History of Branch county, Michigan, with illustrations and biographical sketches of some of its prominent men and pioneers.
Johnson, Crisfield., Everts & Abbott.

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Page  5 - Jo,~ N ~3. ) 4, #, - t- % -f III' S TOj BRANH CUNT,u IMICIHIGAN, ~WITH7' Itust auloSad i rahikal $kitht SOME OF ITS PROMINENT MEN AND PIONEERS. PHILADELPHIA: V7E-AR~TSB&r-8OTT -I879.

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Page  7 CONTENTS. HIISTO R I OA. HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, CHAPTER I.-Introductory II.-Early French Discoveries III.-The Pottawattamies IV.-The Pottawattamies, continued V.-The Pottawattamies, continued VI.-The Treaty-Making Period VII.-The Situation at Settlement VIII.-From Settlement to Organization of County IX.-From Organization to 1840. X.-From 1841 to 1861. XI.-First Infantry. XII.-Seventh Infantry XIII.-Ninth Infantry XIV.-Eleventh Infantry. XV.-Fifteenth, Sixteenth, and Seventeenth Infantry XVI.-Nineteenth Infantry XVII.-Twenty-Eighth Infantry and First Sharpshooters XVIIT.-Fourth and Fifth Cavalry XIX.-Eighth. Ninth, and Eleventh Cavalry XX.-Battery A, First Light Artillery XXI.-Battery D. XXII.-Battery F. XXIII.-Battery G. XXIV.-Other Branch County Soldiers. PAGE 9 10 12 16 26 32 35 39 48 57 59 61 63 66 71 73 77 79 82 85 90 91 94 96 PAGE XXV.-Branch County Since the War..... 98 XXVI.-The Press of Branch County.. 99 XXVII.-The State Public School.. 103 XXVIII.-County Societies.. 107 XXIX.-Branch County Civil List.. 109 CITY OF COLDWATER........ 13 HISTORY OF THE TOWNS AND VILLAGES OF BRANCH COUNTY. Township of Coldwater...... 165 " Quincy......174 " Union.. 198 " Bronson... 216 Girard... 230 " Algansee... 239 " Gilead.. 249 Batavia. 265 Bethel........ 278 Kinderhook.... 291 " Butler........ 300 Ovid.......309 Matteson....315 " Noble......324 " Sherwood........330 " California......339 I T-jST TT ESA. rt-DI. A rp I O 1ZT S PAGE State Public School for Dependent Children (Frontispiece) facing title-page. Map of Branch County.. facing 9 COLDWATER (CITY). Art Gallery and Residence of H. C. Lewis.. facing 113 Fac-simile of the Record of the First Village Election, 1837 " 115 Portrait of Alonzo Waterman.. facing 119 St. Mark's Episcopal Church... " 124 Portraits of Thos. Daugherty and Wife " 129 Residence of IH. C. Fenn." 144 " A. C. Fisk (with portrait). between 150, 151 Portrait of John H. Beech, M.D..156 " W. B. Sprague, M.D....157 Portraits of L. D. Crippen and Wife. facing 159 " Harvey Haynes and Wife " 159 " Harvey Warner and Wife.....160 " Andrew-S. Parrish and Wife... facing 161 " Asa Parrish and Wife.. " 161 Portrait of James M. Long, M.D. 161 L". D. Halsted....162 Portraits of Luke H. Whitcomb and Wife. 163 " Wm. S. Gilbert and Wife.. 164 Portrait of John Allen....... 164 PAGE Portraits of A. Brown and Wife.. facing 193 " B. F. Wheat and Wife.. 193 " Peter M. Newberry and Wife.... 195 ( " John S. Belote and Wife... 197 UNION. Portrait of Charles A. Lincoln.. facing 200 Residence of Ezra Bostwick (with portraits). " 208 Portrait of Dr. II. F. Ewers.. " 214 Portrait of Thomas B. Buell.... 215 BRONSON. Residence of Jonathan Holmes (with portraits) Portrait of Darius Monroe " Wales Adams. GIRARD. facing 222 " 226.229 Residence of Peter I. Mann. between 232, 233 Portraits of Polly Mann and P. I. Mann and Wife " 232, 233 Portrait of Dr. M. E. Chauncey. facing 238 " Mrs. Eliza Craig.. " 238 Portraits of Henry Pierce and Wife... " 238 COLDWATER (TOWNSHIP). Residence of Wm. P. Norton Portrait of James R. Wilcox Portraits of John Roberts and Wife. QUINCY. Residence of Lucas Joseph (with portraits) " the late Enos G. Berry (with portraits) J. R. Morey (with portraits) Horace P. Jeffrey. i" C. N. Wilcox Donovan and Conly's Block.. Portraits of Ansel Nichols and Wife. " Wm. P. Arnold " Residence of D. H. Smith (with portraits) Portrait of Dr. Edson Blackman Portraits of Joseph S. Swan and Wife facing 165. 172. 173 facing 174 " 176 " 178 1 J80 " 182 184 " 189 189 " 190. 191. 192 ALGANSEE. Residence of the late Asahel Brown. " John Joseph F. T. Gallup. Portraits of David Tift and Wife " E. S. E. Brainerd and Wife " William Kraiser and Wife " A. Shumway and Wife Samuel B. Hanchett and Wife " Andrew Crater and Wife " F. D. Ransom and Wife " Asahel Brown and Wife. facing 240 " 242 " 242 245 " 245 " 245 " 246 " 246 " 246. 247. 248 GILEAD. Residence of the late Samuel Arnold... between 250, 251 Portraits of Samuel Arnold and Wife. " 250, 251 " Daniel Marsh and Wife... facing 253 Residence of E. C. S. Green.... " 26 " Hon. C. G. Luce... " 258 Portraits of Joseph Keeslar and Wife.. 264: X 7

Page  8 8 CONTENTS. I L T TST RATIO lS. BATAVIA. PAGE PAGE Portraits of Dr. Daniel Wilson and Wife. 312 Residence of Louisa S. Deusler (with portraits) facing 268 Portrait of Henry Lockwood.. 315 Portrait of John D. Imber... 272 ATT Portraits of Major Tuttle and Wife.. " 277 A " Henry Miller and Wife.. " 277 Residence of Ashley Turner (with portraits). facing 317 Portrait of Philo Porter..... " 277 1 " Amos Gardner ( " ). between 320, 321 a James 0. Johnson (with portraits). " 322, 323 i KINDER OOK. Portraits of Jesse Meredith and Wife..323 KINDERHOOK. Residence of Samuel A. Whitcomb (with portraits). facing 291 NOBLE. Farm and Residence of Enos Michael (with portraits) between 292, 293 Residence of Hon. G. P Robinson.... facing 324 Residence of George Tripp... 294, 295 " Walter W. Smith (with portraits) between 326, 327 Portraits of George Tripp and Wife. " 294, 295 " the late E. T. Gardner (with portraits) " 326, 327 Portrait of Hon. Wmin. Chase... facing 296 Portraits of Christina, Chauncey, and Russell Chase facing 328 Portraits of A. W. Case and Wife... between 298, 299 Residence of E. B. Bushnell (with portraits).. " 329 t Joseph Hawks and Wife. " 298, 299 " David Tripp and Wife..299 SHERWOOD. Residence of Silas Ent.. facing 300 Residence of E. F. Hazen.. facing 330 ' Oscar Cline (with portraits). between 332, 333 BUTLER. Portrait of Horace A. Lee...... facing 334 H" Hiram Doubleday.. 334 Residence of D. L. Burbank facing 300 Residence of Jabin R. Gwin.. " 337 t Lucinda R. Linsday (with portraits) " 304 Portraits of Jabin R. Gwin and Wife337.B7 Portraits of Jabn R. Gwn and Wife 337 Portraits of Charles E. Bowers and Wife.... 307 Newcomb Wilcox and Wife..338 OVID. CALIFORNIA. Residence of Samuel M. Treat.... facing 309 Portraits of J. 11. Lawrence and Wife facing 341 Portraits of S. M. Treat and Wife.. 311 " Charles Raymond and Wife.... 347 B3IO t-AP-ITI C-AL. Alonzo Waterman Thomas Daugherty John H. Beech, M.D. William B. Sprague, M.D. Lorenzo D. Crippen. Hon. Harvey Haynes Harvey Warner, Esq. James M. Long, M.D. Andrew S. Parrish Asa Parrish Lorenzo D. Halsted. Luke H. Whitcomb William S. Gilbert John Allen Abram C. Fisk. James R. Wilcox John Roberts. William P. Norton Hon. William P. Arnold Ansel Nichols Daniel H. Smith Dr. Edson Blackman. Joseph S. Swan k. Chas. N. Wilcox. B. F. Wheat Alvarado Brown. Lucas Joseph. Peter M. Newberry Dr. Enos G. Berry John S. Belote. John R. Morey. Charles A. Lincoln Ezra Bostwick. H. Francis Ewers, M.D. Thomas B. Buell Wales Adams. Jonathan Holmes Peter I. Mann. Dr. Moses E. Chauncey Henry Pierce. 4rs. Eliza Craig D. L^. Gray. BE.. Brainard.: lamn Kraiser. uwi Tift..: Ak td Shumway PAGE facing 119 " 129 156.156. 159.159 159.161 161.162.162.163.163.164 172 172 173 174 189. 190 190.191.191 192.193.193 194.195 1.95.197.198 facing 200.214.214.215.228 229 between 232, 233.238.238. 238.244.245.245.245.246 I Andrew Crater S. B. Hanchett. Francis D. Ransom F. T. Gallup Asahel Brown Samuel Arnold. Daniel Marsh Hon. Cyrus G. Luce Mrs. Catharine S. Arnold Joseph Keeslar. E. C. S. Green John D. Imber. Henry Miller Philo Porter George Tripp Hon. William Chase. Enos Michael. A. W. Chase Joseph Hawks. Silas Ent. David Tripp. Samuel A. Whitcomb. David Linsday. Dwight L. Burbank. Charles E. Bowers Samuel M. Treat Dr. Daniel Wilson Henry Lockwood Amos Gardner James 0. Johnson Jesse Meredith. Ashley Turner. Christina Chase George P. Robinson Horace P. Jeffrey Walter W. Smith Samuel S. and E. B. Bushnell Elisha T. Gardner Horace A. Lee. Hiram Doubleday Ephraim Cline. Jabin R. Gwin. Newcomb Wilcox The Lawrence Family Charles Raymond PAGE 246 247 247 248 248 between 250, 251 facing 253.262 263 264.264 facing 272 277 277 between 294, 295 facing 296.298 between 298, 299 298, 299 299 299 299 306 308.307 facing 311 " 312.314.322.322.323.323 facing 328 328..329.329.329.330 facing 334 " 334. 337.337 338 facing 341. 347

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Page  9 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. BY CRISFIELD JOHNSON. CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTORY. Plan of the Work-A Consecutive History-Supplementary Chapters -City and Township Histories-The Illustrations-Future Value of Local Histories-The Pottawattamies-The Books ConsultedAcknowledgments to Individuals-The Work Submitted. THE plan of this history of Branch County comprises in the first place a connected, consecutive statement of all the facts of general interest relating to the territory now comprising that county, from the earliest accounts down to the present time, embracing a short description of its natural characteristics, and a pretty full record of the principal events occurring within its limits, or in which its residents have been actors. This portion of the work adheres very closely to the chronological order, and includes the history of the Pottawattamie Indians,-the old-time occupants and lords of the Saint Joseph Valley,-an account of the treaties by which that valley was transferred to the whites, an outline sketch of the first settlement of the county, a record of some of the more prominent features of its development, and the ever interesting story of the achievements of the gallant sons of Branch County in the war for the Union. This consecutive account is supplemented by several chapters, the subjects of which cannot well be incorporated in that account; such as sketches of the various county societies, a list of the principal officers, a history of the State school, etc., etc. The whole, thus far, covers near a hundred of the first pages of the volume, and constitutes the general history of the county. The later and larger portion of the work embraces separate histories of the city of Coldwater, and of each of the sixteen townships of the county, going with considerable detail into the facts of their early settlement, showing the hardships and vicissitudes of pioneer life as narrated liy the pioneers themselves, and giving lists of the township officers, together with separate sketches of all the churches, lodges, and other local organizations. Intermingled with these are to be found numerous portraits of prominent citizens of the county, accompanied by their biographies, together with occasional views of their residences. Whatever may be said by the critically disposed regarding the literary execution of the work, the 2 -'Lt^ writer can confidently recommend the productions of the artists and engravers as being of a decidedly high order of merit. They have reproduced the faces of the past generations, and both the homes and features of to-day, so accurately that even after the lapse of a century there need be noz difficulty in knowing precisely what was the condition of Branch County in 1879. And, although there may be those who are disposed to smile at the idea of a mere county history, in which the features of plain farmers and mechanics appear side by side with some of the most distinguished citizensof the State, yet it is safe to predict that in fifty years few books will be more sought after than these local records of to-day, with their delineations of pioneer life and their thoroughly democratic illustrations of all classes of the community. And this simply for the facts depicted by pencil and pen, and despite of any barrenness of style or awkwardness of arrangement of which the author may be guilty. Such a record will be scarcely less valuable than would now be a similar account of actual life in the Revolutionary era, with portraits, not merely of a few generals and statesmen, but of the people of that day, who long since went down to their graves unhonored, unrecorded, and unsung. The early history of this county (that is, its history previous to its settlement) is mostly confined to the story of the Pottawattamies. Three chapters have been prepared on this subject with considerable care, and have been inserted in the histories of both Branch and Hillsdale Counties, as that tribe was for over a century the masters and occupants of the whole valley of the St. Joseph. Since the settlement by the whites, the story of Branch County runs in an entirely separate channel. To obtain the information thus embodied in the earlier and some of the later, portions of the work it has been necessary to consult numerous books having relation to the subjects under consideration. Among the principl of the1 we are indebted to Parkman's Conspiracy of Potin Parkman's Discovery of the Great West, Smith's Life:d Times of Lewis Cass, Drake's Life of Tecum: h, D Book of the Indians, Schooleraft's Report on the fni s, Lossing's Field Book of the War of 1812, Lanman's Book of Michigan, the published Indian Trt United States, the Territorial andws o fd i

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. gan, the Reports of Adjutant-General Robertson from 1861 to 1866, the Reports of the Superintendent of Public Instruction, and Pierce's History of St. Joseph County, besides several minor works. The greater part of the pioneer record of the county is embodied in the sketches of Coldwater city and the various townships, yet in obtaining matter for a general outline of that period we received much assistance from those veteran pioneers, Messrs. Wales Adams, Allen Tibbitts, Harvey Warner, and James B. Tompkins. Messrs. E. G. Fuller, Harvey Haynes, and Roland Root supplied us with many facts regarding a somewhat later period; Mr. Root's information being especially full in relation to the Indians from 1836 down to the time of their removal. Our acknowledgments are also due to Adjutant-General Robertson and his efficient clerk Mr. Humphrey for aid afforded us in obtaining the records of the officers and soldiers of Branch County in the war for the Union, to Mrs. Tenny, the librarian of the State library, for the courtesy with which the ample resources of that institution were placed at our disposal, and to the press of Branch County for access to their files and many other favors. Some others, who have been consulted on particular points, will be mentioned as those points are discussed. Those who have furnished material to the writers on the city and townships may be numbered by the hundred, and it would be impracticable to include them here. Many of them will be mentioned in the city and township histories, and to all we return the thanks of the publishers and writers. And now we submit our work to the people of Branch County. We trust they will be pleased with it in spite of some imperfections, which keen eyes will doubtless find in its pages, and that not only they but their children and their children's children will occasionally turn thither from more exciting tales and more eloquent periods to learn the humble but honorable story of their home. CHAPTER II. EARLY FRENCH DISCOVERIES. Arrival of the French on the Upper Lakes-Champlain in 1615-The Franciscan Priests-The Jesuits-Hunters and Traders-Raymbault and Jogues in 1641-The Wyandots and Ottawas-Father Marquette-The Lake Country formally taken Possession of for the King of France-Marquette Discovers the Mississippi-Discovers and Explores the St. Joseph-La Salle and the " Griffin"-A Fort on the St. Joseph-Loss of the " Griffin"-La Salle's Subsequent Career and Murder-French Dominion-Influence of Fort St. JosephFounding of Detroit-The Pottawattamnies. THOUGH the French were unquestionably the first explorers of the shores of all the great lakes of North America, yet it is somewhat doubtful at what precise time they first reached the peninsula of Michigan. As early as 1615, Samuel de Champlain, then governor of the infant province of Canada, which he had founded, visited the Huron tribes on the shores of Lake Manitouline. Almost or quite as early, priests of the " Recollet" or Franciscan order established Catholic missions in the same locality, and it is not improbable that some of them visited the shores of the great peninsula a little farther westward; for all, whether friends or foes, admit the extraordinary zeal and unflinching courage of the Catholic missionaries in their efforts to make proselytes among the savages of North America. In 1625, however, there arrived on the banks of the St. Lawrence the vanguard of a black-gowned host, to be sent to America by a still more vigorous, zealous, and highly-disciplined order,-the far-famed Jesuits. These fiery champions of the cross were destined to crowd aside the more peaceful or more inert Franciscans throughout the whole lake region, and substantially appropriate that missionary ground to themselves. French hunters and fur-traders, too, made their way into the West far in advance of their English rivals, and doubtless reached the confines of Michigan early in the seventeenth century. Their course, however, was not along the great watery highway through Lakes Ontario and Erie and the Niagara River, for there dwelt the fierce, untamable Iroquois, the bravest and most politic of all the Indians of North America, whom Champlain, by an ill-advised attack, had made the deadly enemies of the French. With the Hurons, or Wyandots, who though a branch of the same race were the foes of the Iroquois, the French were fast friends, and had no difficulty in penetrating westward as far as their domain extended. Their seats were on the eastern side of Lake Huron, while our peninsula was occupied by Ottawas, Ojibwas (or Chippewas), and Pottawattamies, not perhaps as friendly as the Hurons, but standing in fear of the conquering Iroquois, and therefore disposed to be on good terms with the French foes of that confederacy. The course of the intrepid missionaries and traders was up the Ottawa River from Montreal; thence across to the western division of Lake Huron, otherwise known as Lake Manitouline, and thence coasting along the northern shore of that body of water to the Saut Sainte Marie and the Straits of Michillimacinac. In the year 1641, the Jesuits Raymbault and Jogues reached the former point, preached to a crowd of savages, and raised the flag of France, in token of sovereignty, beside the rushing outlet of Lake Superior. Doubtless other missionaries and numerous voyageurs and fur-traders explored the outskirts of Michigan, and possibly penetrated its interior, but there are few records to show their adventurous deeds. In 1659, the WVyandots, or Hurons, fled from the valley of the St. Lawrence before the attacks of the Iroquois, seeking shelter in the islands of Lake Manitouline. The Ottawawas, since called Ottawas, who had previously resided there, retired to the northern part of the main peninsula of Michigan. The Wyandots, or a portion of them, again assailed by the Iroquois, fled to the Straits of Michillimacinac, and still again to the shores of Lake Superior. Being again followed by their implacable enemies, however, they were enabled to repulse them, and thenceforward, being to some extent protected by the French, the Wyandots dwelt on the borders of the great lakes which surround the peninsula of Michigan. In 1668, the celebrated Father Marquette, accompanied by Father Claude Dablon, founded a mission at Saut Sainte *

Page  11 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY) MICHIGAN. 11 _ Marie, at the northern extremity of Michigan; and in 1671 established that of St. Ignace, on the Straits of Michillimacinac (now spelled Mackinaw). In 1670, a French officer, Daumont de St. Lusson, raised the flag of France at the Saut Sainte Marie with pompous ceremonies, and, so far as words could do so, took possession of the whole region of the great lakes in the name of " the Most High, Mighty, and Redoubtable Monarch, Louis, Fourteenth of that name, Most Christian King of France and of Navarre." But the French were by no means disposed to rest content with sounding proclamations. Still eager to spread the reign of the cross among the heathen, and doubtless not unwilling to extend the domain of King Louis over new empires, the intrepid Marquette pushed forward into the wilderness, and discovered the mighty stream which has since borne the name of Mississippi. Shortly afterwards, in 1773, while coasting along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, Marquette discovered a stream which he explored for several miles, and to which he gave the name of St. Joseph. This was, so far as known, the first acquaintance of Europeans with the fertile valley, in the eastern part of which lies the county of Branch. But a still greater explorer than Marquette was about to traverse the lakes and lands of the great West, though, unlike Marquette, he did not subordinate all other objects to the spread of his religion. In the month of August, 1679, the wonder-stricken savages on the shores of Detroit River saw what seemed to them a huge canoe, with immense wings, stemming the powerful current without the aid of oars or paddles, and swiftly traversing the placid sheet of water now known as Lake St. Clair. This was the " Griffin," a schooner of sixty tons, built the preceding winter and spring on the shore of the Niagara, just above the great cataract, and which on the 7th of August had set forth on the first voyage ever made by a sail vessel over the waters of the upper lakes. Its commander was Robert Cavelier de La Salle, the most hardy and adventurous of all the gallant Frenchmen who explored the wilds of North America, and the one whose discoveries did the most to extend the dominions of his royal master. The only portrait which has been preserved of La Salle represents him as a blue-eyed, handsome cavalier with blonde ringlets, apparently better fitted for the salons of Paris than the forests of America; but a thousand evidences show not only the courage but the extraordinary vigor and hardihood of this remarkable man. He was accompanied by Tonti, a gallant Italian exile, who was his second in command, by Father Hennepin, a Franciscan monk, who became the historian of the expedition, and by about thirty sailors, voyageurs, hunters, etc. The " Griffin" passed on over the tempest-tossed waters of Lake Huron, through the Strait of Michillimacinac, out upon the unknown waste of Lake Michigan, and at length came to anchor in Green Bay. Thence she was sent back with a part of her crew and a cargo of furs, while the intrepid La Salle with a score of men remained to explore the vast unconquered empire which lay spread before him. He and his comrades in birch-bark canoes coasted along the western shore of Lake Michigan, reaching its southern extremity on the eighteenth day of October, 1679. Thence the flotilla proceeded to the mouth of the St. Joseph River.* At its mouth he built a fortified trading-post, to which he gave the name of Fort of the Miamis, and which was intended both to facilitate commerce and curb the hostility of the surrounding tribes. Pottawattamies were found at the southern end and on the western shore of Lake Michigan. This trading-post, or fort, was the first built for the purpose of controlling the Indians of this part of the Northwest, and its erection, coincident with the appearance of a French vessel on the upper lakes, may be considered as marking the establishment of French authority (though somewhat vague) over the peninsula of Michigan, including the county which is the subject of this history. La Salle and his comrades remained several weary months at the St. Joseph awaiting the return of the " Griffin," but that ill-fated bark was never heard of after leaving the outlet of Green Bay. Whether, as is probable, it went down with all its men before the gales of one of the great inland seas, or was captured at anchor by jealous savages, its crew butchered and the vessel itself destroyed, is one of the unsolved problems of American history. Despairing at length of the "Griffin's" return, La Salle with a portion of his men in December proceeded up the St. Joseph River in canoes to South Bend, in the present State of Indiana, whence they made their way overland to the head-waters of the Illinois. The future career of this adventurous explorer is not especially connected with the history of this region, and must be dismissed in a few words. After numerous remarkable adventures (being compelled once to return to Canada on foot) La Salle explored the Mississippi to the sea, and took verbal possession of the adjacent country for the benefit of King Louis the Fourteenth, by the name of Louisiana. While attempting, however, to colonize the new domain he met with many misfortunes, and was at length assassinated by two of his own men in Texas, in the year 1687. But, notwithstanding the unfortunate end of the great discoverer, his achievements had extended the dominion of France more widely than had any of his adventurous compatriots, and fiom that time forth the Bourbon king maintained an ascendency more or less complete throughout all the vast region extending from Quebec to Ne' Orleans, until compelled to resign it nearly a century later by the prowess of the British. French vessels circled around the great lakes on the track of the ill-fated Griffin," French forts and trading-posts were established in the wilderness, and French missionaries bore the cross among the heathen with redoubled zeal. French adroitness succeeded in establishing fiiendly relations with the Indians on the shores of all the upper lakes, and members of all the various bands found their way to Fort Frontenac (now Kingston), and even to Montreal, with packages of furs to sell to the children of their great father across the sea. The English, busily engaged in building up a powerful but compact empire along the sea-coast, scarcely attempted toral * From a few Mianais who were then located there, La the river of the Miamis.

