History of Calhoun county, Michigan ...
Peirce, H. B. (Henry B.), Pierce, H. B., L.H. Everts & Co.

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Page  [unnumbered] ! I a............................................. 1 - ^., 16 0%r ^............................................... ^I S T0 OF -- hLHr-O -m COUNTY-I-1P MICHIGAN. '331^*1 0Ift i ^i* i w ith + llA A A +ti DESCRIPTIVE OF ITS SCENERY, i I ^%Az^/ C^6W2~^2i <, ~1 +uli( C% ) +aldin,. Iptu cUtvrtp, )Rpyad +^un ift n FROM ORIGINAL SKETCHES BY ARTISTS OF THE HIGHEST ABILITY. PHILADELPHIA: Tj. H. Em VE tB %r TS (& CO., 716 FILBERT STREET. *.................................... 1, a, 7 V-..,................................... L., - PRESS OF J. B. LIPPINCOTT & CO., PHILADELPHIA.

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Page  3 PREFACE. To THE citizens of Calhoun County, who have so generously contributed, in various ways, and so courteously aided us in our efforts to gather reliable data from which to compile this work, we tender our heartiest acknowledgments. We are under obligations, and hereby acknowledge the same, to Hon. Charles Dickey, judge of probate; Charles McDermid, Esq., county clerk; Earl Smith, Esq., county treasurer; Stephen F. Snyder, register of deeds; Charles D. Holmes, Esq., late register of deeds; Rev. John D. Pierce, of Ypsilanti; Hon. S. S. Lacey, secretary of the Pioneer Society; Hon. Erastus Hussey, Hon. W. H. Brown, Dr. Edward Cox, Rev. W. H. Perrine, D.D., M. A. Lane, Esq., editor of the Index; Judge T. W. Hall, and many others, for information most cheerfully given, and assistance rendered in the compilation of the general history of the county. Had we the space we would with pleasure make acknowledgment by name to each of the many persons who have rendered us material aid in our historical researches, also to the many published sources of the information compiled and presented to the public in this volume; but it would cover pages and add bulk to an already voluminous work. We have garnered from every available source (in many cases a mere sentence only), confining ourselves as far as possible to original material, depending largely upon the memories of old settlers, and those whose lives and associations have made them familiar with the subjects portrayed. We have also, so far as practicable, classified all matter, although the labor of compilation has been materially increased thereby. Yet we feel assured that our work as a book of reference receives an added value that will more than compensate us for the increased labor and expense. We have also endeavored to make the history of each town and village after its organization up to present date complete in itself, without too much recapitulation; to avoid this entirely were impossible, though we trust that it occurs to no considerable extent. Some incidents and anecdotes have been related more with the design to illustrate the past than to amuse the reader, for we have aimed only to show and trace the method of the change in a concise, unpretentious way: how and by whom the wilderness has been changed to the garden, the log cabin to the brownstone front, the track through the forest and the lone postal rider to the iron rail, fast mail, and electric wire with its lightning messenger,-the lands of the red men to the homes of the white. Honor and credit are certainly due to some. We have named many, but not all,-only a few of the leading spirits, whom to associate with was to be one of. Too much honor cannot be rendered them. Instructions to our historians were, " Write truthfully and impartially of every one and on every subject." Their instructions have been as faithfully executed as was possible, and while some may have been omitted who should have had a place in these pages, yet especial pains has been taken to make it otherwise. We expect criticism. All we ask is that it be done in charity, after weighing all contingencies, obstacles, and hindrances that may have been involved; for if our patrons will take into account all the difficulties we have had to overcome,-the impossibility of harmonizing inharmonious memories, of reconciling perverse figures and stubborn facts, of remembering all the fathers and grandfathers where there are so many to remember, and, finally, the uncertainty of all human calculations and the shortcomings of even the most perfect,-we shall be content with their verdict. THE PUBLISHERS. PHILADELPHIA, July 1, 1877. 3

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Page  5 TABLE OFI CONTENTS. H-ISTO~ICAIJ AIND DESCRIPTIVE. HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY. PAGE I I CHAPTER I.-Civilization-Its Progress-First introduction into Michigan-First Permanent Settlement-Ordinance of 1787-Organization of Territory-Counties and Townships-Adoption of Constitution-Development of State.. 9 CHAPTER II.-Abstract of Title-French, English, Colonial, and Indian Titles to Land in the Northwest-First Legal Conveyance in MichiganLand Surveys and Sales-Military Report on Amount of Good Land..... 10, 11 CHAPTER III.-Ancient Fortifications - Mysterious People-The Indians of Calhoun; their Position in the Black Hawk War-A Big Injun-Trails. 11, 12 CHAPTER IV. - Pioneer Settlements - Improvised Shelter for Cooking-Early Journeyings-First Houses-First Marriage-Ague vs. MatrimonyA Justice beyond his Bailiwick-First White Births-First Deaths-A Midnight Burial-The First Cemetery..... 12-14 CHAPTER V.-Means of Communication- RoadsTrails-Bridges-Taverns-Mail Routes-StageCoaches - Post-Offices - Railroads - Steamboat Navigation on the Kalamazoo... 14, 15 CHAPTER VI.-First Land Entries-First FarmsLive Stock-The Hen Fever-Fruit-Improved Farm Machinery-Products of the PresentManufactures - Pioneer Artisans - Traders - Manufactures of the Present-Banking: State, Wild-Cat, National...... 15-18 CHAPTER VII. — Civil Organization — County and Township Boundaries-First Official Act-Earliest dated Deed —First Village Plats-The Courts: Circuit, County, and Probate- Celebrated Causes-Board of Supervisors-Assessments and Taxes-County Buildings- CourtHouse, Jail, and Almshouse-Superintendents of the Poor........ 18-22 CHAPTER VIII. - Official Roster: First Justices, County Officers, National and State Officials in Calhoun-Politics-Underground Railroad-Attempted Kidnapping-Presidential Elections — A Curious Ballot-Population.... 22-25 CHAPTER IX.-Educational and Religious: The First School-Statistics of 1876-The First SermonFirst Religious Society-First Church-Pioneer Preachers-Albion College-Seventh-Day Adventist College...... 25-.29 CHAPTER X.-Professional: The Bar; The Pulpit. 29-32 CHAPTER XI.-The Press: Patriot and Expounder; Statesman; Journal; Tribune; Mirror; Recorder; Index; Advent Review and Publications 32-34 CHAPTER XII.-Societies: Agricultural, Reformatory, Educational, Political, Protective, Secret, Historical, Health Reform.... 34-37 CHAPTER XIII. - Topography - Drainage - SoilTimber- Geology-Area- Geography- Climatology-Fauna..... 37, 38 CHAPTER XIV.-Reminiscence - Cholera - Pioneer Visiting-Social Parties-First Ball-Independence Day-A Bear Fight-Bruin and the Lovers -Wolves-Tribulations of Pioneer Courtship. 38, 39 CHAPTER XV.-The Patriotism of Calhoun: First Volunteers of Michigan-Black Hawk WarToledo War-Militia-Mexican War-The Rebellion....... 39-48 CHAPTER XVI.-Conclusion..... 48, 49 TOWNSHIP HISTORIES. City and Township of Marshall. City and Township of Battle Creek Albion Township Lee..... Athens..... Homer "..... Marengo " Eckford "..... Sheridan " Tekonsha " Convis..... Burlington " Fredonia " Le Roy " Newton " Pennfield " Emmett " Clarendon..... Clarence " Bedford " PAGE 50-78. 79-104. 105-112. 113-115. 116-120. 121-124. 125-133. 134-141 ~ 142-146 ~ 147-152 ~ 153-156 ~ 157-160. 161-165. 166-172. 173-175. 176-180. 181-185. 186-190. 191-193. 194-198 I i I BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. Angell, Nedebiah Austin, Hon. Charles. Anderson, Jacob. Abbott, Reuben. Atmore, Matthew Aldrich, Russell. Brewer, Chauncey M.. Burpee, Samuel J. Barney, Nathaniel Beach, M.D., Asahel. Beach, M.D., John Beach, E. Darwin Burr, Rufus Billinghurst, Daniel Bevier, John Barnum, Thomas B. Curtis, Benjamin F. Cook, Asa B. Convis, General Ezra. Convis, Samuel. Clark, A. L. Crosby, Charles H. Church, Chandler M.. Chamberlin, Benjamin Cox, John Crossman, L. G.. Chapin, Samuel. Chisholm, Thomas Carrier, Edwin B. Dickey, Hon. Charles. Dibble, Charles P. Du Bois, Harvey J. Douglass, Samuel E.. Dickey, Marsh Dunakin, Daniel Doolittle, Joel French, Hon. George H. Fenn, Thomas J. Green, Elijah Gordon, Alexander -.. 80 99 109 144 178 190. 74, 75 76 80 100 101 101. 145, 146 144 facing 169 170 73 75 80 179 102 104 145 175 197 133 131. 131, 132 132. 72, 73 73 100. 110, 111 145 140 facing 146 facing 124 172 facing 147 179 Hyde, Augustus 0. Hill, Samuel W. Hall, Moses Hall, Judge Tolman W. Hussey, Erastus Hart, Isaac P. Holmes, Charles D. Holmes, Thomas Hadden, Amos Hicks, William. Hamilton, George B.. Hutchinson, Loomis. Houston, John Hatch, Y. M. Hanchett, David Hanchett, Caleb. Hewitt, Isaac Johnson, Edwin H. Knickerbocker, Wm. M. Knight, Thomas Kelsey, Silas Lane, James McCamly, Judge Sands Manchester, Elias C.. Mapes, Anson Markham, J. P.. Mayo, James Miller, David H. Miner, James A. Mitchell, Hon. Preston Newbre, James. Newbre, William Powell, Hon. William Peabody, Tenney Pattison, S. G.. Pierce, Nathan. Robinson, Solon E. Smith, Earl. Stewart, Joseph W. Soule, Theron Soule, Milo. Shipman Family, The Spaulding, Nirum L.. Sprague, Rev. Thomas Sackett, Morrison Samson, Galen. Townsend, Lewis Willard, Hon. Allen Wattles, M.D., Jervis H. Wakefield, Hon. G. N. Wood, Barnett. Warner, William A. Warner, Wareham Walker, Truman P. Warner, Asahel. Woolsey, Daniel. Warren, Ira A. Wagner, Hon. John Walkinshaw, James White, Henry L. White, William C............ 75, 76 A77 80, 81 81. 97-99 100 110 110 115. 179, 180 198 184 165 193 facing 52 132 131 ~.. 109 facing 113 185 171 155 80. 99, 100 103 179 156 74 75. 77, 78 184 184.. 78 facing 112.. 130 129. 140, 141 76 103 112 130 144 facing 182 171 130 130 132 81 102 103 104 ~. 111 111 115 145 facing 69 185. 171, 172 156 131 130 - I ROSTER OF SOLDIERS IN THE " WAR OF THE REBELLION," FROM CALHOUN COUNTY.... 199-212 - I - I I _ _ _ _ __ _ _

Page  6 6 TABLE OF CONTENTS. I I,-IJ-i ST R A T I 0 N S. VIEWS. Albion College, View of.... facing page 27 Advent's Printing-House (Battle Creek). " " 29 Atkinson, Henry, residence of (Marshall). " " 54 Alexander, Morgan J., " ( " ). " " 54 Adams, John " ( " ). " " 66 Anderson, Jacob, farm and res. of (Albion) facing pages 108, 109 Abbott, Sylvester, residence of (Sheridan). facing page. 147 Adventist Church (Convis).... " " 155 Aldrich, George W., residence of (Clarendon) facing page 190 Battle Creek College..... " " 28 Brackett, A. E., residence of (Marshall). " " 56 Brewer, C. M., " ( " ). " " 62 Beach, E. Darwin, " (Battle Creek) it" " 101 Billinghurst, Dan., " (Sheridan). " " 143 Burr, Rufus, present residence ( " ). " " 144 Burr, Rufus, residence in 1838 ( " ). " " 144 Burnett, Frank, residence of (Burlington). " " 159 Born, George, " (Clarendon). " " 186 Bevier, Mrs. L. H., " (Le Roy). " " 169 Calhoun County Court-House (Marshall).. frontispiece Calhoun County, Map of.... facing page 9 Calhoun County Poor-House... " " 22 Curtis, Benjamin F., residence of (Marshall) " " 68 Cook, Asa B., " ( " ) " " 70 Crosby, C. H., " (Battle Creek) " " 82 Clark, Alexander H., " ( " " ) " " 85 Central School Building ( " " ). " 86 Crawford, R., residence of ( " " ) facing " 90 Church, Mrs. Lura, " (Albion). " " 111 Clute, H. A., " (Lee).. " " 115 Chisholm, Thomas, " (Marengo). " " 125 Chapin, Samuel, residence of ( " ). " " 129 Cook, Hon. William, " (Clarendon) " " 187 Cox, John, " (Bedford) " " 194 Carrier, Edwin B., " (Marengo) " " 132 Crossman, L. G., " ( " ) " " 133 Chamberlin, Benjamin, " (Newton). " " 174 Convis, Samuel, " (Pennfield) " " 177 Dibble, C. P., " (Marshall) " " 50 Du Bois, Harvey J., " (Battle Creek)" " 92 Dickey, Marsh, res. and farm (Sheridan) double page.... facing pages 142, 143 Dean, Mrs. Nelson, residence of (Tekonsha) facing page 151 Doolittle, Isaac H., " (Clarendon) " " 189 Eslow, Thomas E., " (Homer). " " 123 Ellis, John, " (Tekonsha) " " 149 French, Hon. G. H., " (Homer). " " 124 Fenn, Thomas, " (Le Roy). " " 172 Gridley, Abram H., farm and res. of (Albion) " " 105 Gale Manufacturing Co.'s Works (Albion). " " ] 07 Gardner, A. P., residence of ( " ). " " 107 Granger, S. S., " (Tekonsha) " " 150 Gould, Fayette, " (Le Roy). " " 166 Gould, David, farm and res. (Newton). " " 173 Gordon, Alexander, residence of (Pennfield) " " 176 Health Institute (Battle Creek)... " " 29 Hanchett, David, residence of (Marshall). " " 52 Hart, Isaac P., " (Battle Creek) " " 79 Aussey, Erastus, residence and homestead (Battle Creek)..... " 97 Hadden, Amos, residence of (Lee).. " " 114 Hewitt, Isaac, " (Marengo). " " 127 Hanchett, Caleb, " ( " ) ~ " " 129 Houston Homestead, The (Fredonia).. " " 161 Houston, John, residence of ( " ).. ' " 164 Hicks, William, " (Pennfield). " " 180 Hutchinson, Loomis, residence of (Emmett) double page.... facing pages 180,181 Irwin Hall and Hygienic Institute (Battle Creek)....... facing page 29 Kerr, William H., residence of (Tekonsha). " " 148 Knight, Thomas, " (Emmett).." " 182 Leonard, D. P., * " (Burlington) " " 158 Map of Calhoun County... " 9 Mapes, Anson, residence of (Battle Creek). " " 80 Miller, John, " (Athens).. " " 118 Mayo, James, " (Convis).. t " 156 Markham, Jos. P., " (Pennfield).. " "178 Newbre, 0. and I., " (Emmett).. " " 184 Newbre, William, " ( " ) double page..... facing pages 184, 185 "Oak Lawn," res. of L. Silliman (Albion). facing page 106 "Oak Hill," " C. M. Brewer (Marshall) " " 62 Poor-House, The County.... 22 Peterman, Dr. H. A., res. and office (Marshall) facing page 54 Public School Building (Marshall)... " 58 Powell, William, residence of (Marshall). facing " 66 Pond, J. E., " ( " ). " " 70 Potter House (Battle Creek)... " " 89 Painter, J. C., grain and stock farm of (Athens)...... t " 116 Powers, John, residence of (Homer).. " '- 122 Pattison, S. G., " (Marengo). " " 128 Pritchard, James, residence and farm of (Clarendon)...... " 188 Robinson, Solon E., residence of (Eckford) " t 136 Reasoner, Daniel, " (Le Roy). " " 167 Stewart, Joseph W., " (Battle Creek) " " 84 Stewart, James H., " ( " " )" " 85 Silliman, L., " (Albion) " is 106 Soule, Theron, ( " ) " " 112 Samson, Galen, " (Marengo) " " 126 Soule, Milo, ( " ) " " 130 Shipman, J. D., " (Sheridan) " " 145 Shipman, Robert B., " ( " ) " 146 Spaulding, N. L., " (Emmett), double page..... facing pages 182,183 Underwood, Chester R., res. of (Newton). facing page 173 Francisco, Henry (and wife) Goodrich, Mrs. L. S. Green, Elijah (and wife) Granger, S. S. ( " ). Guyer, Andrew ( " ). Gould, Fayette ( " ) Gordon, Alex. ( " ) Godfrey, Oliver W. (and wife) Hall, Tolman W. Hyde, Augustus 0... Hanchett, David. Hanchett, Caleb (and wife). Hill, Samuel W. Hart, Isaac P. (and wife) Hussey, Erastus ( " ) Hall, Moses. Hall, T. W.. Holmes, Charles D. Holmes, Thomas. Hadden, Amos (and wife) Hobart, Hon. N. P. Holmes, William.... Hewitt, Isaac (and wife).. Houston, Sr., John (and wife) Houston, John (and wife).. facing page 175 it" " 112 it " 147 t~" " 150.. " 160. facing " 166 i. " "176 facing pages 184, 185 ~ facing page 22.t. t 22 " " 52 " " 129. " " t 76 * " " 79." " 97." " 98. " " 98 (t. 110 " 110. facing " 114 ~" i" 119 " " 127 a " "161 ~ t " 164 Vary, A. T., " (Marshall). Woolsey, Daniel, " ( " ). Werstein, L., " (Battle Creek) Ward & Son, J. M., warehouses, etc. (Battle Creek).... Wood, Barnet, residence of (Battle Creek). Warner, William A., " (Albion) Warner, Wareham, " the late (Albion) Walker, T. P., " (Lee) Ware, S. S., " (Athens). Worthington, James, " (Homer). White, William C., " (Marengo) Warner, Asahel, " (Sheridan) Walkinshaw, James, " (Convis) Wagner, Susan, " (Le Roy) Warren, Ira A., " (Emmett) Warren, Ira A.,.old homestead, built in 1833 " " 60 " " 69 ( ( 88 " 88 " 94 " 110 " 111 " 113 " 115 " 121 " 131 " 147 " 153 " 168 " 185 " 185 PORTRAITS. Austin, Charles Anderson, Jacob (and wife) Abbott,, Reuben ( " ) Atmore, Matthew ( " ) Brackett, Albert E. (" ) Burpee, Samuel J. Beach, Asahel Beach, Mrs. Dr. John. Beach, E. Darwin (and wife) Billinghurst, Daniel Burr, Rufus (and wife) Burnett, Frank (and wife). Bevier, Mrs. Louisa Barnum, Thomas B.. Curtis, Benjamin F. Crosby, C. H. (and wife) Crawford, R. ( " ) Clark, A., L. Church, Chandler M. (and wife). Chisholm, Thomas ( " ). Chapin, Samuel ( " ). Crossman, L. G. ( " ). Carrier, E. B. ( " ). Convis, Samuel (and wives) Cox, John (and wife). Dickey, Hon. Charles. Du Bois, Peter.... Du Bois, Harvey J... Dunakin, Daniel (and wife). Dickey, Marsh ( " ). Doolittle, Isaac H. (" ). Doolittle, Joel ( " ). Dean, Nelson ( " ). Douglass, Geo. A. (and wife) Eslow, Thomas E. ( " ) Ellis, John ( " ) Ellis, Heman J. Fenn, Thomas (and wife). facing page 98 ~ facing pages 108, 109. facing page 147. " 178. facing " 56 i " " 76." " 98... " 101. facing " 101 i" "( 143 (. " " 144.. " " 159 t " 169 " 170. facing f" 68 ~ 1 IC 82. c c 90 "102. facing " 111 I "" 125 i t " 129 *. " 133." " 132 ~~" " 177 " ". 194 ~" 72. facing " 92 t " 92.. " 140 facing pages 142, 143 facing page 189." " 147 " " 151 facing pages 184, 185. facing page 123." " 149. " " 149 ~" " 172 Hiscock, Isaac...... " 170 Hicks, William (and wife). " 180 Hutchinson, Loomis (and wives).. facing pages 180, 181 Hatch, Younglove M. (and wife). page 193 Hamilton, George B. (. " ) ).. " 198 Johnson, Edwin H....facing " 22 Knickerbocker, W. M. (and wife).. " " 112 Kellogg, George...... " " 119 Kerr, William H. (and wife)... " " 148 Kelsey, Silas ( " )... " " 170 Knight, Thomas ( " )... " " 182 Lane, James ( " )... " " 155 Leonard, D. P. ( " )... " " 158 Miller, David H. ( " )...... " 74 Miner, James A........ " 75 Mitchell, Preston.. facing " 76 Mapes, Anson (and wife).." 80 Mayo, James ( " ).... " 156 Markham, J. P. ( " ).... " " 178 Manchester, E. C...... " 98 Newbre, James (and wife).... " " 184 Newbre, William (" )... facing pages184, 185 Peterman, Dr. Hiram A. (and wife).. facing page 54 Powell, William..... " 76 Peabody, Tenney (and wife).. " " 112 Pattison, S. G. ( " ).. " " 128 Pierce, Nathan ( " ).... " 129 Potter, John ( " ).. facing" 175 Rogers, John B. ( " ).. " " 119 Robinson, Solon ( " ).. " " 136 Reasoner, Daniel ( " ).. " " 167 Root, Elijah..... " 175 Samson, Galen (and wife)... " " 126 Sackett, Morrison..... " 130 Shipman, J. D. (and wife)... facing" 145 Shipman, Robert B. ( " )... " " 146 Smith, Earl...... " 76 Soule, Theron (and wife)... " " 112 Soule, Milo ( " ).... " " 130 Sprague, Rev. Thomas.... " " 170 Spaulding, Nirum L. (and wife).. facing pages 182,183 Stewart, Joseph W. ( " )... facing page 84 Underwood, C. R. ( " ).. 173 Vary, A. T. ( " )... " " 60 Warren, Ira A. ( " )... " 185 Wagner, Hon. John ( " )... " " 168 Warner, Asahel (and wife).... " " 147 Warner, William A. (and wife)... " " 110 Warner, Wareham...... " 111 Walkinshaw, James (and wife)... " " 153 Wattles, J.H...... " " 102 Wakefield, Geo.N... " " 102 Walker, T. P. (and wife)... facing" 113 Willard, George...... " 102 Willard, David N. (and wife)... '" 119 Wisner, Jehiel...... " " 119 White, Henry L....... " " 22 White, William C. (and wife)... 131 Woolsey, Daniel...... " 69 Wood, Barnett (and wife).... " " 94 "i ": -f~ I I l -

Page  [unnumbered] INTRODUCTORY. THE historian, in rescuing from oblivion the life of a nation, should 1" extenuate nothing, nor aught set down in malice." Myths, however beautiful, are at their best but fanciful; traditions, however pleasing, are uncertain; and legends, though the very essence of poesy, are unauthentic. The novelist will take the most fragile thread of a vivid imagination, and from it weave a fabric of surpassing beauty. But the historian should place his feet upon the solid basis of FACT, and, turning a deaf ear to the allurements of fancy, sift, with careful and painstaking scrutiny, the evidence brought before him, and upon which he is to give the record of what has been. Standing, as he does, down the stream of time, far removed from its source, he must retrace, with patience and care, its meanderings, guided by the relics of the past which lie upon its shores, growing fainter and still more faint and uncertain as he nears its fountain, ofttimes concealed in the debris of ages, and in mists and darkness impenetrable. Written records grow less and less explicit, and finally fail altogether, as he approaches the beginning of the community whose life he is seeking to rescue from the gloom of a fast-receding past. Memory, wonderful as are its powers, is yet frequently at fault; and only by a comparison of its many aggregations can he be satisfied that he is pursuing stable-footed truth in his researches amid the early paths of his subject. In the republic, founded upon popular sovereignty, the people are supreme. They are the source of power. From them springs the government of the nation in its varied phases-National, State, and Municipal. The several States of the American Union, conceding to the General Government its central power, retain their individual sovereignty, within the limits prescribed by the Federal Constitution, and, in the spirit and significance of the national legend (E Pluribus Unum), are " many like the billows, and onte like the sea." This principle of independent sovereignty runs through the whole system of the government, from the election of the federal executive to that of the most obscure constable or path-master. And it is by reason of this sovereignty that the beginning and progress of a county become no unimportant subjects to trace upon the permanent pages of history. The ties of " home" have, ere now, thrown around sterile coasts, frozen plains, and mountain cliffs the halo of the love of a patriotic people. Is it surprising, then, that the undulating, flowery prairies and open vistas of park-like lawns, which, for extent and natural beauty, far excel the baronial manors of European aristocracy, and watered with clear running streams and quiet lakes-which beautiful landscape is embraced within the limits of Calhoun County-should charm the eyes of the first settlers as they emerged from the dark, dense forests of New York, Canada, and Ohio, and beget in their hearts a love for the surroundings of nature that clings to them in their old age, and falls but little short of reverence when they speak of the old county which witnessed their first struggles for life and competency? These associations have made it a sacred and almost hallowed spot. These old pioneers are fast sinking to rest after the toils and privations of the border, whither they came, buoyed up with hope and nerved with vigor, to build for themselves and their loved ones homes amid this beautiful scenery, while yet the whoop of the Indian and the howl of the wolf resounded on every side, and war's alarms came not infrequently, with imperious demands for blood and treasure. Here and there a white-haired veteran, bowed with the weight of years and the unremitting toil of pioneer life, remains an interesting relic of fast-fading times. Before all of these old, hardy pioneers, whose impress was the germ of the present, and whose endowment was lofty examples of courage and unabated energy, and who have durably stamped their characteristics upon worthy successors-before these have passed away, we seek to place upon the historic page the record of whom they were, and what they did to make their county the just pride of the great Peninsular State of the American Union. Records will be traced as far as they may yield the information sought; the memories of the pioneers will be laid under tribute; the manuscripts of the provident will give their contributions, and all sources will be called into requisition to furnish material, reliable and certain, to bring forth a truthful history of this grand county. Individual success is a proof of triumphant energy, and pledges a like career j to corresponding enterprises; therefore biographies of earnest, successful representative lives, intimately connected with the development of the county, will illustrate what energy, determination, and indomitable will have hitherto accomplished, and can yet accomplish. To foster local ties, to furnish examples of heroism, to exhibit the results of well-applied industry, and to mark the progress of the community, literature, art, and typography (an attractive trio) are freely employed to embellish and render invaluable a practical and interesting work. Less than fifty years ago the first white settler built his cabin of rough, unhewn logs west of the principal meridian of the United States surveys in the State of Michigan. Until then the solitudes of the whole territory of southwestern Michigan, acquired in 1821 by the treaty of Chicago, had been unbroken by any sound of humanity save as that mysterious people, the Mound-Builders (whose monuments alone remain to tell us they once lived), had pursued their peaceful avocations within its borders; or their Indian successors had traversed its forests and plains; or in their light canoes sped over the unruffled bosoms of its lakes in pursuit of game, or on the more bloody trail of war. Adventurous traders, coureurs des bois, and messengers with dispatches to beleaguered posts beyond the western lakes, had indeed followed the wild tribes, for commercial purposes, or passed across its boundaries, but no mark was left to show that an actual settlement had been made, with any idea of permanency, previous to 1827, in all of its wide extent. A half-century has wrought a wondrous change. Despite privation, danger, and misfortune, farms multiplied and towns grew; highways were cut through the forests; streams were bridged; morasses drained, and the stage-coach made its weekly trip between the eastern and western lakes. Then came the railways, connecting the populous and wealthy east with the western border, affording easy and rapid transit, and progress sprang forward, equipped for an untiring march. The productions of the soil were, as by magic, exchanged for the commerce of the seas and the manufactures of the seaboard. Education and religion walked hand in hand, and together wrought their beneficent mission, laying broad and deep the foundations of happiness and progress, and doing much also to erect the harmonious and symmetrical edifice thereon, which prosperous trade, busy manufacture, and toilsome agriculture have made a demonstrable certainty. In prosecuting our enterprise we shall essay, first, somewhat of the history of the State in its early settlement, with a brief sketch of the title to the fee of the millions of acres of prolific soil within its splendid domain, and which the national government confers upon the settler who makes his home thereon. Then will follow an account of the county, from its earliest settlement, up to and including the just completed centennial year; showing its surprising development in agriculture, trade, manufactures, political influence, population and wealth-not forgetting to do honor to the brave men, of all political faiths, who rallied to the common defense of the country when armed treason raised its bloody hand against the national life, and who bore the banner of the Peninsular State through the carnage of many hard-fought fields, onward to ultimate triumph. Brief histories of the several townships and villages composing the county will follow, wherein will appear the names of the early settlers, public officials, professional men, tradesmen; with accounts of schools, churches, and societies; together with comparative statements of the business of those early days and of the present, interspersed with incidents, humorous and sad, which invariably attach to border life, but which, however graphically they may be told, cannot give to us of the present day, who have come into our pleasant places through the toils and privations of the pioneers, any realizing sense of the rugged, thorny paths those heroes and heroines patiently and hopefully trod for many long and weary years. It cannot, then, be unimportant or uninteresting to trace the progress of Calhoun's gratifying development, from her crude beginnings to her present proud position among her sister-counties; and therefore we seek to gather the scattered and loosening threads of the past into a compact web of the present, ere they become hopelessly broken and lost, and with a trust that the harmony of our work may speak with no uncertain sound to the future.

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Page  9 H I ST OR Y OF C A I H TU N COUNTY, MICHIGAN. BY H. B. PIERCE. CHAPTER I. CIVILIZATION; ITS PROGRESS-FIRST INTRODUCTION INTO MICHIGAN-FIRST PERMANENT SETTLEMENT-ORDINANCE OF 1787-ORGANIZATION OF TERRITORY-COUNTIES AND TOWNSHIPS-ADOPTION OF CONSTITUTION-DEVELOPMENT OF STATE. IN the early ages, amid the hordes of the east, civilization was born, and began its march of progress. Westward, over Assyria, India, Egypt, Greece, and Rome, as those nations successively rose and fell, its waves rolled, and lapped the shores of Spain, France, and Britain. Checked for a time at this ultima thule of the Greek and barbarian, by the repressive spirit of the Middle Ages, at length it overleaped the barriers interposed to its progress, and bore upon its topmost crest, over the Atlantic, a Columbus, a Cabot, and a Cartier as its avant couriers to the New World, whose shores were bathed by the waters of two oceans. Rolling inland, over mountain, lake, and river, across the ancient domain of the Mound-Builders, then the realm of the Iroquois and Algonquin, the first ripple of the incoming tide broke upon the shores of Michigan in the year of grace 1641, at which time* Father Charles Raymbault and his companion, Isaac Jogues (Jesuit missionaries, and envoys of the king of France), unfurled the Bourbon lilies at the Sault St. Marie, and proclaimed to an assemblage of two thousand of the red men of the northwest the news of salvation. These missionaries were followed by Rene Mesnard in 1660, and Claude Allouez in 1665, in the Lake Superior region; and by Pere Marquette and Claude Dablon in 1668, who founded the mission at Sault St. Marie, which was the first settlenient by Europeans in Michigan. In 1671, Pere Marquette founded the mission of St. Ignace, on the north shore of the straits of Mackinac; and in 1673, after his discovery of the Mississippi,the great event of his life,-he discovered and named the river St. Joseph, and explored it for some distance from its mouth. In 1679, La Salle traversed the great lakes in the " Griffin," the first vessel ever launched thereon, and while awaiting her return, built a trading-post at the mouth of the St. Joseph, and carefully sounded the stream and buoyed its channel; and, finally, went to Illinois with Hennepin and Tonti, making the portage to the Kankakee, near the present site of South Bend, Indiana. The real settlement of Michigan, however, may be said to have commenced at Detroit in 1701, when De la Motte Cadillac, with the inseparable Jesuit and one hundred Frenchmen, took possession of that point in the name of the king of France, and which was the first permanent colony settled in Michigan. Thus, this Commonwealth, which began to be colonized even before Georgia, is the oldest of all the inland States of the Union, excepting Illinois, which had a colony at Kaskaskia previous to 1700. The French authority over Michigan, which lasted till 1760, and the English domination which succeeded, and ended nominally in 1783, but really not until 1796, brought but little progress to the country. In 1787 the northwest territory was organized under the ordinance of 1787, Michigan coming under its government and laws at the departure of the British garrison in 1796, from Detroit. The first American settler in Michigan located at Frenchtown, on the river Raisin, in 1793. In January, 1798, the northwest territory assumed the second grade of territorial government, as provided by the ordinance of 1787, and the territory * This date was five years before Elliott preached to the Indians within six miles of Boston Harbor. 2 of Michigan, as afterwards established, constituted a single county-Wayne-in that territory, and sent one representative to the General Assembly of the northwest territory, held at Chillicothe; and the election at which this representative was chosen was the first election held in Michigan under the American government. In 1802 the Lower Peninsula was annexed to Indiana Territory by the act of Congress creating the State of Ohio. January 11, 1805, Michigan was erected into a separate territory, and General William Hull appointed governor. From that time to the glorious victory of Commodore Perry on Lake Erie, in 1813, the country was subject to the terrors and atrocities of Indian warfare, the western tribes being confederated under Tecumseh, with the British, against the United States. After the recapture of Detroit in 1813, General Cass began a most successful administration as governor of the territory, which lasted until 1831, during which, as a historian of Michigan says, he did " more for the prosperity of Michigan than any other man, living or dead." From 1805 to 1824, the legislative powers were vested in the governor and judges who formed the territorial government; but in the latter year Congress provided for a legislative council, to which those powers were given. The members were appointed by the president from eighteen nominees elected by the people, nine of whom constituted the council for four years. The first legislative council was held in Detroit on June 7, 1824. Immigration now began to flow into the country, and population being scattered, Congress authorized the governor, in 1825, to divide the territory into counties and townships, and to provide for the election of township officers. In 1826, the counties of Mackinaw, Saginaw, Lapeer, Shiawassee, St. Clair, Macomb, Oakland, Washtenaw, Wayne, Lenawee, and Monroe were organized, and the territory west of the principal meridian to Lake Michigan-which had not been surveyed-was attached to Monroe and Oakland counties for judicial purposes. On April 23, 1827, the lands ceded by the treaty of Chicago in 1821 were formed into a township, and named St. Joseph, and attached to Lenawee county for similar purposes. The same year, Congress gave the people the right to elect the representatives to the legislative council, and the representation was apportioned among the districts and counties according to population. In 1833, the people of Michigan memorialized Congress for an enabling act to form a State constitution, preparatory to the admission of the State into the Union; but that body refused their prayer. Thereupon Governor Stevens convened the legislative council, which ordered a census of the territory to be taken, and called a convention to frame a constitution, that " the State might demand as a right what had previously been asked as a favor." In 1834 the census was taken, showing a population of 87,273; an excess of 27,273 over the requisite number provided for in the organic law of the northwest territory. In May, 1835, the convention framed a constitution and sent it to Congress for acceptance; but owing to the southern boundary trouble, which had been vexing the people of Ohio and Michigan for thirty years, and the political agitation of the times, the State was not finally admitted until January, 1837; the boundaries being adjusted as at present, and so accepted by the people finally. From this time Michigan dates her marvelous progress in manufactures, agriculture, commerce, and education, which has placed her in the very fore front of the grand galaxy of American commonwealths. Amid her unrivaled natural beauties and inexhaustible resources, her commercial and educational development, this proud State may well and justly say to all comers within her borders, in the language of her appropriate motto, Si quseris penLinsulamn amoenanm, circumspice, " If you seek a beautiful peninsula, look around you." 9

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - guishment of the Indian title, prohibiting the English governors from issuing CHAPTER II. ABSTRACT OF TITLE —FRENCH, ENGLISH, COLONIAL, AND INDIAN TITLES TO LANDS IN THE NORTHWEST —FIRST LEGAL CONVEYANCE IN MICHIGANLAND SURVEYS AND SALES-MILITARY REPORT ON AMOUNT OF GOOD LAND. NOTWITHSTANDING the claims made by England and France to American soil, based upon the right of discovery under the law of nations, and which claims were maintained for two hundred years at a most frightful expenditure of blood and treasure, and although the thirteen colonies, after a bloody and expensive war of seven years, succeeded to the rights of those nations in the soil of the northwest, yet there was an adverse and prior claim to be extinguished before a free and unincumbered title in fee simple could be given to lands northwest of the Ohio river. The aboriginal inhabitants-the Indians-were the real lords proprietary of the soil of North America, and most energetic and tenacious were they in defending their title thereto; and so successful were they in that defense, that the American people, notwithstanding their rights acquired so bloodily and expensively, were under the imperative necessity of perfecting their fee in their conquests by purchase from these same proprietors, from first to last. All of the terrible Indian wars which have deluged the territory of the United States with the blood of white men, to say nothing of the extermination of whole nations of the red race, which these same wars have occasioned, have been caused and waged on account of the trespass of the pale-faces upon the Indians' land, as alleged by the latter. In 1753 the French, by the treaty of peace following the fall of Quebec, ceded their rights in Canada and the northwest to the English crown, and it in turn, by the treaty of peace at Versailles, after the Revolution in 1783, ceded its rights in the northwest to the United States. Several of the colonies had obtained, previous to the Revolution, certain vested rights in the territory northwest of the Ohio by charters from the British crown, and hence these lands were known by the name of " Crown Lands." These vested rights were ceded by the several States of New York, Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and South Carolina, to whom they belonged, to the general government of the Union, from the year 1781 to 1787, and yet it was claimed by the Indians-and the claim made valid-that the United States had acquired by these several cessions the right of pre-emption only to the soil whenever the Indians chose to alienate their title thereto. After the great confederate council of the eastern and western Indians, at the Huron village, on the Detroit river, in December, 1786, the Congress of the United States accepted the construction placed by them upon the treaty with England in 1783-that they (the Indians) were no party thereto, nor included in the provisions thereof-and the government at once began measures looking to the quieting and extinguishment of the Indian title to the lands in the northwest. A treaty was made with the Wyandot, Ottawa, Delaware, and Chippewa tribes, at Fort McIntosh, in 1785, by which lands at Detroit and Mackinaw were ceded to the United States. This treaty was subsequently confirmed in 1787 by another one at Fort Harmer, and in 1795 by Wayne's treaty at Greenville. This last treaty also ceded other tracts of land at Miami Rapids, and the islands of Mackinaw and Bois Blanc. In 1807 Governor Hull, of Michigan, made a very important treaty with the Ottawa, Chippewa, Pottawatomie, and Wyandot tribes, whereby the Indians ceded to the United States all the lands lying east of the present west lines of the counties of Saginaw, Shiawasse, Washtenaw, and Lenawee. In 1817 Governor Cass made a treaty with certain of the tribes, whereby the greater part of Ohio and a portion of Indiana and Michigan were ceded; and in 1819 the governor effected another treaty at Saginaw with the Chippewas, by which the United States quieted the Indian title to six millions of acres in Michigan. In 1821, by the treaty of Chicago with the Ottawas, Chippewas, and Pottawatomies, all of the country west of the principal meridian, south of the Grand river to the Indiana State line, and west to Lake Michigan, with the exception of a few reservations, was ceded and confirmed to the general government. Subsequent treaties in 1823, 1825, 1826, and 1827, at Niles, Prairie du Chien, Green Bay, and St. Joseph, extinguished the Indian title throughout the then territory of Michigan, with the exception of such reservations as were made for special bands or tribes-most of the Indians in the southern portion of the territory removing west of the Mississippi. Under the French domination in Michigan, grants of land could be made by the French governors of Canada and Louisiana, which were to be confirmed by the king of France to make them legally pass the title. The French commandants of the post were also allowed to grant permissions of occupancy to settlers, and these latter sometimes occupied lands without permission from any one, thus gaining a color of possessory title, under which they subsequently claimed the full right of ownership. On the accession of the English power, the British king restricted the extin guishment of the Indian title, prohibiting the English governors from issuing grants of lands, except within certain prescribed limits, and the English subjects from making purchases of the Indians or settlements without those prescribed bounds. Grants, purchases, and settlements, however, were made, the king's proclamation to the contrary notwithstanding; and these prohibited possessions formed an important part of the ancient land claims afterwards adjudicated by the land board of Michigan. In the "American State Papers," vol. i., " Public Lands," it is stated by the report of a commission on land claims in Michigan, that there were but eight legal titles passed to lands during the French and English occupancy of the country. However, there was a land-office established at Detroit in 1804, and the evidence in support of the various land claims arising in Michigan was gathered and submitted to Congress, which body, by subsequent acts of relief, vested the right to their lands in all actual settlers who could show a reasonable color of title thereto. The first legal grant of land in Michigan was made in 1707, by "Antoine de la Motte Cadillac, Esq., Lord of Bouaquet Mont Desert, and Commandant for the King, at Detroit, Pont Chartrain," to "' Frangois Fafard Delorme;" and it was charged with a great many conditions of the old feudal tenure of Europe. The rents and quit-rents were to be paid in peltries until a currency should be established, when the peltries were to be exchanged for and succeeded by the cash of the country. The system now in vogue in conducting the surveys of the public lands, by which the territory is surveyed into townships of six miles square, and the townships subdivided into thirty-six sections, one mile square each, is the suggestion and plan of General Harrison, which was adopted by the general government. In Michigan, the principal meridian of the surveys was located on the west line of Lenawee county, where the same intersects the Ohio State line; and was run due north through the State to the Sault St. Marie. A base line was established, commencing on Lake St. Clair, on the line between Macomb and Wayne counties, and running due west to Lake Michigan, on the division lines of the counties intervening. Three auxiliary lines for the correction of the surveys were run: the first, beginning at the meridian, on the centre line of Gratiot county, and running due west to Lake Michigan; the second, beginning at Lake Huron, on the line between Iosco and Bay counties, and running due west to the lake; and the third, beginning at Thunder bay, just south of the centre line of Alpena county, and running due west to the same general termination. There are in the survey eighteen ranges of townships west, and sixteen east of the principal meridian, in the widest part of the State. The townships number eight south, and thirty-seven north of the base line on the meridian in the lower peninsula, and run as high as fifty-eight in the upper peninsula, on Keweenaw point. The first survey of public lands in the State was made in 1816, in the eastern part thereof, on Detroit river and vicinity, and a portion only of that surveyed brought into market in 1818, all within the Detroit land district. In 1823, the Detroit land district was divided, and a land-office established at Monroe, at which all entries west of the principal meridian, up to 1831, had to be made. The lands were first offered at public sale, and after all competition seemed to be over the applications and bids would be opened and examined, pending which action the office was closed, thereby causing much delay and expense to bona-fide settlers, and also affording a fine opportunity for the '" land sharks"-speculators-to reap a rich harvest from the real settlers who came to buy their own locations. The public sales were finally abolished, which act, together with the adoption of the cash system, rendered the swindling tricks of the speculators less easy of performance, and as a consequence, their occupation was soon gone. After the applications and bids at the public sales were disposed of, the land was subject to private entry at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, cash in hand. Previous to 1820 the price of the public lands was fixed at two dollars per acre, and the terms at one-quarter down, the balance in three equal annual payments. This system proved a delusion and a snare to the people as well as the government, for many would buy larger tracts than they could pay for, not considering sufficiently the drawbacks they were liable to, and did experience, in the settlement of a new country. The result was that the government could not, and would not, take the improvements of the settlers, but extended their time of payment and gave them liberal discounts and concessions; and finally abolished the credit system altogether, and, at the same time, reduced the price of the public lands to one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, and made it subject to private entry at that price. In 1831 a land-office was established at White Pigeon, for lands subject to entry west of the principal meridian, but in 1834 it was removed to Bronson, now Kalamazoo. A military board of survey, or commission, was sent out by Congress to report

Page  11 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 11 on the quality and quantity of lands in Michigan, for the purpose of locating on such lands the bounty land-warrants of the Revolutionary soldiers and officers, covering, in Michigan, two millions of acres. General Brown stated in the report of this commission, that there were not enough of good lands in the State to locate that amount of warrants, and therefore the Act of Congress, passed May 6, 1812, ordering the survey to be made, was repealed, and a survey of a similar quantity of lands directed to be made, in lieu thereof, in Arkansas and Illinois. This report gave a bad reputation to Michigan lands, and it was not until after 1830 that the effect was removed by the representations of actual settlers, when immigration, which had mostly '" passed by on the other side" to Illinois and Iowa, received a remarkable impetus, literally surging by waves into the territory. But the cloud had its "' silver lining," nevertheless, for though the inaccurate and unjust report of the military board kept away the immigrants for a time, it also left them free of the bane of new countries-the land speculator, whose " tricks of trade" were so happily suppressed by the government in after-years. CHAPTER III. ANCIENT FORTIFICATIONS-MYSTERIOUS PEOPLE-THE INDIANS OF CALHOUN; THEIR POSITION IN THE BLACK HAWK WAR —A BIG INJUN-TRAILS. ALONG the valleys of the Kalamazoo and St. Joseph rivers are found the remains of an ancient and long since departed people, whom modern science, for want of a better name, has yclept the Mound-Builders. The works of these unknown people are found throughout the entire United States, from the great copper regions of Lake Superior, where they once wrought and mined the mass copper, to the Everglades of Florida, where their shell-mounds attest their presence; and from Maine southwesterly to the plains of Mexico, their fortifications erected with mathematical skill, and an apparent knowledge of engineering, are wonders yet unexplained by modern research and investigation. The works of the Ohio and Mississippi valleys appear to be the earlier stages of the mechanical skill of a people who, emigrating voluntarily or involuntarily to the plains of Mexico and Yucatan and the highlands of Peru, carried on their arts to grand achievements, as the magnificent cities and temples of the former places and the architectural wonders of the latter country fully and grandly attest. The question of who they were, whence they came, and whither and how they went, is still as mysterious as when the Europeans first gazed upon their mounds, and persistent questioning of the Indians, who had been lords of the country for hundreds of years, could gain no answering tradition of the builders thereof. But, undaunted and undismayed, the research goes on, and here and there evidence slowly accumulates that will in the future give the dead back again to the living, and the now undeciphered riddle will be read by the works this same race has left behind. We have full faith that the Rosetta Stone will yet be found by some Champollion, who shall be able to open the seals and read the hitherto closed book. Calhoun County is not uninterested in this research, for she has within her borders the monuments of this race, that give her a history reaching back before the first crusade. When Richard Coeur de Lion and Saladin were fighting for the possession of Jerusalem, Calhoun was an old country, from whose borders a people, numerous and peaceful, had passed away, leaving their memorials, indeed, for the pioneer of 1830 to wonder over; but nothing else to tell of their history, now buried beneath the debris of ages. Along the Kalamazoo, in Bedford township, there are two or more fortifications ancient, but still visible, showing the peculiar circumvallation of triple breastworks, either circular or rectangular, with sally-ports, and roads and garden-plats, and access to the rear to the water-supply. Into Goguac lake an ancient mound, or tumulus, projects, bearing the characteristics of the tumuli of the Ohio and Mississippi. Along the St. Joseph, in the southern part of the county, these remains are also found, some of which have been excavated, and relics of the builders found; but no bones of the men who raised the works, the soil being so porous that the material composing the human frame-work perished quickly and completely. Flints, celts, copper utensils and implements are found scattered about the fortifications and mounds and buried therein, on which trees, similar in variety and size to those of the surrounding forest, were growing when the first settlers came to the country, which fully attest the age of the works to be all that is claimed for it. THE INDIANS of the present day were the successors of the Mound-Builders, but yet they possessed no tradition of them, and roamed through the country and gazed upon the remains as they were from time to time excavated, or turned out by the plow-share of the pioneer, with as much curiosity as did the white man, though probably with less speculation. The Indian successors of the Mound-Builders left no permanent remains to tell of their occupancy of the soil except their garden-beds, where the squaws cultivated corn while their lazy lords lolled in their tepees or chased the fleet deer as they sped through the oak openings and over the billowy prairie. The Indians who roamed over Calhoun when the first pioneers came were the Pottawatomies principally, though a few Ottawas, commonly called Towas, and Chippewas were incorporated in the nation. They never had any permanent villages in the territory now included in the limits of the county, and remained in it only during the summer months, going to the heavily-timbered regions for protection during the winter season, and consequently their history is not especially striking or interesting. The only thing really worth recording in their occupancy of the county is the settlement of the Maguago family in Athens, which is fully set forth in the history of that township. This was a commendable attempt to improve upon their condition, and as such is worthy of preservation, as it is in marked contrast with the general history of their race. What our ancestors found the Algonquin and Iroquois in their first contact with them on the Atlantic seaboard, nearly three hundred years ago, we find the Sioux warrior, the only fit representative of the Atlantic stock of braves of to-day, the same implacable, untamed, bloodthirsty savage, ready to cut the throat and take the scalp of helpless women and innocent babes, with no idea or ambition for useful labor or mental improvement. The Indians of Calhoun were peaceable and quiet when the white man's firewater-squiby, as they called it-was out of their reach; but once in their possession and they were noisy, tyrannical, unpleasant nuisances, frightening the women and children, and offensive in their demands for refreshment. Many incidents are given of their manners and customs in the several township histories, and we shall give but an outline of them here, as they are hardly worth repeating, except to show the worst side of their conduct. At and before the time of the Black Hawk war, in May, 1832, there were no Indians to be met with about the settlements for weeks, whereas before that time they were always to be seen at that time of the year. They said, after Black Hawk was captured, that they had known of his intended raid for a long time before the whites had any intimation of it, and that runners had been sent among them from the Sacs to enlist their co-operation, but they would not join them by reason of their friendship for the whites. The settlers put their words and actions together, and came to the conclusion that their neutrality arose more from their fear of the government than their love for them, feeling quite sure the war would end in the ultimate defeat of the Indians, and that the Indians were doubtless willing the Sacs should massacre the whites, but were too cowardly to fight, and so kept out of the way. But the Sacs were the natural and deadly enemies of the Pottawatomies, and it may have been the fear of the Sacs, as well as of the government, that kept them away. The Nottawa-seepe band of the Pottawatomies actually sent warriors to Chicago as scouts for General Atkinson against the Sacs, and expressed themselves as desirous of a coalition with their white neighbors for offensive as well as defensive operations against Black Hawk, if he should come into Michigan. In 1821 the Indians ceded their lands lying south of Grand river and west of Lenawee county, south to the Indiana line and west to the lake, to the general government, except a few reservations, which were subsequently purchased by the government; and in 1840, after several futile attempts, the remnant of the nation was removed to Kansas, from whence they subsequently removed to the Indian Territory, where the few that are left still reside on their own reservation. Mrs. Dr. A. L. Hays tells of a scare that a great " hulk" of an Indian gave her, while her husband and some of the settlers were gone to Schoolcraft in their quest for Black Hawk. She was alone with her babe, when the door of the cabin opened and in stalked an Indian, one whom she had not seen before, and the first one which had been seen for several days. She could converse in the Pottawatomie language, and so asked him if he was of that tribe. He said, " No." She then said, " Are you a Chippewa?" " No," grinned the rascal. " Are you an Ottawa?" asked the now frightened woman. " No, I am a Sac," said the fellow, and the mother caught her babe from the cradle and started for the front door, the Indian standing by the rear one. At that the brave warrior gave a loud laugh, and told the trembling and almost fainting woman he was only trying to frighten her, and that he was a friendly Indian. He succeeded admirably in his cowardly design, for she thought surely the Sacs were upon the settlement, and all the horrors of an Indian massacre rose before her vision. The trails of the Indians were frequently utilized by the settlers for the lines of their roads; and on the original field notes of the public surveys they are frequently noted by the surveyor, and invariably are found to follow the highest and hardest ground, between the fords of the rivers. A short distance from Marshall there used to be a summer village of the Indians, where their gardens were

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUCNTY, MICHIGAN. cultivated; and they were frequent and inquisitive visitors at the settlers' cabins, but usually brought berries or game of some sort to exchange for bread (quiskin) or flour (nanponee). There was a reservation at Coldwater, and another on the Nottawa prairie, where there were permanent villages and trading-posts, and around which large numbers of Indians assembled at different times. As early as 1820 there was a trading-post built at Kalamazoo by a Frenchman named Lafrombois. Gordon S. Hubbard, now a heavy wholesale dealer in Chicago, was the trader at that post in the winter of 1820-21, when but nineteen years old. He was a trader among the different tribes of the northwest for twelve years, and his estimate of their capacity for improvement is not an exalted one, and of their willingness to make an attempt in that direction it is much less exalted. CHAPTER IV. PIONEER SETTLEMENTS —IMPRO VISED SHELTER FOR COOKING —EARLY JOURNEYINGS-A BALKY PONY-FIRST HOUSES-FIRST MARRIAGE-AGUE VS. MATRIMONY —A JUSTICE BEYOND HIS BAILIWICK-FIRST WHITE BIRTHS — WOMAN LEADS THE COLUMN —FIRST DEATHS-A MIDNIGHT BURIAL-THE FIRST CEMETERY. THE first ripple of the incoming tide of civilization that played among the oak openings of Calhoun County broke therein in the summer of 1830, a Mr. Blashfield being the waif thrown up thereby, who was stranded at the present site of the city of Marshall. He drew a wagon-load of lumber from Beadle's Mill at Flowerfield, in St. Joseph county, in June of that year, secured a pre-emption of the water-power and adjoining lands, and blazed the trees to indicate his boundaries. In August of that year Sidney Ketchum, from Clinton county, New York, came into the county in search of a location. He met, at Ann Arbor, Samuel Camp, who accompanied him on a prospecting tour through the counties of Jackson, Calhoun, and Kalamazoo. The season was delightful, and the prospect at Marshall so pleased Mr. Ketchum that he took minutes of the lands covering the waterpower on Rice creek, at its junction with the Kalamazoo, and also at the forks of the latter, where Albion is now situated, the lands not being subject to entry until October following. On their way to Kalamazoo in search of " floats" (surplus certificates of lands squatters or settlers failed to get of their original locations, and with which they were entitled to locate any lands elsewhere found vacant) they overtook Judge Eldred and Ruel Starr, of Kalamazoo, on Bear Plains, three miles west of Marshall, with whom they prospected the valley to Comstock creek. Here Eldred and Starr remained, while Ketchum and Camp went on to Kalamazoo, to Titus Bronson's, familiarly known in pioneer days as " Potato" Bronson, by reason of his introduction of the Neshannock potato into Michigan, of which esculent he raised seven hundred bushels that year on one acre, the avails of which paid for the claim the producer thereof had then made, and on which Kalamazoo was afterwards located, but named Bronson at first. Ketchum bargained with Bronson for his claim, but the "' better half" objecting, after one night's consideration the trade was abandoned. At Schoolcraft, Noble McKinstry was found, who arranged with Ketchum to procure floats and locate two parcels of land in Calhoun County, when the land office opened at Monroe, in October, for a commission of seventy-five dollars. Ketchum and Camp immediately returned to the site of Marshall, calling upon Judge Eldred at Comstock creek, where they learned that Starr had preceded them to Marshall, with eight days' rations, to establish a claim. This news excited Ketchum, who hastened on and found Starr slashing brush and marking trees to secure his claim. Ketchum at once negotiated with the new squatter for his claim, agreeing to give him one hundred dollars and his gun therefor. Camp, in the mean time, had been prospecting about the bush and discovered Blashfield's marks and lumber, and soon after the man himself was found building a log tavern at Slab City, in Jackson county, and a new arrangement was effected, whereby Starr received seventy-five dollars, and Blashfield the same amount and the gun. Ketchum, Camp, and Starr soon after returned to Ann Arbor, and later, the first and last named to New York. Starr subsequently located in Porter county, Indiana, where he amassed a fortune, and died at Valparaiso, in the summer of 1875. McKinstry procured the floats and located the north half of the southeast quarter of section 25, township 2 south, range 6 west, sixty-seven acres, covering the water-power at Marshall, in his own name, October 15, 1830, and on the sixteenth Ephraim Harrison located the south half of the northeast quarter of section 2, township 3 south, range 4 west, covering the water-power at Albion. These tracts were expected, by Ketchum, to have been located in his name, but he subsequently bought them. These were the i i Davidson and Jonathan Wood located one hundred and sixty acres on sections 25 only lands entered in Calhoun County in 1830. In February, 1831, Abram Davidson and Jonathan Wood located one hundred and sixty acres on sections 25 and 26, the original plat of Marshall, on which the county-seat was located the following fall. A Mr. Fuller, in the fall of 1830, built a log house three miles west of Marshall, on what afterwards proved to be University lands, and used the lumber Blashfield brought from Flowerfield. It is said that when Mullett and others located the University lands-six sections-he was entertained by Fuller, and when the party had drank up all of his whisky and eaten the principal part of his solid rations, Mullett rewarded his host's hospitality by informing him that his house stood about ten rods inside the line of the University lands.. Fuller was so disgusted with his shabby treatment, he abandoned his claim, and gave his house to Mr. Samuel Camp, who moved it off a few rods to a claim he had entered adjoining the State lands. In April, 1831, the first actual and permanent settlement was made in the county by George Ketchum, of Rochester, New York, who was accompanied by Mr. Larcam Ball and wife, H. P. Wisner, Solomon M. Allen, White Ketchum, and John Kennedy. Mrs. Ball slept in the wagon until a log house was rolled up, and cooked on the ground. One night Ketchum held an umbrella over her head while she baked the pancakes for supper. Mr. Ketchum built the first saw-mill on Rice creek, that summer, completing it September 1, which was the first improvement began in the county, aside from Fuller's cabin. In May, Dr. Andrew L. Hays arrived at Ketchum's, and selected three lots on the south side of the river, put up a shanty, and, with the help of a hired man, put in a few acres of corn and potatoes, and raised a fine crop of both, which was probably the first crop of domestic produce raised in the county. After getting his planting done he built a log house, and brought his family on from New Hampshire in September of the same year, where they lived during the winter, being the only family between the Kalamazoo and St. Joseph rivers. During 1831, Peter Chisholm, of eastern New York, Rev. John D. Pierce, Randall Hobart and their families came in, all from New York, and mostly from Clinton county, and located at Marshall. In July, Sidney Ketchum returned with his family, Chisholm and Hobart coming with him; and Mr. Pierce, Samuel Camp, and S. S. Alcott came in the fall. Mr. George Ketchum brought his family on in November, at which time Thomas Chisholm and his wife and brother, George, came,- Thomas Chisholm purchasing the location in Marengo, on which he resided for over forty years previous to his death, which occurred January 1, 1876. John Bertram, Dr. Foster, Isaac Tolland, Stephen Kimball, Henry Failing (1832), Asahel Warner, Tenney Peabody, Wareham Warner, Thomas Burland, Thomas Knight, Thomas J. Hurlbut, Dorrance Williams, Josiah Goddard, Henry Cook, Oshea Wilder, and Isaac N. Hurd came during the year 1831, besides others. Sands McCamley came in March, 1832; L. G. Crossman in February preceding; Moses Hall, Samuel Convis, Daniel G. Guernsey, and Pollidore Hudson in June, or thereabouts, and Powel Grover the same year, as also did General Isaac E. Crary and many others. In 1833 and 1834, there was a large immigration into the county, among them Nathaniel Barney and Nebediah Angell, in 1833, and Judge Tolman W. Hall and General Ezra Convis, in 1834. Bertram bought Camp's location, and the house Fuller built in the fall of 1831, and dwelt therein with Thomas Burland and his family, until the summer of 1832, when he built the first frame house and also the first barn erected in the county. Dr. Foster and Isaac Tolland were the first settlers on the site of the present city of Battle Creek, Tolland preceding the doctor by a month or two. Stephen Kimball located in Marshall, and is now deceased. Henry Failing first located in Marshall township, but subsequently removed to Homer, where he at present resides. Asahel Warner and his father, Wareham Warner, came first to Marshall, where the former at once located, but the latter returned east for a time, and on his return to the county in 1834, located at Albion, where he died. Asahel Warner is now a resident of Sheridan township. Tenney Peabody located at Albion, with the growth and progress of which he was, during his residence there, which continued until his death, closely identified, as also was Mr. Wareham Warner. Dorrance Williams and Josiah Goddard located on Goguac prairie; Henry Cook on what is now known as Cook's plains, so named after him, its first settler. Oshea Wilder and Isaac N. Hurd both located at Marshall at first, and where the latter fell the first victim to the cholera, which decimated the settlement in 1832. Mr. Wilder finally located in Lower Eckford. He was from Rochester, New York, but a native of Massachusetts, and a man of culture and ability. He surveyed and platted many of the early village plats in the county and elsewhere, and it is claimed for him that he originated the idea of canal connection between Lakes Erie and Michigan. His family were intelligent and cultured, his wife being a daughter of a distinguished citizen of New York city, where she was educated. Mr. Wilder died several years ago. Sands McCamley located first at Marshall, but subsequently purchased a half-interest in the site of Battle Creek,

Page  13 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 13 of John J. Guernsey, who entered the lands, but who was never an actual resident thereon, and laid out the village in 1836. He died in 1864. Luther G. Crossman settled in Marengo, after he brought a wife in 1837 to the county. Following his trade of a carpenter previously, and assisting in the erection of many of the earlier framed buildings of the county, among them the first one, he still resides on his original location. Moses Hall came from Vermont, as did also his brother, Judge T. W. Hall, both of whom settled in Battle Creek, of which city Judge Hall is still a resident. He has been for many years one of the county superintendents of the poor, in connection with which charity his portrait and biography appear. Moses Hall was one of the early supervisors of Milton, as the township of Battle Creek was at first named. He was also an early legislator for the county in the State councils, and a man of ability and influence. He is now deceased. Samuel Convis, Daniel G. Guernsey, and Pollidore Hudson all located at Battle Creek, and Mr. Convis is still a resident of the county. Guernsey was the first tavern-keeper in that village, and Hudson the first postmaster. Powel Grover came from Pennsylvania and settled near Homer, in the settlement of citizens of that State. Ezra Convis located near the Battle Creek village site. He was the first representative of the county in the State legislature, 1836-37, and died in Detroit in February of the latter year, while occupying the position of Speaker of the House of Representatives. He was an influential and worthy citizen. Nathaniel Barney and Nebediah Angell located also at Battle Creek, the former opening the second tavern in that place. Randall Hobart was a local Methodist preacher, a very worthy man, and was the register of deeds for the county from 1833 to 1838, receiving the appointment from Governor Porter, in the former year, and being elected the two succeeding terms of 1835 and 1836. Peter Chisholm located at Marshall, was a Scotchman by birth, and the first blacksmith in the county, and more, the father of the first white child born in the county. Dr. Hays was the first physician to locate in the county, though Dr. Foster, at Battle Creek, could not have been far behind him. The Nichols family came to Dry prairie in 1831, and five of them were swept off by the cholera in 1832. Isaac Thomas, of Tioga county, New York, came to Goguac prairie with a family of four or five sons, in 1831, from whence he removed to Illinois, in 1839 -40, for more room to expand with his growing family. John Stewart, Sr., came from New York to Ypsilanti, in 1824, and to Goguac, with several of his sons and their families, in 1831 or 1832. He died in Battle Creek in 1843. Josiah Goddard first saw his location on Goguac, in 1829, on his return from transporting Sherman Comings and family to Toland's prairie. Samuel Camp opened in Marshall the first hotel in the county. S. S. Alcott opened a farm on the south side of the river, at the same place on which the first crops were raised in the county. He was afterwards prominently connected with the history of Marshall, where his works are more fully detailed. Bertram, Knight, and Burland were Englishmen. Knight is still a resident of Marshall township. In 1831, R. B. White came in from New York. and John Ansley from Pennsylvania, the latter locating in Marengo. In 1832, Asa B. Cook and Horace J. Phelps came to Marshall from New York. The former put up the first turning lathe, made the first table, bedstead, and wagon manufactured in the county, and the latter was the first probate judge elected in the county, which position he held for eight years. With the Nichols family (Warren Nichols and family, and his brothers, Ambrose and Othorial) came also, in 1831, Benjamin F. Ferris, Alfred Holcomb, Isaac Crossett, Asahel Stone, and a Mr. Brown, who divided Dry prairie, in Athens township, between them. Holcomb alone resides in the county, of all the company, save a daughter of his, the widow of Mr. Ferris. The Nichols's, Ferris, Crossett, Stone, and Brown are dead. In 1832, Mr. Eleazer McCamly located in Burlington township. He was afterwards elected associate judge of the circuit court, and sat on the bench with Judge Fletcher at the first, second, and fourth terms of the circuit court held in the county. He was a very worthy citizen. Rev. J. D. Pierce, the first minister of the gospel, and General Crary, the first justice of the peace and lawyer, are given their honors in another place, in the history of the church, the school, and the bar. SIDNEY KETCHUM is the recognized pioneer of Calhoun County, he having secured the claims of Blashfield, who preceded him, and of Starr, who took advantage of his trip to Kalamazoo, and "jumped" the claim at Marshall. He was a man of great energy and determination. His history appears more at length in connection with that of the city of Marshall. The manner of transit of the early pioneers to their homes in Calhoun were various and full of incident, and to describe the journeys of all would occupy more space than we can spare for the interesting story, and a few of the more striking ones only we introduce. The principal mode of conveyance was by team from the eastern home, either of horses or oxen, and a slow and tedious journey was the result. The most of the early pioneers came from New England and New York, and such of them as did not come by the Erie canal and the lakes to Detroit came through Canada as a general thing. The trip usually occupied six weeks to two months; sometimes a remarkably quick trip would be made in a month..The trip from Detroit occupied ten to twelve days. There were neither roads nor bridges, and marshes were bottomless in effect. Samuel E. Douglass and family came into the county in 1832, traveling with oxen from Detroit. The roads were so bad Mrs. Douglass was compelled to walk the last'thirty miles of the journey. George Katchum brought his family in November, 1831, and was ten days from Detroit. He traveled by the blazed trees, waded the marshes, and forded the streams. At Sandstone his wagons mired, and he took his family on his back, and carried them out to solid land. O. C. Thompson relates his experiences in getting from Jackson to Marshall in 1831. He attempted the trip on horseback, but, on reaching the Sandstone, his beast, utterly discouraged and exhausted by floundering through the marshes, refused to enter the stream down its precipitous banks, and no amount of ingenuity or strategy of the rider could affect his resolution or get him into the water, and he was, per consequence, obliged to return to Jackson and leave his horse, to make the journey on foot, which he did, falling in, on his way, with John D. Pierce, who, with his wife, accompanied by several families, were just moving into Calhoun. He graphically describes Mrs. Pierce's forlorn appearance, as she sat in the wagon, without covering, drenched through her clothing with the falling rain. That night they found a shanty, without doors, windows, or floors, and but half a roof on, where they all stopped, and cooked a coarse repast on the stove under the roof. The party stowed themselves away on the bedstead and under it, and the men occupied a little more than all of the dry ground in the house. The morning brought no relief; the rain was still falling, but another requisition was made on the potato pile and pork barrel, and breakfast was despatched. During the forenoon the rain ceased, and the party moved on to Marshall, six miles distant, which consisted then of one log house and another in process of erection. These are fair samples of the trials and hardships of a pioneer journey from Detroit to Marshall in the settlement of Calhoun County. THE FIRST HOUSE built in the county, as has been before stated, was one built by Mr. Fuller on the Seminary lands, and which afterwards passed into John Bertram's hands through Camp; it furnished Bertram and Burland's family a shelter during the winter of 1831-32, and in it Burland boarded Bertram's mechanics while, during the summer of 1832, they were building for him. THE FIRST FRAME HOUSE ERECTED IN THE COUNTY. Mr. Luther G. Crossman was the master mechanic of the house, and also of the first barn erected in the county, which he built also for Mr. Bertram, which was a frame, thirty by forty feet. A grand gathering of all the people for ten miles around was had to raise the barn, and Sidney Ketchum held the foot of one post, General Crary another, John D. Pierce another, while old Michael Spencer took the role of general utility man. This barn was built immediately after the house was covered. THE FIRST BRICK BUILDING erected in the county was the National House in Marshall, which was opened with a grand ball on January 1, 1836. It was built by Andrew Mann, who kept the house. THE FIRST MARRIAGE solemnized in the county, according to the rites of civilization, between white persons, was that one celebrated, in the year 1832, by Rev. John D. Pierce, between John Kennedy, one of the first party of settlers of Calhoun, and a lady whose name we have not been able to ascertain. The matrimonial knot was not in those days always easy to tie, as certain in stances in Battle Creek and Athens strongly testify. When Frank Thomas and Amanda Goddard, of the former place, had agreed to take each other for better or for worse, and the day was fixed for the wedding past recall, the justice of the peace, Moses Hall, was notified to be ready. But, as it hath ever been from the beginning of time, that "The best laid plans o' mice and men, Gang aft aglee," so it proved in this instance, the day named being his honor's " ague day." The marriage of course could no more be postponed at its stage of progress than could the " shake" in its inevitable course, but still the judge fortified himself against the attack by taking a huge dose of quinine in the morning, and, to make assurance doubly sure, reinforced it with a still larger reserve dose at noon, and by the time the wedding-party arrived the judge was " as crazy as a loon." Right here came in the ever-fertile wit of the ladies to surmount all difficulties in the

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. way of a good matrimonial venture, and the judge's wife soon found a way out of this, to some people, insurmountable difficulty. She took her crazy liege to the well, and drenched him thoroughly with the cold water thereof, and in the lucid interval, brief though it was, the parties were got into position and the ceremony performed. In Athens, in the winter of 1833, Robert McCamley and Mary Nichols were to be married, and sent for Squire Dwinnel, who was the nearest justice, and lived near Ceresco. The wedding ceremony was performed, and the fee paid, and the justice departed for home, but, on arriving there, 'looked at his license, and discovered the house where the ceremony was performed was situated in Branch county, where he had no jurisdiction in matters civil or official. He immediately returned to the parties, who also, before his arrival, discovered they were not sufficiently married to permit the entailing of their estate upon any posterity that might happily result from their union; and therefore, on the next morning, they were put into a wagon and driven across the line into Calhoun County, and there, with the blue-vaulted heavens for their canopy, and the flowery sod of the prairie for their footstool, the irrevocable words were spoken that bound them to each other for life. THE FIRST WHITE CHILD born in the county was Helen Chisholm, a daughter of Peter Chisholm, who opened her eyes to the bright sunlight on the south side of the river at Marshall, in October, 1831. The little lady was not long without company, and that too of the right sex, for on January 22 following (1832), Luther Hays, a son of Dr. A. L. Hays, put in his appearance on the stage of action, and Calhoun had as many " sorts" as her older sisters. The next babies who came to gladden the forest homes of the pioneers were Ellen Minerva Chisholm, a daughter of Thomas Chisholm, and Mark McCamley, a son of Sands McCamley, and who now lives at Battle Creek, who were born in 1832. A daughter, Mary, was also born that year to Lot Whitcomb, in Athens township. The first child above named is now Mrs. Cox, of Gem Plains, Kalamazoo county. Luther Hays died in his youth, at the age of fifteen years or thereabouts. The second Miss Chisholm married a Mr. Boughton, and is now deceased. Whether Mary Whitcomb is living or not we have no information. THE FIRST DEATH that occurred in the county was that of Isaac N. Hurd, who died in 1832, when the cholera ravaged the settlements in the county, taking in all fourteen* victims. The following incident touching Mr. Hurd's death is related by Mrs. Dr. Hays, now residing at Clinton, Iowa. When Rev. J. D. Pierce came to Marshall, in 1831, there was no house for him except a double log house built by some young men for a boarding-house, and he made arrangements to go into that, and the young men built them another for a private room. They were gathered there in the evening of the same night Mr. Hurd was attacked with the scourge, he being among the number. The evening was spent in flute-playing and singing, one of the pieces sung being the familiar lines, " The burial of Sir John Moore," at the close of which Mr. Hurd remarked that when he died he would like to be buried in the manner indicated by the lines just sung. Soon after, Mr. Hurd was attacked with the disease in its most virulent form, dying the next day, and was buried at midnight by torchlight, not particularly because of his wish to that effect, but because he could not be prepared for burial sooner, and they dared not delay the sad service longer. The wife of Rev. Mr. Pierce was also one of the victims, and the husband, alone in his grief and great affliction, with his own hands prepared her for burial, and, assisted by Randall Hobart, committed her to the earth. Eight died in Marshall out of a population of seventy souls. On Dry prairie, Warren Nichols, his wife and three children were stricken down and died, and also Isaac Crossett. CEMETERIES. Before a burial-place had been laid out or a cemetery surveyed in the county, death had begun his harvests, and tender buds, opening flowers, and ripened fruit had been garnered beneath the flower-bedecked sod of the openings and prairies, upon whose cold and pulseless forms tears of affection had fallen from the eyes of mourners, who, pausing for a brief moment to lay their treasures away, turned again to resume the broken thread of an imperative present. There was no time for useless regrets; no words of affection or piteous plea could again call from the relentless grasp of the reaper-whose sable plumes cast a shadow upon our homes, and send a chill through our hearts-the loved and the lost! The stern duties of the pioneers' lives demanded instant and constant recognition, and there was no choice but in obedience, which was rendered as cheerfully as circumstances would allow. The first burial-place assigned especially for the sepulture of the dead was a flat on which the victims of the cholera were buried, in Marshall, on the land of Mr.:' Eight in Marshall and six in Athens. Hurd, and which after his decease his heirs gave to the village for burial purposes. This was used until 1839, when the Marshall Cemetery Company was formed, and the beginning of the present eligibly located and naturally lovely grounds made. CHAPTER V. MEANS OF COMMUNICATION-ROADS —TRAILS-BRIDGES-TAVERNS —MAIL ROUTES-STAGE-COACHES-POST-OFFICES-RAILROADS-STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION ON THE KALAMAZOO. FOR a sociable people, means of communication are a sine qua non, and the pioneers of Calhoun being pre-eminently of that class of people, were not long in their settlements before roads were surveyed and " blazed," and, as fast as possible, cut through the forests, whereby their intercourse could be free and unrestricted. When the first settlers came into the county they followed the trails of the Indians, which, though devious, were always over the hardest ground, making wide detours sometimes to avoid a marsh, and again taking a line " as the crow flies," for some crossing of a creek or morass, where the traverse was accessible and safe. Through the woods in all directions these trails were struck, and in many instances government roads followed the meanderings of the same in their early location. The great Chicago national military road from Detroit, between the city of Tecumseh and its terminus, follows to-day, with the exception of one mile in Washtenaw county, the trail of the Sacs on their annual pilgrimages to Malden for the annuity of the British government from the beginning of the nineteenth century. Along that trail Black Hawk marshaled his fierce warriors and their women and children, and returned laden with the finery of the traders, the coureur des bois, and sometimes with the " squiby" (whisky) of the settlers. The first road surveyed through Calhoun County was ordered by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan on November 4, 1829, which began " in the Chicago road at or near the inn of Timothy S. Sheldon, in the township of Plymouth, in the county of Wayne, thence west on the most direct and eligible route through the village of Ann Arbor, by Samuel Clements, to Grand river, wherethe St. Joseph trail crosses the same, and also through the Cohgwagiac* and Grand prairies, thence westerly on the most eligible route to or near the Pawpaw to the mouth of the St. Joseph river of Lake Michigan." The commissioners to survey and establish the road were Seeley Neale, of Panama (afterwards of Marengo township, of Calhoun County), and Orrin White, of Ann Arbor, of Washtenaw county, and Jehial Enos, of " Grand Prairie of the Kalamazoo." In March, 1831, the legislative council approved the survey, and established the same as a public highway. The second road was established July 30, 1830, beginning at the intersection of the north line of the Salt Springs reservation, in the county of Washtenaw, with the Chicago road, thence westerly, via the north bend of the Raisin, through Nottawa-seepe prairie to Young's prairie (Cass county). Orange Risdon, Alfred Davis, and B. Holins were the commissioners. Afterwards a road was established from Jacksonburg (Jackson), via Spring Arbor, Homer, Tekonsha, Burlington, through Nottawa-seepe prairie, via Centreville to White Pigeon, in St. Joseph county, which traversed the same route, or nearly so, through Calhoun County, in 1833. On June 18, 1832, roads from Battle Creek to the mouth of the Kalamazoo river, and from Blissfield to Marshall, were laid out and established. The commissioners of the first one were Isaac Barnes, Wm. Duncan, and Caleb Eldred, the latter the first settler in Comstock, and who died in 1876, over one hundred years old. The commissioners on the second survey were Isaac N. Swaine, Sidney Ketchum, and Isaac E. Crary. A road was laid from Marshall to Grand Rapids, "beginning at the junction of La Plaisance Bay and Chicago roads, thence through Marshall to the rapids of the Grand river," in 1833. Commissioners, Louis Campau, Joseph W. Brown, and Oshea Wilder. Roads from Marshall to Coldwater, and from county-seat of Hillsdale county to Marshall, were established in 1833. One from Ypsilanti to the north bend of the St. Joseph river, in Calhoun County (near Homer, in Clarendon township), and from Marshall to Climax prairie, were laid out and established by the territorial government in 1834. - Goguac, in Battle Creek township.

Page  15 I:: S HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 15 THE FIRST BRIDGE over the Kalamazoo was built by George Ketchum as engineer, Dr. A. L. Hays, and a hired man of each of the individuals named, in the winter of 1831-32, on or near the same location of the present bridge by Perrin's stone mill (or the ruins thereof). It served for years, until the present one was built. For a substitute previously, Dr. Hays and Peter Chisholm felled a tree on the south shore of the river, which spanned the channel between that shore and the island, just below the site of the present iron bridge, and then felled another, which spanned the channel between the island and the north shore. THE FIRST TAVERN opened in the county was S. Camp's, in Marshall, in 1832, which was kept in a frame building put up by the host himself. Rev. John D. Pierce kept a boarding-house, by reason of a contract with the parties of whom he bought or leased his house, the double log, in 1831, but never called it a hotel. Camp's house was known as the Exchange. Mr. Vandenburgh succeeded him in its proprietorship. THE FIRST MAIL ROUTE was established in the fall of 1832, from Jackson via Marshall to Centreville in St. Joseph county. Camp was the first mail contractor, and also operated the FIRST LINE OF STAGES coming into the county between Jackson and Marshall, the old sheriff of St. Joseph county, E. A. Trumbull, being the contractor and stage proprietor between Marshall and Centreville. Camp's stages were open lumber-wagons, however. Later on, when the railroad reached Jackson, Zenas Tillotson ran fine coaches, with four and six horses, between that point and Niles, and earlier between Ann Arbor and Niles. Tillotson succeeded Camp on the stage route in 1835, and operated the stage line till the railroad came. THE FIRST POST-OFFICE was established in the county at Marshall, in 1832, George Ketchum being the postmaster. The mail was brought on horseback, and Mrs. Ketchum used to change the same in the absence of her husband, using her sleeping apartment for the purpose, and keeping the mail for the settlement in a cigar-box. Mr. Ketchum was succeeded by Rev. John D. Pierce, who used his clock-case for the receptacle of the postal matter. There are twenty post-offices at the present time in the county, including two or more money-order offices. RAILROADS. The railroad agitation in the county began in 1840, the first meeting being held in Marshall, on the 27th of January of that year. Philo Dibble was the chairman, and S. S. Alcott secretary; and the meeting memorialized the legislature to push forward the completion of the Michigan Central railroad, then owned and being constructed by the State. On September 8, 1841, proposals for grading and bridging the road from Jackson to Marshall were called for, and the road completed to Jackson in December, 1841. It was not completed to Marshall until August 10, 1844, when the first arrival of cars was greeted with great enthusiasm. The Michigan Central air line, under the name of the Michigan air line, from Jackson to Niles via Homer and Tekonsha, was completed in or about the year 1870, those two townships contributing liberally in aid of its construction. The Michigan Northern railroad was constructed through Homer and Albion in the year following, those towns also aiding generously in its construction, and in 1868-69 the Peninsular railroad was built through Battle Creek, that city giving a handsome bonus to the company to aid the building thereof. In 1844 the total receipts of the Michigan Central road in the State were $211,169.84, of which $83,551.03 were for passenger traffic, and the balance for freight and carrying mails. Its expenses were $121,750.20 for operating and repairs, $25,345.31 were paid into the State treasury, $57,424.53 paid for iron, and balance used for construction of side tracks, etc. The road was graded to Kalamazoo in 1844-45. There are now about ninety miles of main track in the county, besides the grade of the Mansfield, Coldwater, and Lake Michigan railroad, and the Marshall and Coldwater railroad, the latter roads not being ironed at the present writing. These roads have been liberally aided, but their further construction seems to be in doubt; it is to be hoped they will yet be completed for the benefit of the country through which they pass. The business of the Michigan Central and Southern railroads for the year ending December 31, 1876, in the county, was as follows: Freight forwarded, 104,249,100 pounds; freight received, 73,575,542 pounds; passenger traffic, $74,060.93. I I The first express company which transacted business in the county was Wells & Co., who opened an office in Marshall in September, 1844. Zenas Tillotson was the conductor of the first passenger-train that arrived at that place, in August of that year. The Erie and Michigan Telegraph Company established an office at Marshall in the fall of 1848, the first in the county. Jabez S. Fox was the first telegraph operator. He is now in the treasury department, Washington. STEAMBOAT NAVIGATION upon the Kalamazoo was once a roseate-colored vision of the people of Calhoun, and in the struggle between Comstock and Kalamazoo for the county-seat of Kalamazoo county, Marshall secured the plum of the declaration of its site as the head of steamboat navigation on the Kalamazoo. But it was valueless, as no steamer could be made of draft sufficiently light to navigate the shallows and " riffles" of that stream, and carry any freight worth the investment. General Isaac E. Crary and General Ezra Convis had the contract of working the Detroit and Chicago road from the one hundred and thirty-sixth mile stake from Detroit to the Indiana line, building bridges and cutting out the trees, grubbing the central thirty feet, and corduroying the marshes, etc., in 1834. CHAPTER VI. FIRST LAND ENTRIES-FIRST FARMS —LIVE STOCK-THE HEN FEVER —FRUIT — IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY-PRODUCTS OF THE PRESENT-MANUFACTURES-PIONEER ARTISANS-TRADERS —MANUFACTURES OF THE PRESENT -BANKING: STATE, WILD-CAT, NATIONAL. THE land office at which the first entries of public lands were made was located at Monroe, and the entries made up to June, 1831, were all made thereat; but in that month an office for the western part of Michigan was opened at White Pigeon, St. Joseph county, where it remained until June, 1834, when it was removed to Bronson, now Kalamazoo. The first entries of public lands, as has been before stated, were made in 1830, at Albion and Marshall, by Noble McKinstry and Ephraim Harrison. On the 5th day of February, 1831, Abram Davidson entered the west half of northwest quarter-section 25, and Jonathan Wood entered the east half of northeast quartersection 26, in the township of Marshall, on which the county-seat was afterwards located. There, were no other entries made until the 17th day of June, when John J. Guernsey, of Duchess county, New York, entered the northeast quarter of section 12, the south half and south half of northeast quarter, and the northwest quarter of section 1, of Battle Creek township, and the south half of northwest quarter and southwest quarter-section 6 of township 2, range 7 west. There were in June of that year seventy-six entries made, and one hundred and thirtysix during the year. A large emigration came into the county in 1833-34, but the heaviest purchases were made in 1835-36. There were set off as university lands, in the county, eight sections of the very best in the townships where they are situated, viz.: six in Marshall, one each in Battle Creek and Athens. THE FIRST FARMS OPENED in the county were those of Dr. A. L. Hays and Sidney S. Alcott, in Marshall, in 1831, corn and potatoes being the crops raised. It is probable that crops in greater or less quantity were raised that same year in Battle Creek, and possibly in Albion. LIVE STOCK. Calhoun County farmers have, from the earliest days of their settlement, paid more or less attention to wool-growing. As early as 1838 John Willard introduced the fine-wooled Saxon sheep, from the Vernon flocks of Oneida county, New York, and soon afterwards John D. Pierce introduced some of the same variety. The common and coarser-wooled varieties have been graded upon the French and Spanish Merino stock, J. D. Patterson introducing the first-named breed at first, and afterwards the latter stock. S. G. Pattison, John Houston, Charles A. Miller, Martin, and the Harrises, have been and are still more or less extensively engaged in the breeding of the American Merino. Jacob Anderson, of Albion, is a heavy wool-grower, having a fine graded flock of some hundreds of animals at the present time. George Hentig, a farmer near Marshall, introduced Cotswold sheep in 1845. Devillo and Lawrence Hubbard are, and have been for some years, engaged in breeding Leicester and Cotswold sheep. Colonel William C. Fonda, of Bedford, in 1854, introduced Merino sheep into this township; thoroughbreds from the celebrated flocks of Vermont. In 1837 Judge Dickey

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. bought all of the wool grown in the six counties of Calhoun, Branch, Kalamazoo, Barry, Eaton, and Jackson, and the whole clip amounted to less than eight thousand pounds. In 1873 the clip of Calhoun alone was 486,355 pounds, 90,849 sheep being sheared. BLOODED CATTLE were first introduced into the county by S. G. Pattison and G. W. Dryer, of Marengo, about the year 1850. The animals were from the Weddle herds of " short horns," of Ontario county, New York, and descendants of imported stock. Mr. Pattison is still engaged in breeding that variety of stock. Van Buren Hyde, of Fredonia, has also a fine herd of ten animals of the same stock. Samuel Wormley, in 1852, introduced the Kentucky short-horns, from the noted Clay herds of the blue-grass regions; and. H. A. Tillotson, also about that time, and later, was an extensive breeder of the same variety, from the Ontario county herds, New York. In 1855 Colonel Fonda introduced some fine Durhams from the John North farm, of Chester county, Pennsylvania, and later, procured some very fine Alderneys from Burton, who imported direct from Bates, of England. W. H. Hewitt, of Marshall, has some fine Alderneys also. The stock of horses in Calhoun County for draft and roadster purposes is good, and many fine animals are owned by the citizens thereof. S. G. Pattison has been interested somewhat extensively in the breeding of horses, and Kellogg, of Battle Creek, about 1856 to 1860, introduced a good horse known as " Old Champion," who gave his characteristics to a large posterity. Goodrich, of Albion, introduced the Black Hawk Morgan stock, from Vermont. In 1861, Dr. A. L. Hays, who always had good horses about him, brought in an English coacher stallion, called " Admiration," who left some fifteen or twenty fine colts, whose descendants are still found in the county, and exhibit the same showy, stylish figure and bright brown or bay color of the sire, but like him lack speed. He died from an injury received on shipboard while crossing the Atlantic. SWINE. John Willard introduced Berkshire hogs quite early, but the stock was neglected, and not much attention paid to improvement of swine until after 1850. In 1852, Mr. Wormley introduced a pair of Suffolks from imported stock of Sherwood, of Auburn, New York, and Stickney, of Boston, the progeny of which were extensively sought after throughout the county and elsewhere. In 1860, he introduced the Chester county white hog, and by a fortunate cross upon an unknown white hog obtained a very valuable animal, which proved quite popular, and is still raised in the county. The Berkshires were re-introduced after 1860, William Conley breeding them now for sale. W. H. Witt, of Marshall, is an extensive breeder of Poland-China stock, and Arza C. Robinson also breeds both Berkshire and the latter variety. The Newberrys have always been good feeders, and raised fine animals. Grove C. Brackett, of Convis, was formerly in the business somewhat largely. Colonel Fonda also introduced Chester county " whites" in 1860. Poultry is receiving considerable attention in the county, the " hen fever" commencing its ravages in 1853-54, the first victim being Samuel Wormley. The attack was slight at first, but it rapidly assumed serious complications, and at one time, before convalescence intervened, Brahmas and Cochins, buff, brown and white, and the various breeds which have t" ruled the roost," in the palmy days of Chanticleer and Partlett, were to be seen in his well-kept parks. Wild turkeys were re-introduced to the haunts from which civilization had driven them, by Mr. Wormley, and crossed upon the domestic black turkey produced a fine, hardy fowl. Wormley's first venture was a single egg, deposited by an imported Brahma, in transition in the box in which she was confined, and there being no contract with the express company for the transportation of eggs, the prize fell to Mr. Wormley, by right of discovery. He gave it to an ordinary dung-hill fowl to incubate, and a fine pullet was the result. A cockerel was bought by him, and thus the Brahma invasion of Calhoun was begun. Mark Hurd and S. B. Smith are breeders of fancy poultry in Marshall, and Frank Gray, of Battle Creek, is an extensive breeder of game fowls. FRUIT. The first orchard planted out in the county was one by Oshea Wilder, and was located in the township of Eckford. W. E. Sawyer planted out a nursery on seminary lands soon after. Mr. Wilder gave considerable attention to fruit-growing while he lived. Peaches formerly were very abundant in the county, but the severity of the climate has rendered this delicious fruit an uncertain product, yet at times good crops are still raised. In 1872 nearly fifteen hundred bushels were raised. Small fruits and grapes thrive well and produce fine fruit, and have been cultivated many years. Cranberries are found in various parts of the county in their wild state, but no attempts have been made to domesticate this fruit, or pay much attention to its culture. IMPROVED FARM MACHINERY. The farmers of Calhoun County coming, as the greater portion of them did, from New York and New England, were not long in introducing newer and better methods of preparing the soil and harvesting and thrashing their crops, than those which were in vogue at first. The flail was too slow a process to use where wheat produced thirty-five bushels per acre, and from forty to one hundred acres of the cereal was grown in a season; and horses tramping out the grain was too dirty a way to be endured any longer than possible, especially as the zephyrs had to be utilized to winnow the chaff away. Therefore it was but a short time after the first farms were opened before the open cylinder thrashers made their appearance, accompanied by the fanning mill. These latter were largely manufactured in 1836, and later by Judge Dickey, at Marshall. The reaper was introduced after 1844, and the separator thrashing-machine about the same time. Plows were improved about 1840 and after, but the old breaking plow that required ten yoke of good oxen to drag it through the grubs held its place for a long time, until the farms were well subdued. The surplus wheat of the crop of 1840 was placed by the Statesman at 268,000 bushels, and of other grain at 44,000 bushels, and the surplus pork; butter, and cheese, at 350 tons. In 1847 there were shipped from Calhoun County, by the Michigan Central railroad, 104,037 barrels of flour, being 10,000 more barrels than Jackson and Kalamazoo combined, and 40,000 more than Jackson alone. PRODUCTS OF THE PRESENT. The census of 1874 gives the following exhibit of farm lands and products raised in 1873: 65,777 acres in wheat produced 951,828 bushels, and 27,711 acres in corn produced 1,079,161 bushels, and there were of other grain raised 417,681 bushels. Potatoes, 144,533 bushels; hay, 31,377 tons; wool, 486,355 pounds; pork marketed, 2,331,092 pounds; cheese made, 16,498 pounds; butter, 1,019,921 pounds; fruit dried for market, 212,008 pounds; cider made, 11,309, and 110 gallons of wine, with 8380 pounds of maple-sugar; 8284 acres in orchards, vineyards, small fruits, melons, and garden vegetables produced 325,427 bushels of apples, 30 bushels of peaches, 1465 bushels of pears, 72 bushels of plums, 5865 bushels cherries, 665 hundredweight of grapes, 387 bushels strawberries, 1744 bushels currants and gooseberries, and 30,844 bushels melons and vegetables, the value of all such fruit and garden vegetables being $115,791. In 1874 there were owned in the county 10,664 horses, 134 mules, 446 work oxen, 10,804 cows, 9490 other neat cattle one year old and over, 22,712 swine over six months old, and 81,465 sheep over six months old. There were 439,629 acres of taxable land in the county, and 1546 acres exempt from taxation, the latter valued at $999,735. The improved lands covered an area of 242,529 acres. There were 3786 farms, averaging 103.89 acres. The lands exempted from taxation included 842.46 acres railroad grounds, 213.75 acres owned by poor persons unable to pay taxes, 100.75 acres in school sites, 46.25 acres church property, 146.50 acres burying grounds, 7 acres fair grounds, 177.75 acres other public purposes, and 12 acres for libraries and benevolent institutions, etc. The manufactures of the county of Calhoun have been in times past much more flourishing than now, but they are such at the present time as to be no inconsiderable portion of the wealth of the community. They began at a very small point and have enlarged to a magnificent circle, that brings to the notice of a large area of our country the products of that branch of Calhoun's industries. The first manufacture of any kind in the county, aside from the Indian or pioneer mill, — hollowed out of a stump and an iron wedge lashed into a stick attached to a spring pole, to beat and bruise the corn,-was the saw-mill built by George Ketchum, on Rice creek, in Marshall, in the summer of 1831. He followed this with a flouring-mill, which began to be operated the latter part of 1832, and was for years patronized from all portions of the county. Benjamin Wright was the millwright. A. B. Cook began the manufacture of wagons in 1832, the first one built in the county being sold, by him, to S. Camp, who ran it as a stage between Jackson and Marshall, the summer of 1833. Mr. Cook's shop and machinery were >somewhat primitive. While the grist-mill was in process of construction A"...nd nearing its completion, the tub-wheel being in position, Mr. Cook obtained permission to attach his turning-lathe to the shaft and use it for a day or so. He made his attachment with a gearing attached to a tamarack-pole connecting with his lathe, and thus obtained power by which he turned two sets of wagon-hubs and some table- and bedstead-legs, working one day and night thereat. With these he made two tables, two bedsteads, and two wagons, giving one of the former to Mr. Ketchum, and keeping the other himself, which is in his house at the present time. Asahel Warner hewed and squared the plank and timber for the first saw-mill, and the bents were raised by means of trees bent down, by the recoil of which the men were greatly aided in their work. In 1835 the first sawmill was erected at Albion, by Tenney Peabody and Wareham Warner. In 1837, 0

Page  17 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 17 I Asa B. Cook, Sidney Ketchum, and Arza C. Robinson began the erection of the first stone flouring-mill in the county. The Ketchum mill was a frame building, twenty-five by thirty-five feet on the ground, with a basement and one and a half story, and two run of burr-stone. The stone mill had four run of stone, and was devoted to merchant work. They hauled their flour to Ypsilanti at first, and then to Ann Arbor. In 1837, during the great emigration, flour rose to twenty dollars per barrel, but fell off again in the fall, and wheat sold at one dollar per bushel. The first oil-mill erected in the State was built in Marshall, by Lewis Wilson and Darius Clark, in 1839, and the farmers went into the flax culture, but it was not a long-lived business. The first furniture manufacturing, aside from Mr. Cook's first venture, was done by H. W. Pendleton, in Marshall, in 1833. He was succeeded by F. A. Kingsbury in 1835, who conducted an extensive business. The first foundry built in the county was erected by Lansing Kingsbury and Josiah Leffer, in the spring of 1836, in Marshall. Douglass built thrashing-machines in the same place in 1843, or thereabouts. In 1836, Judge Dickey engaged extensively in the manufacture of fanning-mills, selling them all over the county and into Indiana, and west to Niles. In 1840, J. D. Pierce and Frink built a flouring-mill at Ceresco, which did an extensive business for many years, and one on the same site is now in operation. Mr. Alcott also had a mill in Marengo in 1840. At one time it was shown by the census reports that Calhoun had more run of stone in operation within her boundaries than any other county in the State. In 1873, Oakland county only exceeded her; Calhoun having seventy-two runs, and Oakland ninety-three runs. The great manufacturing establishments of the present, in the county, are Nichols & Shepherd's foundry and machine-shop in Battle Creek, and the Gale Manufacturing Company of Albion, besides the heavy flouring-mills in various parts of the county. In 1841 there were thirteen flour-mills in the county, with forty-one run of stone; twenty-one saw-mills; two iron-foundries; two carding-machines; one oil-mill, and one limestone quarry, whose estimated product, in pounds, was placed at one thousand five hundred and eighty-five tons. The capital invested in business in the county in mercantile and manufacturing transactions was placed at five hundred.and fifty thousand dollars. There were thirty merchants then. The first tannery operated in the county was one at Albion, in 1842. PIONEER ARTISANS. The first blacksmith who built and worked in his own shop was Peter Chisholm, who worked in the village of Marshall in the summer of 1831. The first carpenter to follow his trade for a business was Asahel Warner, also in Marshall, and the first job was done on George Ketchum's saw-mill, in hewing the plank and squaring the timber for the same. L. G. Crossman was also a pioneer carpenter, and followed his trade from March 1,1832, for five or more years. The first shoemaker was H. C. Goodrich, also of Marshall, whither he came in 1831. The first wagon-maker and furniture-manufacturer was Asa B. Cook, in Marshall, in 1832. The first tailor was William R. McCall, who opened his shop in Marshall in 1833, and still continues to ply his vocation in that city; when he first came he had to bake his goose at a neighbor's. H. W. Pendleton was the first chairmanufacturer, and was also the first to follow furniture-making as a business, and he began in Marshall, in 1833. S. S. Burpee was the first tinsmith in the county, and he was at Marshall too, in 1835. In 1874, there were over one thousand five hundred artisans of all kinds in the county. PIONEER TRADERS. The first merchant to open a stock of goods for retailing, aside from the Indian traders, was Charles D. Smith, who brought a small stock of general merchandise to Marshall in 1832; and Messrs. Trowbridge and Babcock (the former now a resident of Kalamazoo), agents of Charles Winslow, of Brockport, New York, opened the second stock of similar goods in the winter of 1833-34. The first hardware stock was that of Schuyler and Wallingford, who opened the same in the same locality, in 1836-37. The first-named partner, Montgomery Schuyler, has been for the past twenty-five years an eminent Episcopalian divine of St. Louis, Missouri. The first drug-store opened was that of Drs. Comstock & Montgomery, in 1836, though the other merchants kept an assortment of standard drugs and medicines. A. O. Hyde opened his stock in Marshall in 1840, and still continues therein. There were in 1874 three hundred and five merchants of all classes in the county. MANUFACTURES OF THE PRESENT. In 1873 there were in the county the following manufactories: twenty flouringmills, three of which were operated by steam- and seventeen by water-power, having seventy-two run of stone, employing sixty persons, and an investment of $337,000, which manufactured one hundred and twenty thousand nine hundred and thirty-three barrels of flour, valued at $1;063,731; twenty-one saw-mills, 3 six operated by steam and fifteen by water, employed forty-two persons and an investment of $53,700, and manufactured three million nine hundred and seventyone thousand three hundred feet of lumber, valued at $69,580; six planingmills and sash, door, and blind factories, four operated by steam- and two by waterpower, employed fifty-four persons and a capital of $48,500, whose product was valued at $59,500; six machine-shops and foundries, three steam-, two waterand one other power, employed two hundred and ninety-eight persons and a capital of $636,500, whose products were valued at $718,800; three steam- and one water-power agricultural implement works employed one hundred and five men, $119,000 capital, and produced goods valued at $145,000; five carriage- and wagonfactories employed seventy-seven persons, $83,800 capital, and manufactured $87,500 worth of stock; two steam chair- and furniture-factories employed fifty-one persons, $36,200 capital, and their product was valued at $62,500; two pumpfactories, steam- and water-power, employed seventeen persons, $15,000 capital, and manufactured stock valued at $17,000; one stave-heading and hoop factory, steam, employed eight persons, $3000 capital, and its product was valued at $7200; five cooperage factories employed thirty-three persons, $11,050 capital, and produced goods valued at $37,200; two tanneries employed eighteen persons, $44,500 capital, and their product was valued at $38,000; three saddle, harness, and trunk factories employed nineteen persons, $13,000 capital, and their product was valued at $34,000; one axe and edge-tool factory employed ten persons, $11,000 capital, whose product was valued at $50,000; two breweries employed four persons and a capital of $7000, which brewed one thousand barrels of beer, valued at $7500; two tobacco and cigar manufactories employed sixty-six persons and a capital of $50,500, whose product was valued at $88,800; one papermill employed fifteen persons and a capital of $20,000, whose product was valued at $50,000; one boot and shoe factory employed eleven persons and $1300 capital, and produced $9000 worth of stock; two clothing manufactories, one steam- and one water-power, employed eighty-four persons, and a capital of $84,500, whose product was valued at $129,000; one soap-factory used three persons and $2500 capital, and made $1800 worth of the saponaceous compound; two vinegar and cider establishments employed four persons and $1000 capital, and made $2000 worth of cider and vinegar; one brick-yard employed eight men and $1500 capital, and made $8000 worth of goods; three marble-works or stoneyards employed ten persons and $11,000 capital, whose product was valued at $18,000; one gun shop, one blank-book manufactory, and one chewing-gum factory employed thirty-one men and a capital of $12,200, whose product was valued at $27,700. The aggregate of manufactures in 1873 included one hundred establishments, twenty-seven operated by steam, forty-four by water, and twenty-three by other power, one thousand and thirty-eight employees, and over $1,600,000 capital, whose products were valued at over $2,750,000. BANKING. The facilities for exchange between the east and west in the early days of Calhoun's settlement were meagre, and when the merchant flouring-mills were built, flour was the medium of transmission between the western merchants and their eastern creditors. But banks were not only a necessity even in those early days, but also a decided convenience; and soon after the settlement at Marshall had acquired a permanency, steps were taken to establish a medium of exchange and discount, and a place of deposit for surplus funds of the mercantile and manufacturing community. The Calhoun County bank was chartered in 1836 under the safety fund system; Sidney Ketchum being the first and only president and George S. Wright the first cashier, W. B. Porter afterwards succeeding as cashier. Its capital was one hundred thousand dollars, and it continued to do business until September 15, 1840, when it ceased operations. Mr. Ketchum was the manager of the institution during its entire career. The history of its organization is briefly this: There were at the time two rival portions of Marshall vil lage,-the upper and lower village, the east and west ends of the same. The west end was the town, and the east principally a frog-pond. The west end magnates were Dr. Hays, S. Camp, Charles D. Smith, S. S. Alcott, and others, *and the eastern ones the Ketchums, Sidney and George. The books were opened at the National-now the Facey-House, and the stock was being subscribed by the west-enders quietly, no one having appeared from the east end until towards evening, when, just before the closing of the books, George Ketchum came in, took up the book, and looked it over, after which he took his seat and began to subscribe for himself and friends various amounts of stock, and pay into the hat, the receptacle for the first cash instalment, the five per cent. of the subscriptions demanded on the same. The subscriptions grew apace and the money accumulated in the hat, until the west-enders began to grow alarmed as they saw the Ketchums and their adherents getting control of the stock, and the fairy visions of bank directorships, presidency, and cashierships began to dissipate into thin air; whereupon Smith, by a coup de main. got possession of the book,.t

