquent prayer, and appropriate resolutions were adopted commemorative of the society's lamented president, Stephen W. Cade. The constitution was amended so that the children of pioneers who settled in the county before 1845 might become members. One hundred and thirteen deaths of members were reported since the 1892 meeting, of whom sixty-three were males; ages were from fifty-three to ninetynine years and six months. TWENTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING,. The twenty-first annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held at the fair grounds in Centerville on June 13, 1894. A deep gloom was cast over the meeting of the old pioneers by the announcement that their president, Lewis Rhodes, of White Pigeon, had passed away. It seemed especially impressive from the fact that the meeting of the previous year had been called upon to mourn the death of President Cade. Henry Levison was appointed president by the executive committee to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. Rhodes, and the regular election resulted in the choice of the following: President, Henry Levison; secretary, L. H. Hascall; treasurer, William Benjamin; also vice-presidents. The executive committee was appointed at the afternoon session and consisted of the following: William M. Watkins, Thomas Jones, M. Beardsley, E. A. Strong and Joseph H. Sheap. A resolution was also adopted to the effect that anyone who has been a resident of the county thirty years may become a member of the society. A very glowing tribute was read and spread on the minutes in memory of Lewis Rhodes, the honored citizen and president of the society. LETTER FROM SAMUEL P. WILLIAMS. An interesting and historical letter was received from Samuel P. Williams, of Lima, Indiana, saying that he with fifty others landed in White Pigeon in 1832. At that date White Pigeon was the terminus of the stage line from Detroit to Chicago. The land office was at that place and at Savery's Hotel, the Grand Pacific

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of the territory of Michigan. "For five years," Mr. Williams says, "I was a citizen of your grand state and in it cast my first vote and with pride have witnessed its growth and prosperity." His was a long letter of deep interest to all pioneers. Its author has since passed away with a crown of glory. Addresses were delivered by Rev. Lee Fisher, of White Pigeon; Attorney Andrew Ellison, of LaGrange, Indiana; Captain Frank Bungay, an old St. Joseph river pilot from 1835-47, and others. As reported by the vice-presidents, the number of members of the society who had passed away since the last meeting was seventy-seven-fifty-one males and twenty-six females. TWENTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-second annual meeting was held at the Centerville fair grounds on Wednesday, June 12, 1895, and was called to order by Henry Levison, president. The following officers were chosen for the ensuing year: President, William B. Langley; secretary, George Dickinson; treasurer, William Benjamin. A motion to hold the next annual meeting at Three Rivers was lost, the society refusing to abandon its old "stand-by," the Centerville fair grounds. An adjournment was then taken to the picnic dinner, and at the afternoon meeting President Levison appointed the following executive committee: Wm. M. Watkins, J. C. Bishop, Henry Levison, Otto Moe and E. A. Strong. The good music rendered by the Centerville band was succeeded by the addresses of William B. Langley, William Saddler; Miss Ruth Hoppin; Captain Frank Bungay, the old river pilot; Rev. Mr. Lee, of Three Rivers, and Attorney Dallis Boudman, of Kalamazoo. Poems were also contributed by John Gibson and James Yauney. Fifty society members had died since the last annual meeting-twenty-nine males and twenty-one females. TWENTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-third annual meeting convened June 10, 1896, at the Centerville fair grounds, William B. Langley being the presiding officer. The session was opened, as usual, with prayer,

Page  125 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 125 and besides the sixteen vice-presidents, the following were elected: President, W. W. Benjamin) of Florence; secretary, George Dickinson; treasurer, Henry Levison. Adjourned for dinner. The features of the afternoon were addresses by Rev. G. R. Parish, of Constantine, and Mrs. Bishop Andrews, of Three Rivers, and the humorous talk of Captain Frank Bungay, who was dressed in the costume of a pioneer backwoodsman. Eightythree deaths were reported for the year past, of whom forty-three were males and forty females. TWENTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-fourth annual meeting was held at the Centerville fair grounds, June 8, 1897; was called to order by President W. W. Benjamin, and the following officers were chosen for the ensuing year: President, George McGaffey; secretary, Richard Daugherty; treasurer, Henry Levison; also sixteen vice presidents. Executive committee: James Yauney, W. W. Benjamin, William M. Watkins, M. A. Dexter, and William B. Langley. Adjourned for dinner. DEATH OF HON. ANDREW ELLISON AND HO-. SAML. P. WILLIAMS. In the afternoon the meeting re-assembled at the grand stand and, after prayer and routine business, Hon. Franklin Wells of Constantine read obituary notices of the deaths of Hon. Andrew Ellison, an attorney at LaGrange, Indiana, and of Hon. Samuel P. Williams, of Lima, that state, both of whom always attended the pioneer meetings. Then an address was given by Rev. Mr. Tuthill and poems offered by John Gibson and James Yauney. Deaths reported, sixty-five-forty-five males and twenty females. TWENTY-FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-fifth annual meeting of the society assembled at the usual place in Centerville, on June 8, 1898, and President George McGaffey called it to order. The members then proceeded to elect officers for the ensuing year with the following results: President, Hon. Franklin Wells of Constantine; sixteen vice-presidents; secretary, C. B. Kellogg of Florence; treasurer, M. A. Deter of Finley. Adjourned to Agricultural Hall for dinner.

Page  126 126 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY In the afternoon Professor John Everett, county superintendent of schools, was called upon and gave a very interesting and instructive address to an audience of about five hundred. Poems were also on the programme by James Yauney and John Gibson. Seventy deaths of old pioneers were reported-forty males and thirty females. TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-sixth annual meeting of the society, held at the fair grounds in Centerville, on June 14, 1899, was called to order by W. W. Benjamin, president pro tem, in the absence of Hon. Franklin Wells, president-elect. Officers elected for the ensuing year: President, William Hazzard, of Centerville; secretary, Charles A. Parshby, of Florence; treasurer, Charles B. Kellogg, of Florence; and sixteen vice presidents, one for each township. Adjourned to Agricultural Hall, where the ladies had provided a sumptuous repast, of which all partook and enjoyed exceedingly. At 1:30 P. M. the meeting was called to order and opened with prayer by Rev. Henry A. Decker, pastor of the Congregational church of Constantine. The reading of the poem by James Yauney, entitled "My Early Recollections of Pioneer Life," was followed by a report from the secretary of correspondence from abroad, consisting of a letter and poem from Mr. Maria Gomer of LaGrange, Indiana; one from George Beisel of White Pigeon, Michigan; one from Edwin Kellogg, Pleasant Grove, Greenwood county, Kansas; one from Samuel A. Pratt of Spring Prairie, Walworth County, Wisconsin, relating to the early settlement of White Pigeon and White Pigeon prairie. The speaker of the day was then announced, Rev A. J. Eldred of Saginaw, Michigan. Mr. Eldred is a gentleman seventy-five years of age and was a pastor in the Methodist church at Centerville, fifty-three years ago. "America" was sung by the audience and followed by short volunteer speeches from C. H. Starr, Capt. Frank Bungay, William Hazzard and others. Sixty-two deaths were reported from nine townships. TWENTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING.. The twenty-seventh annual gathering of the society meinbers and their relatives and friends was at the fair grounds, Center

Page  127 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 127 ville, June 13, 1900. The meeting was called to order by President William Hazzard, and the following persons were then elected for the coming year: President, James Yauney of Florence; secretary, Charles B. Kellogg of Florence; treasurer, Mrs. Charles B. Kellogg of Florence; sixteen vice-presidents. The meeting adjourned for the picnic dinner; re-assembled at 1:00 P. M.; prayer was offered by Rev. Isaac Wilson; speeches made by Rev. Joshua White, Hon. E. W. Keightley of Constantine, James Yauney, Captain Frank Bungay, E. G. Tucker, Rev. Isaiah Wilson and Richard Daugherty, and a poem rendered by John Gibson. One hundred and seventy deaths of pioneers during the year were reported from twelve of the sixteen townships. TWENTY-EIGHTH ANNUAL MEETING The twenty-eighth annual meeting convened at the fair grounds in Three Rivers on Saturday, June 1, 1901, and it was estimated that five thousand people assembled there. President James Yauney called the meeting to order and the regular election of officers resulted as follows: President, Captain Frank Bungay of Constantine; secretary, Charles B. Kellogg of Florence; treasurer, Mrs. C. B. Kellogg of Florence; sixteen vice-presidents. Adjourned for dinner. The grand stand and every available space was filled to overflowing at the afternoon session. The music was by the City band; prayer by Rev. Mr. Wright, and addresses of welcome were delivered by Major French and Mrs. B. E. Andrews, with responses by President James Yauney and Mrs. Mericle of Florence. Then came music by the Glee Club; an eloquent address by Hon. George L. Yaple and volunteer speeches by such old pioneers as E. G. Tucker of Three Rivers and Captain Frank Bungay. All joined in singing "America" and John G. Gibson recited a poem. A large and varied collection of pioneer relics was added to the society's museum. Several interesting facts were brought out. The oldest pioneers present were Michael Beadle, who came to Flowerfield township in 1829 and Mrs. L. S. Salsig, who located at Three Rivers the same year. The combined ages of the Bean family of five was three hundred and seventy-five years, and they came to Florence township in 1830. One hundred and nineteen deaths reported for the past year from seven townships.

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY TWENTY-NINTH ANNUAL MEETING. The twenty-ninth annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society, at the Three Rivers Fair Grounds was held June 14, 1902, President Frank Bungay calling it to order. The following officers were elected, in addition to the sixteen vice-presidents: President, George Dickinson of Florence; secretary, Byron Q. Goodrich of Nottawa; treasurer, Mrs. Charles A. Pashby of Florence. An adjournment was then voted to partake of the excellent dinner furnished by the ladies and business men of the city. At 1:30 the meeting was called to order by Captain Frank Bungay, president, and, after music and prayer, the society was welcomed by Mayor J. J. Foster. President Bungay responded most fittingly, and the song rendered by the choir under the leadership of Professor Charles Hannaford was a musical treat. The appeal for the support and perpetuation of the society was a masterly effort by Hon. E. G. Tucker. More music by band and choir; an address by Rev. H. S. Bailey; a poem by James Yauney and volunteer remarks by many old pioneers closed one of the most enthusiastic and largest meetings in the history of the society. Its membership had been depleted by deaths to the number of eightytwo since the close of the twenty-eighth annual meeting. THIRTIETH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirtieth annual meeting was held at the fair grounds, in Centerville, on Wednesday, June 10, 1903; but although the weather was fine the attendance was small. President Dickinson called the meeting to order at 1:00 P. M. The music was furnished by the Burr Oak band and the prayer was offered by Rev. J. C. Newcomer, of Centerville. There were addresses by Rev. C. C. Jessee, of the Constantine Congregational church and E. G. Tucker, and poems by James Yauney and John Gibson. Officers elected, besides vice-presidents: President, Mrs. E. W. Pendleton; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Kellogg. THIRTY-FIRST ANNUAL MEETING. The city of Sturgis welcomed the society at its thirty-first annual meeting, held Saturday, June 18, 1904. The weather was ideal

Page  129 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 129 and the assembly place well chosen in the school-house park and grove, shaded with an extensive growth of maple trees. At 1:30 P. M., E. G. Tucker, president pro tem, called the meeting to order for the business session. The election of officers for the ensuing year resulted in the following choice: President, George Dickinson; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Kellogg; besides the sixteen vice-presidents. Executive committee: C. Jacobs, E. G. Tucker, John Waltham, James Yauney, and David Purdy. Mrs. Pendleton, the president, extended a greeting to members and friends. After prayer by Rev. G. F. Sheldon, of Sturgis, Mayor Halbert delivered an address of welcome, to which the president of the society responded. The orator of the day was Hon. Bishop E. Andrews, of Three Rivers, and many poems and speeches were also contributed to the enjoyment and instruction of the occasion. The death record for 1893-4 was one hundred and six. THIRTY-SECOND ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-second annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held in the city of White Pigeon, on Thursday, August 10, 1905. A most enjoyable and pleasant time was had and a large assemblage was there. The place of meeting was the school-house park and grove which, in early days, from 1835 to 1845, was occupied by the Avery hotel and stage barns. It was decided not to hold a forenoon session and all enjoyed the annual picnic dinner at noon. George Dickinson, the president, called the meeting to order promptly at 1:30 P. M. The address of welcome by J. M. Benjamin, cashier of the Farmers' Exchange Bank of White Pigeon, was certainly a masterly effort, and very entertaining and appropriate for the occasion. The principal address was made by Rev. F. Ware, of White Pigeon. Election of officers for the ensuing year resulted as follows: President, L. B. Place of Three Rivers; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Kellogg of Florence; and a vice-president for each township. Executive committee: C. Jacobs, E. G. Tucker, James Yauney, George Dickinson, and Joseph H. Sheap. A vote of thanks was tendered the citizens and people of White Pigeon for their kindness and hospitality during the thirty-second Vol. I-9

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY annual meeting. Eighteen deaths were reported in two townships during the past year. THIRTY-THIRD ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-third annual meeting was held in the city of Three Rivers on Tuesday, August 21, 1906, in connection with the Homecoming week. The people were assembled at the Lafayette Park in front of the city school building, under the shade of the grove of the beautiful maple trees, and the American flags stretched across the grand stand for an awning. The weather was all that could be desired and the assemblage thoroughly enjoyed the exercises, the addresses of the speakers and the music.. President Place, the secretary and executive committee. James Yauney, George Dickinson and others, met at the grove at 11:00 A. M. for the election of officers and the transaction of other business connected with the annual meeting. A motion was carried to hold the next meeting at Centerville in 1907. The following new officers were then elected: President: Dr. Marden Sabin; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Kellogg; sixteen vice-presidents. Executive committee: James Yauney of Florence; S. A. Munger of Sturgis; George Dickinson of Florence; E. G. Tucker of Three Rivers; Sylvester Noel of White Pigeon; E. Fletcher of Mendon; J. H. Sheap of Sturgis, and Henry E. Root of Constantine. Adjourned for dinner in the grove. GREATEST SUCCESS UP TO DATE. The meeting was called to order at 1:30 P. M. by Mayor John J. Foster, president of the Home-coming week, participants in which united with the society to make the meeting the greatest success in the history of the organization. The streets of the city were decorated with flags and lined with gay booths. Hon. L. B. Place, president of the society, made a short address. Attorney Bishop E. Andrews of Three Rivers, secretary of the Home-coming week, made the address of welcome, which was eminently appropriate and interesting. The responses by H. F. Severens, United States circuit judge, and Mrs. Jesse Miricle of Florence, were both

Page  131 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 131 very appropriate and eloquent, thanking the city and its people for their extended and hearty welcome and bountiful provisions they had made for comfort and entertainment of visitors and to render the pioneer meeting a grand success. The music for the occasion was furnished by the choir and the Three Rivers Cornet Band, and addresses were made as follows: By Congressman E. L. Hamilton, of Niles; Rev. S. C. U. Skinner, of the Presbyterian church of Three Rivers; Mrs. M. B. Ferry of Lansing, on what the State Pioneer and Historical Society is doing in connection with the county; and by Walter H. French of Lansing "Co-operation in Pioneer Work by Our Public Schools." The benediction was by Rev. J. D. Brosy of the Lutheran church of Three Rivers. At the suggestion of James Yauney, it was agreed to meet at Centerville next year, at an earlier date (about June 15, 1907), as provided in the by-laws. THIRTY-FOURTH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-fourth annual meeting of the society occurred at the Centerville fair grounds on Thursday, June 13, 1907. The day was exceptionally fine and there was a fair attendance. The programme was not fully carried out, on account of the absence of some of the members who were to take part in the exercises. The meeting was called to order by Dr. Marden Sabin, president, at 11:00 A. M., in the Exhibition building of the fair grounds, and the following were the officers elected: President, Dr. Marden Sabin; secretary and treasurer, Charles B. Kellogg; with the customary sixteen vice-presidents. Executive committee: James Yauney of Florence; Alexander Sharp of Sherman; W. F. A. Bolander of Centerville; J. J. Bennett of Leonidas; C. Jacobs of Sturgis; and E. G. Tucker of Three Rivers. Adjourned at 12:00 M. for picnic dinner at the Agricultural hall. The afternoon session was called to order by the president, Dr. Sabin; prayer was offered by Rev. C. S. Risley of the Methodist church, and the music was furnished by the White Pigeon band. The president of the village, F. Lehr, extended a cordial welcome to the visiting society and Dr. Marden Sabin, its president, responded in kind. The principal address of the meeting was by Rev.

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY S. C. U. Skinner, pastor of the Presbyterian church of Three Rivers. Hon. E. G. Tucker, of Three Rivers, made a very stirring appeal to the members and people for the strengthening and perpetuity of the organization, and was elected a delegate from the society to attend the meetings of the State Pioneer and Historical Society at Lansing, June 26 and 27, 1907. Voluntary talks, limited to ten minutes, were given by James Yauney, William Langley, Alexander Sharp and others. A committee was then chosen by the president, to take under consideration the location and erection of monuments commemorative of pioneer incidents of county history, composed of the following: E. G. Tucker, Three Rivers; Alexander Sharp, Sherman; James Yauney, Florence; Dr. Marden Sabin, Centerville; Rev. H. A. Simpson, Centerville. As was customary, the singing of "America" by the audience and benediction brought the session to a close. THIRTY-FIFTH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-fifth annual meeting was also held at the Fair Grounds in Centerville; date, Thursday, June 11, 1908. The day was exceptionally fine, following a season of exceedingly cold and rainy weather. There was a fair attendance, drawn from all parts of the county and the programme was fully carried, all the officers being present with the exception of President Sabin, who was detained on account of illness. Hon. Alexander Sharp was appointed to fill the vacancy, and called the meeting to order at the grand stand. It was voted to hold the next annual meeting at Colon; Hon. Alexander Sharp was chosen president, and Charles B. Kellogg secretary and treasurer, of the society; and the same vice-presidents and executive committee were selected as those of 1907. The address of welcome by C. 0. Bossom, village president, was certainly excellent and very appropriate, as was the response by Acting President Sharp. Music by the quartette preceded the principal address by Rev. J. D. Brosy of Three Rivers; an interesting discourse, full of pathos and advice to the living pioneers and the coming generation and of eulogy on the dear old pioneers who have passed away. After the rendition of "Michigan, My Michigan" by the audience, Hon. E. G. Tucker spoke, as of yore, for the maintenance and perpetuation of the society. Voluntary talks by old pioneers were responded to by

Page  133 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 133 James Yauney and others; the Three Rivers band gave "We'll never say good-bye, old pioneers," and Rev. C. S. Risley, Centerville, offered the benediction. A. Sharp, Joseph A. Marsh, J. M. Benjamin and Daniel B. Blue were appointed a committee to secure funds and have a monument erected to mark the last resting place of the Indian Chieftain, White Pigeon, who acted as a flying messenger and saved the lives of the white settlers from massacre, sacrificing his own life to accomplish his errand of mercy. THIRTY-SIXTH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-sixth annual meeting of the St. Joseph County Pioneer Society was held at the city of Colon, Michigan, on Wednesday, June 16, 1909. The day was exceptionally fine, there was a large attendance, the programme was fully carried out and nearly all the officers were present. The meeting had the best attendance of any in the society's history. The executive committee and members of the society were called to order at 10:00 A. M. by President Sharp for the election of officers and the transaction of other business. The invitation presented from the mayor, council and citizens of Constantine, to hold the next annual meeting there, was unanimously accepted and, besides vice-presidents and executive committee (same as the preceding year), the following were chosen: President, Judge E. W. Keightley, Constantine; secretary and treasurer, C. B. Kellogg, of Florence. Adjournment was then voted to attend pioneer picnic dinner in the shady grove of the big maple trees and on the lawn before the beautiful residence of Hon. T. J. Hill. At 1 o'clock Rev. Mr. Eldred opened the meeting after noon with prayer and also made the address of welcome, in the absence of Mayor Lamberson. Succeeding order of exercises: Response by Alexander Sharp, president of the society; song by the Colon Glee club; announcement of the new county officers for the next annual meeting, to be held in Constantine; principal address by Rev. H. A. Simpson; music by the Colon band, members of which are employed in the large knitting mill owned and operated by Hon. T. J. Hill; forcible address by Hon. E. G. Tucker, for the maintenance and perpetuation of the society; benediction.

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY THIRTY-SEVENTH ANNUAL MEETING. The thirty-seventh and last annual meeting of the society was held in the Constantine Opera House on Wednesday, June 22, 1910. The day was fine, but remarkably warm, and the attendance was light compared with that at Colon, of the previous year. The ladies were especially well represented and occupied most of the seats in Gray's Opera House; they certainly did their part. The citizens also did their part and thanks are due them for their kindness in helping to defray the incidental expenses of the meeting. The morning session was called to order by Judge E. W. Keightley for the election of county officers and resulted in the choice of David Handshaw of Mendon, for president and Charles B. Kellogg for secretary and treasurer; no change in vice-presidents and executive committee. At noon an adjournment was taken to Root's hotel for dinner, and an hour afterward the meeting was re-opened by President Keightley at Gray's Opera House. Rev. Stevens of the Congregational church offered prayer and Judge Keightley's telling address of welcome met with a bright response from Hon. A. Sharp. The principal address was by attorney and postmaster J. Mark Harvey. His was certainly a masterly effort and appreciated by all present, going back to the early conquest of the country from the Indians and foreign powers. James Yauney, A. Sharp and others made short speeches, and a recitation by Miss Fanny Slote was quite interesting and amusing, causing much cheering and clapping of hands. "America" was sung by the audience, under the leadership of Rev. Mr. Stevens, who also gave the benediction.

Page  135 CHAPTER VII. WHITE PIGEON TOWNSHIP. WHITE PIGEON PRAIRIE-STORY OF CHIEF WHITE PIGEON-SEQUEL TO THE STORY-UNVEILING OF THE MEMORIAL-MRS. W. C. CAMERON'S ADDRESS-OTHER PROCEEDINGS-THE PIONEER TRIO-JUDGE WINCHELL-LEONARD CUTLER-ARBA HEALDFIRST FARMS IN THE COUNTY-" OLD DIGGINS, FIRST HOTELEND OF COLONEL SAVERY-VILLAGE PLATTED-PIONEER COUNTY SCHOOL HOUSE-FIRST RELIGIOUS SERVICES-CUTTING DOWN AND BUILDING UP-TOPOGRAPHY, DRAINAGE AND LAKES -"PIONEER INCIDENTS," BY CHARLES B. KELLOGG-FIRST FARMERS AND BUSINESS MEN-KELLOGG BROTHERS-JUDGE LEVI BAXTER-GEORGE W. BEISEL-ENGLISH SETTLERS-ROBERT CLARK, THE SURVEYOR —CHIEF WHITE PIGEON AND INDIAN PRAIRIE-ITEMS BY WILLIAM BAIR-' WEBSTER'S VISIT TO WHITE PIGEON," BY MRS. A. E. KELLOGG. In the succeeding four chapters, devoted to sketches of the sixteen townships comprising the county of St. Joseph, a logical and historical division is adopted. A grouping has been made, corresponding to the original division of the present county territory into three townships. The first settlements were formed in White Pigeon, which in 1829 comprised the present townships of White Pigeon, Lockport, Florence, Fabius, Constantine and Mottville. Because of the historical importance of the White Pigeon township of the present, a chapter is devoted to it alone. WHITE PIGEON PRAIRIE. The beautiful prairie of White Pigeon was the first section of St. Joseph county to attract John Winchell, Arba Heald, Leonard Cutler and others, in 1826-7. They closely followed the govern135

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ment surveyors of the Chicago road from the Detroit region, and made their homes not far from the old-time Indian settlement of the friendly Pottawatomies to the south. Years before they came, the vicinity was the permanent camping place for the tribe, while traveling along the Chicago trail, and afterward was recognized as the natural station, or resting place for emigrants bound for southern Michigan or northwestern Indiana. Long before the settlement around Fort Dearborn became generally known, White Pigeon prairie was a noted spot in New England, New York and Pennsylvania, and White Pigeon, the splendid chief of the Pottawatomies, was instanced as proof that the "noble red man" was no mere figure of speech. From the first, White Pigeon seems to have taken a fond interest in the little settlement budding forth on the northern banks of the stream which bore his name, and the story has long ago become history that he gave his life to save it from threatened destruction by his race. STORY OF CHIEF WHITE PIGEON. "The story of White Pigeon's love for the people of this settlement and his noble sacrifice for the cause of friendship has long been a subject of local history. Various versions of the legend are extant, but the story as gleaned from best authorities is that long years ago, probably about 1830, Chief White Pigeon, while in the neighborhood of Detroit, learned of an uprising among the Indians, and a threatened attack upon the settlement. True to his name, he flew on the wings of love to warn his friends of the impending danger. The journey was a long one, necessitating the fording of creeks and the swimming of rivers, and taxed to the utmost his splendid powers of endurance; yet the brave, loyal heart rushed on and on, until he had reached the settlement and warned his friends; and then, his mission accomplished, tired nature gave way-and the little Indian mound just west of the village finished the story of one who gave his life for the friends he loved. 'And greater love hath no man than this, that he lay down his life for his friends.' "It is only fitting, therefore, that later the settlement he had saved should bear his name and thus perpetuate his memory, and that a lasting tribute may tell to coming generations the story of his noble deed.

Page  137 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 137 "' White Pigeon, or, in the Indian language, Wahbememe, was probably at the time of his death about thirty years of age. He is described as having been of much lighter complexion than others of his tribe; tall, athletic, and an especially fleet runner. He seems to have been a splendid type of the American Indian at his best, brave and chivalrous, with high ideals of truth and honor. The people of his tribe cherished his memory with reverence and love, ascribing to him all the best of Indian virtues, and long paid occasional visits to his grave. "A story is told that, many years ago, some white miscreant, in open defiance of Pottawatomie commands, built a cabin over the grave; needless to say, it was soon burned and no vandal since has dared to desecrate the place." SEQUEL TO THE STORY. The sequel to the story which is so dear to the early settlers of St. Joseph county and their descendants, is the massive stone which now marks the grave of the faithful young chief. Upon the boulder is the inscription: "Erected to the memory of Wahbememe, Indian Chief White Pigeon, who, about 1830, gave his life to save the settlement at this place." To the Alba Columba Club, of White Pigeon, is due the honor of bringing about this act of historic justice and human acknowledgement of "splendid services rendered," and largely through the personal efforts of Mrs. W. C. (Cora) Cameron and Mrs. Jessie Reynolds. UNVEILING OF THE MEMORIAL. The dedication of the monument itself was an event of historic importance, both to White Pigeon and the county at large, it being unveiled by Willie White Pigeon, the great-great-grandson of the martyred Pottawatomie chief. "More people were in White Pigeon Wednesday (August 11, 1909) than have gathered here since the time of the departure of the soldiers for the south in 1861," says the News of that place. "The day's festivities opened with the booming of cannon at seven o 'clock, and by noon the streets were so thronged with people that passage was difficult. They came in automobiles and carriages, by train, on floats, on wheel, and by wagon loads. The attendance is estimated at about seven thousand.


Page  139 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 139 "The prominent feature of the day's program was the dedication of the monument to the memory of Chief White Pigeon which had been erected through the efforts of the Alba Columba Club. This project had been under consideration by the Three Rivers chapter of the Daughters of the Revolution and by the County Pioneer Society, but these White Pigeon ladies insisted that the task was a local one, and to them belongs the honor of carrying forward to completion this laudable enterprise. IMPRESSIVE MOVEMENT TO THE GRAVE. "The movement to the grave, where the monument stands, took the form of a parade, led by an escort of a hundred local braves and squaws mounted on horseback. The place of honor in the procession was occupied by the descendants of Chief White Pigeon from Dorr, Allegan county, in a decorated float. Present were John White Pigeon, great-grandson of the chief, his wife Mary and children, Wallace, Lewis, Willie, Joe and Anna; James White Pigeon, wife and five children; Sampson White Pigeon, wife and two children, Alexander Pokagon and wife. "Then in order were the K. O. T. M. M. band, a carriage with Lieut. Gov. Kelly, Arthur Dutton, Alfred Wickett and Dr. J. B. Williams, followed by floats bearing the Alba Columba Club, high school, intermediate and primary pupils, district schools, L. O. T. M. M., O. E. S., and many others. The decoration of these floats was delightfully conceived and beautifully carried out, the one bearing the Alba Columba ladies being especially noticeable. A white pigeon was suspended at the front with reins leading to the hands of Charlotte Baker who was seated in a miniature chariot at the top of the float and another white pigeon was perched on her shoulder. The Italian band, fire department, old pioneers in carriages, dog teams, and the water wagon made a long procession. "As stated, the boulder bears the inscription: 'Erected in memory of Wahbememe, Indian Chief White Pigeon, who, about 1830, gave his life to save the settlement at this place.' On the front of the base are the words, 'Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.' On the rear of the base, 'Erected by the Alba Columba Club, 1909.'

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY MRS. W. C. CAMERON'S ADDRESS. The dedicatory address was delivered by Mrs. W. C. Cameron, who said, in part: "For years a wish has been expressed that the last resting place of the noble chief be marked by something more permanent than the tree that sheltered it. It remained for a little band of women, the Alba Columba Club, to take the initiative. It has been said that 'A woman roused is a determined woman, and what may she DEISCINDANTS OF WHITE PIGEON not accomplish,' and truly the women were aroused with enthusiasm for the work in hand. To secure the necessary means, they published a book which they believed would appeal to all who were interested in this, the most widely known landmark in St. Joseph county. The reception of this book, 'White Pigeon,' was indeed most gratifying and the ladies were enabled to accomplish their purpose. by marking permanently the resting place of the chieftain whose name we cherish, and today, my friends, at the request of the Alba Columba Club, Master Willie White Pigeon will unveil to your sight this modest monument erected by the Alba

Page  141 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 141 Columba Club to the memory of Wahbememe, the Pottawatomie Indian chief, who gave his life to save the settlement at this place. "This, a rugged boulder, emblematic of the character of him whose dust it covers, we present to you and to posterity, and with it the memory of one who, though untutored and unlearned in the manners of the cultivated, lived so in harmony with the Great Spirit that in his death he fulfilled to the utmost the highest law, for 'Love is the fulfilling of the law,' and 'Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friends.' OTHER PROCEEDINGS. Flowers were strewn upon the grave by the school children, the Indians sang in the Pottawatomie tongue, "Jesus My All to Heaven is Gone," closing the exercises at the grave. At the speakers' stand in the park, J. M. Benjamin, in a few well chosen sentences, gave a hearty welcome to the visitors and introduced the principal speaker, Lieut. Gov. P. H. Kelly, who emphasized the marvelous wealth of the heritage bequeathed to the rising generation. Mr. Benjamin introduced the Indians who were seated upon the platform, and Sampson White Pigeon, on behalf of the others, spoke appreciatively of the occasion. Jacob Yauney, of Florence township, who has lived in this vicinity since 1836, recalled early incidents of his life and read an original poem written in honor of the day. E. G. Tucker, one of the most active members of the County Pioneer association, spoke, as did Rev. Alexander McLaughlin of Pearl City, Illinois, who was a pastor in White Pigeon over thirty years ago. The songs by male voices were greatly enjoyed, the singers being Edwin, Reuben and Willis Rosebrook, Newton Gilmore, and Dick Bottorf. The program of sports was carried out in full and there was something doing all day long, closing with the most beautiful and varied pyrotechnic display ever attempted in this section. The ladies of the Alba Columba Club, the committee in charge, the business men, and in fact the entire community were warmly congratulated on the brilliant success of White Pigeon's Homecoming.

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY THE PIONEER TRIO. Soon after their arrival on White Pigeon prairie, in 1827, Messrs. Winchell, Cutler and Heald built their log cabins in the edge of the timber flanking the grassy expanse; and as they formed the center of the colonization of White Pigeon township they must receive more than mention at this point. JUDGE WINCHELL. John Winchell had nine children: Elizabeth, who married Samuel Markham; David, who married Mary Ann McInterfer, daughter of the first settler in Lockport township; Lyman and William Winchell; Martha, whose union with James Knapp constituted the first marriage in the county; John, Cynthia, Angelina and James. In the fall of 1833 Judge Winchell moved to Door prairie, Laporte county, where he died December 20, 1836. He was the first justice of the peace in St. Joseph county and also its first postmaster, having charge of the few letters and papers which came to Millville, when it became a postoffice in 1828. Further, Mr. Winchell was the first mail contractor on the Chicago road, between Coldwater and Niles, and he was considered a most becoming type of accuracy, promptness and business habits, besides being a moral man. The Winchell log cabin was built on the north side of the Chicago road and the blacksmith shop on the south side, just in the edge of the timber. Both he and his wife were New England people. LEONARD CUTLER. Leonard Cutler was a native of Vermont, who migrated to Canada in 1811, shortly after his marriage. At the commencement of the war of 1812 he moved over the line into New Yor~k, and during hostilities performed good service in the artillery branch of the United States army. At the close of the war Mr. Cutler moved himself and family into the wilderness of Jennings county, Indiana, where he cleared a forest for farming purposes. As may be imagined, White Pigeon prairie, with its fringe of timber land, appealed to his home-loving instincts. It is said that he was stricken with fever on the road, and his condition became so serious that his sons drew up the wagon beside

Page  143 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 143 the Chicago trail, which had been just reached, and laid him upon an improvised bed. As soon as the boys could command their feelings sufficiently to put the question, they asked their father where they should bury him, in case of his death. Mr. Cutler's reply was a fair indication of his tenacity of purpose. "Not here," he said, "but on White Pigeon prairie. There is where I started to go, and there I am going, dead or alive. If I die put me in the wagon, take me to the prairie and there bury me. But I am not going to die." And he did not. The family reached White Pigeon prairie, and a Pottawatomie Indian gave the fever patient some native herb medicine, made doubly effective by the offering of tobacco and fervent prayer to the Great Spirit. He was soon himself again, and he so befriended a sick German, named Kimball, that the latter loaned him money to enter his eight hundred acres in the eastern portion of the prairie. On the 18th of May, 1827, when Mr. Cutler reached White Pigeon prairie, his family comprised his wife Mercy, and several children. One of them, Maurice D., afterward went to Wisconsin, and became one of the principal proprietors of Waukesha, while another, John, migrated to California, where he was prominent as a county judge and state legislator. The daughter, Mary Cutler, was the first white child born in the county. She was born in the early part of 1828, married a Mr. Hunt and died near Laporte about 1870. Mr. Cutler left St. Joseph county in the spring of 1831, selling the lands which he had bought at $1.25 per acre at a large advance and locating on Door prairie, Indiana. Several years thereafter he made a move which took him still further west, locating at Decorah, Iowa, where he passed away close to the century mark. ARBA HEALD. Arba Ieald, who came to White Pigeon in 1828, was a native of Maine, and brought to St. Joseph county his wife and five children. His wife was a New York lady, who he married in 1818. In 1820 they removed to Pennsylvania; thence to Ohio; in 1825 to Monroe, Michigan, and thence to White Pigeon. Messrs. Winchell and Heald were prospecting southern Michigan, in the vicinity of the Chicago road, during the later part of 1826, and when they reached the western edge of White Pigeon

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY prairie Heald exclaimed "Winchell, right about face! We have gone far enough! This location is good enough for anybody!" Thereupon the two retraced their way to Monroe, Winchell returning to White Pigeon in April, 1827, accompanied by Heald. The latter went to Monroe for his family, whom he brought with him in January, 1828, arriving toward the last of the month. In June, 1832, Mr. Heald disposed of his location to Dr. Isaac O. Adams, and moved to Door prairie, Indiana. There he built a sawmill and became prominent, dying in 1853. FIRST FARMS IN THE COUNTY. The first farms in White Pigeon township, as well as in the county, were those of Winchell and Cutler, who, in the spring of 1827, broke the new sod and planted corn, potatoes and buckwheat, sowing wheat in the fall. Cutler had a strong teamthree yoke of oxen and two of cows-and broke up several acres. In the following spring he also planted the first fruit-seeds for nursery purposes, devoting three acres to this enterprise. "OLD DIGGINS', FIRST HOTEL. Dr. David Page, the first physician of the county, Reed Page, his brother and Joseph Olds, located on the prairie in the fall of 1827, and in December of that year came Asahel Savery, who at once build the east wing of the "Old Diggins, " the pioneer hotel. It was a log building, and the resort of all the important personages of the day. Here the electors assembled and set in motion the wheels of government of the new county, in the fall of 1829, when the first caucus was held in the county and Elias Taylor was recommended to Governor Cass as a fit person to take charge of the courts and keep the peace in the sheriff's office; John W. Anderson received a similar recommendation for the position of register of probate and of deeds, and John Sturgis and William Meek were nominated for county judges. Here, too, in this pioneer hotel, the first town meeting was held in the spring following. In 1830 the proprietor added a very respectable frame structure to his log building, it being really the main building of the hotel. Here the first court convened in the county was held in August, 1830, Hon. William Woodbridge and Henry Chipman

Page  145 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 145 being the presiding judges. Its proprietor also owned and operated the first stage coaches on the Chicago road in 1831, and drove them himself, cutting out the roads and building the bridges to get through from Tecumseh to Niles. END OF COLONEL SAVERY. Colonel Savery was a distinguished character and noted for years as a Michigan frontiersman. In 1835 he went to Texas and fought for the Lone Star republic under Houston; became also a soldier of the Mexican war; a prospector in California, Nevada and Idaho, and is supposed to have passed his last days in Texas. In 1837 his old tavern was occupied by Rev. Charles Newberry, or rather by the branch of the University of Michigan, of which he had charge. The occupancy was only temporary, pending the completion of a regular branch building. VILLAGE PLATTED. Savery's log tavern was the first house built within the present limits of the village of White Pigeon. The original plat, which was surveyed and mapped May 6, 1830, was laid out by Robert Clark, Jr., the government surveyor; Niles F. Smith, the pioneer merchant; Neal McGaffey, first lawyer of the county, and Mr. Savery himself. With the exception of Savery, all of these proprietors of White Pigeon village were comers of 1828-9. From this time onward, the settlement on White Pigeon prairie, including the village, was quite brisk and included among the principal comers-those who made local history-the following: In 1828 came James Knapp, the first Benedict; Beckwith and family; Luther Newton, the pioneer manufacturer; Peter Klinger and family, who gave their name to Klinger's lake; and Billy Naggs, a trader on Indian prairie a mile southwest of the village. In 1829 the additions were: Samuel Pratt, who was among the first to build a frame house on the village plat; Dr. Hubbel Loomis, who was the first probate judge, and John W. Anderson, first register of probate and deeds. In 1830 came Rev. William Jones, first Presbyterian minister in the county, and the Kellogg brothers, the leading merchants. In 1831, Dr. Isaac O. Adams and his family of sons arrived, with John S. Barry, afterward governor of the state. Vol. I-10

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY PIONEER COUNTY SCHOOL-HOUSE. The first schoolhouse in the county was built on White Pigeon prairie, in the summer of 1830, at a little settlement called Newville, which had been promoted by the three Phelps brothers, who had arrived upon the scene about a year before. The log cabin in which it was held was erected especially for educational purposes, and although its desks and seats were not entirely devoid of bark it was not viewed by the pioneers of those times as a mere "make-shift" affair. Albert Allen, afterward postmaster of both Newville and White Pigeon, was the first teacher. In its time White Pigeon Seminary was a high-class institution of learning, and enjoyed the distinction of being a branch of the University of Michigan. Governor Bagley received his education there. FIRST RELIGIOUS SERVICES. The first religious services were also held at Newville, both in the school-house and at the homes of White Prairie settlers. A Methodist class had been formed in this vicinity, during the fall of 1829, with David Crawford as class leader. It was organized by Rev. Erastus Felton. The Baptist church also had its commencement at Newville, but its headquarters were afterwards transferred to White Pigeon village. It is said that a Baptist minister named Holmes came to the Prairie in 1828 and lived for a time on Winchell's farm; but it is certain that he devoted himself to the practical tilling of the soil rather than to religious work. CUTTING DOWN AND BUILDING UP. The civil organization of White Pigeon township corresponds to that of the county-October 29, 1829-it being one of the three original townships which embraced the present territory of St. Joseph county. In the process of being cut down to its present dimensions several steps were taken. On March 21, 1833, the present townships of Lockport and Fabius were set off from it, under the name of Buck's township, and in 1837 Florence, Constantine and Mottville were substracted from its original territory, reducing White Pigeon to little more than half a township. Then followed the building-up process from slices of territory taken from Mottville, to the west, and Florence, to the

Page  147 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 147 north. As a part of the White Pigeon plat was located in the first tier of sections in Mottville, this area was added to the township, as well as section 34, 35 and 36, of Florence township. The latter was west and north of Klinger's lake, and above them was a large and then impassable swamp. This hard physical fact compelled the good citizens of Florence to take a wide swing almost to the village of White Pigeon, whenever they were obliged to go to township headquarters on business; hence it was thought best to attach it civilly, as it was physically, to White Pigeon. TOPOGRAPHY AND DRAINAGE. Speaking from the standpoint of topography, White Pigeon township is a plain, slightly undulating in portions. It was originally covered with burr and white oak openings, with the exception of about one thousand acres of its area, included in the beautiful and widely-known White Pigeon prairie. Altogether, its area is about 18,000 acres, of which 1,265 is included in water surface. It has no characteristics of soil, which would separate it from other sections of the county. The township is drained by the Pigeon and Fawn rivers and Pickerel, Klinger's, Aldrich, Marl and Fish lakes. The Pigeon enters the township from Indiana, in section 22, and passes in a generally northwesterly direction, through Marl lake, flows south of the village of White Pigeon, and makes its exit into Mottville township. The Fawn river enters the township by way of Aldrich lake, in the southeast corner, flows through Pickerel lake, which stretched generally toward the northwest, and thence takes a northerly course into the township of Florence, a branch connecting the main stream with Klinger's lake to the east. LAKES OF THE TOWNSHIP. This latter is the largest body of water in the township, having an area of about seven hundred acres, and is named from Peter Klinger, who settled on its shores in 1829. It covers portions of several of the extreme northeastern sections of the township. Aldrich lake overlaps the southeastern line between White Pigeon and Sturgis townships, and is connected with Pickerel lake by Fawn river. Marl lake is just south of the main stream of White Pigeon river and joined to it by a small stream, while

Page  148 148 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Fish lake is in the extreme southwest and stretches over the Indiana line. With the exception of the last named, all the lakes in the township are included in the valleys of the Fawn and White Pigeon rivers. Thus have the main facts in connection with the early settlement of the township been set forth; and it is evident that its pioneer history in its earliest period is that of the county at large. As a means of rounding out the story and record of this important section of St. Joseph county, the following additions are made, which speak for themselves. PIONEER INCIDENTS OF THE COUNTY. BY CHARLES B. KELLOGG. The pioneer days of St. Joseph county have long since passed into oblivion to the many, but are still fresh in the memory of a select few whose lives have been spared to the present day. The reminiscences of pioneer days and pioneer life are very interesting to many, and particularly interesting to the few who remain for the experience which they had in being participants in the development of this great country. FIRST FARMERS AND BUSINESS MEN. St. Joseph county without a doubt was one of the first counties in the state to demand the attention of New England and foreign people and was first settled, in 1829-1830, by New England and by English people direct from Old England. The bulk of the farmers in this locality were English and the men who platted and established the towns in business were New England people. Judge Baxter, Kellogg & Brothers, Neal McGaffey and others platted the town of White Pigeon, built the large water-way, dam and race-a mile long-erected a large flouring mill and sawmill there, and did a large business for that early day. The products of this and La Grange county, Indiana, were floated down the St. Joseph river from Mendon, Three Rivers, Constantine, Mottville and other points on the river, in arks, flat boats, keel boats and steamboats to the mouth of old St. Jo and then loaded on lake vessels for Buffalo; thence taking the canal to New York for a market, at three and a half dollars per barrel. Wheat

Page  149 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 149 was then about forty cents per bushel and corn fifteen to twenty, the latter being manufactured principally into whiskey by the numerous stills in the county and sold at twenty-five cents per gallon. The prairies were in those days traversed almost daily in the summer season by numerous bands of Indians, hunting and exchanging their products of the chase and bush-deer, turkeys, venison and maple sugar-to the merchants for goods and trinkets. They remained here for some time; then ceded their lands to the government and were removed to Iowa; thence to Kansas, where I met many of them in 1857 and during the Border Ruffian war with John Brown, while Kansas was yet a territory. The pioneer business men of White Pigeon were merchants. Kellogg & Brothers carried dry goods and general merchandise and were millers. Judge Levi Baxter was a miller and farmer, and I think, at an early day, judge of probate at Centerville. Lewis B. Judson was a merchant there, as was Governor John S. Barry for a short time. Mr. Barry removed to Constantine, erected a large store for merchandise and a large warehouse on the river, to accommodate the river trade and the steamboats. He did quite a lucrative business for many years, and served as governor of the state for three terms. THE KELLOGG BROTHERS. Kellogg Brothers (George, Edwin and Charles), erected the then largest store building in the town, two stories high and fronting two streets; old colonial style, with a porch all across the front; large round pillars to support the upper front and large blinds to be put on every night and locked. Kellogg & Brothers carried a large stock of general merchandise; everything that a farmer and his family would require. They had the first fire-proof safe-a little salamander-and there was where the first White Pigeon bank was established in wild-cat times. I have not a sample of our White Pigeon money, but send you a Constantine "Shin Plaster." Kellogg & Brothers purchased the flouring mill of Judge Baxter in 1840 and operated it until the death of Charles Kellogg, who was drowned in the St. Joseph river at Mishawaka, Indiana, on his steamboat, the "Pilot." He was the first one to agitate and promote the sugar-beet industry in the United States, and a factory was erected there near the flouring mill in 1840, by a company organized and principally promoted by him. Upon sending Governor

Page  150 "WILD-CAT" MONEY OF 1839

Page  151 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 151 Barry to France to investigate, he found that it would enlist more capital than they could control; so the scheme was abandoned and the factory was sold and converted into a brewery. After the death of Mr. Judson, a merchant across the street, G. W. Beisel, was his successor. Then there were E. S. Swan, J. H. Woodbury and Pratt & Preston. Samuel Pratt built the principal hotel in 1.833, in the street opposite the Kellogg store. My parents came to White Pigeon in 1829 and were among the first settlers; my father, Charles Kellogg, was from Sheffield, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, and my mother from Yorkshire, England. The town was platted by such patriotic men as Neal McGaffey, Chapin Kellogg, Savery, Pratt and others, with the aid of the government surveyor, Robert Clark. JUDGE LEVI BAXTER. Among the prominent business men of that early day Judge Levi Baxter, who was president of the first Republican convention held in Michigan, was a leader. In 1831, he came from New York to Tecumseh, territory of Michigan, and entered upon a genuine pioneer life. Among other enterprises here he built the first grist mills of any size west of Monroe, long known as the "Red Mills." These mills supplied a large section of the country, people sometimes carrying their grist as much as fifty miles to them. In 1834, in connection with Cook Sisson, he built a mill at Jonesville, Hillsdale county, which he greatly enlarged in 1840. In 1836 he built extensive mills at White Pigeon, located there and remained until 1848, when he returned to Jonesville with his family. This place became his permanent residence, and he died there in 1862, at the age of seventy-four years. GEORGE W. BEISEL. George W. Beisel was a successful merchant in White Pigeon many years and successor to Mr. Judson. George and Henry Clark kept the principal hotel. Then there was the ("Old Diggins") stage hotel, with large barns to accommodate fifty horses, and a large circular track in front upon which to exercise the coach horses and for the drivers to show their skill as reinsmen. That was on the site where the new brick school house was erected. William

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Watson kept a hotel right opposite and many times the hotels could not accommodate the stages and traveling public, some having to camp out in that day. The Chicago road was a great thoroughfare, as all the travel was that way before the advent of the railway. Watson's was a little inn at which to water the horses and whet the appetite of the drivers with wet goods; then they could swing the four-in-hand, crack the whip and blow the horn. ENGLISH FARMERS PRIOR TO 1835. The principal farmers of this locality, in that early day, were George Dixon, with a family of twelve children, located adjoining the town site of White Pigeon, who bought many small tracts of government land near the cemetery; William Watson, who run a tavern and a large farm; William Hanson, a leading farmer; John Jackson, who owned several farms; W. Stears, who located in Florence township with his family of six or eight children; William Barnard, having a large family and a fine farm; and John Burrell, Mr. Burnham, Mr. Ross, John Coats, Mr. Broadley, Joseph Garton, Richard Garton, William Cotton, Samuel Hotchin and Richard Wade, all with the generous families of those days. These are the principal English families who migrated to America, and came direct to St. Joseph county, Michigan, previous to 1835, while Michigan was yet a territory. There are many others that might be mentioned, who came in when the country was wild and in a state of nature; prairie grass above your head and bear, deer, turkey and wild fowls of the air numerous. Indian prairie, to the south of White Pigeon, was the Indians' favorite camping ground, where their bark wigwams remained year after year. OTHER ENGLISH SETTLERS. As stated, the early settlers on White Pigeon prairie were many of them English, and among others who came on early from England and took up government land in the thirties were the following: William Hamson, Richard Wade, Thomas Wade, John Burnett, William Laird, George Dickinson, William Dickinson, William Waltham, and families; Adolphus Chapin, Samuel Chapin, Orrin Loomis, William Redforn, William Anderson, John Cathcart, Captain White, Nicholas Sixby, William Cathcart, Thomas Schooley, Thomas Coats, Charles R. Homes, William

Page  153 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 153 Glover, Thomas Welborn, Richard Welborn, Robert Welborn, George Ketcham, Rev. Steele, Henry Steele, William Catton, John Catton, James Shurtz, Charles Cooper, Peter Robinson, Ben Franklin, William Rowan, Matthew Rowan, John J. Davis, Cornelius Newkirk, Salmon P. Wallace, Cornelius Cooper, Robert Clark, Mrs. Robert Clark, Daniel Shurtz, Thomas Shurtz and Fred Shurtz. William Glover was the first man to engage in peppermint culture in White Pigeon township, and still had a mill in operation on White Pigeon prairie in 1837. Robert Clark was the government surveyor who surveyed all of St. Joseph county and much of southern Michigan. John Hotchin, harnessmaker; J. W. Cloys, furniture and undertaker; John Bowers, William Broadley and William Bycroft, pioneer blacksmiths, and W. 0. Austin, druggist and postmaster for many years, all came in the thirties. Here are a few more of the old settlers: Selden and Almon Martin, Alanson and Hart L. Stewart, John and George Hawkins and Almeron Markham. ROBERT CLARK, THE SURVEYOR. The survey of all this part of Michigan was made by Robert Clark, now buried in the cemetery at White Pigeon. The cemetery was originally located on his farm, and his residence was on the Chicago road, near where the old Presbyterian church was located previous to its removal and destruction by fire. Mr. Clark's house was erected about 1837, about the time the first sugar-beet factory in the United States was built, on White Pigeon river, at White Pigeon. In 1849, after Mr. Clark's death, his wife and two sons removed to Chicago and purchased a dairy farm near the city, which afterward became a part of Clark street, and made them immensely wealthy. One of the sons, John M. Clark, is living there yet; for years a leading merchant, capitalist and public man. CHIEF WHITE PIGEON AND INDIAN PRAIRIE. White Pigeon was named for the noted Indian chief, White Pigeon, who ran from Detroit to White Pigeon to warn the white settlers of the impending danger of the massacre and war to be

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY made on the whites by the noted Pottawatomie chief, Black Hawk. The vigorous effort cost him his life, and he was buried one mile west of White Pigeon, on the Chicago road at Red Ferns Four Corners, on the southeast corner. A monument has been erected there, made of the native rock and of large proportions, bearing an appropriate inscription. It was dedicated in August, 1909, with WHITE PIGEON'S GRAVE very imposing ceremonies, many of the Indians being present who comprise the remnant of the tribes remaining in Michigan. A large procession marched to the grave, with bands of music and many decorated four-horse wagons loaded with ladies of the Alba Columba Club, who claimed the distinction of causing the monument to be erected and gathering the people for such a great ovation. Many in the procession were mounted on fine horses, dressed and equipped in full Indian costumes, with war-paint on their

Page  155 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 155 faces. Excellent addresses were made by ladies of the club and citizens, and responded to by the Indians in their native language, who also rendered native songs suitable to the occasion. This was one of the greatest days White Pigeon ever witnessed. As stated, Indian prairie, one mile south of White Pigeon village, was the great camping ground and village of the Pottawatomie Indians. There they had permanent wigwams, where they always stopped in their migrations from north to south; forward and back two or three times annually. They were under the guidance of White Pigeon and others, and William Naggs, a white man, as interpreter; for he could speak the Indian language fluently. His was the first white child buried in White Pigeon cemetery. ITEMS BY WILLIAM BAIR. The Indian name of White Pigeon was Katakee-qui-nawk, and means "White Pigeon." The name for Prairie Ronde was Wauash-quitak, meaning "round fire." Nottawa-seepe means "in comes the river." All names for prairie end in a word which means "fire" (Squetak), the Indians having seen them on fire. Gull Prairie, "Am-sam-quitak." St. Joseph river was named "Saw-gau-seepe." An old Indian told me that two squaw twins were drowned in this river, from which circumstances the river received its name. Judge Bazil Harrison was the first settler on the Prairie Ronde, where he located in November, 1828. J. Fennimore Cooper took, as some state, the brother of Mr. Bair (John Bair), as the "Bee Hunter" in his "Oak Openings." The author and Mr. Bair, at an early date, ate ripe cherries to-, gether in Kalamazoo. Mr. Harrison was one of the characters in this same book. The next settler after Mr. Harrison was Henry Whipple, a son-in-law of Mr. Harrison. The fourth man was Christopher Bair, and then came Delamore Duncan, Erastus Gilford, Daniel Wilmouth and Abraham S. Schaffer, a very eccentric man and a great story-teller and joker. One of his stories seems worth relating: "There came, in this early day, a company of people from Cavendish, somewhat more intelligent than the rest of the community. There lived a man, Jim Smith, an intelligent grocer and general storekeeper, who died. The wife of Abraham Schaffer was Sally. When Abraham came back from the funeral his wife said, 'Well,

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Abraham, what did they do at the funeral?' Abraham described the letting down of the old man-shaped coffin (not like the modern casket) and said: 'All Cavendish walked around the grave and each deposited a letter in the open coffin.' 'What in the world did they do that for?' asked Sally. 'Well, I presume they thought that Jim would go back to Cavendish, and could take the letters back without postage.' " They used to pay 25 cents a letter. William Bair was an early resident of White Pigeon, his father having taken up the claim on which now stands the village of White Pigeon. The claim was taken up by staking it out, in the summer of 1828, the first year of Jackson's administration. His father was a very patriotic man, who could not forbear getting down from the load drawn by oxen, and from time to time, shouting "hurrah! for Jackson." They spent the winter just east of this place, on Crooked creek, near what is now the Chicago road. WEBSTER'S VISIT TO WHITE PIGEON. BY MIRS. A. E. KELLOGG. The old Presbyterian church was erected and built the summer of 1834, and completed, ready for the dedication services, on January 1, 1835. The Rev. P. W. Warriner, of Monroe, accepted a call to fill the pulpit and became their pastor; it was a New Year's gift to the people. The house was completed, and it was commodious and comfortable. It was topped out with an old-fashioned steeple, the dome of which, being covered with bright tin, flashed back the sunlight, while the fish, somewhat out of its element at the top of the spire, served as a weather-vane. My father put them up, as the mechanics did not dare to go "before the mast." A look-out, made safe by a railing, was constructed on four sides under the belfry. This was a favorite resort for those who wished to get a view of White Pigeon and its surroundings. A pleasant little incident in this connection may not be without interest. It was July, 1836, Independence day had come and gone, witnessing a patriotic demonstration in the lively little village. The afternoon of the fifth found the hotel, then kept by Samuel Pratt, on the corner of Main and Kalamazoo streets, still in confusion and crowded, when a hackney coach halted in front of the house, and the landlord was electrified by the announcement that Daniel Webster (then at the zenith of his fame) was without, desiring accom

Page  157 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 157 modation. Not a room in his house was in order and he was at his wits' end. In his perplexity he rushed across the street to the store of H. and C. Kellogg and asked what he should do. Mr. H. Kellogg solved the problem shortly by walking over to the hotel and, after an introduction, mounting the seat beside the driver directed him to his own gate, where he left them while he entered to inform me of the honor which awaited me. I had seen the coach drive up from my chamber window, but did not dream of such an august party as it contained. So it was with much trepidation that I descended to receive Hon. Daniel Webster, his wife and daughter. Horses and coach were soon housed in the ample barn, which has since disappeared, and the travelers after a little rest, came down to the parlor where we enjoyed a delightful afternoon. After an early tea we all went out for a walk, and I must confess to a feeling of pride, just a little tempered with dread, when the great statesman offered me his arm, while my husband took his place beside Mrs. Webster; Miss Julia being accompanied by Miss Ranger (afterwards Mrs. Edwin Kellogg), who was with me at the time as a companion. After looking about the town, we came to the church, and mounting the stairs, found ourselves on the landing, with a view of the broad acres which, under the skillful cultivation of their owners, made a picture of beauty and thrift not often equaled. My husband seemed as proud as if they had been all his own when Mr. Webster exclaimed: "How beautiful! Never before have I seen such a garden as this."


Page  159 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 159 Its present area includes 13,018 acres of land surface, of which 1,600 acres were of the original White Pigeon prairie, the balance being occupied by the burr and white oak openings. The township is drained by the White Pigeon and St. Joseph rivers. The Pigeon enters section 15 from the east, and pursues a tortuous, but generally westwardly course, through the eastern, central and southwestern portions of the township, joining the St. Joseph river in section 28. The latter forms nearly the entire western boundary of the township, cutting across the northwestern quarter of section six, north of the former village of Mottville. There is only one body of water in the township which can by any stretch of the imagination be dignified by the name of lake, occupying a portion of the southwest quarter of section 11. QUIMBY AT THE GRAND TRAVERSE. The commencement of settlement in Mottville township came about from the fact that the Grand Traverse of the St. Joseph river-the point where the Chicago trail crossed that stream-was so well known by travelers for years before they considered the country a safe abiding place for the white man. Joseph Quimby was the first to permanently reside on the site of what was for ten years a growing and promising village. For some months of 1828 he remained the only white settler of the locality, but in August of that year was joined by Levi Beckwith, with his wife and four children. The third settler was John Bear, who came late in the same year and built a cabin, but subsequently sold his location and moved into Constantine, and thence to the lake in Cass county to which he gave his name. In the spring of 1829 Joel Stevenson and Elias Taylor added themselves to the little settlement at the Grand Traverse, and in the same year Aaron Brooks and the Odells-Nathan, Thomas and James-came from Ohio and made locations in section 24, in the extreme southewestern portion of the township, east of the White Pigeon. Mr. Brooks brought his family with him. FIRST FARMS OPENED. The first farm in Mottville township was opened by Levi Beckwith in 1829. A little later, in the same year, Aaron Brooks broke ground for the second farm, and harvested the first crop

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of wheat in 1830. Elias Taylor, the oldest Indian trader at the Traverse, planted the first nursery from which an orchard commenced to bear in 1829. In August, 1829, Solomon Hartman and his family arrived in the western part of White Pigeon prairie and located in the present township of Mottville. They came from Ohio. In the following year, Thomas Burns, of Pennsylvania, located in section 12; in 1832, Andrew Thomas, a Buckeye state man, opened a farm in section 13, and in the same year William Cook, of New York, located two and a half miles east of the village. MOTTVILLE VILLAGE PLATTED. The plat of Mottville village was first surveyed May 31, 1830, by Orange Risdon and John R. Williams, proprietors of section 6. At the time, the site contained as its sole building the log hut built by Quimby immediately after his arrival. Soon after the platting of the village, Elias Taylor, the old Indian agent (also first sheriff of the county) built a frame house, and as it was not followed by another structure until 1833 it poses in local history as the first store, the first tavern and the first postoffice of Mottville village. FIRST BRIDGE A GOOD ADVERTISER. Hart L. Stewart built a more pretentious tavern, in 1833, as well as a good bridge spanning the St. Joseph river. The latter gave Mottville its first real start as a village, as the bridge was one of the most substantial in southern Michigan. The sixteen thousand feet of timber built into it were furnished by Solomon and John Hartman; some of the pieces were "sixty feet in length and eighteen inches square," and the entire cost was about $5,000! From the first, it was a regular Brooklyn bridge for Mottville, and stood well until its displacement in 1845 by a still more elaborate affair. The third bridge was finished in 1867. John R. Williams and Hart L. Stewart were the chief proprietors of the original site of Mottville village. The former was a Detroit gentleman and, as is quite likely to be the case with foreign land owners, he retarded the early growth of the town by holding his interest at an exorbitant price, especially when he found that the local proprietor, Mr. Stewart, was anxious to buy.

Page  161 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 161 ONCE A GREAT SHIPPING POINT. Despite these early drawbacks, Mottville was a flourishing place from 1840 to 1850; soon afterward came the railroad (which branched away from it, both north and south), which gave it the cold shoulder and froze it to death. The leading feature of the former prosperity of the village was its facilities for transportation, it being the great freight depot of southern Michigan for water traffic. The keel-boats ran up to the village from the mouth of the St. Joseph river, propelled by man-worked poles. These were followed by steamboats, which landed their freight at the Mottville docks, where it was taken over by the stages which tapped the place either for Detroit or Chicago. Bulky freight, of course, was handled entirely by water transportation, and at one time it is stated that fourteen thousand barrels of flour were lying at Mottville awaiting the opening of spring navigation. One of the earliest enterprises in the village was a distillery, which was established by Henry Heywood in 1829, and conducted by him for about fifteen years. The Stewarts built the first warehouse in the village and the second store, and brought in the second stock of goods. Kellogg & Paine also were in trade in the flush days before 1835, and Stewart kept the hotel in 1835 and John Newells after 1840. In 1830, when the village was first platted, Hart L. Stewart was appointed postmaster. Now, with the co-operation of rural free delivery, the few who are left on the old site of Mottville are accommodated by the Constantine and White Pigeon postoffices. Rev. Erastus Felton, the Methodist missionary, provided the first preaching to Mottvillites, in 1829, services being held in Conrad Cook's dwelling house and at Stewart's hotel. Rev. Thomas Odell came from Ohio, in the spring of that year, and settled in Mottville, where he continued the good work for some time. Finally, he moved to Fort Scott, Kansas, where he died in 1872. LOCKPORT TOWNSHIP. On March 29, 1833, the area now included in the townships of Lockport and Fabius was constituted a separate township under the name of Buck's, in honor of George Buck, the first Vol. I-11

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and only hotel keeper in the township, as well as its first justice of the peace appointed by Governor Porter, April 3rd of that year. In 1840 Lockport was erected into a separate body, with its present area of 22,897 acres, of which only 120 are water surface, consisting almost entirely of the St. Joseph river with its branches, the Portage, Rocky and Hog creek, or (more euphoniously) Prairie river. The union of the Portage and' Rocky rivers with the St. Joseph at Three Rivers gives the city its name. The St. Joseph river takes a diagonal course through the township in a general direction from southwest to northeast, entering section 30 from Fabius and departing through section 1 toward Mendon. The Rocky comes into the township from the west, within the corporate limits of Three Rivers, and also joins the St. Joseph within the city limits. The Portage comes from the north, its two branches draining Park township before they unite in the northwest quarter of section 4, Lockport township, flowing in a united stream southwest to the St. Joseph at Three Rivers, just above the junction of the Portage. Prairie river, but still known to the old settlers by the more homely name of Hog creek, comes in from the east, just north of Centerville, or section 24, Lockport township, and flows southwest and west through the two southern tiers of sections, and forms a junction with the St. Joseph in the southwest quarter of section 30. A portion of Fisher's lake also lies in the northern part of the township. JACOB MCINTERFER, FIRST SETTLER. The first settlement made within the present limits of Lockport township was by Jacob McInterfer and family, who, in the spring of 1829, selected a square mile of land on the west side of Rocky river, within which is now included a portion of the Third ward of Three Rivers. Returning, then, to his home in Wayne county, in the following spring he brought his wife and several daughters to the locality, drew up his wagons on his claim and fixed them as comfortably as he could, while he proceeded to build a shanty between two trees for cooking and a substantial hewn log house for the accommodation of the family. Mr. McInterfer died in 1831. GEORGE BUCK AND HOTEL. George Buck and family were the next to locate permanently, coming in the spring of 1830 and to make their homestead upon

Page  163 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 163 land which is now a portion of the Second ward of Three Rivers. Mr. Buck erected a double log house, so large that he used a part of it as the pioneer hotel of the township. His tavern was long a popular resort of the sociably and politically inclined. The first convention held in the county convened at Buck's hotel, and it is still a matter of pleasant record that Mrs. Buck prepared a bountiful dinner for seventy-five guests. ESCHOL'S " RISE AND FALL. Charles B. Fitch, afterward county judge, came from White Pigeon prairie in 1831 and entered two hundred acres in section 31, lying in the extreme southwestern part of the township and including a valuable mill privilege on Hog creek. Here the judge completed a saw-mill in 1832, afterward adding a small set of stones for grinding purposes. R. M. Welch set a carding machine in operation in 1838, as well as a shingle mill, and for several years the village of "Eschol" represented the most promising industrial hamlet outside of Three Rivers. But trade and population seemed to set irresistibly toward the point at the junction of the Three Rivers which enjoyed the greater natural water power, and the final blow which spelled ruin for Eschol was the going out of its dam in 1840. EARLY MILL ENTERPRISES. Soon after the death of Mr. McInterfer, Michael Beadle bought the mill privilege of the deceased on the west side of Rocky river, and completed the unfinished saw-mill in 1832. In 1833 John H. Bowman made an examination of the mill privileges at the junction of the rivers, entered lands on the present site of the city, and brought his family to reside thereon in 1834. In September, 1833, Phillip H. Hoffman, with his family of seven children, located in what would now be the First ward of Three Rivers. Both Mr. Bowman and Mr. Hoffman came from Pennsylvania and were large and successful farmers in the early years. John M. Leland was an arrival of 1833, also, making his location in sections 2 and 11, on either side of the St. Joseph river and in the northeastern part of the township.

Page  164 164 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY FIRST FARMS. When Jacob McInterfer put in a crop of corn and potatoes, in the spring of 1829, he opened the first farm in Lockport township. George Buck followed with a crop in 1830. In 1833 Mr. Hoffman cleared and broke up five acres of his farm and ten during the following year, planting to corn, potatoes and buckwheat. MoAB AND ST. JOSEPH VILLAGES. The village of Three Rivers came into being about the same time as the first farms of the township. On July 28, 1830, while the territorial commissioners were trying to decide upon a fitting location for the county seat, one Christopher Shinnaman laid out a village plat on the northwest quarter of section 19, which he called Moab. The location was near the center of the county, at the meeting of its chief waterways; and on the 30th of June, 1831, George Buck and Jacob McInterfer, prompted by the manifest advantages of the location for both an industrial town and a county seat, laid out the village plat of St. Joseph on the northeast quarter of the same section which included Moab. In the fall of that year, when the governor issued his proclamation announcing Centerville as the county seat, Moab was turned into a corn field, and, although St. Joseph was disappointed, it continued in the running, with good men behind it. THREE RIVERS PLATTED. On November 25, 1836, John H. Bowman platted the village of Three Rivers on section 18, and in the following month George Buck, Jonathan Brown, Benjamin Sherman, Edward Pierson and L. B. Brown laid out the new plat known as Lockport village. The proprietors of the latter projected a canal and an immense water power. Bowman's Three Rivers embraced the present First ward, between the Portage and Rocky rivers, and Lockport became the Second ward of the future city. "Canada," or the Third ward, was included in the old McInterfer tract, on the west side of the Rocky river. FIRST TOWN MEETING AND OFFICERS. On the 11th of April, 1833, while Lockport township, as it is now known, was still a corporate part of Buck's township, the first

Page  165 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 165 town meeting within the present limits was held at Buck's tavern, which was known as the Half Way House, between White Pigeon and Prairie Ronde. Mr. Buck himself, the newly-appointed justice of the peace, conducted the election, and the seventeen votes cast, resulted in the choice of the following officers: Michael Beadle, supervisor; Heman Harvey, clerk; C. B. Fitch, James Whited and Alanson C. Stewart, assessors; David Beadle, Jr., constable and collector; Eleazur Lancaster, constable; Garrett Sickles, James Whited and Thomas H. Fitch, commissioners of highways; C. B. Fitch, poormaster; Thomas Knall and George Buck, fence-viewers; and Gideon Ball, Hiram Harwood, Levi Griswold and J. W. Coffinbury, path-masters. As fifteen officers were elected at this first meeting by seventeen voters, it is evident that two worthy citizens were crowded out from the office-holding list. In 1840, when Buck's township was divided and Lockport came into being, the following officers were in service: C. B. Fitch, supervisor; B. Osgood, clerk; and George Buck, Cyrus Ingerson, B. Osgood and Ezra Cole, justices of the peace. Settlers of the township, other than those already mentioned, up to 1840 (fixed upon as the close of the real pioneer period), may be mentioned as: The Wolf brothers, who came with their father from Pennsylvania, and located three hundred and twenty acres in section 27, north of Hog creek; A. C. Prutzman, Edward S. Moore, William and John I. Majors and Charles F. Thoms (Mr. Thoms was at one time a Swiss soldier in Napoleon's army), in 1834; George W. Gardner and Andrew Goode, in 1835, and Joseph B. Millard and J. H. Gardner, in 1836. BEGINNING OF THINGS. The horticultural interests of the township had their origin when George Buck planted some apple trees in 1831, and Mr. Hoffman put some peach stones into the fertile soil during 1833. William Arney set out an orchard in 1834. In 1832 Michael Beadle built the first frame house in the township, on the west side of Rocky river, near the bridge in Three Rivers. The first birth was a daughter of Solomon and a grand-daughter of Jacob McInterfer, in November, 1829, and the first death of an adult was Grandfather McInterfer, who passed away in 1831.

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY This family also furnished the first bride-Mary McInterfer, who married David Winchell, a son of the first settler in the county, in February, 1830. The first white male child born in the township was Asa Bear, son of John Bear, who came into the world while the parents were returning from a trip to Prairie Ronde. The first school was taught in the old McInterfer cabin, in the winter of 1834-5, its teacher, Father Arny, having charge of thirty pupils. The first road laid out by township authority was six miles in length, and extended from the north boundary of White Pigeon township to the north boundary of Bucks. It was surveyed by Matthew Rowen in June, 1833. The first bridge built over the St. Joseph river, within the limits of Lockport township, was that completed by Asa Wetherbee in 1838, and was located near the present structure. Its builder died in the State Insane asylum in the seventies. LOCKPORT BOAT BUILDING AND BOATING. The transportation of merchandise in the ante-railroad days was nearly all effected through the St. Joseph river. A shipyard was once established at Lockport, and Washington Gascon (who came to the township with Mr. Leland in 1834) built a number of keel boats and ran them on the river as early as 1836. Burroughs Moore (a settler of 1833) originated the idea of the arks, which were actually built by Captain Elisha Millard, considered the best pilot on the river. After the first arks were made and loaded, it was found that nothing but flour could be safely carried in them. The first one which went down the river from Three Rivers, in 1834, was loaded with wheat, and as none knew the strength of the current, or the exact condition of the channel, the voyage turned out disastrously. The first stopping place made was Constantine, and the Knapps and James Smith, who were in command, cast the lines ashore, pulling some of the boards off the stern and letting some wheat into the river. They refitted and went on, but met with the same mishap at Elkhart, and lower down the river stove a hole through the bottom of one of the cribs. Another unloading and refitting followed, and the ark was finally wrecked at the "Granddad" ripple, Niles, its entire cargo being lost.