Page  12 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - their Gallic competitors in gaining control over the immense interior. The various Indian tribes doubtless would have rejected with scorn the idea of French ownership in the lands which they and their fathers had so long occupied, but as between the English and French it was substantially understood that the dominion of the former extended from the mouth of the St. Lawrence to that of the Mississippi. The only question was where the boundary line should be between the two domains. The Indians around the upper lakes were the more ready to court the friendship of the French, since it was only from the latter that they could obtain arms and ammunition to contest with the terrible Iroquois. After the time of La Salle the French government supported a post, and the Jesuit fathers maintained a mission, at the mouth of the St. Joseph, and the two institutions became a centre of influence over all the southern part of the peninsula. In 1701, however, another frontier post was established, destined soon to overshadow that of St. Joseph. In that year Monsieur La Motte de Cadillac, an officer in the service of the King of France, with a small detachment of troops, landed at the head of Detroit River, and established a post to which he gave the name of " Fort Ponchartrain," but which soon became known by the appellation of " Detroit." This post and the whole of Michigan were nominally a part of the province of Canada, and so remained during both French and English rule. During the French dominion, however, the provincial government exercised very little authority, except to appoint commanders of the various posts. Tlose commanders ruled both the soldiers and the few civilians about as they saw proper. The establishment of this post increased still more the influence of the French throughout the West, and especially throughout the peninsula of Michigan. There seemed little doubt that this whole region was to be subject to French rule, and fancy might have pictured these gleaming lakes and rippling rivers overlooked by the baronial castles of French seigneurs, while around them clustered the humble dwellings of their loyal retainers. French hunters and trappers made their way into all parts of the peninsula, establishing friendly relations with the natives, and not unfrequently forming unions more or less permanent with the copper-colored damsels of the various tribes. Of these tribes we are especially concerned with the Pottawattamies, who soon obtained entire control of the valley of the St. Joseph, who are known to have been fully established here in 1721, and who for over a century were the undisputed lords of its noble forests, its pellucid lakes and its grassy glades. From the time of the early discoveries already mentioned down to the beginning of settlement and cultivation by the whites, the history of the territory now composing Branch County, with the rest of the St. Joseph Valley, is confined substantially to the doings of the Pottawattamie Indians. To them and their deeds the following three chapters are devoted. CHAPTER III. THE POTTAWATTAMIES. General Relations of the Indian Tribes-Iroqtois and AlgonlquiinsTheir Location-Numerous Tribes of Algonquin Race-The Pottawattamies-Their League with the Ottawas and Chippewas-Their Establishment in the Saint Joseph Valley-Changes of LocationAbsence of Romance-Indian Warfare-Indian Weapons-Surprising an Enemy-Insult and Torture-Adoption-The Mission of Saint Joseph-Pottawattanlie Friendship for the French-Rescue of Detroit-Trading with French and English-The War of 1744 -Raids on the Frontiers-French Records of the PottawattamiesPeace in 1748. IN order to give a correct idea of the position and history of the Pottawattamie Indians, so long the lords of Branch County and all the adjacent country, it is necessary very briefly to sketch the general relations of the Indians of this part of North America. Of course the writer of a mere county history does not pretend to have investigated this abstruse subject by reference to original sources of information; he is obliged to depend on those who have made those matters the study of their lives,-especially on Francis Parkman, the accomplished author of the " Conspiracy of Pontiac," the " Discovery of the Great West," and other works on cognate subjects. When the French and English hunters first penetrated the dark forests whose gloomy masses rolled from the shores of the North Atlantic far back beyond the Alleghanies, and when the most adventurous among them first gladdened their eyes with the gay prairies still farther westward, they found two great Indian races occupying the whole land from the ocean to the Mississippi, and from the valleys of Tennessee to the frozen regions of Northern Canada. Southward of these limits were the Mobilian tribes, of whom the Cherokees, Chickasaws, and others have since adopted to some extent the customs of the whites, while west of the Father of Waters were the great Dakota race, whose principal representatives, the Sioux, still roam in savage freedom over the prairies, a terror to all who cross their path. The two races, who, as stated a few lines above, occupied the whole northeastern portion of the United States and a large part of Canada, were the Iroquois and the Algonquins. Though the former were the most celebrated and the most powerful, the latter were by far the most numerous; in fact, as has been truly said, the former were like an island amid the vast hordes of Algonquins around. The five confederate tribes of the Iroquois, commonly known as the Five Nations (afterwards the Six Nations), occupied a strong position, extending from the banks of the Hudson nearly to those of the Niagara, protected on the north by the waters of Lake Ontario, on the south by the mountains of Pennsylvania, and now comprising the heart of the great Empire State. The Wyandots, or Hurons, before mentioned, were an outlying branch of the same race, but hostile to the great confederacy; while the Tuscaroras were a friendly offshoot in the South, who afterwards became the sixth of the Six Nations. Aside from these, the woods and prairies far and near swarmed with the diverse tribes of the Algon9qin race; Abenlaquis in Canada, Pequots and Narragansetts in New England, Delawares in Pennsylvania, Shawnees in Ohio, *

Page  13 13 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Miamis in Ohio and Indiana, Illinois in the territory of the State which still bears their name, Sauks, Foxes, and Menomonees in the country west of Lake Michigan, while the great peninsula of Michigan, and some neighboring sections, were occupied by the Ojibways, or Chippewas, the Ottawas, and the tribe which is the especial subject of this chapter, the Pottawattamies. All these, though sundered far apart, and often warring desperately among themselves, have been shown by students of their characteristics to have belonged to one great stock, and to have spoken various dialects of one language. They outnumbered the Five Nations of Iroquois more than ten to one; yet such was the superior skill, sagacity, and prowess of the confederates that they were able to defeat their disunited foes one after the other, till none could stand before them, and the terror of their name spread over half the continent. Even the Wyandots, though of the same race, and almost equal in numbers, lacked the ferocious energy of the Five Nations, and were driven before them as deer are driven before the screaming panther. The three tribes of Algonquin stock just mentioned, the Ojibwas, the Ottawas, and the Pottawattamies, were in the forepart of the eighteenth century united in a rude confederacy, somewhat similar to the celebrated league of the Iroquois, but far less thorough and less potent. The dialects of the three tribes differed less even than was usual among the various branches of the Algonquin race, and, notwithstanding some differences of inflection, the members could understand each other without the aid of an interpreter. The Ojibwas, outnumbering both the other two tribes combined, dwelt in the frozen region of Lake Superior, where their descendants still chase the elk and moose amid the gloomy pines, and spear their finny prey over the sides of frail canoes, rocked on the boiling waters of the Saut Sainte Marie. The Ottawas, who had fled from Canada before the hatred of the all-conquering Iroquois, had their principal headquarters in the vicinity of Detroit and St. Clair Rivers, where, after the erection of Fort Ponchartrain by their French friends, they felt comparatively secure from their terrible enemies. Finally, the domain of the Pottawattamies, the subject of these chapters, stretched from the vicinity of Chicago around the head of Lake Michigan, northward to the mouth of the Kalamazoo or beyond, while to the eastward it extended so as to include the valleys of the St. Joseph, the Kalamazoo, and other streams which flow into Lake Michigan from the central portion of the peninsula. The exact period at which the Pottawattanties established themselves in the valley of the St. Joseph is unknown. Unless La Salle was mistaken, the Miamis occupied the banks of the St. Joseph in 1678, at which time the Pottawattamies are believed to have been mostly in the vicinity of Green Bay. It is certain, however, that they were in the St. Joseph Valley in 1721 (having probably established themselves there about the beginning of the century), and there they remained until within the memory of men still living. It will be understood, however, that the location of the various tribes of the Iroquois and Algonquin races at that distant period can only be given with approximate correctness. Their boundaries were constantly changing. Tribes were frequently driven by the fortunes of war from the homes of their fathers, or even blotted from the list of forest nationalities. Sometimes they changed their localities in search of more abundant game, and sometimes no cause but caprice could be assigned for their migrations. Not only did whole tribes occasionally change their locations, but in many cases outlying clans dwelt at a long distance from the parent tribe, being sometimes surrounded by the villages of other nations. Thus, though the main body of the Pottawattamies were to be found as early as 1721 stretching from the head of Lake Michigan eastward to the head of the St. Joseph River, there were for a considerable time two or three detached villages in the vicinity of Detroit, and others in the neighborhood of Green Bay. Besides these more permanent changes of location, the several bands of which each nation was composed were, even in time of peace, constantly migrating to and fro over the domain which unquestionably belonged to their tribe. In summer they raised corn. (that is, the squaws did) in one place, in winter they hunted in another, perhaps a hundred miles distant, and in spring they visited still another location for the purpose of fishing; usually but not always returning to their former ground to raise and harvest their crops. Yet, notwithstanding these various changes by which the Pottawattamies were more or less affected, they continued for over a century and a quarter the masters of the territory composing this county, and their bloody record is perhaps quite as deserving of being embodied in history as are those of several other conquerors. While, however, the admirers of $'ring adventure and desperate conflict may find something of interest in the story of an Indian tribe, it would be hopeless for the lover of romance to seek there for aught to gratify his taste. No truthful delineation can present the Indian as a romantic character. Apathetic in an extraordinary degree in regard to the softer passions, it is seldom, indeed, that love sways his actions, although the slightest cause is liable to arouse him to the direst fury of hate. He had rather capture one scalp than a dozen hearts. The Pottawattamie inherited the usual characteristics of the Indian, and especially of the Algonquin race. Less terrible in battle, less sagacious in council, than the men of the Five Nations, he was, nevertheless, like the rest of his red brethren, a brave, hardy, and skillful warrior, an astute manager so far as his knowledge extended, generally a faithful friend, and invariably a mst implacable enemy. His own time he devoted to war, the chase, or idleness, abandoning to the women the labor of raising his scanty supplies of Indian corn, pumpkins, and beans, of transporting his household goods from point to point, and every other burden which he could possibly impose upon her weay shoulders. He lived in the utmost freedom which it is:- s to imagine, consistent with any civil or military oirg zation whatever. His sachems exercised little authority exept to declare war and make peace, to determine on the migration of the tribe, and to give wise counsels allaying any 9il feel

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. ings which might arise among the people. There was no positive law Spelling obedience. Even when war was declared there was no way by which the braves could be compelled to take the war-path. Any war-chief could drive a stake in the ground, dance the wardance around it, strike his tomahawk into it with a yell of defiance, and call for volunteers to go forth against the foe.. If his courage or capacity were doubted, he obtained but few followers. If he were of approved valor and skill, a larger number would grasp their tomahawks in response to his appeal; while, if he were a chieftain distinguished far and wide for deeds of blood and craft, the whole nation would spring to arms, and all its villages would resound with the terrific notes of the war-song, chanted by hundreds of frenzied braves. With followers few or many, the chief went forth against the foe. But he could not compel their obedience a moment longer than they chose to give it, and no punishment but disgrace awaited the recreant who deserted his leader in the hour of his utmost need. The most extreme penalty only consisted in giving the dishonor due the dastard a visible form, by enveloping him in the garments of a woman and compelling him to perform the menial labors usually performed by the weaker sex. But to an Indian, accustomed to look down on his squaw as infinitely below him, this would be the most terrible of inflictions. As is well known, the original weapons of the Indians were bows and arrows (the latter tipped with flint), warclubs, stone tomahawks, and scalping-knives also made of sharpened flints. But, stubborn as they were in repelling all the arts of civilization offered by the whites, they grasped eagerly at the formidable implements of war brought across the Atlantic. Iron tomahawks and scalping-knives could be; cheaply manufactured, and soon an ample supply of them was furnished by the Dutch and English to the Iroquois, and by the French to the numerous tribes of the Algonquin race under the influence of that subtle people. Guns and ammunition were more costly, but the Indian longed for them with a love second only to his passion for whisky, and, despite occasional prohibitions by the colonial authorities on either side, the best warriors and hunters in the various tribes were soon provided with these deadly instruments of slaughter. In fact, whenever war was threatened between the French and English, both parties were eager to enlist all the Indian allies they could, and furnished muskets and gunpowder with a free hand. Armed and equipped, clad only in a breech-clout, but covered from head to foot with paint disposed in the most hideous figures, his head crested with feathers of the wild birds he had slain, the Indian went forth on the war-path. If the band was a small one, it lurked in the vicinity of the hostile villag until a still smaller number of the enemy could be caught at a distance from their friends. These were, if possible, shot down from an ambush (for under no circumstances will an Indian run any risk which it is possible to void), their alps were stripped off with eager haste, and the victors fled towards their homes at their utmost sped. If the whole nation turned out in arms, they might attempt the total destruction of their enemy; but even then surprise was generally an essential element of success. Hurrying forward by unfrequented paths, or plunging through the trackless forest, guided only by the sun and the well-known courses of the streams, the little army reached the neighborhood of the foe. Carefully concealing their approach, they waited an opportunity for attack, which was usually made at night. When their unsuspecting victims were wrapped in slumber, the whole crowd of painted demons would burst in among them, using musket, knife, and tomahawk with furious zeal, and striking terror to every heart with the fiendish sound of war-whoops shrieked fron a thousand throats. The torch was applied to the frail cabins of the unhappy people, and men, women and children were stricken down in indiscriminate slaughter by the lurid light of their blazing homes. When the first fury of savage hate had been satiated, prisoners were taken, but these were frequently destined to a fate far more terrible than the speedy death from which they had escaped. Bound with thongs and loaded with burdens, they were urged on with remorseless speed toward the home of their captors, and if, enfeebled by wounds or sickness, they lagged behind, the ready tomahawk put an end to their miseries. But if the prisoner, withstanding the lhardships of the march, was brought alive to the wigwams of the victors, and especially if he were a well-known warrior, human fancy never painted a more awful doom than that which awaited him, save where it has described the tortures of the damned in another world. As a sportive preliminary the victim was required to run the gauntlet, when a hundred malicious foes, both male and female, ranged on either side, flung stones, clubs, tomahawks, and every other possible missile at his naked form, as he dashed with the energy of despair between their furious ranks. Then, unless he was saved by unexpected lenity, came the fiercer agony of the stake, prolonged sometimes for hours and even for days, accompanied by all the refinements of torment which a baleful ingenuity could invent, yet supported with unsurpassable fortitude by the victim, who often shrieked his defiant death-song even amid the last convulsions of his tortured fiame. Yet women, children, and youths were frequently saved from this horrible fate to be adopted into the tribe of their captors, and even men sometimes shared the same lenity. What is remarkable is that as soon as it was decided thus to receive a captive into the tribe, all appearances of hate seemed immediately to disappear; the best of all the forest luxuries was placed before the honored guest, the costliest blankets were spread over his shoulders, and the softest couches of fur were spread for his wearied limbs. Either because the change was so great from the expected torture to the kindly adoption, or because the captors knew so well whom to choose as recipients of their indulgence, it was very seldom that the latter attempted to escape from their new alliances. Nay, even young white men and women, thus adopted into the ranks of the savages, frequently became so well satisfied with forest life as to resist every inducement afterwards offered them to return to their countrymen. Such were some of the salient characteristics of the

Page  15 15 IISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. North American Indians, shared by the Pottawattamies, the subject of these chapters. Those characteristics were common to the Algonquin and Iroquois races, the principal difference being in the greater intensity with which they were manifested by the latter. The Shawnee was subtle in war; the Iroquois was still more so. The Ottawa was cold and haughty toward others, but he was met by still greater coldness and haughtiness on the part of the Iroquois. The Pottawattamie, the confederate of the Ottawa, was brave and ferocious, but he was surpassed both in bravery and ferocity by the terrible warriors of the Five Nations. In speaking of Indians the term "' nation" is generally used as synonymous with tribe, and to the civilized ear the word carries an idea of large numbers, confirmed by the immense range of Indian operations, and the terror which they inspired on the frontiers. Yet the celebrated Five Nations, in the height of their power, numbered altogether but two or three thousand warriors, the Wyandot branch of the Iroquois had about the same number, and the various tribes of Algonquin lineage were proportionally small. As near as can be ascertained, the Pottawattamies at the beginning of the eighteenth century numbered about eight hundred warriors, including those of Illinois and Wisconsin. As has been said, they were linked in a loose confederacy with the more numerous Ottawas and Chippewas, but the Pottawattamies were the only tribe sufficiently connected with this county to make their acts a subject of interest in this work. The others will not be mentioned except when the story of their savage deeds is necessarily intermingled with the record of the Pottawattamies. To that record we now address ourselves. It was near the beginning of the eighteenth century that the Jesuits, who had obtained almost a monopoly of missionary work in French America, established the mission of St. Joseph at the mouth of the river of that name, and under the shadow of the little post maintained on the site selected by La Salle. In 1712, Father Marest describes the mission as being in a very flourishing condition. Whatever might have been the success of the holy fathers in the task of Christianizing the Indians there is no doubt that they obtained a great personal influence over them, which the priests naturally used to cement their friendship for France. Numerous other influences were also brought to bear by the adroit managers who, in various capacities, represented the Gallic people on the upper lakes, and the friendship of the Pottawattamies was thoroughly demonstrated in the year just named, 1712. In May of that year, a large body of Sacs, Foxes, and Mascoutins, tribes of Algonquin lineage but at enmity with the other nations of that race (and supposed to be acting under the influence of the Iroquois, the inveterate foes of the French), suddenly appeared before Fort Ponchartrain, threw up some rude breastworks, and attempted to destroy. the post. On the thirteenth of the month a fierce assault was made, and, though not at first successful, it was maintained with such energy and by such numbers that the little garrison of twenty soldiers was placed in a situation of great danger. But while the wearied Frenchmen were husbanding their scanty resources in expectation of a still more deadly on slaught, their ears were saluted by hundreds of savage warwhoops, and a large body of friendly Wyandots, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies burst from the forest, and flung themselves impetuously upon the startled besiegers of the fort. The latter resisted to the best of their ability, and for a short time the battle-field resounded with the shouts of the contestants, the constant rattle of musketry, the groans of the wounded, and now and then with the terrific scalphalloo of some successful brave as he tore the coveted trophy from the head of his victim. But, aided by the fire of the garrison, the rescuing party were soon completely successful, and the Sacs, Foxes, and Mascoutins fled in utter rout through the forest. The vengeance of the victors, in accordance with Indian custom, was visited alike upon men, women, and children; from eight hundred to a thousand of whom were slain. So great was the injury inflicted that the Fox nation was reported to be completely destroyed. This was not the case, but it was compelled to flee to the west side of Lake Midhigan, where it long remained, being distinguished by the peculiar bitterness borne by its members toward the French. On the other hand, the friendship thus cemented between the French and the Pottawattamies, Ottawas, and 14/untdots endured through more than half a century of varied fortunes, and was scarcely severed when throughout Canada and the West the Gallic flag went down in hopeless defeat before the conquering English. During the thirty years following the event just mentioned, there are but few and scanty records to show the acts of the Pottawattamies. They continued to cultivate their little patches of corn, and to hunt the deer through the forests of Southern Michigan and around the head of the lake of that name, generally exchanging their surplus furs with their friends, the French, for blankets, calicoes, gilt ornaments, guns, powder, and brandy. To the honor of the Jesuits, it should be said that they steadily opposed the sale of this last commodity to the Indians, braving the enmity of the most powerful officials in so doing. But although the Canadian voyageur or Indian trader was a good Catholic, who would regularly confess his sins and practice the severest penances imposed by his priests, yet even their potent influence was insufficient to keep him from grasping the enormous profits made by selling ardent spirits to the Indians. Civic functionaries, commandants of posts, and every one else who had the means, were alike eager to share these dubious gains, and all the tribes connected with the French, like those in communication with the English, became deeply infected with the fatal thirst for spirituous liquors, which has been the greatest bane of their race. But although the Pottawattamies usually traded with the French, yet when the English opened a trading-house at Oswego, on Lake Ontario, in 1727, many-of their number, with other denizens of the upper-lake region, found their way thither with their furs, having discovered tha the English gave much better bargains in the Indmias' necessities of powder and whisky than did the French. It will be understood that there were no commission merchants in those days, by whom packages of beaver-ins and otter-skins could be sent to Oswego or Montral for i: X:

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. sale. The adventurous Pottawattamie hunter who wanted to drive a better bargain than he could make at the frontier posts must launch his frail canoe, with its load of furs, on the waters of the St. Joseph or the Raisin, follow the tortuous course of the river to Lake Michigan or Lake Erie, coast cautiously down those inland seas to the Niagara, carry his little vessel around the great cataract, launch it again upon the bosom of Ontario, and at length make his toilsome way to Oswego or Frontenac. Having made the customary exchange for powder, blankets, calicoes, and brandy, he must return by the same route, not only braving the hardships of the voyage but the danger of ambush by the dreaded Iroquois; for though there were intervals of peace between the " fierce democracies" of the East and the West, yet there was always danger that some wandering band of warriors would seek vengeance for old but unforgotten injuries upon any less powerful squad whom fortune might throw in their path. The greater part of the Indian trade, however, was carried on by the French coureurs de bois, a wild and hardy race, who adopted, to a great extent, the Indian customs, formed Indian alliances of more or less permanence, and through whom the French influence was constantly extended over the nations of Algonquin race. In 1736 the French local authorities reported to the home government that they exercised authority over a hundred and three tribes, numbering sixteen thousand warriors and eighty-two thousand souls. This authority was very vague and precarious, and might more properly have been described as influence; and yet it was a very real assistance to the French in their constant rivalry with the English. In 1744, after a thirty years' peace, war broke out between those two great nations, and each at once summoned their Indian allies to the war-path. Far and wide, through Canada and the Great West, the French officials labored to stir up the passions of the Algonquin braves, while the English sought the aid of the Iroquois, much fewer in number, but more daring in spirit and more compact in organization. Bands of all the Northwestern tribes made frequent and most murderous assaults on the frontiers of Pennsylvania and Virginia, inflicting the most terrible cruelties upon the settlers, and suffering scarcely less in return, when they fell into the hands of the fierce borderers, who hated the red men as the Jews hated the heathen whose lands they had seized. Other bands made their way over the long course to Montreal, received full equipments there, and then, sometimes under their own chiefs, sometimes under French partisan officers, went forth to harry the frontiers of New York and New England. In 1745, one of the numerous records made by the Canadian officials states that fifty " Poutewatamies," fifteen Puans, and ten Illinois came to go to war. Another memorandum, dated August 22, the same year, mentions the arrival of thirty-eight Outawois (Ottawas) of Detroit, seventeen Sauternes, twenty-four Hurons, and fourteen "Poutewatamies." The French records show the send ing out of not less than twenty marauding expeditions 0aginst the colonists of New Hampshire, Massachusetts, and New York in one year, and chronicle their dismal re turn with scalps and prisoners. The colonial governments did their best to retaliate in kind, but the small number of their only allies, the Iroquois, made it impracticable to equal the atrocities of the French. The war lasted four years, consisting principally of such predatory excursions, during which the French accounts make frequent mention of the "Poutewatamies" as active in gaining whatever glory could be reaped fiom those ferocious achievements. The contest was closed, however, in 1748, by the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle, and again the Pottawattamie braves were forced to content themselves with warfare with other tribes, save when occasionally a small band could make a stealthy foray against the settlers of Pennsylvania, which would be promptly disowned by the wily old sachems of the tribe, as the act of some "bad young men." CHAPTER IV. THE POTTAWATTAMIES-(Continued). The Crisis-Beginning of War-The Three Expeditions of 1755 -Braddock's Advance-Indians at Fort Duquesne-Beaujeu Induces them to follow Him-Attack upon the British-Desperate Battle-The British routed-Fiendish Orgies-The Indians attack the Frontiers-Other Indian Operations-Defeat of Grant-Pottatoattamies at Fort Niagara-Their Defeat-Fall of Quebec-Rogers takes Possession of Detroit-Indian Dislike of the English-The Conspiracy of Pontiac-Number of the Pottawattamies-Pontiac's Schemes-His Treachery exposed-The Attack-The Siege-Capture of Fort St. Joseph —The Pottawattaniies make Peace-Battle of Bloody Run-Pottawoattamies take Part-The British defeated -Pottawattamies, etc., attack a Vessel-Indians off to HuntPontiac withdraws-End of the Siege-Gen. Bradstreet comes up the Lakes with Army-General Submission of the Tribes-British Posts re-established-Sir William Johnson's Tactics with the Pottawattanies-An Indian Speech-Fate of Pontiac-The Revenge of the Northern Indians. THE long and almost constant struggle between the French and English for the mastery of North America was rapidly approaching a crisis. The former, having secured an influence over the Indians throughout the West, and having established a line of forts and trading-posts by way of Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, and the Mississippi River, were now anxious to crowd still more closely on the English, and to establish an interior line from Lake Erie to the forks of the Ohio (now Pittsburgh) and thence down the river to the Mississippi. The slower English colonists, absorbed with the work of chopping, and plowing, and building houses, were yet determined to prevent a proceeding which would have brought a line of hostile posts almost to their doors. In 1754, Major George Washington, in command of a body of rangers who were guarding the frontiers of Virginia, attacked and defeated a detachment of French and Indians who were apparently acting as spies upon him, thus beginning a war destined to convulse two continents, to expel the flag of France from the greater part of North America, and to pave the way for the American Revolution and American independence. Little more was done that year than to fight a few inconsequent skirmishes, and to terrify the frontier with a few savage deeds of blood.