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. when Ketchum reached for the deposits, which he succeeded in retaining, and the work of organization was suspended. However, the matter was compromised by the Ketchums securing a controlling interest, and a bank building was erected just inside the line of the plat of the lower village, and business operations carried on there. The next attempt at banking was under the "wild-cat" system, the felines which afflicted Calhoun with their ravages being the banks of Marshall, Battle Creek, Homer, and Albion, organized in the early part of the summer of 1837. Horace Brace was president and Joseph C. Frink cashier of the one at Marshall, and the office of the bank was in the new court-house in 1838, but the close of the year saw the claws of the " varmints" extracted, and their power for mischief annihilated, together with the system that gave them birth. Their capital authorized by law was four hundred thousand dollars. Private banking was carried on successfully from 1840, at Marshall, by Charles T. Gorham. and Horace J. Perrin later, and by others in Battle Creek, but no regularly chartered bank was organized after the collapse of the Calhoun County bank in 1840, until the Bank of Michigan was organized in 1863 in Marshall, under the State banking law, with a capital of one hundred thousand dollars; Joseph Sibley president, William Powell cashier, which was subsequently reorganized as the National bank of Michigan, Horace J. Perrin president, in 1865. There are at the present time five National banks in the county; the National bank of Michigan, the First National and City National of Marshall, First National of Battle Creek, and National Exchange of Albion, with a capital, surplus, and undivided profits in January, 1877, amounting to $842,909.67. Their outstanding circulation amounted to $432,800, secured by United States bonds amounting to $484,000. Their deposits, on certificate and subject to check, were $473,123.99, and their loans and discounts amounted to $902,617.34. Their real estate, furniture, and fixtures were valued at $72,249.44, and there were due them from approved reserve agents, other National and State banks, and bankers $124,277.47. Their cash on hand in their vaults amounted to $102,078.66, and their redemption fund with the United States treasurer, five per cent. of their circulation, amounted to $20,980; their total assets being $1,769,555.89, and their total liabilities, other than to their individual stockholders and on account of their circulation, being $493,846.22. CHAPTER VII. CIVIL ORGANIZATION-COUNTY AND TOWNSHIP BOUNDARIES-FIRST OFFICIAL ACT-EARLIEST DATED DEED-FIRST VILLAGE PLATS-THE COURTS, CIRCUIT, COUNTY, AND PROBATE-CELEBRATED CAUSES-BOARD OF SUPERVISORS-ASSESSMENTS AND TAXES-COUNTY BUILDINGS-COURT-HOUSE, JAIL, AND ALMSHOUSE-SUPERINTENDENTS OF THE POOR. THE boundaries of Calhoun County were assigned by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, October 29, 1829, and were as follows: " So much of the country as lies south of the base line, and north of line between townships 4 and 5, south of the base line, and west of the line between ranges 3 and 4, west of the meridian, and east of the line between ranges 8 and 9, west of the meridian, be and the same is hereby set off into a separate county, and the name thereof shall be Calhoun." The county was so named in honor of John C. Calhoun, who was then a member of President Jackson's cabinet. On the 4th day of November, 1829, Calhoun County was attached to St. Joseph county for judicial purposes, which connection continued until July 30, 1830, when Kala mazoo county was organized, and Calhoun was attached to it, for similar purposes. At the date of the attachment of the county to St. Joseph, all of the country embracing the unorganized counties of Branch, Calhoun, and Eaton, and the country lying north of Eaton, was formed into one township, called Green, which sent one supervisor, Seth Dunham, to the October meeting of the board of supervisors of St. Joseph county, in 1830, which board was composed of four members: two from St. Joseph county proper,-Luther Newton, of White Pigeon, and Henry Powers, of Nottaway prairie; and one from Kalamazoo county, then organized, together with territory to the north, as the township of Brady; William Duncan, and Dunham as before named, from Green. In the year 1831 Governor Porter appointed Roger Sprague, Thomas Rowland, and Joseph W. Torrey commissioners to locate the county-seat of Calhoun County, and they reported in favor of its location " at a point in the line dividing sections 25 and 26, township 2 south, range 6 west (Marshall), at or very near the centre of the west half of northwest quarter section 25, and east half of northeast quarter section 26, being northeast distant about three miles from the geographical centre of the county. Governor Porter issued his proclamation establishing the same in accordance with the commissioners' report, October 17, 1831. On the 29th of June, 1832, the whole county was organized into one township, called Marshal, as the name was then spelled, and the first town-meeting ordered to be held at the school-house, in the village of Marshal, on the first Tuesday of September following. General Isaac E. Crary was appointed the first justice of the peace for the township, then under the jurisdiction of Kalamazoo county. On the 6th day of March, 1833, Calhoun County was organized, and a term of the circuit court of the Territory ordered to be held therein in November following, to which court all suits pending in any court or before any justice of the peace in Kalamazoo county were to be transferred to prosecute to final judgment and execution, and all taxes levied in Calhoun were to be collected there the same as though it was unorganized. On the 29th of March the township of Marshall was reorganized, and its boundaries limited to townships 3 and 4 south in ranges 4 and 5 west, and townships 1, 2, 3, and 4 in range 6 west, and the name changed to Marshall, in honor of the chief-justice of the United States supreme court. At the same date the townships of Marengo and Milton were organized, the former including within its boundaries townships I and 2 south, ranges 4 and 5 west, and the first town-meeting was ordered to be held at the house of Loren Maynard. Milton included townships 1,2, 3, and 4 south, in ranges 7 and 8 west; and the first town-meeting was ordered to be held at the house of Pollidore Hudson. In 1840 the name of the township was changed to Battle Creek, after the stream of that name passing through it, and included then a single government township,-township 2, range 8. On March 7, 1834, Homer township was organized, and included in its limits townships 3 and 4 south, ranges 4 and 5 west; and the first town-meeting was directed to be held at Barney's. On March 17,1835, Athens township was organized, including townships 3 and 4 south, ranges 7 and 8 west, and the first town-meeting appointed at Lot Whitcomb's house. Eckford, Sheridan, and Tekonsha were set off into separate townships in 1836, and included township 3, range 5 west, township 2, range 6 west, and township 4, range 6 west, respectively within their limits. In 1837, Burlington, Albion, and Convis were set off as independent sovereignties, and included in their boundaries townships 3 and 4, range 7 west, township 3 south, range 4, and township 1 south, range 6 west, respectively. In 1838, the townships of Cady, Clarendon, Fredonia, Le Roy, Newton, and Pennfield were assigned a separate civil existence, and included a single government township each in their limits, viz.: Cady (which was changed to Emmett in 1839), township 2 south, range 7; Clarendon, township 4 south, range 5; Fredonia, township 4 south, range 6; Le Roy, township 3 south, range 8; Newton, township 3 south, range 7; Pennfield, township 1, range 7. In 1839, a township including township 1 south, range 4, was set off under the name of Pinckney, and the name changed in 1841 to Clarence. Bedford was also organized in 1839, and included, as at present, township 1 south, range 8. Lee was organized in 1840, making the roll of townships complete, and included, as at present, township 1, range 5. The cities of Battle Creek and Marshall were chartered as independent municipalities in 1859, and include four sections each in their limits, viz.: Battle Creek. sections 1 and 2, township 2 south, range 8, and sections 6 and 7, township 2 south, range 7; Marshall, sections 25 and 26 south, one-half sections 23 and 24, and north one-half sections 35 and 36, township 2 south, range 6. The county of Calhoun was surveyed into townships, in 1824, by William Mullett, and subdivided into sections, in 1825, by Lyon and others. The first official act performed by a Calhoun County officer, so far as the same appears of record, was performed by Charles D. Smith, deputy register of probate and deeds, by filing for record a deed executed by Tyrus and Content Hurd, of Niagara county, New York (parents of Isaac N. Hurd, deceased), by Jarvis Hurd, attorney in fact, in favor of Hiram Hurd, grantee, on the 3d day of June, 1833, the deed being executed the same day. It was recorded in liber A, page 1, of deeds. THE EARLIEST DATED DEED is, probably, one executed by Andrew L. Hays and Clarissa his wife to Samuel Camp, both parties of Calhoun County, which, for the expressed consideration of four hundred and fifty dollars, conveys to Camp the east half of northwest quarter and west half of northeast quarter section 36, township 2 south, range 6 west. It is dated January 7, 1832, and was acknowledged before Calvin Smith, justice of the peace, of Calhoun County, and recorded July 19, 1833, in liber A, page 27, of deeds. The first village plat recorded was that of the " Lower village of Marshall," which was platted on the 26th of August, 1831, and recorded in Kalamazoo August 29, 1831. The proprietors of the plat were Sidney Ketchum, Isaac N. Hurd, George Ketchum, and Calvin Smith. The " Upper village of Marshall" was surveyed by Oshea Wilder for Sidney Ketchum, proprietor, and located on the east

Page  19 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 19 half of northwest quarter and west half of northeast quarter, section 25, township 2, range 6 west, October 1, 1833, and recorded October 2 in liber A, miscellaneous page 21. Albion was platted and surveyed in 1836; Battle Creek, June 30, 1836; the proprietors of the latter village being Sands McCamley and Alvah, Joseph, and Isaac Merritt, of Saratoga county, New York, and Jonathan Hart, of Washington county, New York. Barneyville, now Homer, was platted in 1835, Milton Barney, proprietor, and located on sections 5, 6, 7, 8, township 4, range 4. THE COURTS which have held jurisdiction over the people of Calhoun County since its organization as a separate municipality have been those of the magistrates of the townships, the circuit courts of the Territory and State, the probate court, the chancellor's court, and the county court, in the State, besides the United States courts of the districts and circuit of Michigan. The first court of record holding a session in the county was the circuit court of the Territory of Michigan; Judge William A. Fletcher, circuit judge, and Eleazar McCamley, associate judge, presiding. The term opened on the 7th day of November, 1833, but, no associate appearing, Judge Fletcher adjourned the court until the next morning, at which time Judge McCamley appeared, and the session proceeded. The grand jury summoned for the term did not appear in numbers sufficiently strong to make a quorum, and, there being no business, they were discharged without being sworn. The petit jury, for the lack of work for them to do, were likewise discharged. An order regulating the practice in the court was entered up, and three appeal suits docketed, viz.: Benjamin H. Smith vs. Josiah Goddard, Randall Hobart vs. George Ketchum, and Ebenezer Harris Vs. George Ketchum, and the record was read, examined, and approved by Judge Fletcher, who appended his signature in testimony thereof, and the court adjourned, justice being satisfied for the time being. On May 27, 1834, the court convened again, Judge Fletcher and associates ilcCamley and John V. Henry being present. The following grand jurors appeared, and were sworn to make true presentment of all matters coming before them, " without fear, favor, or affection, or reward, or the hope or promise thereof:"' Michael Spencer, Estes Rich, Stephen Kimball, Solon P. Davis, Abijah M. Benson, White Ketchum, Henry Failing, Thomas J. Hurlbut, Dorrence Williams, Samuel Camp, Stephen Warren, Sol. M. Allen, Oshea Wilder, Warren Skinner, Peter Holmes, Josiah Goddard, Benjamin Wright, John Ansley, Roswell Wilcox, Powell Grover, and Moses Lowell. Oshea Wilder was appointed foreman. Ellsworth Burnett, constable, was bailiff. The jury were discharged for want of business. The petit jurors who responded to the venire were Erastus Kimball, C. C. Johnson, Robert Wheaton, Sidney S. Alcott, Josiah Lepper, William Brown, Jr., Benjamin T. Dwinnell, Sands McCamley, Loren Maynard, Francis Phillips, John Stewart, Henry Cook, Henry J. Phelps, Nebadiah Angel, Edward L. Rogers, Horace P. Wisner, Stephen S. Powers, Alfred Killam, and Jacob Smith. The first jury trial was on the case of Randall Hobart vs. George Ketchum, and it resulted in a verdict for plaintiff for sixty-two dollars and eighty-seven cents damages. Asa B. Cook, as bailiff, had charge of the jury. The other two appeals docketed at the first term of the court were dismissed by the plaintiffs. Further rules of practice were adopted, and the court again adjourned after a single day's session. November 25, 1834, the court convened, Judges Fletcher and Henry present. Sidney Ketchum was foreman of the grand jury, but there was no business, and again the grand inquest was discharged. There were two jury trials, the judgments amounting to seventy-two dollars and forty-nine cents, and one day's session. At the May term, 1835, the first chancery suit was brought,-William M. Pearl vs. Putnam Root,-and the grand jury found the first indictment, against Othniel Nichols for an assault and battery on Roswell Harris, and were discharged, there being no other business. Harris was recognized to appear at the next term as a witness. At the May term, 1836, the first attorney was admitted to the bar of the county,-George C. Gibbs, —on the recommendation of C. A. Smith and M. Lane. The first criminal trial was had this term, an assault and battery case, on an indictment found at this term also, and the prisoner was fined five dollars and costs. At the November term, 1837, Charles Allen was indicted for violating the election laws in voting twice, and was tried and convicted; but the judgment of the court was arrested and the cause continued. At this time the first alien was naturalized,-Charles McCaffrey,-who had declared his intentions of becoming a citizen in Vermont. - At the May term, 1838, the bank of Marshall obtained a heavy judgment against Samuel Camp and Boville Shumway of ten thousand three hundred and seventy-eight dollars and eighty cents on an I. O. U. in favor of that corporation, from which judgment, after many ingenious but vain devices for a reversal of the same, the defendants appealed. The business of the last term of the circuit court; held in March, 1877, was as follows: There were sixteen days on which the court was in session, during which there were six jury trials, two criminal trials, one for murder, wherein the defendant was discharged. Judgments to the amount of eight thousand four hundred and twenty-three dollars and sixty-three cents were rendered, eight decrees in chancery, and thirty-nine interlocutory orders entered, and two aliens naturalized. The circuit judges of the circuit of which Calhoun County has formed a part, now the fifth judicial circuit, have been as follows: Hon. William A. Fletcher, 1833-36, under the territorial government; Epaphroditus Ransom, 1836-43; Alpheus Felch, 1843-45; George Miles, 1846-50, when he died; Abner Pratt, of Calhoun, 1850-57; Benjamin F. Graves, 1857-66; George Woodruff, Calhoun, 1866-76; Philip T. Van Zile, 1876, present incumbent. CAUSES CELUBRES. There have been several trials of persons indicted for murder, where conviction for the crime in the first degree has been had, but none of them previous to the abolishment of capital punishment. Among the more noted cases are the following: John Winters, in 1848, in the township of Le Roy, clubbed his wife to death, most brutally and causelessly. He was tried and convicted for murder in the first degree, and sentenced to the penitentiary for life, but contrived to eqcape after being confined a few years, and was not recaptured. On December 11, 1857, Leonard Starkweather killed his wife by striking her with a club; a boy, an adopted son, saw the act committed. Starkweather was convicted of manslaughter, and sent to the penitentiary for a term of years. On November 13, 1855, De Witt C. Horton broke into the house ofR. W. Pendleton, in Marshall, and stabbed John Wiley fatally, from which Wiley died on the 15th of the same month. Horton was tried, convicted, and sentenced to the penitentiary for life, but was pardoned by Governor Wisner in 1859. This case was adjudicated in the supreme court of the State, and, from certain decisions in relation to evidence, has become a noted one in the annals of Michigan jurisprudence. At the May term, 1856, of the circuit court Timothy Durme was convicted of the murder of his wife, and sentenced to the penitentiary for life. The crime was committed in the town of Bedford, by stabbing with a knife. On the first of October, 1875, Emory Nye, in a fight in a saloon in Battle Creek, fatally stabbed Robert Molyneux, and was convicted of the crime of murder in the first degree, and sentenced to the penitentiary for life at the December term of the circuit court in 1875. The case was carried to the supreme court, and a new trial granted on the point that malice was not proven, and on the second trial, at the December term, 1876, he was convicted of manslaughter, and sentenced to the penitentiary for twenty-five years. In March, 1876, Austin Joyce, alias Smith, and Anna Owens were tried for the murder of an illegitimate child of the said Anna's, of which Joyce was the reputed father. The prisoner, Joyce, was found guilty of murder in the first degree, the defendant, Owens, swearing the child was alive when she gave it to him, during a ride of some miles, in which the child had been closely covered up from the weather, which was somewhat severe. Joyce was sentenced to the penitentiary for life and Owens was discharged. A new trial was granted by the court at the March term, 1877, when the former defendant, Owens, testified the child was dead when she gave it to Joyce, having been smothered during the ride. Joyce was discharged, and the pair were married in the presence of the court. An important probate case was in the courts in 1872-73, wherein the will of Thomas G. Duncan, late of Battle Creek, deceased, was contested. The deceased left an estate valued at something more than two hundred thousand dollars, one of the legatees being Bishop Simpson, for an amount of forty thousand dollars. The contest was finally compromised, the attorneys taking thirty-five thousand dollars for fees and costs, and the estate is now being in process of administration. THE CHANCELLOR'S COURT was held in certain districts under the first constitution, and abolished in 1846, at which time the county court, which was abolished in 1833, was re-established, and continued in its jurisdictional powers until 1852, when it was again abol ished, and has not as yet been re-established. Hon. George Woodruff was the county judge during the entire existence of the court, George Ketchum being the first second judge, and John T. Ellis the second, who was elected in 1850. Circuit courts have chancery jurisdiction with circuit court commissioners, with judicial powers in vacation. THE PROBATE COURT. The first judge of probate of Calhoun county was Dr. James P. Greeves, who was appointed by Governor Porter in 1834. His only official acts as appear of record were the probating of the will of Asahel B. Thomas (father of the wife of the present judge of probate), November 26, 1835, and an order for the sale of personal property of the estate of the said deceased, February 6, 1836. He was succeeded by Henry J. Phelps, the first judge elected by the people, in 1836, and who held the position until 1845, when he was succeeded on January 1 of that year by Horace H. Noyes, who held the position until 1857. Judge Noyes

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I was a worthy and exemplary citizen, and lived among the people of Calhoun until April 20, 1877, when he was gathered to his fathers at a ripe old age. Joseph C. Frink succeeded Judge Noyes in 1857, and retained his seat on the bench for a single term of four years only, Martin D. Strong taking jurisdiction of mortuary matters in January, 1861. He gave way in 1865 to Theron Hamilton, and he in 1868 to Eden F. Henderson, who kept the ermine until his death, in September, 1873, when the present worthy incumbent and courteous gentleman was commissioned by the governor to fill the vacancy, Colonel Charles Dickey, a resident of the county since 1836, and who has gone in and out before the people in various positions of trust and honor received at their hands since his first advent among them, and was elected by them in November, 1876, as his own successor for a term of four years. THE BOARD OF SUPERVISORS. The first board of supervisors-the fiscal managers of the county-was organized August 6, 1834, at the school-house in the village of Marshall, there being present supervisors Henry J. Phelps, of Marshall, John V. Henry, of Milton (Battle Creek), Stephen S. Powers, of Homer, and Seeley Neale, of Marengo, townships. Henry J. Phelps was appointed chairman, and by vote given the casting vote, though it is not clear how he could avail himself of his parliamentary prerogative unless he made a tie by voting as a supervisor, in order to unravel the complication as chairman. 'Marvin Preston was appointed clerk. Papers relative to congressional appropriations for the improvement of territorial roads were received from Lieutenant E. S. Sibley. The chairman was appointed the superintendent of the territorial road for Calhoun County, and the clerk the surveyor therefor, and the board adjourned till August 16; but no meeting was held until October 7, when the board convened again with the same presence, and without transacting any business adjourned till the 14th, when the body reconvened and voted to reduce the assessment of Marshall to $35,000, and that of Homer to $39,440, and levied a tax of one-quarter of one per cent. on the valuation of the county, which is not stated in the aggregate. Miscellaneous bills were audited amounting to twenty-two dollars and eighty-eight cents, and wolf-bounties, at five dollars per scalp, one hundred and five dollars (George Ketchum carrying off forty-five dollars for the trophies). The supervisors allowed their own bills, Neale and Henry getting seven dollars, and their brethren six dollars each, and gave the clerk three dollars. The highway commissioners of Marengo and Marshall were authorized to alter the territorial road through those townships, beginning the alteration at Thomas Chisholm's and running west to the west part of Marshall township as then constituted. On the 30th of October the board met again, and appointed Supervisor Neale a delegate to the convention of supervisors to assemble at Ann Arbor to consider the best plan of spending the congressional appropriation for the territorial roads. They allowed two more wolf-bounties, and adjourned to December 4, when they met and audited more bills for their own services, Neale, twenty-five dollars, and ten dollars each for Phelps and Henry. The next meeting was held March 7, 1835, when the alteration in the territorial road before authorized was approved, twenty-six dollars and twenty-five cents allowed for sundries, and five more wolf-scalps bought, but at largely reduced prices, only one dollar and twenty-five cents each being paid. The county treasurer was allowed three per cent. on all moneys received and disbursed for county account. At the annual meeting in October, 1835, Phelps, of Marshall, Oshea Wilder, of Homer, Benjamin Wright, of Marengo, and Silvanus Eunsicker, of Bellevue, Eaton county (the same being then attached to Calhoun County), were present. The board adjourned till the 7th, to meet at the house of C. C. Vanderberg, where they met with the same presence, and, after directing the clerk to notify the supervisors of Milton and Athens of the meeting, adjourned till the 19th, at which date Homer C. Hurd, supervisor from Athens, and Sands McCamley, of Milton, appeared on the board, with the others before-named, and proceeded to business. They declined to make merchandise of wolf-scalps further, but gave Geo. Ketchum and Anthony Doolittle two dollars each for a couple of the " varmints" they had killed, not desiring to pass expostfacto ordinances. The board added $1061 to the assessment of Marshall, $715 to that of Homer, and deducted $996 from that of Milton, and $715 from that of Athens, the assessments of the several townships standing thus: Marshall, $64,000; Homer, $63,163; Milton, $50,044; Marengo, $50,985; Athens, $12,539; Bellevue (all of Eaton county), $6912,total, $251,643. They appropriated $50 for standard weights and measures, and $15 for assessment blanks, to be prepared by supervisors Wilder and Phelps, and audited bills amounting to $90.69, and levied $400 for county purposes. At the annual meeting of 1836, Eckford was represented by Charles Olin, and Sheridan by Chandler M. Church, seven members being present, all from Calhoun County proper. The board met at the school-house, and organized by choosing Mr. Phelps, of Marshall, chairman, and Stephen H. Preston, clerk, vice Marvin Preston, resigned, and adjourned to Andrew Mann's house, -The National. Lorenzo D. Collamer, of Homer, and the chairman of the committee on equalization, reported a basis of assessment between the several towns, which was adopted, which placed the amounts of the several townships as follows: Marshall, $210,791; Marengo, $83,690; Homer, $146,250; Milton, $147,456; Athens, $120,292; Eckford, $76,083; Sheridan, 54,498; Tekonsha, $42,729; Bellevue, $30,595. Total assessment of county, $912,384. This was the first year the tribute was paid for State sovereignty, and the taxes levied for 1836 were as follows: Township. Marshall................................. $137.42 Marengo....................................... 118.11 Homer.......................................... 168.04 Milton.......................................... 337.63 Athens........................................... 162.25 Eckford.................................... 38.96 Sheridan........................................ 52.50 Tekonsha....................................... Bellevue........................................ 106.69 Total................................ $1121.60 County. $254.12 100.89 176.31 177.71 145.02 91.75 65.71 52.67 36.88 $1101.06 State. $526.97 209.22 365.62 368.64 300.73 190.20 136.24 106.94 76.48 $2281.04 Total. $918.51 428.22 709.97 883.98 608.00 320.91 254.45 159.61 220.05 $4503.70 At the annual meeting of 1837, in October, three supervisors appeared from Eaton county,-Hunsicker, of Bellevue, Orrin Dickinson, of Vermontville, and William W. Crane, of Eaton. The new townships of Convis, Albion, and Burlington were also represented. The assessments of these new towns were fixed as follows: Convis, real estate, $52,756; personal property, $1896; Albion, real estate, $93,745; and personalty, $8746; Burlington, real estate, $119,289; personalty, $2850; Vermontville, $198,886; Bellevue, $337,349; Eaton, $161,040. (Total Eaton county, $697,275.) Total assessment of county, $2,732,511. The total taxes of the county were placed at $14,231.81, including $3917.72 for township, and $10,314.09 for State and county, purposes. The taxes of the new townships were as follows: Town. State and County. Total. Albion............................................................ $110.17 $440.12 $550.29 Burlington........................................................ 361.72 524.43 886.15 Convis.............................................................. 61.16 236.61 297.77 Bellevue............................................................ 376.45 78.137 1159.82 Vermontville..................................................... 275.68 460.60 736.28 Eaton........................................................ 155.99 371.95 527.94 Total in Eaton county, $2424.04. At the annual meeting of the board, in October,'1838, Dudley N. Bushnell, of Le Roy, Levi Morton, of Cady (Emmett), Solomon Platner, of Fredonia, and Truman Rathbun, of Clarendon, took their seats, Stephen Graham, of Newton, and Warren Joy, of Pennfield, being elected thereto, but not appearing. The total assessment of the county was fixed at $1,798,988 on real estate, and $299,700 on personal property. Total, $2,099,688. The new townships were assessed as follows: Real Estate. Personal Property. Total. Le Roy............................................................. $53,442 $3,908 $57,350 Clarendon........................................................ 76,030 4,791 80,821 Fredonia.......................................... 83,852 10,043 93,895 Cady........................................................... 98,015 9,984 107,999 N ewton............................................................. 58,234 3,813 62,047 Pennfield........................................................... 66,649 5,156 72,805 The towns of Eaton county were no longer tributary to Calhoun, but had their own home rule. The taxes for 1838 were: State, $3052; county, $4348; township, $7402.04; total, $14,802.04. The levy on the new townships was as follows: for township purposes, Le Roy, $202.25; Fredonia, $330.97; Newton, $218.71; Cady, $384.92; Pennfield, $260.87; Clarendon, $284.89. THE COUNTY COMSMISSIONERS succeeded the board of supervisors in 1839, and remained in charge of the strongbox of the county until 1842, when they quietly bowed themselves off the stage, and the curtain fell upon their acts, to rise again as the old dramatispersonwe, the old supervisors, came forward to the helm of affairs. During the brief authority of the commissioners; of whom there were but three in any single year, the townships of Clarence, Bedford, and Lee were autonomized and given separate government; but we have failed to find the records of the acts of the commissioners, and therefore cannot give the first assessment and taxes of those townships. The commissioners were elected promiscuously throughout the county at large, and the first board was composed of Sidney Sweet, H. C. Goodrich, and Robert Church. Thomas W. Wells was chosen in 1840, at the fall election, and Arza Lewis in 1841, which was the last election of those officers. The assessment and taxes for the year 1876 are as follows, by townships: Real Estate. Albion................................................$564,141 Athens................................................ 196,522 Bedford............................................... 258,820 Burlington........................................... 216,380 Battle Creek township......................... 352,105 Battle Creek city................................... 734,492 Clarendon....................................... 214,411 Per. Prop. $95,200 49,295 34,135 37,780 43,400 343,600 36,185 Total. $659,341 245,817 292,955 254,160 395,505 1,078,092 250,596

Page  21 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 21 l I Real Estate. Clarence............... $106,064 Convis................................................ 224,674 Eckford............................................... 348,667 Emmett............................................... 368,362 Fredonia.............................................. 253,002 Homer.................................................. 338,911 Le Roy................................................ 214,941 Lee..................................................... 103,837 Marengo.............................................. 385,182 Marshall township................................ 358,885 Marshall city........................................ 723,448 Newton................................................ 212,379 Pennfield............................................ 263,546 Sheridan.............................................. 294,505 Tekonsha............................................. 229,765 Totals.......................................$6,963,039 Per. Prop. $17,350 28,140 40,850 45,730 44,050 67,340 39,480 14,300 116,930 52,450 233,500 34,898 27,170 47,910 41,230 $1,490,923 Total. $123,414 252,814 389,517 414,092 297,052 406,251 254,421 118,137 502,112 411,335 956,948 247,277 290,716 342,415 270,995 $8,453,962 The State board of equalization fixed the assessment of Calhoun County, for State taxation in 1876, at the sum of $24,000,000, which amount stands unchanged for five years, and represents the proportion of Calhoun's financial liability to the State government, and on which the State levies for revenue are laid. In 1871 the amount was fixed at $21,000,000. The delegates from the board of supervisors to the State board of equalization in 1876 were Victory P. Collier and W. Bidwell. The taxes levied for the year 1876 were as follows: Township. Albion............................ $9,762.35 Athens.............,.......... 3,704.70 Bedford........................... 3,657.46 Burlington....................... 3,566.51 Battle Creek township........ 2,519.77 Battle Creek city............... 9,160.36 Clarendon........................ 2,796.35 Clarence.......................... 2,663.76 Convis............................. 1,945.99 Eckford........................... 2,128.74 Emmett........................... 3,012.30 Fredonia.......................... 2,450.18 Homer............................. 4,520.30 Le Roy............................ 2,184.74 Lee....................... 2,340.32 Marengo.......................... 3,336.49 Marshall township............. 2,704.43 Marshall city..................... 31,938.95 Newton........................... 2,176.71 Pennfield......................... 2,863.25 Sheridan.......................... 5,251.88 Tekonsha......................... 4,678.83 Totals................. $149,364.37 County. $3,899.50 1,453.81 1,732.59 1,503.15 2,339.10 6,376.10 1,482.07 729.88 1,495.19 2,303.64 2,449.03 1,756.83 2,402.66 1,504.69 698.67 2,969.60 2,432.72 5,659.52 1,462.44 1,719.35 2,025.12 1,602.72 $49,998.54 State. $2,196.71 819.98 976.03 846.78 1,317.70 3,592.85 834.90 411.18 842.29 1,297.75 1,379.62 989.68 1,353.49 847.65 393.60 1,672.87 1,370.43 3,188.24 823.85 968.57 1,140.81 902.87 $28,165.85 Total. $15,858.56 5,978.49 6,366.08 5,916.44 6,176.57 59,129.31 5,113.32 3,804.82 4,283.47 5,730.18 6,840.95 5,196.69 8,276.45 4,537.08 3,432.59 7,978.96 6,507.58 40,786.71 4,463.00 5,551.17 8,417.81 7,184.42 $227,528.76 tions deemed necessary therein. The loan was effected at seven per cent., Eaton county being exempted from the payment of interest on the same. The building was constructed of brick, on the Marshall sandstone foundations, and was a pretentious structure, but was one of the examples where men " pay too much for the whistle," the cost before its entire completion being between twenty-five thousand and thirty thousand dollars. It was ready for occupancy in 1838, and the board of supervisors charged the treasurer and register of deeds fifty dollars per annum rent for their offices, the first year at least. The foundation walls proved insufficient to support the walls properly, and it became unsightly if not actually unsafe. The county jail was for many years maintained in the basement of the building. NEW COURT-HOUSE. On October 24, 1872, the board of supervisors adopted a resolution submitting to the decision of the people the question of a new court-house, to cost fifty thoum sand dollars, which question was decided in the affirmative at the April townmeetings in 1873, there being twenty-eight hundred and ninety-nine yeas and twenty-four hundred and eighteen nays on the same. Messrs. Robert Huston, A. E. Preston, and S. J. Burpee were appointed a committee on plans and specifications May 2, and July 1 the plans presented by E. E. Myers, of Detroit, were adopted, and supervisors Huston, Preston, Loomis, Hutchinson, William Cook, and James Graves appointed a building committee. The building was completed in 1875, and cost, ready for occupancy, with furnaces, furniture, carpeting, site, superintendence, and labors of building committee, fifty-four thousand six hundred and eighty-eight dollars and twenty-five cents, and is an ornament to the city of Marshall and a credit to the county at large. The outside basement walls are most strongly and admirably built of boulder stone, from the concrete bottom to the grade-line; above the grade-line and between the base-course and water-table Marshall sandstone; and all other cut stone-work is of Ohio sandstone. The outside face walls are all pressed brick. The building is rectangular in form, with projections on the north front and rear, and has an area of about forty-five hundred square feet. The corners, antes, window-caps, and sills are cut stone, and the whole surmounted by a neat cupola. The offices of the county clerk, register of deeds, and probate judge are light, roomy, and airy, and those of the sheriff and treasurer are smaller, but equally eligible and convenient. The building is finished in ash, butternut, and black walnut, and has a very neat and tasteful appearance. The court-room occupies the upper floor, with the necessary and ample rooms for consultation purposes, and is fitted up in good taste, and with an eye to comfort, but its acoustic properties are not of the best. The building is heated with hot-air furnaces. Fire-proof vaults are provided for the county clerk, register, treasurer, and probate judge, in their respective offices, but their size is hardly adequate for the future wants of the county, and that, too, at no distant day. A view of the court-house forms the frontispiece of our work. THE COUNTY JAIL is maintained in a brick building, which stands on the court-house square, and which the county purchased in or about 1850, and converted to such purposes. The sheriff resides in the same building. The old jail was built of squared timber, built up inside of one of the basement-rooms of the first court-house. A grand jail delivery took place therefrom when the present judge of probate, Colonel Dickey, was sheriff, the prisoners, nine in number, effecting their escape by burning through the logs with a hot iron. They managed to heat the iron at a stove that stood in the corridor, and burned off the lock-fastenings, and also burned out the staples in an oak log to which one of their number was confined. THE COUNTY ALMSHOUSE. In the year 1849 (December 20) the board of supervisors bought of Thomas Chisholm the northwest one-quarter, section 9, township of Marengo, for two thousand dollars, for a county poor-farm, and abolished the distinction between county and township poor and made them all a county charge. The original building was erected in the year 1850-51, to which additions have been made from time to time until at present the building consists of a central part of one hundred and ten feet front and thirty feet deep, two stories; a wing to the north, the insane ward, twenty-four by forty feet basement and one story; and a similar wing to the north, twenty by thirty feet, two stories, which contains the lodging-rooms and the sitting-rooms of the inmates. The lower story of the central building has the office of the keeper and the general dining-room, the upper floor being occupied by the keeper and family. The buildings are of wood, and are heated by hot-air furnaces located in the basement of the insane wards. The buildings are thoroughly ventilated through the walls of the same, and the barns and out-buildings are capacious and convenient. The real estate is valued at eighteen thousand dollars. The report of the county superintendents of the poor for the year ending Sep Earl Smith, county treasurer, reported to the board of supervisors at the annual meeting of 1876, on receipts and disbursements, from which it appears that during the year ending October 16, 1876, he received in his official capacity a total amount of $108,991.64, and disbursed $102,529.51. He received liquor taxes as follows: Marshall city, $2927.92; Battle Creek city, $2225; Albion village, $676.50; Homer village, $450; Burlington village, $300; Athens township, $80; Tekonsha township, $40; total liquor tax, $6699.42. His disbursements covered $30,681.23 for general county purposes; $16,400 for court-house account; $23,222.43 poor fund account; library account to the several townships and primary school fund, $6009.83; State taxes, $18,973.88. There were 435,240 acres of land assessed in 1876, at an average valuation of $11.80 per acre. The per capita of personal property on the population of 1874 was $41.77. The assessed valuation is hardly one-quarter of the real value. COUNTY BUILDINGS. At the first session of the State legislature, convened in the winter of 1836, an act was passed authorizing the board of supervisors to borrow twelve thousand dollars with which to erect county buildings, the courts having been held at the school-house in Marshall or at the hotels therein. The board of supervisors, at their annual meeting in October, 1836, voted it was expedient to erect county buildings, and instructed their clerk to ascertain what terms could be had for a loan of the authorized amount. In January, 1837, the board met again, and the clerk reported no loan could be had, as the county was restricted by the act of the legislature, whereupon the supervisors petitioned the assembly to extend their powers and allow them to negotiate the loan upon such terms and rate of interest as the board should deem advisable, and appointed supervisors Wright, Phelps, and Alcott to act with the clerk, and bade him try again. In March the supervisors applied to the superintendent of public instruction for the loan, and S. S. Alcott was appointed superintendent of the construction of the county buildings, and given full power to contract for materials and labor, and adopted a plan, in outline, for the building presented by supervisor Wright. The loan, however, was not effected until July, when it was obtained of the superintendent of public instruction, and Henry J. Phelps, Moses Hall, and Charles Olin appointed a building committee. Another draft of the proposed building was adopted, and the bar and bench invited to appear before the board and make suggestions of any altera

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I_ 6 6 _ Ai _ L tember 30, 1876, shows receipts as follows: General appropriation for poor purposes made by supervisors, $15,000; products of farm sold, $101.32; other receipts, $76.65; total, $15,177.97. They disbursed for all purposes connected with the charge of the poor in the county, $17,014.09; and for the insane poor at the State institution, $3338.74; for which an appropriation was made of $3500, and an amount of $484.59 was received from friends of insane persons cared for; making a total of expenditure for sweet charity's sake of $20,352.83, in the centennial year of the republic, by the county of Calhoun, one of the soulless corporations of the country. Ten children were taken from the almshouse to the State school at Coldwater, twenty-five in all having been so disposed of since the establishment of the school. For this expenditure two thousand six hundred and five weeks of board were furnished for the poor at the county house, and two hundred and fifty weeks for the keeper of the house and his family and hired help; besides a large amount of relief afforded outside of the farm in the towns. There were fifty poor persons in the house at the close of the fiscal year, and one hundred and. four had been admitted during the year. Five deaths occurred during the year. The products of the farm for the year were four hundred and seventyfour bushels wheat, two hundred bushels oats, one thousand four hundred bushels corn (in the ear), three hundred and thirty-five bushels potatoes, fifteen bushels apples, fifty-five bushels garden vegetables, six hundred heads cabbage, twenty-four tons hay, corn fodder from eighteen acres, two tons of pork, and fifteen and onehalf acres wheat on the ground. The farm was well stocked with live-stock and farming implements, and improvements, permanent and valuable, had been made during the year. The county superintendents of the poor are elected by the board of supervisors, and hold their office for a term of three years. Owing to the non-transference of the old records from the preceding board of superintendents to the present incumbents, we are unable to give a complete list of the superintendents and keepers of the house since the establishment of the farm, but, as far as we have been able to ascertain, the superintendents have been as follows: William Farley, Moses Hall, and Thomas Holmes were the incumbents when the farm was bought and the first house built; Seth Lewis, J. M. Parsons, Solon E. Robinson, 1859-67; Elias Hewitt, whose term expired 1865; George E. Johnson, 1865-68; Rev. J. P. Averill, 1857-60; E. H. Johnson, 1860-63; Benjamin Clark, 1863-67; E. H. Johnson, 1866-77; Judge T. W. Hall, 1867-77; A. O. Hyde, 1868-77. The keepers.have been as follows: S. H. Bunker, whose connection expired 1862; Henry Drake, 1862-66; W: D. Chappell, 1866-71; H. L. White, 1871-77. We present to our readers in connection herewith a view of the almshouse, surrounded with the portraits of the present superintendents and keeper. CHAPTER VIII. OFFICIAL ROSTER: FIRST JUSTICES, COUNTY OFFICERS, NATIONAL AND STATE OFFICIALS IN CALHOUN-POLITICS -UNDERGROUND RAILROAD ATTEMPTED KIDNAPPING-PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS-A CURIOUS BALLOT — POPULATION. THE first. public officials who exercised authority over the people of Calhoun County were appointed by Governor Porter, Michigan yet being under territorial tutelage. They were as follows: Justices of the Peace, Isaac E. Crary and Sidney Ketchum in 1832; Calvin Smith and John Allen, 1832; Seeley Neale, Benjamin T. Dwinell, and Pollidore Hudson, 1833. Register of Probate and of Deeds, Randall Hobart, 1833-35. Judge of Probate, James P. Greeves, 1834-36. Associate Judges of Circuit Court, Eleazar McCamley and John V. Henry, 1833 -36. Sheriff, H. C. Goodrich, 1833-36. Clerk of the Courts, Charles D. Smith, 1833-36. In 1833, when the county was organized, a treasurer and coroner were elected; but the election records prior to 1840 are missing, and the names cannot definitely be ascertained of all of the officials between 1833-40. In 1835, a register of deeds was elected; the office of register of probate, who was, theretofore, register of deeds ex officio, being abolished, and Randall Hobart was elected. Since the election of 1835, the first under the State constitution, the county officers have been as follows': Associate Judges, Tolman W. Hall and Charles Olin, 1837-40; Henry Hewitt and Tolman W. Hall, 1841-42; Sidney Ketchum and Francis W. Shearman, 1843-44; George Ketchum and Horace Bidwell, 1845-46. The probate and county judges are named in connection with those courts. Delegates to Constitutional Conventions.-Isaac E. Crary, 1835 and 1850; Milo Soule, William V. Morrison, John D. Pierce, and Nathan Pierce, 1850; Charles D. Holmes, Eden T. Henderson, and George Willard, 1867-68. Senators.-J. Wright Gordon, 1839, afterwards lieutenant-governor and acting governor; Sands McCamley, 1839 and 1840; Henry Hewitt, 1842, died in Detroit; Edward Bradley, 1843; Abner Pratt, 1844-45; Loren Maynard, 1846-47; Charles Dickey, 1850-54; Erastus Hussey and W. H. Brockway, 1855-56; Nathan Pierce, 1852-53, 1857-58; Charles T. Gorham, 1859-60; George H. French, 1861-64; Victory P. Collier, 1865-68; John C. Fitzgerald, 1869-70; Philip H. Emerson, 1871-74; William Cook, 1875-78; William F. Hewitt, 1874. Representatives.-Hon. Ezra Convis, 1836-37, was speaker of the house at the session of 1836, and died at Detroit, while the legislature was in session, in February, 1837; Andrew Dorsey, 1838; and George C. Gibbs and Justus Goodwin, 1839; Hervey Cook and Jonathan Hart, 1840; Charles Olin and Michael Spencer, 1841. Isaac E. Crary, 1842; Justus Goodwin, 1842-43; Sands McCamley, 1843; Moses Hall and James Sheldon, 1844; Andrew L. Hays and Eli Stillson, 1845; Isaac E. Crary, speaker, and John Barber, 1846; J. D. Pierce, Justus Goodwin, and Henry W. Taylor, 1847; J. D. Peirce, Hiram Smith, and Abner E. Campbell, 1848; Fenner Fergerson, Orlando Moffat, and Norton P. Hobart, 1849; Erastus Hussey, Hovey K. Clarke, and Nathan Pierce, 1850; Darius Clarke, Nathan Peirce, and John L. Balcombe, 1851-52; John R. Palmer, Bradley P. Hudson, and James Winters, 1853-54; Daniel Dunakin, Homer C. Hurd, and Tolman W. Hall, 1855-56; James Monroe, Asa B. Cook, and Chester Buckley, 1857-58; James Monroe, Charles Dickey, and W. W. Woolnough, 1859-60; William Cook, Homer C. Hurd, and Eden T. Henderson, 1861-62; William Cook, Abner Pratt, Chester Buckley, and Isaac C. Abbott, 1863-64; W. H. Brockway, George R. McCay, Joseph P. Beach, and Rodolphus Sanderson, 1865-66; Martin Haven, Harvey Randall, and George Willard, 1867-68; Benjamin Clark, Loomis Hutchinson, and John Wagner, 1869-70; William H. Brockway, Preston Mitchell, and George I. Brown, 1871-72; Solon E. Robinson, Preston Mitchell, and Rodolphus Sanderson, 1873-74; Philo H. Budlong, John Houston, and Almon E. Preston, 1875-76; John W. Fletcher, Richard Keeler, and James Walkinshaw, 1877-78. Sheriffs. —H. C. Goodrich, 1837-38; Loren Maynard, 1839-42; Charles A. Church, 1843-44; Charles Dickey, 1845-48; Joseph Hollon, 1849-50; James Monroe, 1851-52; Artemas Doane, 1853-54; Harvey M. Dixon, 1855-58; Marcus H. Crane, 1859-62; John Houston, Jr., 1863-66; William C. Richfield, 1867-68, and 1871-72; William L. Buck, 1869-70; David R. Smiley, 1873-76; John C. Barber, 1877-79. County Clerks. —Marvin Preston, 1837-38; John A. Van Horne, 1839-44; Edwin A. Hayden, 1845-46; John Meacham, 1847-50; Erastus Hussey, 1851 -54; Samuel S. Lacey, 1855-60; Levi Mosher, 1861-64; William Howard, 1865-68; S. P. Brockway, 1869-72; John C. Stetson, 1873-76; Charles C. McDermid, 1877-78. Registers of lJeeds. —Randall Hobart, 1836-38; Ira Tillotson, 1839-46; Joseph C. Frink, 1847-48, and 1851-52; Robert B. Porter, 1849-50; Stephen Gilbert, 1853-54; George Ingersoll, 1855-56; F. S. Clark, 1857-60; John T. Ellis, 1861-64; Henry R. Cook, 1865-68; William F. Neale, 1869-72; Charles D. Holmes, 1873-76; Stephen F. Snyder, 1877-78. Treasurers.-Marvin Preston, 1833-35; Sidney S. Alcott, 1836-42; Milo Soule, 1843-48; Preston Mitchell, 1849-52, and 1855-56; J. B. Cook, 1853 -54; Silas W. Dodge, 1857-62; Eden T. Henderson, 1863-66; Henry M. Hempstead, 1867-72; Earl Smith, 1873-78. County Surveyors.- Edwin A. Hayden, 1841-42; Cyrus Hewitt, 1843-44, 1847-48, 1851-52, 1855-58; Cyrus Robertson, 1845-46, 1849-50, 1853-54; Glode D. Lewis, 1859-60; Loren Wing, 1861-62; John Meacham, 1863-64; David H. Miller, 1865-66; William A. Sweet, 1867-72; David A. Tichenor, 1873-76; Benjamin F. Wells, 1877-78. Coroners.-Granville Stow and James Winters, 1841-42; Wright I. Esmond and Stow, 1843-44; Esmond and H. B. Tud, 1845-46; James D. Potts and Charles Harkins, 1847-48; Nathan Davis and Aaron Ismond, 1849-50; John Houston and Silas Sheffield, 1851-52; John Barbour and Nathan Chidester, 1853-54; David H. Miller and Benjamin Chamberlain, 1855-56; Tracy H. Swarthout and Reuben B. Waldo, 1857-58; John F. Hinman and Isaac Beers, 1859-60; Alanson Graham and George McAllister, 1861-62; Isaac Beers and Charles M. Bardwell, 1863-64; Thomas Knight and Ira Nash, 1865-66; Moses B. Russell and Willoughby O'Donoghue, 1867-68; John S. Evans and Alanson Graham, 1869-70; Sylvester S. Granger and Zeno Gould, 1871-72; Peter Kocher and Willoughby O'Donoghue, 1873-74; W. O'Donoghue and Tracy C. Southworth, 1875-76; Morgan J. Alexander and Tolman W. Hall, 1877-78. Prosecuting Attorneys. —From the organization of the county to 1851 the prosecuting attorneys were appointed by the governor or the judges of the court, and were as follows: Cephas A. Smith, 1833-35; S. H. Preston, 1836-38; D. L.

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Page  23 :: 0: HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 23 Johns, 1840-41; Edward Bradley, 1842; George C. Gibbs, 1838-39, and 1843 -45; William C. Rowley, 1846-48; Abner Pratt, 1849-50. In 1850 the prosecuting attorneys were first elected, and since that time the office has been filled as follows: Hovey K. Clarke, 1851-52; Charles S. May, 1853-54; W. H. Brown, 1855-58; Levant C. Rhines, 1859-62; John C. Fitzgerald, 1863-66; Joseph G. Lodge, 1867-70; James A. Miner, 1871-74; Frank W. Clapp, 1875-78. Circuit Court Commissioners.-Tifese officials were provided for by the legislature after the adoption of the constitution of 1850, to take the place of the masters in chancery, which that instrument abolished. They have chancery powers of the judges of the circuit courts, in vacation. The first commissioner was elected in 1852, and was George C. Gibbs, who held the position one term of two years. George Woodruff succeeded him from 1855 to 1860, six years. Sidney Thomas succeeded Judge Woodruff for a single term, ending December 31, 1862, and then two commissioners were elected, Judge Woodruff coming in again; and James B. Greenough and Judge Woodruff held the position four years, but Mr. Greenough was succeeded by Joseph G. Lodge for 1865-66. Since then the commissioners have been as follows: James A. Miner and Philip H. Emerson, 1867-68; Miner and Rienzi Loud, 1869-70; Moses D. Russell and William D. Adams, 1871-76; and Mr. Adams and Herbert E. Winsor, 1877-78. County Superintendent of Schools.-This office was created in 1869 and continued to exist until 1874, when it was abolished, and the superintendency of education remanded to the townships. Bela Fancher filled the position in 1870 to 1873 inclusive, and Bertrand F. Welch the balance of the time. Drain Commissioner.-This office was created also in 1869, for drainage purposes of the counties, but was abolished in 1872-73, and the drainage left with the several townships. George Johnson filled the position for 1870-71, and William A. Sweet for 1872-73. Calhoun has also been represented in the councils of the nation and in the chief offices of the State, and her citizens have maintained the dignity and honor of the republic in foreign lands, before crowned heads of Europe and quasi-presidents of the South American republics. She has been represented in the lower house of the Congress of the United States as follows: Hon. Isaac E. Crary, as delegate from the Territory, in 1835, and its sole representative from 1836 to 1841 inclusive; Edward Bradley was elected in November, 1846, to represent the district when there were but two members from the State, but he died before he took his seat and while on his way to do so, his death occurring in New York city. Hon. George Willard, of Battle Creek, was elected from the third congressional district. composed of Jackson, Calhoun, Branch, Barry, and Eaton counties, in 1872, and re-elected in 1874. In 1839, J. Wright Gordon, a prominent member of the Calhoun bar, was elected lieutenant-governor, and upon Governor Woodbridge's election to the United States Senate, succeeded to the gubernatorial chair, which he occupied until 1842. Victory P. Collier was elected state treasurer in 1870, and held the position four years. Rev. John D. Pierce was appointed by Governor Mason the first State superintendent of public instruction in the State in 1836, which position he held for several years. He was also the first official of that class in the United States. J. Wright Gordon was consul of the United States at Pernambuco, for a time, where he died, and Judge Pratt served the nation similarly at Honolulu. Hon. Charles T. Gorham was minister at the Hague for several years, and afterwards assistant secretary of the interior at Washington, and acting secretary for a time, under Presidents Grant and Hayes. Preston Mitchell was elected one of the presidential electors of Michigan in 1876. Hovey K. Clarke, the first prosecuting attorney elected in the county, has been for several years register of bankruptcy at Detroit. Colonel Charles Dickey, now judge of probate, was appointed United States marshal for the State of Michigan in 1861, by President Lincoln, and held the position until the fall of 1866. Ira Mayhew was collector of internal revenue for the third congressional district, from the creation of the office for some three or more years. Preston Mitchell was United States deputy assessor for Calhoun County for six years. Dr. O. C. Comstock was appointed State superintendent of public instruction in 1843, by Governor John S. Barry, and Thomas W. Wells received his second appointment as commissioner of internal improvements of the State, the same year. Hon. Isaac E. Crary and Henry C. Bunce were recorders, and Hon. Digby V. Bell, commissioner of the land-office, previous to 1846, Judge Bell being also auditor-general under Governor Felch. Hon. S. S. Lacey was land commissioner of the State four years, and Ira Mayhew superintendent of public instruction for two years or more. Hon. W. F. Shearman was superintendent of public instruction several years. THE POLITICAL SENTIMENTS of the people of Calhoun County are best shown by the votes they gave the presidential candidates from first to last, which are exhibited below. The first general i I I - election they participated in was that of 1840, when the feeling engendered between the partisans of the rival parties, Whigs and Democrats, was, to use an expression more forcible than elegant, " red hot." The hard-cider Whigs built their log cabins and sang and hurrahed for "I Tippecanoe and Tyler too," and the Democrats worked early and late for Van Buren, the " young hickory," as they were proud to call him. The Patriot and the Statesmant, rival publications at the county-seat, were vigorous in their editorials, and were not at all choice in the language they used towards one another. But the campaign in the county ended in favor of the Democratic candidate, by a majority of sixteen votes only. In 1844, the abolition vote first showed its strength when two hundred and twenty-six votes were polled for Birney, just enough being given in the Union to defeat the Whig's idol, Harry Clay, a thing the old lovers of that party never forgave. The " underground railroad" had a most efficiently worked line through the county, with depots in Leroy and Battle Creek, Erastus Hussey being one of its best and safest con: ductors. Many a dark-skinned fugitive passed over the line, beneath a load of. wheat, or boxed up as freight, on his way to freedom. This corporation, chartered by the " higher law," paid no dividends in cash to stockholders or employees; but in the sense of satisfaction received from the successful discharge of their self-imposed duties, the returns from the investment were most flattering. There were no syndicates, credits mobilier, or rings to " float" their stock, no mortgage bonds, first or second or preferred, and it was not worth quoting in Wall street or the bourse, but nevertheless it dida flourishing business from 1840, or thereabouts, until the slaves of the south, in whose behalf it had been initiated and managed, oftentimes with imminent danger of conflict with the power of the government, heard the fire of the first hostile cannon on Sumter, which struck the knell of African slavery in the republic of the United States. AN ATTEMPT AT KIDNAPPING. A family of former slaves named Crosswhite, who had escaped from Kentucky and had been residents of Marshall for some years, in 1847 created an intense excitement, not only in Marshall and Calhoun County, but throughout the State and Union, and was one of the leading exciting causes for the passage of the infamous fugitive slave law of 1850. An outline of the facts, as recorded in the Marshall Statesman at the time, is as follows: On the morning of January 28, 1847, before daylight, four Kentuckians appeared in Marshall unannounced, and, with Harvey M. Dixon, deputy sheriff of Calhoun County, went to the house of Adam Crosswhite, which they found closed, and demanded admission, which being refused, the door was broken in. In the mean time the town had been alarmed by Patterson, a colored man, who, mounted on a horse and with sword and bell, had traversed the village warning the people of the attempted outrage. The excitement spread like a prairie fire, and in a few moments nearly all the male citizens were assembled, without regard to political sympathy, at the dwelling of the Crosswhites, where the Kentuckians were endeavoring to accomplish the arrest of the whole family, some of whom were born in Marshall. The news had gone out that the kidnappers were heavily armed, and a more determined set of men probably never assembled in the defense of justice and right than those who told the slave-owners in plain and unmistakable language that they never could take the Crosswhites back to slavery. After several hours of fruitless endeavor to arrest the fugitives, during which the excitement boiled and raged at fever heat, the Kentuckians were arrested for breaking in the door of a citizen of Marshall, and one, Francis Troutman, who drew his pistol on a colored man, was also arrested for an assault with a deadly weapon and taken before Esquire Randall Hobart, who muleted the quartette in the sum of one hundred dollars damages, and held Troutman to answer before the circuit court under one hundred dollars bonds for his assault. The colored men, of whom there were then living in Marshall some forty or more, were all spoiling for a fight in defense of their neighbor and his family, and were armed with clubs and guns, but were restrained by the cooler but no less determined whites, among whom Hon. Charles T. Gorham, Dr. O. C. Comstock, Asa B. Cook, Jarvis Hurd, and J. M. Easterly were prominent and leading spirits. The family were spirited away the night following the attempted kidnapping by George Ingersoll and William W. Smith, who took them to Jackson in a wagon, from whence they went to Canada by rail, where they remained for several years, until after the emancipation proclamation was issued, when Adam Crosswhite returned with some of his family to Marshall, where he still resides. The discomfited Troutman, or rather Giltner, for whom he alleged he was acting as agent in the recapture of the fugitives,-the same being former slaves of Giltner, -brought suit in the United States court at Detroit against Mr. Gorham, Dr. Comstock, Mr. Hurd, Mr. Cook, and several others for alleged interference with the execution of the laws of the United States, laying heavy damages for the value of the lost chattels. Troutman and his companions and Dixon were the principal witnesses for the prosecution, and the evidence was published throughout

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the north, the Statesman copying it entire. Messrs. Pratt and Crary were attorneys for the prosecution, and Emmons*, Romeyne, and Joy defended. Troutman testified that when they were about to arrest the Crosswhites, the colored people (niggers he called them) assembled and blustered a good deal, but finally Dr. Comstock came and asked him what he was going to do with the family, and Troutman replied he was going to take them back to Kentucky. Comstock then said, " You see the excitement, and you cannot take them back by legal, moral, or physical force, and you may as well know it first as last; and the sooner you leave the better for you." Then Charles T. Gorham took up the words, and called the attention of the crowd, and offered a resolution: " Resolved, that these Kentucky gentlemen can't take these slaves back by legal, moral, or physical force;" and it was carried by acclamation. When he asked Gorham why he came there, the latter replied, " I came by the authority of public sentiment, which is above the law." Troutman then demanded the names of all responsible persons present who were interfering with the execution of the laws, and asked Gorham for his name, which he gave; and not hearing it distinctly (or being unable to spell it), asked for it a second time, when Gorham replied, " Charles T. Gorham; put it down in capital letters, and take it back to Kentucky, to the land of slavery, as a warning to others and a lesson to you." Comstock gave his name as Oliver Cromwell Comstock, Jr., adding, " Don't forget to put the junior on; I don't want my father to answer for my sins." Easterly, Hurd, and Cook gave their names. After Mr. Gorham offered his resolution, Troutman, to test the temper of the " mob," as he termed it, though against the protests of Comstock and Gorham, who pointed out the best citizens of Marshall in the gathering, offered a resolution, that he as a peaceable citizen of Kentucky be allowed to take the slaves before Esquire Shearman (who issued the warrant for their arrest) and prove his property and take them back to Kentucky, but not a solitary voice answered in the affirmative. Soon after, Mr. Hurd offered a resolution, " that these Kentucky gentlemen be given two hours in which to leave town, or be arrested for kidnapping." Camp moved an amendment to strike out Hurd's alternative, and add " or be tarred and feathered and rode on a rail," and added, *' I will give ten dollars to hold one end of the rail." The amendment was frowned down, but Hurd's resolution was passed nerm. con. Troutman tried to argue the case, claiming he had the right under the constitution and laws of Congress to take his property wherever he found it and return it to Kentucky. Gorham replied, " We do not care for the laws of Congress; the dear people are the law, and we are the dear people, and you can't have these people." Dixon testified that he went among the colored people as a detective in the guise of a census-gatherer for the school district, to find out all about the Crosswhites and the number and whereabouts of their children, and that he did so find out their history, and by that information, so obtained, led the Kentuckians to the house at a time when the family could all be taken together. He did not arrest them, because in the face of the excited crowd he could not do so safely. That he commanded the peace among the crowd, for which Gorham called him a contemptible puppy, and Hurd laughed at him. He served the warrants on the Kentuckians, when they adjourned for the day. Dr. Comstock wanted to see the warrant issued for the arrest of the Crosswhites, and advised Dixon to see counsel before he went too far. Dixon and Gorham had several verbal set-to's about the business. Dixon testified he received five dollars from the chivalry for all the business he did for them. John H. Wells proposed that the crowd should kidnap the Southerners by reason of their color being the same hue as the Crosswhites, and innocently (?) asked them if they were not relatives of the slaves. But these proceedings were not favored by the mass of the people, who were not willing to see violence done, but were determined that the Crosswhites should never be returned to slavery, whatever had to be done to prevent it. Gorham and Comstock were leading Democrats, and told the Southerners the crowd was not an abolition mob, but the best citizens of the place, and it was useless for them to undertake the recapture, as it would never be allowed in the present temper of the people. The next day the excitement was still intense, Dr. Comstock remarking to a stranger that the people were excited, and he himself was excited, but he thought they were right in protecting their citizens. Gorham claimed the negroes as citizens,-he had and would protect them. He and D. Darwin Hughes had a tilt over the matter, in which Hughes characterized the affair as a "d —d Presbyterian operation," and charged Gorham as being engaged in a disreputable business for a church member. The above was in the testimony of the prosecution. The different defendants were dropped from time to time, until only Gorham, Hurd, and Comstock were left to bear the brunt of the final judgment, which was rendered on the second trial,-the jury disagreeing at the first one,-and which amounted to nineteen hundred dollars damages and costs, some eleven hundred dollars more. The attorney, Pratt, took the damages for his fee, and Troutman had his expe^ Judge Emmons, of the United States court, lately deceased. rience for his pains. The case was most ably defended, and, although the defendants were not allowed to testify in their own behalf, yet they accounted for every person on the ground, and also showed that the evidence of Troutman was manufactured, and words put into the defendants' mouths which they never uttered, to make a case for political effect. While the trial was going on ", Dave" Stuart took Gorham one side, and said to him he was sorry to see him-Gorham — connected with the case, for they wished a judgment just at that particular juncture to let the south know that they could have their rights in Michigan; and a judgment in Michigan, and especially in Detroit, rendered by a Michigan jury and against Michigan men for interference with those rights, would give great weight to certain schemes then in process of incubation. (Governor Cass was then a candidate for the Democratic nomination for the presidency.) The case was plain enough to Gorham without that friendly intimation, to which was added the gratuitous information that when the judgment was obtained, they, Stuart and others, would put their hands into their pockets and help pay the amount. Austin Wing was United States marshal and manipulated the jury, and witnesses were produced whose testimony was shown by the defendants to be totally unreliable; but the fiat had gone forth: a scapegoat was wanted, and the defendants Gorham, Hurd, and Comstock stood in the breach, and were saddled finally with the sins of the people, and sent into the wilderness of political chicanery, with the hope that they would remain long enough to take the candidate through; but the hero of Buena Vista carried the day, and the only effect the trial had was to make the case a pivotal point upon which the compromise of 1850 turned, and the omnibus bill included a more stringent law for the south to recapture her fugitive slaves from the north. Mr. Clay, in his famous efforts in the compromise, in the United States Senate, alluded to the Marshall affair as a proof that the law of 1793 was insufficient for the recovery of human property, and thus Marshall became the cynosure of all the Union for a time. The chief actors do not regret the part they actually took in the matter, looking at the results, which finally culminated in the overthrow of the institution of slavery. John Van Arman conducted the case of Crosswhite against the Southerners for breaking in his house, and it is said caused the chivalry to " grow white about the gills" and faint by reason of his caustic examination. The presidential vote of 1840 resulted thus: Democratic, 1169; Whig, 1153; majority, 16. In 1844 the people indicated their preferences after this manner: giving James K. Polk 1528, Henry Clay 1357, and Birney, the Abolition candidate, 226; Democratic plurality, 171. In 1848 the Democrats polled 1487 votes, the Whigs 1254, and the Free Soilers gave Van Buren 745; Democratic plurality, 233. In 1852 the Democratic candidate, General Pierce, received 1824 votes, the Whig candidate, Major-General Scott, 1784, and the Abolitionists polled 440 votes; Democratic plurality, 38. In 1856, the first year of the Republican party's history, Fremont received 3495 and Mr. Buchanan 2151, and the Prohibition candidate 122; Republican majority over all, 1242. In 1860, Mr. Lincoln received 4072 votes, Mr. Douglas 2448, Breckinridge 45, and Bell 38; majority of Republicans over all, 1541. In 1864, Mr. Lincoln was indorsed for a second term by 3742 of the people, and General McClellan's supporters numbered 2521, and there was a single scattering vote in the county; Republican majority, 1220. In 1868, General Grant received 5048 votes, and Governor Seymour 3200; Republican majority, 1848. In 1872, General Grant was indorsed by 4487 of the people, and Mr. Greeley received 2353 votes, O'Conor 100, and Black 124; Republican majority over all, 1910. In 1876, Governor Hayes received 5167 votes, Governor Tilden 3885, and Mr. Cooper, the Greenback candidate, received 84 votes; Republican majority over all, 1198. In 1853 the Maine law, so called, was submitted to the people for rejection or adoption, and received the following vote in the county: for adoption, 2482; against, 727. At this election some individual cast the following-inscribed ballot, to place himself squarely upon the record: " I go for the Maine law, for the extension of suffrage to white females, the abolishment of all penal laws for not keeping the Sabbath, for the distribution of the public lands to actual settlers, and for free trade, free schools, free speech, and universal taxation, in which church property shall find no exemption, and cowards' castles no legislative protection.-J. B." "J. B." looks a little Pickwickian, and suggests "tough old Joe Bagstock" of Dickens.' In 1850 the vote on the adoption of the new constitution stood 2340 in favor to 180 against it, and the clause on negro suffrage received 623 votes in favor of its adoption to 1834 against it. The vote of 1876 by townships was as follows: Republican. Albion.....................................................402 Athens.................................................... 211 Bedford..................................................189 Burlington...................................204 Battle Creek township............................... 175 Battle Creek city.................................. 898 Convis....................................................149 Democratic. 321 199 76 200 83 491 106 Cooper. 1 3 35 -5 4 15 Total. 724 413 300 409 262 1404 255

Page  25 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 25 Republican. Democratic. Clarendon............................................. 193 Clarence..............................................117 Eckford..................................................191 Emmett...............................215 Fredonia.................................................. 104 Homer..................................................... 245 Le Roy...................................................229 Lee................................................... 89 Marengo.............................................144 Marshall township....................................121 Marshall city............................................455 Newton...................................................130 Pennfield............................................ 189 Sheridan..................................................270 Tekonsha................................................247 103 169 88 67 142 211 69 182 180 139 550 78 56 215 160 Cooper. Total. 2 298 1 287 1. 280 10 292 246 9 465 4 302 1 272 324 1 261 1005 208 9 254 6 491 407 THE POPULATION of the county of Calhoun by decades from 1840 is given as follows: commencing with a single family in 1831, the census of 1840 revealed a population of 10,600 souls. These souls had increased and multiplied during the next decade till they numbered 19,169 in 1850. Over 10,000 were added the next ten years, the count being 29,398 in 1860. In 1870 the people were numbered again, and there were 36,571 of them, of both sexes. In 1874 the State authorities could not find so many as the United States marshal did four years before, and returned but 35,655 of all kinds and colors. They were distributed among the townships and cities as follows: Males. Albion......................................................................130 Athens....................................................................... 672 Battle Creek township................................................. 514 Battle Creek city...................................................... 2527 Bedford.................................................................... 692 Burlington.................................................................... 792 Clarence.................................................................... 532 Clarendon................................................................. 547 Convis........................................................ 519 Eckford..................................................................... 594 Emmett..................................................................... 663 Fredonia................................................................... 519 Homer...................................................................... 922 Lee,......................................................... 612 Le Roy...................................................................., 635 Marengo..................................................................... 678 Marshall township....................................................... 500 Marshall city..............................................................2224 Newton............................................................. 465 Pennfield.................................................................. 580 Sheridan.................................................................... 877 Tekonsha................................................................... 788 18,156 Females. 1310 635 472 2796 664 732 500 462 422 547 617 465 850 503 572 575 453 2399 426 530 810 759 17,499 Total. 2614 1307 986 5323 1356 1524 1032 1009 941 1141 1280 984 1772 1115 1207 1253 953 4623 891 1110 1687 1547 35,655 and the Prussian plan of education, and together devised what appeared to be the best calculated to produce the desired results. General Crary, as chairman of the committee on education in the first constitutional convention, introduced the article on that subject, and it was adopted. One particular point was provided for which exhibited wisdom and foresight on the part of the framers of the article. Provision was made, by Congress, for the State to assume control of the sixteenth sections donated by the general government for public school purposes in the townships, and also to control the donation of the seventy-two sections for college or seminary purposes. This was a wise precaution, especially in the former instance, for by so doing the lands were held until prices advanced, and a handsome endowment was thus obtained for the common school. The people of Michigan cannot hold the memories of these two pioneers in too high esteem, nor reverence them too much, for their grand work's sake. The first school-house built in the county of Calhoun was a small frame building erected on the street now known as Mansion street, in the city of Marshall, near the Presbyterian parsonage as now situated, in May, 1832, and which building served for several years afterwards for a gathering-place for religious worship and secular meetings, and for holding courts and all kinds of public business. It stands now just in the rear of its first location, and is used as a stable. The first school-teacher was Eliza Ketchum, who is now deceased. It was not long after this before schools were opened in Albion, at Athens and Battle Creek; and before six years had rolled by, every one of the twenty townships of the county had one or more school-houses. The first brick school-house was built in Marshall, onil Green street, and is still occupied. It was erected in or about 1840. Academies sprang up in Marshall and Albion in 1839 and 1840, and the higher grades of instruction were brought within the reach of the people. It is safe to say that no county in the State possessed so cultivated and intelligent a class of pioneers as did Calhoun, and the effect is easily discernible forty years afterwards, in the most elegant high school buildings in Battle Creek and Marshall cities, the neat and commodious brick and frame structures scattered throughout the townships, and the Albion and Battle Creek colleges. There has ever been an air of refinement and culture about the old county, at once attractive and elevating to all "of like precious faith" who have come within its influence. The school statistics for the year ending September 1, 1876, will give the contrast, pleasing and striking, of the days that are now, and those that have been. We append them by townships, in order that the exhibit of each may be more fully seen. Athens had seven frame school-houses, capable of seating four hundred and seventy-six persons, and valued at $5625; four hundred and six children of the requisite school age, between five and twenty years, were resident in the township, of whom three hundred and sixty-four attended the schools, which were in session an average of seven and one-half months each. Six male teachers taught twenty-nine and one-half months, and received $1245 therefor; and seven females taught thirty-two and one-half months, and received $690. The total expenditures amounted to $2788.54. Albion had one stone, six brick, and three frame school-houses, with eight hundred and forty-four sittings, valued at $49,300; of nine hundred and thirty six children, eight hundred and two attended the schools, which were in session an average of over eight months each. Five male teachers received $1985 for twenty-five and one-half months' services; and twenty-two females, $3308 for one hundred and ten months. The total expenditures were $12,762.65, including $4240 paid on bonded indebtedness, of which $23,600 is still outstanding and unpaid. Albion village has a most excellent graded school, where the higher branches of literature are taught. Bedford had one brick and eleven frame school-houses, with five hundred and ninety-four sittings, and valued at $12,200; of four hundred and ninety-four children, four hundred and four attended the schools,which were in session an average of eight months each. Seven male teachers received $1255 for thirtythree months' work, and twenty-five females received $1158 for sixty-six months; the total expenditures being $3835.55, including $945 on indebtedness. Burlington had two brick and six frame school-houses, with five hundred and thirty-two sittings, valued at $8900; of four hundred and ninety-two children, four hundred and thirteen attended the schools, which were in session an average of eight months each. Six male teachers received $886 for twenty-three months' work, and fifteen females received $990 for fifty-six months; the total expenditures being $2588.88. One graded school in the township. Battle Creek township had two brick and seven frame school-houses, with four hundred and ninety-seven sittings, valued at $8700; of three hundred and thirty~ two children, two hundred and seventy-six attended the schools, which were in session an average of seven and one-half months. Six male teachers received $789 for twenty-three months' services, and thirteen females received $805 for forty-five months; the total expenditures being $2489.30. CHAPTER IX. EDUCATIONAL AND RELIGIOUS: THE FIRST SCHOOL-STATISTICS OF 1876 -THE FIRST SERMON-FIRST RELIGIOUS SOCIETY-FIRST CHURCH-PIONEER PREACHERS-SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST COLLEGE. WHEN the pioneers of Calhoun came to its borders, from their New York and New England homes, they brought their institutions and their household goods with them. As soon as a cabin had been rolled up for a shelter for the domestic treasures, and land sufficient cleared and broken up to assure them of an existence, their attention was turned towards the school-house and the church. Education and religious worship ran parallel to each other in the early days, even as it does in these later ones. The motives that led to the settlement of America by Europeans are classified under three leading ideas,-the thirst of gold, exemplified in the Spanish conquest; the cavalier's idea of living on the labors of others, that found expression in African slavery; and the desire for education, upon which the Puritan idea of New England was founded. The latter has overthrown both of the others, and its precepts and practice are fast permeating the whole structure of American society. It is that idea, and its outgrowth, that has founded schools and built school-houses on almost every cross-road in Calhoun County, that has from a single log house in 1832 expanded into nearly two hundred brick and frame buildings, where twelve thousand pupils can be educated from the very A B C of school instruction to the highest attainments of a classical course. And this advantage, enjoyed alike by every county in the State of sufficient population to warrant the outlay needful therefor, is largely the result of the labors of two of Calhoun's citizens, pioneers whom their fellowpioneers have in times past delighted to honor, and for whose memories they have the loftiest sentiments of respect. General Isaac E. Crary and Rev. John D. Pierce, pioneers of Marshall in 1831-32, are justly regarded as the fathers of the present school system of Michigan, because they worked together to digest a system, examining the eastern systems 4

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Clarendon had one log, one brick, and five frame school-houses,with three hundred and forty-nine sittings, valued at $2660; of thirty-five children, two hundred and ninety-seven attended the schools, which were in session an average of nine months each. Four male teachers received $480 for twenty-two months' work, and thirteen females for forty-six months received $813; the total expenditures being $2137.96. Clarence had three brick and five frame school-houses, with six hundred and fifty-six sittings, valued at $10,400. Of four hundred and fifty-four children, three hundred and fifty-eight attended the schools, which were in session over seven and a half months each on an average. Four male teachers received $685 for sixteen months, and twelve females for forty-five months received $698; the total expenditures being $2950.31. Convis had two brick and four frame school-houses, with two hundred and ninetyfive sittings, valued at $3200. Of two hundred and ninety-nine children, two hundred and fifty attended the schools, which were in session an average of eight months each. Eleven females received for forty-seven and a half months' services $941; the total expenditures being $1169.26. Emmett had two stone, one brick, and eight frame school-houses, with six hundred (,nd forty sittings, valued at $14,100. Of four hundred and fifty-nine children, three hundred and ninety-four attended the schools, which were in session an average of eight months. Five male teachers received $1030 for twenty-six months' services, and seventeen females for seventy-three months received $1622; the total expenditures being $3329.97. Eckford had one brick and eight frame school-houses, with three hundred and eilghty-six sittings, valued at $6550. Of three hundred and forty-six children, two hundred and eighty-four attended the schools, whose sessions averaged seven and a half months. Eight male teachers received $840 for twenty-five and a half months' services, and fourteen females for forty-one and a half months received $682; the total expenditures being $2116.87. Fredonia had eight frame school-houses, with three hundred and ninety sittings, valued at $4100. Of three hundred and fifteen children, two hundred and seventytwo attended the schools, whose sessions averaged seven and a half months. Five male teachers received $709 for nineteen months' work, and nine females for thirty-nine months received $660; the total expenditures being $1649.87. Homer had one stone, one brick, and six frame school-houses, with six hundred and ninety-five sittings, valued at $14,500. Of six hundred and thirteen children, five hundred and twenty-one attended the schools, whose sessions averaged eight months each. Six male teachers received $1438 for twenty-nine months' work, and fifteen females for sixty-eight months received $1686; the total expenditures being $3998.69. One graded school in Homer village. Lee had one log and seven frame school-houses, with four hundred and sixty-two sittings, valued at $3850. Of four hundred and forty children, three hundred and thirty-eight attended the schools, whose sessions averaged six and two-thirds months. Five male teachers received $366 for twelve months' work, and thirteen females for forty-two months received $807; the total expenditures being $1684.71. Le Roy had eight frame school-houses, with four hundred and thirty-five sittings, valued at $4300. Of four hundred and sixty-eight children, three hundred and twenty-six attended the schools, 'whose sessions averaged seven and a half months each. Seven male teachers received for twenty-seven and a half months' services $904, and nine females for thirty-two and a half months received $520; the total expenditures being $1672.32. Marshall township had seven school-houses, with three hundred and seventy-four sittings, valued at $5200. Of two hundred and thirty-five children, two hundred and twenty-four attended the schools, whose sessions averaged over eight months each. Five male teachers received $563 for twenty months' services, and nine females for forty-three months received $681; the total expenditures being $1497.63. Marengo had three brick and six frame school-houses, with four hundred and sixty-two sittings, valued at $10,650. Of three hundred and ninety children, three hundred and thirty-five attended the sessions of the schools, which averaged eight months. Five male teachers received $825 for twenty-one months' services, and eleven females for fifty' months received $1040; the total expenditures being $2783.69. Newton had nine frame school-houses, with five hundred and fifty-six sittings, valued at $5675. Of three hundred and sixty-eight children, three hundred and eighteen attended the schools, whose sessions averaged over eight months. Seven male teachers received $823 for twenty-three months' services, and fourteen females for forty-two months received $679; the total expenditures being $1633.26. Pennfield had one stone and eight frame school-houses, with four hundred and sixty-seven sittings, valued at $9050. Of three hundred and eighty-three children, three hundred and twenty-two attended the schools, whose sessions averaged eight I i i I r months. Five male teachers received $767 for twenty-two months' work, and thirteen females for forty-seven and a half months received $1075.30; the total expenditures being $3064.10, including $740 on buildings. Sheridan had one stone, one brick, and five frame school-houses, with three hundred and twenty-five sittings, valued at $3800. Of two hundred and eightysix children, two hundred and thirty-seven attended the schools, whose sessions averaged eight months each. Four male teachers received $575 for sixteen months' services, and ten females for thirty-eight months received $684; the total expenditures being $1818.43. Tekonsha had one brick and seven frame school-houses, with four hundred and seventy-five sittings, valued at $15,400. Of five hundred and thirty-five children, four hundred and seventy attended the schools, whose sessions averaged eight months each. Five male teachers received $1014 for twenty-four months' services, and fourteen females for fifty-eight months received $1191; the total expenditures being $3684.86. One graded school in the township. The grand aggregate of the county, outside of the cities of Battle Creek and Marshall, which manage their schools independently of the county, is as follows: there are in the county, with the exceptions above noted, 168 school-houses, including 2 of logs, 6 of stone, 25 of brick, and 135 of wood, framed, capable of furnishing 9771 sittings, and valued at $198,162. Of 8608 children of the requisite school age, resident in the county, 7205 attended the schools, whose sessions averaged about eight months each. 105 male teachers were employed 437 months, and paid $17,039 for their services; and 266 females taught 1023 months and received $20,482 for their wages. The total expenditures of the year amounted to $59,656.85, including $6200 paid on bonded indebtedness and repairs on buildings, etc. The outstanding bonded indebtedness was $34,200. There are five graded schools included in the above list. Battle Creek city has four brick school-houses, including one high school in which the higher classics are taught, valued at $150,000. Of fifteen hundred and ninety-one children of the requisite age, thirteen hundred and ninety-nine were enrolled as attendants on the sessions of the schools, which were of ten *months' duration. The cost of instruction and superintendence for the year was $12,250, and other expenses incidental, $4427.48; amount paid on bonded indebtedness $10,500; on permanent improvements $153.23; the -total expenditures amounting to $27,330.7'1; tuition fees from non-resident pupils were received amounting to $905.31; and the total receipts for the year amounted to $32,681.47. Marshall city has five brick school-houses, including one high school, with twelve hundred sittings, valued at $140,000. Of twelve hundred and seventysix children in the city of the requisite age, nine hundred and sixty attended the schools, which were in session ten months. The cost of superintendence and instruction was $10,225; incidental expenses $2096.82; paid on bonded indebtedness $7300; and for repairs $241.45; the total expenditures being $19,863.27; tuition fees were received from non-resident pupils amounting to $426.21; the total receipts for the year being $21,203.30; the bonded indebtedness, outstanding and unpaid, amounts to $40,000. Adding the statistics of these two cities to those of the balance of the county, we have the magnificent exhibit of 9564 scholars attendant on the public schools, which are maintained at the cost of $59,996 per annum for instruction, with a total expenditure for the year ending September 1, 1876, of $106,850.83, the value of the one hundred and seventyseven school-houses being $488,162. What nobler record can be written than this? THE CHURCH. Wherever the Jesuit, without whose previous presence " no cape was turned or river entered" in the northwest by the explorers of the French or English rulers of the soil, found an Indian village, he proclaimed to its inhabitants the cross under whose symbol he penetrated the wilderness amid wild and savage tribes; and likewise the missionaries of Wesley and of Knox, wherever they found a settler's cabin, proclaimed the glad tidings of salvation, free to all. Sleeping under the trees, the blue vaulted heavens for their canopy and the stars for their watchers, these self-sacrificing men rode their circuits for weeks at a time, swimming rivers, floundering through marshes, following the trails of the red man, guided by the stars or by the instinct of woodcraft, gained by long familiarity with nature in her wildest aspect, trusting to find the cabin of some pioneer, where they might break their many times long-enforced fast. And wherever or whenever they found such a cabin, no matter how humble, or to what straits of necessity its inmates were reduced, the humble fare was shared, even to the last handful of meal, though the supply must be brought only by a wearisome journey of miles in length and weeks in duration. One of these Methodist itinerants, named Walker, had a circuit of six hundred miles, through Ohio, Indiana, and southern Michigan, which he rode every six weeks, swimming the Maumee river on each trip. As late as

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Page  27 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 27 iI 1838, Rev. A. M. Fitch's circuit was bounded only by the Indiana line on the south, Augusta on the west, Lansing on the north, and Grass lake on the east. The Rev. John D. Pierce, a Presbyterian missionary from Madison county, New York, has been generally accredited with preaching the first sermon and organizing the first church in Calhoun County; but we find, after laborious investigation, that Wesley's itinerants were the first in the field, antedating Mr. Pierce's first sermon by some three or four hours, and the organization of his church a few months. We have had the pleasure bf examining the journal of Elijah H. Pilcher, the first Methodist Episcopal minister of Calhoun, and find the following entries therein written at the dates given: " Tuesday, October 4, 1831. —Rode to Marshall.... No other minister has as yet visited this place to preach except Randall Hobart, a Methodist local preacher." "Monday, October 10.-Preached at Marshall yesterday." Mr. Pilcher says, during the previous week, while he was at Marshall, Rev. Mr. Pierce arrived and preached in the afternoon of the 9th October, he, Pilcher, having preached in the morning of the same day.* Mr. Hobart came in August, 1831, and held religious services every Sabbath in his house. In September Mr. Pilcher was appointed to the circuit which included Marshall in its charges, and on the day named above, October 9, preached in the morning at the house of Sidney Ketchum, Mr. Pierce preaching in the double log house that he afterwards occupied as a residence, Mr. Pilcher being one of his auditors. Mr. Pierce arrived on the Saturday before, according to the testimony of O. C. Thompson, of Ann Arbor, a Presbyterian minister, who was then traveling through the country in the interest of the Home Missionary Society of that church. Mr. Thompson also gives Mr. Pilcher the preference of preaching the first sermon on the same day. On the 6th of November, at Mr. Pilcher's second visit to Marshall, he organized a Methodist class, the first church organization in the county, with Randall Hobart (leader), Ruth Hobart, Sidney Ketchum, Catharine Ketchum, Seth Ketchum, and Eliza Ketchum, as members. The first communion, or Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, was celebrated in Calhoun County on an occasion of a two days' meeting held by Rev. Mr. Pilcher, assisted by Rev. William Fowler, from the State of New York. This meeting was held at the new school-house, on the 6th and 7th June, 1832, the sacrament being administered on Sunday the 7th. The class increased to fifteen members during the year. Both of these pioneers are yet living; Mr. Pierce, at Ypsilanti, too enfeebled by the infirmities of age to follow his sacred calling, and Mr. Pilcher still in the harness, being a much younger man than his pioneer colleague. Mr. Pierce attended the pioneer gathering at Marshall, January 26, 1874, where he addressed his old-time friends as follows: " It is now nearly forty-three years since I first arrived in Marshall, where I held the first (Presbyterian) meeting and organized the first (Presbyterian) church in the county, in a double log building, with thirty persons for a congregation. I held the first meeting and organized the first church also in both of the counties of Branch and Eaton, and married the first pair and preached the first funeral sermon in Calhoun and Eaton counties. I have traveled a hundred miles to marry a pair and preach a funeral sermon. It is my pride to have been one to help lay the foundations of our present grand school system. I want no better monument to my name than this. I settled in Marshall when the white population of Michigan and Wisconsin (then one territorial organization) did not number more than thirty-two thousand all told. I have lived, thank God, to see it multiplied till it reaches two million seven hundred thousand! I have seen the little handful of children become an army numbering five hundred thousand. Our university has now become the first institution of the country, and it is our boast that there is no child so humble or poor that it cannot get a good sound common school education. Let us thank God and press on!" As stated previously, Mr. Pierce was the first State superintendent of public instruction in Michigan, as well as in the nation. He was a Congregationalist, and, as intimated in his remarks above quoted, organized the first churches of that denomination in Calhoun and the contiguous counties. He was ever a most excellent man, whether as neighbor, educator, or minister of the gospel, and the feeling with which he is regarded by the surviving pioneers of Calhoun, who have known him long and intimately, is akin to veneration and closely allied to love. His fame, however, is as wide as the borders of the " beautiful peninsula" wherein his best works have been performed, and which indeed form his highest and grandest memorials. Mr. Pilcher has been prominently connected with the Methodist church during the whole of his useful life. He rode the circuit for years as an itinerant and presiding elder, and is still connected with the Michigan conference in some important capacity. His works have followed, and will continue to follow him, as long as life lasts, and then, though he rest from his labors, the assurance is given that his works shall yet follow him. The first meetings ' Since writing the above we learn from Mr. Pierce that the meeting of October 9 was not the first preaching in the village of Marshall, but that on the first Sunday in July previously (1831), he preached in Marshall, being then on a tour of observation through the country. were held in the dwelling-house of Mr. Pierce on one Sunday, and the next at the house of Sidney Ketchum; Randall Hobart, a local Methodist preacher, and Mr. Pilcher, alternating with Mr. Pierce at the latter place, until the school-house was built in May, 1832, and after that the meetings were held in that house until the Congregational session house was built in the summer of 1837. It was built of wood, framed, and was forty feet by twenty-six feet on the ground, and would seat about one hundred and forty persons comfortably, and cost twelve hundred dollars. The society was organized May 20, 1832, with seven persons, Stephen Kimball being the first deacon and Mr. Pierce the first pastor. Two of the little band fell victims to the cholera the same summer. The first brick church was also built in Marshall, and by a layman, Jabez S. Fitch, in 1843, and cost some seven thousand to eight thousand dollars, and was afterwards purchased by the Presbyterian church, an offshoot of the first Congregational church before named. A Methodist church was built in 1837, by Sidney Ketchum, and given to the society in Marshall by him, which was the first Methodist Episcopal church edifice erected in the county. The first Episcopal church parish in the county was organized in Marshall in the spring of 1837, and a church edifice completed the following autumn, the first service of the ritual in that denomination being held in the summer of 1836, by Rev. Charles B. Stout. Rev. Samuel Buel was the first rector. The present church statistics make the following exhibit of the religious standing of the county: There are some fifty-five to sixty organizations, with about as many houses of worship, capable of seating eighteen thousand persons, and which, with the parsonages and other property attached, are valued at nearly four hundred and fifty thousand dollars. These organizations are distributed among the different denominations as follows: fifteen Baptist, thirteen Methodist Episcopal, five Presbyterian, three Lutheran, three Adventist (Seventh-Day), two Congregational, four Evangelical Association, three Episcopal, two Methodist Protestant, two Methodist (African), one Christian, one Friends, one Free Methodist, one United Presbyterian, three Roman Catholic. The Methodist Episcopal church have the control of the Albion College, a most excellent institution of learning, the foundation of which was laid in the Wesleyan Academy, in 1841, the corner-stone of the first building being laid July 6 of that year, the Rev. Mr. Grant being the projector of the same. It was completed in 1842, and school began in the fall of that year. The building was one hundred feet by forty feet on the ground, and four stories in height. The Adventist denomination have under their management a college, at Battle Creek, and an extensive publishing department, from which weekly and monthly papers are issued in three different languages, and a very large amount of denominational literature scattered broadcast throughout the world. ALBION COLLEGE.* Like the river on whose banks it stands, this institution has its remotest sources in adjoining counties eastward, and in the somewhat distant' past. As early as 1833, while southern Michigan was yet an almost unbroken forest, the project of planting a seminary of learning, under Methodist patronage, in the midst of our scattered population, was frequently discussed. Dr. Benjamin H. Packard, Rev. H. Colclazer, both of Ann Arbor, and Rev. E. H. Pilcher, of Monroe, were prominent in taking the initiative. In 1834 the enterprise received the sanction of the Ohio Conference, which at that time held ecclesiastical jurisdiction over Methodism in Michigan; and on March 23, 1835, " an act to incorporate the trustees of Spring Arbor Seminary" was approved by the legislative council of the Territory. The first session of the " body corporate" was held on October 29, 1835, at the house of Dr. Sampson Stoddard, in the village of Jacksonburg. Adjourning to the counting-room of Hon. George B. Cooper, the following persons were elected officers of the board: Benjamin H. Packard, M.D., President; David Colman, first Vice-President; Sampson Stoddard, M.D., second Vice-President; Deacon William Smith, Secretary; Colonel Moses Benedict, Treasurer. Rev. Elijah Crane was subsequently elected the first financial agent. Deeds of lands to the amount of two hundred and ten acres were executed by William Smith and M. Benedict in favor of the seminary. Numerous subscriptions were obtained, and one hundred thousand brick engaged for the seminary edifice. But the financial pressure of 1836-37 coming on, it was judged prudent to delay the work of building. Meanwhile, many friends of the enterprise, regarding the location of Spring Arbor ineligible, proposed to remove it to whatever town should offer the most favorable inducements. The citizens of Albion agreeing to donate beautiful and extensive grounds for seminary purposes, and subscribing several thousand dollars to aid in the erection of suitable buildings, it was deemed expedient to make the transfer. ": By W. H. Perrine, D.D.

Page  28 28 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I - f Accordingly, on the 12th of April, 1839, an amendment of the original act of incorporation was secured from the legislature of the State, changing the name and location from " Spring Arbor Seminary" to " The Wesleyan Seminary of Albion," and the number of the trustees from twenty one to thirteen. The first trustees under the amended charter were the following: Elijah Crane (President), Alvan Billings (first Vice-President), Marvin Hannahs (second Vice-President), Jesse Crowell (Treasurer), E. H. Pilcher (Secretary), Benjamin H. Packard, Almon Herrick, Thomas H. Pray, Jesse Gardiner, Peter Williamson, and Arza C. Robinson. Rev. Loring Grant was appointed general agent. The corner-stone of the central edifice was laid July 6, 1841, Hon. Henry W. Taylor, of Marshall, delivering " an able and eloquent address." On October 27, 1842, a preparatory department was opened, under the supervision of Rev. G. P. Tyndall, in a temporary building erected for that purpose. In November, 1843, the seminary proper began its sessions in the edifice of the Methodist church, and in January, 1844, in the central building, under the following faculty: Rev. Chas. F. Stockwell, A.B., Principal and Professor of Languages and Mathematics; Jesse Vose, Professor of Natural and Moral Science and English Literature; William W. Clark and Nelson Valentine, Assistant Teachers; Miss Octavia Gardiner, P'receptress. The whole number of students at the institution during the year was three hundred. The next organic change in the structure of the institution occurred in 1850, when, by an amendment of the previous charter, the following board were incorporated under the name of "Albion Female Collegiate Institute and Wesleyan Seminary": A. M. Fitch (President), Edward McClure (first Vice-President), Worcester Dean (second Vice-President), C. M. Cobb (Secretary), Joseph French (Treasurer), G. L. Foster, E. H. Pilcher, R. Sapp, H. Packard, O. C. Comstock, Benjamin Faxon, E. J. House, and L. D. Crippen. The faculty, at the beginning of this new epoch, consisted of the following: Rev. Clark T. Hinman, A.M., President and Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy; Rev. E. W. Merrill, A.M., Professor of Ancient Languages and Elocution; Rev. Norman Abbott, A.M., Professor of Mathematics; Rev. L. R. Fisk, A.B., Professor of Natural Science; I. C. Cochran, Teacher of Primary English Literature; Miss Sarah Hunt, Principal of Female Department and Teacher of Belles-Lettres; Miss Mary Adams, Teacher of Modern Languages and Fine Arts; Mrs. Mary E. Church, Teacher of Music; and Joseph Chamberlain, Teacher of Indian Department. Joseph French was steward, and Rev. W. H. Brockway was general agent. The whole number of students in all departments was three hundred and fifty-five. The next change in the organic status of the institution occurred by act of the legislature February 16, 1861, by which George Smith (President), Samuel W. Walker (first Vice-President), Manasseh Hickey (second Vice-President), William Farley (Treasurer), E. Holstock, E. H. Pilcher, W. E. Bigelow, Andrew M. Fitch, Wm. Bort, John C. Blanchard, Wm. H. Johnson, and Clinton B. Fisk were constituted a corporate body, under the name of Albion College. The Faculty was as follows: Rev. T. H. Sinex, D.D., President and Professor of Moral and Intellectual Philosophy and Political Economy; Rev. C. C.> Olds, A.M., Professor of Natural Science; John Richards, Professor of Ancient Languages; Miss Julia F. Robinson, Principal of Female Department and Teacher of French and Fine Arts; Miss Charlotte Imus, Assistant Teacher; and Henry Meakin, Professor of Music. The number of students for the year was two hundred and ninety. The last change in the charter of the institution took place by legislative act on February 25,1865. Hon. John Owen and E. G. Merrick, Esq., both of Detroit, together with E. J. Connable, Esq., of Jackson, were constituted 1" an endowment fund committee" to receive, hold in trust, and invest all moneys contributed for the endowment of the college, and to pay over to the board of trustees semi annually all the interest accruing thereon. The board of trustees at this epoch of development was constituted as follows: Jas. W. Sheldon, President; Martin Haven, First Vice-President; S. W. Walker, Second Vice-President; A. M. Fitch, Treasurer; Geo. Smith, Julius D. Morton, S. Clement, David Preston, Alvan Billings, Wm. Bort, W. H. Brockway, and J. S. Tuttle. Rev. Israel Coggshall was agent. The faculty was constituted as follows: Rev. Geo. B. Jocelyn, D.D., President and Professor of Moral and Mental Science; Rev. W. H. Perrine, A.M., Professor of Natural Science and the Fine Arts; W. H. Shelly, A.M., Professor of Latin and Greek Languages and Literature; Mrs. Livonia B. Perrine, A.M., Professor of Mathematics; Miss Rachel Carney, M.S., Preceptress and Professor of Modern Languages; Miss Juliet Bradbury, M.S.A., and Miss Elizabeth Hollingsworth, Teachers of Instrumental and Vocal Music. The present status of the college is as follows: Corporation. Elected by the Detroit Co,nference. Name. Residence. Time Expires. Rev. J. Bigelow....................................... Rom eo......................................1878. Rev. Seth Reed........................................ Ann Arbor................................ 1878. John C. Clark....................................... St. Clair.................................... 1877. Rev. J. S. Smart....................................... Port Huron................................1877. David Preston, First Vice-President............ Detroit......................................1879. Otis A. Critchett, A.M.................................Monroe.................................... 1879. Elected by the Michigan Conference. Rev. W m. H. Brockway, President............... Albion...................................... 1878. James W. Sheldon, Treasurer.....................Albion...................................... 1878. H on. C. R. Brown.................................... Port H uron............................... 1877. Rev. T. F. Hildreth, A.M............................. Grand Rapids.................. 1877. Geo. S. Clapp.......................................... St. Joseph................................1879. Hon. Hampton Rich, Second Vice-President..Ionia........................................ 1879. "-Pres't Geo. B. Jocelyn, Secretary............... Albion, ex oqicio. Endowmeent Fund Committee. Hon. John Owen....................................... Detroit......................January 1, 1883. E. J. Connable, Esq................................... Jackson..................... " 1, 1880. E. G. M errick, Esq.................................... Detroit..................... " 1, 1877. Albion Protisional Board of Control. Rev. A. M. Fitch...........................................................Chairm an. James W. Sheldon.......................................................Secretary and Treasurer. Martin Haven, Esq...........................Jacob Anderson, Esq. Rev. Wm. H. Brockway..............................Orlando C. Gale, Esq. Martin B. Wood, Esq. Board of Visitors and Examiners. Appointed by the Detroit Conference.-Rev. L. R. Fiske, D.D., Rev. J. C. Wortley, A.M., Prof. Sallie A. Rulison, M.S. Appointed by the Michigant Conference.-Rev. A. R. Boggs, Rev. Geo. S. Barnes, Rev. H. F. Spencer. Appointed by the Alumni Association.-Elmer D. North, M.S., Franc M. Sanders Nichols, M.S., Alvah W. Bradley, A.B. Faculty. Geo. B. Jocelyn, President;-' Jas. H. Hopkins, Vice-President; Lucy A. Osband, Preceptress; Rev. Geo. B. Jocelyn, D.D., Moral and Intellectual Philosophy; Rev. Jas. H. Hopkins, D.D., Latin Language and Literature; Wm. M. Osband, A.M., Natural Science; Mrs. Lucy A. Osband, A.M., Modern Languages; Rev. Rollin C. Welch, A.M., Greek and Hebrew Languages and Literature; Wm. Havemann, Vocal and Instrumental Music; George B. Merriman, A.M., Mathematics; Rev. Lewis F. Stearns, A.M., History and Belles Lettres; II. A. Mills, Instructor in Painting, Drawing, and Perspective; Mrs. Julia E. W. Havemann, Teacher of Guitar; Jno. M. Roach, Chas. H. Chase, Geo. L. Bailey, Tutors in Mathematics; P. Della Pierce, Tutor in Latin; Bertha F. Aldrich, Tutor in English; Rollin C. Welch, Secretary; Geo. B. Merriman, Librarian; Chas. H. Chase, Statistical Secretary. Standing Commnittees for 1876-77. Executive Committee.-Wm. H. Brockway, David Preston, H. Rich, Jas. W. Sheldon, Geo. B. Jocelyn. Auditing Commntittee.-Jas. W. Sheldon, George B. Jocelyn, Wm. H. Brockway. Committee on Finance.-H. Rich, Wm. Allman, A. J. Bigelow. Committee ol Facutlty. —Otis A. Critchett, C. R. Brown, T. F. Hildreth. Committee on Ruldes and Regulations.-Geo. B. Jocelyn, T. F. Hildreth, David Preston. Committee onl Coutrses of Study.-Geo. B. Jocelyn, A. J. Bigelow, J. S. Smart. Comlntittee o0 Library and Apparatus.-'J. S. Smart, S. Reed, Wm. Allman. Cobnmmittee ont Blildings and Grounds.-Wm. H. Brockway, R. C. Welch, Jas. W. Sheldon. Financial Exhibit. Buildings, Grounds, and Furniture................................................... $65,000.00 Library, Apparatus, and Cabinet...................................................... 5,000.00 President's H ouse.................................................................. 2,000.00 $72,000.00 Funds in hands of Endowment Fund Committee: Bonds and Mortgages..................................................... $131,004.00 N otes.......................................................................... 12,550.00 - 143,554.00 In hands of Albion Board of Control................................ 25,000.00 N otes........................................................................... 23,896.26 $192,450.26 Income on the above for the years 1875 and 1876................................. 11,864.00 " from other sources................................................................ 4,078.97 $15,942.97 The present indebtedness of the college is $19,200, to provide for which a sinking fund has been created. BATTLE CREEK COLLEGE. The pressing need of a college under the special control of Seventh-Day Adventists was first recognized by Elder James White and wife, several years before the establishment of this institution. This need was manifest, 1st, in the demand for the special preparation of young men for ministerial and missionary work; 2d, in the deep conviction that much better mental and moral discipline could be attained than is acquired in a given * Deceased.