Page  167 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 167 This ended 'arking until 1838, the river freighting having been done, in the meantime, by keel boats. In the former year, when flour commenced to be shipped down the river, the arks again came into favor, as the strong points of their construction were well adapted to the transportation of this class of freight. The succeeding ten years were busy ones for Captain Millard and Captain Alvin Calhoon, of Florence township. An ordinary ark could carry from four to six hundred barrels of flour; it was not bad going down-river, but the return was sometimes "fierce." To overcome this drawback to the transportation business, Captain Calhoon constructed a fleet of small arks, which would carry about twenty barrels of flour each, and after unloading them he would bring them up the river in wagons. The first arks that ran from Colon were built in 1841-2, by Captain Millard and loaded by John H. Bowman at his mill on Swan creek. JOHN H. BOWMAN. John H. Bowman was born in Mount Bethel, Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, March 13, 1796. He removed to Brier Creek, Columbia county, that state, and resided therein until 1834, when he removed with his family, consisting of his wife and seven children, to Three Rivers. There, in the same year, he built the first frame house of any pretensions erected in that city, and which was also, for many years, the best in the country around. Buying one hundred and twenty acres of land on Johnnycake prairie, Mr. Bowman began farming, and in 1836, with the Smiths of Prairie Ronde, bought the Beadle mill property at Three Rivers. With them he erected the Three Rivers flouring-mill, and began its operation in February, 1837. This business the firm of Smith & Bowman carried on, together with merchandising, for about two years, when the mill was leased and afterwards bought by Mqore & Prutzman, while in 1838 Mr. Bowman began the erection of another flouring mill in Colon village with Dr. Voorhis. This mill was not completed until after the doctor's death, commencing operations in 1839. Soon afterward Mr. Bowman sold three-fourths of his interest to his son, William F. Bowman, and in 1845 removed from Three Rivers to Colon to reside. He retained onefourth interest in the Colon mills until his leath in 1855, actively managing the property during the whole period. In the nullification times of 1832, Mr. Bowman was a major in the Pennsylvania state troops. In his younger days he was a

Page  168 168 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY member of the Whig party, but joined the Republican organization at its inception, though he died before he cast a presidential vote therein. He was a member of the legislature of Michigan two terms. Although a member of the Methodist Episcopal church in Pennsylvania, he never united with it in Michigan. In May, 1855, Mr. Bowman went west on a tour of observation, was attacked by the cholera at Lexington, Missouri, and died after a short illness. The deceased was highly esteemed by his neighbors, and though sometimes despondent, was generally of a cheerful frame of mind, and liberal in the extreme toward the suffering and distressed. TOWNSHIP OF CONSTANTINE. Originally included in the old township of White Pigeon, Constantine was organized in 1831. The township took its name from the village, which was laid out in 1831 and which was christened Constantine by Niles F. Smith, its first merchant. Some time in 1828 William Meek, of Wayne county, made the selection of a location at the intersection of the Fawn and St. Joseph rivers. His family did not come until the spring of 1829, when he built a cabin for them, which was the first house either on the site of the city or in the township. He then went to Monroe and entered the east half of section 23. Judge Meek was first attracted to the spot by its advantages for a manufacturing plant, being first directed to the location by Leonard Cutler, in 1828, the latter then living on White Pigeon prairie. MEEK'S MILLS, OR CONSTANTINE. During the first year of his residence, Judge Meek cleared off and plowed a few acres of his purchase, but he came to the place as a manufacturer. In the winter of 1829-30 he began the erection of the saw-mill on Fawn river, or Crooked creek, just below its junction with the St. Joseph, and in the spring, before he had completed the mill, he constructed a dam and waterwheel. This pioneer mill and water-power, this commencement of the industrial life of Constantine and St. Joseph county, is more fully described in the general history-as befitting its importance. For many years afterward, the place was generally known as Meek's Mills, although its rightful name was Constantine;

Page  169 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 169 the jealousy of White Pigeon is said to have seriously retarded the general acceptance of its more dignified name. The charge is undoubtedly founded on fact that many emigrants from the east, who first came to White Pigeon in their search for Constantine, would be on the point of departing discouraged, when the citizen of the southern settlement would come to himself with a start and exclaim: "Constantine! Constantine! Oh, you mean Meek's Mills!" Jacob Bonebright's family was the second to settle within the limits of Constantine township. They came from Pennsylvania in May, 1829, taking up land and building a house on section 26. Nathan Syas and family located in the same spring or summer; C. B. Fitch, afterward judge of the county court, came from Ohio in 1830 and built the first frame house outside of the village; John G. and William Cathcart in the fall of 1831. JUDGE MEEK SURVEYS CONSTANTINE. In August, 1831, Judge Meek surveyed and laid out the village of Constantine, there being then five families on its site. Mr. Smith, its first merchant, opened his little frame store on the bank of the river, at what would now be the south end of the bridge, and built his house at the corner of Water and Washington streets, afterward opening the latter as a hotel. Isaac J. Ulmann was in partnership with Mr. Smith for a couple of years, and in July, 1834, John S. Barry left White Pigeon to engage in merchandise at Constantine. Hon. John S. Barry was one of the ablest business and public men who ever resided in the place, which was his home from 1834 until his death in 1870. He served in the state senate three terms and gained a distinction enjoyed by no other public man in Michigan-of having served his state as governor for three terms. Besides operating his large mercantile and warehouse business, he became early and prominently interested in the Michigan Southern Railroad, and it was largely through his management that it was lifted from an uncertain property to one of the leading corporations of the country. THE CITY'S EARLY MANUFACTURES. In regard to the early development of the manufactures of Constantine, which were also among the first in the township and

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY county: Josiah Fisher, father-in-law of John Hull, of Florence, erected a shingle mill adjoining Judge Meek's saw-mill, but before he could complete it and get it in operation, the water froze solid in the race, and not a wheel turned either in the Fisher or the Meek mill until spring. In 1835 Judge Meek built his second saw-mill and Isaac Benham erected the first foundry in 1837. The blast power for the latter was furnished by a horse, and Mr. and Mrs. Benham poured out the hot iron into the molds. This foundry made a specialty of the manufacture of andirons, and later Mr. Benham put up a foundry on the east side for plows. There were a number of blacksmith shops in operation in the early thirties, but the next plant which could be designated as a manufactory was the tannery built by Mr. Armstrong, further up the creek, in 1836. Later, the father of Governor Bagley built and operated one in the village. Chairs and furniture commenced to be manufactured at Constantine about 1833; House & Ulmann made a few plows in 1836, and Hunt & Grover turned out fanning mills in 1834. In the early forties a foundry was built and put in operation by a stock company composed of such mechanics as Brush Sutherland, Jason Shepherd, L. L. Richardson and James E. Proudfit. These facts indicate how the early manufactures of the county were established. FIRST TOWN MEETING. The first town meeting was held in the school-house in Constantine village, April 3, 1837, Dr. Watson Sumner being moderator and Thomas Charlton, clerk. Following are the officials chosen: John G. Cathcart, supervisor; W. C. Pease, clerk; Heman Harwood, W. C. Pease, William Cathcart and Horace Metcalf, justices of the peace; Norman Harvey, A. R. Metcalf and William H. Adams, assessors; John Bryant, Ozias F. French, Alex. S. Sheperd, commissioners of highways; Erastus Thurber, constable and collector; Heman Harwood and John A. Appleton, overseers of the poor; Watson Sumner, Heman Harvey and Allan Goodridge, school inspectors; Lyman R. Lowell, constable; Heman Harwood and John S. Kean, fence-viewers, and Erastus Hart, pound-master. OTHER FIRST THINGS. The first marriage in the township was that of Elliott Woods and Eliza Meek, who were married in 1830.

Page  171 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 171 The first death, in the same year, was a daughter of Nathan Syas. The first school taught in the township was in the winter of 1830-1, by Thomas Charlton, in the basement of Niles F. Smith's store, Constantine village. In the summer of 1832, Miss Rhoda Churchill, a daughter of Dr. William Churchill and afterward the wife of William F. Arnold, commenced to teach school on the edge of the prairie; and she was the first "school ma'am." NATURAL FEATURES. The surface of the township is generally level and the land is drained by the St. Joseph and its branches. As it approaches that river, which passes through its southeastern, eastern and northeastern sections, it becomes more broken. Of its 22,715 acres, some 1,600 is included in White Pigeon prairie, the balance of the acres was originally covered with burr-oak and white-oak openings, some of the groves very heavy and others light and scattering. In the early times the river bottoms were also heavily timbered. There are about four hundred and sixty acres of water surface in the township, the St. Joseph river, in its entrance from the south, first taking an irregular course near the southern line of sections 31 and 32, and then in a northeasterly direction through 33, 27, 26 and 23, city of Constantine, to section 13, where it bends more directly toward the north, and continues through three other sections before it makes its exit into Fabius and Lockport townships on its way to Three Rivers. Mill creek rises in two forks, in sections 3 and 6, unites in section 7 and runs nearly south into the St. Joseph. Fawn river, or Crooked creek, enters the township near the southeast corner of section 24 and passes through the corporate limits of the city of Constantine, entering the St. Joseph from the east through the elaborate works of the Hydraulic Company. Black run is a little creek, which rises on section 16, runs generally south and enters the mother stream on the southeast quarter of section 32. The soil of Constantine township is the same fertile, sandy loam, which characterizes the other openings in the county, and is highly productive of fruit, corn and the cereals in general. The boulder drift passed this township, except along the western, or Cass county line, where a heavy deposit of stone is found, which supplied the needs of the locality for many years.

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY FLORENCE TOWNSHIP. Florence township remained a portion of White Pigeon until 1827, when it was erected into a separate civil body, and the following officers were elected at the meeting which convened at the house of Giles Thompson: Giles Thompson, supervisor; John Howard, Giles Thompson, Matthew Rowen and Jeremiah Lawrence, justices of the peace; John Yauney, clerk; Matthew Rowen, Orrin F. Howard and George T. Gray, assessors; Solomon Wallace, collector; Alvin Calhoon, M. G. Craw and Solomon Wallace, commissioners of highways; Edward E. Adams and Albert H. Strong, directors of the poor; Norman Roys, Matthew Rowen and Giles Thompson, inspectors of schools; John Yauney and Smith Hunt, fence-viewers and pound-masters. The present area of the township is 22,500 acres, sections 34, 35 and 36 being set off from its southeastern corner and attached to White Pigeon, because that tract of land was separated from the balance of the township by a large swamp, and geographically and topographically was a portion of the area to the south. The rich, sandy loam of Florence township has assured the successful cultivation of the cereals, fruit and mint, drainage being mainly effected by the Fawn river, which flows southwest and west through its southeastern, southern and southwestern sections toward Constantine and the St. Joseph river. EARLIEST SETTLEMENTS. The earliest settlements in Florence township were effected in its extreme southern and northern sections. In the spring of 1829 David Crawford and John Martin came from Monroe, Michigan, and located on section 32. This was in August and in the following month Leonard Cutler filed a claim in the same locality. ALVIN CALHOON. In October of the same year, Alvin Calhoon came with his wife and child and settled on the same section. He lived there for many years, was twice married and has numerous descendants in the township and county. Mr. Calhoon was a New Yorker, whose family fled from Monroe, Michigan, at the surrender of Hull in 1812, when he himself was a boy of ten; who afterward I

Page  173 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 173 went to Ohio, returned to Monroe and afterward to New York. He was married the first time in Rochester and came thence, when a young man, to White Pigeon prairie, whither he arrived in October, 1829. In 1830 Jeremiah Lawrence moved into the township from Newville, a small settlement two miles east of the village of White Pigeon, and remained a resident of this section for many years; as did also Norman Roys, who located land in sections 5 and 6, in the north of the township. In the spring of 1832 John Howard located with his family on section 6, dying there in 1875 at the age of ninety-three years. Elisha Dimick arrived with his family in 1833, and took up his permanent residence on section 7; in 1834 George Pashby, Sr., brought his wife and two children to his new homestead in section 20, and in 1836 John Hagerman settled on the farm in section 18, later occupied by his son, William Hagerman. How THINGS STARTED. In the spring of 1829 David Crawford built the first log house within the present limits of Florence township, and sowed the first wheat in the succeeding fall. Alvin Calhoon and Jeremiah Lawrence sowed twenty acres the following year. The first corn was planted by the same parties in the spring of 1830, and the pioneer orchard was planted by John Coats on the southwest quarter of section 31 in the spring of 1831. The first tavern was kept by Elisha Dimick, in 1833, in his log house on the farm, and he continued to conduct it until 1840. The first postoffice was established in Florence township in 1840, and was kept at the tavern of Lyman Bean, a Maine Yankee, who, in 1834, drove a team of four horses the entire distance from his home in the Pine Tree state to his claim on White Pigeon prairie, within the present limits of Florence township. The first distillery for the extraction of oil of peppermint, was operated by Reuben and Otis Matthews in 1837. In the spring of that year they procured a few roots of Calvin Sawyer, who had just arrived from Ohio, which they planted on the Joseph Brown farm. It is probable that the first marriage was that of John Phelps with Leafy Wilder in 1831. The first death was that of an Englishman named Burnham, who came in the early part of 1831, and

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY died during the year. The first birth in the township was that of Wolcott H. Lawrence, son of Jeremiah and Altha Lawrence; date, November 27, 1830. In 1836 was built the Roys school-house, near the present No. 1; it was the pioneer of the township in its line. In 1834 the Methodists inaugurated the religious life of the township by holding a class meeting, under the leadership of Alvin Calhoon, at the house of Benjamin Ball. They continued at that place of meeting until the building of No. 2 school-house in 1835. Rev. Erastus Kellogg preached during these first years. BANNER MINT AND OIL TOWNSHIP. For many years Florence township was one of the banner sections of St. Joseph county in the raising of peppermint and the distillation of oil. In 1876 the entire product amounted to four thousand pounds of oil, to make which required the yield of about three hundred acres. Among the heaviest operators in the industry of the palmy days were William Hagerman and William, George and Frank Roys. FABIUS TOWNSHIP. In the tripartite civil division of what is now St. Joseph county, which occurred with its organization in 1829, the township of White Pigeon comprised the territory included in the present western six townships south of Park and Flowerfield. In the winter of 1832-3 the area now included in Fabius and Lockport was erected into a township named Buck's, in honor of the pioneer George Buck, who is made to figure especially in the history of Lockport, as his first location and residence in the county occurred within its limits. In 1840 Lockport was detached, leaving the township of Buck's, and in the following year the state legislature gave the latter the more dignified name of Fabius. STUDDED WITH SPARKLING LAKES. In water surface, Fabius leads all the other townships, twenty-one hundred of its entire twenty-three thousand acres being covered by its lakes, ponds and streams. Its other most

Page  175 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 175 noticeable feature is its broken surface, diversified by prairies and timber land, hills and knobs. The largest of the lakes, Corry's, lies in the western part of the township, and is named from Joshua Corry, a pioneer who located near it. Pleasant, Clear and Long (or Boot) lakes, so far as nomenclature goes, are victims of circumstance or local affection; besides these are numerous smaller bodies of water, which, of course, have names, but are so tiny that they are seldom designated on even county maps. But this commingling of sparkling lakes with varied and picturesque land surface makes Fabius township a constant delight to the lover of nature. The timber of the township consists of beech, maple, oak, walnut and elm, oak predominating. Johnny Cake prairie, so called from its small size and its shape, lies in the eastern part of the township, in the immediate vicinity of Three Rivers. The balance of the township was covered, as a whole, with heavy timber forming numerous oak openings. FIRST PERMANENT SETTLER. The first permanent settler in Fabius was Garrett Sickles, who came with his family in 1830, locating on Johnny Cake prairie in section 13. Although there were a number of settlers during the succeeding year, no one arrived to materially assist in the progress of the township until October, 1832, when William F. Arnold, in company with his father's family, located on the west half of the southeast quarter of section 26. This was in the southeastern part of the township, and at the time of the coming of the Arnolds there were only four families within the present limits of Fabius township. About 1833-4 came Deacon William Churchill, with his family, who also settled on section 26; also, J. W. Coffinbury, Andrew Burritt, Benjamin Smith, Charles Rice, Alonzo Hunt, Michael Beadle, Alfred Poe, Solomon Hartman and B. M. King. FIRST MARRIAGE AND BIRTH. One important and natural result of the coming of the Arnolds and Churchills to section 26 was the marriage of the neighboring son and daughter of the two families, William F. Arnold and Rose Churchill. The first child of this pioneer union

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY was Lydia Arnold, who was born February 28, 1835; four days later, Lydia's boy cousin joined her in the land of the living, the new arrival being Thomas, son of Randall Churchill. FIRST ELECTIONS AND OFFICERS. The first election after the formation of the township of Buck's was held in the spring of 1833 at the house of Hiram Harwood on Johnny Cake prairie, the meeting being called for the purpose of designating the popular choice for justices of the peace; as the governor then appointed those functionaries, it may perhaps be more appropriately designated a nominating caucus than an election. The township was entitled to three justices, and the candidates in the field were Messrs. Hiram Harwood, Jacob W. Coffinbury, George Buck and Charles B. Fitch. Some twenty votes were polled, the moderator, Charles Rice, collecting them in his hat, and announcing that Messrs. Harwood, Coffinbury and Buck had been recommended to the governor by the majority of balloters. After the township of Bucks was divided and Fabius had assumed its present area and name, the first election of officers was held at the house of Alfred Poe, April 5, 1841, and resulted in the choice of the following: Randall Churchill, Joel Redway and William Arney, assessors; Joel Redway, John Laughlin and Thomas Ward, school inspectors; William Arney, Joel Redway and Garrett Sickles, road commissioners; Charles Rice and William Morrison, school directors; Charles J. Rice and Lewis K. Brodie, constables; Joel Redway, William Arney and Frederick Shurtz, justices of the peace. Frederick Shurtz was the first supervisor and Thomas Ward, the first clerk, after the creation of the present Fabius township. The first school-house in the township was built of logs, in 1833, and stood on the edge of the woods on the south line of section 35, on the site of the farm owned long afterward by Lewis K. Brodie. After being used for several years as a meeting house and a Sunday-school, as well as for public school purposes, it was destroyed by fire. William F. Arnold taught the second school built by the township on section 34, his experience therein commencing in the winter of 1843-4 and his pay being fifty cents per day. The first saw-mill in the township was erected by Michael Beadle, in the spring of 1835, and was located near the mouth of

Page  177 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 177 Lake run about one mile from Three Rivers. The second sawmill was built by Jasper and Barnabas Eddy, on the same stream, in the fall of 1837. James Valentine erected the first frame house in the township, on the farm afterward owned by William Hartman, and the lumber used in its construction was sawed at the Beadle mill. This historic structure was completed in the spring of 1836. The first mower and reaper (an old Kirby) was brought into the township, in 1842, by Garrett Sickles (great self-control required to prevent a play upon the name). Vol. 1-12

Page  178 CHAPTER IX. OLD SHERMAN TOWNSHIP. THE TOWNSHIP AS NOW-EARLY SETTLERS-LANDS, TAXES AND PRODUCTS-CULTIVATION OF MINT-OFFICIAL ROSTERS-ROADS AND POSTOFFICES-SCHOOLS AND ATTENDANCE-POPULATIONPOLITICAL RECORD-FAWN RIVER TOWNSHIP-JUDGE STURGISOTHER EARLY LOCATIONS-FIRST POSTMASTERS-RISE OF MANUFACTURES-PIONEER ELECTION AND ROADS-PROPERTY AND VALUATIONS-EX-VILLAGE OF FREEDOM-WARFARE AND MURDER-CAPT. 'rOLL AND FAWN RIVER VILLAGE-FRANCIS FLANDERS, FATHER AND SON-TINY TOWNSHIP-STURGIS, LAST TOWNSHIP-SAD COMING OF A PIONEER-GEORGE BUCK'S DEAT —FIRST HOTELS-NOTTAWA TOWNSHIP-JUDGES CONNOR AND STURGIS-INTRODUCTION OF FRUITS, ETC.-CENTERVILLE PLATTED-TOWNSHIP OF COLON-SHELLHOUSE BROTHERS -COLON VILLAGE-BURR OAK TOWNSHIP —HASLET AND SNOW -FIRST FRAME RESIDENCE-TOWNSHIP IN GENERAL. Sherman was one of the original three townships which constituted the county of St. Joseph as it is known today, and when organized November 5, 1829, included the area of the present townships of Sherman, Sturgis, Fawn River, Burr Oak, Colon and Nottawa. The last township to be taken from the origonal territory, reducing Sherman to its present dimensions, was Sturgis, in 1845. THE TOWNSHIP AS NOW. Sherman is now a full government township; that is, thirtysix square miles, or 23,040 acres, and is known to the United States survey as township 7, south of range 10 west. The township has five well known lakes, all of which contain a good assortment of fine fish. They are as follows: Chapin 178

Page  179 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 179 lake, named after David Chapin, an old settler living on its banks; Cross lake, named after Abel Crossman, who settled on a farm in its vicinity about 1840; Thompson lake, named after Elijah Thompson, who settled near it at an early date; Johnson lake, thus named from Mr. Johnson's settlement near it at an early day; Fish lake, so named from the fact of its abounding in the different varieties of fine fish; Crotch lake, from its peculiar crotch-like shape; Middle lake, so named from the fact that it lies between Klinger's lake, in White Pigeon township, and Thompson's lake, in Sherman. Sherman township is generally rolling; some parts, quite hilly. The soil is a rich clay loam, intermixed with sand and sandy loam. It was originally covered with timber, known as white oak openings. There is a small per cent of prairie land mixed throughout the township. The soil is well adapted to wheat, corn, oats, clover and fruits, especially apples, peaches and the various kinds of small fruit. Peppermint and other materials for essential oils are grown and manufactured in the township. EARLY SETTLERS. Most of the first settlers of the Sherman were of English extraction and from the eastern states. But at the present writing three-fourths are German and of German extraction and their honesty, frugality and quick assimilation of American progressive methods mark them as a most valuable and enterprising element in the population of St. Joseph county. The first white settler who took up his permanent habitation within the present limits of Sherman township was Thomas Cade, Sr., a native of Yorkshire, England, born at Wellington, near the city of Hull. He selected for his future home five eightacre lots on section 36 and having an abundance of the best of timber to select from, he built perhaps the largest and best log house ever erected in the county, costing him one hundred dollars in gold, which sum in those days was regarded as quite an outlay. He broke up the first land in the months of August and September, 1830, and sowed twenty acres of wheat. Mr. Cade's family, when he arrived in the new settlement, consisted of his wife, four sons, Thomas, Joseph, Samuel and Stephen W., and one daughter, Mary. Charles E. Cade and grandson now own the old homestead and live upon it.

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Among those who came soon after Mr. Cade were David Petty and wife, who also settled on section 36, early in the year 1831, and a man by the name of Johnson-an old bachelor who settled on section 35 the same year. Another of the early settlers was Mrs. John Gifford, who came from Lenawee county in 1836. She afterward moved to Sand Lake, Nottawa. LANDS, TAXES AND PRODUCTS. The first farm in the township was that of Thomas Cade, Sr., established in 1830-31. The first lands were entered at the general land office in 1830 and were as follows: The southeast quarter of section 35, by William Johnson, of Scotland, June 7th; the southeast quarter of section 36, by Robert Storr, of England, July 15th; the southwest quarter of section 36, by Thomas Cade, of England, July 15th; the west half of the northwest quarter of section 36, by David Petty, of England, September 27, 1830. There were but four entries made the succeeding year. The taxes for township purposes in 1830 amounted to thirtyfive dollars; in 1852, three hundred and twenty-eight dollars and fifteen cents; in 1876, including schools, three thousand nine hundred and seventeen dollars and four cents. In 1873 there was harvested in the township nearly thirtyseven thousand bushels of wheat. There were also grown fiftytwo thousand six hundred bushels of corn, and upward of five thousand bushels of other grain, and nearly twelve thousand bushels of potatoes and nine hundred tons of hay, as well as five thousand pounds of wool, eighty-five thousand pounds of pork, fifty thousand pounds of butter and cheese and six thousand pounds of dried fruit. Four hundred and thirty-six acres of orchard produced twelve thousand bushels of apples, valued at four thousand one hundred dollars. In 1873 there were owned in the township four hundred and ninety horses, fifteen mules, upward of seven hundred head of cattle, eight hundred hogs and one thousand sheep. The taxes paid by the citizens of Sherman for the year 1908 were: State tax, one thousand four hundred and ninety-seven dollars; county tax, one thousand eight hundred and ninety-two dollars; township tax, seven hundred dollars; highway tax, nine

Page  181 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 181 hundred and twenty-one dollars; school tax, six hundred and ninety-six dollars. CULTIVATION OF MINT. The cultivation of mint was first introduced into Sherman township by Mero Jones, who settled in the township in 1838. This first mint crop was planted in 1846. The roots of peppermint were brought from a farm owned at that time by William Jones, of Centerville, now deceased. The crop of 1876 was about five thousand pounds. Mero Jones and his son Charles were the largest mint growers and distillers for a number of years. For the past year there has been grown by Charles Johnson and others in the township about ten thousand pounds of peppermint, tansy, wormwood and spearmint oils. OFFICIAL ROSTERS. The first township meeting was held at the house of John B. Clark, in the village of Sherman (now Sturgis) in April, 1830, Amos Howe being moderator. It is impossible to give names of officers elected and other data, on account of the records being burned on the night of May 7, 1841. The supervisors have been as follows: John Sturgis, 1830; Jason Thurston, 1831-33; John Parker, 1834-41; Phillip H. Buck, William Henry, Harry H. Brezee, Levi E. Thompson, Salathial C. Coffinbury, George Buck, George Keech, George W. Warren, David Oakes, Stephen M. Cade, seven years; Samuel Tyler and H. C. Hopkins, five years; Caston Everett, John Kasdorf and Fred Kruger (present incumbent). Township clerks: William Fletcher, 1830; John Parker, 1831 -33; Phillip N. Buck, 1834-36; Levi Holmes, 1841; J. C. Waite, Jeremiah H. Jones, Theodore Jones, Erastus Chapin; S. W. P. Hadden, George Taylor, George W. Warren, Thomas Wing, George W. Richards, A. C. Van Vleck, N. H. Gurney, Henry W. Pearsall, James Douglass, Thomas Perrin, Josiah Metzger, John A. Bancker, James H. Fonda, Gaston Everett, J. A. P. Mason, John Farrow, Joseph Farrow, John I. Taylor and Henry Yabel (present incumbent). John Sturgis, Amos Howe and William Hazzard were the first highway commissioners, in 1830.

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Justices of the peace: James Rolfe, 1836 (six years); Andrew Perrin, Harry H. Brezee (twelve years); Levi E. Thompson, Wilson D. Oviatt, Nathan H. Gurney (eight years); S. S. Johnson, George Keech (fourteen years); George Buck, Erastus Chapin, S. C. Coffinbury, David Oakes, Stephen W. Cade, A. C. Van Vleck (six years); John H. Millard, Joseph A. Millard, Daniel N. Thompson, Darius Gee (eight years); Gilson Everton. Harvey Avery, Thomas Wing, Floris Bancker, Warren Palmer, Joseph Weber, Julius E. Fenn, William T. North, James M. White, Josiah Metzger, Theron Wilson (three years); John A. Bancker, Beers Wilson, Reuben J. Miller, John Kasdorf, Joseph Sweetland (three years); Thomas Sturgis, Christian Yelt, Frank Stuba, Christian Walter, Christian Yabel and Charles Frays. Phillip Buck was elected justice of the peace in 1837. He held his office in the village of Sturgis until that township was set off in 1845, and was the leading justice of his day in the township. In 1838 he had two hundred and sixty-three cases on his docket. His first suit dated November 10, 1837, was one of Isaac Tyler vs. Elisha Bennett, which was called for trial November 20th, and judgment entered by confession for thirty-four dollars and forty cents damage and one dollar seventy-seven cents costs. Oliver Raymond and Hiram Humphrey were appointed justices by Governor Porter on April 17, 1833. ROADS AND POSTOFFICE. The first road laid out was ordered by the highway commissioners in 1830, from the Indiana line running north through Oxbow and Sturgis prairies, to the north line of township 6, range 10, now Nottawa. The route was subsequently adopted by the commissioners for the territorial road from the same point to Grand Rapids, which was surveyed in 1833. The road was surveyed by Robert Clark, Jr., who received six dollars therefor, the road being over fifteen miles in length. Benjamin Sherman was granted a license to keep a tavern on this road. A postoffice was established in the northeast part of the township in 1837, A. Thompson being postmaster, but there has been no postoffice for a good many years. A United States signal station was erected on section 22 and for a number of years Old Prob. sent prognostications to the Weather Bureau.

Page  183 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 183 The Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad, running through the township from north to south, was constructed in 1870. The Goshen and Battle Creek Railroad runs through section 36 from north to south. It was constructed some time in the "eighties.' OTHER FIRST THINGS. The first frame house was erected in Sherman township and was built by Thomas Cade on the present site of the residence of his grandson, Charles Cade. A saw-mill was built by D. P. Robinson in 1860, but permanent saw-mills are not now needed. The first marriage in Sherman township was that of William Stewart, Jr., to Mary Cade, in the fall of 1831. They removed to Madison, Wisconsin, immediately after getting married and afterward to Chicago, where Mrs. Stewart died in 1838. The first birth was that of William, son of David and Fanny Petty, in 1833. He died quite young. According to best obtainable information the first death was that of William Leonard, who died in 1838. The first burying ground was the one now in Sturgis. It was used as a family burying ground as early as 1833, although not surveyed and laid out as a cemetery until 1839. It was surveyed by John Kums. The first interment in it was a Mr. Johnson, an early settler who lived on the banks of the lake which bears his name. The first preaching in the township was held in private houses by Rev. Christopher Carey, a Presbyterian minister. Meetings were frequently held at the residence of George Buck. A large brick church was erected by the Lutherans in the eighties, which is at present used and well attended. TOWNSHIP SCHOOLS AND ATTENDANCE. The first school-house erected in Sherman was in the present district No. 1. It was first taught by Harriet Foote in 1843, she having thirteen scholars and receiving thirteen dollars for her work. The first division of the township into school districts took place on the 29th of May, 1841, as follows: District No. 1, to contain sections 17, 18, 7, 8, 6, 5 and the west half of sections 4, 9 and 16, township 8, south of range 10,

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY west; also the southeast quarter of southeast quarter and the north half of the southeast quarter and the east half of the southwest quarter of section 32. District No. 2: Sections 2, 3, 10 and 11, and the north half of section 15, the east half of sections 4 and 9, and the northeast quarter of section 16. District No. 3: Sections 1 and 12, township 8 south, range 10 west, and also the west half of section 6, township 8, south of range 9 west. District No. 4: Sections 13 and 14, the south half of section 15, the southeast quarter of section 16, the northeast quarter of section 21 and the north half of sections 22, 23 and 24. District No. 5: Sections 24, 25 and 36 and the northeast quarter of section 26, township 7, south of 10 west; also sections 19, 20, 29, 30 and 31 and the north half of the northeast quarter of section 32, township of Burr Oak. In 1876 there were four hundred and fifteen children of school age between five and twenty years, three hundred and twenty of whom attended the different schools in the township. The schools were session an average of eight months during the year. There were eight school-houses, six of wood and two of brick, valued at six thousand dollars. There were three hundred and thirty children of school age in the year 1894, one hundred and eighty-three male and one hundred and fifty-two females, accommodated by eight school buildings. In 1909 there were two hundred and twenty-one children of school age who drew primary money. TRAGEDIES. Suicidal mania in Sherman township first appeared in 1846, since which year several have died by their own hands. Babe Wells hung himself in a barn on the banks of Thompson lake in the above year, and in 1872 John Carl committed suicide by the same means on section 21. Floris Bancker, an old and respected farmer, committed suicide by poisoning, in 1871. John Dice was found dead near a stump September 30, 1859; death caused by hemorrhage of the lungs. In August, 1895, a Mr. Fieblekorn hung himself in his barn.

Page  185 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 185 POPULATION. In 1838 the population of Sherman, which then included Sturgis, only numbered one thousand and forty. In 1850, when the township had its present area, there were three hundred and sixty-four people. In 1860, there were eight hundred and sixtyseven inhabitants, two of them American citizens of African descent. The population had increased in 1870 to one thousand one hundred and sixty. The state census of 1874 showed a population of one thousand two hundred and fifteen, of whom six hundred and six were males and six hundred and nine females. The census of 1894 showed that the population had decreased to nine hundred and fifty-one, five hundred and nine males and four hundred and forty-two females. The census of 1904 shows a population of only seven hundred and fifty-five. The census of 1874 showed the population to be the most numerous in the history of the township, and at the present writing the population perhaps does not exceed seven hundred, which shows a falling off of five hundred and fifteen. This is partly accounted for by the selling out and moving away of the small land holders. In 1874 there were nearly three hundred farms; at present there are two hundred. POLITICAL RECORD. In 1840 the tally lists for presidential electors in the township showed forty-eight majority for the Whigs, "Tippecanoe and Tyler too" leading Van Buren that much. In 1844 the Whig party gave Henry Clay one hundred and three votes; the Democrats gave Polk and Dallas fifty-eight, and the Liberty men numbered five in 1848, when Sherman was left to herself. She gave "Old Zach" twenty-five votes, Governor Cass thirty-one, and Van Buren, "the Free Soiler," nine. In 1852 the voters paired on the leading candidates, giving thirty-two to each, the Abolitionists holding the balance of power with ten votes. In 1856 the Republicans gave their candidate, John C. Fremont, one hundred and three votes, while the sage of Wheatland had but thirty-three followers.

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY In 1860 the Republicans gave Old Abe one hundred and twenty-nine votes, Douglas receiving only fifty-three votes. In 1864 the Republican votes stood one hundred and thirteen; Democratic, forty-four. In 1868 the Republicans cast one hundred and fifty-five votes; Democrats, ninety-five. In 1872 Republican vote stood one hundred and sixty-four; Democratic, sixty-seven. In 1876 Mr. Hayes received one hundred votes; Tilden one hundred and forty-two, and Peter Cooper twelve. From 1876 until the last election, the voters have cast a majority of their ballots invariably for the Democratic candidate; from one hundred to one hundred and twenty-five majority. Sherman, in the Rebellion, in proportion to her population, bore as conspicuous and honorable a part as any of her sister towns. Her quotas were filled promptly and with good material, and she has just cause for pride in the conduct of her heroic citizens. For details regarding the part the township took in the Civil war, as well as the participation of other townships in the county, reference is made to the military chapter. FAWN RIVER TOWNSHIP-JUDGE STURGIS. Fawn River township did not attain its present area until it was organized from the old township of Sherman in 1838, Burr Oak being set apart in the same year. Judge John Sturgis was the first settler within its limits as they are recognized today. In August, 1828, he reached the prairie which bears his name, in company with a young man named George Thurston. Together they broke ten acres on the southwest quarter of section 6, which is now east of the line between Fawn River and Sturgis townships, and on the eastern edge of the prairie. After sowing the land to wheat, they returned to Brownsville, on the Detroit river, for the winter. In the following spring, the judge brought his family with him, built on his tract the first house erected on Sturgis prairie, broke up another thirty acres, and on October 22, 1828, appeared at the land-office at Monroe to enter his claim in legal form. This was a year before the organization of St. Joseph county, when the country south of the Grand river, and west of the principal meridian (which was the western boundary of the present Lenawee

Page  187 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 187 county extended north to Sault Ste. Marie), was all the township of St. Joseph. OTHER EARLY LOCATIONS. On December 18th of the same year, Alanson C. Stewart, of Westmoreland county, Pennsylvania, entered one hundred and sixty acres in the section south of the Sturgis tract. These were the only entries made in 1828, and were the first in the township. In 1829 Judge Sturgis sold his interest in his property to Richard Hopkins and moved to Nottawa prairie. Thomas Hall, Lemuel Graham and Samuel Stewart came in 1829. Mr. Hall lived on the Hopkins place until he secured a location for himself; Samuel Stewart settled on the land entered by Alanson C. Stewart, and Mr. Graham entered a tract afterward included in the well known farm of Sheldon Williams. George Thurston, who came with Judge StArgis, located a quarter adjoining the original Sturgis land, in 1833, and occupied it as a homestead for over half a century. From 1833 to 1836 came Captain Charles Moe, a soldier of the war of 1812; Joseph Bartholomew, who built the first house on the river; Ebenezer Sweet, who erected the first tavern; F. A. Tisdel, who laid out the little village, of Freedom; Moses Roberts, William Amidon and James McKerlie; and Captain Philip R. Toll, who built the saw- and flouring-mills at Fawn River village, and brought his family to reside there in 1838. Later came W. F. Lee, who bought the lower mill, and Francis Flanders, who located about 1840, and was in after years (sixteen) the most popular justice of peace in the township. Jacob Knox located in 1830, as did James Johnson. FIRST POSTMASTERS. Samuel Stewart was the first postmaster of Fawn River township, the postoffice being located in his cabin in 1829. He had a contract for carrying the mails between Niles and Detroit, and was also carrying passengers in his "democrat wagon" before the stages commenced to run on the Chicago road. Isaac D. Toll was appointed postmaster of the office established at Fawn River Mills in 1844. The first white child born in St. Joseph county was David Sturgis, son of Judge John Sturgis, who was born February 11, 1830, in the log cabin on the southwest quarter of section 6.

Page  188 188 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The first marriage in the township was that of John W. Fletcher and Sarah Knox, daughter of Jacob Knox, the ceremony being performed by Samuel Stewart, justice of the peace, on the 18th of September, 1831. This was also the first marriage in the county of actual residents. The first tavern in Fawn River township (which corresponded to Avery's "Old Diggins" at White Pigeon) was built by Ebenezer Sweet, in 1835, and was situated on the south bank of the lake to which the landlord gave his name. It was on the Chicago road, and a favorite social, as well as official resort. Viewed in its latter capacity, it accommodated many justices' courts and town meetings both before and after 1840. The first school in Fawn River township was taught by Jane Moe, daughter of Captain Moe, who afterward married James Johnson. In 1836 the first school house was erected at Freedom, in what is now District No. 1; the second, a frame building, completed in 1839, at Fawn River village (District No. 3). RISE OF MANUFACTURES. The first manufacturing done in the town was the burning of lime by James Johnson, in 1835. There is a small lake in the southeast quarter of section 8, rich in the marl beds for which the county is somewhat famous, and it was on its eastern banks that Mr. Johnson built his kiln. His process was to cut the excavated marl into oblongs, brick-shape, sun-dry them and then place them in his lime kiln for the burning. For many yearsalmost until the advent of railroads-he enjoyed a flourishing business in this line. Thomas Cade had a brewery on Cade's lake, in 1836, the old malt house standing on the shores of Sweet's lake. The brewery afterward became a distillery. In 1840 a Mr. Freeman built a small flour mill and distillery on Fawn river, in section 16, east of Williams lake, and afterward sold it to the Lee brothers. PIONEER ELECTION AND ROADS. The township of Fawn River was organized in 1838, and in pursuance of legislative enactment, the first meeting was held at the tavern of F. A. Tisdel, at Freedom, on April 2nd. Edward

Page  189 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 189 Swan was the judge and Benjamin D. Goodrich, the clerk. At this meeting the following officials were chosen to put the township government in operation: Edward Swan, John P. Van Patten, James M\cKerlie and Freeman A. Tisdel, justices of the peace; James McKerlie, supervisor; Isaac Sweet, clerk; Nicholas Goodrich, W. W. Plumb and Horace W. Fields, constables; Jonas Waters, John O. Swan and George McKerlie, assessors; Horace W. Fields, collector; Charles Moe, Jonas Waters and John P. Van Patten, commissioners of highways; F. A. Tisdel, Isaiah Sweet and Jonas Waters, school inspectors; Charles Moe and Att Wood, overseers of the poor; Ebenezer Sweet and Isaac Culver, fence-viewers, and John O. Swan, Archer Matthews and John Houstin, overseers of highways. The first roads laid out by the town authorities were as follows: On March 23, 1839, the commissioners of Fawn River and Bronson (Branch county) jointly laid out the first one on the county line, running north half a mile from the southeast corner of section 1. The second, laid out by the commissioners of Fawn River alone, on March 26th, commenced at the northwest corner of the southwest corner of section 8, and ran eastwardly and northwardly through sections 8 and 4 to intersect the Chicago road. They also laid out a third, on the same day, commencing at the southwest corner of section 33, Burr Oak, and running south to the center of section 4, thence west and south to the Chicago road. The fourth was laid out May 27th, commencing at the southeast corner of section 2 and running west two miles to intersect the road running north and south at the southeast corner of section 4, Sherman township. The road leading north from Fawn River Mills to the Chicago road, at Freedom, was laid out in 1839. PROPERTY AND POPULATION. In 1840 there were assessed in Fawn River township, eleven thousand eight hundred and seventy-seven acres of land, with improvements of $30,239. The best buildings were those of F. A. Tisdel, valued at $750; Isaac D. Toll's, at $500; L. L. Graham's, at $400, and Richard Hopkin's, at $200. The sixty-seven horses in the township were valued at $1,895; seventy-four oxen and steers, at $1,184; sixty-seven cows and heifers, at $522; twentynine carriages and wagons, at $703. The total valuation of personal property was $4,634; total assessment, $34,873, and taxes

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY for the year, $257.19. There were forty-seven resident tax payers in the town, and one distillery and two taverns were rated for special taxes. In the same year there were forty-six votes cast at the annual town meeting, indicating about two hundred and fifty inhabitants. EX-VILLAGE OF FREEDOM. Brief references have been made to Freedom, the village of great expectations, in the thirties and forties. It was located on the Chicago road, in section 3, about half a mile from the northern township line, and was the first village in St. Joseph county on that great overland highway of travel for southern Michigan, one hundred and thirty miles from the Detroit terminus. Freedom was platted by D. M. Cook, civil engineer, in September, 1836, and F. A. Tisdel, who was the proprietor of the site, built a large frame tavern about the same time which did much to make the place a convenient resort for travelers and give it standing as a town of great promise. The site of the village was on high, rolling land, sprinkled with burr oak, white oak and hickory groves, and its streets well carried out the idea of its projectors, which was to attach to it an air of nature, as well as of history and romance. According to the village plat, the chief thoroughfares of Freedom were Maple, Pine, Hickory, Chestnut, Pearl, Branch, Minerva, Van Buren, Jefferson and Madison. The first postoffice for the accommodation of Fawn River people was also located at Freedom soon after it was platted, and Mr. Tisdel, who "kept the office," handled the mails with increasing frequency, dependent on the improvement of stage service-first once a week, then twice, then three times, and finally six times each way between Detroit and Chicago. Postmaster Tisdel carried a stock of goods for a time, being succeeded, as a merchant, by Hewitt & Randall, and as a landlord by the Mr. Latta who fled the country, in 1857, to escape the penitentiary as a counterfeiter, thereby leaving his property to the county for a poor farm. Both under the Tisdel and the Latta administrations the tavern at Freedom was one of the most popular stopping places in the county, sharing the public favor in Fawn River township with Sweet's hotel further to the west on the southern shores of the lake.

Page  191 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 191 Early in the life of Freedom a school house was erected, which not only accommodated the scholars of the neighborhood, but was used for religious gatherings. Here preached Rev. Mr. Farley, a Christian minister, and Rev. J. H. Hard, a Baptist, although no church was ever organized within the village limits. WARFARE AND MURDER. It was at Freedom, in the triangle formed by the intersection of the highways, that, in March, 1847, the gallant Colonel I. D. Toll, of Fawn River village (afterward one of the most prominent citizens of the county), drilled his recruits for the Mexican war. A locality near Freedom was also the scene of the murder of Constable Fanning in November, 1840, by a Mississippi desperado, who was being pursued by an Indiana sheriff for horse-thieving, and Latta's hotel was headquarters for the organized pursuit. The following account of the tragedy which caused so much stir in St. Joseph county is taken from a La Grange paper: "Last Saturday a horse-thief, with two valuable bay horses, having stopped at Latta's hotel on the Chicago turnpike in Fawn River, killed Gamaliel Fanning, a constable, who, with three others, was attempting to arrest him. Half an hour afterward he was captured in the woods, half a mile north of the tavern, through the intrepidity of Colonel J. D. Toll, who was a mile distant when Fanning was killed, and Sheriff Knox has him in jail. Toll has the knife now (an ugly looking weapon) with which the bloody deed was done. The murderer proved to be a Mississippi desperado named Ward, who was convicted and sentenced to the state penitentiary at Jackson, and died there six years afterward. His body was nearly covered with scars, from knife wounds principally. Had the sheriff, who pursued the thief from Indiana, been possessed of the courage of a man fit for the position, the murderer would have been arrested without harm to anyone; but he had not, and the pursuit being organized from the hotel in three parties (Fanning's being the largest), he came up unsupported, closed in upon the thief, and lost his life by several desperate thrusts of the knife." With the greater growth of Sherman, Ivanhoe and Sturgis (all one), the village of Freedom declined into virtual nothingness, the building of the Michigan Southern in 1851 giving the place its quietus; for the railroad passed several miles north of

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Freedom, and accommodated Ivanhoe (or Sturgis, as it was christened), in 1857. CAPTAIN TOLL AND FAWN RIVER VILLAGE. Captain Philip R. Toll, father of Colonel I. D., whose coming to Fawn River township has already been noted, in 1836 built a house on the north side of the river, in which he first boarded the workmen who were constructing his dam, race, saw-mill and flour mill. The captain was what would be called a "hustler." even in these days, for he completed his industrial plant in 1836-7, and in April of the latter year laid out the village plat of Fawn River, on the south side of that stream, in portions of sections 10 and 15. There were six full and two fractional blocks included in the original plat of the village, which was not acknowledged or recorded until May 1, 1852. Soon after he commenced to build his flour mill, in 1837, Captain Toll erected and equipped a blacksmith shop, which he operated for a time as a private aid to building operations. The first regular smith who worked in it was George G. Gilbert, of Burr Oak, who also ran a shop on his farm in that township. Captain Toll also had a cooper shop, and, in the early years of Fawn River village was its most prominent citizen. This statement applies in more ways than in a business and worldly sense; for his house was always the home of the clergymen who came that way to preach in the school houses at Fawn River and Freedom: Rev. Gershom B. Day, the Baptist divine, Rev. John Skelly, the Presbyterian, and others. Though Captain Toll's wife was a member of the Dutch Reform church, he was liberal toward all religious denominations, and was so desirous that there should be preaching of some kind in the new community, that he is said to have paid the expenses of the first minister out of his own pocket. John P. Van Patten and William Schermerhorn were the first carpenters employed by Captain Toll, and they were the first to build a house on the village site, occupying it themselves as pioneer residents. The school district, which included the village in its boundaries, was first organized as No. 7, of Sherman township, June 7, 1837. At the meeting, which was held on that day at Captain Toll's house, Benjamin D. Goodrich was chosen moderator. John

Page  193 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 193 P. Van Patten director, and Nicholas Goodrich assessor. Captain Toll gave the site for a building at the southwest end of the village, and in May, 1839, the school authorities accepted it from Carpenter Van Patten, provided he would lath the same. They retained ten dollars from the contract price ($400) to secure such provision. Without attempting to decide the merits of the complication, it is sufficient to state that Mr. Van Patten was released from his contract and the school was finished by someone else. Another hundred dollars were spent on it for paint and a stove, and in the early portion of 1840 it was opened under the rule and rod wielded by Miss Harriet Starr. No lawyer ever settled within the precincts of Fawn River village, and few doctors. In 1838 Captain Toll laid off a cemetery of three acres, a beautiful tract of oak land, sloping toward Fawn river and adjoining the school house site. The first burial, in August, 1839, was the body of Mrs. Amos Wright, her husband being the millwright of Fawn River mills. At the north end of the cemetery is the space devoted to those who have died as the indigent poor of the county, but whose graves are neatly marked through the kindliness of the able son of the village founder. FAWN RIVER MILLS. Fawn River faded from the county map as a "promising village" under the same blight which fell upon Freedom, when it lost all hopes of railroad communication in 1851. The mills of Captain Toll, however, long remained to do good work for the settlers, and mark the industrial center of the village. The sawmill first fell into ruins. The flour mill, after a busy life of nearly forty years, was burned January 1, 1873, and rebuilt by Daniel Himebaugh & Sons in 1874. They conducted it for some years afterward. Francis Flanders rented the saw-mill of Captain Toll in the winter of 1841-2, and out of the lumber and timber made that season the old fulling mill and carding factory was built the following summer. A new woolen mill was built in 1851, also by Mr. Flanders, and this concern turned out all kinds of woolen goods except broadcloths. It was in operation for many years, and materially helped to fix the name Fawn River Mills upon the locality. When Captain Toll moved to Monroe, in 1852, besides his large milling interests he held about thirteen hundred acres of Vol. 1-13

Page  194 194 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY land, all in a body, adjoining his mills and much of it improved. He was also the owner of large tracts in other parts of the state. He built a fine residence and laid out elegant grounds in Monroe, Michigan, where he died August 17, 1862. FRANCIS FLANDERS, FATHER AND SON. Francis Flanders was a son of the Green Mountain state, a soldier of the war of 1812, and a New Hampshire woolen manufacturer before he moved to Canandaigua, New York. He did not settle in Fawn River until October, 1841, but lost no time in establishing his carding and dressing factory, which developed into a regular woolen mill, conducted for years by Flanders & Sons. As stated, he was the prime justice of the peace of the township, both in point of business and popularity. One of his sons was Francis Flanders, Jr., who started life as a school teacher and a medical student, but found professional work so distasteful that he finally managed to serve in the Florida (Seminole war), as a regular soldier of the United States army, and throughout the Mexican war, as chief musician of a regiment. This gave him the title of major, by which he was generally known, and for more than a quarter of a century after the Mexican war he was an adventurer in California, Mexico and other sections of the southwestern country. He returned to Sturgis in 1876, where he died. TINY TOWNSHIP. Fawn river (known in early days as Crooked creek) drains the southern sections of the township, entering from Branch county in sections 12 and 13, and, making a bold bend westward and southwestward, makes its exit, via section 19, into Indiana. A connected chain of small lakes-Williams, Cade and Sweetstretches in a generally northward direction to the center of the line between Fawn River and Burr Oak townships, draining a large area of the central sections of the town. They are all named after old settlers. The area of Fawn River township is about twenty-one square miles, being little more than half a government township. Its "tiny" size, combined with a specially delicate beauty of landscape, made the name proposed for it peculiarly appropriate, to

Page  195 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 195 the minds of the state legislators who first assigned its bounds at the session of 1838. The surface of the township is diversified by hill and dale and gently rising slopes, dotted all over with comfortable farm houses and barns, fields, orchards and meadows. With the exception of a portion of the northwestern sections, which include the eastern end of Sturgis prairie, the land was originally covered with timber-the usual oak openings, which were so great an inducement to many of the early comers to the region. STURGIS, LAST TOWNSHIP. Sturgis did not "break away" from old Sherman township until 1845, when it was the last of the sixteen townships of the county to become organized civilly and to acquire its present area of 13,397 acres, or a little more than half a government township. Within these limits, George Buck was the first to locate permanently. FIRST SETTLER. Mr. Buck was a New Yorker, who had lived in Canada for years before he came to Michigan. In the summer of 1828 he brought his family to the site of the present village of Sturgis, by way of Detroit and Brownsville, making the journey from the latter point by ox-team. While he was building his log hut north of the Chicago road, on what would now be the east side of Nottawa street, the family lived in a tent in the woods along Hog creek. The next settlers also came in 1828, before either Sherman township or St. Joseph county was organized, and when their land was included in old St. Joseph township. These pioneers-John B. Clark, Truman Bearss and Jacob Hopkins-also indicated their determination to keep out of the undesirable class of "floaters" by bringing their families with them. SETTLED ON SITE OF STURGIS. The first entries of land in the township were made in 1828. On the 14th of June, Ezekiel Metcalf, of Cattaraugus county, New York, entered the east half of the northwest quarter of section 1, township 8 south, range 10 west, and on the 28th of November George Buck entered his land, which was west half of the southeast quarter of the same section. Ruth A. Clark entered the southeast

Page  196 196 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY quarter of the southwest quarter, and Hart L. Stewart, the west half of the same quarter, on the 18th of December. The Buck, Stewart and Clark entries formed portions of the site of the village of Sturgis, which was originally platted in 1832. In 1829 David Petty, the Stewarts and Ephraim Bearss settled on Sturgis prairie; in 1830, Oliver Raymond, Major Isaac J. U1 -mann and Rev. J. E. Parker and his father John (with family). SAD COMING OF A PIONEER. John Parker came to Sturgis prairie in deep grief, three of his children having been killed in a steamboat accident before he reached Detroit. Upon arriving at his destination, the bereaved family was admitted into the house of Ephraim Bearss, who, with his own wife and children, cheerfully shared the one-room hut with the new comers. Mr. Parker was a Pennsylvanian, but in 1825 moved with his wife and family of small children to Livingston county, New York. They lived there for about five years and in the spring of 1830 took steamer at Buffalo for Sturgis prairie, southern Michigan. When their boat (the "Peacock") was about three miles out, one of its steampipes burst and fifteen of the passengers were terribly scalded-fourteen fatally. Among the latter were John Parker's children, Margaret, Lovina and Samuel. This catastrophe cast a deep gloom over the family, the casualty being regarded as an ill omen fraught with misfortune; but, as the future of the family proved, such apprehensions were groundless. Mr. Parker was the pioneer of quite a delegation, which, during the early thirties migrated from Livingston county, New York; its members included, Jacob Pearsoll, Hiram Jacobs, Nathaniel Rathbun, Aaron Gilham; Parker, Washington and Edward Osborn; Phillip Aurer, Michael Welliver, the Newhalls and Ransom and Henry Mumford. The first farms in the township were begun by George Buck and Ephraim Bearss, who in 1829 broke up and fenced a tract of seventy-five acres in the eastern part of the town. John S. Newhall was also one of the leading farmers of this early day, his four yoke of oxen, with his wooden mould board four feet long, being in constant use. George Buck's log cabin, north of the Chicago road, was the first house erected in Sturgis township. In the spring of 1830 his

Page  197 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 197 son, Phillip H., improved upon the father's work by erecting a house double the capacity of the first and equipping it with windows. The younger man platted the original village in 1832, and the upper part of his house was used for some years for religious and school purposes. GEORGE BUCK'S DEATH. The first death in Sturgis township, was that of the pioneer, George Buck. On the 9th of August, 1829, about a year after locating, he was digging a well, in company with Levi Watermann, and both were killed by a sudden caving-in of the sides. The alarm was quickly given, but the would-be rescuers, including men from White Pigeon, reached the bodies too late. FIRST HOTELS AND LANDLORDS. John B. Clark built the third house on Sturgis prairie, and a daughter, born in it during May, 1830, was the first native child of the township. His house was also thrown open as a hotel-the first in the locality; but his business was crippled when Oliver Raymond erected the first frame house, in 1831, and also threw it open as a place of public entertainment. Mr. Clark was succeeded as landlord by Major Isaac J. Ullmann, a fiery Democrat and a typical German, who left the village in the fall of 1833. Luther Douglass took the hotel in the winter of 1833, but left it largely to his capable wife and children. He was himself drowned in a snow-storm in Lake Erie, May 14, 1833. In 1835 a Mr. Backus succeeded the Douglasses, the Douglass family moving to their farm in White Pigeon township. The mother of the family left behind her a reputation other than that of a capable and popular landlady, her ministrations to the sick and suffering in "mind, body or estate" gaining her widespread affection and love. PURELY PIONEER ITEMS. In the fall of 1830 the first school in Sturgis township was established in the upper room of Phillip Buck's house, Dr. Henry, the first physician, acting as its first teacher. In 1833, the first school house built by the township was erected south of the

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Chicago road (then, in the village, known as Chicago street). The log house was replaced by a frame building, in 1838, both located in District No. 3, as now organized. The first cemetery in the township was laid out soon after the platting of the village, being in the rear of the old Lutheran church and west of the railroad. The ground was given to the town by Hiram Jacobs, and the first burial in it was that of a stranger who died suddenly in the summer of 1833. The first religious services were held in the "upper chamber" of the house built by Phillip Buck in 1830, and the first preacher to visit this part of Sturgis prairie was Rev. Erastus Felton, a Methodist missionary from Ohio. A regular church society was not established in Sturgis prairie until 1832, when Rev. Mr. Robinson, of the Indiana conference, organized a class composed of one man, David Knox, and seven women, including Mrs. David Knox, Mrs. Rachel Knox (David's mother), Mrs. Betsey Buck (widow of George), Harriet Brooks and Mrs. Thomas Cade. The territorial road, which was surveyed and laid out in 1833, passed through Sturgis township toward Grand Rapids, and in 1834 the old Chicago road was made a real highway in the township through the work of Contractor James Johnson. Mr. Johnson afterward became a leading business man of the village and city. Oliver Raymond was the first postmaster in the village and township of Sturgis and was appointed about the time the former was platted in 1832. He kept the mail of the entire settlement in one pigeon hole holding one candle box. Sturgis was on the route from White Pigeon to Cold Water, and the mails increased in frequency from an irregular weekly mail to a regular daily one. A number of the leading farmers of the very early times continued to live in the township and prosper for many years. Judge John Sturgis owned at the time of his death, which occurred in 1874, some 1,400 acres lying in a body in Sturgis and Sherman. His sons, Amos, Thomas and David, succeeded to the greater portion of the estate. The widow survived her husband for several years and died on the old homestead. For half a century David Knox, who located in 1832, was a leading farmer of the township, as well as John S. Newhall, who came during the same year.

Page  199 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 199 Hiram Jacobs, Rice Pearsoll, John Lanrick and Isaac Runyan were also settlers of the thirties who built their characters and fortunes by forty or fifty years of farming in Sturgis township. NOTTAWA TOWNSHIP AND " SEEPE. " The most striking natural features of St. Joseph county are the valleys of the St. Joseph and White Pigeon, and White Pigeon of Nottawa prairie. The prairies lay on either side of these beautiful streams, occupying a broad expanse and stretching diagonally through the county from southwest to northeast, or vice versa. About the center, or say at Centerville, they merged, Nottawa prairie including substantially the townships of Nottawa, Mendon, Leonidas and Colon. Nottawa-seepe, "a prairie by the river," so called by the Pottawatomies, is well named; it describes the general topography of the country, and the fanciful may hear in the "seepe" the rustle of the tall prairie grass as it is stirred by the fresh breezes of the St. Joseph valley. The prairie, in its prime, was of irregular shape, points of oak land jutting out into it, at places, and even meeting to form the "openings" for which the county is famous. Again, the forest would retreat on either side and the waving grass would sweep away in unchecked billowy waves miles in extent. Such was the picture drawn by nature and presented to the admiring eyes of John W. Fletcher, Captain Moses Allen and George Hubbard, who, in 1826, followed the old Indian trail into southwestern Michigan and the preliminary survey of the government engineers for the "military road' between Detroit and Chicago. JUDGE CONNOR, FIRST SETTLER. Judge William Connor, for more than half a century an honored resident of the township, came to the prairie as a young man, in May, 1829, and despite the objections of the Indians who claimed that he was encroaching on their reservation, located his claim on the west half of the northwest quarter of section 15, north of Prairie river. The judge returned to Monroe and entered his land, but decided to wait until the next year before he settled permanently upon it. He therefore remained in Ypsilanti for several months teaching school, and did not re

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY appear as a permanent settler of Nottawa prairie until September 1, 1829. JUDGE STURGIS COMES. A few days before his arrival, Judge John Sturgis had come from Sturgis prairie and ventured still nearer the southern line of the Nottawa-seepe reservation by fixing his location on the northeast quarter of section 4, the northern boundary of his land being the township line as now established. The Indians protested louder than ever, insisting that what he and Judge Connor assumed were the southern bounds of their reservation ran, in reality, through its center. But the Nottawa-seepe Indians had a friend at Lima (Mon-go-qui-nong prairie) in whom they had unshaken confidence, and they agreed to abide by his decision in the matter. Their head men repaired at once to the referee, who showed them that, by the terms of the government treaty, the southern line of the reservation had been correctly surveyed; so, although there were frequent mutterings afterward, the white settlers of Nottawa prairie were not disturbed by the Nottawa-seepe Indians; and in 1833 the red men relinquished all. Judge Sturgis entered his land in June, 1829, as did Henry Powers the west half of the southeast quarter of section 10 and the west half of the northeast quarter of section 15, and Henry Post, the west half of the southwest quarter of section 10. Section 10 was north of section 15, near the Prairie river. A LAND-OFFICE BUSINESS. On August 28, 1829, John W. Fletcher, one of the trio who first viewed the prairie in 1826, entered the land which had then so taken his fancy-the west half of the northeast quarter and the west half of the southeast quarter of section 17, which also abutted on Prairie river. On October 10th, William Hazzard entered the other half of the same quarter sections, and the landoffice business of the year 1829 was closed on December 15th by the entry of Russell Post of the east half of the southwest quarter and the east half of the northwest quarter of section 10. Judge Sturgis finished his cabin first, and it stood for over fifty years on its originial site in section 4; Connor's log house on Spring creek, or Prairie river, was ready for occupancy soon after, and Mr. Connor's cabin had a hole cut in it, but it is said

Page  201 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 201 he took his time to provide it with a door. Mr. Fletcher also finished his before Christmas of 1829. COMING OF THE FLETCHERS. In October, after having entered his land at Monroe, Mr. Fletcher returned to his location on section 17 to cut and stack a crop of marsh hay. He then returned to his home in Wayne county and proceeded to move his father's family (he was unmarried) to the new home on the banks of the beautiful Prairie river. The Fletcher household consisted of the young man, his parents and two sisters, who, with all the family goods, were loaded upon a big wagon drawn by oxen. Accompanying them to Nottawa prairie were William Hazzard and family and Hiram A. Hecox and family, with all their cattle and hogs. The weather was cold and for eighteen days the brave pioneers forded icy streams, lumbered over rough roads and the men and boys of the party drove the livestock and had to keep a wary eye upon this valuable item of their outfit. On the evening of Christmas Mr. Fletcher's rough looking, but welcome log cabin, came into view, which completed the hardest chapter in the history of the Fletchers. Henry Powers built a cabin on his claim in section 15, during the following winter, and Amos Howe also brought his family to the prairie in 1830. JOHN W. FLETCHER. In the year 1829, away out in the wilderness, could have been seen a few sturdy young men engaged in cutting logs and building a house on the spot afterward occupied by the Fletcher family, of Nottawa township. Three years before, John W. Fletcher, in company with Captain Allen and George Hubbard, had made a trip through the wilderness as far as the present town of Niles, and again in 1829, in company with his brother, he made another trip into the wilds of southern Michigan-this time in quest of a desirable location for a home for himself and his father's family. He selected a quarter section of government land near the present county seat, on which he resided until his death. After entering his land at Monroe, Mr. Fletcher returned to the home of the family at Flat Rock, Wayne county, near Detroit,

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and procuring a yoke of oxen, wagon, tools and provisions, returned to his recent purchase, following the Indian trail all the way. After building a log-house and cutting a stack of hay, he returned, with his oxen and wagon, to bring the family to their new home. A number of families came in company with them, thus forming the nucleus of quite a settlement. As stated, the little colony was eighteen days on their tedious journey. The Fletcher family all lived together for the first few years, and the parents continued to live with John W. until the day of their death-Mr. Fletcher, the elder, dying in 1832, and his widow in 1860. On the 18th of September, 1831, John W. Fletcher and Miss Sarah Knox, the daughter of a settler on Sturgis prairie, were united in marriage, and it is conceded that this was the first marriage of a couple who became permanent residents of the county. The products of the farm for the first few years were floated down the St. Joseph river in the arks to its mouth in Lake Michigan, and there found a market, and in after years Hillsdale and Kalamazoo became their market towns. Mr. Fletcher came of the good old Revolutionary stock, being the son of William Fletcher, who fought as a soldier all through the struggle for independence. He was born at Otsego, New York, in the year 1806, and was one of a family of six children. When he was ten years old his father emigrated to Ohio, where they remained until 1824, when they made Michigan their home, settling on the Huron river, near Detroit, whence, as has been mentioned, they made a permanent settlement in St. Joseph. Mr. Fletcher became the father of ten children. He was an Episcopalian and a Democrat, and is also remembered by early settlers as President of the Pioneers' Society, in which he took a deep interest. DR. MCMILAN AND OTHERS. Among the other early settlers were Dr. A. McMillan and his family, who came late in the year 1829 and lived the following winter in wagons. The good doctor, unlike most of the rough and ready pioneers of the prairie, was one of the most precise characters who ever settled in the locality. He also had a most mechanical eye; the evident result was that it took him about a dozen times as long to complete his house as it did his neighbors. About the same time that Dr. McMillan came, the colony of Nottawa prairie was increased by the addition of Russell and

Page  203 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 203 Henry Post, John and Samuel Cuddy, Samuel McKee and James and Adney Hecox. Most of them were New Englanders who had come west and settled some years before at and near Smooth Rock, Michigan, which was Judge Connor's former school district. In the spring or early part of 1830 the new comers included: Benjamin Sherman, Jonathan Engle, Sr., and Jr., George W. Dille, John Foreman, Glover L. Gardner, Hiram Gates and Henry Powers. INTRODUCTION OF FRUITS. Nottawa was an exception to every other township in the county, its first settlers coming in colonies, rather than singly. Mr. Fletcher, the advance guard from Wayne county, appears also to have been the Moses of the prairie in leading the pioneers toward the promised land of horticultural and agricultural prosperity. In the fall of 1829 he brought thirteen hundred small apple trees, as well as currant and grape cuttings, from Wayne county, preserved them during the winter in a buried beehive, and in the following spring transplanted them into a nursery. About this time, Benjamin Sherman introduced larger apple trees from his old Ohio home, which bore the first fruit on the prairie, and in the same year (1830) Judge Connor and H. A. Hecox also planted orchards. WENT FOR SEED POTATOES AND OATS. In the spring of 1830, Mr. Fletcher saw the need of the prairie settlers for seed potatoes and oats-potatoes for man and oats for beasts. Through John Allen, who was in his employ, he learned that they could be obtained at Allen's prairie, Hillsdale county. The trip thither was accomplished overland, but in their return journey of ten days they proved to be the first white men, so far as known, to navigate the upper St. Joseph. After Messrs. Fletcher and Allen had purchased ten bushels of seed potatoes and fifteen bushels of oats, they built two white wood canoes, loaded them with their purchase, and floated down Sand creek to the St. Joseph river. This part of their journey was very difficult by reason of shallows, ripples, dams of floatwood, and snags, until past the entrance of the Coldwater, after which the stream was clear and the water high. They slid their

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY boats over the dams on peeled basswood skids, cut off snags with axe and saw and lightened over sandbars and shallows. As the motion of the boat disturbed their aim, they missed the game at which they shot, and were therefore obliged to live on baked potatoes and wild honey, finding the latter in a tree along the river bank. Potatoes, oats and corn were all grown and harvested in Nottawa township in 1830, wheat being sown in the fall of that year and harvested in 1831. At that time Judge Connor had the largest area under cultivation of anyone on the prairie. FIRST THEFT. The first theft committed in the settlement was at the expense of the judge. In 1830, when he was about to enter his second lot of land at Monroe, it was generally known that his purchase money had been sent from the east. The day before he was to start he left his cabin alone for several hours, and when he returned he found that his trunk had been broken open and twenty dollars, all his ready money, taken. Fortunately, this was not his land money, which had been sent to Ypsilanti; but it was every cent he had, and its loss represented an appalling theft for those days. His good friend, John W. Fletcher, helped him out of his dilemma, as he was going to Monroe himself. The judge's nearest neighbor was Lane, half a mile away; and after the burglary Lane's character turned from "shady'" to dense black. Nottawa township was originally included in the township of Sherman, whose organization, October 29, 1829, was coincident with that of St. Joseph county. It was first set off into a separate township July 28, 1830, and included the present township of Colon, which was detached from it in 1833. NEW TOWNSHIP ORGANIZED. The first movement for a new township was made in June, 1830, when all the adult male settlers of the prairie met at Judge Connor's cabin and petitioned the legislature to erect a new body politic and call it Nottawa, recommending Amos Howe to Governor Cass as a proper person to be appointed as justice of the peace. Through Judge Connor and Asahel Savery, a special committee, the needed legislation was effected in the following session of the legis

Page  205 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 205 lature, and the first town meeting was held April 4, 1831. It was organized by Justice of the Peace Howe, and Benjamin Sherman was chosen moderator and William Connor, clerk. The balloting for town officers resulted as follows: William Connor, supervisor; William Fletcher, clerk; Benjamin Sherman, George W. Dille and William Hazzard, assessors; Henry Powers, J. W. Fletcher and William Connor, commissioners of highways; Hiram A. Hecox, constable and collector; Russell Post, Amos Howe, J. W. Fletcher, William Connor and Samuel McKee, directors of the poor; William Fletcher, treasurer; William Connor, Henry Powers, Benjamin Newman, William Fletcher, Amos Howe and Alex McMillan, school commissioners and inspectors; Russell Post, pathmaster; Russell Post, William Hazzard and John Foreman, fence-viewers; William Hazzard, pound-master, and Jonathan Engle, overseer of highways. CENTERVILLE PLATTED. The next important happening for the township of Nottawa was the platting of Centerville on the east half of the northeast quarter of section 25 and the east half of the southeast quarter of section 24. The plat was recorded by the proprietors, Robert Clark, Jr. (government surveyor), Electra W. Deane, Daniel B. Miller and Charles Noble, on the 7th of November, 1831, and on the 22d of the month the governor issued his proclamation establishing it as the county seat. In consideration of this location, the proprietors donated to the county for the erection of its buildings fifty-six lots and the public square-the court house, when built, to be on the latter. LANCASTER AND LANGLEY. It appears that Columbia Lancaster assisted in some way in the laying out of the town, as he received a lot just north of the public square for "services rendered." Upon this he built a hut of rough oak logs, without doors, windows or floor-simply a crude shelter for him while out on his frequent hunting expeditions. It has, however, a place in this history as the first house which appeared upon the site of Centerville. Lancaster, who was a man of some education, saw nothing then to bind him to the county seat, and during the following spring engaged in teaching at White Pigeon. There, in June, 1832, he met Thomas W. Langley, a Philadelphia manufacturer who was health-seeking and sight-seeing in the west.

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Langley had joined a party from Detroit, who were prospecting through southern Michigan, and hearing of the location of the county seat at Centerville made inquiries about its location of Lancaster. The latter agreed to pilot him to it, at the end of his school week. The Philadelphia man viewed the site of Centerville, return to White Pigeon, thought he would look it over again, reexamined the budding county seat and finally thought so well of its prospects that he went to Monroe and bought not only the interests of Clark and Deane, but the location of H. W. Foster, who was putting up a saw-mill half a mile east. Mr. Langley's entire purchase covered three-fourths of section 30. CENTERVILLE FOUNDED. Making arrangements for the continuance of the mill work, Mr. Langley returned to Philadelphia for his family, consisting of his wife, five sons, a daughter, a nephew and two colored servantsthe last named being the pioneers of their race in St. Joseph county. Buying a stock of general goods in New York, Mr. Langley shipped them ahead of the family to the mouth of the St. Joseph. From Troy, New York, to Buffalo, he brought his household, his household goods and a set of mill irons; the entire outfit being transported from the latter point to Detroit by steamer. The mill irons, the nephew and the colored servants were thence sent to Centerville direct, Mr. Langley and the rest of the family coming through to White Pigeon in one of Forsyth's coaches chartered expressly for the purpose. The roads had to be cleared in many places, the limbs of trees cut off and Hog creek made fordable, to let the coach through the woods and marshes to White Pigeon, where it arrived September 25, 1832. The party reached Centerville, October 3rd, and proceeded to find the Lancaster cabin in the tall prairie grass. Having been located, the ladies were told to make themselves at home, and the men and boys mowed down the grass and camped for the time being under the oaks. The next day's business began in earnest in this village of a single household; a door was hung in the cabin and frame buildings begun for a court-house and a blacksmith shop. On the 4th of October a double log house, with seven rooms, was begun, and finished on the 13th. The blacksmith shop was completed with even more remarkable celerity. On Tuesday morning its building material

Page  207 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 207 was in the trees of the neighboring woods, and by Thursday night the shop had been shingled and a horse stood shod before its forge. Thus Centerville came into being, its standing and growth as the county seat-the seat of justice of St. Joseph county-being set forth in detail in the chapters on '"Civil Organization" and " Bench and Bar." TOWNSHIP OF COLON. Colon township acquired its present territory by various exchanges with Nottawa and Leonidas. In 1830 it was constituted as the eastern half of Nottawa township; in 1833 it was detached and consolidated with Leonidas into a separate township, and in 1836 obtained its freedom and its present territory. Colon township is a full government township of thirty-six square miles, and takes its name from the town between Sturgeon and Palmer's lakes. Here the surface is somewhat broken, although generally so level that a hill which rises one hundred and twenty feet is not infrequently called Colon "mountain." The land was originally of the oak openings, which comprise the main feature of Burr Oak to the south, but Nottawa prairie abuts into its northeastern portion, in section 1, and there is also a small prairie on section 4. Within the limits of Colon are one thousand five hundred and seventy-five acres of water surface, so that it is one of the townships which was a most copious drainage. Its main channel of drainage is through Swan creek, which comes from the south, takes a bold northwestern sweep through the northeastern corner of Burr Oak township, and enters Colon through section 33. Thence its direction is generally northeast, through Long and Palmer's lakes, and it enters Sturgeon lake near the south line of section 2, a short distance below the entrance of the St. Joseph river. The main stream flows through Sturgeon lake from the east, diagonally across the northeast corner of the township, and makes its exit in the northeastern quarter of section 3. Palmer lake, so named from the pioneer who settled on its banks, and Sturgeon lake, from the fish which formerly so abounded in its waters, are the largest bodies of water in the township, having an area of about four hundred acres each. Beaver lake, which had a large beaver dam when it first became known to pioneers, lies on section 28 and contains one hundred and sixty acres. Lepley's lake, forty acres, is in the southeast corner of section 27.