Page  17 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 17 But in 1755 desperate exertions were made on both sides to accomplish great results. The English planned to send three armies against three prominent French posts; one, under Gen. Johnson (afterwards Sir William Johnson), against Crown Point, on Lake Champlain; one, under Gen. Shirley, against Fort Niagara, at the mouth of the Niagara River; and one, the most formidable of all, was to be led against Fort Duquesne, at the forks of the Ohio, by Maj.-Gen. Edward Braddock, who was sent over to be commander-in-chief of all the British forces in America. The French, on the other hand, though comparatively few in numbers, were more vigilant and active than their adversaries, and depended much on the aid they could obtain from the swarms of Indians in their interest, whom they made strenuous and quite successful efforts to attach to their standard. The expedition against Fort Niagara broke down before reaching that post. The one under Gen. Johnson, though 'it did not capture or even attack Crown Point, yet resulted in a decided victory over the combined French and Indian force under Baron Dieskau, on the shores of Lake George, in the northeastern part of New York. Considering the custom among the Western Indians of making their way in small bands to Montreal to take part in operations against the English, it is quite probable that some of our "Poutewatamies" were actors under Dieskau in the battle of Lake George; but as it is not certain, and as their mode of operation can be sufficiently understood by observing their acts on a more celebrated field where they were unquestionably present, we turn at once to the sadly-celebrated expedition under Gen. Braddock. It was early in June, 1755, that that brave, but conceited and thick-headed, commander led forth an army of some two thousand men from the frontiers of Pennsylvania, and took the road toward Fort Duquesne. Small as that number may seem to the reader of this generation, Braddock commanded one of the largest forces that had yet been assembled in North America, and high hopes were entertained of its achievements. It was mostly composed of British regulars, with a few Virginia and Pennsylvania riflemen, and as the scarlet columns strode proudly along the narrow forest pathway, their commander did not doubt for a moment that they would easily accomplish the task which had been allotted them. After a considerable part of the distance had been traveled, the general, by the advice of his aide-de-camp, Col. Washington, moved forward with twelve hundred men and some light artillery, leaving the rest of the army to follow at a slower pace. Meanwhile the alarmed French, unable to bring any considerable number of troops to Fort Duquesne, had strained every nerve to draw thither a sufficient force of Indians to repel the assailants. But though it was easy to persuade numerous savages to go forth in little bands against the hapless colonists, it was far more difficult to concentrate a considerable force for the purpose of defending a fort against a British army. An Indian, as a rule, has a great aversion to facing a large, organized army, and an equally strong dislike of being shut up in a fort. According to Sargent's ( History of Braddock's Expedition,"-the best authority to be found on the subject,-there were six hundred and thirty. seven Indian warriors gathered at Fort Duquesne. These comprised Abenakis and Caughnawagas, from Canada; Shawnees, from Ohio; Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies, from Michigan; and some smaller bands, all friendly to the French, but all alarmed at ~the superior force of the English, as reported by their scouts. Besides these, there were seventy-two regular French soldiers and a hundred and forty-six Canadian militia, making a total, as near as can be ascertained, of eight hundred and fifty-five combatants. The post was under the command of Capt. Contrecoeur, of the French army. Knowing the superior force of Braddock, and the indisposition of the Indians to engage in a regular siege, Contrecoeur was half disposed to abandon the post and descend the Ohio. But among the French officers was one who was thoroughly accustomed to forest warfare, and who possessed extraordinary influence over the Indians. This was Capt. Beaujeu, who, on learning of the near approach of Braddock, boldly proposed to lead forth the Indians and Canadians and endeavor to surprise or ambush the too-confident English. The commander reluctantly gave his consent. Beaujeu then hastened among his Indian friends. Calling together the chiefs, he flung down a tomahawk before them, harangued them in that Algonquin tongue with which all their dialects were affiliated, aid offered to lead them at once against the red-coats, who were coming to rob them of their lands. But all shrank back from this daring proposal. Shawnees, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies alike declined the challenge, declaring that the English were too strong for such an attempt. Again Beaujeu appealed to their friendship for the French, their hatred against the English, their pride in their own valor. But still in vain. "Does our father think we are fools," exclaimed the chiefs, " that we should go forth against the red soldiers, when they are more numerous than the leaves of the forest?" Yet once more Beaujeu essayed the powers of his eloquence. He painted more vividly than before the steady encroachment of the English on the Indian lands, till every face was black with hatred; depicted, with all the pathos he could command, the friendship which had always existed between the French and the tribes of Algonquin race; pointed out the ease with which from behind trees and rocks they could shoot down the clumsy red-coats; and dilated on the rich harvest of booty and scalps they could gather, till the bolder chiefs clutched their tomahawks with a passion that could scarcely be restrained. Then Beaujeu capped the climax of his eloquence by exclaiming,"I am determined to go to-morrow though not a chief dare follow me! Will you allow your father to go alone against your enemies while you remain in safety here?" This bold declaration turned the wavering balance in the minds of his savage hearers; the bravest among them sprang forward, brandishing their tomahawks and assertin their readiness to follow their father Beaujeu wherever he might lead, and the contagion of generous rashness soon spread through all the crowd. In a few mome al re thronging around Beaujeu with shouts of defian the red-coats, and in a few mowre e awywee a

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. their followers, arousing their passions by the same arts which Beaujeu had employed upon themselves. Late that night the war-dance was danced in a score of Indian camps, and Pottawattamies, Ottawas, Shawnees, Delawares, Abenaics, worked themselves into a frenzy of valor by their own shrieks, contortions, and harangues. The next morning, the fatal 9th of July, the scouts brought in the news that Braddock's army was on the move, and was crossing the Monongahela from the eastern to the western side, some twelve or fourteen miles from the fort. Shawnees, Pottawattamies, Abenakis, and all their brethren were soon astir, the scenes of the previous night were reenacted, and the warriors, while making their few preparations, aroused each other's enthusiasm with shrieks, and shouts, and brandishing of tomahawks, and impromptu fragments of the war-dance, and brief rehearsals of their valorous deeds on former occasions. Contrecceur ordered kegs of bullets and gunpowder to be broken open and placed at the gate of the fort, so that all the Indians might help themselves. Thus amply furnished with ammunition, naked sae the breech-clout and a long line of braided deer-hide wound around the waist, to which was suspended tomahawk, scalping-knife, powder-horn, and bullet-pouch, the yelling bands hurried off into the forest. The hundred or more warriors of each tribe were under their own chief, nor does there seem to have been any unity of action among them, save through the partial obedience which they voluntarily yielded to Contrecoeur and Beaujeu. Tradition indeed asserts that the Ottawas were led by the great chieftain whose name was in a few years to become a terror along a thousand miles of English frontier, the renowned Pontiac, and if so it is quite possible that the Chippewas and Pottawattamies (who, as before stated, were loosely leagued in a warlike confederacy with the Ottawas) might have followed the same daring leader. There is, however, little evidence to support the tradition, and, unless influenced by the renown of some very distinguished chief, the warriors of each tribe usually acted by themselves, and sometimes divided into still smaller bands. When Beaujeu had superintended the fitting out of his Indians, he set forth himself with about two hundred white men, three-fourths Canadian militia and hunters, and the remainder French regulars, but regulars who had served long in America, and were well versed in the wiles of forest warfare. Contrecceur was left almost alone in the fort. Though the Indians had started first they were not disposed to get ahead of their father, Beaujeu, and they speedily arranged themselves in irregular order on either side of the narrow road along which marched the little column of French and Canadians. As they neared the foe the yells with which they had excited each other's valor sank into silence, for the Indian invariably seeks the advantage of. surprise. The second in command under Beaujeu was ei:~ Dit umas, and another partisan officer was Charles. f afterwards a resident of Green Bay, and by eifeniderped the principal pioneer of Wisconsin. He afs Xi r ei distinguished for his influence over the Ottaws, aamites, and other Indians of the upper lakes. Beaujeu knew that about nine miles from Fort Duquesne I t I t the road coming from the south, after again crossing the Monongahela- to the east side (on which the fort was situated), wound upward to the heights above the stream, between gloomy ravines with precipitous sides, such as are often seen in America, where tall trees growing at the bottom rise beside the almost perpendicular walls, their foliage mingling with the undergrowth at the top, thus concealing the abyss from the eyes of all but the most observant woodsmen. It is supposed that he intended to place his men in ambush in these ravines and fire on the unsuspecting battalions of Braddock after they had partially marched through the defile. He hurried forward at great speed, but the preparations had taken up so much time that, if such was his intention, he was a little too late to carry it fully into effect. As he and his foremost men reached the isthmus between the two ravines, a little after noon, the vanguard of the British army came into view only a few rods distant. The biographer of De Langlade declares that, on discovering this fact, Beaujeu was unwilling to make an attack, and that the former was obliged to ply him with argument and entreaties for several minutes before he would consent to go forward. Be that as it may, the order was soon given, and French, Canadians, and Indians plunged forward at full speed. One of the English perceived Beaujeu, clad in borderfashion in a fringed hunting-shirt, springing forward with long bounds, closely followed by his Canadians, while the dark forms of the Indians could barely be seen on either side gliding at equal speed through the forest. Almost at the same moment the French leader halted and waved his hat. The Canadians formed an irregular line across the road, and began firing briskly on those British who were in sight, while the Indians, once more raising the war-whoop, sprang into the ravines on either side, and plied their muskets with equal vigor. A detachment of grenadiers, under Lieut.-Col. Thomas Gage (afterwards the celebrated Gen. Gage, commanding the British troops at Boston at the beginning of the Revolution), formed the principal part of the vanguard. They returned the fire of the Canadians, and one of the first shots killed Capt. Beaujeu, on whom the whole enterprise seemed to depend. His men were in truth greatly discouraged, and when some artillery, brought forward by Braddock, made the hills and forests re-echo with its tremendous volleys, the Indians (who are usually very timorous about facing the big guns) were on the point of fleeing. But Dumas, the second in command, quickly rallied his men after the fall of Beaujeu, and the Indians soon discovered that they were almost completely screened from artillery fire by their position in the ravines. They could establish themselves close to the top, clinging to the bushes and small trees, and, barely lifting their fierce faces above the level, could fire, in almost complete security, at the red battalions which crowded' the road a few rods away, while the great cannon-balls crashed above them, cutting the limbs from hundreds of trees, but hardly slaying a single warrior. The artillerists were shot down at their guns, and the infantry fell by the score. They were extremely frightened by seeing that the fire, as was said, " came out of the ground at their feet," and huddled to

Page  19 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 19 gether in crowds, firing their muskets in the air, and offering the best possible mark for their unseen foes. The Indians soon saw the dismay they were causing, and their own courage became proportionately inflated. They spread themselves down the ravines, enveloping the column in a murderous line of fire on both sides, while themselves seldom exposing more than a head or an arm. In vain the British officers, with unquestioned bravery, endeavored to encourage their terrified soldiers; in vain Braddock himself rushed into the thickest of the fire, where five horses were successively shot under him as he tried to form his men in the prim array suited to European warfare; in vain young Col. Washington rode to and fro, seconding the efforts of his chief with far more wisdom, having likewise two horses killed under him and his clothes riddled with bullets; in vain the three companies of Virginia riflemen, preserving something like composure amid the terrific scene, fought in Indian style from behind the trees; neither valiant example, nor military authority, nor the hope of selfpreservation could inspire with courage that demoralized throng. When it has been impracticable to fight Indians in their own fashion, good commanders have sometimes driven them from their coverts with the bayonet, as the red men generally have a wholesome horror of cold steel. Both Wayne at the Miami and Harrison at Tippecanoe pursued these tactics with great success. But either Braddock did not think of this or his men would not go forward, and the Indians continued to maintain their strong position in the ravines. At length, after three hours' fighting, after the general had been mortally wounded and borne from the field, after Gage and Gates (the future conqueror of Saratoga) had also been severely wounded, after sixty-three officers out of eighty-six, and over seven hundred men out of twelve hundred, had been killed or wounded, the remainder fled in a rabble rout across the Monongahela, hastened on for several days till they met the rear-guard, and in company with them pursued their course till they reached a safe retreat in Philadelphia. The French and Indians, who had suffered some loss, though it was trifling compared with that of their opponents, only pursued their defeated foes to the river, and then spread themselves over the field to seek for booty and scalps. The Indians fairly went crazy with their fiendish joy. A colonial prisoner previously captured, and held at Fort Duquesne, described them as rivaling Pandemonium itself on their return to that fortress at night. Hardly a warrior but had one or more scalps to adorn his girdle. Most of them had secured articles of clothing or other plunder from the dead or prisoners. All were covered with the blood of their unfortunate victims, and all were shrieking, whooping, leaping up and down, and brandishing their weapons in a perfect delirium of triumph. Here niight be seen a stalwart Ottawa, naked as he went forth in the morning, save that upon his head was placed the plumed hat of a British officer; there strode a haughty Pottawattamie, a red coat, dyed a deeper crimson by the blood of its late owner, buttoned across his brawny breast, a gold watch clutched in his hand to be gazed at with ad i I I 1 miring but half-suspicious eyes, while two or three fairhaired scalps, suspended from the ramrod of his rifle, gave fearful evidence of the sorrow which that day had caused in far-off English homes. The glorious tragedy of battle never had a more hideous afterpiece of mingled folly and horror than was presented around Fort Duquesne at sunset on the 9th of July, 1755. Few prisoners were taken, and most of these suffered the awful, the almost indescribable, death at the stake, which Indian vengeance prescribes for their defeated foes. The defeat of Braddock, and consequent retreat of the whole army, unloosed the passions and dispelled the fears of all the Western Indians,-even of those who had not before taken up arms for the French,-and thousands of tomahawks were grasped in the hope of burying them in the brains of the hated English colonists,-a hope, alas, too often fulfilled by the terrible reality. These predatory excursions constituted the principal part of the warfare waged by the Western Indians during the two succeeding years. A few Pottawattamies probably found their way to the armies of the Marquis de Montcalm, taking part with him in the capture of Oswego, in 1756, and in that of Fort William Henry and subsequent massacre, in 1757; but their numbers were so scant, and the part they played so unimportant, that it is needless to refer to it further here. In 1758, the Pottawattamies, with the other Western Indians, were again summoned to the defeneiOf Fort Duquesne, then threatened by the army of Gen. Forbes. Less than a thousand warriors assembled there; for while a single Indian tribe could keep a thousand miles of frontier in terror, yet, owing to its small numbers and its extremely democratic organization, it could not, or would not, furnish any large number of men for protracted military operations. They could hardly expect to repeat the surprise which destroyed Braddock, and the French commander was fully prepared to retreat if necessary; yet, nevertheless, they did succeed in inflicting destruction on a considerable portion of the invading army. Maj. Grant, with a battalion of regulars, was sent forward by Gen. Forbes to reconnoitre, and to hold a safe position not far from Fort Duquesne. The major seems to have imbibed the idea that he could capture the fort without assistance, and carry off the honors alone. He accordingly marched up to within a very short distance of the French stronghold. Perhaps his desire was to tempt the enemy from his fastness; if so, he was only too successful. Suddenly the whole crowd of Ottawas, Pottawattamies, Shawnees, Delawares, etc., poured yelling from the fortress, supported by the few French and Canadian soldiers present. Hurrying forward, they flung themselves impetuously upon the startled Britons, and succeeded in breaking their ranks. Then swiftly succeeded the scenes of confusion and panic so common when regular soldiers, under an incompetent commander, heard the terrible war-whoop sounding intheir ears, and saw the forest flashing fire in every direction, while scarcely a single enemy appeared. Maj. s force was cut off almost to a man, and once more the f Boret warriors indulged in a carnival of malignant joy.

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. -r But Gen. Forbes was too cautious to be surprised, and his force was too strong to be withstood, and when he approached the fortress, previously so fiercely defended, the French and their Indian allies reluctantly retreated to their fastnesses still deeper in the forest. The next year, 1759, came the great and practically the final struggle between the French and English in North America. Charles de Langlade, the partisan commander before mentioned, was with Montcalm at Quebec, with a body of Indians from the lake region, among whom were doubtless a band of Pottawattamie warriors, as that tribe was represented at almost every point where there was any fighting going on. The red men took an active part in some of the preliminary struggles around Quebec, but when the audacity and good fortune of Wolfe had placed the English on the open field of the Plains of Abraham there was no chance for Indian tactics, and even the French and Canadian levies were driven back in utter rout before the lead and steel of the British grenadiers. A few weeks before the fall of Quebec a well-appointed Anglo-American force, accompanied by a large body of Iroquois warriors, appeared before Fort Niagara, one of the strongest of the French fortresses, and considered the key of the whole Western country. Its commander called on his brethren for relief, and they responded promptly to his appeal. D'Aubry, the senior officer in the West, was at Venango, now in the State of Pennsylvania. With desperate energy he called together every man he could muster from Le Beeuf, Presque Isle, Detroit, and other French posts on and near Lake Erie. The Western Indians had been in the habit of making these posts their headquarters, but since the fall of Fort Duquesne they had been less enthusiastic in their devotion to French interests. Nevertheless, by using all his efforts, D'Aubry succeeded in gathering some six hundred of the Shawnees, Miamis, Pottawattamies, etc., who had so often danced the wardance and brandished the tomahawk in behalf of France. With these were joined near a thousand French and Canadian soldiers, hastily gathered for a final struggle in defense of French supremacy in the West. It was in the latter part of July that this motley band, in Indian canoes and French bateaux, coasted along the southern shore of Lake Erie, passed on down the Niagara, landed above the great cataract, and marched down to relieve the fort. But Sir William Johnson, who had become the commander of the besieging force, was not at all inclined to suffer the fate of Braddock. Well-apprised of the approach of his foe, he left a sufficient number to guard the trenches and marched forth to meet him. Soon the two armies were engaged in deadly conflict. Seldom has a battle been fought with more picturesque surroundings, orunder more romantic circumstances. Beside the field of combat, but a hundred feet below, the mighty Niagara rolled through its darksome gorge, while scarcely out of hearing, to the southward, thundered the avalanche of waters which has made Niagara renowned throughout the world. There was everything to nerve the combatants:both sides to the most desperate struggle. The fate of:Danada was still hanging in the balance, but few could doubt that if this stronghold should fall into the hands of the Eng I lish they would be able to control the upper lake country, whatever might become of the valley of the St. Lawrence. On either side were regular soldiers of the two greatest nations of the world, colonial levies of rude appearance, but skilled in all the mysteries of forest warfare, and naked Indians ready to split open each other's heads for the benefit of the European intruders. Here, while Englishmen were crossing bayonets with Frenchmen, and Canadians and New Yorkers were aiming their fatal weapons at each other's breasts, Shawnees and Mohawks were also to be seen engaged in deadly conflict, the Onondaga fought hand to hand with the Ottawa, and the tomahawk of the brawny Pottawattamie from the banks of the St. Joseph beat down the knife of the scowling Cayuga from the shores of the pellucid lake which still perpetuates his memory. The contest was brief and decisive. The French and their red allies were utterly defeated, and chased for several miles through the woods; their commander was wounded and taken prisoner, and a large portion of the whole force was either slain or captured. The fall of Fort Niagara speedily followed. The Indians who escaped returned in sorrow to their wigwams in the wilds of Ohio and Michigan, and gloomily awaited the result. The next year the final blows were struck. Three armies were concentrated on Montreal, and the Marquis de Vaudreuil, the governor-general of Canada, surrendered that province and all its dependencies to the English, including all the posts on the upper lakes and in the surrounding country. This was the formal act which made Michigan a British territory, though the cause of the transfer is to be sought where Wolfe snatched victory from the grasp of death, on the Plains of Abraham. Maj. Robert Rogers, a celebrated New Hampshire partisan, was selected by the British general to lead a body of his rangers to take possession of Detroit, the same autunmn. Arrived at that post, he found a band of Pottawattanies just below the fort on the western side of the river, while the villages of the Wyandots were to be seen opposite, and those of the Ottawas farther up, on what is now the American side. The fort was surrendered on presentation of a letter from the governor-general announcing the capitulation. All the warriors hailed the descent of the French flag with yells which might have been inspired by anger, but were quite likely to have indicated only excitement over the change. The next year (1761), the posts at Michillimacinac, Saut Sainte Marie, Green Bay, and St. Joseph (where the St. Joseph River enters Lake Michigan) were also surrendered to the English. This practically consummated the transfer of Michigan to British rule. But the Indians of that territory were from the first extremely restive at the presence of the English, and even the Iroquois began to think, when too late, that it would have been better to aid the French, and thus balance the greater power of the English. In July, 1761, a council was held near Detroit, at which the chiefs of the.Ottawas, Chippewas, Wyandots, and Pottawattamies met with dele gates from the Six Nations, or at least a part of them, and at which it was half agreed to endeavor to surprise Detroit, Fort Pitt, and all the other posts. The plot was discovered,:- #:: 0: S:d g If: W 0 l.:; i:.