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Page  29 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. O_ Y IHGN 29 time in most of our schools and colleges in the land, and that a wise and effective discipline could be better maintained, and the interests of the youth more assiduously cared for, than would be done elsewhere. To meet these demands a private school was in successful operation at Battle Creek for some years before the establishment of a college was deemed practicable. It was not until the spring of 1879 that the establishment of a college was proposed by Elder James White. Several meetings of interested citizens were held in April of the same year. A committee was chosen at one of these meetings to complete the arrangements for the organization of an educational society. By the action of this committee the sum of fifty-four thousand dollars was pledged for the disposal of the proposed society. The vigorous effort of this committee in securing means rendered the organization of a legal society possible; hence, at a meeting held March 11, 1874, in the city of Battle Creek, seven trustees were elected to have the supervision and control of all the affairs of the society, to hold real estate, to erect suitable buildings, and to establish and manage a college for instruction in the sciences, the languages, and the Holy Scriptures. The conditions of the law of the State of Michigan for the " incorporation of institutions of learning" having been complied with, the trustees purchased in the city of Battle Creek a beautiful eminence of twelve acres, for sixteen thousand dollars. Upon the highest point in the centre of this plat, the erection of a college building was immediately entered upon by the trustees, and in January, 1875, one building was completed and occupied by the students, who numbered at that time about one hundred. Grounds.-The grounds surrounding the building are among the finest to be found in the city of Battle Creek. Their natural beauty has been very greatly enhanced by the exercise of good taste and the expenditure of much money and labor in grading, cultivating flowers, making walks, planting hedges, etc. As many as possible of the native trees were retained, and interspersed among them are ornamental trees and shrubs from other climes. At present the campus proper embraces only about seven acres, since tiers of building-lots have been separated from the west and south sides of the first purchase, of twelve acres, by new streets. Upon seven of these lots, which number seventeen in all, dwellings have been erected by the trustees for the accommodation of professors in the college, and also for families who move here for the express purpose of educating their children. Buildings.-The most prominent building shown in the engraving represents the one erected in 1874. It is three stories in height, above a commodious basement. It is heated by steam, which is generated by a furnace in the basement. The latter is admirably arranged for classes in chemistry and philosophy. The chemical laboratory and philosophical apparatus are closely connected with the lecture-room, being separated only by a glass partition. In the third story is a fine audience-room, thirty-five by seventy-two feet. In the summer of 1875 the first catalogue of Battle Creek college was issued. This showed an attendance during the five preceding terms of two hundred and eighty-nine students. The members of the faculty, as published in that catalogue, were James White, President; S. Brownsberger, A.M., Principal, Professor of Ancient Languages and Physics; Uriah Smith, Lecturer on Biblical Exegesis: G. H. Bell, Professor of English Language and Mathematics; J. H. Kellogg, M.D., Professor of Chemistry and Physiology; Marcus Lichtenstein, Professor of Hebrew; Charles Carlstedt, Professor of Swedish Language; A. B. Oyen, Professor of Danish Language; Madame L. Parot, Instructor in French; Miss Camilla Haentzsche, Instructor in German; Nellie N. Wheeler, Instructor in Common Branches; Mary A. Davis, Instructor in Common Branches. Since this issue a professor of the Italian language has been added to the list, besides some assistants in other departments. Who admitted.-This school is under the special direction of the Seventh-Day Adventist Educational Society, and was especially designed for the mental improve ment of those men and women who wish to prepare themselves for ministerial and missionary labor. But while this grand object is being gained, an opportunity is also offered to Seventh-Day Adventists and all others who wish to improve it to send their children to a school whose high aim is to secure the best moral and religious influence, free from the corrupting blight realized at many other schools. There is nothing in the regular courses of study, or in the rules or practice of discipline, that is in the least denominational or sectarian. The Biblical lectures are before those only who attend them from choice. Special advantages.-Among the prominent excellences of Battle Creek college are the following: The high. moral character of the institution is dearer to its founders than any other consideration, and the trustees pledge their honor to maintain and strengthen it at all hazards. To effect this, no other interest shall be regarded too great a sacrifice; for this they labor and are ever vigilant. They believe that the moral element is the principal one in education, and that it has its root in religion,-not in a sectarian view, but in the great fundamentals of Christian religion, conscientiously adhered to and rigidly governing our lives. The protection'guaranteed students here from base influences that undermine the character in many institutions of learning, will warrant parents in intrusting their sons and daughters to the watchful care of the college. Those in charge feel that the hearts and lives of those they seek to educate are in a peculiar sense consigned to their trust. They recognize the responsibility thus devolving upon them. Students are not left to themselves, without care or sympathy, but a personal interest is taken in each one, and a strong moral and religious influence is thrown around each member of the school. They realize the necessity of constant vigilance over the character and general deportment of the youth, when all manner of inducement to idle away their time is forced upon them. A wise and effective discipline is maintained, not tyrannical or exacting, but firm and parental. The degree of thoroughness with which youths are taught to perform their tasks will, in a great measure, determine their success in after-life. We all recognize the fact that the habit of doing work well may become just as firmly and deeply seated in the character as the habit of carelessness and supe:ficiality. This is eminently true of the student. With this fact before them, the instructors make the principle of thoroughness a leading feature in their labors, and inculcate like principles in the character and minds of the students. True methods of education are followed. The student is not allowed to pass with merely a superficial knowledge of subjects, but is required to master principles, rather than to commit to memory verbal forms. The officers of instruction have shown, in the results of their class labors, that " not how much, but how well," has been their motto. Expenses.-The club boarding system has worked out a problem of great importance to the college in these hard times. From twenty-five to fifty persons organize by the choice of proper officers, to be governed by certain rules, in the establishment of one general eating-house. One of their number makes all the purchases of the raw material for healthful food, and each member pays a certain sum per week for cooking and for keeping the house. When they have enjoyed their meal they return to their rooms, in different directions, not far from the college building. From one to four students occupy one room, according to its size. The entire expense of meals and room is not far from one dollar and twenty-five cents a week; and washing, fuel, lights, and tuition, and one year's expense to the poor young man at this college, excepting clothing and books, need not exceed seventy or eighty dollars, and much of this he can earn during vacations. Future prospects.-There is no doubt that the rapid increase in attendance during the past two years will continue without interruption in the future. This will necessitate more buildings and enlarged plans on all sides. There is need at present of another building in close proximity to the first which will provide a large hall, gymnasium, and society rooms, and.in which a library, reading-room, and museum could be accommodated. A medical department is also in contemplation, in which students may receive a thorough education in anatomy and surgery, physiology and hygiene, hydropathic appliances, uses of electricity, etc. Applications for such instruction have been so numerous during the past year that there would be at present a class of seventyfive or one hundred qualifying themselves for physicians if they could be accommodated. The foregoing evinces the fact that Battle Creek college is an outgrowth of necessity rather than a projected enterprise whose success is a matter of experiment. Its founders do not regard it an undertaking that requires a trial of a few years to decide its final success, but they realize that its nature and aims are such as to render its immediate and final success inevitable. It is destined to become an institution of power and very extended usefulness in the land. The trustees and all friends of the institution take pleasure in their determina tion to make this one of the first schools in the State, for mental as well as moral training; and no observation, inquiry, or expense shall be spared in seeking to realize the expectation of its most sanguine patrons and friends. Further particulars can be had by sending for the annual catalogue. CHAPTER X. PROFESSIONAL: THE BAR; THE PULPIT. THE learned professions have been ably represented in Calhoun County; more especially the legal profession, the Calhoun bar being justly ranked, for many years, as the leading bar of the State. From 1837 to 1852 or 1853, the best

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. legal talent found expression before the courts of Calhoun, and whose "local habitation" was in the limits of the county. The anticipation, which for a long time filled the minds of the people of the State, that Marshall would eventually be the capital of the commonwealth, attracted comparatively large numbers of prominent lawyers to that point, who served to build up a very strong bar, noted for its ability and erudition thoughout the State. The following is a sketch of the bar, briefly drawn, but correct in its data, having been obtained principally from Hon. W. H. Brown, at the present time the Nestor of the Calhoun County bar. The first attorney to settle in Calhoun County was Hon. Isaac E. Crary, who came to Marshall in the summer of 1832, and located, and where he remained until his death, which event occurred June 13, 1864. He is termed by the legal fraternity, not inaptly, the Father of the Calhoun bar. In a eulogy pronounced before the circuit court, while in session, by S. H. Preston, a fellowmember of the bar, himself a prominent lawyer of the State, the speaker said he, Crary, was unexcelled as an office lawyer, familiar with decisions and laws; was always ready with a solution of any difficulty presented to him by his brethren, and was able to refer at once to the point at issue, and depended more on the legal aspect of his cases than in any eloquence expended on the jury. He was born in Preston, Connecticut, and was a graduate of Yale, and came therefrom to Detroit in the winter of 1830-31, and to Marshall the succeeding winter, living first in a log house, but afterwards building the first frame house of any pretensions in Marshall. He built also the first frame office in that place. His life was a busy one, politically and professionally. He was a member of the first constitutional convention, wherein, as has been before stated, he introduced the article giving the control of the school-lands to the State, and also providing for the covering of all fines, penalties, and forfeitures into a library fund, and also the funds arising from military exemptions, and was the author of Article 10 of the constitution, relative to education, which, to him, is a monument grander than the triumphal arch of a Caesar, and more enduring than bronze or stone. He also was instrumental in providing for the vote of all actual residents in the Territory at the time of the adoption of the constitution, whether foreign born or otherwise, naturalized or not. He defined the boundaries of the upper peninsula, thus getting its inexhaustible mineral treasures in exchange for the Territory in dispute between Ohio and Michigan. As member of Congress, from 1836 to 1840 inclusive, he obtained the establishment of roads and mail facilities, and served with usefulness his constituency, which was the entire State. He was a member of the committees on judiciary, public lands, and Indian affairs. Afterwards was speaker of the House of Representatives of Michigan, and introduced the bill for most liberal exemptions from forced sales on execution, which became a law. The bar of Calhoun County passed highly eulogistic resolutions on his death, which were spread upon the records of the court. He was not quite fifty years of age when he died. His wife, Jane E., died October 2, 1839. In 1833-34, Cephas A. Smith located in Battle Creek. He was the first prosecuting attorney, and died in 1842. In 1836, several attorneys located at Marshall, viz.: Stephen H. Preston, J. Wright Gordon, Prentiss S. Hewitt, James L. Sanford, George C. Gibbs, David L. Johns, and W. H. Brown. Mr. Preston was a native of Oneida county, New York, and still resides in the county, but has retired from the practice of his profession. He was prosecuting attorney of the circuit in 1836-38, and was a leading member of the bar for many years. Mr. Gordon was a native of Connecticut, was elected lieutenant-governor of Michigan in 1840, and, on the election of Governor Woodward to the United States Senate, succeeded to the gubernatorial honors for the remainder of the term. He was also United States consul at Pernambuco, where he died. He was admitted in the Supreme Court of New York, November 1, 1833. P. S. Hewitt was from Batavia, New York, and is now deceased. Sanford was from Skaneateles, New York, and is now an eminent attorney of New York city. Gibbs was prosecuting attorney in 1838-39, and again later in 1843-45, and is now in California. David L. Johns was prosecuting attorney in 1840, and for many years master in chancery, under the appointment of the governor. In 1837 George Woodruff came in from Buffalo, New York, and located at Marshall, and is still in practice. He was elected county judge in 1846, and held the position until the court was abolished, and was subsequently elected to the circuit, and held the position of circuit judge from 1866 to 1876. This same year or the following one, Abner Pratt came to Marshall from Rochester, New York, where he had been the prosecuting attorney of Monroe county. He was circuit judge 1851-57, and was also United States consul at Honolulu, Sandwich Islands. He was in the State senate 1844-45, and died while holding the office of mayor of the city of Marshall. E. Smith Lee came in 1839, and was a prominent attorney for many years, and subsequently died in Detroit. Henry W. Taylor came in 1839, from Canandaigua, New York, and remained in the county for some eight years, when he returned, and is now the judge of the court of appeals of that State. He was eminent in his profession, learned, and eloquent. John Van Arman was admitted to the bar in 1839, upon the recommendation of S. H. Preston, D. L. Johns, and J. Wright Gordon, P. S. Hewitt granting a certificate of good moral character to him. He was in practice several years in Marshall, being a partner of W. H. Brown, Esq., for a time. He is now a member of the Chicago bar, and is considered one of its most eminent members. Has an extensive practice in the State and United States courts. W. H. Brown was admitted to the bar of Calhoun County, May 27, 1840, on the examination and recommendation of L. F. Stevens, D. Johnson, and E. Smith Lee. He was a member of the Utica bar before he came to Michigan. He has been for years an eminent lawyer, and is still actively engaged in the practice of his profession. He has probably tried more cases than any other member of the Calhoun bar. He is a native of Preston, Connecticut, and is an able advocate. He was prosecuting attorney, 1855-58. About this time Edward Bradley came from Bloomfield, New York; an Irishman by birth, an active, resolute, nervous speaker, more effective on the stump than in the courtroom or office, and hence very popular. He was prosecuting attorney in 1842, State senator in 1843, and elected to Congress in 1846, but died in New York city, en route to take his seat, in 1847. In 1840, Thomas P. Church, now of Grand Rapids, was admitted to the bar. Hon. N. A. Balch, now of Kalamazoo, was also a member of the Calhoun bar. In 1842, F. W. Shearman was admitted, but was more distinguished as a journalist than a lawyer. In the former field he filled an honorable position, which will appear more at large in the history of the press. William C. Rowley located at Battle Creek, and was admitted to the bar of the county in 1842. He was prosecuting attorney in 1846-48. In 1847, B. F. Graves, of Battle Creek, was admitted. He filled the position of circuit judge from 1857 to 1866 inclusive, and is now the chief-justice of the supreme bench of Michigan. Leonidas Dibble, also of Battle Creek, was admitted in 1851. He still continues his practice, which is a remunerative one, and has gained him an enviable reputation as a successful and careful advocate. He defended a man charged with the murder of his own child, at the May term of the circuit court in 1877, procuring his acquittal, the jury being out of the box but a short time. In 1839, Justus Goodwin was admitted. He was subsequently a member of the House of Representatives of the State several terms. He resided in Burlington. John Willard was also admitted in 1839, and died in 1842. A brother of Mr. Willard, A. Parsons Willard, a student in Marshall, subsequently emigrated to Indiana, and became the governor of that State. Henry Hewitt was admitted in 1840, and was elected associate justice of the circuit court the same year, and State senator in 1842, dying while holding the latter position, in Detroit. M. W. Hewitt and James A. Way were admitted in 1841. Mr. Hewitt is now practicing in Batavia. Walter Martin was admitted in 1840. He located at Marshall, as did the last three named. John A. Van Horn was admitted in 1842. He was county clerk from 1839 to 1844. He located in Marshall. George F. James was admitted in 1842, and located in Battle Creek. Haven Powers, of Homer, Isaiah T. Williams and H. A. Noyes, of Marshall, were admitted in 1843. Mr, Noyes was afterwards judge of probate twelve years, from 1845 to 1857. He died at a ripe old age, in April, 1877. George Monro, of Albion, was admitted in 1844, and so, too, were William H. Gibbs and Morton Wilkinson, of Marshall, E. L. Stillson of Battle Creek, E. A. Frazer of same place, and F. Fergerson of Albion. Mr. Frazer is still in practice at Albion. Mr. Wilkinson emigrated to Minnesota, and served that State six years in the United States Senate, and has been one term in the House of Representatives, and is a member of the present House. Chauncey Shaffer was a member of the bar in 1840 and afterwards, and is now of the bar of New York city. B. C. Cook in 1854, J. D. Wooley, L. H. Stewart, H. C. Hawkins, and James W. Hill, were all admitted in 1855. Cook located in Marshall, and died in Danville, New York, from whence he came. Mr. Wooley located in Marshall also, and died there. He wrote up the abstracts of title of Calhoun County. Mr. Stewart located in Battle Creek, where he is still in practice. Mr. Hawkins located in Marshall, and afterwards went to Kansas, where he died. Judge T. W. Hall, of Battle Creek, was admitted in 1844. He was associate judge of the circuit court from 1837 to 1842. He is still a resident of Battle Creek, and has been for many years one of the county superintendents of the poor. James B. Greenough was admitted in 1857, and located in Marshall. He is now a professor of Harvard college. Lucius G. Noyes was admitted in 1845, and located in Marshall, and died there in June, 1864. Abner E. Campbell, of Battle Creek, was admitted in 1847. Thomas G. Pray was admitted in 1851, and located in Marshall, where he is still engaged in practice. Myron H. Joy, of Battle Creek, was admitted in 1850. Isaac W. Wilder was admitted in the same year, and located in Marshall, and is now dead. C. C. Rood was admitted in 1846, but located at Grand Rapids, where he is now in practice. In 1858, D. Darwin Hughes, E. F. Tenney, and E. C. Hinsdell were admitted. Mr. Hughes was for many years a prominent lawyer of Marshall;:Xt At::>: Wit ft An: 0': AS: fat:: 000:i:: of:E iS::: I?:ffFX n \Rs MAX Ed A:\ A:: 2 <E t:i;: R d::: A;! Ha: \ y::fff U t C S:00:0; Fed? S a n.Taft..F 00:

Page  31 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 31 I I he was mayor of the city two years, and is now a resident of Grand Rapids, where he has built up an extensive and remunerative practice. Mr. Tenney was celebrated as a journalist. He is now in Lansing. Robert Cross, a lawyer from Newburyport, Massachusetts, and a partner of Caleb Cushing, was admitted to the Calhoun bar in 1844, and was a member of the same twelve years, and died in Massachusetts. Sidney Thomas, now of Chicago, was a member of the Calhoun bar about 1860 or after. E. C. Hinsdell is now a member of the Detroit bar, and a lawyer of some distinction. In 1859, A. M. Culver, E. A. Warner, and Edward Pomeroy were admitted. Mr. Warner located at Battle Creek for a short time only, and Culver and Pomeroy in Albion, where Mr. Culver still practices. W. H. Porter is an attorney of Marshall, and was for many years a partner of Judge Noyes. In 1860, Willis Geer and J. Barton were admitted, the former locating in Marshall, where he is still in practice. Barton located in Battle Creek, but in later years gained more notoriety with a drama, in which he held the leading role, which he produced for the benefit of the posts of the Grand Army of the Republic throughout the country. He is deceased lately. In 1861, Oliver S. Morton, George W. Bullis, and Edward Crawford were admitted, the two former locating at Battle Creek. Joseph G. Lodge also was admitted that year, and located at the same place. He was prosecuting attorney four years, and is now a member of the bar of St. Louis.. James N. Robinson, Alfred A. White, Francis A. Stace, T. W. Waring, Perry G. Packer, Philip H. Emerson, Nelson E. Sherman, and M. Cooper were admitted in 1863. Robinson, Stace, and Waring are now residents at Marshall; Sherman at Battle Creek, and Cooper at Albion, and all in practice. Mr. Emerson located at Battle Creek, but is now United States judge in Utah. James A. Miner and William D. Adams, now of Marshall, were admitted in 1864. Mr. Miner was prosecuting attorney from 1871 to 1874. Alvan Peck, now of Albion, was admitted in 1853. Charles S. May was prosecuting attorney in 1853-54, and Levant C. Rhines was in the same position from 1859 to 1862. M. N. Cunningham and John C. Patterson were admitted in 1865. They both located at Marshall, where Mr. Patterson is now in practice, in company with Hon. W. H. Brown. Mr. Cunningham is dead. In 1866, Henry H. Brown, Frank G. Holmes, and Levi Mosher were admitted, the first and last locating at Battle Creek, and the other at Marshall. Mr. Brown is still in practice, and Mr. Mosher is deceased. He was county clerk four years. In 1867, W. C. Hamilton, Shubael F. White, Marc A. Merrifield and Isaac D. McCutcheon were admitted. Mr. Hamilton is now at Jefferson City, Missouri, Mr. Merrifield at Union City, and Mr. McCutcheon is the judge of probate of Eaton county. Mr. White located at Battle Creek. In 1868, Moses B. Russell was admitted, and is now at Battle Creek. He and William D. Adams were the circuit court commissioners from 1871 to 1876, and Mr. Adams still holds the office. Mr. Miner was circuit court commissioner from 1867 to 1870 inclusive. In 1869, Charles B. Pratt and Fitch R. Williams were admitted. Mr. Pratt is now in Montcalm county, and Mr. Williams located at Albion. John C. Fitzgerald was admitted before 1860, and was prosecuting attorney in 1863-66. He is now in Marshall. Rienzi Loud, of Albion, was circuit court commissioner in 1869-70. He is still in practice at Albion. Nathan H. Briggs and Frederick M. Wadleigh, both at Battle Creek, were admitted in 1870. John C. Stetson (county clerk 1873-76), George Wescott, of Homer, now dead, and Nelson B. Gardiner, at Albion, were admitted in 1871. James H. Campbell and William W. Wyckoff, both now at Marshall, were admitted in 1872. William A. Kellogg, at Battle Creek, and Thomas Burke, were admitted in 1873. Mr. Burke was an Irishman, and located in Marshall, but is now judge of probate in Washington Territory. He was a sharp lawyer. Dewitt C. Huffman, now at Albion, was admitted in 1874, and Clarence S. Joy and Herbert E. Winsor, of Marshall, and F. W. Boughton, of Battle Creek, were admitted in 1875. Mr. Winsor is one of the circuit court commissioners of the county at present. Eugene L. Stephenson was admitted in 1876, and is now in Little Rock, Arkansas. John E. Foley was admitted in 1877, and is now in Marshall. Frank W. Clapp, the present prosecuting attorney, has held that position since January 1, 1875. He was admitted some time previously. He is a partner of Judge Woodruff. Ira E. Randall and G. H. Southworth practice at Marshall, and Charles E. Thomas at Battle Creek. THE MEDICAL PROFESSION in Calhoun County carried its standard as high, for efficiency and skill, as anywhere in the State. Its members were in the main as learned and experienced in the early history of the county, as anywhere, and many of them were superior in skill, diagnosis of disease, and discrimination of remedies. The first physician to locate in the county for the practice of his profession was Dr. Andrew L. Hays, who came from the State of New Hampshire, and located in Marshall in 1831, where he resided until his death, which occurred in December, 1864. His widow and son reside in Clinton, Iowa. Dr. Luther W. Hart came to Marshall in 1832-33, from western New York, and died there in the year 1842. Dr. James P. Greeves came also to Marshall, and Dr. Joseph Sibley, in 1834 or 1835. On November 11, 1839, the Calhoun County Medical Society was organized, at which time there were the following physicians resident in the county present, in addition to those above named: J. H. Montgomery, who came to Marshall in 1836, from central New York; D. B. Crane, at Albion; Daniel Hudson, Edwin D. Bevitt, William Thompson, L. J. Aylesworth, of Marshall; Robert B. Porter, of Marengo; Henry Proctor, of Tekonsha; Vernon Parks, D. Nims, and E. Allen, of Homer; Albert W. Lathrop, of Marshall; Frederick Wheelock, of Albion; and T. C. Hurd, of Burlington. The officers of the society were Dr. Hart, president; Dr. Crane, vice-president; Dr. J. H. Montgomery, secretary; Dr. Thompson, treasurer; Drs. Crane, Montgomery, Bevitt, Sibley, and Greeves, censors. The censors were sworn to perform their duties faithfully and impartially. Of the above-named physicians but two are now in practice in the county, -Dr. Montgomery, who still maintains his profession in Marshall, and Dr. Porter, at Marengo. Of the others, Drs. Sibley, Crane, Hudson, Aylesworth, Proctor, Parks, Lathrop, and Wheelock are deceased. Dr. Nims practices at Jackson; Hurd is at Union City; Gill at Elkhart, Indiana, and Tuttle lives at Albion. Greeves is in California. Dr. William M. Campbell located in Battle Creek about March 1, 1837, and resided there until his death, March 15, 1870. Dr. Edward Cox located at the same place September 5, 1839, and still continues his practice there. He is an eminent surgeon and physician. Dr. Matthew Gill, Jr., located in the fall of 1842, removing to Marshall in 1862 or 1863, and from thence to other parts. Dr. James Taylor came in the winter of 1842-43, and died here in the spring of 1848. Dr. Asahel Beach located in 1844, and, after a few years' practice, retired from business, and still resides in the place. Dr. Hazard A. Potter located in the spring of 1844, and removed from Battle Creek in 1845, and died a few years ago at Geneva, New York. Dr. S. B. Thayer located in the village in 1846, where he remained two years, and removed to Detroit; subsequently made two or more different locations at Battle Creek, where he died in 1874. Dr. Drake practiced a short time with jDr. Thayer, and removed to Indiana, and thence to Detroit, and was killed a few years ago by the cars at Ypsilanti. Dr. Artemas Doane located at Bedford about 1848 or 1849; came to Battle Creek about 1853-54, where he practiced till his death, which occurred in the fall of 1866. Dr. M. W. Tomlinson located about 1854, and still continues his practice. Dr. James A. Deane located in 1868 or thereabouts, and practiced until 1874-75, when he removed to Catskill, New York. Dr. Simon L. French came in the fall of 1847, and is still in practice. Dr. L. A. Foote commenced practice in 1873, and still continues his practice. All of the above were of the regular school of medicine,-the allopathic. Dr. Wattles and Dr. Robinson, homoeopathists, and Dr. Spencer and Dr. John Beath, are among the present medical staff of the city. Dr. Samuel Tuttle was born at Molkton, Vermont, August 4, 1798, and removed to Albion in 1841, and attended a course of medical lectures at Ann Arbor in 1852. Dr. H. B. Teed located at Battle Creek previous to 1845. Dr. E. Church located at Marshall in 1843, or earlier. Dr. G. W. Force located in Marshall in 1841, and Dr. Waldo at Albion in 1842-43, and Dr. Maniates in Marshall about 1844. These last five physicians were of the regular school. Dr. T. S. Ripley, of the botanic school, located in Marshall in 1845. Dr. O. C. Comstock located at Marshall in 1836, but engaged in manufacturing and mercantile business rather than the practice of medicine as a profession. Dr. James A. Hahn located at Marshall in 1845. Dr. Ennis Church is in Mississippi, Dr. Force in Ohio, Dr. Waldo is dead, and Dr. Maniates, an Italian, also is dead. Dr. Hahn came from Seneca county, New York, and practiced about fifteen years, and then removed to Chicago, where he died. He was succeeded in Marshall by his son, Henry Hahn, who also removed to Chicago, where he has now a lucrative practice. Dr. Anderson came to Marshall in 1861, and remained three or four years, and removed to Berrien Springs. Dr. Gibson came about the same time, and remained a short time, and removed to Jackson. Dr. W. B. Church came in 1860 or thereabouts, and is still in practice. He is of the eclectic school, and has a very extensive practice. Dr. H. L. Joy came in 1845 or thereabouts, and is yet in practice. He is the present mayor of the city. Drs. Bagley, older and younger, homoeopathists, after a short practice removed to Seattle, Washington Territory, where they still reside. Dr. Sullings was the first homoeopathic physician to locate in Marshall, and he came in 1852, and is now in Kalamazoo. Dr. Coon has been twenty years and more in practice in Marshall as a homoeopathist. Dr. H. A. Peterman has been a resident of Marshall for nearly forty years, and a practicing eclectic physician for the last twenty years. Dr. Gallup also is an eclectic, now in practice in Marshall, and Dr. Roberts is a homoeopathist at the present time in the city. Dr. Enke, a practitioner of the regular school, came in

Page  32 32 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1870, but after a short stay removed to Detroit, where he now is. Dr. Collamer located in South Albion in 1833, and died a year or two afterwards. The following physicians have "' ministered to the ills flesh is heir to," having their local habitation in Albion, in addition to those before named: Calvin Millington came from Vermont in 1836; H. M. Hovey from New York in' 1838; James Henderson in 1837; Benjamin Packard in 1845, all of whom are now deceased; also W. H. Johnson in 1850, who removed to Kalamazoo; W. B. Southard in 1851, who also removed to the last-named city; Milton Osborn, who came from New York in 1850, Henry Van Ostrand in, 1857, and William W. Collins in 1859, were also from that State; E. H. Wilber, who located in 1861, was from India, and A. R. Brown from New York, settled in 1867; and the same year John P. Stoddard, a native of Michigan, located here; M. O. Belknap located in 1871, and removed subsequently to Lake Superior; Amos Crosby was from New York, and located in 1872, and A. M. Haight in 1874 was a native of Michigan; E. L. Parmeter settled in 1877, in Albion, being also to the " manor born;" Willoughby O'Donoghue was a resident of Albion at the time of the breaking out of the rebellion, and served with distinction as surgeon of the regiment of engineers and mechanics, from its muster in until its final discharge in the summer of 1865. THE CLERICAL PROFESSION. The most noted preachers in the county among the pioneers were Rev. John D. Pierce, Congregational, Rev. Mr. Pilcher, Methodist, Rev. John P. Cleveland, Presbyterian, and president of the Marshall College, and Rev. Mr. Grant, the projector of the Wesleyan seminary at Albion.. Others are noted, but they are named in connection with the church history of the townships. The teachers also are named in connection with the schools in the township and city histories. CHAPTER XI. THE PRESS: PATRIOT AND EXPOUNDER; STATESMAN; JOURNAL; TRIBUNE; MIRROR; RECORDER; INDEX; ADVENT REVIEW AND PUBLICATIONS. " THE pen is mightier than the sword." The history of the press of Calhoun County is not an uninteresting one, and could we reproduce on our pages one of the first newspapers of the county in contrast with those published forty years afterwards therein, there would be no need of spectacles to note the progress in this department of our work. A community of New England and New York Yankees could not long exist without their own newspaper, and, therefore, before the infant colony was well out of its swathings the printing-press was set up and the editorial tripod established. The first newspaper to fling its banner to the breeze rejoiced in the patriotic cognomen of the Calhoun County Patriot and Democratic Expounder, the first number of which was issued. October 2, 1836, with Henry C. Bunce as editor. It was published by a stock company, which was organized during the summer and early fall of 1836, Mr. Bunce, however, being the prime mover in the enterprise, and finally buying up the stock and becoming sole proprietor in 1840. It was a sheet of twenty-four by thirty-six inches, and in politics was then, as it is now, Democratic. In 1844 the name was changed to the Democratic Expounder and Calhoun County Patriot, Mr. Bunce continuing to publish it until 1850, when Jabez Fox was associated with Chastain Mann in the proprietorship for a short time, he retiring the same year to give place to L. G. Noyes, who became the editor and part owner of the paper, in which connection he continued until his death, which occurred in June, 1864, at which time Mr. Mann became sole proprietor, and so remained until 1873, when the paper passed under the control of S. S. Lacey, who subsequently leased the office to Z. H. Denison, the present publisher, and who has been connected with the office for the past nine years. Mr. Lacey still retains control of its editorial columns. Hon. F. W. Shearman was for many years the editor of the Expounder, and its corps of contributors included Rev. John D. Pierce, Hon. Isaac E. Crary, S. H., Preston, Esq., Hon. Abner Pratt, Hon. D. Darwin Hughes, and'others equally eminent in letters and politics. Under Mr. Lacey the Expounder bccame more particularly the organ of the Liberal Republican party, supporting Mr. Greeley and the Liberal Democratic policy. The editorial department has suffered no diminution in point of ability and interest under his management, and the paper possesses a well-merited influence with the party whose policy it advocates. Connected with the Expounder is a first-class job-office, under the direct management and control of Mr. Denison, where all work from a fine visiting card to a mammoth poster can be turned out in good shape and with dispatch. Mr. i I i i i - Shearman's " Sketches of Public Men," which appeared in 1838, in the columns of the Patriot, while he was a reporter in the National House of Representatives, were intensely interesting. Mr. Shearman was born June 20, 1817, at Vernon, Oneida county, New York, and died at Marshall, December 7, 1874. In 1841 he assumed the editorial control of the Michigan Journal of Education, and in 1849 was appointed superintendent of public instruction by Governor Ransom, and on the office becoming elective in 1851 was chosen by the people of the State for two consecutive terms, thus holding the position for six years continuously. His annual report of 1852 was a masterly production, and set forth clear and comprehensive views of the requirements of general education. This paper was extensively called for by other States, and quoted as authority on educational matters generally. As a writer he was " polished, forcible, independent, and aggressive." About the same time the Patriot appeared, another candidate for the favor and patronage of the then dominant party came into the field, under the name of The Marshall Times, John Greeves being the founder of the same; but the field having been fully occupied and held by the Patriot, after a brief existence of six months the fledgeling expired. The material was purchased by David L. Johns, a prominent lawyer, and others of the county, and under Mr. Johns a new paper, advocating the policy of the Whig party, was established under the name of The lMarshall Republican, the first number appearing about October 1, 1837. Mr. Johns conducted his sheet through the campaign of 1838, when it ceased its issues. On the 12th day of September, 1839, Seth Lewis, having purchased the material of the Republican, issued the Western Statesman, as the organ of the Whig party of the county. This name continued to adorn its title-page until October 12, 1844, when it was changed to its present one, The Marshall Statesman. The founder of the Statesman, Mr. Lewis, continued to publish it without intermission until January 1, 1866, when he disposed of his interest in the same to Messrs. Bissell & Burgess, who continued its publication for three years, when Wm. R. Lewis, a son of the founder of the paper, succeeded Bissell, the publication being continued by the latter firm until April 1, 1872, when Mr. Seth Lewis again assumed control of the office, and managed it until January 23, 1873, at which time the present editor and proprietor, Morgan Bates, Esq., succeeded to the management and control of the office and publication. Under Mr. Lewis' first management J. O. Balch, William Cook, and E. A. Tenney, Esq., conducted its editorial columns at different times, Mr. Balch being its editor during its earlier history, and Mr. Tenney in the latter part of the time,-between 1857 and 1865. During the fierce political campaigns of 1840 and 1844, Mr. Balch's editorial utterances were of the most vigorous Saxon. He was unsparing in his denunciation of the opposite party and its policy, and not always choice of his terms when speaking of candidates. In fact, the Expounder and the Statesman, to use a phrase more expressive than elegant, made things extremely lively for each other during their entire earlier career. Mr. Tenney, now of Lansing, contributed a series of humorous backwoods articles to the Statesman under the nom de plume of " Peleg Olepod," which, it is said, D. R. Locke acknowledges to have given him his first idea of his " Nasby" letters. Mr. Tenney was also a vigorous political writer. Under the management of Mr. Bates the Statesman has steadily increased its circulation, patronage, and influence, and has become one of the foremost Republican papers in the interior of the State. It is independent, outspoken, fearless, and radical in its advocacy of its political principles and of public policy. Aggressive it has ever been, and not an inch of ground has been lost by Mr. Bates in that particular. Its columns are ably conducted, its locals spicily written, and its mechanical appearance is crisp, fresh, and neat. It can boast, what few papers in the State can, that since its first issue, September 12, 1839, to the present time, it has never missed an issue on the advertised date of publication; and since Mr. Bates' control it has, with but a single exception, and that the occasion of the Hayes-Tilden election returns,-never been delayed an hour in reaching the hands of its city subscribers beyond its usual hour of publication. Promptness and regularity have been, and are, the " essence of the contract" with the Statesman, and its publisher is now reaping the just reward of that policy. It is the leading Republican paper of the county, and has a circulation of about one thousand copies per week. The Statesman, under Mr. Bates, has accomplished several reforms in the management of city affairs, and has been quick to detect and condemn errors, social and political, in city and State. While it is firmly Republican, the Statesman is boldly independent. Since Mr. Bates' accession he has added a new jobbing press and entirely changed the material of the office, and can turn out all classes of fine job and book work, of any size or quality, required of an interior printing-office. The Journal of Education was published in Marshall in 1838-40. Francis W. Shearman edited the publication, which was distributed generally throughout the State, and was an able advocate of the common and higher school system of Michigan. John D. Pierce, Isaac E. Crary, John Norvell, H. R. Schoolcraft,::: f::d ID be::XX A A::; S::: age: \:00: 00 a: i At: IS o \\::f f:: t:t::02 do And: Tf:S: f::05:: i C; i: f:f::;: f 0YESE z t00;f S v5\R: SsF:; /E S^X::: EX a:D: 2:S X twill \0 X: di:;X: A z 0fX St o';::fiX f;: 1

Page  33 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 33 I and others were contributors thereto. The Michigan Temperance Advocate was published for a time in Marshall, in 1841, at the Statesman office, under the charge of Dr. Comstock. The Family Journal, published in Marshall, in 1870-71, was an eight-page monthly, twenty-eight by forty inches, by M. V. Wagner, editor and proprietor, the first number appearing in May, 1870. It was a literary publication, and was sold to S. S. Woods, publisher of the Household Magazine, of Newburg, New York, with which the Journal was incorporated. The peculiar feature of its history was heavy issues for the first two or three numbers,-some fifty thousand copies. The Marshall Transcript was issued a few weeks only, by J. O. Balch, in the early part of 1846. The Michigan Tribune.-The present editor and part proprietor of the Tribune, Mr. W. W. Woolnough, has been so intimately connected with the history of the press of Battle Creek that we find some difficulty in identifying any particular publication separately. We find, however, that the first step towards the establishment of a newspaper in Battle Creek was taken in 1845, at which time the citizens subscribed a sum sufficient to guarantee the successful commencement of a paper at least. Under these circumstances, Leonard Stillson was delegated to purchase a press, type, and the usual concomitants of a respectable newspaper office. For this purpose he proceeded to Rochester, New York, and while procuring his outfit he came across a young man, by name Walter W. Woolnough, who was a journeyman printer, whom he induced to return to Battle Creek to take charge of the mechanical department of the new paper. In July, 1845, all the necessary preparations had been completed, and the first issue of The Western Citizen and Battle Creek Champion greeted the expectant citizens. After running about a year, the name and politics were changed, and in August, 1846, the first number of the Michigyan Tribune appeared in its stead, with the names of W. W. Woolnough and E. Dougherty imprinted thereon as editors and proprietors. The Tribune came out as a Whig sheet, and ably defended the doctrines of that party. Owing to a lukewarmness in its support, it ceased to exist in February, 1848. During the summer of that year, the Signal of Liberty, the organ of the liberty or abolition party of Michigan, which had been published at Ann Arbor, but had been obliged to suspend publication for want of sufficient support, was revived at Battle Creek, Messrs. Woolnough & Dougherty contracting to print it, using their then idle press and materials for that purpose. Soon afterwards the party managers purchased the material of these gentlemen, and retained Erastus Hussey as editor. Within a short period the Eagle block, in which the office was located, was destroyed by fire, with its contents, and Battle Creek was without a paper until October, 1851, when the Journal was established, of which more hereafter. In 1864, Messrs. Pease & Lewis established the Constitultional Union, and continued its publication two years, when it passed to the management of Mr. Abner Hitchcock. Within a few months it succumbed to the lack of patronage and ceased to exist. Upon its remains, in August, 1870, arose the Michigan Tribune, C. N. Pease and Lyman Reade proprietors. In January, 1871, Wm. H. Bodine purchased Mr. Reade's interest, and on the 19th of June following Mr. Woolnough succeeded Mr. Pease as a partner in the concern. The latter gentleman now edits the Tribune, and with his practical experience and abilities as a journalist the paper cannot fail to sustain the prominent position it has assumed and remain one of the cherished institutions of the city. When the change occurred in proprietorship the politics of the journal were also changed from Democratic to Republican. In 1872, Mr. Woolnough supported Horace Greeley for the presidency, and became convinced of the necessity of a change in the general political aspect of the country, and so adhered to the principles advocated by the liberal or independent movement. In 1876, he and his paper rallied to the support of Samuel J. Tilden, and the Tribune now ranks among the advocates of Democracy. The Tribune now has a bona fide circulation of eight hundred, which is still increasing. It is an ably-edited thirty-six-column weekly newspaper, and one which deserves the patronage of the people residing within the range of its usefulness. Mr. Woolnough has represented the city and county in the State legislature, and has held important offices in the city government for many years; for nine years he has been a member of the school board, of' which body he is now president; all of which positions he has filled with eminent satisfaction to his constituents, and with personal credit. Messrs. Woolnough & Bodine also conduct a well-supplied job printing-office, and have the reputation of turning out excellent work of every description. The Battle Creek Journal.-The weekly edition of the Journal was established in October, 1851, as a Whig newspaper, by Gantt & Burton, and in February of the following year it was purchased by W. W. Woolnough, by whom it was ably conducted for about eleven years. In 1863 it was purchased by Charles E. 5 Griffith, and continued by him until November, 1867. During the latter year the office passed into the possession of George Willard, its present proprietor. In August, 1868, Wm. C. D. Brewer was admitted as a partner, and continued as such until November, 1873, when he retired from the partnership, but still retains a connection with the office, as its business manager. Since the latter date Mr. Willard has been sole proprietor. On the 2d of July, 1872, after adding new type, presses, etc., the first issue of the Daily Journal, a neat and well-edited newspaper, appeared, and has since been continuously published as an afternoon daily. This year Mr. Willard was elected to Congress, and again re-elected in 1874. During his absence in Washington, the editorial management of the paper devolved upon Mr. George W. Harris, a writer of ability and a well-known journalist. Since his return from Washington Mr. Willard has again taken full editorial charge of the paper. The Journal is Republican in politics and devoted to the advancement of all local interests. Typographically, it is neat in its appearance, while its editorial and general news departments are characterized by experienced journalistic ability. The weekly edition now has a circulation of twelve hundred and fifty, and the daily three hundred. In connection with the office is quite an extensive job printing establishment, which, in its various appointments, is unsurpassed by any similar establishment in the county. Mr. Willard is a gentleman well and favorably known, not only in Battle Creek, but also throughout the country. He has been a member of the State board of education, a regent of the State University, was a member of the legislature in 1867, and of the constitutional convention the same year. From 1872 to 1876 he represented his district in Congress, to the general satisfaction of his constituents, and with distinguished ability. The Jeffersonian. —In 1857 a Democratic paper, called the Jeffersonian, was established by Wm. S. Pease, who soon after received the appointment of postmaster, in Battle Creek, under Buchanan. The paper then passed into the hands of John C. Gentzler, by whom it was conducted until 1860, and then discontinued. About the year 1862, Dr. Nathaniel Potter started the Albion Review and Battle Creek City News, at this place, which had a very brief existence. In 1863, The Republican was started by V. T. Hull, which had a very brief existence. The Albion Press was established in December, 1849, the first number appearing on the 28th of that month. James Hugh Perry was the publisher, but it had a few months' lease of life only. The Albion Weekly Mirror was founded October 11, 1855, by L. W. Colej who still continues its publication. It was at first neutral in politics, but could not long remain so under so vigorous a thinker as its editor and proprietor, and consequently, shortly after its first issue, it espoused the Democratic policy, and has supported the same to the present boldly and fearlessly. It is a seven-column sheet, twenty-four by thirty-six inches, and has a circulation of about seven hundred copies weekly. Frank F. Cole manages the mechanical part of the publication, and an extensive job office connected therewith. The typography of the Mlirror is good, and it is an ably-edited weekly family paper. The Albion Recorder was established by R. B. Bissell and F. H. Burgess, the first number being issued May 28, 1868; William C. Harrison, editor and publisher, as lessee of the office. January 1, 1869, Mr. Bissell purchased Mr. Burgess' interest, and in May following William G. Reed became a partner, adding the material of the Parma News, which paper he had previously published at Parma, and the Recorder was published two years by the new firm. On the 1st of May, 1871, Mr. Bissell purchased the interest of his partner Reed, and conducted the paper alone until May 1, 1872, when John M. Sargent became a partner, Bissell continuing to edit the paper; but August 30 of the same year Mr. John A. Cresswell, then a student in Albion college, was associated editorially with Mr. Bissell. On March 29, 1873, Mr. Sargent became sole publisher, retaining Mr. Cresswell as editor, but on September following Sargent retired, and Mr. Bissell re-entered as editor and publisher. In May, 1874, the office was leased to John M. Hall, H. E. Gemberling, and Stacy P. Thompson, but at the end of three months Gemberling left the firm, having purchased the Elk Rapids Progress, and Bissell took his place in the firm. May 11, 1875, C. H. Hoag became a partner with Bissell, but the partnership was dissolved August 11 following, since which time Mr. Bissell has conducted the paper alone. It has always been a Republican sheet, and has had its full share of influence and patronage in the county. Its present circulation is about seven hundred copies per week. The Homer Index was founded in 1872, by J. H. Wickwin & Co., publishers, the first number being issued on Christmas. It was of the same size as now, four pages, twenty-eight columns. Wickwin was at that time known as the veteran local newspaper founder of Michigan, and few of the citizens of Homer thought that the Index would continue to print through the first volume; but, though it did

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF CALHOUN meet with many reverses during the first year, it finished its initial volume, and was purchased by Lane & Burt in December, 1873, and in October following Burt withdrew, W. A. Lane, the senior member of the firm, continuing the publication alone to January, 1877, when he associated with him 0. W. Mumbrue, by whom it is now published under the firm-name of Lane & Mumbrue, publishers, W. A. Lane, editor. The Index has from the first been neutral in politics, and has a fair support from a good line of advertising patronage, having a circulation of some five hundred copies weekly. There is a good job office connected with the paper, the press-rooms and office being on the second floor of one of the finest brick buildings in the village, the same being owned by the publishers. The paper is a spicy home sheet, full of local happenings and general news, and adds much to the interest of the village. THE SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION. The history of the rise and progress of the publishing work among the Seventhday Adventists, from its feeble commencement to its present state of prosperity and independence, is intimately connected with the history of the Seventh-day Adventists as a people. The press is the great voice of' which this people made early use in speaking to the world upon the great truths of the Holy Scriptures; and as their numbers and influence have steadily increased, the publishing work, receiving their hearty support, has come up with them. The success of the publishing work of the Seventh-day Adventists, so far as human mind is concerned, is due mainly to the management of its founder, Elder James White, who is now president of their leading organizations,-namely, the general conference, the Seventh-day Adventist publishing association, the health reform institute, and the general tract and missionary society. He is also president of the Battle Creek college, a history of which appears on other pages of this book. Elder James White was born in Palmyra, Maine, in 1821. Commencing at the age of twenty, he labored with much success as a public speaker in the great advent movement of 1840-44, and when the claims of the Sabbath were brought to his notice, he entered as heartily into the work of its defense and promulgation. In November, 1850, he commenced the publication of the Advent Review and Sabbath Herald. Speaking of' those times, in his " Life Incidents," Elder White says, " Those were days of poverty, deprivation, toil, and anguish of spirit. With feeble health, we traveled from town to town and from State to State preaching the word and holding conferences, and at the same time issuing the Review once in two or three weeks." When the first edition was ready to mail, the publisher and a few devoted friends knelt around the little bundle and offered' fervent prayer to God that his blessing might attend the efforts they were making for the promulgation of truth. The whole edition was then taken to the post-office in a carpet-bag. To accommodate his publishing work to the field of his operations as a traveling evangelist, the paper was first issued at Paris, Maine, till June, 1851; then at Saratoga Springs, New York, till March, 1852. It was then removed to Rochester, New York, where it continued nearly four years. Then the cause of Sabbath reform rapidly advancing westward, its present location, Battle Creek, Michigan, was selected as a more central position, and the paper was moved to this place in November, 1855. Up to this time Elder White was publisher and sole editor. Some of the time since then others have been associated with him on the editorial staff. The wants of the cause demanding an. enlargement of operations and the employment of more capital in the publishing business, an act of the legislature of Michigan for the incorporation of associations for publishing purposes was secured, and approved March 7, 1861. Under that act a legally incorporated association, 'under the name of The Seventh-day Adventist Publishing Association, was organized in Battle Creek, May 3, 1861. The association immediately erected a two-story brick building in the form of a Greek cross, the main portion twenty-six by sixty-six feet, the transverse section twenty-six by forty-four feet, for the publishing work. Previous to this the work had all been done in a wooden building, twenty-two by thirty feet, which stands a few rods in the rear of the present offices. In 1871 a second building of the same size and form was erected to meet the necessities of the increasing business; and in 1873 a third building of the same kind was built for the same reason. These all stand side by side, opposite the public square, at the corner of Main and Washington streets, as represented in the engraving. The first one erected is the central building, the second stands at the right, and the third at the left. In the middle building two large and two small printingpresses are kept in almost constant use, turning out sheets for six periodicals, books, pamphlets, and tracts almost without number, besides doing a large amount of first-class job work. The periodicals issued by the association, the titles of which are given below, have a monthly circulation of about forty thousand copies:. I COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The Advent Review and Sabbath Herald, weekly; Yo~uths' Instructor, monthly; Health Reformer, monthly; Battle Creek College, quarterly; Advent Tidende, Danish, monthly; Advent Harold, Swedish, monthly. The '" Health Almanac" is also published regularly. Of this there was printed for 1877 an edition of over twelve tons' weight. Books on the prophecies and other Bible subjects have been issued largely from the beginning, and have now reached an aggregate of about one hundred million pages. The catalogue of publications issued at this office embraces one hundred and twenty-five different works in English, thirteen in French, twenty-one in Danish, fifteen in Swedish, thirteen in German, and one in the Dutch language. The folding-room and bindery are in the building at the left. The finished works are stored in the building at the right; whence they are shipped by freight, express, and mail to all parts of the world. In this building is the counting-room. The association employs from forty to seventy hands. These results, wrought out in so short a time, are the only compliment that need be paid to him under whose management this degree of prosperity has been attained. Those acquainted with Elder White have observed two very strongly developed traits of character: zeal to push forward in the formation and execution of plans for the advancement of the work, and caution to avoid injudicious ventures. The union of these two qualities, regulating at once the amount of steam and the application of the brakes, has made him master of the situation in the publishing line, and has given to the enterprise, though moving forward rapidly, a healthy and permanent growth. In June, 1874, Elder White commenced in Oakland, California, the publication of the Signs of the Times, a weekly paper the same size as the Review and Herald. Through his foresight and energy a branch office is now firmly established in that beautiful city, with a capital of $40,000, and a rapidly increasing business. Besides publishing largely of denominational books, and issuing an edition of seven thousand of the Signs of the Times weekly, that office takes the lead in the city job printing, and is acknowledged by California publishers to be the model on the Pacific coast for neatness of arrangement, and for the correctness, good taste, and dispatch exhibited in the execution of its work. Thus has Elder White, by his indomitable perseverance, able financiering, stern integrity, and the blessing of God, spanned the American continent, from Maine to California, with the publishing work, commencing twenty-seven years ago in poverty. And this is not all. Not content with binding the Pacific to the Atlantic, ever acting upon the motto, " Broad plans," he has carried the work across the ocean, and put in successful operation another branch office at Basel, in old Switzerland, from which a monthly paper in the French language, Les Signes des Temps, has been issued since July, 1876. A third branch office will probably be established in one of the Atlantic States during this present year of 1877. CHAPTER XII. SOCIETIES: AGRICULTURAL, REFORMATORY, EDUCATIONAL, POLITICAL, PROTECTIVE, SECRET, HISTORICAL, HEALTH REFORM. As the proverb hath it, " In the multitude of counsel there is wisdom," and men began early to associate themselves in companies or societies for the furtherance of objects beyond the compass of individual effort. Men are dependent one upon another for advancement and progress, and it is a wise man who takes up the thread of experience where it has been dropped by his predecessor, content to go on with it, nor waste time in retracing the same deeply-worn paths that have for ages received the foot-prints of scholars and laborers alike. The pioneers of Calhoun were no exception to the general rule, but soon gathered together in societies for the common good, each one giving his, or her, modicum of experience to swell the aggregate, from which generalizations might be drawn for the advancement of the community, mentally, physically, socially, and financially. The first association of general interest in the county was THE CALHOUN COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY, which was organized in the year 1838, and the first fair was held November 5, 1839, in the store previously occupied by Fitch & Gilbert, and the inclosure of Dr. Hart. J. S. Fitch, H. J. Phelps, and Charles D. Smith were the committee of arrangements for the fair, and Thomas W. Wells was the secretary. The executive committee of 1839 appointed a series of lectures to be delivered throughout the county on agriculture, and to create an interest among the farmers for improvement in the science. At the fair of 1840 there were one hundred and five

Page  35 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I i dollars offered for premiums; ten dollars on manufactures, forty-five dollars on stock, and fifty dollars on produce. At this fair Calvin Cole received the first premium on the best bull, Harvey Smith for the best heifer, Samuel Hemenway for the best boar and sow, Gilbert Knapp for the best buck, A. E. Hutchins for the best corn, the same being sixty-six bushels per acre; Joseph Otis for the best wheat, thirty-five bushels per acre; and on barley also, fifty-one bushels per acre; R. Weaver on flaxseed, eight bushels six quarts per acre; and Medad Bardwell on rutabagas, eight hundred and seventy-seven bushels per acre. The society was reorganized in 1848, and incorporated June 22, 1858, with the following officers: S. P. Wormley, president; E. H. Lawrence, secretary; C. P. Dibble, treasurer; E. C. Manchester, Jeremiah Brown, John Houston, Milo Soule, and Charles D. Holmes, directors. The society has held twenty-eight annual exhibitions, besides several spring exhibitions, plowing-matches, and sheep-shearing festivals. Since 1860 the society has paid in cash premiums $12,700, besides other awards in plate. At the fair of 1876 there were awarded premiums as follows: on horses, three hundred and fifty-three dollars; cattle, ninety-nine dollars; sheep, seventytwo dollars; swine, thirty-four dollars; poultry, eighteen dollars and fifty cents; fruit, thirty-four dollars and fifty cents; vegetables, nineteen dollars and fifty cents; grain, sixteen dollars and fifty cents; farming implements, nineteen dollars and fifty cents; wagons and carriages, thirty-seven dollars; domestic manufactures, eighty-five dollars; fine arts, twenty dollars; flowers, seventy-eight dollars; bread and butter, seventeen dollars. There were one hundred and seventy-one entries of horses, fifty-six of cattle, fifty-three of sheep, twenty-four of swine, twenty-nine. of poultry, and eight hundred and seventy-seven miscellaneous; total entries, eleven hundred and ninety. The officers of 1877 are as follows: George R. McKay, Eckford, president; C. S. Hamilton, Marshall, secretary; Julius A. Davis, treasurer; Lafayette Harris, William Hewitt, James F. Downs, George W. Briggs, Robert Gould, and S. G. Pattison executive committee, with a vice-president in every township and city. THE CALHOUN COUNTY TEMPERANCE SOCIETY was organized in the year 1839, and held its first annual meeting January 1, 1840, in Marshall. J. S. Fitch was the first president and James M. Parsons the first secretary. The society organized township societies throughout the county, John Van Arman, then a young man, being one of the chief speakers, and making addresses, one notable one in Homer, in December, 1839. Mr. Dibble, Charles T. Gorham, and Rev. J. P. Cleveland were prominent members of the society; the latter being the president of the State Association for some time. This organization remained intact for many years. The Washingtonians arose in 1842, and carried " everybody before them," as it were, but died out, the Sons of Temperance coming in 1847, and the Good Templars in 1856. The Red Ribbon Reform Clubs commenced their work in the spring of 1877. At the temperance anniversary at Ann Arbor in 1843, Rev. J. P. Cleveland, as the president, read a song which was afterwards sung to the tune of " Auld Lang Syne," the fourth verse of which " brought down the house" not only by reason of the matter thereof, but by the peculiarly felicitous rendering of the same by the reverend gentleman. This verse was as follows: "I've seen the bells of tulips turn To drink the drops that fell From summer clouds; then why should not The two lips of a belle? What sweetens more than water pure, The two lips of a belle?' THE CALHOUN COUNTY BIBLE SOCIETY was organized about as soon as there were churches, for the notices of its annual meetings appear in the earliest papers published in the county. The last annual meeting of the society was held on the first Sunday in October, 1876, at which the annual report was read, showing 2554 families visited during the year, 123 of whom were found destitute of the Scriptures, and 110 were supplied. The collections and donations for the year amounted to $205.60, of which $116.72 were paid to the American Bible Society. The value of books on hand during the year was $482.57. George Ingersoll is the president, and J. M. Parsons corresponding secretary, the current year. THE CALHOUN EDUCATIONAL SOCIETY was organized in January, 1846, George Woodruff secretary. It was auxiliary to the State Educational Society, and its objects were for the advancement of the cause of education among the people, and the perfecting of the system of instruction. At the annual meeting, October 16, 1846, Mr. Mayhew, the State superintendent of public instruction, lectured on union schools and their advantages, and the agitation began then culminated, the year following, in the union school of Marshall. This society also organized teachers' institutes in the county, and was instrumental in many good works in the cause of common schools during its existence. THE ANTI-SLAVERY SOCIETY was organized in 1839, the first annual meeting of the same being held in Albion. Sidney Ketchum was the first president; Dr. James P. Greeves, first vice-president; and thirty members signed the constitution at the first meeting, among them being Colonel Peter Holmes, George S. Wright, and Rev. J. P. Cleveland. The latter was elected president of the State society in 1840. Dr. Greeves was the second president of the county society. It continued to flourish until after 1848, and finally disappeared when the Republican party was organized, its mission being accomplished. THE CALHOUN COUNTY VIGILANT SOCIETY, for the detection of horse-thieves, was organized February 11, 1840; Philo Dibble, president; General A. L. Hays, vice-president; C. P. Dibble, secretary; C. T. Gorham, treasurer; with an executive committee of five, and twelve riders. This society operated for a few years, and then ceased to exist. THE FARMERS' ASSOCIATION was organized in 1841, to combine, for the sale of produce, the farmers of the county. Oshea Wilder was the first secretary, and the association was in operation but a few years. THE MARSHALL MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY was organized under a special charter in May, 1840; Thomas W. Wells, president; Philo Dibble, vice-president; J. C. Frink, secretary; C. T. Gorham, treasurer; Jarvis Hurd, general agent; and thirteen directors. It had an extensive line of underwriting for many years, but finally reached out too far, and a succession of disasters bankrupted the association, and its affairs were wound up by a receiver. THE FARMER'S MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY OF CALHOUN was organized April 7, 1862, the first annual meeting being held June 26, 1862, and the first officers being as follows: Hector Adams, of Battle Creek, president; George W. Dryer, of Marengo, vice-president; Henry J. Champion, of Battle Creek, secretary; Caleb Hanchett, of Marengo, director; Daniel M. Fox, of Fredonia, collector. The present capital, on which the assessments of losses are made, amounts to the sum of $6,116,785. The total losses paid since the organization amount to $62,629.05; the assessment for the fifteen years having been but one and three-quarters per cent. of the capital stock. The number of members is two thousand three hundred and thirty-two. Its risks are confined, by its charter, to farm property. The present officers are Loomis Hutchinson, of Emmett, president; Milo Soule, of Marengo, director; B. F. Withee, of Marengo, secretary; Joseph Shipp, of Eckford, vice-president. ABSTRACTS OF TITLE to the lands and village and city lots in Calhoun County were written up by Joseph A. Holland, Joseph C. Frink, and J. D. Wooley, who remained in the ownership thereof about three years, Holland being the active man. He sold his interest to his partners, and subsequently Wooley sold out to Frink, who died, and the books were sold in 1873-74, Preston Mitchell becoming the purchaser, and who now owns them and issues abstracts, and keeps the same written up. Every tract of land and village or city lot is recorded on the books, in its various changes in fee, or for security, by tax sale or judgment of court; and the abstracts of Mr. Mitchell are a most valuable convenience to the people in their real-estate transactions. The office is maintained at Marshall. MASONIC SOCIETIES. The first lodge of Free Masons in the county was instituted at Battle Creek, in 1846-47; the second was instituted at Marshall, under the name of " Marshall Lodge, No. 20," in 1847-48, Dr. Joseph Sibley being the first Worshipful Master, and the other charter members being F. Karstaldt, Zenas Tillotson, Ira Tillotson, Thomas Cook, David Aldridge, Robert Smith, Dr. Hudson, George Ketchum, and Mr. Gillis. Only two of the foregoing are members of the lodge to-day,-Karstaldt and Aldridge. Dr. Sibley held the position of Master for several years, and Thomas Cook and James Crocker were his successors. In 1855, the charter of the lodge was surrendered and a new lodge called St. Albans, with the same number (20), instituted, the history of which will appear in the history of the city of Marshall. There are now nine blue lodges, two chapters of Royal Arch Masons, one council of Royal and Select Masters, and one commandery of Knights Templar, in the county. '

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD FELLOWS. The first lodge of this order instituted in the county was Peninsula Lodge, No. 5, at Marshall, August 19, 1844, with James Wright Gordon first Noble Grand, E. C. Noble Vice Grand, Benjamin Vernor Secretary, and John B. Frink Treasurer. Mr. Chamberlain, A. O. Hyde, and George Cogswell were the first initiates. There are now seven lodges and three encampments in the county. THE PIONEER SOCIETY of Calhoun County was organized as such January 26, 1872, but for two years previously the old pioneers had assembled on the same day, January 26, the anniversary of the admission of Michigan into the Union, for social purposes and to recall the fast-receding past. Their first gathering was on the evening of January 26, 1870, at the Herndon House, in the city of Marshall, at which time there were forty pioneers of Calhoun County present. W. R. McCall, a pioneer of 1833, was called to the chair, and George S. Wright, who came to Marshall in 1835, was appointed secretary. At the reunion in 1871, at the same place, there were twenty-seven present; Thomas Chisholm, a pioneer of 1831, and now deceased, being chosen chairman, and A. O. Hyde, an emigrant of 1840, and in the same business-drugs and medicines —to-day as then, was chosen secretary. At the reunion of 1872, there were sixty-six pioneers present, and the society was formally organized with Dr. O. C. Comstock (1836), of Fredonia, president, Daniel Dunakin of Eckford, S. G. Pattison of Marengo, Ranodyne Sheed of Tekonsha, F. A. Kingsbury of Marshall city (1835), vice-presidents, and H. E. Phelps, of the latter city, secretary. Dr. J. H. Montgomery (1836), Dr. O. C. Comstock, and Rev. Calvin Clark were appointed a committee on history, and directed to gather such data of the early settlement of the county as was possible, and report at the next meeting. The reunion of 1873 was held in the parlors of the Herndon, one hundred and fifty pioneers being present. Dr. Comstock and H. E. Phelps were re-elected to their respective positions, and the legislature was memorialized to provide for a documentary history of the State, and biographies of the prominent educational, commercial, and social pioneers. A basket picnic was arranged for and held on the fair grounds at Marshall, June 25, 1873, at which five hundred persons were present, and addresses were made by several of the old pioneers, many of whom had come long distances to be present. A committee was appointed on memorials, and a long list of vice-presidents, who worked together successfully in producing the most celebrated reunion the society had as yet had. The annual meeting was held January 26, 1874, at the parlors of the new Presbyterian church, which were adorned with portraits of several of the old pioneers, among them those of Hon. Isaac E. Crary, Judge Abner Pratt, Judge Greeves, and Hon. Charles T. Gorham. Rev. John D. Pierce, the pioneer minister, and first State superintendent of public instruction in the State and Union, Mrs. A. L. Hays, Mrs. George Ketchum, and Mrs. Tenney Peabody were present, besides many others, former residents of the county. Three hundred guests were seated at the table. Dr. Comstock, as president, welcomed the pioneers, and Mr. Pierce addressed the meeting. Rev. A. M. Fitch, also a pioneer preacher of 1836, and Hon. Erastus Hussey, the conductor and manager of the underground railroad in abolition days, were also present, and contributed to the interest of the occasion. A. B. Cook was elected president, J. M. Parsons secretary, and a vicepresident from each township and city. The reunion of 1875 was held January 26, at the Presbyterian church, and Erastus Hussey, of Battle Creek (1836), elected president, and Samuel S. Lacey secretary, and a new list of vice-presidents from the townships and cities of the county. Delegates were appointed to attend the State pioneer association, to be held at Lansing on the 3d of February following. Mr. Hussey and Mr. Lacey were re-elected at the reunion of 1876, and a committee was appointed to draft a constitution and by-laws for the government of the society, and C. P. Dibble appointed historian. At the reunion in 1877, which was held at the Witt House, the committee reported constitution and code of by-laws, which were adopted with some minor amendments. Any person who has been a resident of Michigan twenty years can become a member on payment:of twenty-five cents per annum into the treasury of the society. The officers elected under the constitution were as follows: William R. McCall, president; S. S. Lacey, secretary; A. O. Hyde, treasurer; Dr. O. C. Comstock, historian; and a vice-president from each township and city in the county. Some fifty or more persons signed the constitution and partook of the banquet prepared by " mine host" of the Witt House in the bountiful manner peculiarly natural to him. Mr. Hussey: the retiring president, made a historical address full of interest; and a memorial of Thomas Chisholm, a fellow-pioneer who had passed to the " undiscovered country" a few days before, was placed on record. Committees to gather the history of the pioneer bar and medical profession were appointed; Dr. Cox, of Battle Creek, W. H. Brown, Esq., and others, entertained the company for some time with reminiscence sad and humorous, and the reunion was over. The society has done much to gather and preserve the early history of the county, and we are under many obligations to Mr. Lacey, the secretary, for his courtesy in allowing us access to the records and archives of the society in our work of compiling the history of Calhoun. He has done more to preserve what has been presented than almost any other man, because of taking notes of what has been said at the reunions and publishing the same in the Expounder, of which paper he is and has been the editor since 1873. The greater part of the business of gathering data has been presented orally, instead of by written documents. Mrs. Hays' and Mrs. Ketchum's letters are valuable documents, and Colonel (now Judge) Dickey's paper was carefully prepared and is reliable. These and a few others are the only written documents possessed at the present time by the society. BATTLE CREEK MEDICAL AND SURGICAL SANITARIUM. This institution was established in the summer of 1866, under the name of " The Western Health Reform Institute." It is owned by an incorporated body of stockholders, who hold annual meetings for the purpose of electing a board of directors, who have the immediate control and management of the institution. The buildings and grounds of the institution are situated in the most healthful and pleasant portion of the city of Battle Creek, about one-fourth of a mile within the corporation limits. The buildings comprise, in addition to those shown in the accompanying view, four cottages, a commodious laundry building, and a large. building in the rear of the main building, containing the finest bathing-rooms in the State. The grounds connected with the several buildings comprise about fifteen acres, most of which is occupied with groves, flower-beds, fruit-trees, small fruit of various kinds, grape-vines, etc. A beautiful brook flows through the rear portion of the premises, running near the foot of the eminence upon which the buildings of the institution are located, the eastern slope of which is terraced and covered with a thrifty vineyard. The elevated position of the main building, which is reached by a gradual ascent of about three-fourths of a mile from the central portion of the city, commands from the observatory which surmounts it a delightful view of the entire city, and many square miles of diversified landscape scenery in the vicinity. Beautiful hills and dells, meadows, lawns, parks, and groves, with here and there a water-course seen between the trees, make as fine a picture as is often met in the western States east of the Mississippi. NTature of the institution.-Although at first founded as a water-cure, there has been a gradual change in the plan of treatment employed in the institution, by the introduction of additional methods and appliances. Within the last year especially (1876-77)such modifications have been made, through a change in the medical management, that the institution has been placed upon a strictly rational and scientific basis. No special nor exclusive method of medical practice is either employed or recommended. Its medical corps are graduates from Bellevue hospital college, New York, and other first-class medical schools, being also members of the State Medical Association. In addition to the ordinary remedies employed in general medical practice, the physicians of this institution employ electricity in its various forms and by various methods, the Swedish movements, all approved hydropathic appliances, sun-bathing, the health lift and other forms of exercise, together with the Turkish and Russian baths, and all other appliances employed in hospitals and sanitariums. From this it will be seen that this institution differs entirely from the numerous water-cures, health institutes, bathing resorts, and various other so-called " cures" scattered through the country. In addition to the various remedial agents employed, great attention is bestowed upon the dietary of patients. Objects of the institution.-The objects of this institution are-1, The relief of human suffering by medical and surgical treatment; and 2, The education of the people respecting the laws of health. For the accomplishment of the first object the institution is fully equipped with all means required for the rational treatment of disease, the physicians in charge claiming to employ all known remedies which have been proven by experience to be of use in medical treatment. In order to attain the second object of the institution, patients are instructed by parlor talks and lectures respecting the nature of diseases, their causes, and how to avoid them. Thus, while being cured of their various maladies, they are taught how to secure good health for the future. The charitable character of the institution is established upon a permanent basis, by the assignment by each stockholder of all dividends which might accrue to the institution itself to be used in increasing the facilities for treating and accommodating patients, and in making other improvements. Thus it will be seen that no individual can be in any way benefited, pecuniarily, by the earnings of the institution.

Page  37 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 37 I Success of the institution.-During the eleven years that the institution has been in operation there have been treated in it more than three thousand patients. Of those who visit it for treatment the majority are chronic invalids, who have been pronounced incurable at home, or given up to die by their friends. All are not cured, of course, but it is unquestionable that a larger percentage of patients recover under the varied treatment and favorable conditions here afforded than could under a less comprehensive mode of treatment. The institution has an excellent and rapidly-increasing reputation, both at home and abroad, and is an ornament to the city in which it is located. It now accommodates (1877) about seventy-five patients, and with the addition of the main building, now in process of erection, its capacity will be doubled. CHAPTER XIII. TOPOGRAPHY-DRAINAGE-SOIL ---TIMBER —GEOLOGY-AREA-GEOGRAPHY -CLIMATOLOGY-FAUNA. CALHOUN COUNTY, for eligibility of situation, fertility of soil, variety of natural productions, and salubriousness of climate, is not surpassed by any of her sister counties in the territory included in the Chicago treaty of 1821. Watered by the St. Joseph river in the southeastern portion of its area, by the Kalamazoo, which passes through its central and northern part from east to west, the Nottawa-seepe in the southwestern area, Battle creek (Waupokisco in the Pottawatomie vernacular), Wilder creek, and Rice creek, the affluents of the Kalamazoo, and Pine creek, a tributary of the Nottawa-seepe, and numerous small creeks, its mill privileges are sufficient to propel a much greater amount of machinery than has hitherto been employed in the county, although it ranks among the first counties in the State in respect to flouring-mills at the present time. Its lakes are numerous, but not extensive in area, covering some six thousand three hundred and twentyfive acres of the surface of the county, the stream surface being approximately two thousand acres. The names of the lakes are Duck, Gang, and Prairie, in Clarence; Hall's, Winnipeg, and Montcalm, in Sheridan; Spectacle, in Albion; Homer, in Homer; Lake of the Woods, Pardy, and School, in Lee; Mud, Willis Ackley, Garfield, Lane's, and Potter, in Convis; Gardiner, in Marshall; Fisher, Cedar, Pout, Long, Lyon, and Fish, in Fredonia; Brace lakes, in Fredonia and Eckford; Nottawa-seepe, in Fredonia and Tekonsha; Warner, in Tekonsha, and a cluster of lakes near Tekonsha village; Turtle. in Burlington; Lee's and Cotton in Newton; Beadle, in Emmett; Clear, Pine, Bear, and St. Mary's, in Pennfield; Wabasacon, in Bedford; Hart, and the charming Goguac, in Battle Creek; and Copanocan and Steamburg, in Le Roy. THE SOIL is a fertile sandy loam in the original openings, merging into a darker and heavier soil on the prairies. It is a light, quick, warm soil, and capable of producing abundantly of all the cereals, wheat being the staple product. Fruit is abundantly produced of all varieties common to the climate, and of a most excellent quality. Cranberries abound in all of the marshes, of which there are, in some portions of the county, a considerable area. The township of Lee is largely covered with marsh and tamarack swamp, nearly one-half of its area being so occupied. THE TIMBER of the county is principally white and burr oak, the surface originally being mostly the oak openings of the country. Heavy timber is found on the watercourses, wherein other varieties are found, such as sugar-maple, hickory, black walnut, elm, ash, sycamore, whitewood, etc. Some of the plains were very lightly covered with oak, and other parts were very heavily timbered openings. THE SURFACE of the county, generally, is a level, consisting of oak plains, prairies, and heavy timber, though in some portions the surface is broken and rolling, rising into rounded summits of some considerable elevation above the immediately surrounding area. Geologically, the surface, to the unskilled observer, presents a tame and uninteresting appearance; but to one who can see " books in running streams, and sermons in stones," it is eloquent in language that thrills his heart, and calls forth his best thoughts Scattered all over its surface lies the boulder drift, huge and lesser fragments of rocks, whose parent beds lie hundreds of miles to the north of Lake Superior, and which fragments have been ground and transported in the great glaciers from the northeast, which plowed over the surface and planed down the rocks, pulverizing and mixing the debris to form the productive soil the present dweller finds at his hand and beneath his feet. Fossils that tell of ocean depths and the processes of creation are found permeating the soil in every locality, but all of them of foreign birth,-none of them are here in situ. They, too, were brought in the glacial drift, and, being composed largely of lime, give that peculiar quality to the soil which makes it so well adapted to the culture of wheat. The boulders form a not-to-be-despised portion of Calhoun's economic treasures, as they are largely used in the foundation walls of buildings, where they make a most solid and compact wall. They are used extensively, too, for inclosures, and when laid up carefully are not liable to fall down, and make an enduring fence. They are quite easily handled and wrought by skilled workmen. The Marshall sandstone, so called, crops out along the Kalamazoo at Marshall and in Marengo township. The outcrop at Marshall gave the group its provisional name, and its stratification is thus given by Winchell: 4 sandstone, rather thick bed, reddish, ten feet. 3 " dark reddish, rather hard, very fossiliferous, five feet. 2 " reddish-green, homogeneous, thick-bedded, ten feet. 1 " light greenish-gray, thick-bedded. Several characteristic outcrops occur in Marengo. At Battle Creek the lower beds of the group are seen in places highly calcareous and very hard, but filled with characteristic fossils. The outcrop at Athens, Le Roy, and Newton, Winchell places among the shales of the gritstones of Lake Huron, and says in Le Roy "these argillaceous beds present the characteristics of 'black bituminous shale.'" The outcrop at Albion is also of the Marshall sandstone. This stone is somewhat extensively used for building purposes. It is easily worked, hardens by exposure, and has a neat and substantial appearance. The first workings of the quarries were shaley and imperfect, and proved of insufficient strength for building purposes, but the lower strata are sound and firm. The quarries at Albion have not been utilized very much, and thus far are not considered as sufficiently valuable in quality to use for building purposes. Fossils have been collected in the Battle Creek outcrop, and described in Silliman's Journal, vol. xxv. page 262. The area of the county contains four hundred and forty-five thousand two hundred and forty acres of land and eight thousand three hundred and thirtythree acres of water surface, approximately. Geographically, the county is bounded north by Eaton, east by Jackson, south by Branch, and west by Kalamazoo counties. Its climatology is similar to that of the surrounding area, being subject to sudden and marked changes of temperature. The range of the thermometer, however, seldom passes beyond ninety degrees above or ten degrees below the unit of Fahrenheit. Snow usually falls sufficiently frequent and heavy to make good sleighing during the greater part of the winter months. The county in the early days of its settlement was subject to malarial diseases of various types; but as the settlements have progressed, and the lands have become better drained and the annual decay of vegetation greatly lessened, these diseases have, in a great measure, disappeared, and the county at the present time ranks with the best in the State in point of health. THE FAUNA of the county originally was the same as that of Michigan generally. When the first settlers came to it wild game of all varieties was abundant, and the Indian had made it his hunting-ground for years. Deer in large herds covered the plains and filled the openings; gray wolves and his congener of the prairie, the coyote, were numerous; black bears trooped through the woods; lynxes and wildcats were frequently met with; foxes, red and gray, scampered in every direction; squirrels flirted their brushes, and chickareed in every tree; beaver and otter were occasion ally met with on the streams, and the MJephitis Amnericana perfumed every breeze with its pungent odor; wild turkeys in broods strutted through the woods; partridges drummed on every log; grouse (prairie chickens) made melody in the spring mornings with their plaintive trumpeting or noisy cackling; wild ducks literally blackened the streams and lakes, and geese filled the air with their harsh cronk as they followed their leader in their triangular-shaped flight; wild pigeons darkened the sun with their immense flocks; quail whistled on every side, and snipe and plover cut the air in graceful curves, or "tetered" on the sandbars and shallows of the streams; song-birds of every variety and hue filled the woods with their melody, or flashed like sunbeams through the foliage, rivaling, in their bright plumage, the thousand-hued flowers that carpeted the earth on prairie and opening, filling the air with their fragrance and the eye with their loveliness; fish swarmed in every lake, and flashed and sported in every stream, from the muscular sturgeon to the silvery minnow; pike, bass, sunfish, and perch dashed at the

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF CALHOUN flies that sported on the surface of the water in a manner that would have gladdened the. heart of the dullest disciple of Isaak Walton. Wild bees hummed and flashed by like the wind, and stored their honey in hollow trees, in waiting for the settlers, who gathered the sweet deposit as a welcome addition to their meagre bill of fare. And such was Calhoun when, in the olden time, she put on her "beautiful garments" of summer, before the pioneer's axe and plow began to war upon nature in her wildest and most beautiful aspect. CHAPTER XIV. REMINISCENCE-CHOLERA-PIONEER VISITING —SOCIAL PARTIES-FIRST BALL -INDEPENDENCE DAY-A BEAR-FIGHT-BRUIN AND THE LOVERSWOLVES-TRIBULATIONS OF PIONEER COURTSHIP. A PIONEER life is made up of toil, privation, and suffering, largely, and yet it is not all gloom and shadow. The bright sunlight at times gleams athwart the dark clouds that hang upon the horizon, coloring with its soft, warm tints the blackness thereof, until the whole mass is suffused with the rays of hope, and bright anticipation casts its halo over the arching gloom, dispelling sadness and sorrow, grief and pain, and leading the mourner unconsciously upward and forward into more cheerful surroundings; and, though he may lapse therefrom many times and recur again to the depths below, yet the memory remains, and he is the sooner quickened by the next passing ray, momentary though it may be, and lifted thereby the more readily into an atmosphere rarer, clearer, purer, and more enduring. The saddest experience that came to the first pioneers of Calhoun was that of 1832, when the dread pestilence, the Asiatic cholera, leaping over the bounds of the noisome cellars, filthy streets, hot and stifling brick walls of cities, fell like a thunderbolt from a clear sky among the settlers in the fresh woods, whose foliage quivered in the summer breezes direct from the great lake beyond, and without warning gathered its victims; reducing the handful of pioneers over a tenth in a few days. We have given elsewhere an account of the death of the first victim, Isaac H. Hurd. Mrs. Pierce, the beloved and estimable wife of Rev. J. D. Pierce, was the second one in Marshall, and Randall Hobart made her coffin, the first one in the county, and he and the husband buried her at night. The case of the Nichols family, of Athens, is given elsewhere. At the pioneer reunion of 1875, incidents were related of Rufus Hosmer, now deceased, who, while on his way to Grand Rapids with a friend, passed through forty miles of woods, and near the close of one day heard a halloo, and, upon following up the sound, came to a lone cabin and found a man alone with his dead wife. They stopped and made the best preparations they could, and the next day gave the wife a pioneer burial.and went on their way, leaving the stricken husband alone with his sorrow. Dr. Comstock alluded to a pioneer funeral at Bellevue, where a husband took his dead wife into his sleigh and came through the woods forty miles to give her a Christian burial. Those were days when among the pioneers " Sorrow flowed from eye to eye, And joy from heart to heart." When the griefs of a neighbor were made the common griefs of all, and the burdens were equally divided whenever it was possible for such disposition of them. Was any one glad, all rejoiced with him; did any one sorrow, all mourned. Neighbors were at long distances, and necessity made them all kin. What wonder then is it that the old pioneers, as they see their companions dropping by the wayside overcome by the heat and burden of the day, cling closer to one another, and, as they meet together at their reunions, speak lovingly and lingeringly of the C" early days," when time was young with them, and hearts were buoyant and hopes high, and purpose firm. Well may they look back upon the days that will never return, and tell their stories o'er of hair-breadth 'scapes from the wild beasts, and the toils and sorrows of pioneer life, for such days are passed away forever. The railroads have taken the pioneer into the realms of the has been, and we shall ne'er look upon his like again. But there was a humorous side to the pioneers' lives as well as a sorrowful and sad one, and the amusements of the day were entered into with a zest. Visits were made in those days, where calls are now in vogue. In the winter the whole family would pile into the sled and go off for a good time from five to ten miles. In the summer the ladies made their calls on horseback, with the larger olivebranches on the horse in front and the smaller ones behind. Judge Dickey tells how in those days every man was a neighbor; and says, " Now some go fifty miles to find one, because this one is too rich, that one not rich enough, or his - I I COUNTY, MICHIGAN. politics or religion is wrong. There was no such trouble in our early associations. We then had no roads, but sometimes in going to balls and bees in timber lands a crotched sled hauled by oxen was used, and sometimes, in getting over a large log, the party would slide out behind, but that made no difference. A girl got quite as many invitations to dance as though she had not slipped off the sled. Then we had ' slews' of foot visiting, women and children in the afternoon and husbands in the evening; and the fiddle was brought out and the dance went on, participated in by old and young." The first social party given in the county was by Sidney Ketchum, in Marshall, in his large log house, which stood on the present site of C. P. Dibble's elegant mansion. Every person in town was invited, and nearly all were there, infants included, and the house was not crowded. Mrs. Hays, in writing of it, says, " It was a fine entertainment, and the company were well appearing and well dressed, and would not disgrace Marshall or any town at the present day." The first regular ball was given on the occasion of the opening of the National in Marshall, January 1, 1836, by Colonel Andrew Mann, which was attended by the people for miles around. In April following Colonel Mann gave another soiree dansante, with great success. The first celebration of the Fourth of July was, had in 1836, at Marshall, at which time there was a large concourse of people gathered into the village from the country round about. Horatio Hickok was president of the day, Boville Shumway, reader; W. H. Brown, orator; Judge Dickey, marshal; S. S. Alcott, George S. Wright, and others, committee of arrangements. The oration was delivered in the woods, near the site of the present Lutheran church. The dinner was provided by Colonel Mann, of the National, who graced his table with roast pigs at every eight feet, which one of the guests said " were cooked just enough to make them mad;" and these infantile porkers were flanked in front, rear, and all around with champagne-bottles, the tables being otherwise garnished with " chicken fixins" of every attainable variety. The viands dispatched, the fluids and toasts were in order, and a jolly time was had, remembered by all who participated. Jacob Ward, of Marengo, was returning from his work one night having his rifle over his shoulder, when he met a huge she-bear, and of course, hunter-like, could not forego the sending of a bullet crashing into her ribs. She fell to the shot, and he in his excitement spilled his percussion-pills which were then in vogue, before the introduction of caps, and was left with a useless gun. He cut a large club, and going up to the bear, which was still lying on the ground, struck it a heavy blow on the head, which, instead of stunning it, had the contrary effect of rousing it to action, and on the instant she rose to her feet and reached for the woodsman for a close, if not a loving embrace. He grasped her on either side of her shaggy head, when she bit him through the wrist. But it was life or death then with him, and he held on despite her fierce growls and sharp teeth. She bit his wrists through and through, lacerating them fearfully, but he kept her at a distance sufficient to prevent her using her hind feet on his person, and finally, by an almost superhuman effort, threw her down and got away. He had his wounds dressed at the first cabin he came to, the occupant taking his gun and going out to find the wounded brute. He had not gone far from the place where the struggle had been made before he found her in the death-throes, and soon dispatched her. William R. McCall relates an incident of his courting days, where his privacy was interrupted by three of the plantigrade family at a time when two were company and more were in the way. When Mr. McCall was paying his addresses to his lady-love in 1833-34, he used to walk out into Marengo to see her of a Sunday, and as the house her parents lived in had but a single room, the young people used to go into the woods for their conversation, and to settle the preliminaries of their future housekeeping. One Sunday afternoon, when the usual walk had been made and the pair were coming back to the cabin, they sat down upon a log to prolong the pleasant interview; and while " eyes spoke love to eyes which spoke again," an old bear and two cubs came along and stopped to gaze at the unwonted vision. Madame Bruin looked at them, and then at her frolicking cubs, as if comparing the relative prettiness of the two pairs, and, as if content with her pair, walked slowly on with them and was soon out of sight. The seat on nthe log was soon vacated, for the shades of night were falling fast and the young man had the journey to Marshall to make through the woods, and did not care to meet such an interesting trio on his way. Prairie fires in the first two or three years used to run through the settlements, and sometimes caused considerable damage. At other times, by dint of hard work " and fighting fire with fire " by setting back fires, the stacks and crops were saved. One night when John Bertram was building his frame barn in 1832, as the family of Burland and Bertram and his men were sitting about the fire-place chatting, a wolf poked his nose under the door of the cabin, and Bertram's dogs, of which he used to keep two or three, sounded the alarm, they too being in the house; and Burland firing from the window broke the brute's leg, and he was found by the dogs the next morning and dispatched.

Page  39 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 Thomas Chisholm and George Ketchum, in the winter of 1832, went to Prairie Ronde for potatoes, getting as far as the St. Joseph river the first night, where they stayed without food or covering for themselves or horses. They managed to get a fire in an old whitewood tree, and stood around it till near daylight, when they got their ponies off of the ice into the river and out again and upon the other side; and when they arrived at Kookush prairie, they found a cabin where the woman pounded up buckwheat with an iron wedge and baked them cakes, which, with meat, answered them for supper, breakfast, and dinner. On the trip, they stayed one night at Mr. Hanchett's, and during the night they heard a noise in the henroost, and all got up to see what was the matter, supposing it to be an owl or skunk. Mrs. Hanchett stood at the door while her husband went for his gun, and when he came back with a light the depredator was discovered, and proved to be a large wolf, which was speedily killed. Newman Enos tells of a trip of " land-looking," wherein he and a companion got lost one dark, rainy night, and provided themselves with a fire by firing their rifles into a fallen tree, by which they stood all night while the wolves were howlinD on all sides, and the lightning occasionally revealed their gaunt forms in rather too affectionate proximity. He says he was married in 1837, and endured many trials on his wife's account previous to their marriage, as she was on one side of the river and he the other, and the only crossing was by logs and poles; and it frequently occurred that he had to make his Sunday afternoon call after having tumbled off the bridge into the water and given his Sunday best a soaking, but did not think it made any difference in the warmth of her reception of him. They be-an housekeeping in December of that year, with furniture he manufactured with his axe and an auger. The bedstead was made of poles, and the bark he peeled from them he wove into a bed-cord like a chair-bottom; stools made of slabs answered for chairs, and their cookingutensils were kettles and spiders, and a Dutch chimney served for a stove. J. C. Patterson, one "1 to the manor born" in Michigan, tells of a time when one wagon, one wheel (spinning), one oven, and one fanning-mill did duty for a whole neighborhood, and the neighborhood joined in the grists for milling, and lived on short rations till they were returned. CHAPTER XV. THE PATRIOTISM OF CALHOUN: FIRST VOLUNTEERS OF -AlICHIGAN ---BLACK HAWK WAR-TOLEDO WAR-MILITIA MEXICAN WAR-THIE REBELLION. AMIONS the many glories of the Republic, none shine more brightly than that reflected upon it by its citizen soldiery. Its army, a mere nucleus in time of peace, when necessity demands is swelled to hundreds of thousands, aye, nlillions, by volunteers from the field, the workshop, the store, and the -counting-room, whose bayonets are fixed by patriotism, and whose hearts are as devoid of fear as they are of mercenary motives. With minds capable of reasoning, they are no machines to obey mechanically the will of their superiors, but with perceptions quickened by the love of country and the endearments of home, the movements required are executed with celerity and intelligence, and with a will to do and dare that is irresistible. The conflict once ended, they relapse into their fornier condition of domesticity with readiness, and resume the humdrum routine of daily life as gracefully as they relinquish it patriotically to go out into the carnage of battle. Michigan has ever been foremost in the demands made upon her for her quotas to the armies of the nation, and her first volunteers were those of the gallant Major Antoine de Quindre, who led a company of Frenchmen from Detroit to the aid of the United States troops in the war of 1812 against the British and their Indian confederates, at the battle of Monguagon, or Brownstown. These volunteers charged with such impetuosity upon the Indian lines that the savages broke, and falling back upon the British reserves, threw them into confusion, and the American troops, charging, drove the enemy from the field. The gallant action of Major De Quindre and his company received the well-merited thanks of the Michigan legislature in after-years. Calhoun has not been a whit behind any of her sisters in maintaining the honor of the State in its military renown, and her record of war, which began to be written ere her settlement was one year advanced from its incipiency, has been a proud and glorious one. The first demand made upon her patriotism was in the alarm of 1832, when the news of Black Hawk's intended inarch of desolation and blood came to the handful of pioneers at Marshall. They were surrounded by men of the same race as those whose warriors were already on the war-path, and who, for aught they knew, were just as implacable, and as ready as they to apply the torch and use the scalping-knife upon their own property and families; but, notwithstanding, the little colony sent out an advance guard to aid their brethren in Illinois and Wisconsin, trusting that the invader would be stayed ere he came to their own borders. This company were Sidney Ketchum, Dr. A. L. Hays, George Ketchum, and, in fact, nearly all of the able-bodied men in the colony, who went as far as Schooleraft, where they learned the Sac chief had not crossed the Aliississippi, and consequently there was no immediate necessity for their presence in the west, and they returned home, except Mr. Ketchum and Dr. Hays, who utilized their journey thus far by proceeding to White Pigeon and entering several fine tracts of land in Calhoun. The nest messenger brought the news of Black Hawk's capture, and quietness again reigned. The next call that came to inflame their ardor was the demand of Governor Stevens for troops for the " Toledo" war, to drive back the ferocious Buckeyes of Ohio from the disputed territory along the boundary of that State and Michigan. No one went to this war, however, from Calhoun, but the excitement over the boundary led to the organization of the militia of the State quite effectively. The Calhoun militia were first enrolled'in October, 1836, Judge Dickey being the first person to receive a commission (captain) in the county. Afterwards other commissions, as captains, were issued to Colonel Fenda, Colonel Ansley at Marengo, Captain James W~inters, who raised an independent company in Athens, and Captain Allen Dennin. at Homer. When the militia were brigaded Judge Dickey was promoted to the colonelcy of the thirteenth regiment, Dr. A. S. Hays was made general of the second brigade, and Isaac E. Crary was made majorgeneral of the third division, and Charles T. Gorham was made inspector-general. The lieutenants were all muade captains, and the captains colonels, before the system fell into disuse, and a great deal of display and pleasure was got out of the musters and trainings, and for a time the interest was maintained without flagging. But at last it grew irksome to drill for a preparation against an enemy that might never come against them; the commutation clause was struck out of the militia law, the glory departed fromn the " pomp and circumstance" of the tented field, court-mlartials were powerless to execute their decrees, and the militia "1 folded its tents and silently stole away." The next demand on their patriotism was more earnest and more costly, and came in 1847, when the President issued his call on Michigan for a regiment of volunteers for service in Mexico. A company was recruited in Calhoun by Captain John Van Arman, with Lieutenants J. D. S. Pierce, Duel, and fifty privates. John T. Vernon aided largely in raising the company, but did not go to the field. Duel was the first lieutenant and Pierce the second, the latter receiving his commission on the day he was eighteen years old. The company left. Detroit January, 1848, arriving at Vera Cruz shortly afterwards, and, with the Michigan regiment, in command of Colonels Stockton and Williams, were ordered to Cordova, which place the regiment captured and held during the war. Lieutenant Pierce was sent home on furlough during the summer of 1848, having been sick with the measles, and having also contracted a disease incident to the Gulf coast, from which he died in the November following. Calhoun in the war for the U~nion during the great rebellion was prompt, patriotic, and decisive. Her citizens were in the first fire upon the traitors at Bull Run, and at the inglorious capture of the captain of the so-called Confederacy. They were with McClellan on the Peninsula and with Banks at Baton Rouge and Port Hudson, and Butler at New Orleans. They fought with Hooker above the clouds, sat down before Vicksburg with- Grant, and with Sherman '- marched down to the sea." Their blood stained all the way from the Rapidan to Appomattox, through the Wilderness, as Grant hammered the hosts of Lee day after day, gaining, slowly and surely, but at dreadful cost, the key to the situation, which finally forced the submission of the armies of the Confederates. At Chan tilly, Fredericksburg, down the Shenandoah with the intrepid Custer, at Fair Oaks, Malvern, and the seven days' battles before Richmond; at Gettysburg and Antietam; at Resaca, Kenesaw, Lookout Mountain; before Atlanta, at Nashville, Shiloh, and Cumberland Gap; in the Carolinas and Virginia; in Missouri, in hot pursuit of Van I)orn and Price; and wherever else a glorious record was made, there Calhoun had brave men, who wore her crest in their hearts and bore her honor upon their bayonets. Her colors were born aloft through gloom and defeat as well as in the flush and tumult of victory. They trailed not in disgrace, nor were they borne by panic-stricken soldiers, fleeing from the enemy. Mason, Barns, Dickey, VWoodruff, Comstock, Darrow, Byington, Hicks, Barney, Davis, and Rhines paid the penalty demanded of gallant officers who lead where brave men dare to follow. Calhoun's dead lie in almost every battle-field strewn with the sons of the republic, who died that it might live and be indeed " the land of the free, as it ever has been " the home of the brave." They suffered and died in the noisome trench and in the infected hospital; they starved in

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4 1 Andersonville until they became almost driveling lunatics under the brutality of a Wirz; they chafed in Libby, Belle Isle, Salisbury, and Columbia, and in the chain-gang stood under the fire of the " swamp angel" of Charleston harbor; they fell in the skirmish, on the picket line, and in the charge, amid the roar of cannon and the rattle of musketry. Whatever form of sacrifice was demanded by the bloody Moloch of war, Calhoun had a victim who was offered to the insatiable monster. The flowers of the sunny south bloom over their ashes, and the breezes, redolent with the fragrance of the orange and magnolia, sing their requiem. They fell in the defense of a common country assailed by its own parricidal children. They maintained its honor and integrity against those who sought madly to destroy both. They paid the sacrifice of their lives; but their works have followed and shall follow them to the end of recorded time, or while memory shall retain its seat. Calhoun's honor was their honor, and nobly and well did they guard it, and living or dead, maimed or scathless, all honor to the soldiers for the Union of old Calhoun. "By fairy hands their knell is rung, By forms unseen their dirge is sung. There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, To bless the turf that wraps their clay; And Freedom shall awhile repair To dwell, a weeping hermit, there." THE WOMEN S WORK. It would be unjust, not to say ungallant, to pass by the heroic women of Calhoun without pausing to pay them the tribute of praise and gratitude so justly their due for their labors of love and mercy during the terrible years of 1861 -65. Their hands wrought while their eyes streamed with pitying tears; and their hearts were lifted up in prayer to the God of the universe for the safety of loved ones and the success of the armies of the Union. Aid societies sprang up all over the county, wherein noble and self-sacrificing women banded together and prepared comforts for the well, dainties for the sick, necessaries for the wounded, and cheer and blessings for all. Fair hands, scraping lint, knitting socks, making towels, preparing jellies and cordials, were busy throughout the whole dreadful struggle. Dinners were prepared for recruits, and entertainments given and refreshments sold to swell the funds for supplies. Boxes of goods of all needful descriptions were forwarded to the soldiers, whose bosoms swelled with gratitude, and whose eyes welled over with tears of joy, at their reception. Early and late, in season and out of season, these angels of mercy toiled and gathered and forwarded, that their brothers, sons, husbands, lovers, might want for no comfort in their power to bestow while they were upholding the old flag against traitors in arms. Too much cannot be said of the efforts of the women of the North to sustain and cheer the armies of the nation while engaged in the work of saving the republic from its enemies within its own precincts; and the women of Calhoun were of the foremost in all of their good words and works. INCIDENTS. Sergeant Henry Bostock, of Company E, Sixth Michigan Infantry, was the leader of a forlorn hope in a night attack on the batteries of Port Hudson, and was the only one killed in the engagement in his party. He was shot in the neck, by reason of his being made conspicuous by a sabre-bayonet affixed to a musket which he borrowed of an Indiana soldier, which, being bright, gleamed in the moonlight, thus affording a target which was quickly made use of by a rebel marksman. Calvin Colegrove was the first Michigan man killed in the war. He was orderly sergeant of Company I, of the First Infantry, three months' men, and was made color-bearer of the regiment at the first battle of Bull Run, in July, 1861, and was shot dead in the first of the fight. Lieutenant Gilbert H. Dickey, in command of Company K, Twenty-fourth Infantry, was killed with sixteen of his men at Gettysburg, all of whom lay within a few feet of each other when they fell. He held his company in their position when his supports had all fallen back. Lieutenant Wm. S. Woodruff was wounded in the face, the ball entering his mouth and passing out through his cheek, at Gettysburg, and within ten minutes afterwards he saw his brother George A., in command of the celebrated Ricketts battery of the Mexican war, shot through the head and instantly killed. It is said the rebel general Magruder, who commanded the battery during the Mexican war, recognized at the battle of Fair Oaks his old battery, and made several attempts to capture it; but failing to do so, relieved his vexation at his non-success by asserting that " all h — 1 could not take *te old battery." Lieutenant Woodruff was afterwards on the Richmond campaign, while sitting in a breastwork or other fortification, struck in the side by a spent ball and so injured that he died. Another brother, Lieutenant Frank Woodruff, while attached to the Twelfth U. S. Corps d' Afrique, died in New Orleans. These were sons of Judge George Woodruff, of Marshall. The wife of Judge Woodruff died in a very short time after the death of her boys. Captain Devillo Hubbard, while with his company in the First Regiment of three months' men at Alexandria, knocked down a secessionist who expressed satisfaction at the death of Major Ellsworth, and made him swear on his bended knees to support the Constitution of the United States, and of the State of Michigan. The citizens of Marshall, in token of appreciation of his conduct, sent him a fine revolver, which he received just in time to use in the battle of Bull Run. In the defense of Knoxville, Major Byington led an assault on the enemy's works in front of Fort Saunders, and in the charge, at the head of two hundred and thirty-four men, fell mortally wounded. The enemy were ten times the number of his command, but so impetuous was the charge the Second gained the breastworks, and for a moment was the master of the situation; but the enemy rallied, and by sheer force of numbers drove the little band back slowly over the ground to their own intrenchments. They hesitated a moment to take up their brave commander, but the gallant officer, though mortally hurt, still commanded them: " Leave me; I am badly hurt. The enemy will take care of me; save the regiment, if possible;" and then back through the hell of flame and ball the brave and devoted band went, staggering under the murderous fire of musketry and cannon that opened great gaps in their lines and covered the ground with their slain. Captain James B. Mason, of Company H, Merrill Horse, at the engagement near Memphis, Tennessee, July 18, 1862, illustrated his tenderness towards his men, though his heart knew no fear in front of an enemy. " As the ambulance arrived at the temporary hospital provided for the wounded men, Mason insisted upon taking them one by one in his own stalwart arms and laying them upon their couches, from which many of them never again rose. No one could lift them so tenderly, and when the merciful office was fulfilled his garments were wet with their streaming blood." Captain Mason was afterwards the lieutenantcolonel of the Eleventh Michigan Cavalry, and was mortally wounded while leading his regiment in the battle of Clinch Mountain, Virginia; he died in the hands of the enemy, and was buried by them at the foot of the mountain. On the 2d of June, 1864, in the Richmond campaign, at North Anna, the Twentieth Regiment charged a line of rebel breastworks which it had formerly occupied, and in the charge Lieutenant Bidwell, of Battle Creek, fell with his knee crushed by a musket-ball. The works were taken and held, but so incessant was the fire of the enemy that even a hand raised above the level of the works was liable to be struck. All day long the men were obliged to stay there, beneath the scorching rays of the sun, which converted the ditch in which they were confined into a sort of human bake-oven. In the meantime, Bidwell, who was lying in an open plowed field directly in line of the enemy's fire, was suffering in the extremest tortures. So severe were his wounds that he could not move from where he had fallen. Knights and Knowles volunteered to bring him off the field. To stand erect was to court immediate death, and dead men could render little assistance to a comrade in distress; hence, it was found necessary to crawl as close to mother earth as ever the serpent did that tempted Eve. Arriving, finally, by this painful method, to where poor Bidwell lay, he was with some difficulty placed upon his blanket; then, by placing themselves in proper position, and grasping the edge of the blanket between their toes, his rescuers were able to draw him forward as far as the bend of their knees would permit. By repeated efforts of this sort he was drawn the entire forty rods to the shelter of the breastworks, but died of his wounds soon after. Lieutenant Jerome B. Warner, of the Eighth Cavalry, and Captain Charles C. Dodge, of Company I, Twentieth Infantry, were taken prisoners, and, during the bombardment of Charleston by the " swamp angel," were put into the chain-gang and placed under the Union fire by the military commandant of Charleston. Clement Loundsbury, of Marengo, enlisted in the first company oft three months' men, was taken prisoner at Bull Run, and lay in Libby and Salisbury thirteen months, and on his exchange re-enlisted in the Twentieth Infantry, and rose from the ranks to the colonelcy of the regiment, being in the war from May, 1861, to May 30, 1865. Charles H. Potter, of Homer, enlisted in Company M of the Second Cavalry as a private, and December 18, 1863, was commissioned as second lieutenant of the Fourteenth Battery, Michigan Light Artillery; but, on the 24th of the same month, before his commission was received, he was taken prisoner in a severe engagement with the enemy near Dunbridge, East Tennessee, and, after suffering the tortures of Libby and Andersonville, he was taken to Savannah, Georgia, where he died. Of the fifty-two members of his regiment taken prisoners at the same time, but one came through the terrible ordeal of captivity alive,-a German, John Kunn, who formerly lived in Marshall, but who now resides in Detroit. Captain E. O. Crittenton was in command of Companies H and K of the

Page  41 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 41 ___ _ I t I " Engineers and Mechanics" engaged in building bridges in General (Professor) O. M. Mitchell's division, and was untiring, energetic, steady-minded, and could stand the test of any trial imposed upon him. General Mitchell intimated to him on one occasion his expectation that a certain bridge would be built in three days' time, but the captain would offer no encouragement that it would be completed in six or eight days. The general spoke of putting the infantry at the job, and sending the engineers and mechanics home. " As you please, general," replied Captain Crittenton; " but if I should promise to build in three days what I knew would require six, it would soon be said of me by yourself and others I don't understand my business."' " You are right," responded the general, and the bridge was ready on time. Mud creek bridge was built by Captain Crittenton and his command in seven days; the bridge over Crow creek (three hundred feet) in five days; and another near Stevenson, Alabama, two hundred and twenty-five feet long, in five days more. Widow creek bridge was built in four and a half days. Colonel Loundsbury was with the Custer expedition, and wrote up the New York Herald's report of the battle of the Little Big Horn, and he is now a resident of the proposed new Territory of Pembina. The following history of the regiments and batteries in which one organized company, or more, were incorporated we have compiled from the exhaustive reports of the adjutant-general, General John Robertson, and also from the " Red Book" of Michigan, which condensed those reports very ably and judiciously. We are also under obligations to Captain Almon E. Preston, of the " Merrill Horse," for clippings from his able and interesting address delivered at Battle Creek, on Decoration Day, 1876, and to Colonel N. J. Frink, of the Twentyeighth Infantry, and to Seth Lewis, Esq., for files of the Statesman during the whole period of the war, wherein was published voluminous correspondence from several of the men of the Calhoun companies in the field. Also to Colonel Graves. Surgeon O'Donoghue, Captain Freeman, and others of the soldiers of Calhoun. FIRST MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The First Michigan,-the regiment which, under Colonel Wilcox, led the advance of Michigan troops to the front,-although hurriedly organized and hastily equipped, left the State a pattern regiment in every respect, none better having preceded it to the national capital from any State. Arriving there at a critical time, when that place was in great and immediate danger of being attacked and captured by the rebels, whose troops then picketed the Potomac, its presence aided much in establishing confidence, among those in authority, that the capital was safe; and its appearance in Pennsylvania avenue was hailed with the cheers of loyal thousands. As it passed in review before the lamented Lincoln it received his highest praise, and through them he thanked the State for their prompt appearance in Washington. The regiment was assigned to Heintzelman's division, and, under Colonel Wilcox, led the advance of the Union army across the Long Bridge into Virginia on the 24th day of May, driving in the rebel pickets, and entering Alexandria, via the road, simultaneously with the regiment of Ellsworth's Zouaves, who entered it by steamer. The First Michigan took the railroad depot, capturing near there a troop of rebel cavalry, numbering one hundred, with their horses and equipments. At the battle of Bull Run the regiment belonged to the brigade commanded by Colonel Wilcox, and was in the hottest of the fight, eagerly pressing forward on the enemy, losing heavily, but fighting stubbornly and gallantly. The Fire Zouaves, after charging bravely, but in vain, upon one of the heaviest of the rebel batteries, fell back when the Michigan First, then commanded by Major Bidwell, which had been constantly associated with the Zouaves ever since Ellsworth fell at Alexandria, moved promptly and rapidly forward and took their places. They charged in double-quick upon the battery once and again in splendid style, and yet it was not taken. They pushed forward to the attempt a third time, and were again driven back before the deadly fire of the enemy. But the attack was not abandoned. The brave fellows rallied for a fourth time to the deadly work, but it was all in vain. The battery could not be taken. On that disastrous field the First established the highest standard for Michigan troops, so uniformly and so remarkably maintained throughout the entire war. Its dead were found nearest the enemy's works. In the engagement the loss of the regiment was heavy. Among the number were Captain Butterworth, Lieutenants Mauch and Casey, wounded and taken prisoners, and who afterwards died of their wounds, in rebel custody. Colonel Wilcox was wounded, and, falling into the hands of the enemy, was held as a prisoner at Richmond for about fifteen months. The regiment, on the expiration of its three months' term of service, returned to the State, and was mustered out August 7, 1861. It was soon after reorganized as a three years' regiment, and left for the Army of the Potomac, August 16, 1861, commanded by Colonel John C. Robinson, then captain in the United States Army, who continued to command it until April 28, 1862, when he was appointed 6 a brigadier-general of volunteers, and was succeeded in command by Colonel H. S. Roberts, promoted from lieutenant-colonel. It went to the Peninsula with McClellan, and was in the engagements at Mechanicsville, June 26; at Gaines' Mills, June 27; at Malvern Hill, July 1; and at Gainsville, August 29. The losses of the regiment in these engagements were not reported, excepting Captain O. C. Comstock, of Marshall, who was killed at Gaines' Mills. It rendered most gallant and valuable service in many hard-fought battles during the war, and suffered severe losses in killed and wounded. Among its numerous engagements none, perhaps, will be more vividly remembered by the regiment than the disastrous charges, so bravely made, but with such fearful loss, upon the rebel position along the Warrenton and Centreville turnpike, on August 30, 1862, during that disastrous series of engagements near Manassas, now known as the second battle of Bull Run. The regiment, under the command of Colonel Roberts, was in General Fitz John Porter's corps, and had during the day been posted in the woods fronting the enemy's lines, and near one of his most important batteries. At four P.M. the order was given to advance and dislodge the rebels. The First Michigan, with the Eighteenth Massachusetts and the Thirteenth New York regiments of infantry, deployed in column, and, with cheers, charged. They instantly found themselves the target of a terrific fire from ambushed infantry of the enemy, and from five batteries, four of which had been masked and hitherto unseen. The charge was a murderous one, and within a few moments fell eight officers and fifty per cent. of the regiment. The men stood their ground bravely and with veteran coolness under these trying circumstances, and when the impossibility of success became a certainty, and the order to retreat was given, fell back in good order to the woods, and reformed their division. Had victory been possible their courage and persistency would have won it. Their demeanor amid disaster and defeat affords one of the greatest examples of true courage. Chaplain Arthur Edward, then with the regiment, and who rendered most valuable and very acceptable service during the entire engagement, and throughout his whole term in the army was an exemplary chaplain, wrote at the time as follows: " The regiment went into battle with twenty officers and two hundred and twenty-seven men; of the former but four are in camp unhurt, and of the latter hardly one hundred and fifty. In the action the First was placed in the centre. In front was a rebel battery, and so destructive was its fire, and so commanding was its position, that General Porter ordered our brigade (Martindale's, of Morrell's division) forward to capture it. The service was so desperate, and so very sure were our officers of the death that awaited them, that they shook hands with each other in farewell. Like heroes, they pressed on to the charge until, coming within range, the enemy opened four additional batteries, hitherto masked, and poured in a deadly fire; thus they were exposed to a cross-fire from five batteries at short range, throwing grape and canister, and to a flank-fire of infantry. The result may be easily seen. Men fell like grain in harvest. Colonel Roberts was shot in the breast by a minie ball, and lived about ten minutes. His words were, ' I am killed! Tell Captain - to take command of the regiment.' He seemed to feel that he was about to fall, for, previous to his going to his place in line, he called me aside, and, after leaving some private messages, said, ' I trust that Michigan will believe that I tried to do my duty.'" There was one company from Calhoun County in the regiment, Company I, Captain Devillo Hubbard, of Marshall, of three months' men. In the battle of the Wilderness, May 5, 1864, the First also especially distinguished itself. It was in Bartlett's (Third) brigade of Griffin's (First) division, Fifth corps, in the van of Grant's celebrated movement on Richmond, which ultimately culminated in the fall of the rebel capital and the surrender of its army. It fired the first musket of that glorious campaign, and its brigade checked the rebel advance on the road leading to Orange Court-House, and this opened the last act of the great drama. In the reorganization of the First, Captain H. S. Warner led Company B, with Lieutenant O. C. Comstock. Lieutenants William S. Woodruff, Lyford Peavey, and John S. Hatch were in command of Company C. Comstock was promoted to the captaincy of Company K, and was killed at the battle of the Wilderness. Peavey died at Annapolis Junction, and Woodruff was wounded at Gettysburg, and afterwards died of wounds received in the Richmond campaign, June 27, 1864. The engagements of the First were as follows: First Infantry (three months).-Bull Run, Virginia, July 21, 1861. First Infantry (three years). —Mechanicsville, Virginia, June 26, 1862 Gaines' Mills, Virginia, June 27, 1862; Peach Orchard, Virginia, June 29, 1862; Savage Station, Virginia, June 29, 1862; Turkey Bend, Virginia, June 30, 1862; White Oak Swamp, Virginia, June 30, 1862; Malvern Hill, Virginia, July 1, 1862; Harrison's Landing, Virginia, July 2, 1862; Gainsville, Virginia, August 29, 1862; 2d Bull Run, Virginia, August 30, 1862; Antietam, Maryland, September 17, 1862; Shepardstown Ford, Virginia, September 20, 1862; Snicker's Gap, Virginia. November 14, 1862; Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 13,

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I___________________________ 14, 1862; United States Ford, Virginia, January 1, 1863; Chancellorsville, Virginia, May 1-5, 1863; Kelley's Ford, Virginia, June 9, 1863; Ashby's Gap, Virginia, June 21, 1863; Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, July 2-4, 1863; Williamsport, Maryland, July 12, 1863; Wapping Heights, Virginia, July 21, 1863; Culpepper, Virginia, October 13, 1863; Brandy Station, Virginia, October 13, 1863; Bristoe Station, Virginia, October 14, 1863; Rappahannock Station, Virginia, November 7, 1863; Cross-Roads, Virginia, November 26, 1863; Mill Run, Virginia, November 29, 1863; Wilderness, Virginia, May 5-7, 1864; Laurel Hill, Virginia, May 8, 1864; Po River, Virginia, May 10, 1864; Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 12, 1864; Ny River, Virginia, May 21, 1864; North Anna, Virginia, May 23, 1864; Jericho Mills, Virginia, May 24, 1864; Noel's Turn, Virginia, May 26, 1864; Tolopotomy, Virginia, May 30, 1864; Magnolia Swamp, Virginia, June 1, 1864; Bethesda Church, Virginia, June 2, 1864; Petersburg, Virginia, June 18, 1864; Weldon Railroad, Virginia, August 19-21, 1864; Peeble's Farm, Virginia, September 30, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Virginia, September 30, 1864; Nottaway Court-House, Virginia, December 8, 1864; Dabney's MIills, or Hatcher's Run, February 6, 7, 1865; Hatcher's Run, Virginia, March 25, 1865; White Oak Road, Virginia, March 29, 1865; Five Forks, Virginia, April 1, 1865; Amelia Court-House, Virginia, April 5, 1865; High Bridge, Virginia, April 6, 1865; Appomattox Court-House, Virginia, April 9, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Virginia, from June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. SECOND MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The Second Infantry, under command of Colonel J. B. Richardson, by whom it had been organized, had among its constituent companies one from Battle Creek. Company C, Captain Cornelius Byington, with much promptness followed the First Regiment to the war in Virginia, and was in time to be present in the first engagement, being in the brigade of Richardson, which opened fire upon the rebels at Blackburn's Ford on the 18th of July, 1861, and which covered the retreat of the army from Bull Run on the 21st following. The regiment, under command of Colonel O. M. Poe, participated in all of the engagements on the Peninsula, first meeting the enemy on that campaign at Williamsburg on May 5, 1862, where it lost seventeen killed and thirty-eight wounded, and four missing; at Fair Oaks on the 27th, at Charles City Cross-Roads on June 30, and at Malvern Hill July 1. At Fair Oaks it lost ten killed and forty-seven wounded while its bravery was so marked as to receive the following notice in the published history of the time: " Meantime, Heintzelman had sent forward Kearney to recover Casey's lost ground, and a desperate fight was going on at the extreme left. The enemy had been successfully held in front of Couch's old intrenched camp until Kearney's division arrived, when he stayed the torrent of battle. One after another his gallant regiments pushed forward, and pressed back the fiery rebels with more daring than their own. Here the Fifty-fifth New York won new laurels, and Poe's Second Michigan was bathed in blood. Five hundred of them charged across the open field against ten times their number, and stopped them in mid career, losing seventeen brave fellows in that one desperate essay." The Second was transferred to the western army, under Grant, in 1863; and after the surrender of Vicksburg participated in General Sherman's pursuit of the rebel General Johnston. The Second, on the 11th of July, became engaged with the enemy, making one of the most daring and gallant charges of the war. Colonel Humphrey, commanding the regiment, in his report thus details its movements on that occasion: " At five A.M. I was ordered by Colonel Leasure, commanding the brigade, to deploy my regiment as skirmishers on the left of the skirmish-line of the First brigade, to keep my connection with it perfect, to be guided in the movements of my line strictly by those of the regiment on my right, and to advance until I drew the fire of the enemy's artillery. I at once deployed my regiment as directed, and moved forward, meeting with only slight opposition from the enemy until about six o'clock, when he opened a brisk fire along my whole line. We had come up to the enemy, strongly posted in front of my right on a deep water-course, and of my left in a heavy woods. For an hour a brisk skirmish was kept up. The enemy made a determined resistance, but was gradually forced back toward his support. At seven A.M. the order came down the line from the right to " Forward, double-quick!" The men at once advanced with a cheer, drove in the enemy's skirmishers through their camps and into their reserves, strongly posted in a deep ravine, charged and broke their reserve, and drove it up out of the ravine into its main support, drawn up in line of battle on the top of the south bank of the ravine; charged under hot fire of musketry and artillery up the steep bank against the main body, broke this line, and drove the enemy within his works. We waited now for our support to come up, but on sending for it were surprised to find we had none. The regiment on my right, for some reason unknown to me, advanced but a short distance, then fell back on the position left by it a few moments before. By some mistake, the three com panies (C, F, and H) on the left did not advance with the rest of the regiment in this charge, which was made with about one hundred and seventy men. Fifty of these, almost one-third, had fallen. The enemy was being reinforced and we were entirely without support, with no connection on the right and no troops on our left. Thus situated, to hold for any length of time the ground we had so dearly won would be impossible. I therefore put my men under cover of the bank of the ravine through which we had advanced, within twenty yards of the enemy's works, and held the position until the wounded were carried to the rear, and then, following the movement of the regiment on my right, fell back to the line from which we had advanced an hour before." The Second was also specially distinguished on several occasions during the siege of Knoxville, by Longstreet, in 1863, and particularly so on the 24th of November, when, under command of Major Cornelius Byington (Colonel Humphrey being in command of the brigade), it so gallantly charged a strong force of rebels protected by intrenchments, and a house which they occupied, driving them from their position, and leveling the house and works to the ground. In the charge the regiment lost in killed and wounded, out of one hundred and sixty-one officers and men engaged, eighty-six. Among the killed were Lieutenants William Noble (adjutant) and Charles R. Galpin, and Major Byington and Lieutenant Frank Zoellener mortally wounded. This charge is handed down in the history of the day as among the most brilliant of the war. In the spring of 1864 the Second returned with its corps to the Army of the Potomac, taking part in the advance on Richmond, where it most signally distinguished itself in every battle of that terrible campaign, and losing heavily at the battle of Williamsburg. The Second took into action only sixty men,-four companies, two in command of Captain William Humphrey, and two commanded by Captain W. J. Handy,-the rest being left behind, exhausted with the quick march through the mud and rain; yet they lost one out of every five engaged,- the loss being seventeen killed and thirty-eight wounded and four missing. The regiment was in the hottest of the fight. By the confessions of prisoners, eight hundred of Berry's men (mostly Michigan) drove back, at the point of the bayonet, one thousand six hundred rebels. The other companies of the regiment were partially engaged. Its battles and skirmishes during its service, which terminated July 29, 1865, were as follows: Blackburn's Ford, July 18,1861; Bull Run, Virginia, July 21, 1861; Siege of Yorktown, Virginia, April 4 to May 4, 1862; Williamsburg, Virginia, May 5, 1862; Fair Oaks, Virginia, May 31 and June 1, 1862; near Richmond, Virginia, June 18, 1862; Glendale, Virginia, June 30, 1862; Malvern Hill, Virginia, July 1, 1862; Bull Run (2d), Virginia, August 28-30,1862; Chantilly, Virginia, September 1, 1862; Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 12-14, 1862; Siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 22 to July 4,1863; Jackson, Mississippi, July 11-18, 1863; Blue Spring, Tennessee, October 10, 1863; Loudon, Tennessee, November 14, 1863; Lenoir Station, Tennessee, November 15, 1863; Campbell's Station. Tennessee, November 16, 1863; Siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, November 17 to December 5, 1863; Knoxville, Tennessee, November 24,1863; Fort Saunders, Tennessee, November 29, 1863; Thurley's Ford, Tennessee, December 15, 1863; Strawberry Plains, Tennessee, January 22, 1864; near Knoxville, Tennessee, January 24, 1864; Wilderness, Virginia, May 5-7, 1864; Ny River, Virginia, May 9, 1864; Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 10-12, 1864; Ox Ford, Virginia, May 23, 1864; North Anna, Virginia, May 24, 25, 1864; Tolopotomy, Virginia, May 30, 1864; Bethesda Church, Virginia, June 2, 3, 1864; Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 18, 1864; the Crater, Virginia, July 30, 1864; Weldon Railroad, Virginia, August 19-21, 1864; Ream's Station, Virginia, August 25, 1864; Poplar Springs Church, Virginia, Septemr ber 30,1864; Pegram Farm, Virginia, October 2, 1864; Boydton Road, Virginia, October 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Virginia, October 27, 28, 1864; Fort Stead man, Virginia, March 25, 1865; capture of Petersburg, Virginia, April 3, 1865; Siege of Petersburg, Virginia, from June 17, 1864, to April 3, 1865. SIXTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The peculiar regiment of Michigan was the Sixth Infantry, afterwards organized as heavy artillery. This splendid and gallant regiment was peculiar by reason of its entire isolation, almost amounting to exile, from the rest of the Michigan troops, during the whole term of its faithful service. It left the State in August, 1861, commanded by Colonel F. W. Curtenius, under whose direction it was raised and organized, to join the army in the field, but was detained at Baltimore, where it remained on duty most of the following winter; thence sailed to Ship Island, Mississippi, and in April, 1862, left that place for New Orleans, constituting a part of General Butler's force, and was one of the first regiments to occupy the city on its surrender. Serving during its whole time in the extreme south, it suffered much from the complaints incident to that climate, losing more men by disease than any other regiment from this State. Three companies from Calhoun