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The ancient mounds and fortifications which are numerously scattered throughout Colon township are fully described in the general history. THE SCHELLHOUS BROTHERS. The first things and the pioneer happenings pertaining to the history of Colon township are largely connected with the various Schellhous families. Roswell, the first of the colony, came from Ohio in 1829 and located on section 6 which is in the extreme northwestern corner of the township. He built a log house of two rooms, which he kept as a hotel, mainly for the 1 f - D0 - D IfA — 00D, I Ja AN END OF STURGEON LAKE accommodation of prospectors. In 1838 Mr. Schellhous located near Nauvoo, Illinois, and afterward moved into Missouri where he is said to have spent quite an uncomfortable time on account of his anti-slavery sentiments, freely and boldly expressed. In 1830 Roswell's three brothers, Lorensie, George F. and Martin G., bought land in sections 6 and 3, the first named also purchasing mill privileges on Swan creek on the present site of the village. During the winter of 1830-1 Lorensie busied himself making mill-irons and breaking-plow irons. In April, 1831, the three brothers, with their families, and George Brooks and family -altogether thirty-one persons-commenced their journey for

Page  209 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 209 the northeastern corner of old Sherman township, and on the 16th of May arrived at their destination, the log hut which had been built by Roswell Schellhous. WORKS OF LORENSIE SCHELLHOUS. There the party stopped over night and the next day (Sunday) Lorensie Schellhous took up his journey to the southeast, and coming to his mill-site on Swan creek, cut some poles along the marsh which he made into a tent-like frame and covered it with bark. He slept in the shack that night, preferring it to the crowded cabin of his brother. Monday he commenced the erection of a log cabin, which was ready for occupancy by the next Saturday night, its door being made of one of his wagon boxes. His family were all installed in their new house within a week from the time of their arrival, and his two wagons, five yoke of oxen, three cows, nine hogs, a sow and eight shoats, were also under his protecting care. The next week Mr. Schellhous made a breaking plow, selecting a winding tree for the mould-board. He then broke up a garden at his own house and six acres on the prairie homestead of his brother, Roswell. In the latter he planted corn, and from this first garden and first farm in Colon township were harvested in a few months good crops of corn, vegetables and melons. Mr. Schellhous's livestock also throve, his hogs fattening finely on the mast that had lain on the ground through the previous winter. Further, Lorensie built his saw-mill and commenced to operate it in 1832, bringing his lumber from Bronson, Branch county. After the mill had sawed about twelve hundred feet of lumber, the water undermined the dam, which went out twice that year. Then Lorensie sold his location to his brother, Martin G., in order to raise funds to rebuild his dam, and so well did he perform the work finally that the foundation remained for more than half a century. It was during this same year (1832) that Cyrus Schellhous, the fifth brother, arrived. Lorensie was in partnership with his brother George, in the running of the mill until 1835, when he retired to his farmi built a blacksmith shop, in which he put a turning lathe and made chairs, spinning wheels, flax wheels and reels. By turning over the above facts, it is evident how nearly various members of the Schellhous families accomplished most Vol. 1-14

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of the first things in the township history; and to the above must be added that the first white child born in the township was a son of Roswell Schellhous, who came into this world in the summer of 1830, and that in the passing away of the little one, not long afterward, occurred the first death. The first school house was boilt in 1833, and Martin G. Schellhous was installed therein during the winter of 1833-4, as the first teacher. The pioneer school house was located on the Brooks farm, and the first religious meeting (a Methodist service) was held there in 1833. Elder Alford, a Baptist minister. officiated at the funerals. He came into the township in 1830 and had the reputation of being a very kind neighbor. COLON VILLAGE PLATTED. In 1832 George Schellhous and the Indian trader, Hatch, laid off the village plat of Colon, which is reported to have been named by Lorensie Schellhous, under the following circumstances: The proprietors were casting about for a name, and Lorensie opened a dictionary for inspiration. His eye fell upon the word "colon," and he turned to his brother and Mr. Hatch and said, "Call it Colon; for the lake and river form its lines." So it was named; and the name descended to the township. The village of Colon slept, however, for a number of years after it was platted; until the flour mill was built and other manufactories sprung up after 1840. Lorensie Schellhous was the first postmaster of the village of Colon, appointed in 1835. The mail, which was kept in his house, was distributed once a week, between Colon, and kent's, and Adams's mill, Branch county; when Mr. Schellhous was too busy he entrusted it to Henry Goodwin, an eight-year old. In 1837 Louis A. Leland carried the mail for two years, between the county seats of Branch and Berrien counties, on either side of St. Joseph county. He made three trips a week in a twohorse wagon from Centerville to Berrien, via Three Rivers, Cassopolis and Niles on horseback, there being nothing but a trail to follow between the latter points. After Lorensie Schellhous, the next settler on the site of Colon village was Charles Palmer, who came with his family in the fall of 1831, lived during that winter with Mr. Schellhous, and in

Page  211 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 211 the spring moved into his own cabin which he had built on the shore of the lake which bears his name. INDUSTRIES AND BUSINESS. In 1836 Dr. Isaac S. Voorhis came into the township and bought the mill site and water power of the Shellhouses. In 1839 he completed the flour mill which was subsequently bought by John H. Bowman and continued to be a leading industry of the place for forty years or more. William E. Eck, then of Three Rivers, dressed its first three run of stones and ground the first grist. John H. and William F. Bowman were very prominent in the formative period of Colon village, and in January, 1844, made the first survey which was thought worthy of record. The first retail stock of goods in the village had been opened by Charles L. Miller. Until he completed his store, he displayed his wares in a cooper shop. For the succeeding twelve years Mr. Miller maintained his place as the leading merchant of Colon. In 1856 he was elected judge of probate for St. Joseph county, and was secretary of the committee on commerce of the United States senate from 1861 until his death. Following the Voorhis flour mill, the next important addition to the village industries was the wagon shop of Erastus Mills, opened in 1846, and the foundry of Shuert & Duel, established in the following year. It may be added that Dr. Voorhis, who located in 1836 as Colon's first physician, died in 1838. Among the prominent settlers of Colon township not already mentioned may be instanced the following, who became residents prior to 1840: Dr. A. J. Kline, 1831; Levi Matthews, Comfort and Job Tyler and Alvin Hoyt, in 1832; Abel Belote, 1833; William H. Castle, 1835; Henry K. Farrand, 1836, and Phineas Farrand, 1838. The Tylers and the Farrands were long among the leading farmers of the township, the homestead of the latter being on the banks of Sturgeon lake-the original Brooks farm. COMFORT AND JOB TYLER. Comfort Tyler was born in the town of Marcellus, Onondaga county, New York, on the 7th day of March, 1801, where he received

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY a limited education in the common schools of the county and assisted his father in the business of farming, milling and carding wool and dressing cloth, until he was twenty-four years of age. Then he began life for himself in the paternal line. In the year 1833 he traveled through Michigan and northern Indiana and returned to Marcellus, and in the spring of 1834 moved with his family to the west, thinking to locate in Indiana; but on arriving at White Pigeon, those of the residents of St. Joseph county who had met him in the previous summer, were so favorably impressed with his bearing, they persuaded him to look further for a location in the county. On doing so he made his selection for a home in the southwest corner of the township of Colon, buying 333 acres on sections 19 and 31, with the intention of making further purchases on the Nottawa prairie when the Indian reservation should come into the market, but did not do so by reason of the particular tract he wanted being located by another party. On this location on section 31 Mr. Tyler resided until his decease, bringing it from nature's dominion to the finely cultivated and productive fields of a thorough farmer. The people of the township found in him an able guardian of their trusts, which they placed into his hands in the fullest measure. He was the supervisor of the township for twenty-five years, his last term ending in the year when his health would not permit of further service. He also represented St. Joseph county in the lower house of the general assembly in 1841, and in the upper house, as senator, in the year 1859, and was a member of the constitutional convention of 1867. In politics Mr. Tyler was originally a member of the Whig party, joining the Republican party at its organization, of which he remained a stanch advocate until his death. He united with the Methodist Episcopal church at Centerville in 1841, and was its recording-steward for twenty-five years, and died in its communion. Mr. Tyler was broad in his views, and liberal and enterprising in schemes for the public good. Though not particularly to be benefited by his act, he nevertheless aided generously in the construction of the railroad through Colon, believing it to be of general value to the people of the township. Rev. Job Tyler, a brother of Comfort Tyler, preached to all classes of people without distinction of religious views, though a Sabbatarian himself. He was much esteemed by the people of St. Joseph county, among whom he dwelt and followed his calling until 1851, when he died at San Diego on his way to California.

Page  213 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 213 ROADS AND BRIDGES. In 1836 the first road through Colon township was laid out passing through the village and Centerville, and thence to Coldwater, Branch county. With the first two hundred dollars subscribed by individuals and their donations of work, the road was cut through, streams bridged, marshes causewayed, etc., to the town of Mattison, Branch county. The first bridge over the St. Joseph river in the township was known as the Farrand bridge and was completed in 1839-40. The Leland bridge was built in 1845; so that by that year means of communication were fairly established. FIRST TOWN MEETING AND OFFICIALS. The first town meeting was held in April, 1833, when Colon and Leonidas were one. Roswell Schellhous was elected supervisor and M. G. Shellhouse, clerk; the latter also was the justice of the peace, having been appointed by Governor Porter. In April, 1834, George F. Schellhous was chosen supervisor, and served until 1836; M. G. Schellhous remained town clerk until 1835 and in the succeeding year was followed by F. A. Matthews; and M. W. Alford succeeded M. G. Schellhous as justice of the peace in 1834, and held the position until the first election of that official in 1836. At that election Roswell Schellhous, Charles Palmer, M. G. Schellhous and Abel Belote were chosen; but Belote did not qualify and Comfort Tyler was chosen in his place. This was the status of office holding, in 1836, when Colon township was finally severed from Leonidas and became a unit of the sixteen townships which now compose the county of St. Joseph. BURR OAK TOWNSHIP. In 1838 the state legislature granted Burr Oak and Fawn River townships independence from Sherman, leaving attached to the parent stem only the township of Sturgis (yet unborn). On the 6th of March, of that year, Randolph Manning, secretary of state, affixed his name to the act by which Burr Oak was erected into a separate township and its first official meeting ordered to be held at the house of Julius A. Thompson.

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY As ordered, the meeting was convened at Mr. Thompson's house, April 2, 1838, and. organized by electing Alvin Gates moderator, and James L. Bishop and Hiram Draper, clerks. The following were then chosen to fill the several township offices: Supervisor, Marshall Livermore; clerk, James L. Bishop; assessors, Alvin Gates, Daniel Weaver and Hiram Draper; commissioners of highways, Oliver Raymond, Hiram Draper and Daniel Weaver; supervisors of primary schools, Norman Allen, Oliver Raymond and Sidney Carpenter; constables, John S. Sickles, Sidney Carpenter and Norman Allen; collector, Norman Allen; directors of the poor, Cyrus Benedict and Phineas H. Sheldon; justices of the peace, Alvin Gates, Marshall Livermore, Hiram Draper and Oliver Raymond; fence viewers and poind masters, Julius A. Thompson, Warren Norton and Benjamin Stocking; overseers of highways, Josiah T. Livermore, Samuel Needham, Ervin K. Weaver, Nathaniel Leavitt and Casper Reed. On the 9th of May, 1838, the inspectors of primary schools organized the township into four districts. The first road within the limits of Burr Oak township was ordered by the commissioners of highways, March 27, 1837, while the territory was still a part of Sherman township. It was four rods in width, ran from the line between sections 1 and 2 in an east-by-southerly direction and struck Big Swan creek in section 11. It was surveyed by Hiram Draper. At about the same time another road was laid out in sections 12 and 13, southeast of the former. The father of Julius A. Thompson is credited with having taught the first school in what is now the township of Burr Oak, District No. 1. In 1838 Miss Sarah Washburn, afterward Mrs. Nathan Hackett, taught school in a new building, with a loose floor above and below, which was located a short distance east of the Thompson and Farley corners, in the same district. FIRST FRAME RESIDENCE. In 1833 Reuben Trussell settled on the road leading to Centerville, in the following year erected the first frame residence in the township, in which he passed the remainder of his life. Various members of the family also occupied the homestead for years afterward. The planting of the Trussell family at that locality inaugurated the era of permanency in the history of Burr

Page  215 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 215 Oak township. Mr. Trussell purchased the lumber for his frame house at Dugg's saw-mill, located not far from where the Jonathan Holmes mill afterward stood, and it was rafted down Swan creek to a point on section 11, on the Houston land, whence it was taken by teams to the building site. At that time the best white-wood lumber commanded five dollars per thousand, and nails sold for thirteen cents per pound; since then, lumber has gone up and nails have decidedly dropped. About 1834 Josiah and Marshall Livermore were among the new citizens of Burr Oak township; in 1835 came James C. Stowell and Daniel and Henry. S. Weaver, father and son; James L. Bishop and Sidney Carpenter, in 1836, and Ervin K. Weaver in 1837. Besides those already mentioned, the foregoing were the leading citizens of the township at its organization in 1838. HASLET AND SNOW. The first settler within the present limits of Burr Oak township is recognized as Samuel Haslet, who, with his family and a bachelor friend, George Miller, settled upon the land which was long known as the Elder Farley farm. In the year following his location, Mr. Haslet became the proud father of the first white child of the township. Mr. Haslet came from Snow prairie, Branch county, as did Mr. Snow who gave the prairie its name, in the year 1832; and of these two pioneers of the township, who seem to have been original in both senses of the word, the following description has come down from Hon. Wales Adams, an oldtimer of Branch who knew the men intimately: "Haslet was an easy body, with whom the world in which he moved generally wagged well. His wife was the presiding genius, and the more positive character of the two. "Snow was apparently forty or fifty years of age, and of a taciturn cast of mind. His figure was rather tall and spare. His sloping shoulders, compressed lips, and black evasive eye, gave him a repulsive appearance. He was from one of the New England states-had been married; but being a man of keen sensibilities and possessed of a fondness for variety, he became disgusted with the restraints and annoyances of conjugal life, abruptly left his family to the mercy of the world, and sought repose for himself amid the wilds of the west."

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY A PAIR OF TURTLE DOVES. The bachelor friend of the Haslets, Miller (full name, George Miller), noted as having moved into Burr Oak township as a member of their household in 1831, was a chubby, grizzly German of middle age; uneducated and, since he could remember, a dweller on the borders of civilization. Not long after his arrival, two bachelor brothers named Eldred came from Vermont, entered a quarter section near the Haslets, built a cabin, commenced to make improvements and then sent for a maiden sister to come on as their housekeeper. Miss Eldred, who had experienced perhaps forty years of industrious life, was plain almost to painfulness-that is, as viewed by the average outsider. But such is the mystery of human love that Bachelor Miller and Maiden Eldred were strongly attracted, billed and cooed like a pair of turtle doves, and went into history, a few months after their meeting, as the first couple to be wedded in the township. TOWNSHIP IN GENERAL. Burr Oak township is of the regulation government size, four hundred of its acres being covered by the waters of its streams and small lakes. Big Swan creek enters from the east through section 12, flows northwestwardly across its northeast corner and makes its exit into Colon township from section 4. Prairie river comes into the township over the line of section 24, runs northwest north of the village of Burr Oak into section 9, then reverses its course to the southwest, and, after passing through Hog creek lake, turns abruptly to the north, and leaves the township through the western half of sections 18, 7 and 6. The lakes of the township are as follows: Eberhard's, in section 4; Bryant's, section 5; Fish, section 19; Stewart's, section 32, and Adams', section 29. Agriculturally considered, the soil of Burr Oak township is one of, the most productive in the county. It derived its name from the remarkable beauty of its burr oak openings, no township except Florence approaching it in this feature of the landscape.

Page  217 CHAPTER X. OLD FLOWERFIELD TOWNSHIP. FIRST SETTLER, MICHAEL BEADLE-EARLY FLOWERFIELD AND HOWARDVILLE-REDUCED TO PRESENT AREA-APPROPRIATE NAMEFIRST ROAD AND NOTED TRAI —FIRST TOWNSHIP OFFICERSHOW LEONIDAS WAS NAMED-DESCRIPTION OF TOWNSHIP-INDIAN TRADER HATCH-PERMANENT SETTLERS OF 1831-THE COWEN MILLS-CAPTAIN LEVI WATKINS-FIRST HOTELS-HORTICULTURAL SPROUTINGS-SETTLERS OF 1834-40-FIRST TOWN MEETINGS - FACTORYVILLE - LEONIDAS VILLAGE - MENDON TOWNSHIP-FRANCOIS MOUTAN AND PATRICK MARANTETTEVILLAGE OF MENDON FOUNDED-SETTLERS FROM 1833 TO 1837 — OLD-TIME OFFICIALS-GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES-PARK TOWNSHIP-FIRST SETTLERS ALONG FISHER'S LAKE-FIRST TOWN MEETING-PARKVILLE AND MOORE PARK. Originally, the township of Flowerfield contained the present townships of Leonidas, Mendon, Park and Flowerfield, or the four northern townships of St. Joseph county of today. When it was organized, with the county itself, in November, 1829, the only settlers in this large area were Michael Beadle and his family, who had lately occupied their claim in section 1, comprising the north half of the northeast quarter and the northwest quarter of that section. A part of this tract-the northwest quarterwas afterward included in the plat of Flowerfield village, which was laid out in 1833. FIRST SETTLER MICHAEL BEADLE. Mr. Beadle, who entered his land in June, 1830, soon afterward built a log house-the first in the township-and in the succeeding year also erected its pioneer frame dwelling. In 1830, before the building of the frame house, Mr. Beadle's daughter, 217

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Matilda, had married Justin Clark; but the local chronicles are uncertain as to whether the "newly weds" occupied the log cabin or the frame residence. In 1831 Michael Beadle erected a grist-mill on Rocky river, its single run of stone being made out of a natural boulder two or three feet in diameter. In the spring of the following year it passed into the hands of Challenge S. Wheeler, a settler of 1831. It was destroyed by fire, in the spring of 1832, but was rebuilt the same year and was operated steadily thereafter for two decades. EARLY FLOWERFIELD AND HOWARDVILLE. Mr. Wheeler thoroughly overhauled the mill, put in a new set of burrs, and in other ways proceeded to challenge the admiration of the pioneers for his energy and enterprise. He threw open his home to the first children of the township, about ten in number, who formed the pioneer school taught by Malvina Nichols, and in 1833 owned the site of the village of Flowerfield, which had been first entered by James Valentine three years previously. In the year named M. J. Nichols and Dr. David E. Brown surveyed the plat on section 1, and Mr. Wheeler became first postmaster of the village. Mr. Nichols lived long in Flowerfield village to enjoy his deserved honors and popularity. Further south than Flowerfield, nearer the center of the township, was founded the burg of Howardville, named after the mill owner, Franklin Howard. Its site was contained in the purchase of Robert Gill, who bought the land in 1832 on account of the excellent water-power afforded by the Rocky river at that point. Mr. Gill erected the first house thereon, in 1833, and commenced the construction of a dam, but sold his property and his privileges to the Morse brothers who built a saw-mill during the same year. They conducted the mill until 1836, when Franklin Howard bought it and conducted it until his death in 1845. It was operated for many years, a grist mill and other industries were started, and Howardville promised to become quite a place until the early fifties, when it was certain that it would not be favored with railroad accommodations. From 1856, which year marks the appointment of Chauncey Tinker as postmaster, until it almost disappeared even as a settlement, the place was generally known as Tinker Town.

Page  219 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 219 REDUCED TO PRESENT AREA. In 1833 the township now known as Leonidas was set off from the original territory of Flowerfield, and, with Colon, constituted a separate civil division of the county, while Mendon was attached to Nottawa. When Park township was detached, in 1838, Flowerfield was reduced to its present territory-one government township of thirty-six square miles, of which only about thirty-five acres is of water-surface. The drainage of the township is chiefly effected by the Rocky river, which rises in the township of Penn, Cass county, runs eastwardly into Flowerfield, through its central sections, and joins the north branch in the southwest quarter of section 24; the latter tributary has its source in a small lake northwest of the former village of Flowerfield, and flows almost directly south through sections 1, 12, 13 and 24. A little creek also runs north through sections 35 and 36, and empties into the Rocky near the north line of the latter. APPROPRIATE NAME. The name of the township is almost self-explanatory. Every fall the Indians were accustomed to burn the brush and scrub timber, and in the spring such an abundance of wild flowers sprung up in this locality that the early surveyors gave the country the name of Flowerfield, even before the township was erected. When the political body was formed, no other name was suggested. Before the settlers commenced to clear the lands to any extent, the southern and eastern portions of the present township consisted almost entirely of oak openings, and the northern and western, of timber lands. The central and southwestern parts are hilly, and in some places very stony; balance of the township level and slightly undulating. The soil is generally of a good sandy loam, admirably adapted to both horticulture and agriculture. FIRST ROAD AND NOTED TRAIL. The first record of a surveyed road in Flowerfield township is dated April 17, 1834, its course being east and west, through the centers of sections 32, 33, 34, 35 and 36. The surveyor was a Mr. Briggs, assisted by M. John Nichols, and the road commissioners were Henry Garver, George Nichols and Robert Gill.

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Prior to the survey of this road, the old settlers used to drive through the clearings and over farms, picking their courses between streams and generally following the Indian trails which always led to the easiest fording places. One of the most traveled of these trails in Flowerfield township started at an Indian rendezvous that formerly existed in section 23, on Rocky run, and meandered along the valleys toward Three Rivers, carefully avoiding all the hills. From constant and long use it became a hard beaten path, on an average fifteen inches deep, and traces of it were plainly visible for fifty or sixty years after the settlement of the township. FIRST TOWNSHIP OFFICERS. The first justice of the peace of Flowerfield township was George Nichols, who was appointed by Governor Porter, under territorial laws, in 1832. The first township meeting was held at the house and tavern of Joshua Barnum, April 1, 1833-the year when Leonidas and Mendon were carved from the original territory of Flowerfield. The result of the election was the choice of the following: C. S. Wheeler, supervisor; Joshua Barnum, clerk; Samuel Valentine, George Nichols and Abraham Vardemark, assessors; Ira Stowell and Henry Whited, overseers of the poor; William E. Gragg, collector; William Wheeler, M. John Nichols and C. L. Clewes, commissioners of highways; William E. Gragg, constable; Henry Garver, fence-viewer. At this time Assessor Vardemark was one of the proprietors of the first distillery erected in the township (on the site of the village). It was abandoned after a trial of several years. Barnum's tavern, where this first township election was held, stood near the pioneer store which C. S. Wheeler had built in 1832. The principal township officers, when Flowerfield attained its present stature in 1838, were as follows: Supervisor, C. S. Wheeler; clerk, Aaron H. Foote; justices of the peace, Isaac F. Ulrich, Stephen P. Choat, Aaron H. Foote, Henry R. Moore, Henry Whited and Samuel Corry. How LEONIDAS WAS NAMED. Leonidas township is in the extreme northeastern corner of St. Joseph county, and the various steps by which it assumed its

Page  221 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 221 present area are these: In 1829, at the first organization of the county, its territory formed a part of Flowerfield, which then embraced the four northern townships; in 1833 it was joined to Colon and formed one township under that name; and in 1836 it became independent of its southern neighbor, and was named Leonidas through a mistake made by a clerk of the territorial legislature. Captain Levi Watkins, one of its earliest pioneers and most prominent citizens, desired to call the township Fort Pleasant, both from the fortification of the Mound Builders within its limits and as expressive of the charms of its landscape. Its first postoffice, established in 1834, was so named, but when the meeting for the separate organization of the township was held the people could not accept that christening. After much discussion they agreed upon Leoni, and petitioned the legislature accordingly. At the same time, Jackson county, to the northeast, sent in a petition for a new township to be named Leonidas, and when the engrossing clerk copied the bill for the organization of the two townships he unintentionally substituted "Leonidas" for "Leoni." The law was printed, with the incorporated error, and the names have "stuck" to the present time. DESCRIPTION OF TOWNSHIP. Leonidas township is chiefly drained by the St. Joseph and the Nottawa rivers; the former enters from Sturgeon lake, Colon, and flows across its southwestern sections toward Mendon, while the Nottawa, in two branches, enters from the northeast, flows southwest, and is one stream from the northeast quarter of section 20 to its juncture with the St. Joseph in section 30. The Little Portage runs diagonally across the west half of section 6 into Mendon township, and a creek enters the township from the north in section 3, runs southerly and empties into the old Cowen mill-pond. There are only four bodies of water worthy of the name of lakes-Adams, Havens and Mud, in section 36 and Benedict's, in section 32, southern part of the township. Leonidas contains the usual thirty-six square miles of a government township, or twenty-three thousand and forty acres, of which only about five hundred acres comprise the water surface. When the first settlers came into the country they estimated that there were also five hundred acres of prairie within

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the limits of the present township. The balance of the land surface was covered with white and burr-oak groves, of varied density, merging into heavily timbered lands in the northern part of the township. About one-half of its area was covered with a heavy growth of beech, maple, white-wood, ash, elm, walnut and hickory. The best of white-wood lumber was cut in the forests of Leonidas, and made into the "arks" which transported much of the freight and most of the flour in the early days before the coming of railroads. It was this, more than any other drainage, which almost swept the Leonidas lands of their timber. FIRST SETTLER, INDIAN TRADER HATCH. The first white man to settle within the limits of the township was Hatch, the widely known Indian trader, who came to the country in the spring of 1831, and located near the permanent village of the Nottawa-seepe Indians on the prairie south of the river. Later he married Marchee-o-noqua, sister of Maguago, one of the chiefs, but appears to have tired of her; at all events, he moved away, and the woman, who was a beauty of her tribe, afterward became the wife of Buel Holcomb, according to the custom of her people. She was converted to Christianity and tried to induce Holcomb to marry her according to the rites of her church. As he refused, she was divorced-or divorced herself-and contracted a third marriage with one of her own race, and her descendants lived for many years in Athens, Calhoun county. The locations of Hatch and Holcomb are considered but temporary and had no bearing on the establishment of civil and domestic institutions in Leonidas township. The first permanent and worthy settlers came in 1831. PERMANENT SETTLERS OF 1831. In May of that year George Mathews, with his wife and two children, settled on his land in section 32, on the banks of the St. Joseph river. The family came direct from New York city, where the parents even had been reared in comfort, if not luxury. Educated and cultured people of the old school, they had come into the timbered wilderness to carve out a new home. Mrs. Mathews was the first woman to locate in Leonidas township,

Page  223 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 223 and bravely supported her husband in all his unaccustomed undertakings. Their land was finally cleared and the courtly, but hard-working husband and father, died upon it in 1845; his wife survived him nearly thirty years; and no couple was ever more honored than Mr. and Mrs. George Mathews. Their daughter, who was born in the early summer of 1833, was the first native white child of the township. A few days after their arrival in 1831, Alexander Foreman and his family of sons and daughters from Ohio also located their claim near by. Afterward the Foremans ran the ferry across the St. Joseph at this point, and it is said that the Buckeye girls were not behind their brothers or father in its management. Both the Mathews and Foreman families raised crops of corn in the fall after their arrival, and the next year harvested the first wheat. In the fall of 1831 the central part of the township received an accession of settlers in James and Robert Cowen, from Pennsylvania, and Isaac G. Bailey, from Connecticut. All were single men, but married afterward and brought their wives to the settlement; Mr. Bailey in the fall of 1834, Robert Cowen in 1835 and James later. They were the founders of the numerous industries which were subsequently established along Nottawa and Bear creeks. THE COWEN MILLS. It appears that Mr. Bailey was the first of the party to prospect Leonidas for a mill site, and, finding what he wanted, returned to the land office at White Pigeon to make his entries. While on this errand he met James Cowen, to whom he gave a description of his "find," with the general locality. Mr. Cowen carefully marked Mr. Bailey's entries on his map and then set out for himself. Arriving on the ground, he found that Bailey had been careless and failed to enter the "eighty" which really contained the water power and the most favorable mill site; so he quietly returned to White Pigeon and entered it himself. Afterward meeting Bailey, he told him that he had found a good mill-site himself and should proceed to utilize it. When Mr. Bailey found that, by his own negligence, the cream of his location had been skimmed by Mr. Cowen his chagrin was great; but he was obliged to swallow his bitter pill and, though he bought a large tract of land around the Cowen mill-site, or pond, he finally built a saw-mill on Bear creek.

Page  224 224 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The saw-mill erected by James and Robert Cowen, on Nottawa creek, was completed in 1832 and put in operation in the winter of that and the succeeding year. In 1836 they built their first flour mill; but the dam proving to be inadequate, as well as unsafe, in 1840 they abandoned it, constructed another, and also built a new saw-mill. James Cowen and Isaac G. Bailey were both educated for physicians and the former was an excellent surveyor. He moved to Indiana in 1846. When a postoffice was established at Cowen's mills in 1834, Mr. Bailey was appointed postmaster, and in 1835 he was influential in establishing a postal route from Jackson to White Pigeon. He was elected to the state legislature in 1838, and died in Detroit the following March, still retaining the postmastership of Leonidas. CAPTAIN LEVI WATKINS. In the fall of 1832 Captain Levi Watkins built a cabin on the banks of Nottawa creek, stocked it with provisions, and went to work on the Cowen mill which was then in course of construction. He was joined by his family in the following February. Both he and his sons, Orrin M. and Martin C., were leading citizens as long as they lived, being especially prominent in the encouragement of schools and churches. Although the captain was a Presbyterian, his house was always open to all who desired accommodations for religious meetings, and it was at his home that the first religious meeting of the township was held in May, 1833-a gathering of Methodists under Rev. Mr. Dickinson, a missionary from the Ohio conference. Meetings continued to be held at Captain Watkins' house until the school house was built in 1836, when the first religious meeting therein was held in the unroofed structure. Captain Watkins was also active in opening up the country to the outside world. He acted as one of the commissioners who laid out the first township road in 1836, from the settlement (which afterward became the village of Leonidas) in section 12, westwardly to the township line. He also ran the stage line for a time, which was established in 1838 from White Pigeon to Jacksonburg, via Leonidas. In 1835 he had thrown the first bridge over the St. Joseph river in the township, known as the Mathews bridge.

Page  225 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 225 Captain Watkins, who was of fine Revolutionary stock on both sides of the family, was born in Partridgefield, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, August 5, 1785, and when eight years of age moved with his parents to a royal grant, near Little Falls, Herkimer county, New York, where they lived until Levi was sixteen years old, when the family removed to Naples, Ontario county, in the same state. He was the youngest of three sons and his father was a farmer. Levi had no opportunity to attend school except for a single month, but gained his education in the hard school of experience. He always occupied the same farm with his father, but dwelt in a separate house, having everything produced on the farm in common. The young man followed farming and cattle-driving for a business, driving large herds to Philadelphia and Buffalo. In 1812 he entered the American army and was stationed on picket between Lewis and Buffalo in command of a company, which gave him his rank and title of captain. In 1820 he took contracts on the Erie canal, then in process of construction, which business he followed until 1824, but by the defalcation of the canal commissioner and the fraudulent practices of a party for whom he was surety, he lost heavily and was stripped of nearly all his property. In the early part of the autumn of 1832, Captain Watkins came to Leonidas-then known as Flowerfield-and selected a location on the Nottawa creek, near Dunkin's (now Climie's) mill, and built a log-house and put in nine acres of wheat. He brought a horse with him, which he exchanged for a yoke of oxen; purchased some wheat and corn and had it ground for supplies for his family when they should arrive; and went to work for the Cowen brothers, who were building their mill. He had purchased another yoke of oxen of Judge Meek, of Constantine, and engaged to work two months for the Cowens for sixty dollars, just the price he had agreed to pay for his last yoke of cattle. When his time was up, he took the Cowens' note for the amount due and exchanged it for his own note, which he had given for his team, and so "squared" the account. On the 20th day of February, 1833, the family arrived, bringing with them a span of horses and a wagon, which was an important addition to the pioneer's outfit. The location of Captain Watkins proving to be seminary lands, he relinquished it, and in 1836 bought lands contiguous thereto on what was afterwards known as the Territorial road, and built another house thereon. This location he transferred to his son, William M., with whom he continued to reside until his death. Vol. 1-15

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY After a life of untiring activity, Captain Watkins passed to his final rest, October 12, 1851. His second wife survived him a little more than ten years, when she fell asleep and was laid beside him, February 19, 1862. By both marriages he had seven children. And thus passed from the sight of men one of the most active and energetic citizens of his day. His executive ability was remarkable, and the enterprises in which he was engaged while a resident of New York were monuments to his energy and determination, and had the state fulfilled its obligations, and its servants faithfully discharged their trusts, Captain Watkins would have been, nothwithstanding his generosity, a wealthy man, living at his ease long before his death. As it was, death found him with the harness on, every trace taut, and muscles strained for effective work, and he laid down "like a strong man taking his rest." The second Mrs. Watkins was a pioneer of Ontario county, and set out the first apple-tree in Naples, which is still known as Mother Watkins' apple-tree. William M. Watkins, the son mentioned, was long one of the foremost men of Leonidas township. He held the supervisorship for a number of years and was sheriff of the county from 1866 to 1870, inclusive. FIRST HOTELS. In the spring of 1833 there was an accession to the substantial citizenship of Leonidas in the person of Arnold Hayward, who also brought his family. He built a log house just above Captain Watkin's, and the next summer added a frame "lean-to," which he opened as the first hotel. In 1836 Captain Watkins built a new frame house on the Washtenaw trail, running from the east township line to the Leonidas settlement, and there kept the "Farmers' Home." HORTICULTURAL SPROUTINGS. The first fruit trees in the township were found by the first white settlers on the banks of the Nottawa, just below the present site of the Mathews bridge at the village of Leonidas. They were apple trees and the Indians then living in the locality had only a dim tradition of their planting by white missionaries. The trees were transplanted, but died. Captain Watkins planted apple seeds and peach and plum pits, in the spring of 1833, and by the fall of 1834 had quite a

Page  227 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 227 nursery under way. In the spring of 1835 George Mathews set out an orchard of quite mature trees and raised the first apples in the township. Peaches were first produced in Leonidas in 1837 and plums artificially raised in 1845. SETTLERS OF 1834-40. In the spring of 1834 Jarius Peirce, a Massachusetts man who had resided for some time in New York, came to Leonidas to work at his trade as a carpenter and was first employed on the Cowen flour mill. In 1836, after he had assisted in the building of many of the first Leonidas structures, he brought his family from Ontario county, New York, to permanently reside. In 1834-5 Augustus, Charles and Erastus Tyler located in the western part of the township, and were for years among its largest farmers. In 1835 Ezra Roberts, Abraham Rhynearson and N. V. Truesdell settled in the Indian reservation, same locality, and in the same year George Benedict became a resident of the eastern part of the prairie. Edward K. Wilcox was a settler of 1836, as well as Justus L. Vough (who brought the first stock of goods into the township); William Bishop, with his sons, Lyman, Jr., and James, in 1837, and William Minor, James B. Dunkin and Stephen Van Rensselaer York, in 1840. FIRST TOWN MEETING. The first town meeting after Leonidas became an independent township was held at the house of Martin C. Watkins, April 4, 1836, James Cowen being moderator and Aaron B. Watkins clerk. Isaac G. Bailey and Captain Watkins were both candidates for the office of supervisor; as they were also good friends, each worked hard for the other's election. The captain elected his man by a narrow margin; Bailey receiving twelve votes and Watkins, ten. Others elected at the meeting: Martin C. Watkins, town clerk; Joseph Gilbert, George Mathews, I. G. Bailey and Aaron B. Watkins, justices of the peace; James Cowen, Levi Watkins and George Mathews, assessors; Charles Starke, Ambrose Nichols and Levi Watkins, commissioners of highways; James Cowen, George Mathews and M. C. Watkins, school commissioners; Arnold Hayward and Moses W. Whiting, overseers of the poor; and Orrin W. Watkins, constable and collector. At

Page  228 228 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY this meeting it was also voted to pay two dollars bounty for wolf scalps and fifty cents for foxes, and to raise twenty dollars for contingent expenses. FACTORYVILLE. In 1840 James B. Dunkin built a saw-mill on the Nottawa, above the Cowen's, owning and operating it until 1862. Theodore Robinson and James Bishop erected a saw-mill on Nottawa creek, on section one, and operated it for several years, or until the Branch county mill owners enjoined the proprietors against raising their own dam. In 1842-3 William, Charles and Nathan Schofield built at the same place a woolen factory, but in 1845 the machinery was taken into Park township by Leonard Shellhouse. The little hamlet that gathered around these mills was called Factoryville. LEONIDAS VILLAGE. The original plat of the village of Leonidas was laid off by E. G. Terry on the 30th of December, 1846, on the northeast quarter of section 12, at the intersection of the territorial road (Washtenaw trail), which passed through the plat from northeast to southwest, and the Mendon and Colon roads, which ran through the village from north to south and from east to west. MENDON TOWNSHIP. When St. Joseph county was organized in 1829, what are now its four northernmost townships were included in the township of Flowerfield. The territory included in the present Leonidas was detached in 1833 and attached to Colon, and in the same year what is known as Mendon township became a part of Nottawa. In 1843 the present Mendon was organized as Wakeman township, in honor of Hiram Wakeman, one of its largest land owners. But this name proved unsatisfactory to the majority of people in the township, and in 1844 a meeting was called at the cooper shop of L. Salisbury to select one which would meet the popular taste. Among those present and most active in the discussion were Peter House and Moses Taft, the former from the town of Mendon, New York, and the latter, from Mendon, Massachusetts.

Page  229 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 229 Combining forces finally, the one moved, and the other seconded, that the township be called Mendon; the motion was carried unanimously, the usual petition presented to the legislature and the change of name officially made before the end of the year. FRANCOIS MOUTAN, FIRST SETTLER. The first white settler in the present territory of Mendon township was Francois Moutan who, in 1831, brought his family to live at the trading post of Peter and J. J. Godfroi, located near the Indian village on the southern banks of the St. Joseph opposite the present city of Mendon. Mr. Moutan had been appointed manager of the post, which he conducted for about two years. When the reservation came into the market he bought lands of the government and became well-to-do and influential, his descendants making good records for themselves and the family. The buildings of the Godfroi trading post, erected in 1831, were the first of the township; they consisted of two log housesone for a store and the other for a blacksmith shop. To these Mr. Moutan added a log cabin for his family, consisting of his wife and several children. MARANTETTE SUCCEEDS MOUTAN. In August, 1833, Patrick Marantette arrived on the ground as Mr. Moutan's successor in charge of the trading post. He came from Detroit, where his father was widely known as an Indian trader, and reached the reservation as an able and energetic young bachelor of about twenty-four. In 1835 he abandoned single life by marrying one of Mr. Moutan's daughters. He also reserved a section of land in the Nottawa-seepe reservation, which eventually formed the basis of a considerable family estate. Mr. Marantette's character and his invaluable labors in the legal acquirement of the soil of Mendon township and adjoining sections from the Indians are more fully set forth in the general history of the county, as is most appropriate. Messrs. Moutan and Marantette were naturally the first farmers and fruit raisers of Mendon township, as they had the ground to themselves for some time. In 1832-3 Mr. Moutan raised a crop of corn, and Mr. Marantette gathered the first wheat harvest

Page  230 230 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY from the two bushels which he sowed in the spring of 1835. When Mr. Moutan reached the Indian village in 1831 he found some apple trees bearing therein, which were said to have been originally planted by missionaries; but he was the first white man to start an orchard of his own, beyond the shadow of a doubt. Mr. Marantette planted the first peach orchard in 1834 and gathered fruit from it in 1838. FIRST MARRIAGE AND BIRTH. The marriage ceremony of Patrick Marantette and Miss Frances Moutan was performed according to the civil code by J. W. Coffinberry, justice of the peace, on the 23rd of November, 1835, and as the contracting parties were strict Catholics it was afterward ratified by the bishop of Detroit at Bertrand's on the St. Joseph river. The child of this union, born in 1836, was the first native white of Mendon township. FIRST RELIGIOUS SERVICES. The first religious services in the township were held by Roman Catholic missionaries at the Godfroi trading post in 1831, although the first mass was not celebrated until 1839, when Father Boss, of Detroit, stopped at Marantette's on his way to Grand Rapids. VILLAGE OF MENDON FOUNDED. Besides Mr. Marantette, two Frenchmen, Peter Neddeaux and Leander Metha, came to the Nottawa-seepe reservation in 1833. The former located near the trading post, while Mr. Metha settled on the other side of the river, on the present site of Mendon. Mr. Neddeaux died in 1845. Mr. Metha came directly from Monroe and threw up a rough log cabin in short order. This was later replaced by a more commodious and comfortable structure of hewn logs, the old one being then used for school purposes. The water power at Mendon village was created by damming the Little Portage on the southwest corner of the southeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 21, and cutting a race one-half mile south to a series of marshes, and thence by a short flume to the bank of the St. Joseph, securing a head of sixteen feet of water.

Page  231 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 231 In 1844 Messrs. Bronson and Doan who had created this water power built a saw-mill, and it was undoubtedly their enterprise which induced Leander Metha to plat the original village of Mendon, on the east half of section 27, in 1845. The proprietors of this first saw-mill, also added grist facilities, a carding machine and a turning lathe, and in 1848 sold their buildings and water power to Melvin & Brown, of Centerville. Thus was the village of Mendon firmly founded. SETTLERS FROM 1833 TO 1837. In November, 1833, Samuel E. Johnson and his six sons (afterward well known citizens of the township) migrated from Livingston county, New York, and located in section 1, of Nottawa township, just south of the reservation line. He died in 1839. Fordyce Johnson and Stephen Barnabee located in section 34, south of the Indian village, about 1834, and Oliver H. Foote and Moses Taft were arrivals of 1835. Mr. Taft was highly honored during the forty years of his residence in Mendon township. He and his family were from Mendon, Massachusetts, and it was largely through his insistence and his popularity that the township dropped its old name of Wakeman. He resided in Leonidas township a year before coming to Mendon, and was a traveler in the upper Mississippi valley when that region was almost an unknown land to whites. Among citizens of prominence who married daughters of Moses Taft were William Harrington, Abram H. Voorhees, A. Wesley Maring and James S. Barnabee. Adams Wakeman located on Nottawa prairie in 1833, Hiram in 1834 and Mark, in 1836; N. Chapman was a settler of 1834; Timothy Kimball about 1835; Harvey White, 1836, and B. B. Bacon, Ephraim K. Atkinson, James Van Buren, Ira and William Pellett and Joseph Woodward, 1837. The Wakeman brothers introduced the first improved live-stock (Durham cattle) into the township. OLD-TIME OFFICIALS. Joseph Jewett was the first supervisor of Mendon township and was succeeded in 1845 by Joseph Woodward, and the first town clerk, E. Kellogg, also gave place to Mr. Jewett. Patrick Marantette, Moses Taft, Norman Hill, Benjamin Osgood, Cyrus Dutton,

Page  232 232 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Ira Pellett and Abram H. Voorhees, all figure as supervisors previous to 1860, and William Pellett, B. P. Doan, Edwin Stewart and A. Crandall, as clerks. GENERAL PHYSICAL FEATURES. The northern portions of Mendon township were originally covered with a heavy growth of oak, walnut, white-wood, ash, sycamore, elm and maple, a feature of its southern. sections being the two thousand acres of Nottawa prairie which extended up from the south. It has a square mile of water surface, being well drained by the St. Joseph, Big and Little Portage rivers and Bear creek. The only lake of considerable size in the township is Portage, which occupies several hundred acres in sections 7 and 8. The surface of the country is generally level, becoming somewhat rolling as it approaches the St. Joseph river, which drains the southern portions of the township. The Big Portage river flows through Portage lake in its course to the southwest and Three Rivers, while the Little Portage flows through the northeastern, central and western sections of the township, and joins the larger stream in section 24, Park township. Bear creek also empties into Portage lake, coming in from the northeast. PARK TOWNSHIP. This township was created and assumed its present area in 1838, and of its thirty-six square miles, three hundred and thirteen acres only are covered by water. Its drainage is effected by the Portage river and Fisher's lake, the latter lying in section 34 in the southern part of the township. When the first settlers came to the country the township was a lovely succession of dense oak groves and green and level openings in the forest, resembling more than all else a series of well-kept parks; hence the name which the township so appropriately received. FIRST SETTLERS ALONG FISHER'S LAKE. The first settlers of Park township located on the east shores of Fisher's lake in 1834. In that locality Harvey Kinney commenced the building of a small log cabin, and was assisted in his

Page  233 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 233 work by Jonas and Leonard Fisher and George Leland. In the preceding fall the Indians of the Nottawa-seepe reservation, which extended into the eastern sections of Park township, had agreed to finally relinquish their lands in 1836. Soon after the Chicago treaty of 1833, squatters commenced to locate claims in the eastern portion of the reservation, but Kinney's was the first occupancy of their lands in the western part, or within the area now included in the two eastern sections of Park township. He completed his cabin, with the able assistance of his three companions, but did not occupy it until the spring of 1835. About the same time I. S. Ulrich and wife were journeying from Pennsylvania with a double team and all their household goods. After a trying experience of seventy-two days they reached what is now the site of Three Rivers and not long afterward joined the squatters east of Fisher's lake. Besides the Ulriches, Kinney, the Fishers and Mr. Leland, the colony soon included Samuel Moore, who located in section 19 near the village of Moore Park and George Wilson, who located on section 25 in the eastern part of the township. Michael Hower and John Boudeman also arrived in 1835, the latter joining the Fisher lake settlement, and in the following year Isaac Mowrey and John Hutchinson located claims further to the north, Mr. Hutchinson on section 27. About the same time John Lomison entered large tracts of land in sections 26, 27 and 36, both north and east of the lake, and in 1837 a good Scotchman, McDonald Campbell, settled in section 35. Alexander Frazier, Jacob Bannon and Andrew Reed were added to the pioneer populace of Park township within the succeeding two years. The settlers came in to such good purpose, despite the feverand-ague epidemic of 1835, that they were successful, as has been seen, in inducing the state legislature to give them separate township organization. FIRST TOWN MEETING. The first town meeting was held at the house of Mr. Hutchinson in section 27, during the month of April, 1838, and the following were elected as the principal officials: Edward S. Moore, supervisor; Juba E. Day, clerk, and Isaac F. Ulrich, justice of the peace. The first assessment for taxation, made during that year, returned $55,823; taxes, $1,340.02.

Page  234 234 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY FIRST OTHER THINGS. Mr. Ulrich sowed the first wheat in the township, in the spring of 1835, but the harvest is said to have resulted in "a wonderfully smutty lot." The first orchard was set out by Isaac Mowrey on his homestead in section 35; year, 1836. Madison J. Ulrich, who was born December 6, 1835, was the first native white child of Park township, being one of the twelve born to that good couple, Mr. and Mrs. I. S. Ulrich. 'Squire Ulrich, who was authority on marriages, claimed that the first couple married within the township limits was legally tied by him in 1835. He only knew that the bridegroom's name was Fairchild, and that he brought his bride twenty miles in order to be "jined." The first of actual residents to be married were Amos Reed and Ann Hower, who were made man and wife in 1837. The first school house erected within the limits of the township was in the fall of 1838, and was built by contributions of labor and material from the settlers. Isaac S. Ulrich opened it, as a teacher, in the spring of 1839. This old log building answered the necessary requirements of the southeastern part of the township until 1848, when a frame structure was erected about half a mile north. The township was divided into five school districts in 1839. PARKVILLE AND MOORE PARK. In 1851 James Hutchinson surveyed the village of Parkville on a piece of land in section 24 which had been purchased of N. H. Taylor by Luther Carlton. It was never more than a fair-sized settlement. Moore Park, a station on the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad, was established in 1871, and so named from Hon. Edward S. Moore, whose picturesque homestead was in the vicinity.

Page  235 CHAPTER XI. ST. JOSEPH COUNTY IN WAR. BY HON. R. R. PEALER. IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR-MEXICAN WAR AND HON. ISAAC D. TOLL-FRANCIS FLANDERS, JR.-IN THE CIVIL WAR-THE ELEVENTH MICHIGAN-HISTORY OF THE NINETEENTHTWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY-SEVENTH MICHIGAN-FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY-SECOND MICHIGAN-FOURTH MICHIGAN-THE ISOLATED SIXTH-THE FIFTEENTH INFANTRY-THE ARTILLERY-OTHER MILITARY BRANCHES IN CIVIL WAR-SPANISHAMERICAN WAR. St. Joseph county was included in the "war scare" caused by the uprising of the Sacs and Foxes under Black Hawk in 1832. Its scattered settlers were especially susceptible to panic on this score, first, because of the threat of the able Indian warrior that he was on his way to sweep all the white settlements from his path between the Mississippi river and Detroit, whose inhabitants he would also massacre, and secondly, because of the presence of the considerable band of Nottawa-seepe warriors on their reservation in the northern part of St. Joseph county and the southern part of Kalamazoo. The bands of Pottawatomies, Chippewas and Ottawas, which had been grouped under this name, had two villages in St. Joseph county; one in the present township of Leonidas and the other, and larger, on the southern banks of St. Joe river, opposite the site of the future Mendon. The Nottawa-seepe reservation included some of the choicest prairie lands and groves in the county, and many of the early settlers had located their farms just without its boundaries. When the excitement over the Black Hawk raids in Illinois reached this part of the state, it therefore rose to the greatest height in the 235

Page  236 236 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY country bordering the Indian reservation, as it was generally believed that the Pottawatomies, who formed the bulk of the red settlers thereon, sympathized with Black Hawk and might actually join him in his war against the whites. THE COUNTY IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR. When it became known that Black Hawk had defeated the military sent against him, on May 14, 1832, the entire county was thrown into a ferment of unrest and apprehension. As soon as possible two companies were mustered; that under Colonel Stewart, of White Pigeon, was to advance westward to the relief of Chicago and the frontier, and the force under Captain Henry Powers was considered a corps of observation to watch the Pottawatomies of the reservation. The first step toward an effective observation of anything, on anybody, is evidently to provide a suitable place from which to observe. Fifty of Captain Powers' hundred men were drafted for active service and were ordered to the farm of Daniel H. Hogan, in the northwest corner of the present Colon township and adjoining the southeast corner of the Indian reservation. This action was in pursuance of the majority report of the Committee on Ways and Means for the Public Safety, consisting of Martin G. Schellhous, Jonathan Engle, Sr., Benjamin Sherman, Amos Howe and Alvin Alvord, Sr. Of this little army of observation, Jonathan Engle, Jr., was lieutenant; Hiram Gates, ensign, and Frank McMillan, orderly sergeant. The report from the committee was received by the company in the afternoon at four o'clock and Captain Powers ordered his fifty chosen men to repair at once to the five acres of ground which had been selected as the site of the proposed Fort Hogan. Before nightfall several furrows had been plowed the whole length of the western outworks; moreover, a ridge of earth two feet high, three feet at its base and seventeen feet in length, picketed with stakes varying from one to three inches in diameter, loomed up as another step in the founding of Fort Hogan. Night brought repose, and perhaps calmer feelings through the assurances of the Schellhous brothers, Mr. Sherman and Mr. Engle, whose absolute fearlessness over the situation appears to have been largely a result of reliable information as to the attitude of the Pottawatomies toward the whites. At all events, at

Page  237 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 237 nine o'clock of the morning following the breaking of ground for Fort Hogan, only a few spiritless men of the original fifty who manifested their ardor so unmistakably the night before appeared on the site of the proposed fortress for observation, and they soon went away. Thus was Fort Hogan abandoned, and Messrs. Schellhous and Engle, who had dissented from the majority report which recommended its erection, were vindicated. Within a few weeks, the elder and less excitable men of the locality had had informal talks with Cush-ee-wees, head chief of the Pottawatomies, and other principal men of the Nottawa Indians, and arranged for a formal council at Captain Powers' house. At that interview it transpired that the Indians were not only anxious to adjust all their differences with the white settlers of St. Joseph county, but that several members of the tribe had actually gone with Captain Hatch, a trader, to join General Atkinson's forces at Chicago and assist the Pottawatomies at that point, who had always been friendly to Fort Dearborn and the village clustering around it. This council at Captain Powers' house, at which all the differences between the whites and the Nottawa-seepe Indians were explained and adjusted, occurred in the early part of August, 1832, and the following day came the news of Black Hawk's defeat and capture in Wisconsin, which occurred on the second of that month. In the meantime, the southern contingent of troops, under Captain Stewart, had been holding themselves in readiness at White Pigeon to move to the relief of Chicago, in case Black Hawk invested Fort Dearborn and the village. Captain Stewart, by being placed in command of the Eleventh regiment of the territory, became a colonel, and was afterward elected brigadier general of the Sixth brigade; but the Black Hawk war did not call him from Michigan. Under stress of the first excitement, forty of his men were drafted to march westward, but the order was revoked. The war scare was revived with the invasion of Wisconsin by Black Hawk, and fifty of Captain Stewart's men were drafted for immediate service, but before they could leave White Pigeon the news reached them of the defeat and capture of the great Indian warrior, who had struck terror into so many western settlements. An incident of this time and place is thus related by the late John Hamilton, of Constantine: "When his father's family were coming to the county they arrived at Adrian just as the news came through of the advance of Black Hawk into Illinois, and Roberts,

Page  238 238 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY who was traveling in company of Hamilton, having considerable cattle and several small children, decided to return to Monroe county and wait until the war should be over. Hamilton submitted the question of advance or retreat to his son John, then about eighteen years old, and his son-in-law, Alfred Roe, who, with the father, decided to go on, and did so, arriving in Constantine in due time. The very day after their arrival, Roe and young Hamilton were enrolled in the militia, making an even hundred in White Pigeon township, as the territory was then called. The draft for forty men was then made, and Roe drew a prize to go to the west. This order for a draft was revoked, and another one for fifty men was ordered and made, and Roe drew the prize again, Hamilton drawing a blank each time. The next day the news of Black Hawk's capture came, and the men were sent home, or never got together; but drew eight dollars in cash (a month's pay) and forty acres of land." To give St. Joseph county full credit for what she did in the raising of men for the Black Hawk war, mention must also be made of the independent rifle company organized in Sturgis township, in command of Captain Hunter. Among its members were Hiram Jacobs, Asa W. Miller, P. H. Buck, John Parker, Moses Roberts and Edward Mortimer. They volunteered for a sixteen-days' campaign, but, as one of the boys remarked after he was gray-headed, "there being no enemy on whom to forage, they made their principal raid on the commissary supplies and had a 'big time.' MEXICAN WAR AND HON. ISAAC D. TOLL. The ablest and most heroic citizen of St. Joseph county to figure in the brave deeds performed by her sons on the bloody battlefields of Mexico was Hon. Isaac D. Toll, of Fawn River. Having enjoyed a partial collegiate education, he accompanied his father to Centerville, from New York state, in 1834. There, and at Fawn River, they engaged in mercantile and manufacturing pursuits, and continued in those lines until 1846 and, after the Mexican war, until 1853. The son, Isaac D., showed an early aptitude and liking for politics, commencing his public life as assessor of Fawn River township at the age of twenty-one. He was then supervisor for fifteen years, and in 1846 was elected to the lower house of the legislature. For years he had also been an enthusiast in military matters, and at that time, although but twenty-eight years of age

Page  239 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 239 and the youngest member of the Michigan legislature, was major general of the state troops. General Toll was made chairman of the committee on militia and framed the bill for the organization of the state troops which subsequently became law, and has been pronounced unexcelled by any similar legislation of that day. In the following year he was sent to the upper house, and at the close of the session accepted a captaincy in the Fifteenth United States Infantry for service in the Mexican war. Captain Toll received his commission in March, 1847, and at once started for home to organize a company. St. Joseph, Kent, Kalamazoo, Cass and Jackson counties all furnished men, those who went from the home territory being as follows: Isaac D. Toll, captain; John Cunningham, first sergeant; Francis Flanders, Jr., first sergeant; William S. Smith, sergeant; Daniel P. Hanks, corporal; Horace Bartholomew, corporal; Theron Bartholomew and Levi Bartholomew (three brothers, of Fawn River); Fitch Cornell, a half brother of Corporal Hanks; Abraham Berss, Ludlow Cox. Richard W. Corbus, Samuel B. Corbus, Nathaniel Crofoot, James H. Davis, Solomon Gilman, Wesley Gordon, Daniel W. Hamblin, Sylvester Holiday, John Ladd, Clark Munson, William J. Norton and Isaac A. Smith. The St. Joseph company (E) left Detroit for the seat of war in Mexico in April, 1847. Its immediate destination was Vera Cruz. The company was engaged at Riconada Pass, June 24th; Contreras and Churubusco, August 19th and 20th; Molina del Rey, September 8th, and Chepultepec September 13th. Captain Toll commanded in every engagement except Chepultepec, reaching that battle toward its close and being conveyed thither in an ambulance from the Mexcoac hospital, before he had recovered from his wounds at Churubusco. At the latter battle, which was especially disastrous to St. Joseph county men, he had command of the regimental colors. The regiment, under command of Colonel Morgan, was thrown into disorder by a fierce attack of the enemy who outnumbered the Americans eight to one. In this assault the commanding officer was severely wounded, First Lieutenant Goodman, of Company E, killed, and Orderly Sergeant Cunningham mortally wounded. Captain Toll rallied the men on the colors, preparing for a charge, when the flanking companies of the regiment fell back, leaving Company E unsupported and fully exposed to the fire of the Mexicans. But the men bravely supported their captain, who rallied not only his little command but the entire regiment

Page  240 240 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY driving the enemy from his position which was protected by a ditch and a maguey fence. The victory, however, was gained at terrific cost to Company E, the brave men from St. Joseph county sharing largely in the casualties and the glory. Besides Captain Toll and Sergeant Cunningham, who were wounded, Corporal Hanks received his death wounds; Richard W. Corbus, Hamblin, Holiday, Ladd and Munson also died of their injuries; Cornell was shot through the head, but recovered; and Samuel B. Corbus, Nathaniel Crofoot, Davis, Gilman, Gordon, Norton and Isaac A. Smith were wounded more or less severely. Sergeant William S. Smith, a brave soldier, who participated in every engagement and came through unscathed, died of chronic diarrhoea on his way home. FRANCIS FLANDERS, JR. Francis Flanders, Jr., who left for Mexico as first sergeant of his company, was transferred to another regiment as chief musician, which gave him the rank of major. He had served in the Florida war before going to Mexico, and after hostilities in the latter country had ceased, lived in California and Mexico until the summer of 1876, when he returned to Sturgis. He was the leading musician of the first brass band organized in St. Joseph county. It was formed at Sturgis, was called the St. Joseph County Democratic Brass Band and was commanded by Captain A. S. Drake. Mr. Flanders' grandfather was a soldier of the Revolution; his father a Vermont soldier in the war of 1812 and a pioneer wool carder and justice of the peace of Fawn River township; and as he himself participated in the Florida and Mexican wars, it is in strong evidence that the Flanders men were of fighting stock. And Francis Flanders, Jr., is one of the very few who enlisted from St. Joseph county for the Mexican war and was fortunate enough to escape unwounded from its battle fields. IN THE CIVIL WAR. Michigan furnished to the Union armies of the Civil war, thirty regiments of infantry, eleven of cavalry and fourteen of artillery; one of mechanics and engineers; one of sharpshooters; and several companies which were incorporated into the com

Page  241 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 241 mands credited to other states. In the Michigan organizations, St. Joseph county is represented in all but the Eighteenth, Twenty-first and Twenty-second regiments of infantry. The Eleventh Infantry was raised almost entirely in St. Joseph county, and she also sent full companies to the First, Second, Fourth, Sixth, Seventh, Eleventh, Thirteenth, Fifteenth, Nineteenth and Twenty-fifth, as well as supplied three batteries (D, F and G) of the twelve which composed the First Regiment of Michigan Light Artillery. Altogether, the county raised 2,692 of the 90,747 Union soldiers which Michigan sent forth to the battlefields of the Civil war. Not a single important campaign or battle of the war can be mentioned in which some Michigan regiment or company did not lead a desperate movement, or stand the brunt of some fierce assault of the enemy. Michigan soldiers were stanch, dependable troops, as well as dashing and impetuous ones, who were ever ready to take the initiative. What words are too strong for the heroic conduct of the Eleventh, under Colonel W. L. Stoughton, at Stone River and Chickamauga, where it so added to the renown of the great Thomas! Then there was the Nineteenth, which led the advance of Sherman's magnificent army against Atlanta; the Twentyfifth, which at Green River bridge, Kentucky, repulsed Morgan's famed cavalry, saved Louisville, and afterwards bore itself so nobly at Resaca and Atlanta; the Seventh, which first crossed the Rappahannock at Fredericksburg, in the face of the concentrated Confederate fire, and whose gallant ranks were so terribly mowed down at Antietam and Gettysburg; the First, which shared with Ellsworth 's New York Zouaves the honor of first occupying Alexandria, which uncringingly received its real baptismal of fire at First and Second Bull Run, losing among its gallant officers the lamented Colonel H. S. Roberts, and shared in the disappointments and victories of the awful battles of Antietam, Chancellorsville and the Wilderness; the Second, which was always "there," whether called upon at Fair Oaks, Knoxville or in the Wilderness; the Thirteenth, heroes also of Stone River and Chickamauga; the Fourth, which covered the retreat of the Union army at First Bull Run, opened McClellan's Peninsula campaign, was in the advance across the Chickahominy, at Malvern Hill lost its gallant Colonel Woodbury and C'aptains DePuy and Rose, and continued its brilliant career at Fredericksburg, Gettysburg and Vol. 1-16

Page  242 242 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the Wilderness; and the Sixth, isolated from the other Michigan Regiments, but in the campaigns of the far south splendidly upholding the fighting and military reputation of the state-among the first of the Union troops to occupy New Orleans, under General Butler, repulsing the Confederates from Baton Rouge, leading Sherman's division in its assault on Port Hudson, and finally earning fame as a heavy artillery regiment during the investment of Mobile. And this was by no means the full meed which stands to the credit of the regiments in whose ranks and among whose officers fought the men which St. Joseph county sent to the front to uphold the Union idea by the awful force of war; three of her batteries, incorporated into the First Light Artillery of Michigan, boldly and valiantly spoke at Chickamauga; and in numerous regiments of infantry, among the Union sharpshooters who hourly risked their lives for the cause, and in many organizations of cavalry and artillery scattered from Texas to Virginia, the sons of Michigan and St. Joseph county were content to sink their state, their county and themselves in the great army which represented their principles and their patriotism. THE ELEVENTH MICHIGAN. That the Eleventh Michigan Infantry was pre-eminently a St. Joseph county command will be admitted from the facts that 610 men and officers were recruited within its borders; that four full companies were raised in the county, and that its staff officers, from organization to honorable discharge, were nearly all St. Joseph men. The four full companies recruited in this county were as follows: A, Claptain David Oakes, Jr., Nottawa, who died at Murfreesboro; C, Captain Calvin C. Hood, Sturgis; D, Captain Benjamin C. Bennett, Burr Oak, promoted to major and killed at Missionary Ridge; E, Captain Henry N. Spencer, Lockport, resigned, and Lieutenant Thomas Flynn, promoted to vacancy and killed at Stone River, and Second Lieutenant Charles W. Newberry, of Burr Oaks, promoted to captaincy and killed at Chickamauga. Besides these companies, Company G. officered by Captain Moase and Lieutenant Comstock, of Branch county, had over fifty men from St. Joseph county, and Company F, commanded in the later part of its career by Captain Myron C. Benedict, of Leonidas, had nearly as many more. Company I had a squad of about fifteen, recruited by Lieutenant Henry S. Platt, of Sturgis.

Page  243 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 243 The original roster of the regiment, including the line officers of the St. Joseph companies, was as follows: Colonel, William L. May, of White Pigeon, who resigned April 1, 1862. Lieutenant colonel, William L. Stoughton, Sturgis. Major, Benjamin F. Doughty, Sturgis; resigned August 18, 1862. Surgeon, Dr. William N. Elliott, White Pigeon. Assistant surgeon, Nelson I. Packard, Sturgis. Chaplain, Holmes A. Pattison, Colon. Quartermaster, Addison T. Drake, Sturgis. Adjutant, Samuel Charwick, Lockport. Sergeant major, James M. Whallen, Burr Oak. Quartermaster's sergeant, John Underwood, White Pigeon. Commissary sergeant, Elva F. Peirce, Nottawa. Captain Company A, David Oakes, Jr., Nottawa; first lieutenant, Christian Haight, Leonidas; second lieutenant, Aaron B. Sturgis, Sturgis. Captain Company C, Calvin C. Hood, Sturgis; first lieutenant, Mathias M. Faulkner, Sturgis; second lieutenant, Loren H. Howard, Fawn River. Captain Company D, Benjamin G. Bennett, Burr Oak; first lieutenant, John R. Keeler, Burr Oak. Captain Company E, Henry N. Spencer, Lockport; first lieutenant, Thomas Flynn, Lockport; second lieutenant, Charles W. Newberry, Burr Oak. Captain Company G, Charles Moase, Branch county; second lieutenant, Silas G. Comstock, Branch county. Second lieutenant Company I, Henry S. Platt, Sturgis. The rank and file of the Eleventh always considered that they most gloriously met the supreme test of their fortitude at Stone River and C'hickamauga. At the former battle, commanded by Colonel Stoughton, it was in Thomas' corps, near the center of the Union lines, and received and checked one of the fiercest assaults delivered by the Confederate army. The Eleventh Michigan and the Nineteenth Illinois charged in advance of Negley's division, to which they were attached, and drove back an entire Confederate division. The loss to the Michigan command was

Page  244 244 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY thirty-two killed, seventy-nine wounded and twenty-nine missing. After describing the first and indecisive engagement of December 31st, Colonel Stoughton takes up the second battle of Stone River, in which the Eleventh were also heroes of the day. "On the second of January," he says, "we were again called into action. In the afternoon of that day we were posted as a reserve in an open field in the rear of batteries, on the right of the left wing of our army. Between three and four o'clock the enemy made a heavy attack with artillery and infantry on our front. My command was kept lying upon the ground, protected by a slight hill for about half an hour. "At the expiration of this time the enemy had driven back our forces on the opposite side of the river, one regiment crossing in great disorder and rushing through our ranks. As soon as the enemy came within range, my regiment with the others of the brigade rose up, delivered its fire and charged across the river. In passing the river my line was necessarily broken, and I led the regiment forward to a fence on a rise of ground and re-formed the line. Here the firing continued for some time until the enemy was driven from his cover and retreated through the woods. My regiment was then promptly advanced to the edge of the woods and continued to fire upon the enemy as he fled in disorder across the open field in front of his line of intrenchments. At this time the ammunition was nearly exhausted, and my regiment, with the others in advance, formed in line of battle, threw out skirmishers and held our position until recalled across the river. The Eleventh was among the first to cross Stone river, and assisted in capturing four pieces of artillery abandoned by the enemy in his flight. "I cannot speak too highly of the troops under my command. They fought with the bravery and coolness of veterans, and obeyed my commands under the hottest fire with the precision of the parade ground. The officers of my command behaved with great gallantry and firmness. Where all nobly discharged their duty, it would, perhaps, be unjust to discriminate. Lieutenants Wilson and Flynn were killed while gallantly leading their companies. Major Smith and Lieutenants Hall, Briggs and Howard were wounded, the former two severely, and Lieutenant Hall is a prisoner. " At the battle of Chickamauga, Colonel Stoughton commanded a brigade and the Eleventh regiment was led by Lieutenant Colonel Mudge. On the last day of that terrible conflict, the brigade formed

Page  245 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 245 one of the most important links in Thomas' great chain of defense and successfully repelled many charges of the enemy in greatly superior force. The regiment was one of the last to retire in the darkness of that fearful night; its casualties were seven killed (in eluding Captain Charles W. Newberry, of Burr Oak), seventy-six wounded and twenty-three missing. On the following morning Colonel Stoughton occupied the approach to the battlefield, held it during the day and at night covered the retreat of the Union army to Chattanooga. He silently drew off his artillery by hand, remained on the picket line until the following morning, made a forced march to Chattanooga without the loss of a man, and carried out his movements, from first to last, with such coolness and military skill that he was complimented personally by General Thomas. At Missionary Ridge Major B. G. Bennett, then in command of the regiment, met his death in the last and decisive charge; entire loss, in killed and wounded, thirty-nine. On the fourth of July following, in charging the enemy's works near Marietta, Colonel Stoughton was so severely wounded that he lost his leg, and Lieutenant Myron Benedict, his right arm. The Eleventh suffered a loss of eleven killed and wounded, and in front of Atlanta, August 7th, Lieutenant Edward Catlin lost his life among the fifteen men killed and wounded there. After a fruitless pursuit of the rebel cavalry leader, General Wheeler, the regiment left two commissioned officers and one hundred and fifty men at Chattanooga, whose terms of enlistment had not expired, and the balance of the command started for Michigan, and was mustered out at Sturgis, September 25, 1864. Following is a roster of the soldiers, arranged by townships, who went into the Eleventh from St. Joseph county: Nottawa township-Company A: Captain David Oakes, Jr., died at Murfreesboro, January, 1862; First Lieutenant Henry S. Fisher, captain (Jan. 10, 1863), resigned; Commissary Sergeant Elva F. Peirce, veteran reserve corps; Musician George D. Clarke, mustered out August 22, 1862; Sergeant Walter A. Johnson, died at Centerville, January 12, 1862; Sergeant James F. Lovett, killed at Chickamauga; Sergeant Hiram G. Platt, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal John W. Hall, discharged for disability; Corporal Abner V. Wilcox, killed at Chattanooga; Corporal Melvin D. Hazzard, discharged at expiration of service; Musician George W. Kent, discharged for disability; Musician W. H. H. Platt, sergeant major, discharged at expiration of service; Robert Baker, Cyrus E.

Page  246 246 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Pierce, William R. Thrasher, James A. Todd, and Aristus O. Bishop, discharged for disability; George W. Dickinson, Charles W. Donkin, Rollin O. Eaton, Charles Fisher, Henry Hall, William C. Iddings, Francisco Klady, Hiram D. Westcott, Cyrus A. Bowers, John Fisher, George L. Clark, Andrew Knapp, Almerna O. Currier, John Savage, George Savage, all discharged at expiration of service; Jay Dickinson, died at Louisville, Ky.; Martin V. Wilcox and William Frankish, promoted and mustered out; Festus E. Eaton, James Ennis, David Shafer, John Dickinson, Jacob Gruber, John Salmon and Edward Smith, mustered out; James Findlay, enlisted in regular army and disappeared; Duncan Stewart, died at Columbia, Tennessee, June 30, 1862; and Ephraim A. Austin, died at Nashville, Tennessee. White Pigeon township-Colonel William J. May, resigned April 1, 1862; Surgeon W. N. Elliott, mustered out with regiment; Quartermaster's Sergeant John Underwood, first lieutenant and quartermaster, mustered out; Musicians Henry H. Hackenburg and Henry F. Clifell, both mustered out August 22, 1862. Company A: Martin V. B. Clark, discharged at expiration of service. Company C: James F. Bicklin, Warren F. Barnes, discharged at expiration of service; Charles E. Barnes, died at Chattanooga, December, 1863; John Fisher, killed at Stone River, December, 1862; Lorenzo H. Griffin, discharged at expiration of service; Perry Letson, discharged for disability. Company D: Sergeant William Robinson, discharged; Thomas R. Hodgkins, killed near Dallas, Georgia. Company E: Charles H. Dalton and Christ Welgamwood, mustered out; William E. Raymond, promoted and mustered out. Company G: Peter O. Dowd, discharged at expiration of service. Lockport township-Adjutant Samuel Chadwick, resigned; Drum Major Charles E. Franklin, discharged February 6, 1862; Principal Musician Hiram M. Wheeler, mustered out August 22, 1862, with Musicians Horatio G. Taggart, Jason Clarke, Charles Rice and James A. Knevels; Musicians Alfred Lantz and John B. Silliman, discharged for disability. Company A-Charles Francisco, and Elias Ward, discharged for disability; Loriston Fulkerson, died at Bardstown, Kentucky; Henry Hale, George S. Sheffield; Atnson Spencer, Milo L. G. Wheeler, Thomas V. Woodhouse, discharged at expiration of service; John A. Mills, veteran relief corps. Company B: Dexter

Page  247 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 247 Avery and Samuel Pugh, discharged. Company C: Eliott S. Gray, discharged. Company E: Captain Henry N. Spencer, resigned; First Lieutenant Thomas Flynn, captain, killed at Stone River; Sergeant John Graham; Sergeant Edward M. Frost, discharged at expiration of service; Sergeant George Nyce, discharged for disability; Corporal John W. Banter, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal Harvey Lockwood, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal Lot T. Woodworth, discharged for disability; Corporal Ezra Spencer, died at Stone River; Corporal James T. Elliott, discharged for promotion. Privates: Frank M. Bauter, Hiram L. Brewster, Edwin Craig, Michael Fellinger, Henry Hix, discharged; George S. Baum, George Drescher, Charles David, John Eggelshoffer, Augustus Ennis, Alexander Ennis, Phillip Jones, Samuel Quaco and George W. Spencer, discharged at expiration of service; Arthur M. Bush, and John Ramsey, discharged for disability; Cornelius J. Fonda, died at Nashville, Tennessee, August 10, 1862; Caleb W. Elmer, died at Louisville, Kentucky, August 10, 1862; Joseph Malalivly, died at Tullahoma, Tennessee, July 12, 1863; James Graham, died at Charleston, Tennessee; William S. Woodhead, Dwight Cummings, Edward W. Franklin, William Oswalt, Charles E. Quace, Adrian Van Ordstrand and Reuben Truxler, mustered out. Company F: Alex. Detwiler, mustered out. Company G: Daniel Harwood, Eli Mann and Foster Drake, discharged at expiration of service. Company H: Charles H. Stamp and Adam Oswalt, mustered out. Company K: George W. Barton, discharged at expiration of service. Colon township-Chaplain Holmes A. Pattison, mustered out with regiment; John Downey, non-commissioned staff, mustered out. Company A: Corporal Philo Hoit, died at Nashville, December 24, 1862; William Davis, Bert Knickerbocker, Robert Renner and William T. Renner, discharged at expiration of service; Hugh McCormick, discharged for disability; Dudley C. Marvin, died at Murfreesboro, March 4, 1863; Jared M. Taylor, missing at Chickamauga, died at Andersonville; Wallace Washburn, died at Bardstown, Kentucky; Charles E. Powers and Isaac Knapp, wounded and mustered out. Company C: Solomon Burchard, died of small pox, February 6, 1862; Company D: Sergeants Edwin P. Wellesley

Page  248 248 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and John H. Montgomery, discharged; Corporal Simeon D. Long, discharged at expiration of service; Corporals Homer F. Romine and Narcelus A. Bronson, discharged for disability. Privates: Daniel B. Adams, James Everhard, Abram H. Wyant, discharged for disability; Ira R. Adams, lost arm at Lookout Mountain, discharged; Byron C. Brunson, died May 16, 1862; Stephen W. Chapman, discharged at Louisville, August 19, 1862; George S. Gillett, killed at Chattanooga, November 25, 1863; Byron I. Liddle, re-enlisted and killed near Marietta, Georgia; Martin V. Lytle, died January 13, 1862; Thomas Smith, John H. Spittler, Joseph Wixon and Thomas A. White, discharged at expiration of service; Stillman Robinson, died January 2, 1862; William H. Wyant, discharged at Nashville; Charles A. White, died April 20, 1862; William E. Thornton, Isaac Lowder, Isaac Kriberlin and Joseph P. Farrand, mustered out. Company E: Jacob Bower, died at Bardstown, Kentucky, February 22, 1862; George L. Bower and Benjamin Clubine, discharged at expiration of service. Company F: Henry M. Davis, died June 22, 1864; John S. Taylor, William H. Howard, John Long and James Kammerling, mustered out. Company G: Sergeant Thomas H. Smith, discharged at expiration of service; Cyrus Gilbert, killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862; Isaac B. Lyon, discharged at expiration of service. Company I: William L. Thornton, mustered out. Leonidas township-Company A: First Lieutenant Charles Haight, died at Bardstown, Kentucky, February 5, 1862; Sergeant Stephen P. Marsh, discharged at expiration of service; Sergeant Charles Coddington, captain, mustered out; Corporal Lemuel P. Pierce, discharged for disability; Eugene Carpenter and Olney Bishop, discharged for disability; Charles W. Baird, Byron V. Barker (second lieutenant), Richard F. Huxley, discharged; Henry C. Damon, escaped from Andersonville, pursued by blood hounds; discharged at expiration of service; Sidney A. Durfee, Barzillai M. Earl, James Overton, John L. Gould, Julius H. Thompkins, Albert 0. Watkins, Elmer Surdam and Royal M. Taylor, discharged at expiration of service; Sylvanus Gould, died at Bardstown, Kentucky; William S. Lemunyon, died of wounds received at Atlanta, his bowels having been shot away; Charles B. Purchase, died at Lavergne, Tennessee, September 15, 1862; Byron Thomas, Harri

Page  249 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 249 son Surdam, Richard Hemingway, James Benedict, Jonas N. Barker, Henry C. Barker, A. E. Farnham, George W. Cramer, Joseph A. Franklin, Charles Millard, William E. Morgan, Hiram Vought and W. W. Truslee, mustered out; William P. Thomas, died at Rossville, Georgia; William J. Barker, veteran reserve corps. Company B: Addison R. Noble, Madison Watkins and Charles Woods, mustered out. Company C: Corporal Martin W. Gilbert, discharged for disability; Corporal Ezra Warren, died April 12, 1862; Daniel B. Watkins, discharged at expiration of service; Levi Wilcox, died at Murfreesboro, June 28, 1863. Company D: Rawdon Keyes, discharged as captain; W. H. Overton, Anson T. Gilbert and Melvin J. Lyon, discharged; W. H. Taylor, died January 29, 1862; Paul H. Orcutt, mustered out. Company F: First Lieutenant J. L. Thompson, mustered out; Edward White, killed before Atlanta; R. R. Barnes, wounded before Atlanta, mustered out; Judson E. Hall, Milton Greenwood, Charles H. Farnham, James C. Arnold, James L. Haines, Albert C. Lowther, Felix Baldery, John Etheridge, Henry Etheridge, Daniel Forbes, E. J. Covey and Wilson R. Lowther, mustered out. Company F: First Lieutenant Myron A. Benedict, lost his right arm before Atlanta, discharged; First Lieutenant J. L. Thomas, mustered out. Company G: Corporal Darius C. Dickinson, discharged at expiration of service; also Augustus Dickinson and Henry Warren; Samuel C. Dickinson, mustered out. Company I: A. C. Shafer, shot three times before Atlanta, mustered out; Walter S. Terry, William Miller, Snyder Tutewiler, M. Wilder, D. Brockway, Jacob Leginger, Leander Porter, Frederick Roberts, Charles Smithe and William Snooks, mustered out. Company K: Edward W. Watkins, discharged at the close of the war. Flowerfield township-Company B: Musician John Ludwig, mustered out August 22, 1862; Oliver Stebbins, died at Chattanooga; Samuel P. Beck, Henry Parker, William Parker and Samuel Spiegelmoyer, mustered out. Company C: Aaron Hackenburgh, re-enlisted and mustered out.