Page  21 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 21 however, before any conclusion was reached. It was explained away as well as possible by the Indians, and the English paid very little attention to it. The ill-will among the Indians still continued. The change was great from the subtle complaisance of the French, who veiled even acts of aggression with plausible pretexts and flattering words, to the bluff and contemptuous bearing of the English, who offended even when granting a favor. The French traders, voyageurs, and coureurs de bois, who feared the rivalry of the English in their occupations, fanned the rising hatred of the red men by a thousand wild stories regarding the intention of the British to destroy them, and the certainty that the French king would again send an army to drive out the intruders. It was at this time that the celebrated Ottawa chief, Pontiac, conceived the idea of the great conspiracy with which his name has been permanently associated by the genius of Parkman, and in which the Pottawattamnie tribe bore a prominent part. Near the close of 1762, he sent ambassadors among all the tribes, from the great lakes to the far south, to rouse them to united action against the English. But again the British got an inkling of the design, and the plot was postponed. In February, 1763, a treaty of peace was finally signed between Great Britain and France, the latter confirming the transfer to England of Canada, including Michigan and the Northwest, which had already been brought about by the force of arms. The news of this event, however, did not reach Detroit until the following summer. By the opening of spring, Pontiac had nearly perfected his arrangements. The tribes of Indians living eastward, at a given time, were to assail all the posts from the head of Lake Erie to Fort Niagara; the Chippewas were to carry Michillimacinac and Saut Sainte Marie, while Pontiac reserved to himself, with his Ottawas and Pottawattamies, the attack upon Detroit. To the Pottawattamies was also assigned the capture of Fort St. Joseph. Sir William Johnson, who about this period made a careful estimate of the numbers of all the tribes of the north, fixed the number of Pottawattantie warriors in Michigan at three hundred and fifty, one hundred and fifty being temporarily located at Detroit and two hundred being in the St. Joseph Valley. It is probable, however, that the number of the latter portion was somewhat larger, as Sir William had no chance to examine them, and the maps of the period show the valley to have been the principal home of the tribe. Doubtless it seems as if three hundred and fifty warriors or even three times as many were a very small number to write a long chapter about, yet a few hundred Indians can make a terrible commotion. The Mohawks, one of the most warlike of the Six Nations, of whom the celebrated Brant was the chief, had no more, and that whole remarkable confederacy, the renown of which filled two continents, could muster but two thousand fighting men. And at the very time of which we are writing, the deeds of those few hundred Pottawattamies, and of three or four other tribes scarcely stronger than themselves, were destined to terrify half the people of North America, and to startle the ministry of triumphant Britain with portents of incalculable disaster. On the 27th of May, 1763, a council of Ottawas, Pottawattamies, and Wyandots, the nucleus of the conspiring league, was held at the River Ecorces, near Detroit, at which Pontiac, with his wild eloquence, fired the hearts of his hearers, and prepared them for the deadly work before them. It was arranged that on the 2d of May he should gain admittance to the fort with a party of warriors, on pretense of dancing the calumet dance, should carefully observe its strength, and call another council to make final preparations. This was accordingly done without exciting suspicion. A few days later Pontiac called the chiefs to another meeting in a large bark council-house, in the Pottawattamie village. Here, after again exciting their passions by a fervid recital of their wrongs, he proposed that on the seventh of that month he and the principal chiefs would gain admittance to the fort on pretense of holding a council with the commandant, all apparently unarmed, but all with weapons concealed under their blankets. At a given motion of the great chief, the officers assembled at the council were to be butchered, and the scalp-yells of the victors were to be the signal for a united attack by a host of warriors outside on the surprised and leaderless garrison. The plan was eagerly adopted by the chiefs. At this time Detroit was defended by a hundred and twenty soldiers under Major Gladwyn, of the British army. There were also some employees, both English and French, within the fort. Outside, on both sides of the Detroit River, were several hundred families of French Canadians, who lived partly by agriculture, and partly by hunting, trapping, and trading with the Indians. They were on excellent terms with Pontiac and his warriors, and probably many of them were quite willing that the hated English should be destroyed, no matter by what means. Yet they were not foolish enough to suppose that two or three thousand Indians could destroy the British power in North America, and were not at all disposed to subject themselves to a terrible retribution by aiding the conspirators..Some of them, who were friendly to the English, saw that something unusual was going on among the warriors, and warned Maj. Gladwyn that there was danger in the air, but he, with the usual British-officer mixture of courage and dullness, paid no attention to their suggestions. Yet somehow, on the eve of the attack, he did receive a warning which he heeded. A score of different stories are preserved by tradition regarding the source of the information; stories which only agree in declaring that the plot was betrayed by one of the Indians or squaws, probably one of the latter. The common account, probably adopted only because it has a spice of romance in it, is that in the Pottawattamie village dwelt an Ojibwa damsel who had become the mistress of Gladwyn. The day before the intended massacre she sought an audience of her lover, and informed him of the whole plot in language so simple and earnest that he could not but believe it. The next day, the 7th of May, sixty stalwart chieftains, Ottawas, Pottawattarmies, and Wyandofs, with the grim Pontiac at their head, marched in "Indian file" into the fort, to hold a council with their white father. Besides these, some two hundred and fifty other warriors had gained admittance on various pretexts, for Gladwyn, with bravery

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. amounting to rashness, had allowed all to enter. But as Pontiac passed through the gate he saw the whole garrison as well as the employees of the fur-traders under arms, and knew that so far as a surprise was concerned his plot had failed. His warriors were all armed with knives and tomahawks, and many of them had guns which had been filed off short, hidden under their blankets. Had they boldly attacked the garrison and been assisted by their comrades outside, they might very probably have succeeded in their attempt. But the Indian, though brave enough in his own way, will seldom engage in a square fight with the Caucasian unless he has a great advantage in numbers. Pontiac and his chiefs held the proposed council with Gladwyn and his officers, but he made no signal and all passed off quietly. A dramatic account has frequently been published stating how, as Pontiac was raising his belt of wampum to give the fatal signal, Maj. Gladwyn anticipated him, when ' the drums at the door of the council-house rolled to the charge, the guards presented their pieces, and the British officers drew their swords from the scabbards," and how the major immediately stepped forward, drew aside the chieftain's blanket, and disclosed the shortened musket beneath. But Gladwyn's letter, published by Parkman, declares distinctly that he did not intimate his suspicions of their intentions, and apparently negatives even the attempted signal and the rolling of the drums; it certainly negatives the traditional uncovering of the shortened muskets. The Indians retired but did not yet throw off the mask. The next day, after another attempt to lull the suspicions of the British, Pontiac spent the afternoon in the Pottawattamie village consulting with the chiefs. On the ninth Pontiac made still another request for admission with a large band, but Maj. Gladwyn refused entrance to any but the chief himself. Then at last the latter unloosed the rage of his followers, which he had held so long in the leash. With fiendish yells they threw themselves upon a few wretched English who lived outside the walls, and the waving of the scalps of these unfortunates constituted their ghastly declaration of war. The Ottawa village was quickly moved to the west side of the river, and the same night a band of Ojibwas came down from Lake Huron. At dawn, the morning of the tenth of May, the attack began. At the pealing of the war-whoop on every side the soldiers rushed to their posts. "And truly," says Parkman, "it was time; for not the Ottawas alone but the whole barbarian swarm- Wyandots, Pottawattamies, and Ojibwas-were upon them, and bullets rapped hard and fast against the palisades." Yet, though their numbers were estimated at from one to two thousand, they did not attempt to charge the walls, but with the usual Indian strategy sheltered themselves behind barns, outhouses, and bushes, keeping up an incessant fire at the loop-holes of the fort. The conflict was maintained for half the day, when the baffled savages gradually retired, neither side having suffered heavy loss. The attack had failed, and those who knew the Indian character might naturally expect that, having been repulsed on their first spring, they would soon slink away into the woods. It was a remarkable evidence of the command obtained by Pontiac over these wild warriors, that he was able to retain them as long as he did in the uncongenial duties of a siege. But Pontiac, unused as he was to regular operations, had conceived the idea of starving out the garrison, and indeed there was considerable danger that he would do so. The supply of provisions was small, the French inhabitants were unwilling to brave the wrath of the savages, and, though communication with the East was open by the river and lake, the chances of receiving succor in time was very discouraging. Pontiac made such arrangements as his crude ideas of war suggested. He placed a band of Pottawattamies along the river below the fort to cut off any who might approach, while another band of the same tribe was concealed near the fort to shoot any one who might be seen. After another long fusillade, Pontiac sent a Canadian to demand a surrender of the post, which was promptly refused. For over a month the siege was closely continued, the Indians preventing every one from going out, but seldom coming within gun-shot of the walls. There were two small English vessels in the river, and the garrison might easily have escaped, as indeed some of the officers thought was best, but Gladwyn peremptorily declined. Their scanty supplies were eked out by those surrepittiously brought across the river by the Canadians, and as long as this was the case the soldiers could hope to hold out till Sir Jeffrey Amherst could send relief, in response to the message which Gladwyn had managed to dispatch as early as the 14th of May. In fact one detachment had left Fort Niagara on the 13th with supplies for Detroit, but this was cut off on the way, and when the soldiers crowded to the river-side to welcome a long line of boats, which they saw approaching under the English flag, they were inexpressibly disappointed to find them filled only with naked savages and their unfortunate captives. News of disaster now came thick and fast. One after another the garrison learned of the capture of the various little posts transferred to the English by the French, and the slaughter or captivity of their defenders. Of the twelve posts attacked during the wide-spread " Conspiracy of Pontiac," all fell into the hands of the savages, save Detroit, Fort Pitt, and Fort Niagara. Only one of these was especially connected with the history of the tribe of which we are writing. This was Fort St. Joseph, near the mouth of St. Joseph River, where La Salle had established a trading-post over eighty years before. It had in time become a French military post and the seat of a small but thriving colony of Canadian fur-traders and voyageurs. After the surrender to the English the latter also maintained a post there, designed to curb to some extent the neighboring Pottawattamies, and to furnish a convenient nucleus for the fur-trade. In the spring of 1763 it was garrisoned by Ensign Schlosser, with fourteen men, who seem to have had no apprehension of danger. On the 25th of May the ensign was told by some of the Indians that a party of Pottawattamies had come from Detroit on a visit. Soon after, a few braves, headed by a chief named Washaste, came in, apparntly for f

Page  23 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 23 — i purposes. Then a Canadian informed Schlosser that the savages, who were thronging around and into the post, were manifesting every indication of hostility. The unwary officer left his apartment, and found both the parade and barracks thronged with insolent savages and doubtful Canadians. While he was endeavoring to get both English and Canadians into some kind of order, a yell was raised, the sentinel was tomahawked, the Pottawattamies on the outside rushed in, and in less than two minutes, as the officer afterwards declared, all the soldiers were butchered and scalped save himself and three others, who were seized and bound hand and foot. As in numerous other cases, the French were unharmed, showing that the rage of the savage was not directed indiscriminately against the whites, but was only aroused against the haughty English. Two or three English traders who were present were sheltered by French fiiends till the first fury was over, but could not avoid being taken prisoners by the Indians. A band of lPottawattamies then went to join their brethren at Detroit, taking with them the unlucky ensign and his three comrades. Fortunately for them, several Pottawattamnies had been imprisoned in the fort before the outbreak for some offense, and were still held. For these the Indians exchanged the prisoners they had brought from St. Joseph,-one of the very few instances with which we have met of the red men exchanging prisoners. Generally they are too anxious to burn them to suffer any sympathy for their own friends to interfere. To return to the siege of Detroit. About the 20th of June one of the schooners before mentioned, which had gone up Lake Erie to obtain aid, returned with about sixty men and a supply of ammunition and provision. She also brought the news of peace and the cession of Canada to England. This, however, was discredited not only by Pontiac, but by many of the Canadians, who could not bear the idea of passing permanently under English rule, and who told the Indians that even then two great French armies were coming up the St. Lawrence and the Mississippi. The siege progressed with a constant succession of exciting incidents, though the Indians avoided an attack, and of course knew nothing of making approaches by intrenchments and parallels. They made many efforts to destroy the garrison by surprise or to fire the schooners on which Gladwyn depended for communication with the outer world, but without success. About the middle of July the Wymulots and Pottawattamies sent deputations to Maj. Gladwyn begging for peace, either from lack of zeal or, as is quite likely, fiom motives of treachery. The major acceded to the proposal of the Wyandots, but when the Pottawattamies came they insisted that some of their people imprisoned in the fort should first be given up. Gladwyn, on the other hand, demanded the English captives in possession of that tribe. The Pottawattamies brought three prisoners, but were peremptorily sent back for more whom they were known to have; then they brought six. The treaty was about to be concluded when one of the six told Gladwyn that there were still others detained in the camp of the Pottawattamies, and the deputation was again turned away. They were furious with rage, and hastily consulting together in I. I their own tongue, determined to kill the commander and then make their escape if possible. But at that instant Gladwyn discovered an Ottawa among them, and called some of the guard into the council-house to arrest him. The Pottawattamies then sullenly withdrew. Yet in a day or two they returned with the other captives, when their own friends were freed and a treaty of peace was made. It is evident that either Pontiac's power was waning, or that the whole proceeding was a rnse, which from subsequent events seems quite probable. On the morning of the 29th of July, twenty-two barges bearing two hundred and sixty regulars, twenty independent rangers, several small cannon, and fresh supplies of provisions and ammunition, came up the river. These were under Capt. Dalzell, an officer of the British army, but one who had had considerable experience in Indian fighting, having been present with Rogers and Putnam in some of their most desperate conflicts. The rangers were commanded by the redoubtable Major Rogers himself, whose eagerness for battle and glory had sent him to the front with his little squad of followers. As the convoy came opposite to the villages of Wyatnots and Pottawattamies, lying respectively on the east and west banks of the river, these treacherous enemies, in spite of their recent treaty of peace, opened fire on the barges from both shores at once. The soldiers replied with their swivels and inuskets, but ere they gained the shelter of the fort fifteen of their number were killed and wounded. We are afraid, in view of such facts as these, it will be impossible to say anything in favor of the chivalry or honor of our tottawattamies, who, in fact, like nearly all the rest of the " noble red men'' of whom we have any account, never hesitated at the blackest treachery when necessary to accomplish their object. Not but what they could be true to those they considered their friends, as they were to the French during nearly a century of varied fortunes. But when they had once made up their minds that any people were their enemies, they hesitated at no deception and no cruelty in order to accomplish their ruin. Treaties and pledges were but as straw before the fire of their hatred. Immediately after his arrival Dalzell requested permission to attack Pontiac in his camp, which Gladwyn reluctantly granted. It was a presumptuous request, as Dalzell knew nothing of the ground, and his commander was greatly to blame for granting it, for that reason. Nevertheless, at two o'clock on the morning of the 1st of August, Dalzell and two hundred and fifty men marched up the river-road toward Pontiac's camp, then situated several miles up the stream. But some of the Canadians had got an inkling of the plan, and through them the chief was fully apprised of the approach of the English column, and had left his camp, with all his Ojibwa and Ottawa warriors, to attack it. At Parent's Creek (since called Bloody Run), a mile and a half above the fort, the vanguard was assailed by a ter rific fire from hundreds of Indians ambushed behind piles of firewood, fences, houses, apple-trees, etc., belonging to the Canadians, and some rude intrenchments previously thrown up by Pontiac when his camp was situated there. From the facts in this case, in that of BraddockI' defeat,. ~. -XrA ll?:

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I l — - -1 --- -~ — - -- - - - - and in numerous others of the same class and period, it would seem that the system of covering an advancing column with a line of skirmishers several paces apart was unknown to, or at least unpracticed by, the strategists of that day. It is true a vanguard marched ahead of the main body, but it formed a small column of itself, and was an easy mark for the guns of ambushed foemen. In the present instance half of the advance-guard were killed or wounded by the first volley; the rest ran back, throwing the main body into confusion. Dalzell rallied his men, who made charge after charge upon the fences and other structures which sheltered the foe, only to find in each case that the Indians had fled back a little farther into the darkness, whence their bullets still flew with fearful effect into the crowded ranks of the soldiers. Dalzell was compelled to order a retreat. Up to this time the bloody work had been carried on by Ojibwas and Ottawas, either because the Wyandots and Pottawattamies had shaken off the influence of Pontiac, or because he had planned for them to fall on the English rear. Whichever supposition is correct, no sooner was the noise of battle wafted to their ears than the warriors hastened to take part in the fray. The Wyandots rowed across the river in canoes, the Pottawattainies hastened through the woods west of the fort. Scarcely had the column begun its retrograde movement when all the bands from below occupied the houses, fences, and orchards by the roadside, pouring volley after volley into the ranks of the wearied and discouraged soldiery. At one point, half a mile below Bloody Run, the savages occupied a cluster of out-houses and a newly-dug cellar close to the road, and, strange as it may seem, they were again able to ambush the column, allowing the vanguard to pass unharmed, but firing with deadly effect upon the centre and rear. The retreat came near degenerating into a perfect rout, but Dalzell, though twice severely wounded, rallied his men, and did all that valor could inspire to compensate for his lack of skill. Maj. Rogers, with his American rangers, broke into a house and drove out the savages. Capt. Gray, while charging the enemy, was mortally wounded, but the foe was temporarily repulsed. Again the retreat was resumed, and instantly the Pottawattamies and Wyandots gathered on the flank of the column and riddled it with their deadly volleys. Dalzell was killed and his body abandoned to the brutal rage of the foe by the fleeing soldiers. Rogers again took possession of a house to cover the retreat, and to some extent succeeded in doing so; but when the column had passed, two hundred yelling savages surrounded the place, firing into every aperture they could see, and effectually preventing the escape of its defenders. Half a mile farther down, Capt. Grant, now in command of the demoralized troops, was able to seize some inclosures, which pretty effectually sheltered his men. Thence he sent squads to occupy the houses below, ahead of the Indians, and thus secured his retreat to the fort. He then sent the two armed bateaux, which had accompanied the expedition, to a point opposite the house of Campan, which was held by Rogei The vessels swept the ground on both sides of the houe: iftheir swivels, the fire from which sent I'otta wattamies, Ottawas, and all, yelling in dismay to the woods. But no sooner had Rogers marched down the road to join Grant than some of them rushed into the house and scalped the slain remaining there, an old squaw cutting open one of the dead bodies and drinking the blood with more than fiendish joy. Yet amid all this ferocity no damage was done to any of the family, nor to the frightened French pioneers of the neighborhood, who had crowded into the cellar for safety. Grant and Rogers successfully consummated their retreat; but fifty-nine men killed and wounded, out of two hundred and fifty, in a two-hours' fight, attested the accuracy of aim of the Ottawa, Pottawattamie, and Wyandot braves. Pontiac at once sent messengers, announcing his victory, to St. Josepl, Saginaw, and numerous other points, scattered far and wide through the forest, and bands of warriors soon came trooping in, anxious to join what seemed to them the successful side. Yet even with these reinforcements the chieftain dared make no attack on the fort, which was now well supplied with arms, ammunition, and provisions, and the garrison of which, notwithstanding the recent disaster, numbered over three hundred men. On the 4th of September some three hundred Wyandots and Pottawattamies made an attack in birch canoes on the schooner " Gladwyn,' as it lay detained by contrary winds on its way up from Lake Erie. They clambered up the sides in spite of cannon and small arms, with their knives between their teeth, slew the master of the vessel, and disabled several of the men who formed the crew; yet the remainder fought with such desperate valor that the assailants were finally repulsed. Contemporary letters assert that the mate ordered the vessel blown up, which some of the Indians understood, and on their telling their comrades they all fled to avoid the threatened explosion. This is very doubtful. A few of the Western Indians knew a little French, but not one in a thousand could have understood a word of English. Doubtless the Pottawattamie braves were very much " at sea" in attacking an armed ship, and were much more easily repulsed than they would have been by the same number of foes on land. But by the end of. September the patience of the Indians was pretty well exhausted. Notwithstanding the victory of Bloody Run, they saw no prospect of reducing the fort as long as they had free communication with the East by means of the river and lake, and they had already been engaged in the siege far longer than they had been in the habit of continuing in any enterprise. As the hunting season approached, too, they were obliged to seek for game or go without food the next year, and a large portion of them scattered to their respective hunting-grounds for that purpose. Soon, all along the banks of the St. Joseph and far into the forest on either side, the Pottawattamie warriors were to be seen ambushing the deer as they visited their favorite drinking-places, or tracking the bear to his lonely den, or occasionally bringing down some stately moose which had wandered down from its northern home, while the patient squaws bore their lords' burdens from place to place and prepared for future use the game the latter had slain. Similar scenes were enacted on the hunting-grounds of the 4

Page  25 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 25 other tribes, and the siege of Detroit necessarily languished for lack of besiegers. But after the terrible experience of Bloody Run, Major Gladwyn was naturally in no haste to try to drive them away by a sally. Those who remained were also anxious to begin hunting, and were willing to tell any number of falsehoods which would tend to shield them from annoyance through the winter. On the 12th of October a chief of the Missisaugas, a branch of the Ojibwas, came to the fort with a pipe of peace. He informed Maj. Gladwyn that he was authorized to represent the Ojibwas, Wyandots, and Pottawattamies, who were deeply repentant and desirous of peace. The commandant valued their repentance at what it was worth, but willingly offered a truce. While it lasted he succeeded in obtaining a good supply of provisions among the Canadians. But the stern Pontiac and his Ottawa warriors sullenly refused to ask for truce or peace, and continued the war to the best of their ability, neglecting no opportunity to fire upon a foraging-party or cut off a straggling soldier. But on the last day of October a messenger came from the commandant of Fort Chartres, the principal French post on the Upper Mississippi, informing Pontiac that the French and English were now at peace, and that he could expect no help from the former in his warfare with the latter. The disgusted chieftain immediately sent word to Maj. Gladwyn that he should advise all the Indians to bury the hatchet, and soon afterwards withdrew, with some of his principal henchmen, to the Maumee. The Pottawattamies and others who had taken part in the siege were already nearly all busy in their respective hunting-grounds, and the remainder soon departed after the guiding spirit of the conspiracy abandoned his self-imposed task. Thus ended the celebrated siege of Detroit, distinguished not only for the commanding character of the sullen chief of the assailants, and for the importance of the interests involved, but for the constancy, unrivaled in Indian warfare, with which the capricious warriors of the woods, under the influence of that powerful mind, devoted themselves through five weary months to the accomplishment of their object. Although Pontiac probably intended to renew the siege in the spring of 1764, and though some of the warriors he had led returned to Detroit at that time for that purpose, yet so many difficulties had arisen that the great chief himself did not appear on the scene of his exploits, and the attempted renewal of the conflict amounted to little or nothing except to annoy still longer the faithful garrison. In the summer of 1764, Gen. John Bradstreet came up the lakes with an army of twelve or fifteen hundred men, and several hundred Iroquois allies, to enforce the submission of the hostile tribes. He reached Detroit on the 26th of August, and on the 7th of September held a grand council with the Indians. A considerable delegation came from the country about Sandusky, but the Pottawattamies and other tribes of the Michigan peninsula were only represented by the Ojibwa chief Wasson and six inferior chiefs. Bradstreet was very desirous that the Indians should acknowledge themselves subjects of the King of England. But their democratic minds could hardly understand what 4 was meant by being " subjects" of any man, and if they had understood it they would certainly never have sincerely assented to it. But they had been accustomed, as a matter of courtesy, to call the King of France their father, and this title they willingly agreed to transfer to the King of England. Bradstreet boasted that he had reduced the Indians to complete submission, but if there had been a good opening for an outbreak, he would doubtless have discovered that though he might have called the King of England his father, a Pottawattamie brave would not thereby have been prevented from tomahawking the King's subjects whenever he could catch one alone. A treaty was made, signed, according to the historian Mante, with a deer and cross on behalf of the Hurons, with a turtle by the Mianzis, and with an eagle by the Missisaugas, while the corporate seal of the Pottawattamies and Foxes was represented by the figures of a fox, an eel, and a bear. Bradstreet sent troops to re-establish the posts at Michillimacinac and Green Bay, and then returned East. Though the expedition was not very well managed, yet the presence of such a large English force-larger than any body the French had ever sent up the lakes-could not but impress the minds of the Indians with the idea that it would be well to keep on good terms with their new "-father." A much more skillful manager of Indians than Bradstreet was the celebrated Sir William Johnson, who was appointed superintendent of all the Indians of the North. He personally visited Detroit and other posts, and kept three well-trained deputies traveling among the various tribes. By a shrewd mixture of dignity and flattery, by a frequent distribution of cheap but highly-prized presents, and by florid delineation of the immense power of the English king, Sir William and his deputies contrived to keep these numerous forest-clansmen in comparative quiet down nearly to the time of his death. On the 17th of August, 1765, George Croghan, the most expert of Sir William's deputies, held a grand council at Detroit with the Ottawas, Pottawattamies, and Ojibwas. They had been thoroughly humbled by their ill success, and, moreover (having acquired numerous artificial wants since the first advent of the whites among them), they had suffered much from the long suspension of the fur-trade, and were truly desirous for peace, professing their repentance and submission in the most moving terms. A band of Pottawattamies from St. Joseph is particularly mentioned as being present, whose orator, in the course of a speech of submission, said (" Conspiracy of Pontiac," vol. ii. p. 293): " We are no more than wild creatures to you, fathers, in understanding; therefore, we request you to forgive the past follies of our young people, and receive us for your children. Since you have thrown down our former father (the King of France) on his back, we have been wandering in the dark like blind people. Now you have dispersed all this darkness which hung over the heads of the several tribes, and have accepted them for your children, we hope you will let us partake with them the light, that our wom and children may enjoy peace. We beg you to fovget.:! that is past. By this belt we remove all evil thought