Page  43 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 43 County were members of this organization; Company A, Captain --; Company E, Marshall, Captain James Winters; Company I, Albion, Captain Harrison Soule. The battles of Baton Rouge and Port Hudson, prominent in the history of the rebellion, are among the most conspicuous in which the Sixth was engaged, and were important in their results, being most decided victories, securing to the Union arms strong positions on the line of the Mississippi river, and which were held during the war. At Baton Rouge, August 5, 1862, while that place was being heavily attacked by the rebel force in very superior numbers under Breckenridge, the regiment, then in command of Captain Charles E. Clark, received and repulsed the principal attack made on that day by the troops led by General Clark, of Mississippi, against the right wing of the Union forces, which, if successful, would have caused the loss of a large part of our artillery and given the enemy a most advantageous position, and might have led to very damaging results. The importance of the repulse was acknowledged by General Butler in a congratulatory order issued soon after the affair, in which the regiment was highly complimented for its gallant and valuable services, conspicuous bravery, and most determined fighting. In General Butler's order is the following: " The Sixth Michigan fought rather by detachments than as a regiment, but deserves the fullest commendation for the gallant behavior of its officers and men. Companies A, B, and F, under command of Captain Cordon, receive special mention for the coolness and courage with which they supported and retook Brown's battery, routing the Fourth Louisiana and capturing their colors, which the regiment has leave to send to its native State. Captain Charles E. Clark, acting lieutenant-colonel Sixth Michigan, prevented the enemy from flanking our right, bringing his command at the critical moment to the support of Nim's battery. Lieutenant Howell, Company F, Sixth Michigan, and Lieutenant A. T. Ralph, acting adjutant, for intrepidity; Captain Spitzey, Sixth Michigan, in command of the company of pickets, who handsomely held in check the enemy's advance; the fearless conduct of Lieutenant Howell, Company F, and Sergeant Thayer, Company A, Sixth Michigan Regiment, after they were wounded, in supporting Lieutenant Brown's battery, are specially complimented. Captain Soule and Lieutenant Fassett, Company I, Sixth Michigan, as skirmishers were wounded, and deserve special notice for the steadiness of their command, which lost heavily in killed and wounded." Lieutenant G. Weitzel (afterwards major-general), then chief engineer Department of the Gulf, and present with the troops in the engagement, says in his official report, '" Three companies of the Sixth Michigan covered themselves with glory in recovering from a large force two guns, posted on the right of the Magnolia cemetery, which temporarily were left by our forces. These same three companies captured the colors of the Fourth Louisiana, but only after they had shot down four successive color-bearers." The regiment commanded by Colonel Thomas S. Clark formed part of the force of General Banks which invested Port Hudson, and which compelled its surrender. Colonel Clark, in a report, thus mentions the part taken by his regiment on this occasion: "On the 23d of May, 1863, arriving before that stronghold, the regiment was placed in the most advanced position, and maintained it until the surrender, on the 9th of July. During the siege of this formidable place it participated in three desperate assaults upon its works. In the assault of the 27th of May the regiment, commanded by Colonel Clark, led the division of General T. W. Sherman, and lost more than one-third of the men it had engaged, including Lieutenant Fred. T. Clark, who fell while gallantly leading Company D to the N charge. In this affair Captain Montgomery led a forlorn hope of two hundred volunteers belonging to the regiment. An assault was made on the 14th of June, when the Sixth, then commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Bacon, advanced by detachments, the leading detachment commanded by Captain John Cordon, one by Captain Stark following, with the balance of the regiment bringing up the rear. On the 29th of June the regiment, then commanded by Captain Cordon, again advanced to the assault, when thirty-five of the regiment, comprising a forlorn hope, assailed the enemy's works at a point known as ' the citadel.' The party succeeded in gaining the ditch, but were overpowered and driven back, with a loss of eight killed and nine wounded. Among the killed was Sergeant Madison O. Walker, who led the detachment." The list of battles and skirmishes participated in by the regiment during its service, terminating August 30, 1865, is as follows: Sewell's Point, Virginia, March 5, 1862; Port Jackson, Louisiana, April 25, 1862; Vicksburg, Mississippi, May 20, 1862; Grand Gulf; Mississippi, May 27, 1862; Amite River, Mississippi, June 20, 1862; Baton Rouge, Louisiana, August 5, 17. 1862; Bayou Teche, Louisiana, January 14, 1863; Ponchetoola, Louisiana, March 24-26, 1863; Barataria, Louisiana, April 7, 1863; Tickfarr River, Louisiana, April 12,1863; Amite River, Mississippi, May 7, 1863; Ponchetoola, Louisiana, May 16, 1863; siege of Port Hudson, May 23 to June 30, 1863; Tunica Bayou, Louisiana, November 8, 1863; Ashton, Arkansas, July 24, 1864; Fort Morgan, Alabama, August 23, 1864; Spanish Fort, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Blakely, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Huger, Alabama, April, 1865; Fort Tracey, Alabama, April, 1865; siege of Mobile, Alabama, from March 20 to April 12, 1865. TWELFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The bloody battle of Shiloh, April 6 and 7, 1862, first tried the metal of the Twelfth Infantry, and substantially established its reputation as a fighting regiment. Leaving the State, in command of Colonel Francis Quinn, on March 18, it hurriedly reached Pittsburg Landing barely in time to participate in that important engagement. A portion of the regiment was among the troops that first discovered and engaged the enemy in his advance upon the Union lines; and this timely discovery, and their persistent opposition to his advance, without doubt saved their division from entire capture, and must have done much towards saving the whole army from a complete surprise. The Twelfth was in Colonel' Peabody's brigade of Prentiss' division, which occupied the position just attacked by the rebel forces. During the night preceding the battle of the 6th, Colonel Peabody had been advised by Lieutenant-Colonel Graves, of the Twelfth Michigan, of the approach of the enemy, and on this information he took the responsibility to order from his brigade two companies of the Twelfth Michigan, commanded respectively by Captains Graves and Cravath, and two companies of the Twenty-fifth Missouri, as a reconnoissance, the whole under command of Major Powell, Twenty-fifth Missouri, who, about three o'clock on the morning of the 6th, met the advance troops of the enemy and fought them until daylight, gradually falling back until he reached the Twelfth Michigan and Twenty-fifth Missouri, which had advanced some distance in front of their color-line. These two regiments fought the enemy until overpowered, when they fell back to their colorline, reformed again, and defended their line until again overpowered, when they retired to a third position, which was held until the division was completely surrounded and a large portion of it made prisoners. The Twelfth escaped capture, maintaining its organization, and next day engaged the enemy, losing in both days two hundred and sixty-six killed, wounded, and missing, including, among the mortally wounded, Lieutenant Alexander G. Davis, who died at Cincinnati on the 21st of April following. The regiment, in December following, was guarding the Mississippi railroad from Hickory valley to near Bolivar. Tennessee, with its headquarters at Middleburg. On the 24th of that month the force at Middleburg, consisting of one hundred and fifteen officers and men, in command of Colonel W. H. Graves, was attacked by a large force of Van Dorn's cavalry, consisting of three brigades, in all about three thousand strong, by which they were surrounded and their surrender demanded. Colonel Graves, in his official report, says, "The whole force of General Van Dorn was between five and six thousand, about one-half of which fought us, the balance holding the horses. They lost (as near as I can recollect) one hundred and thirty-five men, killed, wounded, and prisoners; among the latter three officers wounded, one mortally. There were six of my men wounded through the port-holes, one killed, and thirteen taken prisoners, mostly on picket along the railroad. Over one thousand rounds were fired by the men of the Twelfth during the action." For this gallant and su(cessful defense of Middleburg, so remarkable for the disparity in numbers, the regiment (with several others along that line of railroad that had successfully defended their posts) was complimented for bravery by General Grant in general orders, and declared by him to be deserving of the thanks of the army, which was in a measure dependent for its supplies on the road they so nobly defended. There was one company in the Twelfth from Calhoun County, Company D, First Lieutenant Charles E. Harvey, of Burlington. The battles and skirmishes of the regiment were as follows: Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee, April 6 and 7, 1862; Iuka, Mississippi, September 19, 1862; Metamora, Tennessee, October 5, 1862; Middleburg, Tennessee, December 24, 1862; Mechanicsville, Mississippi, June 4, 1863; siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, June and July, 1863; siege of Little Rock, Arkansas, August and September, 1863; Clarendon, Arkansas, June 26, 1864; Gregory's Landing, September 4, 1864. TWENTIETH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The Twentieth Regiment was recruited from the counties of Jackson, Washtenaw, Calhoun, Eaton, and Ingham.' Its camp was at Jackson, with Tidus Livermore, Esq., as commandant. It left Jackson for Washington, September 1, 1862, in command of Colonel A. W. Williams, and was soon after attached to the First brigade, First division, Ninth corps, of the Army of the Potomac. Early in 1863 the regiment left the Army of the Potomac with the corps, and commenced the campaign in Kentucky, Mississippi, and Tennessee. There were two companies from Calhoun County in the Twentieth; Company I, Captain C. C. Dodge, Marshall, and Company C, Captain G. C. Barnes, Battle Creek. At the Horse-shoe bend of the Cumberland river, in Kentucky, three hundred of the men

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of the Twentieth, including the Calhoun companies, with one hundred dismounted men of the Eleventh Kentucky Cavalry, and one piece of artillery, without supports, with retreat cut off by a stream one hundred and fifty yards wide, deep and rapid, without intrenchments, repulsed the charge of a large brigade, and then in turn drove them with the bayonet; then maintained a desperate fight with an entire division of nearly four thousand men, and finally withdrew from the field in good order, saving the piece of artillery, bringing off the wounded, and recrossing the river in face of the enemy. In this battle the loss of the Twentieth was fortyfour killed, wounded, and missing, including among the killed Lieutenant William M. Green, a valuable officer, while the rebels acknowledged a loss of one hundred and seventy-five in killed. For its gallant conduct on this occasion the regiment received the highest commendation from General Burnside, and his hearty thanks. From Captain Preston's address on Decoration Day, at Battle Creek, in 1876, we clip the following history of the Twentieth Regiment: 'i Marching south from the ' Horse-shoe Bend,' the regiment arrived in the vicinity of Vicksburg, then besieged by Grant, on the 14th of June. Having so recently constituted a part of the Army of the Potomac, the men were frequently jeered by the veterans of Donaldson and Shiloh, then surrounding the doomed city of Vicksburg, and that familiar sentence which so often formed the burden of dispatches from the national capital-'All quiet on the Potomac'-frequently saluted their ears. "Feeling most keenly the sting of this insinuating remark, Grant was most earnestly importuned for the privilege of taking their places in the besieging lines, that they might show to their tormentors that the barren result of their arduous services and incessant efforts on the historic line of the Potomac was not from lack of soldierly qualities or patriotic devotion. But at that time Grant had other work for them. It was resolved, however, that no opportunity should be lost to vindicate their wounded honor. The regiment, then forming a part of Wilcox's division and Humphrey's brigade, was employed during the siege in guarding the rear of the besieging army, and in preventing reinforcements or supplies reaching Pemberton. "Vicksburg fell on the 4th day of July, 1863. Immediately an army was put in motion, composed in part of Wilcox's division, to secure the overthrow of Johnson, and to capture the city of Jackson. The enemy was driven rapidly back upon Jackson, and were found strongly posted in an outer line of works, prepared to dispute the farther advance of our forces, and ready to give blow for blow. Here, then, was the opportunity for which the division had so impatiently waited. With a cheer, the order was received to charge the enemy and drive him back upon his main line of works. Under the immediate eye of Sherman, who, with his staff, occupied an eminence overlooking the entire field, the line was formed for the onset. With the precision of a dress parade or a gala day review, the regiments fell into their places without the slightest precipitation and with the most provoking coolness. "Now behold how calmly men can march into the jaws of death. At a rightshoulder-shift, the line moved across the field under the peltings of murderous fire, without a waver, without a break, as if a part of some huge machine impelled by an invisible force. The enemy's works were carried at the point of the bayonet, and the men of the Potomac felt their vindication complete on receiving the compliments of Sherman, who declared that he had never beheld so grand and so effective a charge. The capture of Jackson soon followed; and in the early part of autumn the Twentieth and Second, both in Humphrey's brigade, were again back in East Tennessee. "After the siege of Knoxville the regiment again marched to Washington, ready to participate in the long series of bloody encounters from the Wilderness to Appomattox, resulting in the final overthrow of the rebellion. The battle of the Wilderness commenced on the 3d of May, and continued four days. During this time the regiment was frequently engaged, but without severe loss. On the 12th of May the regiment reached Spottsylvania, and were hotly engaged, losing heavily. In a charge, Maynard was killed and Barnes narrowly escaped. In the same battle Piper and Freeleigh, of the Sharp-shooters, fell; and from that time onward Battle Creek sorrowfully watched the fall of her brave volunteers upon almost every battle-field. " Crossing the James river on the 12th of June, and hurrying on towards Petersburg, the regiment, on the 17th, were hotly engaged, and at about ten o'clock at night, in a charge upon the enemy's works. Rhines and Knights, of the First Michigan Sharp-shooters, were both slain almost at the same moment. On the next day, the 18th of June, the painful record of our fallen heroes was still further enlarged. In another effort to storm the enemy's works, Barnes fell, mortally wounded, and ten minutes after, Hicks was instantly killed. And then the slaughter in Company C had to stop for want of further victims. On calling the roll of the company, only ten men could be mustered for duty of the sixty with which it entered the battle of the Wilderness. Brown, who went out in the company, died from disease contracted in the line of his duty, at Frederick City, I Maryland, January 29, 1863; Barney, after honorable services, died at home, Maryland, January 29, 1863; Barney, after honorable services, died at home, from wounds received in the battle of Cold Harbor." While this regiment, during its term of service, displayed persistent firmness and true courage on all occasions, perhaps there was no position in which it was placed that exhibited the bravery and endurance of the men to more advantage than at the charge made at the " Crater," or springing of the mine before Petersburg, July 30, 1864. That affair, although resulting in a needless and miserable failure, was one of the most daring and desperate undertakings of the war, involving the advance of nearly a whole corps, closely massed, over open ground, and exposed to a murderous and withering fire, driving large portions of the force into the river, which soon became a perfect slaughter-pen, and from which there was no escape except through the leaden storm which led to certain death. The battles and skirmishes of the regiment were as follows: Fredericksburg, Virginia, December 12-14, 1862; Horse-Shoe Bend, Kentucky, May 10, 1863; siege of Vicksburg, Mississippi, June 22 to July 4, 1863; Jackson, Mississippi, July 11-18, 1863; Blue Springs, Tennessee, October 10, 1863; Loudon, Tennessee, November 14, 1863; Lenoir Station, Tennessee, November 15, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tennessee, November 16, 1863; siege of Knoxville, Tennessee, November 17 to December 5, 1863; Fort Saunders, Tennessee, December 15, 1863; Strawberry Plains, Tennessee, January 22, 1864; Wilderness, Virginia, May 5-7, 1864; Ny River, Virginia, May 9,1864; Spottsylvania, Virginia, May 10-12, 1864; North Anna, Virginia, May 24, 25, 1864; Bethesda Church, Virginia, June 2, 3, 1864; Cold Harbor, Virginia, June 7, 1864; Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 18, 1864; the Crater, Virginia, July 30,1864; Weldon Railroad, Virginia, August 19-21, 1864; Ream's Station, Virginia, August 25, 1864; Poplar Spring Church, Virginia, September 30, 1864; Pegram Farm, Virginia, October 2, 1864; Boydton Road, Virginia, October 8, 1864; Hatcher's Run, Virginia, October 27, 28, 1864; Fort Steadman, Virginia, March 25, 1864; capture of Petersburg, Virginia, April 3, 1865; siege of Petersburg, Virginia, June 17 to April 3, 1865. TWENTY-FIFTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. The Twenty-fifth, recruited under the superintendence of Hon. H. G. Wells, commandant of camp,-a splendid and well-disciplined regiment, commanded by Colonel O. H. Moor, then a captain in the Sixth United States Infantry,-left Kalamazoo, for the field in Kentucky, September 29, 1862, having in its ranks one company from Calhoun,-Company A, Captain C. B. Pratt, of Marshall,and on December 27 following first tested the realities of war by engaging the enemy, under the rebel General Pegram, at Mumfordsville, Kentucky, thus early commencing a career of fighting for the Union which it nobly and forcibly maintained during its whole term of service, ending with the war. The regiment was specially distinguished on July 4, 1863, at Tebb's, near Green fiver bridge, Kentucky, where it most gallantly repulsed an overwhelming force with heavy loss. About July 1, Colonel Moor was stationed, with five companies of his regiment, on the north side of Green river, ten miles north of Columbia, on the main road running from Columbia to Lebanon, Kentucky, and on the second of July was advised of the fact that the rebel General John H. Morgan was about crossing the Cumberland river to invade the State with a cavalry force of from three to four thousand men. Being left to exercise his own discretion independently, and there being no Union troops nearer than at a post thirty miles' distant, he felt that it was his duty to retard the progress of the great rebel raider, if but for a few hours, as they might prove precious hours to the country. He might have retreated with entire success, but from patriotic motives he chose to fight where he could scarcely entertain the hope that he and many others would ever live to tell the story of that terrible battle. After surveying the surrounding country, he selected a strong position for a bate-il ontesuhsd fGen rieaottw ie rm h nap battle-field on the south side of Green river, about two miles from the encampment, in a horse-shoe bend of the river, through which the road ran on which the rebel forces were advancing. This chosen battle-field or ground, which was at the narrows entering the bend of the river, afforded high bluff banks, which protected the flanks of the command, and also compelled the rebels to fight him upon his own front. On the evening of the 3d of July, General Morgan encamped with his entire command about five miles south of Green river, and Colonel Moore after dark advanced his command of five companies, numbering less than three hundred men, about two miles towards the enemy, leaving the river in his rear, and occupied the ground which he had previously selected, and prepared for the battle. The defense, which had been completed that night, consisted of some felled trees on the battle-line, which was in the rear of an open field, and was intended more particularly as an obstruction to the advance of cavalry, while to the front, about one hundred yards in the open field, was thrown up a temporary earthwork, which was intended to check the advance of the enemy, and more especially to command

Page  45 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MIICHIGAN. 45 'Ele position where the rebels would evidently plant their battery. This work was not intended to be held against charges of a superior force, on account of the flanks not beino, strono, and was occupied by only about seventy-five men, who were instructed that when it became necessary to abandon the work it should be done by flanking to the right and left from the centre, so as to unmask the reserve force on the battle-line, and expose the enemy to their fire. This work was located, in anticipation of its capture by the rebels, a little down the slope of the field, so that when it was in possession of the enemy it would be useless, and leave him exposed to a deadly fire. At the gray of morning the fire of the rebels upon the pickets resounded throu-h the woods, and the entire rebel division, under General Mlorgan, was pressing upon the front. The fire was returned with spirit as the pickets retired to the breastwork, where they joined about seventy-five of their comrades already in the advance work, and there, with their united fire as sharp-shooters, held the enemy in check, without exhibiting numbers and the real object of their work. The rebel artillery of four pieces bad gained the anticipated position, and at once opened fire with some effect. When General Morgan suspended firing, and, under flag of truce, demanded the surrender of the force, Colonel Moore returned for his reply, 11 Present my compliments to General M~organ, and say to him that this bein- the 4th of July, I cannot entertain the proposition to surrender,"' and the battle was renewed. No sooner had the rebel batteryr re-opened fire than Colonel Moore commanded two commissioned officers. The rebel command effected a crossin-a six miles down the river, and proceeded on their march. It was his intention, as General Morgan declared, to capture the.iy of Louisville; but this unexpected and terrible repulse cost him more than twelve hours' delay, and caused him, which fact he stated 7 to change his plans, and to abandon his attack upon Louisville. By this brilliantly-fought battle the city: of Louisville was saved from sack and pillage, and the government from the loss of an immense amount of property, consisting of munitions of war and army supplies amounting to the value of several millions of dollars. This splendid victory was acknowledged by Major-General H-artsuff in the following order: HEADQUARnTERS, TWENTY-TH-IRD Anmy CORPS, Lexington, Ky., July 17i, 1863. Gener~al Orde~r No. 12. The general commanding the corps extends his thanks to the two hundred officers and soldiers of the Twenty-fifth Michigan regiment, under Colonel 0. H. Moore, who so successfully resisted, by their gallant and heroic bravery, the attacks of a vastly superior force of the enemy, under the rebel gaeneral John H. Morgran, at Tebb's Bend, on Green river, on the 4th of July, 1863, in which they killed one-fourth as many of the enemy as their own little band amounted to, ancl wounded a number equal to their own. By command of Major-General Hartsuff. GEORGXE B. DRAKE, A. A. G-. The leffislature of Kentucky also acknowledged the services of Colonel Mioore and his command on that occasion in complimentary resolutions. The battles and skirmishes of the re~iment were as follows: M~umfordsville, Kentucky, December 27, 1869,,; Tebb's Bend, Kentucky, July, 4, 1863; Kingston, Tennessee, December 2~9, 1863; Tunnel Hill, Georgial, 1ay, 188,164; Rocky Face, Georgia, May 9, 10, 1864; Resaca, Georgia, May 13,14, 1864; Cassville, Georgia, May 19, 1864; Etowah River, Georgia, Mlay 20, 1864; Kingston, Georgia, May 27, 1864; Altoona, Georgia, May 26-29, 1864; Pine MIountain, Georgia, June 3, 7, 1864 Lost Mountain, Georg~ia, June 10-18, 1864 CGulp's Farm, Georgia, June 22, 1864; Fratnklin, Tennessee, November' 20, 1864; Kenesaw, Georgia, June 23-29, 1S64; Nickajatck, Georgia, July 1, 1864; Chattahoochie River, Gieor(,ia, July 9, 1864; Deccatur, Georgia, July 18, 19, 1864; Atlanta, Georgia, July 20, 22, 28, 1864 - East Point, Georgia, August 3, 864 UtoFCreek GorgaAu-ust 6 IS564; siep-e o tata, Geor,,ia, July 22 to Au-ust 25, 1864; Jonesboro, G-eorgia, September 3, 4, 1864; Rome, GeorgiA, desperate onset on the left and centre of General Cox, but roost signally failed, the point having bee~n strongly and promptly reinforced from the right. The Twentyei,,hth, with its brigade, being among the first to arrive, fought the enemy most gallantly for about two hours, when they were most decisively repulsed, leaving their dead and wounded and a, ~lar-e number of prisoners, and during the night thev fell back across the Neuse, burnim, the brid-e in their rear. ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS REGIMENT. This re-imnent rendezvoused at Mar~shall, where it was mustered into service October 29, 1861. There were two full companies front Calhoun County in it; one from Albion, Coinpany A, Captain John B. Yates, and one from Marshall, Company K, Captain Emory 0. Crittenton. It was composed principally of artisans of different trades. It is but justice to this regriment to state a fact grenerally conceded by the whole western army, that a more useful regiment or one pelrforming more valuable service was not found in that great army, as during

Page  46 46 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. its entire service, ending with the surrender of Lee and Johnston, including the great Sherman campaign, scarcely a bridge was built or a road opened for the use of the western army that was not either wholly accomplished or aided by this regiment. While it was at all times ready and expeditious in the performance of the legitimate duties of an engineer regiment, it never failed as a gallant fighting force when opportunity offered; first meeting the enemy at Mill Springs, in Kentucky, January 19, 1862; then in Mississippi, at Farmington, May 9; at Corinth the 10th, and at Perryville, Kentucky, in the same year, where its reputation as a fighting regiment was fully established. But at Lavergne, Tennessee, January 1, 1863, it was most signally distinguished, and its gallant conduct in that battle gives it a most enviable page in the history of the war." At the battle of Stone River, January 1, 1863, the regiment distinguished itself grandly. A correspondent at the time says, " The scene was at times thrilling beyond description. The rebel horde, exasperated at the successful resistance of the little force, dashed their horses against the circular brush-fence, which was only breasthigh, with infuriated shouts and curses. But the Michigan troops were cool and determined; they loaded fast and aimed well; and, as the troopers rushed on, upon all sides they were met with staggering volleys almost at the muzzle of the muskets. Horses and riders recoiled again and again until they despaired, and soon swept away through the dense forests, leaving over fifty of their dead upon the field, who were buried by our forces. The ground all around that small circle of brush was strewn with dead horses of the rebel troopers, and with their clothing, guns, etc. Truly, this was one of the most gallant affairs of the campaign." Mr. Greeley, in his excellent work, " The American Conflict," notices Colonel Innes' extraordinary defense at Lavergne, and says,"On the whole, the enemy's operations in the rear of our army during this memorable conflict (battle of Stone River) reflect no credit on the intelligence and energy with which they were resisted. ' The silver lining of this cloud' is a most gallant defense, made on the 1st of January, by Colonel Innes, First Michigan Engineers and Mechanics, only three hundred and ninety-one strong, who had taken post on high ground near Lavergne, and formed such a barricade of cedars, etc., as they hurriedly might. Here they were attacked at two P.M. by Wharton's Cavalry, whom they successfully resisted and beat off. Wharton's official report is their best eulogium. He was in command of six or eight regiments." Wharton says: A regiment of infantry, under Colonel Innes, also was stationed in a cedar brake and fortifications near this point. I caused the battery under Lieucenant Pike, who acted with great gallantry, to open on it. The fire, at a range of not more than four hundred yards, was kept up for more than an hour, and must have resulted in great damage to the enemy. I caused the enemy to be charged on three sides at the same time by Colonels Cox and Smith and Lieutenant-Colonel Malone, and the charge was repeated four times; but the enemy was so strongly posted that it was found impossible to dislodge him." The regiment lost only two killed and twelve wounded; while the rebel loss, as estimated at the time, was something over a hundred in killed and wounded. General Rosecrans, in his official report, gave the regiment credit for having successfully repulsed ten times its own number on that occasion. The following is a list of the engagements participated in by the regiment: Mill Springs, Kentucky, January 19, 1862; Farmington, Mississippi, May 9, 1862; Siege of Corinth, May 10-31, 1862; Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862; Lavergne, Tennessee, January 1, 1863; Chattanooga, Tennessee, October 6, 1863; Siege of Atlanta, Georgia, July 22 to September 2, 1864; Savannah, Georgia, December 11-21, 1864; Bentonville, North Carolina, March 19, 1865. SECOND MICHIGAN CAVALRY. This regiment rendezvoused at Grand Rapids, Colonel F. W. Kellogg commanding. One company from Calhoun County, Company M, Captain S. H. Gorham, was mustered into the service with it October 2, 1861. This regiment was led into the field by Colonel, afterwards General, Gordon Granger, and was commanded at the battle of Shiloh by Colonel, now LieutenantGeneral, Philip H. Sheridan. Perhaps none of its many engagements will awaken in the minds of the members of the regiment more vivid recollections than that of Booneville, July 1, 1862, where it most signally distinguished itself. During the last week of June, 1862, Colonel Sheridan, while his regiment was stationed at Corinth, was ordered with his brigade, consisting of the Second Michigan (his own regiment), the Second Iowa Cavalry, Colonel Hatch, and two pieces of artillery, supported by two companies of infantry, to relieve a brigade stationed at Booneville, Mississippi, some twenty miles south of Corinth, on the Mobile and Ohio railroad, being at that time the extreme outpost of the army in that direction. The movement was duly accomplished so far as the cavalry was concerned, but the artillery and its support did not arrive at their destination until in the evening of the 1st of July. The rebel General Chalmers, then in that vicinity, gaining information from citizens regarding the strength of the command at Booneville, and expecting to make an easy conquest, attacked Sheridan's pickets at eight A.M. on July 1 with (as was afterwards ascertained) seven thousand mounted men. At that hour there was but one company on picket, Company K, Second Michigan Cavalry, commanded by Captain A. P. Campbell. Taking advantage of the cover of the woods, he checked the enemy long enough to receive a reinforcement of three companies, numbering only from thirty to fifty men each. The ground, although presenting advantages for defense in woods and small hills, yet had one disadvantage in having numerous roads centering on Booneville, by which the enemy could approach in almost any direction. The Second Michigan Cavalry was armed at that time with Colt's revolving rifle and pistol, making twelve shots to a man, either of them very destructive at from twenty-five to eighty rods. The men of the regiment had been drilled by Colonels Granger and Sheridan to fight mounted and dismounted, either as cavalry or sharp-shooters, as the nature of the engagement might demand. When, therefore, they were attacked by Chalmers, and his fire returned with so much power and effect from troops on foot, he thought he had been misinformed as to the strength of the force at Booneville. He advanced with double lines dismounted, and double columns in either flank mounted, with lines extended far enough to swing round on either flank, rendering the position of Captain Campbell in great danger of being surrounded and his force captured, while a solid column charged in the centre on the road. Their charge was met gallantly, by comparatively a mere handful of men, with such effect that they staggered back, and many fell almost at the muzzles of the rifles. Taking advantage of their momentary wavering, a new position was chosen a few rods to the rear, and Campbell was again in readiness to meet them. Inch by inch the ground was contested by the desperate fighting of the Second Michigan, nobly protected on the flank by the Second Iowa. Every man seemed to know his strength, and to take pride in using it to the fullest extent. When a charge was made by the enemy, instead of taking to their horses, which were kept under cover a few rods in the rear, they emptied their rifles of six shots at long range, then drew their revolvers, and before they had given them six more the enemy never failed to turn to the rear in confusion. This continued until about two P.M., the command having fallen back about a mile and a half till within half a mile of the camp, when Colonel Sheridan, finding the enemy most determined and affairs becoming critical, viewing at a glance the situation, ordered one battalion by a circuitous route to charge the enemy in the rear, -two hundred men to charge seven thousand! yet they did it gallantly. At the same time a supply train arriving from Corinth, Sheridan ordered the engineer to give a lively and cheering blast with his whistle, and the reserve to yell with a will, thus leading the enemy to believe that reinforcements were arriving. He withdrew his force to Tupelo, and left Sheridan and his handful of brave men masters of the field. Next day one hundred and twenty-five of the enemy's killed were buried. and numbers of his wounded were left at houses in the neighborhood, and he carried off full loads of wounded in his ambulances. The Second Michigan lost forty-one in killed and wounded. Its battles and skirmishes were as follows: Point Pleasant, Missouri, March 9, 1862; Tiptonville, Missouri, March 9, 1862; New Madrid, Missouri, March 13, 1862; Island No. 10, Missouri, March 14 to April 7, 1862; Pine Hill, Mississippi, May 2,1862; Monterey, Mississippi, May 3, 1862; Farmington, Mississippi, May 5, 1862; Siege of Corinth, Mississippi, May 10-30, 1862; Booneville, Mississippi, June 1, 1862; Blackland, Mississippi, June 5, 1862; Baldwin, Mississippi, June, 1862; Booneville, Mississippi, July 1, 1862; Rienzi, Mississippi, August, 1862; Perryville, Kentucky, October 8, 1862; Harrodsburg, Kentucky, October 10, 1862; Lancaster, Kentucky, October 12, 1862; Rocastle River, Kentucky, October, 1862; Estill, Virginia, 1862; Blountsville, Tennessee, 1862; Zollicoffer, Tennessee, 1862; Watauga, Tennessee, 1862; Jonesville, Virginia, 1862; Bacon Creek, Kentucky, December 24, 1862; Glasgow, Kentucky, 1862; Milton, Tennessee, February 18, 1863; Cainsville, Tennessee, February 19, 1863; Spring Hill, Tennessee, February 29, 1863; Columbia, Tennessee, March 4, 5, 1863; Hillsboro, Tennessee, March 12, 1863; Brontwood, Tennessee, March 25, 1863; McGarrick's Ford, Tennessee, April, 1863; Triune, Tennessee, June 4, 1863; Rover, Tennessee, June 23, 1863; Middletown, Tennessee, June 24, 1863; Shelbyville, Tennessee, June 27, 1863; Elk River Ford, Tennessee, July 2,1863; Dechard, Tennessee, July 4, 1863; Chickamagua, Tennessee, September 18-20, 1863; Anderson Cross-Roads, Tennessee, October, 1863; Sparta, Tennessee, December, 1863; Dandridge, Tennessee, December 24,.1863; Mossy Creek, Tennessee, December 29, 1863; Dandridge, Tennessee. January 17, 1864; Pigeon River, Tennessee, January 27, 1864; Dug Gap, Georgia, May 13, 14. 1864; Red Clay, Georgia, May, 1864; Etowah River, Georgia, May 24, 27, 28, 1864; Ackworth, Tennessee, June 2-5, 1864; Nashville, Tennessee, August

Page  47 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 47 I 30, 1864; Campbellsville, Tennessee, September 5, 1864; Franklin, Tennessee, September 27, 1864; Cypress River, Tennessee, October 7, 1864; Raccoon Ford, Tennessee, October 30, 1864; Shoal Creek, Tennessee, November 5, 1864; Lawrenceburg, Tennessee, November 21, 1864; Campbellsville, Tennessee, November 24, 1864; Columbia, Tennessee, November 25-27, 1864; Spring Hill, Tennessee, November 29, 1864; Bethesda Church, Tennessee, November 29, 1864; Franklin, Tennessee, November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tennessee, December 15, 16, 1864; Richland Creek, Tennessee, December 24, 1864; Pulaski, Tennessee, December 25, 1864; Sugar Creek, Tennessee, December 26, 1864; Pricetown Yard, Tennessee, January 6, 1865; Corinth, Mississippi, February, 1865; Tuscaloosa, Alabama, April 1, 1865; Trion, Alabama, April 2, 1865; Bridgeville, Alabama, April 6, 1865; Talladega, Alabama, April 23, 1865. EIGHTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY. This regiment rendezvoused at Mount Clemens, where it was mustered into the United States service May 12, 1863, Colonel John Stockton commander, and was known at first as " Stockton's Independent Cavalry." Lieutenant-Colonel G. S. Wormer succeeded to the colonelcy on the resignation of Colonel Stockton, on account of ill health. One company of Calhoun County men were mustered into the service with this regiment,-Company A, Captain W. L. Buck, of Marshall, afterwards major, and taken prisoner. " While the record of this regiment is bright and dazzling, and numbers many successful and brilliant battles, none of them, perhaps, appear to more advantage than the severe fights at Athens and Calhoun, East Tennessee, September 26 and 27, 1863, in which its brigade, being the first of the Fourth division, Fourth army corps, became engaged with Forrest's and Wheeler's Cavalry, estimated at fifteen thousand, and where the regiment, in command of Colonel Wormer, occupied a prominent position, fought stubbornly, and lost forty-three men in killed, wounded, and missing." Conspicuous, also, are its gallant achievements while checking the advance of Longstreet's army on Knoxville, when the regiment, in command of Major Edgerly, participated in covering the retreat of the Union forces, then falling back before the rebel army from Lenoir Station or Knoxville. On that occasion the regiment was engaged with the enemy constantly from the 12th until the 19th of November, and afterwards took part in the glorious and successful defense of Knoxville until the raising of the siege on the 5th of December, when it joined in pursuit of the rebel army, skirmishing with their rear-guard, and driving them at every point until Reams' Station was reached, where it became heavily engaged on the 14th of December, but succeeded in pushing them with loss from every position. For its decided bravery, determined fighting, and the valuable service rendered the army, the regiment was complimented in special orders by General Burnside. It also took part in the fruitless raid of Stoneman on Macon, in July, and even in that fearfully disastrous undertaking won glorious distinction as a fighting regiment. When Stoneman became entirely surrounded, and surrender was evident, the Eighth Michigan, then in command of Colonel Mix, unwilling to lay down their arms to the rebels, and bearing in mind the honor of their State, as well as their own, obtained permission from the commanding general to cut' their way out, and, dashing forward, commenced their desperate undertaking, surrounded entirely by the enemy, engaging him hand to hand. Colonel Mix being captured, owing to the loss of his horse, Major Buck assumed command, and succeeding in forcing a way through the enemy by persistent stubborn fighting, he undertook to reach the Union lines near Atlanta, but failed. After a hard march, much fatigue and exposure, having been seven days and eight nights in the saddle, pursued and harassed, he was overtaken, and, after a severe engagement, a large number were made prisoners, yet a portion of the regiment reached the Union lines. On the march from Nashville, November, 1864, for the purpose of watching the movements of Hood, then on his northern movement from Atlanta, they were continually engaged for several days and nights; a detachment of one officer and twenty-five men kept a whole regiment of rebels in check until Company B was sent forward to reinforce it, but, before reaching there, was beaten back and the detachment cut off. A battalion of the regiment held the whole force of rebels in check by a determined front and cool firing, and being also cut off fiom supports, cut its way through the enemy's lines and rejoined the brigade. Its battles and skirmishes are as follows: Triplet Bridge, Kentucky, June 19, 1863; Lebanon, Kentucky, July 5,1863; Lawrenceburg, Kentucky, July 9, 1863; Salvica, Kentucky, July 10, 1863; Buffington's Island, Ohio, July 19,1863; Winchester, Kentucky, July 25, 1863; Salineville, Ohio, July 26, 1863; Lancaster, Kentucky, July 30, 1863; Stamford, Kentucky, July 31, 1863; Kingston, Tennessee, September 1, 1863; Cleveland, Tennessee, September 18, 1863; Calhoun, Tennessee, September 26, 1863; Athens, Tennessee, September 27, 1863; Loudon, Tennessee, September 29, 1863; Philadelphia, Tennessee, October 23, 1863; Sweet Water, Tennessee, October 26, 1863; Lenoir Station, Tennessee, November 12, 1863; Campbell's Station, Tennessee, November 16, 1863; Knoxville, Tennessee, November 18, 1863; Rutledge, Tennessee, December 10, 1863; Reams' Station, Tennessee, December 14, 1863; New Market, Tennessee, December 25, 1863; Mossy Creek, Tennessee, January 10, 1864; Dandridge, Tennessee, January 17, 1864; Fair Garden, Tennessee; January 24, 1864; Sevierville, Tennessee, January 27, 1864; Kenesaw Mountain, Georgia, July 1, 1864; Sweet Water, Georgia, July 3, 1864; Chattahoochie, Georgia, July 4, 1864; Moore's Ridge, Georgia, July 12, 1864; Covington, Georgia, July 28, 1864; Macon, Georgia, July 30, 1864; Sunshine Church, Georgia, July 31, 1864; Eatonton, Georgia, August 1, 1864; Mulberry Creek, Georgia, August 3, 1864; Henryville, Tennessee, November 23, 1864; Mount Pleasant, Tennessee, November 24, 1864; Duck River, Tennessee, November 24, 1864; Nashville, Tennessee, December 14-22, 1864. ELEVENTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY. This regiment, which left the State for Kentucky, December 11, 1863, in command of Colonel L. B. Brown, Captain James B. Mason, formerly of Company H, "' Merrill Horse," being second in command, had among its companies one from Battle Creek, Company F, Captain D. D. Buck, afterwards major of the regiment. Out of the many battles and skirmishes in which this regiment participated with much credit, none, it is deemed, appeared to have proved the sterling bravery and efficiency of this pattern cavalry regiment more than the important battles of Saltville, Virginia, October 2, 1864, and Marion, Virginia, December 17 of the same year, as they will undoubtedly be considered by the regiment and those familiar with its history as among its principal engagements. In August of that year the regiment was at Camp Burnside, on the Cumberland River. On the 17th day of September following it was ordered to Mount Sterling, Kentucky, and thence engaged with its division, in command of General Burbridge, in an action at Saltville, Virginia, encountering the enemy at McCormick's Farm, Kentucky, on the 23d, and then at Laurel Mountain, Virginia, on the 29th, and at Bowen's Farm on the 30th and October 1. Having experienced a long and hazardous march through a rocky, barren country, and being in the advance, it skirmished daily with the enemy, who contested every foot of the ground with much vigor and persistence. The command of General Burbridge, on the morning of the 2d, came upon the enemy's works at Saltville, defended by the troops of Breckenridge, Echols, and Williams, numbering about twenty-two thousand, including seven thousand militia. The whole of Burbridge's command, numbering less than four thousand effective men, were ordered to move on the enemy's works, a different point of attack being assigned to each brigade. The nature of the ground, and the fact that the enemy greatly outnumbered the Union troops, and were behind strong embankments defended with twenty pieces of artillery, rendered the undertaking a very hazardous and desperate one. The brigade commanded and led by Colonel Brown, and to which the Eleventh Cavalry, then in command of Lieutenant-Colonel Mason, were attached, carried the main work in most brilliant style, and were the only troops that effected a lodgment within the defenses. The fact that the Eleventh Cavalry alone lost eightysix in killed, wounded, and missing-more men than were lost by any other brigade of the command-proved conclusively that the success of the troops under Brown was not the result of lack of courage or of determined and desperate fighting on the part of their opponents, but was a result of their own gallant and persistent fighting. The rebel position proving too strong to be held, the command, after most stubborn fighting, was withdrawn, but not until all its ammunition had been expended. On the retreat the Eleventh constituted the rear-guard, and next day skirmished with the enemy's advance, and the day following the battle was renewed near Sandy Mountain, where the regiment became cut off from the division, and surrounded by a body of cavalry, numbering about four thousand, under " Cerro Gordo" Williams. After a very sanguinary conflict of over an hour, the enemy closing in upon the regiment, Colonel Mason, determined on fight before surrender, led the regiment to the charge, and succeeded, after a bloody hand-to-hand encounter, in cutting through the rebel lines, punishing the enemy so severely that he abandoned any pursuit. This brilliant affair was not accomplished without loss, which included the gallant Mason, a noble soldier. He was mortally wounded in the charge, and died the next day. In the Stoneman raid into North Carolina, in December, 1864, a detachment of the Eleventh Michigan, numbering one hundred and twenty officers and men, under the command of Captain E. C. Miles, held a bridge during the whole engagement, which was of much importance, being the key to the position held by the Union troops. Captain George B. Mason, while gallantly attempting to reinforce Captain Miles with a squadron of the regiment, was mortally wounded. The bridge was stubbornly held under a severe fire from a heavy force on the opposite side of the river, and, in addition to the loss of Captain Mason, Lieutenant Davis and five enlisted men nobly fell in its defense. For this important service the detachment of Captain Miles received the highest praise from General Stoneman,

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. and the regiment was thanked in the general orders of the department commander for its meritorious and valuable services in the battle of Marion. The Second brigade, of which the Eleventh formed a part at Salisbury, April 12, engaged a superior force of the enemy, and captured eighteen hundred prisoners, twentytwo pieces of artillery, and destroyed a large amount of property, and also the railroads and telegraph lines leading from that point. On the 20th of July it was consolidated with the Eighth Michigan Cavalry. Its engagements with the enemy were as follows: Pound Gap, Kentucky, May 17, 1864; Hazel Green, Kentucky, May 10, 1864; Mount Sterling, Kentucky, June 9, 1864; Lexington, Kentucky, June 10, 1864; Georgetown, Kentucky, June 13, 1864; Cynthiana, Kentucky, June 12, 1864; Port Burnside, Kentucky, Auust 30, 1864; McCormack's Farm, Kentucky, September 23, 1864; Laurel Mountain, Kentucky, September 29, 1864; Bowen's Farm, September 30, October 1, 1864; Saltville, Virginia, October 2, 1864; Sandy Mountain, Virginia, October 3, 4, 1864; Western Virginia, October 5, 1864; Hazel Green, Kentucky, November 9, 1864; McCormack's Farm, Kentucky, November 10, 1864; Morristown, Kentucky, November 13, 1864; Slate Creek, Kentucky, November 14, 1864; Mount Sterling, Kentucky, November I6, 1864; Clinch River, Tennessee, November 28, 1864; Russellville, Tennessee, December 2,1864; Morristown, Tennessee, December 2, 1864; Cobb's Ford, TennesseeDecember 3,1864; Bristol, Tennessee, December 13, 1864; Paperville, Tennessee, December 13, 1864; Abington, Virginia, December 15, 1864; Wtbeville, Virginia, December 16, 1864; Mount Airy, Virg~inia, December 17, 1864; Marion, Virginia, December 18, 1864; Seven Miles Ford, December 19, 1864; Saltville, Virginia, December 20, 21, 1864; Jonesb~oro, Virginia, December 23, 1864; Clinch River, Virginia, December 24, 1864; Morristown, Virginia, December 25, 1864; McCormack's Farm, Kentucky, December 29, 1864; Mount Sterling, Kentucky, January 19, 1865; Hazel Green, Kentucky, January 28, 1865; Flemingrsburg, Kentucky, February 18, 1865; Boone, North Carolina, March 27, 1865; Yadkin River, North Carolina, March 28, 1865; Mount Airy, Virginia, March 31, 1865; Hillsville, Virginia, April 1, 1865 - Saline, Virginia, April 3? 1865; Christiansburg, Virginia, April 3, 1865; Jonesboro, Tennessee, April 5, 1865; Danbury, North Carolina, April 9, 1865; Slatesville, North Carolina, April 10, 1865; Ford near Slatesville, NorthCarolina, April 11, 1865; Salisbury, North Carolina, April 12, 1865; Slatesville, North Carolina, April 13, 1865; M~organtown, North Carolina, April 16-18, 1865; Swannano Gap, North Carolina, April 19, 1865; Hendersonville, North -Carolina, April 21, 1865; Ashville, North Carolina, April 25, 1865; Ward's Farm, North Carolina, April 28, 1865; Caesar's Head, South Carolina, April 30, 1865; Pickensville, South Carolina, Mlay 1, 1865; Anderson Court-House, South Carolina, May 2, 1865. MERRILL HORSE. This regiment was a Missouri organization, and three companies from Battle Creek were members of it. In September, 1861, Company HI, Captain J. B. Mason, and Company I, Captain Jabez H. Rogers, were raised, and went into the field; and in January, 1863, Company L, Captain Almon E. Preston, was recruited, and entered the service. The regiment was actively engaged, and saw much service in the field during the whole period of the war. These companies served with the western armies exclusively. From the address of Captain A. E. Preston, of Company L, Merrill Horse, delivered on the occasion of the decoration of the soldiers' graves in Battle Creek in 1876, we clip the following history of Companies H, I, and L, of that famous cavalry organization. Early in the summer of 1862, Companies H and I, with Mason and Rowell in command, constituted part of a force operating in North Missouri against Porter, the noted guerrilla chief, who was preying upon the Unionists of that section, plundering their farms and committing various other unwarrantable depredations. For many days the track of the wily chieftain was followed in the vain endeavor to bring him to bay and force him to fight. Finally, at a point near Memphis, the enemy was encountered on the 18th of July, 1862, strongly posted in ambuscade, with the intention, no doubt, of surprising our forces and punishing them for their temerity in following so close upon his heels. How well he succeeded the sequel shows. Gregory, who was in command of the advance, immediately dismounted his men and skirmished forward to determine the enemy's position. But Mason and Rowell coming up at the moment with Companies H and I, Major Clopper in command, Gregory was ordered to remount his men, and, with the balance of the companies now at hand, to charge, through a thick undergrowth, upon the concealed foe. Most fatal mistake! But so fearful was Clopper that the enemy would again escape him without feeling the steel of his troopers, that the desperate chance was taken of dashing headlong into the wellconcealed trap that had been set for him. The line was formed, the bugle sounded the charge, and away they went right against the enemy's invisible line. As the charging squadrons came within pistol range of Porter's still undefined position, they were met by a volley of musketry from a compact line of men that seemed by some magic to have risen from out the earth. Bleeding, shattered, reeling under the murderous blast, the brave blue-caps were compelled to fall back and reform their broken ranks. Again they charged and re-charged, time after time, in the vain endeavor to carry the enemy's well-chosen position; but so terrible was their reception at each successive onset that the discomfited troopers were finally obliged to retire and adopt a more sensible mode of attack. This was the baptism of fire of Michigan men in the Merrill Horse. Is it any wonder that the kind-hearted Mason wept when he surveyed the sad havoc that had been wrought in his ranks? Of the two hundred and fifty nen engaged, forty-five lay stretched upon the field dead or wounded. Gregory, Kelsey, and Robinson were severely wounded, and Sherman mortally. Company L of the Merrill Horse was raised, and joined the regiment, then stationed at Warrenton, in North Missouri, in December. From that point the company and regiment marched south during the season of 1863, traversing the States of Missouri and Arkansas, meeting the enemy at Brownsville, Bayou Metor, Little Rock, Prairie De Ann, Little Missouri, and Camden. The company lost heavily by disease, from the unhealthy character of the country in which it was stationed. Twenty-two of its number are resting in obscure graves scattered along the line of its march from the Missouri river to the southern bounds of Arkansas. They were in the following engagements: Memphis, Missouri, July 18, 1862; Moor's Mill, Missouri, July 28, 186;2; Kirsville, Missouri, August 6, 1-862; Brownsville, Arkansas, August 25, 1863; Bayou Mecoe, Arkansas, September 7, 1863; Little Rock, Arkansas, September 10, 1863 - Benton, Arkansas, September 11, 1863; Princeton, Arkansas, December 8, 1863; Little Missouri River, Arkansas, April 3, 4, 1864; Prairie Dehau, Arkansas, April 129-14, 1864; Camden, Arkansas, April 15, 1864; Jenkins' Ferry, Arkansas, April 29, 30, 1864;Franklin, Missouri, October 1, 1864; Otterville, Missouri, October 10, 1864 - Independence, Missouri, October 22, 1864; Big Blue, Missouri, October 223, 1864; Trenton Gap, Georgia, March 22, 1865; Alpine, Georgia, March 24, 1865; Summerville, Georgia, March 25, 1865. ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND UGNITED STATES COLORED TROOPS. The only Michigan colored re-iment in the war was the One Hundred and Second United States, raised by Colonel Henry Barns, of Detroit, organized by LieutenantColonel W. T. Bennett, and in March, 1864, took the field in command of Colonel H. L. Chipman, then a captain in the regular army, who had procured a leave of absence for that purpose. It was mustered into the service as the First Michigan. There were some thirty or more men from Calhoun County enlisted in the regiment, but Do fully organized company. J. H. Clark, of Marshall, was orderly sergeant of Company I. The regiment served in South Carolina and Florida and in that section of the country. It made a good record in the following, its list of engagements during the service: BadiFlorida, August 8, 1864; Honey Hill, South Carolina, December 30, 1864; Tullifinny, South Carolina, December 7, 1864;- Devaux Neck, South Carolina, December 9, 1864; Cuckwold's Creek Bridge, February 8, 1865; Sumterville, Soeth Carolina, April 8, 1865; Spring Hill, South Carolina, April 15, 1865; Swift Creek, South Carolina, April 17, 1865; Boykins, South Carolina, April 18, 1865; Singleton's Plantation, South Carolina, April 19, 1865. CHAPTER XVI. CONCLUSION. AND now, dear reader, our task is done. We have wandered together by the stream of history as, for nearly half a century, it has meandered through old Calhoun, receiving its affluents here and there, and depositing in its banks relies of the past, which patiently, and we trust successfully, we have exhumed and brought before your vision, recalling the olden time and placing it in contrast with the new. Standing on some jutting headland, we view the panorama as it slowly passes by, unfolding the etchings the versatile artist, Time, has penciled thereon. Here, coming up out of the misty past, is the Indian in full chase after the bounding deer. He passes, and before his form dies away in the distance we see the first settlers moving forward with the slow-paced oxen, bearing their house

Page  49 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 I hold treasures into the openings of the Kalamazoo. A cabin of rude logs rises; the pioneer's axe rings through the woods; the cumbersome plow turns the furrows.; the pioneer mill rises, and a new life has taken possession of the wilderness, and the hunting-grounds of the red man are no more before us, but have moved westward toward the setting sun. Another scene unfolds before us, and the rude school-house and chapel are seen, wherein gather the children of the pioneer for instruction, even amid the solitudes of the border; and we hear the song of thanksgiving and the voice of melody rise upon the air, and blend with the song of birds and the rustle of leaves as the summer zephyrs move the foliage of the woods. The stage-coach rumbles up to the door of the log hostelry, the notes of the driver's horn waking merry echoes through the old parks, and startling the quail and partridge from their coverts by the wayside. Houses of more pretentious appearance begin to dot the landscape, which is fast assuming the aspect of a civilized and prosperous community. Villages, whose houses have been playing hideand-seek among the oaks of a thousand winters, but now nestling more sociably together, are rising into view; and church spires, sure indices of civilization and refinement, point heavenward, as if to lift the thoughts of the dwellers of the land from the soil, wherefrom hitherto their chief substance has been drawn, to other sources of life rather than " bread alone." Another picture comes before us as the parallel bands of iron converging into one in the dim distance expand into the railway track, along which thunder the cars of the Central, and lo! the old life is gone and another takes its place. " Ten days to New York and return" is soon put to shame by the fast train through in a single day. The telegraph brings the news from the sea-board, and the days of slow-moving trade are numbered and laid to rest. Magnificent school-houses, wherein the youth are fitted for life's business, professionally or otherwise, stand before us, monuments to the wisdom of the founders of the system which has made them possible. Spacious and luxurious tabernacles take the place of the out-door temples of the Boanerges of the olden time, who launched their doctrines, fiery and depressing, at our de7 fenseless heads. The priests who minister at the altars of the new temples tell us the story of the " very same Jesus," but in tripping cadences and rhetorical periods. Another series of scenes comes before us, and we see in dim and shadowy outline the pioneer shouldering his trusty rifle, and bidding wife and children good-by, leaving westward to intercept the approach of the savage before his bloody trail shall strike his own settlement. This moves on, and in its place we see the sons of these pioneers forming by squad and company and battalion and regiment, and going forth by hundreds, yes, thousands, to defend the flag of the country which has given them a government, under whose fostering care all these later scenes have been made accomplished facts. We look upon the serried ranks as they move forward, shoulder to shoulder, against the deadly blast of war. The cannon and musketry of traitors in arms thin their ranks, but forward they bear the colors of the Union, reflected in their blood, that stains every step of the weary' way from Bull Run to Appomattox. Homeward they turn when victory is secure ' and the Union has triumphed, their columns gaping from the havoc of shot and shell and the disease of the camp and prison-pen, and their colors ragged and torn, but proud and defiant as ever. One grand ovation to the living, a sad, wailing requiem for the dead, and the remnant left of the brave thousands who went forth to do battle for the right settle back into the busy routine of the private citizen, and the war-clouds pass away, and gentle Peace covers all with her wings. And now, dear reader, standing face with these evidences of enlightened progress, shall we not say that the cause of humanity is ever onward and upward? That here and there, all over the world, the evidence accumulates that the Divine purpose is steadily being developed and wrought out, as well over the bloody trail of war as by the pleasant paths of peace? And may we not truly say that " sometimes gleams upon our sight, Through present wrong, the eternal right; And step by step, since time began, We see the steady gain of man?"

Page  50 HISTORY OF THE CITIES, TOWNS, AND VILLAGES OF CALHOTUN C O UNTY, MI CHI G A N. THE CITY OF MARSIHA LL. AMONG the interior cities of Michigan, none have been more widely known, and few as well advertised, in their early history in the State, as has the city of Marshall. From the very outset of its career it was the expectation not only of its own citizens, but of those of its neighbors far and near, for the space of ten years, that the capital of the State would be located within its limits, and therefore, as early as 1835, lands were set. apart by the proprietors. of the village plat for State uses where the Agricultural Society's ample grounds are now situate, and became known for years as "Capitol Hill." These expectations were based on no imaginary theory, but, as is shown elsewhere, upon actual arrangement with certain powers in authority, whereby a mutual exchange of benefits was to accrue alone the line of the Central road, and which arrangement came very near its consummation. This expectation, though it finally proved to be but " the baseless fabric of a vision," did by no means " pass away, leaving not a rack behind," but, on the contrary, most substantial benefits resulted, giving to Marshall a reputation and a fame at home and abroad enviable in the extreme. The most able bar of the State from 1836 to 1850 gathered about this city and that of Battle Creek.} Learned divines and skillful physicians assembled here; the best instructors brought their talents and displayed them for the education of the rising generation, laying foundations of intelligence and culture, and building thereon a stable and permanent structure. The influence and direction given by these earlier citizens have not failed to leave their impress so durably stamped upon the society of the city that the tides of thirty years have not only been unable to efface it therefrom, but have rather made it deeper and broader. Those who have followed the first-comers have taken up the lines where their predecessors had dropped them, and gone forward, in a great measure, to greater achievements, at least in a social and intellectual sense. The Marshall of the olden time may have been noted for its great expectations, but it was none the less noted for its actual excellences. Among its first expectations which came to naught (with which, for reasons above given, the capitol dream should not be classed) was its steamboat navigation of the Kalamazoo. In consequence of a strife between Comstock and Kalamazoo, then called Bronson, for the county-seat of Kalamazoo county, Marshall secured the prize, and was declared to be the head of steamboat navigation on the Kalamazoo. Immediately the lithographer was called into requisition, and his artistic skill portrayed the future city as already a queen, with steamboats loading and unloading at her wharves. But it was soon ascertained that it was a difficult if not impossible feat for a fair-sized scow with a decent cargo to make the descent of the stream, so narrow and shallow was its channel. The village was well advertised, however. Speculation in 1835-37 was rife in Marshall as everywhere, and real estate rose rapidly in value, and when the crash came, to tide over the stormy times recourse was had to " wild cat" banking, based on mortgages on real estate, which very shortly shrunk in value to such meagre proportion that the issues of the cdncerns which flooded the country were worthless rags, and many well-digested plans based thereon came to naught, and brought ruin and bankruptcy to the unfortunate schemers. Among those who strove to build up Marshall by every means at his command was the original proprietor of the village, Sidney Ketchum, who labored diligently to that end for more than fifteen years, but was overwhelmed in the final disaster and left penniless, and forced to emigrate farther west and begin life anew. He was the first proprietor of Marshall, having come to its location in the summer of 1830 from central New York, —Clinton county. Being provided with letters of introduction to Governor Cass, he, on leaving his eastern home for a tour of observation through the west, determined to look at the Territory of Michigan, and 50,ai ~ c~:; -::;: arrived at Detroit in the month of August of the year 1830, and, after obtaining all possible information, proceeded to the interior. There were at this period two roads which had been surveyed across the peninsula, one known as the Chicago turnpike, which had been partially worked, leading from Detroit to Chicago, and the other known as the Territorial road, diverging from the Chicago road at or near Ypsilanti, and passed directly west, and terminated at the mouth of the St. Joseph, on Lake Michigan. The latter road had been surveyed and "blazed" only, and followed a deeply-worn Indian trail, trodden perhaps for ages. Mr. Ketchum procured the assistance of Samuel Camp at Ann Arbor, and made his selection of lands and water at the site of the present city of Marshall and village of Albion, as is fully related in the general history of the county. In tracing the progress of the settlement of Marshall, Mr. Ketchum's prominence in every scheme for its advancement will be readily seen, and we will here give but a summary of his work. His large interests in what was subsequently termed the upper village of Marshall, and the water-power in the Kalamazoo, were merged into that of the Marshall Village Company, whose work in building up the place is elsewhere recorded. He was the chief mover in this enterprise, though others were active with him, Geo. S. Wright being the trustee and fiscal agent for the company. He was largely interested in the Calhoun County bank, being its president during the whole period of its existence. (This was not a "wild cat.") He surveyed and laid out the upper village of Marshall after the seat of justice was located on the plat of the lower village, and was one of the four owners of the lower village, his co-proprietors being Isaac N. Hurd, Charles D. Smith, and George Ketchum. He built the first stone church in the county at the cost of several thousand dollars, subscribing liberally at first, and finally completing it himself and presenting it to the Methodist Episcopal church of Marshall. His house, which was the most ample one in the village for many years, was open at all times for public worship of any denomination that chose to occupy it previous to the building of the church, and he brought the first school-teacher to the settlement. Whatever faults Sidney Ketchum had were overbalanced by his restless energy and determination, and although disaster and ruin came to him financially, others who came after him builded largely on his foundations. He removed from Marshall in the year 1845 or thereabouts to the State of New York, and after some years returned again to Marshall, where he died. In writing the history of a county and its constituent townships recapitulation to some degree is unavoidable, and to avoid it as much as possible we must refer our readers to the general history of the first settlements of the county, as they were mostly made at Marshall, and merely name the settlers in this connection. The first settlers on the village site were George Ketchum and his party, who came thereto in April, 1830, built a cabin and proceeded to erect a saw-mill on Rice creek. They next built a flouring- or rather grist-mill on the same water privilege, getting the same into operation in the fall of 1832. Previous to this time the settlers were compelled to go to Tecumseh, Flowerfield, or Constantine for their milling. The opening of the flouring-mill at Marshall was an important event in the history of the settlement, and reversed the relations of the little hamlet with the outside world at once. It was now the Mecca to which hungry pilgrims for miles around came and were filled, and buying, came again and again, and continued to do so for over thirty years, from the north and south, till the railroads came through the territory which had so long been tributary to the village and city. After the Ketchum party came Dr. A. L. Hays, the first physician in the county, in May following. He came alone to look out a locatin in the west, and found one at Marshall and bought it, returned to his home in the east, and brought

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Page  51 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 51 on his family in September of the same year. In July, on the first Sunday of the month, the minister of Christ came in the person of Rev. John D. Pierce, who opened his mouth and taught the little handful that gathered to hear him under the oaks of the forest, which then shaded every inch of the ground which is now covered with the business houses of the present city. A little later, in the month of August, Sidney Ketchum, Randall Hobart, and Peter Chisholm came to make glad the only woman of the settlement-Mrs. Ball-with the companionship of their wives and little ones. In September, Isaac N. Hurd came, and Mrs. Hays, as before stated; and about this time, or maybe a little later in the fall, Charles D. Smith and Levi Smith, Abram Davidson and Jonathan Wood, of the surveying corps of the United States Land Survey, had secured the site on which the seat of justice was subsequently located. They never settled in Marshall, but disposed of their interest to Hurd, who manipulated the location of the county-seat, securing it in October, 1831, by dedicating certain lots for public purposes. In October, the early part of the month (the 8th day), Rev. John D. Pierce, who had returned to central New York for his family, came to make his home at Marshall. He is now living at Ypsilanti. In November, George Ketchum, who had returned east for the purpose, brought on his family, and with him came Thomas Chisholm and wife. Asahel Warner and his father, Wareham Warner, came to Marshall in May, 1831, and the former remained a citizen of the village for several years, but the latter returned to New York, and on his second coming to the county located at Albion. In February, 1832, Luther G. Crossman, the builder of the first frame houses in the county, came, and early that year Isaac E. Crary7, the first lawyer, came, and the learned professions were all represented. Dr. Luther W. Hart came that year, and Asa B. Cook, Henry Failing, Oshea Wilder, Sands MeCamley, Henry J. Phel s, Samuel Camp, and others. About this time Sidney S. Alcott came, perhaps not till 1833, but after 1832 the village gained so rapidly in population it is impossible to name them all. Andrew Mann came in 18233 or 1834, George S. Wright in 1835, and is still a prominent resident of the city; Colonel Charles Dickey, Chauncey M. Brewer, Hon. Charles T. Gorham, Hon. Charles P. Dibble, in 1836, early; Rev. Dr. O. C. Comstock, Sr., and Dr. O. C. Comlstock, Jr., Dr. J. H. Montgomery, A. D. Schuyler, and the Wallingfords came in 1836; S. S. Burpee in 1835, and F. A. Kingsbury also. In 1833, William R. McCall came, and still continues his trade in the city. Rev. Calvin Clark camne in 1835, and after serving his Lord and Master in the State of Michigan forty-twvo years, fell asleep quietly, peacefully, and quickly, June 4, 1877, at the age of seventy-two years, in the same place where he first located, growne under his eye from a little village of three hundred inhabitants, living mostly in small framed or lo- houses, to a city of brick business houses, churches, school-houses, and palatial dwellings containing five thousand people. Stephen H. Preston, Esq., Hon. J. Wright Gordon, and Hon. Wm. H. Brown came, to the village in 1836, and are named more particularly in the history of the- bar of the county. Marvin Preston came7 in 1833, or before. Sands McCamley kept a boarding-house in Mir. Pierce's double log house in the fall of 1832. Hon. Francis W. Shearman came to the villag-e in 1841 as the editor of the Michigan Joutrnal of Edluca-tion, and died in the city in 1874. In 1835, James M. Parsons came to the village and engaged in trade, and is still so occupied in the present city. Dr. Joseph Sibley also came in about that time. Preston Mitchell came in 1836, and George Ingersoll in 1838. A. O. Hyde, the veteran druggist of the city, and a genial gentleman, camne in 1840, and continues to dispense the specifies of materia medica in the city. Philo Dibble came to the city with his son Charles P. in 1836. George Ketchum died in California, between 1855 and 1860; Randall Hobart removed also to the Eldorado of the Sierras in 1850, and died there a few years ago; Dr. Hays died in Marshall, and Peter Chisholm also. Crary, Hart, Wilder, McCamley, Phelps, Camp, Allcott, Mann, the elder Comstock, Burpee, Gordon, Sherman, Sibley, and Philo Dibble, good, brave, and earnest men all, have laid down to rest beneath the soil of the city they helped so grandly to build. THE FIRST HOUSE erected on the site of the present city was the log cabin of George Ketchum. It was twenty by twenty-six feet, one and a half story high. The first frame building erected was Charles D. Smith's store, though the school-house was soon after built, in May or June, 1832. The first frame dwelling of any pretensions erected was that of Hon. Isaac E. Crary, who also built the first frame office erected in the village. The first brick building was the National House, which was erected in 1835, and opened January 1, 1836. The first brick dwelling-house erected was that of Sidney Ketchum, in 1837-38. Deacon J. L. Lord also put up a brick dwelling about as soon as Ketchum, and it was a very fine one, too, for the times. Deacon Lord was on the top of the brick church built by Deacon J. S. Fitch when it fell, but, fortunately, escaped serious injury. THE FIRST MARRIAGE celebrated in the county was consummated in the village of Marshall} in the early part of 1833, between John Kennedy and a lady whose name we have been unable to ascertain, Rev. John D. Pierce being the celebrator of the bans. THE FIRST WHITE CHILD born in the county was also the first one " to the manor born" in Marshall, and was Helen Chisholm, daughter of Peter Chisholm, the first blacksmith in the city and county. She was born October 26, 1831. She was followed by Luther Hays, a son of Dr. A. L. Hays, in January, 1832. During that year Minerva Chisholm, a daughter of Thomas Chisholm, and Mark McCamley, a son of Sands McCamley, were born, being the third and fourth in point of precedence in the county. THE FIRST DEATH that occurred in the county was that of Isaac N. Hurd, a citizen of Marshall, the first victim of the cholera, in July, 1832, his demise taking place on the evening of the 20th day of that month, about twelve hours after the first attack of the scourge. There were eighteen cases of the disease, eight of which proved fatal, out of a population of fifty-six souls. Mrs. John D. Pierce was the second victim, and died July 24, and. was prepared for burial by her husband, and by him and Rev. Randall Hobart buried the same evening, Mr. Hobart making the coffin to hold her remains. A Mr. Fake with his wife and three children fled from Detroit to Marshall to escape the disease, which was raging fearfully in the former city., They were boarding with Mr. Pierce when Mrs. Pierce was stricken down, but immediately moved into a small log office. The disease, however, followed the family and took away one child, when they removed into the store chamber of Charles D. Smith, where Mrs. Fake died with the same disease. The father then removed with the two surviving children into Peter Chisholm's house, which happened at that time to be vacant, but death followed and took another child from him, whieh he left unburied, and, taking the only living remnant of his once happy family, returned to Detroit. Three brothers named Thompson were boardingn with Dr. Hays, one of whom was stricken with the awful plague and died, and as soon as life left the body of the victim the two remaining brothers, leaving their dead to be buried by strangers, fled to Detroit. The next death was Julius Kimball, a son of Stephen Kimball, who lived on a farm on the south side of the river. The next and last death 'was that of Bradshaw, who was in the employ of Sidney Ketchum. Thlese victims were all buried by Mr. Hobart and H. P. Wisner. The school-house was then taken for a hospital, to which the remainder of the sick were carried, and attended by Mr. Hobart and Wisner, until all danger, was passed. In 1838, malarial fevers scourged the community most fearfully, as they did all over the country. The well were insufficient in numbers to properly care for the sick, and hardly to give the dead a decent burial. Lack of proper medicines, added to the want of proper treatment and care, swept off the people all through southern Michigan at an appalling rate. All ambition was lost, hope feand despair settled upon hundreds, who cared not how soon death put an end to their fears and misery. In Marshall local causes were charged with the intensity of the epidemic, but these were no more responsible for the virulence of the fevers than elsewhere. In 1841 the same diseases wrought havociagain, and the people rose in arms against the mill-pond on Rice creek as the cause of their woes; and the board of trustees of the corporation took action on the matter, and after due notice served on Messrs. Comstock and Halsey, who then owned, or at least operated, the property, called on the people to aid in enforcing the demands of the board in the abatement of what they bad declared under the statute to be a nuisance. On Saturday, Nov. 27, 1841, the people assembled, agreeably to the summons of the village authorities, at the dam of the pond, intent on demolishing the same, with great excitement moving the crowd. But peaceful. counsels prevailed, and a compromise was effected whereby one thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot to aid the proprietors to build a raceway from some more distant point above the dam, which was estimated to cost two thousand dollars; and, the embankment cut and the pond drained off, the people dispersed, well satisfied with the favorable turn matters had taken. INCIDENTS. Rev. Calvin Clark, at the picnic gathering of the Pioneer Society, in June, 1873, said most of the people who came to Marshall in 1835-36 came to get corner lots, and that one of his brother ministers walked to the land-office at Kalamazoo and bought nine tracts of land in Branch county, for the benefit of his children, but thought he was disappointed in the results. Mr. Clark spent his first year in Eckford, in a log house built by Henry Cook, the only board in it being used for a door. It was covered with shakes, and had puncheon floors above and below. He had known as many as thirty-eight souls stay in it over night at one time. One day he came home and found his wife in tears, the snow sifting all over the: f

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. floor, but he soon fixed matters by taking a blanket and spreading it on the puncheons overhead, and when the storm was over threw the drift out of the window. This was not an uncommon incident, and his wife soon got used to that way of living. One day, George Ketchum gave him five dollars to give to poor people whom he was about to visit; and Deacon Cook had his granary full of wheat, which he kept all winter, and refused to sell to the mill, preferring to dispose of it among the needy. He (Mr. Clark) often walked a log to get into Albion and Battle Creek, there being no bridges in the year 1835. There was not at that time a single frame house in either place. Hon. Chas T. Gorham, at the same meeting, said he and Mr. Brewer came in together, on foot, in 1836, carrying a valise and overcoats. Brewer had the valise, and Gorham the coats, which the latter found was a mistake on his part, and desired Brewer to exchange; but the latter claimed he was carrying the mail, and could not lawfully make the exchange of burdens. Mr. Mann was then in The National. The new arrivals were duly notified that Marshall was to be the future capital of Michigan, and they soon found out that the town had two ends, east and west; and on looking it over found a portion of Kalamazoo avenue under water, and full of logs and stumps. He thought if Marshall was not quite all they expected, Calhoun was. Rev. Jabez Fox said, when he was interested in the Expounder, a plenty of the persons whom he saw before him in the audience always wanted to pay their subscriptions in potatoes. Mr. J. D. Cuykendall, who came in 1835 and opened a chair-factory, said his first work was for Samuel Camp; then he worked for Dr. Hays, and made a ladder in the corner of a log house for the present Mrs. Gorham to go up to her bed-chamber, which was the only way of getting to the second story of the house in those days. Mr. Cuykendall said he was religiously inclined, and attended a series of revival meetings held by Father Sabin and Willard Calhoun. Calhoun, the exhorter, came to him and talked with him (Cuykendall), and asked as to the state of Cuykendall's feelings, and was answered that no particular change was discovered. One evening afterwards he came again, and, receiving the same reply to his question, pressed the matter further by asking Cuykendall if he loved the brethren, and was answered that nothing was laid up against any one. "But," persisted Calhoun, " do you love the sisters?" " Yes, sir!" responded the young man, with startling emphasis. "Glory to God! you are already converted!" broke out the exhorter, and Cuykendall " went forward" with the rest. The Patriot of November 16, 1838, had the following in its columns: THE BEARS!-On Tuesday afternoon of this week, our usually quiet and sober village was thrown into the greatest hubbub imaginable by the unexpected and somewhat startling appearance in our midst of four wild bears! Had a horde of yelling savages pounced upon our peaceful village at midnight, our citizens could not have been taken more by surprise than when these black monsters of the forest boldly, and in broad daylight, marched into the heart of the village. ' To arms! to arms!' was the cry, and then commenced a scene for our sportsmen as amusing as it was rare. The largest one of the four was soon shot down, and the others, after having been hotly and closely pursued over fences and through swamps, were finally compelled to ' knock under' to the merciless peltings of brick-bats, stones, and clubs, which they received on every side and every corner. The largest one, and parent of the others, measured five feet from the tip of its nose to the end of its tail, and weighed one hundred and fifty pounds." AN INTERESTING RELIC. Hon. Preston Mitchell has in his possession an ancient pack of playingcards, which were found in the secretary of his father after the latter's death, the children knowing nothing of them till then. The cards are over one hundred years old. Their peculiarity consists in the fact that the four suits represent the four divisions of the world. Hearts represent Europe; spades, Asia; clubs, Africa; and diamonds, America. The face of the cards carry a condensed history of the world up to the date of their printing; their material being vellum. The different cards in the same suit have the history of the respective division they represent, each card having a subdivision historized thereon. No other pack of cards like them has as yet been discovered. The Historical Society of Michigan had them on exhibition during 1876. THE VILLAGE PLAT of Marshall (the lower village) was surveyed August 26, 1831, and recorded in Kalamazoo (the county of Calhoun being at that time attached to Kalamazoo county) August 29, 1831. It was located on the west half of northwest quarter section 25, and east half of the northeast quarter of northeast quarter section 26, township 2, range 6 west. On the 1st day of October, 1833, Sidney Ketchum laid out the plat of the upper village of Marshall, located on the east half, northwest quarter, and west half of northeast quarter section 25, township 2, range 6 west, and the plat was recorded October 2, in liber A, page 21, miscellaneous:: f: n records of the register's office of Calhoun County. The site of the city, from the river north to Mansion street, was a level plain. At Mansion street, which is a most charming avenue, the ground rose to a beautiful rounded summit, now covered with comfortable and elegant residences. Between Rice creek and the Kalamazoo, and on the south side of the latter to the eastward, the land is broken up into rather bold bluffs, more particularly the cape-like headland between the two water-courses. Capitol Hill commands a fine view of the city and surrounding country, and would have been a most admirable location for the capitol had the fates proved more propitious. Marshall avenue is a broad way running through from the south side to the northern limits of the corporation. State street, the main business thoroughfare of the city, is a fine wide street, and quite solidly built up with three-storied stone and brick business blocks, the most noted being Mitchell block, an elaborate cut-stone and iron front, pillared and porticoed profusely, with costly French plate windows. It was built in the year 1870-71 by Mr. Wagner, and is now the property of Hon. Preston Mitchell. J. Cronin's and Cronin's blocks, Masonic block, the First National bank building, the latter a cut-stone front, and the Eagle Opera House, Hyde and Crane's block, C. P. Dibble's block. Central block, Academy of Music block, Martin's block, Herndon block, Perrin's bank, cut-stone front, Thos. Cook's block, and Brewer's building are all fine structures. There are three commodious public halls situated on the street: the Eagle Opera House, corner Eagle and State, which has a capacity of one thousand seats or more; Mitchell Hall, in the same square, which will seat five or six hundred; and the Academy of Music, which will seat nearly as many as the Mitchell. The Eagle Opera House is fitted up with a commodious stage and good scenery. MANUFACTURES. The first manufacturing establishment erected in Marshall was a saw-mill, built by George Ketchum, in the summer of 1831, on Rice creek, just above its junction with the Kalamazoo, near the site of the present flouring-mill of H. J. Perrin. Mr. Ketchum erected the next year a grist-mill at the same site, a frame building twenty-five by thirty-five feet on the ground, with two rows of burrstone; Benjamin Wright being the mill-wright. These mills were the first manufacturing establishments also in Calhoun County. The first stone flouring-mill was built in 1837, on the Kalamazoo, on the site of the ruins of the stone mill now in Perrinville, by Asa B. Cook, Arza Robinson, and Sidney Ketchum. It was equipped with four runs of stone, and had a fine line of business. It afterwards fell down, and was rebuilt, and then burned in after-years, and rebuilt by H. J. Perrin, and again consumed, the walls, now partly fallen, having an unsightly and dangerous appearance. Comstock and Halsey succeeded to the ownership of the first Ketchum mills, and operated the flouring-mill for some years successfully. Soon after the stone mill was built, S. Newton Dexter and Benjamin W. Raymond, of central New York, the former now deceased, and the latter a wealthy retired merchant of Chicago, erected a saw-mill, which was burned down on November 21, 1839. In 1839, Lewis Wilson and Darius Clark built an oil-mill (flax-seed), but it was operated but a few years. It was the first mill of the kind in the State, and cost, with its equipment, some six thousand dollars. In 1843, E. W. Lathrop and G. S. Wright built a woolen-factory on the Kalamazoo, but which was conducted only for wool-carding and cloth-dressing. No goods were ever manufactured in it. In 1836, during the spring of the year, Lansing Kingsbury and Josiah Lepper built the first foundry erected in Calhoun County, in Marshall, on Rice creek, which was burned afterwards. Colonel Charles and W. C. Dickey began the manufacture of fanning-mills in Marshall in 1836, and carried on the business for many years. J. W. Crandall, in 1840, was also engaged in.that business. In 1839, Nelson Church began to make sash, doors, and blinds without power, and afterwards, in 1848, built up a large factory for steam-power, and continued the business until 1874, when he made a change, and began the manufacture of wagons, which business he is still engaged in in the city. In 1833, H. W. Pendleton began the manufacture of furniture, chairs, and cabinet-work in a small way, but closed out the next year, and was succeeded by James Cuykendall, who continued the business. F. A. Kingsbury, however, was the first to do an extensive business in that line, and he began in 1835. On the 18th of April, 1840, his factory burned down, and was immediately rebuilt by him, and the business continued until the present. His first extensive venture was stock for three thousand chairs. In 1844-45, H. J. Perrin erected a framed flouring-mill, opposite the stone mill, which was afterwards destroyed by fire and rebuilt, and, in 1872, again destroyed by the same agency, which also destroyed a Sash- and blind-factory and a plaster-mill, both of which were erected subsequently to the framed mill. They were owned by Mr. Perrin. Mr. Perrin also built a ' ** -^**%i

Page  [unnumbered] I = I -~_ DAVID HANOHETT, JR. The subject of our present sketch, David Hanchett, is one of the worthy citizens of the beautiful city of Marshall, noted far and near for its cultured and intelligent people. He was born in Weedsport, New York, November 18, 1806. His father, David Hanchett, emigrated from Connecticut, of which State he was a native, to Weedsport in 1800. David, Jr., was married February 10, 1830, to Mary Hopkins, and resided in Conquest, Cayuga county, New York, until February, 1837, when he and his family removed to Marengo, Calhoun County, Michigan, traveling by ox-team through Canada, the trip occupying twenty-one days. Three children accompanied them, the youngest being but six months old. The children of Mr. and Mrs. Hanchett are as follows: Emeline G., Robert H., and Minerva E., all now living. Mrs. Hanchett died June 26, 1861, and Mr. Hanchett finding a lonely life insupportable, brought to his desolate home another companion, Hannah Hamilton, to whom he was married November 7, 1861. She was a daughter of Dr. James Hamilton, of Weedsport, New York. Mr. Hanchett's first location was on section 1, in Marengo township, on which he resided until the fall of 1869, when he removed to the city of Marshall, where he built a good home for himself and wife, and is now enjoying the ample fruits of a useful and honorable life. DAVID HANCHETT. or - -i = k RESIDENCE OF DAVID HANCHETT,MARSHALL,M/CH. 2 70

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Page  53 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 saw-mill, which was also destroyed. About 1860-61, Mr. Perrin began an extensive improvement of his water privilege on the Kalamazoo, erecting a distillery, foundry, and machine-shop, and afterwards (1862) changing the former into a paper-mill; but the paper-mill is the only one of the extended improvements now in operation, the same having been leased by the Rock River Paper Company in 1869, who repaired it, and have been operating it ever since. The present flouring-mill on Rice creek was built in 1854, by Shepherd and Etheridge. It is now owned and operated by Mr. Perrin. Thrashing-machines were manufactured in Marshall about 1844 and afterwards by Etheridge & Co., Baker & Nichols (Mr. Nichols, now of Shepherd & Nichols, of Battle Creek), by Campbell, and by Comstock & Halsey. Steam-engines were also attempted, but not extensively. In 1847, there were some twenty to thirty men employed in the manufacture of such machines. Two foundries made stoves, mill-gearing, and hollow-ware. Plows were made by Nichols, and also by Etheridge & Co. In 1844, Mr. W. C. P. Hunt built a steam-furnace, at which a good business was done. In 1845-46, shortly after the Michigan Central railroad was completed to Marshall, the company built their shops in the city, where they remained until 1873, when they were removed to Jackson, the people of the city not acceding to the demand made upon them for a bonus of sixty thousand dollars as the price of the retention of the shops at Marshall. The loss of them, however, was a hard blow to Marshall's prosperity. Nathan Holland, Adams, and Rymes were wagonmakers after 1840, and were rather extensive manufacturers. In 1868, Mr. Perrin built a stone shop for spring- and axle-works, which was operated a short time by Gibson, but soon ceased its operations, and is now lying unused. No cars were ever built. PRESENT MANUFACTURES. The Novelty Iron Works, John Adams proprietor, began business in 1866, on Marshall avenue, near the railroad crossing, until 1874, the works being destroyed by the great fire of 1872. In 1874, when the railroad shops were removed, Mr. Adams removed to his present location on Exchange street and Marshall avenue. Until the removal of the railroad shops, he manufactured largely for the company. He does now a general foundry work, makes all of the iron-work for the WindEngine and Pump Company, and a fine business in edged tools, pruning-shears, etc., and also in plows. He employs twenty men on an average during the season, and his sales average two hundred and fifty dollars per day from March to December, and he has about twenty thousand dollars capital invested. The Marshall Steam Mills were built in 1857, by C. S. Crane and John Hurd, the present proprietors. The building is fifty by seventy feet, and is a threestoried frame, with a brick engine-house, has six runs of stone, and does merchant work exclusively. Its product in 1876 was thirty-six thousand barrels of flour shipped, besides which the firm do a general traffic in grain, pork, etc. Mr. Crane's home is in Marshall, and Mr. Hurd's in Connecticut. J. M. Servoss is superintendent and chief miller. The Rock River Paper Company leased the Perrin paper-mill property in 1869, and rebuilt the engine-room and rag-mill after the fire, which had destroyed everything to the first floor, repaired the old machinery and added new, and have operated it ever since, in the manufacture of building and carpet paper, and dry felting. The company makes a specialty at this mill of red cedar carpeting, which, by its pungent and yet not unpleasant odor, is " death to moths." It is manufactured from the offal of saw-mills in the manufacture of lumber of that variety. It is patent measured and marked in the roll. In 1876 the mill's product was 1,431,098 pounds of roofing paper, 509,136 pounds of carpeting, and 100,000 pounds of dry felt. The mill is running out just at this present writing (May, 1877) 240,000 pounds of dry felt for the Singer Sewing-Machine Company of South Bend, Indiana, for packing purposes. W. H. H. Minot is the resident superintendent at Marshall. The planing-mill and sash-, door-, and blind-factory of T. Edgerton & Sons (Sidney and George) occupy the building erected and operated by Nelson Church. The senior Edgerton has been in business in Marshall for twenty-two years. The firm have been in the planing-mill five years. They do a large contracting and building business, and deal in lumber. Employ twenty-five men on an average during the season. The Emerald Mills were built in 1848, about two miles west of the city hall, by S. S. Alcott, on Bear creek, and operated for a time by water-power, but subsequently steam-power was introduced, by which they have since been run. The mills have four runs of stone, and do an exclusively merchant business. George Ingersoll operated the mills from 1852 to 1858, as agent. In 1860 he and his brother Chester bought them, and have operated them ever since. Their product in 1876 was fifteen thousand barrels. The Peters Brothers' Manufacturing Company organized for business August 21, 1872; George B. Peters, president, George B. Murray, vice-president, C. P. Dibble, treasurer, with a paid up capital of forty-five thousand dollars. The company makes a specialty of the Warren hoe, of which a large product was turned out in 1876, valued at forty thousand dollars. Twenty-seven persons are employed during the season. The Marshall Wind-Engine and Pump Company, P. A. Spicer, C. S. Crane, and M. J. Alexander, was organized January 1, 1872, and employ from fifteen to eighteen hands. Their total sales for 1876 were four hundred and fifty of their celebrated pumps and engines. Jonathan Miller is the general superintendent. J. L. Dobbins is engaged in the manufacture of hot-air furnaces, having begun the business in 1872, after having had his sash-, door-, and blind-factory destroyed by fire in Perrinville. He employs five persons, and sold fifty-four furnaces in 1876, at two hundred and fifty dollars each. M. J. Alexander, planing-mill and lumber dealer, has been eleven years in the business of lumber, and six years in the mill; employs five persons, and manufactures mouldings, etc. George A. Bullard-foundry-employs four men, and began in 1871 to build up a business on his own efforts. He does a fair business in agricultural implements. Hindenach, Bestel & Hoffman are engaged in the manufacture of wagons, carriages, sleighs, etc., and have been in the business as a firm five years, and employ eight persons. They sold sixty vehicles in 1876. John Hindenach and Alexander Skinner have been engaged twelve years in wagon and carriage manufacturing. They employ six men. A. Rimes has been twenty years a wagon-maker, and carries on his trade in Marshall, and employs from five to eight persons. Nelson Church, after thirty-seven years in the sash, door, and blind manufacture, in 1875 began to manufacture wagons, and employs in the busiest season from sixteen to twenty men. C. E. Brooks owns and operates a flouring-mill in the city, principally confined to custom-work, grinding from three hundred to four hundred bushels per day, and doing a large city and country trade. Mr. Brooks shipped extensively in 1876. The present flouring-mill on Rice creek was built in 1854, and is now owned and operated by H. J. Perrin, exclusively for merchant-work. BREWING. The brewing business of Marshall is a factor in the city's prosperity. There are three breweries in operation and one malt-house. Thomas Boffing commenced brewing in a small way ten years ago, and now has a fine establishment, solidly built of brick, and capacious and conveniently arranged. He keeps in stock eight hundred barrels of beer. His vats are of peculiar construction and immense size. One of one hundred and eighty-five barrels carried off the first award at Philadelphia, at the International Exposition. The vats are made with heads at both ends, the beer being pumped into the same through the bottom. Nunneman & Lutz are lessees of the Myers brewery, and make about four hundred barrels per year. Myers began twenty years ago, and the establishment, though small, is very complete in its details. Effinger Brothers occupy the old Morse brewery, built in 1853, the first one built in the city, but which lay idle for several years, until the present proprietors came into possession, in 1875. They handle from five hundred to six hundred barrels per annum. Swarthout & Briggs own the malt-house, which has been in operation about five years. Five hundred bushels of malt are manufactured there per day during the season, which is shipped to all parts of the country. They are heavy buyers of barley. Arthur & Kennedy built a brick brewery near the iron bridge, for the manufacture of ale, in 1869, and operated it some four or five years, but it is now idle. The Marshall Gas Company was organized in 1872, under the name of the National Building Company of St. Louis, and in 1874 the name was changed to its present designation. Three miles of mains are laid down in the city, and about one hundred and twenty-five thousand cubic feet of gas are manufactured annually. J. M. Woodson is president of the company, George W. Updike, secretary, and George T. Phelps, treasurer. The capital stock is forty thousand dollars. Several private gas-making machines are in use about the city, put in by this company. COOPERAGE. Edward Magee has the most extensive cooper-shop in the city, and has been the longest in business. He came from Boston to Marshall to take charge of the cooper-shop of Alcott & Morse in 1855. Alcott & Morse were extensively en

Page  54 54 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. gaged in milling at the time, and Mr. Alcott had been so engaged since 1838 in the county. The firmi had connected coopering with their milling business, and MMr. Magee worked for them until the summer of 1857, when he commenced the business for himself in his present stand on Green street, between Eagle and Jefferson, where he has continuously carried on his trade. He employs nine men the year through. His, manufactures for the year 1876 were thirty thousand flour barrels, one thousand cider and packing barrels, and some four hundred butter tubs, the whole, together with a large repairing business, footing up a value of some sixteen thousand dollars. Messrs. Town & Beals, on the south side, carry on a small business, being the successors of Filkins; who used to employ ten to twelve men. FURNITURE. Martin Weimer employs ten men in the manufacture of furniture and fine cabinet work. His bank furniture is very finely wrought indeed, one of his journeymen, Jacob Burkel, excelling in that line. He succeeded J. F. Gans in March, 1877, who was in the furniture line for fourteen or more years previously. F. A. Kingsbury, the old pioneer furniture-maker, is also in business yet. THE CIGAR-MANUFACTURERS are G. T. Beebe, J. S. Benjamin & Co., and J. W. Freed. The New England Cigar Company have been engaged in the business for many years, but are not at present manufacturing. MUSIC-PUBLISHERS. J. S. White & Co. have been engaged in music publishing since 1870. The house was established as music-dealers in 1860. They have now about one hundred copyrights, and issue two each month. Major Joseph Barton, now deceased, has been their most popular composer, his piece. "1 Gently Down the Stream of Time, having reached a sale of fifty thousand, copies, and the tide of its popularity has not begun to ebb yet. Another composition of this writer, "Are we Forgotten when we're gone 9" is also very deservedly popular. Prof. C. N. Colwell also has composed several pieces which are well received by the musical public, among, them " A Sigh," and " I will Remember Thee," being the most popular. Charles Grobe is another popular composer whose productions are issued by this' house. The rooms of the firm. are at 84 State street, the publishing department 'being on the third floor, the music-rooms on the second, where musical instruments are exhibited and kept in stock, while the retail salesrooms occupy the first floor. PIONEER AND PRESENT TRADE. The first merchant to open a stock of goods in Marshall was Charles D. Smith, who came to the village in 1832 with a small stock of general merchandise, and began trading on the west-side of the public square, in the south end of Engel's present dwelling-house. Smith cade from LanSingburg,, New York. He was afterwards clerk of the courts from 1833 to 1836. Charles Winslow, from Brockport, New York, came in in the spring of 1833 with a stock of goods, Trowbridge & Babcock conducting the business as Winslow's agents. Trowbridge is Dow in Kalamazoo. The stock of Winslow was more extensive than Smith's. Winslow was onl the same side of the square, two doors south of Smith's. Winslow came on again in the winter of 1833-34, and closed his business out in the spring of 1834, and returned east. He sold his goods to Sidney Ketchum, who removed them to the east end of the'village, on the east of the square. The third stock was bought by Henry Hewitt, who came in 1834. Boville Shumway started in trade on Rice Creek in 1.835, George S. Wright being engaged with him as clerk. This year, too, the first hardware-store and tin-shop was opened by S. S3. Burpee. Charles P. Dibble opened his first stock of goods in the spring; of 1836, and $ continued in the same line of business until January, 1877, when he retired, and was succeeded by his son, Charles A. Dibble, who at present represents the old and firmly-established house. In June, 1836, Chaunoey M. Brewer and Charles T. Gorham, then young men on a tour of observation for a location to begin life's business -seriously and in earnest, possessed of little save good business qualities and a determination to succeed, arrived at Marshall and selected it-as a point for business, and formed a copartrership, and obtained a stock of goods, which they opened the same month. This connection lasted until'.1840,,when Mr. Gorham withdrew from the firm and turned his attention to banking. Mr.:Brewer associated with him Messrs.:Dusenbury and Butler, and continued the connection until 1845, when they retired, and Mr. Brewer has since then been in trade alone. His sons, Charles D. and Edgar G., now conduct the mercantile business, their father giving his personal attention to his other financial interests. He is reputed to be the wealthiest man in the county. In 1837, Schuyler & Wallingford opened a hardware store, and kept a heavy stock, and were in the trade for a number of years. Mr. Sch l'er is now an eminent...,Episcopalian. divine in St. Louis., J. M. Parsons and George S. Wright began trading in 1836, and. Mr. Parsons is still engaged in that line at the present time. Brewer & Gorham built the front of the present brick store of Mr. Brewer's in 1838, having opened their first stock on the opposite side of the street, and farther west. Parsons & Wright built the Parsons block. Mr. Wright is now engaged in banking. Comstock & Halsey began trading also in 1837 in general merchandise, and also added a druggist's department to the business. They were also heavy manufacturers for many years. They occupied afterwards the brick building opposite the Marshall House. In 1840, A. O. Hyde opened a drug-store, paints, oils, etc., and is still in the same line of trade, having been continuously interested therein during the whole period. Lewis & Thompson were in trade in June, 1836, and had been some time previously. S. J. Burpee, a son of the first hardware merchant of the village forty-two years ago, represents the old pioneer in the same line in the city of to-day. Asa B. Cook was for twenty-five years a prominent merchant of Marshall, and retired a few years since, surrendering his trade to a son. J. W. Fletcher, Cronin Brothers, and Jere. Cronin, Jr., prominent merchants of to-day, began their business lives in Marshall, and have built up their trade to extended proportions by their own management and foresight. H. M. & P. Hempstead are leading merchants in the dry-goods line, and carry probably the heaviest stock in the city. I. S. Peters & Brothers (three brothers) are in the hardware line, two other brothers are manufacturers in Marshall, and three others of the brothers of this family are heavy traders elsewhere. ' PIONEER ARTISANS. The first blacksmith-shop was put up by Peter Chisholm, in 1831, and the second one by Lansing Kingsbury, in 1833. The first shoemaker was H. C. Goodrich, in 1832, afterwards sheriff of the county; and the first tailor was William R. McCall, who came in 1833, and, having no fire in his shop, had to bake his goose at a nei-hbor's. He is still pursuing the even tenor of his way, with a Stitch, stitch, stitch, Bandy and gusset and seam," though Elias Howe's simple invention of a needle with the eye in its point has done away with much of the slow work of ye olden time. The other three of his companion-journeymlen are laid to rest. Mr. McCall is the oldest living business man in the city in point of location. The first harness-maker was Mr. Brockway. BANKING. The history of the old Calhoun County bank and the "wild cat" Marshall bank, is given in the general history of banking in the county. Hon. Charles T. Gorham began the private banking business in 1840, and followed it several years, until the national banks were established. Horace J. Perrin also engaged similarly in or about 1858. In the year 1863 the Bank of Miebigan was chartered under the State banking law with a capital of $100,000, Joseph Sibley, president, and William Powell, cashier. On June 14, 1865, the badly was reorganized under the national banking law as the "1 National Bank of Michigan," with the following directory: Horace J. Perrin, president; William:Powell, cashier; Manlius Mann, Samuel S. Lacey, Ennis Church, J. M. Bulkley In 1866-68, John B. Frink and M. D. Strong were cashiers, and 'in 1876 fMr. Powell resumed the position, and has held it ever since. The capital, which was $100 000) at the organization, was increased in 1874 to $200,(000. The present board of directors is as follows: H. J. Perrin, president; A. T. Vary:, vice president; William Powell, cashier JM. Mann, Ennis Church-, tBro;Chur& The quarterly statement of April 14, 1877, shows the condition of thee bank to be as follows: capital stock paid in, surplus and undivided profits, $259,115:.14-; National bank notes outstanding, $180,0Q00 secured by $200 000 in Unite States bonds; individual deposits, subject to check and on certificates, $56,452.22; l and discounts, $222,737.64; other stocks, bonds, and mortgages, $20,554 W2;,:due: from approved reserve agents and other National banks, $17,499.09; real Ustath and furniture, $13,650; cash on hand, legal-tender notes, redemption ffiiud, etc., $21,085.64; notes and bills rediscounted, $10,000. The total-assets of the bank amounted to $495,567.36, and the total liabilities other than to its own En holders and for circulation, $66,452.22. On the 5th day of August, 1865, the First National bank was -rgaized, and commenced business October 9, 1865, in the office of Charles T. Gorham., r Gorham, president; Charles P. Dibble, vice-president; George S. Wrigt, cashier; William R. Schuyler, George B. Murray, Asa B. Cook, Pratt A. Spicer, ad -Devillo Hubbard were the first board of directors, and the present abo, with. the exception of Mr. Schuyler and Mr. Spicer, who have ben -succed byv C. G. Crane and M. D. Stevens.n The quarterly statement of April 14,1877 makes the, following exhibit of the condition of the bank: capital stock paid -in Sur

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Page  55 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 55 plus and undivided profits, $209,553.16; circulation outstanding, $85,900; individual deposits subject to check or certificate, $158,047.21; loans and discounts, $219,125.10; other bonds, mortgages, and stocks aside from bonds to secure circulation, $31,130.09; United States bonds to secure circulation, $100,0(0; due from approved reserve agents and other National and State banks and bankers, $34,375.06; real estate, furniture, etc., $24,613.63; cash on hand, $37,222.99; redemption and other items, $7134.19. Total assets, $453,501.06, and total liabilities other than to stockholders and on account of circulation, $158,047.21. The National City bank of Marshall was organized July 6, 1872, with the following board of directors: G. W. Bentley, president; Martin D. Strong, cashier; John Houston, John Adams, John C. Fitzgerald, William Cook, Loomis Hutchinson. Joseph Bentley, M. J. Alexander, and Samuel J. Burpee, which remains the same, except that James Downs and C. H. Cook have been added, and S. V. R. Lepper is the present cashier. The last quarterly statement of the bank, dated April 14, 1877, gives the following exhibit of its condition: Capital stock paid in, surplus and undivided profits, $120,167.78; circulation outstanding, $45,000; individual deposits, $54,923.55; loans and discounts, $135,365.25; U. S. bonds to secure circulation, $50,000; other bonds, etc., $268.46; due from approved reserve agents and other National banks, $11,314.70 real estate, furniture, etc., $7675; expense and premium account, $3398.03; cash on hand, $10,819.89; redemption fund, $2250. Total assets, $920,091.33; total liabilities other than to stockholders' and circulation account, $54,923.55. Excess, $165,067.78. The grand aggregate of banking capital and surplus in the city foots up $588,836.08, the total deposits being $2'69,422.98, and the total loans and discounts being $567,227.99. The total assets of the banks amounted to $1,169,159.75, being an excess over their liabilities other than to their own stockholders, and on circulation account, of $889,636.79. POST-OFFICE. The first post-office in Calhoun County was established in Marshall, in 1832, George Ketchum being appointed the postmaster. who used to keep the postal matter for the settlement in a ciuar-box. The mail was brought in on horseback, and came semi-occasionally for some time, until the post-route was established, in 1836, from Jackson via Marshall to Centreville, when the flail was brought once each week for a time, then semi-weekly, and finally daily. Rev. John D. Pierce succeeded Mr. Ketchum, and kept the office in his double lo- house, on the site of the house now occupied by Manlius Mann, on Mansion street. Mr. Pierce utilized his clock-ease for a receptacle for the postal matter, without detriment to the time-piece, the pendulum havting full swing without interference from the m ail. Charles D. Smnith next succeeded to the appointment, being appointed by President Jackson, and re-appointed by Van Buren, holding the office about six years. Emerson T. Wakefield succeeded Mr. Smith for a short lease of power, only six months, and:James M. Parsons came in under Harrison for three and a half years. During Mr. Parsons' incumbency there was ail attempt made to oust him from the office, and three hundred of his fellow-citizens, irrespective of party, remonstrated against his removal, and paid him a hig~h compliment for efficiency and non-partisanship in the conduct of the office. Zenas Tillotson served four years under President Polk, and was succeeded by George S. Wright for a term -of the same duration under Taylor and Fillmore. Dr. J. H. Montgomery carried off the prize for eight years under Presidents Pierce and Buchanan, and stepped aside for Seth Lewis, who was appointed by Mr. Lincoln, and h~eld the office five and a half years. James Monroe was appointed by President Johnson, but hardly was warms in his seat when, at the end of six months, S. S. Lacey came in for two years. Herbert A. Read then was the incumbent under Grant for five years, and was succeeded by the present incumbent, Samuel J. Burpee, February 21, 1874. William R. Lewis is the efficient and courteous assistant, who presides at the money-order office. He occupied the position of assistant postmaster under Seth Lewis, Mr. Lacey, and Read, also. By his kindness we here give a re'sume of the business of the office for the year 1876: money orders issued, domestic, 2737, amounting to $32,825.31; 8 Canadian for 6 months, beginning July 1, 1876, $97.73; 25 British, $414.50; and 12 German, $84. Total number issued, 2784; amount, $33,421.54. Orders paid, 1627; domestic, $23,140.22; 2 Canadian, $"24.56; 1 British, $11.91; 8 German, $76.13. Total number paid, 1638; amount, $23,252.82. Total amount issued and paid, $56,674.36. Fees received for orders issued, $337.25. 249 registered letters were dispatched, and 603 received and delivered during the year. During the year there were stamps and stamped envelopes and postal cards sold to the value of $5392.53. The domestic money-order business was established in this office July 1, 1865; the British, October 1, 1871; the German, July 1, 1875; and the Canadian, July 1, 1876. The first mail contractor was Mr. I. Camp, who carried it between Jackson and Marshall in 1833. RAILROADS. The Michigan Central railroad, the only line running through Marshall now in operation, was completed to this place August 10, 1844, the same being constructed thus far, and thence onward to Kalamazoo, by the State, while it was a part of the gigantic system of internal improvements initiated by the State authorities on the adoption of the State constitution. The shops of the company were established at Mg-rshall soon after the road was completed to this point, and' were a great aid to the prosperity and advancement of the material progress of the city-until the year 1873, when, as previously stated, the shops were removed to Jackson. The Mansfield, Coldwater and Mackinaw (or Marshall and Coldwater) railroad has been graded through the city, but is not yet tied or ironed. The total receipts of the Central road for the year 1844, for its entire length, amounted to $2!11,. 169.84, of which $83,551.03 were for passenger traffic, and the balance for freight and mails. In 1847 there were 21,187 barrels of flour shipped from Marshall against 15,354 barrels in 1846. During the year 1876, the business of the road transacted at the Marshall station was as follows: there were 22,459,952 pounds of freight received, and 20,430,272 pounds forwarded, the earnings on which amounted to $66,202.74. The passenger traffic amounted to $19,123.15, making the total earnings $85,325.89. There were 33,325 barrels of flour and 104,322 bushels of grain shipped. J. W. Nutting, station agent, has placed us under obligations for the foregoing statements, who, together with his assistant, F. T. Warmington, furnished the same to us. James A. Way was one of the first agents, if not the first, and held the position for many years. Z. Tillotson was the first contractor. Wells & Co. first established an expre'ss to Marshall in September, 1844, which was operated under different names until the, reorganization and redistribution of routes, when the Americarl Express Company secured the Central, road, and its office was established at Marshall. S. Wormley has been the agent for ten years. The earnings of the office for 1876 were: on shipments, $3697.05; on receipts, $5483.15; total, $9180.20. HOTELS. The first hotel that was opened in the county of Calhoun was that of S. Camp, in Marshall, and known as the Exchange, and situated at the east end of the villaae. It was a frame building, two stories high and stood on the corner of State street and Marshall House square. It was opened in the spring of 18533. Previous to this tine, however, Mr. J. P. Pierce, by agreement with certain parties of whom lie bought his house, a double log, threw it open for the accommodation of the public, but never put out a sign or kept a tavern. In 1835 the National House was built, the first brick building erected in the county, and opened with great Jcla~t, January 1, 1836, with a grand soire'e diansante by mine host, Andrew Mann. The Marshall House Company built in 1838 that, at the timne, most elaborately finished and furnished caravansary, at a cost of thirty thousand dollars. It surpassed, at the time, any hotel in the State or northwest, and was a noted place of resort for years. From all parts of the State the Marshall House was the Whlig headquarters, and the National that of the Democrats. They were also the rallying-points of the respective upper and lower villages, as long as the rivalry between,4 the two ends of the village continued. W. L. Merrifield was the first landlord of the Marshall. The National is now known as the Facey House, its name hasting been changed several years ago. The Marshall House is tenantless, and, though a gloomy-looking pile at present, has not lo~st all traces of its former grandeur. The heavy fluted pillars that form the supports of its balconies are fast rotting away, and the stone walls of the court give it a prison-like aspect, but its iron-corniced windows and large window-panes show the style of the old house to have been far in advance of its day in Marshall. The Herndon House was built in 1856-57, by Hon. Wie. H. Brown and John Van Arman, and was opened by Moses Park, May 13, 1858. It was kept as a first-class hotel until September 24, 1875, when- it was burned, while George W. Watson was keeping it. The walls have been repaired, and a new roof put on, but never refitted inside. At this fire there was a distressing loss of life and injury among the irmates, the particulars of which are given elsewhere. The Forbes House, the Michigan Central railroad eating-house, was built by the company in 1860, and first kept by A. V. Pantlind, who was succeeded by W. H. Witt, under whose management it acquired the name of the "1 chicken-pie 'house," front a standard dish on the bill of fare of the same. Mr. Witt was succeeded by Mr. Pantlind again, who now keeps the same in connection with eatinghouses elsewhere on the Central road, and at Grand Rapids. The Witt House was opened as a hotel in September, 1875, by the present popular caterer, who keeps a first-class house, and has a good name among that most critical and exacting class, the commercial travelers. Henry Witt, a brother