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Company E: Corporal John I. Bloom, discharged at expiration of service; Musician William H. Seekel, died at Nashville, October 20, 1862; Musician James W. Seekel, discharged. Privates: Richard Brayman, James W. Beck, George Eggleson, Bradley L. Lane and Albert Osmer, discharged at expiration of service; Alva P. Dailey, died at White Pigeon, December 19, 1861; John T. Hale, died at Bardstown, Kentucky, January 26, 1862; John McIlvaune, died at Stone River, December 31, 1862; John C. Smith, discharged September 26, 1862; Joseph E. Thompson, cut his throat while home on a furlough; Reuben G. Weinburg, re-enlisted in Company C, Fifteenth regiment; William H. Weinburg and Edward Mosser, killed near Atlanta; John B. Alcock, died at Nashville; Daniel Frees, Henry T. Frees, Joel Lee, Daniel Motter, Horace Smith, W. C. T. Sampsell and Charles P. Ludwig, mustered out. Company G: Sergeant Orlando Williams, died January 30, 1862; Sergeant James Bouton, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal George Straw; Corporal Laban Pierce, died February 5, 1862; Oscar Angle, killed at Stone River, December 31, 1862; Joel Pierce, died January 8, 1862; Thomas Straw, died February 11, 1862; Myron C. Palmer, died at Jeffersonville, Indiana, March, 1862; Daniel Condick, mustered out; James Walker and Charles D. Seekel, discharged at expiration of service. Fabius township-Company A: Drum Major Abishai Hoisington, discharged; Corporal Benjamin F. Wells, discharged at expiration of service; James W. 'King; Edward Timm, died of wounds at Murfreesboro; Lewis Timm, discharged at expiration of service; Frederick Timm, discharged for disability; August M. Wellman, mustered out. C!ompany E: Sergeant Wallace W. Hoisington, died at Nashville, September 21, 1861; Sergeant Borden M. Hicks, captain, mustered out; Henry Close, John Salter and Nathan H. Legg, discharged at expiration of service; Reuben Manley died at White Pigeon, December, 1862; David Reish, mustered out. Mendon township-Company A: Sergeant Cuthbert Dixon, discharged at expiration of service; Corporals Aaron B. White and Edwin D. White, discharged at expiration of service; Leonard F. Carknard, died at Stevenson, Alabama, October 15, 1863; Nicholas C. Carknard, discharged; Thelismar A. Church, John R.

Page  251 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 251 Hamlin, William F. Patterson, David Rockwell and Daniel D. V. Rose, discharged at expiration of service; Ephraim Gibson, died at Elizabethtown, Kentucky; Thomas A. White, discharged for disability; Henry A. Key, Martin H. Glover, James K. Woodward and Richard H. Welch, mustered out. Company C: Harrison Auten, died May 2, 1862; Nelson Bacon and William F. Y. Bournes, discharged at expiration of service; William H. Auten, veteran reserve corps. Company E: Anthony Worthington, discharged at expiration of service. Company G: Thomas Crow, discharged November 30, 1861; Harvey Bates, mustered out. Company I: General V. Bland, mustered out. Sherman township-Company A: Royal M. Carlisle, died at Bardstown, Kentucky, January 2, 1862. Company B: George W. Wetmore, mustered out; Charles V. Forbes and Jerome Morehouse, discharged at expiration of service. Company C: Eugene P. Willard and Edward P. Willard, discharged at expiration of service. Company E: W. H. Fress, Peter Fress, Robert H. Ives and Reuben Walls, mustered out. Company G: Stephen Gilkerson, mustered out. Fawn River township-Company C: Second Lieutenant Loren H. Howard, promoted to first lieutenant and captain, and mustered out at close of war; Sergeant Smith A. Benedict, discharged; Sergeant Alonzo H. Merrick, killed at Chattanooga; Sergeant Harrison Graves, enlisted in 1862, mustered out at close of war; Corporal Samuel L. Graves, enlisted in 1862, discharged for disability; Lewis Wheeler, discharged at expiration of service and died at home from disease contracted in the service. Company G: Andrew Kershner, discharged at expiration of service. Park township-Company B: Charles Carter, mustered out. Company C; Henry M. Woodward, died of typhoid fever, April 16, 1862. Company E: Corporal John M. Day, killed at Chattanooga; David Clingman and Solomon Shirley, discharged at expiration of service; Hiram I. Evart, died at Stone River; Aaron Wilhelm

Page  252 252 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY discharged by Colonel May, September, 1861; Robert S. Day, James Slote, Manasseh Clingeman and Joseph S. Brown, mustered out. HISTORY OF THE NINETEENTH. The Nineteenth Michigan Infantry was organized by Colonel Henry C. Gilbert, who was killed at the battle of Resaca while leading his regiment upon a rebel battery. There were two full companies in its ranks: Company D, Captain Hazen W. Brown, afterward commanded by Captain Frank D. Baldwin, and Company E, Captain John J. Baker; all of whom were promoted to the lieutenant colonelcy of the regiment, the last named holding that rank when discharged. Lieutenant David J. Easton, also of Company E, was major of the regiment when he received his honorable discharge. The Nineteenth gave a consistent and soldierly account of itself throughout its career, but none better than at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, when, with two Indiana and one Wisconsin regiment, with a portion of an Ohio infantry command, and detachments of cavalry and artillery, it faced the entire cavalry of Bragg's army, eighteen thousand strong. This was in command of General Van Dorn, its six brigades being led by Generals Forrest, Wheeler, French, Armstrong, Jackson, Martin and Crosby. The left of the Union line was held by the Nineteenth Michigan and the Twenty-second Wisconsin, which repelled the charges of the enemy for some time. Through some misunderstanding of orders, the Union artillery and a portion of the cavalry which were supporting this part of the Federal forces, left the field, as did also three companies of the Wisconsin regiment, which left the brunt of the affray on the shoulders of the Nineteenth. Discovering this predicament, two brigades of the Confederates charged fiercely and gallantly from opposite directions, but were three times repulsed. In one of these charges the Nineteenth Michigan captured the colors of the Fourth Mississippi regiment. But the enemy finally gained possession of a hill to the east of the main Union line, whence they were able to hurl their death-dealing grape and canister into the ranks of the northern forces. To add to the desperate situation, the ammunition of the Union troops was getting short, and the Confederate, Forrest, had pushed himself be

Page  253 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 253 tween them and the relieving Union column which was advancing from the north. A new line was then formed by Colonel Coburn, the Union commander, to meet the new line of advance. Forrest was met and held in check until the last round of ammunition was fired. The gallant little band then fixed bayonets to charge and break through the enemy's line, but as they were about to charge, it was discovered that the Confederates had still another line in reserve, and a battery began to open fire from a new position. Escape was therefore hopeless and, to avoid useless loss of life, the Nineteenth surrendered, having lost one hundred and thirteen killed and wounded. Colonel Gilbert had his horse shot under him in the early part of the engagement and behaved most gallantly. When he offered his sword to the Confederate commander, the latter declined to receive it, saying that an officer who was so brave in battle "deserved to retain his arms." At Resaca the Nineteenth was desperately engaged, as a part of the First brigade, Fourth division and Twentieth corps, and while gallantly charging a Confederate battery, which it captured and held. Colonel Gilbert, still in command, was mortally wounded, dying at Chattanooga, on the 24th of that month (May, 1864). At Peach Tree Creek the regiment was commanded by Major John J. Baker, he being wounded in the engagement, with about thirty privates. It was with Sherman in his march to the sea and through the Carolinas, Captain Leonard Gibbon and Lieutenant Charles G. Purcell being killed in the fierce assault of the Union forces upon the enemy's works and artillery at Averyboro, North Carolina. Lieutenant Baldwin, of Company D, was the hero of a remarkable defense at a stockade on the Nashville & Chattanooga railroad at Stone river. While occupying it with fifty men of his company, he was attacked by two divisions of cavalry and twelve pieces of artillery under General Wheeler. With his musketry fire he held the fort for an hour and a half, or until his stockade had been knocked into kindling wood, and surrendered. Strange to say, his loss was but six wounded, while the enemy lost two killed and eight wounded. The entire loss of the regiment during its term of service was seven officers and ninety-one men killed or died of wounds, and one hundred and thirty-five men died of disease. The chief quotas to the Nineteenth, credited to the townships of the county, were as follows:

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Sturgis township-Company A: Martin Stuckman, George Stuckman, mustered out; Peter Nash, discharged at expiration of service. Company D: Peter Dyer and William Poppins, mustered out. Company E: Captain John J. Baker, major (June 27, 1864), lieutenant colonel (October 28, 1864), wounded at Lookout Mountain and discharged; First Lieutenant David J. Easton, captain (May 2, 1864), major and mustered out; Second Lieutenant John F. Clarke, first lieutenant (May 1, 1863), captain and mustered out; Sergeant Edmund S. Amidon, discharged for disability; Sergeant John J. Coblentz, second lieutenant and resigned; Sergeant William J. Smith, killed at Resaca, May 14, 1864; Sergeant Andrew J. Lamb, mustered out; Sergeant Wesley Locke, second lieutenant and mustered out; Corporal George Dawes, died at Annapolis, April 20, 1863; Corporals C. B. Rodabaugh, John H. Popino, Isaac B. Turner, mustered out; Musician John W. Howk, mustered out; Wagoner John C. Davis, mustered out. Privates: William H. Allen, George H. Chandler, Robert Fox, Edmund S, Smith, all discharged; Thomas Adams, Pulaski C. Crapo, William A. Culver, Clinton S. Compton, Charles B. Ford, Elon C. Greenman, Charles S. Harper, Franklin Hause, Henry D. Lester, Daniel H. Morrison, Franklin G. Rice, Charles E. Stowe, Daniel Thurston, Eliah J. Mugg, Hamilton A. Coe, John R. Miller, Oliver P. Hanks, Delos Lake, Henry H. Pullman and Ephraim Warner, mustered out; Alonzo I. Bacon, killed at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 5, 1863; Thomas W. Barr, killed at Resaca; William H. Ashley, died at Annapolis, April 11, 1863; Frederick Doss, veteran reserve corps and mustered out; DeWitt C. Greenman, killed at Thompson's Station, March 5., 1863; Valentine Musteck, died at Nashville, February 25, 1863; Charles B. McAboy, deserted at Dowagiac; John Walker, died at Annapolis, May 8, 1863; William G. Mugg, died of wounds May 30, 1864; John W. Anderson, died at McMinnville; John Thurston, transferred to Tenth regiment and mustered out; James Hoffstader, died at Annapolis, April 24, 1863. White Pigeon township-Company D: William Eastwood, Thomas Franklin and George Hudson, mustered out. Company E: Corporal William Haines, mustered out; George W. Antis, James Griffith and George Shultice, discharged; Adam Bear and Isaac Green, died of wounds received at Thompson's

Page  255 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 255 Station; Moses B. Tice, discharged for disability; Lewis A. Labadie, promoted to first lieutenant, mustered out; Henry Holderman, died at Atlanta; William Haines, William Bachman, Mathew Daniels, Charles L. Ellis, John Pratt, James A. Prouty, John H. Pierce, William Snooks, Sol. B. Stephenson, William F. Whitcomb and George Wagner, mustered out. Nottawa township-Assistant Surgeon John Bennett, surgeon (July 18, 1863), mustered out. Company D: Sergeants Ira S. Carpenter and E. E. E. Bacon, mustered out; Corporals Henry Vivian and Charles H. Connor, mustered out; Wagoner William B. English, mustered out; George W. Adams, died at Annapolis, July 22, 1863; Chauncey Rose, died at Danville, Kentucky; John A. Sutton, died at McMinnville, Tennessee; Charles Adams, Pembroke S. Beckwith, Oliver Craft, Joseph Goodwin, Andrew Shaver, John L. Thomas, Frederick A. Thieabeaud, George W. Wynkoop and John C. Whittaker, mustered out. Company G: George Grubber, transferred to the Tenth and mustered out. Company H: George Henry Clark, mustered out. Constantine township-Company C: Francis C. Doty and Perry Holmes, mustered out. Company D: First Lieutenant Frank D. Baldwin, captain (January 22, 1864), lieutenant colonel and mustered out; Sergeant Charles W. Mandeville, died in action at Dallas woods; Sergeant James Harris, died after muster-out; Musician Charles M. Chittenden, discharged for disability; Musician Charles Whitting, died at Nashville, May 9, 1863. Privates: Timothy Bailey, William Melvin, John Melvin, and Hiram Ray, discharged; John Lawler, veteran reserve corps; Leman W. Bristol, Samuel Curtis, Shepherd Curtis, Charles H. Caswell, George Hate, David D. Knapp, Jacob Lintz, Benjamin F. Thomas, Aaron Thomas, C. F. Thomas, William J. Thomas, George D. Ward, Martin L. Ward, Marvin C. Hutchins, Almon Woodworth, Eben Odell, Joseph Shival and John Draper, mustered out; Peter Moyer, died at Gravel Pit, Ohio, October 5, 1862; Obadiah M. Wright, died at Lexington, Kentucky. Company E: Austin Mereness and Matthias Hullen, mustered out. Company F: Daniel Christian, died at Chattanooga; Marion Braden, mustered out. Company F: Perry Holmes, mustered out. Sherman township-Company D: Julius N. Carlisle, veteran reserve corps, mustered out; Isaac Driese, William G. Oakes, Al

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY bert C. Wilson and H. Hackstaff, mustered out; Charles LaClear, killed at Chattanooga. Company E: Moses Hibberlee, Washington Sprague and James K. Sackett, mustered out; Robert H. Hermance, discharged; James Robertson, killed at Thompson's Station, Tennessee, March 24, 1863. THE TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. The two companies from St. Joseph county represented in the Twenty-fifth infantry were D, first commanded by Captain Julius C. Cross, of Three Rivers, and afterward by Lieutenant Henry McCrary, of Leonidas, and G, Captain William Fulkerson, of Lockport, who was succeeded by Lieutenant John B. Handy, of Three Rivers. The regiment was in command of Colonel O. H. Moore, of Kalamazoo, where it was recruited and organized. Its most noteworthy achievements were in Kentucky, July 4, 1863, when it undoubtedly saved Louisville from a division of Morgan's men, and at Resaca, on Christmas day of the same year, when it participated in the famous charge of Judah's Union division, which saved the day for Sherman. About July 1st, Colonel Moore was stationed with five companies of his regiment on the north side of Green river, on the main road from Columbia to Lebanon, Kentucky, and on the following day was advised that the dashing and brave Confederate, John H. Morgan, was about to cross the Cumberland river with a cavalry force of some four thousand men and invade the state, his objective point being evidently Louisville. As there was no Union force within thirty miles, Colonel Moore decided that it was his patriotic duty to oppose this overwhelming force, if only to gain a little time to be joined by his supporting column. He therefore crossed the river with his five companies of three hundred men, and selected a battlefield about two miles from that stream, in a bend of the river, commanded by high bluffs and through which the road ran along which the enemy was to advance. On the evening of July 3d Morgan's force encamped three miles away. By this time the little Union band had felled some trees along the first battle line to serve as a check to cavalry, and nearer the river a temporary earth work on a rise of ground which Colonel Moore conjectured would be selected by Morgan as a vantage ground for his batteries of artillery. Early on the morning of July 4th, the entire rebel division pressed to the front, their fire being returned with such spirit by

Page  257 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 257 Colonel Moore's seventy-five men, who held the breast-works, that the Confederates were evidently nonplussed as to the actual number opposing them. Seventy-five more men joined the defenders of the forlorn hope, and as they were the best marksmen of the command held the enemy in check for some minutes longer. But, as was inevitable, a force of Morgan's troops finally gained the works and there planted a battery of four pieces from which to shell the main Union position. After delivering a few rounds General Morgan sent his chief of staff, C!olonel Allston, to the commander of the Twenty-fifth, under a flag of truce, and demanded an unconditional surrender, to which Colonel Moore replied: "Present my compliments to General Morgan, and say to him that this being the Fourth of July I cannot entertain the proposition to surrender." Colonel Allston replied: " I hope you will not consider me dictatorial on this occasion. I will be frank. You see the breach we have made upon your works with our battery; you cannot hope to repulse General Morgan's whole division with your little command; you have resisted us gallantly and deserve credit for it, and now I hope you will save useless bloodshed by reconsidering your reply to General Morgan." Then Colonel Moore: "Sir, when you assume to know my strength, you assume too much. I have a duty to perform to my country, and therefore cannot reconsider my reply to General Morgan. " The Confederate officer extended his hand and said: "Goodby, Colonel Moore. God only knows which of us may fall first." And they turned their horses and galloped in opposite directions the firing being at once resumed. No sooner had the rebel battery re-opened fire than Colonel Moore commanded his sharpshooters to "rise up and pick off those gunners at the battery." It was therefore quickly silenced, but a Confederate brigade immediately charged the works, which were abandoned, as agreed upon. But a deadly fire was still maintained from the timber line, where the main Union force was stationed; otherwise there was no sound, as Colonel Moore had instructed his men to refrain from cheering, whatever the occasion, as any such demonstration would enable the enemy to form some idea of the Union strength. With the famous rebel yell, a strong force of Morgan's men charged across the open field a number of times, but were repulsed by well directed fire. At the same time the Confederates were engaged in Vol. I —17

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY cutting a gorge through one of the bluffs to the river bottom, through which finally a regiment effected a passage and opened fire on the right flank of Colonel Moore's men. Still determined to keep the enemy in ignorance of his actual strength, he advanced a company of skirmishers to meet this new attack, as if this were but the advance line of a superior force. Advancing them personally with the shrill notes of his bugle, his men poured forth a cool and deadly fire, and the Confederates retreated. The Union boys had already sustained eight determined charges upon their front, when they defeated this even more dangerous attack upon their flank. After a battle of four hours, Morgan's entire division finally withdrew, leaving a number of dead and wounded upon the field equal to the entire force in opposition. "It was the intention of Morgan, as he declared, to capture the city of Louisville; but this unexpected and terrible repulse cost him more than twelve hours' delay, and caused him-which fact he also afterward stated-to change his plans and abandon his attack on Louisville. By this brilliantly fought battle the city was saved from sa6k and pillage, and the government from the loss of an immense amount of property, consisting of munitions of war and army supplies amounting to many millions of dollars. Major General Hartsuff acknowledged the victory in a general order recounting the heroic deed. The legislature of Kentucky also acknowledged the services of Colonel Moore and his command on that occasion in complimentary resolutions. Morgan himself admired Colonel Moore's generalship so much in the conduct of the battle that he too sent him complimentary messages and announced that he promoted him to the rank of Brigadier General. "Colonel Allston (Morgan's chief of staff), who was captured a few days after the battle and with him his private journal, in a memorandum of the battle of the fourth of July, remarks: 'The colonel is a gallant man, and the entire arrangement of the defense entitles him to the highest credit for military skill. We would mark such a man in our army for promotion.' " In the Georgia campaign of 1864, the Twenty-fifth regiment was identified with the army of the Ohio, and at Resaca, May 14th, participated with the movement made by the divisions of Generals Judah and Newton which dislodged the enemy from a strong and well-fortified position and enabled General Sherman to advance his lines and plant his artillery. This historic charge was made under a murderous fire of musketry and artillery, across an open field

Page  259 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 259 and through a stream bordered with thick bushes which the enemy had fashioned into breastworks. In the assault, the Twenty-fifth lost about fifty men in a few minutes, among the killed being Adjutant E. M. Prutzman, of Three Rivers. On July 1st, near Kenesaw, the regiment again made a fine record for brilliant and staying qualities, being a unit of Hascall's division, which advanced seven miles during an intensely hot day, made two successful charges, was under fire from early forenoon until dark, and finally drove the enemy from the point desired by Sherman, the cross-roads near Nickajack creek. The ultimate result of the movement to the Confederate army was Johnston's evacuation of his strong position on Kenesaw mountain and of all his works to the Chattahoochee. The Twenty-fifth was also a participant in the defense of Nashville, the pursuit of Hood, and the North Carolina campaigns. Its losses during the war were thirty-five men and one officer killed or died of wounds, and one hundred and twenty-three men and two officers died of diseases. Following are the officers and privates who went from St. Joseph county into the Twenty-fifth Infantry: Colon township-Company D: Sergeant Warren E. Greene, discharged; Lester Taggart, veteran reserve corps; Wagoner Calvin J. Root, mustered out; Charles G. Liddle, Frank Young and Emory Blossom, mustered out; Henry M. Liddle, died at Bowling Green, Kentucky, March 1, 1863. Company E: William Ward, mustered out. Flowerfield township-Company D: George W. Bass, Charles W. Hicks, Isaac J. Kline, Ebenezer Rich, Erastus H. Hicks, Jacob N. Shocraft, Lovinsky Beers and George Barks, mustered out; Henry Beebe, died of wounds, August 22, 1863; Thomas Crossman and Richard Cotherman, discharged; William Dewey, killed by guerillas; John S. Hard, died at Chattanooga; Roswell Beebe, killed at Tibb's Bend, Kentucky, July 4, 1863. Company G: Lovinsky Beers, George Barks, George F. Wheeler and Abram V. Youell, mustered out; Richard Cotherman, discharged; Henry L. Cooper and Henry Stegeman, veteran reserve corps; William Scott. Company K: Burton Kirby, mustered out. White Pigeon township-Company G: W. M. Kane. Mottville township-Company G: Charles Smith, died October 19, 1863; George B. Harker and Wellington Smith, mustered out.

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Nottawa township-Company D: Jason Sayler, discharged for disability. Company G: Francis Bell, mustered out. Constantine township-Company D: W. W. Olmstead and Jasper N. Shaw. Company G: Jacob Appleman, mustered out. Lockport township-Sergeant Major Edward M. Prutzman, adjutant (June 17, 1863), and killed in action at Resaca; Quartermaster's Sergeant Edwin R. Wilbur, first lieutenant and mustered out. Company D: Captain Julius C. Cross, resigned; Corporal David H. Dunham, mustered out; Charles P. Buck, Joseph Detwiler, Levi E. Wing, Daniel W. Fease, Henry Hale, John E. Sickler and Christie G. Walters, mustered out; George W. Detwiler, discharged; Samuel S. Fease, died Decerfiber 3, 1862; William C. Hale, died August 7, 1864; Burton H. Wright, died at Louisville, Kentucky, January 19, 1863; George A. Garrison, veteran reserve corps. Company G: Captain William Fulkerson, resigned; First Lieutenant John B. Handy, captain and mustered out; Second Lieutenant D. D. Thorp, discharged for disability; Sergeant Romanzo J. E. Bailey, died at Louisville, February 8, 1863; Sergeant William L. Cole, first lieutenant and mustered out; Sergeant John Gilbert, second lieutenant and resigned; Sergeant Philemon Bingham, discharged; Corporal Ashbel W. Snyder, second lieutenant and mustered out; Corporal David 0. Thorp, veteran reserve corps; Corporal James K. Franklin and Corporal Benjaman B. Cronk, mustered out; Corporal Hugh Wallace, died at Louisville, Kentucky, May 10, 1863; Corporal Wilkinson C. Porter, discharged; Musicians Charles W. Hiles and William H. Lesner, mustered out. Privates: Edward T. Bolton, died at Louisville, December 17, 1862; Charles S. Fitch, died at Bowling Green, Kentucky, March 8, 1863; John Forste, died at Louisville, November 14, 1862; James M. Snyder, died August 8, 1864; George A. Westover, killed by guerillas; Robert H. Buck, Charles W. Bassett, Hiram L. Brewster, Joseph Collesi, William H. Cummins, John H. Cole, Venal Dupuies, Isaiah Dexsee, Bernard Euckerott, William Ferry, George Gearth, Henry J. Horn, William Jay, Edwin Lantz, Jefferson P. McKey, Wesley Noe, Benjamin Oswalt, William F. Stivers, Stephen M. Snyder, Isaac M. Van Ostrand, Aaron S. Wilhelm and Edward Miller, mustered out; Cyrus Judson and Allan Westcott, discharged. Leonidas township-Company D: First Lieutenant Henry McCrary, captain (April 7, 1863) and mustered out; Sergeant Will

Page  261 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 261 iam L. Thomas, veteran reserve corps; Corporal Jubal Thomas and Corporal Charles Clement, mustered out; Darius Gilbert, Slyvester McDonald, Andrew L. Pringle, Thaddeus Rulinson and Bruce C. Wilcox, also mustered out; Anson Lamport, discharged for disability; Henry Lemm, discharged; William Miers, veteran relief corps; Morgan Wallace, killed at Tibb's Bend, Kentucky, July 4, 1863. Company E: William Hoag, died September 17, 1864, and Nathan Schofield, mustered out. Fabius township-Company D: Sergeant Henry C. Lambert, first and second lieutenant, mustered out; Corporal Orson Nelson, mustered out; Alonzo Burnett, also mustered out; Benjamin J. Burnett, died at Bowling Green, March 28, 1863. Company G; George J. Heckleman and James M. Walton, discharged; Eli Hartman, Eli Houts, Charles H. Howe, George H. Mohney, Charles S. Newells, Amos Dean, John Bingle and Peter Bingle, mustered out; Augustus Keiser, died at Bowling Green, March 12, 1863. Park township-Company D: Henry Barnes; Andrew Gonever and Samuel Stecker, mustered out; Wesley N. Hower died at Bowling Green, Kentucky; Elijah Reed; Southard Perrin, killed at Tibb's Bend, July 4, 1863. Mendon township-Company G: Frank Henderson and Charles F. Johnson, discharged. SEVENTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The Seventh Infantry would have been ranked among the bright stars of the northern regiments had it done no more than lead the Union army in its passage of the Rappahannock, facing alone that terrific fire of Confederate sharpshooters, on the 11th of December, 1862. It had passed with credit through McClellan's peninsula campaign; at Antietam it had lost more than half its force engaged, including Captain Allen H. Zacharias (who died of his wounds) and Lieutenant John P. Eberhard, of Colon, who was killed in action; but one of the great feats of the entire war was reserved to be performed by the Seventh Michigan Infantry at Fredericksburg. Burnside had concluded to cross the Rappahannock and attack the enemy on the other side. During the night

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY of the 10th his engineers laid the upper pontoon bridge, but were driven off by the rebel sharpshooters with the early morning light of the following day. Volunteers were then called for, to cross the river and gain a position to protect the laying of the bridge. Immediately the Seventh Michigan, under the gallant Baxter, rushed to the boats and, under a terrific fire from the enemy's sharpshooters, crossed the stream in full view of both armies. Although losing heavily, the command vigorously charged the enemy, drove him from his rifle pits, took a number of prisoners and held the desired ground. Colonel Baxter, who had been severely wounded, recrossed the river, while the regiment, which had now been joined by the Nineteenth and Twentieth Massachusetts, dashed up the hill into the city of Fredericksburg. The Union forces swept all before them, but only at great loss. The Seventh captured nearly as many prisoners as the regiment numbered, and inflicted a severe loss in killed and wounded, but the fatalities of the command included Lieutenant Franklin Emery. With the river thus protected, the laying of the pontoons was speedily accomplished, and a portion of Rosecrans' army safely crossed. When the weary Seventh arrived at the battlefield of Gettysburg, July 2, 1863, it mustered fourteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men, and on that and the following day lost from its depleted ranks, in the bloody affrays at Cemetery Hill, twenty-one killed and forty-four wounded. Among the killed was Lieutenant Colonel Amos E. Steele, commanding the regiment. What was left of it, fought through the Wilderness, at Petersburg and Hatcher's Run; on October 26th, at the last named engagement, it captured five hundred prisoners, of whom twenty were officers. Sergeant Alonzo Smith (afterward first lieutenant) captured the colors of the Twenty-sixth North Carolina Infantry, for which he was presented with a medal of honor by the secretary of war. Through some misunderstanding, the Seventh was left on the line after the Union forces were withdrawn and remained in that condition until the morning of the 28th, when Colonel Lapointe, then in command, finding his regiment had been left alone: in the field, formed his men and explained to them their perilous situation, telling them to stand by him and they could find their way out. They commenced at once their dangerous undertaking, marching twelve miles through the country held by the enemy, gallantly fighting their way at almost every step, pursued and

Page  263 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 263 harassed constantly by cavalry, threatening to cut them off, but they arrived safely within the Union lines at sundown of the same day. General Hancock, their corps commander, complimented the regiment highly on the occasion, and characterized the undertaking as one of the most praiseworthy of the war. The regiment participated in the closing battles of the war, doing most excellent service and maintaining its high standard won on many hard fought fields. The total loss of the regiment during its entire service were one hundred and seventy men and eleven officers killed and died of wounds, and one hundred and fifty men and four officers died of disease." The following recruits for the Seventh were furnished by St. Joseph county: Sturgis township (Company K) — James M. Vesey (musician), re-enlisted and mustered out at end of war; Orson D. Lampson, killed at Cold Harbor, Virginia, May 31, 1864; Cornelius Bixby, killed at Antietam; Alonzo Chambers, discharged for disability; Thomas Crampton, re-enlisted, sergeant January 1, 1863, first sergeant September 1, 1864, wounded at Petersburg, and mustered out at end of war as second lieutenant; John B. Denny, transferred veteran reserve corps and mustered out; John A. Hooker, wounded, discharged November, 1862; George Pedler, re-enlisted and mustered out at end of war; Oscar Wilson, discharged for disability, 1862. Colon township-Company C: James Burr, discharged at expiration of service. Company I: Charles H. Trumbull, discharged. Company K: First Lieutenant John P. Everhard, killed at Antietam; Second Lieutenant George H. Laird, resigned April, 1862; Second Lieutenant Charles Hamilton, wounded at Fair Oaks, resigned; Daniel D. Bennett, wounded at Spottsylvania, re-enlisted and promoted to lieutenant, captain and major, and mustered out 1865; Elbert S. Schermerhorn, re-enlisted and mustered out as sergeant; Lewis Frey, re-enlisted and mustered out; Myron Howard, killed at Deep Bottom, Virginia, August 10, 1864; William E. Romine, veteran reserve corps; Orville Wood, wounded at Cold Harbor and mustered out; Philip Hofield, wounded in the Wilderness and mustered out; Ezra Bell, mustered out; Truman E. Mason, transferred to United States cavalry. Leonidas township-Company B:. Joshua Wilferton, mustered out; John Cramer, died while a prisoner; George W. Foote,

Page  264 264 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY veteran reserve corps; Henry B. Renner, discharged for disability; Francis D. Lee, mustered out. Company F: Charles Bishop, mustered out. Company I: George A. Collins, and Anthony Gerue, discharged for disability; Thomas Hatch, discharged at expiration of service. Company K: Tower S. Benham, wounded at Antietam, reenlisted and promoted to first lieutenant, captain and major, and mustered out; Thomas Foreman, wounded at Fair Oaks and dis. charged for disability; Meigs D. Wolf, wounded at Fair Oaks, veteran reserve corps; Franklin Miles, missing at the Wilderness; Franklin Bills, accidentally shot, December 4, 1863; John A. Ford and Festus V. Lyon, re-enlisted and discharged; Mark W. Orcutt, discharged. Burr Oak township-Company I: Joseph M. Stowell, killed at Petersburg. Company K: Captain John H. Waterman, resigned January 2, 1862; Sergeant Maro Abbott, wounded at Fair Oaks and Glendale, discharged October 15, 1862; Sergeant Lorenzo D. Culver, wounded at Fair Oaks, discharged November 2, 1862; Sergeant Edwin R. Green, discharged for disability; Corporal Welington Churchill, killed at Glendale; Corporal John Clinghan, died at Falmouth, Virginia; Corporal Giles F. Williams, killed at Antietam. Privates: George W. Austin, died at Alexandria; Emory R. Belote, re-enlisted veteran, wounded at Spottsylvania; Daniel Booth, William J. Church, Harry Kilmer, Benjamin F. Smiley, and Alonzo Wheaton, discharged for disability; James M. Green, John H. Story, discharged at expiration of service; Leonard C. Green, discharged from veteran reserve corps; Nathan Kinley, killed at Glendale, June 3, 1862; Frank Lang, re-enlisted veteran and mustered out; James McDaniels, Adolphus Neitzkee, Joseph B. Stowell and Oscar G. Smith, discharged; Allison A. Mills and Duane A. Mills, killed at Glendale, June 30, 1862; James Pepper, re-enlisted veteran, discharged; James Pepper, Jr., wounded at Fair Oaks and Gettysburg, promoted to sergeant and mustered out; Alvah E. Stowell, wounded at Antietam and discharged; Addison Wheaton, killed in action, September 17, 1862; George W. Whitman, died of wounds received at Fair Oaks, June 1, 1862; Frank G. Shaw, died in Andersonville prison; John Alexander, died of wounds received by rebel guard at Salisbury prison, North Carolina, November 22, 1864; John W. Steadman, killed at Cold Harbor, Virginia, May 30, 1864; Henry Livermore, died at Stevens

Page  265 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 265 burg, Virginia, May 19, 1864; Chester Terrell, died in hospital September 10, 1862; Nelson Tyler, re-enlisted veteran and promoted sergeant; Horace Calhoun, killed at Glendale, Virginia, June 30, 1862; Oliver Green, re-enlisted veteran, taken prisoner and died at Annapolis, January 1, 1865; Reason Green, re-enlisted and died February 1, 1865; Levi R. Tuttle, wounded at Gettysburg, discharged. FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY. Through Burr Oak township, the First Michigan Infantry which led the advance of state troops to the front, was well represented by St. Joseph men. Ira C. Abbott, who went out with the three-months' men as captain of Company G, was promoted to the command of the regiment in March, 1863. The First, which was hurriedly organized by Colonel Wilcox, arrived at Washington among the very first to respond to President Lincoln's first call and as it passed in review before him was formally complimented and thanked for its patriotic promptness and soldierly appearance. On the 24th of May, 1861, it led the advance of the Union troops across the long bridge into Virginia, driving in the Confederate pickets and entering Alexandria by road at the same time that Ellsworth's New York Zouaves entered it by steamer. Colonel Wilcox commanded a brigade at First Bull Run, where the First fought gallantly and stubbornly, establishing the high standard for Michigan troops which was never lowered throughout the war. Its dead were found nearest the enemy's works and its wounded were many. Among the latter were Colonel Wilcox, Captain Butterworth, and Lieutenants Maunch and Casey, all of whom were taken prisoners and all except Colonel Wilcox died of their wounds. He himself endured fifteen months of captivity before he was exchanged. The First Michigan was mustered out of the service as a threemonths' regiment August 7, 1861, and when reorganized for the three-years' service left for the Army of the Potomac in command of Colonel John C. Robinson, captain in the regular army, who was succeeded, in April, 1862, by Colonel H. S. Roberts, promoted from lieutenant colonel. It was with McClellan in his Peninsula campaign and at Malvern Hill and Gainesville. While at Manassas, or Second Bull Run, in August, 1862, every man was a hero, although

Page  266 266 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY forced to give ground against an ambushed and terrific fire of the enemy. In this disaster, which they shared with several other regiments, Colonel Roberts, Captains Charles E. Wendell, Russell H. Alcott, Eben T. Whittlesey and Edward Pomeroy, and Lieutenants H. Clay Arnold, J. S. Garrison and W. Bloodgood were killed. The regiment was engaged at Antietam and Fredericksburg, at the latter battle being commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Ira C. Abbott, of Burr Oak, who had gone out in the three-years' service as captain of Company B and was promoted to major April 28, 1862. At Fredericksburg it lost Captain J. B. Kennedy and seven privates killed and thirty-three men wounded. At Chancellorsville, it went into action under command of Colonel Abbott, who had been promoted a short time before, with twenty-three officers and two hundred and forty men; reached Gettysburg on the morning of the last day of the battle, and sustained a loss of one officer (Captain Amos Ladd) and four men killed and six officers and twentyfive men wounded, leaving as its total effective force thirteen officers and ninety-six men. As Colonel Abbott was disabled early in the action, the command devolved upon Lieutenant Colonel W. A. Throop, who led it through the battles of the Wilderness, as well as in the general advance by Grant on Richmond. It fired the first musket of the investing campaign and the brigade to which it was attached checked the Confederate advance on the road leading to Orange Court House. In the opening engagements, so constantly was it under fire and so perilous were the duties to which it was assigned, that on the evening of the 8th of May, after a gallant charge at Alsop's farm, its brave commander was able to muster but twenty-three men fit for active service. But the fighting remnant still pressed forward at Spottsylvania, Cold Harbor, Petersburg (where Captain James H. Wheaton, its commander, was killed), Weldon Railroad, Hatcher's Run and Appomattox. The total fatalities of the regiment during the war were one hundred and forty-six men and fifteen commissioned officers killed and died of wounds, and ninety-six men and one officer died of disease. Following is the roster of St. Joseph county as represented in the First Michigan Infantry: Burr Oak township-Three-months' men, Company G: Captain Ira C. Abbott, promoted to colonel of regiment; E. A. Cross, Charles H. Palmer, John Steitz, J. N. Trask, Andrew Craig, Jonas

Page  267 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 267 Barker, A. N. Russell, John Archer and C. S. Trimm, all taken prisoners at Bull Run. Burr Oak township-Three-years' men, Company B: Captain Ira C. Abbott (August 12, 1861), major (April 28, 1862), lieutenant colonel (August 30, 1862) and colonel (March 8, 1863); Sergeant John Stepper, second and first lieutenant, captain, mustered out; Corporal George Beaumeister, killed at Bull Run, August 30, 1862; Corporal Benjamin F. Dow; Henry Green, re-enlisted veteran, discharged for disability; Daniel Heinbach, discharged at expiration of service; Joshua Hawkins, discharged at expiration of service; Willis H. Kibbe, first lieutenant, mustered out; William Lowry, discharged at expiration of service; Henry Lowry, discharged for disability; Charles W. Patchen, discharged at expiration of service; and Levi Webb, re-enlisted veteran, died February 7, 1865. Company C: Caspar Gamby, mustered out, and Elias G. Hill, killed near Poplar Grove church, Va. Company I: John R. Hoagland and Theodore Watson, both mustered out. Fawn River township-W. H. Marble (three months, Company G) mustered out; John Annis (Company B), enlisted in 1861, transferred to Second U. S. Cavalry; Edward Dutcher (Company B), enlisted in 1861, died in hospital; Daniel J. Gates (Company B), enlisted in 1864, mustered out at close of war; Henry Seals (Company K), enlisted in 1861, discharged at expiration of service. Fabius township-Three-months' men: David A. Jones (Company A), killed at Bull Run; Calvin Colgrove (Company I), killed at Bull Run; James W. Carpenter (Company A), re-enlisted; and James K. Fowler (Company K). Fabius township-Three years' men: James W. Carpenter (Company A), died at Harrison's Landing, April 5, 1862; and Gardner Eddy (Company B), discharged for disability. SECOND MICHIGAN INFANTRY. Company G, of the Second Michigan Infantry, was largely recruited from Constantine township. The regiment participated in the Peninsula campaign, where it suffered severe losses, and its conduct at Fair Oaks, during which it charged across an open field against a greatly superior force, was such as to win high

Page  268 268 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY words of praise. It was also at First and Second Bull Run and Fredericksburg, but finished the last two years of the war with Grant on the lower Mississippi, with Burnside in east Tennessee and finally with Grant in the terrible battles of the Wilderness, Spottsylvania Court House, Petersburg and Williamsburg. At the siege of Knoxville, in November, 1863, the Second charged a strong force of Confederates protected by entrenchments, and lost over half of those engaged. Among the killed were Lieutenants William Noble and Charles R. Galpin, while Major Byington and Lieutenant Frank Zoellner were mortally wounded. Soon after this brilliant military feat the regiment returned with its corps to the army of the Potomac. Both at Knoxville and the battles of the Wilderness, the Second was commanded by Colonel Humphrey. It was in the latter series of engagements that Captain John C. Joss, of Company G, lost his right leg. Captain James Farrand was killed at Spottsylvania Court House, and in the preliminary engagements before Petersburg the regiment's losses were twenty-two killed, one hundred and forty-three wounded and six missing. In the attack following the springing of the mine, it lost six killed, fourteen wounded and thirty-seven missing, Captain John S. Young and Lieutenant John G. Busch being among the killed. Before the capture of Petersburg in April, 1865, it suffered severely in other engagements of the campaign of investment. The New York Tribune thus speaks of its part at the battle of Williamsburg: "The Second Michigan took into action only sixty men, the rest being left behind, exhausted with the quick march through mud and rain. Yet they lost one out of every five engaged. The regiment was in the hottest of the fight. By the confessions of prisoners, eight hundred of Perry's men (mostly Michigan) drove back, at the point of the bayonet, sixteen hundred rebels." The loss of the Second at Williamsburg was seventeen killed, thirty-eight wounded and four missing, and the total fatalities of the regiment during the war were eleven officers and one hundred and ninety-two men killed or died of wounds, and three officers and one hundred and twenty-eight men died of disease. Company G, as raised in Constantine township, consisted of the following: Captain John A. Lawson, cashiered September 10, 1861; First Lieutenant Richard T. Morton, resigned March 6, 1862; Sergeant John C. Joss, first lieutenant and captain, lost a

Page  269 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 269 leg in one of the battles of the Wilderness; Sergeant Peter S. Bell, re-enlisted December 10, 1863, died of wounds June 25, 1864; Sergeant David M. Rumbaugh, re-enlisted December 31, 1863, died of wounds near Petersburg, July 20, 1864; Sergeant Elisha P. Clark, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal Jesse A. Gaines, re-enlisted and reported missing at Petersburg; Corporal Theodore Rumbaugh, discharged for disability; Corporal Charles W~. Dryer, Corporal Clinton Snyder, discharged at expiration of service; Corporal Marcus D. L. Train, died of of typhoid fever at Yorktown, Virginia, May 28, 1862; Corporal William H. Woolworth, discharged for disability; Regimental Musician Addison R. Conklin, mustered out August 1, 1862; Regimental Musician Abner Thurber, mustered out August 1, 1862; Silas T. J. Abbott, discharged at expiration of service; John M. Adams, killed at Knoxville, November 24, 1863; William H. Clark, died January 13, 1864; Forrest Doolittle, discharged; George Darlison, discharged at expiration of service; 0. F. French, enlisted in regular army; George Green, discharged for disability; Washington Georgia, re-enlisted December, 1863, mustered out, lost knapsack at Bull Run and found it again at Petersburg; Albert Harwood, lost right arm in Peninsula campaign, discharged for disability; Charles Henderson, discharged at expiration of service; David H. Knipple, shot accidentally at Camp Arlington, Virginia; Cyrus Knight, killed at Knoxville, November 24, 1863; Fred Lang, killed at Knoxville; Daniel F. Motley, discharged at expiration of service; Charles Morton, lost right arm at Williamsburg, Virginia, discharged for disability; Benjamin F. Morton, enlisted in regular army; Philo R. Stewart, discharged at expiration of service; Ernst Schinkle, re-enlisted and mustered out; Benjamin Stell, discharged at expiration of service; John L. Taylor, discharged for disability; Francis E. Thurber, killed at Campbell's Station, Tennessee, November 16, 1863; Jacob Welshes, discharged at expiration of service; and Arthur Williamson, discharged. Lockport township-Company F: Edwin P. Arnold and Martin V. Moore, mustered out; Henry Henner, discharged for disability. Company G: Corporal Samuel D. Southworth, lieutenant in regular army; William G. Bennett, Augustus Flint, Hiram Hutchinson and Alonzo Wescott, discharged for disability; Gilbert Bloveldt, died of typhoid fever at Yorktown, Virginia, May 6, 1862; William S. Woodhead, discharged at expiration of service.

Page  270 270 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Fabius and Lockport townships furnished most of the soldiers who went from St. Joseph county into the Thirteenth infantry, which was raised and organized by Colonel Charles E. Stuart, of Kalamazoo. At Stone River it lost out of a total of two hundred and twenty-four men who went into that bloody action, twentyfive killed or died of wounds, sixty-two wounded and eight missing. At Chickamauga, then commanded by Colonel L. B. Culver, it again displayed stanch and dashing fighting qualities, especially on September 18th and 19th, when it rejoined its brigade some distance to the left of Lee, under a heavy fire of the enemy, on the double quick and with the mercury above ninety. Soon afterward, the regiment charged and effectually checked the onslaught of the Confederates who were forcing back a portion of the brigade. In this engagement the Thirteenth lost fourteen killed, sixty-eight wounded (eleven fatally) and twenty-five missing, out of a total of two hundred and seventeen engaged. It joined Sherman's forces in his march to the sea and fought bravely and almost incessantly through the campaigns of the Carolinas. At Bentonville, North Carolina, the engagement lasted the entire day, the casualties of the Thirteenth including one hundred and ten killed, wounded and missing and the death of Colonel W. G. Eaton, the commanding officer. Besides Captain Norman H. Hoisington, of Fabius, who commanded Company E, Captain William McLaughlin, of Sturgis, held a command in the Thirteenth. The roster of the recruits from Fabius township is as follows: Captain Norman E. Hoisington, mustered out; Jasper Eddy, Jr., died at Savannah, Ga.; Edward R. Hutson, Thomas P. Carr, Josiah M. Hopkins, John Harvey, Solomon Kaiser, George Jackson, Stephen P. Manley, Miles A. Pulver, George Shultice, Isaac W. Steininger, William H. Tando, James Avery, John W. Blodgett, William B. Eddy, Solomon Reish, Isaac E. Wing, John Yager, Peter Yager, Omar W. Hunt and Albert F. Keiser, all mustered out; and George Shultice, discharged for disability. All of the foregoing were members of Company E. In Company D was George Phertanbaugh, and in Company H, Omar W. Hunt, who were both mustered out at the expiration of their terms of service. The following were from Lockport township, mostly in Company E: Samuel Stamp, missing at Bentonville, Ark.; Otlando J. Bradley, mustered out; Herbert L. Chadwick, Charles Jackson, John Quake, Joseph S. Stamp, Conrad Wagner, Daniel F. Stamp,

Page  271 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 271 Garrett J. Wise, Philo Arnold and Charles C. Flint, all mustered out; and Corporal George W. Buck, discharged June 16, 1862. FOURTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The Fourth Michigan Infantry was raised at Adrian and went into the field in command of the brave and lamented Colonel Woodbury, who met his death while leading his regiment at Malvern Hill, during the Peninsula campaign under McClellan. Captain A. R. Wood recruited Company C, at Sturgis, and joined it, while the townships of Mendon and Burr Oak also assisted to fill its ranks. The regiment was in the first Bull Run battle and helped to cover the retreat of the Union army. Its greatest fame, however, was won in the Peninsula campaign. The Fourth was the first Union regiment to open fire on the enemy at New Bridge, May 24, 1862, five of its companies crossing the Chickahominy, a short distance above, under a heavy and continuous fire. This was the opening movement of the great seven-days' battle, and General McClellan thus refers to the Michigan regiment in his despatch to the war department: "Three skirmishes to-day; we drove the rebels from Mechanicsville, seven miles from New Bridge. The Fourth Michigan about finished the Louisiana Tigers-fifty prisoners and fifty killed and wounded. " At Malvern Hill the Fourth was conspicuous in resisting the numerous and desperate charges of the Confederates, the men fighting until their cartridges were exhausted and then taking from the boxes of their fallen comrades. As stated, it was on this battlefield that Colonel Woodbury fell; also Captains Du Puy and Rose. From June 26th to July 1st, inclusive, the loss of the regiment was fifty-three killed, one hundred and forty-four wounded and fortynine missing. Fredericksburg, Chancellorsville and Gettysburg came, in order, one hundred and seventy-one men being snatched from its ranks during the awful engagements included in the " battle of Gettysburg." The casualties included twenty-six killed, sixty-six wounded and seventy-nine missing. Colonel H. H. Jeffords was killed by a bayonet thrust while rescuing the colors of his regiment and Captain French, of Sturgis, and Lieutenant Sage, of White Pigeon, were wounded. In the battles of the Wilderness another commander was killed, Colonel Lombard; also Captain W. H. Loveland.

Page  272 272 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The Fourth acquitted itself, at Petersburg and Chancellorsville, in a way to uphold the reputation for valor and tenacity which Michigan soldiers had long before earned. In this connection a little story is apropos; a story which some might pronounce more forcible than elegant. It is said that General Meade at Chancellorsville directed General Griffin to send two regiments to hold an important point. The general reported that he had sent them. General Meade asked, "Can they hold it?" Griffin replied, "They are Michigan men." Meade insisted on a direct answer; "Can they hold it?" he repeated. Griffin: "General, they can hold it against hell." The regiments sent to "hold it" were the Fourth and Sixteenth Michigan; and they held the position, as asserted by General Griffin. The total loss of the Fourth Michigan in the war was one hundred and sixty-eight men and twelve officers killed or died of wounds, and one hundred and five men and one officer died of disease. The soldiers of the Fourth regiment sent from St. Joseph county were as follows: Sturgis township (Company C)-Captain Abraham R. Wood, shot on picket near Yorktown, April 18, 1862; First Lieutenant Ebenezer French, wounded at Gettysburg, promoted to captain (September 1, 1862, and mustered out at end of service; Sergeant Gordon Bates, discharged for disability; Sergeant John McAfee, discharged at expiration of service; Sergeant James W. Vesey, second lieutenant (November, 1862), died of wounds near Richmond, June 30, 1864; George A. Chandler, discharged at expiration of service; David F. Dudley, discharged at expiration of service; Nelson Field, discharged for disability, June 1, 1861; Fayette Howk, discharged for disability; Joseph Thompkins, discharged for disability; Thomas B. Whittlesey, discharged at expiration of service. Burr Oak township-Charles F. Carnes, discharged for disability; Mahlon Fry, Alonza Kilmer, discharged at expiration of service; Henry Low, died; James Livingston, discharged for disability; Charles M. Scirvin, mustered out. Mendon township-George Cook, discharged at expiration of service; Addison J. Carpenter, discharged at expiration of serv

Page  273 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 273 ice; Eugene Garvin, discharged at expiration of service; James K. Rockwell, discharged for disability; William Stevens, discharged for disability; and John Sargeant, discharged at expiration of service. THE ISOLATED SIXTH. The Sixth Michigan was denied the comradeship and moral support of its fellow soldiers of the state during the entire period of its service. The scenes of its splendid career were mostly laid in the extreme south, largely in Mississippi, Louisiana and Alabama, and one of the brightest chapters in its history is the part it played as an organization of heavy artillerists in the reduction of Mobile. It was raised by Colonel F. W. Curtenius and left the state in August, 1861, under his command. It did not sail from Baltimore for Ship Island, Mississippi, until April, 1862, leaving that point for New Orleans. It was one of the first of the Union regiments to enter that city when it surrendered to General Butler. The battles of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson were the most conspicuous in which it was engaged as an infantry command. At the former engagement (August 5, 1862) it was in command of Captain Charles E. Clark, receiving and repulsing the principal attack made against the right wing of the Union forces by a Confederate division of some six thousand men. The great importance of the repulse was acknowledged by General Butler in a congratulatory order issued soon after the engagement. At Port Hudson, the Sixth was to the fore during the entire siege, Colonel Clark commanding the regiment in the assault of May 27, 1863, when the Michigan men led Sherman's division. One-third of the regiment was put out of action, Lieutenant Fred T. Clark receiving his mortal wound while leading Company D to the charge. Sergeant M. O. Walker was wounded in the assault of June 29th, and at the conclusion of the disastrous campaign General Banks formally thanked the Sixth for its faithfulness and bravery throughout. At the reduction of Mobile, the Sixth did most gallant and effective service as heavy artillerists doing fine execution with batteries of ten-inch mortars at a range of fourteen hundred yards. After Spanish Fort was taken, Companies A and K manned and turned the heavy guns captured from the enemy on Forts Huger and Tracy, and materially assisted in their reduction and the capture of the city. Vol. I-18

Page  274 274 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The losses of the regiment during the war were sixty-three men and two officers killed or died of wounds, and four hundred and fifty-two men and five officers died of disease; its fatalities in the last named particular far exceeded that of any other Michigan regiment, its service being largely laid in the far south, then especially subject to malarial diseases. Company C, of the Sixth regiment, was all raised in St. Joseph county, Lester Fox, of Flowerfield, going out as corporal and being mustered out as first lieutenant. Corporal George W. Hice, from the same township, died at Ship Island, Mississippi, May 15, 1862. The privates of the company who went from Flowerfield were: W. W. Bullock, discharged at expiration of service; David R. Johnson, re-enlisted,and mustered out; William McCumsey Samuel H. Hepworth and James Osmer, discharged for disability; John Reis, discharged at expiration of service; Nelson Straw, died at Carrollton, Louisiana, March 4, 1863; William J. Smith, re-enlisted and mustered out; John V. Thurston, died at Port Hudson, Louisiana; Jacob H. Hopkins, discharged. Lockport township sent the following into the ranks of Company C: John R. Cowden, John P. Graham, Day Hicks, James M. Smithey and Solomon Sugars, re-enlisted and mustered out; George P. Sterling, mustered out; Jacob W. Monroe, discharged for disability; Jacob Feagles, died at New Orleans, August 14, 1863; Walter I. Hunter, died at Port Hudson, Louisiana, February 4, 1864; Ray Hicks, died at regiment hospital, October 2, 1862; Rudolph Mohney, died at Camp Williams, Louisiana, September 9, 1862; and Samuel P. Babcock died at Memphis, Tennessee. Constantine township supplied the following to Company C, Sixth Infantry: Ezra Florence, re-enlisted and mustered out; Thomas B. Hill, mustered out; James Syas, mustered out and afterward died from disease contracted in the service; Hiram Driscoll, died of disease at Fort Gaines, Alabama; Garrett E. Moyer, died at Baton Rouge, June 21, 1862; David H. Simonds, discharged for disability. Nottawa township sent the following men to Company C: Mortimer J. Barkman, discharged; Jason B. Taylor and Nelson Wells (musician), discharged for disability; Isaac Gince, Henry C. Walters, re-enlisted and mustered out; Hiram Hill, Joseph W. Rolfe and Francis Douglass, mustered out; Albert A. Jones, enlisted in

Page  275 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 275 regular service; Andrew W. Morrison, died in Michigan, March 1, 1864; and George W. Walters, died in regimental hospital, October 3, 1862. THE FIFTEENTH INFANTRY. Company A, of the Fifteenth Infantry, was largely organized in Burr Oak and Colon townships, its first commander being John A. Waterman, of the former place. The regiment was in command of Colonel J. M. Oliver, by whom it was organized, and fought its first battle at Shiloh, April 6-7, 1862, losing therein two officers and thirty-one privates killed, one officer and sixty-three men wounded and seven missing. Before the general engagement at Corinth in October, 1862, it has the credit of checking the advance of the Confederates under Price, for twenty-four hours, and thus enabling Rosecrans to so dispose of the Union forces as to assure them victory. It first held the outpost of the northern army at Chewalla, ten miles from Corinth, its pickets being finally driven in on the morning of October 1st. After holding the enemy in check during the day, it was re-enforced by the Fourteenth Wisconsin and a battery section, the entire command under Colonel Oliver. The command fought during the 2d and 3d against overwhelming numbers, several times being completely flanked, but stubbornly falling back on Corinth and giving ground only inch by inch to an opposing army of forty thousand men. The Fifteenth was also at Vicksburg, and on July 6, 1863, crossed the Black river and led the advance on Jackson. It was veteranized and participated in the Georgia campaign of 1864. At Resaca, July 15th, it is fully credited with having averted a disastrous break in the Union lines by driving a strong Confederate force from a position which it had occupied in the flank and rear of the Fifteenth corps. Upon this occasion it struck the enemy on the flank, and in the rout which followed captured seventeen officers and one hundred and sixty-seven men, as well as the colors of the Fifth Confederate Infantry and the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Texas. The Fifteenth was a part of the splendid Sherman campaigns and its fine record was earned at the expense of seventy-five officers and men killed or died of wounds, and one hundred and thirty-two succumbed to disease. Burr Oak township sent to the Fifteenth regiment Captain John A. Waterman, who resigned September 21, 1862, and the

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY following privates of Company A: Samuel Betz, Stephen Upham, Joseph Watson, and Chester Ward, discharged for disability; Joseph Z. Carnes, John Floro, David Tyler, Stephen Whitney, Artemas Ward and Crosbey C. Whitney, re-enlisted and mustered out; and Calvin Marvin, veteran reserve corps. Andrew L. Hogaboom, from the same township, joined Company K and was mustered out at the expiration of his term of enlistment. Company A gathered from Colon township the following: Second Lieutenant Jonathan Snook, resigned; Daniel E. Decker, George B. Wilkinson and Edward E. Decker, discharged for disability; Joseph Lepley, re-enlisted and mustered out; Abram Snook, died at Camp Sherman, August 25, 1863; Charles Sixbury, veteran relief corps, mustered out; and Reuben Everhard, discharged at expiration of service. THE ARTILLERY. St. Joseph county made good contributions to the artillery branch of the service, both from the standpoints of quantity and quality. Battery D, one of the twelve batteries comprising the First Regiment of Michigan Artillery, was largely filled up with men from this county, although it was officered by Branch county men. The townships of White Pigeon, Nottawa, Constantine, Sturgis and Lockport were mainly drawn upon to supply its ranks. Battery F received quite a portion of its recruits from White Pigeon, Constantine and Lockport; and White Pigeon, Constantine and Nottawa sent men into Battery G. Flowerfield and White Pigeon were the only townships in the county to furnish recruits for Battery N. Battery D (Bidwell's) left the state in 1861, and first got into action in the Rosecrans campaign at Hoover's Gap, Tenn., but its most desperate fighting was at the battle of Chickamauga, where its commander, Captain J. W. Church, was wounded, and several of its men wounded and missing. It was also in the subsequent assault on Missionary Ridge, covering Hooker's advance up Lookout Mountain. Norman F. Andrews, of White Pigeon, officially represented the thirty or more men who joined Battery F from St. Joseph county, and went into the service with the organization as junior first lieutenant. Its first engagement was at Henderson, Ken

Page  277 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 277 tucky, in 1862, but it was during Sherman's Atlanta campaign, in 1864, that it gained especial distinction. At Otoy creek, Georgia, while in command of Lieutenant Miller it met with considerable loss of men, and although two of its guns were dismantled the battery not only held its own but finally silenced two Confederate batteries. It also did splendid service on the North Carolina coast early in 1865, being marked for especial efficiency and gallantry at the Wise Forks engagement. Battery G was raised by Captain C. H. Lamphere in 1862, in connection with the Thirteenth Infantry. It followed the fortunes of that regiment, first engaging the enemy at Tazewell, Kentucky, in May, 1863. In the fall and winter of that year it was actively engaged in the operations in Mississippi, and suffered considerable losses at Chickasaw Bayou. It also participated in the Vicksburg campaign of the following spring, General McClernands's report on the battle of Port Gibson (May 1st) containing the following: "The splendid practice of Lamphere's and Foster's batteries disabled two of the enemy's guns and contributed largely to our success." The St. Joseph county roster of men who joined Battery D, by townships, is as follows: White Pigeon-Corporal Josiah Flumerfelt, discharged at expiration of service; and Peter H. Stitzell, William Connor, Josiah Mosier, Daniel Saunter, John W. Swartz and Benjamin Winslow, all mustered out. Nottawa-Sergeant Frederick C. Knox, mustered out; Wagoner David Hazzard, mustered out; Samuel Cady, Justin Sinclair, Chauncey Veder, Daniel W. Williams, Nathan Adams, Horatio Allen, Samuel Mansfield, Abel L. Russell, William Waters and Daniel Williams, mustered out; Andrew Shafer, discharged at White Pigeon, December 6th; Elias H. Shummel, died at Gallatin, Tennessee; and Burton S. Howe, discharged for disability. Constantine-Adelbert Chittenden, William Draper and Spencer King, mustered out. Lockport-George C. Meade (artificer), Columbus Fulkerson, Sylvester C. Smith, Joseph H. Dunworth, John Taylor, Samuel Pugh and John McClymont, mustered out; Charles Crachy and John H. Donahue, discharged for disability.

Page  278 &78 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Sturgis-Corporal Silas W. Allen, discharged at expiration of service; Charles A. Bates, Asahel B. Hill and James D. Ridge, mustered out. The county's contributions to Battery F were as follows: White Pigeon-Junior First Lieutenant Norman S. Andrews, mustered out; Sergeant George W. Nash, mustered out; Corporal Charles A. Sweet, re-enlisted and mustered out; John Miller, L. S. Ellis and Charles Stevenson, mustered out; Charles Swan, died of disease. Constantine-Wagoner Lyman Irwin, mustered out; Andrew Almy, Samuel Brandall, James Cook, Justus Miller, Frederick Smith and Andrew Weatherwax, re-enlisted and mustered out; Henry F. Beecher, discharged for disability. Lockport-James Honts, George Honts, Adam Miller and Hiram Millard, re-enlisted and mustered out; James Wheeler, discharged for disability; Alonzo Westcott, Edgar W. Ensign and William A. Ensign, mustered out. Colon-John J. VanHorst and Abner J. VanHorst, discharged for disability; John B. Winchell, mustered out. The following townships were represented in Battery G: White Pigeon-Corporal Adam V. Thompson, mustered out; Corporal James McElroy, re-enlisted in regular army; George W. Brown, John Kietlin, Fred Kleifish, John Myer, James Cloonan, John Huff and Peter Snook, mustered out. Nottawa-Joshua C. Goodrich, discharged for disability, and Julius A. Goodrich, mustered out. Constantine-Corporal Jonathan G. Waltham, discharged; Corporal Elisha Moyer, discharged and enlisted in regular army; Jacob R. Ackerman, transferred to the regular army; Thomas M. Curtis, Michael Loughran, and Henry L. Beecher, discharged for disability. Sturgis-John Allen and Eugene S. Munger, mustered out. Mottville-John Koon; Hiram L. Hartman, died November 20, 1864. Battery Fourteen made the following draft upon St. Joseph county:

Page  279 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 279 Flowerfield township-John S. Bullock, Christian Motler, William H. Fry, Missouri Fetteral, Thomas Hazen, Aaron Hickenburg, Yost Kern, Jacob Kern, Emanual Kline, John Markle, Reuben Shy and Peter T. Youalls, mustered out; William Jones, enlisted in the regular army. White Pigeon-Charles Ackerman, Lorenzo C. Cooper, Henry M. Ellis, Henry Fitch, John Hill, Daniel Swartz and George A. Shoefelter, mustered out; John G. Bronson, Seventyeighth New York Infantry, veteran reserve corps. OTHER MILITARY BRANCHES. St. Joseph county boys were represented in every regiment of Michigan cavalry from the First to the Eleventh, Mendon and Fawn River townships contributing especially large contingents to the Ninth. Fawn River, Constantine and Mendon also sent a number of troops to join the One Hundred and Second U. S. Colored regiment, and the First Michigan Sharpshooters of the county came from Constantine, Mendon, Lockport, Mottville and Fabius townships, while the few who entered the U. S. navy were supplied by Sturgis, Leonidas and Park. THE COUNTY'S PART IN THE SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR. Company K, of the Thirty-third Michigan Volunteer Infantry, embraced nearly all those who served in the Spanish-American war from St. Joseph county. This company was in the United States service about four months in all, was largely made up of St. Joseph county boys and was known as the St. Joseph County Volunteers. It was organized in Three Rivers in May, 1898, and its officers were as follows: Captain, Charles P. Wheeler, Three Rivers; first lieutenant, Wade L. Swartwout, Three Rivers; second lieutenant, William F. Pack, Centerville; quartermaster sergeant, James McJury, Three Rivers; sergeants-(first) Willard King, Three Rivers, (second) Louis Evans, Three Rivers, (third) Charles Hitchcock. White Pigeon, (fourth) Walter C. Jones, Marcellus, and (fifth) Frank E. Davey, Constantine; corporals-Ernest J. Stilwell, Constantine, Sherman L. Culbertson, Centerville, Barton C. Nottingham, Marcellus, Charles Slater, Mendon, Charles R. Arner, Three Rivers, and

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Jesse L. Dockstader, Centerville; artificer, Ross Appleman, Mendon; wagoner, Harmon Legg, Three Rivers. The list of privates from the county of St. Joseph, when the company was first organized, was as follows: Three RiversCharles S. Boyer, William H. Hartgrove, John W. Hartgrove, Fred L. Kaiser, Frederick A. Kramb, Albert Machalwaska, Warren A. Mowrer, Austin C. Ruggles, Clarence H. Ruggles, Harvey J. Ruggles, Burney E. Reed, George M. Trickey and Otis D. Weinberg. Mendon-William E. Brown, Michael Butcher, William A. Butcher, Clarence J. Hatch, Frank E. Mero, John C. McGowan, Marion A. Young, Harry M. Younglove, George H. White and Joel Auton. Centerville-August C. Greenburg, Joseph L. Kirby, Amos I. Lincoln, Charles A. Loncoln and Ira R. Price. Constantine-L. C. Avery, Bert W. Evans, Henry D. Rogers and Edward E. Wortinger. Moore Park-Albert Benfer, Burton E. Gilman, Clyde R. Schoonmaker and Eugene P. Spangler. White Pigeon-Harry B. Brown, Christian W. Wolgamwood, Orbey L. Wright. Burr Oak-Bertrand I. Downs, Arthur B. Prouty and Arden R. Seymore. Howardsville-Arthur G. Bennett and Guy H. Pixley. Colon-Bennie Clay and John H. Gray. Parkville-Elijah D. Heimbach. The Company left Three Rivers on the sixteenth day of May, 1898, eighty-four strong. Thousands of people came to see the boys bid good-by to home and friends and start off to war. Flags were floating, all hearts were sad, music was furnished by the Three Rivers cornet band, the martial band and Constantine's martial band, and these organizations, together with members of the Grand Army of the Republic, Sons of Veterans, and citizens, marched with the soldiers to the Michigan Central depot where Judge Pealer, Rev. McPherson, M. H. Bumphrey and others made short addresses to the boys, to which Captain Wheeler responded in a few well-chosen words. Patriotic songs were sung by a male quartette. At 11:40

Page  281 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 281 the company left for Island Lake, amid an outburst of cheers and sobs characteristic of such an occasion only. At Jackson, dinner was furnished at the hotel by the ladies of Three Rivers. The following from St. Joseph county joined Company K as recruits after the company had gone to the front: Ray W. Nihart, Mendon; Wally Barringer, Frank M. Boyer, Lewis E. Parker and Samuel Gemberling, Three Rivers; George F. Belote, William I. Fairman and Frank Shalla, Centerville. John Hartgrove and James McJury of Three Rivers, Henry D. Rogers of Constantine and Sherman L. Culbertson of Centerville, died of disease before the company was mustered out. The Thirty-third Michigan, of which Company K was a part, was sent forward to Camp Alger, Virginia, and was brigaded with the Thirty-fourth Michigan and Ninth Massachusetts regiments, of which General Henry M. Duffield, of Detroit, had command. This brigade was assigned to General Bate's division of the Fifth Army Corps, commanded by General William I. Shafter, and on June 23rd the St. Joseph boys steamed out into the ocean from Chesapeake bay for Cuba, landing at Siboney and disembarking by means of lifeboats. The descent from the ship was made on ladders, each soldier being loaded to his utmost with equipments and ammunition. This was slow work, the waves rolled five feet high and it was with difficulty the life-boats were landed. Some of the men would jump into the boat just as it went into a trough of the sea and would consequently land all in a heap in the bottom of the boat, or upon the heads of their comrades. The boats were cut adrift and towed ashore by steam launches, the landing was made in the surf-foam and most of the men got soaked and were covered with sand and grit. After the landing, the men were marched to their camping ground. A multitude of the people met them; on either side of the marching column were crowds of half starved natives, ragged and shoeless, and black as coal. They were physically poor. with the exception of large stomachs caused by drinking cocoanut milk, which, since the devastation by the Spaniards, had been their only sustenance. On June 30th and July 2nd, the Thirty-third took part in the affair near Aguadores, where the men were under fire and two were killed and one mortally wounded. All were exposed to diseases of the climate and the hardships of the camp until August 15th, when they were all ordered to return to the states. Some were sick in the hospitals and unable to return until later.

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY PHILIPPINE SOLDIERS. The following named served in the Philippines: Charles S. Boyer served in the Thirtieth United States Infantry. L. C. Avery was in Company E, Thirty-fourth United States Infantry, having enlisted to serve during the insurrection; continued in this service for about twenty-one months and afterward enlisted in the Navy and served on the training ship, torpedo boats and the battleship "Wisconsin," going around the world and seeing the Russian vessels after they were defeated. Otis D. Weinberg served in the Thirtieth United States Infantry for two years and Eugene P. Spangler in the same command. General Fred M. Case of Three Rivers was inspector general of the state troops during Governor Pingree's administration, but saw no service in the field. SOLDIERS OF WARS AND REGULAR ARMY. Frank D. Baldwin was born on Nottawa prairie, June 26, 1842. His father died when Frank was but a small boy, and the widow married Jeriel R. Powers, who was a good citizen and a member of the Masonic Order. Frank enlisted in Constantine, where he then lived, became a second lieutenant, September 19, 1861, and was mustered out on November 22d. He became first lieutenant in the Nineteenth Michigan Infantry August 12, 1862; captain, January 23, 1864, and was honorably mustered out June 10, 1865. He was transferred to the Nineteenth Regular Infantry and commissioned second lieutenant February 23, 1866, and first lieutenant May 10, 1866, and was transferred to the Thirty-seventh Infantry, September 21st; transferred to the Fifth Infantry May 19, 1869, and commissioned captain March 20, 1879, and major April 26, 1898; transferred to Third Infantry November 3, 1899, and attained the rank of lieutenant colonel in the Fourth Infantry, December 18, 1899. He was transferred to the First Infantry, July 25, 1901, and rose to colonel in the Twenty-seventh Infantry on July 26th and brigadier general June 9, 1902, retiring, after his distinguished service, June 26, 1906. The general is now enjoying the laurels he won on many hard fought fields, in the Civil war, the Indian wars, the Spanish and Philippine wars. He resides at Boulder, Colorado, near the foothills of the Rockies, and in looking to the west he can see the snow

Page  283 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 283 capped mountain peaks, and to the east are spread out the great plains of Colorado, Nebraska and Kansas; and on and on over the prairies, through Illinois to Chicago, he can gaze in his imagination and think of the part he played in the great struggles to make this grand country, and rejoice in the honors won. The people of St. Joseph county have followed him and rejoiced with him over these successes, and claim him as a son. Harry H. Bandholtz is another son of St. Joseph county who has made good, and of whom the people are justly proud; they delight to do him honor because he has reflected so much credit upon his county and state. He was born in Constantine, December 18, 1864; entered the Military Academy July 1, 1886, and became a second lieutenant in the Sixth Infantry, June 12, 1890; first lieutenant in the Twenty-fourth Infantry, February 12, 1897, and was transferred to the Seventh Infantry, March 2, 1892; was made a captain in the Second Infantry, November 15, 1899, in the United States regular service. He was also made a major in the Thirtyfifth Michigan Infantry, August 6, 1898, and was honorably mustered out, March 31, 1899. He is now in the regular service and has been given responsible and honorable positions in the Philippines. His father was a harness-maker in Constantine, and the family was of limited means, but of real worth. They were people of genuine character. Harry has advanced step by step, unaided, to the high rank which he has attained, but higher positions still await him. We will watch him and see him climb, and cheer him on and on and share in the glory which he will win.