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. from your hearts. Fathers, when we formerly came to visit our fathers, the French, they always sent us home joyful; and we hope you, fathers, will have pity on our women and young men, who are in great want of necessaries, and not let us go to our towns ashamed." Pontiac was present at another council on the 27th of the same month, and also made his submission to the English. In the autumn of that year, too, Fort Chartres, the last French post east of the Mississippi (except in the vicinity of New Orleans), was delivered up to a detachment of British soldiers. The humiliation of France was complete, and the West was at peace. Yet there was still a very bitter feeling on the part of the Western Indians toward the English, and traders of that nation frequently dealt in the name of their French employees, on account of the greater friendliness of the savages for that people. Before proceeding with the history of the tribe we have taken under our especial charge, a few words may interest the reader regarding the great chieftain whose skill and eloquence, ferocity and valor had shaken the power of Britain throughout an immense domain, and startled half a continent from its propriety. In the spring of 1766, Pontiac met Sir William Johnson at Oswego, and renewed the compact of peace and friendship already made in the West. He then returned and fixed his home on the Maumee. When new disturbances arose between the settlers and Indians, Pontiac was suspected of inflaming the hostility of the latter. Early in 1769 he went to Illinois, where there was already much uneasiness, and again the suspicions of the English were aroused. According to the account adopted by Parkman, and which is in all probability correct, Pontiac became intoxicated at an Indian feast at Cahokia, near St. Louis. An English trader, seeing his condition, hired a KaskaskMa Indian to murder him, and when the chieftain wandered alone into the forest to cool his heated brain, the assassin stealthily followed and stabbed him to the heart. His followers fled northward and told the tale among the warriors of the lakes, all of whom were eager to avenge the crime. They might endure the supremacy of the powerful English, but their fierce blood boiled at the thought that the scurvy Illinois Indians, whom they had always looked on as their inferiors, should dare to slay their renowned champion. By hundreds, perhaps by thousands, the northern warriors sprang to arms,- Ottawas, Ojibwas, and Pottawattamies, Delawares, Shawnees, and Miamis — and ere the conflict was concluded the Illinois were almost entirely exterminated. Men, women, and children were indiscriminately slaughtered, their villages were destroyed by fire, and only a few puny and frightened bands remained to tell the story of the great revenge. Pontiac was essentially a representative Indian, with all the mingled virtues and vices of his race in the most marked degree. Brave, ferocious, patriotic, true to his friends, treacherous toward his foes, enduring the severest hardships of war with stoic fortitude, but succumbing at length to the baleful fire-water of the pale-faces, his charac ter may well be studied on the pages of Parkman, as manif testing in a single individual all the most prominent attributes of the Indians of North America. CHAPTER V. THE POTTAWATTAMIES-(Continued). A Peaceful Era-The Quebec Act-Michigan called "Hesse"-The Revolution-Pottawattamies with Burgoyne-Outrage and Desertion-The Ordinance of 1787-The Treaty of 1789-Defeat of Harmar and St. Clair-" Mad Anthony" on the War-Path-The Battle of the Maumee-Treaty of Greenville-Topenabee, the Head Chief -A "Ring" Scheme-Organization of Indiana and Michigan - Divers Treaties-Tecumseh and the Pottawattamies-Battle of Tippecanoe-The War of 1812-Defeat of Major Van Horn-British and Indians Defeated by Colonel Miller-Hull's Surrender-Pottawattnamies turn out en masse-Battle and Massacre of the RaisinProctor's Defeat at Lower Sandusky-Battle of Lake Erie-Indians at the Topmast-Battle of the Thames-Submission of the Pottawvattamies-Concluding Remarks. DOWN to the opening of the Revolutionary war, the Pottawattamies, like the other lake Indians, dwelt in comparative peace with the white men, though occasional murders on either side kept up the general feeling of uneasiness. The Indians of Michigan occupied a much more independent position than their brethren to the southeast. The Iroquois claimed sovereignty over the whole northwest almost to the Mississippi, by virtue of previous conquests; but while the Delawares and Shawnees of Ohio admitted their supremacy, and never attempted to sell land without their consent, the fiercer Ottawas, Ojibwas, and Pottawattamies defied their power, and were able to maintain their own independence. We may mention, too, in passing that, in 1774, the act of Parliament known as the Quebec Act established the boundaries of Canada, so far as to include Michigan, and extend west to the Mississippi, and south to the Ohio. The district of Michigan was established then, or previously, as a part of the province of Quebec, but it had no civil government. The commandant of the post of Detroit exercised almost autocratic power over the white men of the district, while the vast forests of the interior knew no government save the vague authority exercised by Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Pottawattamie chieftains. In time, these and their followers became pretty well reconciled to the English, and very strongly impressed with the power of the English king. Four years after the Quebec Act, the captain-general of Canada divided that province into districts, giving that of Michigan the name of " Hesse," in honor of the Hessian troops then serving King George in America. But the fortunes of war determined that the people of Michigan should not be " Hessians." Meanwhile the oppressions of Britain had roused the colonies to resistance, and in 1775 the bloody drama of the Revolution opened on the field of Lexington. With the first news of conflict, the warriors of the West snuffed blood in the air, and were eager to take part in the strife. The English authorities were very willing to employ them, and, having ample means and free communication with the savages, it was easy to enlist both their avarice and their passions on the royal side. It was easy to throw the blame of all the wrongs of which the Indians complained upon the colonists (who were by no means guiltless), and to represent that their great and good father across the ocean was determined to see that justice was done to his red chil

Page  27 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 27 I dren. An ample array of presents enforced this reasoning, and fully enlisted the sympathies of the red men. Yet, although a few small bands were employed during 1775 and 1776, no considerable body of Indians took the war-path in behalf of the British during either of those years. Doubtless the invasion of Canada by the Americans, who for a while carried everything before them, tended to repress the enthusiasm of the prudent aborigines. But in 1776 the Americans were driven out of Canada, and in the fall of that year an army began to be gathered in the latter province, designed to attack them by way of Lake Champlain. In the early spring of 1777 great efforts were made to collect a large auxiliary force of savages. No one who knew anything of Indian character could have expected them to be of much benefit in open fighting, such as is usually carried on between civilized armies. It was supposed, however, that they would be useful in cutting off small parties, pickets, outposts, etc., and performing similar work. Moreover, it is plain from the proclamations of British commanders that, although they may have hesitated to actually hire the Indians to scalp American women and children (as our fathers believed they did), yet they relied largely on the terror with which the prospect of wide-spread Indian ravages would naturally inspire the people. To the chiefs and warriors they sometimes said: " You must only slay men in arms against us, not prisoners, nor women, nor children;" but to the Americans on the frontier they always said, in language more or less plain: "If you do not submit we shall be unable to restrain our Indians, and then you know what will happen." As the war went on, the passions of the English officers were inflamed by defeat; they became less and less particular as to restraining their Indians, and at length coolly tolerated the most atrocious crimes. It was arranged that the Six Nations should accompany Gen. St. Leger in his attack upon the Mohawk Valley, while the Western Indians were to be assembled near Montreal and join the main army of Lieut.-Gen. Burgoyne. Large amounts were expended in gathering these warriors, and ere long band after band made its way eastward. There were our old acquaintances, the Pottawattamies, Ottawas, and Chippewas, of Michigan; Winnebagoes, Menomonees, Sacs and Foxes, from the territory now called Wisconsin; and even a few Sioux from the western side of the " Father of Waters,-all painted and plumed for war, and thirsting for the blood of the " Boston men," as they called the Americans. Notwithstanding the money employed and trouble taken, only about five or six hundred were brought together by the 1st of July, 1777. These joined Burgoyne's army at the head of Lake Champlain, about the tenth of that month. The warriors of each tribe had their own chiefs, but they were all under the direction of St. Luc la Corne de St. Luc, a Canadian partisan, who had frequently led Indians to deeds of blood for the French in the old wars, and had now offered his services to the English. Another French Canadian leader of the Indians was Charles de Langlade, before mentioned as having taken part in the defeat of Braddock. The Americans were terribly frightened at their approach, and thousands fled to the interior of the country, solely from fear of the Indians. These took part in some opera tions around Skenesboro', now Whitehall, but were pretty closely watched by the British officers. When, in the latter part of July, Burgoyne's army began its advance towards the Hudson, the Indians thought their time had come. They spread out on both flanks, plundering the people who remained, burning houses, and occasionally, when there was a good opportunity, slaughtering a whole'family. They were much more anxious about the number of scalps they could obtain than about the politics of the heads which wore them, and some Tory families who had remained, relying on their loyalty, were butchered to the youngest child by these devoted champions of King George. On the 27th of July occurred the celebrated tragedy of Jane McCrea, in which a young girl was slain and scalped by a band of Indians who were taking her to the British camp. According to the common account, her lover, who was a Tory officer, had sent these strange ambassadors to bring Miss McCrea to camp, where he intended to marry her; they quarreled on the road about the reward, and to settle the difficulty slew their unhappy charge and divided the scalp. One account of the affair says the murderers were Pottawattamies, and we must confess that the act was entirely in accordance with their previous character. The mingled romance and tragedy of this sad event attracted universal attention and cast the deepest odium on the British. Burgoyne arrested the murderer, but released him on a promise from the Indians that if he were pardoned they would behave better in the future. He reprimanded them with great severity, and really seems to have set so close a watch on them that the more atrocious kind of outrages were prevented during the remainder of the campaign. But our Pottawattamie and Ottawa friends took great umbrage at these restrictions. A campaign with no scalps or plunder was not at all to their taste, and their leader, La Corne de St. Luc, encouraged their complaints. Many deserted and made their ways in small bands to the wilds of Michigan. About a hundred and fifty of those who remained were sent with the Hessian troops to Bennington, and shared the severe defeat inflicted by the Americans at that celebrated battle, thirty or forty of them being killed or captured. Their brethren were very indignant against Burgoyne for not sending reinforcements in time. Band after band deserted, and finally, at a general council, nearly all of them demanded permission to return. Burgoyne used every inducement he could to persuade them to remain, and they apparently yielded to his solicitations, but the very next day a large number of them left, and they continued to desert until scarcely one remained. This, we believe, was the last time that any considerable number of Pottawattamies or other Michigan Indians were employed by the British during the Revolution, though perhaps a few were afterwards kept in pay along the northern border of New York. After 1777, too, the English authorities no longer tried to use Indians as auxiliaries to regular troops. They fitted out bands of the Six Nations, and allowed them to ravage the frontiers at will. At the close of the Revolution the treaty of peace gave Michigan to the United States, but England still continued to hold Detroit and the other posts of the Northwest, and all

Page  28 28 IIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the Indians of this section were still under their influ-, ence. In 1787 the old Continental Congress passed an ordinance, soon after confirmed by the Federal Congress, constituting Michigan a part of the great Northwest Territory, which extended from the Ohio River to the Canadian boundary, and from Pennsylvania to the Mississippi. Yet still the British held possession of the frontier forts; still the Ottawas, Pottawattanies, and Shawnees looked up to the British officers as the representatives of their great father beyond the sea, who was the embodiment of all terrestrial power and wisdom. In 1789 the Pottawattamies and other Michigan tribes were represented by their principal chiefs in a great council held by Gen. St. Clair, Governor of the Northwest Territory, on the Muskingum River, in the present State of Ohio, where they made a treaty of peace with the United States. None the less they still hated the Americans, and, as the latter believed, were encouraged in this feeling by the British officials. And when, a little later, two American armies, under Gens. Harmar and St. Clair, were successively defeated by the Shawnees, Delawares, and other tribes of what is now Ohio and Indiana, the Pottawattamies and Ottawas lost what little respect they might previously have had for the new Republic, and were quite ready to go upon the war-path against it. They soon had an opportunity. In 1794, Gen. Wayne, familiarly known as "Mad Anthony," led a small but wellappointed -army into the wilderness of Western Ohio, to chastise the red men in their native fastnesses. Lithe messengers sped with flying feet to all the tribes of the Northwest, and in a short time bands of painted Pottawattamies and Ottawas, well equipped with guns and ammunition obtained at the British posts, were on their way to join their Shawnee and Miami brethren in destroying the presumptuous Yankee. The clans gathered rapidly in the northwestern part of the present State of Ohio, under the leadership of the celebrated Miami chieftain, Little Turtle, and for a while contented themselves with watching Wayne's approach, in the hope of surprising him. But Anthony Wayne was not the man to be surprised, and at length Little Turtle and his chiefs determined to attack him. When the army had moved about five miles southward from the head of the rapids of the Maumee, the whole great horde of Miamis, Delawaes, Shawilees, Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies, two thousand strong (including about seventy white men, mostly from Detroit), advanced against the Americans. But Wayne was well prepared, and after a brief but well-contested battle the Indians gave way at every point, and fled in utter rout from the field. Many were left dead on the ground, and beside every one was found a musket, bayonet, and equipments, from a British armory, showing but too plainly one of the chief sources of their hostility. A trader who not long afterwards met a Miami who had fled before the terrible onslaught of Wayne's soldiers, said to him,"What made you run away?" With gestures corresponding to his words, and endeavoring to represent the effect of the cannon, he replied,* "Pop, pop, pop,-boo, woo, woo,-whish, whish, boo, woo, - kill twenty Indians one time, - no good, by dam!" As had so often been the case before, as soon as defeated the various bands hurried away to their respective villages. In a short time the Pottawattamie warriors were pursuing their customary avocations along the banks of the St. Joseph. But they were deeply impressed both with Wayne's vigor and the strength of the United States, and began seriously to think that all the power in the world was not embraced within the walls of the British forts. When, soon afterwards, Wayne sent messengers summoning the chiefs to council, they were very willing to respond. The principal men of the Miamis, Delawares, Shawnees, Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies met the general at Fort Greenville, and concluded a treaty of peace and friendship with the United States, which was quite faithfully observed for over fifteen years. The Shawnees and others made a large cession of land in Ohio to the government, but the Michigan Indians were still left in undisturbed possession of their old hunting-grounds. The treaty was signed on the part of the Miamis and Shawnees by Little Turtle and Blue Jacket, who were both leaders in the battle against Wayne. On the part of the Pottawattamies there appeared the name and mark of "Topinabi," their head chief, who was also probably, but not certainly, in the same combat, and who was recognized as head chief of that tribe until his death, forty years later. It is evident from the treaty that the Pottawattamies were ranked among the more important tribes, as they received a thousand dollars as gratuities, which was the amount awarded to the Miam is, the Delawares, the Shawnees, the Chippewas, and the Ottawa s respectively, while the Kickapoos and other tribes received only five hundred dollars each. When the time came for signing the treaty, it was twice read and every section explained by Gen. Wayne, through an interpreter, to the assembled chiefs and warriors. Then he said," You Chippewas, do you approve of these articles of treaty, and are you prepared to sign them?" A unanimous "yes," was the response. " And you Ottawas, do you approve of these articles of treaty, and are you prepared to sign them?" Again unanimous affirmative. " And you Pottawattamies, do you approve of these articles of treaty, and are you prepared to sign them?" "Yes, yes, treaty good," said or grunted all the dark warriors of Southern Michigan. After obtaining similar responses from the other tribes, the treaty was considered to be approved and the work of signing concluded the negotiations. Up to this time no attempt had been made either by the government or by private individuals to obtain title to any of the land of Michigan, except in the case of the few settlers around Detroit. But in 1795 an effort was made by what would now be called a " ring" to obtain some twenty million acres, situated between Lakes Erie, Huron, and Michigan. One Robert Randall, of Pennsylvania, Charles Whitney, of Vermont, and some Detroit merchants formed a company, dividing the lands they expected to obtain, and which included Branch County, into forty-one shares, of from half a million to a million acres each. Of these shares,

Page  29 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 29 five were to go to the Detroiters, six to Randall and his associates, while the very liberal proportion of thirty shares was to be assigned to members of Congress, in return for their assistance in securing the passage of the necessary laws. The part assigned to the Detroit men was to procure the needful treaties granting the lands to them, which they thought they could obtain by their influence over the Pottawattamie and Ottawa chiefs, with whom they were in the habit of trading. Thus it will be seen that some very illegitimate schemes were concocted even in the " good old times" eighty years ago. It must be admitted, however, that this one was not as successful as some later ones have been, for it was thoroughly exposed, and some of the parties were brought before Congress and fined. In 1796 the British, after long negotiations, surrendered Detroit and the other posts in the West, and then, and not till then, did the Americans obtain any real power over Michigan. The same year Governor St. Clair formed by proclamation the county of Wayne, which extended from the Cuyahoga River in Ohio to the Mississippi, and northward to Lake Superior. This was the first county which included the present territory of Branch within its limits, but its jurisdiction here was entirely nominal, and the Pottawattamie chiefs still continued the magnates of this region. The Pottawattamies were always a warlike tribe, and although awed into peace with the United States were much engaged in hostilities with other tribes, especially with the Shawnees, who lived to the southward. Many interesting legends regarding these tribes near the close of the last century are related by Judge Littlejohn in his work entitled " Legends of Michigan and the Old Northwest." The admixture of the romantic, however, is so great that we could hardly give them a place in our sober history. This county in rapid succession passed through several changes of jurisdiction at this period, all merely nominal, and in nowise interfering with the supremacy of the aboriginal lords of the soil. In 1800 the Territory of Indiana was formed from the Northwest Territory. The east line of the new Territory was the same as that of the present State of Indiana, but it was continued northward through the present State of Michigan to the Strait of Mackinaw. The present county of Branch was thus transferred to Indiana Territory, the west line of which was a mile east from the present eastern boundary of that county. In 1802 the State of Ohio was formed, at which time the eastern part of the present Michigan was also annexed to Indiana. In February, 1805, the Territory of Michigan was organized, with Gen. William Hull as the first Governor, and thus the ancient lands of the Pottawattamies became a portion of a Territory destined to become one of the great and powerful States of the American Union. By the law forming the Territory, the boundary between it and Indiana was a line drawn east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan, which was ten miles south of the present boundary. In 1807 a treaty was made by Gen. Hull on the part of the United States with the Ottawas, Pottawattamies, Chippewas, and Wyandots, by which those tribes ceded to the government their claim to all the land cast of a line drawn north from the mouth of the Auglaise River (which empties into the Maumee at Defiance, Ohio), to a point near the present south line of Michigan. This north and south line was afterwards extended and made the principal meridian for the government surveys in Michigan, finally becoming the line between Lenawee and Hillsdale Counties. Several other treaties were made with the Pottawattamies and other tribes between 1800 and 1810. Most of them were of little importance, though several provided for the payment of annuities and goods of the United States to the Ihdians. Nearly every treaty was headed by the name of Topenabee (sometimes spelled " Tuthinepee" or " Topenipee"), who was always recognized as the head chief of the tribe. Two or three years later the Pottawattamies again began to grow restless and hostile towards the people of the United States. The Shawnee chief, Tecumseh, a forest hero of as great ability as Pontiac, though less ferocious in disposition, had, like him, conceived the idea of' stopping the advancing wave of emigration, which seemed likely ere long to overwhelm the original inhabitants of the land, or drive them into unknown deserts far beyond the Father of Waters. Like Pontiac, he too hoped for foreign assistance; but the hatred felt for the EngliEh by the great Ottawa had been changed to love and admiration in the heart of his modern imitator. The reason is plain. In Pontiac's time the English were one nation with the Americans, and together they were the great colonizing, emigrating people of the world. Pontiac hated them, largely because they wanted land, and preferred the French, not only on account of their pleasant ways but because they were poor colonizers, and did not care much for land. In Tecumseh's day the Americans were the ones who threatened to overwhelm the Indians by emigration; while the English, confined to a narrow belt of habitable land in Canada, appeared far less dangerous. Tecumseh knew that there were difficulties between the United States and Great Britain which portended war; and it is believed by many that he was directly encouraged by the British officials to engage in hostilities against the Americans. However that may be, about the year 1810 the brave and eloquent Shawnee made desperate efforts to form an alliance against the Americans of all the Indian tribes from the Gulf of Mexico to Lake Superior, and from the frontier settlements of the whites to or beyond the Mississippi. From tribe to tribe he made his rapid way, gathering the chiefs and warriors in council, kindling their passions by fierce invectives against the Americans, exciting their hopes by portraying the scalps and booty to be obtained fiom the hated pale-faces, and quelling their fears by promising them the protection of their father, the King of Great Britain, who was ready to join hands with his red children in punishing the insolence of the Yankees. The Pottawattamies were quite ready to believe the flattering story, and they, like all Indians who live in the vicinity of the whites, had had more or less difficulty with them, which they were glad to avenge in the bloodiest manner. But the Indian policy was not deep enough to keep the warriors quiet until all was ready for a grand blow. Their restive spirits showed themselves by frequent outs, the whites retaliated, and the Americans could not help seeing that they must prepare for an Indian war.

Page  30 30 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I - --- In the fall of 1811, Gen. William H. Harrison, Governor of Indiana, took the field to chastise the unruly warriors. Tecumseh had been greatly aided in his efforts to form an Indian confederacy by his brother Elkswatawa, a prominent "medicine-man," commonly known as the Prophet. At the time when Harrison's army approached the Shawnee villages on the Wabash, the chieftain himself was in the far South, endeavoring to persuade the Cherokees, Choctaws, and other Southern Indians to take up arms, and Elkswatawa was left to exercise supreme authority. Either thinking there was no time to spare, or desiring to acquire for himself the glory of defeating Harrison, Elkswatawa prepared to make an attack on the Governor's army with all the warriors he could collect together. Messengers were sent to the nearest tribes, and several small bands came in to help the Shawnees. The dread of the Americans, caused by Wayne's victory, was, however, not yet entirely dissipated, and many hung back. But about the first of November he was cheered by the arrival of band after band of the fierce Pottawattamies, some from the head of Lake Michigan, and some from the valley of the St. Joseph, numbering in all about three hundred warriors. Having this powerful accession to his force, he determined at once to attack. Before daybreak on the morning of the 7th of November, just as Harrison had given orders for the arousing of his little army by the sound of the trumpet, a fierce outburst of yells was heard, and hundreds upon hundreds of Shawnee and Pottawattamie warriors, with some from other tribes, came rushing to the attack, lighting up the darkness with the fire of their guns, and stripping the scalps from whatever victims they could reach with all of their old-time energy. But Harrison's men were sleeping upon their arms, and scarcely had the first demoniac shrieks sounded in their ears ere they were on their feet, ranged in order of battle, and returning with steady aim the fire of the assailants. For two or three hours the battle raged with great violence; both Shawnees and Pottawattamies fought with furious energy, and many of the Americans were slain or wounded. But at length the steady valor of the regulars and the Indiana militia prevailed over the fierce desperation of the Indians, and the latter gave way at all points. They speedily fled the field, and Harrison marched unopposed to the destruction of the Shawnee villages. After the battle the Pottawattamie warriors returned to their own villages, and these were so far distant that they escaped all punishment for the part they had taken. If there had been any intention on the part of the American officials to follow them to their retreats and chastise them the next spring, the former were effectually precluded from doing so by the approach of war with Great Britain. In June, 1812, war was declared, and Tccumseh at once made common cause with the English, with all the warriors of his own and other tribes whom he could persuade to follow him. The Pottawattamies had not been so severely injured by the battle of Tippecanoe, but that some of their braves were still willing to try the chances of war agaist the hated Americans. When Gen. Hull crossed the Detroit River into Canada in July of that year, Tecumseh, with thirty Shawnees and Pottawattamies, was at Malden. Others were added to these, and when Hull, by his tardy movements and feeble conduct, showed the weakness of his heart, the number was largely increased. The Pottawattamies, being nearly or quite the nearest tribe to the scene of action, and being anxious for revenge for their humiliation at Tippecanoe, formed a considerable part of Tecumseh's force. About the 5th of August, Hull sent Major Van Horn with two hundred men to escort a convoy of provisions from the river Raisin. As the detachment approached Brownstown Creek it was saluted by volleys of musketry, and the usual terrific accompaniment of savage yells which announced the presence of an Indian foe. Tecumseh with a large number of warriors, principally Shawnees. Pottawattamies, and Ottawas, had placed his people in ambush on Van Horn's path, and had assailed him with the greatest fury. After a brief conflict the Americans were utterly defeated, and fled to Detroit, having lost half their number in killed, wounded, and missing. This victory of Tecumseh and his followers determined Hull to evacuate Canada. After doing so the general sent another force of six hundred men, under Lieut.-Col. Miller, to open the road to the convoy at the river Raisin. Again Tecumseh and his warriors flung themselves in the pathway of the advancing Americans, this time being assisted by a large body of British troops. A battle ensued at Maguaga, twelve miles below Detroit, where Miller found the enemy, both British and Indians, drawn up in-line of battle to meet him. He attacked them without hesitation. After a brief conflict the English fled from the field, but Tecumseh, with his Shawnees and Pottawattamies, still kept up the fight. These, too, were at length defeated, and both white men and red men fled across the river to Canada, having lost one hundred and thirty-four in killed and wounded. The Americans had seventeen killed and sixty-four wounded. Notwithstanding this check, Tecumseh still maintained his control over his warriors, and when the British commander, Gen. Brock, followed the imbecile Hull to Detroit, he reported to his government, and no doubt correctly, that he was accompanied by seven hundred Indians. At all events, there were enough to terrify the feeble Hull to an extraordinary degree, and his mind was filled with terrible visions of all the "hordes of the Northwest"-Shawnees, Ottawas, Pottawattanmies, and Chippewas-overwhelming his fort, massacring himself and his garrison, and devastating the settlements of Michigan with tomahawk and scalping-knife. Of the disgraceful surrender which followed on the 16th of August it is needless to speak here, save to say that all attempts to justify or extenuate it have miserably failed, and the name of the cowardly Hull must ever remain on the pages of American history only less hateful than that of Arnold, and even more contemptible. As Mackinaw had already yielded to a British force, the surrender of Detroit and of Hull's army, with all the troops in the vicinity, carried with it control over the whole of Michigan, which, for the next year, became practically British territory. All the Indians were already favor-.able to the English, and the remarkable success of the latter naturally increased the confidence of the red men in their prowess. The warriors thronged by hundreds to the