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of the landlord, is the chief manager, and testifies, by his success in pleasing his guests, that he "knows how to keep a hotel." The building was originally erected for an opera hall, stores, and offices, by four gentlemen of Marshall, in 1867-68. The Fowler House is what was once called the Mechanics' Hall, built in 1845, by the Mechanics' Association, and Dusberry and Brucer. Its present host is Jacob Lockwood. The old landlords, besides those already named, were Z. Tillotson, who for a short time succeeded Camp in the Exchange; Vandenburg, who succeeded Tillotson. The following were in the Marshall House after Merrifield: John Stuart, Sargent & Dryer, Nat. Holman, John Hollon, Phelps (1843), P. Kane (1844), L. Kingsbury (1847), Smith & Robinson, and Davis, the latter being the last landlord in the house. In the National, Volney Alcott, Platner, Watrons, Phelps, and Acker held sway. Dr. Facey came into it about 1861, and changed its name to the Facey House, his widow now owning and keeping it. The landlords of the Herndon who succeeded Parke were W. P. Humphrey, George F. Davis, L. S. Luce, and Watson. THE BUSINESS OF 1877-TRADE. General Stock.-J. Cronin, Jr., Charles A. Dibble, William Martin. Dry Goods. —H. M. & P. Hempstead, C. D. & E. G. Brewer, Phelps & Murphy, James Martin, H. E. Phelps, George Perritt. Groceries, Crockery, Flour and Feed, etc.-J. M. Laberteaux, C. T. Cook, Mrs. James Donovan, Peter J. Higgins, Cronin Bros., Lemuel Bradley, J. & R. Butler, Wm. M. Bordwell, John Wiseman, Solomon McNames, A. B. Smith, Andrew Watson, William Bohanna, Kucher & Silsbe, H. G. Brooks, E. A. & F. C. Stuart. Hardware.-I. S. Peters & Bros., S. J. Burpee, W. W. Smith & Co. Clothing.-J. W. Fletcher, Frederick Karstaedt, L. Hecht & Co. Drugs and Medicines, etc.-A. O. Hyde, A. D. Schuyler, William Elsson, B. A. Gallup & Son (compounders of patent medicines), F. L. Henderson, Wm. B. Church. Books and Stationery.-M. S. O'Keefe & Co. Ladies' Furnishing Goods.-Mrs. S. A. Coles, also extensively engaged in dressmaking,-Mrs. A. C. Wilson. Millinery.-Miss L. Hughes, Mrs. Phebe Merrill. Boots and Shoes.-J. M. Parsons, Nicholas Devereux, G. F. Kast & Co., Henry Klugman. Jewelry, Silverware, Clocks and Watches, etc.-Gill & Watson, H. C. Hulett, A. H. Cathcart, C. Herbert Thompson. Music Publishers and Dealers, and Musical Instruments.-J. S. White & Co., L. W. Brown. Harnesses. E. R. Mills, Nicholas Vogt, W. A. Waltz, D. Paddock, Jacob Sutler. The latter is a blind man, but works deftly with his needle and knife, and by his industry supports comfortably a large family. Agricultural Implements.-D. B. Bordwell & Sons, Bosley & Cuykendall. Produce.-Bosley & Raymond. News-Room.-Mrs. A. C. Paris (at post-office). Furniture.-G. S. Barrett & Co., J. F. Gaus & Co. Merchant Tailors.-William R. McCall, James M. Gamwell, Dennis O'Connor, Thomas Callahan. Tinware.-W. S. Wells, John J. Fahey. Patent Solicitors and Model-Makers.-Otto L. Johnson, Welles Bros. Notions and Wall Paper. George W. Steele. Bakeries.-L. S. Lanse & Co., Jona. Snyder. Marble- GCutter.-A. W. Houghton. Carriage- Trimnmers.-Hunt Bros. G-unsmith.-I. G. Evans. Meat Markets.-Colins & Hertkorn, Cox & Hotchkiss, Louis Stein. Hotels.-Witt House, W. H. Witt, proprietor; Fobes House and Michigan Central railroad eating-house, A. V. Pantlind, proprietor; Fowler House, Facey House, Exchange, National, and Marshall House. Liveries.-Peck & Miller (omnibus and hack line), Charles A. Gardanier, William H. Ward, William H. Johnson. Michigan Central Railroad.-J. W. Nutting, station agent. Western Union Telegraph. Post-Office.-S. J. Burpee, postmaster; William R. Lewis, money-order clerk. Banks.- National bank of Michigan, William Powell, cashier; First National bank, George S. Wright, cashier; City National bank, S. V. R. Leiper, cashier. Printing-Offices.-Morgan Bates (Statesman), Z. H. Denison (Expounder). Newspaper Subscription Agency.-William R. Lewis, assistant postmaster, has been in the business ten years, and has a good line of clubs. - PROFESSIONS. The bar of Marshall is given in the general history of the bar of the county. Physicians, regular school.-Drs. J. H. Montgomery, H. L. Joy, J. F. Smiley, C. E. Luskam, E. L. Roberts, S. N. Coons, Mrs. S. A. Peterman. LHomoeopathic.W. B. Church. Eclectic.-H. A. Peterman, specialist and compounder of patent medicines. Photographers.-S. B. Smith, J. E. Mast. Portrait-Painter.-E. A. Turner. Musical Composers and Teachers.-Professor C. N. Colwell (noted), William M. Phelps (a genuine artist by natural gift. An enthusiast in his profession). Dentists.-C. H. Eggleston, William Woodruff, M. H. Snyder. EDUCATION. Since the first settlers came to the site of the city of Marshall in 1831, throughout its whole history of pioneer life and later development to the present, an air of intelligence, culture, and refinement has pervaded the community and been associated with its citizens as a class. The pioneers-and all who came to the village prior at least to 1838 can justly be so classed-came from the educated communities of New England and New York, and brought their institutions with them. Before there were a dozen children of suitable age to receive the instruction of the schools, true to their instincts, the settlers, Sidney Ketchum and two or three others, summoned a Miss Brown, from Ann Arbor, to take charge of the few scholars, who were assembled in a loft for want of a better place, and the school ma'am was au fait accompli. In 1832 a school-house was built, which served for a church as well (one society having been formed in October, 1831, and another in May, 1832), and with a saw-mill, flouring-mill, and store, the foundation of a city was laid. Eliza Ketchum taught the first school in the school-house, which was built on Mansion street, near the present parsonage of the Presbyterian church, and is now standing, directly in the rear of its original location, and doing service as a stable. The school ma'am is dead. In this building not only were schools taught and the gospel of salvation proclaimed according to the tenets of different denominations, but the blind goddess also held the scales of justice in equipoise, and dignified judges sat in solemn judgment on the foibles and follies of their fellows, while learned barristers plumed their fancies for rhetorical flights, and badgered witnesses to their hearts' delight. Here, too, assembled the people in their sovereignty and invested their chosen ones with the dignity and responsibility of making and executing the laws for their government. In short, this pioneer school-house, the first in the county, was the general rallying-point for all public assemblies for several years until the Presbyterian session-house and court-house were built, when it was abandoned to its primal use. From the first agitation of the question of the removal of the capitol from Detroit, not only did the citizens of Marshall indulge the hope the same would be located in their village, but such location was also looked upon with favor elsewhere in the State. In the apportionment of advantages, as canvassed by those in interest, Ann Arbor was to be assigned the university, Jackson the penitentiary, and to Marshall the capitol was assigned. And, in 1839, a bill to this effect passed the Senate by a vote of nine to six, but was defeated in the lower house. Roseate visions passed in review before the minds of the citizens; they builded castles of the most graceful proportions and airy elegance, above whose battlements imagination pictured the sunniest skies, and bathed their spires with the most brilliant hues. And though these castles were of the gossamer of which dreams are woven, and were dissipated like the morning mist before the rising sun when the capitol was finally located in Lansing, in 1845, yet the results of this architectural display were by no means as unsubstantial as the cause which led to them. This expectation had gone abroad, and attracted to this cynosure of many eyes able men of all professions, who located and indulged in the same pleasing visions. But they did more than dream. Brilliant attorneys, able divines, and learned doctors, fresh from their alma maters, or rich with storied experience, came, bringing their culture, and a love for and a knowledge of the systems from which that culture had been gained. They found a foundation already laid in the little framed school-house and in the inclination of the people, and straightway they began to build the walls of the edifice that in this year of grace, a trifle more than forty years since their coming, shows its splendid capitals and pillared domes, resulting from the wisdom and work of two of Marshall's own sons, Rev. John D. Pierce and Hon. Isaac E. Crary. The high school of the Marshall of 1877 is the outgrowth of the organic law of the Commonwealth, placed in the constitution thereof by Crary, as chairman of the committee on education in the first convention to clothe the "'amoenam peninsulam" with the powers of independent sovereignty, and Pierce was the adviser and counselor, and finally the public executor of the most wholesome law that had as yet, at that period, been incorporated in the constitution of any State in the American Union. From that time forward the


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Page  57 HISTORY OF CAL~HOUN COUNTY, MIICHIGAN.i~S 57 classic institutions of Marshall multiplied and throve for many years, indifferently perhaps at times, but none the less surely was the problem being wrought out, which has found its full solution in the Union school of the present, -supported from the public purse, and fr~ee to all, of whatever sex, country, color, or condition. In 1838', the Marshall college was chartered, and the institution endowed with certain real estate on the south side of the river by the liberal citizens of the villacye and a preparatory school, known as the Marshall academy, established. Rev. John P. Cleveland came to the villaae in 1839, as president of the college, and conducted the academy for four years. He was an able Presbyterian divine, and a most excellent instructor. In 1842-43, Mr. Cleveland retired from the academy, the scheme of the college hav~ing failed of success, and removed to Cincinnati, as the associate of Dr. Lyman Beecher. Hon. Nathaniel A. Balch, now of Kalamazoo, was also connected with the school. In 1842, Prof. Patch was the principal, and after the reopening, Rasselas L. Sears was connected with the academy. In 1844-45,j Prof. Millette was the principal. Under the managrement of Mlr. Cleveland the school attained a high reputation at home and abroad. In 1840, the Marshall Female Seminary was opened by Miss Lucy A. Seymour, the first term beginning in Mvarch of that year. Dr. Daniel Hudson was the president of the association, and Dr. Comstock, secr~etary. In 1837-38 the Marshall Village Company put up a building for a young ladies' seminary, and Miss Wood was engaged as a teacher. In December, 1844, the Marshall seminary was opened by Misses E. D. Collins and E. H. Landon. The school was under the 0. Crittenton moderator, John T. Vernor, Jr., director, Joseph Hollon assessor. In 1860 the three primary buildings in wards 1, 2, and 4 were erected at a Cost of eighat thousand dollars, Sheldon Smith architect, E. 0. Crittenton superintendent of construction. In 1868 the new central building was erected at a cost of about seventy thousand dollars, G-. P. Randall architect, Charles P. Dibble superintendent of construction. In 1-872 the third ward primary buildings was erected at a cost of twelve thousand five hundred dollars, Colonel William D. Buck contractor, A. 0. Hyde superintendent of construction. There are five departments into which the school is divided viz., primary, —subdivided into first and -second primaries, of which there is one of each subdivision in each of the four wards of the city, —first and second intermediate departments, grammar, and high school; the last four holding their sessions in the central building. The course of study in the primary and intermediate departments and grrammar school is confined to the ordinary English branches of education. The courses of study in the high school are as follows: Preparautor~y Class. SPRING TERM. —Elem~centatry Algebra; Analysis; Physical Geography; Reading and Spelling. GENERAL. I LATIN. w CLASSICAL. Ij_ EljE. Algebra completed. -- AAnalysis. P.. Physiology. 'El. Algebra completed. Latin, Ist Book. IPhysiology. El. Algebra completed. Latinp Ist Book. Physiology. I I I i II I I i i Arithmetic. Higher. General History. Civil Governmeent. Arithmetic, Higher. Latin, Ist Book compl'd. Gen. His. or Civil Gov't. Higher Arithmetic. Latin, Ist Book completed. General H~ist. or Cfivil Gov't. Arithmetic, Higher. General History completed. Botany. Arithmetic, IHigher. 'Higher Arithmetic. Latin Reader and Gram., I Latin Reader, Gramnmar,' Prose Composition. Prose Composition. General Hist. or Botany. General History or Botany. Arithmetic completed. Arithruetic completed. Higher Arithmetic completed. Natural Philosophy. Latin Reader and Prose Latin Reader and Prose Com — Rhetoric. Cornposition. position. E-4 Rhetoric or Nat. Phil'y. Greek Lessons. ~CGeometry. Geometry. /Geometry.;A ~ Nat. Philosophy compl'd. Latin, Coesar and Latin Latin Cg~esar, and Prose ComRhetoric completed. Prose. position. 0E-q Nat. Phil'y or Rhetoric. Greek Lesson and Grammar. ( Ancient Geography. Ancient Geography. 0 'jGeometry. Geometry. /Geomnetry. ~ Chemistry. Labtin, Cw~tsar, Rom. His. Latin, Coesar, Rom. History. E E Descriptive Astronomy. jChemistry or Astronomy. Greek Lesson and Grammar. Geometry. Geometry. Geometry. 4 Zoology. Latin, Cicero, Latin!Latin, Cicero, Latin Prose. Mental Science. Prose Composition. Greek, Translation and Com.!Zoology or Men. S'cience. Iposition. W: Geometry. Geometry. i Geometry. E9 Mental Science. Latin, Cicero. 1Ltn ieo ERGooy Geology or Men. Science. Greek, Anabasis, Comp. Frenzch Colurse. Fir~st Year.. F'all Term. —Otto's Grammar, thirty-two Lessons. Winter Term. —Otto's Grammar; Translations. Spring Term. —Otto's Grammar; Williams' Conversations. Secon ( Yea~r. FEall Term. —Williams' Conversations, Le Cid, par Corneille Clompositiion. Winter Term. —Williams' Conversations, La Lit. Frangaise Contemporaine. Spring Term. —La Lit. Firang~aise Contemporaine; Noel and Chapsal's G~rammar. German Coucrse. First Year. Fall Term. —Ahn's Course, Practical Part, seventy Lessons. W~inter Term.-Ahn's Practical and Theoretical Course. Spring Term. —Ahn's Course finished. Dictation Exercises. Second Year. Fall Term.-Worrman's G~rammar and Echo. Winter Term.-Worman's Grammar and Echo continued. Sprin-, Term.-Wmorman's Grammar; Marie Stuatrt; Composition.

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Third Year. Fall Term.-Worman's Grammar; Syntax; Marie Stuart. Winter Term.-Hermann and Dorothea, or Nathan the Wise. Spring Term.-A'uerbach's Barfussele, or Joseph in the Snow; Criticisms. APPARATUS. The high school is equipped with very excellent and quite extensive apparatus for illustration and experiment, briefly enumerated as follows: In natural philosophy, the apparatus includes a full assortment from a simple pulley to a compound lever, etc., to illustrate mechanical powers; eight illustrations of the centre of gravity; apparatus for central and centrifugal forces. In hydrostatics and hydraulics, pumps, the working of valves, and Tantalus cup, illustrating the principle of the siphon; and for specific gravity balance, a good assortment. Heat is illustrated by a pulse-glass, compound bar, conductometer, etc., and a Wollaston's model illustrates the principle of the condensing engine. In pneumatics, a large selection of fine apparatus illustrates that science; and electricity is numerously represented in the collection. Magnetism has also a fine display of illustrating apparatus, from the ordinary horse-shoe magnet to the telegraphic model and vibrating electrotome. In optics, compound microscopes, prisms, mirrors, disks, etc., are in the list. Chemistry has a very fine laboratory equipment, and the astronomical apparatus is confined to lunatellus, tellurian, celestial globes, and planisphere. Maps, charts, mathematical and geometrical forms, globes, etc., are in profusion where most needed. ADIBBLE PRIZE FUND." Through the generosity of Mr. Chas. P. Dibble, as rewards for earnest effort, a fund of five hundred dollars, to be perpetual, has been by him set apart and named as above, the interest of which is annually awarded in prizes among the various departments of the central school to those pupils whose record for scholarship, deportment, and attendance during the year shall be _ most meritorious, as follows, viz.: ' High school department, 1st prize, | * $10.00; 2d prize, $5.00. Grammar school department, 1st prize, $10.00; 2d prize, $5.00. Second intermediate department, 1st prize, $6.00; 2d prize, $4.00. First intermediate department, 1st prize, $6.00; 2d prize, $4.00. The names and standing of pupils gaining these various prizes will be published in the annual catalogue. GRADUATES. 1869.-Herbert E. Davis, Henry M. Haskell, Clarence S. Joy, all of Marshall. In 1870 there were no sessions of high school, owing to non-completion of central building. 1871.-Frank W. Boughton, Marcus J. Wells, Libbie A. Ingersoll, Anna C. Wells, all of Marshall. 1872.-Frank L. Henderson, Jennie Gambie, Addie M. Hollon, Abbie P. Ketchum, Marshall; Myra A. Miller, Marengo; Carrie M. Mitchell, Mary R. Montgomery, Julia Morton, May L. Wright, Marshall. 1873.-Celia E. Boughton, Mary E. Davis, Mollie A. Downs, E. May Henderson, Minnie W. Hyde, Carrie L. Ingersoll, Ruth S. Lacey, Marshall; Laura M. Poole, Niles; Sara Ridg Schuyler, Belle Warren, Caroline S. Woodruff, Marshall. 1874.-George Horton, Marengo; Julius M. Hutchinson, Emmett; James H. Pond, Marshall town; Nellie N. Bangs, Marshall; Julia M. Crossman, Marengo; Cora A. Davis, Marshall; Minnie A. Hewitt, Marengo; Minnie Rice, Marshall town; Minnie J. Waugh, Fannie M. White, Marshall. Graduates in French Course. —Nellie N. Bangs, class of '74; Carrie M. Mitchell, class of '72; Sara R. Schuyler, class of '73; Caroline S. Woodruff, class of '73, all of Marshall. 1875.-Mary Blakeslee, Marshall; Mollie R. Browning, Libertytown, Maryland; Mary K. Haskell, Delle McClure, Chester Aldrich, Marshall; Walker I. Houston, Fredonia; Milton M. Marble, Marengo. Graduates inl French Course. -Mary Barnes, Delle McClure, class of '75, Mary R. Montgomery, class of '72, all of Marshall. 1876.-Clara Bickford, Marshall; Eva Crossman, Marengo; Mary E. Dickey, Helen L. Dickey, E. May Drake, Gertrude C. Hunt, Minnie G. Ingersoll, Ida M. Peters, Jennie M. Raymond, Addie E. Salter, Marshall; Anna Van Voorhees, Jesse M. Hatch, Fredonia; Charles Hutchinson, Emmett; Willis P. Polhemus, Fredonia. French Course.-Mary K. Haskell, class of '75, Ida Phelps,;Marshall. NAMES OF PRINCIPALS OR SUPERINTENDENTS FROM 1856. 1856-57, J. Eugene Tenney; 1857-59, Josiah T. Reade; 1859-61, George A. Graves; 1861-63, Walter S. Perry; 1863-64, Burton and W. S. Perry; 1864-65, J. E. Colby; 1865-66, A. C. Sargent and Jno. A. Banfield; 1866 -67, Jno. A. Banfield; 1867-68, Isaac N. Otis; 1868-1877, Henry N. French. In the early history of the Union school, about the year 1850, Josiah N. Westcott, from central New York, was connected with the school as principal, and was a most excellent instructor, and gained a good reputation as such in his management of the school. He was a noted instructor also in his eastern home. TEACHERS EMPLOYED FOR 1876 AND 1877. High School.-Henry N. French, A.M., Superintendent; Miss Julia M. Barry, Preceptress; Miss Gertrude B. Smith, Assistant Preceptress; Miss Ella M. Hill, Teacher Modern Languages. Grammar School.-Mrs. F. G. N. Van Slick, Mrs. Sarah S. Hall. First Intermediate Department.-Misses Mary C. Robinson, Amelia R. Condon. Second Intermediate Department._ Miss Helen Edgerton, Miss Delia = 2 _ 0 ^Denel. =.First Ward Primary School.-Miss............ TJane S. Givin Miss Julia Morton.t?l - = II: I Lf~ JB Seconcd WarW Premary/ School.^ —/;=:r........Lr..... M^rs. Julia E. Morse. Third Ward Primary School.-Miss Maria L. Root Mis s Hel en L. Dickey, and of _ sMis s Mary E. Fredenburg. Fourth Ward Primary School.Miss Minnie G. Ingersoll, Mrs. Lucy o o sa adRobinson, Mr. Peter D. Hort on, Special ilai to;Teacher of Penmanship. The following is a description o f the n t sCentral schoolr building, a view of which hvThe Central heschool building of Martion is in the heart of the city, occupyil ng-an entire block, which is inclosed by a combination wood and iron fence, of a neat and tasteful pattern, erected size of the building, outside of the walls, is one hundred and ten by seventy-five feet. It is brick, stained and penciled, and of cut stone; is three stories in height above the basement, with a Mansard roof of slate and tin. The main tower stands on the northwest corner, the ventilating tower and shaft on the northeast. The building has three entrances, one at each end for pupils, and one, the main entrance, in front. The entrances at the ends are from the play-grounds and from the streets at each end of the block. On the first floor are four school-rooms twenty-seven by thirty-three feet, which have altogether three hundred and eight sittings. Connected with each room is a large wardrobe belonging exclusively to it, furnished with hooks numbered to correspond with the pupil's number in the register. Through these wardrobes all scholars pass into and from their respective rooms. Each school-room has also another door from the hall, so that at opening or dismissal every scholar is under the eye of the teacher while passing to and from the room and through the halls. On the same floor are also two rooms, formed by the towers. The one in the main tower is the superintendent's office, that formed by the other is used as a recitation-room. On the second floor are also four school-rooms, similar in size and general arrangement to those on the first. Scholars of the grammar and second intermediate departments occupy these rooms, which have sittings for two hundred and fifty-six students. On each of these floors the seating is double, and the sexes, except in the grammar school, are taught separately. There are on this floor three other rooms, two formed by the towers, and one, the library, directly above the main hall on the first floor.:::: — i:::i _I;0 -0

Page  59 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 59 The third floor is occupied by the high school department. The study-room is sixty-five by forty-two feet, and will accommodate in single seats one hundred and twenty-six students. Adjoining this room are three recitation-rooms, and the apparatus-room, which also is used for class purposes. In the rear of the high school room is still another study-room, with double seating, with capacity for fifty-si: scholars. This floor is supplied with two large wardrobes for the young ladies and gentlemen respectively. The number of sittings in the building is seven hundred and forty-six. The basement is occupied by the janitor and his family, has ample room for the storage of fuel, and contains also a dining- and play-room, finished and furnished to accommodate those pupils whom distance from home compels to remain at noon. The building is warmed by hot air. The interior finish of the building is equal in all respects to its exterior. The windows are all supplied with inside blinds. The halls, on each floor, are wainscoted at the sides, as also are the school-rooms. The stairways are closed at the sides instead of being finished with a low rail, rendering them perfectly safe from accidents. Each floor is reached by two easy half-flights, with broad landings, instead of by one continuous flight. The slating in the school-rooms extends enztirely around them. The wood-work of the whole building is brained in imitation of ash. The seats are so arranged that in all cases the light falls upon the pupil's book from behind or at the side. The furniture is of ash. The whole building, in all appointments, is pleasant and attractive, no insignificant aid in securing good order and in inducing earnest study. In addition to the work of the carpenter in the internal fittings, the hands of the scholars and teachers have not been idle, as is testified by the profusion of house plants that adorn the school-rooms, and fill the air therein with their fragrance and charm the eye with their beauty. BOARD OF EDUCATION, 1877. J. H. Montgomery, 1874-77; George Ingersoll, 1874-77 (moderator); Robert Huston, 1875-78; Dr. W. B. Church, 1875-78;- Charles P. Dibble, 1876-79 (assessor); A. O. Hyde, 1876-79 (director). The statistics of 1876, ending with the first day of September of that year, give the following exhibit: Total resources, $21,203.30; expenditures, paid two male teachers for thirteen months' services, $1900; seventeen females one hundred and eighty mlonths, $67.25; on buildings and repairs, $241.45; on bonded indebtedness, $7300; other expenses, $3696.82; total, $19,563.27. There were 1276 children in the district (which includes a portion of Marengo township) of the requisite school age. 1200 of whom attended the school, which was in session teen months. The school library- contains four hundred and fifty-six volumes, and the bonded indebtedness outstanding amounts to $40,000. THE CHURCH. Before four months had passed away after the first settlement in the county, in April, 1831, the news of salvation was proclaimed to the little colony of less than a dozen souls, by Rev. John D. Pierce, missionary of the Congregational church, who was on a tour of observation throu~gh the country. He arrived in Detroit,early in June, where he stopped over one Sunday, and came on to Ann Arbor, where he preached two or more Sundays, and arrived at Marshtall the first week in July, preaching the first Sunday in the month. He continued in Marshall through July, when he returned for his family, whom he brought back to Marshall in October following, arriving there on the eighth day of the month, and preaching again the next day. In the mean time, in the early part of August, Rev. Randall Hobart, a local Methodist preacher, came to Marshall and located with his family, and began to hold services on Sundays at the house of Sidney Ketchunl, with whom he came to the settlement jthe first one being August 14, which was the first Methodist Elpiscopal sermon. On the 9th of October following, Rev. E. H. Pilcher, of the Methodist Episcopal church, came to Marshall, and preached in the morning at Mr. Ketchum's, Mr. Pierce officiating in the afternoon in his double log house. On the 6th of November, at Mr. Pilcher's next visit, he organized a class of THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH, with the following members: Randall Hobart, leader, Ruth Hobart his wife, Sidney Ketchum and Catharine his wife, and Seth and Eliza Ketchum, six in all. The first communion season ever held in the county of Calhoun was at a two days' meeting held by Rev. E. H. Pilcher, assisted by Rev. William Fowler from New York, June 7, 1832. The society increased to fifteen members during the year. The first church edifice of this society was built by Sidney Ketchum, in 1837, completed in 1838, and donated to the society by him. It was a stone building, and in after-years was rebuilt, and within a month afterwards was destroyed by fire. The present commodious edifice on Green street was erected in 1871, at a cost of about twelve thousand dollars. It will seat comfortably five hundred persons, and is furnished with a small but fine-toned pipe organ, and a good bell. There are one hundred and seventy members connected with thesociety, and its Sunday-school, under the superintendence of N. H. Comstock, numbers about one hundred scholars. We have given a notice of Rev. Mr. Pileher in the general history of the church in the county. MIr. Hobart was not only a good minister, but a most excellent and useful citizen of Marshall, and the kindest of neighbors. He was the first register of deeds in the county, and held the position five years. One son of his, William Hobart, is now a resident and comptroller of the State of Nevada. MIr. Hobart is deceased. The ministers who have preached to this society statedly, as far as we have been able to ascertain their names, are as follows: from*; the organization of the class to 1837 the Marshall society was included in the Tecumseh and Calhoun mission. In 1837 it was called the Marshall charge;and. in 1838 a district was formed with Marshall for its headquarters, which continued until 1865, when the headquarters were transferred to Mlbion. In 1831-32, Rev. E. H. Pilcher, assisted by Ezekiel S. Gavett, rode the circuit, the same being the Tecumseh mission. In 1832-33 the mission was called the Calhoun mission, and Andrew Dixon was in charge; in 1833, Thomas Wiley; 1834, Jas. F. Davidson and Richard Lawrence; 1835, Mr. Pilcher again, and F. A. Seaborn. This year the Michigan conference was established, the Michigan churches previously having been in the Ohio conference. In 1836-37, Elijah Crane was the preacher. In 1838, Rev. Mr. Pilcher was made the presiding elder of the new Marshall district, which position he held until the conference of 1841. Alvan Billings and Allen Staples were the preachers for 1838, Benjamin Sabin 18639, and James S.- Harrison in 1840. From 1840 to 1851 we have been unable to ascertain who the preachers of this society were. Wm. Maybon was here in 1851-52; H. Morgan, 1852-53; Edward McClure, presiding elder; 1853 -|54, Myron B. Cambrom; 1854-55, S. Steele; G-. C. Bradley, presiding elder; 185-i-56, E. Holdstock, preacher;- J. Jennings, presiding elder, who continued till the conference of 1859; 1856-57, Norman Abbott, preacher; 1857-59, Myron Dougherty; 1859-60, T. H. Jaeokes; E. Holdstock, presiding elder from 1859 to conference of 1863; 186()-62, J. Boynton, preacher; 1862-64, D. D. Gillett, preacher; M. A. Dougherty, presiding elder from 1863 to conference of 1866; 1864-66, A. M. Joy, preacher. Since 1866 we have not been able to ascertain the names of all of the preachers, nor'gvie the date of the serviee, but among them have been the following: Revs. Fox, Hickey, J. F. Buel, 1873; J. W. Robinson, 1874; David Enole,. 1875-76; Horace Hall. the present pastor, to whom we are indebted for much of the foregoing information relative to the Methodist Episcopal church. Rev. Noah Fassett was over the church in 1869-70. THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. On Rev. Mir. Pierce's return to Marshall with his family in October, 1831, be contillued to preach every alternate Sabbath in his own house through the winter, and on the 11th day of May, 1 832, a meeting was held at the same place to consider the propriety of organizing a Conore-ational society, which meeting' unaniMlously voted to organize such a society, and on the Sunday following one was accordingly organized with the following members: John D. Pierce and Mary his wife, Stephen Kimball and Mary his wife, anld children, Emily and Julius Eunice Ketchum, James P. Greeves and Ellenl his wife, and Minerva his sister, and Dr. Luther W. Hart and wife. Stephen Kimball was appointed deacon, and Mir. Pierce was the moderator of the session. On December 8, 1835S, the society was legally organized by' electing the following board of trustees: Stephen Kimball, Stephen NV. Leggett, Freeman Hotchkiss, Melanethon Bagg, F. A. K ingsbury, and L. W. Hart. Messrs. Hoa- and Brown, of Tecumseh, grave the society lot 3, block 25, for a church site. In the summer of 1837 a session house was built forty by twenty-six feet on the ground, at a cost of twelve hundred dollars, Jno. Hutchinson, contractor. An addition was made to it, about doubling its capacity, afterwards, its original settings being about one hundred and forty. The building is at present used for Magee's cooper-shop. On June 21, 1841, a portion of the members of the church withdrew to form a Presbyterian society, thirty-one in number, and later some others withdrew; and in 1845 the Congregational church disbanded, and the society became extinct. Mr. Pierce was the pastor of the church from its organization to August, 1836, and was succeeded by Rev. Calvin Clark, who ministered to this flock from August, 1836, to the close of 1838, and was succeeded by Rev. M. Mason, who gave way to Rev. Jno. Wilder, who was the last pastor over the church. Mr. Pierce is now living at an advanced age at Ypsilantij and his record in detail is given in the county history. Rev. Calvin Clark has been a resident of Marshall for many years past, and just as we were commencing the writing of the history of this church (June 4, 1877) the news was sent to us of his sudden death but

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. an hour before, the same being occasioned by heart-disease. Mr. Clark was a pioneer in Calhoun and Kalamazoo, a most kindly-dispositioned man, beloved by all with whom he came in contact. He was " instant in season and out of season' in the discharge of his duties in the cause of his Master, and his record is that. of a good man. In 1837, Mr. Clark was appointed the State missionary for Michigan of the Presbyterian Home Missionary Society of the United States, and held the position from that time forward until his death. He was also the financial agent for a term of years of the Mount Holyoke Ladies' Seminary of Kalamazoo. He traveled the State over in all directions and into every corner where a handful of people could be gathered together, and encouraged them to build up an altar around which they could meet for public worship. Wherever there is a Presbyterian church in the State of Michigan there Father Clark's name is a household word, and most kindly and pleasing are the memories he has left behind him. Two of the first members of this church, Mrs. Pierce and Julius Kimball, died in July and August, 1832, of the cholera. TRINITY (EPISCOPAL) CHURCH. On the 12th of May, 1864, Rev. Montgomery Schuyler, now of St. Louis, delivered a sermon on the consecration of Trinity church, which was subsequently, on request of the wardens and vestry of the church, published. To this sermon was added an interesting account of the ceremony of laying the corner-stone of the building on the 27th of April, 1861, by Bishop McCoskey; Mr. Schuyler reading a brief history of the church, from which we clip the following: " The first service of the Episcopal church was celebrated in the school-house, and the first sermon from one of her ministers was preached by the Rev. Charles B. Stout, now of Illinois, in the summer of 1836. At that time the population of the village numbered about three hundred. " In the succeeding fall and winter the few Episcopalians who were then resident began to entertain hopes that the time was not far distant when a parish could be organized, and the village and vicinity were thoroughly canvassed to ascertain what amount could be raised toward the building of a church. In the spring of 1837 the parish was organized, and Messrs. J. W. Gordon and Montgomery Schuyler were chosen wardens; and Dr. J. H. Montgomery, Bradley K. Crissey, Sidney S. Allcott, C. T. Gorham, and Andrew Mann elected vestrymen. In the same spring the bishop of the diocese visited us, and preached in the old school-house, which was the second service of the church held in this village. " The building of the church was immediately entered upon, and prosecuted with such earnestness and diligence that early in the autumn it was completed. That was a glad day for the little band of churchmen when they were ready to present to the bishop a neat and tasteful little church for consecration. It had been built at a cost of over two thousand dollars, chiefly by the wardens and vestrymen, none of whom were rich, and hence at much sacrifice of time and money to the very few engaged in it. And yet it was gladly met and cheerfully endured by them, grateful that it had pleased God to give them the ability and willingness thus to contribute. "The bishop, according to his appointment, spent the first three days of September with us, and the church was opened three times each day, when the services were regularly performed by the bishop or one of the clergy present. t" The Rev. Mr. Cushman remained and preached in the new church about two months immediately succeeding, and for the month of December the Rev. John Noble officiated. Lay services were then regularly kept up until the month of February, 1838, when the Rev. Samuel Buel was called as the first rector, and entered immediately upon his duties. He remained one year and eight months, and resigned October 14,1839, leaving a list of communicants numbering twenty-eight. " For the space of eighteen months the parish was without a rector; the Rev. W. N. Lyster officiating monthly, at much self-sacrifice, and, in the interim, lay services were maintained. c( In the spring of 1841, the Rev. M. Schuyler was called and entered upon his duties. His rectorship continued for the space of three years-resigning his ministerial charge April 8, 1844. During his rectorship the church building was enlarged at an expense of over one thousand dollars, about one-half of which was contributed by the churchmen at the east. The capacity of the church was increased thereby at least one-third, and a tower and bell added. In July following Rev. E. A. Greenleaf succeeded to the rectorship. He continued nearly two years, and resigned May, 1846. " The Rev. Joseph S. Large succeeded to the rectorship, and entered upon his duties in the month of December, 1846. His rectorship continued but for one year, resigning November 1, 1847. The church was repaired, the lot fenced, trees planted, and other alterations and improvements made. " Nearly a year intervened between the resignation of the Rev. Mr. Large and the calling of the Rev. Hiram Adams, who entered upon the rectorship in Octo her, 1848. During this time there were occasional services by clergymen passing through the town, and at other times lay services were regularly maintained. The Rev. Mr. Adams served as rector for one year and six months, and resigned April, 1850. " The Rev. Alvah Guion very soon succeeded, entering upon the charge of the parish in 1850, and resigning in April, 1852, being a period of nearly two years. " In the same month of Mr. Guion's resignation, the Rev. Henry N. Strong entered upon the charge of the parish. His rectorship continued five years and four months. He resigned August 31, 1857. " The Rev. Charles Jones succeeded Mr. Strong, having been called November 30, 1857, and resigning November 12, 1859, being a period of two years and two weeks. " On April 3, 1858, the old church and lot were sold to the Lutheran congregation for the sum of two thousand dollars, and, on the first of June of the same year, the lot on which the church is now being built, measuring eight and onethird rods front by twelve rods deep, was purchased for the sum of one thousand one hundred and twenty-four dollars and forty cents. " The Rev. Seth S. Chapin was called April 29, 1860. On the second day of July, of the same year, it was unanimously voted that a new church should be built, and the plans, as furnished by Mr. Gordon W. Lloyd, were adopted by the vestry. In the month of April, A.D. 1861, the work of the church was begun." Mr. Chapin resigned in 1866, and was succeeded by Rev. John K. Dunn, 1867 -69, W. H. Moffett, 1869-70, Rev. George P. Schetky, D.D., 1870-74. The present pastor, Rev. J. H. Whittemore, came to the charge November, 1874, when he found one hundred and twenty-seven communicants in the church, and his last report to the diocesan convention shows one hundred and eighty-three. The church society has never been in debt to any material amount or length of time during its history. The Ladies' Church Aid and Auxiliary missionary society, and the young ladies' branch of the same society, are, and have been, efficient aids in the charitable and missionary works of the church. There is a rectory fund of twelve hundred dollars on hand towards building a rectory whenever the same becomes a necessity, and the sum accumulated is sufficient to pay the expense thereof. The present officers of the church are as follows: Senior Warden, J. HMontgomery, M.D.; Junior Warden, Charles P. Dibble; Vestry, O. C. Comstock, M.D., J. M. Parsons (secretary), Charles A. Dibble (treasurer), Hon. George Woodruff, John Adams, James A. Way, Robert Huston, William R. Schuyler, Edward C. Way, organist. The Sunday-school has enrolled two hundred and twenty scholars, under the superintendency of Charles A. Dibble; Charles Frink, secretary; E. C. Way, treasurer and organist; Henry Dibble, librarian. The following is a description of the church: The church is in plan a parallelogram, seventy-two by forty-two feet inside, and is calculated to accommodate with ease four hundred people. At the north end is a recessed chancel, twenty-one by fifteen feet six inches, opening into the church through a wide moulded arch; a vestry, ten by nine feet six inches, and recess for organ and choir, also ten by nine feet six inches, with arches opening into both the church and chancel. At the southwest angle, on Mansion street, is placed a tower in which is the main entrance door, the tower forming a vestibule; at the opposite corner is a smaller entrance door, also with vestibule. The walls of the church are built throughout of a very light reddish-brown sandstone of excellent quality, quarried in the immediate vicinity, which is also used for the cut-stone dressing of doors, windows, etc. The gables are coped with stone and finished with ornamental stone crosses. The large window in the front gable is composed of four lancet lights, with pierced circles over the whole, inclosed under a trefoil headed label moulding. The chancel window is a triplet of three lancet lights. The side windows are each of two lights, corresponding in style to the front window and divided by buttresses of two stages. The tower is fifty feet in height of stone, with bold flanking of buttresses; the belfry story has two lancet windows on each face, with deeply recessed jambs, and moulded labels and string running round. A moulded cornice, partly of stone and partly of wood, terminates the tower, which is surmounted by a broad spire, sixty feet in height to the top of the metal cross, framed of wood and covered with shingles, divided by two sets of spirelights, with tracery heads and canopies-the whole terminated by a metal cross and vane of suitable character. The roof is in one span, having trussed principals with collar beams and trefoil arched ribs, springing from the heads of shafts, corbelled out from the walls with moulded caps and bases. The intervening spaces have moulded and stop-chamfered purlins and rafters ceiled between the same. The whole will be stained and varnished. The walls of the church will be finished in rough stucco. The seating is arranged in two main blocks, with a wide centre aisle, and side aisles next the walls. The seats themselves will be open, with ornamental solid elbows. The desk, pulpit, and communion rail'are all of

Page  [unnumbered] =2;; 1 - -- -: A.T. VARY. MRS. A. T VARY. - I..,; /0 *..'<; ^ 0- * sS'fp — ~ o;v ';:.: ' - *v- - v ':::- ~ -y ~ ' *: 0:: RESIDENCE or A.T. VARY, MARSHALL, MICHIGAN. _ _ -: -i

Page  [unnumbered] \:;~l;: *it 1:yI -Jo:.

Page  61 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 61 appropriate and handsome design, and, with the seats, are made of black walnut. The church is heated by means of a furnace in the basement. The builder was Mr. Nathan Benedict, who contracted for the whole of the work. The building was designed and specifications furnished by Gordon W. Lloyd, architect, of Detroit. THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH was organized March 21, 1840, with the following members: Rev. T. Z. R. Jones, pastor, and Eliza his wife, David N. Salter (deacon) and Sophia his wife, Dalvin Ludden (deacon) and Louisa his wife, Squire J. Rundell and Fanny M. his wife, Lurancy Ludden, Sabrina Walker, Mary Jane Shaw, Harriet Downs, Elvira Willard, Julius F. Ludden, Ebenezer N. Narramore and Sarah Narramore his wife, Rachel Bankson, Charles Rhodes and Harriet his wife, Minerva Calkins, Smith Lewis, Joseph P. Hendryx and Eveline his wife, Content Ludden, Theodosia Winters, and Zilpha Lewis. The first church edifice was erected in 1851, on the corner of Grand and State streets, and was constructed of brick, at a cost (including the lot) of eight thousand dollars. Previous to this time the society worshiped in Mechanics' hall, the court-house, and in private houses, as opportunity offered. In 1876 the edifice was remodeled at a cost of seven thousand dollars, and is now not only a comfortable and pleasant place for public worship, but is one of the neatest gems of internal church architecture in the county. It easily accommodates an audience of five hundred persons. The Sunday-school was organized June 16, 1844, the first superintendent being George Ingersoll. The present membership is two hundred and ten, and there are two hundred and fifty volumes in the library. The present officers of the school are E. Scougal, superintendent, Julia Morton, secretary and librarian, Carrie L. Ingersoll, treasurer. The church experienced its greatest prosperity during the pastorates of Revs. L. H. Moore, L. D. Palmer, C. B. Post, and Jay Snashall. From the time of its organization until the pastorate of Mr. Moore and the erection of the church edifice, the feeble church passed through many times of great discouragement, with no regular place for public worship. Few in numbers, and financially weak, it was a struggle to maintain the organization. It now numbers two hundred and twentyeight members, and is in a flourishing, prosperous, and harmonious condition. The pastors of the church from its organization have been as follows: Revs. T. Z. R. Jones, William A. Bronson, J. N. Keyes, William Hewitt, William Dickens, O. C. Comstock, L. H. Moore, L. D. Palmer, E. Curtiss, C. B. Post, F. B. Crissey, S. B. Gilbert, J. M. Ferris, and J. Snashall, present pastor. Present officers of the church: George S. Woolsey, E. A. Simmons, Augustus Lusk, Daniel Woolsey, deacons; George Ingersoll, clerk; E. A. Simmons, George S. Woolsey, M. Crossman, George Ingersoll, John Runyan, Isaac S. Peters, trustees. The first Michigan soldier killed in the war of the rebellion, Calvin Colegrove, was a member of this church, and had with him in his knapsack, when he was shot in the field of Bull Run, a certificate of his membership in the church. He was color-bearer of the First Michigan Infantry. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH of Marshall was organized June 26, 1841, in Marshall academy, by Rev. Elias Child as moderator and James P. Greeves as clerk, with thirty-eight members from the Congregational church of Marshall, among whom were the following: Dr. L. J. Aylesworth and wife, Dr. Greeves and family, Mrs. Philo Dibble, J. M. Parsons, R. E. Hall, J. T. Gilbert, Deacon Lord, Ira Nash and wife, two Wallingfords, Ketchum, and others. Joseph Lord, Ira Nash, and Laban J. Aylesworth were chosen ruling elders, and ordained, and the communion celebrated next day, June 27. Elder Aylesworth, who was appointed clerk, died in November, 1841, and Daniel Pratt and Jas. P. Greeves were elected elders, Greeves being clerk. The society was admitted to the Marshall presbytery in 1841, and a Sunday-school was in operation in 1842. Elder Jabez S. Fitch died August, 1843. In 1845 the society bought the brick church built by Elder Fitch of his heirs, and occupied it first May 25. Previous to that time the society worshiped in the court-house. Wm. Rankin, of Newark, gave the church an elegant communion set. On the 7th of March, 1845, thirty-one other members of the Congregational church, which had just disbanded, united with this Presbyterian society. In 1873-74 the present capacious and elegant temple was erected by the society at a cost of fifty thousand dollars, completely furnished, including a power-, ful-toned organ and bell. A parsonage was also added, costing three thousand dollars. The church contains seven hundred and fifty sittings, and has a fine lecture-room, which is entered directly from the street, and has dining-rooms, parlors, and kitchen attached, commodious and conveniently arranged. The church now numbers two hundred and seventy-five members. The Sunday-school, under the superintendence of Frank L. Henderson, has one hundred and eighty scholars enrolled. I On the 7th of September, 1876, Miss Abbie P. Ketchum, a member of the church, took her dismissal therefrom to " attach herself to the church of Christ wherever her lot might be cast," and, bidding farewell to her friends, commenced her journey to Ningpo, China, as a missionary. The pastors who have ministered to this society from its organization to the present are as follows: Rev. John P. Cleveland, from November 10, 1841, to November, 1843; Samuel H. Hall, from November, 1843, to October, 1853; J. H. Trowbridge, 1854-56; Rev. Vincent (supply), 1856-58; W. A. McCorkle, 1859-63; L. Willard, October 14, 1863-68; Rev. Mr. Ford (supply), October, 1868-70; Rev. Francis M. Wood, April 14, 1871, to May 7, 1876; and Rev. Wm. A. Rice came January 26, 1877, as pastor, and is still installed over the people. The present church government is as follows: Elders, Henry C. Haskell, (clerk of session), W. W. Smith, W. C. Pringle, W. R. McCall, Chester G.Ingersoll, David B. Bardwell, Claudius B. Webster, Darius Bickford, Chas. S. Hamilton; Deacons, Samuel A. Chapin, Augustus Lockwood, Frank W. Davis. During the construction of the first church of this society, built by Mr. Fitch, the west wall of the building fell and injured Mr. Fitch so severely he died from the effects. Deacon Lord was also injured, but not seriously. THE FIRST CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH of Marshall was organized June 20, 1869, with twenty-nine members, seventeen by letter and twelve by profession, at the house of Rev. H. A. Reed, among them being Rev. H. A. Reed and wife, Dr. Benj. A. Gallup and wife, Hettie Peters, M. J. Alexander, and Mary P., Anna M., Walter, and Emma C. Alexander, David H. Miller and wife, and others. The first pastor was Rev. O. S. St. John, who was succeeded by Rev. Jay Clizbee, and he by Walter M. Barrows, who was succeeded by the present pastor, Rev. Mr. Waterman. The present chapel was built in 1869, and dedicated in November of the same year. It is situated on Mansion street, corner of Madison, and cost, with the site, about three thousand dollars, and affords about three hundred sittings. The Sunday-school numbers about one hundred scholars, and is under the superintendence of H. E. Winsor, Esq. The church numbers some seventy members; Julius A. Davis and Mr. Martin are deacons, H. E. Winsor, clerk, and M. L. Alexander, treasurer. THE CHURCH OF THE IMMACULATE CONCEPTION (ROMAN CATHOLIC). Among the early settlers in 1836 were Thomas Cassidy, Thomas Fay, M. McKenna and family, C. and J. McAffrey and families, John Woods and family, Jeremiah Cronin, Sr., and in 1837 came Laughlin McHugh and family, B. Branagan, and P. Quigley and family. These few Catholics were overjoyed on the first visit of a Catholic priest, probably Rev. Father Morrissey, who held service in the house of Michael McKenna, in 1836. After this, until 1841, they were visited at long intervals by traveling missionaries and the-Rev. Thomas Morrissey. In 1842, quite an addition was made to their number by families engaged in building the Michigan Central railroad, among the number being Edward and Andrew McMahon, Patrick Butler, and James Conley. From this time services were held regularly, four times a year, by Rev. Thomas Cullen, pastor of Ann Arbor, who many times made the journey on horseback, and held service sometimes in private houses, again in the old court-house, and, in fact, any and everywhere where accommodation could be found, until the erection of the present frame church, corner of Eagle and Green streets, which was begun in 1851, and completed and dedicated in 1853. Rev. Father Cullen worked hard and perseveringly, getting subscriptions, making collections, etc., and nearly all the citizens cheerfully responded to his calls. The first resident pastor was Rev. James A. Hennessy, who built the pastoral residence. Services were now held every fourth Sunday, the pastor meantime officiating at Dexter and Jackson, and visiting the sick all over the county. In 1855, he resigned to take charge of a parish in Detroit. His successor, Rev. P. C. Koopmans, also regularly officiated at Jackson until 1857 or 1858. While officiating at the latter place he built a brick church there. He established a parochial school in Marshall, in 1856. In 1859, he enlarged the church, and in 1862 purchased more ground and enlarged the school building; bought and enlarged the house for the Sisters, and introduced the Sisters as teachers. In 1866 he purchased sixteen acres east of the city, for a Catholic cemetery, and in 1867 resigned his pastorate, to enter the order of Jesuits. He was succeeded by Rev. C. M. Frain, who was also succeeded in October, 1868, by Rev. D. Callaert. During the latter's pastorate, the church was renovated, the cemetery grounds improved, another building plchased for school purposes, and in 1876 the Sisters of Providence established a high school for young ladies, and took charge of the parochial schools, which number at the present, June, 1877, one hundred and eighty-two scholars. In 1875, Father Callaert built a neat brick church in Albion, the number of members there being about three hundred. During all these years, until 1870, the Marshall pastor has at stated times visited Battle Creek and Charlotte, and at

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. present visits Albion and Homer every few weeks. The present pastor is Rev. W. Fierle, who entered on his duties January, 1877. The number of members at present is about one thousand, from four to five hundred having left Marshall since the removal of the shops of the Michigan Central railroad. It must be remembered that, in numbering her members, the mother-church reckons the whole family, considering children in the fold as well as the parents. THE GERMAN LUTHERAN ZION CHURCH was organized in the year 1853. During that year the Rev. F. Schmid, of Ann Arbor, visited the township in order to gather the German Lutheran Protestants together into a congregation, and in the city succeeded in organizing a church with the following members: Christopher Egler, Christopher Baeker, Peter Katz, Jacob Shellenbarger. In the year 1854 a large increase was added to the church by an influx of German settlers. In 1856 the society was legally organized, the first officers being Philip Kuechle, John Kappis, Lorenz Walz, Peter Katz, Sr., and Matthias Strubel. The church worshiped in the court-house till 1857, at which time the society bought from the Episcopal church their church building situated on the corner of Eagle and Green streets, for two thousand dollars, and subsequently expended one thousand dollars for general refitting. It is a frame building and affords three hundred sittings, being thirty by sixty feet. Some years after the purchase and refitting of the church, Mr. S. S. Burpee presented the society with his old store building for a school-house, and the building was removed to the church-yard, wherein for six months in each year a school is taught for the purpose of giving the children of the church-members (or any others) instruction in the German language, as well as to give them a more sufficient instruction in the doctrines and faith of the church. In 1867 the church built a parsonage in the rear of the church-yard, at a cost of eighteen hundred dollars. The present membership of the church is one hundred. The names of the pastors of the church from its organization are as follows: F. Spring, T. F. Hennicke, C. Schlenker, G. Brecht, and P. Stamm, present incumbent. A Sunday-school was organized in 1860, the first superintendent being John Kraus. The present number of scholars is one hundred and fifty, and there are seventy books in the library. The present superintendent is John Kappis. The present pastor conducts the day school. THE CHRISTIAN CHURCH of Marshall was organized with thirteen members, on the 2d day of March, 1850, in Mechanics' hall, now the upper story of the present Fowler House; but as the Baptist society were then holding their Sabbath meetings in the hall, it was not available to the Christian society except on week-days. Consequently, for a few Sundays services were held in the dining-hall of the old depot building, which was then in charge of Z. M. Lester. At the formation of this church Elder James S. White was elected pastor, Z. M. Lester deacon, and Samuel Ladd clerk. The revival which preceded and led to the formation of this church began in a log school-house in the northern part of the township, then known as the Miner school-house. The original members of this church were Z. M. Lester and Hannah K. his wife, Samuel Ladd and Clarissa his wife, Alvin G. Miner, Jacob Root, Nelson White, Harriet Root, Eleanor Patterson, Betsey Miner, and Charlotte Laberteaux. But four of these survive at the present time. Not long after the organization of the church the third story of Butler's brick block was rented, where the infant church worshiped for one and a half years. In the summer of 1851 the present church edifice, on the southwest corner of the court-house square, was erected, being opened for worship in November of that year and dedicated; Mr. and Mrs. Lester contributing largely to its erection. Elder White served the church five years, and was succeeded by Elder A. M. Sowle, who served but a short time, as did also Rev. Francis H. Adams, who followed him. In the fall D. E. Millard accepted the pastorate, and remained over the church until the last Sunday in March, 1865, when he removed to Washington, D. C. Elder J. G. Noble was over the church one year, and between that time (March, 1866) and October of the same year the church had no pastor, the desk being supplied by J. E. Church. On January 1, 1867, Rev. D. W. Moore entered upon the pastorate of the church, which he continued in four years, until January 1, 1871. From that'time till April, Mr. Church supplied the desk, at which latter date Rev. B. F. Summerbell was inducted into the vacant pastorate, but was soon prostrated by disease and forced to resign the charge; and on April 1, 1872, Mr. Millard again assumed the pastorate, wherein he remained until the summer of 1874, when he was succeeded by the present pastor, J. Warren Weeks. In 1859 the church was refitted and repaired, and again, in 1873, general repairs were made, and the auditorium now presents a pleasant and attractive appearance. It will seat three hundred persons. From the organization of the church to the close of Mr. Millard's pastorate it had received four hundred and twenty-one members: ninety-four under Elder White's pastorate, eleven under Adams and Sowle, one - hundred and eighty under Millard's first pastorate and twenty-one under his second, thirty-eight under Noble's, seventy-three under Moore's, and four under Mr. Summerbell's. Its present membership numbers one hundred. The Sundayschool, under the superintendence of James Chisholm, numbers from fifty to sixty scholars. THE EVANGELICAL (GERMAN) CHURCH of Marshall was first organized as a class in 1860, by Rev. Michael Kruger. The first meetings of the class were held in Henry Rorman's store, now burned down, and afterwards over Schuyler's drug-store, for about two years. In 1863 the class was organized as a church, with fifty-two members. The building now used as a church was formerly a frame school-house, twenty by thirty-six feet, and cost about seven hundred and sixty dollars, affording about one hundred and fifty sittings. The ministers of the church have been G. M. Gruner, C. Ude, M. Speck, Ruha Riegle, Thomas and William Riemke, M. Houke, Michael Miller, William Loose, Peter Berk, and the present pastor, L. Kemerling. The church has twentyeight members. A Sunday-school is connected with the church, numbering twenty scholars. The first superintendent was Henry Lorman, present one John Harkman; secretary and librarian, John Rohr; treasurer, John Harkman. The library contains one hundred and forty books. THE AFRICAN METHODIST CHURCH of Marshall was organized in the spring of 1847, by Rev. Edward Hart. The officers were Calvin Hackett, Charles Parker, and Moses Lawson, trustees; stewards, William Booth and Planter Moss. There were fourteen members at the organization of the society. The church building was erected in 1848, and was a frame house and cost five hundred dollars, and is still in use by the society. It will seat about one hundred persons. A Sunday-school was organized about the same time as the church. It has twenty-four scholars at the present time, and the superintendent is Abner Baker. The leading member of the congregation is Mr. Coleman, an intelligent colored man and a very worthy citizen. The church has had among its pastors the following-named gentlemen: Revs. Hart, Samuel Walls, Edward Epps, Hezekiah Harper, Hercules Andrews, John Ridgeway, Daniel Cooper, Young, Beverly Carey, Turner Roberts, James Curtis, H. B. Gordon, Daniel Burden, Jeffries, and J. M. Smith. ASSOCIATIONS. THE MARSHALL VILLAGE COMPANY was organized in 1836, to improve the upper village property, so called, and embraced lands on both sides. The original company were Sidney Ketchum, Oshea Wilder, James C. Smith, George S. Wright, John H. Montgomery, and Montgomery Schuyler. The company bought of Sidney Ketchum his interest in the water-power, and lands embracing the present cemetery and railroad grounds, the same being conveyed to George S. Wright as trustee for the company, and who was the business manager of the same. The company built a bridge over Rice creek to improve the property on the present site of Perrinville, worked the streets, and built the Marshall Young Ladies' Seminary in 1837, which was in operation for some years, and built the Marshall House. The company was an important factor in the early prosperity of Marshall. MINING COMPANIES sprang up all over the State on the announcement of the mineral deposits of the upper peninsula, and Marshall was represented in 1846 by three companies on the ground, all of whom expended more or less money in mining for copper. The Portage Company of Marshall were officered by Asa B. Cook, president, and J. M. Parsons, secretary; the Marshall and Boston Lake Superior Company by Henry W. Taylor, president, George S. Wright, secretary; and the Mineral Creek Company by Isaac E. Crary, president, and George C. Gibbs, secretary. The companies did more or less " prospecting" in 1846, but did not continue. LITERARY. THE MECHANICS' ASSOCIATION was organized by the mechanics of Marshall, some forty or more, January 13, 1838, at which time a constitution and by-laws were adopted, the preamble to which declared that " knowledge confers true dignity on human nature by exalting the mind to a true sense of its powers, and leading it to a due perception of its importance in the scale of beings." With this broad and ringing declaration they founded their association "for the diffusion of useful knowledge," and proceeded to elect a list of officers for the same. Ira Nash was chosen president;

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Page  [unnumbered] iii::

Page  63 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 63 Isaac Loomis, first vice-president; Edmund R. Way, second vice-president; Jeremiah O. Balch, recording secretary; Charles Dickey, corresponding secretary; R. E. Hall, treasurer, and William R. McCall, librarian. Directors, S. S. Burpee, B. Chamberlain, Benjamin Drake, Edwin G. Squires, James Cuykendall. The first discussion was directed to be held at the weekly meeting January 27, which was upon the question " Would canals be more beneficial than railroads?" and McCall, Loomis, and Jewett appointed to assert the affirmative, and Cuykendall, Balch, and Squires to uphold the negative. At the discussion the judges decided the weight of the argument to be with the negative, but the association reversed that decision, and gave the honors to the affirmative. The second subject discussed was not so practical as the first, the question being whether Washington was a greater general than Bonaparte, or not? The judges and association decided in favor of the Virginian. The next question was a serious one, " Ought the usury laws to be abolished?" The association decided the question in the negative. These weekly discussions were kept up for several years, and were an interesting feature in Marshall society. Lectures were delivered under its auspices, and much benefit ensued to the community from its work. In the fall of 1843 the association made arrangements with Messrs. Dusenbury, Brewer & Co., to build a Mechanics'-hall over the store of the latter firm, on the corner of Eagle and State streets (now the Fowler House), which was completed and occupied in the fall of 1845, and continued in the ownership of the association until 1850, when it passed into the possession of Dusenbury & Butler, and the association soon after ceased to exist. July 4, 1845, the association held a fair, and, in conjunction with the citizens generally, celebrated the day in an elaborate manner. THE MECHANICS' PROTECTION, a secret order, grew out of the Mechanics' Association, being established somewhere about 1856. It was similar in its objects and ritual to the order of OddFellows, and flourished for a time in connection with the order elsewhere in the Union. William R. McCall was one of its prominent members, and was a delegate in 1847 to the National Protection, which assembled at Buffalo in July of that year. THE YOUNG MEN'S ASSOCIATION was organized in 1838, the Rev. J. P. Cleveland being the first president, and the first annual meeting being held December 2, 1739. John Starkweather was secretary. A course of lectures was inaugurated, Rev. Mr. Wilder being one of the speakers, and a series of chemical lectures being delivered by Dr. Bement. The association lapsed after a few years. THE MARSHALL LYCEUM was organized November 19, 1838, Rev. Samuel Buel being the first president and delivering the first lecture. A course followed. It closed its career the latter part of 1844. THE AMPHICTYON SOCIETY was an attachment to the Marshall College, which was to have been, but got no farther than a preparatory school. THE YOUNG MIEN S DEBATING CLUB was organized about 1863, James A. Minor being the secretary thereof. It flourished for nearly ten years, having weekly discussions, which were well attended and which were ably conducted. YOUNG MEN'S LECTURE ASSOCIATION. This society was organized in the fall of 1867, and for some three or four years was in successful operation, securing courses of lectures for every winter season. Its officers in 1868 were T. J. O'Brien, president; Frank Dickey, vicepresident; Norris J. Frink, secretary; John L. Evans, treasurer; W. H. Por ter, J. C. Fitzgerald, John C. Patterson, George White, Howard Burgess, board of directors. THE YOUNG MEN S CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION was organized in the spring of 1868, with about one hundred members, drawn from the various churches of the city. The society established a reading-room over the.First National bank, corner of Madison and State streets, and while the organization was kept in operation, which was for some four years or thereabouts, the reading-rooms were open every day and evening (Sundays not excepted), in which were to be found copies of the leading journals and periodicals of the day. The officers for 1868 were-President, E. L. Seargent; Vice-President, Dr. Matthew Gill; Corresponrding Secretary, W. R. Lewis; Recording Secretary, Otto L. Johnson; Treasurer, S. W. Lester. F. H. Burgess, H. E. Phelps, James M. Parsons, and D. W. Moon were also active in the interests of the association and in furthering its objects. i i I I - THE LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION of Marshall was organized January 18, 1869, at a meeting called for that purpose and held in the hall of the common council. For years the idea of a public library, to aid in the mental culture of his fellow-citizens, had been entertained by Hon. B. Darwin Hughes, a well-known lawyer, then a resident of Marshall, but now of Grand Rapids. To his earnest, persevering efforts the association owes its existence, and it is proud and happy to still consider him a warm and faithful friend. The idea, once entertained, was never abandoned, and, meeting with nothing but discouragement in every other direction, he at length determined to lay the matter before the ladies of Marshall, hoping they might become sufficiently interested to organize an association. The event justified his hopes, and the long-coveted library became a fixed fact.. An organization was effected and the following officers were elected: President, Mrs. Charles Dickey; Vice-President, Miss Maggie Bear; Secre-: tary, Mrs. Charles T. Gorham; Treasurer, Mrs. C. P. Dibble; Librarian, Mrs. M. A. Stace. A constitution and by-laws were adopted, and a committee appointed to solicit donations of money and books. The library was formally opened for distribution of books on Saturday afternoon, March 20, with two hundred and seven volumes, forty of which were donated. There were at this time one hundred and sixty-two members, and seventy-three volumes were drawn. The following September Mrs. Gorham resigned her office as secretary, and Mrs. George Boughton was appointed to fill the vacancy. She says in her second annual report," We find that nearly three-fourths of the books drawn are works of fiction. Acknowledging ourselves servants of the association, we felt that we had no right, while acting for it, to let our individual tastes govern in selecting the books to be purchased by the money intrusted to us. Therefore we have endeavored to meet the wants of that class of the reading public as fully as possible, without, of course, confining ourselves exclusively to it. But these books have been conscientiously chosen, and there has been no pandering to a vicious or depraved taste, and no weak yielding to the demand for mere sensational novels. We are not of those who condemn all fictitious writing merely because it is fictitious. Many of us confess to having been helped to more just views socially and morally, and to a fuller comprehension of important truth by some writers of so-called fiction more than by the essays and reasonings of some of our greatest philosophers and moralists. As our funds increase we shall please ourselves by purchasing more works of history, entertaining miscellany, and the more solid and instructive works of the best writers of our own times and of the past. We know it is not a light or trifling thing to assist in directing minds into new channels of thought, thus helping to mould their earthly and, through that, perhaps their eternal destiny. Therefore let us labor and plan, not for the recreation and amusement of an idle hour only, but for those loftier and nobler purposes, the progress and elevation of our race." This library has been in successful operation for nearly nine years. It now has nineteen hundred volumes for circulation and about four hundred for reference. It has no endowment or other fund except three hundred dollars in bonds, and depends mainly for its support upon the annual subscriptions of its members and a few entertainments given from time to time for its benefit. The services of the ladies who compose its board of directors and act as officers are entirely gratuitous, only the librarian receiving any compensation, and the common council have generously given the association the use of their hall. It looks, however, hopefully to the time when it shall have a home of its own, which it shall delight to beautify and adorn, gathering within its walls pictures, statuary, and music, where it may have lectures, historical lessons, and literary entertainments, to which it shall invite with pride its friends and acquaintances, and itself linger in loved communion with the learned and eloquent of all ages, whose better part remains, though they may have long since passed away. The following are the officers last elected: President, Mrs. George Boughton; Vice-President,' Mrs. G. S. Wright; Secretary, Miss Carrie Mitchell; Treasurer, Miss Eva Dibble; Librarian, Miss May Kingsbury. Directors.-Mrs. George S. Wright, Mrs. Chas. Dickey, Jr., Miss Minnie Butler, Miss Carrie Mitchell, Mrs; Edwin Mills, Mrs. Charles Jaggar, Mrs. Henry French, Miss Sallie Aldrich, Mrs. Mary Wheeler, Mrs. George Boughton, Mrs. Charles Dickey, Sr., Miss Eva Dibble. MUSICAL. Marshall is as noted for her musical talent as for any branch of her literary attainments. Amateur talent of a high order is plentifully found among her citizens and ever has been from her early history. The first society organized for musical culture was The Harmonic Society, which gave a rehearsal February 17, 1841, under the W t 0 ~~;

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. leadership of N. Collins, which was spoken of by the Statesman of that date as a very creditable performance. The Beethoven Society, organized at Marshall, February 2, 1843, Rev. J. P. Cleveland, president. Delegates were in attendance from Homer, Albion, Jackson, Union City, and Jonesville. The society confined their attention to sacred music, oratorios being the principal pieces of its repertoire. The society was successfully conducted for some years, and created a musical taste that is visible to-day in the many excellent trained voices in the city. The first move for an instrumental organization in Marshall was made in 1840, by the boys of the village, between twelve and fifteen years. The spirit was taken from the drum corps of four companies of United States troops stationed here for a time, to assist in gathering and removing the Indians to their reservations in the west. The drum corps was composed of boys of fifteen years and thereabouts, and when the troops left an organization was effected of five pieces, Charles V. Bond, afterwards a portrait-painter of considerable repute, and Charles Ketchum being the fifers, Claude G. Avery, afterwards burned to death in the Herndon, and Edwin Curtis, snare drummers, and Henry A. Tillotson, the present city marshal, bass drummer. Mr. Tillotson and Mr. Ketchum are the only survivors of this pioneer organization, which became a very creditable band, giving rise to the Marshall Band, which organized in June, 1842, with thirteen performers, viz.: Charles Nash, E-flat clarionet (leader); Charles Ketchum, piccolo; Erastus Ladd, 1st B-flat clarionet; Edwin W. Curtis, 1st B-flat clarionet (treasurer); James A. Way, 2d B-flat clarionet (secretary); Elmon S. Camp, 2d B-flat clarionet; W. R. McCall, cornet; Moses Hodgman, trumpet; Henry A. Tillotson, 1st French horn; James D. Potts, 2d French horn; Henry Donally, B-flat trombone; Wm. Lumm, G trombone (president); Orrin S. Camp, bass drum. The first meeting of the band was the second Tuesday night in June, 1842, and their first public appearance was at a temperance celebration in Battle Creek, on the 4th of July following. Their first concert was given in the court-house at Marshall, August 6, 1842. This organization became noted all about the country, and went to Battle Creek, Kalamazoo, Coldwater, Jackson, and elsewhere, gaining many fine encomiums for their skill and excellent music. In 1844 the band changed its instruments for brass sax-horns, and gradually, from 1857 to 1860, exchanged these latter for silver cornets. The organization remained intact, though with more or less change of individual members, until 1862, when the bulk of the old members having left the city, the organization was given up. Spasmodic efforts were made from time to time to maintain a band during the war, and some excellent organizations were briefly in practice, but after the war some of the leading musicians of the city removed or died, and for some years there was no attempt whatever to keep up an organization, and the instruments became scattered and lost. In 1872, The Marshall City Cornet Band was organized by some of the musicloving Germans of the city, and by a steady and persistent effort a fine band has arisen, composed of thirteen members, as follows: Prof. Hoffman, 1st E-flat (leader); Joseph Mors, 2d E-flat (secretary); Watson Mead, 1st B-flat (president); Prof. Desire Ruese, solo E-flat tenor; George Kueschlee, 1st E-flat tenor; William Blankenhorn, 2d E-flat tenor; John Hoffman, 1st B-flat tenor; Leyward Fox, 2d B-flat tenor; Prof. E. Mast, baritone; Martin Weimer, bass; Frank Tillotson, 1st snare drum; Richard Martin, 2d snare drum; Frederick Schneitman, bass drum and cymbals. This band is fast winning its way to a high rank in the musical world, and has already gained many laurels by its excellent execution. Prof. Hoffman is an accomplished artist and devoted musician. The city has erected in the park (the old site of the court-house) an elegant stand for out-door concerts, the same being sixteen feet square, eighteen feet high, surmounted by an airy concave roof, at a cost of two hundred dollars. There is also an amateur orchestra in the city, The Ha ydn Harmonic Society, which discourses some very excellent harmony at the public concerts of the home talent, which is of a high order in Marshall. The members of the orchestra are as follows: Fred. Colegrove, 1st violin; Charles P. Aldrich, 2d violin; F. H. Mills, flute; A. B. Moore, 'cello; W. C. Armour, pianist. SECRET SOCIETIES. Marshall Lodge, No. 20, F. A. M., was instituted in the year 1847-48, Dr. Joseph Sibley being the first Worshipful Master, and F. Karstaedt, Zenas Tillotson, Ira Tillotson, Thomas Cook, David Aldridge, Robert Smith, Dr. Hudson, George Ketchum, and Mr. Gillis the other charter members. Of these but two remain in the city, the greater portion being dead. Dr. Sibley held the position aof W. M. for several years. Thomas Cook and James Crocker also filled the Oriental chair for several terms. About the close of the year 1853 the lodge surrendered its charter, and a new one was formed, called St. Alban's Lodge, No. 20, which was chartered January 11, 1855, James M. Crocker being the first W. M., Joseph Sibley S. W., and Horace J. Phelps J. W. The lodge was instituted under dispensation in 1854. The office of Worshipful Master has been filled as follows: James M. Crocker, 1854-55, and 1859; George C. Gibbs, 1856; Joseph Sibley, 1857; Horace Phelps, 1858; Isaac Beers, 1860 -61, and 1864-65; H. A. Tillotson, 1862, and 1866-67; R. H. Powell, 1863; Albert F. Bull, 1868-70; John E. Chisholm, 1871-72; William Powell, 1873 -74; Charles Boynton, 1875-76. The present officers are William Powell, W. M.; W. H. Edston, S. W.; Frank W. Boughton, J. W.; John Adams, Treasurer; Charles A. Gardanier, Secretary; W. H. Faulkner, S. D.; Robert F. Walters, J. D.; O. Bennett, Tyler. The craft now numbers one hundred and seventy-eight. Marshall Lodge, No. 294, F. A. M., was instituted January 13, 1871, by charter, with the following officers and members: J. W. Fletcher, W. M.; E. S. Bronson, S. W.; T. E. Ferguson, J. W.; W. P. Sutton, Treasurer; W. H. Wells, Secretary; C. D. Clarke, S. D.; A. J. Lusk, J. D.; and E. B. Lusk. The East has been occupied as follows: J. W. Fletcher, 1871-72; Charles D. Clarke, 1873-75; W. H. Porter, 1876. The present officers are W. H. Porter, W. M.; Byron Carver, S. W.; J. Edmonds, J. W.; J. W. Fletcher, Treasurer; W. H. Wells, Secretary (deceased, and buried by the order June 3, 1877). The old Marshall lodge was instituted the year following the lodge at Battle Creek, which was the first one in the county. Lafayette Chapter, No. 4, Royatl Arch Masons, was instituted under dispensation June 17, 1848, and charter granted January 3, 1850, with. the following charter members: Thomas Cook, Joseph Sibley, Zenas Tillotson, Ira Tillotson, Daniel Hudson, Abner Pratt, Samuel Ladd, Robert H. Smith, Daniel Pratt, H. Cooley, George Ketchum, S. Allen, Enos Gillis, David Aldrich, and Ira Nash. Of these Gillis and Aldrich are the only survivors at the present time. Thomas Cook was the first High Priest, Joseph Sibley, King, and Daniel Hudson, Scribe. The office of the High Priest has been filled as follows: Thomas Cook, 1848-50; Joseph Sibley, December 18, 1850-54; James M. Crocker, 1855; George C. Gibbs, 1856; Joseph Sibley, 1857; Theron Hamilton, 1858; J. J. Bardwell, 1859; Henry A. Tillotson, 1860-68; John W. Fletcher, 1869-71; John E. Chisholm, 1872-73; H. A. Peterman, 1874-76. The present officers are-William Powell, H. P.; Charles Bentley, K.; Otis B. Rowley, S.; J. H. Saunders, Treasurer; H. A. Tillotson, Secretary; J. R. Jiron, C. H.; H. A. Peterman, P. S.; J. J. Groff, R. A. C. The craft number ninety-eight. fHiram Council, No. 14, was organized by dispensation November 19, 1861; was chartered June 20, 1863, with the following charter members: Zenas Tillotson, Dr. Sibley, Henry A. Tillotson, Peter Sutton, Robert Scarrott, Isaac Beers, S. P. Wormley, P. S. Warren, J. B. Warner, and others. Henry A. Tillotson was T. I. M. from the time it was chartered until 1868, since which time H. A. Peterman, M.D., has presided in the chair. Present officers: H. A. Peterman, I. M.; C. S. Webster, C. G.; John Adams, D. I. M.; R. P. Wormley, G. S.; W. B. Mead, P. C. W.; R. Scarrott, Sentinel; J. R. Jiron, Recorder; John Saunders, Treasurer. Present number of members, sixty-five. Marshall Comnmandery, No. 17, Knights Templar, was instituted under dispensation August 27, 1866; John T. Vernor, Jr., being the E. C., Lyman Sleeper, Geno., and Jerome B. Warner, C. G. The first meeting was held December 5, 1866, there being present besides the officers first named Sir Knights H. G. Filkins, J. W. Fletcher, George J. Barrett, N. F. Blossom, W. A. Coles, Nath. P. Aldrich, E. Bouton Lusk, S. B. Smith, and P. H. Budlong, who were charter members, all of whom except Smith and Vernor received the orders in Jacobs Commandery, No. 10, Coldwater. At the first election under the charter, held July 3; 1867, the following officers were elected: John T. Vernor, Jr., E. C.; Seneca B. Smith, Geno.; J. B. Warner, C. G.; H. G. Filkins, Prelate; John W. Fletcher, S. W.; Erwin Ellis, J. W.; H. F. Blossom, Treas.; T. J. O'Brien, Recorder; J. Lusk, Stand. Bearer; E. Boughton Lusk, Swd. Bearer; Lyman Sleeper, Warder. The charter was granted June 5, 1867, and commandery constituted and officers installed August 4, 1867, by Past R. E. Grand Commander Seaman L. Dart, the ceremonies closing up with a banquet at the Forbes House. Theron Hamilton and Henry R. Cook, of Lafayette Chapter, No. 4, received the order of Red Cross January 7, 1867, and Cook received the order of K. T. on February 6, and Hamilton on February 13, 1867, being the first candidates received. Sir Knight Vernor was in command of the asylum and commandery, 1866-67; S. B. Smith, 1868; Edw. J. Bronson, 1869-72; John W. W. Fletcher, 1873; Wm. Powell, 1874-76. William A. Coles filled the position of Recorder under dispensation, and from 1868 to 1783, both years inclusive, and J. S. Dobbins, 1874-75; Charles A. Gardanier, 1876. The present officers are John Adams, E. C.; Lyman Sleeper, Geno.; Charles F. Walter, C. G.; William Powell, Prelate; Wm. A. Coles, Recorder. Eighty-seven members have received the orders in the commandery, and been admitted by limit. The Masonic hall is owned by St. Albans lodge, Lafayette Chapter, and Marshall Commandery. The main hall is thirty-six by sixty feet, spacious and accessible. Banquet-room, anterooms, and armory are neatly fitted up, and give ample space for all needs of the several bodies which meet therein.

Page  65 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 65 Peninsula Lodge, No. 5, I. 0. O. F., was organized August 19, 1844, by District Deputy Grand Sire S. Yorke Atlee, who installed the following as the first officers of the lodge: James Wright Gordon, N. G.; E. C. Noble, V. G.; Benj. Vernor, Sec'y; John B. Frink, Treas. The first initiates were Mr. Chamberlain, A. O. Ayde, and Geo. Cogswell, who were admitted the same evening of the institution of the lodge. R. G. Stimpson, of Detroit, was appointed to represent this lodge in the formation of the grand lodge of Michigan. At the first election of officers under the charter, held September 30 following (1844), the following officers were chosen: E. C. Noble, N. G.; Benjamin Vernor, V. G.: John B. Frink, Sec'y; Abram G. Butler, Treas., who were installed October 5 by the District Deputy Grand Sire Atlee. There have been three hundred and forty-two members' initiated and admitted by card during the existence of the lodge, and sixty-four members are now in good standing in the same. The present officers are Frank C. Stuart, N. G.; Rudolph Rohr, V. G.; James M. Servoss, Rec. Sec'y; Z. S. Ames, Per. Sec'y; Fred. Karstaedt, Treas. * Marshall Encampment of Patriarchs, N~o. 2, was instituted October 20, 1844, with the following officers and members: J. Wright Gordon, C. P.; Abram G. Butler, H. P.; A. O. Hyde, S. W.; E. C. Noble, Peter D. Hudson, John B. Frink, Benj. Vernor, S. S. Alcott, and Geo. Cogswell. The encampment, after a lapse of several years, ceased to work, and was resuscitated February 24, 1870, or thereabouts, with the following members: Isaac G. Evans, N. G.; C. D. Clarke, H. P.; Z. S. Ames, S. W.; M. A. Cunningham, Scribe; Charles Fisher, Treas.; Ed. C. Smith, J. W., and Frank Baker. Since the resuscitation the encampment has flourished, and has now a membership of thirty. The Knights of Honor are a society organized for life insurance purposes principally, though each lodge can adopt such regulations as it pleases relative to mutual benefit in case of sickness or casualties among its individual members. It has been organized but some four years or so, but has grand bodies in several States, and a supreme lodge in the nation. But two salaried officers are connected with the entire organization, the Supreme Treasurer and Secretary, who notify the subordinate lodges of all assessments and pay all losses incurred. Ten per cent. of the gross receipts of t he subordinate lodges are paid into the supreme treasury for running expenses, and a widow and orphans' benefit fund is raised by assessment on every member, from which every loss is paid at once on due proof of death. No one can receive more than two thousand dollars, and the option rests with the members to pay one-half of the assessments only, and have one thousand dollars secured to their heirs in case of death. The admission fee is fifteen dollars, and annual dues four dollars. The assessments are made in advance, and covered into the supreme treasury by the subordinate lodges, who also levy their assessments in advance, thus keeping the money on hand ready for any emergency or call. There must never be less than two thousand dollars in the supreme treasury at any time, but several assessments have, so far, been kept on hand. The amount of losses already paid by the order is quite large. The assessments are graduated on members according to their age at the time of admission, those between twenty-one and forty-five years paying one dollar on each assessment, and running up as high as four dollars. Membership qualifications are soundness in body and morals. The lodge at Marshall is the Mutual Lodge, No. 403, and was instituted December 2, 1876, with the follwoing officers and members: John W. Fletcher, Past Dictator; W. L. Buck, Dictator; John Adams, Vice-Dictator; C. F. Walters, Assistant Dictator; W. H. H. Minot, Guide; T. E. Ferguson, Financial Reporter; James Miller, Reporter; C. A. Gardanier, Treasurer; H. L. Joy, Chaplain; O. L. Johnson, Guardian; Henry Tillotson, Sentinel; George S. Barrett, Lyman Sleeper, Wm. Powell, W. H. Faulkner, J. H. Saunders, John Baldwin, and Samuel J. Burpee. The above-named officers are the present incumbents. There are twenty-two members in the lodge at present. The Sacred Temple is a secret order, whose active members are exclusively ladies. They have taken the cue from their Masonic and Odd-Fellow husbands and brothers, and graciously allow such of these latter who are Master Masons to be admitted to a fifth (honorary) degree; but the real cream of the institution, its charities and beneficent works, the ladies wisely keep in their own hands. The order was instituted in Hillsdale, Michigan, in 1867, but has spread into some of the neighboring States. It has a grand body, called " The Supreme Sacred Temple of Michigan." The four degrees monopolized by the ladies " teach and exemplify woman's duties in the social, and especially the domestic, circle." The fifth " Honorary Brotherhood" degree, which alone is attainable by the 'i tyrant man," confers upon his eminence no special privileges or secrets outside of that especial degree; and though he has fully entered therein, yet he finds inscribed over the portals of the " Sacred Temple," outside of which he must ever remain, the legend over Paradise,-" Procul, 0 procul este, profani!" The Sacred Temple of Marshall, No. 7, was instituted February 4, 1870, under dispensation, being chartered the following October, with the following officers and members: Mirs. S. A. Peterman, Worthy Mistress; Mrs. R. E. Sleeper, F. C.; Mrs. M. E. John9 son, Treasurer; Mrs. Jane Leach, Secretary; Mrs. Houghton, Mrs. Sayles, Mrs. Bruce, Mrs. Lathrop, Miss Wilson, Mrs. Millard, and others. The organization now numbers forty members. The society planned a hall, and had it arranged according to its needs, and occupy it exclusively, and have furnished it in accordance with the original idea of a temple, as propounded by the founder of the order (a lady), though it is not quite complete at the present time. The society has occupied the hall since July 9, 1875. Mrs. Peterman has held the office of Worthy Mistress since the organization of the temple, and Mrs. Sleeper has served three years as F. C., and has also been the Grand Secretary of the Supreme Sacred Temple one year. Mrs. Peterman has held the position of Supreme Matron three years, and Grand Treasurer one year. The present officers of the Marshall Temple are: Mrs. S. A. Peterman, Worthy Mistress; Mrs. H. Sayles, F. C.; Mrs. R. E. Sleeper, Treasurer; Miss E. Paddock, Secretary. Marshall Grange, No. 83, Patrons of Husbandry, was instituted October 1, 1873, and includes the consolidation of the North Marshall Grange, No. 99, and Eckford Grange, No. 100. The first Master of Marshall Grange was Devillo Hubbard; the second, George R. McKay; and the third, J. A. Davis. The grange now numbers three hundred and twenty-four members. Its present officers are —Henry L. Day, Master; W. F. Hewitt, Overseer; A. Hosmer, Lecturer; George S. Woolsey, Secretary; Putnam Root. Treasurer; Mrs. Lucy Huggett, Ceres; Mrs. J. Leonard, Pomona; Miss Hattie Hosmer, Flora. Marshall Division, No. 18, Sons of Temperance, was organized May 18, 1847, with fourteen charter members: James A. Way, W. P.; E. D. Ladd, W. A.; J. W. Wilder, R. S.; W. R. McCall, F. S.; F. F. Quinn, Treasurer. It continued to work flourishingly for some years, but finally suspended in April, 1853. It had a large membership at one time, among which were some of the best citizens of the village, and, as one of the old members says, " some of the hardest cases," most of whom were wholly reclaimed. Marshall Division, No. 7, S. of T., was organized in July, 1859, for a special object, and ceased to work as soon as its purpose was accomplished. The prominent;men of the old division were the prime actors in the new division. Marshall Lodge, No. 410, I. 0. G. T., was organized July 20, 1866. This was a reorganization of the first Good Templars' lodge, and it continued for some years, and then ceased. Marshall Lodge, No. -, I. O. G. T., was instituted in January, 1855, with fifteen charter members: S. Steele, W. C. T.; Seth Lewis, W. V. T.; W. A. Wilder, Secretary; George B. Murray, Treasurer. The lodge ceased working August, 1856. Charter Lodge, No. 508, I. 0. G. T., was instituted April 20, 1867, with a goodly number of members, among whom were F. H. Burgess, W. C. T.; Matthew.Gill, W. V. T.; I. D. McCutcheon, W. S.; J. R. Ferguson, W. T. It worked contemporaneously with Marshall lodge, No. 410, and ceased its meetings May 5, 1868. The Reform Cltub of Marshall, the offspring of the " red ribbon movement" inaugurated in Michigan by Dr. Reynolds, in 1877, was organized in April of the latter year, and now numbers some three hundred members of all classes of the citizens,-teetotalers by nature and practice for years, temperate drinkers previously, and common drunkards. The movement has swept over certain cities and villages in the State like the tides of the sea, carrying whole communities before it. It has met with encouraging results thus far in Marshall, and the club formed here have reading-rooms and hold frequent meetings. Its officers are as follows: John Smith, president; Robert Donally, first vice-president; John McHugh, second vice-president; Frank Warmington, corresponding secretary; V. M. Randall, financial secretary; G. W. Steele, treasurer. There are from three hundred to three hundred and fifty'members. The temperance movement of 1838-40, and the Washingtonians of 1842, were ably seconded by the people of Marshall; Rev. J. P. Cleveland, the president of the Marshall college, being the foremost man in both movements. The Marshall Section of Cadets of Temperance was organized by the youths of Marshall in 1847, with F. T. Quinn, W. P.; William Hobart, W. A.; Charles Houston, V. A.; Robert Cross, T.; P. Crissey, A. T.; Alonzo Crissey, Secretary; William Phelps, A. Secretary; Luther Hays, Guide; F. Austin, Usher; James Sergeant, W.; James Bentley, Sentinel. It was in active operation but a short time. The New England Society of Marshall was formed December 22, 1846, and adopted a constitution and by-laws, confining the membership to natives of New England. The following officers were elected: Joseph Chedsey, of Vermont, president; Jarvis Hurd, of the same State, Dr. A. L. Hays, of New Hampshire, Hovey K. Clarke, of Massachusetts, Charles T. Gorham, of Connecticut, Randall Hobart, of Vermont, and Charles Dickey, of New Hampshire, vice-presidents; James M. Parsons, of Massachusetts, secretary; and Henry C. Bunce, of Connecticut, treasurer. The society hold reunions on the anniversary of the

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. landing of the Pilgrims, and very enjoyable occasions are had. The present officers are W. R. McCall, president, and George S. Wright, secretary. The Marshall Dramatic Association was formed in the winter of 1862, the first appearance of the same being before a Marshall audience March 12, 1862. Messrs. Duer, Hollon, Wilkinson, J. E. Miles, and J. W. Fletcher were " leading men" at that time. During the war the association was maintained, and included a fine array of native talent, and contributed no little to the people's pleasure, as well as aided materially in supplying the soldiers' aid society with funds for its works of mercy. After the war the association was maintained during the winter season for some years, and, though not actively engaged in rehearsals, the members are ready to respond to any call for home pleasure or assistance, and can and do produce their pieces creditably. Messrs. Edward Way, Frank Phelps, M. S. O'Keefe, and others of the young men are among the present material of the company, and a goodly number of the young ladies of the city, among whom are some of decided histrionic talent, are also of the company. The Marshall Boat-club was organized May 13, 1876, and reorganized February, 1877. The present officers are S. J. Burpee, president; John Adams, vicepresident; Charles A. Dibble, treasurer; Will A. Coles, secretary; Ed. C. Way, captain. The club was organized for amusement and exercise only, and are not members of any association. The Kalamazoo river, for a distance of three miles, affords them ample opportunity for their field of usefulness; while the more muscular find an excellent course for one and one-half miles, or from the lower buoy to Cold Springs. The club have a lease of Tucker's grove or Cold Spring grove, distant one and one-half miles from the city, which is reached by the river or carriage road, or by the Michigan Central railroad, whose cars pass the grove. The grove contains about six acres, and is one of the most beautiful grounds for pleasure purposes to be found in the State, and is being fitted with suitable buildings for refreshment, camping, or pleasure purposes. Swings and the usual amusements, croquet-grounds, etc., are always to be found, while the lovers of aquatic sports can find good boats for rental. There are, at the present writing, forty-five members. The club are owners of the ten-oared barge " Wawahtasse," built by La Chapelle, Detroit, Michigan, at a cost of four hundred dollars; it is fifty-one feet long, four feet seven inches beam, and has capacity for twenty-five persons; also, four-oared outrigged barge, " Coquette," built by Hubbell Brothers, at a cost of one hundred and fifty dollars; length, thirty feet; thirty-one inches beam. Carries coxswain. A suitable boat-house is also owned by the club, length, sixty by twenty feet, fully equipped, with lockers, etc., wherein are stored the barges. The Centennial boat-house, sixty feet by eighteen feet, contains the private boats of the members, which are as costly, and, without doubt, as fine pleasure-boats as are in the State. The barge crews are finely uniformed. Four steamboats are among the property of the members of the club, viz.: " S. J. Burpee," built at Marshall, thirtysix feet long, fifteen horse-power, screw propeller, owned by Captain John Cawood, is a steamer first-class in all respects, and has capacity for carrying seventy-five persons with safety. It is used for picnic purposes. Steamer " Comfort," Captain ' Myron O'Keefe, owner, built at Marshall, is also used for pleasure and picnic purposes; her length is twenty-five feet, accommodations for twenty persons, three and one-half horse-power, screw. Steamer, Captain W. H. Elston, eighteen feet long, has a rotary engine, three horse-power, propelled by screw, is elegantly fitted and equipped, and is used for pleasure purposes only. Master Lou. Joy also has a small boat propelled by steam. The private gymnasium of the president of the club, S. J. Burpee, is placed at the use of the members of the boat-club by that liberal-souled gentleman. He has equipped it with ladder, trapeze, parallel bars, health lift, Indian clubs, dumb bells, pocket gymnasium, etc., and it forms a most excellent adjunct to the club's exercises. The Gyre Club, which was organized as a shooting-club, also has its club rooms near by the gymnasium, where a good billiard-table, etc., are free to the members at all times, all provided for by the liberality of Mr. Burpee. MILITARY. In May, 1858, a military organization was effected, called the Marshall Light Guards, with Horace Phelps captain, K. A. Hunton (afterwards lieutenant-colonel of the Engineers and Mechanics regiment in the war for the Union), first lieutenant; Frank Dickey, second lieutenant, afterwards major of the Eighth Michigan cavalry; H. C. Hawkins, third lieutenant. A company was subsequently formed among the German citizens, Charles Heine being captain, who was afterwards captain of the Fourteenth battery of Michigan light artillery. I DISASTROUS CONFLAGRATIONS. Many times has Marshall been visited by fires by which property of considerable value has been destroyed. The more noted and disastrous conflagrations are the following: May 31, 1861, Perrin's block and several adjoining stores and their stocks were destroyed or badly damaged. September 18, 1861, the planing-mill and sash-factory of Church & Webster, and other buildings, and a large stock of lumber were destroyed, creating a loss of ten thousand dollars. On the 28th of the same month, the Davis bakery, Devereux store, and other buildings were destroyed, entailing a loss of eight thousand dollars. In 1869, a fire occurred in Perrinville, by which a large amount of property was destroyed, and again in 1872, another disastrous conflagration destroyed the stone and frame flouring-mills, the Novelty Iron Works of John Adams, the sash-, door-, and blind-factory of J. L. Dobbins, a large boarding-house and grocery and two private dwellings, in Perrinville. In 1840, F. A. Kingsbury's furniture factory was burned, and all his stock and tools; and the stone mill on the Kalamazoo was burned once before its last destruction, and so too was the frame flouring-mill, which had been rebuilt. On December 28, 1861, a fire destroyed Hyde & Joy's drug-store, Charles Killian's and Knight's boot and shoe stores, and the "< Red White and Blue" hardware-store, a heavy loss being incurred. Among the many disastrous conflagrations which have visited Marshall, the most terrible one was that by which the Herndon House was destroyed, and made calamitous by the loss of life occasioned thereby. The fire broke out Friday morning, September 24, 1875, its origin being undiscovered. Claude, G. Avery was suffocated, his wife being saved by his heroic efforts and those of Ed. Elliott. Antoine Graber, an employee of the New England Cigar Co., was burned. Eliza King, a servant in the house, was killed by falling from the fourth story, in endeavoring to cover her form, she being almost nude. The cook also was injured, so that she afterwards died, by jumping out of the window. Eleven other persons were more or less seriously injured. The scenes were heart-rending in the extreme, and no calamity has visited Marshall in all of her history so dreadful as this. George W. Watson was the proprietor of the hotel at the time, his loss being six thousand dollars. The loss on the Herndon was seventeen thousand dollars, and on the store adjoining, six thousand dollars. The guests lost everything they had, and some of them suffered heavily. Two of the firemen were injured, William R. Lewis being struck on the head by a falling ladder, and Rudolph Wirtz had his wrist severely cut by hot glass. THE MUNICIPALITY. The village of Marshall was first incorporated October 28, 1837. At the meeting held for deciding the question of incorporation, Dr. A. S. Hays and Sidney S. Alcott were judges of the election, and David L. Johns the clerk. Henry Hewitt, a justice of the peace, administered the oath of office to the officials. There were thirty-seven votes polled, Sidney S. Alcott receiving thirty-five of them for president of the corporation, and Dr. Hays, David L. Johns, Chas. T. Gorham, Chas. D. Smith, John Hutchinson, and Luther W. Hart were elected trustees, and Cyrus Hewitt recorder. These officials were in no indecent haste to assume their brief authority, as they did not qualify by taking the oath of office until January 6, 1838, Esquire Hewitt "swearing them in." On the 19th of July following, the president and trustees Johns and Hays were appointed a committee to draft a code of by-laws and ordinances for the government of the board and its officials, and they reported on the 23d of the same month, providing for more officials, to wit: a treasurer, assessors, marshal, street commissioners, and fire-wardens. Householders were directed under rigorous penalties to keep their sidewalks (?) clear and take especial care of their ashes. Grocers were prohibited from selling their " wet groceries" on the Sabbath-day, and exhorted vigorously to prevent " loafing" about their premises on the same day, and to prevent all unnecessary noise thereon. General hygienic rules and observances were adopted'; cattle, horses, and hogs were denied the right of free commoners about the streets. The board adopted a remarkably early hour for their meetings,-at eight o'clock A.M. on the first Tuesday of each month,-for what reason no "whereas" on the record indicates. The board elected C. M. Brewer treasurer, Marvin Preston and Peter Chisholm assessors, J. G. Dean, Isaac Murdenburgh, street inspectors, Manlius Mann, B. K. Cressey, and Edward Butler fire-wardens. Recorder Hewitt removed from the village, and S. H. Preston was elected to fill the vacancy. The first sidewalk was ordered January 12, 1839, the specifications requiring the same to be made of plank, three feet wide, and commencing at the west end of the court-house square, continuing across the same, and along the north side of State street to the east line of the corporation, with cross-walks at the National, the post-office, and the street east of Gorham & Brewer's store, and at the market; and the president and trustees Gorham and Hutchinson were placed in charge of

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Page  67 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 I the work. January 25 the streets in the village were named, the northernmost one of those running east and west being called Prospect, and followed south by Mansion, State, Green, Hanover, and Spruce; the easternmost one of the north and south streets being called Eagle, and followed west by Grand, Kalamazoo, Sycamore, Mulberry, and Forest. The street running southeast from the courthouse was named Monroe, and the alleys on the court-house square were called the Northwest, Southwest, Northeast, and Southeast alleys, respectively. The second election was held May 6, 1839, and Luther W. Hart was elected president, Chauncey M. Brewer recorder, Edward Butler treasurer, Charles Dickey marshal, and Charles T. Gorham assessor. In July of that year the board discounted one-half of the taxes it had levied, and ordered Marshal Dickey to collect the other half at once. The committee on sidewalks did not do the work to suit the new board, and their powers were revoked and the marshal ordered to finish the job. The taxes on the Bank of Marshall were annulled. At the election of 1840, Joseph C. Frink was elected president, and John A. Van Horne recorder, forty votes being polled. One hundred dollars were levied for current expenses. No licenses were granted to sell ardent or spirituous liquors; on motion of trustee Wm. R. MeCall, but two were granted to sell beer, ale, and cider. The board also refused to license a bowling-alley. April 6, 1841, the board voted to issue shinplasters on the Bank of Marshall for six and a quarter cents, twelve and a half cents, eighteen and three-quarters cents, twenty-five cents, thirty-seven and a half cents, and fifty cents each, the bank to redeem them in current funds when presented in sums not exceeding ten dollars. At the election of 1841 one hundred and twenty-six votes were polled, and Joseph C. Frink re-elected president, and Edward Butler chosen recorder. The shinplasters were redeemed by J. C. Frink, Edward Butler, and C. M. Brewer (treasurer), with funds arising from their issue. In 1842 two hundred and forty-four votes were polled, Joseph Chedsey being elected president and Geo. Woodruff recorder. The village was divided into two wards, and the name of the board changed to " Common Council," and a new code of ordinances adopted. August 9 of this year the menagerie of June, Titus, Angevine & Co. exhibited in the village, paying ten dollars for the privilege into the corporation treasury. New streets were opened and named March 14, 1843. The following gentlemen filled the position of president from 1842 until the city of Marshall was incorporated: Ira Tillotson, 1843 and 1846; Ira Wood, 1844; Geo. Ketchum, 1845; Chas. Dickey, 1847; Lansing Kingsbury, 1848; Randall Watson, 1849; Zenas Tillotson, 1850; James A. Hahn, 1851; J. E. Crary, 1854; Nathan H. Humphrey, 1855; H. A. Noyes, 1856; E. O. Crittenden, 1857; Lucius G. Noyes, 1858. The recorders were as follows during the same period: C. M. Brewer, 1843, '45, '46; B. Banks, 1844; A. O. Hyde, 1847; Edward Butler, George N. Smith, W. R. McCall, Henry A. Woodruff, W. P. Sutton, C. H. Beach, George Johnson, Seth Lewis, John J. Bardwell, and C. P. Dibble each held the position one year in the order they are named, with the exception of Bardwell, who held it two years, 1856-57. In 1859 the boundaries of the village were enlarged to two miles square, and the same erected into a city government, and the following officials were chosen: Chas. P. Dibble, mayor; Elias Hewitt, recorder; Jonas B. Conkling, treasurer; and Henry Z. Williams, marshal. School Inspectors, Geo. Woodruff, two years; Elisha Gilbert, one year. Justices of the Peace, Amos Hewitt, one year; Martin D. Strong, two years; Isaac W. Wilder, three years; Francis W. Shearman, four years. Directors of the Poor, James Winters and Seth Lewis. Aldermen, first ward, Harvey M. Dixon, one year; Claudius B. Webster, two years; Horace A. Noyes, three years; second ward, Preston Mitchell, one year; Jonah J. Martin, two years; Frederick A. Kingsbury, three years. Constables, Charles E. Harvey, Wm. Prindle, Loren Wing, and Peter Kocher. Mayor Dibble was inaugurated March 17, 1859, and delivered a ringing inaugural, in which he made a strong and earnest plea for a systematic, efficient, and economical administration of the city government, and for a water-supply and protection against fires, and commended to the council the cemetery and its needs. Isaac W. Wilder was appointed city attorney, and John H. Wells chief engineer of the fire department. The total expenses of the first year of the city government amounted to five thousand two hundred and twelve dollars and seventy-two cents. In April, 1865, the council passed severe condemnatory resolutions upon the assassination of President Lincoln, expressing sorrow for his loss, and detestation of the crime and the perpetrators thereof. The following gentlemen have held the position of mayor of the city since 1859: D. Darwin Hughes, 1860-61; Preston Mitchell, 1862; Abner Pratt, deceased, and Chas. Cameron, 1863; Joseph C. Frink, 1864; Justin D. Wooley, 1865-68; A. O. Hyde, 1869; F. Karstaedt, 1870; John Adams, 1871; David S. Beach, 1872; S. J. Burpee, 1873; W. H. Porter, 1874-75; Wm. Powell, 1876. The recorders during the same period have been Nicholas K. Maniates, 1860; W. H. Humphrey, 1861; F. W. Shearman, 1862-63; C. P. Dibble, 1864; James A. Miner, 1865; Willis S. Geer, 1866-67; James R. Ferguson, 1868; John S. Evans, 1869; Bernard McHugh, 1870-72; David Cunningham, 1873-74, '76; W. N. Wilder, 1875. The justices of the peace who have held more than a single term of four years are F. W. Shearman, fifteen years (dead); E. H. Lawrence, eight years; Jas. A. Robinson, eight years; Francis A. Stace, eight years; Nelson A. Brooks, five years. Present incumbents, S. S. Lacey, 1874-77; M. D. Strong, 1875-79; Herbert A. Reed, 1876-80; Charles M. Whiting, 1877-81. The following-named gentlemen have filled the position of supervisor of the city, as follows: Harvey M. Dixon, 1865-66; Robert Huston, 1867-74; Jas. T. Downs, 1875-77. The city government for 1877 is as follows: Mayor, Dr. H. L. Joy; Recorder, David Cunningham; Treasurer, Jno. Cronin; Aldermen, first ward, Jno. Adams, Geo. T. Phelps; second ward, Nathan Humphrey, J. M. Laberteaux; third ward, Wm. Bodell, Wm. Bedford; fourth ward, Charles Boynton, Chas. Walter; Marshal,.H. H. Tillotson; City Attorney, W. H. Porter; President Board of Health, his honor the mayor; Chief Engineer, Daniel Ross. The revenue of the city for 1876-77 was as follows: taxes levied and collected in the winter of 1877, general fund, $3200.84; mill tax, $1752.36; street and bridge tax, $3276.45; school tax, $15,520.57; fire department, $3134.24; for payment of bonds, $5000; total taxes levied, $31,884.46; add to this liquor tax received (1876), $2927.92; total revenue, $34,812.38. The present bonded indebtedness of the city is, for school-houses, $40,000; general, $12,500. Total, $52,500. THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. The first fire company formed in Marshall was organized in 1840, before any means of putting out fires were owned by the corporation, and pails were the only available vehicles for the transportation and utilization of water on the occasions of service of the company. On the 5th of August, 1845, the question of the purchase of a fire-engine was submitted to the people, who voted for the immediate purchase of one, and on December 10,1845, the common council bought one of Peaslee, ordered it painted scarlet, christened it the "Phoenix," and directed the manufacturer to put a proper design on it. In 1846 the council bought hooks and ladders, and built some reservoirs about the business portion of the village. In 1847, the fire-engine, proving unsatisfactory, had been returned, and another meeting of the people voted five hundred dollars additional to the sum already appropriated to buy a new and better machine. The council appointed Dr. Comstock as its agent to buy an engine not to exceed seven hundred dollars in the cost thereof. April 8, 1847, a Britton machine was bought, and an enginehouse temporarily obtained. The new machine was named " The Deluge," and when it arrived, the fire company then in existence and known as Deluge Fire Company No. 1 had to house it, buy their own uniforms, and pay all the expenses of running their company and keeping the engine in order. The old "Deluge" was a second-class engine, but a very powerful one of that class, and in many contests at the firemen's tournaments in the State won the first prize. She has been known to throw a stream two hundred and nineteen feet, but her usual record was two hundred feet. In Jackson, in competition with twenty engines, but four machines, and they all first-class, beat her record, and she was decorated with the champion trumpet. The Deluge fire company dissolved its organization when the steamer came, October 9, 1871; but the old machine is brought out on parade days and in emergencies, and, manned by volunteers, shows how her old triumphs were won by the " spirts" she can yet make upon a " pinch." In 1863 the council bought the " Liberty," No. 8. This engine was built by William Jeffers & Son, of Pawtucket, Rhode Island, for the Continental Fire Com pany No. 8, of Detroit, and sold to Liberty No. 3, of Jackson, in 1857. While in the hands of the Jacksonians the engine carried the champion banner at three tournaments. A company called the " Germania" was organized to run with the " Liberty," but was subsequently changed to the Liberty, as it is now known. The department was reorganized in March, 1871, at which time the Rescue Hook and Ladder Company was organized, with thirteen members originally, the first officers being James W. Powell, foreman (now deceased, and the only member the company has lost); Charles D. Clarke, first assistant; W. H. H. Minot, second assistant; W. A. Coles, secretary; George Perrett, treasurer. The truck was received on Monday, May 15, 1871, and was received by the company and a parade of the entire department and city government. It was built by John Lower, of Charlestown, Massachusetts, and is thirty-eight feet eight inches in length over all, and is now fully equipped with two hundred and fifty feet of ladders, and hooks, axes, etc., the weight of truck and its equipment being two thousand four hundred pounds. The cost of the truck alone was eleven hundred