Page  284 CHAPTER XII. THE BENCH AND THE BAR. BY HON. R. R. PEALER. SUPREME COURT OF MICHIGAN-JUDGE WOODWARD-DIVISION OP LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL-THE STATE SUPREME COURTJUDGE RANSOM-CONSTITUTED A SEPARATE BODY-CIRCUIT COURT JUDGES-JUDGE OSBORN-PROBATE COURT JUDGESJUDGE BARRY-JUDGE CROSS-PIONEER PROBATE MATTERSFIRST REGULAR COURT ROOM-THE OLD COUNTY COURT — FIRST LAWYER ADMITTED TO BAR-PERSONNEL OF PIONEER LAWYERS-JUDGE SEVERENS-TALCOTT C. CARPENTER-JUDGE KEIGHTLEY-JUDGE PEALER-THE ANDREWS FAMILY-ATTORNEYS OF 1877-LAWYERS OF TO-DAY. St. Joseph county is in the sixth judicial circuit of the United States, over which presides John M. Harlan, of Kentucky, associate justice of the national supreme court. The U. S. circuit judges for Michigan are Henry F. Severens, of Kalamazoo, who has served since March, 1900, and for the previous four years occupied the district bench of western Michigan, and Loyal E. Knappen, of Grand Rapids, formerly district judge. These are also members of the Circuit Court of Appeals for the sixth circuit. The county is under the jurisdiction of the United States district court for the western district of Michigan, whose presiding judge is Arthur C. Denison, of Grand Rapids, one of the leading members of the bar of that city for nearly twenty years before his elevation to the bench. SUPREME COURT OF MICHIGAN. The history of the supreme court of Michigan commences with the creation of the territory, and from 1805 to 1823 the Presi284

Page  285 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 285 dent of the United States appointed the judges, three in number. Each presided over his assigned district, with two laymen as his associates, and the entire body formed the territorial legislature, of which the governor was chairman, ex-officio. In those days it was impossible to make any nice distinctions between the legislative and judicial functions of government. The districts were designated as Detroit, Erie and Huron, the territory now included in St. Joseph county being embraced in the first named. These supreme court judges had jurisdiction over land cases, capital offenses, and civil matters in which the amount involved was at least two hundred dollars. Inferior courts were organized for the transaction of minor civil business. JUDGE WOODWARD. President Jefferson appointed as the first judges of Michigan's supreme court, Augustus B. Woodward, Samuel Huntington and Frederick Bates, the governor being General William Hull (of "Hull's surrender" fame). Judge Huntington, one of the judges of Ohio's first supreme court, declined the honor, and John Griffin was appointed in his place. Judge Woodward, of Detroit, who was the nearest related to the history of St. Joseph county, as stated in Reed's "Bench and Bar of Michigan," "was in many respects a remarkable character-original certainly. He was possessed of considerable ability and a great deal of intellectual force. He had a liberal knowledge of the law, considerable learning and more pedantry. He was a strange compound, frequently stubborn and wrong headed, generally audacious and capricious. He was responsible for the plat of Detroit, which was laid out on a scale of magnificence quite out of harmony with the times and the surroundings. Broad avenues, starting from a common center, which he styled the Circus Maximus, were projecting far into the woods and located by the aid of astronomical instruments. Although his scheme as a whole was impracticable, the visitor to Detroit as it stands today will find a city more beautiful for the nightly vigils and consultations of the heavenly bodies by the first chief justice, when he planned and platted the City of the Straits. Another marvelous creation of his mind was the Catholepistemiad, incorporated in 1817 with an array of professorships bearing unpronounceable Greek and Latin titles, governed by a president, vice president and other officials. While you smile at

Page  286 286 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the conceit and vagaries of the man whose peculiar genius is shadowed by this dream, do not fail to remember that the Catholepistemiad of the eccentric chief justice has become the University of Michigan, to which so many lawyers of the state are debtors. "Judge Woodward quarreled with every member of the court whom he could not control. His henchman was Judge Griffin, and it was not unusual to witness a deadlock in matters of legislation between Woodward and Griffin on one side and Governor Hull and Judge Bates on the other. The quarrels were frequent and unseemly; so that Judge Bates, a man of high character and honorable purpose, resigned after two years of service and moved to St. Louis, where he won distinction at the bar. James Wetherell was appointed to succeed Bates. He was a good lawyer, an upright judge. Firm in his convictions, he could not be influenced by another to favor legislation or a judicial decision which his conscience did not approve. He remained a member of the court to the end of the first epoch (ending 1823), and was re-appointed under the second (1824-35)." With the latter year ended the territorial era. DIVISION OF LEGISLATIVE AND JUDICIAL. In March, 1823, Congress passed a law dividing the legislative and judicial functions of the territorial government, vesting the former in the governor and a council of nine citizens appointed by the president from a list of eighteen chosen by popular election. By the same law the term of judges of the supreme court was reduced from six to four years, and their powers extended to equity cases. On the 1st of February all the offices in the territory were vacated, that the new code of laws might be put to a fair test, and James Witherell (chief justice), Solomon Sibley and John Hunt organized themselves into the supreme court. Solomon Sibley is described as "one of the wisest and best men that ever lived in Michigan," and served from 1824 to 1837. Justice Witherell remained on the bench until 1828, when he was appointed secretary of the territory and was succeeded by William Woodbridge, of Connecticut, who had been an incumbent of that position for fourteen years (under original appointment from President Madison). Judge Hunt, the third member of the first supreme court under the new civic dispensation, died in 1827, and was succeeded by Henry Chipman, who served until 1832. Judge Woodbridge also retired the same year.

Page  287 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 287 A synopsis of the personnel of the Michigan supreme court during territorial times shows that both Augustus B. Woodward and John Wilkins served from 1805 to 1823; Frederick Bates from 1805 to 1807, and James Witherell from 1808 to 1823. The last named, as has been seen, was appointed chief justice upon the reorganization of the civil and judicial departments of the government in 1823-4, and served until his appointment as secretary of the territory in 1828. Solomon Sibley remained on the supreme bench from 1824 to 1837, serving as chief justice from 1827. Judge Hunt was the only justice to die in office during this epoch, and his successor, Henry Chipman, was on the bench from 1827 to 1832. William Woodbridge, who succeeded Judge Witherell, was supreme justice from 1828 to 1832. George Morell and Ross Wilkins were associate justices under Judge Sibley from 1832 to 1837. THE STATE SUPREME COURT. The enabling act for the admission of Michigan as a state was approved by congress June 15, 1836, but on account of the disagreements with Ohio over the southern boundary of the proposed state, President Van Buren's official signature was not affixed to the document until January, 1837. Under the constitution adopted in 1835, the first supreme court of the state, which was appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate, consisted of William A. Fletcher, chief justice, and George Morell and Epaphroditus Ransom, associates. To Judge Ransom was assigned the circuit comprising the seven counties which embraced the present territory of St. Joseph county. The state constitution retained the territorial provision providing for two assistants to the circuit judge in each county, who were to be elected for four years and were not required to have been admitted to the bar. The state constitution also provided for a probate court, four justices of the peace for each township, and as many other courts as the legislature might establish. The people certainly had no grounds of complaint as to the elasticity of that fundamental instrument in providing them legal redress. The original legislative council of the territory established supreme, circuit and probate courts. Until October 29, 1829, the territory included in the present county was attached to Lenawee county for judicial purposes; but on that date the territorial council gave St. Joseph county a political entity and constituted

Page  288 288 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY it the ninth judicial district. On the fourth of the following November it also ordered a circuit court to convene at the tavern of Asahel Savery, White Pigeon prairie, on the third Tuesday of August, 1830. The council further authorized a county court to be held on the first Tuesday of June and December; but this body was abolished in April, 1833, its jurisdiction being assumed by the circuit court, consisting, as noted, of a circuit judge (one of the associate justices of the supreme court) and two citizens chosen by popular vote. Judge Fletcher resigned his seat on the supreme bench in 1842, and Judge Morell succeeded him as chief justice. Daniel Goodwin followed Judge Morell, but returned to private practice in 1846 and was later judge of the Upper Peninsula. His entire service on the bench covered about thirty years. JUDGE RANSOM. Judge Ransom, better known to the early lawyers and litigants of St. Joseph county, was a large, dignified, but genial manthe opposite of Judge Goodwin, who was small, quiet and even reserved. After becoming somewhat prominent in the law and politics of Vermont, Judge Ransom had settled in Kalamazoo three years before he ascended the bench. No one has ever thrown a slur on his integrity, but it is a settled verdict that his tastes and qualifications were better adapted for advancement in civic than in judicial affairs. He was an earnest Democrat, a popular and a respectable citizen of fair ability, and in 1847 his party elected him governor of Michigan. On New Year's day, 1848, before the end of his second judicial term, he resigned from the supreme bench to become chief executive of the state. Judge Ransom made a good governor, but unsuccessfully aspired to the United States senate. The constitution of 1835 provided for a chancery court, with one chancellor, which was abolished in 1847 and the business transferred to the circuit courts. In that year, the county court was re-established, but again abolished in 1853. In the days of the chancery court, St. Joseph county was in the third chancery district and third circuit. The constitution of 1850 vested the judicial power in one supreme court, a circuit court, probate courts and justices of the peace. Under the constitution of 1850 the state was divided into eight judicial circuits, whose judges were elected for terms of

Page  289 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 289 six years and constituted the supreme court of Michigan. Appeals from these circuits were carried to the supreme court. Five of the eight judges thus elected were carried over from service under the 1835 constitution, viz.: Warner Wing, Sanford M. Green, Charles Wiley Whipple, Abner Pratt and George Martin. The other three were Samuel Townsend Douglass, John Skinner Goodrich and David Johnson. Judge Whipple was secretary of the constitutional convention of 1835 and succeeded Judge Ransom as chief justice when he resigned to become governor in 1848. He died in 1855 and Nathaniel Bacon was appointed in his place. CONSTITUTED A SEPARATE BODY. With the organization of the Republican party in 1856 and its victory throughout Michigan in the elections of 1857, it followed that the state supreme court was constituted a separate body, comprising four judges elected by the people. The justices chosen, under the authority granted by the constitution to establish necessary courts, were George Martin, Randolph Manning, Isaac P. Christiancy and James V. Campbell, the first named being chosen chief justice. The independent supreme court was organized January 1, 1858, the term of eight years being so arranged that one judge shall retire at the end of one term of two years. Originally, the chief justice was designated by the voters, but in 1867 the choice was determined by the member of the court whose term should soonest expire. In 1887 the number of judges was increased to five and the term fixed at ten years. Since 1857 the state supreme court judges have not been required to sit in the circuits. George Martin, who was elected to the supreme bench under the constitution of 1835, also served for seventeen years as chief justice, under the constitution of 1850, dying in office on the 15th of December, 1867. An epitome of the changes in the personnel of the state supreme court, under the constitution of 1850, as modified by the law of 1857, is given in "Reed's Bench and Bar of Michigan," as follows: "Judge Manning died in 1864 and was succeeded by Thomas M. Cooley, who was first appointed to fill the vacancy and then elected in 1865 for the remainder of the term, being reelected twice and serving continuously until May, 1885, when he resigned to accept the chairmanship of the Interstate Commerce Vol. 1-19

Page  290 '290 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Commission. Judge Campbell was re-elected three times, serving twenty-two years and dying in office, March, 1890. Edward C'ahill, of Lansing, was appointed to fill the vacancy occasioned by Judge Campbell's death and served from March to December 31, 1890. Judge Christiancy was re-elected twice and resigned in February, 1875, to accept the office of senator of the United States. Isaac Marston was appointed to fill the vacancy and elected for the residue of the term. He was then re-elected as his own successor for a full term, which expired December 31, 1889. He resigned in February, 1883, and Thomas R. Sherwood was appointed and then elected to fill the unexpired portion of the term. John W. Champlin, of Grand Rapids, was elected in 1883, and served one term of eight years, which expired December 31, 1891. Allen B. Morse, of Ionia, was appointed for the residue of Judge Cooley's term. He had already been elected for the term beginning January 1, 1886. His service on the bench continued until August 30, 1892, when he resigned. Charles D. Long was elected in 1887 for a term of ten years beginning January 1, 1888. John W. McGrath, of Detroit, was elected in 1890 for the residue of Judge Campbell's term, and served from January 1, 1891, to December 31, 1895. Claudius B. Grant, of Marquette, was elected in 1890 for a full term of ten years, and Robert M. Montgomery was also elected in 1892 for a full term. George H. Durand, of Flint, was appointed in 1892 to fill a vacancy for a few months, occasioned by the resignation of Judge Morse. Frank A. Hooker was elected first in November, 1892, for the residue of the term of Judge Morse, and was elected in 1894 for a full term beginning January 1, 1895. Joseph B. Moore was elected in 1895 for the term beginning January 1, 1896." Under the present law, circuit judges are elected for a term of six years, their courts having original jurisdiction over all civil or criminal matters not excepted by the constitution or the statutes, as well as appellate jurisdiction over all inferior tribunals. Probate courts have jurisdiction over wills, estates, etc., and the four justices in each township retain their old-time functions. Formerly the compensation of the probate judge was contingent upon his fees alone, but since 1873 the legislature has allowed him a salary of $1,500 per annum, and the only fees allowed him are for the examination of records and papers and the drafting of petitions and bonds. This change is believed to

Page  291 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 291 greatly benefit those in moderate circumstances who are obliged to probate estates of deceased relatives. CIRCUIT COURT JUDGES. The following have been the presiding judges of the circuit court embracing St. Joseph county since the adoption of the constitution of 1835: Epaphroditus Ransom, 1836-48; Charles W. Whipple, 1848-54; Nathaniel Bacon, 1854-64; Perrin M. Smith, 1864-6; Nathaniel Bacon, 1866-7; R. W. Melendy, 1867-9; Charles Upson, 1869-73; Richmond W. Melendy, 1873; Edwin W. Keightly, 1874-6; David Thompson, from April, 1877, to January 1, 1879; John B. Shipman, from January 1, 1879, to January 1, 1882; Russell R. Pealer, January 1, 1882, to January 1, 1888; John B. Shipman, January 1, 1888, to January 1, 1894; George L. Yaple, since January 1, 1894. In 1829 Luther Newton and John Sturgis were appointed associate justices of the circuit court for St. Joseph county, William Meek succeeding Judge Newton in 1831. Hart L. Stewart took his seat on the bench with Judges Meek and Sturgis at the December term of 1832, and in 1836 Judge Sturgis and Charles B. Fitch were elected. Melancthon Judson and Isaac B. Dunkin were elected the associates of the circuit judge, in 1840, and Judge Judson and James Parker were his seconds in 1844. In 1845 Nathan Osborn was chosen to fill a vacancy, and in 1846 Judge Osborn was elected to preside over the new county court, with Chauncey May as second judge. In 1847 Cyrus Schellhous was elected second judge, being re-elected in 1850, when William Savier was elected to the county judgeship. This was the last election of associate judges, the circuit court commissioners taking their place. As stated, the county court was finally abolished in 1853. JUDGE OSBORN. Hon. Nathan Osborn, who, in 1845-6, served as a connecting link between the old circuit and the new county court, was a man of note in the early progress of St. Joseph county. He was a native of New York and was a man of versatile, but practical accomplishments, before he settled in the county. First educated in the fundamentals in the district schools of Catskill, New York, later he mastered surveying, under Surveyor General Campbell, of

Page  292 292 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Otsego county; then he engaged in the manufacture of woolen goods for several years, and finally read law in the offices of James Brackett, of Cherry Valley, and Judge Baldwin, of Hornellsville. He was admitted to the bar of Steuben county in 1836, and two years afterward moved to St. Joseph county with his father, Rev. Enos Osborn, a Methodist minister, who, although then in his sixty-fifth year, preached several years afterward and lived in the county for four decades. Judge Osborn first settled on section 16, Florence township, and devoted several years to industrious and careful farming. He moved to Park township, in 1842, and in the same year was elected county surveyor. As stated, his judicial service commenced in 1845, and ended in the following year. Judge Osborn never practiced his profession in St. Joseph county, but was widely known for his interest in county affairs and as an ardent Jacksonian Democrat. He was twice married, James D., one of his sons by the first union, becoming a leading lawyer of Goshen, Indiana, and a circuit judge of that state. PROBATE COURT JUDGES. The judges of the probate court of St. Joseph county have been as follows: Dr. Hubbel Loomis, January, 1830, to May, 1833; John S. Barry, 1833-5; Digby V. Bell, 1835-6; William Connor, 1836-7; Dr. Cyrus Ingerson, 1837-44 (until his death); Benjamin Osgood, 1844-57; Charles L. Miller, 1857-61; J. Eastman Johnson, 1861-72; William H. Cross, January 1, 1872, to January 1, 1885; David M. Bateman, January 1, 1885, to January 1, 1901; C. A. Dockstader, January 1, 1901, to January 1, 1905; Wilbur F. Thomas since January 1, 1905. JUDGE BARRY. Hon. John S'. Barry, the second probate judge of St. Joseph county, was elected governor of Michigan five years after his term expired, and was re-elected in 1843 and 1847. When called to the gubernatorial chair he was a state senator, and had been state treasurer. His great work as governor was in establishing the finances of the state on a sound basis; he found them as unstable as can be conceived, except by those of the veteran generation who have had experience in the Wild Cat banking and currency of those days. Governor Barry lived in Constantine from

Page  293 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 293 1835 until the day of his death, January 14, 1870. A lawyer by profession, he never was active in practice, but engaged with credit and success in mercantile pursuits. It is said of him, that when he was state treasurer, he caused the state capitol grounds to be mowed, and the grass cured for hay, and that the crop was sold for $3.65 and the money turned into the state treasury. This story was circulated over the state and did much toward making him governor. Another story has been told of him, and it was this "that he was so close that when traveling he always took a seat in the rear car (and in the last seat) so as to keep his money as long as possible." JUDGE CRoss. There is no doubt as to the firm and warm place which Judge William H. Cross held in the minds and hearts of the lawyers, widows and orphans who resorted to the probate court from the early seventies to the early eighties. He came of patriotic Irish stock, his parents settling in Newburg, Orange county, New York, where his elder brother, Robert J., was born in 1804. The family moved to Bethel, Sullivan county, in 1806, and William H. was born there in the following year. In 1824 the father died in Canada, and in the following year the family was disrupted, the two sons locating on a farm near Tecumseh, Michigan, in 1826. For a year and a half their cabin stood alone on the banks of the Raisin river. In 1829, William Cross hauled a load of goods to Mottville, consigned to the old trader, Elias Taylor. This load, hauled by two yoke of oxen, consisted mostly of wet goods (whiskey), and the view which Brother William obtained of Sturgis and White Pigeon prairies was so enticing that he induced Brother Robert to sell his share of their lands on the Raisin. In September, 1830, they selected farms near the present Coldwater, Branch county, and they put up various log cabins, which they shared in bachelor style until Judge Cross's marriage in 1832. He served in the Black Hawk war, and both brothers sold their farms in 1835, Robert going to Illinois and William continuing to reside at Coldwater. There, as well as at Hillsdale, he engaged in mercantile pursuits; was a railroad and a canal contractor, and in 1845 moved to Leonidas, St. Joseph county, again engaging in mercantile trade. He built the first dam ever thrown across the St. Joseph river in Michigan, during 1847, and from

Page  294 294 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1851 to 1858 made futile attempts to wrest a fortune from the California mines. Judge Cross had served as supervisor for five years before leaving for the Pacific coast, and after his return was elected to the same position. Subsequently he entered the employ of the general government and was also in railway service, the discharge of these duties occupying his time until he was first chosen to the probate judgeship, in 1872. The warm and manly traits which characterized Judge Cross on the probate bench are well remembered by the writer and are described in the following: "The tender and sympathizing nature of Judge Cross eminently fit him for the discharge of the delicate and arduous duties of his position, which brings him in contact with the widow and orphan, and charges him with the settlement of their estates and interests; and it is currently stated that Judge Cross' tribunal is less a court for legal adjudication than an arbitration for the reconcilement of differences and difficulties between heirs. His success in that direction is most satisfactory to the parties who appear before him, as well as to himself. "A single incident will illustrate his manner of dealing with questions, for which, by a technical construction, there is no warrant in law. A lady dying, expressed a wish that a small portion of her estate might be appropriated by her administrator for a certain object, but left no will or written instructions to that effect. When the estate was settled, the administrator asked Judge Cross what he ought to do in the premises. The judge quietly said, 'What would you wish to have done if you were in her position and she in yours?' 'Why, I should want my wishes carried out,' replied the administrator. 'Then, as you would have others do for you, so do you do for her,' responded the judge; and the matter was ended. His decisions, however, are good; for, with a single exception, not one of them has ever been reversed on appeal to the circuit or supreme court." PIONEER PROBATE MATTERS. Five months after St. Joseph county was organized, Judge Loomis held its first court of record at the office of the register of probate, John W. Anderson, in White Pigeon village, Friday, March 26, 1830. It is known that this was the date, because there is still extant a record showing that at that date the probate court granted letters of administration to Elizabeth Thurston, on the

Page  295 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 295 estate of Amos Cornor, deceased, of whom she was formerly the widow. This first paper to be recorded in the judicial annals of the county reads as follows: TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN, COUNTY OF ST. JOSEPH.-By the Hon. Hubbel Loomis Esq Judge of the Probate of Wills and for granting Letters of Administration on the estate of persons deceased, having goods, chattels, rights or credits in the county of St. Joseph within the territory aforesaid To Elizabeth Thurston, of the county aforesaid, Greeting Whereas Amos Cornor of sd county deceased had while he lived & at the time of his decease goods, chattels, rights, or credits in the county aforesaid, lately died intestate whereby the power of committing administration and full disposition of all and singular the goods, chattels & credits of the sd deceased and also the hearing examining & allowing the account of such administration doth appertain unto me Trusting therefore in your care and fidelity I do by these presents commit unto you full power to administer all and singular the goods, chattels, rights and credits of the sd Deceased, and well and faithfully to dispose of the same according to law, & also to ask gather Levy recover & receive all and whatsoever, credits of the sd Dec which to him while he lived and at the time of his death did appertain and to pay all Debts into which the sd Deceased stood bound so far as his goods, chattels, rights & credits did extend according to the value thereof And to make a true and perfect inventory of all and singular the goods chattels, rights & credits and to exhibit the same into the Registry of the court of probate for the county aforesaid at or before the twenty six day of June next insuing and to render a plain and true account of your sd Administration upon oath at or before the twenty six day of March in the year of our Lord one Thousand eight Hundred and Thirty one And I do hereby ordain, constitute and appoint you Administratrix of all and singular the goods, chattels rights and credits aforesaid In Testimony whereof I have hereunto set my hand and seal of the sd court of probate Dated at White Pigeon the twenty six day of March in the year of our lord one Thousand eight hundred and Thirty HUBBEL LOOMIS John W. Anderson Judge of Probate Attest Register of Probate

Page  296 296 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN, COUNTY OF ST. JOSEPH.-OffiCe of the Register of Probate, White Pigeon, March 26, 1830 Received for record March 26, 1830, at 11 o'clock A M and Recorded in Liber A Page John W. Anderson, Regr of Probate County of St. Joseph Ty of M. On the 23rd of August, 1830, the first will was presented for probate in the county (that of John Baumdee), and it was proven and admitted to record September 6th, Hart L. Stewart, Abraham Reichart and John Baer being appointed appraisers of the estate. FIRST REGULAR COURT ROOM. The seat of justice was located at Centerville in 1831, but the first probate court was not held at the county seat until October 24, 1834, when orders were entered in the estates of William Johnson, Robinson S. Hazard, Amos Cornor, Rufus Downing and Ambrose S. Weeks. Judge Barry, who presided over the probate court until the following May, held his sessions alternately at Centerville and White Pigeon. On May 24, 1832, the legislative council had ordered the courts of the county to be held at the academy in White Pigeon, or other place in the village, until suitable quarters could be provided at the county seat. It is said that after Governor Porter issued his proclamation (January, 1833) directing the courts to be held at "the court house at the county seat" that the new officials were thrown somewhat into a panic. They at once leased the upper room of the only frame building in Centerville, on the northwest corner of Main and Clark streets. It was twenty by thirty feet, had been built by Thomas W. Langley in 1832, and was afterward purchased by the county; about ten years later, after the county had completed the court house in the public square, the old court room was occupied by a grange. It was in this little room that the first probate court held at the county seat commenced its session in October, 1834. THE OLD COUNTY COURT. The old county court of St. Joseph county had a rather uneventful career of a little over two years-from December, 1830, to the winter of 1832-3. Its first term was held at White Pigeon

Page  297 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 297 (Savery's tavern) and commenced December 7, 1830, with Luther Newton and John Sturgis occupying the bench; D. Page, clerk; Daniel Murray, crier; Jesse Baum, bailiff. The grand jury impaneled comprised Hart L. Stewart, foreman; Ephraim Bears, Sylvester Brockway, W. W. Bliss, Jason Thurston, Blakeley Thurston, Alanson C. Stewart, I. J. Ullman, William Hunter, Philander Paine, Nathaniel Syas, Joshua Gale, William Thomas, John McNeal, William Meek, Daniel Lyon, Jr., William C. Knaggs, William Stevens and Henry M. Paine. The day during which they were in session resulted in the indictment of John Knapp for shooting a mare, property of Frederick Sedorus. Court again convened June 7, 1831, at the same place and with the same judges presiding, but adjourned to the White Pigeon Academy, which was considered a more desirable meet-. ing place. The mare stealing case was continued, as John Knapp, the defendant, had not been able to haul into court one of his most material witnesses; but as he was not able to furnish the required bail of $350 in twenty minutes, the case against him was tried by jury and he was found guilty. Knapp's punishment was a fine of twenty dollars and costs, to be paid into the county treasury, and one hundred and eighty dollars, to the owner of the mare (treble her value), the defendant to stand committed until the fine was paid. In those days, to steal or kill a horse was considered one of the rankest crimes on the calendar, and justice was prompt and, in the eyes of today, rather severe; but if one can place himself in an imaginary wilderness, bereft of all means of transportation and relief except his horse, it is not difficult to realize what the possession of that animal would mean to him. At the same term of court which dealt with the mare killer in such a prompt and summary manner, ferry rates were established for the grand traverse of the St. Joseph river (Mottville), and a county seal adopted with the following device: A sheaf of wheat, a sheep (merino) and a pair of scales. The third term of the county court was held by Judges Meek and Sturgis at the White Pigeon Academy, with John W. Anderson as foreman of the grand jury. As the credentials of Rev. Reuben Sears, Presbyterian minister, were satisfactory, he was allowed to celebrate marriages within St. Joseph county, according to the laws of the territory. And this was about all that was done, the weather being so severe that most of the jurors im

Page  298 298 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY paneled could not reach court. In the June term of 1832, a number of new settlers applied for naturalization papers, and in December Hart S. Stewart took his seat with Judges Meek and Sturgis, constituting a full bench. Eight delinquent jurors were ordered to purge themselves of contempt at the next term of court (having failed to appear), but were not obliged to bring their excuses as the court was abolished in the following winter. FIRST LAWYER ADMITTED TO BAR. Savery's tavern was also the scene of meeting of the first circuit court which assembled August 17, 1830, with the following present: Hon. William Woodbridge, circuit judge; Henry Chipman, associate; E. B. Sherman, district attorney; D. Page, clerk; Daniel Murray, crier, and David Winchell, bailiff. Neal MeGaffey was admitted to practice at the first attorney to be thus honored in the county, a grand jury was impaneled, and William Johnson, of Berkshire, England, renounced his fealty to William IV and was the first foreign born resident to be admitted to American citizenship in St. Joseph county. Judges Woodbridge and Sibley held the next term of court, at Savery's tavern, the session commencing August 16, 1831. John Knapp, who was indicted at the first term for assault and battery, was fined twenty dollars and costs. Clearly, he was a bad citizen; he had already been more heavily fined, in the county court, for killing a mare. The earliest sessions of the courts held in St. Joseph county are therefore somewhat indebted to Mr. Knapp for business. Defaulting jurors were also cited to appear at the next term and show cause why they should not be punished for contempt. Every lawyer and judge of today knows that it is comparatively easy to escape jury service; but Yesterday, in the far western wildernesses of the early thirties, the excuses for non-attendance were usually valid, and there is yet to be cited a case in which the pioneer did not readily "purge himself of contempt. " The third term of the circuit court was held at the White Pigeon Academy, by Judges Sibley and Morell, in August, 1832, and Columbia Lancaster was sworn in as the new district attorney and the following admitted to practice: Cyrus Lovell, John S. Barry, Cogswell K. Green and Alexander H. Redfield. The examining committee consisted of Messrs. E. B. Sherman, William

Page  299 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 299 H. Welch and L. I. Daniels. Two cases of assault and battery were disposed of, by the assessment of costs against the defendants. The fourth term of the circuit court was held in the temporary court house at Centerville, after the abolishment of the county court (whose functions had been assumed). William A. Fletcher, the circuit judge, had as his associate, William Meek and Hart L. Stewart, formerly of the county court. The session convened October 24, 1833, with Isaac W. Willard, clerk, Isaac I. Ulman, foreman of grand jury, and E. Taylor, sheriff. A synopsis of the proceedings shows the following: Five suits dismissed, one continued and one nolle prossed; rules of practice and pleadings adopted; George Woodward, a Yorkshireman, admitted to citizenship; two judgments rendered by default for $384.85; and Isaac O. Adams obtained an order for sale of certain live-stock and produce belonging to Frederick Tobey, upon which he had levied on attachment. FIRST DIVORCE CASE. Nothing of especial interest occurred at the April term of 1834, but at the October term was presented the first prayer for divorce ever considered by the courts of the county. Aurora Amulet charged desertion against David B., and through the court which met in the following April she was enabled to legally resume her maiden name. A number of citizens of St. Joseph county were convicted of selling liquor to Pottawatomie Indians in the October term of 1835, and in 1837 the docket of the circuit court commenced to show some of the effects of the prevailing Wild Cat currency. At the October term of that year the first of the innumerable bank suits appeared. It also appears that Charles E. Harrison and Jonathan Vickers of St. Joseph county had been taken with counterfeit money in their possession, and that Prosecuting Attorney Lancaster was eager to bring their cases to trial. That official was so eager that he asked the court to order Sheriff Trumbull to produce the bodies of Messrs. Harrison and Vickers instantly in court, or be fined $100 and $200, respectively. But Judge Ransom declined to enter the rule, on the ground that it would be too peremptory; whereupon, the prosecutor declined any further service for that term and J. Eastman Johnson was appointed in his stead. At the next term Mr. Johnson appeared as the regular appointee. Ever since the final discontinuance of the County court, in 1853, the Circuit court has been the great trial body of St. Joseph

Page  300 300 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY county, and divides with the Probate court its importance as a court of record. Its working machinery is in the hands of the circuit judge and two commissioners. PERSONNEL OF PIONEER LAWYERS. The commencement of the history of St. Joseph's bar has already been recorded in the admission of Neal McGaffey, of White Pigeon, to practice in its courts. His name was entered upon the roll on August 17, 1830-on the first day of the first term of the circuit court-and he was admitted to the bar on motion of E. B. Sherman, prosecuting attorney; being sworn in as an attorney and "solicitor in chancery" by William Woodbridge, presiding judge of the circuit. On the 7th of June, 1831, Mr. McGaffey made a motion before the county court that Columbia Lancaster be admitted to practice; and he was without opposition. Lancaster first appeared at the August term of the circuit court, 1832, as prosecuting attorney, and it has been seen how his eagerness to press the counterfeiting cases, in 1837, rather outran his discretion. But, from all accounts, he was among the ablest of the early lawyers. After practicing for more than a quarter of a century in St. Joseph county, he went to Oregon, where he attained high eminence at the bar and as attorney general of the state. McGaffey, the pineer of St. Joseph's attorneys, also practiced for many years in the county and afterward made a good record in Texas. As has been stated, the next lawyers to be admitted to the bar of St. Joseph county were Cyrus Lovell, John S. Barry, Cogswell K. Green and Alexander H. Redfield; date and place, August term, 1832, of the circuit court. Charles H. Stewart, of Centerville, was also a prominent lawyer of the thirties, afterward going to Detroit, where he continued to extend his good record as a chancery practitioner. George H. Palmer was a Constantine lawyer of 1835. J. Eastman Johnson was admitted in April, 1837, and continued to practice for more than forty years, both as lawyer and magistrate, or until he was a venerable, white-haired old gentleman-but still the same earnest, honorable member of the profession, and a thorn in the sides of all evil doers. In September, 1838, W. C. Montrose was admitted to the bar before the circuit court, and in 1839 Chester Gurney and Nathan

Page  301 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 301 Osborn joined the profession through the same medium. Before coming to Michigan Mr. Osborn was a practicing lawyer in Steuben county, New York, and after making a good professional record in this county moved to Marcellus, Cass county. In 1840 Horace Mower, Nathaniel Balch and Aaron E. Wait were added to the attorneys of St. Joseph county, Mr. Balch subsequently moving to Kalamazoo, this state, and Mr. Wait to Oregon. Mr. Balch was a fighter and for many years was employed in nearly every important case tried in the county. In the early forties Hon. H. H. Riley commenced practice at Constantine, as well as Judge S. C. Coffinberry at the same place. Mr. Riley was one of the best trial lawyers and came to be known as the father of the St. Joseph county bar. He was not only learned in the law, but he had tact and was a gentleman and he was honest and worthy. William C. Pease and Edward Flint were admitted to the bar in 1841; Hiram Draper and James C. Wood, in 1844, and Elisha Stevens, in 1845. S. C. Coffinberry was an orator, a good advocate at times, and attained distinction in this way rather than by his knowledge of the law. E. B. Turner located at Centerville about 1847, and was the first prosecuting attorney of the county, his election being under the constitution of 1850. At a later date he moved to Texas, where he became attorney general of the state and a leader of the bar. Perrin M. Smith, afterward judge of the circuit, was admitted in 1849, and George W. Hadden and William L. Stoughton in 1850. The last named who went from Sturgis as lieutenant colonel of the Eleventh Michigan, at the outbreak of the Civil war, lost a leg at Atlanta, earned a brigadier generalship by his bravery, and after his discharge was elected attorney general of the state and later to congress for two terms from the St. Joseph district. In November, 1851, Orange Jacobs, John C. Bishop and J. W. Flanders were admitted. Mr. Jacobs was afterward chief justice of Washington territory and its delegate to congress for two terms. Mr. Flanders was long one of the leading members of the county bar, at Sturgis, and his son, John S. Flanders, continues to uphold the professional name of the family, though principally engaged in publishing a newspaper.

Page  302 302 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The year 1856 brought John B. Shipman, Edward P. Wait, James H. Lyon, John H. Baker and William Sadler into the professional fold of the county. Mr. Shipman moved to Coldwater after a time and attained high standing as a lawyer and became circuit judge; has been the nominee of his party at times for supreme court justice and he would have made a good one had he been elected. Messrs. Lyon and Sadler continued to practice before the St. Joseph bar for many years after. Mr. Sadler became prosecuting attorney for the county January 1, 1860, and served his term. In 1857, A. E. Hewit and Gilbert R. Shays were added to the St. Joseph county attorneys; Paul J. Eaton, the wit of the bar, and William Allison and Samuel Chadwick came in 1858; Alson Bailey, Oscar Waters and Germain H. Mason in 1859, and Henry F. Severens in 1860. JUDGE SEVERENS. Judge Severens was elected prosecuting attorney in 1862 and served from January 1, 1863, to January 3, 1865. He also served as United States judge for the western district of Michigan from May, 1886, to March, 1900, and since the latter date has been one of the four United States judges for the sixth judicial circuit, which embraces the states of Michigan, Ohio, Kentucky and Tennessee. Judge Severens' home is in Kalamazoo and there is no more honored or popular member of the United States circuit bench than this special representative of Michigan's interests in this high court of national jurisdiction. Judge Severens was a Vermonter, and after graduating from Middlebury college, studied his profession in the office of Henry E. Stoughton, United States district attorney of the Green Mountain state. In about one year after being admitted to the Vermont bar, he came to St. Joseph county and settled at Three Rivers. He at once became an attorney of the local bar, was elected prosecuting attorney of St. Joseph county, and in February, 1865, moved to Kalamazoo. Being a strong Democrat, his politics were of the wrong kind to insure him advancement in southern Michigan, but when he was appointed United States district judge in 1886 he had attained rank second to none as a practitioner before the higher courts. Prior to his regular appointment as United States circuit judge, he had temporarily performed the duties of that bench by selection of Judges Taft and Lurton, and

Page  303 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 303 had even been called to preside over the entire circuit, so that his final selection as the permanent judge was by no means a matter of surprise. TALCOTT C. CARPENTER. In 1861, the year following Judge Severens' admission to the bar of St. Joseph county, Geron Brown and Talcott C. Carpenter knocked at its doors and entered. Mr. Carpenter is still engaged in practice at Sturgis, and is the oldest member of the county bar, from the standpoint of continuous professional work. He was born in Delaware county, New York, in 1835, and when he was two years of age his father, Younglove C. Carpenter, brought him to the township of Mendon, St. Joseph county, and there he was reared on the family homestead. The district schools of Mendon and Centerville, the normal school at Ypsilanti and the University of Michigan furnished the groundwork of his education previous to the commencement of his law studies. He also surveyed some and taught some, studied in 1860-1 in the law school of the State University, and in the summer of 1861 entered the law office of Henry F. Severens, then a struggling lawyer of Three Rivers. A few months afterward he moved to Sturgis, having been admitted to the bar, and assumed the practice of William L. Stoughton, who was then bravely fighting the battles of the Union and advancing toward his brigadier-generalship. Mr. Carpenter carried along his professional business with great credit until General Stoughton returned from the front in 1864, and continued in partnership with him until 1866, or until the election of the latter as attorney general of the state. This was Mr. Carpenter's first and only partnership. Since that time he has served as prosecuting attorney of St. Joseph county and circuit court commissioner, and has held other civil offices outside the professional field. He was industrious and took part in many trials. He prosecuted vigorously. The Civil war period was not fruitful of new members; besides Messrs. Carpenter and Brown, the list includes only Comfort T. Chaffee, in 1863; J. J. Crandall and Alfred Akey, in 1864, and Gresham P. Doan, in 1865. But 1866 yielded three new attorneys to the St. Joseph county bar —Frank H. Guion, R. W. Melendy and Edwin W. Keightleyof whom two (Messrs. Keightley and Melendy) became judges of the circuit court.

Page  304 304 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY JUDGE KEIGHTLEY. Judge Keightley has been a resident of Constantine since 1867. He graduated from the University of Michigan in 1865, and spent the following two years at White Pigeon. Mr. Keightley's first two years in Constantine (1867-9) were spent in partnership with Judge S. C. Coffinberry and in 1872 he was elected prosecuting attorney of the county; served as circuit judge from 1874 to 1876 (succeeding Hon. R. W. Melendy) and during the following two years was in congress. With the exception of a few years spent in Chicago, Judge Keightley has been a continuous and highly respected resident of St. Joseph county since his boyhood. JUDGE PEALER. Russel R. Pealer, who was admitted to the St. Joseph county courts in 1867, the year after Judge Keightley, had graduated from the Albany Law School. He had been reared and educated in Pennsylvania and served three years as a Union volunteer, and was promoted from time to time for creditable service in the Civil war, and not long before coming to Three Rivers had been admitted to the Bloomburg (Pennsylvania) bar. He has been in active practice ever since, except when on the bench and has served as circuit court commissioner, prosecuting attorney and circuit judge in six years, from January 1, 1882, to January 1, 1888; was elected to the legislature in 1889, and has often been supported for higher judicial honors than he has enjoyed. Lawyers admitted in 1868 were: Philip Podgham and W. H. H. Wilcox; 1869, Walter Littlefield and Oscar L. Cowles; 1870, Alfred D. Dunning, Benton S. Hewe and D. Clayton Page; 1873, Charles W. W. Clarke and William H. Howe, and 1874, Bishop E. Andrews. Philip Podgham moved to Allegan county where he is now a Circuit Judge of distinction. THE ANDREWS FAMILY. The Andrews family has earned a distinctive place in the legal annals of St. Joseph county from the fact that three of its members became members of the bar and have been engaged in the practice of law-father, mother and son. Both Bishop E. Andrews, the elder, and E. H. Andrews, the junior, have served

Page  305 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 305 as prosecuting attorneys of St. Joseph county, and have acquitted themselves with honor and ability both in public and private practice. B. E. Andrews has long served as a school director and the city is greatly indebted to him for its fine system of public education. Lucy Fellows Andrews, the wife of Bishop E. and the mother of E. H., was the only lawyer of her sex in St. Joseph county, and a woman of talents. She was educated at Three Rivers and the school for girls conducted by Mrs. Lucinda H. Stone, at Kalamazoo. After she married Mr. Andrews, in 1873, she commenced the study of law in his office, with the object of assisting him in his practice. Mrs. Andrews was admitted to the bar in 1877 and entered into an active professional partnership with her husband. She thus assisted him mostly in the care of the office for many years, or until their son was old enough to become his father's partner. The later years of Mrs. Andrews' life were much devoted to delivering public addresses before literary and other clubs, and her death, April 6, 1907, removed one of the most ambitious ladies in St. Joseph county. ATTORNEYS OF 1877. In 1877 the county bar included the following attorneys: Hon. H. H. Riley, Judge S. C. Coffinberry, Hon. E. W. Keightley, L. B. French, Constantine; J. W. Flanders, D. E. Thomas, T. C. Carpenter, A. B. Dunning and C. W. W. Clarke, Sturgis; James H. Lyon, O. F. Bean, David Knox, Jr., R. R. Pealer, Bishop E. Andrews, Henry McClory and N. H. Barnard, Three Rivers; Judge J. Eastman Johnson, William Sadler, S. M. Sadler, Alfred Akey, P. J. Eaton, Hon. R. W. Melendy, Stillman L. Taylor and Charles J. Beerstecher, Centerville; D. Clayton Page, White Pigeon; 0. J. Fast and G. P. Doan, Mendon; W. W. Howe and 0. L. Cowles, Burr Oak, and 0. P. Coffinberry. The latter became prosecuting attorney. LAWYERS OF TODAY. In this list of those who were actively practicing a third of a century ago appear the names of only half a dozen who are still in the professional harness and "pulling their full share"-Talcott C. Carpenter, of Sturgis; Edwin W. Keightley, of Constantine; R. R. Pealer, B. E. Andrews and Oscar F. Bean, of Three Rivers; Vol. I-20

Page  306 306 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY and Alfred Akey, of Centerville. Other active members of the St. Joseph county bar, besides those already mentioned, are the following: Hon. George L. Yaple (present circuit judge), Mendon; D. L. Akey (ex-prosecuting attorney), Colon; Theodore T. Jacobs (ex-circuit court commissioner) and Prosecuting Attorney, Sturgis; George E. Miller (ex-circuit court commissioner and excity attorney for two terms), Duane D. Arnold (ex-circuit court commissioner), Roy J. Wade (ex-prosecuting attorney), H. O. Bliss (Three Rivers city attorney), George H. Arnold, ex-prosecuting attorney, and William H. Wilson, Three Rivers; H. P. Stewart, ex-prosecuting attorney. W. H. Pierce and W. F. Thomas, exprosecuting attorney, Centerville; F. K. Knowlen, ex-prosecuting attorney, Constantine; Benton H. Scoville, Arthur N. Culp and James M. Harvey, Jr. (postmaster), Constantine; E. E. Harwood and George E. Shank, Mendon; Wallace W. Weatherly, Charles A. Sturgis, Jay J. Stanton, ex-prosecuting attorney, P. H. Phillips and Elmer D. Smith, Sturgis; and Andrew M. Graham, Burr Oak.

Page  307 CHAPTER XIII. THREE RIVERS. WATER POWER AND MANUFACTORIES-MANUFACTURE OF PAPEROLD BOWMAN FLOUR MILL —HON. EDWARD S. MOORE-HON. A. C. PRUTZMAN- HOME-COMING PIONEER LITERATURE — GEORGE W. BUCK-ARTHUR SILLIMAN-SYLVESTER TROY-ALLEN WESCOTT-THE RICHARDSON LETTER-LETTER OF J. C. MORSE-CORPORATION OF THREE RIVERS-PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM-FIRE PROTECTION AND WATER SUPPLY-RIVERSIDE CEMETERY-THE SHEFFIELD CAR COMPANY-R. M. KELLOGG COMPANY-THREE RIVERS ROBE TANNERY-OTHER INDUSTRIESFIRST NATIONAL BANK-STATE SAVINGS BANK-BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION-THE CIVIC LEAGUE-THE LOCAL PRESS-METHODISTS AS CHURCH PIONEERS-FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-THE BAPTIST CHURCH-FIRST REFORMED CHURCH-ST. JOHN'S EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN-THE MASONIC BODIES-THE ODD FELLOWS-KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS-G. A. R. POST-D. A. R. AND MRS. LUCY F. ANDREWS-M. W. A. AND OTHER SOCIETIES. In the history of Lockport township, the founding of the city of Three Rivers and its development up to 1840 have been briefly described. The main points in this sketch, as it relates to the city itself, were the founding of the village of Moab in 1830, the platting of St. Joseph in 1831, and the establishment of the original Three Rivers and the village of Lockport in 1836. In 1871 these villages, with what was known as "Canada" on the west side of the Rocky river, were consolidated to form the four wards embraced in the present corporation, which was incorporated as a city in 1895. WATER POWER AND MANUFACTORIES. Three Rivers, as we know it today, is a thriving city of about 4,300 people at the junction of the Portage, Rocky and St. Joseph 307

Page  308 308 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY rivers (which give the place its name), and at the intersection of the north and south line of the Michigan Southern Railway and the east and west line of the Michigan Central. Its water-power is one of the best in southern Michigan, and consequently Three Rivers is not only the leading industrial center of the county, but an important manufacturing point in the state at large. The Sheffield Car Company, which embraces several large corporations, takes decided pre-eminence among the industries of Three Rivers. Its plants cover forty acres of ground. The Sheffield Car Company is one of the largest manufactories in the country of what may be called the minor grade of cars-minor only in size, but very superior in quality. Three Rivers has also flourishing industries in the lines of knitting works, flour and paper mills, fur robe tanneries and furniture factories. Furthermore, the city enjoys the distinction of having the largest nursery for the propagation of strawberry plants in the world. The establishment of the early manufactories of Three Rivers has been narrated, especially the pioneer work of Jacob McInterfer and Michael Beadle. In 1839 to 1840 Luther L. Carlton erected a woolen factory on the west side of the Rocky river at the end of the present bridge and several years later put up a flour mill on the Portage river. The latter afterwards came into the possession of Philip Hoffman and John H. Bowman and was burned in 1851. In 1851 the Lockport Hydraulic Company constructed a dam across the St. Joseph river, added a large race, and thus decidedly increased the water power available at Three Rivers. ROBERTS WHEEL AND CAR COMPANY. The first use of the water power thus created was made by J. B. Millard and George Troy who built a furnace on the site of the large works afterwards erected by Roberts and Cox. In 1855 that firm assumed ownership of the furnace, which by this time had reached the proportions of an extensive iron manufactory. This, in turn, formed the basis of the great business so long conducted by the Roberts Wheel and Car Company and later absorbed by the Sheffield Car Company. MANUFACTURE OF PAPER. For more than fifty years, Three Rivers has made a specialty of the manufacture of paper. The first paper mill was built in

Page  309 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 309 1853 by Shaler, Becker & White and was known as the "Rosette." The enterprise was conducted many years by J. W. French and was afterwards incorporated by him under the name of "Three Rivers Pulp Company." The present representative of this line of industry is the Eddy Paper Company, incorporated at $85,000 and of which Henry D. Eddy is president. Another large industry of the earlier times was established by the Three Rivers Manufacturing Company (controlled by the Swarthouts), their furnace and machine-shops being erected in 1866. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER POWER. The immense water power now supplied the large manufacturing plants of Three Rivers, is obtained, of course, from the PortGREAT MANUFACTURING SECTION OF THREE RIVERS age, Rocky and St. Joseph rivers. The first two furnish about seven hundred horse power and the St. Joseph river much more. The first important move made in the creation of the water power of the St. Joseph river was in 1836, when George Buck built his sawmill on the Lockport side and when L. B. Brown, Edward Pierson and Benjamin Sherman formed the St. Joseph Canal and Lockport Manufacturing Company. Mr. Sherman was the chief agent of the company and advertised for proposals to construct a dam, a bridge, a canal and a lock at that point on the rivers. The panic of 1837 and the hard times which followed put a stop to

Page  310 310 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the enterprise, ruined Mr. Sherman and made it necessary for Mr. Buck to take back the land which he had donated. This he sold to J. B. Millard some years afterward. The collapsed enterprise, however, resulted in the formation of the Lockport Hydraulic Company in the spring of 1851. This corporation was composed of several eastern gentlemen of capital, with Joseph B. Millard as its local superintendent and manager, and during the year of its formation, the dam and race on the St. Joseph river were completed. As already stated, the first use of this water power was made by Millard & Troy in the operation of their furnace on the present site of the Roberts Wheel and Car Works. The present great power of the St. Joseph river is distributed by means of a large mill race which runs across the Second ward of the city. THE OLD BOWMAN FLOUR MILL. In 1845 Luther Carlton commenced the erection of a flourmill on the Portage river. It was subsequently completed by J. B. Millard and William Hutchinson, who afterwards disposed of the plant and the business to Philip H. Hoffman and John H. Bowman. While in the possession of these parties, in the fall of 1851, it was destroyed by fire, but re-built the following year and for long afterward was conducted by Mr. Bowman. The old Bowman mill was again burned a few years ago, and a portion of its site is now occupied by the Three Rivers Power and Electrical plant. A large portion of the electric power which is used by the great Sheffield Car Works is generated by the city plant here located. MOORE & PRUTZMAN. No two men who were connected with the industrial and commercial founding of Three Rivers accomplished more than Hon. Edward S. Moore and Hon. Abraham C. Prutzman. As a firm, they first opened a branch store at Three Rivers in October, 1836, and located personally in 1838, at which time they began the business of shipping flour down the St. Joseph River on the so-called "arks." As they built their own boats, they were able to conduct this business with considerable profit until the railroad reached Niles in 1849. As the river intercepted the road at this point, their operations were even facilitated, and in 1853, when

Page  311 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 311 the Michigan Southern line was extended from the south to Constantine and Three Rivers, they continued their business with even greater profit until they were able to make their shipments entirely by rail. HON. EDWARD S. MOORE. Mr. Moore was especially prominent in obtaining for Three Rivers complete railroad connections through the Michigan Southern and the Michigan Central. In 1853 he was president of the St. Joseph Valley Railroad Company, and it was largely through his labors and strong personal influence that an arrangement was made by the Michigan Southern to build a spur of its main line from White Pigeon, north, to Constantine and Three Rivers. The main line had been constructed through the southern part of the county two years before. The charter of the Michigan Southern making it impossible for that corporation to constructed a line nearer than three miles from the northern boundary of Indiana, but by taking advantage of the St. Joseph valley charter, a road was built from the Indiana state line directly north, to Three Rivers and through St. Joseph county. When first built, the road to Three Rivers was laid with strap rail. After this had been used for a few years, it was worn out and the line threatened to fall into complete disuse, when Mr. Moore again came to the rescue and raised money to replace the worn out strap rails with the modern "T" rail. The road was also extended to Kalamazoo and Grand Rapids. In the reconstruction of this branch of the Michigan Southern road, which occurred mainly in 1864, Three Rivers and the township of Lockport donated $35,000, and such liberal individuals as Messrs. Moore and Prutzman also made large contributions to the building fund. Even when it was first built, they gave not only largely of their money, but donated considerable tracts of ground for the depot and also did much toward the grading of the grounds. Although they were by far the most liberal donors to the project, the citizens generally contributed to the extent of their means. As an illustration, the right-of-way of the road, half way to Constantine, was given by citizens and farmers of the township, and when the line was extended north the bridge was built mostly by private subscriptions. This is a fair illustration of the public spirit which was so early manifested in the history of the city and locality. In view of the unusual

Page  312 312 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY prominence which attaches to the labors and personalities of Messrs. Moore and Prutzman, it is but fair that the reader should know a little more of their careers and private lives. Hon. Edward S. Moore was born in New Jersey, one of ten children, and when three years of age was brought by his parents to the county of Northumberland, Pennsylvania. As his father died when he was five years of age, it became necessary for him to be put to work at an early age in order to assist his widowed mother in the care of the family. Therefore, when but ten years of age, he entered the employ of the county register at Danville, Pennsylvania. He afterward learned the tailor's trade, in which he was engaged for several years before his marriage in 1824. His wife was Mary, a daughter of Joseph Prutzman, who, in turn, was a brother of A. C. Prutzman with whom he was engaged in various business enterprises for some thirty years. Soon after his marriage, Mr. Moore went to Detroit to seek a business location, but when he returned to Pennsylvania, instead of immediately moving west, he became contractor (in 1824) on the canals which were then being constructed in western Pennsylvania. After obtaining several contracts for building dams, locks, and bridges on the new improvements, he sold his business to his brother Andrew and in the early "thirties" engaged in merchandise at various points in the western part of the state. In these enterprises he was associated with his brother Burrows, with whom he remained until 1833 when the latter withdrew from the firm and removed to Three Rivers, A. C. Prutzman then coming into the partnership. In the fall of 1834, Messrs. Moore and Prutzman packed their stock of goods and sent it to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, via New York, Buffalo and the Great Lakes. The partners themselves followed (Mr. Moore being accompanied by his family), and after six weeks of hard travel they arrived (October 29, 1834) on the present site of the city —at that time but a hamlet of half a dozen houses. In the meantime, the harbor of St. Joseph had been closed by ice and the necessary stock of goods did not arrive until the following spring. Mr. Prutzman, then unmarried, passed the winter in Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo county, and in the spring the firm built a store at that point which they conducted for two years. They then moved permanently to Three Rivers. About 1838 the firm rented the Three Rivers flour mill and bought it the next year. They continued to operate it, in connection with

Page  313 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 313 their extensive shipping trade down the river, until 1859, when their partnership was dissolved. In the meantime, Mr. Moore had become prominent in public affairs, having served as a member of the constitutional convention of 1850, a regent of the University of Michigan and a state senator. In 1864 he helped to organize the First National Bank of Three Rivers, and was in every other way a leader in the financial and commercial progress of the city, which conclusively accounted for the influence which he wielded in bringing Three Rivers into complete railroad communication with the outside world. In his more private associations, it may be said that Mr. Moore was a stanch Presbyterian, and in 1837, very soon after coming to Three Rivers, assisted in the organization of the first society of that denomination. He was an active leader therein for more than thirty-seven years. His death occurred August 29, 1876, two years after he had celebrated his golden wedding anniversary with the white-haired daughter of Joseph Prutzman. Although they had become the parents of but two children, it is to their everlasting credit that during their long and busy lives they gave happy homes to no less than fifteen orphaned boys and girls, ranging from two to twelve years of age. Mr. Moore's name is also recorded on the map of St. Joseph county, in the station on the line of the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern road called Moore Park, in the southwestern portion of Park township. HON. A. C. PRUTZMAN. Much of the life of Hon. Abraham C. Prutzman has been sketched in the above biography of his old-time partner, Edward S. Moore. Mr. Prutzman was a Pennsylvanian of evident German descent and was trained from early boyhood in various mercantile lines. After the dissolution of his long partnership with Mr. Moore, he associated himself with his sons in various enterprises of a business and manufacturing nature. He retired from active business in 1867, having previously become somewhat known as a public man from his service of ten years on the State Board of Agriculture and as a member of the Michigan senate, in which he represented St. Joseph county for six years. In 1867, the sons mentioned (J. E. and J. P. Prutzman) took over the business of the Three Rivers Manufacturing Company. In this they continued

Page  314 314 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 'for a number of years, afterward building their large works on the Portage river conducted by the Michigan Pump Company and adding the manufacture of plows to their original business. The name of Prutzman for three-quarters of a century has therefore been identified with the industrial growth of Three Rivers. The senior Mr. Prutzman was also as much a leader in the promotion of religious and benevolent enterprises, as in the advancement of the business and industries of the place, his activities in this regard being chiefly associated with the Presbyterian church. HOME-COMING PIONEER LITERATURE. Three Rivers obtained its first railway about two years before it became a city and the main facts in connection with its history up to this time have already been given. One of the most interesting events from a local historical standpoint occurred about fifty years after the incorporation of the city-namely, in August, 1906-when its citizens celebrated with great enthusiasm what has come to be known all over the country as "Home-coming Week." Upon this occasion, letters were read to the committee who had the celebration in charge from many old settlers who had moved from Three Rivers to various parts of the country, and from some who still lived in the locality which had been their home from a half to three-quarters of a century. One of the most prolific contributors to the historical literature of this celebration was ex-mayor M. H. Bumphrey who wrote among other interesting sketches, the following biographies of George W. Buck, Arthur Silliman, Sylvester Troy and Allen Wescott. GEORGE W. BUCK. George W. Buck, a veteran of the Civil war, came to Three Rivers in 1830, with his parents, three brothers and one sister. He says: "I was very young, and my first remembrance is of our hotel and ferry, now near Mrs. Bucher's residence on Fourth street, Second ward. Father also had a ferry there across the St. Joseph river. I think the price was fifty cents for team and a large double wagon; twenty-five cents for single rigs and ten cents for foot passengers. "The ferry boat, as I recollect it, was fifty feet long and twenty feet wide, so as to accommodate two wagons side by side. It was

Page  315 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 315 towed across by rope, sometimes by hand, but generally with one horse. The road on the east bank came down direct from east, where the large willow tree now stands on Buck street, and connected on the west bank with a road that followed the highland, coming out near the present Three Rivers House. "In time, as the country began to settle, there was a stage road running to Kalamazoo. We got our supplies from Mottville or Flowerfield. In the winter, if we could not go with horses, we could follow the river on foot or with canoes. "The first regular burying ground was on Eighth street, Second ward, near Broadway. My father, a brother and a sister were buried there, but later removed to Riverside and I think there are bodies there yet which have not been removed. " There were three camps of Indians near Three Rivers. They came to our house quite often. They would gather there, dance all night, and in the morning go about their business. We never locked the house. The Indians would come at night, stir up the fire, sit around, chat and smoke, and when they got ready to lie down, would say to me 'White pappoose go to bed,' then they would roll up in their blankets, lie down on the floor and at daybreak be up and gone. They liked potatoes and pork, and were eager to exchange venison, maple sugar or berries for anything we raised." ARTHUR SILLIMAN. Arthur Silliman, one of the older pioneer residents, was born in White Deer Valley, Lycoming county, Pennsylvania, in 1831. In 1861 he married Mary E. Stoufer, who is also one of the pioneer settlers, coming with her father, William Stoufer, in 1846 from Columbia county, Pennsylvania, and settling in Park township. In 1847 Arthur Silliman's father, Alexander, with his family of eleven, accompanied by Edwin Carrier and John Foresman, came in wagons from Lycoming county to Michigan, stopping for a few months at Dorr Prairie, Indiana. Mr. Silliman says that when they arrived in Three Rivers they found quite a little settlement of houses in a fine timber land-oak, hickory, quaking aspen-and with very little underbrush. Game was very plentiful-deer, wild hogs, turkeys, geese, squirrel and quantities of wild pigeon. In the early fifties the Silliman brothers-James and Samuelestablished a pump factory in the Third ward, where the water works building now stands.

Page  316 316 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Hibbs & Bannan were the general blacksmiths and Mr. Petit the wagon maker. Mr. Silliman learned blacksmithing of Boyer & White in 1849 and worked in Three Rivers at his trade in 1856; in 1857 he opened a shop where the Avery residence now stands on Portage avenue; then, as soon as his own building was completed, moved to the frame building which is now at the rear of the Central House, but at that time stood at the corner where the main part of the hotel now stands. Then it was the top of a high sandhill. A narrow road ran in front of the shop and the sandhill was afterward graded down to widen the road into what is now St. Joe street; though many loads of sand went into the mortar used in the Methodist Episcopal church and other brick buildings. One of the oldest landmarks now remaining in Three Rivers is the old warehouse standing on the bank of the St. Joseph river between the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern Railroad bridge and the St. Joseph street bridge. It was owned by Moore and Prutzman and many are the stories told concerning shipments of grain "arked" from this point. Among the old Silliman papers is the record of 1848;-an account with Moore and Prutzman for "arking" 1,100 bushels of wheat at fifteen cents per bushel, the wheat netting the growers fifty cents per bushel. Mr. Silliman is a most enthusiastic Mason, having joined that order in 1859. Among the men then active in the lodge were Ezra Cole, Herman Cole, J. A. Kline, Sterling Harding, George Gillispie, Norman Hoisington, W. C. Brokaw, A. C. Thiel, Joe Hile, R. E. Case, T. M. Clark, David Bateman, Peter Bell, J. C. Morse, John Cowling, D. S. Mead, Peter Colver, Norman Cole, L. T. Wilcox, I. C. Bassett, W. M. Griffiths, Reed M. Boutwell, J. B. Handy, Dr. Sidney Herrick, Dr. Sill and many others. SYLVESTER TROY. Mr. Troy came to Michigan in 1835, from Erie county, Pennsylvania, to Three Rivers. He says (so writes Mr. Bumphrey for the Home Coming): "I came with father and mother-seven in our family-and we came through alone, and were about three weeks on the road. I was small, but I recollect something of it. There were but few houses here. I was seventeen years of age and came to learn the millwright trade with J. B. Millard. There were no worked roads except the Chicago turnpike and the stage road from Nottawa down through Florence. The others were just trails.

Page  317 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 317 " The first brick building was put up by Monroe H. Spencer & Co., and then James Kelsey built one just north of it. My brother, George, built the first shop in the Second ward, on what is now known as the Roberts & Throp company plant. He built it for a foundry, and first made plows there. The building is now torn down. I made the wooden beams for the plows. My brother George and I had the contract for building the first dam on the St. Joseph river in 1851. It took all summer to build it and the original foundation is there yet. It was built of logs, brush and dirt. We built it for parties in the east for whom J. B. Millard was agent. ALLEN WESCOTT. Allen Wescott, seventy-five years of age, who early in Civil war enlisted in Company G, Twenty-fifth Michigan Infantry, and who has resided in Three Rivers almost continually since coming in 1836, says: "We came from Onondaga County, New York, in 1836. There were four in my grandfather's family and seven in my father's. My grandfather came here in the spring of that year and located 160 acres of land on section 27, east of Three Rivers. He made the round trip on horseback alone. We came overland in wagons through Canada, leaving New York in October, and crossing on a ferry boat at Detroit. There were two or three dozen people here, and only three houses and a gristmill in what is now known as First ward-two on the east side of St. Joseph street and one on the west side near where Null block now stands. The mill was on the site of the Emory mill. The houses in the First ward were frame. There were no roads-just trails-the trees being blazed, and no roads chopped out. Supplies usually came from Detroit by wagon, and at Centerville there was a little trading post. There were neither schoolhouses nor churches, but schools and meetings held in private houses. There were a good many Indians, friendly and all right, except when intoxicated; plenty of game of all kinds, including bear, deer and turkeys." Of the interesting and welcome letters which came from old pioneers who were residing in other states were the following from 0. W. Richardson and J. C. Morse:

Page  318 318 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY THE RICHARDSON LETTER. [To E. G. Tucker.] 'CHICAGO, DEC. 13, 1906-MY DEAR FRIEND:-I often think of the Royal good time I had at the Home-Coming Carnival at Three Rivers, week of August 20th. To you and the many other good friends there are due abundant thanks for your indefatigable energy and good judgment in organizing such a delightful coming together of friends of former years and of our childhood. Such friends seem a part of our very life. "While I have traveled over a large part of the world, I have had no keener pleasure than while I was meeting the friends of my boyhood while there. I was delighted to find Three Rivers so much improved since I moved away from there forty-two years ago. Many of the charming big shade trees lining both sides of many of the streets were not planted then. There was no bridge across the Rocky in town above the dam, and only one bridge over the Portage; and the old red bridge, that an elephant broke through of P. T. Barnum's show once, was the only one ever over the St. Joe. "Lockport was small, and Portage not thought of. The old strap rail line from Three Rivers to White Pigeon was the railroad outlet to the outer world. "The old curiosities displayed in the old Hatch house made me think of the common things in use then that we see so little of now-a-days. The doctors pulled our teeth with that tortuous instrument, the turnkeys (no dentists) and they bled the sick copiously. A coal stove was unknown there, but our houses were heated with large wood-stoves that would burn large knots of oak wood, and we thought it wonderful to have a stove keep fire all night. To light our houses we had fish-oil lamps, fluid lamps, and candles; kerosene was just being introduced at one dollar per gallon. "The ladies wore large hoop skirts, made of old hoops, whalebone, rattan, or old hoops sewed in skirts. The shaker bonnets were worn; the girls wore pantalets and the boys long pants. The men wore high collars and stocks, and Barndoor pants and homeknit stockings. Our beds of straw and feathers were put on ropes crossed and recrossed on the bed frames. We ate with knives and 2-tined steel forks. Our guns were flint lock and

Page  319 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 319 percussion cap. Our skates were all wooden tops. Our pride was to wear red top boots, with our pants tucked in them. "Our carpets and rugs were made mostly of our old rags. Blacksmiths made their own horseshoe nails, and the round wire nails that we use now, almost entirely, were hardly ever seen. No bed-springs, no automobiles, or rubber-tired carriages, no telephones, and still we were as happy as we were now. "But I missed many of the boys and girls of my day. I hoped more of them that were yet alive would be there. For instance: John Prutzman, Tom Snyder, Maggie Prutzman, Cyrus Pierce, Charley Tucker, Will La Suer, Burt M. Hicks, Chas. Bassett, Colonel Hicks, Gus Flint, Addison Crossett, Darius Throp, Elizabeth Jones, Laura Hiles, Noame Gordon, Burt Chadwick, Fletcher Bateman, Dan Eagery, Wm. Henry Payne, and many others I cannot recall just now. It always gives me great pleasure to meet old friends. "I was impressed with the great crowd of young people that were on the streets evenings, and the thought that they had all been born since I lived there, and that another generation were doing the business of the place made me feel I was surely growing old. "I must not forget Mrs. Henry Hall, her sister and her son, took me to ride in their automobile to dear old Centerville. I could only find a very few of the old friends I left there forty years ago, but it was a very keen joy to meet them, and to go around over the old streets where I used to play, a bare-footed little boy. The old town has not changed very much, but it is well preserved. I did not get lost there as I did on some of the new streets in Three Rivers. "The attractive locations to me, in both Three Rivers and Centerville, were where I went to school and to Sunday School; where I played ball and other games; where I learned to swim, and catch fish, skate, etc.; where the hard work was done in the garden and on the wood pile. "My visit renewed my youth and boyhood, but now it seems like a pleasant dream. My mother, who is now eighty-two, was enthusiastic over the pictures of our homes and the scenes around there, which I took, and the description of my most enjoyable visit. Three Rivers and Centerville shall always have a warm spot in my heart as long as it continues to beat.

Page  320 320 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY " 'Count myself in nothing else so happy as in a soul remembering my good friends. — Shakespeare. "With best wishes for a Happy New Year, I am, sincerely yours, ORLO W. RICHARDSON. "P. S. I hope you will celebrate the centennial fifty years hence. ' LETTER OF J. C. MORSE. [To E. G. Tucker.] "TOLEDO, OHIO, AUG. 20, 1906-MY DEAR SIR: —Not being able to be with you at Home Coming, I beg pardon for sending you a few reminiscences of the last fifty years. Fifty years ago your railroad was of the strap rail, 'snake-head' variety. The box cars carried six tois, and very few cars eight tons, and woe to the agent who overlooked this capacity! Soon a very few ten-ton cars were added, and when Bush Rice could ship a thousand bushels by using three cars he was a happy man. Now you have a railroad second to none, and with a thousand bushels in a car shippers are not happy. Then Three Rivers was the largest wheat shipping station, save one, on the Michigan Southern Road. The same old freight house still serves for package freight. The old mill at the station has gone, as well as the men who owned and operated it. "Three Rivers was a live town, but the men who made it are mostly gone. One man I have in mind who can show more marks of his handicraft at that time and since, is still living with you. This is James Milton. Mr. Milton is one of the men who, working for his daily bread, worked to make Three Rivers grow. Should any one doubt this let him take Mr. Milton by the hand and note the crooked fingers caused by using the jackplane. "Among the carpenters and builders that made Three Rivers were Hiles, Salsig, Gillespie, Ferguson, Troy, Milton and others. There were others of mechanical pursuits, who worked to make Three Rivers what it is, and among them E. G. Tucker, who had a faculty of making things stick by using his trowel with cement or mortar. You still have with you the man who was well versed in making crooked things straight, in the person of Arthur Silliman, smithing the red hot iron. "Some, at least, of our old-time merchants are still with you in business, among them my old-time friend, A. W. Snyder. His long

Page  321 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 321 business connection with your people is evidence that he has dealt honestly and that he is respected by your people. Another, who I understand has recently retired, is Frederick Frey. Another man who now lives in a near-by city and helped to make things hum, was J. W. French, in his spoke and handle factory and paper mills. "Fifty years ago standing in front of the old Three Rivers house and looking south, what did you see? Ruts and holes; and teams hauling clay and gravel from the banks of Rocky river to make a passable road. Then we looked beyond the rivers south, and beheld nothing but a mass of tangled brush and mud. Fifty years ago the business was mostly conducted in small wooden buildings. "Fifty years ago today the now beautiful Riverside cemetery was a piece of natural oak openings; today, a city of our dead. Friends of my early day are resting within its borders. Norman Andrews, Herman Cole and one or two others first conceived the idea of converting it into a burial place. Mr. Andrews, being a civil engineer, and taking great interest in this, worked all winter mapping out this beautiful place. The first grave was occupied by a child of the late Isaac Crossett, the second by a child of the writer, and the third by a child of Wenoel Nowak. During my travels I have seen many places of like character, but among them I found none that brought to my heart more sacred memories than Riverside, in my old-time home, Three Rivers. "God bless your 'home coming'; may it be all that you wish! Tell all my old friends in Three Rivers, or elsewhere, that I should certainly be with you, if possible. "From your old-time friend, "J. C. MORSE." CORPORATION OF THREE RIVERS. Three Rivers began its local existence as a village February 13, 1855, when it was incorporated by the Michigan legislature. Its first president was Philip Lantz, with George B. Reed as clerk and A. B. Moore, Thomas M. Clark, L. L. Herrick, Sylvester Troy and W. D. Petit as trustees. In 1871 the corporation limits were extended over Lockport (Second ward) and "Canada" (Third ward). Up to that time the presidents of the corporation had been the following: Philip Lantz-1855-9. Daniel Francisco-1859, 1861, 1864-1866, 1868-1870. Vol. I-21

Page  322 322 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Thomas M. Clark-1860. Stephen Kelsey-1862, 1869, 1874. L. B. Rich-1863. J. C. Morse-1867. At the first city election held in the spring of 1896, Marvin H. Bumphrey was elected mayor; Fred J. McMurtree, clerk, and Arthur E. Howard, treasurer. Since that time the mayors of the municipality have been as follows: 1897-Lester B. Place. 1898-Cadalzo A. Dockstader. 1899-1900-Clarence A. Fellows. 1901-Willard W. French. 1902-John J. Foster. 1903-4-Arthur W. Scidmore. 1905-John J. Foster. 1906-Fred D. Merrill. 1907-Whitman E. Clark. 1908-Clarence A. Howard. 1909-Robert M. Hall. 1910-Arthur W. Scidmore. The other officers now serving are: Stephen O. Black, clerk; Arthur E. Howard, treasurer; William H. Wilson, justice of the peace; Albert Oernst, constable. PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. Three Rivers has a well organized public school system, with one high school building on Third avenue, and four ward schools to accommodate the various sections of the city. The First ward building is located on Main, the Second at the foot of Ninth street, the Third, corner of Douglas avenue and North street and the Fourth, corner of Wood avenue and Fourth street. The oldest building is known as the old Union school on Main street, First ward. This was burned several times and the present structure was erected in 1890. The first school house in Three Rivers was built in the fall of 1837, in the eastern part of the city opposite the residence long occupied by John W. Hoffman. It was a small plank structure, 24 x 30 feet, and erected to accommodate the pupils in what was then district No. 1, old Buck's township. On the first of July, 1837, the school district was organized by electing Philip H. Hoffman as mod.

Page  323 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 323 erator, Joseph Sterling, director, and Thomas Millard, assessor. The school district then included sections 4 and 9 and those portions of sections 16, 17 and 18 lying north of the St. Joseph and east of the Rocky river. The school board voted $100 to build a school house and $5 was afterward appropriated for a library. It appears that at this time there were forty-six children in the district between the ages of five and seventeen. This little plank building served the purposes for which it was designed, at the locality mentioned, until 1840, when it was moved to the public square west of the school-house lot. It was subsequently sold and again moved, and was used for school purposes until 1851 when a brick building was erected. HIGH SCHOOL BUILDING, THREE RIVERS The district adopted the Union system in September, 1859, and graded the school. Under the improved system, the first board of education was Dr. 0. W. Richardson, S. P. Adam, D. Francisco, I. Crossett, John Cowling and J. C. Bassett. During the same year of the grading of the school, a substantial building was added to the brick school house completed in 1851. This was the old Union and high-school building in the First ward, which has already been mentioned. Its first principal was W. H. Paine. School district No. 4 had its school house in the Second ward of the city and was separately organized in September, 1855, by the election of the following: William Fulkerson, moderator; W. F. Arnold, director; Frederick 0. White, assessor.