Page  31 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 31 camp of the victors, and hardly a Pottawattamie or Ottawa capable of wielding a tomahawk was left behind. Nine days after the surrender, and perhaps in consequence of it, a band of Pottawattamies, who resided at the head of Lake Michigan, fell upon, and massacred, the little garrison of Fort Dearborn (on the site of Chicago), as it was endeavoring to retreat eastward from that exposed post. The next conflict in which the Pottawattamies took part was the celebrated battle of the river Raisin, near the site of Monroe, on the 22d day of January, 1813. Here a large force of British and Indians, under Gen. Proctor and Tecumseh, attacked a body of Americans, under Gen. Winchester. Auchinleck, the Canadian historian of the war of 1812, says there were two hundred Pottawattamies in the battle, and that these were about all the Indians present. It is admitted that they fought with great bravery, and their efforts, with those of their British comrades, were entirely successful. Whether fiom actual necessity, or because of the pall of imbecility which seems to have fallen upon the whole American army during the first months of the war of 1812, Gen. Winchester and his entire force surrendered to Gen. Proctor. That officer soon after moved northward with the British troops, and most of the able-bodied prisoners, leaving the sick and wounded to the mercy of the Indians. He knew well enough what the result would be-what it always has been where the savages have had the opportunity of wreaking vengeance on the head of a helpless foe. No sooner had the British disappeared than the Pottawattamies, and the other Indians with them, fell upon the wretched Americans who were left behind. They began by plundering them of everything they possessed. Then, as their rage grew by its own indulgence, they thirsted for more exquisite pleasure than plunder afforded. First one ferocious warrior sank his tomahawk into the head of some helpless victim, and, with a fearful yell, tore away the reeking scalp. Another, and another, and another, quickly followed his example, and soon the whole scene became one of brutal butchery, the sick and wounded Americans being slaughtered by the score without remorse by the savage Pottawattamies. It was what was to be expected from them, but something better might have been hoped fiom British officers, and few more disgraceful events have ever happened than Proctor's abandonment of his helpless prisoners to the fury of the savages. It should be added that Tecumseh was absent when the massacre began, and on his arrival did all in his power to stop it. There were no other events of importance in which the Pottawattamies took part during that year, 1812, and as usual they returned home to hunt as winter approached. In the spring of 1813, they again rallied to the aid of the British. After numerous desultory operations during the forepart of the year, Proctor and Tecumseh led a large force of British and Indians to attack the fort at Lower Sandusky (now Fremont), Ohio. The number of Indians was estimated at from one to two thousand, of whom from three to four hundred were Pottawattamies. On the 2d of August, an assault was made by about five hundred British troops, while the Indians surrounded the fort, and kept up a continuous firing on every Ameri can soldier they could discover. But the attacking column was completely repulsed by the one hundred and sixty Americans in the fort, commanded by the gallant Maj. Croghan, and both the red and white assailants quickly retired from the field. The British and American fleets on Lake Erie were now preparing for action, and both were greatly deficient in seamen. The Americans supplied their place with raw militiamen, boys, and negroes; the English endeavored to strengthen themselves by placing a number of Indian warriors on each vessel, to act as sharpshooters and pick off the American gunners. On the memorable 10th of September the battle was fought which decided the mastery of Lake Erie. But alas for the noble red men; no sooner did the American cannon-balls come crashing among them, and the ships shake from stem to stern with the thunder of their own guns, than Shawnees, Pottawattamies, and Ottawas alike fled from their elevated positions, took refuge in the holds of their respective vessels, and there remained in ignominious security but quaking in every nerve until the end of the conflict. They would have fought bravely, perhaps desperately, in their native woods, but their unaccustomed position and the terrific thunder of the cannon were too much even for their stoic natures. The battle of Lake Erie was immediately followed by the advance of the American army into Canada, under Gen. Harrison. The British and Indians retreated to the northeast. On the 29th of September, Gen. Harrison took possession of Detroit, and Michigan once moreand let us trust forever-passed under American sway. For, two or three days later, Harrison followed the British army up the river Thames. On the 5th day of October he overtook it near the Moravian towns on that stream, and the celebrated battle of the Thames ensued. The British were in line of battle next the river; on their right were the Indians, under Tecumseh, extending in irregular order into a swamp which protected their position on the north. Tecumseh doubtless saw that this battle was to determine the event of the war so far as he and his were concerned. If the Americans could not be defeated, then, whatever might be the result elsewhere, there could be little hope but that the United States would hold possession of Michigan and the whole Northwest, and his people must go down before their power. Many of the more intelligent Shawnees and Pottawattamies likewise understood the situation, and the rest were devoted to Tecumseh; all were determined to fight to the utmost. The battle was begun in a very peculiar manner, Col. Richard M. Johnson's regiment of mounted riflemen being ordered to charge the enemy's lines, in advance of the infantry. Singularly enough, the British infantry at once gave way before the charge of a single battalion of the regiment, led by the lieutenant-colonel. Six hundred of them were taken prisoners, but their general, the man responsible for the massacre of the river Raisin, fled so early and. so rapidly as to escape capture. The other battalion was led by Col. Johnson himself, his principal foes being the Indians. From them, even after the British had all fled or surrendered, the riflemen encountered a fierce resistance. Cheered on by Tecumseh * ~ t. "M

Page  32 0t HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. and the other chiefs, among whom Maipock, a fierce and implacable Pottawattamie, was one of the most conspicuous, and feeling that this was their last chance, Shawnees, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies all fought with equal valor and ferocity. The American infantry came up and engaged in the conflict, yet still the warriors fought with desperate and useless courage against overwhelming numbers. But at length Tecumseh fell (no one has ever ascertained exactly when or where), the remaining braves were outnumbered four to one, and all speedily fled or yielded to the victors. The Pottawattamies stood by Tecumseh to the last, and one of their number, a large, fine-looking chief, who was slain while emulating his great leader, is said to have been mistaken for him by many of the Americans. The battle of the Thames completely extinguished the hopes of victory and independence indulged by the Indians of the Northwest. The confederacy which had been formed among them by the genius of Tecumseh at once fell in pieces after his death, and each tribe thought only of securing its own safety. The Pottawattamies, Ottawas, and several other tribes immediately sent delegations offering peace to the successful Americans, and on the 16th of October Gen. Harrison granted them an armistice, having first received a number of warriors from each tribe as hostages for the peaceable conduct of their comrades. The latter returned to their villages, and, although the war did not cease until the beginning of 1815, they were glad to refrain from taking any part in it. Henceforth we have to deal with the Pottawattamies, not as a proud and powerful people, the unquestioned lords of Southern Michigan, setting at defiance by turns the governments of England and the United States, but as a subjugated, disorganized tribe, composed of a few feeble, scattered bands, roaming over the scenes of their former greatness, bartering their birthright for whisky, and begging for occasional crusts from the hands of their conquerors. For these it will not be necessary to continue a separate record. Their story can be sufficiently told by occasional mention in the chapters devoted to the progress of the whites, and by description of the treaties by which the demoralized nation disposed of its broad domain. CHAPTER VI. THE TREATY-MAKING PERIOD. Recapitulation-Michigan after the War-Gov. Cass-Bad Repute of the Territory-Change of the Indiana Boundary-Treaty of 1817 -Large PottawattamlieDelegations-Treaty of 1818-Topinabee still the Head Chief-Treaty of 1821-A Curious Incident-" Give us Whisky"-The Great Cession-Description of the Ceded TractNames of the Pottawattamie Signers-The Reservations-Location of "Marck-ke-saw-bee"-The Bounds insisted on by the ChiefUneven Tracts still Remaining-The Consideration Paid for the Cession-New Land District-The Chicago Road-Primitive Engineering-Good Fords selected by the Indians-The old TradingPost-Marantelle-Black Hawk and his Band-A Quarrel in 1825 -The Boy's Victory-Prospecting Parties-First Settlements in Hillsdale and St. Joseph Counties-Treaty of 1827-Exchange of Territory-On the Verge of Settlement.;DEjSIGNXING in this consecutive general history of the county to adhere as closely as possible to the chronological order, we have mentioned, in our chapters on the Pottawattamies, the transfer of Michigan from the French to the English, in 1703; its conveyance by England to the United States, at the end of the Revolution; its becoming a part of the Northwest Territory, in 1787; the transference to Indiana of the western half, including Branch County, in 1800; the annexation of the eastern half to the same territory, in 1802; and the separate organization of Michigan, in 1805. At the close of the war, in 1815, there was still only a narrow fringe of settlement along the Detroit River and Lake Erie, and this was in a most desolate condition. Many had been driven away by fear of the Indians, the property of others had been largely destroyed, and all were thoroughly discouraged by the trouble, terror, and hardships through which they had passed. As for the interior of the Territory, it was still in a state of nature. Gen. Lewis Cass had been appointed Governor immediately after the battle of the Thames, and as soon as the close of the war gave him an opportunity he devoted himself with great zeal to the development of the resources of the Territory and the promotion of emigration. Whatever may be thought of his political course, all the early residents of Michigan agree that as the governor of a new Territory he could not have been excelled. There was a considerable emigration immediately after the war, but the Territory had obtained so bad a reputation for dampness of soil and badness of health that the flow of land-seekers was less than might have been expected, and, did not even approach the borders of Branch County for many years. In fact, a law which had been passed by Congress in 1812, giving a large tract of Michigan land to surviving soldiers of the Revolution, was repealed after the war on account of a report made by inspectors sent to examine the ground, that there was not enough good land in the Territory to satisfy the just claims of the beneficiaries. As stated in the previous chapter, the original line established between Indiana and Michigan in 1805 ran due east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan. But by the law of April 19, 1816, authorizing Indiana to form a State constitution, it was enacted that the boundary should run through a point ten miles north of the southern extremity of the lake; the object doubtless being to give Indiana the port of Michigan City, which, however, has not been of much advantage. Thus it happened that Branch County, when it came to be formed, was ten miles shorter on the south than it would probably otherwise have been. Together with the office of Governor of Michigan, Gen. Cass held that of Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the Northwest, and immediately after the close of the war turned his attention to the subject of the extinguishment of the Indian title, so that the Territory might be open to settlement by the whites. In September, 1817, he and Gen. Duncan McArthur held a council with the sachems and chiefs of the Wyandots, Senecas, Delawares, Shawnees, Pottawattamies, Ottawas, and Chippewas, at the rapids of the Maumee, when those nations ceded to the United States nearly all their lands in Ohio, and a small area in the southeastern part of Michigan. For the cession of these lands, in which the Pottawatta

Page  33 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 33 I mies had but a slight interest, they received thirteen hundred dollars a year annually for fifteen years; the Wyandots being granted four thousand dollars annually forever; the Ottawas and Chippewas a thousand dollars each annually for fifteen years, while the other tribes received smaller annuities. The treaty was signed by thirty-two Pottawattamie chiefs and warriors, while all the other tribes together were represented by about fifty. In fact, it was a characteristic of this tribe to have very large delegations at all the councils where their interests were brought in question. Judging from the number of their representatives, they were the most democratic people in the whole Northwest. In October, 1818, Gen. Cass and two other commissioners held a council with the Pottawattamies alone, by which the latter ceded to the United States a tract of land on the Tippecanoe and Wabash Rivers for a perpetual annuity of two thousand five hundred dollars per year. This treaty was signed by thirty-four chiefs and warriors, headed by old " Topinabee." In 1820, Henry R. Schoolcraft, the celebrated student of Indian customs and history, states that the Pottawattamies of both Illinois and Michigan "obeyed" Topinabee, an old man who had signed the Greenville treaty with Gen. Wayne. But the " obedience" of the Indians to their chiefs was always very indefinite, and after the close of the war of 1812, when the growing power of the United States relieved them from the constant fear of war with neighboring tribes, their tendency to wander off in small bands, each under the leadership of some petty chieftain, became more and more pronounced. In 1820 the Pottawattamies were estimated by Mr. Schoolcraft at three thousand four hundred persons all told. But by far the most important of the treaties negotiated by Gen. Cass, so far as the destinies of Southern Michigan were concerned, was the one concluded at Chicago on the 29th day of August, 1821. Hon. Solomon Sibley was associated with the general as a commissioner on behalf of the United States, while the Chippewas, Ottawas, and Pottawattamies, who were the contracting parties on the other side, were represented, the first-named tribe by two chiefs, the second by eight, and the Pottawattamies by fifty-five. That is to say, that was the number which signed the treaty, but there was also a large number of less prominent warriors present, with their squaws and papooses, and these warriors, and even the squaws, in the democratic constitution of Indian polity, could exercise a strong influence on the negotiations. A curious incident in connection with this council is narrated in Smith's "Life of Cass," as derived from the general himself. While the latter was watching some peculiar ceremonies of the Indians in the early part of the proceedings, he observed a Chippewa looking very grave, and keeping apart from his fellows. Gov. Cass inquired the cause, and learned that the man, in a fit of passion, had killed a Pottawattamie in the early part of the same season. The Pottawattamies had demanded the surrender of the murderer, and as the Chippewas, and in fact the homicide himself, admitted the justice of the claim, it was expected that the clansmen of the murdered man would inflict the penalty of death. But the latter was owing some traders for goods received 5 of them, and he was anxious to pay them before he died. He solicited and obtained the postponement of his execution until he could, by hunting, procure the means of satisfying his creditors. He had hunted successfully through the season, had obtained furs enough to pay his debts, and had come to the council prepared to suffer death at the hands of the friends of his victim. The Governor was touched by the stolid honesty of the doomed man, and by liberal presents to his intended executioners persuaded them to let him go free. Probably an*ample supply of whisky was the principal consideration which induced them to forego their revenge; for this was ever the most potent agent to reach their hearts. It is related, on the same authority above given, that even Topinabee, the hereditary chief of the Pottawattamies and the one who stood highest in their confidence, the veteran of nearly a hundred years who had signed the Greenville treaty with Anthony Wayne, was more anxious about obtaining a supply of whisky than anything else. When Gen. Cass urged him to keep sober so as to make a good bargain for himself and his people, he replied: " Father, we do not care for the land, nor the money, nor the goods,-what we want is whisky; give us whisky." Possibly, however, the old man spoke sarcastically, in view of the manifest anxiety of many of the Indians for that which was their deadliest bane. After the usual time spent in bargaining and adjusting details (for the Indians were by no means all of them so drunk as to lose sight of their interests), the terms of the treaty were agreed upon and reduced to writing. By it the Pottawattcamies as the actual occupants, and the Ottawas and Chippewas as their allies, ceded to the United States a tract of land stretching nearly across the Territory of Michigan from west to east, and described as follows: Beginning on the south bank of the St. Joseph River of Michigan near "Parc aux Vaches" (a short distance above the mouth); thence south to a line running due east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan; thence along that line to the tract ceded by the treaty of Fort Meigs in 1817 (which was far to the east of Hillsdale County), or, if that tract should be found to lie entirely south of the line, then to the tract ceded by the treaty of Detroit in 1807 (the western boundary of which was twenty miles west of Lake Erie and the Detroit River); thence northward along that tract to a point due east of the source of Grand River; thence west to the source of that river; thence down the river on the north bank to its junction with Lake Michigan; thence southward along the east bank of the lake to the mouth of the St. Joseph River; and thence up that river to the place of beginning. Below we give the names of the Pottawattamie chiefs and warriors who signed the treaty of Chicago, both to show the original title of Branch County land (for the Ottawas and Chippewas were merely allies of the real owners,-at least so far as the land in this vicinity was concerned), and also to show what sort of names our predecessors indulged in. The list is headed by the veteran Topenabee, after whom came the following: Meteay, Chebonsee, Loinson, Weesaw, Keepotaw, Schayank, Keebee, Schomang,. Wawwemick

Page  34 434 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. f emack, Nayoncheemon, Kongee, Sheeshawgau, Ayshcam, Meeksaymank, Moytenway, Shawwennemetay, Francois, Mauksee, Waymego, Maudauming, Quayguee, Aapenhawbee, Matchaweeyaas, Matchapoggish, Mongau, Puggagaus, Sescobennish, Cheegwamackgwago, Wawsebbau, Peecheeco, Quonquoitaw, Reannish, Wynemaig, Onmuckemeck, Kawaysin, Ameckkose, Osseemeet, Shawkoto, Noshayweequat, Meegunn, Maesheketeumon, Keenotoge, Wabawneshen, Shawwawnayse, Atchweemuckquee, Pishsheebangay, Wawbassay, Meggesseese, Saygawkoomick, Shawwayno, Sheeshawgun, Totomee. Ashkuwee, Shayanltkeebee, Awbetonee. If that array of names doesn't give a good title to land it were difficult to find one that would. From this cession were excepted five reservations: one four miles square at Nottawa-seepe, in the present county of St. Joseph; one three miles square at Prairie Ronde, in the present county of Kalamazoo; one three miles square at the head of the Kalamazoo River, near the line between Ilillsdale and Jackson Counties; one six miles square at Maugachqua, ' on the river Peble;" and one six miles square at Mick-ke-saw-bee. The last named was in what is now Branch County, comprising the eastern two-thirds of township 6 south, range 6 west (Coldwater), and the eastern one-third of township 6, range 5 (Quincy). When the government surveyor, a year or two later, ran out the newly-purchased land into townships, he was also instructed to survey the lines of the reservation, the chiefs of the band which dwelt in the vicinity having the privilege of locating the boundaries. The surveyor wanted to make square work and run the boundaries so they would come on section lines. The chiefs, however, objected to this, and insisted that the western boundary of the reservation should run 60 rods west of the east line of sections 5, 8, 17, 20, 29, and 32, in what is now Coldwater, and that the eastern boundary should run through the same sections in the present Quincy. The surveyor was at length compelled to run the lines as desired by the chiefs. It is difficult to imagine the object of the latter, unless it was to save all the land possible by keeping out of both Marble and Coldwater Lakes. The outside land was subdivided into sections and quartersections before the reservation was ceded to the United States; afterwards the reservation was subdivided in the same manner. It resulted that the east halves of the sections named, instead of being divided into 80-acre and 40-acre tracts, as is usually the case, were cut into 60-acre and 100 -acre tracts, and many of them retain that size to the present time. Notwithstanding the words of the treaty, the size of the reservation was at first in some doubt in the writer's mind; but Mr. J. B. Tompkins, of Girard, an old surveyor, called our attention to the row of 60-acre (or near 60-acre) tracts running north and south through Quincy, just six miles from the corresponding row in Coldwater, and as this width corresponded to the language of the treaty, there could no longer be any reasonable question that the reservation was actually laid out six miles square. By the treaty of Chicago, the United States agreed to pay the Ottawas a thousand dollars a year forever, besides fifteen hundred dollars a year for fifteen years, to support a blacksmith, teacher, and farmer. To the Pottawattamies the government agreed to pay five thousand dollars annually for twenty years, besides a thousand dollars per year to support a blacksmith and teacher. These were some of the first provisions made by the government for the purpose of civilizing the Indians. Such was the treaty which gave the title of the land of Branch County to the United States, and, consequently, constitutes the basis of all land-titles in that county except on the reservation. For several years after this treaty no settlement was made in Branch County, and the Indians did not confine themselves at all to the reservations assigned them, but strayed at will through the forest and over the prairies. They had a small village near the site of Coldwater, and a still smaller one near that of Girard, of which more will be said a little farther on. In 1823, the Detroit land district was divided and a landoffice established at Monroe. The new district embraced not only the land in the immediate vicinity of Monroe, but all that part of the territory west of the " principal meridian" (which afterwards became the east line of Hillsdale County). A little later, through the influence of Gen. Cass, the general government ordered the construction of a road a hundred feet wide from Detroit to Chicago (with a branch from near Monroe, striking the main line near the eastern line of Hillsdale County), and appropriated ten thousand dollars to pay for a survey of it. In the spring of 1825, the chief surveyor began his work, planning to run on nearly straight lines. He soon found, however, that if he followed this plan, cutting a vista for his compass through the dense woods, and spending a large part of his time in hunting up good routes and good places for bridges, the money would all be expended before he should have half completed his task. So he determined to follow the "Chicago trail," the old pathway which the Indians had followed from time immemorial in passing between Detroit and the point at the mouth of Chicago River where the great city of the West now stands. This he did so faithfully that it is said there was not an angle, bend, or turn of the Indian trail which was not preserved by the " Chicago Road," as the new thoroughfare was soon universally called. Some of these meanderings were afterwards straightened by the authorities, and yet even now a glance at the map will show that there are angles enough in the present road to give good reason for crediting this statement. The flagmen were sent ahead as far as they could be seen, the bearings taken, the distance chained, and the results noted in the field-book; then the flagmen were again sent ahead, the axemen meantime blazing the trees fifty feet on each side of the central line. It was not a very bad plan, though it caused considerable crookedness. The Indians had avoided the worst marshes, which were the principal obstructions to road-making, and, what was equally important, they had selected the best fording-places of the creeks and rivers that could be found. The fords, too, had been improved by the squaws, who had carried gravel and small stones, year after year, in their "mococks," or bark baskets, making solid the bottoms of the streams, so the ponies could cross without sinking in the mire, and soaking the scanty household goods, which

Page  35 35i HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. were loaded upon them. The road was not opened by the government for several years after the survey, but the fact that it was surveyed and established as a road caused emigration to follow that line, and the emigrants here and there did a little something toward making it passable. As early as 1825, and probably before, there was a trading-post established where the Coldwater Cemetery (Oak Grove) now is. The owners were Loranger & Foster. In the year just named the late Mr. Marantelle, of Mendon, St. Joseph Co., though then only a French stripling of eighteen, had charge of the post. At that time, as stated by Mr. Marantelle during his life, the Sacs and Foxes, and perhaps other Western Indians, among whom the afterwards celebrated Black Hawk was the most prominent, were in the habit of going annually to Malden, Canada, to obtain annuities allowed them by the British government. When returning from this trip in 1825, they stopped at the post in charge of Marantelle, to trade, that being the last one before reaching Chicago. They dismounted and tied their ponies, and in a few moments the room was full of braves and squaws. Black Hawk, armed with a long lance, stood grim and stately in their midst. The boy soon had his hands full selling his goods to his dark-skinned customers, and occasionally purchasing some article of forest produce which they had to sell. While the bargaining was at its height, a squaw offered to sell young Marantelle a fine smoked deer-skin, which he immediately recognized as one which he had bought a few days before, and which had his mark (16 -) on the corner. He immediately seized and claimed it, but the squaw clung to the other end, and both pulled lustily at the coveted article. The Indians began to crowd around. Black Hawk advanced with impressive mien through the throng, and laid his lance across the skin; either designing to command the peace or possibly purposing to end the dispute by taking possession of the contested article himself. But Marantelle immediately picked up another deer-skin from his pile, and laying it down beside the one claimed by the squaw, showed the two corresponding marks to Black Hawk and his braves. "How! How I" exclaimed the chieftain, lifting his lance and relinquishing the skin to the bold boy. "How! How!" cried all the Indians and squaws, as they drove the dishonest one out of doors, and then returned more eager to buy than before. So pleased were they with young Marantelle's behavior, that before they left they purchased between five and six hundred dollars' worth of goods. As early as 1826, a few prospecting-parties began to pass westward along the Chicago road, looking for the best places for settlement, some of them going through as far as Lake Michigan. There was still, however, no white man, save an occasional Indian trader, residing west of Lenawee County, in the Territory of Michigan. In November, 1826, the territory of Branch County was brought under municipal jurisdiction by an act of the legislative council, which declared that all the country within the territory to which the Indian title was extinguished by the treaty of Chicago should be attached to and compose a part of the county of Lenawee. On the 12th of April, 1827, another act enacted that all the territory thus annexed to Lenawee County should constitute the township of St. Joseph. This township must have contained at least ten thousand square miles. In the spring of that year (1827), the first settlement was made in Hillsdale County, at Allen's Prairie, and the same season the earliest pioneers of St. Joseph County located on White Pigeon Prairie. Six or eight other emigrants passed through the territory now constituting Branch County, and made their homes in St. Joseph. The reason evidently was because the Mick-ke-saw-bee reservation inclosed one of the largest prairies, lying near the centre of the county, on both sides of the Chicago road, and people did not desire to settle in the immediate vicinity of it. Strenuous efforts were made to concentrate all the Indians of the various reservations before mentioned on a single tract, and in September, 1827, a treaty was concluded to that effect. It recited that it was desirable that the Indians should be removed from the Chicago road, where they were in constant contact with the stream of white emigration, for which and other reasons they ceded to the United States all the tracts reserved by the treaty of Chicago except that at Nottawa-seepe in St. Joseph County, and received in return a large addition to that reserve, bringing it up to ninetynine sections, which lacked but seven sections of being as much as the area of all the reservations had been. This treaty was not signed by Topenabee. The list of signatures was headed by Pee-nai-sheish, or Little Bird, followed by "Peerish Morain," a Frenchman, who had become a chief of the Tottawattamies. This brings us to the verge of settlement in this county. Before entering on a description of the pioneer period, however, a chapter will be devoted to a delineation of the situation in which the first white settlers found the territory now comprising the county of Branch. CHAPTER VII. THE SITUATION AT SETTLEMENT. The Primeval Forest-Prairies and Openings-Coldwater-Cocoosh and Bronson's Prairies-Surface and Soil-Rivers and Lakes-Old Mounds and Fortifications-The Supposed Mound-Builders-Remarks regarding them-The Pottawattamies again-The Nottawa Indians-Pierre Moreau-Sat-aul-quiett-Wandering Habits of the Indians-Their Villages in Branch County-Their HousesSquaws, Boys, and Papooses-Indian Hunters-Indian Trails. IN the year 1828, when the first permanent white settlers located themselves in the territory now constituting the county of Branch, they found a tract of mingled forest and prairie, seldom, if ever, surpassed in fertility or in beauty. More than half of the district in question-the groundwork, so to say, of the landscape-was a dense forest of oak, elm, beech, maple, black walnut, whitewood, and some minor varieties of trees. The two last-named species were especially noticeable for their large size and fine quality. This forest was diversified by several fine prairies. Near the centre of the present township of Coldwater was one about three miles long, east and west, and near a mile and a half wide, north and south, at the broadest place; the ity