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUINTY, MICHIGAN. dollars. The first fire the company was called to and in which the truck did service was that of July 17, 1871, when Spring's store was burned. On the 18th day of July, 1871, the steamer " Wolverine" was ordered by council on the recommendation of his honor, Mayor Adams, and on October 9, 1871, the same arrived in Marshall. It was built by the Amoskeag Company of Manchester, New York, and is a second-class machine, numbered 375, and cost with the hose cart four thousand five hundred dollars. In 1874 a patent heater was attached to the steamer, since which time it has been constantly kept under steam, and the horses, two fine heavy bays, which were bought at the same time the steamer was purchased, are kept harnessed ready at a moment's warning to start on the run for the scene of destruction. At the reception of the steamer a hose company was organized called the Wolverine Hose Company, which is still attached to the department. At the last review of the department, May 17, 1877, a test of efficiency and speed was made by locating the steamer, truck, Liberty No. 8, and the hose cart at a distance of a square from a central cistern and well, and at a given signal each leaving the station assigned and charging for the common centre, and getting ready for the duties incumbent upon each in time of actual service. The results were very complimentary to the companies. The Rescue Hook and Ladder Company is the only exclusively volunteer company in the city, and they are now holding the champion trumpet of the State for efficiency and celerity of movement. The uniform of the Rescue was bought at a cost of three hundred and seventy-five dollars, and consists of the New York regulation fire hat, eight cones, red shirt, black belt, and black pants. When originally organized it had forty members, but now numbers fifty. The department numbers one hundred and twenty-seven men and officers, and one chief and two assistant engineers. John Ross, the chief engineer, has been in the city volunteer department for twenty-one consecutive years. The assistant engineers are O. C. Tompkins, first, and J. F. Gans, second. Rescue Hook and Ladder Company has fifty men, and is officered as follows: John Smythe, foreman; Charles A. Dibble, first assistant; H. W. Raymond, second assistant; Z. S. Denison, secretary; W. R. Lewis, treasurer. W. A. Coles was foreman and secretary three years. Liberty Company has sixty men, and its officers are as follows: Antoine Egler, foreman; John Hetkorn, assistant; Fred. Schneidman, secretary; Fred. Karstaedt, treasurer. Wolverine Hose Company has twelve men: Ed. Butler, foreman. W. H. Wells, its late secretary and treasurer, was accidentally injured after the close of the review, May 17, 1877, and died in consequence thereof, and was buried by the department and the Masonic fraternity on Sunday, June 3. The steamer has a driver and engineer. The city built an engine-house in 1867, on State street, between Eagle and Jefferson, which is thirty by eighty feet and two stories high, surmounted by a bell-tower and look-out station. The engines are kept on the first floor, and the second one is occupied by the council-room and city recorder's office and the fireman's hall. It cost six thousand nine hundred dollars, including the lower, which was built in 1874. THE WATER-SYSTEM of Marshall is as unique as it is exhaustive. In 1856 the council negotiated with Arthur M. Odell for a water-supply, either by logs or pipes, but nothing came of the proposed system. In 1859, Mayor Dibble, in his inaugural as the first mayor ~ of the city, among other recommendations urged upon the council the pressing necessity for an adequate water-supply, and the council, in 1860, proceeded to ex~ periment on artesian wells, paying seven hundred and forty-six dollars and ninetyseven cents for one three hundred feet deep. At his second inaugural, in 1861, Mayor Hughes called the attention of the council to the question of the practicability of the artesian system, and suggested the nature of the underlying rock to be such that it was of very doubtful propriety to expend further money in the experiment. But the experiment was carried on at considerable cost, until it was demonstrated that the deep boring was a useless and unprofitable expenditure. In 1872 a system of artesian wells, of shallow depth, was believed to be practicable, and to be secured by driving stand-pipes through the soil and rock to what were hoped to be inexhaustible natural reservoirs. The experiment was tried, and the theory demonstrated to be according to the facts, and contracts were accordingly made on the 15th of April, 1872, for more wells, distributed in various parts of the city. These proving to be successful in operation and inexhaustible in supply, more have been driven about the city, until, at the present time, there are thirty-three of these wells owned by the city, and named in honor of the aldermen of the same. The cost of the same has been six thousand dollars. They are simple in construction, being merely an iron pipe driven to the depth of from eighteen to seventy feet, at which depth it seems to reach an immense reservoir of water underlying the whole city. In these pipes the water rises to a certain height, varying from three feet upward to twenty-eight feet from the surface of the ground. The head of the pipe is fitted with a hydrant-pipe, to which the hose of the steamer is attached, and when the air in the pipe above the water-level is exhausted the water flows up, the pipe forming simply a continuation of the hose, the water being lifted by the suction of the engine. These wells have been drawn from in this manner by the steamer for many hours continuously without any perceptible diminution of the supply of water therein. THE POLICE DEPARTMENT is in charge of the city marshal, who is the chief. There is but one patrolman, who is on duty every night; but a reserve force of five men in each ward are subject to orders in case of emergency. The police magistrates are the regularly chosen justices of the peace, the present incumbents being Hon. S. S. Lacey, Charles M. Whiting, Esq., M. D. Strong, Esq., and H. A. Reed, Esq. The county jail serves the city for a lock-up. The streets are lighted by forty-two gas-burners located at the corners of the streets in the business portion of the city, and elsewhere about the residence portion as required, the gas being supplied by the Marshall Gas Company. THE BRIDGES. In 1864 the stone (arched) bridge over Rice creek was constructed at a cost of four thousand five hundred dollars, and in 1867 the iron bridge was built, at an expense of three thousand one hundred and fifty dollars, over the Kalamazoo. THE MARSHALL CEMETERY was first opened to the public in 1839. Previous to this date the dead were sepultured in a little plat of ground in the village selected by John D. Pierce and Isaac E. Crary on land belonging to Isaac N. Hurd, and in which plat Mr. Hurd was himself the first burial within a week after the plat was selected, he being the first victim of the cholera. Mrs. John D. Pierce was the second burial, and was interred July 25,1832, less than a week after Mr. Hurd's death. After the new cemetery was opened the old plat fell into disuse, and the remains already resting there were, many of them at least, taken up and reinterred in the new grounds. The Marshall Cemetery Company was incorporated in 1840; Jabez S. Fitch, Daniel Hudson, and James P. Greeves being the incorporators. The grounds originally contained 11.44 acres, and form a portion of the present cemetery, which contains thirty acres. The common council of the city, in conformity with an enabling act passed by the legislature in 1850 for the purpose, in 1852 assumed control of the cemetery, and added, in 1859, fourteen and a half acres, and more subsequently. The cost of the city's improvements has been one thousand and thirty-six dollars. There have been two thousand three hundred and fifty-five interments in the grounds since its opening to March 19, 1877. The cemetery is very pleasantly and eligibly situated on the high grounds south of the river and east of Marshall avenue, and overlook the city and country round about for some distance. Grading has been done to some extent, but the greater part of the ornamentation of the grounds has been done by individuals, whose loved ones are sleeping quietly beneath the grass and flowery sod. POPULATION. In 1860 the census returns revealed a population in the first ward of the city of 1536 souls, and 2044 in the second ward, total 3580, and who dwelt in 793 houses. In 1870 the total population amounted to 4925 persons, constituting 1115 families with 1085 domiciles. They were divided among the different wards as follows: First ward, 797; second, 1006; third, 1610; fourth, 1512. 2369 were males, and 2556 were of the opposite sex. In 1874 the population was not returned by wards. The total number of inhabitants as shown by the census of that year was 4623; 2224 being males and 2399 females. Of males of the military age, between twenty-one and forty-five years, there were 724; 447 were exempt from draft by reason of age, 27 of the latter being over seventy-five years of age. Of ladies of marriageable age there were 830, while those who exceeded the limit of the professor of social statistics-forty years-numbered 577, 28 being beyond the age of seventy-five years. The benedicts exceeded the bachelors largely, there being 877 of the former to 224 of the latter over twenty-one years of age. The same disparity, too, was noticable among the ladies; the matrons numbering 886, and their maiden sisters over eighteen years tallying but 315. THE POLITICAL BIAS of the voters of the city of Marshall it shown by the balloting at the Presidential elections. In 1860 the vote stood thus: first ward-Republican, 184,

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Page  [unnumbered] ! i =:- X 0 -: =: i,,,, i DANIEL WOOLSEY. The subject of this sketch, Daniel Woolsey, is one of the sterling, reliable citizens of Marshall township, of which he has been a resident upon his present location for more than forty years. He was born in Colchester, Delaware county, New York, March 5, 1808, and removed with his father to Covert, Seneca county, in the same State, in 1828, where he resided until 1836, when he came to Calhoun County, and located upon his present farm, which he had purchased from the Government the fall previous. He was married February 15, 1832, to Juliana Shaver, of Colchester, New York, who died September 2, 1862, leaving five children, all married and well settled in Calhoun County, viz.: Sarah G.. now Mrs. Benjamin M. Templeton; Richard H., George S., Mary E., now Mrs. A. G. Rowley; and Clarinda M., now Mrs. James R. Huggett. On the 26th day of September, 1863, Mr. Woolsey took to himself another wife in the person of Susan Sniffin, of Seneca county, New York, who died October 15, 1865, leaving him again alone and desolate; and finding his lonely condition unbearable, he married again, on September 19, 1866, Mrs. Samantha L. Perci val, of Galesburg, Kalamazoo county, Michigan. Mr. Woolsey began his political partisanship by espousing the anti-Masonic cause, and then joined the Whig ranks, and has been identified with the Republican party since its first organization. He was elected supervisor of Marshall township in 1861, and held the position eight years continuously, and was treasurer of the township bounty fund during the war of the Rebellion. He united with the Baptist church at the age of twenty-two years, and has ever since been an active and zealous member thereof, officiating for several years as a deacon therein. When he first purchased his land it was wild and unimproved, but by his labors he has brought it forward to its present excellent state of cultivation and improvement. The third year of his residence thereon he was attacked with sickness, and was confined to the house for two years, during which time he lost his harvest, and endured the severest hardships and privations; but the principle which has actuated him through life was not forsaken even under those most trying circumstances, and to-day, at the age of almost threescore years and ten, he can say, as he does say with just pride, he never owed a debt he could not pay at sight. DANIEL WOOLSEY......~.:::............:`~:........: ~::... V. Jill --: -w | w - RESIDENCE Or DANIEL WOOLSEY, MARSHALL, MtCHIGAN. i I I -= m

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Page  69 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 69 Democratic, 166; second ward-Republican, 252, Democratic, 221. Total, Republican, 436; Democratic, 387. In 1864 the voting lists wore a different complexion, standing as follows: Republican-first ward, 150, second ward, 202; Democratic-first ward, 167; second ward, 258. Total, Republican, 352; Democratic, 425. In 1868 the tally-lists revealed a Democratic ascendency of 93 majority, the vote being thus: Democratic-first ward, 66; second ward, 102; third ward, 183; fourth ward, 207. Total Democratic, 558. Republican-first ward, 101; second ward, 124; third ward, 145; fourth ward, 105. Total Republican, 475. In 1872 the Democratic majority fell to 21, the vote being as follows: Republican-first ward, 103; second ward, 118; third ward, 130; fourth ward, 114; Total, 465. Democratic-first ward, 72; second ward, 83; third ward, 153; fourth ward, 178. Total, 486. In 1876 the Democratic majority was 95, the balloting being as follows: Democratic-first ward, 87; second ward, 103; third ward, 166; fourth ward, 194. Total, 550. Republican-first ward, 100; second ward, 120; third ward, 141; fourth ward, 94. Total, 455. Peter Cooper and General Carey, the " Greenback" candidates, received none. This last vote, 1005, would indicate a population of 5000. On the reception of the news of the assassination of President Lincoln the common council passed strong condemnatory resolutions, expressing utter detestation for the crime and criminals. During the war for the Union, Marshall was prompt in filling her quotas, and offered large bounties to encourage enlistments. Her citizens responded at the first call for troops, and sent a company composed largely of residents of the city, who participated in the first Bull Run battle; one of her citizens being the first Michigan man to fall in the war. Calvin Colegrove, color-bearer of the gallant First Infantry of Michigan, Hubbard Crittenton, Buck, Dickey, and Comstock, and others as brave, bore upon many bloody fields the name of Marshall forward to distinguished honor, and gave to it imperishable fame. We are under obligations to Hon. Charles T. Gorham, late United States minister to the Hague, Hon. Charles P. Dibble, George S. Wright, Esq., James A. Way, Esq., C. M. Brewer, Esq., Seth Lewis, Esq., and Morgan Bates, Esq. (for files of the Statesman from 1839 to 1877), Z. H. Denison (for files of the Expounder), William R. McCall, Hon. Preston Mitchell, David Cunningham, Esq., city recorder, W. R. Lewis, Esq., assistant postmaster, and W. A. Coles, Esq., for valuable information given and assistance rendered in the compilation of the history of Marshall city. THE TOWNSHIP OF MARSHALL. LEGAL CONSTITUTION. ORIGINALLY the township included in its limits the entire territory of Calhoun County, and was a constituent of Kalamazoo county. It was so declared to be by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, in 1832, but no election was ever held under that law for a representation in the county board of supervisors of Kalamazoo. The name was spelled "(Marshal" then, but on its reorganization, March 29, 1833, when it became one of the three constituent townships of Calhoun County, organized at the same time, the name was spelled Marshall, as at present, and the township was so named in honor of Hon. S. S. Marshall, then chief-justice of the supreme bench of the United States. At its reorganization, the township included townships numbered on the United States public surveys 3 and 4, in ranges 4 and 5, and 1, 2, 3, and 4, in range 6 west. In 1834 Homer was organized, and included the first-named townships (3 and 4, ranges 4 and 5). Tekonsha in 1836, Convis in 1837, and Fredonia in 1838 drew from the territory of Marshall townships 4, 1, and 3, range 6, respectively, leaving it but a single surveyed township. In 1859 two miles square, including sections 25 and 26, south half of sections 23 and 24, and north half of sections 35 and 36, were set off and included in the corporate limits of the city of Marshall, leaving the township as it is at present constituted. TOPOGRAPHY. The township is a general level, and was originally covered with oak, white and burr principally, being the " openings" of the country. The soil is a rich sandy loam, fertile, and adapted to the growth of the cereals, fruits of all kinds common to the country, and grazing. There is little or no waste land in the township, the same being well drained by the Kalamazoo in its southern part, and lying high and dry to the north. Rice creek, so called by the United States surveyors from the wild rice found growing in it at the time the county was surveyed, comes into the township within the limits of Marshall city, and forms a junction with the Kalamazoo on section 25. The name of the latter river in the original Indian tongue, from whence it was derived, is Ki-ka-la-ma-xoo, and signifies the mirage river. THE FIRST SETTLEMENTS in the township as at present limited were as follows: Mr. Fuller, who came to the county in 1830, built the first house erected in the county, about three miles north of the Marshall village site, on seminary lands, an account of which is given at length in the county history. This house subsequently passed into Samuel Camp's hands, who removed it to lands adjoining the seminary lands, and sold the same, with the land, to John Bertram, who came with the family of Thomas Burland, who kept house and boarded Bertram in this house during the winter of 1831-32, and until the latter built his frame house on his location during the summer of 1832, and which, too, was the first framed house in the county. Mr. Bertram also built the first barn erected in the county,-a framed one. Thomas Knight came to the township in 1832, and still resides in the county. Stephen Kimball came in 1831, and located south of the river. Henry Failing came in 1832, and located outside of the present city limits, on the north. Daniel Woolsey and B. F. Curtis were early comers to the township. Knight and Woolsey are still living in the township, and Mr. Failing is living in Homer. Besides those already named the following were among the early settlers of the township of Marshall: Cyrus Hubbard, who is now deceased. His widow still resides on the old homestead. Allen G. Miner came from Connecticut, and located in the township in 1835 or 1836, and died on his farm in 1861. His wife also is now deceased. Freeman Hotchkiss located on section 4 in 1836, and still resides thereon. Isaac Lockwood located on section 16, and is now deceased. James Connolly, George W. and Joseph Bentley, all present residents of the township, were early comers. Mathew Hasbrouck and D. H. Godfrey, the latter now the owner of the Bertram homestead, and George Barber, now of Coldwater, were also among the pioneers. J. Kellcher also came before 1840, and now owns eight hundred acres in a body. The first farms were opened by John Bertram and Stephen Kimball, in 183'2, and crops of wheat and corn raised. The first improved live-stock introduced were Saxon sheep, in 1837-38, by John D. Pierce, horned cattle coming as late as 1850, of any moment. Improved farm machinery was introduced in the shape of fanning-mills in 1836, into the township, and were of home manufacture, being made by Colonel Dickey. Reapers were introduced after 1844; and separator-thrashers, about that year. Plows began to be improved as soon as the breaking-up plows had prepared the way for a lighter and better article. The first frame house, as before stated, was erected by John Bertram, on the farm now owned by Godfrey, in 1832, during the spring or early summer. When the first brick house was erected in the township, outside of Marshall city, we have not definitely ascertained. The first road laid through the township was the Territorial road, so called, leading from the Chicago and Detroit highway, the great military road of the Territory, near Ypsilanti, through Calhoun County to the mouth of the St. Joseph river, laid out and surveyed previous to 1831. I The first bridge built over the Kalamazoo in the township was erected in 1832, in the village of Marshall, at what is now sometimes called Perrinville; George Ketchum being the architect, and Dr. Hays master-builder. The first school in the township was taught in the village also, and is particularly described in the history of the city. The statistics of 1876 will be found in the general history of the county. The history of the church is so intimately connected with the city of Marshall that we must also refer the reader to the history of the city for the interesting record. No church edifice has ever been erected in the township outside of the city and the village of Ceresco. A Methodist class was organized at North Marshall some years ago, and is still in existence. The North Marshall Lodge, No. 509, I. O. G. T., was organized prior to 1865, and is still in a flourishing condition. It has had a large membership for several years, and exerts a beneficial influence in the northern part of the township and South Eckford. Thomas W. Huggert is the secretary of the lodge. Thomas Templeton, R. H. Woolsey, and Perry Mayo are leading members of the organization. The first stage line operated through the township was that of Samuel Camp, from Jackson to Marshall, in 1833, Zenas Tillotson succeeding to Camp. A more extensive line was afterwards established from Detroit to Chicago, shortening up its eastern length as the railroad progressed westward. In 1836, W. R. Thompson, of Ann Arbor, stocked the road from Detroit to Jackson, and from Kalamazoo

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. to St. Joseph. Dr. J. H. Montgomery and Montgomery Schuyler owned and stocked the line from Jackson to Marshall, and Dr. James P. Greeves stocked and operated it from Marshall to Kalamazoo. The business proving a losing investment to Dr. Greeves, he sold his interest to Zenas Tillotson, who, with others, kept the line in operation till the railroad reached Marshall, in 1844. Grain, for horsefeed, was one dollar and seventy-five cents and two dollars per bushel for a year. CIVIL ORGANIZATION. The first town-meeting was held in Marshall at the school-house, in the village, April 1, 1833. Andrew L. Hays was moderator, and Ellsworth Burnett clerk. Henry Cook was elected supervisor; Marvin Preston, town clerk; Samuel Camp, Ellsworth Burnett, Robert McCully, assessors; Andrew L. Hays, constable and collector; Sidney Ketchum, poor-master; John Kennedy, J. E. Crary, Stephen Kimball, road commissioners; Asa Bushnell, A. B. Cook, Ebenezer Harris, school commissioners; Thomas J. Hurlbut, treasurer; Samuel Hudler, path-master; Milton Barney, Solon Davis, Sol. Allen, school inspectors; John G. Beam, poundnaster; Wm. Brown, Stephen Kimball, and Barnes Kennedy, fence-viewers. At this meeting one dollar bounty was offered for wolf-scalps, and four hundred dollars were appropriated for roads. The first road laid out by town authority was on June 6, 1833, and commenced ten chains north of quarter section stake, between sections 35 and 36, township 3, range 5 west, and ran thence south and east to the Jonesville road on section 6, township 4, south range 4, M. Preston surveyor. There were sixteen roads, laid out that year. At the July election, 1833, for delegate to Congress there were nineteen votes polled,-eleven for Lucius Lyon, five for Austin E. Wing, and three for William Woodbridge. W. H1. Welch, E. B. Sherman, and Calvin Brittain were candidates for the Territorial council. The board of health, on the 17th of September, 1839, declared the mill-ponds of Sibley and Mann, on the Kalamazoo, and Halsey and Comstock, on Rice creek, nuisances, and ordered theml abated. The follo wing-named gentlemen have filled the office of supervisor since the organization of the township to the present time: Henry Cook, 1833; Henry J. Phelps, 1834-37, 18 43-44; Ira Tillotson, 1838-42, 1847; Marvin Preston, 1845; Joseph C. Frink, 1846; Isaac E.- Crary, 1848, 1850, 1853; S. S. Alcott, 1849; Jamnes A. HEahnl, 1851. Horace A. Noyes, 1852; George C. Gibbs, 1854 -55; Robert Huston, 1856-57; Preston Mitchell, 1858; George H. Barber, 1859-60; Daniel W~oolse, 1861-68; David R. Smiley 1869; Selah Stout, 1870; Wm. F. Hewitt, 1871-73;- Jolln R. Stage, 1874; William Conley, 1875 -76; Augustus F. Allen, 1877. The office of town clerk has been filled as follows: Marvin Preston, 1833-34; James P. Greeves, 1835; James MI. Parsons. 1836, 1840; Cyrus Hewitt, 1837; Charles Dickey, 1838;- C. M. Brewer, 1839; W. A. Sweet, 1841-44; Charles A. Barton, 1845-46; W. R. McCall, 1847-48; John B. White, 1849-53; George G. Lay, 1854; Elias Hewitt, 1855, 1857-58; John J. Bardwell, 1856; J. Phelps Beach, 1859-64; Jonas M. Rice, 1865-67; Henry Lockwood, 1868 -72; John R. Stage, 1873; Charles S. Hamilton, 1874; George C. Bradley, 1875; George S. Woolsey, 1876-77. The office of justice of the peace has been held as follows: Isaac E. Crary, for the county, appointed by the governor, 1832-36; Benjamin Dwinnel, 1833-36; CalIvin Smith, 1832-1836; Marvin Preston, four years; Heiary J. Phelps, seven years; David Aldrich, two years; Jacob King, one year,-these last four were elected in 1836i the first justices elected,-Henry Hewitt, 1837-45; D. L. Johns, 1838 -42; John P. Greeves, 1840-44; F. W. Shearman, 1842-49; Randall Hobart,.1842-48; Joseph Chedsey, 1843-47; Joseph B. Cook, 1844-48; Lucius G. Noyes, 1847-59; James MI. Parsons, 1848-'52; Joseph C. Frink, 1849-57; George, C. Gibbs, 1849-54; Walter Martin, Sr., 1854-58; Amos Hewitt, 1854 L. 60; Martin D. Strong, 1857-59; Isaac W. Wilder, 1858; W. F. Hewitt, 1859 -63; Benjamin F. Woolvin6, 1859-62; Wyman Clark, 1859; Thomas Huggett, 1859-60; Jacob E. Wormley, 1860-64,1868-72; Aaron Preston, Jr., 1862 -66; W. N. Keeler, 1863-67 Samuel P. Wormley, 1864; D. H. Godfrey, 1864 -73; Freeman Hotchkiss, 1866-74; Alvin Hosmer, 1870-74, 1876; John C. Duel, 1874-77; Joel March, 1875; Corwin Tefft, 1877; Peter Lockwood, 1877. BRANDS AND MARKS. Sidney Ketchum cut off the end of the right ear of his cattle, to distinguish' them from his neighbors', in the pioneer days, and Charles D. Smith cropped the left ear, slit the right. George Ketchum put a hole through the right ear. Sands McCamley put a swallow-fork in each ear, but the addition was a subtraction. Peter Chisholm had a round hole in the left ear, and John Bertram put holes throug~h both ears. POPULATION. In 1860 the population of the township outside of the city was returned at 993 sol. In 1870 there were 984 persons returned} and in 1874 there was a still further decrease, apparently; the State returns show but 953 individuals, 500 of whom were males and 453 were females. Among the males over twentyone years 180 were of the military age, and 108 were beyond the reach of a draft for war purposes. Of 276 females over eighteen years old 152 were under forty years, and 124 were over that age. The married and single bore the following relation to each other numerically: 189 males were or had been married who were over twenty-one years of age, and 81 were single and ever had been; 185 of the females over eighteen years were or had been wedded, and 58 of their sisters of the same age were enjoying single-blessedness. THE POLITICAL SENTIMENTS of the people since the setting off of the city of Marshall has been Republican largely, as will be seen by the following exhibit of the votes polled at the Presidential elections: In 1860 the Republicans cast 158 votes, and the Democratic poll was,63. In 1864 the same parties cast 139 and 90 votes respectively. In 1868 the vote stood 159 Republican to 101 Democratic, and in 1872 the same vote was 117 and 80 respectively. In 1876 the balance vibrated to the Democratic side, that party polling 139 and the Republicans 121, the " Greenbackers" having a single supporter. THE ASSESSMENT OF 1876 of property for revenue of the year of 1876-77 was fixed by the board of supervisors as follows: on real estate, $358,885; personal property, $52,450; total, $411X335. On this valuation the following taxes were levied: State taxes, $1370.43; county taxes, $2432.73; school taxes, $1526.46; township general expenses, $406.28; mill tax, $738.84; other taxes, $57.95; total, $6532.69. CROP STATISTICS. The State census of 1874 makes the following exhibit of the productions of the harvest of 1873, the latest information obtainable in this regard. There were 4202 acres of wheat on the ground in the spring of that year. There were 3675 acres of that grain harvested in 1873, which produced 55,746 bushels, and 1543. acres of corn produced 88,706 bushels the same season. There were besides', of other grain harvested, 20,040 bushels, 14,160 bushels of potatoes, 1291 tons of hay, 23,423 pounds of wool, and 120,674 pounds of pork; 500 pounds of cheese, 54, 804 pounds of butter marketed, and 645 barrels of cider sold; 19,257 bushels of apples, 572 bushels of pears, small fruits, berries, and 7339 bushels of vegetables marketed, valued at $6825. In 1874 there were owned in the township 448 horses over one year, 13 mules, 12 oxen, 467 cows, 367 head of other neat cattle, 620 swine, and 4146 sheep. The wool clip of 1873 was taken from 4282 animals. THE TAXABLE LANDS in the township amount to 19,705 acres, abu 4000 of which are improved, 71 acres are exempt from taxation, valued with the improvements thereon at $13,000. This acreage so exenlpt is included in school sites, burying-grounds, and railroad right of way and depot grounds. In 1874 there were 177 farms in the township, averaging 111.33 acres each. The manufacturing interests of the township are confined to the village of Ceresco. The contrast between the pioneer days and those of the present is marked and surprising. Less than forty-six years have elapsed since the pioneer'7s axe first resounded through. the heavy oak openings of the township, requiring prolongedand heavy toil to fit the ground for the production of food for the tillers of thie soil, and now the whole landscape is covered with finely-cultivated farms, capacious barns, and elegant homes. The log house has. given place to the frame and brick mansion, built substantially and luxuriously, bespeaking the ease and affluence of the occupants, who are, in many instances, the ones who first began the foundation of their present pleasant places. No better illustration of the general prosperity of the farmers of the township need be asked for than that which a day's drive among their fine farms will supply. Intelligent and thrifty, like their compeers in the sister towns of the grand county of Calhoun, the farmers of Marshall wield no small influence in shaping the career of the county towards a still more laudable and brilliant triumph than has already been gained, and the future is bright with promise of good yet to come. THE VILLAGE OF CERESCO. The beginning of this village dates from the erection of a saw-mill on the Kalamazoo at this point, on or near the west line of the west half of the northwest quarter -section 30, township 2, south range 6, in 1838, by a man named Munson. In 1839, John D. Pierce, Jos. Frink, and S. S. Alcott built a flouring-mill here, costingthirty thousand dollars, and laid out a village, naming it Ceresco, from Ceres, the goddess of harvests. What the signification of the terminal syl

Page  [unnumbered] m t 0 A - - I,- L S 7 '? -~ -:M - -,M"' I. k -. '. -; -: '....-... -.;. FARM AND RESIDENCE oF J. E. POND, MA RSHALL, MICHIGA N. I -- I. RESIDENCE OF ASA B.COOK, MARSHALL, MICHIGAN. _ _ _ — _ --- - i

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Page  71 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 71 lable was is not easy to determine, unless to signify a copartnership with the goddess and the millers, —she to furnish the raw material, and they to prepare it for use. The mill was built of stone, but fell down (as did most of the first stone buildings in the county), and was rebuilt by Benj. Wright, in 1854, for Chas. T. Gorham, and was burned. It was rebuilt in 1869 by a Mr. King for E. Morse & Co., and was again burned down. In 1876 it was again rebuilt, by Isaac Bisbee, for H. J. Perrin, who now operates it. It has seven run of stone, with a capacity of forty-four thousand barrels of flour per annum. The other manufactures of the village are wagon- and carriage-making by R. McLeod, who also manufactures harrows, and has been thus engaged for six years. He does a business of about fifteen hundred dollars per annum. Mr. Tefft owns and operates a saw-mill which was built by Aaron Preston in 1857. He runs one upright and one circular saw, and can turn out two hundred and fifty thousand feet of lumber per annum. He also runs a turning-lathe in connection with his sawing business. C. A. Tefft operates a cider-mill, which in 1876 manufactured two hundred and fifty barrels of cider. It was built in 1873 by William Adams, and contains two presses run by water-power. Mr. Tefft also deals in lumber and agricultural implements. The water-power is the best in the vicinity on the Kalamazoo. The other business of the village is comprised in three blacksmith-shops, two boot- and shoe-stores, two stores of general merchandise, one drug-store, one milliner, one cooper, and one hotel, and the station of the Michigan Central railroad. THE SCHOOL was first taught here in 1845, and became a free school under the Union system in September, 1871. The main or central school-house was erected in 1860, there being two buildings, the seating capacity of both being one hundred and twenty sittings. The houses are valued at fifteen hundred dollars. Two teachers are employed, J. C. Duel being the present principal. One hundred and two scholars reside in the district, and the school is taught ten months in each year. The district has a bonded indebtedness outstanding of six hundred dollars. The present school board is composed as follows: R. McLeod, director; J. M. Weed, moderator; Robert Gould, assessor. The first religious services were held here by the Baptist society, in 1854, and the same year THE BAPTIST CHURCH OF CERESCO was formed, by Elder L. H. Moore, of Marshall, in a school-house. This was the first organized church society in the village. Among the first members of the church were the following-named persons: R. W. Gould and wife, Andrew Kincaid (deacon), wife, and daughter, Thomas Treat and wife, Denton Mott and wife, Losina A. Gould, Mrs. J. Newbre, Josiah Hurd, wife, and daughter, L. D. Palmer and wife, S. T. Palmer and wife, Mr. C. H. Alexander (deacon) and wife, George Barber. There were twenty-two members in all who first formed the society. A house of worship was built in the spring of 1858,-and dedicated in 1859,-which was a frame building. The most noted accession of members, at any one time, was under the ministry of Rev. L. D. Palmer, when twenty-six persons united with the church. The following pastors have been over the flock in Ceresco, in the order named: Revs. L. H. Moore, L. D. Palmer, E. O'Brian, J. Fletcher, E. S. Dunham, S. P. Town, Mr. Potter, E. H. Hamlin, M. Hayden, and J. W. Parkhurst. The present membership of the church numbers some seventy-eight communicants. A Sunday-school has been in successful operation since the organization of the church, which numbers at the present time one hundred and twenty members. The officers are Abram Duel, superindendent; Lida Graham, librarian; Edward Mott, treasurer. The church was rebuilt in 1866, and is thirty by fifty-two feet on the ground. THE FREDONIA AND CERESCO CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH was organized April, 1866, and for a time held their meetings in the school-house, the first pastor being Rev. Mr. Strong. The present society was organized in 1870, by Rev. H. A. Reed, of Marshall. The present church edifice was erected in 1871, and dedicated in November of the same year. It is a frame building about forty by sixty feet, will seat about three hundred persons, and cost about thirty-five hundred dollars. The ministers of the society have been Mr. Elmer, H. A. Reed, Mr. Bordwell, and the present pastor, Rev. D. A. Strong. THE EVANGELICAL (GERMAN) CHURCH was organized as a class in 1865, with eight members, and as a church in 1874, with about thirty members, at which time the present church edifice was erected, which is a frame building thirty by forty-four feet, and cost about seventeen hundred dollars. The pastors of this society have been as follows: Rev. Messrs. Ude, M. J. Miller, J. W. Loose, and the present pastor, L. Kemmerling. A Sundayschool was formed at the organization of the church, which numbers forty-five members at the present time. Its officers are Franklin Bender, superintendent; Sarah Metzger, treasurer; Lizzie Bell, secretary. Ceresco Lodge, No. 252, I. O. O.F., was instituted by Grand Master G. W. Gregg, January 29, 1875, with the following officers: R. McLoud, N. G.; John C. Duel, V. G.; G. A. Kelley, R. S.; C. H. Raven, F. S.; David H. Godfrey, Treas. The present membership is thirty-six. The lodge is engaged in building a hall for their use, at the present twenty-two by fifty by twenty-four feet, to cost fifteen hundred dollars. The present officers are J. M. Weed, N. G.; D. H. Godfrey, V. G.; J. C. Duel, R. S.; William Smith, F. S.; R. McLoud, Treas. THE POST-OFFICE was first established at Ceresco in January, 1844, Winslow S. Hale first postmaster, the mail being supplied from Marshall. The following-named gentlemen.succeeded Mr. Hale: Charles Hinkle, L. Wallingford, Aaron Preston, Mr. - Baker, L. L. Lewis, L. W. Kendall, and the present incumbent, C. H. Raven. The money-order office was established July 7, 1873. The gross receipts amount to about five hundred dollars per annum. About six hundred papers are distributed weekly, one hundred letters dispatched and received daily, three hundred dollars' worth of stamps and stamped envelopes sold annually, and about fifty registered letters received and dispatched quarterly. The present population of the village is about three hundred. The Ceresco mills have always had a good reputation from the beginning, and have always done a large business. The village lies partly in Marshall and partly in Marengo township. i I i i i j j I 11I iIi i j

Page  72 BIO GRAPTITCAL SIK-ETCHES. HON. CHARLES DICKEY. Among the citizens of Calhoun County, none are more prominently or favorably known than is Hon. Charles Dickey, the present judge of probate of the county. Coming from the sterling stock of the Scotch colony in the north of Ireland,-from Argyleshire, in Scotland (1612),-the subject of our sketch possesses the same traits of sturdy manliness and integrity that distinguished his forefathers amid the bloom of the heather and the tassels of the broom. His father was a direct descendant of one of the colonists of Londonderry, New Hampshire, who emigrated thither in 1719, from Londonderry, Ireland. For many years the father, John Dickey, followed the business of a merchant in Londonderry, New Hampshire, being also the agent of the Londonderry linen manufacturers, who for several years continued the manufacture of that article in New Hampshire. Charles Dickey was born in Londonderry, New Hampshire, April 3, 1813, his mother, Rhoda (Varnum) Dickey, being a native of Dracut (now Lowell), Massachusetts. When he was about four years old his parents removed to Livingston county, New York, where he resided until he was of the age of seventeen years, attending the schools of the district winters, and working on the farm the remainder of the year. He attended during the last three winters the Moscow Academy, under the instruction of Rev. John Walker; and at graduating received the first prize on essays, "1 Hawes' Lectures to Young Men," valued at about a dime. At the age of seventeen he encaged as salesman with Messrs. Patterson & Dickey, manufacturers of farming-mills in Livingston county, and continued therein until 1832, at which time, in company with two brothers, he engaged in the manufacture of the same implement in Vienna, Ontario county, New York, and remained so engaged during the years 1832-35, the latter year in Penn Yan, Yates county. On the first day of March, 1836, he bade farewell to his father and family in Livingston county, and turned his face and steps towards Marshall, Michigan, where he arrived on the 27th day of that month, and at once made arrangements, as he himself puts it, "1 to raise the wind by the manufacture of the same line of implements,-fanning-mills," in which business he continued until 1861, doing an extensive and widely-scattered trade throughout southern Michigan. He also engaged in wool-buying for eastern parties, and bought in 1838 the first of that staple ever sold for money in the counties of Calhoun, Branch, Kalamazoo, Jackson, Eaton, and Barry. The purchases were all carted on wagons to Ypsilanti, and were less than has been bought for 72 several years past in several towns in either of those counties in a single day. He was also engaged in farming during the same time. Mr., or, as he is commonly called by his acquaintances, Colonel, Dickey was in the days of his youth a stanch Whig partisan, and for years was the standing candidate of that party for the office of sheriff. In 1840 he was beaten by a bare majority of three votes, and that too by "1 tricks that are vain," but peculiar to the crafty politician. In 1844 he was elected, although there was a heavy Democratic majority for the balance of the county officers. He was the only Whig elected then, and the first one ever elected in the county to a county office. In 1846 he was re-elected by an increased majority. He served subsequently from 1849 to 1853 in the State senate of Michigan, during four regular and one special session of the legislature, the latter being held to adapt the laws of the State to the new constitution of 1850. In 1858 he was elected to the lower house of the State legislature, and during the session of 1859 acted as speaker,pro tem., for several weeks pending the illness of Speaker H. A. Shaw. He was also chairman of the committee on Ways and Means of the House. He was among the first to organize the County and State Agricultural Society, was one of the first presidents of the county society, and has been one of the executive committee of the State society since its organization in 1845 to the present time, and acting president of the same in 1858-59. In April, 1861, he was appointed United States marshal for the district of Michigan, by President Lincoln, and during his term the State was divided into two districts, Calhoun afterwards being a portion of the eastern one. At the close of his first term of four years he was re-appointed by President Lincoln, but was removed by President Johnson, by reason of his failing to "1 swing around the circle" with that president. At Mr. Lincoln's first and second inauguration Colonel Dickey was one of the president's body-guard of marshals, and at the dedication of the soldiers' cemetery at Gettysburg was in charge of the division of the procession of the governors of the different States present. The judge loves to linger over that occasion, when he beard the president utter the most famous speech of his life, and which, for conciseness and comprehensiveness, has never been equaled by an Amnerican statesman. In 1873 Colonel Dickey was appointed by Governor Bagley judge of probate of Calhoun County, to fill the vacancy caused by the death of Hon. Eden F. Henderson; and in November, 1876, the people elected

Page  73 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 him as his own successor for a term of four years, which he is now filling, with satisfaction to all who come before him, as far as it is possible to satisfy conflicting and opposing interests. In 1867 he was interested with Messrs. Frink, Brewer, and Ingersoll, in the erection of Eagle block, one of the finest brick buildings in the city of Marshall. In October, 1836, he was commissioned by Governor Stevens as captain of militia, and char'ed with the enrollment of all persons subjeet to military duty under the laws of the State at that time in Calhoun County, and in perfecting the military organization of the county and district was commissioned lieutenant-colonel under Colonel Loren Maynard. He was afterwards appointed governor's aid, with the rank of colonel, by Governor J. Wright Gordon. On the 6th day of September, 1836, Judge Dickey was united in marriage to Mary Ann, daughter of Joseph and Sylvia Wakeman, who was born in Columbia county, New York, and died in Marshall, of consumption, December 26, 1852, leaving five children, four sons and one daughter, three of the sons still surviving: Charles T., who is now in Racine, Wisconsin; Franklin W., a resident of Marshall; and Harrison N., a citizen of Chicago, Illinois. Gilbert A., the other son, was killed in command of his company in the Twenty-fourth Michigan Infantry, at the battle of Gettysburg; Frank W. was promoted from the ranks to the position of major of the Second Cavalry. In March, 1854, Judge Dickey married Mary Elizabeth Moss, the widow of Chester Moss, a leading merchant and banker, of Albion, Michigan, who died in Sandusky, Ohio. She lived but a year, and again the judge was companionless. She left no living child. In May, 1857, Judge Dickey, to light up his desolate and lonely home, brought to it another mistress, as his wife, in the person of Mary Jane Pratt, a native of Orleans county, New York, who, at the time of her marriage, resigned. her situation as the assistant principal of the Phipps Union Female Seminary, at Albion, New Yorks, having under her charge as such assistant the French, German, and graduatingn classes of the institution. A period of little more than eight years of domestic happiness quickly fled, and death, which had been a frequent and unbidden guest at the judge's fireside, again invaded its precincts, and called'hence Mrs. Dickey, in July 1864 (she dying' of bilious colic). She left three'daughters, who still survive, and are members of the harmonious household in the old homestead in Marshall city. They are as follows, viz.: Mary E., Helen L., and Jennie C. After mourning his loss more than two years, Judge Dickey again brought a companion to his lonely home, Mrs. Angeline G. Moore, the widow of Rev. Lyman H. Moore, late of Marshall, she being a native of Greenwich, Rhode Island. One child has blessed this last union, Ross Wilkins, a bright, active lad of ten years. Mirs. Dickey also has two sons by her former husband, who are members of her present household: Lewis C. and Asabel B. Moore. Judge Dickey's parents were Scotch Presbyterians, and he was early indoetrinated from the Westminster catechism, but he has never united with the church. He is rather liberal in his views, and takes the line of a good life- for his rule of action. Mrs. Dickey, the three daughters, and one son, are members of the Presbyterian church of Marshall. Among her family Mrs. Dickey moves, winning from all their love and confidence, showing no difference in her care and affection for those of her own blood or for those who look to her as a mother, who stands in the place of those who have been before her. Happy in her disposition, she holds the bands that bind the household together with love and harmony with a gentle grasp, shedding a fragrance of affection upon all who give back to her their confidence and esteem. Of the judge himself, little need be said more than is already shown by the sketch we have given. The frequency with which be has been called to official positions, by the people of Calhoun and State of Miehigan, testifies in stronger language than any we can use as to the confidence his fellow-citizens repose in his ability and integrity. Affable, courteous, and kindly dispositioned, he has won the admiration of his neighbors; and, by the prompt, efficient, and faithful discharge of his official duties, he has gained their best confidence and trust. His old pioneer friends, among whom he is an ever-welcome guest, at all of their gatherings delight to do him honor, and he delights to serve them. Of him it shall be said by and by, when the inevitable change shall come, "1 He served his people well." It is with a great deal of pleasure that we present to our readers the portrait of Judge Dickey, which adorns the preceding page. BENJAMIN F. CURTIS. Among the substantial farmers of Calhoun County Benjamin F. Curtis, of Marshall township, is justly accorded a place. He was born in Newcastle, New Hampshire, September 26, 1808, and in early life engaged in mercantile business, 10 I but in 1835 turned his steps westward, and in the grand old parks of Calhoun selected a location, to which he brought his family the year following, and turned his attention to the tilling of the soil, transforming his oak-forest covered lands, after many hardships and privations, into one of the finest farms of Marshall township. He built a small frame house at first, which he and his family occupied until 1849, at which time he erected the present elegant and substantial dwelling of "1 cobble" stone on the old homestead. On the 10th day of September, 1833, Mr. Curtis was united in marriage to Mary Tredick, of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, by whom were born to him the following-named children: Margaret A., Martha T., Onas F., and Joshua W., all of whom are now living except Martha, who died July 4, 1870. Mr. Curtis also passed to his rest January 1, 1869, leaving his fine estate of three hundred and.-, sixty acres to be divided between his widow and three surviving children, the, former and the daughter occupying the homestead proper as their portion. Mr. Curtis was highly esteemed by those who had the pleasure of his acquaintance, by whom his loss was sincerely mourned and regretted. CHARLES P. DIBBLE. A busy mercantile life, beginning in 1832, and spanning a lapse of forty-five years, must needs have been checkered with many vexations and attendant losses, though in the main pleasant and prosperous. Such a career has embraced within the are of its circle the disastrous crash of 1837, its scarcely less ruinous successor. of 1857, and the great depression of 1873-76, as well as the corresponding prosperous eras intervening between those noted years of mercantile and business prostration. Such a life has been that of Charles P. Dibble, who, for many years prior to the spring of 1877, was the oldest merchant, in point of continuous trade, in the State of~ M~ich ian. He was born in Skaneateles, Onondaga county, New York, August 28, 1815, where he resided until fourteen years old, with his parents, Philo and Susan (Lawson) Dibble, natives -of Massachusetts and New York, respectively. He was educated at the district and select schools and the Romer academy. When fourteen years of ag~e he left home and entered a store as aclerk+ where he remained three years, and then began business for himself, first ill the firm of his father and a partner, in Kelloggsville, for about a year, when the partner retired, and Charles managed the business alone for another twelve months, at the end of which be closed out the same, and came west to Marshall in' the fall of 1835 and bought property, after looking about the country, going as far west as Chicago. In the spring of 1836 he brought in a stock of goods and began trading, which line of business he steadily followed, successfully in the main, until the spring of 1877, when he retired therefrom on account of ill health, surrendering the business to his son, Charles A. Dibble, who now conducts it. Mr. Dibble was married, September 14, 1842, to Miss Hettie Johnson, daughter of Benj. and Jane (Dey) Johnson, natives of New Hampshire and New Jersey, but who were then living at Ithaca, New York, where Mrs. Dibble was born. The fruits of this happy union have been-Charles A., now a leading and prosperous merchant of Marshall, and successor to his father's extensive trade; Ben Johnson, deceased; Emily, now Mrs. Bostwick, of Ithaca, New York;- Eveline, at home with her parents; William, now of Ithaca; Louisa,. now deceased; and Henry and Walter, at home in Marshall. The present most elegant and charming homestead of Mr. Dibble (of which we present a view on another page of our work) was erected by him in 1859, on the site of the original location of Sidney Ketchum. who built his residence thereon in 1838. The grounds comprise one-half or moreof an entire square; and, shaded by the old trees of the original oak openings, it is a most lovely and inviting-spot at any time, more especially in its full summer foliage and beauty, when it outranks for loveliness and charm any other homestead in the beautiful city, replete though it is with elegant residences and well-kept lawns. In his political affiliations Mr. Dibble is a Republican, having been formerly a Whig partisan. He has been the treasurer of almost every association formed in the city and county, and also of the township and corporation, and for twenty years served the Agricultural Society of Calhoun County in that position, or that of president, continuously. He was elected the first mayor of the city of Marshall, in 1859, and was treasurer of the Marshall and Bellevue Plank Road Company, and also of the Coldwater, Mansfield, and Mackinac railroad. In everything pertaining to the advancement and prosperity of Marshall he has been deeply interested, and has been largely instrumental in placing the city in its present commanding position among the interior cities of the State. Mr. and Mrs. Dibble are members of the Episcopal church of Marshall, and have been for several years past.

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. DAVID II. 'MILLER. MRS. DAVID HI. MILLER. DAVID H. MILLER. The subject of our sketch comes of a long line of ancestry of the family names of either side of his house. His father, David Miller, was of Scotch-Irish descent, from the north of Ireland, whose father adhered to his government and fought against the rebellion, and was killed in the army, his property confiscated, and a family of ten children scattered and thrown penniless upon the world, to rely solely upon their own resources for their maintenance. David Miller, the father, learned the trade of a tailor, enlisted and served in the " whisky rebellion," and in the pursuit of his occupation found and married Mehitable Horton, in the State of New Jersey, where David Horton Miller was born, in Morris county, December 30, 1799. His mother's ancestors came from England in an early era of the settlement of America, and settled in Southhold, Long Island, in 1640, as the Horton genealogy shows. They embarked in the Revolution, and helped to establish American independence. His maternal grandfather was a pensioner of that war. Mr. Miller's parents emigrated to Cayuga county, in the State of New York, in 1804, then almost a wilderness, and settled on a wild tract of land, and his father's name is mentioned in the history of that county as one of the pioneer settlers thereof. He-David H.-says his first recollection of a school-house is of one that was built of hewed and split basswood logs, without a sawed board in either roof, floor, or desk, and situate a half-mile, through dense forest, from the nearest inhabitant, and how greatly alarmed were the teacher and children at the occurrence of the total eclipse of the sun in 1806. David H. Miller received his education at the common schools in this new country, working on the farm summers, and attending school winters, until nineteen years of age, when he began to teach school for an occupation, and pursued this vocation for nine or ten years. At about the age of twenty-four years he was married to Polly Carrier, and began the business of farming, which has been his main occupation through life. In the year 1837 he emigrated with his family, consisting of his wife and two children, a daughter and a son, to Michigan, and settled on a wild tract of land in Sheridan township, Calhoun County, again undergoing the privations of pioneer life, being mainly occupied in clearing up and improving a new farm for about twenty years, but in the mean time doing a large amount of land-surveying, having been county surveyor four years. He also served his township almost constantly in some of the various township offices, such as assessor, supervisor, and justice of the peace, the most of which offices he had also filled in New York. At the age of nearly sixty years he retired from the farming business and purchased some lots, and erected a comfortable and modest home thereon in the city of Marshall, where he prepared to spend the remainder of his days, and where he at present resides at the ripe age of seventy-eight years. He was regularly ordained as a minister of the gospel, of the Methodist persuasion, and preached whenever occasion offered, without pecuniary compensation, until his voice failed and he felt compelled to cease public speaking. Mrs. Miller was the daughter of Amaziah Carrier, who also was a pioneer in western New York, and settled on wild, unimproved land, and by dint of hard labor succeeded in making a good and valuable farm, and died from the epidemic which prevailed in 1815. She was born in 1802, nurtured in a farm life, educated at the country schools, and taught some few terms before her marriage, and in more mature life was widely known and much appreciated as a nurse and midwife, and by the bedside of the sick administered comfort, in which she found much pleasure and made herself extremely useful. And now these worthy pioneers and life-long companions, whose wedded life is nearing a" point bounded by nearly threescore years, are still journeying together near the confines of the eternal rest, whose gates shall open ere long to receive them into heavenly mansions prepared from of old. CHAUNCEY M. BREWER. The oldest merchant in point of continuous trade in the city of Marshall is Chauncey M. Brewer, his business life therein dating from June, 1836, and the lapse of forty-one years still finding him busy with the best-kept ledger in the State. He was born in Oneonta, Otsego county, New York, October 11, 1814, where he resided with his parents, Peter and Emma (Marble) Brewer, natives of New York and Massachusetts respectively, until the death of his father, which occurred when he was but nine years of age. For three years longer the lad continued to reside on the old homestead with his mother and five brothers and sisters, four younger than himself, and attending the district school during the winters of each year. On the 1st day of March, 1827, he began his business education in a country store, with one Jacob Deitz, remaining in a little village where the same was located, with Deitz and his successors, until November 1, 1835, when, being at his majority, he came west to seek a location, but with no particular point in view, St. Louis, however, having a preference in his mind. He stopped in Lenawee county, Michigan, the winter of 1835-36, engaged in a store, and, in the spring of the latter year, in company with Charles T. Gorham, per arrangement made between them prior to Mr. Brewer's departure from Oneonta, he traveled over the southern and western portion of Michigan for a few weeks, but found no place that suited their joint ideas so well as Marshall, then a small but promising village, and consequently they formed a business connection and opened a mercantile trade in that place in June, 1836, which continued until 1840, when Mr. Gorham withdrew and engaged in banking, Dusenbury and Butler coming into the business, which partnership was dissolved in 1845, since which time Mr. Brewer has managed his constantly increasing business interests alone. His sons, Charles D. and Edgar G., now conduct the mercantile trade exclusively, while Mr. Brewer looks after his other financial interests and investments, which are exceedingly extensive. Mr. Brewer was married in October, 1840, to Emily L., daughter of Samuel and Tamar (Brush) Butler, natives of New York and Connecticut respectively. Mrs. Brewer was born in Deposit, Delaware county, New York, in February, 1819. The children of this marriage have been George and Emma, who died in infancy; Mary Eliza, now Mrs. Wheeler, who resides in the beautiful homestead of her: parents in Marshall; Charles D. and Edgar G., leading merchants in Marshall; and Mark B., now at home with his parents. The present elegant mansion of Mr. Brewer, of which we present our readers

Page  75 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 I a view on another page of our work, was erected by him in 1858. In politics Mr. Brewer is a Democrat. He has filled various offices in the gift of the people of his township and city, all of which, it is needless to add, were unsolicited and unsought by himself. He has been intimately connected with the rise, progress, and prosperity of Marshall for more than forty years, and closely identified with its material interests, and is, in himself, an illustrious example of the success that attends close attention to business and the judicious management thereof. JAMES A. MINER. his majority. On the 16th of September, 1859, he was united in marriage with Miss Hattie L. Baker. Two children have blessed this union, Mabel L. and Hattie Eliza. Mr. Miner is an attendant on the services of the Episcopal church of Marshall, of which Mrs. Miner is a communicant. ASA B. COOK. Among the noted and prominent citizens of Calhoun, none are more widely known, or more highly esteemed for their works' sake, within the limits of the county, than is Asa Briggs Cook, the subject of our present sketch. An enterprising, energetic, enthusiastic man, he made his power felt in the community, and always in the right direction. Intent upon the building up of the county, and more particularly Marshall, to which he came in 1832, he was foremost in every good work that gave promise of prosperity and advancement to the village and its inhabitants, sparing neither time, talents, energy, or money in the accomplishment of his purposes to that end. He was born in Jay, Essex county, New York, May 30, 1809. His parents, Samuel and Nancy (Brown) Cook, were natives of Massachusetts, but removed to Vermont, and subsequently to New York, in 1808. Mr. Cook resided in Jay until 1826, when he went to Keesville and learned the wagon-maker's trade, and from thence, in October, 1832, removed to Calhoun County, Michigan, locating in the village of Marshall, then but a small hamlet of log cabins, and began business in the spring of 1833, when he made the first wagon built in Calhoun County, and sold it to S. Campbell, who drove it as a stage on the road between Marshall and Jackson the same year. His shop was near the mills on Rice creek. He followed this business one and a half years, and then, in company with Sidney Ketchum and Arza C. Robinson, built the first stone flouring-mill in the county, and which also was the first merchant mill erected therein, in 1837, on the Kalamazoo river, in what is now known as Perrinville. The company operated the mill until 1842, when they sold it, and Mr. Cook some two years afterwards engaged in mercantile business, and continued therein about twenty-seven years, renting and operating the mill one and a half years, in 1843-44, when he gave his interest to his son Joseph, who, in company with his cousins, continued the business until 1875. Mr.. Cook is at present residing on his farm, adjoining the city, of one hundred and twenty acres, which he bought twenty-five years ago, and which, with all his other and various interests unneglected, he has brought from a state of nature to its present excellent condition and state of improvement, a view of which may be seen on another page. He was married, February 25, 1830, to Jerusha P. Beach, a daughter of Ahira Beach, of Jay, New York, who came to Calhoun County in 1837, and settled in Pennfield township, where he died. Mr. and Mrs. Cook have had born to them thirteen children,-seven sons and six daughters,-of whom five are now living, viz.: Asa Brown Cook, the oldest son, now in Erie, Pennsylvania, and a graduate of Dartmouth College, published the Erie Dispatch for a time, and is now engaged in manufacturing; Joseph, in the mercantile line, in San Jose, California; Almeda, now at home; Eliza, now Mrs. H. S. Babcock, of Iowa; and Katharine, now at home. Mrs. Cook died August 19, 1867. Politically, Mr. Cook was originally a Whig, and is now a Republican, having joined that party at the organization of the same. He served one term in the State legislature of Michigan, in the years 1857-58, but has had no inclination for further official honors. AUGUSTUS 0. HYDE. Among the prominent merchants and leading citizens of the city of Marshall we find Augustus O. Hyde is justly placed. Coming to Marshall when it was but a small village, and casting in his fortunes with it, he has seen it steadily rise to a city of over five thousand inhabitants, with more than one hundred business houses and manufactures; with schools and church privileges second to no city of even twice its size in the State. Connected as he has been with all of these enterprises from the beginning, it is with a commendable pride that he looks upon the progress and advancement of the city of which he has been a resident for nearly forty years. Mr. Hyde comes of full-blooded Yankee stock, his father, Ebby Hyde, being a native of glorious old Berkshire, Massachusetts, and his mother, Betsey (Osborn) Hyde, of Lebanon, Connecticut. His grandfather, Caleb Hyde, emigrated from Berkshire to Broome county, New York, in an early Among the rising members of the Calhoun bar James Alvin Miner stands in the front rank. Thrown at an early age upon his own resources, by industry, close application, and economy he has won his way to a prominent position before the courts of the county and State, where his constantly-increasing practice as a lawyer brings him in competition with others of his profession older and more experienced. He was born in Marshall township, Calhoun County, September 9, 1842, and at the common schools of the township and city obtained his education, and assisted his father on the farm, to which the latter, Allen G. Miner, and his wife, Betsey L. Latham, both natives of Connecticut, came in 1835-36, and on which both of these pioneers died. At the age of seventeen years James A. left home to attend school at Lyons, Ionia county, Michigan, dependent upon his own resources. For eighteen months he attended the school, working nights and mornings outside of school hours to pay his way, thereby gaining not only an independence of spirit and self-reliance, but acquiring also a good physique and consequent increased mental vigor. After closing his school term he went to Clinton, Iowa, and read law nine months in the office of Governor Baker, of that State, when, the rebellion breaking out, he returned to Lyons and assisted to raise a company of volunteers for service in the Ninth Michigan Infantry, and with the company went to Detroit, where, while in camp, and just before being ordered to the field, the news came to him of his father's death, and that his presence was needed at home, upon which he resigned his position in the regiment and returned to Marshall, and entered the law-office of J. C. Fitzgerald, where he recommenced his legal studies, and continued them with Mr. Fitzgerald, Judge H. A. Noyes, and.L. G. Noyes until the spring of 1873, when he was admitted to the bar in the circuit court of Calhoun County, and began the practice of law, which he has since continued, having his office in Marshall city. In the spring of 1864 he was elected city recorder of Marshall, and in the fall of 1866 he was elected one of the circuit court commissioners of the county, and held the position four years, at the close of which term he was elected prosecuting attorney, and also held that position two terms of two years each. He has been for some years also the United States commissioner for the federal courts of the eastern district of Michigan, and still occupies the position. Two years ago he formed a law partnership with F. A. Stace, Esq., which still continues, and has a fine and constantly-increasing practice. Mr. Miner is a Republican in politics, and always has been since he attained

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. day, and bought a large tract of land therein, which was divided among three or four sons, whose descendants gave to the portion of the township wherein they settled the name of Hyde settlement; and, though death has been busy among them, and emigration has taken its full quota from their midst, yet the township is still largely peopled by the Hyde family and their relatives. The subject of this sketch, Augustus O. Hyde, was born in the town of Lisle, Broome county, New York, June 1, 1816, where he resided, with his parents, until he was fourteen years of age, when the family removed to Virgil, Cortland county, New York, where the youth resided for two years longer, having obtained in Broome and Cortland a good common-school education. At sixteen years of age he went to Ithaca, and entered the drug-store of Schuyler, where he remained four years, and thence to Elmira, into the drug-store of John Slover, for three years longer. In 1838 the young man came to Marshall, Michigan, seeking employment, but, not finding it, engaged for some eight or nine months on the railroad then in process of construction between Ann Arbor and Jackson. He then returned to New York for a few months, and came back to Marshall in 1839, and engaged in a grocery-store for a short time, at the end of which he bought the stock out, and converted it into a drug-store, on the identical spot he now occupies, making the transfer in 1840. Except a partnership with H. N. Joy, from 1S58 to 1865, he has been mostly engaged alone in the druggist line of trade from 1840 to the present, continuously. In 1863 his store wuas burned out, but his trade was not thereby interrupted, except for a very brief period; be gathered up the remnant of his stock saved from destruction, and added a new stock at once, and, in 1865, built his present fine brick store in State street. In connection with his druggist's trade, Mir. Hyde has been an extensive wool-buyer, in the season, fo~r many years; in fact, nearly ever since there was any of that staple offered for sale in Calhoun County. He also deals largely in furs, and has been so engaged for twenty-five years past. Mr. Hyde is a sterling member of the Republican party, and was an enthusiastic Wbiog in the days of that -rand old organization. Ile has been the alderman of his ward for several years, at the end of which term of service, in 1869-70, he was elected mayor of the city. He has been for seven years past a member of the school-board of the city, and for three years past the director of the board. In 1868, he was elected one of the county superintendents of the poor, by the board of supervisors, and still holds the position, having been re-elected twice for aterm of three years each. Associated with him are Judge T. W. Hall, of Battle Creek, who has been on the board of superintendents ten years, and E. H. Johnson, who has been a member of the same board fourteen years,-eleven years continuously. In this responsible and delicate position these gentlemen have won the admiration and commendation of the people of the county. The disbursements, which in 1850, at the time of building the almshouse, covered a few hundreds, or perhaps thousands, of dollars, now aggregate the magnificent sum of over twenty-three thousand dollars, every penny of which is expended under the careful scrutiny of these gentlemen. Their firmness must be equal to their humanity, and their discernment, in order to detect imposture, as keen as their sympathies for real misfortune are lively; and the best proof of their fitness for the position is their continued re-election for successive terms to the same. On the 1st day of June, 1841, Mr. Hyde was unite6d in marriage to Miss Almira Downs, daughter of Lemuel L. and Harriet (Joy) Downs, natives of Connecticut and Vermont respectively. The children of this marriage are as follows: James Downs Hyde, born December 19, 1843; Frederick Augustus, born July 16, 1849; Mary Wallingford, born February 1, 1855; Williamn Lemuel, born May 9, 1857; and Harry Joy, born June 24, 1860. Mr. Hyde's religious inclinations are towards the tenets of the Presbyterian church, his family, and both sides of his house, having, been stanch members of that church. Mrs. Hyde is a member of the Presbyterian church of Marshall, of several years' standing. EARL SMITH. Mr. Earl Smith was born in the township of Union, Branch county, Michigan, on the day of reverential memory, February 22, in the year 1839. His father, Gideon, and mother, Betsy (Olds), Smith, were natives of New York State. In 1836 they removed to Branch county, Michigan, and took up their residence on a farm of one hundred and sixty acres, in the township of Union. Here Earl was born. His life to his majority was spent much as was that of boys of that period, in attending the district schools and assisting on the farm. He attended a select school for a while, which finished his education by such means. He remained with his father until he was twenty-four years of age, and then went away I from the old homestead, having, on the 20th of February, 1862, taken to himself a wife, Miss Sarah A. Adams, daughter of William and Mehitable (Buckingham) Adams, natives of New York. Mrs. Smith was born in Burlington township, July 31, 1841, her parents being among the first settlers in that township. In 1863, Mr. Smith removed to Burlington, where he now owns a fine farm of two hundred and sixty acres, which lies partly in the village corporation of Burlin-ton. He sold goods in Burlington village for a number of years, and was division treasurer of the construction fund of the Mansfield, Coldwater and Lake MNlichigan railroad, which was graded through the township and village. Two children have gladdened the homestead of Mr. and Mrs. Smith,-Elbie, born November 22, 1863, and Isola, born July 3, 1871. Politically, nir. Smith has always been a firm Republican. His first vote for president was cast for Abraham Lincoln in 1860. Three times his township chose him for the office of clerk. In 1872 he was elected to the office of county treasurer of Calhoun County, which position he now occupies, having entered upon his third consecutive term. January 1, 1877, Mr. Smith's popularity was amply attested by his re-election to the important and responsible position of custodian of the public funds continuously. He was nominated by acclamation for his second and third terms, each time receiving a majority which was more complimentary than the preceding ones. SAMUEL J. BURPEE. Among the earlier settlers of the city of Marshall was Samuel Stanford Burpee, the father of the subject of the present sketch. He was born in Templeton, Massachusetts, in the year 1801, and married Mary Ann Cummings, who was a native of RoyalStoD, Massachusetts, and emigrated to Michigan in 1835, where, in the city of Marshall, he opened the first tinner's shop in Calhoun County, to which he subsequently added a hardware stock. On the 25th day of June, 1837, Samuel J. Burpee was born, the only child of the above-named marriage; Samuel S. Burpee also being an only child of his parents. Samuel J. resided at home, attending the public schools from and after a suitable age, until fourteen years old, when he was apprenticed to the tinners' trade, which avocation he followed in his father's employ until he attained his majority, at which period he entered the establishment of his father as a partner, and continued a member of the firm until the death of the elder Burpee, on the 31st day of December, 1864, since which time he has, conducted the business alone. The firm built the present fine brick store occupied by Mr. Burpee, No. 110 State street, in 1861. Mrs. Burpee, the mother, resides on the same lot occupied also by her son, and is now aged sixty-five years. In political affiliations the senior Burpee was formerly a radical anti-slavery Whig, and was a member of the Republican party after it rose until his death. Samuel J. Burpee is a radical Republican, and always has been, and by his zeal and liberality has done much effective work for the cause the party advocates and has advocated. From 1868 to 1872, both years inclusive, he: held the position of alderman of the second ward of the city. In 1873 he was elected mayor of the city, and in January, 1874, be was appointed postmaster of Marshall, which position he still holds. While alderman, and chairman of the Committee on the Fire Department, he recommended the adoption of the present artesian water system, and, so confident was he of its successful utilization, he procured the sinking of the first well upon his own responsibility. The hopes of the chairman being realized fully, the council at once adopted the system, and named the first well in honor of Mr. Burpee. While occupying the mayoralty, he also secured the opening of the old court-house square as a public park, the desires of many being to have it converted into lots and extend the street through it. The wisdom of the mayor is now acknowledged by all of the citizens in securing; so beautiful a spot in the centre of the city for a park. Mr. Burpee has also been for twenty-two consecutive years a member of the fire department of the city. He is at the present time the president of the Marshall Boat-Club, and by his whole-souled liberality and genial good-fellowship has done much, apnd is continually doing more, to make the club a success and a credit to the city. On the 30th day of August, 1856, Mr. Burpee was married to Mary Elizabeth, daughter of John and Eliza Ann (Vansicklen) Van Blarcon, then of Girard, Branch county, Michigan, but natives of Delaware county, New York, and New York City respectively. Mrs. Burpee was born in Delaware county also, December 8, 1836, her parents emigrating to Branch county, Michigan, in 1837-38. The only child of this marriage is Ada Aurora, who was born January 7, 1862. In all things of a public nature pertaining to the advantage of the city of Marshall and its people Mr. Burpee is liberal and enterprising; and being of an affable, courteous, and genial nature, he is per consequence a popular and rather prime favorite among all classes of the citizens of the city and county.

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Page  77 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 77 SAMUEL W. HILL. To the studious observer of her works, Nature, in her visible forms, speaks with eloquence unrivaled. To him her dictum is authoritative, explicit, and infallible. To him she presents charms unapproachable by art, and, as her worshiper, his homage is exalted, reverential, and full of pathos. Her economic treasures, buried deep within her bosom, richly repay his most careful research, and most patient, persistent, and laborious investigation. Of the life and work of such an observer, worshiper, and investigator the present sketch is a brief outline. Samuel Worth Hill was born in Starksboro, Addison county, Vermont, November 6, 1815. His father, Richard, and mother, Betsey Hill, were natives of New Hampshire, the father removing to Vermont with his parents when but seven years of age, where, after his marriage, about 1813-14, he purchased a farm in Starksboro, on which he still resides, at the advanced age of nearly ninety years, with the wife of his youth, about eighty-three years of age, and where they have passed over sixty-four years of wedded life together. On this homestead, in the shadow of the Green mountains, the youth of Mr. Hill was passed. He attended the district schools of his township-excellent then and more excellent now-until he was sixteen years of age, showing a love for and adaptation to mathematics which soon placed him beyond the capacity of his teacher's acquirements, and at that age he attended the Friends' school, and at once began the study of the higher mathematics, paying his own way by teaching school winters, and graduating at the end of two years in engineering and surveying. He continued to teach winters and work upon his father's farm a portion of the summers until he had attained his majority, in the mean time, however, procuring instruments and practically using his attainments in surveying in his native State. In 1839 he came as far west as Albion, in the State of New York, where he remained several months with an uncle, and firom thence went to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, where he arrived in October, 1839, and taught school the winter of 1839-40. He engaged, in the spring of the latter year, in the United States public land surveys, for the season, at the end of which he entered the corps of topographical engineers of the United States Army, who were engaged in the survey of the harbors of the lakes, and engineering on the internal improvements of the government in the then Territory of Wisconsin. In this service he was engaged until the spring of 1845, being one season associated with Lieutenant, afterwards General, J. D. Webster, of the United States Army, and lately deceased, in the hydrographic survey of the great lakes, then just begun. In 1845 he went to Lake Superior, and was associated with Dr. Houghton in the geological and lineal survey of the upper peninsula, he being detailed in charge of a party on the geological examination of the mining region, and the survey thereof. The winter of 1845-46 he spent in Detroit, drawing maps of his surveys and work, and in the season of 1846 completed Dr. Houghton's contract with the government, left uncompleted by reason of the doctor's untimely death. He remained in the Lake Superior country, pursuing his profession and investigating the metalliferous deposits of that region, until 1848, during which year and the following one he was associated with Foster and Whitney in the geologic survey of the mineral region, in the employ of the general government, to which they reported of their labors, recommending the sale of the mineral lands to settlers at one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre, the usual price of the public domain, these lands having been previously held at five dollars per acre. The government adopted the recommendation, and from this action dates the real development and settlement of the upper peninsula. Mr. Hill then turned his attention to mining copper, managing the interests of extensive and heavy corporations of eastern capitalists, and directing the active business of the development of their claims. He spent seventeen winters there, continuously, in which time, it is perfectly safe and just to say, he expended more money for the progress and settlement of the county, by reason of the immense works he initiated and brought to successful operation, than any other four men in that region. His disbursements for his clients ran from one-half million to one million dollars per annum, all made under his own direction. He made, in 1873, a general geologic survey of Isle Royal, which parties whom he represented were interested in, and extensive mines are now being opened and worked thereon. He has seen the first log cabin built and the first ton of copper and of iron mined in the upper peninsula, which Michigan gained in exchange for the swamps of the Maumee; and during the period that has elapsed since his first attempt at development of the mining interest-less than thirty years-there has been shipped from that region alone copper to the value of $109,312,000, and iron to the value of $74,553,000, to the various parts of the world. Where, twenty-five years ago, the rude cabin of the Cornishman alone was the habitation of the white men of that region, now are found cities of stone and brick structures second to none in the older portions of the country. Schools and churches are the rule where once, and but a short time since, they were not known. Where once the Mound-builder mined the bright copper with wedge, stone hammer, and chisel, building his fires against I the rock, and casting water thereon to loosen and break up its texture, mines, eighteen hundred feet in depth, now hold in their recesses machinery, ponderous and costly, covering, in some instances, over $1,000,000 in value. And all this grand development, progress, and source of wealth Mr. Hill has been personally instrumental in largely producing. He is still engaged in the country in directing mining operations and managing extensive landed interests, spending his summers there and his winters in the city of Marshall. On the 16th day of July, 1851, he was united in marriage to an estimable lady, a teacher in the public schools of the upper peninsula, whither she went, in company with others, when the cry for education was sent down from that country to southern Michigan. Her name was Susan A. Warren, a daughter of Alanson B. and Phebe Warren, formerly of Genesee county, New York, but now residing, at an advanced age, in Calhoun County. She was born in the village of Arcade,. in Genesee county, before named, October 15, 1821. Mr. Hill is ardently Republican in his political sentiments, and has filled the various positions in the organization of the civil government of the mining region of Lake Superior in township and county, and also served his district three terms in the State legislature. These positions were filled by him not from choice or solicitation, but because the people found him the best fitted therefor, the best interests of the country being at stake. He is, and has been for the past twentytwo years, a member of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and is also a member of the American Institute of Mining Engineers. Foster, in his " Pre-Historic Races," alludes to his archaeological discoveries in the mining region, in several noted instances. He is also a member of the Historical Society of the Upper Peninsula. As may be readily supposed, Mr. Hill's intimate relations with the revelations of Nature in her secret recesses have somewhat shaken his faith in the theological idea of the earth and its formation and duration, and hence he is a bold, fearless, and advanced thinker on theology, in which sentiments he finds a keen and intelligent sympathizer in his worthy helpmeet. HON. PRESTON MITCHELL. Among the prominent citizens of Calhoun County, Hon. Preston Mitchell takes his proper place. Stirring, energetic, and enterprising, he has wielded an influence in the county second to none of the worthy citizens thereof, by whom he has been preferred to places of honor and trust for twenty-four years of public life, receiving their suffrages or indorsement, as the case might be, and finding among his bitterest political opponents some of his warmest friends. From 1840 to 1876, Mr. Mitchell has filled official stations, without personal solicitation, in the township, county, city, and State, crowning his long public career with the important and honorable position of presidential elector of the grand commonwealth of Michigan, in 1876, on the Republican ticket, when men of nerve, tried patriotism, and sterling and unimpeachable integrity, were needed to resist seductive influences the closeness of the contest rendered possible. Mr. Mitchell comes of the right stock to be unapproachable by such influences, for his ancestry were from the heather-crowned hills of bonnie Scotland, from whence they emigrated to Yorkshire, England, where they resided for three generations, Lieutenant Matthew Mitchell-Preston Mitchell's great-grandfather-being born there in 1590. He was a dissenting churchman, and possessed of considerable fortune, but, by reason of the persecutions of the Established Church, was forced to flee with his family, as were many others, from his native country; and, on the 23d of May, 1635, he, in company with several sympathizers, set sail from Bristol in the ship "James," and arrived in Boston on the 17th of August following. From that time until the close of the year 1638 he lost heavily by fires and the depredations of the Indians, by which his property was destroyed and a son-inlaw murdered by the latter, when he removed to Stamford, in the colony of New Haven, where he died in 1645. He left two sons, Jonathan and David, the former graduating from Harvard College in 1647, and preaching at Cambridge for eighteen years thereafter. David settled in Stratford, and is the immediate ancestor of David, the father of the subject of our sketch, who was born in Southberry, Connecticut, July 2, 1776, two days before the announcement of the declaration of American independence. The grandfather of Preston bought a large tract of land in Delaware county, New York, and divided it between his three sons, on which they lived, adding largely to the original purchase until their death. Here, on this tract of land, in the town of Meredith, on the 24th day of April, 1812, amid the alarms of war, was Preston Mitchell born, the fourth child in a family of five sons and four daughters, to David and Sarah (Dibble) Mitchell, the latter a sister of the late P. Dibble, of Marshall city, Calhoun County. Preston's early education was mostly

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. such as could be obtained at the district schools of the country in those days, and at the age of sixteen years he taught school one year and the year succeeding. At the age of nineteen he engaged one year as a clerk in a store in Syracuse, at the end of which time he entered the academy in that place, where he remained one year. From that time until the summer of 1836 he was engaged in mercantile business in Syracuse and Baldwinsville, Onondaga county, New York, coming west to Marshall in July of the latter year, where, for a year or more, he was engaged as clerk in the store of his cousin, C. P. Dibble. But there was. an attraction in the eastern home that could not be resisted, and the young man returned to redeem his plighted troth, which he did by marrying Sarah H., daughter of Captain Joseph Tyler, formerly of Greenfield, Massachusetts, on the 28th of August, 1837. Immediately afterward he engaged in mercantile trade in Syraause for abou't a year, when he disposed of his stock, and bought another in New York city, and shipped it to Jackson, Michigan, but, on arriving at that place, he found no satisfactory opening, and came on to Marengo, Calhoun County, where he conducted a flourishing business for the next five years. Here his public life began, and he served successively as constable, school inspector, and justice of the peace. In 1843 the state of his wife's health became alarming, and he closed out his business preparatory to seeking a milder climate; but a favorable change setting in, she rapidly improved, and he removed to Marshall, where he re-entered his cousin's service, in which he continued until 1849, when, without previous notice or solicitation on his part, he was nominated to the office of county treasurer, and elected; and re-elected in 1851, holding the position four years. The next two years he acted as deputy register of deeds, and from 1856-58 held the position of county treasurer again. In 1859 he was elected alderman of the city of Marshall for two years, at the end of which term he was called to the mayoralty of the city. In 1858-59 he wa's the supervisor of the township. On the 17th of September, 1862, he was appointed assistant United States assessor of revenue, which position he held for six years. In 1870 he was elected representative to the State legislature, and re-elected in 1872. In 1876 he was nominated by the State convention as one of the eleven presidential electors on the Republican ticket. and was elected. Mr. Mitchell's continued preferment is the best testimony of his fitness for the positions to which he has successively been elected, and the surest token of the people's confidence and regard. In the summer of 1869, Mir. Mitchell made a trip to Nebraska, where he bought some four thousand acres of very fine farming lands in the eastern part of the State; and the summner following, while on a trip to California, he bought some three thousand acres more, all of which he now owns. Ever since he came to Michigan he has been largely engaged in real-estate transactions, and, having made many fortunate and happy investments, is at present possessed of a large amount of property in the city and county. Ile owns the "1 Abstracts of Titles to Real Estate in Calhoun County,"-a mnost complete exhibit of the titlb to every tr act and village lot therein. He gives to his private business the same close and practical application that he ever has to the public business intrusted to his care, and consequently is reaping the reward which ever follows such a course. Until the year 1849, Mr. Mitchell affiliated with the Democratic party, but the pro-slavery tendencies of the party became too strong for him, and he left his old associates, and upon the organization of the Republican party cast in his fortunes politically with that organization, and has been a stanch and leading partisan thereof to the present time. His wife died, without issue, January 20, 1849; and on the 15th of January, 1851, he was united in marriage to Mary, daughter of Samuel Thomas, who has borne to him five children, three daughters and two sons, as follows: Sara E., born February 4, 1852; Carrie M., born June 22, 1854; Thomas P., born May 20, 1856; Frank D., born May 30, 1860; Grace E., born October 23, 1863. All are now living save Thomas P., who died in his youth. Sara E. is married, and is now Mrs. Charles E. Gill, of Chicago. I i i HON. WILLIAM POWELL. Among the prominent citizens of the city of Marshall, William Powell, the subject of the present sketch, is accorded by his fellow-citizens a place. He was born in Victor, Ontario county, New York, March 31, 1830, his parents, John and Docia (Boughton) Powell, being natives of the same State. His mother was of the original family of settlers of Victor. Mr. Powell resided in Victor until he was twenty years of age, during which time he attended the common schools of that place. When twenty years old he entered a large dry-goods store in Rochester, New York, as salesman, and pursued a preparatory course of study nights and mornings, reciting to the tutors of the Rochester university, with the intention of passing through that institution. At his first examination he evinced that degree of proficiency requisite to entering the sophomore class. He pursued this course of business and study combined for one year, at the end of which he secured the position of librarian of the Rochester Athenoeum and Mechanics' Association, a public library and reading-room, where he remained two and a half years, in the mean time continuing his studies with diligence. But an incident common to young mankind changed his purposes, and led him, perhaps, into a different line of life's history on March 18, 1853, at which date he was united in marriage to Martha L. Paddock. She was the daughter of John Paddock, of Rochester. On his marriage he accepted a position offered him as discount clerk in the Rochester city bank, where he remained seven years. In the fall of 1859 he came to Marshall, Michigan, and with a brother engaged in the grocery business for a few months only, disposing of his interest to his brother in the spring of 1860, and engaging in- the bank of H. J. Perrin & Co. as cashier, where he remained six years, at which date, on account of the ill health of his wife, he removed to St. Paul, Minnesota, where he engaged in a general insurance agency with a Mr. Etheridge for' two years, after which he accepted the local agency of the Mutual Life Insurance Company of New York for a time, until the death of his wife, when he went to ]Detroit, where the general northwestern agency of the company was located, and engaged as a special traveling agent through the six northwestern States for one year for the same, and then for another year was located in Chicago as the general agent of the Widows' and Orphans' Benefit Life Insurance Company, New York. Following this agency, he was engaged with H. J. Perrin as his agent for the sale of the products of his machine-shop and flouring-mills, being established at New Haven, Connecticut, in the latter line, and also at Providence, Rhode Island, for more than a year. In the spring of 1872 he returned to Marshall and re-entered his former position of cashier of the National Bank of Michigan, of which, and the Bank of Michigan which preceded it, he was the first cashier. He still occupies the position. Mr. Powell is a stanch, unyielding Republican in politics, and was elected mayor of the city of Marshall in 1876 by the largest majority ever before given to a Republican candidate, an d this, too, with the most popular candidate of the opposite party pitted against him. Mrs. Powell died in St. Paul in 1868, leaving a daughter, Kate Inez, who still adorns the cosy home of her father in the city of Marshall. Mr. Powell subsequently married Anna Moeschler, who was of Saxon parentage, but survived her wedding-day scarcely a year. His present wife was Sarah Francis Bacon. Mr. Powell and his wife and daughter are members of the Church of the Redeemer, of Chicago (Universalist). He has been for the past four years the Worshipful Master of St. Albans lodge, No. 20, F. A. M., and for three years of the time was also Eminent Commander of Marshall commandery, No. 17, K. T., and is the Prelate of that body now, and also High-Priest of Lafayette Chapter, No. 4, R. A. M. He wa's also chairman of the committee on finance of the Masonic grand lodge of Michigan for two years during the same period.

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Page  79 TIHE CITY OF BATTLE CREEK. THE history of the early settlement and of the subsequent progress and development of the city of Battle Creek, presents features at once wonderful and interesting. A retrospection of less than half a century would carry us beyond the time when the first white settler had trodden upon its site,-to the time when it constituted part of a dreary wilderness, ere civilization had penetrated its solitary bosom, or the voice of the pioneer had echoed amid its timbered shades. In the year of our Lord 1831 the first attempt at settlement was made. That it was successful, was owing to the dauntless and persevering energy of the first pioneers, for it was no enviable task to clear the forest and to undergo the hardships incident to genuine pioneer life. But it was during this year that "-His echoing axe the settler swung, amid the sealike solitude, And rushing, thundering down, were flung the Titans of the wood." But ere we proceed to narrate the incidents of the early settlement, it were well to give the historic signification of the name of the river after which the city was called. " It appears that during the survey of this section of the State, under the direction of Colonel Mullet, in the winter of 1823-24, the Indians had become somewhat jealous of the encroachments made by the whites on their sugar-camps; and as the surveyors ran their lines through the maple-groves, they interrupted their work by various devices, and particularly by placing themselves between the surveying party and their ' sight tree.' Annoyed by their persistent attempts, Colonel Mullet on one occasion raised his ' Jacob's staff' (the iron standard upon which the surveyor placed his compass), with the apparent purpose of running it through one of the savages, but a Frenchman belonging to his party interposed and prevented the act. About this time the event occurred that gave name to the stream, and finally to the city built at its juncture with the Kalamazoo. While the entire surveying party were engaged in the performance of their duties in the woods, two men-Taylor, the cook, and Edwin Baldwin-having been left at the camp, were attacked by two Indians of large size and great strength, evidently with the intention of robbing them of their provisions, and thus interrupting the survey. Taylor was slight-built, but muscular, while Baldwin was of herculean frame and possessed of remarkable physical power; and the two were pitted with their assailants, man against man, at first in a sort of scuffle, but which shortly became a very serious fight. The Indian engaged with Baldwin, seeing himinself likely to become overpowered, caught up a rifle (Colonel Mullet's), which stood in the cabin, and fired it at his foe, without injury, however, to the person of Mr. B., but making a hole in the blanket coat he wore. The rifle soon changed hands, the white man wresting it from his antagonist, and knocking him down with it and breaking his skull. Taylor, meanwhile, had thrown his Indian upon the ground, and being nearly exhausted by the exertion of holding him, called upon his victorious comrade for aid, who soon made the remaining savage hors du combat by a blow with the rifle. This took place in the afternoon, and when the rest of the party returned at night and found that a fight had occurred, with serious and probably fatal results to at least one of the red men, they thought it to be the wiser course to return to Detroit until satisfactory arrangements could be made with the wily and now exasperated enemy. They did so; and the difficulty having been adjusted by General Cass, the Indians repairing to Detroit for that purpose, the survey was resumed the following June. "A twin brother of Baldwin returned with the party in the latter expedition, and was closely watched and pursued by an Indian somewhat emaciated, whose head had evidently been submitted to the rude surgery of the wild inhabitants of the forest, having been trepanned with leather, an evidence that his skull had previously received a crushing blow. This was supposed to be the antagonist of Baldwin. Taylor settled in St. Joseph county, afterward kept tavern, and was the first sheriff of that county. Colonel Mullet was one of the United States commissioners who located the lands for the University of Michigan. The above facts are given on the authority of Mr. Andrew Morton, of Marshall, who learned them from persons who served in the survey, and who also saw the coat which had been pierced by the rifle-ball in the fight, of which a lasting monument will exist to future generations in the name, ' Battle Creek.' " We quote the subjoined from an article written by Mr. Erastus Hussey, a gentleman who has resided in this State for half a century, and in Battle Creek for about forty years: "I don't like the English translation of the Indian name Waupokisco, which an old Ottawa chief informed me means ' River of battle,' or ' River of blood,' from a great battle that was fought on its banks many generations ago, by hostile tribes. This fact is confirmed by historical proof from Canadian Indians." EARLY SETTLERS. It was in the early part of June, 1831, that Sands McCamly,. in company with George Redfield, visited the present site of the city, and being favorably impressed with the eligibility and centrality of the location, determined to procure an interest in it.. The land-office at White Pigeon was opened during the month and all the land in this vicinity was put into the market at the usual government price of one dollar and twenty-five cents per acre. On arriving at the land-office, he found that he was not without rival contestants for the honor of planting a city in the wilderness. It appears that J. J. Garnsey had also fixed his attention on this site, as also had Lucius Lyon and Robert Clark, government surveyors, who had marked it in their list of desirable localities. The latter rivals waived their right to bid against the others upon the receipt of one hundred dollars. It was then agreed that J. J. Garnsey should enter eight hundred and thirty-seven and forty-one one-hundredths acres, all lying in what now constitutes the township and city of Battle Creek, the township of Emmett, and covered the confluence of the two streams, but with the understanding that Judge McCamly and Daniel G. Garnsey were each to share it equally with him upon payment of their proportion of the cost. They, with their families, were to meet in Detroit the following October, when the original purchaser was to quit-claim to the other two, and give them each a title to an undivided third of the whole; and it was agreed that they all should come on and begin operations, each placing two thousand dollars in the bank, as the means for commencing the development of an embryo city at the mouth of Battle creek. McCamly reached Detroit at the time agreed upon, and so did J. J. Garnsey and his brother-in-law, Sackett, and their wives; but the latter said they had been to look at the place, and could not live there. So from the failure of the Garnseys these first plans fell to the ground. The principals in the contract went their several ways-the original patentee to become financially embarrassed and transfer his claim to -Phineas P. Sackett and Ezekiel B. Garnsey, and McCamly and his family to a home in Nottawa prairie, where he had entered land the previous summer. Meanwhile, the country hereabouts began to receive settlers, particularly in Goguac prairie, where, during the year 1831, some ten or more persons settled thereon, among them being Daniel, Jonathan, and Isaac Thomas, who arrived in May; John Stewart, Sr., and John Stewart, Jr., his son, with Peter, Enoch, and Levi, and two daughters, all of the former's family, arrived in August, Josiah Goddard and others, whose names and the incidents of their settlement are given in the history proper of Battle Creek township. The year 1832 was more prolific in its accessions to the infant village. In this year Samuel Convis,* who possessed an interest in the Garnsey purchase, came in and erected his log house on the spot where Deacon Leggett's residence now is. He went east for the purpose of moving his family, preparatory to making a permanent settlement here. During the same year Moses Hall arrived, purchased one hundred and sixty acres of land, but returned east, and did not permanently settle until the following year, when he became a prominent settler, of whom more anon. Polydore Hudson, who figured conspicuously as a pioneer, arrived early in 1832. The Langley brothers, Roswell Crane, and John Conway came in this year, but we believe none of them made a permanent settlement here. We find the Langleys in South Battle Creek, John Conway in Bedford, and Roswell Crane in Emmett, each as early as 1835. In 1833, Nathaniel Barnly and family came in, and with them came the family of General Ezra Convis. Nedebiah Angell also arrived this year. The year 1834 saw some accessions to the settlement. This year Judge Tolman W. Hall came in, and has resided here ever since; General Convis also came this year, both arriving in July. Warren B. Shepard and Dr. Asahel Beach (who settled in Emmett township, but has resided in Battle Creek for the past thirty years) came in -'" See sketch under head of Pennfield township, in biographical department. 79

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - - - permanently locate here until July, 1834. He purchased a half-interest in the during this year. Josiah Gilbert, Joseph Farnsworth, Deacon David Salter, and others filled the complement for the year 1834. SETTLERS OF 1835. The year of our Lord 1835 was one of great moment to the embryo city, and a much more promising prospect was presented in this than perhaps during any year in its early history. Indeed, the commencement of actual development was inaugurated this year, the result of which has left a beneficial impress on the future growth and progress of the place. Foremost among the permanent arrivals this year was Judge Sands McCamly,* who, with characteristic enterprise, began to utilize the excellent water-power which during the first four years of the settlement had remained idle. After which he erected a saw-mill, the first in the village. William H. Coleman and David H. Daniels, the pioneer merchants, settled here this year, as also did Captain John Marvin, the first blacksmith, Eli L. and David Stillson (came this year but did not permanently settle until 1836), John S. Van Brunt, A. P. Rawson (who married a daughter of Moses Hall, Esq., and now resides in Victor, New York), John Meacham (who moved to Bedford and resided there a short time, returning to the city and has since lived there, and for many years was a justice of the peace). Ella G. and Cephas A. Smith took up the eighty acres on a part of which Judge Graves' residence now stands. John Champion, Ogden Green, and Anson Inman arrived in the winter of 1835-36. Rev. Robert Adams came in June 7, 1835, and was the first Baptist minister in the place. Three-of his sons survive-Samuel, a merchant of Battle Creek, John B., at Rockford, and William, at Grand Rapids, Michigan. Deacon Stephen W. Leggett and James Conklin. Among those coming in 1836 were Samuel W. and Gilbert W. McCamly, nephews of Sands McCamly, Alonzo Noble, now residing in the city, Almon Whitcomb, Abraham, Joseph, and Isaac Merrett, and Jonathan Hart, Leonard Starkweather, Edward Packer, Theron A. Chadwick, Deacon Fayette Cross, William Merrett. Among those settling in Battle Creek between 1836 and 1840 were Erastus Hussey, W. M. Campbell, M.D., Edward Cox, M.D. (now the oldest medical practitioner in the city, Dr. Asahel Beach not now being in practice), Charles S. Gray, A. L. Clark, Platt Gilbert, Henry Willis, E. C. Manchester, Henry B. Denmore, Leicester Buckly, John L. Balcom, and others. Among the early settlers of Battle Creek, whose enterprise entitles them to an extended notice in its history, we might mention the following: JUDGE SANDS M'CAMLY came from Orleans county, New York, in June, 1831. Impelled by a desire to make a successful venture in the new country to which he had come, he made extra exertions to secure the present site of the city of Battle Creek, as before mentioned, on account of its general eligibility, and because it contained a water-power equal to any and excelled by none at any other place which he had previously visited. Failing, however, to secure the coveted tract of land, he moved his steps to the beautiful and fertile Nottawa prairie, where he and his family lived for about a year, and in the summer of 1832 settled at Marshall. It would seem as though the impression he had received of the site of the future city had been indelibly stamped upon his memory, for he returned to it in 1835, and at once commenced to utilize the fine natural advantages of the place. In February, 1834, Judge McCamly bought an equal and undivided half of the original Garnsey purchase, and removed on it in February, 1835, and began operations. General Convis had control of the other half, and it was agreed between them that Judge McCamly have full possession of the whole water-power, provided that he would improve it. A body of twenty-five or thirty men, including many sons of Erin, were engaged in building the long race, which, in its day and under the circumstances, was a monument of enterprise worthy the man who accomplished it. Judge McCamly, on the admission of Michigan into the Union as a State, in 1835, was elected from this district a State senator. He possessed a strong and clear intellect, a sound judgment, a resolute will, and much sagacity. He was a good judge of men and things, and was inclined to view the sunny side of everything. He possessed high social qualities, fine conversational powers, and was an interesting raconteur. He left at his death, which occurred April 30, 1864, five children: three daughters, Mrs. L. H. Stewart and Mrs. D. W. Burnham, of Battle Creek, and Mrs. J. W. Oakley, of Chicago; and two sons, George, now in California, and Mark W., of Battle Creek. GENERAL EZRA CONVIS came from Silver Creek, Chautauqua county, New York, in company with Nedebiah Angell, in 1832. He returned after a visit of a few months, and did not ~ See personal sketch. permanently locate here until July, 1834. He purchased a half-interest in the site of the town from Garnsey, but retained it only intil 1835, when he sold it to Jonathan Hart and his three brothers-in-law, Abraham, Joseph, and Isaac Merrett, and transferred his interest in the water-power to.Sands McCamly, as above stated. He then turned his entire attention to the building up of a town on his former purchase, north of Battle creek, the present village of Verona, which place was for a few years the vyal of Battle Creek, under his admirable energy and enterprise. However, the larger place procured the railway, and Verona fell back to a mere settlement. General Convis was elected a member of the lower house of the first StateS"legislature, in 1835, and was made the first speaker of that body. He was re-elected for a second term. In the winter of 1837-38, while returning from a wedding, his sleigh was upset, and he sustained injuries which terminated his life. He died at Detroit in the spring of 1838, his faithful wife remaining with him to close his eyes, and to attend the last sad rites of his funeral. Ezra Convis was a man whose strength lay chiefly in his general ability. He was fond of society, courteous and genial, and of gentlemanly bearing. In his business he was energetic and industrious. In person he was handsome, and possessed a quiet dignity which was very pleasing. He had a decided turn for politics, and enough of the suaviter in modo to make himself popular with the people, and of the fortiter in re so as not to be led by party cliques. The only surviving members of his family are two daughters, Mrs. John Van Arman, of Chicago, and Mrs. King, of Battle Creek, and one son, Albert, now in Illinois. His younger son, Wallace, was accidentally drowned in Battle creek, and Ezra, another son, died in Illinois. NATHANIEL BARNEY. Touching this gentleman, we quote verbatim from A. D. P. Van Buren: " Of this pioneer tavern-keeper of Battle Creek the people retain kindly recollections. It would be very difficult to find two words more inseparably connected with the memory of the early days of Battle Creek than these old familiar words ' Barney's Tavern.' The old log hostelry on the hill, just west of the creek, and the kind-hearted old landlord, whose hospitality has been extended to so many emigrants and travelers during the settlement of this part of the State, will be long remembered. Nathaniel Barney and his family came from Chautauqua county, New York, arriving at Battle Creek March 9, 1833. He and his sonin-law, General Ezra Convis, were two of the original proprietors of Battle Creek. He was made postmaster of the new town in 1834. He also, at an early day, carried the mail from Marshall, by way of Gull prairie, to Kalamazoo. After keeping tavern for a number of years in the old log building near the creek he settled down two miles northwest, and there was landlord and farmer also. At this time he died, October 18, 1857. His sons, Milton and Oliver, yet live near the old homestead, in Bedford township." NEDEBIAH ANGELL was born in Vermont, and subsequently removed to Hanover, Chautauqua county, New York, from whence he, in company with some score of others, started with them on teams for Battle Creek, in February, 1833. He served as justice of the peace while on his farm, and for a number of years while he lived in town. He had a practical and legal turn of mind, and was noted as an early " pettifogger" in the justices' courts of Battle Creek. His daughters, Mrs. Samuel Gregory and Mrs. Henry Andrews, of Goguac, and Mrs. Jacob Clark and his son George W., of Battle Creek, are the only surviving members of his family. MOSES HALL. In the spring of 1832, Moses Hall left his home among the green hills and vales of Rutland county, Vermont, for a journey westward, and came to Battle Creek, where he made a purchase of land for himself and brother Tolman W., who still resides in the city. He traveled by " line boat" on the Erie canal to Buffalo, and by schooner up the lake to Detroit, and from thence on an Indian pony to Marshall. He met Rev. J. D. Pierce at the latter place, of whom he purchased one hundred and sixty acres just east of the limits of the present city of Battle Creek, for which he paid one dollar and seventy-five cents per acre. He returned home again the same year, and in 1833 made a permanent settlement. He immediately set about " rolling up logs" for a shanty, which he roofed with " shakes," which served as a shelter for himself and family, consisting of a wife and five children. He soon after purchased the old Foster house, which he occupied until 1837. In the meanwhile he had been at work improving his original purchase, of which he eventually made a fine farm. Moses Hall held various local offices, and performed their duties with marked ability and efficiency. He served one term in the State legislature with satisfaction to the people and credit to himself. He was a justice of the peace for many

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Page  81 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 81 years, and was an acting magistrate at the time of his death, which occurred May 12, 1860. Moses Hall was a man of commanding figure and noble appearance, of strong intellectual faculty, of clear outspoken views, and a self-poise that was admirable. He was firm in the administration of justice, never allowing himself to be biased by partisan feeling or influenced by a wrong motive. He was one of the founders of the Presbyterian church at Battle Creek, and remained one of its most active and influential members to the day of his death. Socially, he was a valuable member of society; a man of noble impulses, of generous feelings; quick to aid the distressed or to espouse the cause of the defenseless or injured. His general reading and culture, his close observation of men and things, and his fine colloquial powers, made him an agreeable and companionable man. His general worth was duly appreciated, and his works and goodness will be long cherished and remembered. Of Squire Hall's family, three daughters, Mrs. A. P. Rawson, of Victor, New York; Mrs. Ellen Stebbins, of Dowagiac, Michigan; and Mrs. Loren Chadwick, of Chicago; and three sons, Ed. H., of Emmett, and Henry C. and Chas. T., of Battle Creek, survive. JUDGE TOLMAN W. HALL, brother of Moses Hall, was born at Sudbury, Rutland county, Vermont, September 1, 1805. He received his education at the schools of his native place. On the 12th of April, 1832, he married Lois Mary Hitchcock. The same year he became owner of real estate adjoining the present city of Battle Creek, and removed on to it in the summer of 1834, accompanied by his family. They traveled in a line-boat through the Champlain and Erie canal to Buffalo; thence to Detroit on one of the original Lake Erie steamers. After arriving at his destination he followed farming for some years, and subsequently entered the mercantile business. He has held various offices of trust and honor both in the township and county. In 1836 he was elected associate judge of the circuit court of Calhoun County, which office he filled faithfully and well for eight years. In 1844 he was admitted to the bar of the county, but has not practiced as an attorney to any extent. In 1851 and '52 was a director of the Union schools. He served in the State legislature one term in 1855 and '56; held the office of postmaster of Battle Creek from 1861 to 1866, and represented the first ward of the city as alderman in 1862-63; was elected mayor in 1865; has been twice elected a justice of the peace, and held the office of county superintendent of poor for the last ten years. All of these offices he has filled with marked ability and unswerving integrity. In the religious and educational interests of the city, Judge Hall has always taken an active part; while in the material growth and prosperity of the place he has occupied a conspicuous position. He was one of the original members and most active workers in the Congregational and Presbyterian church of Battle Creek, and no man did more for that organization than he. As a citizen he is well known and very highly respected; as a man he enjoys the confidence and esteem of the people; as a neighbor he is liked for his friendly and courteous manners. In his dealings with his fellow-men he is honest and upright, and no man can say aught against his general character. In short, Judge Hall is a representative man, and one of whom the city in which he has resided so long, and whose interests he has served so faithfully, is justly proud. ALLEN WILLARD was born in Hartland, Windsor county, Vermont, February 10, 1794. He was educated at Dartmouth college, and was a fellow-student at this famous seat of learning with Rufus Choate. His son, George Willard, informs us that his father predicted Choate's distinguished career long before he was known to the American public as its most eminent lawyer and brilliant orator. While at college, Mr. Willard says, Choate evinced the fine linguist. It was ever a delight for his class to hear him render his lesson in Virgil or Cicero into English. He was the best writer and scholar in college. Allen Willard removed from Vermont to Michigan in the summer of 1836. He first settled in Battle Creek township, a little south of where he now lives; selling this land he located in the Dr. Beach neighborhood, where he improved a farm; this he sold and bought the Hermes Sweet place, on the east side of Goguac lake, where he at present resides. Mr. Willard is a man of clear intelligence and sterling character. He has not sought prominence in public affairs, but rather to enjoy the society of his family and friends, his books, and the cultivation of his farm. He has educated his two sons, George and Charles, giving the former, who early evinced a great desire for learning, the advantage of a well-stored library, and affording him full opportunity for improving it. Charles Willard has the management of the farm, and his father, in his beautiful home on the east bank of Goguac lake, is enjoying the evening of his life, passing quietly away to his eternal home. 11 THE FIRST LOG HOUSE. Concerning this historic structure we quote from A. D. P. Van Buren's series of newspaper articles on the " Early History of Calhoun County:" " The following account relates to the building of the first house in Battle Creek, called the Foster house. As we have stated in a previous article, Sherman Comings, of Toland prairie, had borrowed money of Daniel G. Garnsey, whom he met at White Pigeon in 1831. The account we now present, the writer got of James R. Comings, of Galesburg, son of Sherman Comings; it is copied from the account-book of the latter. The Mr. Rich mentioned is Estes Rich, who, it seems, worked for Mr. Comings, as he charges his labor to Mr. Garnsey. "Sept. 8, 1831, To 1 day to Mr. Howard's on your business...................... $1.00 " 1~ days after nails............................................... 1.50 " 4 " of two hands and two yoke of oxen............. 12.00 Sept. 23, To 1 week of two hands and board....................................... 12.00 " hands to raise................................................................ 3.00 " M r. Rich, hauling boards................................................ 4.00 " finding Rich.................................................................75 " 8 bushels of wheat at 6s.................................................. 6.00 " hauling out................................................................. 1.00 Oct. 2, To 5 days, myself and son................................................... 10.00 " paid Mr. Rich for harrowing in wheat, 4i days..................... 6.75 " boarding M r. Rich.......................................................... 2.00 $59.50 " This account fixed the time when the work on the house was begun, and when they had the ' raising,' which was in September; also when the building was finished, for the 'five days, myself and son' being ten days' labor, which, as the account has it, was performed in October. While Mr. Comings and son and Rich, when with them, were building this house, they boarded with Isaac Toland, who lived south of the river." THE FIRST FRAME HOUSE. The first frame house, properly speaking, was that erected by John V. Henry, in the old Gardner settlement, which is about five miles from Battle Creek. He built a goodly-sized frame structure out there, intending it for a tavern, in 1834, but never covered or utilized it. The frame was removed to Battle Creek in 1836 by Isaac Merrett, who placed it on the site now occupied by the American hotel. It was used for a number of years by Lowry & Hewitt as a tavern, probably having been thus used about 1840. In 1837 Judge Tolman W. Hall erected a frame dwelling-house on the lot next east of the American hotel, which now constitutes the back part of the Bristol house, being the first frame residence built on Main street. THE FIRST BRICK HOUSE was erected by Jonathan Hart, in 1846. It is on Maple street, and is now occupied by Thomas Hart, son of the original owner. THE FIRST MERCHANTS. The first person to open a regular store in Battle Creek was Wm. H. Coleman, who kept the first store in a log building on the corner of Main and Jefferson streets, as now called, on the lot now occupied by Hon. James L. Whitcomb's block, and continued there for many years, securing the claim of being the proprietor of the first permanent commercial establishment in the place. Mr. Coleman came from New York to Battle Creek in 1835. An old resident, and a good judge of character, says of him: " When I first saw Wm. H. Coleman in his log store he had much the appearance of the boy about him, but I soon found that he possessed the elements of the successful merchant, the gentleman, and fine business qualifications. He was a man of ardent temperament and decided opinions, suave and polite in his manners, an intelligent and agreeable talker, and a favorite among his friends." Some few years after he came here he married Lucretia, daughter of Isaac Merrett. In after-life he became a banker, but his health failing, he retired from business, and died May 19, 1871. He was an active and prominent member of the Presbyterian church, and ever a most trusted and worthy citizen. He left a widow and three sons. Merrett is a banker at Lansing, with whom Mrs. Coleman lives; Horton served during the war in Missouri, and is settled at Memphis, Tennessee; George is a dentist at Lansing. About contemporary with Mr. Coleman in the mercantile business was David H. Daniels, now of Galesburg, who sold goods on the site of the former residence of Dr. Campbell, but soon was induced by General Convis to remove to Verona, where he opened a store and sold goods for a few years. THE FIRST BIRTH within the present limits of the city was that of Henry C., son of Moses and Mary Hall, who was born December 25, 1833.