Page  324 324 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The first building erected was a little frame school house 26 by 30 feet on the southwest corner of Mr. Arnold's farm, which was finished in the fall of 1855. In 1868 a convenient two-story building was completed in Section 20 at a cost of $4,500. This school was first graded in 1869. THREE RIVERS PUBLIC LMBRARY. The Three Rivers Public Library is housed in one of the most striking buildings in the city and has entrances from both Main and Penn streets. It is built of vari-colored unfinished stone, its front on Main street being of a pink color and that which abuts on Penn being of a light gray color. The building is two-stories throughout, tastefully furnished and lighted by means of a beautiful circular sky-light of colored glass. The foundation of the library was laid in 1887 when a few hundred volumes were collected by interested citizens and placed in a little room in the Kelsey block. After the collection had grown considerably, it was removed to the second floor of the State Savings Bank. By July, 1897, the library had grown to such proportions that the township of Lockport agreed with the city to consolidate its collection with that of the public library, in consideration of the free use of the latter for a period of ten years. Throughout all these early struggles to found a public library, up to the present time, E. B. Linsley has been at the head of the enterprise and done more than any other one man to promote it. In 1904 Andrew Carnegie offered $12,500 toward a new building, providing the management would raise the money for operating expenses. Warren J. Willits finally donated the site and the building now occupied was completed in January, 1905. Its final cost was about $25,000, Mr. Carnegie eventually increasing his first donation toward the building fund. All public requirements are not only completely met by the library, but the Woman's Club of Three Rivers is also accommodated with convenient and tasteful quarters. The different rooms of the library are furnished in various historical styles-the reading room in Louis XIV; the delivery and director's rooms in Louis XV; and the assembly room in Moorish style. The Three Rivers public library now represents a collection of 11,000 volumes in its circulation and reference departments, besides many state documents and other pamphlets. Its officers are E. B. Linsley, presi

Page  325 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 325 dent; B. E. Andrews, vice president; M. J. Huss, secretary; and Dr. A. W. Scidmore, director. Miss Sue I. Silliman has been the courteous and efficient librarian for a number of years. FIRE PROTECTION, WATER SUPPLY, ETC. Three Rivers is provided with protection from fire through a well-organized fire department. It was first organized in October, 1859, with fifty members. Its first engine house was in John Young's shop. The village erected its own headquarters in 1866, and until the erection of the present water works plant, in 1890, the water supply for public purposes was obtained from cisterns which were built by the city. In the year named, the village council completed its plant on North street, near Rocky river, and commenced to pump the supply not only for fire, but for domestic purposes from the productive artesian vein which underlies this portion of the city. At the present time, eight wells are drawn upon for this supply, the water coming from a depth of about one hundred and eighty feet. RIVERSIDE CEMETERY. The Riverside Cemetery comprises more than forty-seven acres of tastefully improved grounds lying on the north bank of the St. Joseph about one mile east of the soldiers' monument on Main street; in surveyor's terms it is located on the northeast quarter of the southwest quarter of section 17. The association which controls the property was organized October 2, 1858, by the election of the following officers: Edward S. Moore, president; E. H. Lothrop, vice president; Adolphus E. Hewitt, secretary; A. C. Prutzman, treasurer; and nine trustees. Three weeks afterwards, Messrs. Moore, Prutzman, James E. Kelsey and Joseph B. Millard deeded twenty acres to the Oakdale Cemetery Association (as it was originally known) for a consideration of $1,000. This tract included the north half of the present cemetery. In January, 1859, the name of the association was changed to the Riverside Cemetery and in 1861, twelve and onehalf acres lying north of the St. Joseph river were added to the original twenty acres, the balance of the cemetery grounds being purchased several years later. The first improvements of the cemetery grounds were made by Colonel Norman Andrews, a well known civil engineer who

Page  326 326 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY;2; 0 (c r-e )1 Pq h-( W 1::

Page  327 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 327 worked all the winter following the organization of the association in mapping out his work. Since his time, the improvements have been carried on systematically and artistically so that the cemetery, as it now appears is a decided ornament and credit to the city of Three Rivers. Many of the old pioneers and founders of the cemetery now repose under its beautiful oaks and green sward-such as James E. Kelsey, Edward S. Moore and A. C. Prutzman. Most of the remains of the old pioneers are buried along Central avenue which was the original entrance to the cemetery. Among the most striking features of the grounds are the elegant chapel and memorial hall in which religious services are often held for the honored dead, and the huge granite boulder which marks the resting place of the veterans of the Civil war, connected with the E. M. Prutzman post, G. A. R.; the imposing boulder is native to St. Joseph county and was dedicated as a memorial to the "boys in blue" on May 30, 1903. In the same year the memorial chapel was completed at a cost of $3,600. As shown by the records of the associations, the first lots were purchased by Hon. E. S. Moore and Col. Andrews, February 28, 1861. James E. Kelsey succeeded Mr. Moore as president, and was followed in 1866 by John W. Frey, who commenced to serve in 1866; Abram C. Prutzman in 1868; Henry Yawney in 1871; Samuel P. Adams, 1874; Richmond E. Case, 1878; James F. Thoms, 1884, and Luther T. Wilcox, 1900. Warren J. Willits was head of the association from 1900 to 1902, when Dr. A. C. Sheldon was elected president and is still serving. Judge David M. Bateman followed Mr. Hewitt as secretary in 1863; Newton H. Barnard assumed the office in 1885; J. H. Huyler in 1886; Judge R. R. Pealer in 1888; Hosea Burch, 1890; Allen H. Huyler, 1895, and William E. Barnard (still in office), 1896. There have been but two treasurers of the association: Stephen Kelsey, 1858-85, and Jeff P. McKee from the latter year to 1910. THE SHEFFIELD CAR COMPANY. The Sheffield Car Company which covers forty acres of ground in the Second ward of the southern part of the city of Three Rivers, employs twelve hundred men and controls the following four corporations:

Page  328 328 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The Three Rivers Electric Works. The Three Rivers Brass Works. The Three Rivers Velocipede Car Company. The Three Rivers Railway Supply Company. The Sheffield Car Company, as a corporation, is one of the largest manufacturers of light motor cars (up to the size of a street car) and other railway specialties in the United States: also turns out dump cars, mining cars, marine engines, stand pipes, electrical machinery, and an endless variety of drills and track tools. When it is considered that the total population of the city is about 4,500, its importance to the business stability of Three Rivers may be well understood. In fact, it is not going too far to say that about one-third the total population of the place directly depends upon the Sheffield Car Company for its livelihood. In full justice to the management of this great corporation, it should also be stated that its generous treatment of employees is in line with the most advanced ideas; for not only are the wages paid to its skilled labor up to the full standard, but schools of instruction have been established on the grounds by which many defects in earlier education may be remedied by ambitious youth and men. These schools are in session on an average of two nights a week. Boys who are desirous of learning various branches of mechanics -especially electroplating-also find opportunities at the shops of the Sheffield Car Company which are generous and unusual. On January 1, 1910, the capital of the Sheffield Car Company was increased from $200,000 to $400,000, and the following officers elected: Charles H. Morse, president. W. E. Miller, vice president. E. B. Linsley, treasurer and manager. M. J. Huss, secretary. W. S. Hovey, superintendent. The three last named are citizens of Three Rivers, Mr. Linsley being not only the active force behind the great transactions of the Sheffield Car Company, but a power for usefulness and good in the 'general advancement of the city. The Sheffield Car Company originated in the business established in March, 1879, under the name of George S. Sheffield & Company, which, in turn, was based upon the inventions and inventive genius of Mr. Sheffield. He built his first three-wheel car at his

Page  329 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 329 farm ten miles from Three Rivers, and the story is quite well authenticated that he did so, that it might be easier for him to get home Saturday night after working all the week in his village shop. The first cars turned out had wooden spokes, but in 1890 Mr. Sheffield commenced to make them of boiler plate. His first partner in the enterprise was W. J. Willits, his office man, and in February, 1881, E. B. Linsley joined the company, which was incorporated June 15, 1882, as the Sheffield Velocipede Car Company, and in 1892 under its present name. By this time the manufacture of the velocipede three wheel car had been largely superseded in favor of various improved vehicles, such as a light engine for the use of road masters, weighing three or four hundred pounds, and various motor cars propelled by gasoline engines. In 1891 Mr. Sheffield withdrew from the company, and in the late eighties Charles H. Morse, of Chicago, bought a small interest in the business. In 1902 he purchased Mr. Willits' entire interest and became president of the company, while W. E. Miller, who bought in at the same time, was elected vice president. It may be said that these gentlemen represent the outside capital and general control of the great industry known under the concentrated name of the Sheffield Car Company, and that since the retirement of Mr. Sheffield, especially, Mr. Linsley has been the strong man on the ground to see that the wheels hum and the business goes ahead in a practical way. Among other large corporations absorbed by the Sheffield Car Company is what is still known as the Roberts Wheel & Car Company. R. M. KELLOGG COMPANY. The Kellogg strawberry farms, or nurseries, covering some two hundred and twenty-five acres of land, at Three Rivers, represent by far the largest enterprise of the kind in the world. In the busy season of out-door propagation, an army of men and women, boys and girls, is employed not only in raising, packing and shipping the plants to all parts of the universe, but in spreading the literature of the great business abroad and in transacting the manifold details involved in dealing with twenty thousand customers by correspondence. Before entering into a description of the Kellogg farms and the splendid business system which safeguards and promotes the vast enterprise, a brief history of the remarkable industry is demanded and presented, condensed from both printed and verbal sources.

Page  330 330 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY After twelve years of study, observation and experience on a smaller but somewhat similar farm at Ionia, in this state, Russell M. Kellogg, the founder of these farms, determined to seek a field of larger endeavor and set out to find a location which combined what he deemed the necessary requisites, namely, ample land for expansion, composed of a soil adapted to the work; ample water supply for irrigating purposes, should irrigation be required in an extended drought, and ample shipping facilities. All these he found in the farm he bought at Three Rivers in the spring of 1896, and here he came in that year and began the work destined to make famous the Kellogg strain of Thoroughbred strawberry plants. THE KELLOGG STRAWBERRY FARMS THREE RIVERS. The work Mr. Kellogg had done at Ionia won for him more than local fame and a patronage of fair proportions, but he began business here on a small scale-feeling his way to larger triumphs, as it were. His purchase consisted of an old homestead with a stately mansion and something a little under one hundred acres of land, lying on the banks of the Portage river. A portion of the farm was broken up and prepared for plant setting, and in 1897 the first crop of plants was grown. Then the business steadily grew, until the entire original hundred acres was given over to the growing of plants. That is, approximately fifty acres of plants were grown each year, two fields alternating between cow peas, or some other legume, and strawberry plants; it being the rule of the

Page  331 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 331 farm never to grow two crops of plants in succession on the same ground. But greater things were in store. On account of an almost unprecedented increase in patronage in 1903 an addition to the farm of sixty-one acres was made, and the area given over to plants each year relatively extended. Still the business continued to grow. One year $13,000 in cash was returned to customers because the demand for plants was larger than the supply and their orders could not be filled. The following year, notwithstanding the number of plants grown, the sum returned reached $10,000, and during the succeding four years this item reached a total of an additional $27,000, notwithstanding that in 1905 sixty-five acres were added to the area under cultivation. This brought the total to 225 acres, or the largest farm in the world, by many times, devoted to the production of strawberry plants. It may assist in giving the reader an idea of the magnitude of the business now transacted by the Kellogg farms to state that there is sent out from the large office building of the company about forty per cent of the total amount of mail handled by the Three Rivers postoffice. During the past four years more than $25,000 has been paid in postage, the outgoing mail of the concern averaging fully one hundred tons annually. Orders are received from every state and territory in the Union; from Australia, Hawaii, Cuba and Bermuda, and from many European countries. Of such volume is the express business of the concern that both the American and United States companies have established branches in the company's packing house. Each express company employs two clerks in handling the shipments, and many days entire carloads of plants go by express from the farms. As the matter is well put by an interesting booklet devoted to the exposition of the Kellogg industries: "The foundation of the Kellogg success was an idea-the idea that the strawberry is susceptible to improvement through breeding and selection. Through infinite care and protracted observation and study, this idea was worked out to practical realization. The story is a long one-too long for this place; but in a word we may say that the work done on this farm has proved conclusively that there is a distinct correspondence between plant life and animal life, and that characteristics of the plant may be intensified or discouraged, according to the will of the breeder, as may be done in the case of animals. Burbank in myriad ways; Hopkins, Reilly, Reid and the Funks with

Page  332 332 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY corn; Morrill with peaches-all have demonstrated the fact. The Kellogg Company proved to a skeptical world that these same fundamental laws operate as perfectly in the case of the strawberry; and thus we have the Kellogg Thoroughbred plants." The general rule followed by the Kellogg management in the propagation of the plants is that pistulate (female varieties) never should be set without bisexuals (male varieties) being set beside the females. "If some pistulate is your favorite and you wish to make it your leader, set one row of bisexuals of earlier season than the pistulate; next, one row of bisexuals of later season than the pistulate. In other words, place three rows of pistulates between two rows of bisexuals of different seasons. " An interesting fact is that the three most popular varieties of strawberries grown on the Kellogg farms-Warfield, Bederwood and Bubach-have been continuously bred and selected from the stock which were first brought by Mr. Kellogg to his Ionia farm more than a quarter of a century ago. Glen Mary and Senator Dunlap are other leading thoroughbreds, known to all strawberry growers. It is a sight long to be remembered when the brigade of plowers move down the mile-long rows of plants in the spring, "tickling the soil and making the plants laugh." This is repeated scores of times. Then an army of hoemen work ten hours a day from spring to October, and not a weed or spear of grass is allowed to grow. Soil is drawn with the hoe over the runner cords just back of the young plant, which encourages a large number of strong roots to start directly from its crown. This also aids it to take root quickly so that it may become self-supporting, strong and vigorous. During the eight weeks of the packing and shipping season, the busiest scene is transferred to the packing house and express offices. About a hundred women count and tie the plants into bundles of twenty-six, each bearing a wooden label as to variety and sex. A force of men examine the plants carefully for shipment, packing them in alternate layers of dampened moss. Then come the loading of the express cars with the packed boxes and the busy shipping season, lasting substantially from the later days of March to those of May. In a typical season the Kellogg farms send out several carloads daily on the regular express trains, besides thirty special express carloads. Then there is the scientific work in connection with the experimental farm, in which both plants and berries are raised and tested as fruiters, drought-resisters, canners, etc. And the mounted

Page  333 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 333 sprayers, which ward off insect pests and plant diseases, are never idle from setting to mulching time. The latter is also a busy season, approximately three hundred wagon-loads of straw being required, each autumn, to cover the one hundred acres of plants. Frank E. Beatty is president and general manager of the R. M. Kellogg Company and is a man of great business ability; a national expert in the strawberry line; C. J. Beatty, vice-president; and W. H. Burke, secretary and treasurer. To Mr. Burke is chiefly due the effectiveness of the mail-order features of the businessthe "follow-up" system; in fact, the mass of details conveniently bulked under the term "office work" has been molded by his organizing and executive ability into a fine machine. THREE RIVERS ROBE TANNERY. The Three Rivers Robe Tannery is doing a good business in a two-story brick building, the products of the manufactory being coats, robes, gloves and mittens made from selected Galloway cattle hides, as well as horse hide coats and robes. Mr. Avery established the business in a little shop, during 1893, and had no expectation himself that it would develop into its present proportions. He is a practical live-stock man and his sole assistant, at the beginning of the venture, was an Englishman who had had a limited experience in tanning hides, with the hair on, in the "old country." To condense a long story of hard work and ingenius improvements in the preservation, curing and tanning of the skins, and their manufacture into the warm glossy articles which are now turned out of the establishment-it may be briefly said that favorable conditions and good management rapidly developed the enterprise. In 1902 the large plant now occupied was erected, consisting of a main building of brick, two stories and 220 by 36 feet, and a one-story extension 40 feet square. W. E. Clark and B. R. Wheeler are partners in the business. OTHER INDUSTRIES. A much smaller tannery and fur factory are conducted by Duane D. Arnold, while the Specialty Manufacturing Company stands for an enterprise which is only four years old, but already vigorous. The latter factory is chiefly concerned in the making of kitchen cabinets, its active superintendent being C. L. Gladdy.

Page  334 334 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The Three Rivers Knitting works are among the substantial industries of the place; George E. Arnold being principally responsible for their success. The D. & A. Post Mold Company has a large plant and chiefly manufactures steel molds for concrete posts. Three Rivers Milling Company is a well established corporation, with F. M. Rudd as president and George T. Wolf, vice president; the Three Rivers Broom Company is well-to-do, and there are other industries of less standing which go to make up the industrial life of the place. FIRST NATIONAL BANK. The financial, business and manufacturing interests of Three Rivers enjoy adequate banking facilities through the First National and the State Savings banks. From the time the citizens of Lockport subscribed for $100,000 stock and elected directors for the establishment of a "wild-cat" bank (and that is as far as the movement went), in 1837, no further attempt was made to get a bank of issue upon its feet until the passage of the national banking law in 1864. In December of that year the First National of Three Rivers was organized, with Hon. Edward S. Moore as president and Charles C. Warren, cashier. In the succeeding year Charles L. Blood became cashier, and served thus until 1884, when he succeeded Mr. Moore as president. J. P. McKee succeeded Mr. Blood as cashier, the latter continuing at the head of the affairs of the bank until 1896, when S. A. Walton was elected president. Mr. Walton served out that year, and Hon. R. R. Pealer was president in 1897. C. H. Blood succeeded Mr. McKee as cashier in 1891; Charles W. Cox commenced to serve in that capacity during 1895 and retired in 1900, when Norman W. Garrison, present incumbent, assumed the cashiership. The present officers are as follows: Gardner Powell, president; Charles W. Cox, vice president; G. W. Cole, vice president; Norman W. Garrison, cashier. Besides the foregoing, the directors are Charles W. Cox (assistant cashier), T. A. Sperry and P. P. Major. The capital stock of the First National is $50,000; surplus and undivided profits, $12,000; national bank notes outstanding, $50,000; deposits, $347,821. STATE SAVINGS BANK. The State Savings Bank of Three Rivers was organized August 15, 1891, and commenced business on the 20th of Septem

Page  335 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 335 ber, with W. J. Willits as president; Cyrus Roberts, vice president, and George T. Wolf, cashier. Mr. Willits remained president until he went to California in 1902, when he was succeeded by Amos C. Wolf, Dr. W. E. Clark being vice president, George T. Wolf, cashier, and George M. Wolf, assistant cashier. These officers are still serving, with E. B. Linsley, chairman of the board. Capital of the bank, $60,000; surplus, $40,000. BUILDING AND LOAN ASSOCIATION. There are two institutions in Three Rivers which have had an especially strong influence in improving its social and civic conditions-its Building and Loan Association and Civic League. The Three Rivers Building and Loan Association was organized in 1887, by A. C. Titus, W. O. Pealer and E. B. Linsley. The first organization was officered as follows: E. B. Linsley, president; A. C. Titus, secretary; W. O. Pealer, attorney. This organization remained in force for about a year when Mr. Pealer removed to Duluth. Two years later Mr. Titus retired and removed to Wisconsin, and was succeeded by E. E. Harwood, who held the office of secretary for about three years, when W. E. Barnard was elected to the office and has held the position ever since. B. E. Andrews, in the meantime, was elected attorney and has held that position until the present time. E. B. Linsley has continuously remained president during the twenty-three years that have elapsed since the organization, so that the present list of officers is: E. B. Linsley, president; 0. T. Avery, vice president; W. E. Barnard, secretary; G. T. Wolf, treasurer; B. E. Andrews, attorney. The association has been very successful and up to January 1, 1910, had made loans to the amount of $579,625. While not the largest association in the state, it has always been economically managed and has not made a loss, owing to the faithful attention to its business by its board of directors. There have only been one or two cases where it has been obliged to take a piece of real estate and then only through some unusual circumstance, such as death of the owner, and in every case the property has been sold by the association at a profit. The association is based upon a plan somewhat,original, in that the funds are taken in by one set of officers and paid out by an entirely different set, and the name of the president and secretary is required to the signature of every order paid out. Over $800,000 has been handled by the association during its life and so far as known not a penny has been lost.

Page  336 '336 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The association has had wonderful influence in the up-building of Three Rivers, and through it a very large proportion of mechanics have obtained homes in place of being renters and more or less transient, as would be the case otherwise. The state inspection department, Building and Loan Bureau, has commended this association more than once in respect to its unusual success, when the size of the town is taken into consideration. THE CIVIC LEAGUE. The Three Rivers Civic League was organized in the spring of 1908 immediately after the local option campaign of that year, as a result of which the county adopted the policy of "no open saloon. " The purpose of the association was the improvement of the town and to assist in any way proper in the enforcement of all its laws, and an organization was effected by the election of the following: E. B. Linsley, president; M. J. Huss, Sherman Doty, J. L. Cann and E. H. Andrews, vice presidents; W. H. Burke, secretary; O. T. Avery, treasurer. In the spring of 1909 Mr. Linsley and Mr. Burke declined reelection on account of pressure of other matters and the following men were elected: M. J. Huss, president; 0. L. Bothwell, secretary; O. T. Avery, C. A. Howard, F. Sweitzer and M. S. Langley, vice presidents; F. B. Watson, treasurer. The society has had excellent influence for the betterment of local conditions, and can always be relied upon to be found on the right side of every public question. THE LOCAL PRESS. The press of Three Rivers is now controlled by the Three Rivers Publishing Company, which issues the Daily Commercial Hustler and the weekly Times. Its history, however, goes back for about half a century, or to January 1, 1861, when the Three Rivers Reporter was established by Wilbur H. Clute. It continued as a fearless Republican newspaper until 1875, when it became a radical Greenback organ and made a most aggressive campaign in 1876. The Reporter was largely responsible for the fact that Lockport township became the banner section of the state, if not the United States, in its overwhelming Greenback majority. It was discontinued in 1885, but revived by R. E. Case in the following

Page  337 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 337 year and conducted by him until the early nineties, when C. A. Maffett became its proprietor and changed its politics to Democratic. The paper remained of this persuasion until 1897, when it was purchased by a company of Republicans. It was conducted by them for about a year, and then discontinued. The Three Rlivers Herald was founded in 1868, being originally published by a Mr. Reynolds as the Sturgis Star, the press and material for the first plant being brought from Chattanooga. It was later moved to Burr Oak by a Mr. Dewey, who there commenced the publication of the Democrat. In July, 1872, this paper passed to Smith & Newton, but the enterprise languished, and in September, 1873, Arnold (Dr. Orin B.) & Son bought the dead plant of Mr. Newton, who was valiantly avoiding a sheriff's levy, and moved it to Three Rivers. In August, 1875, the name was changed from the Democrat to the Three Rivers Herald, and continued under the vigorous management of Arnold & Son (T. L.) until the death of the doctor May 30, 1883, when the junior partner, a practical printer and journalist, assumed the sole proprietorship. In 1889, when he was appointed postmaster of Three Rivers, he sold to J. J. Parker. In 1877 George A. B. Cooke founded the Three Rivers Tribune, which was edited for some time by John Prutzman. On January 1, 1895, Mr. Parker commenced the publication of the Daily Hustler. He had already established the News-Reporter, which developed into the Commercial. In 1897 the Tribune was combined with the Three Rivers Herald. Mr. Parker sold an interest in his consolidated business to S. W. Doty in 1907, and in July, 1909, the two organized a stock company under the name of the Three Rivers Publishing Company, to publish the CommercialHustler (daily) and the Times (weekly). Of this company, Mr. Doty is president and Mr. Parker secretary and general manager. THE METHODISTS AS CHURCH PIONEERS. Three Rivers is a church-going city and the presence of seven well-supported houses of worship in the community is the best witness to the fact. The genesis of organized religious work in this section is found in the labors of that tireless Methodist missionary, Rev. Erastus Felton, and the story is told with simplicity and interest in a little booklet recently issued by the First M. E. church. Vol. 1-22

Page  338 338 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The past and the present of the town and the society are linked together by a single life, that of Mrs. Louis Salsig, who as a little girl came to Three Rivers in the days of beginnings. Her father, Jacob McInterfer, came here with his family in 1829, and while its members were still living in the wagon awaiting the building of a home, they had a. pastoral call from Mr. Felton, who had just been appointed to the new St. Joseph mission. His circuit extended to Kalamazoo on the north and to Niles on the west and counted seventy-six members of the church. Today not less than fifty Methodist churches stand within the bounds of the old St. Joseph mission. Erastus Felton followed the next year with L. B. Gurley as his comrade on the big circuit, and for many years the preachers were appointed by twos, generally a young man with an older and more experienced preacher. In 1831 came George W. Walker, of whom E. H. Pilcher says: "No swollen river, no dismal swamp, or dangerous fen could daunt the lion heart that beat in his bosom." He preached at least once in the tavern of George Buck. The first class was organized in the year 1833, during which year John Arney and his wife came to Three Rivers. How we would prize a picture of this little group that met in Brother Harwood's house. More than three quarters of a century have gone since that day, and presently a century will have passed, but the passing of many centuries will not efface the glory of this little band, nor diminish our debt to them. The year 1833 is a significant date in the history of this church. Richard C. Meek is remembered by William Arney as "A young man just from the farm; a tall finely formed man, clad in jeans or blue linsey, home-spun and home-made. The class that met at this time (1834) enrolled nine members. The house of Hiram Harwood, where the meetings were held, was a log house standing on Sickle's Corners on Johnny-cake prairie. As the people met, some would sit on benches, some on rude chairs, on stools and on the beds, of which there were three in the room." This was a typical congregation for the early preacher. In the course of time the class met in the little frame school house in "Canada" and one of their number, George Wilson, became a local preacher and was a man of ability. His wife also loved the church and used often to walk from her home at Eshcol to the Thursday evening prayer meeting. In 1839, Rev. Ezra Cole and family came. He was a very useful preacher and for a time

Page  339 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 339 filled the regular appointments. He was always ready to preach funeral sermons and in this was very popular. It is not easy to obtain with accuracy the names of the members of the church here in 1839, for no records remain, but the older members would include the following: Joseph and Esther Sterling, Catherine Hoffman, Mrs. L. G. Brown, Charles, John and Hannah Carpenter, John and Ruth Arney, Keziah and Sally Sands, Simeon Frost, Emeline Arney, Samuel and Deborah Wescott, William and Rachel Ryder, William and Sarah Wescott, Lydia Snyder, Daniel Cole, Ezra Cole and his wife. This day of small beginnings was a day of many discouragements but despair never won. The Hoffmans would take a candle and go to the school house and hold a prayer meeting by themselves, until one by one their company increased. Even the boys who came at first for fun remained to help in the singing and the prayer meeting became an established feature. With like faith a Sunday school was started, and in due time the little society had all the signs of being a full fledged church, except for the one lack of a church building of its own. Mrs. Z. B. Ruggles takes up the story at this point: "In the year 1839 I came with my parents to Three Rivers. We found here in the wilderness a little society of Methodists. There was a Union Sabbath school and about as many members in the Presbyterian church as in the Methodist. Both societies met in the little school house which stood on the north side of the public square. The outgrowth of that little Sunday school is at present seven large and flourishing schools. In 1846 the little school house had become too small and our increasing congregation demanded a better place of worship. The few members went to work to erect a church. It was a neat little brick edifice 30x40 feet and was a great undertaking for so few members. Some of them went out of their shops, carried brick and mortar and worked with a will, and the Lord blessed their efforts." The building was completed and formally dedicated in 1847, Professor Hinman of Albion being present. At first, service was held only once in two weeks, as the Methodists shared this building with the Presbyterians, they holding services on alternate Sabbaths until their own church was built. Andrew J. Eldred and Salmon P. Steele came in 1847 and for the next half century these names were to be well known throughout Michigan Methodism. Many of these men of the early days rose to places of power in the

Page  340 340 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY church in after years. S. A. Osborn and S. P. Lee followed in 1849 and during their stay the church experienced a great revival and the additions to the church very materially aided the growing society. It is interesting to note how the authorities divorced this charge from one district and annexed it to another at their own pleasure, as it belonged at different times to the Ohio, Indiana and Michigan conferences. It was first a part of the St. Joseph mission, then the La Porte district, then the Kalamazoo district, and finally the Niles district. Truly this has been an itinerant church. The church that stands today was begun early in the sixties; its corner-stone was laid in September, 1863, and the completed house of worship was dedicated on Thursday, October 12, 1865. To build such a church during the dark days of the war is indicative of the strong faith of the members. For nearly a half century it has proved one of the best working plants in this corner of the state. It has been the scene of many gracious revivals. Loyal men and true have served here as pastors and upwards of two thousand people must have belonged to it at some time during the years of its history. More than that number of boys and girls have been taught in its classes and have gone out into all the world. These men of old builded better than they knew and hundreds have reason to rejoice in their sacrificial service. The first impetus for a new church came out of the enthusiastic revival during the pastorate of David Burns. Z. B. Ruggles had a class of seventy young people, mostly the converts of this revival. This need of a new church became so apparent that after a time a canvass was made of the members and friends of the church and about ten thousand dollars was pledged. The work was begun on the installment plan, getting the material together as best they could and getting ready for what all knew to be an undertaking that would tax their resources to the utmost. As the walls of the church rose, the difficulties increased and war prices for labor and material played havoc with the original estimates. But it pays to build in faith and one by one the difficulties were met and conquered. The church was well under way when the conference of 1864 brought the Rev. D. A. Gillett and into this enterprise he put his best life. Winter came upon the workers, the money gave out, and through the long winter the walls stood as a silent challenge to the faith of the Methodist fathers, and a source of pessimism to the doubting. There have always been

Page  341 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 341 plenty of people to say that things could not be done. "They can never finish it," they said, "but then the county seat will probably be moved to Three Rivers and it will make a fine court house." By this time they had put about $6,000 into their church and still they were worshipping in a rented hall. It was thought that at least $11,000 more would be needed to finish it. For this they worked and prayed and trusted, and their faith was not in vain. The spring of 1865 brought new courage and more funds and the work began again and slowly but surely the walls rose and the roof and steeple went on at last, and although this was only the beginning of the end, they knew that they had won. The basement was not finished until a little later, but the auditorium was completed and the church was ready for a congregation that was perfectly willing to say good-by to Kelsey's Hall that had been their church home for so long. In the diary of William Arney for October 12, 1865, is this entry, "Cool and cloudy. All hands went to the dedication of the church at Three Rivers. Rev. R. M. Hatfield preached, assisted by Dr. Eddy of Chicago. $6,000 raised by subscription; $1,000 yet unprovided for." Then follows a statement of the amount of his own pledge and four days later the significant entry: "Borrowed $10 of Wetherbee." Probably all who attended the dedication had to borrow in like manner. On the last day of the year we find the words: "Farewell to 1865, an eventful year! The like we never expect to see again." Its founders put more into the building of this church than those of a later day shall ever know. No wonder they have a pardonable pride in the work of their hands. The older men will never forget how they labored upon the walls and on the building, or met in all-night session to plan to keep things moving. $32,000 was the total cost of the building and the furnishing, but it took more than money to build the church. Isaiah Wilson was here at that time and has a vivid recollection of the day. "I was present on the day of dedication and a great day it was for Three Rivers Methodism. Bishop Ames was expected to preach and dedicate the church, but being unable to be present he sent Dr. Eddy and Dr. Hatfield in his place. The preachers were then in the prime of life and at their best on that occasion. The audience room was filled with enthusiastic Methodists. They came from Centerville and from all around the country. I remember Brother Hardy, the old and faithful class leader;

Page  342 342 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY he was shouting happy all day, and so were the Arneys. At that time Three Rivers was a great church, old-fashioned, noisy, full of fire and evangelistic power. Dr. Hatfield and Dr. Eddy were powerful preachers and there was no end to their wit and humor. We laughed, cried, and shouted, and freely gave while there was any money left in the crowd. " The growth of the church was accompanied by wise provision for the pastor's home. It was Rev. T. B. Granger whose experience with official boards had taught him to ask for what he wanted, who with true diplomacy told the brethren that they must either provide him a house or he would live at Centerville. This argument has always been a forceful one and the board acceded to the demand and purchased a little house on West street which house is still standing. This first location came afterwards to be considered unhealthy, so the board traded the house in for a second parsonage right next door to the church. This was first occupied by Rev. W. H. Pearce, and did service until the pastorate of J. W. Reid, who led in the building of the present comfortable brick parsonage. The strong church, as now organized, numbers more than 450 members, with Rev. N. A. McCune as pastor. Those who have served the Methodists of Three Rivers, both as "circuit riders" and settled pastors since 1829, are as follows: 1829-30 Erastus Felton. 1830- 1 L. B. Gurley and Erastus Felton. 1831-40 G. W. Walker, Benjamin Cooper, T. O'Dell, Benoni Harris, John Newell, Edward Smith, Jr., Wm. Todd, R. S. Robinson, Geo. M. Beswick, T. P. McCool, George Stanley, J. D. Sanford and John Ercanbrack. 1840- 1 Erastus Kellogg. 1841- 2 Richard C. Meek and J. W. Brier. 1842- 3 Richard C. Meek and Charles Babcock. 1843- 4 Peter Sabin and Daniel Bush. 1844- 6 John Ercanbrack, Henry Worthington, E. S. Taylor. 1846- 7 John Ercanbrack and George King. 1847- 8 Salmon P. Steele and Andrew J. Eldred. 1848- 9 Salmon P. Steele and W. E. Tappan. 1849-51 S. A. Osborn, S. P. Lee, L. M. Earle. 1851- 3 Henry Pennifield, Brother Finch. 1853- 5 V. G. Boynton, Enoch Holdstock, Alexander Campbell.

Page  343 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 343 1855- 7 Thomas B. Granger. 1857-60 David Burns. 1860- 2 Henry Pennifield. 1862- 4 Alfred A. Dunton. 1864- 7 Daniel D. Gillett. 1867 T. H. Jacokes. 1868-71 W. H. Pearce. 1871- 3 Levi Tarr. 1873- 5 Israel Cogshall. 1875- 7 J. W. Miller. 1877- 9 A. J. Eldred. 1879-81 F. B. Bangs. 1881- 3 David Engle. 1883- 5 C. S. Cox. 1885- 8 J. W. Reid. 1888-91 J. A. Sprague. 1891- 4 J. S. Montgomery. 1894- 6 F. C. Lee. 1896 J. A. Bready. 1896- 7 E. G. Lewis. 1897- 8 W. A. Frye. 1898-04 R. A. Wright. 1904-07 W. H. Phelps. 1907 Rev. N. A. McCune. FIRST PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The First Presbyterian church of Three Rivers was organized by Rev. Mr. Stanley of Mottville, August 12, 1838, with the following nineteen members: James Slote and his wife Hannah; Mrs. Sarah Snyder and daughter; McDonald Campbell and Jane, his wife; John Boudman; Catherine Mowrey; Mr. and Mrs. John Sickler; Hon. Edward S. Moore and his wife, Mary P.; Mrs. Elizabeth Moore; Dr. Edward S. Egery; Mrs. Louisa Manning; John Troy and his wife Rebecca; Mr. and Mrs. Miles Bristol and Samuel L. Sterling. On the same day Messrs. Moore, Slote and Campbell were ordained as elders. The first session meeting was held at the house of Dr. Egery, March 4, 1839, Mr. Moore being the only elder present; for Mr. Slote had died in Pennsylvania only the month previous, and Mr. Campbell had passed away September 4, 1838, about three weeks

Page  344 344 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY after being ordained. There was also present Rev. Benjamin Ogden, of New Brunswick Presbytery, who had been serving as pastor of the society since November. For the first ten years of their history the Presbyterians of Three Rivers had no separate house of worship, and during that period were served by the following: Rev. Benjamin Ogden, 1838 -43; Rev. Albert H. Gaston, 1843-6; Rev. Robert McMath, 1846-50. The first communion was held January 29, 1844, and the first communion in the new church March 4, 1849. On February 14th, the house of worship was dedicated, Rev. O. P. Hoyt, of Kalamazoo, preaching the sermon. Ten years later the church was enlarged so as to increase its seating capacity about one third, which was made necessary by the pronounced growth of the membership. Rev. William Page was called to the pastorate in 1850, served four years, and his successors, up to the time of the coming of the first installed paster (Rev. Joseph A. Ranney) in 1859, were Rev. William M. Blackburn, 1854-6; Rev. Almon G. Martin, 1856-9. Mr. Ranney's fruitful pastorate continued until September, 1872. In 1866 occurred the most memorable communion season in the history of the society, and during his entire pastorate 266 members united with the church. By 1868 it became evident that additional accommodations must be provided, and ground was therefore broken for the large edifice which was completed and dedicated May 11, 1870, at a cost of about $30.000. The sermon was preached by Rev. William Hogarth, D. D., and the first church communion was held four days after the dedication. After Mr. Ranney, the settled pastors of the church were: Rev. George Barnes, 1872-3; Rev. John D. McCord, 1873-4; Rev. William A. Masker, 1874-8; Rev. Thomas Gordon, 1878-81; Rev. H. B. Thayer, 1882-4; Rev. George C. Frost, 1885-90; Rev. E. W. Ranken, 1891-2; Rev. Hope F. Ross, 1893-4; Rev. W. H. McPherson, 1894-1901; Rev. L. R. Toner, 1901-4; Rev. A. C. V. Skinner, 1904-7; Rev. J. A. Gallaher, May, 1908. The church membership is about 260, while the Sunday school numbers 190. THE BAPTIST CHURCH. The Baptists of Three Rivers first organized a society April 6, 1861, the council for the purpose being composed of Rev. J. L. McCloud, of Schoolcraft, Rev. Samuel Haskell, of Kalamazoo, and Rev. S. E. Faxon. Its original roll of membership consisted of

Page  345 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 345 William F. Arnold and wife; William M. Griffin, wife and two daughters; Cornelius Young; William Churchill and son Adney; Mrs. Sally Woodhull, Mrs. Frost and Samuel Ludwig. Messrs. Churchill and Ludwig were the deacons and Mr. Griffin, clerk. The first pastor of the church was Rev. Luther H. Trowbridge, who was a licentiate when he first came, but was ordained at Three Rivers, and remained until 1869. The first house of worship, which was built in 1864 at a cost of $7,000 was burned in 1871, and for some time thereafter the society met at Kelsey's Hall. A Sunday school was organized before the church was built, J. W. French being one of its first superintendents. The present church, whose house of worship is on Main street, between Prutzman and Kelsey, is in charge of Rev. A. V. Whipple. THE FIRST REFORMED CHURCH. The First Reformed Church of the United States in Three Rivers was organized by Rev. Daniel Kroh, February 1, 1863. Among the forty-three charter members were the following: John G. Ott, John Buss, Lucas Thurer, F. Burgin and John Steininger, with their wives; Henry Stotz, George Scheidhart, Charles Ettelman and F. Keiser. Its church in the Third ward was built in 1870, at a cost of $11,000, and provided for 350 sittings. Since the organization of the society its pastors have been as follows: Revs. Daniel Kroh, Henry Wiegand, Jesse L. Schlosser, Louis Grosenbach (nine years), William E. Ludwig, Freeman Ware, Henry S. Bailey, Elwood J. Bulgin, Parley E. Zartman, Charles R. Hartman and George Longaker, the present incumbent, who assumed the charge in 1904. The church membership is about 190 and that of the Sunday school somewhat larger. MOORE PARK REFORMED CHURCH This society has a church about half a mile east of the station of Moore Park. It was founded in 1859 by Rev. Daniel Lantz, erected a building in 1880, and is now under the pastorate of Rev. Mr. Wiegand. ST. JOHN'S EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN. St. John's Evangelical Lutheran Church, of which Rev. J. D. Brosy is pastor, was organized April 3, 1870, by adopting a consti

Page  346 346 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tution and electing the following trustees: Aaron Schall, Samuel Weinberg, Levi Van Dorsten and the pastor, Rev. Delo. Among its twenty-nine charter members were Samuel Fees; S. H. Acker, James King, Lanson G. Reichart, Samuel Bobb, Samuel Van Dorsten and Jacob Schwartz, with their wives; Josiah Steininger; and Mesdames M. C. Delo (the pastor's wife), and Mary M. Schall. Rev. Delo, the first pastor, remained with the church until 1876. In 1872-3 the society erected in the Second ward, on Sixth street, a large brick church, valued at $10,000 and with a seating capacity of 350. The following denominations are also represented at Three Rivers: Episcopal (Trinity church), Rev. Mr. Frankel; Methodist Protestant, organized about forty years ago, Rev. D. A. Van Doren present pastor of the local society; German Lutheran, Rev. Louis G. Beuchterlein pastor, and Catholic (branch of the Mendon church, with Father Kaufmann in charge). CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION. The story of the Three Rivers Catholic Mission can be told in a few words. The mission was without a church until quite recently, and the conditions of missions without churches are much the same everywhere. Previous to the year 1889, Father Cappen, of Niles, visited Three Rivers occasionally. He celebrated Holy Mass in a hall on the third floor of a store building. For a while the mission was unattended. In 1892 Messrs. Behan and Donovan appealed to Father Buyse, of Jackson, who, calling upon the bishop, was given charge of Three Rivers. He and Father Jos. Stauss attended alternately for three years. Father Schaeper assumed charge in 1895, the mission having been attached to Mendon. The hall which was the meeting place of several lodges, continued to be used for divine services. It was ill suited for the purpose for many reasons, but no better quarters could be had. The Rev. Henry J. Kaufmann succeeded Father Schaeper in the spring of 1903, and it was evident to him that the few Catholics who constituted the mission (the average attendance was 45) could not build a church unassisted. Upon application, the Rt. Rev. Bishop gave permission to build, and authorized the pastor to collect for the church from anyone who felt disposed to give for the purpose. At first it was planned to buy the building which was formerly

Page  347 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 347 occupied by the United Brethren, then by a Baptist sect, and at the time in question served as a dancing hall. For various reasons this plan was abandoned, and it was decided to build a church. Very fortunately a site was procured in the residence section of Main street, between the two depots. Early in the spring of 1904 the concrete foundation walls were built for a church of 34x64 ft. The cost of the site and the foundation exhausted the building fund of $750. Father Kaufmann then wrote a letter to forty wealthy Catholics of Detroit, in which he set forth the condition of his mission and the necessity of a church in a city of over 5,000 inhabitants. The returns were encouraging; about $3,000 were received, and in November the building was completed, the dedication taking place on the fourth Sunday of that month. THE MASONIC BODIES. Three Rivers Lodge No. 57, F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation in 1852 and chartered in 1853. Its first worshipful master was Ezra Cole, who served under the dispensation and two years under the charter. Thomas M. Greene, who presided in 1868 -73 and 1876-7 and has filled all the other chairs, is an honorary member of the lodge today. It is in a flourishing condition, with more then two hundred members, and its present officers are as follows: Orrin F. Howard, W. M.; Burton H. Warner, S. W.; Charles F. Dock, J. W.; George M. Wolf, treasurer; Clarence A. Howard, secretary; Albert Lampman, S. D.; Warren A. Klocke, J. D.; Arthur Silliman, tiler. Mr. Silliman, who joined the lodge in 1859, is its oldest member. At the time he was initiated the following were members, who had all joined previous to 1856: Ezra Cole, Herman Cole, J. A. Kline, Jacob D. Kline, Abraham Smith, Sterling Harding, Abner Leland, George Gillespie, Abisha Hoisington, Norman Hoisington, Harvey Dille, Charles Ludwig, W. C. Brokaw, T. C. Oliver, A. C. Thiel, J. Broadbent, Joe Hile, David Orton, P. L. McMurtrie, R. E. Case, T. M. Clark, S. A. Smith, George M. Knight, C. Duell, David Bateman and Peter S. Bell. In 1856 the following were initiated: J. C. Morse, D. H. Wheeler, H. Ohl, John Cowling, C. C. Hutchinson, D. S. Mead, F. C. White, Peter Colver, J. Hutchinson, Norman Cole, G. M. Cleveland and W. G. Caldwell; in 1857-0. B. Bean, J. F. Slenker. W. L. Worthington, M. V. Sweet and L. T. Wilcox; in 1858-James

Page  348 348 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY H. Lyon, J. H. Tubbs, W. H. Reed, I. C. Bassett, William Griffiths, Lewis Salsig, Reed M. Boutwell and Richard C. Griffiths; in 1859 -J. B. Handy, John Gilbert, George Elliott, Dr. Sidney Herrick, T. J. Edwards, Arthur Silliman, Dr. S. B. Sill, J. N. Rishel, B. B. Reed, W. E. Wheeler and J. S. Osborn. Salathiel Chapter No. 23, R. A. M., so named in honor of Judge S. C. Coffinberry, was instituted under dispensation in 1859 and chartered in January following. Ezra Cole was its first high priest, Thomas M. Greene serving in 1872. John Cowling was for fourteen years high priest of the chapter and was long secretary of most of the Masonic bodies. Three Rivers Council No. 7 was chartered February 2, 1860, with B. F. Doughty, T. I. M.; John Cowling, P. C. W., and H. H. Cole, recorder. Three Rivers Commandery No. 29, K. T., was chartered June 20, 1872, with twenty-four members and the following officers: L. S. Stevens, E. C.; S. B. Kingsbury, Gen'o; D. D. Thorp, C. G.; J. Eastman Johnson, prelate; John Cowling, recorder; L. T. Wilcox, treasurer. Thomas M. Greene is its only surviving charter member. THE ODD FELLOWS. The Odd Fellows of Three Rivers are very strong, their lodge (Excelsior No. 80) being chartered January 19, 1860, by the following grand officers: B. W. Dennis, M. W. G. M.; Charles L. Dibble, R. W. G. W.; J. G. Bugbee, R. W. D. G. M.; B. Vernor, R. W. G. S. That year was the forty-first anniversary of the institution of the order, and was celebrated by the local body with great enthusiasm. The first noble grands were Isaac C. Bassett and Cyrus Roberts, who both served during the initial year of the lodge. Excelsior Lodge No. 80 has now a membership of over two hundred. S. Y. Miller is N. G.; William Strickland, V. G.; W. A. Barrows, R. S.; E. P. Hart, F. S.; William A. Wolf, treasurer. Curtis Encampment No. 39, of Patriarchs, was instituted February 22, 1870. It has a present membership of more than eighty, with the following officers: James Bunn, C. P.; George Allcook, H. P.; W. L. Brown, S. W.; I. O. Hains, J. W.; W. A. Barrows, secretary; George Trickey, F. S.; J. J. Foster, treasurer. KNIGHTS OF PYTHIAS. Three Rivers Lodge No. 43, Knights of Pythias, was instituted on February 8, 1883. with the following charter members: J. C.

Page  349 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 349 Sanderson, C. W. Kemberling, Charles Starr, O. F. Millard, E. M. Clark, I. D. Cushman, F. B. Watson, W. H. Titus, F. H. Case, H. L. Chadwick, F. N. Tucker, C. E. McCain, W. O. Pealer, A. R. Alvord, C. H. Prouty, C. E. Dexter, D. W. Thayer, S. F. Street, E. F. Saunders, C. U. Fisher, L. O. Miller, W. E. Clark, John Vosburg, J. B. Burns, H. A. Wing, P. L. Bodmer, Max Westheimer, J. B. Handy and A. E. Silliman. The first set of officers were as follows: 0. F. Millard, P. C.; F. B. Case, C. C.; W. E. Clark, V. C.; H. D. Cushman, P.; F. N. Tucker, K. of R. and S.; C. W. Kemberling, M. of F.; J. C. Sanderson, M. of E.; A. E. Silliman, M. at A.; H. L. Chadwick, I. G. and C. E. McCain, O. G. Following is a list of the past chancellors, from the time the lodge was instituted, to the present time: W. O. Pealer, H. L. Chadwick, J. I. Specht, W. E. Clark, A. W. Scidmore, W. W. French, O. D. Hummell, F. B. Watson, R. L. Duncan, F. E. Buergin, F. W. Starr, L. 0. Miller, N. W. Garrison, D. D. Arnold, W. J. Cook, M. J. Huss, Andrew Patrick, J. M. Pauli, F. N. Whitesell and J. J. Dikeman. Officers now serving: Webb W. Walter, C. C.; Fred N. Whitesell, M. of W.; Edward N. Brough, V. C.; Bert A. Lewis, P.; Fred E. Buergin, K. of R. and S.; Herbert I. Wright, M. of F.; Will Waters, Jr., M. of E.; James K. Gibbs, M. at A.; C. S. Eberly, I. G.; R. A. Rensenhouse, O. G. Trustees-Andrew Patrick, Richard L. Duncan and J. M. Pauli. The lodge now has a membership of 230 active members, and the regular meetings are held every Wednesday evening in Castle Hall, which is the second floor over the First State Savings Bank. THE G. A. R. POST. Ed. M. Prutzman Post, No. 44, G. A. R., department of Michigan, was organized in September, 1868, with the following officers: B. M. Hicks, P. C.; Samuel Chadwick, S. V. C.; A. W. Snyder, J. V. C., P. Bingham, Chaplain; R. R. Pealer, Adjutant; A. B. Ranney, Q. M.; W. S. Woodhead, S. M.; C. P. Buck, Q. M. S.; H. H. Whipple, Surgeon; J. W. Bannan, O. G.; J. P. McKey, O. D. The successive commanders of the post were: R. R. Pealer, W. H. H. Wilcox, Philemon Bingham and B. M. Hicks, until the surrender of the charter in December, 1871, in consequence of the disbanding of the department.

Page  350 350 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY A reorganization was effected in 1882 as Post No. 72, of which the following have been commanders: M. H. Bumphrey, J. P. McKey, J. I. Specht, R. R. Pealer, James Bonton, W. C. Porter, Lewis Morrill, A. A. Udell, S. R. Burns, W. N. Hodge, R. M. Kellogg, J. L. Haines, B. E. Andrews, G. A. B. Cooke and W. W. VanHorn. Following is a roster of the present officers: J. D. Wolf, P. C.; E. C. Graham, S. V. C.; A. L. Garrison, J. V. C.; Henry Kramle, Chaplain; H. W. Snyder, Surgeon; W. R. Matthews, Adjutant; J. P. McKey, Q. M.; G. A. B. Cooke, S. M.; Allen Wescott, Q. M. S.; Jackson Young, O. D.; James Hartgrove, O. G. The post has a membership of 50, in good standing. D. A. R. AND MRS. LuCY F. ANDREWS. Three Rivers has the only chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution in the county-Abiel Fellows Chapter, which was formally organized at the home of the late Mrs. Lucy Fellows Andrews, on the 4th of December, 1905. Mrs. Andrews was appointed regent of the chapter by the state regent, Mrs. Irene Chittenden, of Detroit, and she, in turn, appointed the following: Mrs. Anna W. Barrows, registrar; Mrs. Harriet Ikeler, treasurer; Miss Ruth Pancake, secretary; Mrs. Minnette Coon, historian. The chapter was named in honor of the regent's ancestor, Colohel Abiel Fellows, and has enjoyed a steady growth, from a membership of twelve to one of forty. The charter members were as follows: Mrs. Lucy Fellows Andrews, Mrs. Harriet Ikeler, Misses Kate and Sadie Fellows, Mrs. Emma Pancake and Miss Ruth Pancake, and Mesdames Minnette Coon, Eleanor K. Champlin, Josephine Bouton, Anna W. Barrows, Susan F. Perrin and Catherine Smith. There seems to be no more appropriate place than at this point to briefly picture the life and activities of the able and noble woman who was mainly instrumental in founding this branch of a splendid order of patriotism. Mrs. Andrews passed quietly away, on Saturday morning, at her home in Three Rivers, on the 6th of April, 1907. The news of her death spread rapidly over the city, and everywhere expressions of sorrow were heard. The passing of Mrs. Andrews removed from Three Rivers one of the most prominent women, not only in the city and county, but in the commonwealth at large, where she was widely known in con

Page  351 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 351 nection with her work in the State Federation of Women's Clubs, and her activity in the promotion of the Lucinda Stone Memorial fund. Mrs. Andrews was chairman of the committee which had in charge the raising of this fund for a scholarship in the University. It was through her efforts that this fund was started at the state meeting of Women's Clubs, held in Kalamazoo in 1906. Mrs. Andrews was a practicing lawyer in Three Rivers, a member of the St. Joseph County Bar association. Lucy Fellows Andrews, who at her death was fifty-nine years of age, was born in Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo county, May 13, 1847. Her parents were Mr. and Mrs. O. H. Fellows, and she was one of a family of nine children. Her early education was received in the schools of Three Rivers and later she attended the Mrs. Lucinda H. Stone private school for girls, at Kalamazoo. She married Bishop E. Andrews in 1873, and after her marriage entered his office in the study of law. She was admitted to the St. Joseph County Bar in 1877, after which she practiced law with her husband. Mrs. Andrews was very active in women's club work, especially in her home town. At one time she was vice president of the State Federation of Women's Clubs, and at the time of her death was chairman of the Stone Memorial fund. She was also chairman of library board of the State Federation, and as stated, was the organizer and first regent of the Abiel Fellows Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. In 1906 she was a delegate and in attendance at the National convention of the order at Washington, D. C. Mrs. Andrews was survived by her husband Bishop E. Andrews, one son, Edward H. Andrews, and four sisters: Mrs. Alice E. Hacket, Arthur, N. D.; Mrs. Ora D. Carpenter, Phelps, New York; Mrs. Maude F. Aspinwall, Jackson, Michigan; and Miss Annie Fellows, Schoolcraft, that state. Funeral services were held at her home by Dr. A. C. V. Skinner, assisted by Rev. George Longaker, and the burial took place at Riverside. M. W. A. AND OTHER SOCIETIES. Three Rivers Camp No. 840, M. W. A., was instituted February 19, 1889, with Leo Miller as its first venerable consul; A. Y. Masser, W. A.; John A. Fulcher, banker; E. E. Wilcox, clerk. The camp has a present strength of about 290, and the following officers: William T. Copp, V. C.; Garfield A. Hackenberg, W. A.;

Page  352 352 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Richard L. Duncan, clerk; John O. Pollock, banker; Osro J. Kidder, escort; Charles L. Prouty, sentry; Edgar C. Brown, watchman; George H. Delano, guard; Frank L. Millard, janitor; Isaac L. Keen, C. F.; Arthur W. Scidmore, C. P. No. 840 has the honor of being the oldest camp of the order in Michigan. The Three Rivers Court of Honor (No. 468) was organized in September, 1889, and has a membership of over 160. There are also well established lodges of Daughters of Rebekah (No. 191) and K. O. T. M. (No. 87).

Page  353 CHAPTER XIV. CITY OF STURGIS. RAILROAD EXPANSION-HON. J. G. WAIT AS A RAILROAD MAN-NOT REALLY STURGIS UNTIL 1858-HOTEL, STAGE LINES AND MAILS -STURGIS AS IT IS-PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM-CITY WATER, LIGHT AND POWER-FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY-CORPORATION AND FIRE DEPARTMENT-TOWNSHIP AND CITY CEMETERY-METHODIST PIONEERS-BAPTIST CHURCH-PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH-EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN, ST. JOHN'S AND TRINITY-ST. JOHN'S PARISH HOUSE (EPISCOPAL)-PIONEER MASONS-ODD FELLOWS AND OTHER ORDERS-STURGIS W. C. T. U.-WOMAN'S LITERARY CLUB-THE LOCAL PRESS-GROBHISER-CABINET MAKERS COMPANIES-AULSBROOK & JONES FURNITURE COMPANYSTURGIS STEEL GO-CART COMPANY-ROYAL CHAIR FACTORYOTHER INDUSTRIES-BANKS. Unlike Three Rivers, Sturgis has never enjoyed the early advantage of natural water power, being located on a prairie in the southern tier of townships, and forming almost a triangle with Three Rivers and Colon, which lie in the valley of the St. Joseph. It secured a decisive advantage over Three Rivers, in 1851, when the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern was completed through it and White Pigeon. The charter of that road prevented it from being built nearer than three miles from the Indiana state line and bound it to establish one of its stations, within the county, on the St. Joseph river. It was so thoroughly the general belief that the line would be constructed through the center of the county, touching at Three Rivers and Constantine (one or both), that little attention was paid to the claims of Sturgis and White Pigeon to the south. But the result shows that they worked to advantage, or, at all events, that the railroad company had its own ideas as to the most direct and feasible route. 353 Vol. 1-23

Page  354 354 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY RAILROAD EXPANSION. In 1853, however, the charter of the St. Joseph Valley Railroad was utilized by its owner, the Michigan Southern, and a branch was constructed to Three Rivers. In 1867 the Grand Rapids and Indiana road was built through the county from Sturgis north, through Nottawa and Mendon, and in 1871 the Michigan Air Line (now the Michigan Central) was completed through the central sections, touching at Centerville and Three Rivers. So that after the latter date, Three Rivers and Sturgis stood on a par in regard to railroad communication, north and south, east and west. HON. J. G. WAIT AS A RAILROAD MAN. It was the liberal amount ($30,000) subscribed chiefly by the people of Sturgis and White Pigeon, which induced the Michigan Southern road to put the line through the southern, instead of the central portion of the county. No one was more prominent in promoting the interests of the southern part of the county, and of Sturgis in particular, than its sturdy pioneer, Hon. Jonathan G. Wait. First, he was largely instrumental in securing the right-ofway for the Michigan Southern through Branch and St. Joseph counties and, as a contractor, he afterward built the fences along the right-of-way, as well as the depots from Coldwater to Niles. Again, in the late fifties, he assisted in the organization of the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company and ten years later did more than any one man in actually putting it through the county, thus giving Sturgis a north and south outlet. Mr. Wait's services were so invaluable in these connections, that a digression is here taken from the main narrative to do him justice in detail. Jonathan G. Wait was born in the town of York, Livingston county, New York, November 11, 1811. His parents, Josiah and Martha Ann (Graham) Wait, were natives of the town of Alstead, State of New Hampshire, but in early life moved to the town of Ovid, New York, and from thence to York, before named, and thence to Perry, Lake county, Ohio. He came of good English and Welsh blood and from several generations of New England farming stock. He lived on his father's farm until he was fourteen, and when seventeen commenced teaching district schools, which occupation, for portions of the time, he followed for several years.

Page  355 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 355 In the fall of 1834 Mr. Wait left Ohio for the territory of Michigan, traveling through the southern part of the same, as far west as Laporte, Indiana, and thence returned to Ohio. In the spring of 1835 he moved to St. Joseph county, and made a permanent location on Sturgis prairie, in what was then known as the village of Sherman. For two winters, succeeding his first location on the prairie, he taught the village school in the old log-house that was first erected in the place for that purpose. In the year 1836 Mr. Wait began to build in the village, and that season erected four dwelling-houses. He also began the manufacture of boots and shoes, cabinet work and chairs, employing from ten to fifteen workmen. In 1841 he commenced business in the mercantile line, and was engaged therein fifteen years, as well as in the manufacture and sale of lumber in Bronson, Branch county, where he owned and operated two saw-mills during the same period. In 1849 and 1850 he was the agent of the Michigan Southern Railroad Company, to procure the right-of-way and otherwise aid in the construction of the road. He also had heavy contracts on the road for building depots and fences, culverts and bridges, and furnishing ties. He built all of the buildings from Bronson to Sturgis on the road, furnished the ties from the former place to White Pigeon, and fenced the road the same distance. In the fall of 1850 he was elected to the legislature of Michigan as a Whig, during Governor Barry's administration. Hon. T. W. Ferry, afterward United States senator, was a member of the house that same session, and Hon. I. P. Christiancy (also United States senator at a later date) was in the senate. At this session occurred the greatest and last struggle between the Michigan Central and Michigan Southern railroads, in which the Southern came off victorious. In 1857 Mr. Wait assisted to organize the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad Company, and was elected a director thereof, which position he held for many years. During that year he also graded and bridged twelve miles of the road between Sturgis and La Grange. In 1860 he was elected to the State senate, and reelected for two succeeding terms-six years consecutively. During this time he had charge in the senate of the bills providing for an extension of time limited for the construction of the Grand Rapids and Indiana road, by which the land-grant was saved to the road, the bills being successively passed through both houses and becoming laws. This action was the foundation of the final

Page  356 356 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY success of the road, as, if the land-grant had lapsed, the road would never have been built. Mr. Wait was, for several years, engaged in the location and construction of the road, and was amply rewarded by meeting with full success. In all things pertaining to the prosperity of Sturgis, Mr. Wait ever evinced the liveliest interest. In the early days of his residence in the township then called Sherman (including Sherman, Burr Oak, Fawn River and Sturgis), he was the town clerk, supervisor and justice of the peace for several years. In politics he was a stanch Republican, being elected to the house of representatives of Michigan in 1850 as a Whig, and to the senate in 1860, 1862 and 1864, as a Republican. In 1860 he commenced the publication of the Sturgis Journal, a radical Republican paper, in which he discussed the political issues of the day with marked ability and vigor. He continued to edit and publish the Journal for fourteen years, when he disposed of it to his son, who continued to conduct it for a time. In 1872, as an acknowledgement of the faithful service rendered by the Journal to the Republican cause, Mr. Wait received the appointment of postmaster of Sturgis, which position he held for some years. On the 20th of October, 1839, Mr. Wait was united in marriage to Miss Susan S. Buck, a daughter of George Buck, of Erie county, New York, and the second family to settle on Sturgis prairie in 1828. Mrs. Wait was born in Erie county, New York, June 8, 1821, and removed with her father and his family to Michigan, as before stated. She became the mother of twelve children. NOT REALLY STURGIS UNTIL 1858. In 1828 George Buck and John B. Clarke built their log houses on the site of the Sturgis of to-day, but the locality had no name but Sturgis prairie until 1832. In that year Philip H. Buck, son of George, who had been accidentally killed three years before, surveyed and platted a tract of land 60 by 165 feet, on either side of the old Chicago road in section 1, and called it Sherman, as has already been narrated. In 1834 Andrew Bachus, who had purchased Clarke's land, laid off a plat on the west side of the present Nottawa street. Other additions were made and the settlement was in quite a perplexed state of mind as to its real identity until February, 1857, when the state legislature replatted everything under the name of Sturgis; William K. Haynes, William L. Stoughton

Page  357 I iI HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 357 and E. H. Wallace, as commissioners, recorded the same February 5, 1858. HOTEL, STAGE LINES AND MAILS. The first hotel of the village was kept by John B. Clarke and was situated on the site of the present Elliott House. The second stage line (after Savery's) to touch Sturgis was established by General Brown, DeGarmo Jones and Mr. Forsyth in 1833. From 1836 to 1840 the rush of travel westward through St. Joseph county was immense. Extra coaches were often run daily, sometimes two or three a day. It followed that the mail matter which went over the same route was also heavy-sometimes weighing nearly 1,500 pounds! The benefit of this unusual rush was mainly enjoyed by Sturgis, as it lay upon the most convenient route from Detroit toward Chicago and the farther west; and this advantage was retained until the early fifties, when both Sturgis and Three Rivers obtained railway connection. STURGIS AS IT IS. The village of Sturgis was incorporated in 1855 and the city, in 1896. It is now given a population of about 3,800. With reference to railroads, it is located on the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern, at the intersection of the Grand Rapids and Indiana; also at the crossing of the Battle Creek and Goshen branch of the Michigan Southern. In relation to larger cities of the Middle West, Sturgis is midway between Toledo and Chicago, ninety miles south of Grand Rapids and fifty north of Fort Wayne. Its twenty manufactories, or more, employ about 1,000 men, the leading industrial line being the manufacture of furniture. The city has also large manufactories of children's go-carts, steel tanks, plumbers' supplies, sash, doors and blinds, proprietary medicines, wooden ware, etc. Sturgis has a fine system of water works and lighting, the plant being owned and operated by the municipality. New works are nearly completed about sixteen miles northwest on the St. Joseph river, some three miles north of Centerville, from which power will be supplied to various points along the valley and even to the interior. The place also enjoys a particularly efficient public school system, with its high school on the university list, and a free city library is an additional factor in the intellectual progress of its

Page  358 358 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY people. Seven of eight flourishing churches and numerous benevolent and charitable bodies give the city spiritual and moral stamina and substantial place in the higher life of Michigan communities. PUBLIC SCHOOL SYSTEM. The public school system of Sturgis is conducted through a fine three-story brick building, surrounded by spacious grounds in the central part of the city, and a structure of small, but adequate size, to accommodate Ward No. 3. The last report showed that there were 739 pupils in these two schools, divided as follows: High STURGIS UNION SCHOOL school, 106, and grammar, primary and kindergarten departments (in the same Central building), 541; Ward No. 3 school, 382. The Sturgis High school is organized on the most modern pedagogic methods. As stated, it is on the accredited list of the University of Michigan and other universities of the west. This does not mean that graduation from the High school is alone sufficient to secure admission to western state universities; in order to enter college or university without such examination, a certificate of recommendation from the High school faculty endorsing the candidate's scholarship and character is necessary. The Sturgis High school has physical and chemical laboratories which are especially complete for a city of its size. Each is in a separate room on the third floor. The building, as a whole, has a substantial appearance

Page  359 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 359 and is a credit to the place. Various additions have been made to the original building of 1861, the last and perhaps the most important having been made in 1908. For the origin of the Central, or Union school of Sturgis, the investigator must hark back to the year 1838, when School District No. 3 was organized (while yet the township was called Sherman), with Philip Buck moderator and Jacob French, director. The school partook of the assessment nature to a greater or less extent until September 1, 1859, when the voters made it free to all the children of the district and raised a tax of two hundred dollars for its support. On the 26th of the same month the district was organized as a Union school district and the following were elected as its board of education: William Allman, Philip H. Buck, J. D. Cook, W. A. Wright, Jacob Sidner and William L. Stoughton. Seven hundred dollars were then voted for incidental expenses, one thousand dollars for a building fund and the basement of the Presbyterian church was temporarily leased for the use of the higher classes. In 1860, the first year of the Union school, the receipts from all sources amounted to $1,454.73; $864 were paid for teachers' salaries; and there were 352 scholars. The same year the site of the school house was again changed to block 16-the present beautiful location-$2,000 being paid for the same. The following year (1861) marked the completion of the original brick school building at a cost, with furnishings, of $10,718. In 1876, the school population had so increased, that an $8,000 addition was made to the original structure, and soon afterwards the tower clock was installed in the main tower. CITY WATER, LIGHT AND POWER. The municipal water plant of the city of Sturgis was erected in 1889 and the light plant about ten years later. They are capable of developing 3,000-horse power, although but half of that amount is utilized. The present annual income ($22,000) is sufficient to meet all operating expenses. The plants are under the control of the board of public works, consisting of the following: M. E. Aulsbrook (president), F. W. Wait, J. J. Packard, C. P. Urie and George F. Smith. This branch of the public service is known as the Municipal Water, Electric Light and Power Department, and J. S. Flanders

Page  360 360 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY is its active manager. As has been briefly stated, the city has been constructing, for some time, a large plant on the St. Joseph river, sixteen miles away, and north of Centerville. It is nearly completed and when in working order will have cost not far from $175,000. From its more limited experience with the plants at Sturgis, the city has every good reason to expect that this enterprise will become a paying municipal investment, as it will be in a position not only to sell power and light to its own citizens, but to Centerville, Mendon, Colon, and (generally speaking) the northern and the eastern sections of the county. THE FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY. The free public library of Sturgis, which now contains five thousand well-selected volumes under the immediate control of Mrs. S. G. (Alida) Patterson, librarian, had its origin in the township library established in 1846 and opened in a room on North Nottawa street. This was the year after the township was set off from Sherman. The first appropriation for its support was $66.74, the books being purchased by the school inspector and distributed among the several districts according to the number of scholars enrolled. Mainly, through the exertions of Crebilion Jacobs, D. E. Thomas and Dr. Van Vleck a $500 appropriation was subsequently secured and placed under the management of the board of education of the school district. In 1871 a library and lecture association was formed in Sturgis, with C. M. Temple as president and Mrs. General Stoughton as secretary. Such lecturers were secured as "Petroleum V. Nasby," the famous political humorist; Paul Du Chaillu, the African hunter and traveler, and Mrs. Mary A. Livermore, the woman reformer and suffragist. But what was more to the present purpose, the association bought $555 worth of books for circulation among its members, who numbered nearly ninety. The library interests of the association and the township were finally consolidated, and the citizens of Burr Oak and Sherman townships even joined the movement by paying for the privilege of drawing out books from the library. In 1885 the township sold out to the city and a reorganization was effected as a city library, the collection of books being moved to more commodious quarters in the Masonic block on Chicago street, where it was very pleasantly located until April, 1909, when it was removed to the new Carnegie building.

Page  361 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 361 The question of having a Carnegie library had been brought before the city council at various times, but nothing of any importance done in regard to the matter. In 1904 the Woman's Club brought the subject up for discussion and decided to appoint a committee to interview Mayor C. A. Freeland and learn what measures should be taken to receive the required amount from Mr. Carnegie for a library building. After a somewhat lengthy correspondence and an agreement to fill all requirements, Mr. Freeland succeeded in getting the sum of $10,000. The lot was purchased and contract let; ground was broken on August 6th and on September 17, 1908, a day long to be remembered by every good citizen of Sturgis, all business was suspended for the laying of the corner-stone. The building was constructed under the supervision of Mayor C. Wilhelm and is a credit to him and the city. It is located on the corner of Chicago and Clay streets, faces west and south and is built of dark red brick, with white stone trimmings. Its front entrance is of glass tiling, with two stairways to the basement, done in mission style; lobby-room in front of counter; two reading rooms, twenty by twenty-seven feet; stack room, twenty-four by thirty feet; and librarian's room on first floor, mission furniture. The assembly and historical rooms are in the basement; wood-work finished in early English oak; walls in water color cream and browns; maple floors; Tungsten lights; heated with hot water. Twenty magazines are found on the tables in the reading rooms and ten newspapers; bound magazines in the stack-room, 418; reference books, 130; Circulating books, 4,639. The total amount expended on building and furnishings is $12,150. The present library board is as follows: W. A. Cavin, president; Mrs. F. W. Shoecraft, vice president; Dr. James Vleck, secretary; Dr. David Kane and Mrs. E. B. Gray, trustees. CORPORATION AND FIRE DEPARTMENT. The village was first incorporated as Sturgis, February 12, 1855, by act of the legislature, and William K. Haynes was elected first president of the board of trustees and William L. Stoughton, recorder. The village was re-incorporated in March, 1875, and, as stated, became a city in 1896. On June 20, 1859, more than four years after the village was incorporated, the council passed an order to buy a fire engine.

Page  362 362 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY This was accordingly done, and the machine known as "Old Tub" was in commission for twenty years or more. The first regular organization formed for fire protection was Watchword Fire company and was officered as follows: William Hammond, foreman; Daniel Flynn, first assistant; Henry McAfee, secretary, and C. B. Peck, treasurer. It numbered about fifty members. In 1863 Extinguisher Fire Engine No. 2 was purchased, and in the following year the village council erected the firemen's hall. In 1873 the council dug the public well, which, with several enlargements, OAK LAWN CEMETERY, STURGIS. furnished the department with water until the city built the municipal works in 1889. TOWNSHIP AND CITY CEMETERY. The first cemetery either in the present township or city of Sturgis, was founded in the summer of 1833, when Hiram Jacobs, father of Crebilion, deeded an acre of land to the township of Sherman, west of the line of the future railroad tracks. The donation provided for a site of some religious house of worship, with a frontage of 130 feet, and the Methodist and Lutheran churches were afterward erected thereon. The burial grounds at the rear of the church (occupying the present site of the Royal Chair factory) continued to be used as a cemetery until 1867. In the year named, the board of health of the township of Sturgis, bought ten acres of land just south of the village, in

Page  363 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 363 section 12, which, by later additions, has been molded into beautiful Oak Lawn cemetery. The grounds now consist of more than thirty-two acres, lying on either side of Nottawa street, and there are few prettier homes for the dead in southern Michigan. Crebilion Jacobs, whose father deeded the land for the original cemetery, and who himself has long been prominent in educational and library matters, was superintendent of Oak Lawn for fifteen years and no one has done more to make it what it is. METHODIST PIONEERS. The religious history of Sturgis commences with the organization of the first Methodist society, by Rev. Richard Robinson, in November, 1832. At this time, the territory within the Ohio conference was called the St. Joseph mission and was attached to the Fort Wayne (Indiana) district until 1840. In that year was formed the Michigan conference, and the Sturgis society was attached to the Centerville circuit until 1851, when the circuit was divided and the society called Sturgis station. The history of the society up to that year is sketched in succeeding paragraphs. The first class of Methodists in Sturgis was composed of one man-David Knox, the leader-and seven women, among whom were Mrs. David Knox, Mrs. Rachel Knox (David's mother), Mrs. Betsey Buck (widow), Mrs. Thomas Cade and Miss Harriet Brooks. Revs. Smith, Newell, P. S. Robinson, Erastus Kellogg and William Todd, preached to the members of St. Joseph mission until 1837, and in May of that year the Methodist society of Sherman was organized, with David Knox as president of its board of trustees. During the year, Rev. John Ercanbrack and Rev. E. Arnold were appointed to the charge, and during 1838 and 1839 the former was associated in his religious work with Rev. Erastus Kellogg. As stated, the Michigan conference was formed in 1840, and for the succeeding three years the following were appointed to the circuit: 1841-Rev. Richard Meek and James W. Brier; 1842-Rev. Meek and Rev. Charles Babcock; 1843-Rev. Peter Sabin and Rev. Daniel Bush. In 1843 the society erected its first church on the public ground, in front of the old cemetery. This building was afterward moved across the street and used as a factory, and the Lutheran church was erected there.

Page  364 364 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The first to preach in the new church, which was dedicated early in the year, were Rev. Peter Sabin and Daniel Bush; in 1844, Rev. Henry Worthington and Rev. E. S. Tyler, were appointed to the circuit, and were succeeded in 1845 by Rev. Ercanbrack and E. S. Tyler. In the church records for the latter year appears a note to the effect that "William Allman returned from Indiana Asbury University, re-united with the society, was elected steward and continued in that capacity for nearly forty years; prominent in the general conference and as a class leader." In 1845, when the township of Sherman was divided and Sturgis erected, the name of the local society was changed. In METHODIST CHURCH, STURGIS. April, 1846, a Sunday school was organized, with William Allman as superintendent. From that year, until the division of the Centerville circuit and the founding of Sturgis station, the following served the society as circuit preachers: 1846-Rev. John Ercanbrack and George King; 1847-Rev. J. Steele and A. J. Eldred; 1848-Rev. J. Steele and Rev. W. E. Tappan; 1849-Rev. S. A. Osborn and Rev. S. P. Lee; 1850-Rev. S. A. Osborn and Rev. L. W. Earl. When Sturgis was made a separate station, in 1851, Rev. W. G. Stoner was appointed its pastor, and the following served it during the succeeding four years: Rev. Jeremy Boynton, Rev.

Page  365 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 365 Elijah Crane and Rev. V. G. Boynton. In 1856 the society decided on the corporate name-the First Methodist Episcopal church, of Sturgis, and in October of that year, William Allman donated a lot for a parsonage. Rev. J. McAlister was pastor in 1857-8, and was succeeded by Rev. N. L. Brockway, B. F. Doughty, Rev. S. C. Woodward and Rev. G. D. Lee. Under the pastorate of the last named, the first church edifice was built, and dedicated in the same year (1863). It was a comfortable brick structure, erected at a cost of $12,000, and provided for about four hundred sittings. Since then the church has steadily grown in usefulness and favor under the pastorate of such well known ministers as Rev. Thomas Lyon, Rev. A. A. Knappen, Rev. John Graham, Rev. A. M. Gillett, Rev. Elias Cooley, Rev. R. H. Bready, Rev. G. A. Buell, Rev. L. N. Pattison, Rev. L. H. Manning and Rev. Adam Clarke (who has occupied the pulpit since September, 1909). The beautiful edifice, which is now the home of the church was dedicated in March, 1908. It is large and picturesque, is built of unfinished stone, has an elegant interior finish, and comfortably accommodates the three hundred members who are affiliated with the denomination and the local body. The growth in membership is indicated by the fact that it was 104 in 1855, and 161 in 1883. BAPTIST CHURCH. The Baptist church was organized October 6, 1836, as a conference composed of Elder Gershom B. Day, moderator; Abel Crossman, clerk; Wear Drake, Mordecai Leighton, Thomas Davis, Elizabeth Day, Roxana Crossman and Lydia and Catherine Drake. On January 26, 1837, a council was held composed of Elder William Brown (moderator), Elder H. J. Hall (clerk), William Taylor and L. M. Choat, and the conference was formally organized as a church, with Polly S. Ellis and Eunice B. Raymond as additional members. The services of dedication consisted of the preaching of the sermon (from Luke xii, 32) by Elder Brown, who also gave the right hand of fellowship to the members; charge to the new church, given by William Taylor, and prayer offered by Mr. Choat. In 1846 the people of Sturgis, irrespective of denominational preference, erected a house of worship, which was the first church building occupied by the Baptists; in 1858 they bought the other

Page  366 366 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY interests in the structure and occupied it alone for many years. The Sunday school was organized in October, 1846, with P. H. Evans as superintendent. In the late seventies the church membership was about 90; it is now 150. The first pastor of the society was Elder Day, the pioneer Baptist preacher in the county, who was afterward killed by the Indians in California. Well known pastors who have served the church are the following: Revs. R. Graham, L. H. Stocker, R. H. Cook, P. Forbes, P. H. Evans, U. B. Miller, E. Curtis, G. L. Stevens, E. I. Fish, A. L. Vail, George A. Amos, L. F. Compton, A. J. Snyder, B. P. Hewitt, Ira Hall, E. P. Smallidge, J. J. Phelps, J. C. Rhodes, A. H. Bailey, C. G. Roadarmel and J. C. MacDonald (now in charge). PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. One of the oldest and most flourishing churches of Sturgis is the Presbyterian, which was organized by Rev. W. Corey, of Lima, Indiana, in 1836-7. Among the first members were: Elder James L. Bishop and wife, Rice Pearsoll and wife, Mr. Wilbur and wife, Mrs. Ransom and Ahira Brooks. In August, 1853, the church was incorporated, with J. L. Bishop, William Kyte and P. H. Buck as trustees. The first church edifice was built in 1858 and was valued at $6,000. Among the earlier pastors of the society, besides Mr. Corey, were Rev. Charles Newberry, Rev. Mr. Fuller, Rev. Mr. Clarke, Rev. Mr. Knapp and Rev. C. M. Temple. A Sunday school was organized about the same time as the church, and among its early superintendents were John Taylor and Harvey H. Breese. Rev. C. B. Newsom now occupies the pulpit. EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN ST. JOHN'S CHURCH The Evangelical Lutheran St. John's church was organized as a Reformed society in 1855. Not long afterward Lutheran ministers commenced to preach to the church, and on March 21, 1864, it was incorporated as the Evangelical Reformed church, of Sturgis. In April, 1866, fourteen stanch Lutheran members withdrew from the society and organized as the Evangelical Lutheran St. John's Church, by which name it has ever since been known. The present church was erected in 1869, although the tower and several additions have since been made to the main structure. The pastors of the church, since the adoption of its present name, have been as follows: Rev. F. J. Hennicke, 1866-72; Rev.