Page  36 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of Coldwater now occupying its eastern end. This prairie, like the others in the vicinity, was not exactly what a resident of Iowa or Kansas would call a prairie; that is, it was not an absolutely treeless expanse. There were many burr-oak and other trees scattered here and there over its surface, and in some places, especially near the edges of the heavy timber, these were so numerous that these places were more properly designated as oak openings than as prairies. Some three miles north of Coldwater Prairie, in township 5 south, range 6 west (now Girard), were two prairies known as " Cocoosh" and " West Cocoosh." Cocoosh was the Indian name for hog, and the whites adopted their appellation for the two prairies, though unfortunately, the stream which meanders through them has received the less musical name of Hog Creek. Cocoosh Prairie, which included the site of Girard village, contained about a thousand acres. West Cocoosh, about a mile directly west of the former, was somewhat smaller. South of Coldwater Prairie for six miles, was a heavy belt of the finest timber, principally whitewood and black walnut, running east and west through the county. Many of these trees were so large that when afterwards cut down and taken to mill, it was necessary to hew them down considerably before they could pass through an old-fashioned perpendicular saw-gate. Still south of the timber belt just mentioned, the remaining territory of the present county was occupied principally by a heavy forest, broken by occasional small prairies and openings. Of the prairies, the principal was the one since known as Bronson's Prairie, in the township of the same name. It was about three-fourths of a mile wide north and south, and full a mile long from east to west. This, unlike some of the others, was a regular Western prairie, what there was of it, with scarcely a tree upon it. The surface of the future county was level compared with the eastern country, from which most of the emigrants came, but did not quite match the sameness of an Illinois prairie. In the central portions there were few undulations, but in the northeast and southwest occasional hills were seen, though none sufficient to interfere with cultivation. The soil of the prairies was generally a dry, black, rich loam, changing into a somewhat level, sandy loam in the openings, and showing an admixture of clay in the heavy timber. The general, though slight, slope of the land was to the westward; all the streams being tributary to the St. Joseph River, which, having started on its course in Hillsdale County, and made its way northwest into Calhoun (barely touching the northeast corner of the present township of Butler), turns to the southwest, enters Branch County eight miles east from the northwestern corner, pursues an almost directly southwest course, and passes out nearly seven miles south from that corner. Thence it makes a long dtourourthward, but returns to the north and enters Lake Michigan at St. Joseph, a little farther north than the nrtliern line of this county, having flowed a distance of two hundred miles besides its minor windings. Its principal tributary in the territory which forms the bject of this work was the Coldwater River, the two. branches of which both began their course in the present township of California, ran northwestward a few miles apart through various lakes and united their waters in township 6, range 6 (Coldwater), just above the point where the Chicago trail crossed the combined stream, which continued thence in the same general course through another series of lakes, till it joined the St. Joseph, half a mile after its entrance into the county, at the place where Union City now stands. The whole distance from the head of either of the branches to the mouth of the river, was about thirtyfive miles. " Cocoosh" Creek, as the Indians called it, though their prosaic successors insist on denominating it Hog Creek, rose in the edge of Hillsdale County, meandered through the present townships of Quincy, Butler, and Girard, and united with Coldwater River, in the eastern edge of the township of Union. The territory of the present townships of Bethel, Batavia, and Mattison, with part of Bronson, were drained by the waters of Swan Creek and Little Swan Creek, which united with each other and with the St. Joseph River shortly after entering St. Joseph County. Farther south, Prairie River, finding its source in a cluster of beautiful lakes on the Indiana line, flowed northwestwardly through the present towns of Gilead, Bethel, and Bronson, naking its exit from the county six miles north from the southwest corner, and passing on until it entered the St. Joseph, two miles below the site of the city of Three Rivers; its total length being about fifty miles. The lakes which formed the head-waters of Fawn River were close to those which flowed into Prairie River, in the present township of Kinderhook, but the former stream immediately passed into Indiana, returning and crossing the southwest corner of the present township of Noble (and of Branch County) and finding its way into the St. Joseph, a few miles below the mouth of Prairie River, after a tortuous course of about the same length as the latter stream. In describing the rivers and creeks it has been necessary to make frequent mention of the lakes. These were a most interesting feature of the country. The hunter, the Indiantrader, the land-seeker, as he made his toilsome way across the prairie or through the "openings," frequently found his steps arrested by a small sheet of water, lying silent and sparkling in the sunlight, around which a detour of from one to five miles must be made ere he could continue on his former course. Still more noticeable was the scene when he had been plodding for miles through the dense forest, the giant whitewoods and black walnuts shutting out almost every glimpse of the sun, and the air below heavy with the heat of an American summer. A glimpse of light is seen ahead, a few eager strides are made, and the traveler emerges on the shore of a bright little lake, perhaps half a mile in diameter, its pellucid waters shut in by the darksome wood on every side, displaying by the contrast its glowing beauty in bolder relief, while wild fowl rise screaming from its surface at sight of the stranger, and perchance an antlered deer, drinking at the margin, stands for a moment, with head flung back in startled indignation, "Like chief who hears his warder's call," and then bounds away at headlong speed into the forest.

Page  37 37 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Of these lakes and ponds, no less than sixty-nine were to be found in the embryo county of Branch, from the diminutive sheet of water which scarcely made a perceptible opening in the forest up to Coldwater Lake (the southernmost one of that name) on the line between townships 7 and 8, range 6,-Ovid and Kinderhook,-which was about three miles long and fiom half a mile to two miles wide. The lakes were more numerous and of larger average size in the southern part of the county, fractional township 8 in range 6 (now Kinderhook) being particularly well supplied with them. Besides Coldwater Lake, before mentioned, the larger ones in the county were two connected together in the present townships of Coldwater and Girard, which also received the name of Coldwater; one in Mattison, called Mattison Lake; one in Sherwood, named Sherwood Lake; one in Quincy and Algansee, called Marble Lake; two in Ovid, known as Long Lake and Lake of the Woods; two in Gilead, called Gilead Lake and Island Pond; two in Kinderhook, known as Silver Lake and Fish Lake; and one on the line between Kinderhook and Indiana, bearing the appellation of Lake George. Around these lakes and through the forest the deer roamed in large numbers. Here. too, at night was heard the howling of innumerable wolves, always apparently hungry and seeking with ill success for food, their principal reliance being some superannuated or crippled deer which they were able to overtake. Occasionally a black bear rolled his unwieldy form beneath the trees, fattening himself on acorns, walnuts, etc., in summer, and retiring in winter to some hollow oak to live on the accumulated capital of his own flesh. At still rarer intervals, the shrill scream of the panther, fiercest of American beasts, was heard afar in the forest, making all other animals tremble with fear, and startling even the Indian warrior with the prospect of more than ordinary danger. Raccoons, squirrels, and other small animals abounded; wild turkeys trooped in noisy squadrons through the undergrowth, wild geese and ducks in spring and autumn often covered the surface of the placid lakes, while amid the branches of the trees flitted thousands of smaller birds, of varied song and diverse size, and many-hued plumage. On the ground, besides some harmless varieties of serpents, the deadly rattlesnake, generally of the "moccasin" species, made its tortuous way, preluding its fatal stroke with the warning note which distinguishes it from all reptiles. But by far the most important occupants of the county at the time of settlement were the Indians. Before, however, describing their situation at that time, perhaps it will be well to make brief mention of some relics believed by many to indicate the existence here of a much more highly civilized race than the red men found by the early explorers. We approach this subject with much diffidence, for the ascertained facts are really very few and trivial, so far as this section is concerned, while the theories which have been built upon them are so extensive as to tend to overawe any one who has not made the subject a special study. First, as to the facts. In this county, as in various other parts of the St. Joseph Valley and throughout the region of the great lakes, there were found by the first settlers numerous mounds, some of which were evidently places of sepulture, while others had every appearance of having originally been erected as fortifications. Hon. E. G. Fuller has described to us several of these mounds, now almost obliterated, as they were when he first saw them. They are located on ground now belonging to Mrs. Reid, in the township of Girard, near the road from Coldwater to Union City. At the time of settlement, the largest one was fifteen or twenty feet high, and about six rods in diameter. The next largest was eight or ten feet high and near four rods in diameter. Oaks two feet thick were growing on the top of the larger mound. In one of them a few bones and some rude stone implements were found, but not many of either. Besides these and some smaller mounds there was also a small fort, about six rods in diameter, inclosed with a wall only a few feet high. Similar remnants of other days have been found in Bronson and in other parts of the county. In St. Joseph County they are still more numerous. Similar works are found all along the shores of the great lakes, as far east as the foot of Lake Ontario. As we go southward the works become more extensive and elaborate, and in the vicinity of the Ohio, they are so large as to have attracted the most earnest attention of scientific men. It has long been a matter of general credence, that these were built by some race anterior and superior to the Indians, to whom, for lack of any other name, has been given the appellation of " Mound-Builders." Many, too, believe that the slighter mounds and forts erected in the lake-country were the productions of the same people, but of this there is considerable doubt. In fact, the generally trivial character of the works in the lakecountry, compared with those on and near the Ohio, naturally raises the presumption that the former were not built by the same race as the latter. Moreover, the northern structures are certainly such as could have been erected by the Indians, whether they were or not. True, the Indians were not in the habit of building earthen fortifiations when the whites first settled in America, but they did build very elaborate palisades out of logs cut down with their stone-axes, and this required much more labor and skill than the construction of a small earthen fort. It should be observed, too, that while the fortifications and mounds throughout the lake region are all of a comparatively trivial character, and could easily have been constructed by a barbarous race, yet within a hundred miles of Lake Erie-noticeably at Newark, Ohio-we find far more important works, giving evidence that civilized or at least half-civilized men designed their form and superintended their erection. It is, of course, also well known that a half-civilized race, with numerous important buildings and fortifications, were found in Mexico by the Spaniards. It does not seem improbable, therefore, that a half-civilized race did once occupy the Ohio Valley and oonstruct the mighty works found there, while the shores of the great lakes (and the peninsula which lies between two of the) were held by the ancestors of the modern Indians. The latter would naturally imitate their powerful neighbors, and build intrenchments to protect themselves against them (a

Page  38 38' HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. -..... - the reeks and CGoctaws built breastworks in imitation of the whites at Talladega and Horse-Shoe Bend, to guard agains the troops of Gen. Jackson). When the " MoundBuilders" disappeared from the Ohio Valley (either on account of internecine wars, or from a desire to migrate to a milder clime, or for some other unknown reason) and the Indians spread over all this portion of the continent, the latter would naturally cease to build the fortifications intended as a defense against their half-civilized foes, and content themselves with the palisades, which were sufficient for their bow-and-arrow warfare. This is only a crude and hastily-constructed theory, yet it seems difficult otherwise to account for the very marked difference between the immense and elaborate structures found near the Ohio and the comparatively insignificant ones which line the shores of the great lakes and of the rivers which empty into them. Let us turn to the Indians who were in the territory of Branch County at the time of its settlement by the whites. These were almost entirely our old friends, the Pottawattamies, though a few Ottawas and still fewer Cfiippewas had drifted down from the north and had permanently located themselves among their ancient confederates. They were sometimes called the Nottawa Indians, because their principal abiding-place was the village of Nottawa-seepe, around which, after 1827, was the only reservation they had in Michigan. Topenabe, so long the head chief of the Pottawattamies, was not yet dead, as will appear by subsequent treaties, but had doubtless become too old and infirm to exercise the duties of active leadership, as his name does not appear among the signers of the treaty of 1827. Penaishees, or Little Bird, whose name appears at the head of the list, was afterwards recognized as head chief of the Pottawattamies, but the principal man among the Nottawa portion of the tribe was the second signer of the treaty of 1827, whose name appears there as " Pierish" Moran, or Morau, but who is by some called Pierre Moreau, a full-blood Frenchman or French Canadian, said to have been of good family and good education. In early life he began business as a merchant in Detroit and failed. He took the remnant of his goods to the St. Joseph River and began trading with the Pottawattamies. His goods were soon used up, but by this time he had acquired a strong influence over the Nottawa band and a strong liking for Indian habits. He married an Indian woman, lived with the Indians, dressed like an Indian, became.practically an Indian in everything but color, and did not differ much from his red comrades even in that. His influence steadily increased, and he became at length the head of the Nottawa band. An Indian named Cush-e-wees is said to have been the hereditary chief of the band, but was supplanted by the superior intelligence of Moreau. In 1828, the latter had become old, decrepit, and to some extent imbecile, and Cush-e-wees sought to regain his lost authority. He was resisted, however, by $au-au-quett (or Sau-quett, as he was Commonly called by the whites), the oldest son of Moreau by his Idian wife. Sauquett was at that time a remarkably ne-lkir, s talwart half-breed, six feet three inches high, I....;... __ straight and well-proportioned, with a keen intelligence, a strong will, an imposing address, ard winning manners; but unprincipled and, like nearly all his people, very fond of whisky. Sauquett's skillful management gave him a decided advantage over Cush-e-wees, notwithstanding the legitimate descent of the latter. Even during the life of old Moreau, Sauquett was generally recognized as the head of the Indians on the reservation at Coldwater, which was commonly called "Sauquett's Reservation." After Nottawa-seepe was made the headquarters of all the Pottawattamies, etc., of Southern Michigan, and especially after his father's death, the exact date of which is not known, Sauquett became practically the head of the band, though a minority still adhered to Cush-e-wees. The feud between the rival factions generated much bad blood, and, in connection with other matters, afterwards caused considerable bloodshed. Notwithstanding the exchange of Sauquett's Reservation for an addition to that at Nottawa-seepe, the Indians, who had dwelt in the territory of Branch County, still continued to occupy their old homes, at least during a large portion of the time. It is impossible to say how many there were who might fairly be considered as Branch County Indians, as they were closely connected with those at Nottawa-seepe, and many of them were frequently going back and forth between the two localities. All of the band usually moved at least twice a year; raising their corn and beans in this locality in the summer, and removing to some distant hunting-ground in the winter, where the game was entirely undisturbed. Generally they came back in the spring to the localities they had left in the fall, but not always. There was a small village at Mick-ke-saw-be or Coldwater, and another on Cocoosh Prairie, now Girard. The latter locality must have been occupied by them many years, as there were several well-grown apple-trees there. The writer has tried several times to obtain from old settlers a description of the lodges or houses of the Pottawattamies in this vicinity, but they were of such a nondescript character that the task has been extremely difficult. They seem to have been made of anything that came to hand. Sometimes, though rarely, a few logs were piled up and a bark roof placed upon them. More often some crotched poles were set up and others laid upon them to make the frame; the structure being completed by a bark roof and bark sides. If a piece of tent-cloth had been obtained anywhere, it usually supplied the place of bark as far as it would go. Sometimes one of the smaller cabins was occupied by a single family, but more often they were built twenty or thirty feet long and occupied by several families together. Around these, on a summer day, might have been seen the Indian braves lying at ease in the sun, while their patient squaws worked in the patches of corn and beans and pumpkins, which were usually fenced in with a row of stakes fastened together with strips of bark, to keep out the Indian ponies; sometimes as many as ten acres being thus inclosed. Here, too, might be seen " eight little, nine little, ten little Indian boys" running about with miniature bows and arrows, shooting with remarkable accuracy at the

Page  39 HISTORY OF PBRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 39 -I birds which flitted around. Here, too, were still smaller children, naked as they were born, playing in the sun, while bright-eyed papooses, strapped upon boards (to insure the straightness of the future warriors) and leaned against trees, watched the animated scene around. Despite the apparent indolence and selfishness with which the Indians watched the labors of the squaws, it should by no means be understood that the former shirked all the duties of life. In accordance with immemorial custom, the work of the field devolved upon the weaker sex, but then there was little labor to be done in the field, and the toils of war and the chase were supposed to include " the whole duty of man." Of the pleasures of war the Pottawattamies had been largely deprived since their complete conquest by the United States, but the chase still remained. When the leaves of the forest assumed their myriad hues beneath the breath of autumn, and still more when the white mantle of winter covered all the land, the Pottawattanlie brave girded his loins for the severest toils. Over hill and dale, over ice and snow, through chilling stream and tangled undergrowth, he pursued the track of the deer with unwavering patience and unflinching endurance. Arriving at length in the vicinity of his intended victim (the nearness of which he could discern with extraordinary sagacity), his approaches were made with a skill surpassing that of the profoundest military strategist. Creeping slowly and stealthily, with half-frozen feet, a mile or more to gain the side of the doomed animal away from the wind; lying prone in a snow-bank to lull the halfaroused suspicions of the quarry; standing so quiet behind a tree that he seems frozen to it, he at length gains the wished-for opportunity, and a bullet from his rifle brings the stately monarch of the forest to the ground. With a yell in which lingers some of the glory of the old scalphunting times, he bounds forward to cut the throat of the victim, and then, after hanging the carcass on a tree, out of reach of wolves, presses on with undiminished ardor to fresh toils and fresh conquests. Perhaps he returns and carries the carcass to camp, but quite as likely he merely informs his squaw (or squaws) of its whereabouts, who skin and quarter it, and carry it home. Though accustomed to the most distant and most uncertain excursions in search of game, yet in traveling from one well-known locality to another, the Indians usually followed one trail in all its windings, marching in the wellknown " Indian file," and with their own and their ponies' feet wearing a hard deep path into the earth. Besides the great Chicago trail before mentioned, another ran northwest from Fort Wayne to Lake Michigan, crossing the former on the site of Coldwater. Fifteen years after the settlement by the whites, the Fort Wayne trail could still be seen, barely wide enough for an Indian pony to walk in, but worn six inches below the surface of the ground. Still another ran from the Nottawa-seepe Reservation in St. Joseph County through Bronson and Gilead to Suscopicon Prairie in Indiana, and there were others of less importance in various parts of the county. Having given an outline of the condition of affairs at the time of the first settlement of Branch County by the whites, we now turn to note the arrival of the pioneers. CHAPTER VIII. FROM SETTILEMENT TO ORGANIZATION OF COUNTY. The First Settler-Bronson and Bronson's Prairie-Phineas Bonner, the Wandering Welshman-First Settlement in Girard-The First Mail-The First School-Formation of Branch County-Derivation of Name-Attached to St. Joseph County-Formation of Green Township-Its Imperial Dimensions-First Town-Meeting-First Officers-First Justice and Postmaster-Toole's Saw-Mill-Bolton and Morse-First Physician-Navigating the St. Joseph-First Record of Green-Locating the County-Seat at Old Coldwater-A Serious Informality-New Arrivals-The First Stages-Wales Adams, Allen Tibbits, and Harvey Warner-First Frame Building-Marsh's Trading-post-Columbia-Lancaster-Second TownMeeting-New Land-district-Relocation of County-Seat-Sticking the Stake in the Wilderness-Laying out of Branch Village-Increase of Population-Old Records-Establishment of Road Districts-First Road Record-Dispute with an Indian-The Squaws anl the Apple-Trees-The Indian Boy and the Horses-The First Merchant —Third Town-Meeting-Supervisor's Account-Record of the Meeting-Record of Town Auditors-Bishop Chase —Extract from his Autobiography-His Residence in Gilead-The Black Hawk War-Militia Called Out-Jones's Battalion-Copy of the Roll-Pottmacattrnlies at Orangeville-Another Draft of Militia-Check on Emigration-Green Township Divided-Fiit Grist-Mill-Hotels and Wolf-Scalps-Law Organizing Branch County. IT was in the spring of 1828 that the first permanent white settler located himself within the limits of the present county of Branch. This was " Jabe" Bronson, for so he always signed his name,-not Jabez as it has sometimes been printed. Mr. Bronson had already reached middle age, was a ship-carpenter by trade, and had previously built vessels on Lake Erie. He had made his way to White Pigeon, St Joseph Co., the year before (1827), where he had raised a crop of corn, but in 1828 he made a permanent location on what was long known as Bronson's Prairie, a little south of the present village of Bronson, in the township of the same name. There he built a log house and opened a tavern. His wife had been a widow-a Mrs. Potter-previous to his marriage with her, and they were accompanied to Branch County by her four children, John, Abial, Emma, and Laura Potter, all adults or nearly so. John Potter soon established an Indian trading-post at Bronson's Prairie. He seemed to have a peculiar faculty for that business, and ere long became able to speak the Pottawattamie language with considerable facility. It is believed that Seth Dunham also located at Bronson's Prairie in 1828, though perhaps not till the next year. He was also a ship-carpenter. His residence was at the west end of the present village of Bronson, his place being now owned by Mr. Ruggles. It had previously been occupied by a " squatter," but his name is unknown, and as he only remained a short time he can hardly be considered as a "settler," though he might pass as a pioneer. Either Dunham or his predecessor set out there the first orchard in the county.. Another emigrant who scarcely comes within the definition of a settler,-in fact, a very unsettled person indeed, was a Welshman named Phineas Bonner, who with his family located himself on Four-Mile Creek, in tie present township of Batavia. It is not known exactly when he