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. THE FIRST FEMALE BIRTH was that of Caroline M., daughter of General and Mrs. Ezra Convis, who was born November 19, 1834. THE FIRST MARRIAGE ceremony performed in the infant settlement was that of James Simonds, now of Kalamazoo county, and Miss Parthenia Thomas. The nuptials were celebrated with honors, and considerable rejoicing was had. The interesting contract was justi(ce)Jied by Moses Hall, Esq., who did not happen to have the " fever'neg," as did Justice Hudson on the occasion of the marriage of Mr. Frank Thomas and Miss Amanda Goddard a few years subsequently, which mere reference will be sufficient for the old residenters. THE FIRST DEATH was that of an infant child of Ezra Convis, which died early in the summer of 1834. THE FIRST BURYING-GROUND, AND OAK HILL CEMETERY. The first burying-ground was laid out on land donated by Sands McCamly, in 1835. It contained almost three acres, and was located on the corner of Champion and Washington streets, adjoining the water-cure property. Among the early interments were those of the first wife of Moses Hall, who was buried there in 1835, the first wife of Judge T. W. Hall, in 1841, and Moses Hall, Sr., in 1842. About 1844, the present burying-ground of the Oak Hill Cemetery Company was laid out, and many of the bodies interred in the original grave-yard were taken up and interred in the new place. It continued without a charter up to 1855, when John Meachem, Esq., prepared a bill relating to public buryinggrounds in the State generally, which Judge Hall, then a member of the lower house, introduced, and successfully advocated its passage; and it became a law on the 12th of February of that year. Under this act the '" Oak Hill Cemetery Company" was organized on the 22d of August, 1855. We quote from the records of the company as follows:." PUBLIC MEETING.-Tolman W. Hall, Edward Cox, John K. Lothridge, Orlando Moffatt, Frederick M. Sanderson, Gideon F. Smith, John Meachem, Ellery Hicks, and Ogden Green met at Wakelee's hall in the village of Battle Creek, on the 22d day of August, 1855, under the authority of a certain warrant issued by Erastus R. Wattles, Esq., justice of the peace, directed to Gideon F. Smith, upon the application of the said Gideon F. Smith, Alonzo Noble, and William H. Coleman, due notice of the said meeting having been previously given. The meeting was organized by appointing John Meachem, president, and Walter W. Woolnough, secretary.... The following persons were elected as officers of the company, and severally filed their acceptances as provided by statute: President, Gideon F. Smith; Clerk, John Meachem; Treasurer, Frederick M. Sanderson; Sexton, Ogden Green." The grounds have been tastefully arranged and decorated with shrubs, trees, and flowers, so that they now present a pleasing appearance. Many fine monuments have been erected, which tend to relieve the sombre aspect of the place, and stand forth as tributes of affectionate regard for the memory of those who " sleep the sleep that knows no waking" beneath them. An air of quiet repose pervades the place, as is meet, and the feeling of awe and reverence which a visit there evokes is relieved by the thoughtful and delicate tokens of respect for the departed ones, which are everywhere apparent. Perhaps no greater progress characterizes our civilization than the care and adornment bestowed upon our modern necropoli. The officers elected at the last annual meeting, held December 25, 1876, were President, Alexander C. Hamblin; Vice-President, Joseph M. Ward; Treasurer, Marcus C. Schafer;: Clerk, Moses B. Russell, Esq.; Sexton, C. R. Woodford; Auditors, Edward Cox, M.D., Henry T. Hinman, and William Andrus. From the necrological reports of 1875-76, we find that in 1875 101 interments were made, of which number 95 were in the cemetery proper, and 6 in the Potter's: Field. In 1876 there were 88 burials, of which 81 are on lots and 7 in the Potter'siField.: In glancing over the list of the former year, we notice among the prominent citizens interred the following: Merritt Coleman, aged 93; Lydia Ford,i 87;- Francis Miler, 89; Asa Phelps, 83; Warren B. Shepard, 65. In 1876, Elizabeth Gilbert, aged 70; Diantha S. Gardner, 68; Elizabeth Harper, 63; Olive Hewitt, 67; Ellen Morse, 79; Charles Parker, 74; Elijah W. Pendill, 67; Elizabeth W. Root, 82; Frederick M. Sanderson, 64; Anna Tracy, 90. THE FIRST SCHOOL. The early settlers evinced a commendable interest in matters pertaining to the education of their children, for we find that ere the incipient city possessed a score of juveniles, a school-house was erected, and the services of a teacher procured, in the person of Warren B. Shepard. This occurred in 1834, and during the r winter of that and the succeeding year school was regularly taught by that gentleman, and in the ensuing summer by Miss Sarah Phelps. The primitive schoolhouse is remembered by many with feelings of pleasure, for around it clustered some of the most delightful memories of the past. Not only were the children of the village taught within its walls, but also entertainments of various kinds were held in it. Here the native eloquence of the youthful orators was expended in debate, for, be it known, a full-fledged debating club was organized contemporary with the establishment of the school. It was also used by the various religious denominations as a place of worship. But the venerable structure long since ceased to recall by its presence the happy memories of youth. It has gone. The old school-master has also departed, and he sleeps the " long, long sleep" near the spot where he came a young man full of life and energy, both of which were spent in the home of his adoption, and were fruitful of much good. And where now are his pupils? Many of them, too, are gone. Among those remembered by Mr. Shepard, and repeated to A. D. P. Van Buren a short time prior to his death, were children from the following families: Deacon Salters, Daniel Thomas, Isaac Tollands, and Nathaniel Barneys. William Kirk came from Goguac. Hannah and Lucinda Angell, the former now Mrs. Henry Andrews, and the latter Mrs. Jacob Clark, of Battle Creek; Eliza and Hastings Hall, children of Moses Hall; Mary McCamly, now Mrs. L. H. Stewart, of Battle Creek. General Convis sent his sons Albert and Ezra and his daughter, now Mrs. John Van Arman, of Chicago. The settlement on Goguac prairie had a school about a year prior to that at Battle Creek, a sketch of which is given in the history of that section under the head of Battle Creek township. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH IN BATTLE CREEK. The introduction of Methodism into this vicinity occurred in 1833. In the spring of that year a Methodist class was organized, composed of the following persons: Daniel Thomas and his wife, Parthenia their daughter, Aranthus their son, who was selected leader, and Jonathan Thomas, a cousin of the latter. The house in which the organization took place, and where the class always met, was that of Daniel Thomas, and occupied the site of the present residence of Cornelius Fonda, near the south limits of the city. Death and removals caused the disbanding of this class in 1834, when a new organization was formed two or three miles west, on Goguac prairie, under the ministry of Rev. Thomas Wiley, who had been appointed by the Ohio conference to what was then called Calhoun circuit. The next year Rev. James F. Davidson became the preacher. In the spring of the following year, 1836, a class was formed in Battle Creek which finally absorbed the society on Goguac prairie, and became the permanent Methodist church of the community. It was organized by a local preacher, Rev. Asa Phelps, and consisted at first of himself and the following persons: Daniel Clark and wife, Thomas Hickman and wife, Mrs. John Wentz, and Theodosia Clark, afterwards Mrs. Cranston. Of these one is still living,-Mrs. Daniel Clark, of Assyria. Mrs. Thomas Hickman has recently died. This society was soon increased by transfers and additions of converts. Addison Clark was one of the first, if not the very first, of the leaders of this class. Rev. E. H. Pilcher, still an influential minister in Michigan, was among the first presiding elders who visited this community, and held the old-fashioned Methodist quarterly meetings to which the people came for many miles around. The ministers who have been appointed to the circuit of which Battle Creek was a part, or to Battle Creek as a station, are as follows: 1836, Elijah Crane, Alvin Billings, Allen Staples, J. F. Davidson, Washington Jackson, Richard Lawrence, Peter Salein, Roswell Parker, Joseph Jennings, Rezin Sapp, Franklin Gage, E. H. Pilcher, 0. Mason, J. F. Davidson, M. B. Camburn, William Kelly, R. C. Crawford, Enoch Holstock, F. B. Bangs, Jacob Odel, Rezin Sapp, Joseph Jennings, N. S. Fassett, T. H. Jacokes, L. M. Earl, J. I. Buell, D. D. Gillett, E. Cooley, Jr., Lister H. Pearce, the present incumbent. The first public building used by this society as a preaching place was a log school-house, which was situated near the spot where McCrea's grocery now stands. Afterwards they held divine service in the frame school-house which was built on the present site of Edmond's & Dwinell's planing-mill. The first Methodist church in Battle Creek was erected in 1841, and was situated on the corner of Marshall and Division streets, opposite the location of the present church edifice. Rev. Peter Sabin was preacher in charge, but the church was opened with a quarterly meeting in December of that year, which was conducted by Rev. E. H. Pilcher, who was presiding elder. This was a small frame building, which soon was too small for the increasing congregation, and was enlarged. Finally, in 1859, it was sold to the colored Baptist society, who removed it a little distance east of the Michigan Central railroad crossing on Marshall street, where they continue to occupy it. The present church building was erected during the pastorate of Rev. Jacob

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Page  83 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 I____________________________rI Odel, in 1859. Rev. Joseph Jennings was presiding elder, and rendered most efficient help in pushing the enterprise to a successful result. Among the laymen who were prominent in the work of building this church were M. K. Gregory, G. F. Smith, E. W. Pendill, Emmet Beach, David Coy, and J. A. Main. The three first named have died. The building is finely located at the intersection of Main, Marshall, Division, and South streets. It is brick, with stone foundation, front centre tower and spire, and an organ recess in the rear. The length of the main body of the edifice is eighty-four feet, and the width fifty-six feet. There is a commodious basement, with three convenient small rooms for social meetings and entertainments. The audience-room is finely finished and furnished, and has an easy seating capacity of six hundred, while by extra seating an audience of seven hundred and fifty is often accommodated. A very fine organ, which cost the society four thousand dollars, occupies the recess back of the pulpit, and a bell weighing over two thousand pounds hangs in the tower. During the last year the walls of the building have been covered on the outside with a coating of red composition and lined with white mortar in imitation of brick. This has given the building a bright, new appearance. The society owns a parsonage, which is situated at No. 5 Bennett street. This property has been renovated and greatly improved in appearance during the last year or two, and makes a very pleasant home for the pastor. The church is entirely free from debt, and in a very prosperous condition. During the last two years two hundred have been added to its membership. The present total number of members is four hundred and fourteen. The average attendance of the Sunday-school is nearly three hundred; that of the general prayer-meeting, one hundred. The pastor is supported entirely by the free-will offerings of the people, made mainly in the Sabbath morning congregation. He has no salary. There are no assessments nor renting of seats for pastoral support. A strict account is, however, kept of the amount contributed and by whom given. This plan has been employed during the pastorate of Rev. L. H. Pearce, and has worked most satisfactorily. The other expenses of the church are met by apportionment among the members. The chief officers of the society are as follows: Rev. H. C. Peck, presiding elder, residence, Kalamazoo; Rev. L. H. Pearce, pastor; A. B. Powell, Sundayschool superintendent; P. H. Greene, chairman finance committee; M. B. Russell, president board of trustees; J. M. Galloup, recording steward. It is a fact worthy of mention that Mr. Ogden Green has been sexton for thirty-eight years. THE FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH OF BATTLE CREEK was originally organized in the Gardner settlement, in Emmett township, in April, 1835. The exercises were first held in private dwellings, and subsequently in the log school-house, the first and only one in Battle Creek at that time. The sermon for the occasion was preached by Rev. Ebenezer Loomis. The constituent members were Michael Spencer and wife, Nedebiah Angell and wife, William Carter and wife, Mrs. Horace Mott and her two sons, Nelson and Elter, and also her two daughters, Ann and Sallie, Zopher Mott, Mrs. Ezra Convis, Benjamin T. Dwinell and wife, Sophia Southworth, Asa Lowell and his mother, and Phoebe Johnson, in all nineteen, of whom but one, the last named in the list, is now connected with the society. About two months later the church reported to the La Grange association, which met at Constantine, June 11, 1835, a membership of twenty-one. William Carter and B. T. Dwinell were the delegates to that body. A few weeks after the organization of the church the Rev. Robert Adams commenced laboring with and for the church, and remained with them till his death, about ten years. In 1846, Rev. Ten Broeck became their pastor, his pastorate continuing about three years, and closing in 1849. During his ministry with the church their first house of worship was built, causing much sacrifice on the part of its members, which they met faithfully and fulfilled cheerfully. This house did service until 1871, when the present fine brick edifice was erected at a cost of nearly twenty-five thousand dollars. It was dedicated in 1872 by Rev. Mr. Whitehead, assisted by Rev. E. W. Lounsbury, the pastor, and Rev. Mr. Woodruff, of Detroit. In 1850 the church was supplied by Elders Taylor and Green; in 1851, Dr. Joseph Belcher was the pastor, and in 1852 Rev. John Harris commenced his pastoral connection with it, which extended till his death in 1864. From 1853 to 1872 the church records are either mislaid or lost, so that the list of pastors herein following may not be precisely correct in their order, but we believe the list includes all that need be mentioned. After Rev. John Harris came Revs. Harrington, Job Maxom, Elder Garfield, E. W. Lounsbury, C. H. James, and the present incumbent, Rev. L. D. Palmer. The first deacons were David N. Salter and William Carter. The present deacons are Richard Pool, George Betterly, Peter Hoffmaster, T. W. Case. The present membership is three hun dred. The Sabbath-school was organized about the same time as the church, and, like it, was of small origin and gradual growth. The present superintendent is Rev. L. D. Palmer; librarian, Eugene Freeman; membership, two hundred and fifty; number of volumes in library, three hundred. Both the church and Sabbath-school are in a prosperous condition. THE UNITED CONGREGATIONAL AND PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The inhabitants of the village of Battle Creek and vicinity holding the faith of the Congregational and Presbyterian church, assembled at the usual place of holding public worship, to wit, in the old log school-house, within the present limits of the city, on the 26th day of March, 1836,' for the purpose of considering the subject of forming a church at that place. The ministers present were Rev. Silas Woodbury, from Kalamazoo, and Rev. William Jones, from Allegan. The former was chosen moderator, and Tolman W. Hall secretary. After due discussion it was unanimously resolved to form a church on the plan recommended by the general assembly of the Presbyterian church and the association of the Congregational church of Connecticut, as adopted A.D. 1801. Letters were presented by David H. Daniels and Mary his wife, John S. Van Brunt and Betsey his wife, Moses Hall and Mary his wife, Tolman W. Hall and Lois M. his wife, and accepted. Accordingly on the Sabbath following (March 27) the above-named persons were duly constituted a church of Christ, and the following officers were chosen: Moses Hall and David H. Daniels, committee; Tolman W. Hall, clerk; John S. Van Brunt, deacon. On the 25th of June following, Elijah M. Morey presented his letter from the church at Preble, New York, which was received July 30 of the same year; Joseph Young and Elizabeth his wife, and Jacob V. W. and Maria E. Young presented certificates from the Second Presbyterian church of Oneonta, New York, and were received as members of the church; also Fayette Cross and Sophia his wife, and Electa Cross, were received on certificates from the Presbyterian church at Wheatland, New York. Joseph Young was elected deacon. From this time to the present the increase in the membership of the church has been steadily progressing, and the church liberally sustained, both through the struggling years of its incipiency and through those of its maturity. The first baptism in the church was that of Lucy Jane, daughter of D. H. and M. Daniels, July, 1837. In September of the same year, Henry, son of Moses and Mary Hall, and Edwin, son of Deacon S. W. Leggett, received the ordinance of baptism. The first death from among the members of the church was that of Mary, wife of Moses Hall, which occurred August 12, 1838. For the first few years after the regular organization of the church, public worship was held in the log school-house, and afterwards in the frame school-house which stood in what is now called the wood-market. In 1842, immediately following the institution of the church society, a meeting of that body was held, in January, at which a motion was passed to the effect that the trustees (viz.: Joseph Young, Platt Gilbert, Moses Hall, G. F. Smith, and S. W. Leggett) be instructed to take into custody any funds, property, or subscriptions belonging to the church or society, and proceed to purchase a site and build a meeting-house for the said society. On the 31st of January, of the same year, a supplementary resolution was passed as follows: "Resolved, That the trustees be instructed to purchase the Henry lots (site of present church edifice), provided they can do so on reasonable terms, not to exceed four hundred dollars." The property above alluded to was purchased, and in 1842-43 a neat frame house was erected, which served the church until November, 1846, when it was destroyed by fire. Pending preparations for the building of another house of worship, the society held religious services in a room in Union block. At a meeting held March 1, 1847, the subjoined votes were passed: " Voted, That the interest of this church requires prompt measures be taken for the erection of a new house of worship. " TVoted, That a general building and business committee be appointed by this meeting, whose duty it shall be to appoint a special building committee of five, whose business it shall be to collect the funds and superintend the erection of a new house of worship." The following gentlemen were appointed as such committee: Samuel Flagler, T. M. Hall, Joseph Young, Wm. H. Coleman, S. W. Leggett, James Hutchinson, Charles Root, W. Brewster, Wm. Brooks, Miles Seymour, H. Cantine, A. Whitcomb, Eli L. Stillson, G. F. Smith, Charles Vail, Charles Bartlett, and Moses Hall. " Voted, That our contemplated house of worship be built of brick." The committee for the collection of funds, etc., was composed of W. H. Coleman, Miles Seymour, and Charles Vail. These were afterwards substituted by Samuel Flagler, William Brooks, and Tolman W. Hall. The former gentleman was appointed to superintend the erection of the house.

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. February 19, 1849, the slips in the new church edifice were sold at auction by T. W. Hall. No. 12 sold for one hundred and thirty dollars, to Mr. Seymour, which was the highest price paid. The balance up to No. 69 sold for from fifty to one hundred and twenty-seven dollars, according to location. In 1868 the church edifice erected in 1847 was partially demolished, and a large addition made to the remaining portion of it, at a cost of nearly sixteen thousand dollars. The house as now standing has a seating capacity of eight hundred, and is valued at twenty thousand dollars. Supplies and pastors.-The first stated supply was Rev. Calvin Clark, who served the congregation in 1837; he was followed in 1838 by Rev. S. M. S. Smith, and he by Rev. Justin Marsh the same year. In 1839, Rev. Stephen Mason officiated, and in 1840, Rev. H. Hyde; in 1841, Rev. M. Knapen; Rev. R. B. Bement, in 1843; Rev. Alex. Trotter, 1845; Rev. Joel Byington, 1846; Rev. S. D. Pitkin, 1848; Rev. Charles Jones, 1858; Rev. E. L. Davies, 1861; Rev. S. E. Wishard, 1867; Rev. W. C. Dickinson, 1871; Rev. H. H. Haloway, 1873-77. Church at present without a pastor. Statistics.-At the close of the year 1836 the roll contained the names of twenty-one members; in 1846 it had increased to one hundred and thirty-eight, and in 1877 the membership was two hundred. The present officers of the church are- Deacons, C. B. Hubbard, S. W. Leggett, and Wm. H. Skinner; Church Committee, Tolman W. Hall, Wm. Brooks, Wm. H. Skinner, T. A. Chadwick, C. C. Peavey, S. W. Leggett. The present officers of the Sabbathschool are-Superintendent, Hon. Charles Austin; Assistant Superintendent, Garrett Decker; Secretary, Miss Mary Mott; Treasurer, Miss Ella Skinner; Librarian, Frank Peaslee. The membership is about three hundred; number of volumes in the Sunday-school library, three hundred. Of the original members of the church only four survive, namely, Tolman W. Hall, David H. Daniels and Mary his wife, and John S. Van Brunt. Of these only the first named is now a member of the church, having sustained his connection with it for forty-one years. ST. THOMAS' EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The first preaching according to the tenets of the Episcopal church in Battle Creek was in 1839, by the Rev. F. H. Cunning. Public worship was again held soon after by Rev. Samuel Buel, who was kindly entertained by Mr. and Mrs. Samuel W. McCamly and Mrs. Barton, the only Episcopalians in the place. After the lapse of nearly two years (in August, 1841), Rev. Montgomery Schuyler visited the village and held service; and in December following he preached regularly every alternate Sunday. His services were largely attended. In the afternoon of the 21st of April, 1842, the Right Rev. Samuel McCoskey, bishop of the diocese, visited the place, preached in the Methodist church, and administered the apostolic rite of confirmation to six persons. The Rev. M. Schuyler continued to preach frequently after the bishop's visit; and the interest in the services still increasing, it was thought advisable to organize a parish, which was accordingly done August 7, 1842, under the name and title of " St. Thomas' Church of Battle Creek, Michigan." On the fourth day of December, 1843, the parish extended a call to the Rev. R. G. Cox, who accepted the same, and remained several months. At the solicitation of the vestry, Rev. R. S. Adams took charge of the parish on the 1st of May, 1845, and continued its rector for nearly three years. During his pastorate, a neat and substantial church edifice was erected and dedicated to the service of Almighty God. This house served the parish, with some repairs, notably those of 1862, until it was torn down, in 1875, to give place to the larger and more beautiful church building now rapidly nearing completion, of which more hereafter will be noted. The rectors who have followed Rev. R. S. Adams, with the dates of their respective ministries, are: Reverends H. Safford from June 14, 1849, to February 18, 1852; D. B. Lyon, June 1, 1852, to April 1, 1855; George Willard, April 15, 1855, to April 9, 1860 (when he left the ministry and the church, and joined the Presbyterians); Augustus Bush, September 23, 1860, to August, 1866; Charles Ritter, October 1, 1866, to October 25, 1867; Josiah Phelps, February 4, 1867, to February 17, 1871; George Washington Wilson, June 1, 1871, to March 15, 1874. For a few months in 1874 one I. E. Jackson was installed as rector, but not being satisfied or giving satisfaction, he resigned; since which time they have had no regular rector. In 1875 the question of building a more commodious church was agitated among the members. And at an adjourned meeting of the building committee, held in the William Andrus block on the 1st of June of that year,-at which all the members were present, viz., William Andrus, C. Wakelee, J. M. Werd, Edward Cox, M.D., and C. F. Bock,-the following resolution was offered by Mr. Bock, and unanimously adopted: " Resolved, That the financial committee be and are hereby instructed to make every effort in their power to raise by subscription a sufficient sum of money to enable us to build a new church, and that we hereby pledge the said committee every aid and support possible for the furtherance of the same." On the 7th of June, 1875, the financial committee began taking subscriptions, and on the 20th of August following they reported thirteen thousand seven hundred and ten dollars subscribed. On the 23d of the latter month the committee met Mortimer S. Smith, an architect from Detroit, with whom they made arrangements for plans and designs, paying him two hundred and fifty dollars for those they selected. They then purchased additional ground, adjacent to the old church lot, for fifteen hundred dollars, and in July, 1875, commenced work on the foundation of the building. When completed, it is estimated that it, with grounds and furniture, will cost about twenty thousand dollars. Its dimensions are forty-three by one hundred and twenty feet, including the chapel. It is built of brick, on a solid stone foundation, will have a spire and belfry, and will be one of the finest sacred edifices in the city. The present communicant membership of the church is about one hundred, while the congregation numbers about three hundred and fifty. The present church officers are-C. S. Gray, senior warden; Charles F. Bock, junior warden and treasurer of the building committee; vestry, William Andrus, Edward Cox, M.D., J. W. Wood, F. D. Dibble, W. H. Noble, W. N. Gleason; E. B. Fisher, clerk; J. W. Wood, treasurer. A Sunday-school was organized contemporaneously with the church, and has flourished ever since. The present number of teachers is sixteen; number of scholars, ninety. Superintendent, Charles F. Bock. SEVENTH-DAY ADVENTIST CHURCH. Meetings of this society were established in this town as early as 1854. In 1855 a small house of worship was built on Cass street, between Van Buren and Champion, at a cost of less than two hundred dollars. The material was wood. Size, sixteen by twenty-four feet. The early preachers were Elder James White, Elder J. N. Loughborough, Elder J. B. Frisbie. In 1857 the congregation had so increased that it became necessary to erect a more commodious house of worship. The material of this building was also wood. Size, twenty-eight by forty-two feet. It is still standing, on Van Buren street, near the corner of Cass. No permanent organization of the society was established until October 24, 1861. The "church covenant" was then signed by seventy-three persons. Elder James White was the first pastor. Geo. W. Amadon was chosen elder; Myron J. Cornell and Wm. Hall, deacons; Uriah Smith, clerk. The increasing membership of the church called for a still larger place of wor_ ship, and September 26, 1866, their present church building was raised near the corner of West Main and Washington streets, and was opened for meetings in May, 1867. It is a wooden building, forty by sixty-five feet, and twenty-three feet high inside. Including the gallery, it is estimated that it will seat seven hundred persons. The present membership of the church is two hundred and seventy-five. Elder James White is still pastor; Uriah Smith and Professor S. Brownsberger, elders; M. J. Cornell and James Sawyer, deacons; M. J. Cornell, O. B. Jones, and J. G. Whipple, trustees; Wm. Sisley, treasurer; R. H. Coggeshall, clerk. The Sabbath-school was organized about 1857. Merritt G. Kellogg was the first superintendent. The present officers are Prof. G. H. Bell, superintendent; Wm. K. Loughborough, assistant superintendent; Miss Ella Davis, secretary. Number of scholars, two hundred and twenty-five. Number of books in library, two hundred. FIRST SOCIETY OF SPIRITUALISTS.* Previous to the year 1860 there existed in Battle Creek a flourishing society of Universalists, also a society of Friends, or, as they are more commonly called, Quakers. These societies numbered among their members many of the most respected citizens and earliest settlers of this portion of Michigan. It is well known to those familiar with the history of the last forty years that the idea and possibility that the mortal still holding his place in this world could hold systematic and intelligent communication with those who had passed to the immortal shores originated in Rochester, New York, in 1848, under the cognomen of " spirit-rappings." For several years the belief in this intercourse had been spreading " far and wide" over the country, until every city, town, and hamlet held its converts, numbered in the aggregate by millions. During the years from 1848 to 1859-60, occasional " trance" speakers had visited Battle Creek, addresssing large, intelligent, and most attentive audiences, while in the city and neighboring country had been developed, from among those possessing no natural or educational advantages beyond the farm-house and districtA' Communicated by Mrs. Jeremiah Brown.

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Page  85 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 85 school, some who, in the trance condition, exhibited rare powers of elocution, and giving forth most instructive and elevating sentiments of religious and moral duty. These speakers won attention the more, because they were often boys and girls in their teens, who, in their normal condition, possessed no capacity or comprehension to enable them to utter the profound ideas and scientific deductions that flowed so freely from their unaccustomed lips. Their hearers listened and wondered as " Truths divine came mended from their tongues." They taught no creed but love to God and love to our neighbor, perfect purity qf life, a strict subordination of the lower or animal propensities to the spiritual or higher, and the very highest culture of the spiritual; that we are ever attended by spirits, elevated or degraded, as our habits of life and surroundings attract good or undeveloped ones to our side. They also taught that every act or thought in our lives was weaving our future, that no " vicarious atonement" could save us from the consequences of a transgression of divine law, but each one must stand or fall by their own merits. These teachings, promulgated, as was believed, by spirits, were so in accordance. with the tender mercy and loving kindness of God the Father that they were readily accepted by the Friends and Universalists, and, in 1860, they determined to unite under a legal organization, and form a new religious association, the following " Article of Association," forming the basis ot action. " We the undersigned do hereby associate ourselves together, for the purpose of organizing a religious society at the city of Battle Creek, Michigan, by such corporate name as we may adopt at the regular meeting to be hereafter called; and for the purpose of acquiring and holding in our corporate capacity real and personal property, and for using the same for such legitimate purposes as the law authorizes, and for the further purpose of enabling us, as corporators, and our successors, to promote rational freedom, both religious and political, and to enable ourselves and our successors to labor for the moral improvement and elevation of our race, and to promote the best interests of the divine and spiritual nature of man, both here and hereafter. "February 11, 1860." The Rev. J. M. Peebles, of Baltimore, Maryland, was the first settled preacher, and he occupied the desk of the society for about seven years, with the exception of a few months' absence by permission, for the purpose of recuperating his health in the genial climate of California. During his ministration his congregation was the largest of any in the city, and he and his most excellent wife were the centre of a large, attached, and appreciative circle of friends, and it was with deep regret that these friends, and the community in general, saw them depart when circumstances made it necessary for them to return to the east. After a few years, it was deemed advisable by the society to change its name to that of the " First Society of Spiritualists of Battle Creek," and by this name it is still known. It was also thought incumbent on its supporters to issue a " declaration of principles," as the society had been greatly slandered, and compromised by the conduct of some who had subscribed to the articles of association, and professed to believe in the pure.teachings of spiritualism, but whose daily walk in life belied their profession, and brought disgrace on those who were associated with them. A committee was appointed by the officers to arrange a declaration, and one was proposed and accepted as indicating the spirit, aims, and intentions of the societies. Let none hold this organization responsible for the conduct of individual members, for, as in the family, while the shortcomings and crimes of one may cast gloom and sorrow over all, yet each must stand or fall by their own merits, of which we do not constitute ourselves the judges, but will say with Christ, " Go and sin no more," or, " Let him who is without sin cast the first stone." The officers of the society are as follows: President, A. A. Whitney; Secretary, E. C. Manchester; Treasurer, Wm. Merritt; Trustees, Mrs. M. Cummings, Mrs. L. E. Bailey, Mrs. G. S. Cole. FRIENDS' MEETING. Among the early settlers of Battle Creek and vicinity were quite a number of members of the society of Friends, or, as commonly called, " Quakers." As early as 1836-37 that body had formed themselves in a meeting, and a few years subsequently, in 1843, had erected one of their neat but plain meeting-houses, in which they worshiped for nearly a quarter of a century. Among the early members of the meeting were Joseph Merrett and Phoebe his wife, Isaac Merrett and Esther his wife, Jonathan Hart and Mary his wife, Eli Lapham and Rachel his wife, Isaac Sutton and Sarah his wife, Jacob Frost and Jane A. his wife, Jacob Stringham and Sarah his wife, Abraham Lockwood and Mary his wife, William Knowles and Gulielma his wife, Joseph Kirby and Salome his wife, Ambrose Cock and Phoebe his wife, Erastus Hussey and Sarah E. his wife, Reynolds Cornell and Deborah his wife, John Meachem, Lindley Bowne, and Dr. Archelaus Harwood. In 1860 they sold their meeting-house to the Catholics, by whom it is now I used, and about the same time erected one in the Stringham neighborhood, in Bedford township, and in 1871 they built a small house in their burying-ground in Battle Creek, where they have occasional preaching. THE CATHOLIC CHURCH was organized in 1863. Repeated efforts failed to procure the necessary data for its history. THE PUBLIC SCHOOLS. There can be no more certain index to the sociological condition and progress of any community than the history of its public schools. There is no other public enterprise which is so purely an outgrowth of these fundamental principles which refine and elevate society as is the public school, and there is no other so sensitive to any modification of those principles. Since ignorance and intelligence, using the terms most comprehensively, are the opposites of mental condition, the essential character either of the individual or of society must be determined by reference to an educational standard. The public school affords an easy application of this standard. It is the exponent of the popular appreciation of the value of education, and thus of the grade of the popular intelligence. In looking carefully over the history of Battle Creek,* one cannot fail to note that its schools have ever been the most prominent of its public enterprises. From the earliest settlement of the town they have been its chief care and its greatest pride. As compared with other communities, Battle Creek has been foremost in providing facilities for the education of its youth; and by a generous outlay of money, and a wise administration of its educational affairs, it has sought to make its schools of the very highest order. The following epitome is designed to show the development of those schools from their rude beginnings to the present time. It is of necessity brief, in order to note the more important facts. So late as 1831, what is now Battle Creek and the surrounding country was an unbroken wilderness. In 1834 the first school district was organized, and a tax of sixty dollars was levied for the purpose of building a school-house. This was constructed of logs, and stood on what is now the corner of Main and East Canal streets. Mr. Warren B. Shepard, until lately living near the city, was the first teacher. This log house accommodated the children of the district until the years 1837 -38, when five hundred dollars was voted for the erection of a larger and better building. This was located in the open space now used as a hay and wood market, on the east side of South Jefferson street. A small library was purchased for the school in 1840. In 1844 the more progressive friends of education proposed a Union school for the village and some of the contiguous districts, but meeting opposition, they were unable to carry out their plans. In 1845, the board of school inspectors, in opposition to the Union school project, attempted to divide the district, but after a somewhat exciting controversy they were unsuccessful. In 1847 a union of the village district with fractional parts of school districts of the townships of Emmett and Bedford was effected, the whole including territory equal to five and fiveeighths sections. The boundaries of the district thus created were very nearly coincident with those of the present district of the " public schools of the city of Battle Creek." At the annual meeting in the following year the sum of two thousand dollars was voted for building purposes, but after the tax was partly paid the enemies of the school succeeded in arresting the collection, and in having the money already paid refunded. At the next annual meeting, however, the money was again voted, and in 1850 the building was erected. It was a brick structure, forty by sixty feet, three stories high, and cost six thousand dollars. At the annual meeting in 1868 an effort was made to raise money —this time sixty thousand dollars-for a new house on the site of No. 1, but without success. But the old building, which had done so good service for twenty years, had now become so dilapidated that action could not be delayed much longer, and in 1869 a resolution, offered at an annual meeting, authorizing the trustees of the graded and high school of the city of Battle Creek to issue the bonds of the district for seventy-five thousand dollars, for the purpose of erecting a new school building on the site of the original building, was carried by a large majority. At a subsequent special meeting plans for the building were decided upon, the board of trustees was made the building committee, and in March of the next year ground was broken for the new structure. The work was pushed rapidly forward, and on April 10, 1871, the building was opened for school purposes. A view of this building, together with a detailed description, will be found on page 86. Competent teachers were employed, and the schools in all the 'departments moved forward with healthsome vigor. At about the same time, the schools were incorporated by a special act of the legislature, under the name of " The Public Schools of the City of Battle Creek."! See earlyvhistory of Battle Creek.

Page  86 86i H-ISTORY OF CALHIOUN COUNTY, MUICHIG~AN. __ - --- —----- In the springs of 1875 the higSh school was recognized as a preparatory school by the University of Michigan, and its graduates are now received into that institution without examination. The first graduating class, consisting of two mem — bers,, Misses Ella E. Badgley and Estella L. Catmpb'ell, graduated in 1869. The whole number of graduates to the present time is ninety-four. The whole number enrolled for the present year is one hundred and fifty-six. The museum in the central buildin- now contains several thousand specimens, and is receiving constant additions. It is a valuable aid in teaebin- and an object of interest to the general visitor. The school library now contains about two thousand volumes, and is being rapidly enlarged by means of the income of the Denman fund. This is a fund of ten thousand dollars bequeathed to the public school library in 1875 by the late Henry B. Denman, the income of which is to be perpetually devoted to the purchase of books for the library. It will enable the schools of Battle Creek to possess, in a few years, one of the finest libraries in the State. THE CENTRAL BUILDINUG. The central school building was erected in 1870-71. It is three stories high, with a basement; is built of brick and cut stone, and is roofed with slate. The whole building, outside of walls, is ninety-six and a half by one hundred and nineteen and a half feet. Measuring from the water-table, it is fiftyr-three feet In ~the basement are the laboratory the enoine-room, and two dining-rooms, for the use of those pupils who, living at a distance, cannot go to their homes and return between the morning and afternoon sessions. The building is warmed by steam, and thoroughly ventilated by a seemingly perfect arrangement of heated flues, which secure for all the rooms a constant and rapid introduction of pure, and expulsion of impure, air. On each floor are ample cloak-rooms, in which are hooks for every pupil, numbered to correspond with the seats. mae both for washin-s and drinking purposes, is furnished in the rear halls on each floor. The windows are provided throughout with inside blinds. The whole interior wood-work is finished without paint, showing the natural color and arain of the wood, which is ash, except the doors and blinds, which are pine. In a word, the building, in its arrangements, its adaptation, and finishing; is exceedingly convenient and beautiful. Value of building and grrounds, one hundred thousand dollars. WARD NO. 2. This buildin- is located on Green street, and was erected in 1857. It is two stories hi-b, the main buildino, being fifty-three by thirty-two feet, with projections on either side ten by twenty-six feet, for the entrances, halls, and stairways. It contains four school-rooms, with a seating capacity of two hundred and twenty-five. The building is of brick, on a foundation of rubble stone; the roof and cornice of modern style, and surmounted by a cupola. A basement under the main building affords room for a year's supply of fuel and other necessary fixtures. Value of buildingr and grounds, fifteen thousand dollars. WARD NO. 3. This building is located on Champion street, and was erected in 1861. It is thirty-six by forty-four feet, two stories high, with a basement, each story containing two rooms and a ball. It has seats for one hundred and seventy-five pupils. The building is of brick, with iron trimmings, and a heavy projecting cornice with brackets. The outline of the roof is broken in front by an ornamental pediment, the whole crowned by a cupola. Value of building and grounds, fifteen thousand dollars.. WARD NO. 4. This buildinfg is located on L diat street. It was erected in 1866, and is thirtytwo by forty-two feet, with a projection in front twelve by thirty-two feet for the loup. Libr~ary. —Geddes, Joy, Woolnough.. TEACHERS. 1. L. Stone, A.MI., Superintendent. HiLgh Sch7ool. —W. H. TIownsend, A.B. (Latin and Greek), Principal; Helen B. Muir (Hi-her -Mathematics), Preceptress; Flora Woodward, English and Mathematics; Libbie M. Barber English. and Mvathematics; Josie E. Chamberlain, English and Mdathematics; Camilla W~T. Haentzsche, German. Grammnar Schools. —Mary Welch, No. 1; Katie L. Haug, No. 1; Hattie L. Frey, No. Ij Carrie F`. F'rey, No. 1; Flora Mechem, No. 1; Jennie Spraggue, No. 1; Josie Onderdonk, No. 2; Emma Hubbard, Principal, No. 3; Lenna D. Warriner, Principal, No. 4. Primnar A'_~chools. —A. Therese WCtilder, No. 1; Gertrude A. K~insley, No. 1; Sara FaPrman, No. 1; Anna C'. Timpson, No. 1; Evelyn A. WVarriner, No. 2; 3ull

Page  87 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 87 Mary F. Mott, No. 2; Jennie B. Gough, No. 2; Eveline G. Lewis, No. 3; Lillian Rowley, No. 3; Ella Skinner, No. 4; Frankie E. Crum, No. 4; Librarian, Therese French. STATISTICS FOR THE SCHOOL YEAR 1875-76. Population of the district................................................. 5,581 Number of children between five and twenty years of age................ 1,591 Cash valuation of school property...............................................$150,000.00 Assessed valuation of district property.................................1,100,900.00 Cost of superintendence and instruction....................................... 12,250.00 Amount paid superintendent....................................................... 1,700.00 Am ount paid special teachers................................................................. Cost of incidentals (including repairs, fuel, and janitors)................. 4,427.48 Amount paid for bonds and interest............................................. 10,500.00 Amount paid for permanent improvements..................................... 153.23 Primary Department. Enrollment (including transfers)......918 Average number belonging.............. 502.82 No. of men teachers, including superintendent................................... Number of women teachers............. 11 Cost of education per capita for incidentals...................................... 4.62 Total cost of education per capita..... 14.10 Average per capita' cost for the whole school............................................ Number of non-resident pupils........ 5 Grammar Department. 489 325.53 High School Department. 192 128.57 Totals and Averages. 1.599 956.92..... 1.2 2 9 4.5 25 4.62 4.62 4.62 16.99 31.27.................. 17.42 24 59 88 Balance on hand from last year.................................................... $4,979.16 Amount received from interest on permanent funds........................... 797.00 Taxation.................................................................................... 26,000.00 Amount received from tuition fees...................................... 905.31 Total receipts.......................................................................................... 32,681.47 The following table shows what studies were taught in the High School, with the number of pupils in each: Studies. Boys. Reading............................................................... 54 Spelling...............................................................78 Arithmetic............................................................51 Grammar and Composition..................3............... 33 Algebra................................................................51 Geometry.............................................................. 9 Astronomy............................................................ 6 Physiology............................................................ 9 Botany.................................................................14 Rhetoric...............................................................16 Writing................................................................ 27 English Literature..................................................... Natural Philosophy................................................34 Book-keeping........................................................19 Chemistry............................................................. 4 Geology.............................................................. 6 General History.....................................................21 Government of Michigan......................................... 9 Latin...................................................................15 Greek.................................................................. 6 French................................................................. 2 German................................................................ 9 Natural Philosophy................................................ 2 The following table exhibits the enrollment by grades: Girls. Total. 83 110 85 61 94 10 6 9 28 33 59 5 36 10 13 11 27 20 18 2 13 9 137 188 136 94 145 19 12 18 42 49 86 5 70 29 17 17 48 29 33 6 4 22 11 MANUFACTURING INTERESTS. There is nothing more indicative of the prosperity of a place than its manufacturing interests; and basing the present activity and the prospective future development of Battle Creek, as a manufacturing centre, upon its natural advantages and eligibility, and upon the enterprise of its citizens, very promising results are manifest. The most prominent manufacturing establishment in the city is that of NICHOLS, SHEPARD & CO., the proprietors of the " Vibrator" thrashing-machine works. It is generally appreciated by the farmer that the thrashing-machine is one of the most important articles of farm-machinery that the inventive talent of the age has produced. Its province and distinctive field is to secure to the farmer and grain-grower the net results of many months of patient toil. Hence the manufacture of this essential adjunct of agricultural industry, and that too on a scale proportionately unsurpassed in the country, is an honor of which Battle Creek feels justly proud. The nucleus around which this extensive establishment has developed was a comparatively small works located in West Canal street, originated by Messrs. Nichols & Shepard in 1848. A remarkable feature connected with its growth and progress is the fact that it has been continuous for twenty-nine years, there having been no change in the firm nor no essential alteration in the class of manufactures, except so far as the advancement in mechanical science demanded. An extended visit to the establishment of Messrs. Nichols, Shepard & Co., for the purpose of writing a description of their works, enables us to submit to our readers and their posterity the subjoined account: As above stated, the works were originated by the present senior members of the company in West Canal street in 1848. There they flourished until 1869, when they erected their present works, which are located at the junction of the M. C. and C. and L. H. railroads. We first called at the office, which is a substantial building, as nearly fire-proof in its construction as possible. It is forty feet square, and, like the other buildings, is of brick. In it are the main office, located- on the first floor, and several other rooms necessary for the transaction of the official business of the establishment. It is furnished with a fire-proof vault, in which are the safes, wherein are kept the books and other valuables of the company. Here several clerks are employed, and an admirable business system is observable in every department. The building first reached after leaving the office is the foundry, which is one hundred and twenty feet in length and eighty feet in width, with walls eighteen feet high, surmounted with an elevated roof, which is supplied with windows, so that the workmen are supplied with a plenitude of light and air not generally the case in similar establishments. Into the foundry is brought the pig-iron, which is there cast into the different parts necessary for the iron-work on the machines. To the left of the office, and next on our way from the foundry, is a large T-shaped structure, which contains several departments. Its entire length is three hundred and fourteen feet, and its width fifty feet. First in this comes the iron machine-shop, into which the rough castings are brought from the foundry, and by means of a great variety of the latest improved machinery are prepared for their intended use. It is no exaggeration to state, relative to the multitudinous array of machinery found in this building, that it is equal to that of any manufacturing establishment in this State, and excelled by few, if any, similar institutions in the Union. Adjoining the above, and divided from it by a brick wall and connected by iron doors, is the wood machine-shop, where the immense quantity of lumber-two million feet being used annually in the manufacture of the " Vibrator"-is taken in the rough as it comes 'from the Michigan lumber regions, and is here converted in the necessary sizes, shapes, and degree of finish requisite for the parts of the thrasher for which it is to be used. This room is furnished with every conceivable machine for the careful preparation of lumber for plain or ornamental work. Here are planers, matchers, tenoners, mortisers, and other apparatus, with all the modern adjuncts of improvement and extra facilities for rapid and perfect work. In the wheel-room alone two men are enabled to turn out forty or more wagon-wheels per diem. Adjacent to this is the belting department, where the large amount of belting required for the machines is manufactured from the raw material. In the engine-room, which is near the room last described, can be seen the motive-power which runs the machinery of the establishment. The engine is of one hundred and ten horse-power, and was manufactured by C. H. Brown & Co., of Fitchburg, Massachusetts, and is certainly an admirable piece of mechanical workmanship, and without a superior in the northwest. The boiler-room, which is next adjoining, contains two boilers of sixty-inch diameter and eighteen feet in length, with sixty-six three-inch flues. These are from the well-known works of John Brennan, of Detroit, and are made of Lake HIGH SCHOOL. Boys. 12th year grade..................................... 4 11th " "......................................19 10th " "......................................27 9th " "......................................27 Total.................................... 77 GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. Boys. 8th year grade....................................... 50 7th " ".......................................31 6th " ".................................... 54 5th. " ".......................................68 Total........................ 203 PRIMARY SCHOOLS. Boys. 4th year grade...................................... 85 3d " "...................................... 65 2d " "...................................... 118 1st " "..................................... 84 Total.................. 352 Girls. 9 19 25 58 111 Girls. 57 50 51 82 240 Total. ]3 38 52 85 188 Total. 107 81 105 150 443 Total. 174 133 225 176 708 Girls. 707 Average Age. 18.2 17.7 16.2 15.4 Average Age. 15 13.4 13.0 11.7 Average Age. 10.4 9.4 8.3 6.8. Total. 1,339 Girls. 89 68 107 92 356 Boys. Total enrollment, not including transfers...............632 Subjoined are the different studies in the grades below the high school, with the number of pupils in each: Reading and Spelling......................................................................... 1152 Written Arithmetic................................ 649 Mental Arithmetic.............................................................................. 255 N um bers.......................................................................................... 530 Grammar.............................................. 113 Elementary Grammar......................................................................... 146 Geography......................................................................... 336 Primary Geography........................................................................... 299 Writing........................................................................................... United States History......................................................................... 96 Elementary Physics........................................................................... 116 Elementary Botany............................................................................ 295 Object Lessons............................................................................ 397

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Superior charcoal boiler-plate iron, which is the best for the purpose in use. In connection with this is the fuel-room, which is especially noticeable from the fact that by a very ingenious arrangement it is made the receptacle of the shavings and refuse from the wood machine-shop, which are conveyed into it through a large tube, the necessary force for the purpose being furnished by a fan kept in constant motion by the same power which the fuel is used to create. It may also be noted here that the entire establishment is heated by steam furnished also by the boilers, and conveyed by pipes throughout the different shops. Among the accessories to and located not far from the iron machine-shop is a separate building erected for use as a blacksmith-shop, which is one hundred and sixteen by forty feet, and, like all the other buildings, is remarkably well lighted. The necessary draught for the forges is furnished by machinery. The shop is also supplied with improved shears and punches, the former being used for cutting the material and the latter for punching the numerous pieces of iron required in the construction of the machines. Next comes the setting-up room, which is conveniently located, and is one hundred and fifty by fifty feet. Here the various parts of the machine are laid together, piece by piece, until the powerful instrument, which is to accomplish the work of a thousand flails, stands complete, a marvel of mechanical excellence and economy. The paint-shops are buildings-one of which is one hundred and ten by fifty feet, and the other eighty by forty feet-where the process of painting the machines is accomplished, after which they are removed to the warehouse and storage-room, which is the largest single structure on the grounds, being two bundred and fourteen feet long and one hundred and seven wide, and four stories high. This building has a capacity for storing eight hundred machines, and when well filled presents a fine display of Battle Creek industry. The steam fire-engine house is quite a necessary institution. It contains a complete Silsby rotary fire-engine, supplied with water from an artesian well. It is connected with the engine proper of the establishment during the day, and at night is usually kept fired up, so that in a few seconds it can be utilized. On the grounds are five hydrants, of two streams each, so that from ten to twelve streams can be put in play very shortly in case of fire. The engine-house is of brick, and has a galvanized-iron roof. All the rest of the buildings have gravel roofs. The grounds, including the buildings, lumber-yard (in which are kept seven million feet-of lumber), and depot, occupy ninety-seven acres. The company have a private locomotive for the transfer of freight, an'd, in fact, have every facility for the systematic and perfect conduct of their mammoth business. In 1869 the old firm of Nichols & Shepard was incorporated under the title of "Nichols, Shepard & Company." The first officers were: President, John Nichols; Vice-President, H. H. Taylor, of Cbieago; Superintendent, David Shepard; Secretary and Treasurer, E. C. Nichols. The present officers are: President, John Nichols; Vice-Presidenlt, David Shepard; Secretary and Treasurer, E. C. Nichols. The company have a capital and surplus of eight hundred and forty thousand dollars, and employ two hundred and fifty hands, with an annual pay-roll of one hundred and forty thousand dollars. The development of so extensive an industry required vast enterprise, great energy, and unremitting industry, coupled with executive ability of no mean order. Those who are acquainted with the management of the '"Vibrator" ThrasbingMachine Company require no assurances from us as to the possession, by its members, of all the qualities above enumerated. A residence of thirty years in Battle Creek, and a close identification during that period. with its material progress and industrial growth, insure a reputation as enviable as it is well deserved. In every State in the Union, and wherever the agriculturist plies his vocation successfully, the " Vibrator" is used, and wherever used it stands pre-eminently meritorious. THE BATTLE CREEK MACHINERY COMPANY. This concern was started as an agricultural works, by D. B. Burnham, in 1854. The class of manufactures was changed gradually from agricultural tools to woodcarving and other machinery. In 1873 wood-sawing machinery and horse-power and the "1 Boult's patent moulding-machine" became special articles of manufacture by the firm. On the 1st of May, 1873, the present company was organized under the corporate title of "1 The Battle Creek Machinery Company," with a paid-up capital of thirty-five thousand dollars. It had in view the more extensive manufacture of the " Boult patent" moulding, paneling, dovetailing, and other similar machinery. They now employ twenty-five hands. The first and present officers of the company were and are as follows: President, William Andrews; Vice-President, J. M. Ward; General Manager, D. B. Burnham; Secretary and Treasurer, Frank Beach. I THE UPTON MANUFACTURING COMPANY. In 1861 the firm of J. S. Upton & Co. was established, for the purpose of manufacturing the "1 Michigan Sweepstakes" thrashing-machines, and commenced business on their present stand the same year. It continued as at first formed until 1858, when the title was changed to Upton, Brown & Co., which was composed of J. S. Upton, Wm. Brown, Wm. Brooks, and Parley Upton. They transacted a moderately successful business, finding sales for their ma. chines in Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota, Missouri, and Michigan. In 1869 they erected a large two-story brick building in addition to those they had, which is now used for the manufacture of their wood-work. In 1867 a stock company was formed, and the old firm was merged into " The Upton Manufacturing Company," its present title. It has a capital of one hundred thousand dollars, and employs about seventy-five men. President, James S. Upton; Secretary and Treasurer, Henry M. Strong. Besides the " Sweepstakes," they now make a specialty of the " Combination," a machine patented during the present year (1877) by J. S. Upton. R. B. MERRETT. The firm of which Mr. Merrett is now the sole proprietor was established in 1871, and then and up to 1874 consisted of himself and L. C. Kellogg (now city recorder). After the retirement of the latter, Mr. Merrett continued the business alone. He now manufactures portable, stationary, and self-propelling agricultural implements, and is also a general jobber in brass and iron castings, mill-gearing and shafting. Capital invested, twenty thousand dollars; hands employed, twenty. The works occupy the former location of Nichols & Shepard's old place. LATTA & SHUPE. The manufacturing establishment now operated by the above firm was started in 1872 by Beauregard & Matthews, and continued by them until January 18, 1875, when the present proprietors came into possession. They manufacture all kinds of agricultural implements, making a specialty of the "1 Champion Cultivator, 7 on which they have taken two premiums at State fairs (Michigan and Wisconsin), and at nine county fairs in Michigan, Wisconsin, and New York. Their capital is twenty-five thousand dollars, and they employ on an average twenty hands. ADAMS & SMITH IS is the oldest establishment for the manufacture of carriages and wagons in the city, having been started in 1845. In 1850 they erected their 'present works, near Hart's Mills. E. CLAPP & SON is perhaps the most extensive carriage- and wagon-manufactory in the cityr. It was established by E~. Clapp, the senior member, May 11, 1848, and was continued by him alone until 1876, when he took his son, William Clapp, -into partnership with him. In 1860 the blacksmith- and paint-shop was built, and in 1868 the carriag~e- and wagon-factory as it now stands. The capital invested is thirty-five thousand dollars; hands employed, twenty-five. MASON, RATHBUN & CO. established themselves in the general lumber and planing business here in 1868. The firm then consisted of Messrs. W. H1. Mason, A. V. Powell, and F. W. Rathbun. Mr. Powell has since retired. Capital invested, twenty thousand dollars; hands employed, ten. BUCK, HOYT & CO. Messrs. Darwin D. Buck and J. G. Hoyt commenced the furniture business in September, 1866. They were by no means strangers in the city, as they had for some ten years previously been engaged as builders, and were well and favorably k-nown. In October, 1868, H. -R -Dnmnn was adlmittead as -a partner, and -ra mained in the concern until his death, in 1875. The surviving partners purchased his interest and continued business under the old firni-style. Their factory is on West Canal street, and their warerooms 108 Jefferson street. They are the most extensive furniture-manufacturers and dealers in the city. S. L. BADGSLEY is the proprietor of the Battle Creek tannery, which was established in 1846. We learn from Charles S. Gray, Esq., one of the original owners of it, that it was erected by himself and John Palmer, in the spring of the above year. It was the first in the place. The first hide was tanned in July, and the first proceeds were from a hide that cost one dollar and fifty cents, occupied four days in tanning, and was sold for six dollars. Small profits and quick returns. It was purchased by the proprietor of the old mill since rebuilt by Titus & Hicks, and used for elevator bucket belts. In January, 1847, Mr. Gray sold his interest to John

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Page  89 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 Palmer. In 1848 he bought it back again, and Palmer sold his half to Hiram Dorman. In 1849 they sold the establishment to A. D. Munger, and he to Oakley & Wheeler, and the latter his share to S. L. Badgsley. In 1867, Mr. Oakley retired, leaving Mr. Badgsley the sole proprietor. W. H. Barber, the present foreman, has worked in the tannery since 1847. Capital invested, twentyfive thousand dollars; hands employed, six. The establishment is noted for its neat and cleanly appearance. The manufacture of cigars is quite an industry of Battle Creek. The three principal manufacturers are: L. B. CLAPP, who established his factory, which is No. 81 of the third revenue district, in 1870. He manufactures about one million annually. He employs about twenty-five hands. A. M. MINTY, proprietor of factory No. 436, established his business in 1871. He annually manufactures about eight hundred thousand cigars, and employs twenty hands. B. VAN PRAAGH first started on a small scale in 1868. He now operates factory No. 438, and makes about five hundred thousand cigars a year. He employs from six to ten hands, according to the demands of his business. GRIST-MILLS. The pioneer grist-mill of Battle Creek was that erected by Almon Whitcomb, in September, 1837, and which stood on the site at present occupied by the Star mills of Titus & Hicks. The same year Alonzo Noble and E. Pratt purchased a one-half interest of Mr. Whitcomb. On the 1st of March, 1839, Esco Pratt sold his interest to John Cox, and he, on the 5th of May, 1845, to William B. Palmer. December 1 of the same year Whitcomb & Palmer sold to Nelson Benham, who, on the 19th of May, 1846, sold to John Henry, and he again to Benham same year, and he to William Moore, November 26, 1849, and William Moore to Almon Whitcomb, and so on through about a dozen different hands until December 8, 1852, when Ellery Hicks bought a half-interest in it, and the water-power of Chester Buckley, May 25, 1859. R. F. Titus purchased the remaining halfinterest of Chester Buckley, and formed a copartnership with Mr. Hicks, under the firm-style of Titus & Hicks. In 1862, Mr. Hicks died, and his son, Wm. E. Hicks, one of the present proprietors, succeeded to his interest. In 1868, Mr. Titus died, and his interest fell to his son, Samuel J. Titus. The title remained the same under the new proprietorship. The old mill has been replaced by a substantial white brick building, thirtyfive by sixty feet, and three stories high, with a basement, having four run of stone, which are run by three iron wheels,-two Eclipse and one Leffel. The business for the year 1876 was custom of all kinds, seventy-five thousand bushels, and merchant, three thousand barrels. There are two other grist-mills now operated in the city, namely, those of J. M. Ward and Thomas Hart, brief notices of which we append, as follows: WARD )S MILLS. Among the prominent grain-dealers of this city and county is the firm of J. M. Ward & Son, proprietors of the Ward mills and grain warehouses of Battle Creek, Bellevue, Climax, Brady, Marcellus, and Edwardsburg. Mr. J. M. Ward came here as early as 1845, and embarked in the woolen business in company with Charles Mason. In 1860 the old woolen-factory was repaired and converted into a flouring-mill, which was the nucleus from which their now extensive business grew. In 1871, Charles A. Ward, son of the original proprietor, was admitted into the concern, and its present title assumed. They now transact a business amounting to one million five hundred thousand bushels per annum, and are among the most extensive buyers in the county, and compare favorably with the largest in the State. HART'S MILLS. This mill was erected in 1847, by Messrs. Hart, Ellis & Co., but was destroyed by fire in 1849. In 1850, it was rebuilt by Jonathan Hart, by whom the same was successfully operated until 1857, when his son, Thomas Hart, the present proprietor, became a partner, and the style of the firm was changed to J. Hart & Son, and so continued until the death of the senior partner in 1858, since which time the business has been conducted by ex-mayor Thomas Hart alone. The business of the mills for 1876 was thirty-five thousand barrels. They are exclusively devoted to merchant work. GEORGE E. HOWES is connected with N. Hellings & Bro., of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, in the business of storing and preserving fruit on the cold-air plan. For this purpose the firm erected 12 in 1875 a commodious stone building one hundred and thirty by fifty feet and two stories high. In this building apples and other fruit can be kept for two years; although the aim of the firm is not to carry it over from one season to another. This is a new thing for this part of the country, and is deserving of mention. Battle Creek has eight hotels, namely, the Potter House, American, Brierly, Bristol, Battle Creek, Waverly, Railroad, and Crane House. Of these, the principal and best hotel is the POTTER HOUSE, erected by Henry Potter, the present owner and proprietor, in 1869. It is a fine four-story red brick building, having large and airy rooms, and a cuisine. unsurpassed by any house on the railroad between Kalamazoo and Jackson. It enjoys an extensive patronage, and is first-class in every particular. Henry Potter, proprietor; George Potter, manager; and James North, clerk. THE BATTLE CREEK HOUSE is a temperance hotel, and is conducted by J. R. Leavens, a gentleman remarkably well qualified to manage a house of public entertainment. The rest of the hotels are generally well managed and largely patronized. RAILROAD FACILITIES. Perhaps the most important factor in the business development and prosperity of a city is its railroad communication. At least, it is safe to assert that such has become a demonstrated fact with regard to Battle Creek. A retrospection of her history since the advent of railroad facilities will convince the careful observer of the immense benefit resulting from the introduction of this essential adjunct of commercial enterprise. Theoretically the construction of railroads may meet with opposition on the hypothesis that, by taking the farmer's produce, as it were, from his very door, he can send it to the highest market, and thus deprive a few local buyers of the margin they had been accustomed to make on the same products heretofore. Practically, though, the increase in general trade constitutes a triple recompense for the imaginary deprivation above instanced. We here insert brief historical sketches of the railroads centering in this city. THE MICHIGAN CENTRAL RAILROAD. This great railroad thoroughfare was completed at Battle Creek in December, 1845. It remained the terminus of the road for a brief period, when it was completed through to Kalamazoo during the following winter. The first engine that ran over this part of the road was the '" Battle Creek," and it was a day of great rejoicing when the " iron horse" came thundering into the depot. This road has proved a great stimulus to the the growth and prosperity of the city. The number of its connections puts Battle Creek in communication with all the important business centres of the east and west. There are stations on the road in this county at the following places, viz.: Marshall, Marengo, Albion, Ceresco, and Battle Creek. We are indebted to Mr. 0. Waters, freight and passenger agent, for the following statement of the passenger and freight business for the year ending December 31, 1876: freight forwarded, 55,544,215 pounds; freight received, 22,515,672 pounds; freight passenger earnings, $40,569. THE CHICAGO AND LAKE HURON RAILROAD is organized by the consolidation of the several companies which were instituted under various charters by the Peninsular Railway company; with the old Port Huron and Lake Michigan railroad, which was finally consummated July 30, 1873. In order to follow the various organizations it will be necessary to commence with the original " Peninsular Railway company," which was organized August 30, 1865, with powers to construct a railroad from Battle Creek to Lansing, with the following board of directors: Leonidas D. Dibble, Joseph M. Ward, Elijah W. Pendill, and William Wallace, of Battle Creek; Martin S. Brackett and Reuben Fitzgerald, of Bellevue; Joseph Musgrave, D. P. Webber, and Cyrus Cummings, of Charlotte; and George N. Potter, of Benton. At a meeting of the board held September 7, 1865, L. D. Dibble was elected president. Subsequently the " Peninsular Railway Extension Company" was organized, with authority to construct a railroad from Battle Creek to the township of Milton; on the Indiana State line, of which, also, L. D. Dibble.was chosen president. Soon afterward the " Peninsular Railroad Company" was organized, in the State of Indiana, leading in the direction of Chicago, of which Hon, S. Stanfield was elected president. Shortly thereafter a charter was granted to the Peninsular Railway company, running from the western line of Indiana into Chicago. The next step in these multitudinous railroad organizations was the consolidation of the two Michigan roads into the Peninsular Railway company. Following this, the roads in Michi

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. gan, Indiana, and Illinois were consolidated into one corporation by the name of the Peninsular Railway company, of which L. D. Dibble was made president. Now the organization was virtually complete, and they ceased organizing and consolidating for a time, and commenced to construct. Ground was first broken in Battle Creek in the fall of 1866, and the first rail was laid near the works of Nichols, Shepard & Co., on the 11th of July, 1869. By the summer of 1873, the road was completed from Lansing to Valparaiso, a distance of one hundred and sixty-six miles. On the 30th of July of the same year, the Peninsular Railway company was consolidated with the Port Huron and Lake Michigan railroad, under the title of " The Chicago and Lake Huron Railroad Company," and is now operated under that title. The Port Huron and Lake Michigan railroad above mentioned was built by William L. Bancroft, and was managed by him up to the time of the consolidation, since which time he has been the general manager of the entire road. The citizens of Battle Creek voted fifty thousand dollars in aid of the road, and invested an additional thirty-five thousand dollars in its bonds; while private individuals very liberally contributed towards the expenses of its construction. It has been materially beneficial to Battle Creek, inasmuch as it tended to create a competition with the Michigan Central in regard to freights, which resulted in -a decline in the freight tariff. There is no doubt but that benefits commensurate with the enterprise of the citizens in its construction will eventually ensue. The road, with its various connections, under an economical and experienced management, cannot fail to become a paying concern, and a cherished enterprise of Battle Creek. In 1874, William L. Bancroft was appointed receiver of the road, and its business has since been conducted under his receivership. THE MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF THE CITY. The village of Battle Creek was first surveyed in 1835, by General Ezra Convis, assisted by John Meachem, Esq., although no regular plat was made from that survey. During this year Messrs. Joseph, Abraham, and Isaac Merritt, and Jonathan Hart purchased the interest of General Convis, and the year following, in conjunction with Sands McCamly, engaged the services of Samuel D. Moore, a practical civil engineer, to re-survey the village, and to draft a plat of the same, which was accordingly done. Two years afterwards the village contained a population of about four hundred. It had six stores, two taverns, two saw-mills, two flouring-mills, two machine-shops, one cabinet-manufactory, two blacksmiths, and several other representatives of a mechanical and business character. In fact, appearances went to show that the citizens had done what they could, if not to vie with, at least not to disparage the natural advantages the place enjoyed; all and everything, in short, of their handiwork betokened the activity and ingenuity, the thrift and enterprise, of a richly-endowed class of people. The village remained without a charter until 1850, when it was organized and legally incorporated as a village. The subjoined are the names of the presidents and clerks who served under the village charter: Presidents.-William Brooks, Charles Mason (two years), Edward Cox, M.D., R. T. Merrill (two years), Chester Buckley (two years), Jonathan Hart, Leander Etheridge (appointed the same year, to fill the vacancy occasioned by the death of Mr. Hart). Clerks. —Isaac C. Mott, Dwight May, Leonard H. Stewart (two years), Charles S. Gray (resigned July 13, 1854), Eli L. Stillson (appointed to fill vacancy), Joseph Dodge, William F. Neale, Cornelius Byington, Wm. F. Neale. In the winter of 1859 the citizens felt as though the size, enterprise, and importance of Battle Creek deserved higher corporate honors, and therefore called a public meeting to consider the expediency of procuring a charter and city government. At this meeting a committee was appointed to draft a charter for the city, consisting of Leonidas D. Dibble, Myron H. Joy, and Walter W. Woolnough. The act incorporating the city was passed by the legislature, and approved February 3, 1859, and in April of the same year the first election for city officers ensued. We annex a list of the mayors and recorders, from the first city electioni to that of April, 1877, inclusive: Mayors.-E. W. Pendill (three years), Alonzo Noble, Chester Buckley, E. W. Pendill, Tolman W. Hall, Theron H. Tracy, Erastus Hussey, William Wallace, Thomas Hart (two years), Nelson Eldred, George N. Wakefield, Edward Cox, M.D. (two years), Victory P. Collier, Charles Austin (two years), present incumbent. Recrders..-*William F. Neale (two years), Paul Geddes, H. H. Hubbard (two years), Paul Geddes, H. H. Hubbard (four years), Paul Geddes, Charles H.: Hadskin, Charles S., Gray.(three years), Maurice H. Neale, Charles S. Gray (two years),: L. C.. Kellogg, present incumbent. * Also ex-(offcio school inspectors and city clerks. y The city contains four sections of land, two of which-1I and 2-were formerly included in the village and township of Battle Creek, and two-6 and 7-in the township of Emmett. It is divided into four wards, and is governed by a mayor, recorder, and eight aldermen-two from each ward. The present city officers are: Mayor, Charles Austin; Recorder, L. C. Kellogg; Aldermen: First ward, C. R. Thompson and Parley Upton; second ward, Zeno Gould and Henry H. Brown; third ward, Charles F. Bock and Charles F. Walters; fourth ward, Clement Wakelee and Thomas Jennings; Treasurer, Maurice H. Neale; Supervisor, F. H. Rathbun; Marshal, Allen Morse; Justices of the Peace, Tolman W. Hall, Moses B. Russell, and Charles Rowe; Constables, Monroe T. Bartlett, James H. Kraft, Alexander H. Briggs, Erastu s Clark; Night Police, Jerome Angell. CITY HALL. In 1867 the common council of the city of Battle Creek voted twelve thousand dollars, in bonds of the city, to be used for the purpose of erecting a city hall. The building, which is of brick, and three stories high, was completed in 1868. The first floor is occupied as a fire-engine house; the second floor contains the council chamber, police office, and recorder's court-room, and other rooms of minor importance, while the third story consists of a large hall used for caucuses and other public meetings. The building is surmounted by a tower, in which a bell is to be placed at no distant day. In the rear of this building is the city jail, which is not a very handsome structure, but doubtless good enough for the present requirements of the city. Misdemeanors are rare in Battle Creek, and criminal offenses still more so. THE FIRE DEPARTMENT. Among the institutions that have redounded to the honor of the city have been its fire-companies. The original Tempest, No. 2, hand-engine company, was organized August 2, 1856. On that day a public meeting of citizens was held to organize a fire-company. Chester Buckley presided, and L. H. Stewart acted as secretary. A temporary organization was perfected by the election of N. Fillio as foreman; V. P. Collier, assistant; and L. H. Stewart, secretary. At a meeting of the company, held August 12, the following gentlemen were elected permanent officers, and " Tempest" selected as the name of the new company: Foreman, John Nichols; First. Assistant, John J. Wheeler; Second Assistant, George Hyatt; Third Assistant, W. G. Morehouse; Secretary, N. Fillio; Treasurer, V. P. Collier. From that time until the outbreak of the war of the Rebellion this company maintained a leading position among the volunteer fire-companies of Michigan. The company took part and won victories in the old-time State tournaments. Among the names on the old roll are many who are now prominent business men of the city: V. P. Collier, John Nichols, E. C. Nichols, L. H. Stewart, W. W. Woolnough, William H. Neale, David Shepard, W. G. Morehouse, George W. Hyatt, S. S. French, M.D., James B. Rue, C. Wakelee, Thomas Hart, Peter L. Conine, James C. Halladay, M. Adams, John W. Smith, P. H. Barnes, B. P. Gardner, W. H. Green, C. C. Beach, W. E. Wicks, Theo. Wakelee, J. G. Hoyt, H. Frensdorf, G. P. Burrall, and others. The first to enlist from this city in the war were many of the most active members of the company. Among those of " Old No. 2" who distinguished themselves in the rebellion, and lost their lives in the battle-field, were Colonel L. H. Rhines, Major George C. Barnes, Major C. Boyington, Captain George C. Knight, Lieutenants Charles Galpin, George Hicks, M. Fish, and Sergeants Martin Wager and Richard H. Freeleigh. This company has had two hand-engines destroyed by fire by the burning of their engine-houses. The machine " run" by the present company was purchased by the common council, second-hand, of the city of Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and was known in that department as " J. S. Fillmore, No. 6." It is much superior to either of the preceding ones, and is unsurpassed by any hand-engine in Michigan. During the war the company disbanded, and the present company was organized March 1, 1872, a meeting having been held at the city hall for that purpose. John G. Bohnett was chairman, and Andrew H. Phelps secretary. The following persons were elected officers of the company: Foreman, Charles H. Jeffers; First Assistant, James Finley; Second Assistant, Lewis Williams; Secretary, H. Phelps; Treasurer, A. A. Ellsworth. The company has gradually increased in strength and efficiency until now it is the model volunteer fire-company of the State. At the State tournament held at Kalamazoo in 1874 it won the first prize and the State championship. At the State tournament held at Jackson in 1875, the company again won the first prize and State championship. They. still hold the champion banner of Michigan. At the Jackson tournament they made the remarkable throw of two hundred and twenty-nine feet six and a half inches, the best horizontal throw ever made by a hand-engine.. The session rooms of the company are the handsomest and best furnished fire

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Page  91 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 91 I I'".";'""". men's rooms in the State. Pictures of fire views adorn the halls, and the room is filled with firemen's relics and trophies of the palmy days of hand-engines. The company now numbers fifty members, all volunteers, is well organized, and in good financial condition. The present officers are: Foreman, J. B. Dolliver; First Assistant, U. S. Moore; Second Assistant, Peter W. Diamond; Recording Secretary, Edgar M. Hidsman; Financial Secretary, William H. Rowe; Treasurer, William H. Bordine. Union, No. 1.-On the 11th of May, 1863, the common council appointed a committee with authority to purchase a Button & Blake steam fire-engine. The committee consisted of Aldermen Chandler Ford, T. Wakelee, J. G. Hoyt, T. W. Hall, and C. S. Gray. They reported that they had selected a Button & Blake engine, weighing four thousand four hundred pounds, which, with a hose-cart and eight hundred feet of hose, the city could purchase for five thousand dollars. The committee were authorized to buy the same. An informal ballot was then taken as to the name to be given to the engine, and " Union," suggested by Alderman Hall, was chosen out of half a dozen. The present Chief Engineer is William H. Mason; Assistant Chief Engineer, A. B. Powell; Engineer, George Eldridge; Foreman, Charles S. Mason. The Goguac Hook and Ladder Company was organized in December, 1874, by electing N. A. Osgood, foreman; James Caldwell, first assistant; V. C. Wattles, second assistant; and B. T. Skinner, secretary and treasurer. The company is equipped with one thirty-foot practice ladder, one scaling and two extension ladders, and eight Babcock extinguishers. On the 4th of July, 1876, they won the Centennial prize of fifty dollars in a tournament with the Rescue Hook and Ladder Company, of Marshall. The present membership of the company is thirty. Present officers: N. A. Osgood, foreman; A. M. Phillips, first assistant; Gren. Macard, second assistant, and T. B. Skinner, secretary and treasurer. Altogether, the city is well supplied with fire-companies and the necessary facilities for extinguishing conflagrations. BANKS AND BANKING. Banking is a system established for the security of business and commercial transactions. It is the recognized agent between borrower and lender, and for convenience and safety is indispensable. The finances of a community are represented to a great extent by their respective banking establishments; hence, any data pertaining to the banks and banking of a particular community form an interesting item in its history. We annex a brief historical sketch of the three banking establishments of the city, together with a statement of their financial condition at the close of business on the 1st of May, 1877. THE FIRST NATIONAL BANK was organized March 28, 1865, and commenced business on the 1st of April following. The first officers were Loyal C. Kellogg, president; Charles M. Leon, cashier; Henry S. Brooks, teller. The first board of directors was composed of David Miller, William Andrus, Thomas Hart, Loyal C. Kellogg, Henry D. Hall, William Wallace, and William Brooks. The present officers are V. P. Collier, president; C. Wakelee, vice-president; Wm. H. Skinner, cashier; Scott Field, teller; James Boughton, book-keeper. The directors elected at the last annual meeting are V. P. Collier, Clement Wakelee, E. C. Nichols, W. H. Skinner, William Merritt, Samuel Convis, and Henry McNary. The financial status is shown by the subjoined statement, which we here take occasion to remark is first-class: capital, $100,000; surplus, $45,000; independent department, $111,353; national circulation, $90,000; loans, $188,156; government securities, $100,000. THE CITY BANK OF BATTLE CREEK was organized and incorporated under the State banking law, in March, 1871. The first officers were-President, R. Kingman; Vice-President, Nelson Eldred; Cashier, R. P. Kingman. The first board of directors consisted of R. Kingman, Nelson Eldred, C. Wakelee, J. F. Moulton, R. P. Kingman, E. W. Pendill, and Alonzo Noble. The present management is as follows: President, Nelson Eldred; Vice-President, R. P. Kingman; Cashier, B. F. Skinner. The financial status of the establishment is shown by the following legally authenticated statement, published January 1, 1877: Resources.-Loans and discounts and accrued interest, $152,260; overdrafts, $3675; due from banks and bankers, $59,124; furniture and fixtures, $2800; fractional currency, $430; legal tender and bank notes, $25,714; total, $244,003. Liabilities.-Capital, $50,000; surplus, $28,348; deposits, $163,155; dividend account, $2500; total, $244,003. A. C. HAMBLIN, BANKER, established himself in the private banking business in 1859. Good for one hundred cents in the dollar. BATTLE CREEK POST-OFFICE. The post-office at Battle Creek was established in 1832, and Polydore Hudson was appointed the first postmaster, under Andrew Jackson's administration. The office was kept in Mr. Hudson's log house, and the rate of letter postage was twenty-five cents. The following table gives a list of all the postmasters from, 1832 to 1877, inclusive, together with the administration under which they were appointed: Postmaster. Year. Administration. Polydore HIudson...............................1832.............................. Andrew Jackson. Nathaniel Barney..............................1834..............................Andrew Jackson. Sands McCamly.................................1835.............................. Andrew Jackson. John L. Bolcomb...............................1841........................ 1841......Martin Van Buren. Alonzo Noble.................................... 1845.............................. James K. Polk. Leon H. Stewart......................... 1849.............................. Zachariah Taylor. Alonzo Noble.................................... 1853..............................Franklin Pierce. W illiam S. Pease.............................1858.............................. James Buchanan. William M. Campbell.......................... 1858..............................James Buchanan. George M ead..................................... 1860.............................James Buchanan. Tolman W. Hall..............................1861.............................Abraham Lincoln. Edward Van De Mark.........................1866..............................Andrew Johnson. Chandler Ford...................................1867.............................. U. S. Grant. James S. Upton...............................1869....................... U. S. Grant. D. V. Bell..................................................U. S. Grant. Capt. W illiam W allace........................ 1871..............................U. S. Grant. The gross amount of business transacted at this office for the year ending April 1, 1877, is represented by the following figures: Receipts on postage, etc., $13,880.51; expenses, including postmaster's salary, $6453.97; net income, $7426.54; number of money-orders, 3760; amount, $42,212.43; fees on same, $436.05; drafts on postmaster at New York, $11,800; total receipts, $54,048.48. Disbursements: 3416 money-orders paid, $50,130.09; 26 orders repaid, $240.85; money-order expense account, $275.54; amount remitted to Detroit, $3150; balance on hand, $252; total, $54,048.48. Number of registered letters originally mailed, 525; number of registered letters delivered, 1558; registered packages distributed, 1568; registered packages received, 3126; letters received and delivered, 219,848; letters mailed, 265,655; postal cards, 50,794; newspapers, 443,014; second-class matter mailed, 37,646 pounds; postage on the same, $885.15. Officers: William Wallace, postmaster; James Ferguson, assistant postmaster; John K. Lotridge, mailing-clerk; Miss Alice Wallace and Philo D. Ferguson, clerks. THE OPERA-HOUSE. One of the chief attractions of Battle Creek is its commodious opera-house. Up to 1868 the city possessed no regular place of amusement of sufficient size to induce large first-class theatrical troops to visit the city. In that year, however, Mr. A. C. Hamblin, with his characteristic enterprise, erected a handsome and substantial building, which he fitted up in elegant style, and introduced in it all of the modern improvements and stage effects. The ceiling is beautifully frescoed, and the general arrangement of the seats is made with a design to the comfort of the audience. The auditorium is seventy-two by one hundred feet, and, with the gallery which surrounds it, has a seating capacity for twelve hundred, The house was erected at a cost of forty thousand dollars, and is used for any legitimate amusements. In addition to the opera-house, Mr. Hamblin -erected the " Peninsula block," and several private houses, and has done much towards the development of the city. GOGUAC LAKE. Away back in the misty past, ere the pioneer settler had penetrated the wilds of the primitive forest, or had planted his home on the beautiful prairie, the lovely body of water called by the Indians Cogh-wa-giac, and by the first settlers Gogoguac, and now Goguac lake,-was known and cherished by the aborigine. Situated in a region unrivaled in the fertility of its soil and the beauty of its landscape, no wonder that the children of the forest selected it as a suitable spot to build their mound and to erect their wigwam. Traces yet remain, undefinable except to the eye of the antiquarian, perhaps, of an Indian mound, located in the sinuosity of the lake's border, directly west of Ward's island. Tradition has it that as early as 1833, Dorrance Williams, a pioneer whose memory is kept green by the number and peculiarities of the law-suits in which he was engaged, was seen one day by the watchful Indians desecrating their mound by digging therein with a spade, in order to gratify his -curiosity as to its contents. The redskins waxed exceeding wroth, and it must have been an imposing spectacle to behold the wrothy Indians haranguing the frightened desecrator in their flowery language. It was here, perhaps, that he was addressed by the dusky orator, who, as the poet says, spake,

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGANN. " Hos docet ore facilis natura diserto, Linguse grande loquens est idioma sume." "With native eloquence their speech abounds, Untaught by figures grand, and lofty sound." However this may be, it is an historical fact that Williams became so deeply impressed with the angry gestures (the language he didn't fully comprehend), that he dropped his spade, and for the space of " twelve moons" Goguac and its vicinity saw him no more. He went east, doubtless adapting the old aphorism to his individual case, that the preservation of his top-knot was the first law of (his) nature. Over the placid and beautiful water of the lake once glided the bark canoe, freighted with the noble red man, who amid the sea-like solitude watched his chance to spear the sportive bass, or catch the graceful pickerel. But the days of his glory have departed, and the hand of oblivion is stretched forth to close forever the gates that lead to the memory of his existence. With a long farewell to the sachem whose nod perchance was the law of his empire, and whose voice was the oracle of his people, we come down to our time, and view the doings of a people more enlightened than he, but perhaps less happy. But a few years have elapsed since Goguac lake became a general pleasure resort for the people of Battle Creek and other cities within a radius of fifty miles or more, —since, in fact, the loveliness of the place became duly appreciated. Since the inauguration of fishing, picnic, and pleasure parties, and the establishment there of a hotel and a place for the enjoyment of terpsichorean exercises, Goguac has risen amazingly in the estimation of the seekers after genuine and unalloyed pleasure. On the 1st of April, 1875, Mr. R. W. Surley commenced the erection of a hotel, which two months afterwards was thrown open to the public. It did good service until the morning of March 22, 1877, when it was totally destroyed by fire. On the 14th of May of the same year Mr. Surley began to rebuild, and on the 1st of June following a commodious hall, thirty-two by sixty-two feet, was appropriately opened by a dance and other festivities; also a detached building, twenty-six by twenty-eight feet, and two stories high, which will be used as a residence for '" mine host" and a general dining-room. In this building there will also be a few spare sleeping-apartments. Mr. Surley contemplates erecting a larger building for hotel purposes next season. The grounds around the lake are neatly laid off and supplied with croquet sets, elevated seats, boat-house, where can be obtained row-boats, single or for parties; a stand for refreshments, lemonade and cigars, etc., is conducted by Mr. Surley himself, and is first-class in every particular. The groves on the borders of the lake are shady and of surpassing loveliness, and are admirably adapted both by nature and art for picnics and quiet repose. The fishing is unsurpassed; while a boat-ride either in a skiff or in the elegant little steamer, " Lew Clark," is a rare pleasure. Having recently enjoyed a ride in her, we feel rhythmical, and perpetrate the following: L-ew Clark,-little steamer on Goguac's fair lake,E-ver tenderly cherished for fine trips she can make, W-e can always rely on ease, comfort, and care,C-onvenience too,-and a sweet, balmy air. L-et us view all her beauties, inspect well her deck, A-nd her engine once view, neat and clean without speck. " R-ightful pleasure," her motto, she ne'er will discard: K-ept all things in order, and no comforts debarred. * Another institution which is closely identified with Goguac lake is the GOGUAC BOAT-CLUB, which was organized July 24, 1873, and incorporated April 24, 1876. It has eighteen active members and a commodious boat-house on Ward's island, a convenient body of land in the northern end of the lake. They own and man the following boats: ten-oar barge, " C. A. Ward," length fifty-two feet, beam fifty five inches; four-oar paper shell, " A. W. Field,"' length forty-one feet, beam seventeen and one-half inches; four-oar paper shell, " Perhaps," length forty-three feet, beam twenty inches; double-scull, no name, length thirty-five feet, beam sixteen inches; single-scull, no name, length twenty-nine feet, beam ten inches; single-scull, no name, length twenty-nine feet, beam ten inches. The club has a well-equipped gymnasium and club-room, in the Riley block Battle Creek, in which the members meet for business and to practice in the winter season on a hydraulic arrangement, which gives all the motions of rowing and develops the muscular organization. The present officers of the club are: President, Dr. T. W. Robertson; Vice-President, C. H. Hinman; Secretary and Treasurer, W. H. Eldred; Captain, C. W. Brown. The above, with H. H. Hubbard, E. Harbeck, and Scott: Field, compose the board of managers required by the State law. The boys have been successful in several contests of skill, notably in the northwestern regatta, held at Toledo, Ohio, in 1874, in which they rowed against the boat-clubs of that city, 6 us. 10, and no allowance of time. They carried off the prize,-two statuettes and a silk pennant,-which, with other trophies, decorate their club-room. As an evidence of the moral, material, and social progress and importance of Battle Creek, we may mention that it has six churches, denominationally classified as follows: one Methodist Episcopal, one Congregational and Presbyterian, one Baptist, one Episcopalian, one Baptist (colored), and one Catholic. The pulpits of these various denominations are generally filled with able and eloquent divines and preachers.* Battle Creek has three banks and banking-houses. It has a large number of manufacturing establishments, of which Nichols, Shepard & Co., the Upton Manufacturing Company, and the Battle Creek Machinery Company are among the most extensive. It has three large grist-mills, namely, those of J. M. Ward & Son, Thomas Hart, and Titus & Hicks. There are ten dry-goods stores, of which those doing the largest business are T. B. Skinner & Co's., Wakelee & Griswold's, Austin & Hoffmaster's, Stebbins & Coon's, and B. F. & H. T. Hinman's. There are fifteen groceries, the representative firms in this line being S. W. McCrea & Co., Leon & Jennings, J. A. Van Valkenburg, T. Wakelee, C. R. Thompson, Powell & Hodskin, J. C. Halladay & Co., and the Grange co-operative store. It supports four drug-stores, namely, those of Grandee & Hinman, E. L. Jones & Co., John Helmer, and Holton Bros. It has three jewelry establishments,-Osgood & Chapin, Galloup & Hollister, and A. W. Avery. There are six boot- and shoe-stores, of which J. M. Caldwell & Son, Neale Bros., J. R. Godsmark, and T. J. Hazard & Co. are the most extensive. Of hardware-stores there are two, namely, Brock & Peters and Wattles & Wood; and the same number of furniturestores, those of Buck, Hoyt & Co. and Henry Gilbert. The ladies are supplied with millinery by fourteen establishments, those of Misses Hodges & Wells, Mrs. Baldwin, Clara S. Shepard, and Mattie Lewis being the largest. The gentlemen are called upon to patronize seven gent's furnishing-goods stores, of which J. M. Caldwell & Son and Parker & Helmer are representative firms; also six merchant tailors, of whom George C. Morrow, Henry Brown, and C. F. Zang are the principal ones. There are three stationery-stores, kept by F. E. Peasley, H. J. Johnson, and E. R. Smith, respectively. There are two photograph galleries, those of Theron Crispell and Spencer L. Miller. The "staff of life," and the concomitant luxuries of confectionery and ice cream, are supplied by C. B. Welsh & Co., J. H. Scott, and J. F. Gillman. Many of the above establishments occupy large and spacious edifices, and contain stocks of goods that will successfully compete with any in the State, outside of Detroit. The educational and literary institutions of the city are among the finest in the State. There is a graded high school which ranks among the first in Michigan, and occupies a building surpassed by none in this or neighboring counties. There are three secondary and primary schools. Here also is located the college of the Seventh-Day Adventists, together with a good commercial college. It has four ably-edited and well-conducted newspapers. It has a large number of secret and benevolent societies, among which might be mentioned one lodge of Free and Accepted Masons; one chapter and one council of Royal Arch Masons. It has one lodge and one encampment of the Independent Order of Odd-Fellows one Rebekah Degree lodge of the same order; and one tribe of the Improved Order of Red Men. It has a lodge of the Independent Order of Knights Templar, a Ladies Library Association, a Hibernian Society, a well-organized Young, Men's Christian Association, and other similar institutions too numerous to mention. Among the prominent professional men of the city are Drs. E. Cox, S. S. French, J. H. Wattles, A. S. Johnson, M. W. Tomlinson, T. W. Buthrick, and T. W. Rob ertson. The legal fraternity is largely represented, among its principal members being Dibble, Brown & Thomas, Myron H. Joy, Alward & Harris, N. H. Briggs, and others. The location and business facilities of Battle Creek are not surpassed by any other town or city of like population (seventy-five hundred estimated) in the State, and the abundance, cheapness, and quality of its domestic market make it desirable as a manufacturing or retiring locality. It is gradually becoming a prominent railroad centre, being in direct communication with Chicago and all points intermediate and beyond on the west; with Detroit and other points east; with Lansing and other important places northeast, and with South Bend, Valparaiso, and other points southwest. It is within easy communication, also, with the lakes, from any port-town on which steamers run regularly during navigation, touching at all the principal points on the entire chain. Among the distinguished men who have made Battle Creek their place of residence are Hon. Benjamin F. Graves, one of the judges of the supreme court; Hon. Victory P. Collier, ex-State treasurer; Hon. P. H. Emerson, supreme judge, See history of the churches.

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Page  93 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 93 of Utah Territory, and Hon. George Willard, who represented this (the third) district in the forty-third and forty-fourth Congress of the United States. The salubrity of the climate and the plenitude of pure water render Battle Creek a peculiarly healthful place, while the large volume of running water furnished by the Kalamazoo river and Battle creek tends to make the place comfortably cool, besides supplying as fine a water-power as is found in the State. The industry and enterprise of the citizens have done all they could, if not to vie with, at least not to disparage, the many natural advantages of the place; all and everything, in short, of man's handiwork, as exhibited in the number and variety of the manufacturing and business interests of the city, betokens the activity and ingenuity of a tasteful and richly-endowed class of people. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT SOCIETIES.* Battle Creek Lodge, No. 12, F. and A. M.-This lodge first worked under a dispensation granted on the 14th of April, 1846, in a back room of the office then occupied by Messrs. Campbell & Cox, and there matured the plans which caused the standard of the order to be planted in the place at that early day. The altar was first erected on the 22d of December following, in an unfinished room of a building which occupied the present site of Noble's block. The charter was granted on the 14th of January, 1847. Among the charter members of the lodge were Silas Cox, Colonel John Stuart, Chalett Cady, Warren Joy, Charles L. Bird, Thomas Dunton, G. P. Smith, Eli L. Stillson, William Hicks, Charles Bartlett, and Charles Mason. A portion of the money donated to procure the dispensation was contributed by Brothers Sibley, Tillotson, Pratt, Kaerstadt, and Ketchum, of Marshall. Of the eleven charter members only three survive, Brothers Bartlett and Mason. The first officers of the lodge were Charles Bartlett, W. M.; Charles Mason, S. W.; Silas Cox, J. W. The present officers are Brainard T. Skinner, W. M.; Michael Rainbow, S. W.; Miles Willetts, J. W. Chapter No. 19 was chartered January 14, 1858. The officers elected at the first meeting were Leonidas D. Dibble, H. P.; Edward Cox, K.; Justin P. Averill, S. The present officers are Charles Austin, H. P.; Darwin D. Buck, K.; Marcus C. Shaffer, S. Zahud Council, No. 9, was chartered January 14, 1861. The charter members and officers were Ebenezer Sprague, Beverly Beardsley, Justin P. Averill, Theron H. Tracy, William Brown. The present officers are A. B. Powell, T. I. M.; Darwin D. Buck, D. M.; Marcus C. Shaffer, T. C. of W. All the above Masonic bodies are in a prosperous and flourishing condition. Battle Creek Lodge, No. 29, 1. 0. 0. F., was instituted under a dispensation, November 11, 1847, by Hon. Isaac E. Crary and Dr. Hahn, of Marshall, and worked under the same until January 20, 1848, when the grand lodge granted a charter, under which it worked successfully until January, 1857. For the space of nearly two years it ceased to work, but was again resuscitated October 12, 1859. Among the charter members at the institution of the lodge were L. H. Stewart, who was elected N. G.; Joseph Burnton, V. G.; G. B. Thayer, Sec'y; Wm. Brooks, Treas.; E. Cox, Warden; and Eli L. Stillson, Con. The present officers of the lodge are as follows: Edwin Van Horn, N. G.; J. F. Miller, V. G.; H. A. Culver, Sec'y; Charles H. Crawford, Treas.; Wm. M. Russell, Per. Sec. The appointed officers are Geo. P. Burrows, Warden; Thomas M. Taylor, Con.; Wm. D. Parker, I. G.; E. B. Russell, O. G.; J. M. Galloup, R. S. N. G.; Richard Mockmore, L. S. N. G.; William Adams, R. S. V. G; H. Cooper, L. S. V. G.; Wallace Hoyt, R. S. S.; W. Pierce, L. S. S. The society now numbers one hundred members. The amount of aid rendered by it during the past year was two hundred dollars. Sprague Encampment, No. 23, was instituted under a dispensation May 27, 1867, and chartered by the grand encampment January 15, 1868. The charter members were B. F. Fairchild, A. A. Whitney, A. E. Kocher, A. C. Culver, C. H. F. Kraft, George P. Burrall, Simeon S. French. The first officers were B. H. Fairchild, C. P.; Simeon S. French, H. P.; C. H. F. Kraft, S. The present officers are John F. Miller, C. P.; Charles H. Canfield, H. P.; Moses B. Russell, S. W.; Eli W. Flagg, J. W.; Wm. H. Bordine, S.; Thomas N. Taylor, T. Friendship Lodge, No. 1, Degree of Rebekah, was organized March 11, 1869, with the following officers: B. F. Fairchild, N. G; Mrs. Helen Bidwell, V. G.; Mrs. A. N. Cooper, S.; Mrs. Abbie R. Flagg, T.; Mrs. G. Lewis, P. S. The present officers are Eli W. Flagg, N. G.; Mrs. Libbie Flagg, V. G.; Mrs. Charles Grodevant, S.; Mrs. S. P. Perkins, T.; Mrs. Abbie R. Flagg, P. S. Moguago Tribe, No. 10, I. O. of R. M., was instituted through the efforts and encouragement of J. V. Johnson, P. S. of Sawba tribe, No. 9, of Charlotte, now editor of the Ingham county Democrat. A meeting was held at the law@ Gleaned from an address delivered by Dr. A. T. Metcalf. office of Dibble, Brown & Thomas, May 12, 1875, at which Frank W. Clapp presided and Charles S. Marr acted as secretary. It was decided to organize a tribe of the Improved Order of Red Men on the eve of the 20th, and the name of " Moguago" was selected in honor of old John Moguago, a Pottawatomie chief who lived on the reservation in the township of Athens. At this meeting the following gentlemen were elected chiefs of the new tribe: H. H. Brown, P.; Frank W. Clapp, S.; Wm. H. Bordine, S. S.; Chas. E. Barnes, J. S.; Chas. S. Moore, C. of R.; E. H. Perry, K. of W. Another informal meeting was held at the law-office of Joy & Clapp, May 10, and on May 20 Moguago tribe was instituted in the Patrons of Husbandry hall, by Chiefs Wm. H. Palmer, S. Musliner, and E. Hamilton, of Cayuga tribe, No. 6, of Jackson, assisted by Chief J. V. Johnson, a delegate from Sawba tribe, No. 9, of Charlotte. The tribe held its councils in the Patrons of Husbandry hall until January, 1876, when they removed to their present wigwam, on the third story of No. 4 East Main street, where the first council was held on the evening of January 17. The tribe now numbers fifty members, has a pleasant and commodious wigwam, and is in a prosperous condition. The council-fire is kindled on the "second sleep" of each " seven suns," at the seventh run" and " thirtieth breath." The following are the present chiefs: Charles S. Mason, P.; Monard Lafever, S.; W. W. Briggs, S. S.; James H. Gridley, J. S.; Charles Van Valin, C. of R.; A. M. Minty, K. of W. Hesperian Lodge, iNo. 78, I. O. of G. T., was originally chartered January 30, 1860. After running for a number of years the interest in it began to wane, and in the fall of 1876 its members disbanded. In February, 1877, it was resuscitated, and recommenced work under the old charter. The present officers are: J. F. Raynes, W. C. T.; Mrs. O. Harris, W. V. T.; J. B. Ellsworth, W. S.; Conrad Hulscher, W. F. S.; Thomas G. Iden, W. T.; William P. Milliman, W. M.; Miss C. Harris, W. I. G.; T. W. Case, W. 0. G.; Mrs. A. A. Manchester, W. C.; Jesse Farrington, P. W. C. T. Present number of members in good standing, about two hundred. The Young Men's Christian Association was originally organized February 17, 1867, and after existing a few years succumbed for the want of financial aid, and died a natural death. July 17, 1876, the present society was organized by the State agent, Mr. Weidensall, when the following officers were elected: President, E. Clapp; Vice-President, L. A. Foote; Secretary, Martin E. Brown; Treasurer, 0. W. Bailey. The original charter members other than the officers above named were William T. Skinner, D. Landreth, F. H. Latta, C. Hulscher, E. Shupe, and J. Miller. From an original membership of ten the society has steadily increased until it now numbers fifty-seven. Its present officers are: President, F. H. Latta; Vice-President, L. A. Foote; Secretary, Martin E. Brown; Treasurer, O. W. Bailey. The association conduct mission services in the country schoolhouses, and hold street-preaching during the summer. During the past winter they conducted one of the best courses of lectures ever held in the city. They are perfectly non-sectarian, and are strictly a Christian layman's society banded together for effective work. They sustain a reading-room, and are engaged in a most worthy cause generally. The Hibernian Benevolent Society was organized January 11, 1871. The first officers were: John Murphy, president; James Willis, vice-president; James Dodd, secretary; Michael Colvin, recording secretary; John Hart, treasurer. The society meets on the fourth Sunday of each month at No. 4 East Main street. The present officers are: John Murphy, president; Patrick Brogan, vice-president; John Dunn, secretary; Michael Donnelly, treasurer. It has a membership of about twenty. The Choral Union.-A society organized January 2, 1877, " for the purpose of improvement in the knowledge and practice of music," with a membership of one hundred and thirty, which has since been increased to upwards of two hun dred. The first and present officers are: Hon. Charles Austin, president; M. H. Neale, vice-president; B. T. Skinner, secretary and treasurer; Prof. M. N. Cobb, musical director; Mrs. C. A. Ward, pianist. The board of management consists of Messrs. William T. Neale, Charles Peters, E. T. Freeman, H. W. Herns, and Mesdames A. S. McAllaster, C. E. Bartlett, and F. G. Shepard. The German Cornet Band was organized January 1, 1873, with a membership of six persons, and has now eleven pieces, as follows: Gustav Brucher, leader, E-flat cornet; Julius Martin, E-flat clarionet; Elijah M. Dailey, first B-flat cornet; Fred. A. Allwardt, second B-flat cornet; Conrad Hattendorf, first E-flat alto (trombone); William McDonald, second E-flat alto (trombone); Bruna A. Nisser, B-flat tenor (trombone); Wilhelm Burbach, B-flat baritone (trombone); Louis Schlund, E-flat basso; Edward R. Bartlett, tenor drum; John K. Lothridge, basso drum. MAPLE STREET. Battle Creek is noted for the beauty of its streets and the general cleanliness

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of its thoroughfares. Among the most beautiful streets in Michigan Maple street holds a conspicuous position. The number and style of its private residences are the marvel of the casual visitor and the pride of the city. A notable feature about the houses is the diversity of. architecture exhibited, for there are no two dwellings on the entire street that have any similarity to each other. This affords an absence of sameness that is both attractive and unique. Each place has a neatly-kept lawn and garden, some of which are stocked with rare shrubs and plants and decked with the choicest gifts of Flora's treasury, while all are supplied with shade-trees and other evidences of taste and comfort. Among the mansions particularly worthy of mention we observed those of Messrs. E. C. Nichols, J. M. Caldwell, David Shepard, John Nichols, J. M. Ward, C. Wakelee, V. P. Collier, T. B. Skinner, J. L. Whitcomb, and John F. Hinman. While Maple street, as a whole, far exceeds any other in the city or county, yet there are in various parts of the city isolated residences that will compare favorably with the best of those on Maple. Among these might be mentioned those of Messrs. Leonidas D. Dibble, Erastus Hussey, A. C. Hamblin, A. Lewis Clark, Alonzo Noble, Henry H. Brown, W. W. Larmour, and many others. A neat and ornamental place in the central part of the city is the VINEYARD AND GARDEN of A. C. Hamblin, in which he cultivates a variety of grapes, fruits, and vegetables. The vines are set out in circles, around a natural mound, and present quite an attractive appearance. The revenue of the city for 1876-77 was provided for as follows: by taxation on property, general city uses, $4630.26; streets and bridges, $2400.87; fire department, $1543.46; railroad aid, $17,796.47; schools, $22,789.30; total taxes, $49,160.36. Added to this amount is the amount received from the specific tax on liquor-selling, $2225, making the total revenue for the fiscal year now current, $51,385.36. POPULATION. In 1860 the population of the city of Battle Creek was returned by the census at 3508 souls, constituting 734 families, dwelling in 730 houses. In 1870 the population was returned at 5838 persons, constituting 1234 families, with a dwelling-house to each. 2854 of the individuals were males and 2984 females. In 1874 the assessors could not find so many people in the city by some 515 as the United States marshal reported in 1870, there being but 5323 persons, 2527 being males, and 2796 females. Of the males, 979 were over twenty-one years #and under forty-five, the military age; 472 were over forty-five and under seventyfive, and 24 were over seventy-five but under ninety. 1206 of the ladies were of the marriageable age, as defined by the social statistician, between eighteen and forty years; 605 had passed the latter age and were under seventy-five, while 25 were in the "sere and yellow leaf," beyond the three-quarter mark of the century. The married and the single formed the following opposing lines: 1121 * of the males over twenty-one were heads of families, or had been, while 312 had never been so blessed, or otherwise, as they might individually view the matter. 1147 ladies over eighteen years were, or had been, in allegiance to the sterner sex, and 463 of their sisters over the same age had never referred the questioner to the paternal ancestor, at least successfully. THE POLITICAL SENTIMENTS of the citizens of the city are revealed by the tally-sheets of the presidential * elections occurring since the municipality assumed its city government. In 1860, the vote stood as follows: Republican.-First ward, 203; second ward, 97; third ward, 140; fourth ward, 104. Total Republican, 544. Democratic.-First ward, 101; second ward, 46; third ward, 47; fourth ward, 41. Total Democratic, 235. Republican majority, 309. In 1864, the poll lists revealed the following figures: Republican.-First ward, 228; second ward, 87; third ward, 121; fourth ward, 116..Total, 552. Democratic.-First ward,.96; second ward, 49; third ward, 44; fourth ward, 40. Total, 229. Republican majority, 323. In 1868, the vote was as follows: Republican.-First ward, 344; second ward, 95; third ward, 19.7; fourth ward, 162. Total, 798. Democratic.-First ward, 147; second ward, 61; third ward, 52; fourth ward, 60. Total, 320. Republican majority, 478. In 1872, the vote. stood thus.: Republican.-First ward, 294; second ward, 93; third ward, 150; fourth ward, 171. Total, 708. Democratic.-First ward, 157; second ward, 61; third ward, 40; fourth ward, 83. Total, 341. Republican majority, 367. In 1876, the vote was as follows: Republican.-First ward, 385; second ward, 109; third ward, 188; fourth ward, 216. Total, 898. Democratic.-First ward, 215; second ward, 105; third ward, 71; fourth ward, 100. Total, 491. Republican majority, 407. Peter Cooper received 15 votes from his admirers, the " greenback" men. This last vote-1404-would indicate a population of 7000 persons, reckoning five persons to one legal voter. IN THE REBELLION. During the late war, Battle Creek was patriotic, brave, and earnest. Her Mason, Barnes, Rogers, Preston, Byington, Hicks, and many others bore gallant testimony, in the face of the foe, to the standard of Battle Creek soldiers, and those who fell were in the fore front of the charge, leading where danger was most to be feared. The people faltered not as the long years passed wearily by, but the gaps in the ranks, made by disease or torn open by shot and shell, were filled and refilled by the flower of the city, until the bloody and dreadful struggle was over. Then their shattered columns returned, to settle back again into routine of peaceful avocations, and fight their battles o'er again by the fireside, or on the anniversary of their muster-in to clasp again their comrades in fraternal embrace, with the old warmth gendered on many a bloody field or midnight bivouac. BATTLE CREEK TOWNSHIP. THE present township of Battle Creek was formerly included in the original township of Milton, which was regularly organized in 1833, and contained the area that now constitutes the eight congressional townships of Bedford, Pennfield, Le Roy, Athens, Burlington, Emmett, Newton, and Battle Creek. The first township meeting was held at the house of Samuel Convis, who was elected the first township clerk. No records of the township prior to 1836 exist, but we find that in that year the following entry was made by Judge T. W. Hall, who was then township clerk. "4 The township of Milton as now organized includes townships Nos. 1 and 2, south of ranges 7 and 8 west, according to the United States survey, April 4, 1836.7" It remained as above until 1839, when, by an act of the legislature passed during that year's session, it was again altered so as to contain township 2 south of range 8 west (Battle Creek township as at present), township 1 south of range 8 west having been set off as the township of Bedford. No other changes have been effected in the area of the township, except that caused by the incorporation of the city, which took sections 1 and 12 from the township and annexed them to the corporation. By an act of the legislature, approved March 19, 1840, the name of the township of Milton was changed to that of Battle Creek. The first settlements made in what now constitutes Battle Creek township were on Goguac prairie, in the year 1831. It was quite natural that the influx of immigration should concentrate on the easily cultivated and fertile prairie land; and so we find that ere scarcely a location was made on the oak openings, or heavily timbered land, Goguac had become quite a busy settlement. Among those who were prominent in effecting the early development of this portion of the township were Josiah Goddard, Isaac Thomas, Uncle John Stewart, Dorrance Williams, and others. Josiah Goddard came to Michigan in 1829, and settled in Detroit. We find that he brought Sherman Comings into the State in the fall of that year. He drove two fine span of horses before a Pennsylvania wagon, traversing the un broken wilderness along the old Chicago trail from Detroit to Ypsilanti, thence to Jonesville, Sturgis, Bronson's prairie, Prairie Ronde, and Grand prairie, from which place Mr. Comings came to Toland's prairie. Mr. Goddard returned to Detroit by the old Territorial route, and was so pleased with Goguac prairie that he selected it as, his future home, made a purchase of lands, and moved his family there in the fall of 1831, and settled on section 15, on the farm now owned by David Young. He had been a soldier in the war of 1812, and was in every respect a model and patriotic pioneer. The only near representative of his family now residing hereabouts is his daughter Mrs. William Reese, of Battle Creek. Isaac Thomas came in from New York and settled on section 14 in 1831. He was an honest and upright citizen, a good neighbor, and a hardy, intelligent pioneer. "Uncle" John Stewart, Sr., settled first at Ypsilanti in 1824. His family consisted of his wife, five sons, and two daughters. He was married three times, having children born to him by each wife; in all twenty-one, of whom twelve are

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Page  95 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. now known to be living. Of those who settled in Battle Creek township, only John, Joseph W., and Levi remain, the others being scattered all over the Union, and one, James, resides in Canada. Dorrance 'Williams first came here as a surveyor in the employ of the United States government, in 1828, and assisted in surveying the lands included within the present limits of Battle Creek township. Having an eye to fertility and beauty, he selected the northeast fractional quarter of section 14, now owned by J. F. Foster, and late in the fall of 1831 settled on it. He was a man of peculiar disposition, and perhaps is better remembered as being the participant in numerous lawsuits than by any other personal characteristic. We quote from Mr. Van Buren the following description of a scene at a lawsuit in which Mr. Williams was plaintiff: c" The following nice distinction we have never heard equaled in any courtroom. The complainant in a lawsuit in which Dorrance was plaintiff, was testifying, as the latter thought,.falsely; this he would not brook, and rebuked him with ' You lie, sir!' Whereupon the court censured Dorrance, saying it could not allow such language to be used. This put the chivalric bachelor on his dignity, and he thus explained: ' Your honor, had I said to this man you lie, I ought to have been fined for contempt of court. But I said, You lie, sir! Which last word "sir" raised the expression from any vulgar meaning, and instead of slandering the man I honored him by its use.' The court, no doubt astonished at this profound distinction, waived all censure and proceeded with the trial.'' At one time Dorrance attempted to satisfy his curiosity concerning the Indian mound in his farm, by digging into it. The Indians, observing him at work on the mound with his spade, threatened him to such a degree that he was afraid to remain in this part of the country. He was gone something over a year before he returned. A notable acquisition to the settlement of the township arrived in the fall of 1835, in the person of Rev. John Harris. Perhaps to no man in Calhoun County is its religious development more indebted than to him. He was an earnest and faithful worker in the Lord's vineyard, affiliated with the Baptist denomination, but not of that strongly sectarian character that ignores the claims of others to the benefits of denominational Christianity. He was not only a forcible and lucid expounder of the Scriptures, and a good preacher, but was also practically identified with the physical development of the township, as well as intimately so with the spiritual. He was born in Nassau, Rensselaer county, New York, September 16, 1790, converted in 1815, and was ordained a minister of the Baptist church in 1816, and after a faithful ministry, extending over a period of forty-eight years, he died in the Lord, on the 15th day of October, 1864, reverenced by many and esteemed by all who knew him. Deacon Solomon Case arrived in 1835, but did not permanently settle with his family until the year following. He was a man well qualified to assume the role of pioneer; and did much towards the development, both physical and spiritual, of the then infant settlement. His widow and his son, Thurlow, and daughter, the wife of Morgan G. Beach, are the only representatives of the family now residing in Calhoun County. The years 1835 and 1836 were very prolific in arrivals to the township. Among those coming in as permanent settlers in 1835, were Anson Mapes, who settled in section 30, where he resided forty years, and died there March 31, 1875; his widow still lives in the old homestead. Aaron and Bradley Morehouse; the former settled on section 26, and the latter on section 35. Asa Langley came from Kentucky, and settled on section 26. Andrew Reese was born in West Stockbridge township, Berkshire county, Massachusetts, February 4, 1790. Was married to Electa Burghardt, July 16, 1812, moved from thence to Berkshire, Broome county, New York. In the fall of 1835, he, with his family, moved to Battle Creek township, from Monroe county, New York, and settled on the farm which continued to be his home until his death, September 2, 1875. His widow still survives, being eighty-five years old. There are also ten children living. In 1836, among others, came Peter Dubois, and settled on section 25; Frederick P. Peet, on section 14; Giles Andrus, on section 11; Henry Eberstein, on section 9; William McCollum, on section 26; Joseph Young, on the farm now owned by his son David, on section 15, which he purchased of Josiah Goddard; Harvey B. Lewis, on the farm now occupied by his son, Jonah K., in section 25 (1835); Deacon Herman Cowles, on section 36, on the farm now occupied by Egbert Stone; Dr. John Beach, on the farm now occupied by his widow and their son, E. Darwin Beach, on section 34; Allen Willard, father of Hon. George Willard, editor and proprietor of the Battle Creek Daily Journal, who settled a little north of the farm on which he died in 1876, aged over eighty years. Henry Thiers located in South Battle Creek, and was one of the early justices of the peace of the township. Martin and Ephraim Van Buren, sons of Ephraim Van Buren, Sr., came in the spring of 1836, and settled on the northwest quarter of section 21, which the latter had located the year previous. He and his wife and daughter, Eliza, and.son, A. D. P. Van Buren, now of Galesburg, Kalamazoo county, came in October, the same year. Deacon William Betterly came from western New York, and settled north of Goguac prairie, in 1836. During the latter part of his life he lived in Battle Creek, and died there on the 10th of July, 1870. THE FIRST FARM OPENED was by Isaac Thomas, and the first soil plowed within the limits of the township was on this farm, and done by James Simonds, in 1832. The first grain was also sowed in it in the spring of 1833. THE FIRST ORCHARD was set out by Uncle John Stewart, on the farm now owned and occupied by William C. Foster, in section 14. It still exists, though repeated grafting has impaired its productiveness. THE FIRST LOG HOUSE was erected by Isaac Thomas, in 1831. After building it he returned east for his family and arrived in his place here the following fall to find that his house had been destroyed by fire. The accident was caused by the Indians; whether intentionally or not was never rightly known. THE FIRST BIRTH in the township was that of Calhoun Goddard, son of Josiah Goddard, who was born in a log house which stood on the farm now owned by David Young, in 1833. THE FIRST MARRIAGE was solemnized on the same day that Calhoun County was organized, namely, March 6, 1833. The parties to this interesting coincidental contract were John Stewart, Jr., and Anser, and the event was celebrated on Goguac prairie. The parties went to Marshall to be united by General Crary, then a justice of the peace, but were informed by him that he could not legally tie the knot until they had procured the necessary license, which could only be accomplished by a journey to Kalamazoo. Three days were spent in this preliminary, and then the expectant couple were made one. THE FIRST DEATH that occurred in the township was that of Mrs. John Stewart, who died September 17. 1832. Her funeral sermon was preached by Rev. Mr. Hobart, of Marshall, and was undoubtedly the first religious discourse delivered in the township. EARLY SETTLEMENTS. Speaking of the settlements on the prairie in 1836, A. D. P. Van Buren, in his series of excellent papers on the early history of Battle Creek township, published in the Battle Creek Journal, says," The day following we passed by Polydore Hudson's tavern at the Gulf, just east of Battle Creek. Here we took the old road by way of Joe Farnsworth's, Isaac Tollands, Warren B. Shepard's, and up Conway hill to Goguac prairie. The first house west of Conway's was Mott's. Dorrance Williams lived on the south side of his farm, near the woods. The old road formerly went this side of the prairie. East of him was Daniel Thomas, then Mrs. Peter Michael, in Frederick P. Peet's log house, Uncle Isaac Thomas, his sons, Frank, Hiram, and Orson, and last, John Stewart, were all on the south side of the prairie. On the Territorial road, west of Mott's, was first Samuel Gregory's log house, and a log building on the northeast corner of his farm, tenantless; then came Rice's, now W. B. Frink's; Giles Andrus, where his son Henry now lives, was next; then Uncle John Stewart's, in a small frame house, where W. G. Foster now lives. There was a small log structure just west, on the same side of the road, unoccupied; Deacon Joseph Young lived next, in a log house, where his son David now lives; Enoch Stewart had a log house on his " eighty," just opposite; Taylor Stewart's log house was next, and Ebersteine lived in the log house in the southeast corner of Andrew Helmer's farm; Mr. Simonds and his son John lived just north of the prairie; and still farther north were Betterly Reese and Shepard, and west of them were Van Woert, Moyer, and the Tobys. Crossing the prairie and turning at Deacon Young's, southwesterly, we drove into the woods, some two miles farther, and, 'As Twilight let her curtain down, And pinned it with a star,' we halted before the new log house, our future home in Michigan. We looked around for neighbors. Nothing visible but the beautiful oak openings! We were alone in the silent woods."