Page  367 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 367 John Eipperle, 1872-6; Rev. William Rein, 1876-8; Rev. Fred. Miller, 1878-80; Rev. C. F. Boehner, 1880-7; Rev. Robert Hoeck, 1887-9; Rev. Martin Kionka, 1889-93; Rev. Fred. Krauss, 1893 -1900; Rev. O. Eckert, 1900-6; Rev. H. C. Richter, 1906-present pastor. The St. John's church numbers 370 souls; active members, about 100. Ecclesiastically, it is a part of the "Evangelical Lutheran Synod of Michigan and other states." EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN TRINITY. Evangelical Lutheran Trinity church is an outgrowth of the First Lutheran church, organized January 14, 1864, with these members: Carl Froh, Christ Froh, Henry Lohrmann, Frederick Passehl, John Vallbrandt, Christ Genning, Carl Schroeder and Fred Ripke. Rev. Mr. Evers, the first pastor, after preaching about a year and a half, was called to Adams county, Indiana, and during the succeeding three years Rev. Mr. Hahn and Rev. G. A. Henkel preached not only at Sturgis, but at Hillsdale and Burr Oak. Mr. Henkel occupied the pulpit of the church regularly from 1869 to 1877, and during his pastorate (1871) the society built its first house of worship-a little frame building, twenty by thirty feet. In 1874 the church was attached to the German Evangelical Lutheran Synod of " Missouri, Ohio and other states, " and on August 12, 1877, Rev. H. Gose was called from Illinois to assume the pastorate. The present parsonage was erected in 1881, which was occupied by Mr. Gose until he left to take up his new work at Three Rivers and Fabius, in 1885. During the succeeding fifteen years, or the period from 1885 to 1900, the following pastors were in charge of the Evangelical Lutheran Trinity: Revs. Kaemmerer, H. Yuengel, Theodore Ruhland (only a few months), Theodore Hahn and G. Wolter. Under Mr. Hahn's incumbency, which covered 1893-1900, the church was rebuilt, being dedicated September 20, 1896. Rev. G. Wolter occupied the pulpit from 1900 to 1903, when Rev. W. T. Schalm, the present incumbent, succeeded him. The secular educational work connected with the church had reaped such good results that a new parochial school building had been erected, and was dedicated on the 16th of April following Mr. Schalm's assumption of pastoral duties. This feature has continued to be a leading one in the activities of the church, which

Page  368 368 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY now numbers 285 souls, 193 actual communicants and 65 voting members. The Evangelical Lutheran Trinity is a free and independent church, being supported entirely by voluntary monthly contributions. Within the organization are a flourishing Sunday school, Ladies' Aid society, Lutheran League and other auxiliaries of a religious and charitable nature. THE MISSION OF HOLY ANGELS. Holy Mass was celebrated by the Catholics of Sturgis for the first time in 1864, in the residence of Capt. Wm. McLaughlin, at the corner of Clay and Congress streets. Father C. Ryckaert was the celebrant; he visited Sturgis until 1872, when Rev. Korst, residing at Coldwater, took charge. The services continued to be held in the above residence and occasionally in other private houses in the village and the country. Father McKenna attended Sturgis while he was pastor of Mendon. From 1875 to 1880 the mission was attached to Elkhart, Indiana, where Father J. Noll was pastor. In 1879 an effort was made for the third time to build a church. The initiative was taken by the devout and zealous Mrs. Cook, who placed the enterprise under the patronage of the Immaculate Virgin Mary and St. Joseph. Success seemed to have been assured from the beginning. Mr. Beck donated the site on Nottawa street, now the avenue of beautiful residences. All the people, Catholic and nonCatholic, united in building the church; those who could not give money offered their labor gratis. In two months the building, about 32x60 feet, brick veneered, was completed and free of debt. About twenty families constituted the mission. The dedication took place in May, 1879. The Rt. Rev. Bishop, assisted by his secretary, Father Korst and a few other priests, performed the ceremony. His Lordship also preached the dedicatory sermon, the subject was: "The Church the House of God." From 1879 to 1884, Holy Angels' was attended by Fathers Slane from Hillsdale, Kroeger from Elkhart, Loughran from Mendon, Kroll from Bronson. Father Korst had charge of it from 1884 to 1895. He added the sacristy. He was succeeded by Father Schaeper. The church was still without a tower and bell. The tower was built by a local mechanic and a good bell weighing 800 pounds, was placed in it. The old windows were replaced by new ones of artistic design, and rich colors. The church was now com

Page  369 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 369 plete and was among the best of the so-called country churches. Rev. H. J. Kaufmann came in 1903. The following year being the jubilee year of the church, it was thought proper to have the interior frescoed, an electric chandelier put in, new statues and a new tabernacle purchased. These improvements considerably enhanced the interior. The jubilee was observed in a becoming manner. The exercises were conducted by the Rev. John Cavanaugh, C.S.C., now president of the Notre Dame University. ST. JOHN'S PARISH HOUSE. St. John's Parish House (Episcopal) is one of the most striking, although not among the largest, of the church buildings in Sturgis. The parish property includes not only a somewhat low, but pretty and unique house of worship, and, an assembly hall for religious and social purposes, but an elegant auditorium devoted to public purposes; it is, in fact, the only public hall worthy of the name in the city. The corner-stone of the main building was laid in 1903, and the structure was consecrated May 20, 1906. The public auditorium is known as McKenzie Hall, being named in honor of the present rector of St. John's guild and mission, Rev. J. H. McKenzie; membership or communicants, about 120. PIONEER MASONS. As is the rule in other places, the Masons were the first to organize in Sturgis, Meridian Sun Lodge No. 49, A. F. & A. M., being created under dispensation, March 12, 1851. Francis Flanders was its first worthy master. The lodge was first chartered January 15, 1852, the treasured parchment which first called it into existence being destroyed by fire. It was granted a new charter January 12, 1862. W. H. Kent was worshipful master in 1853, and Dr. Nelson I. Packard filled the chair at different times for eleven years. The present membership numbers about 85, the officers for 1910 being as follows: H. L. Anthony, W. M.; L. H. Powers, S. W.; Claude Curtis, J. W.; T. J. Collins, treasurer; W. A. Cavin, secretary; William P. Townsend, S. D.; Emil Marsch, J. D.; William Lloyd, tiler. Sturgis Chapter No. 26, R. A. M., was organized by charter January 7, 1861, with B. F. Doughty as high priest; N. I. Packard, scribe, and Charles H. Putnam, king. The present officers are as Vol. 1-24

Page  370 370 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY follows: Charles J. Lockwood, H. P.; J. J. Stanton, K.; C. Wilhelm, S.; W. P. Townsend, C. of H.; Claude D. Curtis, P. S.; Emil Marsch, R. A. C.; Thomas J. Collins, treasurer; C. J. Halbert, secretary; C. E. Boughton, M. 3 V.; A. W. Gardner, M. 2 V.; Luther H. Powers, M. 1 V.; William Lloyd, Sen. Membership of the chapter, over 100. Olive Branch Lodge of the Eastern Star was organized October 2, 1879. It has a membership of some 150, with the following officers: Mrs. Helena M. Lockwood, W. M.; Mrs. Portia Graves, A. M.; Mrs. Claude Curtis, W. P.; Mrs. Lavina Alexander, treasurer; Mrs. Jessie Taylor, secretary; Miss Edith Corey, Ada; Miss Carrie Graves, Ruth; Miss Josie Rodebaugh, Esther; Miss Dorothea Robinson, Martha; Miss Mary Newman, Electra; Mrs. Lizzie Grobhiser, marshal; Mrs. Jennie Tracy, captain; Mrs. Fannie Robinson, organist; William Lloyd, sentinel. ODD FELLOWS AND OTHER ORDERS. The Odd Fellows of Sturgis organized themselves into Prairie Lodge No. 37 in the early fifties, and in July, 1860, dedicated what was then a fine hall. Hon. Henry Waldron, then a member of congress was the orator for the occasion. At the present time the lodge has a membership of about seventy, with William Hayes as noble grand, David A. Kribs as secretary, James J. Packard as treasurer, and H. L. Anthony as quartermaster. The Knights of Pythias organized February 21, 1893, and their lodge has now a membership of about 80, officered as follows: W. A. Gospel, C. C.; Frank R. Eaton, V. C.; H. C. Kraft, secretary. Maccabees Tent No. 557, was organized in 1880, and has now a membership of 160, with the following officers: F. H. Bailey, C.; Fred Ruck, L. C.; Wallace Merchant, R. K.; and F. B. Dickerson, F.K. A. B. Sturgis Post No. 73, G. A. R., was organized in the eighties and has now a membership of about thirty. Officers: Dr. V. H. Van Vleck, Com.; D. W. Robinson, S. V.; J. R. Tyler, J. V.; E. B. Cook, adjutant; Emanuel Ziegler, O. D.; L. J. Twitchell, Chaplain. STURGIS W. C. T. U. On March 27, 1877, the W. C. T. U. of Sturgis originated in the organization known as the Ladies' Temperance Union, or the White

Page  371 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 371 Ribbon Club. Following were its officers: Mrs. J. A. Kyte, president; Mrs. L. A. Packard, recording secretary; Mrs. S. A. Wright, corresponding secretary. The officers for 1910 were: Mrs. Alma Robinson, president; Eliza Burridge, recording secretary; Mrs. M. L. Williams, corresponding secretary. WOMAN'S LITERARY CLUB. The Woman's Literary Club of Sturgis was called into existence through the efforts of a few progressive women of the city. The first meeting was held at the home of Mrs. Burritt Hamilton, March 1, 1894, at which time a constitution was drawn up and adopted and officers elected. Committees were appointed and Mrs. Mary Hackstaff was elected president. A program was prepared that speedily set the members at work. The harder they worked, the more interested they grew and in all these years the enthusiasm has not flagged and Mrs. Hackstaff remained president until her death, which occurred November 4, 1897. Since that time new officers have been elected annually and a new program provided. The club membership is limited to thirty-five. While death has visited it several times and drawn from the membership, and removals have occurred, their places have been filled in the club, so that in 1910 its membership holds the full quota of thirty-five-all doing faithful work as stated by Mrs. R. C. Hamilton. Each year the members have grown stronger and topics great and small have been handled with more or less skill. Literature, History, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology and Economics have been valiantly attacked and carefully studied, while Civil Service and Parliamentary Law have not been neglected. The club joined the State Federation in 1897 and united with the St. Joseph County Federation in 1900. The club flower is the carnation; club colors are pink and white, and our club motto is "In essentials, unity-In small things liberty-In all things, charity." THE LOCAL PRESS. Sturgis has two newspapers-the Journal, published by the Journal Publishing Company, of which Edward A. Ferrier is editor, and the Michigan Democrat, edited and published by H. O. Eldredge. The Journal is one of the oldest newspapers in the county, being established as the Sturgis Republican in 1844, twelve years

Page  372 372 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY before the Republican party (as we now know it) came into existence. C. E. Simonds, its founder, continued it only a short time as a Democratic organ. Joseph Willis was its next regular publisher, and was succeeded by Easton and Sawdy, who about 1860 changed the name to the Sturgis Journal. J. G. Waite then conducted the paper for twelve years, after which it was edited and managed for two years by his son, Arthur E. Waite. Dr. T. F. Thornton assumed control in 1874, and two years later absorbed the Sturgis Times, which had been published for a time by Messrs. Alleman and Sweet. The Journal-Times continued for a number of years to be one of the leading papers in the county, as is its successor of to-day-the Journal. In 1876 the St. Joseph County Democrat (now the Michigan Democrat) was established in Sturgis by John S. and J. W. Flanders, the former being its publisher and owner. At different periods since, E. W. Freeman, John S. Flanders, Dr. L. S. Putney, C. J. Lockwood and H. O. Eldredge have been its publishers, editors, or both. It has been consistently and stanchly Democratic from the first. GROBHISER-CABINETMAKERS COMPANIES. The two leading manufacturers of furniture in Sturgis are known as the Grobhiser-Cabinetmakers Companies, and the Aulsbrook & Jones Furniture Company. The business of the former company was organized in 1887, since which time there has practically been no change in the management, other than that about two years ago the company was re-organized from the Grobhiser & Crosby Furniture Company, to the Grobhiser-Cabinetmakers Co's., James D. Robinson taking an interest at that time in place of Mr. Wilhelm. The company was originally incorporated as the Grobhiser & Crosby Furniture Company in February, 1887, at which time the first plant was built, and additions were made to the original plant about the years 1896, 1902, 1905, and 1906, these covering the main additions. There have been minor additions at different times, but the main improvements were made about these dates. The manufacturing specialties are dining-room, library, and office furniture, with an annual output of about $225,000. The company was reorganized about October, 1908, as the Grobhiser-Cabinetmakers Co's., with a paid-up capital of $200,000, which is held by the following gentlemen, who comprise the officers and all of the stock

Page  373 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 373 holders: W. C. Grobhiser, president; J. G. Robinson, vice president; G. M. Jorn, secretary; M. E. Aulsbrook, treasurer. AULSBROOK & JONES FURNITURE COMPANY. The Aulsbrook & Jones Furniture Company was founded in 1882 by Albert Sturgis and M. E. Aulsbrook, under the firm name of Aulsbrook & Sturgis. The business was continued as a copartnership until Mr. Sturgis' death in 1903, when his interest was assumed by the Sturgis estate, represented by Charles A. Sturgis. There was no change in this arrangement until January 1, 1908, when the Sturgis interests were purchased by J. D. Miskill, now vice president of the company, and the business capitalized at $100,000. Mr. Aulsbrook is president and E. L. Jones, secretary, A large addition to the original building was made in 1904, when the business was greatly expanded. The present output of the factory amounts to $200,000 annually, the special product of its manufacture being mahogany and oak bed-room furniture. STURGIS STEEL Go-CART COMPANY. What is known as the Sturgis Steel Go-Cart Company also represents one of the leading industries of the city. The Foyer Manufacturing Company was engaged in a similar line a number of years ago, and Messrs. M. E. Aulsbrook, J. F. Walton and F. L. Burdick bought the Foyer patents as the basis of the large business which they have since promoted. They organized a company under its present name in July, 1907, incorporated it in the following October, capitalized it at $85,000 (authorized, $100,000), and their completely equipped plant now turns out annually more than $300,000 worth of children's steel vehicles, illustrating an unusual variety, perfect reliability and fine taste in this line of goods. The product of the manufactory includes collapsible carriages, folding carts, doll carts and speeders. ROYAL CHAIR FACTORY. The Royal Chair Factory was established in November, 1899, by J. F. Walton, its present secretary and treasurer. The business is incorporated with a capital stock of $15,000 and the annual output of the plant is about $200,000. Present management, the

Page  374 374 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Walton brothers, consisting of the following: J. E. Walton, president; A. P. Walton, vice president; J. F. Walton, secretary and treasurer; and C. E. Walton. OTHER INDUSTRIES. This by no means completes the list of Sturgis industries, among others being: Morency-Van Buren Manufacturing Company (plumbers), B. F. Freeland & Sons Company (manufacturers of tanks, brass goods), Miller-Hubbard Manufacturing Company, Utility Manufacturing Company (corn poppers, etc.), Sturgis Machine Company, Shoecraft-Smith Manufacturing Company (ladder manufacturers) and the Diffusible Tonic Company. The last named was founded in 1888, is capitalized at $100,000 and controlled by Dr. L. I. Flanders (president) and John S. Flanders (secretary). The leading lumber company of the place is the Wait-Van Buren, of which Frank W. Wait is president and R. H. Van Buren is secretary. BANKS. The National Bank of Sturgis was organized as the First National Bank, February 18, 1865, Hugh McCulloch then being secretary of the treasury. Its first president was Richard Reed. In 1884 the institution was reorganized under its present name, and the following constituted the management until about 1894: Nelson I. Packard, president; Samuel P. Williams, William Allman, John J. Beck, Ira F. Packard, James Thornton and Bracey Tobey. Levant E. White has been president of the bank for more than fifteen years and Henry L. Anthony, for twelve. Present capital, $65,000; surplus, $8,000; deposits, $360,000. The Citizens' State Bank was organized March 7, 1892, with Nelson I. Packard as president, T. J. Collins, vice president, and H. A. Clapp, cashier. Present officers: M. E. Aulsbrook, president; E. S. Amidon, vice president; T. J. Collins, cashier. Capital, $50,000; surplus and undivided profits, $20,000; deposits, $452,000.

Page  375 CHAPTER XV. CONSTANTINE. DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER TRADE-THE BARRYS OF CONSTANTINECORPORATIONS OF 1837 AND 1861-SUBSTANTIAL WATER POWER IMPROVEMENTS-CONSTANTINE MILLING COMPANYOTHER LEADING MANUFACTORIES-CONSTANTINE 'S GREAT BRIDGE-" SAFETY FUND" BANK-FIRST STATE AND COMMERCIAL STATE BANKS-THE TOWN OF THE PRESENT-CITY WATER AND LIGHT- CONSTANTINE NEWSPAPERS-THE METHODIST CHURCH-FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH-MRS. CROSSETTE'S RECOLLECTIONS-THE REFORMED CHURCH-MESSIAH EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH —SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. The founding of Constantine as an industrial community, by such men as Judge William Meek and Governor John S. Barry, as well as its establishment in the world of business, has been traced in the history of the township. Although the place was platted as Constantine, in 1831, and first incorporated as a village, under that name, in the spring of 1837, for many years the county at large refused to recognize it otherwise than as Meek's Mills. In the fall of 1836 and spring of 1837, the village took its first decided step toward territorial expansion through the Constantine North Addition Land Company, which raised its first building November 10, 1836. It was but natural that the Republican should take a leading hand in promoting the "boom," as the paper was only three months old and ambitious to become "solid" with the community. This journalistic organ of the young village discoursed most eloquently on the water privileges required to make Constantine what it should be, and was destined to be, and called aloud for capitalists to come forward and establish an oil mill, edge-tool manufactory, paper-mill and blast furnace. 375

Page  376 376 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY DEVELOPMENT OF RIVER TRADE. In 1839 Hon. Joseph R. Williams, who had bought the local water power of Judge Meek's, erected a fine flour mill, interesting with himself, George Howland, of New Bedford, and Hon. Daniel Webster, the statesman and orator. But the Massachusetts capitalists and statesmen soon dropped out of the Constantine milling business. Mr. Williams completed his mill in 1841 and put it in operation, with six run of stone. He not only managed this, but a large mercantile trade. For many years he turned out some 25,000 barrels of flour annually, and shared largely with Governor Barry the shipping trade of Constantine. But Mr. Williams by no means shared the governor's popularity, for in June, 1856, the Williams mill was destroyed by an incendiary and the dam was also badly damaged by malicious hands. It was rebuilt, however, by Miller, Hagenbuch & Harvey. In 1843 the first steamboat arrived at the wharves of Constantine, and from that year until 1851, their principal business was towing keel and flat boats from St. Joseph to that point and carrying light boats back. In 1845 Governor Barry built his warehouse on piles over the river, so that the steamers and other boats could unload directly therein without extra hauling. After the railroad came in 1853, and river navigation ceased, the warehouse was moved to the bank of the river. THE BARRYS OF CONSTANTINE. In this locality (on the site of the present Harvey House) Governor Barry and his son Charles conducted the warehouse and general store for many years; in fact, Charles Barry did not withdraw until 1896. William Watson and Mr. Cohn succeeded the Barrys, and when the Harvey House was erected in 1903, it was found unnecessary to displace the massive foundation of the old Barry warehouse. The residence occupied by the governor also stands as one of Constantine's historic landmarks; it is a roomy two-story white house, colonial in architecture, its ells being supported by fluted wooden pillars. CORPORATIONS OF 1837 AND 1861. When Constantine was first incorporated in 1837, the following trustees were elected: Dr. Watson Sumner, president; Allen

Page  377 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 377 E. Massey, Willis T. House, James M. Hunt, Allen Goodridge, Pierrepont E. Grover and Erastus Thurber, other trustees; Albert Chandler, clerk. The first act of incorporation lapsed in 1839, and the village was not again incorporated until March 15, 1861, when the following officials were elected: H. H. Riley, president; John B. Shipman, recorder; Ephraim H. Sheldon, treasurer; Almeron Bristol, Thomas C. Langley, John G. Miller, Levi T. Hull and Joseph Horton, trustees; Isaac T. Mozier and Cyrus Schellhous, assessors. SUBSTANTIAL WATER-POWER IMPROVEMENT. By this time Constantine had not only well established sawand flour-mills, but foundries, implement works, woolen mills, furniture factories and a brewery. It had become so firmly grounded in the industrial line that an organized movement was inaugurated through the Constantine Hydraulic Company to substantially improve the water power of the St. Joseph and Fawn rivers. The company was organized February 10, 1868, by the following incorporators: Franklin Wells, Thomas Mitchell, S. P. Davis, Aaron Hagenbuch and H. H. Riley. Dr. Edward Thorne was elected president, Mr. Wells, secretary, and George I. Crossett, treasurer. The works, which were completed in 1873, included two brick buildings-one two stories, thirty-four by sixty feet, and the other three stories in height, twenty by twenty feet, with several frame structures, all covering more than five thousand square feet; a substantial dam across the St. Joseph river, and two raceways, or canals, one on each side of the river, eighty feet in width, seven feet in depth and nine feet fall. This first really improved water power was planned so that it could be used along a frontage of more than four thousand feet and embrace sixty acres of ground. The cost of making the improvements, including the amount paid for acquiring the necessary lands, was $35,500. In later years the improvements were extended to the Fawn river, and the entire water power is now owned by three parties: seven-twelfths by the Constantine Milling Company, three-twelfths by the village and two-twelfths by the Fawn River Manufacturing Company. CONSTANTINE MILLING COMPANY. The Constantine Milling Company, which owns and operates a custom roller and feed mills, is one of the leading industrial

Page  378 378 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY organizations of the village. The business was established in the early fifties by E. H. Sheldon, and the feed mill was built in 1870. George I. Crossett, W. W. Harvey and J. M. Harvey were early interested in the roller mills and the business in general, and in 1897 the J. F. Eesley Milling Company became the proprietors. Then W. M. Spencer and R. J. Fenner assumed control, and in 1903 the Constantine Milling Company was incorporated by W. M. and A. F. Spencer and Mr. Fenner. The last named withdrew and the present officers are as follows: W. M. Spencer, president; E. S. Hotchin (in charge of the feed mill), vice president; W. H. Barnard, secretary and treasurer. The daily output of the roller mills is 250 barrels of flour. OTHER LEADING MANUFACTURES. One of the leading industries of Constantine is conducted by the Board and Paper Company, which was established in 1900 by the present officers: Robert Weir, president; John Weir,% treasurer and Nelson Foley, secretary. In 1903 its present plant was put in operation, it being the old brewery of Constantine remodeled. The output of the factory amounts to twenty tons daily, the manufacture being of box boards entirely. The Constantine Casket Company, whose business was established in 1895 and incorporated in 1909, occupies a plant which stands on the site of the old Oliver plow works, one of the first industries to be established in Three Rivers and southern Michigan. John P. Drake, secretary and general manager of the company, is a native of Three Rivers, as was his mother (nee Roys). Other officials: 0. K. Harvey, president; W. N. Harvey, vice president; S. B. Hagenbuch, treasurer. Other industries than those already mentioned are the sawmill of Irwin Brothers, and the Novelty Works of John B. George, the latter turning out such articles as curtain stretchers and churns. CONSTANTINE 'S "SAFETY FUND" BANK. The early importance of Constantine, or Meek's Mills, as an industrial and commercial point of the county and southern Michigan, is fairly demonstrated by the fact that it enjoyed the distinction of possessing for about five years the first and only "safety" fund bank in this section of the state. It (the Bank of Constan

Page  379 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 379 tine) was chartered July 23, 1836, with an authorized capital of $250,000; and among the many applications made to the legislature for the purpose, this was the only charter granted. It was one of the signs of the times that within the first week after the stock books were opened, not only was the full authorized amount subscribed, but 447 surplus shares besides. Among the heaviest subscribers were Isaac J. Ullman, 210 shares; William E. Boardman, 1,500 shares; J. S. Barry, 200 shares, and William H. Adams, 200 shares. The first board of directors consisted of the following: W. T. House, president; W. E. Boardman, John A. Welles, I. J. Ullman, E. S. Swan, W. H. Adams and John S. Barry. On February 24, 1837, the bank received its first installment of capital in specie, and its doors were opened for business on the 3rd of the following month, with Charles Augustus Hopkins, of Buffalo, as cashier. The Bank of Constantine was a "wild cat" bank, to designate it from the "red dog" species; they were alike, in that they eventually scratched or bit those who had anything to do with them, and were only different in a minor feature of their bills of exchange. If the bills were printed ready for circulation, they were "wild cat;" if the locality of the bank of issue was left blank, to be afterward filled in with red ink, they were of the "red dog" variety. Both the Constantine and Centerville banks were "wild cat." The first statement issued by the Constantine institution was made March 6, 1838, and notwithstanding panic and hard times presented the following brave showing: Capital stock, $250,000; paid in, $27,025; circulation, $29,430; specie on hand, $15,465; bills of other banks, $9,821. But the day of reckoning came, after a few years of inflation of its circulating medium, and in 1841 it was forced to suspend specie payments and close its doors. FIRST STATE BANK. The First State Bank of Constantine was organized as the First National Bank, November 29, 1864, by George I. Crossett, Norman Harvey, Thomas Mitchell, E. H. Sheldon, Samuel B. Jenks, Aaron Hagenbuch and Francis J. Morse. Mr. Sheldon was its first president and George M. Clark, cashier. Mr. Clark was succeeded the following year by Peter Haslet, who was cashier up to the time of his death, in 1881, when W. W. Harvey was elected to the position, which he held up to the time of the reorganization as the First State Bank in 1894.

Page  380 380 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Mr. Sheldon was president for a short time, followed by Aaron Hagenbuch, who was succeeded in 1869 by George I. Crossett, who was at the head of its affairs for many years, or until poor health caused him to retire. J. W. Simons was elected to succeed him. On the reorganization as a state bank, in 1894, George I. Crossett was elected president; S. B. Hagenbuch, first vice president; B. P. Scoville, second vice president; W. W. Harvey, cashier, and George Crossett Harvey, assistant cashier. After George I. Crossett's death, D. S. Crossett was elected president and later succeeded by the present incumbent, S. B. Hagenbuch. W. W. Harvey was succeeded as cashier, in 1902, by the present official, George Crossett Harvey. Officers 1910: President, S. B. Hagenbuch; vice president, E. W. Keightley; cashier, George Crossett Harvey. In March, 1910, the resources of the bank were $360,412; capital stock paid in, $30,000; surplus and undivided profits, $13,000. COMMERCIAL STATE BANK. The Commercial State Bank of Constantine was organized August 1, 1894, with a capital (as at present) of $25,000. The present officers are as follows: John H. Jones, president; Samuel Gibson, first vice president; John Blue, second vice president; James A. Marsh, cashier. Surplus and undivided profits, $29,000. THE TOWN OF THE PRESENT. Constantine is now a well-built town of about 1,600 people, eight miles south of Three Rivers and ten miles southwest of Centerville. Its water power and electric plant are the strong features of its material life as a corporation and an industrial center. A public library, opera house, well-conducted press, substantial banks, a gem of a hotel (the Harvey House), a good Union school and its churches and benevolent societies, are also so many indications of an intelligent, moral and religious community. ITS PUBLIC SCHOOLS. The first school in the village was opened in the basement of Niles F. Smith's store, a little frame building on the south bank of the St. Joseph, near the present iron bridge. Thomas Charlton

Page  381 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 381 commenced to teach the half dozen pupils in the winter of 1830-1, not long after this first store opened for business. The first school on Broad street was taught in 1836, in a building put up that year, and a lady taught its ten scholars. The Union building, now occupied by the high school and grammar grades, accommodates about 260 pupils, of whom 90 are enrolled in the former department. The building was remodeled in 1894 and 1910. All the modern laboratory facilities are provided for the high school, and there is also a well-equipped gymnasium. Music and drawing are both taught as adjuncts to the regular courses. J. Q. Roode is Constantine's superintendent of schools, and Miss Anna Brady principal of the high school. CONSTANTINE'S GREAT BRIDGE. Contantine has had a number of bridges on the site of the substantial iron structure of to-day. The first one was built on piles, with a swing in the center. It was rebuilt in 1841 and 1849, a high curving arch being its new feature-an improvement made necessary to admit of the passage of steamboats. When it was razed in 1852 it was on a level with the second story of Barry's warehouse. The first iron suspension bridge, at this point, was completed in August, 1869. The contractor who put the work through for $15,000 was Simon DeGraff, of New York, and at the time the structure represented the largest single span, iron-truss bridge, in the west. After swinging over the St. Joseph with due dignity until November 23, 1869, it fell into the river; and it is safe to say that there was one event not listed in Constantine 's causes for thanksgiving. The bridge, as rebuilt and completed in April, 1870, had a length of 231 feet. The building of the present-day iron bridge across the St. Joseph covered the period from September 26, 1905, to May 17, 1906. CITY WATER AND LIGHT. In 1902 the fine plant was erected at Constantine, which furnished the city with its water and electric supply. The building and site cost about $250,000, and the laying of the transmission lines $100,000. The manager of the plant is L. J. Botting, of Three Rivers. CONSTANTINE NEWSPAPERS. The Constantine Advertiser-Record, edited and published by Clayton W. Clemens, originated in the St. Joseph County Adver

Page  382 382 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tiser, which was founded at Centerville, by Albert E. Massey and Horace Metcalf, in February, 1845. It was started as a Whig paper, and continued to be published at the county seat, as the organ of that party, until June, 1851, when its new proprietors, Lee G. Hull and John M. Farquhar, moved it to Constantine. Thenceforth, it was issued as the St. Joseph County Advertiser and Constantine Weekly Mercury until 1900. In August following its establishment at Constantine, Mr. Farquhar withdrew from the paper, and for many years thereafter Mr. Hull published it continuously, the only intermission being the burning of the building March 1, 1874, when the regular issues were suspended for a few weeks. BRIDGE AND LIGHT AND POWER PLANT CONSTANTINE. At that time Mr. Hull was the oldest newspaper publisher in the state in continuous service, and during the period of his journalistic activity he was prominently recognized by the general government as an influential Republican. From September, 1862, to May, 1873, he held the office of assistant assessor of internal revenue. That office was then abolished, and in the following August he was appointed collector of internal revenue, and served in that capacity until the consolidation of his district in September, 1876. In the following January he became deputy collector of the fourth division of the third district, comprising Cass, Berrien, Van Buren and St. Joseph counties, and held it for a number of years.

Page  383 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 383 In 1867 Mr. Hull was also chosen a member of the state constitutional convention. He died in 1907, after having founded the Items of Constamntine. The Constantine Record was founded May 11, 1897, and was consolidated with the St. Joseph County Advertiser June 22, 1900, with Clayton W. and Earle R. Clemens as editors and publishers. In the following year the latter severed his connection with the Advertiser-Record, which has since been solely conducted by Clayton W. It is stanchly Republican. In 1903 the Items of Constantine was founded by Lee G. Hull, whose prominence in journalism and public life has already been noted, and since his death in 1907 it has been conducted by F. W. & L. W. Hull, as a weekly Republican newspaper. THE METHODIST CHURCH. The first religious services in Constantine were held by the Methodist missionary, Erastus Felton, in 1830, and by his colleague, Lyman B. Gurley, who formed the pioneer class of that denomination. Meetings were held and services conducted in the old school house on the east side of Washington street until the Presbyterian session house was built in 1839. That was its place of meeting and worship until the building of its own church in 1848. Up to the year 1847, when the church commenced to build its own house of worship under the pastorate of its first resident minister (Rev. Richard Pengelly), those who served the society were as follows: Erastus Felton, Lyman B. Gurley, Benjamin Cooper, William Sprague, R. S. Robinson, George M. Beswick, Newell E. Smith, Erastus Kellogg, Richard C. Meek, William Todd, John Ercanbrack, E. Arnold, J. V. Watson, William H. Sampson, Henry Hudson, Peter Sabin, Wellington H. Collins, Roswell Parker, A. J. Eldred, Franklin Gage and Richard Pengelly. In 1850, two years after the completion of the church, the society built a parsonage on Three Rivers road, which was occupied as such until 1855, when the property on Pigeon street was purchased. During the thirty years which passed between the building of the first and the second church of the Methodist society the following pastors served the church: Samuel A. Osborne, S. Blanchard, Peter Sharp, Elijah Crane, Frank W. May, Horace Hall, Thomas B. Granger, L. W. Earl, Benjamin F. Doughty, Stephen C. Woodward, David R. Latham, M. B. Camburn, David Thomas, A. N.

Page  384 384 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Knappen, H. M. Parker, James A. Dayton, A. A. Dunton, S. George, S. M. Edmonds and George D. Lee. The new church was dedicated December 1, 1878, and in the following year Rev. J. Boynton was called to the pastorate, his successors, who have served the charge for from one year to five years being as follows: William Prouty, I. B. Tallman, S. C. Strickland, S. C. Davis, J. G. Crozier, W. H. Parsons, J. B. Pinchard, Isaiah Wilson, J. C. Upton, B. H. Fleming, J. G. Bowerman and William Chapman. At present writing the church has a membership of about 200. FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. The First Congregational church was founded in 1888 by members of the Presbyterian and Reformed societies. As early as October 27, 1836, six men and three women of Constantine organized a Presbyterian church under the guidanceof Rev. P. W. Warriner, of White Pigeon. Various ruling elders supplied the pulpit for many years, but a church edifice was not completed until November, 1854. Rev. Samuel C. Logan was the first pastor to preach in it, and even at that time the Presbyterian church of Constantine was the only one of its denomination in southern Michigan. In 1874 the house was remodeled and was occupied by the Congregational church, organized, as stated, in 1888. The church, which has now a membership of 125 has been served by the following pastors: Rev. Bastian Smits (now of the First Congregational church, Jackson, Michigan), Rev. Mr. Decker, Rev. Mr. Higgins, Rev. Mr. Jessie, Rev. Harvey Bush and Rev. Wilmot E. Stevens. HON. JOHN G. CATHCART. John Gilford Cathcart was born in Watsontown (formerly called Tobey township), Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, on the first day of January, 1799. He is a son of John and Mary Cathcart, who passed away to their final rest many years ago. His father and grandfather were both Revolutionary soldiers in the stirring times of '76, and gave to their children little else than a sterling patriotism and sound religious views. In the spring of 1831 Mr. Cathcart came to White Pigeon prairie, to look for a location; and finding one that suited him, pur

Page  385 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 385 chased it of Judge C. B. Fitch, in the southeastern corner of the present limits of Constantine township. He returned to Pennsylvania for his family, with whom he came to St. Joseph county and settled on his purchase, where he remained until 1860, at which time he sold the land (then a fine farm) and removed to the village of Constantine, where he resided until his death. In 1835 Mr. Cathcart was elected supervisor of the township of White Pigeon, then comprising the present township of White Pigeon, Florence, Constantine and Mottville, and was re-elected in the year 1836. In the spring of 1839 he was also elected one of the three county commissioners, who took the place of the board of supervisors, and drew the two years' term; at the end of which the office was abolished, the supervisors coming in again. In the fall of 1839 he was elected to represent the county in the lower house of the legislature. From 1840 until his death Mr. Cathcart was a deacon in the Constantine Presbyterian Church. MRS. CROSSETTE'S RECOLLECTIONS. The Sunday school of the Congregational church has always been heartily maintained. Of its veteran members none have been more constant, or gained deeper affection, than Mrs. Delia S. Crossette; this is but introductory and explanatory of the following taken from the Items of May 19, 1910: OVER SEVENTY YEARS. "It is a custom in the Congressional Sunday school to receive a birthday offering, and last Sunday Mrs. Delia S. Crossette gave with her offering a reminiscence of her Sunday school attendance, a period of over seventy years, which was both pleasing and interesting. When seven years old she began attending Sunday school on Broad street, in a little red school house, so common all over the country in an early day, where she also attended week day school, and the late Mrs. Arvilla Harwood, so lovingly remembered, was her first teacher. Mr. French, father of Dayton French, of Broad street, was the Sunday school superintendent, a position he held many years. He also led the singing, using a tuning fork to get the key, a thing not known to the present generation. She referred to the method of teaching in those days. The scholars were required to commit to memory verses in the New Testament during the week, reciting them in Sunday school. A reward was usually given for the greatest number of verses recited. Vol. I-25

Page  386 386 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY "What would appear a thrilling scene now was then quite common, that of meeting Indians, and she remembers hiding behind trees to avoid them. She also referred to her life spent in the city of Joliet, still attending Sunday school, when Bishop Vincent introduced the use of Lesson Leaves, the beginning of the present system. "The many years Mrs. Crossette has been among us she has been a constant attendant and gave as her testimony to the children, that she liked the work and had said to her granddaughter, who asked her if she was never going to graduate, 'Not in this life.' She admonished the young people to come into the church membership and live the life required-they would never regret it." THE REFORMED CHURCH. The Reformed Church of North America, formerly known as the Dutch Reformed Church of Constantine, was organized March 11, 1843, with Joseph Wells and John Sixbey as elders, and Nicholas I. Sixbey and John Harrison as deacons-the last being the clerk of the consistory. The formal organization was effected April 23d by Rev. Asa Bennett, who ordained the officers named, and on May 20th the following were received as members of the church: Darius D. Evans, Asahel Slote, Eleanor Harrison, Lucy Wells, Rachel Hagenbuch, Elizabeth Sixbey, Catherine Sixbey, Christina Sixbey, Frances Slote and Peter F. Putnam. The first children baptized were Jane, daughter of John and Margaret Pearce, and Reuben, son of Asahel and Frances Slote. Rev. Asa Bennett held the first church services in the 1832 school house, but before the close of his ministry, in 1845, the society was occupying its own house of worship, a neat $1,200 frame building furnishing forty-four sittings. The membership was about half that number. The description given of this church, then considered quite a fine edifice, reads thus: "Thirty-one by fifty feet on the ground; eighteen feet clear in height; flat ceiling; vestibule nine feet wide; seats fronting the door, the two rear ones raised for the choir; two aisles, with twenty-two seats opening into each; doors of much superior finish to any church before attempted in Constantine." The second pastor, Rev. David McNeish, dedicated the church on New Year's day, 1846, being assisted by three brother clergymen. In the spring of 1865 the interior arrangements of the church were remodeled, and its seating capacity increased, while in 1876 a tasteful and much larger house of worship was erected. It was

Page  387 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 387 a frame structure, veneered with white brick, stood eighty-one by sixty feet on the ground, and its southwest corner was surmounted by a lofty tower fourteen feet square. The building was dedicated December 31, 1876. The membership of the Reformed church of Constantine is forty, and the pastors, since the first incumbency of Rev. Mr. McNeish, which included 1846-9, were as follows: Rev. David A. Jones, 1850-2; Rev. David McNeish, 1852-4 (died as pastor, September 3d); Rev. William Bailey, 1856-63; Rev. J. W. Beardslee, 1863-84; Rev. Bastian Smith,; Rev. S. L. Gamble, stated supply, one year (1890); Rev. F. P. Baker, August, 1891-August, 1893; Rev. J. A. DeSpelder, January, 1894-June, 1895; Rev. J. I. Gulick, April, 1896-February, 1898; Rev. Edward Kelder, June, 1899-August, 1904; Rev. William Miedema, January, 1905-November, 1907; Rev. C. Vander Mel, February, 1908, to the present. MESSIAH EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCH. In April, 1865, Rev. Peter Bergstresser, pastor of the Mottville and Park Grove Evangelical Lutheran churches, commenced his monthly ministrations at Constantine, missionary work having been irregularly conducted in the same field by Rev. A. S. Bartholomew, a member of the Joint Synod of Ohio. On March 31st Mr. Bergstresser organized Messiah Evangelical Lutheran church, of Constantine, with thirty-three charter members. Of this number, William and Sarah Fox, Christian Klappen, S. L. Dentler, and Charles Frank and wife were active members; all have passed to the Beyond with the exception of Mrs. Charles Frank. The first services were held in the Dutch Reformed church, the Lutherans paying a rental of two dollars for each meeting held therein. Rev. Bergstresser resigned the pastorate in the fall of 1867, and was succeeded by Rev. J. N. Barnett, who also took charge of the congregations at Mottville and White Pigeon. During the year the church society, in conjunction with the German Reformed church at White Pigeon, bought the old Baptist church at the latter place for joint occupancy, Mr. Barnett being installed as pastor over the three churches at Constantine, Mottville and White Pigeon. The society at Constantine was incorporated March 19, 1870, the trustees elected being Daniel Kleckner, Aaron Heckman and Andrew Laverty. William Fox and Jacob Gentzler

Page  388 '388 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY were appointed a building committee to act with the trustees, and in April, 1872, a lot was purchased on the corner of Canaris and Fifth streets for a church site. For five years and nine months after Rev. Barnett became pastor, the congregation in Constantine continued to worship in the Dutch Reformed church. He then saw that the future prosperity of the congregation depended upon having its own house of worship. Although pastor and people earnestly co-operated in the work, progress was slow; it was not until the fall of 1873 that the church was ready for occupancy. In relating the efforts to get the edifice erected, the secretary writes upon the records thus: "Much delay and indecision having arisen in proceeding to built a church, it was determined by some of the members to commence work, and by a 'coup d' etat' precipitate action. Therefore, on August 29, 1872, the ladies were called out to dig the basement and foundation trenches. Rev. R. F. Delo and wife and many others came down from Three Rivers to aid in the initiatory movement." It would seem that this appeal to chivalry and practical action brought matters to a crisis; for the corner-stone of the church was laid October 5, 1872. Rev. Delo preached the sermon, and as the day was also the anniversary of the birth of Pastor Barnett, the occasion was doubly interesting and affecting. As completed late in the fall of 1873, the Messiah Lutheran church was a substantial edifice of red brick, seventytwo by forty-two feet, its round tower of castellated ramparts and stained glass windows being striking and pleasing features. The bell, costing five hundred dollars, was furnished by Miss Helen S. and Charles H. Barry, Jr., who were in other ways generous donors to the church. The congregation continued in connection with the Melanchton pastorate until October 1, 1873, when it was separated therefrom by the action of the synod, and undertook the support of its own pastor. The Messiah is one of the very few congregations of the synod which has never received any missionary aid; yet it has always been among the most faithful in meeting all calls from this field. In this particular, the Constantine society has ever shown the spirit for which Paul so highly commended the church of Phillippi. Rev. Barnett continued his faithful and effective labors until January 2, 1876, when he was succeeded by Rev. G. P. Raup, who entered upon his duties September 1st of the same year. It was his

Page  389 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 389 first pastorate, and he served his people with all the vigor of his youthful years. To the great regret of the church, failing health forced him to resign in July, 1879. Rev. H. C. Grossman took charge October 1, 1879, and continued for over a year. The pulpit was then temporarily supplied for several months, the next regular pastor being Rev. A. W. Burnes, who served for two years, from November, 1881. In November, 1883, he was succeeded by Rev. W. L. Tedrow, during whose successful pastorate of nine years, the membership of the church increased from seventy-five to more than two hundred; all of its interests being proportionately advanced. Mr. Tedrow resigned in June, 1893, to accept a call from the Home Mission Board to establish an English Lutheran church at Ann Arbor, Michigan. Rev. C. A. Gelwicks, his successor, served until the succeeding August; Rev. D. U. Bair from February, 1895, to November, 1897; Rev. B. F. Grenoble, from December, 1897, until November, 1904; and Rev. D. R. Huber from January, 1905, until the later portion of 1908, when he was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. R. E. Tulloss. The membership of the Messiah church is about 150. Its pastor is a young, vigorous man, a graduate of both Wittenberg college and the Hamma Divinity school, at Springfield, Ohio, and this is his first charge. Among other adjuncts to the church which he has been especially instrumental in strengthening, is the Augsburg Bible class, which he has developed from a membership of about sixty to one of two hundred. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. Of the secret and benevolent societies which have taken root in Constantine, the organizations connected with the orders of Masons and Knights of Pythias are the most flourishing-the former of early, and the latter of late, origin. Siloam Lodge, No. 35, A. F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation in 1849 and chartered the year following, with J. J. Mason as first worshipful master. Hon. S. C. Coffinberry, who was head of the lodge in 1857-9, served as grand master of the state in 1866-8. During the first year of his incumbency he performed the Masonic burial service at the funeral obsequies of Governor and Senator Cass. At the present time, the lodge has a membership of 134, with the following officers: W. M., L. K. Slope; S. W.,

Page  390 390 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY C. M. Dewey; J. W., George C. Pigeon; S. D., Sydney D. Pigeon; J. D., S. S. Kittell; secretary, William Beasley, Jr.; treasurer, George C. Harvey. Knights of Pythias Lodge (Constantine No. 241) was organized in 1907, has a membership of seventy-five and these officers: Ross Armstrong, C. Com.; C. W. Clemens, V. Com.; Arnold Tracy, prelate; S. A. Morrison, M. W.; Charles Clemens, I. G.; K. J. Flanders, 0. G.; W. H. Smith, K. R. & S.

Page  391 CHAPTER XVI. COLON AND MENDON. OLDEST COLON MANUFACTORY-THE PIONEER MERCHANT-THE HILLS, FATHER AND SONS-OPERA HOUSE BLOCK-THE LAMB KNIT GOODS COMPANY-OTHER MANUFACTORIES-SECURES RAILROAD CONNECTIONS-COLON IN THE SEVENTIES-SCHOOLS -COLON SEMINARY —" COLON EXPRESS -CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES-MENDON FOUNDED AS A VILLAGE-DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY MANUFACTORIES-OLD HOTELS-MENDON BANKS-CORPORATION AND PUBLIC SCHOOLS-FREE LIBRARY-THE MENDON PRESS-CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES-ST. EDWARD'S PARISH (CATHOLIC) -METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. In the early history of the townships, a sketchy picture has been drawn of the first settlements upon the site of the present village of Colon, commencing with the Schellhous brothers, Lorensie and George, who came in 1831-2. The next really important arrival, as it directly affected the founding of a center of population, was that of Dr. Isaac S. Voorhis, who came in 1836 and bought the mill site and water power controlled by the Schellhous brothers. He finished a small flour mill in 1839, which was sold to John H. Bowman and put in operation by William R. Eck, of Three Rivers, who dressed the first stones and ground the first grist therein. In 1845 Mr. Eck moved to Colon, where he resided for many years. OLDEST COLON MANUFACTORY. This pioneer mill subsequently passed into the possession of C. B. Hoffman, and then for some time after his death was operated by his estate, with John Hoffman and Sylvester Troy, as lessees. James Hollingshead was a still later proprietor, and in 1877 C. A. 391

Page  392 392 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Lamberson came from Three Rivers and bought into the business, which was conducted for twenty years under the firm name of Lamberson & Hoffman. In 1895 the style became C. A. Lamberson & Son (Frank D.), and in 1898 Joseph Farren, who had been connected with the business since the entry of the elder Lamberson to it, rented the Hoffman interest. Since that year, the business has been conducted as C. A. Lamberson & Company. The mill, which has been continuously increasing in capacity, now represents a MILL DAM, COLON. daily output of one hundred barrels, and is the oldest manufactory of uninterrupted activity in Colon, and one of the pioneers of the county. THE PIONEER MERCHANT. In 1841 Charles L. Miller opened the first retail store in Colon, and for thirty years the trade and industry of the place run a neckand-neck race, although not of very exciting nature. Mr. Miller was the leading merchant at Colon for about twenty years, or until 1861, when he was appointed secretary of the committee on commerce of the United States senate, holding that position, which necessitated his residence in Washington, until his death. In 1845 David Barrows started the first wagon shop in the village, which was the progenitor of a line of manufactures which has come down to the present.

Page  393 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 393 Shuert & Duel established the first foundry in 1847, and Richards & Hughes embarked in the same industry in the late fifties. Prior to 1860 David Brownfield built a tannery, which was afterward owned by the late E. R. Hill, and in 1858 W. F. Bowman erected a machine shop for repairs, which was operated by him for more than twenty years. THE HILLS, FATHER AND SONS. E. Hill & Sons commenced in the mercantile trade in the village in 1851, being leaders in business until 1868, when they became heavy and successful dealers in grain. The sons afterward engaged in the banking business, and E. R. Hill became especially prominent as a generous and public spirited citizen of Colon. In 1870 was founded the Exchange Bank of E. Hill & Sons, which continued under that name until 1908, with E. R. and Thomas J. Hill (the sons) in control. In the latter year E. R. Hill died and the institution was re-organized under its present name (E. Hill & Sons' State Bank), with Thomas J. Hill as president; Joseph Farrand and Grant E. Farrand, vice presidents; Frank E. Hill, cashier; John A. Karchner, assistant cashier. The capital and stockholders' liability of the bank amount to $81,000. Thomas J. Hill, its president, is also superintendent of the Lamb Knit Goods Works, the largest industrial plant in Colon. OPERA HOUSE BLOCK. One of its public institutions in which the village takes a pardonable pride is its Opera House. It is really a little gem and has done as much as any one institution to advertise the enterprise of Colon. It is beautifully furnished, has an up-to-date stage, has a seating capacity of over 600, and is in every way so convenient and tasteful that amusement companies go out of their way to take advantage of its facilities. Not only the house of amusement, but the entire block, is one of the many evidences of the practical pride which was taken by E. R. Hill in his home town. The so called Opera House Block, a substantial and well-arranged metropolitan building, was completed in 1897. THE LAMB KNIT GOODS COMPANY. The Lamb Knit Goods Company was organized in 1889, with a capital of $14,975, and Isaac W. Lamb, inventor of the old Lamb

Page  394 394 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY knitting machine, with manufactory at Chickopee Falls, Michigan, was superintendent during the first year of operations at Colon. In 1891 Thomas J. Hill, the present superintendent, took charge, and has had the management of the business since. Under the impetus of vigorous promotion and the work accomplished by the new Lamb machine, the output of the plant has increased until it is now represented by about 300 dozen pair of gloves and mittens for the season from February to November; also one hundred machines. The average annual output of the works is valued at $400,000, and the company has about 150 employees, including sixteen or eighteen traveling salesmen. The latter are on the road about three months of the year, during which they visit every state in the Union, although they consider that the cream of the trade is on the Pacific coast. The original building used by the company at Mendon was a seminary until 1889-a three story brick, thirty-five by seventyfive feet, erected for educational purposes in 1862. This is now about in the middle of the group of buildings which cover the four acres of grounds comprising the site of the works. Since it was first occupied in 1889, ten or twelve additions have been made to accommodate the expanding business. Another old school building of wood, also on the grounds, was transformed into a box factory. The Lamb Knit Goods Company was incorporated in 1903, with the following officers: Charles Clement, president; Frank E. Hill, secretary and treasurer; Thomas J. Hill, superintendent. OTHER MANUFACTORIES. The other industries of Colon, other than those already mentioned, are conducted by Anderson Brothers, manufacturers of speed cars; M. C. Corsett, makers of tanks; J. L. Bosworth, who conducts the Colon Creamery Company, and Lutz & Schramm, who have a large salting station for the preservation of cucumbers, which are raised in large quantities by the farmers of the vicinity. SECURES RAILROAD CONNECTIONS. The first plat of the village of Colon was that of the survey of John H. and William F. Bowman, which was recorded January 5, 1844. Although the manufactories of the place established

Page  395 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 395 Colon as a solid community, destined to grow into a thriving town, it was not until the completion of its railroad, in 1871, that its standing was assured beyond a doubt. It is now one of the most substantial little towns of its population-about a thousand-in Southern Michigan. The all-important feature in the development of Colon-the securing of railroad facilities-is thus fairly and fully described in words which were written not long after the famous Fourth of July celebration which marked the coming of the railroad to the village: "The railroad passing through the village was a great achievement for the people, and they are mainly indebted to Henry K. Farrand, Dr. A. J. Kinne, C. B. Hoffman and E. R. Hill for the accomplishment of the much-to-be-desired means of communication with the outside world. Mr. Farrand was especially zealous in securing the passage of the road through the town and village, spending several hundred dollars and the better part of two years in so doing. Dr. Kinne was also prominent in the work. "Aid for the Grand Trunk road of Michigan, from Port Huron to Chicago, was moved for, first in 1863-4. It was the object of the Grand Trunk of Canada to get a communication direct with Chicago. The first meeting of the citizens along its proposed line, from Jackson to Centerville, was held at the former place in 1865. The people saw that this was the time to get a railroad through the township to Centerville, and during that year the company was organized under the name of the Grand Trunk Railroad of Michigan, and subscriptions were obtained therefor, but no aid was rendered by the Grand Trunk of Canada, as had been promised. Then the stockholders changed the name to the Michigan Air Line Railroad, and a vote was taken in Colon to aid the same by town bonds to the amount of $36,000, but the proposition was rejected. "Then Mr. Farrand and the gentlemen before named exerted themselves and procured subscriptions among the inhabitants of the township, amounting to $42,000, of which $38,000 was paid in; and after the road was graded the town again voted on a proposition to aid the road and carried it through, loaning $25,000, for which bonds were issued, and the road completed to Colon July 3, 1871. "The bonds of the township were never paid, the company not fulfilling its contracts with the township on which the issuance of the loan was based. The railroad company commenced suit on

Page  396 396 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY the bonds against the township, but was non-suited, and the bonds returned to the town authorities and cancelled. "The citizens who subscribed for the stock were swindled out of the same, by the consolidation of the company with the Michigan Central. Adam Bower, Peter Wagner and Comfort Tyler were generous subscribers to the stock of the road, from a sense of public duty to the township at large, rather than that of personal benefit, as all lived at a distance from the village, especially Bower and Tyler. "The entrance of the road was celebrated with great enthusiasm, July 4th, succeeding the day the track was completed to the village." COLON IN THE SEVENTIES. At this time Colon was a village fairly entitled to good railroad connections. It had a dozen substantial stores, while E. Hill & Sons and Hoffman & Troy were shipping large quantities of produce. The list of manufactories included: Flour mills-Hoffman & Troy and Philip Everhard; saw-mills-Fredericks Brothers and Hoffman & Troy; furnaces-Dane Miles & Company and D. C. Richards; wagons and carriages-Anderson Brothers and Adanls & Mellen; plows-Daniel C. Richards; cooper shops-David Rt. Oliver, E. P. Wellesley and J. Moore; fruit dryer-Charles L. Miller Jr.;; tannery-Hill & Doran; cider mill-Simons & Company; machine shop-W. F. Bowman. There were also two newspapers in the village-the Colon Enterprise, published by H. Egabrod, and the Colon Standard, by L. E. Jacobs. "COLON EXPRESS. " Local journalism is now represented by the Colon Express, an eight-page quarto weekly newspaper, of independent type, which has been owned and published by W. S. Doty since April, 1903. It has quite an extensive circulation not only in the townships of Colon and Leonidas, this county, but also in Sherwood and Metteson townships, Branch county. The Express was established in the fall of 1886 by McDowell Brothers, and among its proprietors, since that year, have been Moffit & Firestone, Samuel Greer and J. C. Lochner.

Page  397 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 397 COLON SCHOOLS. The fine Union school of Colon, which was erected in 1907, at a cost of $25,000, provides all the modern facilities of educating pupils according to well-established methods which conserve both their intellectual advancement and their physical health. The average attendance is 170, of which number 55 are pupils of the high school. The principal, R. P. Vansaw, has seven teachers under him, of whom Miss Ethelyn Gibson is assistant. The village of Colon is included in school district No. 4, the first school house built therein being erected about 1837. It was THE COLON UNION SCHOOL. a log house, twenty-four feet square, and stood on a corner of W. H. Castle's farm. District No. 4 was laid off in August, 1837, and comprised sections 23 to 26, inclusive, and 35 and 36. The frame school house, which was built in the village in 1847, is now the box factory of Lamb's Knit Goods Works. COLON SEMINARY. In 1858 several of the citizens of the township, desirous of a higher grade of education than that provided by the public schools, organized the Colon Seminary Company. The leading stockholders and trustees of the enterprise were H. K. and Phineas Farrand,

Page  398 398 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY A. J. Kinne, Charles L. Miller, W. F. Bowman and Adam Bower, and it was mainly through the energy and liberality of these gentlemen that the Colon Seminary, within the succeeding decade, reached high grade as an institution of superior education, its only rival in the county being the White Pigeon Seminary. It is said that more teachers went from this school during its existence than from any other of the same size in the state. Specific mention of its graduates include the names of Seth Moffatt, afterward a leading lawyer and public man of Michigan, and John Downey, who made his reputation as a distinguished educator in Pennsylvania. In explanation of the marked success attained by the Colon Seminary, too much credit cannot be given to H. K. Farrand and Dr. Kinne, who, as trustees, were constant visitors at the school, and kept in close touch with every detail of its management. The first building occupied by the Seminary Company was a frame structure, already standing, which was fitted up for the seventy pupils who were at first enrolled. This number soon increased to one hundred, and by 1862 the accommodations were so inadequate that a three-story brick building was erected at a cost of $9,000 (including cost of site). It was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies, August 20, 1863, Judge J. Eastman Johnson delivering the address on the occasion before a large audience. Orlando Moffatt was the first teacher in the first building and Elias Cooley, Jr., in the second. The new brick structure was thirtyfour by seventy-five feet on the ground, its third story being a public hall used for religious and other purposes. Two hundred sittings were provided for scholars. The Colon Seminary was conducted until 1867, when the enterprise was abandoned and the township school board rented it of its owner, William R. Eck, who was a stockholder in the original company. On September 4, 1871, the people voted to incorporate the district as a Union school district, and the seminary building was occupied for purposes of public education until 1889, when it was turned over to the Lamb Knit Goods Company for its main building. The first principal of the Union school was D. W. Herman, who served in 1871-2. THE LIBRARY. Colon has a library of 1,500 volumes, founded in April, 1897. The first librarian was S. H. Nicholson. Mrs. F. H. Morton, the present incumbent, has been in charge for nine years.

Page  399 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 399 CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES. Colon supports, as its strongest churches, Methodist and Baptist organizations and the Reformed and Evangelical Lutheran churches have also a fair membership. The Reformed church was founded in 1898 and its settled pastor is Rev. C. G. Beaver, while the Lutheran society is administered to by Rev. Paul Noffze, of Burr Oak. The Masons and Odd Fellows, with their auxiliaries, have flourishing lodges, and the Maccabees and G. A. R. are also represented. THE BAPTIST CHURCH. The history of the First Baptist church of Colon really commences with the society organized in Leonidas, in 1837, by Elders Brown, of Centerville, Taylor, of Prairie Ronde, and G. B. Day, of Sturgis. The preliminary meeting was held June 25th of that year; on August 13th, the council organized the church and ordained Elmore G. Terry as elder. The first members of the organization were Elder Terry, David Franklin; Orrin W. Legg and Sarah, his wife; Mercy Vaughn, Experience Watkins, Enoch S. Gersline, Benjamin Blossom, Joseph Gilmore, Constance Vaughn, Armilla Terry, Justus W. Denton, Eli Denton, Lurelia Denton, Clarissa S. Denton, Mary Reynolds, Sally Reynolds, Clarissa Blossom and Anna Gilbert. On January 20, 1845, the society was incorporated in Colon, and its first church edifice erected, with Orrin W. Legg, Lorensie Schellhous and Seth Goodwin as trustees. Elder Terry preached to the society until his death, being succeeded by Elder Fuller; he, by Philo Forbes, and the latter by Elder Southworth. Previous to the building of the church, the society held its meetings in the store formerly occupied by Romine & Stoddard. One of the first noted revivals held by the church was in 1845, under the preaching of Elder Forbes, and a Sunday school was also organized under his ministry, in 1849. The present building occupied by the Baptists for church purposes was erected in 1903. The society has a membership of more than a hundred and is under the pastoral charge of Rev. A. L Branch.

Page  400 400 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY THE METHODIST CHURCH. In 1844 the Methodists of Colon township formed a class of sixteen members under the leadership of Ryan Williams and Aaron Bradley, local preachers who had moved to the locality in the previous year. At that time Colon was a portion of the White Pigeon circuit. Among the members of this class, besides the gentlemen named, were Mrs. Ryan Williams, Samuel Sheik, Mrs. Barber Mills, Mrs. James Palmer and a Mr. Washburn. A society was regularly organized and a board of trustees elected August 18, 1856; members of the latter, Phineas Farrand, William H. Harper, William F. Bowman, Solomon R. Salisbury, Ellis Hughes, Gilbert Liddle and Moses Blanchard. No member of the society was more enthusiastic or helpful, both in the earlier and later years, than Mr. Bowman. Since and including 1856, the following have been in charge of the Colon church: Revs. Mosher, Hoag, Downing, Patterson (went into the Union army as chaplain of the Eleventh Michigan), Elias Cooley, Kellogg, A. C. Beach, Congdon, Franklin Gage, Joseph Jones, L. M. Edmunds (died in Wisconsin in the winter of 1909 -10), T. T. George, J. E. White, A. E. Ketchum (died in 1909), R. H. Brady, Tolman, J. Clubine, Smith, Charles Jones, A. Marzolf, Young, William Barth, William Spence, Cronk, Joshua White, H. W. Thompson, A. E. Eldred, C. L. Beebe and Joseph C. Cook. The house of worship now occupied was erected in 1879, and parsonages were built in 1873 and 1896. The society is flourishing in every way; church membership, 215. THE MASONS. Colon Lodge No. 73, A. F. & A. M., was instituted by charter in 1855, its original members being fifteen in number and its first officers as follows: W. M., Martin Gloyd; S. W., A. J. Kinne; J. W, L. A. Leland. Mr. Gloyd continued as head of the lodge in 1855 and 1860, and Dr. A. J. Kinne served as worthy master in 1856-8, 1861-2 and 1865-6. The membership of the lodge is now 125 and the following are serving it as officers: Jesse L. Bosworth, W. M.; Aura Arney, S. W.; Pearl Van Slyke, J. W.; Frank D. Lamberson, treasurer; Loren W. Clipfell, secretary; Glen E. Godfrey, S. D.; S. Y. Bower, J. D.; S. K. M. McMillen, tiler.

Page  401 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 401 Colon Chapter No. 81, R. A. M., was instituted under dispensation July 7, 1871, and chartered the following January-A. J. Kinne, H. P.; J. B. Peters, K.; M. Yentler, S. THE ODD FELLOWS. Dennis Lodge No. 96, I. O. O. F., which was named in honor of Grand Master Dennis, of Michigan, was organized by dispensation, April 10, 1866, and instituted by charter in the following January. The charter members, with the offices to which they were elected, were as follows: I. Sides, N. G.; E. C. Wellesley, V. G.; Edgar Bathrick, R. S.; E. C. Bathrick, P. S.; W. Whitmore, treasurer; E. B. Struck and J. F. Bower. The first named, Dr. Sides, is dead; the last, Mr. Whitmore, is living at the age of eighty-six. The present membership of the lodge is 120 and the officers as follows: Stephen C. Johnson, N. G.; A. A. Bonner, V. G.; O. C. Shane, R. S.; R. Edd. Fisk, F. S.; H. T. Mowry, treasurer. Elsie Rebekah Lodge No. 3 was organized February 22, 1879, and has now a membership of about ninety. Its officers are: Mrs. Dora Gleason, N. G.; Mrs. Minnie Tunison, V. G.; Mrs. Lula Thimple, R. S.; Mrs. Julia Clement; and Amanda Russell. THE G. A. R. POST. Henry M. Liddle Post, G. A. R., was organized April 16, 1883, and, like other organizations of the kind, has dwindled pitifully in membership. Woman's Relief Corps No. 160 was organized October 2, 1888. MENDON. Mendon is a busy, pretty village of about 900 people, situated on the northern shores of the St. Joseph river and on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, which comes from the south and passes out of the county in a northwesterly direction. It is also at the crossing of the air-line division of the Michigan Central, and, with respect to the county seat, is about eight miles northeast of Centerville. There is a good natural water-power at Mendon. and several unsuccessful attempts have been made to fully develop it and make of the village a manufacturing center. The place, is, however, the center of a rich country, well settled with prosperous Vol. 1-26

Page  402 402 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY farmers, and its mercantile establishments carry large and unusually complete stocks of goods. Mendon is quite a large shipping point for grain, live stock, general produce and essential oils, and has one of the best creameries in the county. That its people are amusement-loving and intelligent, at the same time religious, is evidenced in the opera house, public library and churches, which are so well supported. The latter comprise societies representative of the Catholics, Methodists, Baptists and Adventists, the first named (known as St. Edward's parish) being not only large, but perhaps the most interesting from the standpoint of local history. FOUNDED AS A VILLAGE. The coming of Francois Moutan and Patrick Marantette to the south banks of the St. Joseph river, in the early thirties, to take charge of the Godfroi trading post, has been noted in the early history of the county and of Mendon township; also how that other Frenchman, Leander Metha, located on the north bank of the river and settled on the site of the present village, in 1834. Here its pioneer settler built first a rough log cabin and afterward one of hewn logs, the former being used for a school. The locality did not take on a very promising appearance until 1844, when Bronson & Doan dammed the Little Portage river, which flows to the north, and brought its waters through the marshes to the banks of the St. Joseph, where they built a sawmill. This was the first of the manufacturing interests of Mendon, which really seemed to flourish for more than thirty years. The prospects of a substantial town springing up were so bright that on the 22nd of November, 1845, Mr. Metha platted Mendon on the east half of section 27, and Mr. Marantette afterwards made several additions to it, as did others. DEVELOPMENT OF EARLY MANUFACTORIES. Up to the early seventies the manufactories which developed promised to give Mendon a standing beside Constantine. Bronson & Doan added machinery for corn-grinding and carding to their sawmill outfit, and when they sold their plant to Melvin and Eldredge Brown, of Centerville, in 1848, the new proprietors put in a turning lathe and other devises for manufacturing chairs and

Page  403 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 403 cabinet work. Still later, the Browns added a planing mill and a sash, door and blind factory, operating the entire plant until 1855, when the cabinet making was discontinued. The firm was changed to Brown, Fisk & Mason, who continued in the old building until 1870, when Brown & Bourn built a larger factory opposite the present Wakeman house. In 1860 N. S. Harvey & Company built a planing mill and sash, door and blind factory on the banks of the river near the lower bridge. Subsequently, S. M. Williams introduced stave machinery, and Wakeman & Lewis long conducted a flourishing plant which turned out large quantities of both staves and barrel heads. Gilbert E. Dart made edge tools as early as 1845, his power then being horse. In 1860 he erected a foundry, and both he and Mr. Richards operated it by steam for a number of years. G. P. Doan manufactured wagons from 1854 to 1861, and at a later date Auten & Engle, White & Company and F. Grafke were in the same line. In 1872 Andrew Kellicut built a flour mill opposite the Wakeman House, which was afterward owned and operated by Adams Wakeman, the builder of the hostlery mentioned. OLD HOTELS. The first hotel in Mendon was opened by Lewis B. Lyman in the eastern part of the village, near the bridge. The first building erected expressly for hotel purposes was also erected by Mr. Lyman, near the other combined house and tavern and was called the "Eastern." George Van Buren built one afterward on the site of the Wakeman House, and called it the "Western." Both of these hotels were burned, and in 1873 Adams Wakeman made sufficient brick to build a large hotel, which took his name and which, with various changes and additions, is still known as the Wakeman House. Mr. Van Buren leased the new house and conducted it until June, 1876, when Mr. Wakeman took over his own property, with William M. Marantette, son of Patrick, the pioneer, as manager. The former has been proprietor of the Wakeman House for many years, and takes a just pride in operating both a good and historic hotel. FOUNDER OF THE WAKEMAN HOUSE. Adams Wakeman, founder of the hotel which still bears his name, was born in Bedford, Westchester county, New York, Decem

Page  404 404 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ber 1, 1804. In the fall of 1833 he located on 240 acres of land in section 4, Nottawa township, and on July 1, 1836, married Mrs. Eliza Hartley, who had moved from Philadelphia to Centerville in October, 1832, as a member of the first family which settled in that village, that of T. W. Langley. In 1855 Adams sold his landed interests to his brothers, removed to the village of Mendon, and entered into a co-partnership with E. L. Yaple in the dry goods and grocery line, the firm building the store afterward occupied by Lewis, Van Ness & Company. The partnership continued three years, when Mr. Wakeman bought Mr. Yaple's interest and associated himself with Charles H. Lewis, the firm being Wakeman & Lewis. This continued for three years, when William Harrington camel into the firm and thus continued for four years. Messrs. Wakeman and Harrington then withdrew from the firm and Mr. Wakeman gave his attention to manufacturing, owning and operating the saw-mill for some seven years. He also built the Western Hotel, which was burned in 1873. Mr. Wakeman at once proceeded to rebuild the structure still known as the Wakeman House. He also assisted in the building of the Mendon flour mill and was largely interested in the stave and heading factory, which did such a thriving business in the village. In June, 1876, the lease of the hotel expiring, Mr. Wakeman took charge of it, and turned over its management to W. M. Marantette, who later became (as now) its proprietor. MENDON BANKS. The Exchange Bank was the first establishment of the kind in Mendon, and was founded as a private institution in 1866, with J. J. McAllister as president and A. N. McAllister, cashier. The existing bank (First State Bank of Mendon) was founded in 1894, under the laws of Michigan. Its directors are Frank Wolf (Centerville), William Beard and Freeman H. Estes. The following items show its financial condition: Capital stock, $30,000; surplus and undivided profits, $7,430, and deposits, $211,000. MENDON CORPORATION. Mendon village was first incorporated, in 1858, with the following officers: President, William Miner; clerk, G. P. Doan; marshal, 0. S. Norton. Mr. Doan continued as president of the board of

Page  405 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 405 trustees until the corporation lapsed and was re-incorporated in 1870. Records of the meeting held on December 14th of that year show that the following were serving as trustees: George B. Reed, S. Barnabee, George Van Buren, R. E. Fletcher, Levi Cole and Frederick Glafke; B. S. Howe, clerk. 0. J. Fast was president in 1871 and 1875, and Dr. H. C. Clapp in 1872. By special act of the state legislature, Mendon was re-incorporated for a second time in 1875. The village officers for 1910 were as follows: George E. Shank, president; T. Z. Eveland, clerk; William R. Gifford, treasurer; W. UNION SCHOOL, MENDON. P. McCoy, assessor; Loren Butler, marshal; Dell Hoes, street commissioner. PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Reports regarding the public school of Mendon for 1910 indicate an enrollment of 229 scholars, of whom 85 are credited to the high school, and 144 to the elementary and grammar grades. The convenient building occupied as a Union school was erected in 1906. J. D. Gold Smith is superintendent of the village system, and also teaches science and mathematics in the high school. Miss Lucile Gregory is principal of the high school, and has two assistants; while four teachers are employed in the grammar and primary departments.

Page  406 406 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The Board of Education is as follows: John F. Evert, president; W. J. Hickmott, secretary; Dr. W. A. Royer, treasurer; C. E. Harvey and Frank Austin. TOWNSHIP FREE PUBLIC LIBRARY. The Mendon Township Free Public Library was organized April 25, 1889, through the efforts of Mrs. E. Flanders and the Ladies' Literary Society; the nucleus of its present fine collection of 5,600 volumes was the little library of 197 books presented to the township for that purpose by the society named. Until May, 1906, rented rooms were occupied, but since that time accommodations have been provided by the beautiful $10,000 building, with its well kept grounds, which is an ornament to the place. The presidents of the library board of directors have been as follows: David R. Beckley, elected April 25, 1889; Dr. H. C. Clapp, April 4, 1894; George Hall, April 3, 1895; I. Schoonmaker, June 3, 1896; Mrs. Fannie Dukette, elected April 7, 1897, and still holding the office. The other members of the governing board are: William P. McCoy, vice president; Mrs. Kittie Calkins, secretary; L. E. Marantette, James Memby and Mrs. Mattie Simpson, trustees. Mrs. Grace Osgood is librarian. FIREMEN'S HALL AND COLE'S OPERA HOUSE. The headquarters of Mendon's department, organized to protect its citizens from fire, is Firemen's Hall, a substantial building erected in 1896. Cole's Opera House, under the management of Cecil Butler, was originally erected in 1881 by Levi Cole, the old merchant; but the house of amusement has been much improved since the earlier days. THE MENDON PRESS. In 1857 Messrs. N. D. Glidden and A. C. Miles loosed the Mendon Eagle, as the pioneer newspaper of the community, but the people were not able, or willing, to support it, and it disappeared after about a year of high-flying. Its successor, the Mendon Independent, under Burlingame & Rockwell, endured for some two years. The office was then sold and passed through various hands, being at one time in possession of Patrick Marantette, one of the

Page  407 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 407 substantial citizens able to pay its bills-and willing "for the good of the town." Charles P. Sweet published the Mendonian from 1871 to 1874, supporting Horace Greeley for the presidency in 1872. Soon after Mr. Sweet abandoned the local field and went to Kalamazoo county, the first newspaper of any real permanence appeared, under the proprietorship and editorship of Alfred Ringe. The first issue of his Mendon Weekly Times was published October 2, 1874, and Mr. Ringe continued to publish it as an independent paper for quite a number of years. The Mendon press is now represented by the Leader, edited and published by T. Z. Eveland. His father, D. M. Eveland, founded the Mendon Globe in April, 1880, and the son had a thorough training in printing and journalism before he himself established the Leader in April, 1893. In September, 1909, the two were consolidated under the name of Leader, with T. Z. Eveland as editor and publisher. CHURCHES AND SOCIETIES. Brief mention has been made of the religious, moral and social life of Mendon, as evinced by its churches and societies. Aside from its leading churches-the Catholic and Methodist-it has a Baptist society, under the pastorate of Rev. C. L. Randall, and one supported by the Adventists, who have quite a unique house of worship built in the cottage style. The Catholic church (St. Edward's parish), Father Henry Kaufmann in charge, has one of the most striking edifices in the county, and the Methodists (Rev. J. B. Peatling, pastor) also worship in a most substantial and tasteful religious home. CATHOLICISM IN SOUTHERN MICHIGAN. The Chicago Historical Society claims that the Recollect Father, Louis Hennepin, the companion of La Salle, came up the St. Joseph river as far as where Three Rivers is now situated. It is certain that Father Marquette explored the river upwards about twenty-five miles arid gave it the name St. Joseph. Tradition has it that an Indian mission was established and for a long time flourished close by the concrete bridge in Three Rivers. This mission may have been founded by Father Allouez, who came to Niles in 1680, and labored along the St. Joseph river till his death in 1690.