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The country improved very rapidly after 1836, and where once existed thicklytimbered land sprang up fine and well-cultivated farms. For the betterment of their farms, improved stock and machinery were introduced, the first IMPROVED STOCK having been brought in by Judge Eldred, of Kalamazoo, who used to bring in good graded cattle and sheep, and trade with the pioneer farmers as early as 1840, taking in exchange hogs, which he would ship east. About the same time Messrs. Joseph Roly, of Genesee county, New York, and John F. Kilkey, of Gull prairie, brought in sheep. They used to bargain them off on the basis of one-half the wool raised, and at the expiration of three years double the number of sheep received should be returned to them. Money was very scarce in those days. THE MANUFACTURING INTERESTS of the township have been represented by a SAW-MILL, erected by Asa Langley, about 1837. He operated it about ten years, after which it was conducted by a man by the name of Onderdonk, and discontinued about 1860. Abraham Minger erected a GRIST-AIILL in the township at a later day, and although we have endeavored to obtain information of it both from him and from the present proprietor, it was of no avail. All that is known is that it has frequently changed hands, and no one now knows precisely who owns it. It will be remembered by some of the old pioneers that in 1838 Major and Nelson Mott came in and started a settlement, and made some preparations for a village, to be known as HEamilton. Their efforts were futile as regards the village, although their laudable endeavor was perpetuated by naming the vicinity ' Hamilton Lane," which it has retained for many years. THE FIRST STONE HOUSE was built by Joseph Young, and bears the date " July 4, 1841" on the slabs in the front wall. It is now owned and occupied by Deacon David Young, son of the original owner. THE FIRST BRICK HOUSE was built by Harriett, widow of Dr. John Beach, in 1849. It has been occupied by herself and son, E. Darwin, and his family, since its erection. THE FIRST ROAD running through the township, or any part thereof, was the the old Territorial road, surveyed and laid out in this neighborhood about 1831 or 1832. THE FIRST SCHOOL was taught on Goguac prairie, in a small log school-house, by Aranthus Thomas, in 1833 or 1834. Among the first scholars were the Stewarts, Goddards, Thomases, Conways, and others. No records exist of the district schools, and no person whom we have interrogated on the subject remembers the date of their organization. RELIGIOUS MEETINGS by Methodist itinerants were held as early as 1833, notably at the house of Daniel Thomas, when the Rev. Mr. Hobart, of Marshall, preached the gospel to the early settlers. Meetings were held quite regularly at the house of Deacon Joseph Young, in 1836 and 1837. A Rev. Mr. Mason, of the Presbyterian persuasion, is also remembered by some as preaching among them as early as 1836. There has been no regularly organized religious society in the township outside of the city except the SOUTH BATTLE CREEK BAPTIST CHURCH, which was organized by Rev. John Harris in 1839, and legally instituted and recognized as a society in 1842. Among the original members were Rev. John Harris, Deacon Solomon Case, Alexander Dane, Bradley Morehouse, David Fish, Levi Vedder, and their wives, and a number of others. They first held their meetings in private houses, and subsequently in the school-house, until 1847, when the present church edifice, a neat frame structure, was erected, and dedicated to the service of God the same year. Rev. John Harris was the first pastor, and Solomon Case the first deacon. In 1850, Mr. Harris was succeeded in the pastorate of the church by Rev. Samuel Jones, who remained with the congregation about two years. Then Rev. George Hickox succeeded to the pulpit, and occupied it for three years. In 1855, Rev. T. Z. R. Jones became pastor, and after him Revs. William Roberts and George Harris. Until recently, students from Kalamazoo have officiated, and the church, by reason of deaths and removals of members, discontinued their services temporarily. They are now repairing their house of worship, and will doubtless ere long renew their meetings. For a number of years Mr. O. B. Green acted as clerk to the society and church, but removed to Battle Creek recently, where he now resides. A Sabbath-school was organized about the same time as the church, and was sustained irregularly for perhaps a quarter of a century. No statistics of either the church or Sabbath-school are furnished. FIRST TOWNSHIP MEETING. "At a meeting of the electors of the township of Milton, legally held at the house of Ezra Convis, in said township, on the fourth day of April, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-six, the following township officers were chosen for the ensuing year, and the following votes passed, viz.: E. G. Smith, supervisor; Talman W. Hall, clerk; David H. Daniels, Warren B. Shepard, Jeremiah Gardner, and John H. Michael, assessors; John Farnsworth, collector; Moses Lowell, John V. Henry, Harvey B. Lewis, commissioners of highways; Joseph Farnsworth, John S. Holliday, Enoch Stewart, Napoleon B. Harper, constables; Tolman W. Hall, David W. Howell, Joseph S. Weed, John Balckom, and Asahel Beach, inspectors of common schools; Nedebiah Angell, Isaac Thomas, overseers of the poor; David W. Howell, Polydore Hudson, and Jonathan Thomas, commissioners of common schools; Moses Hall, Cephas A. Smith, Stephen Collins, and Samuel Robinson, justices of the peace. Overseers of highways for the districts numbered according to the order of their names: Jeremiah Gardner, Warren B. Shepard, Moses Hall, John Harper, Samuel Convis, George Johnston, James Worden, Daniel Thomas, Taylor Stewart, Stephen Gilbert, William D. Eaton, David W. Howell, William Knowles, Otis Williams, Samuel Robinson, Benjamin Harper, and John Wolf. " On motion, it was voted that swine weighing over thirty pounds, horses, cattle, and sheep be lawful commoners. "That fifty dollars be raised for the support of the poor the ensuing year. "That one hundred and fifty dollars be raised for the purpose of building bridges in said township. "That the next township meeting be held at the house of Leonard Starkweather, in the village of Battle Creek. " On motion, adjourned. " NEDEBIAH ANGELL, Moderator. " SAMUEL CONVIS, Township Clerk. "POLYDORE HUDSON, Justice of the Peace." Supervisors, 1837.-Asahel Beach, Moses Hall, Warren B. Shepard, Sidney Sweet, Orlando Moffatt (four years), John Champion (two years), Joseph Barton, John Stewart, Harvey B. Lewis, Abner E. Campbell (six years), John Meachem (two years), Simon S. French, Otis B. Green (two years), Charles Coy (three years), Edward White, William Harris (two years), George Bently, Charles Rowe, Hector Adams, George I. Brown (three years), Abraham Minges (five years), present incumbent. Clerks. —Tolman W. Hall, Benjamin Richards, Eli L. Stillson, Isaac Van De Bergh, Erastus Hussey (two years), Joseph Barton, Abner E. Campbell, Samuel C. Merrill, Charles S. Gray (two years), Leonard Stillson, Myron H. Joy (two years), Joseph Babcock, Leonidas D. Dibble, Justin G. Averill, Eli L. Stillson, Joseph Dodge, Edwin J. Dickinson, Cornelius Byington, William F. Neale, John B. Root, Frederick P. Root (four years), Charles Coy, Thurlow W. Case (two years), Ralph B. Cummings (two years), W. H. Chadwick, Charles Rowe (three years), Charles H. Joslyn (three years), William J. Forster (two years), present incumbent. Justices of the Peace. —David H. Daniels, Heman Cowles, Moses Hall (eight years), John Meachem, Henry Tears, Cyrus Hewitt (vacancy), Eli L. Stillson (eight years), Nedebiah Angell (eight years), Elias C. Manchester, Aaron Morehouse, Henry Andrus, Benjamin F. Graves (eight years), Simon V. Carr, John L. Balckom, Samuel S. Jennings, Myron H. Joy, Dwight May, Anson Mapes, Stephen Gilbert, Henry Andrus, Erastus R. Wattles, Levi Mosher, Solon E. Robinson (seven years), Henry J. Champion, Edward White (four years), Milton H. Gregory (three years), Isaac P. Hart (two years), Elijah Trumble, Lewis A. Nichols, William F. Halladay, Peter Crosby, Warren Frink (vacancy), Isaac P. Hart (eleven years), Morgan G. Beach, Barnett Wood, David Young, William McCollum (vacancy), William Fuller, Abraham Minges, Henry D. Ward, Henry D. Ward (vacancy), Samuel B. Nichols, Gilbert Warner, Frederick P. Peet, David Young, Hector Adams (one year), E. L. Jackson, J. B. Ashley, William" E. Fuller, Caleb Boylan (three years), 1877.

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Page  [unnumbered] 4 - - I - - - -. T OLD HOMESTEAD. I - I: LI\ ERASTUS' HUSSEY. MRS. SARAH E. HUSSEY.. i RESID~NCE or ERASTUS HUSSEY, BATTLE CREEK, MICH..:0 -........ a -

Page  97 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 97 BATTLE CREEK (GRANGE, NO. 66, was organized September 6, 1873, at the residence of N. and C. Chilson, in the township of Emmett. The following were the first officers and charter members: Master, N. Chilson; Overseer, Charles Merritt; Lecturer, L. K. Phelps; Steward, Chester Chilson; Assistant Steward, H. L. Munn; Chaplain, Daniel Caine; Treasurer, I. W. Caine; Secretary, J. A. Robinson; Gate-keeper, Miles Townsend; Ceres, Miss I. V. Chilson; Pomona, Mrs. D. Phelps; Flora, Miss Delie Chilson; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss Hattie Robinson; Mesdames H. A. Chilson, H. M. Chilson, Myra Caine, P. L. Munn, E. M. C. Merritt, Hattie Townsend, and Mrs. James Haryhan. The present officers are-Master, N. Chilson; Overseer, A. Minges; Lecturer, Albert Dickinson; Chaplain, Mrs. H. B. Hoagland; Steward, J. M. Paul; Assistant Steward, William Paul; Treasurer, David Young; Secretary, Chester Chilson; Gate-keeper, John Newman; Ceres, Mrs. A. Minges; Pomona, Mrs. D. Simons; Flora, Mrs. A. Stringham; Lady Assistant Steward, Miss D. Newman. The present membership of the grange is one hundred and forty-five. Its place of meeting is in Grange hall, Finley block, Battle Creek. In January, 1874, N. Chilson was eleeted a member of the executive committee of the State grange, and held the office for two years; during the last of which he was chairman of that committee. On the 27th of August, 1874, he was appointed State Purchasing Agent, which position he held until January, 1876. Battle Creek grange is now in a flourishing and prosperous condition, many of its members taking an active part in working and deliberations. GOGUAC LAKE.* t An interesting feature of Battle Creek township is that beautiful sheet of water called Goguac lake. The Indian name was Coghwayiac, so spelled in the old records, Gogoguac, as spelled by the pioneers; but the latter was anglicized by the settlers by dispensing with the "go," and the more ancient name lost its identity. It is located in sections 14, 22, and 23. On its borders once existed an Indian mound, and it is otherwise worthy of note. NOTE.-We are under obligations to the following gentlemen for information concerning the history of this township: Messrs. J. W. and John Stewart, Barnett Wood, Harvey J. Du Bois, E. Darwin and Mrs. John Beach, and A. D. Van Buren of Galesburg, Michigan, for many years a resident of the township. " See a more extended description in the history of Battle Creek city. BIOGRAPHI CAL S:KETCHES. ERASTUS HUSSEY was born in the township of Scipio (now Ledyard), in the county of Cayuga, State of New York, on the,5th day of December, 1800. This part of the State in that day was mostly an unbroken wilderness, and roamed over by the aboriginal tribes of the Seneca, Cayuga, and Onondcaga Indians. It was a fair and beautifully romantic country, situated among and around that delightful chain of lakes interspersing that fair region from Onondaga to Canandaigua, and was very attractive. Although it was on the verge of western civilization, it was much sought by enterprising and adventurous pioneers in search of new homes in the western wilderness, and was in that early day denominated " the lake country," and very appropriately called the garden of the State. On a farm one mile east of the beautiful village of Aurora, Erastus Hussey was born. Here he spent all of his early days of boyhood and early manhood. With the placid waters of Cayuga lake ever in sight, and surrounded by scenery of exquisite beauty, it was no marvel that the enthusiastic imagination of the boy was captivated, and he pronounced it the loveliest spot on the face of the earth. Ever since, through a long and eventful life, the recollections of those scenes of his boyhood, with the memory of the innocent and-unalloyed pleasures which surrounded him, have brightened his pathway and cheered him on in the way of his duty. Surrounded by watchful guardians whose salutary advice restrained him from dissipation, the innocence of his childhood's days has strengthened his later years, and will console him as he descends to his last resting-place. His school-day privileges were small. In that new country no graduating honors were bestowed except the ticket of merit which was won as head of the spelling-class or the advancement from one primary branch of education to another. These were primitive days, when the sceptre was held by the country school-master, backed up by the persuasive eloquence of the birch and ferule, and made tangible in the rude log school-house where he held absolute sway. In those early and rude times education was obtained under difficulties, where only the four fundamental branches of education were taught. Spelling, reading, writing, and arithmetic were the sum total of science imparted to students in those log structures, and yet the knowledge thus obtained laid the foundation of enviable fame for many who commenced their upward march from this low beginning. Under this system the subject of this memoir received his scholastic education. The saving clause in this district school-teaching, was the requirement of a perfect knowledge of each branch in its course, with rewards of merit for the victor. And in the races for the prizes he won his full share. Unfortunately, his time for even these advantages was limited, for his school privileges seldomn extended over three months in the year, and ceased at the age of fourteen, after which time his services were required on the farm. Now, what could not be oained in time must be saved by diligence. Every hour that could be spared from the plow or other farm-labor must be employed in 13 useful study. But he availed himself of another advantage,-he had access to the Union library situated in the village of Aurora, which was well filled with standard works of history, travels, and poetry, of which he was a constant reader and admirer. This course of reading, with the close application to the study of sacred history, made him a good historical and Bible scholar, as well as inducting him into the masterly and entrancing beauties of Homer, Milton, Shalkspeare, Ossian, etc. Thus his time passed, filled up by useful employment, until he arrived at man's estate, happy in his attainments and in the society of the numerous friends which surrounded him. Erastus Hussey had now arrived at an age that required action. He had decided to make agriculture the leading business of his life. He had long contemplated the means by which he could procure a farm of his own. He was poor, and it became necessary that he should turn his attention towards a new country where land was cheap. Already he had visited the Holland purchase, in the south part of Erie county, New York, where many of his friends resided. But he did not like the country, and could not make up his mind to make it his home. He then turned his mind towards Ohio and Indiana, both of which States were by general report described as desirable and fertile regions, but still he hesitated. Michigan began now to be talked about. This was a region little known in those days, and what was known was to its discredit. It was represented on the maps as surrounded by impenetrable swanps and marshes, while the centre of the Territory was described as a desert destitute of water, and the current report was that it was uninhabitable. In 1823 a few emigrants removed to the Territory, but some returned, bearingI a bad report. In 1824, Thomas J. Drake, a schoolmate of the subject of this sketch, visited him. He had just returned from Michigan, and gave a glowing account of the country. He had located at Pontiac, the county-seat of Oakland county, where he intended to build up a business. The information of his friend Drake decided him. It was the first reliable account he had received of the country. His mind was now mnade up, and he resolved to take a trip to the peninsular Territory. This was in June, 1824, and he immediately began to make preparations for the journey, and was ready to start by the 1st of September. On a bright and beautiful morning in that pleasant month he turned his back on the home of his youth, and went forth to seek his fortune in the wide world alone. No one of his numerous young friends bad the courage to accompany him. Some expressed a desire to do so, but shrank from fear of the difficulties to be surmounted. Cheered on by hope and the love of -adventure, he made his way on foot to Buffalo. Here he went on board the steam brig "1 Superior," the only one then on Lake Erie, and sailed from Detroit. On board were a few adventurous spirits, who were, like himself, seeking homes in the wilderness of the far west. The weather was fair, and the companionship of the strangers.was agreeable and in

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. C --- —~ —~-__ ----_-, teresting. Two days and a half were thus spent pleasantly, when the vessel reached its destination. Here a new prospect opened to the view, such as the new-comers had never realized,-a land of poetry and of dreams, an antique country in a new world,-the quaint old city of Detroit, situated on one of the most beautiful rivers of the world, looking like a beautiful vision in an ancient legend. The little steeproofed houses, with their inevitable dormer windows, and diminutive CanadaFrench inhabitants, made Detroit attractive and interesting. This old city on the borders of the wilderness had been the outpost of civilization for two hundred years. How many events of its long history have been lost to the world! Many reminiscences of hardships and perils are folded away in the book of time and utterly lost. But still some historic mementos remain. A part of the old stockade yet stands, such as was used in the days of Gladwin, the commander and governor of the British fort, such as was used to guard against the fierce attacks of the hostile Indians, led on by that renowned chief, Pontiac, in the memorable siege of Detroit in days long since past. A little above the city was pointed out the battle-ground where the brave Dalzel lost his life in his unadvised midnight attack on the fierce marauding bands during the same siege. The stream still bears the name of " Bloody Run." After viewing many scenes of interest in and around the City of the Straits, Mr. Hussey, accompanied by two of his new acquaintances, George Crozier and Thomas Gillett, turned his face toward the wilderness. At this time, 1824, there were but six organized counties in the Territory. They took the road leading to Pontiac. After crossing a swamp of some miles in width over " Harrison's old causeway," they came to a broad, open country of oak openings. Here he met the only two acquaintances he knew in the Territory, Thomas J. Drake, a young lawyer of Pontiac (afterwards well known as a United States judge of Utah), and Alilen Durfee, both friends of his boyhood. A few minutes' conversation was all that could be spared, and each went on his way. Pontiac contained only a few houses. The country around it was entirely new and full of marshes and little lakes. The land did'not please the adventurers, and they went southward into the timbered region. Here the land was rich and more attractive to the travelers. Fifteen miles brought them to a rude log house, where Arthur Power had established himself a year before. A few enterprising pioneers were scattered over this township (now Farmington). Southwest twenty-five miles was the extreme settlement. One house, surrounded by a beautiful burr-oak grove and occupied' by John Allen and S. Rumsey, stood on the bank of the Huron river, where the city of Ann Arbor now stands. All west to Lake Michigan was an unbroken wilderness. The adventurers were pleased with this wild region, and penetrated the wilds in search of good locations. On the second day of special land-viewing Mr. Hussey's companions were so frightened and disgusted at the discovery of a Massasauger rattlesnake that they concluded to return; and failing to persuade him to accompany them gave him a friendly hand, and with a " God bless you" left him many miles in the wilderness alone. Mr. Hussey met his friend Crozier thirty years after for the first time, and they had a hearty laugh over the event which caused their separation. Notwithstanding the solitude of his situation he was' nothing daunted, but, with bright hopes, was determined to pursue his travels. With the broad country before him and only a knapsack of provisions, a pocket compass, and hatchet, he pushed ahead in his enterprise. In this manner he traversed the woods for seven days. Having become satisfied with the fertility of a large tract of country, he hired a man to accompany him, and took a southwesterly direction into an unex'plored region. Here he found magnificent land, fertile and attractive, well timbered and watered. Here he determined to stick his stake and make his home.. The farm he selected was nine miles from any inhabitants, and fifteen miles from a public road. He returned to the settlement that night, and the next day, the 9th of October, 1824, went to Detroit and entered one hundred and sixty acres of land. Major Kearsley, the receiver at the land-office, informed him that his was the second entry in the township, and in fact he was the first purchaser who settled on his land, in what is now the town of Plymouth, the northwest township of Wayne county. Erastus Hussey now considered himself a resident of Michigan. The boat bound for Buffalo being then in, he took passage on her and- sailed the next day. He landed at Erie, Pennsylvania, and in company with Luther Landon, an acquaintance from his native town, and, like himself, a land-viewer, left for the southern part of Erie county, New York, a distance of ninety miles. They traveled on foot, but, as they had a smooth road and beautiful weather, they did not mind the fatigue. The first day they traveled thirty miles, and on the next made a forced march, and traveled sixty miles between sunrise and sunset. Being now among his friends, and weary and footsore from over-exertion, he was rejoiced to find a cordial welcome. In this neighborhood he determined to spend the winter, and took charge of a school for four months. As he had only a shilling left in his pocket when he arrived here, this gave him an opportunity to recruit his finances. After spending a pleasant, and as he believed a useful, winter, he returned to his native place, where he spent the summer in working on a farm. In June, 1826, he again visited Michigan, found his land surrounded by settlers, and the country all alive with activity. Immigration was now pouring into the Territory rapidly. The prospect was encouraging; he made a small improvement on his land and returned late in the autumn, when he again took a large school for four months. On the 21st day of February, 1827, Erastus Hussey was married to Sarah E. Bowen, the daughter of Benjamin Bowen, of Cayuga county, New York. She was a young lady possessed of a highly-cultivated mind, and their attachment was of long standing, having been acquainted from childhood. This Mr. Hussey looks upon as the most important period of his life, for it gave him an accomplished companion, who was willing to leave all her refined associates, and the society so dear to her, and go with him into the wilds of the west, help him to overcome the privations and surmount the obstacles of an unknown future. In 1827 Erastus Hussey and his wife left their old home and sorrowingfriends, setting their faces westward with strong hopes and a stronger determination to face the world and seek happiness in each other's society. His wife was young and beautiful, scarce beyond her girlhood, only nineteen, and looked too frail and delicate to be transplanted into so rude a home. But, like a true pioneer wife, she stood ever by his side, rejoicing in his success and consoling him in his trials. Ever ready to extend a helping hand, she has been his adviser, counselor, and stay for more than fifty years; for the golden era of their married life has passed, leaving the reflection of uninterrupted domestic happiness. No lightning train or fast-sailing steamboats were at the disposal of travelers in those days, so the journey of the pioneers had to be performed on the canal line boat, the lumbering steamboat, and, lastly, by ox teams, into the interior, where they arrived on the 27th of July, 1827. They occupied a temporary shanty, and suffered much for a time from sickness incident to the country. Late in the fall the neighbors helped him roll up a log house, which he finished with his own hands, and moved into on the 1st day of January, 1828. Thus his home was fairly established, and hope of happiness in the future more than compensated for all the sufferings of the past. To add to their happiness, a daughter was born to them this year. She is their only child, and still lives to comfort them in their old age. On this farm Erastus Hussey lived for nine years, made many improvements, and built up a beautiful home, which he sold in 1836. He now traveled two years in company with his wife and little daughter, to recover his health, which had become impaired by over-exertion in clearing up his new farm. They journeyed together through Ohio, New York, and New England to the sea-shore, with their own carriages. In 1838 he returned to Michigan, and settled at Battle Creek, his present residence. In religion, he professes the doctrine of the society of Friends, or Quakers, believing in the " inward light" as taught by George Fox, and that the " grace of God, which bringeth salvation, hath appeared unto all men." In politics, in early life he was a Whig, and boasts that he gave his first presidential vote for John Quincy Adams, " the old man eloquent," and his last Whig vote for William H. Harrison, in 1840. Having always been a firm believer in the equal rights of man as put forth in the '" Declaration of American Independence," he threw himself with his whole soul into the anti-slavery movement. He supported James G. Birney for president in 1844, and took an active part in every movement to put down oppression and curtail the slave power. He took stock in the underground railroad, and managed one section of that celebrated institution. He gave material aid to all fugitives from oppression, and declared his hostility to the slave power publicly and privately without fear or favor. In those days it was a pQsition attended with peril, but he considered it a duty that must be performed. After settling in Battle Creek, Mr. Hussey entered into a mercantile business. In 1843 he took Henry B. Denman as partner, who subsequently married his daughter. The firm continued a successful business for three years, when they dissolved partnership, and in 1847 he closed up the business. This year he built two-fifths of the Union block, the first brick building erected in the village. In the same year he took charge as editor of the Michigan Liberty Press,-a new paper just started as the organ of the anti-slavery or liberty party in the State. This paper had a large circulation, and much influence among the masses. In 1848 he attended and took an active part in the great Buffalo convention that called into existence the Free Soil party. In the spring of 1849 the Liberty Press, with all the materials, was destroyed by fire, and the paper, after issuing a few numbers at Marshall, was discontinued. In the autumn of the same year Mr. Hussey was elected a member of the State legislature on the Free Soil ticket. Here he advocated unreservedly his anti-slavery sentiments, and though in the smallest minority (there being only four Free Soil members in that Democratic house), he was treated with marked respect, and often called to preside over the committee of the whole during that session. 'Having advanced the cause of freedom, as required by his constituents, according to his best ability, he returned to his home to receive their approval. Here new labors awaited him.

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Page  99 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 99 - Cl The education of the rising generation had always been an especial object of his energetic will, and as he was one of the first advocates for the organization of a Union school in the villages, he was called upon to superintend the erection of a suitable building to meet the wants of the people. This enterprise was accomplished that season. In the fall of 1850 he was elected county clerk, and reelected again in 1852, giving him four years of active service. In the summer of 1854, Mr. Hussey was one of the earnest men who called upon the liberal element of Michigan to meet at Marshall in mass convention to take into consideration the best means for the protection of liberty against the aggressions of the slave power. Laying aside all former political preferences, this noble body of men organized the great Republican party, with a platform broad enough for all loyal men to stand upon. This convention was held in July. At the fall election of 1854, Mr. Hussey was elected to represent his district in the State senate. This was the first Republican legislature held in Michigan, and was considered an able body of men. Mr. Hussey acted as chairman of the committee on finance, and took an active part in all the proceedings during the session. He drafted and presented the bill known as the " Personal Liberty Bill," which created much comment and much opposition from the sympathizers of the slave oligarchy. But the bill received a strong support, and became a law, which saved the State from further raids of slave-catchers. It was pronounced by Governor Bingham, in his retiring message, one of the most important laws of the session. On returning home in 1855, Mr. Hussey commenced building up a new home in the north part of the city, which he called Oak Lawn,-a beautiful location, now occupied by the Seventh-Day Advent college. Here he resided with his family for nearly twenty years. He gave a great deal of time to improving and adorning his grounds. But still he was deeply interested in the political questions of the day which so greatly agitated the public mind on the subject of slavery. In 1856 he gave a cordial support to John C. Fremont, the Free Soil candidate for president. Mr. Hussey, in 1860, was sent as a delegate to the Chicago convention which nominated Abraham Lincoln for president. The decisive action of this convention, and the liberal and just sentiments announced in its platform of principles, raised the enthusiasm of the Republican party to the highest degree, and resulted in the election of its candidates. This so exasperated the leading advocates of slavery extension that they counseled secession from the government. A number of the Southern States raised the standard of rebellion, and forced the nation into a civil war. This inauspicious movement of the rebels compelled the loyal citizens to avail themselves of every means at their disposal, and to exert all their energies to subdue the insurrection. The great crisis had arrived. It was now palpable to every one that the principles of liberty must be maintained or the government must be controlled by the slave power. To save the republic Abraham Lincoln issued his " proclamation of emancipation." This act affixed his name to the highest roll of fame, made him a star of the first magnitude in the constellation of reformers, and struck the shackles from the limbs of four millions of slaves. The world stood aghast at this bold policy of the great statesman, but the nation was saved. This grand movement brought about the event for which Mr. Hussey and his co-workers had looked to, and so anxiously toiled for, for more than thirty years. They had hoped to see the emancipation of the slaves accomplished by peaceable means, but it was not to be thus disposed of. For torrents of blood must be shed to expiate the great wrong. The hearts of thousands must bleed for the loss of their first-born, desolation must sweep over the nation, sorrow and suffering must go hand in hand through the broad land before the " oppressors would let the oppressed go free." But the deed was accomplished through bloody struggles, and the disgrace of the Republic was wiped out. This act of emancipation was the crowning glory of the friends of liberty, for it raised the nation to the acme of that perfection desired by the patriots of 1776, and made it the " land of the free and the home of the brave." Mr. Hussey has given much attention to the improvement of the city of Battle Creek, and has always labored with time and money to advance its prosperity. He served as mayor in 1867, and has always been connected more or less with its municipal affairs. In 1874 he sold his beautiful home, "Oak Lawn," to the Seventh-Day Advent Educational Society, and built his present dwelling at the corner of Washington and Manchester streets. In the summer of 1876 he went with his grandson, Frederick H. Denman, to Kansas, —that enchanting region of prairies and flowers. Here young Denman owns large possessions and intends to make his future home. They made a delightful trip home by the lakes, visiting Milwaukee, Mackinaw, and Detroit on their route. In September, Erastus Hussey, in company with his wife and daughter, Susan T. Denman, left home to visit the Centennial Exposition; went by the way of Boston to attend the celebration of the nuptials of their son and grandson, Frederick H. Denman, and Kate A. Strickland, his chosen and accomplished bride. Then, in company with the wedding party, they went on to Philadelphia to mingle with the joyous American throng gathered there to celebrate the one hundredth birthday of the nation. No short sketch can do justice to the grand and admirable collections exhibited; so we will leave it to the pen of a more accomplished writer to delineate its magnificence, and merely give it the appellation of one of the " wonders of the world." Leaving the great Centennial, Mr. Hussey, his wife, and daughter took the route homeward through the romantic Lehigh valley, visiting, on the way, his native land,-the scenes of his early hopes and youthful aspirations. After a prolonged stay and a pleasant journey they found themselves once more at home. The romantic and thriving city of Battle Creek is situated at the confluence of two small but beautiful rivers, known to the red man of the forest by the significant names of Kekalamazoo, or the bright sparkling river, and Wapokisko, the river of battle, or the river of blood, which, after uniting their waters, flow westward, under the name of Kalamazoo river, until they mingle with those of Lake Michigan. Here, in this lovely city, Erastus Hussey has made his attractive home, where, with the wife of his youth and their widowed daughter, he hopes to spend the evening of his days in contentment and repose. HON. CHARLES AUSTIN was born in London, England, April 19, 1834. He received his education in one of the schools of the British and Foreign School Society, an admirable institution for the general dissemination of knowledge in England and the British provinces. He emigrated to America in February, 1852, and had but thirteen English shillings in his pocket on landing in New York. Finding no work in the metropolis, he proceeded to Albany and procured a place at shoemaking, with which trade he had previously become slightly acquainted. He resided in the State of New York until the spring of 1854, when he removed to Concord, Jackson county, Michigan. There he became acquainted with, and, on the 1st of January, 1855, married, Miss Lucy D. Taylor. From Concord he removed to Homer, in this county, in the fall of the same year; and in 1857 to Bedford, in the same county. He was i engaged in the boot and shoe business at Bedford until 1863, when he purchased a general store there, and continued in it until 1872, when he removed to Battle Creek in April of that year, and entered the dry-goods business, in which he is now a prominent and substantial representative, being a member of the well-known firm of Austin & Hoffmaster. While in Bedford he was a member of the Congregational church and superintendent of the Sunday-school. He was also elected justice of the peace one term. In 1875 he was elected alderman of the first ward of the city of Battle Creek, and in 1876 was elected mayor by a large majority, and in 1877 he was re-elected to the same office by an increased majority. He has always been a Republican since the organization of that party in Michigan, and has been a candidate of that party in all the offices to which he has been elected. That he has filled them well is shown by his present popularity. In 1869 and 1870 he made a trip to England, France, Australia, and New Zealand, which occupied some fourteen months. Mr. Austin is a member of the Congregational and Presbyterian church of Battle Creek, is superintendent of its Sunday-school, and president of a musical society called the " Choral Union." He is also High Priest of Battle Creek chapter, No. 19, of R. A. M., all of which positions he fills with honor and credit. Personally he is a gentleman of high morality, sterling integrity, and splendid reputation. In manner he is courteous, in disposition kind, and, whether in his public or private life, always gentlemanly in his deportment; hence he enjoys an extensive friendship, and is highly esteemed for his general good qualities of heart and head. ELIAS C. MANCHESTER was born in Scipio, Cayuga county, SNew York, of Quaker parentage, June 29, 1813. He was brought up on a farm, and received his education at the common schools of his native town, attending them during the winter, and devoting the summer months to assisting on the farm. At the age of eighteen he taught a district school for two terms. When twenty-one years of age he married Miss Amy Ann Howland, a native of Scipio and three years his junior. She is still living, having raised a family of ten children, of whom nine-seven sons and two

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I daughters-survive, having all reached maturity. Five of the sons served their country during the rebellion, distinguishing themselves by courage and patriotism. The names of these are Caleb, Stephen, Perry H., Charles E., and Elias H., all of whom were honorably discharged. Mr. Manchester removed to Michigan in 1836, and settled on a farm now located in Battle Creek, but then a wilderness. He arrived in March of the above year, and, after canvassing the county for a suitable place to locate, his decision rested on Battle Creek, and he returned to New York State and got his wife and baby and made his permanent settlement in September of the same year, on a farm situated on the northwest quarter of section 1, town 2 south, of range 8 west. In politics he was a Whig, and was elected justice of the peace by that party, and has subsequently served the township and city as supervisor for several years; was always an anti-slavery man. He joined the Free-Soil movement, and on the organization of the Republican party acted with it until 1869, when he assisted in the organization of the Prohibition party, and from that time until 1876 he acted with it, and finally affiliated with the Greenback party and supported Cooper for the presidency. From 1857 to 1863 he was interested in the mercantile business in Battle Creek, under the firm-titles of Averill & Manchester and Averill, Briggs & Co. In the winter of 1863 this co-partnership was dissolved by mutual agreement, and the liabilities of the concern honorably adjusted. He has always advocated universal education, has been a true friend to the temperance cause, and for three years presided over the grand lodge of Good Templars. He exercises the right of free thought on all subjects, and is ever ready to investigate all questions, and accepts as truth all that commends itself to his reason and judgment, rejecting nothing without a rigid examination. For the past quarter of a century he has been identified with the Spiritualistic movement, and for three years held the position of president of the State association of that body. ASAHEL BEACH, M.D. Asahel, son of Thomas and Mary Beach, old and respected pioneers of Washington county, New York, was born at Cambridge, the same county and State, on the 25th of December, 1799. His father was a farmer, and the doctor's youth was spent among the natural beauties of the country. He first attended the common schools of his native town, and latterly, the academy at the same place, where he completed his literary education. He entered upon the study of medicine, in 1821, in the office of Thomas Beach, Jr., M.D., who was a prominent physician of Ontario county, New York. He continued his studies with him and Dr. A. G. Smith, who was quite an eminent surgeon of western New York, for some time, and then went to Vermont sand matriculated at Castleton medical college, where he attended two courses of lectures, and graduated with an honorable diploma, December 24, 1824. Was a student for some years with Dr. Anderson, professor of anatomy and operative surgery, of Albany, New York. He then went to Victor, New York, where he practiced his profession for about ten years with marked success. In 1834, he removed to Michigan, and located in what was then old Milton township, now town 2 south, of range 7 west, and within the limits of the city of Battle Creek. He was one of the earliest medical lpractitioners in the county, and although coming here with the intention of devoting his time to farming (locating between five and six hundred acres for that.purpose), he was induced to act as physician to the early settlers, particularly in the sickly season of 1838. About 1843, he retired from active practice, having i in the spring of that year removed to the town of Battle Creek. On the 24th of October, 1826, he married Miss Martha N. Cady, daughter of General Cady, who was born on the same month and date in the year 1809, at Mendon, Monroe county, New York. They had four children, of whom three survive. Martha A. was born November 20, 1831, died November 1, 1834, while en route for Michigan; Mary Adelpha, born January 25, 1834, and now the wife of Frank N. Bennett, of Battle Creek; C. Cady, born November 24, 1836; for some years engaged in the banking business with Mr. A. C. Hamblin; Thomas S., born May 8, 1847, and now resides at Topeka, Illinois. In politics, as in religion, Mr. Beach has ever been progressive. He started out a Whig, and remained with them until the organization of the Republican party, when he became a Republican, and has since acted with them. In religion he is now a Spiritualist. He was first a Presbyterian, afterwards saw something of an advanced nature of thought in-the Universalist doctrine, and affiliated with them. After careful study and investigation of modern Spiritualism he embraced that, as being nearer his views philosophically and theologically. In character he is a person of unblemished reputation; a good, upright, and honest man, and an energetic and capable citizen. HARVEY J. DU BOIS. Harvey J., son of Peter and Sally Du Bois, old and respectable citizens of Saratoga county, New York, and subsequently pioneers of Battle Creek township, this county, was born in Saratoga county, New York, January 5, 1825. He passed his boyhood days on his father's farm, and there acquired those habits of industry and prudential care that have tended largely to his present prosperity. In May, 1836, the family left their eastern home and came and settled in the wilderness that then constituted that portion of Battle Creek township where they located. They made the journey from New York in a covered wagon, and came by the route through Canada by way of Buffalo, occupying about fbur weeks in the toilsome emigration. They stopped on the way to visit some friends, which tended somewhat to relieve the monotony of constant travel. In the early part of June they arrived at their destination, and purchased forty acres, part of the farm of two hundred acres now owned by the subject of this sketch. It was what is designated " oak openings," and they went to work with a will to clear it for cultivation. The family, on arrival, consisted of Peter Du Bois and Sally his wife, and three children, —Harvey J., James G., and Esther Mary. On the 7th of April, 1853, Harvey J. Du Bois and Cynthia J. Stickney, daughter of Euselius Stickney, of Allegany county, New York, were married. She was born in Kendall, Orleans county, New York, March 5, 1826. On her' way west she embarked at Buffalo, on August 18, 1852, on board the ill-fated steamer " Atlantic," which, at two A.M., on August 19, 1852, collided with the " Ogdensburg," and went down with more than two hundred souls. After the collision Mrs. Du Bois was taken from the wreck and placed on board the " Ogdensburg," and reached Detroit safely after a very narrow escape. They had three children, namely, Charlotte E., who was born May 25, 1854; died October 26, 1869; Louette L., born May 7, 1859; Clayton H., born April 27, 1864. On the 25th of February, 1869, Mr. Du Bois sustained the loss of his mother, and on August 30, 1875, his father was called hence. They were both honored members of the Presbyterian church at Battle Creek, and were highly respected by the community in which they had resided so long. In politics Mr. Du Bois is Republican; he and his father before him were strong Abolitionists. He never desired or accepted political preferment of any kind, rather choosing to devote his time to his own business. He never formally joined any religious denomination, but his life has been such that no sectarian influences could have made it more becoming or more truly Christian. His long residence in Battle Creek township, with his energy and faithful work in its development, has made him one of the most respected of its citizens. He is a man whose general worth commands the honor and esteem of all with whom he comes in contact. ISAAC PERRY HART is the third of a family of eleven children, of whom but himself and two sistersone the wife of A. D. Power, of Wayne county, Michigan, and the other the wife of Levi Stewart, of Battle Creek township-survive. His father, William A. Hart, was born February 17, 1792, and his mother, Lydia Perry, May 18, 1794. They were respectable citizens of Washington county, New York, where the subject of our sketch was born December 25, 1819. His father being a farmer, in moderate circumstances, he was early taught habits of industry and economy. He received the rudiments of his education at the public schools of his native place, and completed his studies at Cambridge academy. In 1842 he removed to Michigan, and purchased the northeast quarter of sec tion 18, in Battle Creek township, where he made a permanent settlement. By hard work and practical providence he has added to his original purchase, until he now possesses three hundred acres of fertile and well-cultivated land, on which are good substantial buildings. His residence, an illustration of which can be seen elsewhere in this work, is a model of home comfort, and a fair criterion of his taste and love for domestic enjoyment. On the 2d of May, 1866, he married Calista Dailey, a lady of fine intelligence and excellent housekeeping qualifications. Four children-two sons and two daughters-have been born to them, all of whom survive. In politics, Mr. Hart is Republican, and has been frequently elected to the office of justice of the peace in his township. In religious sentiment he is affiliated to the society of Friends, to which his family for generations belonged. He is a sound, practical farmer, an excellent husband and father, and a worthy and respected citizen.

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Page  101 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 101 - - PHIOTO. BY CRISPELL. JOHN BEACH, M.D. This gentleman was born at Cambridge, Washington county, New York, January 3, 1797. He afterwards moved to Ontario county, where he entered the office of his brother Thomas, who was a prominent physician in that county. After completing his medical studies, and practicing his profession in various places in western New York, he emigrated to Michigan in 1836, and settled on the farm in Battle Creek township now occupied by his widow and their son, E. Darwin, and his family. On the 18th of May, 1823, Dr. Beach married Miss Harriet Van Tuyl, who was born on the 25th of March, 1800. At the time they started to Michigan they had four children-two sons and two daughters. The doctor took the boys and came through in a covered wagon, by way of Buffalo and Canada, to Detroit, while Mrs. Beach came through by Canada to Buffalo, and from there to Detroit on the steamer " Ohio," and joined the rest of the family at Detroit. She recalls the incidents of that voyage very vividly, for she avers that in all her experience she never felt more miserable. She was sea-sick from the time she left Buffalo until she landed in Detroit, and we leave it to those who have been similarly afflicted to realize her position. She had one little girl.and an infant child to take care of, while she herself needed care worse than any of them. She ate nothing during the entire five days, but, if we know anything about sea-sickness, her appetite after landing was keen, to say the least. Nothing is better for the general health than a good spell of sea-sickness, although the indescribable symptoms of the disease are anything but enviable. But she survived it, and came through from Detroit to Marshall by stage, and from thence to the place of her brother-in-law, Dr. Asahel Beach, in Emmett township, where he then resided, about three miles from Battle Creek, without adventure. They got settled in their new home in the woods in the fall of 1836. The doctor immediately entered upon the practice of his profession, and proved himself to be one of the best physicians. There was no medicine to be purchased hereabouts in those days, so that after the supply he brought in was exhausted he had resource to the products of the forest, and practiced on the Thompsonian system. In the sickly season of 1838 he worked hard, and in fact overtaxed his strength to such a degree that about a year afterwards he was taken sick himself, which terminated his life August 25, 1840. He had gone east to endeavor to recuperate his shattered health, and died in New York city. He was a man of fine intellectual ability, of literary culture, of a highly social disposition, and a well-read physician. We quote the subjoined paragraph from A. D. P. Van Buren, who knew him well, and appreciated his worth fully: " Dr. Beach had read many books, was an interesting conversationalist, and I, although he came as a physician, always hailed with delight his visits to our house. The lack of society here in the woods made life lonely, and when he came he would talk about schools, education, books, and other subjects in which my parents and myself were interested. It was necessary sometimes for him to prolong the visit to his patient; he then, turning the chair down on the floor and placing a pillow on its back, would lie down and interest us for hours with conversation and varied narrations from his rich store of knowledge. And I remember the good advice, in regard to securing a thorough education, that I, then a boy, received from our kind-hearted physician and genial friend." Dr. and Mrs. Beach had a family of five children, of whom four survive. We annex the family record, as follows: Jerome B., born May 4, 1824, died June 2, 1825; Morgan Gilbert, born April 30, 1826; Cordelia C., born August 24, 1828; Erasmus Darwin, born March 8, 1831; Mary Ann, born March 31, 1836. E. DARWIN BEACH has always resided on the old homestead. He has acquired an enviable reputation as a good, practical farmer and stock-raiser, and it is safe to say that his extensive farm of three hundred acres is as well cultivated and produces as much per acre as any place in Calhoun County. A peculiar trait of his character is his known kind treatment of and justice towards his hired help, and we venture the assertion that no farmer in the county is ever better supplied, either with regard to numbers, qualifications, or general usefulness. On the 18th of June, 1862, Mr. Beach married Miss Ovieda Strong, and they have two very interesting and promising sons, namely, Harry Dayton, born June 12, 1864, and Carl Franz, born March 20, 1866. An illustration of the Beach farm and buildings is given herewith, together with portraits of the venerable Mrs. Dr. John Beach and Darwin and his wife. They are inserted by Mr. Darwin Beach as a token of affection, and will stand as a fitting monument to his father's and mother's memory, and a pleasant memento to his own family long after the parent stock has ceased to exist.

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. JERVIS H. WATTLES, M.D. This gentleman was born in Troy, Oakland county, Michigan, September 7, 1840. He is the eldest of a family of four children, the son of Harper Wattles, Esq., a prominent and respected pioneer of Oakland county. The family is of Scotch origin; the ancestral name in Scotland, and for a time used by the first emigrants to this country, was McWattles, the prefix being dropped as the family became Americanized. His father was largely identified with the early interests of eastern Michigan, having been occupied for a considerable time in civil engineering and surveying. His parentage is characterized by high morality and integrity, and stands prominent among representative families of Delaware and Broome counties, New York. The leading types evinced in each were a special fondness and adaptability to practical, scientific, inventive, and constructive ingenuity. The doctor, being largely and naturally endowed with abilities of the above kind, early manifested a special interest in studies and works of like character. In particular might be mentioned those of mechanical ingenuity, invention, scientific pursuit, cause and effect, and the demonstration of natural qualities which from any source whatever produce practical results, rather than contributing to the support of fine-spun theories. These, together with liberty of thought and freedom of action, furnish very essential qualifications for the successfill practice of the profession he has espoused. One of the determining reasons for choosing the profession of medicine was the result of long-continued illness in his father's family, where much interest and anxiety were had in the long care of invalid parents. These things, though painful to his filial love, were greatly beneficial in point of practical experience. He was thus early inured to the position of attendant to the sick, which is certainly a very necessary qualification in the family physician. Prior to the commencement of the study of medicine, under the direction of a preceptor, and before the age of eighteen, anatomy, physiology, symptomatology, and homoeopathic Imateria medica had been studied; and at the age of nineteen, after his preparatory education, he commenced the study of dentistry under the tutelage of Dr. T. A. White, of Detroit, later of Battle Creek, and with whom he occupied an office at the latter place for three years. After one year he was obliged to abandon study, on account of severe illness from typhoid fever. A long and terrible sickness in his father's family ensued, and from the same disease his mother and next youngest brother died. This served, after recovery, as a new incentive to the resumption of medical studies, which were then renewed under the instruction of Dr. Day, of Detroit. During the first year's pupilage in medicine he had again to abandon his studies on account of defective eyesight, close application to books resulting in blindness that continued for several months. Thus having twice suffered from a most painful affliction of the eyes, and having been a long time under treatment by eminent oculists in the east and elsewhere, he determined to post himself especially in the department of ocular surgery, and now gives particular attention to all diseases of the eye. Having himself been a sufferer, his experience could not fail to have taught him many things connected with this branch of the profession not generally known to practitioners. The principal part of three years was spent in study and observation under homoeopathic influences, when a change was made, and he entered the office of Dr, J. C. K. Crooks, of Birmingham, Oakland county, Michigan, a highly intelligent and most worthy member of the regular profession, formerly of Richmond, Virginia. Here, in connection with study, and under the counsel of Dr. C., he engaged in general practice, this, however, prior to a course of lectures,thde first being obtained at the University of Michigan in the classes of 1864-65. Then returning to Birmingham he resumed study and practice until the fall of 186.5, when a second course was attended at the Cleveland Medical College, Ohio. Here he distinguished himself by attaining a proficiency in all branches, and a well-earned reputation for diligence and faithful study. In addition to the pre scribed course a thorough acquaintance was had in the manual of operative surgery, under the teaching of Professor Milton J. Woodworth, and he was one of the class which was the first in any school to receive separate diplomas for qualifications in special surgery. His proficient attainments in anatomy obtained a recognition, and for a portion of the term he acted as demonstrator in that department. In 1866 he graduated from this institution with high honors. He returned to Birmingham and began a responsible practice of medicine and surgery. During a two years' sojourn at that place he obtained an enviable reputation for skill and responsibility, as is continually demonstrated by the frequent solicitations for counsel from his former patrons at that place. In May, 1868, Dr. Wattles came to Battle Creek, and certainly no practitioner has been more successful. He now enjoys a large and remunerative practice, which his diligence and generally extensive knowledge of his profession bid fair to increase. In him are found the qualities of a true physician. Kind and sympathizing to those who are suffering, faithful in all professional duties, rapid and sure in diagnosis, prompt in emergencies, and honest in opinion, he cannot fail to hold the conspicuous position he has acquired. The successful results of frequent and delicate operations in general and ophthalmic surgery give evidence of skill and ability in these departments. Resections of important joints for necrosis; ligations of jugular veins, carotid, humeral, femoral, and popliteal arteries for aneurism and in wounds; operations in strangulated hernia; lithotomy, trephining, cataract, strabismus, etc., are not unworthy of a notice. His attainments have given him more than local notoriety, for he has been frequently offered positions of honor in medical institutions of the State. o Truly, we cannot do less than award him a place among the pre-eminent physicians and surgeons of his day. PHOTO. BY CRISPELL. A. L. CLARK. Among the representative self-made men of Calhoun County, none are more deserving of a place in its history than the subject of our sketch. He was born February 3, 1813, and, like most of our successful business men, his early life was one of close application, self-reliance, and self-denial. He worked at the shoemaker's bench for some years, but on accumulating a small capital he made some judicious investments in real estate and otherwise, until at the time of his death, January 15, 1874, he left one of the largest private fortunes in the county, his estate inventorying three hundred and fifty thousand dollars. The good fortune which attended Mr. Clark in all his transactions cannot be considered accidental. It was a necessary consequence of untiring industry, good management of his interests, and, above all, a firm, uncompromising spirit of personal honor and integrity. Coming to Michigan as he did in 1836, and a few years later to this city, where he first began actual business, the speculative tendency which has so conspicuously marked the current of events of late years was comparatively unknown, capital was limited, business principles few and simple, and the standard of individual rectitude severer than we find it in our day. Hard and persistent labor, diligence, punctuality in fulfilling engagements, and, to use a trite but expressive phrase, " square dealing," were then the prime-we might almost say the only-factors of success. These Mr. Clark possessed in a remarkable degree. His name, from first:to last, continued a synonym of sound judgment and sterling honesty. On the 6th of March, 1844, Mr. Clark was united in marriage with Miss Rachel M. Rowley, who was born at Turin, Lewis county, New York, April 14,1826. Seven children-six sons and one daughter-were born to them, namely, Charles E., born December 8, 1844, died August 24, 1846; Clarence C., born May 4, 1846, died March 28, 1868; Mary E., born December 20, 1847, died July 1, 1851; Alexander L., born October 29, 1851; Chester R., born July 5, 1853; Walter, born February 28, 1855; Frederick M., born November 9, 1859.

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Page  103 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 103 I l ANSON MAPES. The late Anson Mapes, son of John Mapes, Sr., and Anna, his wife, was born at Hoosick, Rensselaer county, New York, on the 5th of May, 1810. His youth was spent on his father's farm, and when eighteen years old he left the paternal roof and went out in the world to do for himself. He proceeded to Auburn, in his native State, where he employed himself at farming and teaming, and, by eight years of industry and providence, he managed to lay up about six hundred dollars. Hearing of the remarkable success which the immigrants from the east were achieving in the west in all branches of industry, particularly in agriculture, he wended his way thither, and in 1835 we find him in Hillsdale, Michigan. In the fall of the same year he effected a permanent settlement in Battle Creek township, where, in section 30, he'laid the foundation of what for many years constituted his happy and peaceful home. On the 25th of March, 1847, he married Mrs. Maria Fulton (formerly Miss Maria Blass, who was born at Sharon, Schoharie county, New York, January 14, 1814), a widow lady, having two children by her former husband, one of whom survives, and the other is not. This union was a happy one in every respect; and six children were sent to add to its bliss. These are all 'living, and are useful and honorable members of society in the communities in which they respectively reside. On the 31st of March, 1875, Mr. Mapes was called hence, having faithfully fulfilled his mission on earth. By his death, his family lost a fond husband and father, and the community an estimlable citizen. He was liberal in his support of religious and intellectual enterprises, temperate in his life, and in his business transactions honorable and just. He was eminently a self-made man, having had to rely upon his own resources from boyhood up. By hard work, practical economy, and judicious investments, he had become quite comfortably circumstanced, so that at his demise his widow was left in possession of a fine home, and surrounded by the benefits of a moderate competence. She still resides on the old homestead, around which cluster so many pleasurable memories, and on which so many varied emotions have been felt. Here were their children born; and here, too, the cup of sorrow was filled when Death asserted his triumph, and the loved head of the family was taken from among, them. (See illustration.) HON. GEORGE NELSON WAKEFIELD. George Nelson Wakefield was a son of Simeon Wakefield, one of the early pioneers of northern Vermont. He was born in Williston, Chittenden county, in that State, January 18, 1806. His father being a carpenter by trade, and Nelson the eldest son of a family of six children, it was thought necessary that he should be bred a farmer, although his natural bent of inclination was the study of the law as a profession; but he carried on his farm of one hundred and sixty acres from his early boyhood, exercising his own judgment, principally with regard to buying and selling stock, from the age of fifteen very successfully, his judgment being considered very mature at that age by those best informed. He remained with his parents on the farm until twenty-one years, and subsequently purchased the farm of his father, and remained on it for about twenty years. When about twenty-two years of age he was induced to learn the blacksmith's business with a gentleman who was doing a good business in Williston, and after mastering the trade entered into copartnership with the same gentleman, and carried on an extensive business in the line of his trade and that of a wheelwright. On the 6th day of December, 1832, he was united in marriage to Caroline M., daughter of Enoch Noble, of Richmond, Vermont, and sister of Alonzo Noble, of the city of Battle Creek. Jane Maria, the only child of Mr. and Mrs. Wakefield, was the first wife of the late lamented Z. T. Slater, M.D., of the same city. But the parental love of this benevolent pair was not all lavished on this much loved daughter; on the contrary, it went out to four boys, whom they from time to time adopted into their family and gave a father's and mother's love and care. The first one was Norman W. Barnett, who is now a highly-respected citizen of San Francisco, California. The second was Curtis F. Crittenden, who is the president of the Royal College of Dental Surgery of Ontario, Dominion of Canada, and who was at the bedside of his foster-father during the last illness of the latter. The third one was Willis Lyman, who, at the outbreak of the great rebellion, enlisted as a soldier in the army of the Union, was promoted to a sergeant, and was acting as orderly when he fell, a martyr in the cause of his country, in the last engagement before Richmond. The fourth one was a grandson, Nelson Wakefield Slater, son of their daughter, Mrs. Slater, who, previous to her decease, with the consent of her husband gave her little boy, then two and a half years old, to her father and mother. He was a noble boy, but died at the tender age of scarcely eleven years. Mr. and Mrs. Wakefield had the whole nurture of the boy during the whole of his brief stay among them. During the residence of Mr. Wakefield in his native county he was honored with various offices of trust, and enjoyed. in a marked degree the confidence and friendship of a large circle of acquaintances. He removed to the city of Battle Creek with his family in February, 1857, arriving there on the 5th day of the month, since which time till his death, which occurred March 12, 1877, he was a resident of the city. In 1872, without solicitation on his part, he was elected to the office of mayor of the city by a large majority, receiving his support from both political parties, the duties of which position he discharged with credit to himself and satisfaction to his constituents. Ever faithful and true to the interests of the city, with modesty, which was his crowning virtue, and firmness in his convictions of right, he will ever rank with the tried and true friends of the city of his adoption. During the war Mr. Wakefield was elected chairman of the recruiting committee, and was very active in the Union cause, assisting in raising the quotas of the city, and labored diligently in providing supplies for the sick and wounded soldiers. He, together with his brother-in-law, Alonzo Noble, were among the first to respond to the call of the government of the State for funds with which to prosecute the war. The confidence reposed in his integrity and sound judgment by his fellow-citizens has been evinced by the frequency with which he has been called upon to settle many of the most difficult probated estates in the county, and which, by amicable adjustment and compromise, he has been able to fully settle without expensive and tedious litigation, and bring to a happy issue the most complicated and vexed questions of the law. He was a genial, kind-hearted man, and in all the relations of life discharged his duty with fidelity. But above all, he was a kind husband and father, a true friend and neighbor, and consistent Christian, doing unto others as he would wish them to do by him. He was a member of the Universalist church in Williston, Vermont, and ever practiced the doctrines he professed. Long will he be kindly remembered by those who knew him best. JOSEPH W. STEWART. Joseph W., son of John and Mary Stewart, was born in Romulus, Seneca county, New York, January 8, 1809. In 1824 he removed with his parents to Ypsilanti, Michigan, of which place they were among the very earliest settlers. His father removed to Battle Creek township in 1831, and in 1833 he arrived in the same township and settled on the farm he now occupies, on the northwest quarter of section 27. It required considerable hard work and some sacrifice of comfort to develop the land he took up into the fine, well-cultivated, and productive farm as we find it to-day. But the pioneers came in expecting to exercise laborious exertion, and not to repose on beds of roses. On the 8th of March, 1829, he married MissMary Hiscock, by whom he had three children, namely, James H., born December 9, 1829; Edwin, born October 16, 1832, died July 16, 1853; Joseph, born July 22, 1837, and died in infancy. His wife died soon after the birth of their last child, and having two young children who needed a mother's care, he married again, on the 25th of February, 1838, to Jane Templer. The result of this marriage-which was enjoyed only about a year-was one daughter, Eliza J., born December 31, 1838; died May 26, 1853. On the 3d of June, 1839, he sustained the loss of his second wife, and again married, this time to Sophia Smith, on September 9, 1839. She was called hence September 11, 1864, two days after the twenty-fifth anniversary of their wedding. This union was blessed with four children, namely, Phebe A., born October 17, 1840; Harriet E., born June 2, 1844, died July 20, 1845; Eugene B., born November 25, 1846, died May 2, 1847; and one died in infancy. June 18, 1865, Mr. Stewart, being a firm believer in the Scriptural precept," It is not good for man to live alone," took unto himself a fourth wife, in the person of Lucy Crocker, who is still living, and bids fair to live many years, which her friends trust will be the case. She is a smart, active, and thrifty housewife, kind and affectionate in her domestic relations, and a lady who is very generally respected for her many good qualities. Mr. Stewart possesses one hundred and sixty acres of land, which he keeps in. excellent cultivation. He has held various public offices, notably that of assessor, which he filled for two years. In politics he is Republican; in religion he belongs to the denomination called Christians, and is a member of their church at Marshall. He is one of the oldest pioneers in the township, having passed forty-four years of his life there. He is a man well and favorably known as a good, practical farmer, and a quiet, unostentatious, and honest citizen. An illustration of his farm and building, and a portrait of himself and wife, can be seen elsewhere in this work.

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. BARNETT WOOD. BARNETT WOOD. Barnett, son of Isaiah and Hannah Wood, is of English and Welsh descent, and was born in Otego, Otsego county, New York, May 13, 1812. When but four years old his parents removed to Steuben county, New York, where he attended the public schools two or three terms. When in his ninth year he was bound out to a farmer, with the understanding that he was to receive one year's schooling, of which he actually got six months, and that at long intervals. His master was a stern man, of doubtful morality, while his mistress was a kind and motherly person, who endeavored to make him comfortable during his bondage, which extended over a period of twelve years, terminating with his minority. After his release he engaged at rafting, and hired for a trip down the river, and earned thirty-four dollars in one month, the first money he had ever possessed. He worked at the lumber business for the ensuing six years. On the 9th of November, 1835, he married Miss Fatima Gregory, who was born at Campbelltown, Steuben county, New York, June 20, 1806. They had a family of four children, of whom three survive. The following is the family record: Francis M., born December 25, 1836; Nancy J., born January 15, 1840, died January 1, 1860; Jemima H., born November 24, 1842; John V. N., born May 13, 1846. In 1838, Mr. Wood removed to Michigan, and after working about three months for Dorrance Williams, in Battle Creek township, returned to New York State and resumed his former occupation. In 1840 he returned to Michigan with his family. He worked the Williams farm on shares for two years; but not agreeing with his partner he quit, and went to work for Schuyler Goff one season. He then rented land of Stephen Valentine for a term of five years; but having a good deal of sickness in his family about this time, did not save much money. In 1846 he purchased eighty acres of land, and moved on to it in 1847, where he has since remained. By subsequent purchases he has added to his possessions until he now owns two hundred and three acres of land under cultivation. In politics Mr. Wood is a Republican, but was always adverse to receiving office. In 1865 he was elected justice of the peace, the only time he ever deviated from the paths of private life. In religion he is a Presbyterian, having been a member of that church for half a century. He is a gentleman who enjoys the esteem and respect of the community in which he resides, on account of many sterling qualities. He is liberal in his support of religious and educational enterprises, and has always endeavored so to live that those who know him best deem him a worthy citizen and a Christian gentleman. CHARLES H. CROSBY was born in Groton, Tompkins county, New York, April 17, 1821. He remained in his native place until he reached the age of twenty-two, and then removed to Monroe county, New York. He stayed in western New York until 1855, when he came to Michigan and settled near Galesburg, and in the fall of 1865 settled on the farm he now occupies. One of the distinguishing traits of his character is his love of neatness. This is fully demonstrated by the complete renovation to which he subjected his farm as soon as he got rightly settled thereon. The buildings at first consisted of a log house and barn, the latter of which he displaced by a good substantial frame structure within two years after taking up his residence on the farm; and the house he made do until 1871, when he erected the present one, which is among the most commodious and neatest in the township. He also graded the front yard, and converted it into a tasteful garden, which he ornamented with shrubs and trees and beds of beautiful flowers. On the 18th of December, 1856, he married Avis, daughter of Alonzo Imus, one of the pioneers of Kent county, Michigan. She was born in Bennington county, Vermont, July 28, 1829. She emigrated to Michigan with her parents in 1845; was educated at Albion college, this county, and taught school at different times for a period aggregating ten years. Their homestead consists of one hundred and sixty acres of well-cultivated and fertile land, an illustration of which, with the buildings, can be seen elsewhere in this work, together with portraits of the owners.,Mr. Crosby is a Republican in politics; in religion he is liberal, never having joined any secular denomination. As a citizen he holds an exalted position among the intelligent farmers of his township, and he and his amiable wife enjoy the respect of all with whom they have become acquainted.

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Page  105 ALBION TOWN SH I P. TOWNSHIP 3, range 4 west, was in 1834, by an act of the Territorial legislature, comprised within the township of Homer. The surface of this section is in general undulating. The soil is a rich, black loam, well adapted to the cultivation and production of grain. The Kalamazoo river entering the township from the southwest flows towards the northeast, and uniting at the village of Albion with the north branch, forms a strong hydraulic power. East of the river was once a "burr-oak" plain. To the northwest is good farming land, but in the west and southwest portions there is marshy ground of no great value. Several small lakes are interspersed through the town; of these, the largest is Spectacle lake, which is situated in the northwest part. These lakes, combined with numerous springs; conduce to a moist condition of the soil favorable to agricultural effort. The site of Albion at once attracted the attention of early explorers, who foresaw in this spot the ultimate establishment of a business centre by enterprising millers and manufacturers. That the valuable water-power has been utilized, and that those explorers were not deceived in judgment, is verified to-day in the existence of a thriving and populous village. A few pioneers came into the township, and when they had announced its capabilities its lands were speedily entered and occupied, and full settlement was an accomplished fact. FIRST SETTLERS. Exempt from fears of Indian hostility, and fearing no defects of title such as clogged the opening settlements of western New York and southeastern Ohio, the pioneers of Albion found the system of land entries originating with Phelps and Gorham, at Canandaigua, New York, and adopted by the United States, in full force, and came into possession with confidence of the stability of their deed of purchase. The south half of the northeast quarter of section 2, entered October 16, 1830, by Ephraim Harrison, was the first land transaction in the township of Albion. In 1831, Darius Pierce, of Washtenaw county, Michigan, entered the northwest quarter of the same section-the same being then known as the " Forks of the Kalamazoo," and now occupied by the main part of Albion village. This entry was obviously speculative, as there followed a sale to Tenney Peabody, of New York, for a profit of a hundred dollars. The purchaser afterwards bought out Sidney Ketchum, who had entered a part, if not the whole, of section 35 in Sheridan. Intending settlement, Peabody, having completed his preparations, set out in December from Kempville, New York, a place situated at the mouth of EighteenMile Creek, and now known as Alcott. He was accompanied by his family, and, conveying his household goods and other movable property in two wagons drawn by three yoke of oxen, traversed Canada, stopping to bivouac wherever night overtook him; crossed the river at Youngstown, and stopped five miles east of Albion, with a settler named Blackfield. A rest having been taken, Mr. Peabody, accompanied by his nephew, Charles Blanchard, and a young man named Clark Dowling, pushed on and made camp on a spot about ten rods from the present site of the Presbyterian church. They set to work and put up a log shanty with rail rafters. The men arrived on March 4, 1832, and the family followed in the course of a week. Their commencement was auspicious and cheering. The weather was most beautiful, and so continued through the spring. Asahel Finch was the first to follow Peabody, and next came Wareham Warner. In 1833, Peter Holmes, accompanied by his sons Charles D. and Patterson P., entered land on section 14, built a log hut, and were joined by the rest of the family in October of the same year. Later, John Fabrique, Vine Markham, Orson West, and Samuel W. Douglass settled on the same line of travel. Incoming settlers, travelers, and land speculators frequently desiring accommodations of food and lodging, Douglass opened a tavern in his house, which stood on the farm now owned by John Benham, and upon the road then known as the " Washtenaw Trail," leading from Jackson to Three Rivers. Initial settlement in the southwest part of the town was made by Cyrus Rob ertson, John and James Vanderburg, a Mr. Gridley, and others not recalled. Dr. Henderson came in contemporary with these, and located one mile east of the Washtenaw trail. Land was entered in the same neighborhood by James Sheldon, Henry Luce, and the Hewells, Hiram and Ashbell. The pioneers upon the Concord road were Marvin Hannahs, James Lake, and Charles Hancock. Those in the western part of the township were Alvin C. Waldo, E. M. Rogers, and 14 Perry Viets. In 1833 Wareham Warner bought the east part of section 3 and other lands, and associated with Mr. Peabody to erect a saw-mill, which stood northward of the rear of the present National bank structure. Different States, but on or near the same thermal lines, contributed to the early population of the peninsular State. From Massachusetts came Peter Holmes, who arrived at his destination June 5, 1833. The outline of his route shows him to have come from Poughkeepsie to Albany by sloop, thence to Schenectady by rail upon the pioneer railway, by line-packet to Buffalo, by steamboat to Detroit, and then on foot to place of settlement, which proved to be on the northeast quarter of section 22 and the northeast quarter of northwest quarter of section 23. His first care was the erection of a habitation which, in consonance with custom and necessity, was constructed of logs. He was incommoded by the scarcity of help, but went resolutely to work, and with a yoke of oxen brought his logs to the proposed site. When this was effected one or two men came and assisted in the raising, having a journey of five miles to make before reaching Holmes' clearing. Mr. Holmes was accompanied by two sons, and while the father went to Monroe the day succeeding his arrival to enter his land, and then began his improvements, the sons started for Indiana on foot to buy cattle. The first settlement reached was on Cook's prairie, so named from the settler, Deacon Cook. They passed McCamly's, two miles east of Union City, crossed Nottaway City reservation, then occupied by about five hundred Pottawatomies, and continued on to Logansport, where they purchased five yoke of oxen and three cows. They returned with their stock to Albion in time to plant corn and put in a patch of buckwheat. Inconvenience was experienced in the want of a blacksmith, and plow-points were taken to Marshall to be sharpened. In October of the year the rest of the family came out and began life anew upon the farm. Thomas and Charles Holmes are present residents of the township, of which the latter has been supervisor for an aggregate of fifteen years. Fertile soil speedily produced good crops; but salt and other provisions were at first brought from Detroit, and occupied in their conveyance by ox-teams a period of two weeks. The nearest physician was Dr. Hays, of Marshall. As all instance of progress, it is stated that in 1836, an interval of less than three years from date of arrival, C. Holmes slaughtered one hundred head of cattle. Salt was then sixteen dollars a barrel, and the immense reservoirs of Saginaw brine lay undisturbed, awaiting the demands of the days to come. THE ALBION COMPANY. We have noted the enterprise of Mr. Warner in the erection of a saw-mill. Jesse Crowell purchased his interest, and, in company with D. L. Bacon and Issachar Frost, bought about three hundred acres of land from Peabody, and upon this tract laid out a village plat, whose record bears date of June, 1836. This was the origin of what was known as the Albion company. Warner laid out lots in section 3 adjoining the village. To these he gave the name" Warner's Addition," which now constitutes the western portion of the village. A good name was desired for the embryo village, and the proprietors, among others, suggested that of Peabodyville. There was a lack of euphony about this title which caused it to be discarded, and the problem was referred to Mrs. Peabody, who called it Albion, after the town from which Mr. Crowell had come. Prior to this the locality was known among hunters and trappers, and recognized by others as the " Forks of the Kalamazoo." In 1837 the Albion company erected a grist-mill, whose frame is yet standing and in use by Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co., the owners. The millwright was Elijah Green. A division of stock was effected by the Albion company. Of the seven shares, one each was taken by J. Crowell, I. Frost, D. L. Bacon, T. Peabody, Charles Rice, and Hon. Charles H. Carroll, of Livingston county, New York. The seventh share was jointly assigned to Professor B. McVicker, of New York College, and William T. Carroll, of Washington, District of Columbia. In 1839 the company gave sixty acres of land fronting on Ingham street, and extending out to the line between sections 1 and 2, to the trustees of Wesleyan seminary as building-sites and grounds. Later, blocks 44 and 45, and the half-blocks 55 and 56, north and south of Union square, and lying west of Ingham street, were donated to the same parties, to be used as a campus. In July, 1842, the company again effected changes. Peabody and McVicker 105

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. took the village lots, Carroll the mill property, and D. T. Bacon sold his interest to Charles Rice, I. Frost, and J. Crowell. The first bridge, opening speedy communication to opposite banks of the river, was built in 1832 by Charles Blanchard. Its location was near where Erie street now crosses the stream. A second bridge was constructed in 1836, where Eaton street now crosses. The company afterwards built bridges on Superior and Erie streets. In 1837 a saw-mill was built by Elijah Green and Zenas Stowell, on section 1, upon the east fork of the river. A supply of miscellaneous goods was brought in by Philo Taylor, who opened a store in the old block-house of Mr. Peabody. Subsequently a lot was donated to him by the company for mercantile purposes. Isaac Jackson, afterwards associated with a Mr. Goodrich, bought Mr. Taylor's interest, and Goodrich, having sold to Mr. Crowell, removed to Homer. The firm then known as Jackson & Crowell carried on business in a building which occupied the site of the Methodist church. That old store was the first framed building in Albion. A store was also kept by Lucas Horton in a building which occupied the presellt site of Dr. Steves' residence. Charles M. Cobb also had a store, in the house occupied by the Peabody family. Messrs. Jackson & Crowell erected a brick block, still standing, on the corner of Erie and Superior streets. Jackson died before the work was completed, and Crowell continued in business until 1853. The first brick building in Albion was erected for store purposes by Mr. Kelly, and at present constitutes the south wing of the Albion hotel. The first hotel was a wooden structure, built by Abram Becker ill 1836-37, and occupied the present site of Sheldon's block. Parker's Exchange, now the Globe hotel, was erected in 1839 by Enos Dutton. A post-office was established at Albion in 1838. Jesse Crowell received the appointment of postmaster, and opened an office within a small frame building located on the present site of Warner's block, and now standing a short distance south of its former position. Mr. Crowell's services seem to have been satisfactory, as is inferred from his having held the office till the year 1849. The presence of physicians in the township is contemporary with first settlement, since Dr. Colimer located near the Homer line in 1833. He lived but one or two years. Dr. Millington was the first resident physician in the village. Then followed Drs. Henderson and F. Wheelock. The staple product of new lands has ever been wheat. The first crop of this cereal was sown by Charles Blanchard, upon land now covered by the seminary buildings. A field was planted in potatoes, and from four acres there were gathered thirteen hundred bushels. An early birth in Albion is thus recorded: Roxana Peabody, on May 13, 1835. Her death was also the first, having occurred April 10, 1837. The first male child native to Albion was John Peabody, and the first marriage was of Charles D. Holmes to Nancy Young, on October 20, 1836. ALBION VILLAGE. The incorporation of the village of Albion was effected in 1856. At the first village election the following-named were chosen: George Hannas, president; George J. Phipany, recorder; W. H. Johnson, treasurer; Marcus H. Crane, marshal; and Alvin Peck, attorney. Seven trustees were elected: William Britton, William H. Brockway, Richard G. Hale, M. P. Wood, William S. Loomis, Rufus Burr, and Jacob Hoffman. The village boundaries are thus defined: " The south half of section 35, southeast quarter and the east half of the southwest quarter of section 34, in the township of Sheridan, and section 2 and the east half of section 3, also the east half of the southwest quarter of section 3, in the town of Albion." The present officials of the village are-A. J. Gale, president; F. F. Cole, recorder; J. G. Brown, treasurer; I. J. Lambsen, marshal; and C. F. Austin, J. W. Clark, R. Finch, L. E. Sheldon, F. F. Hoaglin, J. J. Alley, W. O'Donoghue, and C. H. Elmer, trustees. As has been incidentally observed, the hydraulic power at Albion attracted business men, and simultaneous with their coming a tide of population was created which brought prosperity and notice, rendering the village the rival of many a thriving village of the State. Manufactures have taken a leading position. In 1845, J. Crowell, I. Frost, and Charles Rice built a stone flouring-mill, using for their purpose hewn stone quarried but a mile and a half from the village. This mill is now owned and the business is carried on by the firm of Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co. In 1848, D. Peabody & Brothers began a business in the manufacture of thrashing-machines and other agricultural machinery. The factory speedily reached large proportions, but was discontinued within a few years. A woolen-factory was also started at a comparatively early date. An overshot-wheel made for this establishment by Elijah Green was the first one used in this part of the country. During the same year, James Monroe started a furnace and shop designed for the manufacture of stoves, thrashers, and general jobbing work. The shop was situated on the east side of Superior street, where business was continued until 1859, and employment given to from fifteen to twenty men. Messrs. Finch & Sheldon purchased the establishment in 1859, and sold in 1863 to Messrs. Lane & Ensign. The latter retired at the expiration of a year, and was succeeded by Walter Porter. Lane & Porter employed from twelve to fifteen men, and prosecuted the iron trade till 1866, when they in turn sold out, 0. C. Gale & Co. being purchasers. These parties began, in 1866, the manufacture of the " sulky rake." The product of 1870, the first year, was eleven rakes. The next year a patent was secured for a rake of their own design, and two hundred were manufactured. In 1872 five hundred were built, and over a score of men found steady employment. The Gale Manufacturing Company was formed in 1873, with a paid-up capital of fifty-eight thousand dollars. Increased means gave augmented business, and seven hundred chilled plows and one thousand rakes were made. The capital was augmented in 1874 to seventy-five thousand dollars; forty-five men were employed; five thousand plows and twelve hundred rakes were made. A second time the capital was increased, and, in 1876, with one hundred thousand dollars, seven thousand plows and twelve hundred rakes were built. The number of men on the pay-roll in 1877-a year of great depression in manufacture generally-is eighty-nine. Eight thousand five hundred pounds of iron are melted daily. O. C. Gale & Co. erected their first brick shop in 1868, and have since made several additions, till their works now cover nearly an acre of ground.* Their annual consumption of pig-iron and scrap equals fifteen thousand tons; of wrought iron, one hundred tons; malleable iron, three thousand tons; coal, five hundred tons; and of various kinds of wood, four hundred thousand feet. The present officers of the company are O. C. Gale, president; E. W. Hollingsworth, vicepresident; S. P. Brockway, secretary and treasurer; A. Gale, superintendent, and C. C. Lane, general agent. Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co., Albion Stone Mills, have five run of stone, and grind one hundred and twenty-five thousand bushels of wheat annually. Manufacturing by the new process, a fine grade results. The mill is strictly a merchant one. The firm has another will near the first, and in this a large custom business is done. The number of hands now employed is twenty-five. Favorably located in a rich agricultural section, the grain market annually averages one hundred and thirty-five thousand bushels of wheat and ninety thousand bushels of oats. It is thus seen to be one of the largest oat-markets in the State. The following firms are engaged in the grain trade: Bennett, Knickerbocker & Co. and Wilson & Crittenden in wheat, Knickerbocker & Fisher in oats, and J. M. Jameson and J. J. Alley in wheat and oats. Sheldon & Fanning do a large business in tin-ware, keeping twenty-two wagons on the road and supplying ten additional with goods. They conduct a large grocery business, and run a tannery upon an extended basis. The following exhibits the business of Albion in 1877: a flouring-mill, a gristmill, a manufactory of rakes and plows, three of sash and blinds, a tannery, a saw-mill, a tinware-factory, two planing-mills, a machine-shop, a wool cardingmill, two hardware-stores, six groceries, four dry-goods stores, one crockery, five drug- and book-stores, four boot- and shoe-stores, four millinery-shops, three dentistries, two jeweler-shops, three markets, and two billiard-rooms. There are two newspapers published, three banks find use for their capital, and fourteen physicians make the place their home. THE UNION SCHOOLS OF ALBION. The inception of these progressive institutions dates September 17, 1867, at which time there was held in Howard Hall a meeting of the trustees of graded school district No. 1, fractional of Albion and Sheridan; E. H. Johnson presided, and W. E. Thornton acted as secretary. The following call was read: " Whereas, the school inspectors of the townships of Albion and Sheridan, in compliance with the law, united the following school districts, viz.: district No. 1, of Albion, No. 1, fractional of Albion and Sheridan: and No. 3, fractional of Sheridan and Albion, into one district, for the purpose of establishing a graded school therein; therefore, notice is hereby given that the legal voters of the above newly-formed school district will be held at Howard Hall, in the village of Albion, on Tuesday evening, September 19, 1867, for the purpose of electing a board of trustees, and for the transaction of such other business as may lawfully come before the meeting." An election was then held, and the following were chosen and constituted the first " board of trustees," viz.: Phineas Graves, August Gale, Samuel Irwin, Charles W. Dalrymple, A. W. Fitch, and W. Bidwell. Public halls were rented for school purposes, and the old Presbyterian church was utilized as a school building until 1869, when three of the four ward school-houses were erected. At a meeting held September 29, 1871, the board authorized the proper officers to issue the first installment of bonds, which amount was six thousand three hundred dollars; the proceeds to be applied to the erection of a central school *- See illustration.

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Page  [unnumbered] = lit I I s - D al. _. A It OF A. P. GARDN ER, ALBION, CALHOUN CO., MICH. ~1 I THE GALE MANUFACTURING CO. MANUFACTURERS OF THE CELEBRATED GALE CHILLED PLOWS AND GALE WHEEL HORSE RAKE.................. A LB I O N, MICHIGAN.....,.......................................,~.....

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Page  107 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 107 building, which was completed in September, 1872. This was accomplished at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. The average cost of each of the four ward buildings was twenty-six hundred dollars. All these structures are of brick, and furnish accommodations for six hundred pupils. Schools are taught nine and a half months. Three hundred and eighty-eight pupils are enrolled. The salaries of 1877 amount to four thousand two hundred and fifty-six dollars, of which the principal, Professor F. B. McClellan, receives thirteen hundred dollars. The rest is apportioned among eleven female teachers. THE NATIONAL EXCHANGE BANK of Albion was organized August, 1865. Business was commenced on January 1, 1866, with fifty thousand dollars capital. This was augmented in October, 1873, to seventy-five thousand, and in 1875 to one hundred thousand dollars. On the establishment of the bank, the following were chosen directors: S. V. Irwin, M. B. Wood, Gardner Herrick, G. S. Scranton, Charles W. Dalrymple, Aleran Brusie, and William D. Fox. An election of officers resulted in the choice of Samuel V. Irwin, president; M. B. Wood, vice-president; and S. W. Davis as cashier. We have noted the rapid and heavy increase of capital,-satisfactory evidence of great prosperity,-and at the last statement the following was included: there were of undivided profits, $21,873; individual deposits, $65,000; and a circulation of $30,600, secured by government bonds amounting to $34,000. Mr. Irwin continues to be president, W. O'Donoghue is vice-president, and H. M. Dearing is cashier. The present board of directors is composed of S. V. Irwin, W. O'Donoghue, C. W. Dalrymple, W. D. Fox, E. A. Landon, H. Gale, and C. H. Mann. SOCIETIES. Recognizing the advantages derived from union, and revering the ties of brotherhood whose acknowledgment has done much for the unfortunate, the widow, and the orphan, the citizens of Albion have emulated those of other localities in the formation of lodge, chapter, and encampment. Olive Branch Lodge, No. 14, F. A. M., was instituted on May 9, 1846, and the following-named officers chosen: Clement Trowbridge, W. M.; Ruel B. Lewis, S. W.; Emery Potter, J. W.; Hiram Howell, S. D.; Julius Chamberlain, J. D.; Wareham Warner, Treasurer; John Burt, Tyler; and H. Fletcher, Secretary. Shortly after organizing, the lodge name was changed to Murat Lodge. The present officers are Eugene P. Robertson, W. M.; T. W. Sheldon, S. W.; O. G. Hubbard, J. W.; William Steele, S. D.; N. Davis, J. D.; F. P. Glasscuff, Tyler, and A. B. Huse, Secretary. There hangs upon the hall wall of Murat lodge an ancient relic. It is a Masonic apron, the material silk, the emblems those of the order, and beneath them the following inscription:-" To the Worshipful Master, Wardens, and Brothers of Murat Lodge, F. A. M. The undersigned, appreciating your veneration for our ancient order as manifested to him, a member of the fraternity of fifty years' standing, and one who has passed the age of fourscore years and ten, feelingo the sands of his life are nearly spent and that he must soon pass that bourne from which no traveler returns, fraternally presents to your lodge as a memento of the past, the annexed Masonic apron. This apron was obtained by the undersigned in 1819 from brother Jacob Reynolds, a captain in the American Revolutionary army of 1776, who informed him that it had been worn in a lodge of F. A. M. presided over by General George Washington, Benjamin Franklin being Senior Warden thereof, and at the time when General La Fayette was raised to the Sublime Degree of Master Mason. This relic of our ancient and honorable institution I bequeath to you. Please accept it as a memento of my veneration for it, with this solemn admonition, that you, as Free and Accepted Masons, ever bear in mind the ladder which Jacob saw in his vision ascending from earth to heaven, the principal rounds of which represent Faith, Hope, and Charity. May the Grand Master of the universe guide and direct you in the paths of virtue and justice, is the prayer of your aged brother. " Fraternally yours, "( Given November 15, 1869, and 5869. " "JOSIAH WHITMAN." Albion Chapter, R. A. M., was organized on March 10, 1864, and the following were chosen to act as its officers: Milton Osborn, H. P.; S. G. Saunders, K.; George W. Cady, Scribe; George W. Clark, C. H.; Marcus Lane, P. S.; F. W. Sheldon, R. A. C.; O. B. Rogers, G. M. 3d V.; L. Kinney, G. M. 2d V.; D. V. Rogers, G. M. 1st V.; William A. Warner, Treasurer; H. C. Hartrung, Sentinel. Present officers are F. W. Sheldon, H. P.; Eugene P. Robertson, K.; William Steele, Scribe; J. W. Clark, C. H.; E. A. Isman, R. S.; George W. McCormick, R. A. C.; O. W. Robertson, G. M. 3d V.; V. B. Cosad, G. M. 2d V.; D. Douglass, G. M. 1st V.; Charles W. Dalrymple, Treasurer; Charles Diffenbough, Secretary; and Samuel G. Saunders, Sentinel. Albion Encampment, No. 63, 1. 0. 0. F., was organized on March 25, 1874, with the following officers: W. H. Watkins, C. P.; W. H. Brockway, H. P.; F. W. Crittenden, Scribe; M. C. Moor, Treasurer; and J. R. Sackett, J. W. The present officers are F. B. McClellan, C. P.; L. H. Baughman, H. P.; W. D. Fox, S. W.; C. H. Hoag, Scribe; H. W. Whitney, Treasurer; and L. H. Brockway, J. W. Albion Lodge, I. O. O. 0F., was instituted January 22,1847, with the following officers: John L. Sackett, N. G.; S. J. Henderson, V. G.; Joseph French, R. S.; and John S. Scott, Treasurer. The present officers are F. B. McClellan, N. G.; D. V. Aldrich, V. G.; C. H. Dascum, R. S.; George F. Barry, P. S.; and William B. Sutherland, Treasurer. The Sons of Temperance were organized on January 18, 1875. The first officers were C. S. Dascum, D. G. W. P.; C. W. Boyce, W. P.; Mrs. C. S. Dascum, W. A.; John M. Hall, R. S.; Miss Hatty Dougherty, A. R. S.; William J. White, Treasurer; A. C. Amiden, F. S.; Rev. Levi Farr, Chaplain; D. C. Huffman, Conductor; Mrs. W. J. White, A. C.; G. E. Murdock, P. W. P.; Miss Elsie Loomis, I. S.; and F. Preston, O. S. At present Phineas Graves is D. G. W. P., and Miss E. W. Hollingworth is W. A. Oppressive taxation of national banks would seem to indicate a popular feeling antagonistic to their existence, yet it is indisputable that never till their origin was the money of the people secure. In Albion a private banking and exchange office was started by M. Hannas & Son during the year 1853. J. W. Sheldon was employed in the office, to whose control he succeeded in 1858, and has continued in the business at the same office until the present. The institution is known as "Albion Exchange Bank," J. W. Sheldon, president, and Eugene P. Robertson, cashier. THE PEABODY COLLECTION AND DEPOSIT BANK began business in 1876, with J. Peabody, proprietor. THE NATIONAL EXCHANGE BANK was organized January 1, 1866, with a capital of $50,000. This was increased, October 1, 1873, to $75,000; and on July 1, 1875, to $100,000. The directors were S. W. Irwin, A. Herrick, A. Breeze, M. B. Wood, W. D. Fox, and C. W. Dalrymple. D. V. Irwin was elected president, M. B. Wood, vice-president, and C. W. Davis, cashier. The last dying, L. B. Miner was elected to fill the vacancy. At the close of business April 14,1877, the bank showed total resources amounting, to $208,749.77, of which $130,977.83 were loans and discounts. THE METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH OF ALBION was organized in 1836, with the following members: Almen and Lurensa Herrick, Betsey Montcalm, Mrs. Ercambrack, Thomas Pray, Polly Pray, Charles M. Cobb, and Armenia Cobb. Soon after the founding of the church, its roll was lengthened by the added names of Champion Eslew and his wife Phebe, and Peter and Margaret Williamson. In 1837 the school trustees of the village let a contract to build a school-house. The different church organizations severally contributed the sum of one hundred dollars to secure the enlargement of the structure and a right to its use upon the Sabbath as a place of worship. In 1839 the members of the Methodist Episcopal society built for themselves a small church on Porter street, east of the river, on land now owned by J. Wright. In 1849 and 1850 a new structure was commenced, and dedicated September 19 of the latter year by Bishop Morris, during the session of the Michigan conference. It stands on Erie street, and has received additions from time to time as necessity demanded. A new casement was added in 1876. The value of the property is estimated at ten thousand dollars. All the first members, save C. M. Cobb and L. Herrick (now widow Smith, of Kalamazoo), are of the dead. The first sermon was delivered by Rev. Henry Ercambrack, in 1834. His successors have been as follows: Thomas Wiley, 1834; J. F. Davidson, 183; F. A. Sealior and E. H. Pilcher, 1836; Elijah Crane, 1837; G. Breckenridge and F. S. Jakway, 1838; R. S. Blowers, 1839; M. G. Perkizer and John Kinmer, 1840; J. Brown and Roswell Parker, 1841; Allen Staples and J. Bennett, 1842; John Ercambrack, 1843-44; W. H. Collins, 1845; William Smithersill, 1846; J. E. Parker, 1847-48; J. S. Davidson, 1849-50; R. Sapp, 1851 and 1861; F. A. Blades, 1852-53; William Mahon, 1854-55; F. B. Bangs, 1856-57; E. Holdstock, 1858; R. Cogshall, 1859-60; D. Brum, 1862; R. O. Crawford, 1863; A. J. Eldred, 1864-65; D. F. Barnes, 1866-67; J. W. Robinson, 1868-69; J. C. Wirtley, 1870-71; H. M. Joy, 1872-73; Levi Farr, 1874; and W. H. Perrine, D.D., 1875-77, and present pastor. The society has a membership of three hundred and twenty-five. The Sunday-school enrolls one hundred and seventy-five. It is superintended by C. W. Boyce, assisted by Phineas Graves. A Methodist Episcopal church was early organized at South Albion, and is in a flourishing condition.

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN. THE BAPTIST CHURCH was organized on February 21, 1837, at the school-house in Albion, Rev. J. S. Z. Jones being moderator, and L. Crittenden, clerk. Mr. Jones was the first pastor. A meeting was held in 1843, at which it was resolved to build a house of worship. A committee was chosen to draft a plan. The dimensions agreed upon were thirty-five by fifty feet. The church was commenced and finished in 1849, and on January 23, 1850, it was formally dedicated to the worship of God by Rev. C. A. Jennison. During the afternoon of the same day, Aaron Potter was ordained pastor. The present pastor is Rev. A. Maynard. The first trustees were Leriah Lewis, Lyman Crittenden, and William B. Morrison. The present board are Charles Austin, Samuel Jaquett, Ira Foster, Edward Rice, George Harvey, and John Belcher. On November 28, 1851, the old trustees received the deed of lot 5, block 11, and upon this land they built their church, which is supplied with a bell and an organ; the latter was put into the building in 1875, at a cost of two hundred and fifty dollars. The church property in Albion is valued at eleven thousand five hundred dollars. There is a membership of three hundred and eighty-two. In the Sabbath-schools there are one hundred and eighty-three scholars, and in the library there are six hundred and fifty books. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The organization of the Presbyterian society took place on February 24, 1837, in the ball-room of the old Albion hotel, located on the corner of Superior and Erie streets. This initial result was brought about under the lead of Rev. Calvin Clark. Twenty-four members were enrolled, and Rev. Elias Childs was placed in charge. The pastors in succession have been Elias Childs, Mr. Trotter, S. Hawley, Maltby Gelston, who served five years, James Vincent, David M. Cooper, whose pastorate was extended to eight years, Mr. Marvin, Calvin Clark, Milo B. Gelston, whose term included a period of nine years, Jeremiah Odel, Joel Kennedy, and Edward H. Harvey, the last and present incumbent, who has officiated since August 1, 1874. Under the ministrations of these ministers the society has increased to one hundred and forty members. The second church building was erected during 1857, at a cost of twelve thousand dollars. Its dimensions were forty by seventy feet. On February 9,1873, the structure was destroyed by fire, and the loss was not covered by a single dollar's worth of insurance. A meeting was held the day following the misfortune, and it was resolved to rebuild at once. Funds were subscribed, and the old site on Porter street was chosen. The contract was let to George W. Maher, of Albion, on September 1, 1873. The price of construction, excepting the audience-rooms above, was nine thousand four hundred and fortynine dollars. The corner-stone was laid September 16, and the basement was dedicated March 22 following. The audience-room is unfinished, but the society is without debt. The Sabbath-school numbers one hundred. The pastor superintends. THE EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The organization of this society was effected during 1840. Services were first held in the "old red school-house," under Rev. Francis Cummings, who was in charge during the election of the first wardens,-Clement Trowbridge and F. Wheelock, M.D.,- and of the first vestry, consisting of Henry G. Whipple, R. C. Hammill, and John E. Wild. A partial suspension occurred from 1850 to 1860, and in 1863 a reorganization was made, and a new start taken. Marcus * Lane served as rector from 1863 to 1865; Edward Seymour, from 1865 to 1867; William G. Stonex, 1867 to 1870; and Rev. C. Peters has served from 1870 to 1877, and is still in charge. Deaths and removals reduced membership for a time, when a rapid augmentation set in through the faithful efforts of the rector, ably seconded by his people. The communicants number sixty-six. The construction of a meeting-house was begun in 1849, and long lay incomplete. The work was resumed in 1865, during which it was finished. Consecra tion ceremonies by Right Rev. Samuel A. McCaskey were held on April 19,1865. A Sabbath-school was organized in 1863, discontinued in 1870, and resumed in 1871. Teachers and scholars number one hundred. The superintendent is the rector, assisted by C. H. Baskom. The library contains two hundred volumes. ALBION FIRE DEPARTMENT. To guard against the ravages of the fiery element has been the aim of every community, and few indeed are the villages to whom the necessity has not been taught by dire experience. Prior to the incorporation of the village the town had purchased and was owner of a small fire-engine, but practically it was of slight utility. In 1856 the corporation purchased an excellent hand-engine, at a cost of sixteen hundred dollars. A fire department was organized, with the followingnamed officers: George Hannas, foreman; W. H. Bidwell, assistant secretary; and C. W. Dalrymple, treasurer. The present officers are F. W. Sheldon, foreman; Augustus Gale, assistant; John Phipps, secretary; and John Fanning, I treasurer. The department include among their fixtures hooks and ladders, truck, and hose carriage. The whole is in charge of a chief engineer. TOWN-MEETINGS AND OFFICIALS. Natives of New England, or sprung from New England families, the pioneers of Albion brought with them and planted here the same customs and enjoyed the same privileges common at the old homes. Officers were needed, and the question of an election being mooted, a caucus was convened in the road opposite the residence of Charles D. Holmes, who, it may be stated, still occupies his original entry, and is the only one in the township so situated. At this caucus about a score of voters were present. During the meeting they sat upon a rail fence, and put in nomination officers to serve during the year 1838. The meeting was onesided and thoroughly democratic. The first annual town-meeting was held in April, 1837, at the house of A. Becker. William M. Pearl was chosen moderator, and Stephen Blodgett secretary. The following-named persons were duly declared elected: For Supervisor, James Sheldon; Clerk, William Farley; Assessors, Cyrus Robertson and Ashbell Hewell; Commissioners of Highways, Charles D. Holmes and David Peabody; Justices, A. W. Walker, L. D. Collimer, and James Henderson; Collector, George Bass; Constables, Clark Knowles, William Grimes, George Bass, and J. Harris; School Commissioners, Cato Millington, George Bass, and James Sheldon; Inspectors of the Poor, Seth Knowles and Levy Peabody; Path-masters, L. B. Ring, Zenas Phelps, Stephen Willis, John Bennett, Charles D. Holmes, William Knickerbocker, Perry Armstrong, Ashley Harris. and W. Hopkins. The present township officers are-Supervisor, Martin C. Benham; Clerk, William S. Marsh; Treasurer, John A. Tompkins; Commissioner of Highways, Charles M. Snyder; Drain Commissioner, Alexander Cunningham; Justices, A. B. Hare, William Howard, William P. Morrison, and Willis P. Gardner; Superintendent of Schools, S. E. Blashfield; School Inspector, C. T. Smith; Constables, H. W. Crittenden, George Derning, W. A. Cunningham, and Ira J. Lambson. The following is a list of the supervisors of the town of Albion from its organization to the present time, together with the time of each official's service: James W. Sheldon, 1837; William Farley, 1838-39; Jesse Crowell, 1840; William Farley, 1841-42; Cyrus Robertson, 1843; Frederick Wheelock, 1844 and 1846; Henry W. Harris, 1845, 1848-49; Charles D. Holmes, 1847, 1850-51, 1864 -71; Samuel Hexford, 1852; William Farley, 1853, 1856; David F. Farley, 1857 and 1860; Henry Drake, 1861-62; William M. Knickerbocker, 1863, 1873-74; Osman Rice, 1870 (resigned); Abram Gridley, 1872; Anthony B. Hays, 1875; and Martin C. Benham, 1876. The assessment of 1876 for revenue purposes for the current fiscal year, 1876 -77, was fixed by the board of supervisors as follows: Real estate, $564,141; personal property, $95,200; total, $659,341. On this valuation the following taxes were levied: For State purposes, $2196.71; for county purposes, $3899.50; for township expenses, $518.10; the mill-tax, $1189.90; roads, $252.70; schools, $7367.16; other purposes, $434.49; total taxes, $15,858.56; liquor taxes, 1876, $676.50; total revenue, $16,535.06. POPULATION. The census returns of 1860 place the population of Albion township at 939 persons, composing 166 families, and of Albion village at 1720 persons, composing 329 families. In 1870 the returns gave Albion, including that portion of the village lying in Albion township (the village proper not being returned separately) 2409 persons residing therein. In 1874 the village was not returned separately from the township, and the whole population of the latter was given as 2614, 1304 of the persons being males and 1310 females. Of the 737 males over twenty-one years of age, 458 were liable to military duty, and 279 were past such burden in time of need, unless voluntarily in the ranks. Of 830 females over eighteen years, 523 were of the age designated by the social statistician the maternal age, being under forty years of age, and 307 had passed beyond that age. Of the males over twenty-one years of age, 536 were or had been heads of families, and 170 had not enjoyed that honorable distinction. Of the females over eighteen years, 537 had promised to love and honor, if not to obey, a liege lord, and 195 had never submitted to any such loss of independence. THE POLITICAL BIAS of the people of Albion is best shown by the balloting at the presidential elections, which resulted as follows: in 1840 the Democratic vote was 124, and the Whigs polled 40; in 1844 the pendulum began to swing to the other end of its arc, the Democrats polling 152 votes, the Whigs 143, and the Liberty men numbering a half-dozen; in 1848 the Democratic vote was 173, the Whig 157, and the Freesoilers were 15; in 1852 the Democrats polled 183 votes, the Whigs 181, and

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