Page  408 408 HISTORY OF ST JOSEPH COUNTY When Fort St. Joseph was attacked in 1759, all the missionaries were taken as prisoners to Quebec. For nearly one hundred years the Christian Indians were left orphans. Nevertheless, the "poor natives preserved the memory of the Faithful Black Robes and their belief in the Christian religion. The log chapels and the various articles of the sacred service of the church were, in numerous places, guarded by the bereaved Christians, and often they made touching appeals for priests to instruct their children in the faith of their fathers." Father Richard, of Detroit, secured the services of the famous Kentucky missionary, the Rev. Stephen Theodore Badin. Fathers Badin, Louis de Seille and Benj. Marie Petit consecutively looked after the spiritual needs of the Christian Indians of northern Indiana and southern Michigan from 1830 to 1838. The Pottowatomies were "banished" by the government to the country beyond the Mississippi. Father Petit would not abandon his dear Indians, and so he accompanied them to the far west. Some Indians contrived to evade the order of banishment in spite of the presence of Governor Cass and his agents (the Godfrois) preferring to live and die in the land on the mitchi sawgyegan (great lake), from which is derived the name Lake Michigan. To these Indians as well as to the white men who now came in large numbers, the Fathers of the Holy Cross for several years administered the consolations of Catholicism. They visited the missions and the scattered families from St. Joseph to Kalamazoo. The names of Frs. Cointet, Granger, Schilling, Murriveaux are still held in grateful memory. ST. EDWARD'S PARISH. Francis Moutan with his wife and three children were the first white settlers of Mendon. Mr. Moutaw had charge of the trading post established by J. J. Godfroi, in 1831, and in 1833 was succeeded by Patrick Marantette. Frances, the daughter of Mr. Moutaw, married, in 1835, Patrick Marantette. The next white settlers were Leander Mette, Peter Neddaux and others. Elizabeth, a daughter of Patrick and Frances Marantette, who afterwards became Mrs. Reed, was the first white child born in the settlement. This occurred in the year 1836. Father Charles Boss, in 1837, traveling from Detroit to Grand Rapids, visited the local

Page  409 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 409 trading post and laid the foundations of the future St. Edward's congregation. Mr. Marantette generously offered his house for divine services, and for twenty years the whites and the reds gathered within its hospitable walls to attend the Holy Sacrifice and to hear the word of God whenever a priest could visit them. Thanks to the fervent zeal and spirit of self-sacrifice which animated Mr. and Mrs. Marantette these visits were frequent enough ST. EDWARD'S PARISH CHURCH, MENDON. to keep alive the faith of the infant congregation. From 1836 to 1856, Fathers Barnie, Sorin, Quentin, Borcau, Schilling, Granger, Murriveaux, members of the Congregation of the Holy Cross, attended Mendon, enduring many inconveniences and much fatigue, for every visit meant a ride on horseback of sixty miles each way. The zeal and piety of Mr. Marantette was further manifested when, in 1861, he arranged the upper floor of the store on Main

Page  410 410 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY street as a chapel, and here for eleven years the people assembled to assist at Holy Mass. Father C. Ryckaert, to whose charge Mendon was added at this time, offered up the Holy Sacrifice for the first time in the store-chapel, on or about the eleventh of November, the feast of St. Martin of Tours, and thenceforth the chapel was called after the great Apostle of Gaul. Father Ryckaert continued to visit Mendon till 1866, when he was succeeded by Father C. Korst, who had charge until 1870. FIRST CATHOLIC CHURCH IN COUNTY. The time had now come when it seemed proper to the twentyfive families which made up the congregation, to build a church, and Mr. Marantette who, from the very beginning of the mission, had been its chief supporter, not only donated the site of the proposed church, but also gave a liberal donation, thus making the erection of the building possible. His generous efforts were fittingly seconded by all the Catholics of the place. Under the direction of Father Labelle the church was finished in 1871; but the dedication did not take place till the following year. How great must have been the joy of those self-sacrificing Catholic pioneers of Mendon when, on November 4, 1872, the first Catholic church in St. Joseph county was solemnly dedicated by the Rt. Rev. C. H. Borgess, bishop of Detroit. PASTORS OF ST. EDWARD'S PARISH. Father McKenna was appointed the first resident pastor, but owing to ill-health and almost total loss of sight, he was obliged after a few months to give up his charge. Father C. Korst, in 1877, again looked after the spiritual wants of Mendon, and came at regular intervals until 1883. In that year the second resident pastor, Rev. Peter Laughran, now of Emmet, was appointed and during his pastorate of one year he built the rectory, a frame structure costing about $1,500. From 1884 to 1888, Father O'Brien, of Kalamazoo, took charge of Mendon; his assistants, Fathers Thomas Ryan and J. McManus, attended most of the time, celebrating mass once a month. Then came Father Kroll, the third resident pastor, who administered to the spiritual needs of Mendon Catholics from 1888 to 1890. Father Lempka succeeded him, but died soon afterwards, having contracted a severe cold while attending the sick. Kalama

Page  411 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 411 zoo again came to the fore, and for five years sent its assistants. The following names appear on the parish books: Father Dennis Mulcahy, Father George Maurer, Father E. M. Cullinane, Father C. J. Kennedy and Father J. Rivard. With the advent of Father Fred Schaeper, in the year 1895, as the fifth resident pastor, a new era began in the history of St. Edward's. From May, 1895, to September of the same year, he attended from Bronson, being the assistant of Rev. C. Rohowski; In September he took up his residence in Mendon and labored there until March of 1903. The church property was badly in need of repairs and improvements, and the new pastor set to work. He at once reshingled the church, painted the rectory, frescoed, for the first time, the interior of the church, purchased matting for the aisles, put in the two side altars, and wired the church for electric light. Then he built the sidewalks to the church and in front of the rectory, and set out shade trees. Through his efforts a petition was submitted to the village authorities for the grading of the streets. The basement was enlarged and the old furnace replaced by a new one. The lot north of the cemetery was secured for hitching purposes, and the lot east of the rectory was purchased by Father Schaeper, in his own name, and was donated by him to the congregation. All this and more was accomplished without incurring any debt. Meanwhile the spiritual wants were zealously attended to. Two missions were given, one by the Fathers of the Precious Blood and another by the Paulists, the latter to non-Catholics. When Father Schaeper was transferred to Adrian, he left the parish in good condition, both spiritually and financially. The Rev. Henry J. Kaufmann, the sixth and present pastor, succeeded Father Schaeper in March, 1903. He is a native of Germany, who came to America in 1886. After three years of business life, he took up the studies for the priesthood at the Jesuit College in Detroit. Philosophy and theology, he studied in St. Francis, Wisconsin. He was ordained by the Rt. Rev. Bishop Foley in 1899, and appointed as assistant pastor of Sacred Heart church of Detroit. ERECTION OF PRESENT CHURCH. In the spring of 1906 the proposition to build a new church in Mendon was presented to the congregation. The old church, although badly in need of repairs, could have been used for several years longer, but it seemed to the pastor an extravagant waste of

Page  412 412 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY money to spend so much on an old building which did not meet the requirements of the people. The congregation took the pastor at his word, and the proposed rock church became a fact. Today as the pastor and the people look back and recall the labor and the sacrifices of the two years that the building was under construction, their hearts are touched with gratitude to God for having preserved that unity among the members and their good will towards the pastor, which are the two essentials for success in every parochial enterprise. Messrs. John A. Haas, Michael Dukette and Patrick H. Marantette were elected as a committee by the congregation to assist the pastor in the erection of the church, and these gentlemen performed their duties faithfully, cheerfully and effectively. Michael Dukette also presented the church with a clock which has been installed in the steeple and has grown into favor with the people of Mendon and vicinity. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. About 1857 the Methodists formed a class in Mendon, but their first building was not erected until 1860, the expenses incurred in construction being borne almost entirely by Ezra Bourn, the well-to-do planing mill proprietor. Besides Mr. and Mrs. Bourn (the former of whom was class leader and steward), the early members of the society were A. J. Troy, George Maring, L. Blyman, Ziba White, Gilbert Bennett and Lentulus Huntley, with their wives, and Mrs. Adaline Pellett. The original church of the society, erected by Mr. Bourn, was a large brick building on the main street of the village, arranged for three hundred sittings, and the society has shown a cordial and democratic spirit for the first-a spirit which ensured its early and solid establishment in the community and its continued growth. Its Sunday school was organized during the year the church was built, and its large library has always been a strong agent in the growth of its wide influence as a society. The foundation of the library was laid largely through the generosity of Paulina (Harmon) McMillan. From 1860 to 1875, the pastors of the Mendon Methodist church have been as follows: Rev. Patterson, E. Kellogg, Beach, Joseph Jones, James L. Childs, William Mathias, William Rice, R. C. Welch, W. I. Cogshall and J. C. Abbott.

Page  413 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 413 Both the Mendon and the Nottawa Prairie charges are now under Rev. J. B. Peatling, the latter society enrolling about fifty of the total three hundred members. The Nottawa Prairie society was organized in 1905. The original house of worship was rebuilt and enlarged in 1904, and in 1909 a comfortable parsonage was added to the church property. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. The secret and benevolent orders represented by societies, or lodges, in Mendon are the Masons (with their auxiliary, the Eastern Star), Foresters, Woodmen, Maccabees and Grand Army of the Republic. The local organizations are as follows: Mendon Lodge No. 137, A. F. & A. M.; Mendon Chapter No. 154, Eastern Star; Court Mendon No. 1121, Foresters; Mendon Lodge No. 1853, Woodmen; Mendon Tent No. 389, K. O. T. M.; and 0. J. Fast Post No. 193, G. A. R. Mendon Lodge No. 137, A. F. & A. M. was instituted under dispensation in 1861 and chartered in 1863, with N. S. Johnson, worthy master. The lodge now numbers about one hundred, with the following officers: W. M., Glover E. Laird; S. W., I. J. Stephens; J. W., Guy Hamilton; S. D., Clarence V. Hoff; treasurer, J. H. Worthington; secretary, A. H. Estes; chaplain, D. E. Kuhn; marshal, William Baird. Court Mendon No. 1121, Foresters, was organized in 1897. It has a present membership of about thirty-five, with the following officers: (Elective) D. L. Worthington, C. R.; J. A. McKinley, V. C. R.; F. Flanders, R. S.; P. I. Mervine, F. S.; Guy Hamilton, treasurer. Commissioned: F. F. Flanders, C. D.; Dr. C. E. Barninger, physician. Mendon Tent No. 389, K. O. T. M., was organized in 1891. It now numbers more than sixty members and has the following officers: P. C., P. H. Marantette; C., H. F. Appleman; L. C., William Baird; R. K. & F. K., C. E. Klose; chaplain, G. E. Laird; physician. C. E. Barninger. The Odd Fellows first organized Morrison Lodge No. 136, January 7, 1870, its charter members being William Harrington, N. G.: Rev. William Mathias, V. G.; G. Engle, treasurer; T. H. Toby, secretary, and I. N. Caldwell. Morrison Encampment of Patriarchs was instituted in February, 1873, both bodies being named in honor of R. H. Morrison, of Sturgis, an eminent member of the order. At present the I. O. O. F. is unrepresented at Mendon.

Page  414 CHAPTER XVII. CENTERVILLE AND BURR OAK. THE TOLLS AT CENTERVILLE-VILLAGE CORPORATION-LANDLORDS AND POLITICS-CENTERVILLE FLOUR MILLS-KNIT GOODS MANUFACTURING-BANKING CRAZE-SOLID BANKS-JOSIAH WOLF -VILLAGE OF TO-DAY-THE CENTERVILLE PRESS-SCHOOLSTHE M. E. AND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES-MASONS, MACCABEES AND OTHER SOCIETIES-BURR OAK VILLAGE-THE CORPORATION-SHEFFIELD MANUFACTURING COMPANY-GARMENT FACTORIES-BURR OAK BANKS-UNION SCHOOL-ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER PLANT-TELEPHONE COMPANY — THE BURR OAK ACORN"-THE M. E. AND EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN CHURCHES-SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. When the county seat was fixed at Centerville, it was foreordained that some kind of a settlement was to spring up at that point, and the coming of such men as Thomas W. Langley and John W. and George Talbot, as the pioneers of its tradesmen and manufacturers, has been noted. The goods that Mr. Langley brought from New York were bought by Niles F. Smith, who exposed the stock for sale about Christmas, 1832. It is on record that from that date until the following 20th of February, the sales amounted to $1,600; and, consequently, Mr. Smith decided he "had struck a good location." Dr. Johnson and C. H. Stewart opened a large stock of goods in 1833, but afterward came into control of the mills at the east of the village and removed their store to that locality. THE TOLLS AT CENTERVILLE. The year 1834 witnessed the arrival of Captain Philip R. Toll, from Schenectady, New York, with his sons, Isaac D. and Alfred, and nephews, Philip R. and Charles H. As the nephews were then 414

Page  415 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 415 young men, they were active assistants of Captain Toll in his mercantile and manufacturing ventures at Centerville, but in 1838 all the Toll interests were transformed to Fawn River township. Isaac D. Toll was then but in his seventeenth year-a gay youth who is credited with promoting the first dance at Centerville-but in after years was to become one of the bravest soldiers and most prominent citizens ever credited to St. Joseph county, although he was not to make his record while living at the county seat. THOMAS W. AND WILLIAM B. LANGLEY. Foremost among the enterprising and sturdy pioneers of St. Joseph county was Thomas W. Langley, the first actual settler on the site of Centerville. Energetic and untiring, he achieved fully as much, if not more, with the means at his disposal, than any other man in the early days of the settlement of the county. Buying the bare site of the county set, he pushed to completion in the short space of three months, a frame court-house, twenty-four by thirty; the largest log-house in the county for hotel purposes, a blacksmith shop, store-building, and a flouring and saw-mill; and also had a postoffice, a school, and religious services in regular and successful operation. He was constantly doing something to aid in the prosperity of the village and enhance the value of the property therein. He brought in the first stock of goods sold in Centerville, and engaged, at various times, in mercantile, manufacturing and agricultural pursuits, and, as occasion required, kept the hotel of the village. He was the first postmaster of the village, and held the position from 1833 to 1840. Mr. Langley was born in Murray street, New York, in the year 1801. His father, William Langley, was a native of England; he was a mason by trade, and assisted in the building of the Drury Lane theater, in London, the old Bowery and the old City Bank in New York, and the first capitol buildings at Albany. Thomas W. Langley, the only son, served an apprenticeship in the woolen manufacturing business, and at the age of twenty-one went into partnership with his brother-in-law at Germantown, near Philadelphia, at the same time being connected with his mother in the mercantile trade, at Philadelphia. In 1832 Mr. Langley came to the territory of Michigan in quest of a location. He selected the site of the present town of Centerville, as the town had already been platted, and was owned by two or three individuals, of whom Mr.

Page  416 416 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Langley purchased the entire prospective village. He also entered seven government lots, lying contiguous. He then returned to Philadelphia and closed up his business, and his journey hither has been fully described. As also stated, he was for many years actively engaged in a variety of enterprises, such as farming, milling, distilling, hotel-keeping and selling goods, in all of which William B. Langley, his eldest son, actively assisted him. The latter received a good education, both at home and in the east, and soon after his marriage in 1847, to Miss Julia V. R. Woodworth, of Centerville, moved to his farm three miles north of the village, on the south bank of the St. Joseph river, where he spent his later years. VILLAGE CORPORATION. Centerville was first incorporated as a village in 1837 and at an election held on May 1st of that year Captain Toll, J. W. Coffinberry, Alexander V. Sill, Cyrus Ingerson, Edmund White, E. J. Van Buren, and John Graham were chosen trustees. The first action of the board was to express their gratitude to their constituents, and invite them to partake of a collation at the Centerville hotel, kept by Mr. Sill. He and Thomas W. Langley were the standby landlords of the place. LANDLORDS AND POLITICS. While on the subject of early hotels, mention must be made of the "Exchange," built in 1837 by Mr. Langley, and kept by E. J. Van Buren and Charles H. Knox. It was not so much noted for its menu, as for its architecture-the prominent feature of which was its balcony in front supported by huge, unbarked burr-oak pillars. Dr. Cyrus Ingerson was also landlord of the Mansion House, previous to 1840. In fact, as is quite apt to be the case with all county seats, Centerville was, if anything, over-supplied with hotels in its earlier years-the advantages, in a business way, attaching to a center of county government and politics being generally somewhat overestimated, although it is generally admitted that there is much transient trade and travel which are always drawn toward the county seat. A landlord is considered especially well situated to further any little political ambitions he may have; and this point

Page  417 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 417 is illustrated in the presence of two of the landlords of Centerville on its first board of trustees. CENTERVILLE FLOUR MILLS. The first flour mills in the village were built by George Talbot and Henry D. Cushman in 1851, the dam being built by Mr. Langley and sold to the firm. The mill, which first had three run of stone, was burned in 1856, but rebuilt soon afterward by Brokaw & Hoffman, and was owned in the seventies by D. D. Antes and Samuel Kline. The Centerville Roller Mills have been operated since about 1896 by A. H. Reynolds, although several years ago Rev. H. A. Simpson and his brother, John, were interested for a short time in the business. The plant has a capacity of about 100 barrels of flour every twenty-four hours. KNIT GOODS MANUFACTURING. In 1872 the Centerville Knit Goods Manufacturing Company was established by the business men and farmers of the village and vicinity, such citizens as H. C. Campbell, John J. Joss, W. J. and John J. Major and the five Wolf brothers being interested in the enterprise during its early stages. The various business steps taken and the complications unraveled, which finally resulted in the establishment of the present substantial corporation known as the "Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment Mills" are given in detail in other pages. The concern operates on a capital stock of $50,000, has a fine plant, and the following personal organization: II. P. Stewart, president; F. W. Thomas, vice president and general manager; Frank S. Cummings, secretary and treasurer; W. S. Herron, sales manager; W. E. Clogher, superintendent of manufacturing. CENTERVILLE'S BANKING CRAZE. As the political center of the county and a municipality of good prospects, Centerville had a bad case of the banking craze in the late thirties. Its people gave both kinds a trial-the "wild cat" and the "red dog." The St. Joseph County Bank, a "wild cat," was chartered in the summer of 1837, a few weeks after Centerville was incorporated as a village. It had an authorized capiVol. I-27

Page  418 418 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY tal of $100,000, ten per cent of which was paid in specie by the following November. The bank was chiefly sustained by the farmers of the locality, and its first officers consisted of Columbia Lancaster, president, and W. E. Boardman, cashier. Before the new institution had received a single note of its own for redemption in specie, counterfeits had been passed over the counter, and in a very short time its affairs were in confusion. As shown by the bank commissioners' statement March 6, 1838, its condition was as follows: Authorized capital, $100,000 (paid in, unknownj; circulation, $18,095; specie on hand and on deposit with Bank of Constantine for redemption, $1,038; bills of other banks, $734. The Farmers' and Merchants' Bank, a "red dog" institution, was designed for St. Joseph, Berrien county, but began business in Centerville. It was chartered February 1, 1838, and on the 6th of that month the stockholders elected a board of directors and officers, but had difficulty in getting them to serve, as the "wild cat" institution was already of somewhat uncertain life and in considerable disfavor. Finally the men most interested in the new bank gave bonds to T. W. Langley for the prompt redemption of the notes issued, and he published a notice warning the people against selling the notes at a discount, as they would be redeemed at par in twenty days. But the parties who gave the bonds did not fulfill their agreements, and the bank failed in the spring of 1838, after even a shorter career than the St. Joseph County Bank. The primary causes of failure of all these early banks, whether "wild cat" or "red dog," were the flooding of the market with counterfeits, discount of genuine notes by holders, and the attempt of the banks themselves to make a limited amount of specie serve the purposes of redemption for too many institutions. THE SOLID BANKS. The banking facilities of Centerville were not placed on a really substantial basis until the First National Bank was organized, January 22, 1873, with C. T. Chaffee, president; Edward Talbot, cashier, and Henry S. Platt, assistant cashier. D. F. Wolf succeeded Mr. Chaffee as president, and was himself succeeded by L. A. Clapp. The First National Bank, of Centerville, was followed by the private institution known as the A. C. Wolf & Brothers' Bank, the members of which were Amos C., Josiah, John F., Daniel and

Page  419 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 419 Thomas B. Wolf. Subsequently, Daniel died and Amos C. Wolf withdrew from the business, which, about 1889, was reorganized as Wolf Brothers' Bank, the members of which were Josiah, John F. and Samuel J. Wolf and H. P. Stewart. This association remained unbroken until the death of John F. Wolf in 1894; Josiah Wolf passed away March 7, 1904, and his son, Samuel J. Wolf, June 28, 1908. On April 1, 1908, was organized Wolf Brothers' State Bank, with a capital of $30,000 and the following officers: Frank Wolf (son of Samuel J.), president; H. P. Stewart and E. I. Wolf, vice presidents; C. D. Mosher, cashier. President Wolf also controls the state banks at Mendon and White Pigeon, and is vice president and general manager of the Central National Bank, of Battle Creek, Michigan. JOSIAH WOLF. Josiah Wolf was so potent in fashioning the social, moral and business activities of his home community, that the following biography of his life is given. It was published at the time of his death, March 7, 1904: "In the weaving of the social, industrial and financial web of history of St. Joseph county, perhaps no one person has wrought more effectively than Josiah Wolf, whose death we today chronicle. His achievements have not been heralded' with the blare of trumpets or in a blaze of light, but patiently, almost ploddingly, he bent his energies to his everyday work, and by tact, prudence and foresight has accomplished results which, with less resolution and skill, would have been impossible. In our local financial world he has been pre-eminently successful and there have been few matters of importance in which he was not interested, and in many of them he was the real power, although perhaps not so recognized by the public. "He began life under adverse circumstances, but has lived to be the head of many valuable and important enterprises. In banking circles his achievements have been most marked and at the time of his death he was president and chief stockholder of Wolf Brothers' Bank at Centerville and the First State Bank of Mendon. He was also a considerable stockholder in the Central State Bank of Geneseo, Kansas, the Old Detroit National Bank of Detroit, the National Bank of North America of Chicago, the Commercial National Bank of Detroit, and the Central National Bank of Battle Creek, Michigan. Notwithstanding these large financial in

Page  420 420 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY terests he was pre-eminently a farmer, and nothing would tempt him to abandon a farmer's life, in which he had achieved his first success. He owned several farms. The home farm was very dear to him and he made it one of the most perfect in appointments, culture, and beauty in St. Joseph county. He delighted in dispensing its hospitality to his friends in his quiet, unassuming manner. Mr. Wolf was never a social lion, but by his sterling integrity, good advice and correct example has exercised an influence which eternity only can measure. No word of slander or profanity ever crossed his lips and his most severe reproof to his loved ones was a kindly word of admonition which meant much from his mild lips. "Mr. Wolf was born in North Branch, Columbia county, Pennsylvania, August 8, 1819, and was the eldest of ten children, only two of whom now survive. He came to Michigan with his father's family in 1833, locating on a farm west of this village. On December 13, 1842, he was married to Mary Ann Wescott, who was to him a helpmeet indeed, and most ably seconded his every endeavor and whose death twelve years ago was the greatest sorrow of his life. Their one son, Samuel J., was 'the apple of his eye,' and between them a bond existed which not even death can sunder. "Through his final illness, his son's name was always on his lips during consciousness and delirium, and his ministrations were unceasing. His interest in the life and work of his only grandson, Frank, kept him young and alert. He was a fountain of resourcefulness and helpfulness, and his advice was always sought by his children and friends and always found valuable. For the past year his health has not been vigorous and during the past summer he was very seriously ill and only the most tender care and skillful treatment preserved his life. A complication of his old kidney troubles and la grippe caused his death, March 7, 1904, after a struggle in which every power of love and science had been exhausted. His death leaves a great vacancy in home, neighborhood and financial circles. "His funeral occurred at his beautiful home on Thursday, and was conducted by his old friend and pastor, Rev. G. W. Tuthill, of Nashville, Michigan. His pall bearers were the employees of the Centerville and Mendon banks. He rests in Prairie River cemetery, by the side of his beloved wife. "

Page  421 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 421 PATERNAL ANCESTORS OF WOLF FAMILY. The American ancestor of the Wolf families, various members of which have done so much for St. Joseph county, was John Wolf, who was born in Wurttemberg, Germany, April 18, 1769, and emigrated to America with his parents when he was but two years old, settling with them in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he died April 18, 1824. His maternal ancestor, whose name was Catherine Hoan, a daughter of David Hoan, was born in Pennsylvania, May 8, 1776, and died in Lockport township, Michigan, September 28, 1835. The John Wolf, whose later life is identified with the early history of this county, was born November 17, 1794, in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, where he lived nearly forty years. He was educated in the German language, and the only knowledge he ever obtained of the English tongue was such as was communicated to him by his children in after years, and by intercourse with his neighbors who spoke that language. He learned the trade of a miller, and followed it exclusively during the last nine or ten years of his residence in Pennsylvania. In the spring of the year 1834, John Wolf removed from that state to St. Joseph county, locating 320 acres in section 27, in the southeastern part of the township of Lockport, on which he resided until his decease, October 16, 1851. He followed agriculture principally during his life in Michigan, but his practical knowledge in milling brought his service into requisition frequently to dress the stones in the different mills in the county and to put them in operation. In the year 1815 Mr. Wolf was united in marriage to Barbara Drescher, by whom the following children were born to him: Samuel, who died August 17, 1839; Stephen, who died September 20, 1828, when but ten years old; Josiah; Catharine, afterwards Mrs. Isaac Fort of Lockport; Daniel, John F., Aaron, Amos C., Mary Ann, afterwards the wife of David D. Antes, of Centerville, and Thomas B. All of the sons, except Stephen and Aaron, became very prominent as bankers, farmers and splendid citizens and their traits have descended to grandchildren and great-grandchildren. Mrs. Wolf, the wife of John, was born in August, 1790, in the state of Pennsylvania, where she was married. The family arrived at P. H. Hoffman's, in Lockport township, May 28, 1834, after a wearisome journey of a month in wagons, which latter vehicles and

Page  422 422 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY a small board shanty furnished them their only shelter during the first summer. In the fall of the year they removed into a frame house Mr. Wolf had built himself, for, although a miller by trade, his skill was not by any means confined to that branch of handiwork, but he was adept at anything in mechanics necessary to be done in a new community. Mrs. Wolf died on the 24th of April, 1866, in Centerville, at the residence of her son, Daniel F. Wolf, with whom her home had been for eight years previously. Mr. and Mrs. Wolf were members of the Methodist church at the time of their death; Mr. Wolf being one of its stewards for many years. They united with the church in Pennsylvania some years before they removed west. In politics Mr. Wolf was a Democrat, but not being a strict partisan, he voted for "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," in 1840. He filled offices of trust in the township, and assisted in laying many of its early roads, being one of the highway commissioners for several years. This pioneer pair filled their station in life, well and quietly, without ostentation or parade, giving all who came to their house a hospitable welcome, unstinted in measure and unalloyed in quality; and they left behind them naught but pleasing memories. VILLAGE OF TO-DAY. Centerville is a village of about seven hundred people, situated just north of the Michigan Central Railroad and south of the Prairie river, lying partly in Nottawa and partly in Lockport townships. It is in the geographical center of St. Joseph county and an ideal county seat in many respects. Its business houses are chiefly located opposite the court house square, and besides the manufactories already mentioned, it is the center of quite an extensive mint oil industry. Morris D. Wolf and George Engle have large mills in the vicinity of the place. Alexander Sharp also operates a cider mill, three miles south. The Centerville Water and Electric company is more strictly a village institution, although managed by private parties. It was incorporated in 1897, with a capital of $10,000, and its plant was put in operation January 10, 1898. The president of the company is H. J. Hampson. and the secretary, E. L. Clapp.

Page  423 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 423 The first cemetery was laid out in the village in 1833, the lots being donated by the county on condition that the people of the town or village enclose the grounds with a picket fence. This answered its purposes until 1870, when the local board of health bought the elevated tract of land northeast of the village, which has since been so beautifully improved under the name of Prairie River cemetery. THE CENTERVILLE PRESS. It was from Centerville that the second paper published in St. Joseph county issued into the world. Its ambitious title was the Peninsula-an indication that it intended to extend its influence at least over southern Michigan. Its first number appeared July 2, 1836, and E. Van Buren issued it until the December following, when it was suspended until April, 1837. A Mr. Knappen then resumed its publication for a short time; and then it died, Mr. Van Buren having, in the meantime, gone to White Pigeon and started the Gazette. In 1845 the St. Joseph County Republican was established by D. S. Weston, and endured for about two years. In April, 1869, another Republican was founded by H. Egabroad, who continued to publish and edit it for many years. During the later period of its existence the firm was H. & S. H. Egabroad. W. Irving Ashley is one of^the bright and influential men of the county, who is an old and poplar member of the press. He is a native of Centerville, learned the; printer's trade in Chicago, and afterward identified with the Republican, and in 1890 established the Leader. He has kept it firmly attached to Republican policies, and has not only given the people of the county a good newspaper, but has well served it in various official capacities. He is now (1910) treasurer of the county. CENTERVILLE SCHOOLS. The first school house within the present limits of the village, was built in 1841, Harvey Cady "shaving" the shingles for its roof. It was in district No. 1, fractional, Nottawa and Lockport townships. Deacon H. W. Hampson, the contractor, finished the building for about five hundred dollars, its site in block 29 costing fifty dollars.

Page  424 424 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY The first public school was taught by Mrs. Mary Chapin in the summer of 1843, and she received two dollars per week for teaching the eighty-three pupils in the district. In 1848 a new school house was built by Deacon Hampson and William Laffry, for which they received eight hundred dollars cash and the old school lot and building. The new structure was two stories in height, thirty-four by fifty-six feet on the ground. Hiram Hamilton, the first teacher in the new school house, received four hundred dollars for ten months' work, and was assisted by two ladies -his wife and Mrs. McMarter. CENTERVILLE UNION SCHOOL On September 5, 1870, at the annual meeting of the district trustees, the question of a still better school house began to be agitated, and, after much discussion and balloting, the "Grove" was purchased of C. H. Starr for $1,000. A suitable site was thus provided, and in 1874 the large three-story building now occupied, was completed at a cost of $22,000. W. A. McLean is superintendent of the combined high school and grammar and primary departments, the entire system comprising the usual twelve grades; the curriculum embraces the studies of the modern high school and grammar courses, with music and drawing as specialties. Of the 160 pupils in attendance, about forty are high school students.

Page  425 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 425 THE METHODIST CHURCH. In 1841 the Methodists built the first house of worship in the village of Centerville; but in 1830, more than a decade before, a class of that denomination had been formed at the house of William Hazzard, on the prairie, by Rev. Erastus Felton, the old-time missionary. Five members composed this first Methodist class, Amos Howe, who joined it afterward, being its first regular leader. Services were held fortnightly at private and school houses, and finally in the court house, Erastus Kellogg being the preacher in charge when the skeleton of the little church was raised in 1838, and the structure completed in 1841. In 1856 the principal building of the present house of worship was completed, the dedicatory services being conducted by Rev. J. K. Gillett on September 20th of that year. This occurred under the pastorate of Rev. J. I. Buell. In 1871 the original building was materially improved, lecture and class rooms being added, and since that year repairs and improvements have been made as required by the growing needs of the society. The following is a list of the pastors of the church since and including 1873: Revs. William Riley, H. C. Peck, W. I. Cogswell, E. L. Kellogg, William Prouty, J. Clubine, J. F. Orwick, J. K. Stark, H. H. Rood, W. L. Barth, Delos Cronk, G. W. Tuthill, J. C. Newcomer, James Allen and Carl S. Risley. The last named has been pastor of the church since 1906; membership, 160. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. Until the fall of 1909, the Presbyterian church of Centerville, was what is known as the Reformed Church of North America. The latter, in turn, was originally organized as the Dutch Reformed church on April 8, 1839, although services had been held as early as the winter of 1835-6 by Rev. Isaac S. Ketchum. Mr. Ketchum was sent from the Mohawk valley, by the New York Missionary Society of the Dutch Reformed Church, and after his family moved to Centerville in 1836, he continued to preach to the people until the regular church organization was effected in 1839. Subsequently, he was the Indian agent for a time. His daughter married John W. Talbot. On May 25, 1839, a consistory was held at the court house, composed of Rev. Asa Bennett, president; Dr. S. Cummings, Peter

Page  426 426 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Cox and Jacob D. Kline, elders, and Alfred Todd and William Van Deusen, deacons, who formed the "First Protestant Reformed Dutch church of Centerville" and admitted sixteen persons to membership. In 1845 a church building was completed, at a cost of $1,100. A bell was bought for the church in 1853, and two years later a parsonage was built, improvements to the original edifice keeping pace with the needs of the society. Rev. Asa Bennett, the first minister, completed his pastorate in September, 1843; Rev. B. C. Taylor, who succeeded him, remained but a year; Rev. David McNeish concluded his labors in January, 1847, and was succeeded by Rev. Safrenus Seeber. The pastors during the following two decades, who served the "First Protestant Reformed Dutch Church" were: Rev. John Minor, 1848-52; Rev. J. N. Schultz, 1852-5; Rev. J. H. Kershaw, 1855-65; Rev. A. H. Van Vranken, 1865-80. Mr. Van Vranken died at Centerville, October 24, 1880. In 1867 the name of the society was changed to the Reformed Church of North America, and during that year a noted revival was conducted by Rev. Van Vranken, who was most highly respected and much loved during his long service for the church and the community. Rev. Asa Bennett, the first pastor, served the church at Constantine after leaving Centerville, his lamented death occurring January 6, 1858. One of his sons, Dr. John Bennett, became a leading physician, and another, Cornelius D., a successful merchant. The Reformed church of Centerville, was served, after the conclusion of Rev. A. H. Van Vranken's pastorate, by Revs. A. Page Peeke, Henry Sonneme, H. S. Bailey, Garrett Kooiker and H. A. Simpson. On September 8, 1908, under Mr. Simpson's pastorate, the congregation of the Dutch Reformed church voted to join the Presbyterian denomination. A year afterward Rev. E. F. Lilley succeeded Mr. Simpson as minister of the Presbyterian church, which has a present membership of over 130. BAPTISTS AND LUTHERANS. The Baptists of Centerville had enjoyed preaching by various missionaries of their faith from 1838 to 1852, before they formally organized a society. In February of the latter year Perrin M.

Page  427 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 427 Smith, Henry W. Hampson and Henry J. Cushman, in behalf of several other communicants, addressed a letter of invitation to Rev. G. N. TenBrook, inviting him to become their settled pastor. Mr. TenBrook accepted the invitation and began his labors July 1, 1852, a regular organization being effected at Mr. Smith's house on the following 28th of August. In 1853 the brick church, east of the public square, was erected, and a chapel was built in 1887. Rev. Mr. TenBrook died in the service of the church, April 3, 1857. The society has not been strong for a number of years. The Lutherans also have a small society, in charge of Rev. Mr. Neuchterlein. MASONS OF CENTERVILLE. Mount Harmon Lodge, No. 24, A. F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation in 1848 and chartered January 10, 1849. Its first officers were as follows: Benjamin Osgood, W. M.; Ezra Cole, S. W.; S. C. Coffinberry, J. W. The lodge has a present membership of one hundred and the following officers: Miles C. Rider, W. M.; Miles Bowersox, S. W.; Samuel Cross, J. W.; W. I. Ashley, treasurer; William F. Myers, secretary; John H. Senf, S. D.; E. C. Engle, J. D.; H. D. Wescott, tiler. Centerville Chapter, No. 11, R. A. M., was instituted under dispensation in July, 1852, and received its charter February 1, 1853-Solomon Cummings being its first high priest, Benjamin Sherman, the first scribe, and John Belote, the first king. In 1856 the chapter was moved' to Constantine, where it remained until 1858, when it was returned to its original location. It has now a membership of about sixty, with the following officers: Thomas G. Greene, high priest; Samuel Cross, king; J. B. Dockstader, scribe; R. F. Butler, treasurer; William F. Meyer, secretary. There is also an Eastern Star lodge, of which Mrs. Nannette Rider is W. M.; Thomas G. Greene, W. P.; Mrs. Sarah Fundy, secretary, and Mrs. Elizabeth Butler, treasurer. THE MACCABEES. Star Tent, No. 89, K. O. T. M., was organized March 29, 1883, and at present has a membership of over ninety, with the following officers: George Deuel, C.; A. H. Kinney, L. C.; John Langton, P. C.; W. Y. Craig, F. K.; George R. Reuel, R. K.; Robert Sengstock, sergeant.

Page  428 428 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Hive No. 741, Ladies of the Maccabees, was organized December 10, 1891, and Nottawa Tent, No. 670, K. O. T. M., on the 30th of April, 1892. G. A. R. AND W. R. C. The G. A. R. post and the Woman's Relief Corps occasionally meet, but more in the form of social gatherings than as organized bodies. NOTTAWA AND WASEPI. Nottawa and Wasepi are two stations on the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad, with small settlements clustered around them. Nottawa occupies the former site of the village of Oporto, which once had considerable "prospects." In the early times it had a store and a postoffice, the latter being removed to Hopper's Corners, with the decline of Oporto. It assumed its present name with the building of the railroad through the township in 1867, and is now the center of quite a produce and mint-oil trade. Wasepi is at the junction of the Michigan Central and Grand Rapids lines, and was platted in December, 1874..Besides being a junction point, it has long been the shipping station for considerable cider and dried fruit. BURR OAK VILLAGE. As a village, Burr Oak is of rather recent origin, when compared to the other similar corporations of the county. It was first platted on the southeast quarter of section 23, in 1851, on land owned by William Lock; and in the following year an addition was made by Henry Weaver, who platted part of the northeast quarter of the same section. It was surveyed by J. H. Gardner and Hiram Draper. William Betts erected the first frame house on the site of the original village the year before it was platted, and, soon after the survey had been made, John Talbot opened the pioneer store, and Julius A. Thompson the first tavern. In 1852 the postoffice was moved from Thompson's Corners to the new village of Burr Oak. Burr Oak was a railroad town, being platted at the time the Michigan Southern road was in course of completion through the county.

Page  429 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 429 THE CORPORATION. The village was regularly incorporated October 11, 1859, and the first annual meeting for the election of officers was held on the first Monday in March, 1860. The result was the selection of the following: E. J. Goff, president; George Boardner, Henry P. Sweet, Ira C. Abbott, Chester A. Ward, William Fuller, and Julius A. Thompson, trustees; Gilbert M. Lamb, clerk; Allen C. Arnold, treasurer; and Henry T. Williams, assessor. Some twenty years after its incorporation, the village contained five dry goods stores, two drug stores, one jewelry store, two BURR OAK IN THE FIFTIES hardware stores, two groceries, one boot and shoe store, two shoe shops, one agricultural implement depot, three hotels, one saw-mill, one grist-mill, one foundry, one wagon-shop, three blacksmith shops, one exchange bank, three lawyers and five doctors, and five churches. The village has to-day a population of about eight hundred. Its business houses are substantially built and well stocked, its homes neat, and its residence streets beautified with not only the oaks, which have given the locality wide fame, but with numerous hard maples of luxuriant and graceful growth. A number of flourishing manufactories are located at Burr Oak, including the Sheffield Company; it has a solid lumber company (the C. A. Boyer);

Page  430 430 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY a neat little opera house; a well conducted school; a complete telephone exchange; a public library; an electric light and power plant; religious privileges for all; and last, but by no means least, a good local paper —The Burr Oak Acorn-whose very name is suggestive of originality. The village is the center of an unusually large potato trade. During an average season, it is estimated that 300,000 bushels are marketed at this point. SHEFFIELD MANUFACTURING COMPANY. The leading manufacturing industry of Burr Oak is the Sheffield Manufacturing Company, established in 1891, by George S. Sheffield, after he withdrew from the enterprise at Three Rivers which has culminated in the great aggregation of plants known as the Sheffield Car Works. In the initiation of the business at Burr Oak, Mr. Sheffield associated with himself, A. C. Heimbaugh. The enterprise was incorporated in 1898, with Mr. Heimbaugh as president and manager; Mr. Sheffield as vice president and Arch Heimbaugh as secretary and treasurer; capital, $50,000. In 1902 the first building of the present large plant was erected, much of the machinery therein being actually built by Mr. Sheffield himself. President Heimbaugh is the presiding financier; he is also at the head of the First National Bank and a young man of remarkable business ability. The main products of the factory are the famous Sheffield hand corn and potato planters and garden cultivators, although for the past few years the manufacture of steel hand sleds has been greatly expanded. The other industries of Burr Oak include the City Mills of which J. E. Wright is proprietor; the saw-mill operated by Wilfred Thomas; the Baird Skirt Company and the Whitehouse Underwear Mills. GARMENT FACTORIES. The Baird Skirt Company was incorporated in October, 1909, with a capital of $3,500, and under the energetic management of W. J. Hoshal has been placed on a substantial and progressive basis. Viloris Baird is the originator of the skirt turned out by the factory, and some 1,200 garments are now produced annually. Other officers of the company: C. A. Boyer, president; Ansel Ferris, secretary and treasurer.

Page  431 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 431 The Whitehouse Underwear Mills represent an enterprise which is somewhat in its experimental stages, the plant not being installed until the spring of 1910. The company will manufacture the Merit brand of underwear, Alfred I. Whitehouse, the originator and present manager of the enterprise, having held a similar position with the Dr. Denton Sleeping Garment Mills at Centerville. The officers of the Burr Oak company are: President, R. B. Ferris; vice president, James F. Brown; treasurer and manager, A. I. Whitehouse; secretary, Fred H. Camburn; director, C. A. Boyer. BURR OAK BANKS. The First National Bank of Burr Oak was originally organized by Messrs. Sheffield and Heimbaugh, as the Sheffield Banking Company. In 1909 the business was re-organized under the federal banking laws under its present name. The bank owns the building which it occupies. The authorized capital of the First National Bank is $35,000; surplus, $7,000; total security, $77,000; deposits, $100,000. The management of the bank consists of the following: A. C. Heimbaugh, president; B. F. Bordner, vice president; G. D. Bordner, cashier; A. C. Heimbaugh, John Frohriep, C. A. Boyer, Charles Stroud, George S. Sheffield, B. F. Lancaster and B. F. Bordner, directors. The State Bank of Burr Oak, was established December 1, 1898, with a capital of $15,000 and the following officers: John T. Holmes, president; F. Ernest Shaffmaster, cashier. Mr. Holmes, who died within the year, was succeeded by S. H. Hogle, and he, by H. P. Mowry, of Bronson, who still holds the presidency (since 1901). H. C. 'Kass was cashier from 1901-8, when MIr. Hogle, the present incumbent, was elected to that position. Mr. Kass resigned to assume his duties as county clerk. The capital stock of the bank is still $15,000; surplus and undivided profits, $5,000; deposits, $100,000. THE UNION SCHOOL. The first Union school in the village of Burr Oak was organized in 1863, and was held in the old frame building afterward used as a temporary house of worship by the Lutherans. A second story was added to the building, and in 1868 the building now occupied was erected. Nearly 200 pupils attend the Union school at present, of whom over seventy are high school scholars. The superintendent is

Page  432 432 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY C. G. Porter; principal of the high school, H. C. Converse; and eight teachers are otherwise included in the working force of the local system of education. ELECTRIC LIGHT AND POWER PLANT. Until the fall of 1908, the streets of Burr Oak were lighted by gasoline lamps-that is, certain sections of the village were favored with an indifferent illumination. In the spring of the year named, however, the Burr Oak Electric company (B. E., H. F. and Edgar Seaver) commenced operations and in August, 1908, turned the current through their completed plant, one of the best in southern Michigan. Now the larger portion of the business houses and many of the residences are using the fluid. Within a year the company had nearly doubled the efficiency of the water power, and plan in the near future to make another marked improvement in this line by lowering the tail race. TELEPHONE COMPANY. The Southern Michigan Telephone Company was organized in 1900 to build a telephone exchange at Burr Oak, and it has well succeeded. It was incorporated in 1901, with a working capital of $5,000, which has been increased from time to time until in January, 1907, it reached $1,000,000. The service, of which Burr Oak is the center, has been extended during this period to many neighboring towns and communities. "THE BURR OAK ACORN." The Burr Oak Acorn was established in 1880, by Nathan A. Cole, who was succeeded, in 1882, by L. H. Mallory. Mr. Mallory continued to edit and publish it until 1888, when Edwin P. Bates took the helm, only to give place to Mr. Mallory again, in 1894. in 1904 Willis A. Carpenter became associated with Mr. Mallory in the publication of the Acorn, which, under the proprietorship of Mallory & Carpenter, has given Burr Oak and vicinity good newspaper service. In politics, the journal is independently Republican.

Page  433 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 433 THE METHODIST CHURCH. In 1853 the first class of Methodists to gather from the platted village of Burr Oak and vicinity met at the house of Lyman H. Johnson, under the pastoral care of Rev. Jeremiah Boynton, of Sturgis, and the leadership of Mr. Johnson himself. These first religious services were held on the site of Benjamin Swihart's house. The first class was composed of Mr. Johnson and wife, Ozias Atchison, Charles E. Kibbe, Mrs. Sophorona Hill and Mr. Avery. For several years preaching was generally arranged once every two weeks (evening services). In 1855 Rev. Jonathan Mosher was appointed to the circuit, then including Burr Oak, Bronson, Gilead and Snow Prairie, services being usually held in the school house occupying the site of the Lutheran church. At the first quarterly meeting held at Bronson, December 13, 1856, the Methodist Episcopal church of Burr Oak, was regularly organized, with Rev. John Clubine as pastor and Gabriel Smith, local preacher. For about five years thereafter, services were held in Smith's hall, where the Presbyterian society also met. On January 8, 1861, the Methodists dedicated their church building, the membership of the church being then thirty-five. The Sunday school was organized in 1859; chapel built in 1874, and parsonage in 1907. Rev. R. E. Showerman is the present pastor, and the membership of the church numbers over 100. The pastors of the church since the incumbency of Rev. John Clubine, in 1856, are as follows: Revs. Alanson Coplin, E. L. Chambers, George D. Lee, A. W. Torry, William Doust, T. C. Grundy, M. B. Camburn, William Paddock, Edgar Beard, John Hoyt, M. J. Smith, J. W. White, W. J. Hathaway, J. W. Buell, D. O. Ball, M. P. Fogleson, O. S. Paddock, F. A. Vandewalker, J. E. Crites, William Paddock, H. W. Thompson, L. W. Earl, R. A. Fulford, N. S. Tuttle, J. K. Skinner, J. E. Kirby, R. W. Paul, C. L. Keene, G. E. Pooler, J. S. Valentine, W. Greer and R. E. Showerman. EVANGELICAL LUTHERAN ST. JOHN'S CHURCH. This church was organized April 3, 1864, by Rev. H. Evers, whose successors have been as follows: Rev. Henkel, 1868-80; Rev. L. Hertrich, 1880-2; Rev. P. Handel, 1882-6; Rev. F. Koch, Vol. 1-28

Page  434 434 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 1887-91; Rev. A. Neuendorf, 1892-97; Rev. T. Backus, 1897-1901; Rev. C. Tews, 1901-7; and Rev. Paul Noffze, the present incumbent. At first the society purchased the village school house for church and parochial school purposes. In 1870 a parsonage was erected, and the church edifice followed in 1877. The society has a total membership of 165, divided as follows: Voting, 43 and communicant, 122. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES. Eagle Lodge, No. 124, A. F. & A. M., was organized under dispensation in 1859, and chartered January 7, 1860. It now has a membership of about 90, with officers as follows: Dr. S. D. Peters, W. M.; C. A. Boyer, secretary; H. C. Gilson, treasurer; B. F. Bordner, S. W.; F. W. Clements, J. W.; Frank Selby, S. D.; Charles Tobey, J. D.; James Mowry, chaplain; Charles Johnson, marshal; Byron Churchill, tiler. Membership of the lodge about 90. Whitney Lodge, No. 142, I. O. O. F., has a membership of fifty. Melvin Faust is its N. G.; J. D. Coles, V. G.; C. L. Miller, secretary, and S. D. Hackman, treasurer. Both the Eastern Star and the Rebekahs, auxiliaries to the Masonic and Odd Fellows orders, are also represented in Burr Oak. The Woodmen organized November 8, 1906, and have a membership of over 90. Lodge officers: Counsel, Abner Fair; adviser, R. Wilcox; banker, Willis Wells; clerk, W. T. Boocher; escort, C. H. Froh; watchman, Earl Gregg; sentry, Roy Wagner; physician, Dr. F. W. Clements; managers, C. C. Snyder, Ralph Baldwin and L. E. Miller. No. 744, K. O. T. M., has a membership of about thirty, with C. A. Boyer as C.; E. M. Gilbert, R. K., and F. H. Camburn, F. K.

Page  435 CHAPTER XVIII. VILLAGE OF WHITE PIGEON. BEAUTIFUL VILLAGE SKETCH-HISTORICAL REVIEW-WHITE PIGEON ACADEMY-DISTRICT AND UNION SCHOOLS-WHITE PIGEON NEWSPAPERS-FARMERS' SAVINGS BANK-LOCAL INDUSTRIES-WHITE PIGEON M. E. CHURCH-THE PRESBYTERIAN AND REFORMED CHURCHES-ST. JOSEPH'S (CATHOLIC) CHURCHTHE ALBA COLUMBA CLUB-SECRET, BENEVOLENT AND PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. White Pigeon is a pretty, clean, quiet, refined little village of between seven and eight hundred people situated on White Pigeon river, a tributary of the St. Joseph, and at the junction of the Lake Shore and Michigan Southern road as its spur turns northward from the main line toward Constantine and Three Rivers. It was the first point on the old Chicago trail settled in the county; was named after the romantic young Indian chief, White Pigeon, whose noble character has been kept fragrant to this day, and, more than any other community in this section of the state, is typical of the pioneer history of the past and the literary activity of the present. Why this is so, and what the people of White Pigeon, especially its women, have done to earn this reputation, are points which are sustained with some detail in the history of the township. BEAUTIFUL VILLAGE SKETCH. In that section of this work due credit has been given the Alba Columba Club for conceiving and perfecting the celebration in honor of White Pigeon's heroism and heroic character, and to the statements there made is now made the additional assertion that the organization of ladies named has done much to make White 435

Page  436 436 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Pigeon known, even beyond the borders of the county, as a people of high intellectual character who take an ardent pride in the past history and the continuous development of their county along every line of effort. Several years ago the club issued a dainty booklet, containing a charming historical sketch of White Pigeon by Mrs. Jessie Reynolds and a beautiful poem by Miss Minnie Blue ("The Legend of White Pigeon"), which was revised for publication by Mrs. Cora Cameron. The picture of the village of White Pigeon drawn therein is so simple, yet so complete, that it is here reproduced: "A vista of S344 THE OLD MILL, WHITE PIGEON wide, shady village streets, substantial old homes interspersed here and there with more showy modern dwellings, well-kept lawns, sweet air, that when the days are long, is heavy with the perfume of many flowers, sweet with the breath of nearby fields, a noisy little river, that, tumbling and laughing on its way, for years has turned a busy mill, an all-pervading air of thrift and comfort, a sense of home about the place-this is White Pigeon. 'Not different essentially, one might say, from thousands of such places throughout the land, and yet if you who read can look back to earlier years spent in the old town's pleasant ways, if as a child you have roamed the woods skirting White Pigeon river, and bathed your bare feet in its clear, cool waters, if you have listened to some granddame's tales of early days, to you White Pigeon has a

Page  437 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 437 separate and distinct personality, and you can understand why her traditions and legends have been treasured from generation to generation. To you many an old home, modernized though it be and ringing with joyous life of the present, still breathes an undertone of reminiscence, the mingled comedy and tragedy, the smiles and tears, success and failure, the sunshine and shadow that made up the life-story of those its roof-tree sheltered in other years. "So, too, while the passing stranger, gazing on the surrounding prairie, sees only the agricultural possibilities of the fertile fields, he whose plow each year uncovers fragments of rude stone implements of warfare of the chase, reads in the arrow-strewn furrows the history of a race who once owned a continent and roamed in absolute freedom over its wide domain. "So long as field and forest and stream, all of nature's enchanting allurements appeal to the human soul, so long will the meager history and interesting traditions of these true sons of nature find favor. The mystery surrounding their origin, the dissolution and gradual extermination of the race before the advance of civilization, all lend an added fascination to that period of history antedating the advent of the white man. HISTORICAL REVIEW. "Just when the first settler arrived and staked his claim, just when the first cabin was built on the prairie, is difficult to say. Conflicting dates and an absence of early record cause the date of the first settlement, which probably occurred about eighteen hundred twenty-seven, to vary with different authorities; but whatever may be the date and the story of that early struggle for existence, certain it is that a thriving settlement flourished at White Pigeon when the city of Detroit was in its infancy and the site of Chicago was marked by little more than a rude log fort in a waste of marsh lands. "The steady growth of the settlement at this period was probably due in a great measure to the early government survey of Chicago road, opening a highway one hundred feet wide its entire length and following with few deviations the old Indian trail from Detroit to Fort Dearborn. "Although a few persevering homeseekers from the east had already made their way hither, bridging streams and cutting their way through forests, the opening of a direct roadway brought an

Page  438 438 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY ever-increasing tide of emigration westward, with White Pigeon as the objective point. "The manifold advantages presented by southern Michigan, her wealth of woodland, her forests of beech, oak, and maple, her fertile prairie soil that responded to the lightest cultivation with bounteous harvests, her innumerable lakes and rivers teeming with fish, the abundance of wild game, combined to attract homeseekers from New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and even from the far eastern states, and though many of these sojourned but a brief time at this place, and then, impelled by that spirit of restlessness without which the wilderness had never been reclaimed, pushed on to the far west, to the north and to the south, many others remained here and, building their homes and tilling their fields, became the pioneers of St. Joseph county, grand, heroic men and women, the story of whose sturdy courage and endurance through danger, privation and hardship is the pride of their posterity. "According to county records, the Legislative Council of Michigan territory in eighteen hundred twenty-nine officially organized the county of St. Joseph, and White Pigeon enjoys the distinction of having been the first village platted within the county. A post-office was established here the same year. "Prior to eighteen hundred thirty-one the nearest land office was at Monroe, and settlers were obliged to make a journey of one hundred twenty-five miles to that place for the registration of claims. But in June of that year a land office was established in White Pigeon. "The first circuit court in St. Joseph county convened at White Pigeon in eighteen hundred twenty-nine, in the old log tavern known as Savery's 'Old Diggins.' This tavern, the first public building- erected in the village, and which occupied the site of the present school building, served the varied purposes of town-hall, inn, and court-house. Here, too, for a time was quartered the branch of the University of Michigan, pending the erection of a building for that institution. "Early in the thirties an academy and district school were organized, although a building was not erected for the latter until eighteen hundred forty-four, when a small brick school house, now used as a dwelling, was built and served the needs of the district until eighteen hundred fifty-seven, when a larger frame building was erected to meet the demands of the increasing population.

Page  439 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 439 This, in turn, gave way in eighteen hundred seventy-two to the present brick structure. "Meantime the religious growth of the community seems to have kept pace with the educational advancement. Although a Methodist denomination had been previously organized, the Presbyterians in eighteen hundred thirty-four erected the first church edifice west of Ann Arbor. With the steady growth of the village other church buildings soon followed-Methodist, Baptist, Reformed and Catholic. "But statistics and dates gathered from county records furnish but meager history of the place. If you would learn its real story, the facts that linger longest and fondest in memory, go to one whose life for years has been interwoven with the life of the town. Such an one will tell you of the steady growth of White Pigeon, of her prosperity and her adversity, of the prominence she gained as a shipping point at the junction of two railroads. He will tell you of the roundhouse and repair shops of the company located here. "He will tell you, too, of the exciting days of the sixties, and probably lead you to the old camping ground, where in sixty-one the Eleventh Regiment of Michigan Volunteers was recruited, and show you the site of the old University branch that served as barracks. IIe will speak with pride of the brilliant record of this regiment during the war, and if he lead you adown the streets and across the way to that other village 'whose marble doors are always shut,' stand with uncovered head and reverent, for here beneath their low-thatched roofs of grasses and flowers sleep fiftyeight brave men who wore the army blue. "One who knows the town will tell you of snug fortunes garnered here, scattered and gathered again, it may be, by other hands; of the various business enterprises that have arisen, lived their day and given way to others. The last of these old enterprises to give way before the new was the old grist mill; the building, with a record of nearly fifty years' service, was removed during the past year, and the great buildings of the Oscar Felt Boxboard & Paper Company, recently located here, now occupy the site. "The fire of nineteen hundred six that nearly destroyed the business portion of the town, swept away many old buildings that dated back to stage-coach days; but these are being rapidly replaced by new and modern buildings of brick and stone, and White Pigeon, situated as she is, with excellent shipping facilities and

Page  440 440 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY surrounded by a farming country of unrivaled fertility, remembers with pride her past, joys in the present, and reaches out her hand to the good things of the future." WHITE PIGEON ACADEMY. White Pigeon was early established as a center of education and literary activity through the agency of its academy, which was second to none in the county, if in southern Michigan. Its first school was the district institution, taught in the winter of 1830-1, by Neal McGaffey, over Pratt's store, but the village and the township craved something of a higher order. In 1831, therefore, the White Pigeon academy was chartered by Dr. Isaac Adams, Charles B. Fitch, Albert E. Ball, David Page and Neal McGaffey. In the same year a small frame building was erected, which was used for a time for educational, religious and judicial purposes; it is doubtful if any building erected in St. Joseph county was ever put to more continuous or better uses, than the old White Pigeon academy. In 1837 the branch of the State university was established in the village, and while a building was being completed for its accommodation, the academy scholars were taught in the Old Diggings hotel, by Rev. Samuel Newberry. When the building was finished, Wilson Grey, an Irishman and a relative and afterward connected editorially with the famous Dublin Freeman, was Mr. Newberry's assistant. For a time, the school was supported by the state, but the appropriation for its maintenance gradually decreased and about 1846 ceased altogether. Then the building was repaired and refitted, a private institution was conducted by Rev. C. M. Temple from 1855 to 1858, and finally the enterprise was abandoned. The old academy building was used as barracks during Civil war times, but some time in the seventies it was taken down and removed out on the prairie, where it was used for a stable by Lewis Rhoades. DISTRICT AND UNION SCHOOLS. The first district school was built of brick, in 1844, and Dr. W. N. Elliott, the first physician to practice in White Pigeon, was director at the time. The doctor was one of the best friends of public education the township ever had, a school having been

Page  441 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 441 taught in his office by Dr. J. W. Mandigo before the district had provided accommodations. The first frame house for school purposes was erected in 1857, and was used until 1872, when the three-story red brick building was put up which is now occupied. It cost $16,500. The district has been Union since 1866; present superintendent, A. J. Collins. About 190 pupils are in attendance at the White Pigeon Union school, of whom 55 are credited to the high school, and seven teachers are employed. The township library comprises over 1,000 volumes, in charge of Miss Cora B. Cooper. WHITE PIGEON NEWSPAPERS. The Michigan Statesman and St. Joseph Chronicle, the first number of which was issued at White Pigeon by John D. Defrees (afterward government printer at Washington), December 10, 1833, was the pioneer newspaper of St. Joseph county. It was also the first paper published between Detroit and Chicago, and the third to appear in the territory of Michigan. It was a radical Democrat in politics. In June, 1834, Mr. Defrees sold to Henry Gilbert, who issued his first number on the twenty-eighth of the month. In September, 1835, Mr. Gilbert moved to Kalamazoo, and in the following month the office of the Statesman was also transferred thither. At that point Mr. Gilbert continued its publication for more than twenty-five years, although its name was changed to the Gazette. Mr. Gilbert retired from the editorial chair, and was afterward warden of the state penitentiary. The Argus was established by E. H. Graves in 1875, and both he and J. J. O'Brien conducted it for a number of years. In July, 1876, the Weekly Journal was founded by William A. DeGroot. For a number of years previous to its discontinuance at White Pigeon, it was conducted by Noah Johnson and Obert A. Johnson, father and son. On December 18, 1908, the White Pigeon News, was established by G. M. Dudley, who is still its publisher and editor. It is a good weekly paper, independent in all things. FARMERS' SAVINGS BANK. The Farmers' Savings Bank of White Pigeon, commenced business August 22, 1904, under the presidency of Joseph Brown.

Page  442 442 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY It is a state institution, and has a capital and surplus amounting of $25,000; its stockholders are liable for an additional $20,000, making a total margin of $45,000. Present officers: Edward Roderick, president; Frank Wolf (Centerville), vice president; J. M. Benjamin, cashier; H. F. Reynolds, assistant cashier. LOCAL INDUSTRIES. The Michigan Boxboard company operates a large plant at White Pigeon, which is by far its leading industry. It is, in fact, one of the leading manufactories of combination boxboards and newsboards in the middle west, its annual output being valued at more than half a million dollars. The company was organized as the Oscar Felt Boxboard and Paper company, in March, 1908, and its buildings were completed early in 1909. The first officers were: Oscar Gumbinsky, president; L. H. Kirby, vice president; Oscar E. Jacobs, secretary and treasurer; R. E. Adams, general superintendent. In December, 1909, a re-organization was effected under the name of the Michigan Boxboard Company, with the following officers: A. L. Pratt, president; Louis H. Kirby, vice president; Roger K. Rogan, treasurer; Oscar E. Jacobs, secretary and manager: L. H. Breyfogle, general superintendent. Perhaps the only other manufactory at White Pigeon worthy of special mention, is that of John Midling, whose output consists of sulkies, carts and speed wagons. WHITE PIGEON METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. White Pigeon township was the mother of churches in the county, as well as of so many other institutions. The first religious society was a Methodist class formed at Newville in 1829, and the second, an organization supported by the same faith and born in White Pigeon village during February, 1830, with Captain Alvin Calhoon as leader. Besides, there were Alanson Stewart (local preacher) and his wife; David Rollins; and John Bowers and John Coates, with their wives. Erastus Felton, of course, preached to the little band, and Leonard B. Gurley also ministered to them in the fall of 1830. At that time Constantine and Mottville were in the same circuit, with headquarters at the Mottville school house. In the fall of 1831 William Sprague preached to the White Pigeon society, and in the following summer Benjamin Cooper,

Page  443 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 443 Jr., assisted him. The charge was then included in the Indiana conference, Detroit district, but in 1840 became part of the Michigan conference, St. Joseph mission. In October, 1839, Rev. James V. Watson was appointed to the charge, and became not only distinguished as a preacher, but as the first editor of the Northwestern Christian Advocate, of Chicago, where he died October 17, 1856. In the summer of 1832 a small frame building was erected on the site of the present church, except that it faced south, and it was occupied by the society as a house of worship until the summer of 1854, when a more commodious structure was built at a cost of $2,000. It was dedicated by Rev. F. B. Bangs, former presiding elder of the circuit. In 1839 White Pigeon circuit was divided, Constantine being included in it, and in September, 1841, the Michigan conference of the church was held at White Pigeon village, Bishop R. R. Roberts presiding. The year 1855 was marked by a great revival at both White Pigeon and Constantine, and another re-arrangement of the circuit, by which Mottville and White Pigeon were joined. Rev. James Webster was pastor at White Pigeon in 1877, at which time the society had seventy-five members, and the organization at Mottville about thirty. By 1890 the second church building had been so far outgrown that the society at White Pigeon commenced active operations for the erection of a large brick edifice, which was not completed until April 26, 1891, the dedicatory sermon being preached by Rev. M. M. Cannon, of Jackson. At that time, Rev. H. H. Rood was pastor of the church. The present parsonage was built in 1873. The Methodist church of White Pigeon now numbers about 100 members, and is in charge of Rev. William T. Hill, who has been an incumbent for two years. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The Presbyterian church of White Pigeon dates from 1830, but as it was not organized until August 8th of that year, the Methodists claim priority as pioneers by several months. Rev. William Jones, who effected the organization, received, as ruling elders, Benjamin Blair, David Clark, Neal McGaffey, James Mathers and James Blair; nineteen others were admitted as members.

Page  444 444 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Thus was organized the first church of the denomination in western Michigan. Its membership was drawn from all parts of the county, as well as outside, and it afterward entered into the foundation of churches at Elkhart, Constantine, Prairie Ronde and even more distant points. The society at White Pigeon was first organized under the statute January 16, 1833, when Elijah White, Nicholas B. Chapin, Hubbel Loomis, Charles Kellogg, Lewis B. Judson and William Rowen were elected its first trustees. The first two preachers, Revs. William Jones and Christopher Cory, were not regularly installed, but were "stated supplies," as were others in after years. Among others who occupied the pulpit up to the time of the dedication of the present church, in 1888, were Revs. P. W. Warringer, Julius Steel, H. H. Northrup, William Fuller, C. M. Temple, J. B. Hubbard and L. M. Gilleland. An interesting sketch of the church up to the year and event named, was prepared for the local press by Rev. J. E. Fisher, and is reproduced as follows: "The First Presbyterian church of White Pigeon, is one of the oldest Presbyterian churches in southwestern Michigan. There is but one church west of Detroit which may be older, that at Monroe. The organization was effected in the house now standing west of Mr. Clapp's residence, then occupied by Neal McGaffey. The White Pigeon church was organized August 8, 1830, with a membership of twenty-four. It is somewhat singular and worthy of note that she became a colonizing church very early in her history. In January, 1833, she parted with a number of her members who were given letters of dismissal and organized into a separate church at Elkhart, and again, in November of the same year, a still greater number were dismissed to join in the organization of a Presbyterian church in La Grange county, Indiana. Some years later twenty-two others received letters for the purpose of organizing a Congregational church. It seems that the organization was not effected and several of the letters were returned without having been presented elsewhere. Again, in 1858 (a fourth time in twenty-five years) a number were dismissed for the organization of the German Reformed church of this place. "The first house of worship was erected in 1834, at a cost of $1,900. It had the distinction of having the first steeple and church bell west of Ann Arbor. The old church was remodeled in 1855, and when completed, re-dedicated. It had a seating capacity of

Page  445 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 445 300. This building remained in constant use until the present edifice was erected. At one time, during the Rev. Gilleland's pastorate, the subject of erecting a new building was strongly agitated. Considerable interest and enthusiasm were aroused. Subscriptions were taken, and Elder Isaac Blue and Mr. L. Ferguson each pledged $500. Some $6,000 was subscribed. The pastor, on advice of his physician, resigned his charge. The people, left without the leader whom they had been wont to follow, grew discouraged and the building project bore no apparent fruit. "Elder Blue still cherished his desire to aid in the erection of a new house of worship, even though he might not see it in his day. After his death, about two years later, the following bequest was found in his will: 'It is my will that my executors be and they are empowered to make sale and convey by sufficient deeds, in such manner as they may deem best, my village property at White Pigeon, being about four acres of ground (now the Pike place) and out of the proceeds of said sale pay as follows: " 'First, to the First Presbyterian church of White Pigeon, Michigan, for building a new church edifice, the sum of one thousand dollars, provided said church be erected in two years after my death, and provided said real estate be sold within that time. If the church however, shall be erected within two years after my death, but the real estate shall not be sold within that time, the said one thousand dollars shall be paid over when the said real estate is sold and thereon collected.' The congregation failed to comply with the conditions of the will, but the request no doubt had great influence in leading to the building of the church which was completed about a year after the time specified in the will. "On a Sabbath morning, in 1887, the pastor broached the subject of a new building. After the sermon, it was proposed to begin at once to see what could be done in that direction. All were united in the desire to build. Pledges were taken, and four subscribed $250.00 each. Others followed with smaller, though equally generous subscriptions, and $1,600 was pledged before the close of the service. "In due time the progress of building began and soon the edifice which is now an ornament to our community, was ready for dedication. The dedication service' occurred on the Ilth of March, 1888. "The Rev. Herrick Johnson, D.D., LL.D., of McCormick Seminary, Chicago, preached the sermon. The former pastors, the

Page  446 446 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY Revs. L. M. Gilleland and Judson Swift, were also present and participated in the services, as did Rev. Taft of the Baptist church. The pastor, Rev. J. Emery Fisher, who had labored with tireless energy, made the dedicatory prayer. The choir, under the leadership of J. M. Gragg, who has served as choirister for many years and for as many more sung in the choirs of this and other churches, rendered suitable music. That the church might be dedicated free from debt more than $3,000 was pledged at this service. "The valuation of the church and grounds, including furnishings and the value of materials and labor donated, may be said to approximate $10,000 to $12,000." Since the late nineties the following pastors have been in charge of the church: Revs. W. V. TeWinkel, T. A. Scott, William McPheeters, L. J. Eymer and Henry Arlen. Mr. Arlen was called to the pastorate in 1909, his service being devoted to an active society of about eighty members. THE REFORMED CHURCH. The Reformed church at White Pigeon was founded by Daniel Kroh in 1849, although the regular organization is generally dated from June 10, 1865, when the society was organized under Rev. Henry Wiegand, who continued as pastor until 1872. He was succeeded by Revs. Daniel Latze and E. R. Willard. With the Lutherans, the members of the Reformed church occupied the old Baptist church as a house of worship until 1880, when the latter erected a separate edifice. At the conclusion of Mr. Willard's pastorate in 1882, Rev. Mr. Oplinger was called to the pulpit and was succeeded, in 1887, by Rev. Israel Rothenberger, who remained in charge for about two years. Rev. Henry S. Bailey served the church from 1890 to 1894, his successors having been Rev. Reuben Keller and Rev. Freeman Ware, the present incumbent. Mr. Ware has been pastor since November, 1892; present membership of the church about fifty. ST. JOSEPH'S (CATHOLIC) CHURCH. The St. Joseph's mission of White Pigeon, was organized by the Fathers of the Holy Cross in 1848. The following were some of the earliest white settlers: J. Welch, Thomas Hogan, Geo. Argus,

Page  447 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY 447 Fenton Hogan, Thomas Kelley, John Probst, Mrs. Dickey, Michael McCarthy, Judith McGuire. Fathers Quentin and Shortus, of Notre Dame, attended the mission till 1856. In that year White Pigeon came under the jurisdiction of the diocese of Detroit. Father Ryckaert had charge of it until 1866. Father Korst replaced him and visited White Pigeon monthly for ten years. Father Kroeger, Father Korst (for the second time), Father Duemmig, Father Slane, Father Loughran and Father Knoll attended the mission until Father Schaeper assumed charge in 1895. The church was built late in 1871, while Father Korst was pastor. On October 20, Bishop Borgess gave permission to build in the following note to Father Korst: "I am but too happy to learn that the good Catholics of White Pigeon in St. Joseph's county, entertain the good and laudable resolution to commence the erection of a church, and that the promise of success is very encouraging. With pleasure, therefore, do I give the desired permission." The church was constructed at a cost of $1,300, and when it was completed only a small debt remained on it. The mission was at its best about the year 1875; it then numbered twenty-five families. Only one-half this number worship at the church at present. Before the church was built divine services were held in private houses, and for a while in a Lutheran meeting house. The mission at one time owned a dwelling house, which was sold for a small consideration. In the year 1886 an addition of 12x24 feet was built to the church-one large room which still serves as sacristy and sitting room. Since 1903 Rev. H. J. Kaufmann of Mendon has had charge of the White Pigeon mission. THE ALBA COLUMBA CLUB. This widely known organization of ladies was formed February 15, 1898, with the following officers: Mrs. Ada Phillips, president; Mrs. Martha E. Williams, vice president; Mrs. Cora Cameron, second vice president; Mrs. Jessie A. Reynolds, recording secretary; Mrs. Christine Drury, corresponding secretary. Mrs. Phillips was president the first year and has held the office two years since. Present officers: President, Mrs. Mary Fogarty; vice president, Mrs. Elizabeth Rhodes; second vice president, Mrs. Charles Rocker; recording and corresponding secretary, Miss Mary Perry;

Page  448 448 HISTORY OF ST. JOSEPH COUNTY treasurer, Miss Fannie Shade. The membership is about thirtyfive. The Alba Columba was founded primarily as a literary club and is a member of the County Federation of Women's Clubs. Its activities have been extended so as to include such movements as the conception of the White Pigeon memorial, and its dedication in August, 1909, and the initiation and management of memorial exercises and camp fires for the G. A. R. In acknowledgement of the value of its historical investigations, and especially its work in connection with the White Pigeon memorial, the State Federation of Women's Clubs voted to the Alba Columba Club, the state prize consisting of thirty volumes of the "Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections." SECRET, BENEVOLENT AND PATRIOTIC SOCIETIES. White Pigeon Lodge No. 104, A. F. & A. M., was instituted under dispensation November 11, 1857; and chartered the following January. Hon. J. Eastman Johnson was the worthy master until 1860. In 1867 the lodge, with the organizations at Constantine and Sturgis, celebrated St. John's day with most elaborate ceremonies, Hon. S. C. Coffinbury being the orator of the occasion. No. 104 has now about one hundred members and the following officers: Hugh Hutton, W. M.; Zera Zimmerman, S. W.; J. L. Smith, J. W.; F. C. Hotchin, secretary; A. L. Reed, treasurer; H. F. Reynolds, S. D.; Theodore Musser, J. D.; Thomas White, tiler. White Pigeon Lodge No. 78, I. O. O. F., was chartered in 1859 and its first noble grands were T. E. Clapp and L. C. Laird, who both served in the year of its founding. Its membership numbers, at present writing, about twenty-five, and its officers are Edwin Rosebrook, N. G.; P. H. Weaver, V. G.; A. R. Gilmore, secretary; L. C. Reed, treasurer. The Maccabees of White Pigeon have a strong tent (No. 919) of eighty-five members, with the following officers: D. C. Caldwell, Corn.; E. W. Beckwith, R. K.; A. L. Reed, F. K. The Modern Woodmen of America are represented by White Pigeon Camp No. 6,066, of which O. A. Hendricks is consul and G. M. Dudley, clerk. Elliott Post No. 115, G. A. R., has dwindled to about a dozen members, with Daniel Saunter as commander.

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