Page  40 40. HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. came into the county, and he may possibly have preceded Bronson; but as the time of the advent of the latter is known, and as Bonner was as much Indian-trader as anything else, Bronson is put down as the first settler, Indiantraders not being counted in that category. He is said by Wales Adams, Esq., who knew him, to have been a man of considerable intelligence, who had perhaps been a sailor. He told of many travels on the Old Continent, of coasting along the shores of the Mediterranean, and visiting the imperial city of Constantinople, and was currently reputed to have run away from a school which he was teaching in Ohio, with one of his female pupils, whom he made his wife. While here, he acted the part of both farmer and trader, raising corn, which he sold to the Indians for furs, and sending the latter where they could be sold for money. In a short time he removed to a point in the woods, a mile or two east of the site of Coldwater. But his restless, wandering disposition still clung to him. He made no attempt to acquire land, and when, after a few years, the county contained thirty or forty families, he considered it as too crowded for him, and moved on to some more roomy location. The first settler in the county (except Bonner), away from Bronson's Prairie, was Richard W. Corbus, who came to the present township of Girard in the year 1829. He was accompanied by his mother and his niece. The latter, now Mrs. Sarah Ann Smith, is still living at Quincy, and is the earliest surviving resident of the county. They lived several months in a deserted wigwam; then moved into a log house and lived there a year or more, without a single white neighbor in the township. In the spring of 1829, Jeremiah Tillotson located himself near Bronson, and also began keeping tavern. By the fact of two taverns being opened close to each other, it may reasonably be presumed that there was considerable travel over the Chicago road. This is also known from other sources. There was already quite a settlement at White Pigeon, and during the summer of this year, the first mail-route was established west of Lenawee County. It was from Tecumseh, in that county, to White Pigeon. The contractor was John Michell, of the latter place, and his contract required him to carry the mail once a week each way in the summer, and once every two weeks in the winter. During 1829 the method of transportation was on horseback. John Toole was another emigrant of 1829, who located at Bronson, and there were probably five or six families there in all, as in the winter of 1829-30. Toole taught a small school there,-unquestionably the first in the county. In fact, there was no one living in the county, away from the vicinity of Bronson's Prairie, except our Pottawattamie friends, the occupants of the French trading-post on Coldwater River, Mr. Corbus' family in Girard, and the wandering adventurer, Phineas Bonner. Up to this time, the territory of Branch County, and indeed the whole southwestern part of Michigan, had com prised the township of St. Joseph's, which was a part of the county of Lenawee. On the 29th day of October, 1829, however, a law was passed by the Legislative Council of Michigan, and approved by the Governor, forming the counties of Washtenaw, Ingham, Eaton, Barry, Jackson, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Van Bureh, Hillsdale, Branch, St. Joseph, Cass, and Berrien. The tenth section read as follows: " That so much of the country as lies west of the line between ranges four and five, west of the meridian, and east of the line between ranges eight and nine west, and south of the line between townships four and five, south of the base-line, and north of the boundary-line, between this Territory and the State of Indiana, be and the same is hereby set off into a separate county, and the name thereof shall be Branch." This name was derived from that of Hon. John Branch, of North Carolina, who, on the preceding 4th of March, had been appointed Secretary of the Navy of the United States by the new President, Gen. Andrew Jackson. The formation of a county, however, as our readers are probably aware, by no means indicated the immediate existence of a county organization; it merely showed that, in the judgment of the legislative council, the district thus designated, bounded and named would make a very good county at some future time. These inchoate counties were usually attached to more populous ones for all legal purposes until such times as they should themselves have a sufficient number of inhabitants to justify their being provided with county organizations. In the present case an act was passed on the 4th day of November, 1829, six days after the establishment of the thirteen counties before named, organizing two of the number, St. Joseph and Cass. Branch, Kalamazoo, Barry, and Eaton Counties, together with an immense unorganized and unoccupied tract extending north nearly to the Strait of Mackinaw, were attached to St. Joseph County. The next day (Nov. 5, 1829) an act was approved forming several new townships of imperial extent. The fifth section read as follows: " That the counties of Branch, Calhoun, and Eaton, and all the country lying north of the county of Eaton, which are attached to and form a part of the county of St. Joseph, shall form a township of the name of Green, and the first township-meeting shall be held at the house of Jabez Bronson, in said township." Thus the log tavern of " Jabe" (for we adhere to his signature in spite of the law) Bronson became the capital of an empire reaching from the boundary of Indiana to the southern line of the county of Mackinaw. There are no original records extant showing when that first township-meeting was held, but from a copy of the account of the supervisor of the township of Green, inserted in the forepart of the oldest town-book of Coldwater, there is reason for believing that it was held on the 10th day of February, 1830. At all events that account declared that it ran from the 10th day of February, 1830, to the 1st day of April, 1832. But whether held in February, or at the usual time, in April, there is no reasonable doubt but that the first town ship meeting in the county was held at the house of Jabe Bronson, in the forepart of 1830, instead of at the Pocahontas (or Black Hawk) Mill, two years later, as has

Page  41 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 41 A often been asserted. A full set of township officers was elected. The record of their election is lost, but the abovementioned account corroborates this statement, and Wales Adams, who came in September following, found them exercising the duties of their office. They are not all known, but Seth Dunham was elected supervisor, John Morse township clerk, and John G. Richardson constable and collector. About the same time Jabe Bronson was appointed the first justice of the peace in the county by the Governor, and the first postmaster by the President. His justice-office and post-office were both, of course, at his log tavern on Bronson's Prairie. In the spring of 1830, Schoolmaster Toole began the erection of a saw-mill on the west branch of Coldwater River, a short distance above where the village of Branch was afterwards laid out. The location was for several years called Pocahontas Mills, but has since been known as Black Hawk Mills. This was the first enterprise of the kind undertaken in the county. The work moved slowly, as Mr. Toole was not very well supplied with funds. During the summer he admitted to partnership with him Seth Dunham, John Allen (from Allen's Prairie, Hillsdale County, brother of the original settler there), and one or two others. Later in the season Toole became discouraged and left the county. The others continued the work, but the mill was not completed till the spring of 1831. In March, 1830, Abram F. Bolton and John Morse came with their families and built a log house on the Chicago road, where it crossed the line between sections twentythree and twenty-four, in the present township of Coldwater. As soon as it was built, Morse began keeping tavern in it. He was in Bolton's employ. The latter, who was a man of some means, soon after bought the land east of Coldwater River, and north of the Chicago road, now included within the limits of Coldwater City. The same summer Lemuel Bingham established a blacksmith-shop near Bonner's residence in the east part of township 6, range 6 (Coldwater). Dr. David M. Henry, a relative of Bolton, came with him. He was the first physician in the county. He immediately began practice, boarding with Bolton, but remained only about a year and a half. Another event of the spring of 1830, which may, perhaps, be worth noticing, was the first attempt made by white men to transport freight on the St. Joseph. J. W. Fletcher and John Allen (the latter being then at work for the former in the present township of Sturgis, St. Joseph Co.) went to Allen's Prairie, in Hillsdale County, and bought ten bushels of seed potatoes and fifteen bushels of seed oats. They constructed two whitewood canoes, loaded in their oats and potatoes, ran down Sand Creek from the Prairie to the St. Joseph, and set out on the navigation of the latter stream. Until they reached the mouth of the Coldwater, they found their way seriously impeded by shallow places, dams of flood-wood, and similar obstacles. But they made basswood "skids," on which they slid their canoes over the dams, while at the shallows they promptly jumped into the water, and each helped the other lighten his boat. Deer and other game were frequently seen on the banks of the river, but the rocking of the canoes prevented the rifles of 6 the navigators from furnishing them with venison. They had, however, plenty of baked potatoes, and a bee-tree which they found on the bank supplied them with wild honey. Below the mouth of the Coldwater the water was high and the way clear, and they had no serious difficulty in reaching their destination. The return trip occupied ten days. The affair would hardly be worth mention, in a commercial aspect, for the navigation of the upper St. Joseph has never assumed proportions of any importance, but the enterprise of Messrs. Fletcher and Allen illustrates very forcibly the difficulties of land transportation in 1830. The distance from Fletcher's residence to Allen's Prairie, by land, was only about forty miles, yet he preferred to take his hired man with him on foot, build canoes, and then make a return journey of ten days, rather than trust a team to the tender mercies of the Chicago road, and the still more hopeless trails which led from that road to Nottawa Prairie. In June of this year (1830), we find the very first record relating to the township of Green, after its organization. It is to be found in what appears to be the original township book of Green, now in possession of the township clerk of Girard. It seems that when, in 1833, Green was divided into Coldwater and Prairie River, the clerk (John Morse) resided in the former township. He kept the book and used it for Coldwater. The next year Joseph C. Corbus, who lived in the present township of Girard, was elected clerk of Coldwater. Before his term expired Girard was taken off, when he kept the book and used it for that township. Unfortunately, the first two leaves, probably containing the records of the town-meetings of 1830 and 1831, have been torn out. In another part of the book, however, are some miscellaneous records, among which is one dated June 6, 1830. It relates to the ear-marks of sheep and cattle, a matter about which people had to be careful when stock of all kinds generally ran loose in the woods. It reads as follows: "Ju. 6, 1830. "Seth Dunham, his mark, a square crop off the left ear, and happeny under the right. "JOHN MORSE, Clerk." This shows plainly that the township of Green was in working order and had a town clerk as early as June, 1830, thus corroborating the law of 1829, providing for a townmeeting, and the statement of Mr. Adams. Many old records of Green Township are also to be found in the first township book of Coldwater; and it is therefore presumable that the Girard book is the original one. During the summer of 1830, commissioners were appointed by the Governor to locate the county-seat of Branch County. These commissioners were Musgrove Evans, of Tecumseh, Lenawee Co.; Dr. Reuben Pierce, of Clinton, Lenawee Co.; and James Olds, of Jonesville, Hillsdale Co. Mr. Bolton explained to them the beauties of his location, which he called Coldwater, situated just where the Chicago road, the great highway of the county, crossed the principal river, and the commissioners "stuck the stake" there. This "sticking the:H — ~,I 4~~-~i~~-; 5 - II

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. stake" is an expression frequently met with in accounts of the location of county-seats, and was a very important part of the proceedings. Very frequently the embryo city chosen as a county-seat had but one or two houses in it, and sometimes none at all. Consequently it was not sufficient to establish the county-seat in a certain village, but the commissioners must " stick a stake" to designate the exact location of the county buildings. Unfortunately for Mr. Bolton, however, there was another part of the proceedings quite as important as "sticking the stake," which the commissioners neglected to perform. This was the " swearing in" of the worthy officials. Not having taken the oath of office, their proceedings were of no legal force. The result will be shown in the annals of the following year. The same year (1830) the brothers William H. and Robert J. Cross located themselves a mile east of the site of the court-house. Hugh Campbell bought an "eighty" of' the government in the southwest corner of section 15, in the centre of the present city of Coldwater, being the first resident of that flourishing burg. During the same season the population of the present township of Girard was increased by the arrival of Henry Van Hyning, Edward Hanchctt, and perhaps one or two others. In September, 1830, there came from the city of New York to the county of Branch a young man who is now, so far as we can learn, the earliest surviving male resident of that county. A native of New England, he had a natural tendency toward mechanics, and was particularly desirous to find a good place for the erection of a mill. Passing, therefore, by the prairies at Coldwater and Bronson, he followed the Chicago road to the point where it crossed Prairie River, five miles southwest from Bronson's tavern, and there, in partnership with his friend, Willard Pierce, began the erection of a saw-mill. Mr. Adams, whose clear mind retains a vivid recollection of the events of that day, states that at the time of his arrival there were twelve families in Branch County. Bronson, Tillotson, and Morse were then keeping tavern. Dunham, Toole & Co. were building their mill at Pocahontas, and the prospects of Branch County were considered to be decidedly encouraging. That summer twohorse stages were put upon the Chicago road, running twice a week as far west as Niles; yet that road was not opened by the government till two or three years later. A few small trees had been cut by emigrants, so that a wagon could barely pass, and a few of the worst places were repaired by the owners of the stages, but it must indeed have been "a hard road to travel." That autumn Mr. Allen Tibbits, the well-known resident of Coldwater, then a young local Methodist preacher at Plymouth, twenty-five miles west of Detroit, set out to seek a new habitation. Traveling, as did almost every one, on horseback, he followed an Indian trail from Jackson to Allen's Prairie, losing one day on account of taking the wrong trail, and falling in with Benjamin Smith, Martin Barnhart, and a Mr. Freeman on the way. The four came to Morse's tavern, and thence to Cocoosh Prairie. Barnhart and Smith selected land on West Cocoosh, which they soon bought, but Tibbits did-not become a resident of the county till the next year. In December came another of the oldest of the old residents, Harvey Warner, now of Coldwater township. After determiing to make his home in the county, he returned to Clinton, in this State, and sent Barnabas Wilkinson and James S. Brooks to build a new hotel for A. F. Bolton. This was the first framed building in the county, and was situated on the Chicago road, on the east side of Coldwater River, where the county-seat had first been located. Loren Marsh came this spring and established a tradingpost in the east part of the present township of Coldwater. He afterwards moved to the old post west of Coldwater River, where he remained several years, having a large trade with the Indians, and great influence over them. He is well remembered by many old settlers. The taxes of the township of Green (that is, of the whole county of Branch) for the year 1830, collected by Collector John G. Richardson, and turned over to Supervisor Seth Dunham, amounted to seven dollars and thirtysix cents. The supervisor's commission on it, at five per cent., was thirty-seven cents. The second school in the county was taught by Columbia Lancaster, whose permanent home was in St. Joseph County. Columbia Lancaster was a well-known man in Southern Michigan between forty and fifty years ago. He was somewhat celebrated as a lawyer, and still more so as a hunter, being reported to have killed three hundred and sixty-six deer in one year. He frequently acted as prosecuting attorney of this and St. Joseph Counties, and was regularly appointed to that position in the latter county by the Governor in 1835. Many years afterwards he removed to Washington Territory, and in 1854 was elected delegate in Congress from that Territory. Even while teaching school, as he did in the beginning of his professional career, he managed to increase his revenue by trapping, besides killing all the venison needed by the neighborhood. In April, 1831, the township-meeting of Green was held, according to the recollection of Mr. Adams, at the Indian trading-post just west of Coldwater River. Mr. Adams did not go himself, but his partner, Willard Pierce, did, and was elected to one of the minor offices. Mr. Pierce, however, returned East that same season. Some doubt has been expressed regarding the holding of this meeting at the trading-post, but a town-meeting was certainly held somewhere in the county that year, Seth Dunham being re-elected supervisor, and John Morse being chosen both collector and township clerk, as appears by subsequent records. It seems probable that Mr. Adams' recollection is correct as to the location. In the spring of 1831 a new land-district was established, consisting of all that part of Michigan west of the principal meridian; the office being at White Pigeon, St. Joseph Co. This was somewhat more convenient than Monroe had been, being not more than fifty miles from the most distant part of Branch County. In the forepart of 1831, also, another effort was made to establish a county-seat for Branch County. New commissioners were appointed, under an act of March 4, 1831, who again came to view the ground. Again Mr. Bolton

Page  43 HISTORY OF BRANCH explained the situation and facilities of his location, but without avail. For reasons best known to themselves, the commissioners decided to locate the county-seat at a point on the west side of the west branch of Coldwater River three-fourths of a mile down stream (north) from the Pocahontas Mills before mentioned. The " stake was stuck" in the forest where not a tree had been cut, near the line between sections 19 and 30, township 6, range 6 (Coldwater). Messrs. Elisha Warren and others speedily purchased a tract of land around the stake in question, and laid out a village, to which they gave the name of Branch. We believe, however, that a single log house, and a clearing large enough for it to stand in, constituted the improvements at the new county-seat for the year 1831. It will be remembered that the county was still unorganized, and the countyseat had no official business to support it, but must depend on the glories of the future. The population of Branch County was increased by what seemed quite a large number of settlers in 1831. Mr. Warren returned with his young wife, and began keeping hotel in Bolton's new building on the Coldwater. Allen Tibbits also returned, and located on the site of Coldwater City. Samuel Craig-whose widow, Mrs. Eliza Craig, is still living in Girard-moved to that township fiom Allen's Prairie; Joseph C. Corbus came with him, exchanging farms with his brother Richard; Benjamin Smith came to the place he had previously selected the same season; and Henry Van Hyning moved into a house he had erected the year before. James B. Tompkins, a surveyor, came to the same township in July, and has resided there till the present time. In fact, the population of the county had by this time become so numerous that we must leave the mention of individual emigrants to the writers on the various townships, except in some marked cases. Dr. Enoch Chase, who came in 1831, and located at Coldwater, was the second physician in the county; and, as Dr. Hill soon left, Chase had the field to himself for a short time. The "mark" records were continued in 1831; the next after the one before copied being the following: "Wm. H. Cross, his mark for cattle, sheep, hogs, a swallow fork in the left ear. " COLDWATER, April 4, 1831. "JOHN MORSE, Clerk." Another mark was recorded by R. J. Cross the same day. The above not only shows that town officers were acting in 1831, but that the name of Coldwater had already been adopted for the locality to which it now pertains. Another evidence on the question of officers is the following from the same book: "This may certify that Jabe Bronson has taken the oath as overseer of the poor for the town of Green. "April 12, 1831. "JOHN MORSE, Cler,." The next entry shows the division of the township (that is, of the county) into road-districts, though in rather awkward language: COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 43 "For the township of Green. This may certify that the district No. 1 and district No. 2 and district No. 3, also No. 4 and 5, which are recorded this twenty-third day of April, 1831. "JOHN MORSE, Clerk." The next step in regard to roads was the one described in the ensuing record: "At a meeting of the commissioners of highways, for the town of Green, on the 14th of May, 1831, the following persons were appointed overseers of highways [pathmasters]: District No. 1, Martin Barnhart; No. 2, Robert Cross; No. 3, John Alien; No. 4, Jeremiah Tillotson; No. 5, Wlilliard Pierce. "May 16, 1831. "JOHN MORSE, Clerk. "WM. H. CRoss, "E. S. HANCETT, " Commissioners of Highways." The first record of the establishment of a road in the county is the one given below. (It will be understood that the Chicago road, being laid out by the general government, needed no action by town or county officials.) The ensuing record was made in 1831, but the exact date is not given: "Survey of a road established by the commissioners of highways of the town of Green, county of St. Joseph [strictly speaking, it should have been county of Branch, attached to St. Joseph]; commencing at the line at corners of sections 33 and 34, township 4 south, range 6 west, and sections 3 and 4, townships 5 south, range 6 west; and runs thence south on section line nine miles to the corner of sections 15, 16, 21, 22, township 6 south, ringc 6f west. "J. B. TOMPKINS, Surcreyor. "WILLIAM[ II. CROSS, "EDWARD S. HANCHETT, " Comnissioners of Highways." The above is now known as the Marshall road, running from the centre of Coldwater City north to the county line. Two other records of 1831 were the following: "The township of Green to Seth Dunham, Dr. To one day's service as inspector of election, $1; travel forty miles and make return to clerk's office, $2.50; canvassing votes at clerk's office, $1; travel forty miles, $2.50." " Township of Green to John Morse, Dr. For serving as clerk for electing delegate, July, 1831, $1." j "JOHN MORSE, Clerk." All these items show beyond question that there was a fully-organized township in 1831, a point which has been disputed by several persons. The Indians still remained in their old locations, occupying their bark huts in summer, and going on hunting excursions in winter. They were sometimes inclined to be troublesome, but not extremely so. A piece of land which the Indians had used for their gardens and corn ground happened to be a part of the tract which Mr. Van Hyning purchased. The latter proceeded to plow it up, with the intention of planting it to corn. A stalwart Indian stopped him, and declared that the cultivated ground was his, and Van Hyning must not use it. A serious quarrel seemed likely to ensue. One of the Corbuses mediated between the contestants, and at length Van Hyning agreed to give the Indian half the corn raised on the cultivated ground, which was only a small tract. The Indians seemed to have a kind of idea that, although they had sold their land, yet they had a special right to whatever improvements might have been put upon it by them. Another and more marked example of this occurred on the land of Mr. J. B. Tompkins, within a short time V' f A;:,E f. ';, ' d~' *.! ':' s-s

Page  44 -4 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - - after his settlement. This inclosed the Indian village at Girard, and there were four good-sized apple-trees upon it. Some of the squaws frequently came to Mr. Tompkins and demanded pay for those trees. The Indians, they said, might have sold the land, but they (the squaws) had planted those apple-trees and taken care of them, and they insisted on having pay for them. Mr. Tompkins naturally understood that when he bought the land he bought all the trees there were on it, and declined to pay further. One morning, about day-break, he was told by one of his family that some one was cutting down his apple-trees. Hurrying out, he found an old squaw and a young one busily at work with their rude, light axes, commonly called "squaw hatchets." They had already cut down three of the four trees, and not only that, but, apparently fearing lest the white man's art might set them growing again, they had cut the branches in small pieces and had carried off the trunks and hidden them. When Mr. Tompkins reached the spot the younger squaw had raised her hatchet to attack the last tree. Mr. T. called a halt, and obtaining the services of his neighbor, Mr. McCarty, who could talk Indian, proceeded to hold a parley with the aboriginal champions of woman's rights. After a good deal of palaver the squaws agreed not to cut down the last tree, in consideration of a liberal donation of flour. It was afterwards girdled twice.-once at the roots and once higher up. Yet the Indian hatchets were so dull that the girdling was not thoroughly done, new bark grew where the old had been cut away, and the tree continued to bear fiuit. Indians were quite as repugnant to the white men's horses and cattle as they were to the white men themselves. The first cattle that Mr. Tompkins brought into the county were almost certain to run away if an Indian approached them. When driving along in the night, if they threw up their heads and began to show signs of fear, the owner was pretty sure that one or more Indians were coming, even before he could see them himself. Dismounting from his wagon, he would at once unhitch his oxen, and chain them to a tree until the cause of their fright had passed. Other old residents give the same account of the antipathy of their animals for the red men. Hon. Harvey Haynes gave us an amusing account of this antipathy, and although it occurred several years later than the time now under.consideration (Mr. Haynes came to the county in 1836) yet it will be most apposite here: Mr. Haynes says he never was tempted to be a missionary but once, and that was shortly after he came into the county. He was then a youth of about sixteen or seventeen years. Among the Indians who frequently passed his father's house (on the premises now occupied by Mr. Haynes) was a peculiarly smart, bright-looking boy, a little younger than himself. The family showed a liking for the cute-looking son of the forest, and he became a frequent visitor, generally managing to get something to eat at each visit. t"Now," thought young Harvey to himself, "if I can teach my aboriginal brother how to work on a farm, it will be a great blessing to him; it will enable him to earn a civilized subsistence during life, and may, perhaps, bring some reompene for the board he manages to obtain." Accord ingly the white boy, beginning cautiously, showed his red fiiend how to do some simple chores about the house and barn, which the latter did without demur. At length one morning, late in autumn, the Indian came bright and early and obtained a good breakfast, when IHarvey decided to carry forward his education another step and employ him on a more important task than before. His own work for the day was to attend to the threshing of a quantity of grain by the old-fashioned method of " treading it out;" driving horses back and forth over it, and changing the straw when necessary. He thought he would have Master Indian drive the horses, while he himself would attend to shaking up the straw, changing the "floorings," etc. So the two went to the barn together, and young Haynes threw down a flooring of grain and explained to the other by signs and such few words of English as the latter could understand what was to be done. The youth was perfectly willing. "Yes-yes-good-Indian drive horse-all right." Accordingly Harvey brought the horses on to the barn floor,-a young, active, powerful team, full of life and vigor. But no sooner had they got a fair sight of the young aboriginal than they began to snort and dance. The more young Haynes tried to hold them the more they would not be held. They reared and jumped and bounded, and tore around the barn-floor more like wild animals than civilized, Christian quadrupeds. The Indian cowered in a corner and Harvey was soon obliged to give up all attempts at managing his steeds. It was hard to tell which was the most frightened: the furious horses, the would-be missionary, or the intended neophyte. The animals grew worse and worse, and Harvey was compelled to seek safety by climbing up the ladder between the barn-floor and hay-mow. As he did so he saw the Indian darting out through a hole in the back of the barn. As soon as he was gone the horses began to cool down. In a few moments their master was able to descend from his perch, and he immediately ran out-doors to see what had become of his pupil. He saw him running northward at full speed across the fields, turning neither to the right nor the left, never looking behind him, and having already almost reached the shelter of the forest. Beneath its friendly shadows he soon disappeared, and never more were his dark features seen at the home of his former friends. It is doubtful if he ever visited Coldwater again from that time till the removal of his tribe to the Far West. He had enough of civilization, and young Haynes was equally well satisfied with his one effort as a missionary, and never again attempted that r6le. Wolves as well as Indians were numerous and troublesome. Mr. Tibbits mentions driving them out of his barnyard after there was quite a little settlement at Coldwater. They were mostly of the ordinary gray species, but once in a great while a huge black wolf would be seen, the largest and fiercest of his race. By the end of 1831 there was a population of thirty or forty families in the county, mostly, if not entirely, in the present towns of Bronson, Coldwater, and Girard. Prosperity seemed to be assured, and schemes of laying out villages began to be talked over with great confidence.

Page  45 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MIM M~AN. 45 I In the beginning of 1832, Silas A. Holbrook, whose amiable and venerable widow still resides at Coldwater, came to the place where that city was to be, and established the first store in the county, aside from the Indian tradingposts. It was a diminutive affair, but it marked the beginning of an important commerce. On the 2d day of April, 1832, the third town-meeting of Green was held at a small cabin near the Pocahontas Mills. This was the meeting which has generally been considered as the first in the county, perhaps because it was the first of which there was any direct record, though in fact it was two years subsequent to the first meeting. Before giving the record of this third meeting, we will transcribe here the consolidated account of the supervisor for the two previous years, presented by him to the township board at this time. It is copied from the township book of Coldwater, being evidently taken from the original document: " The Supervisor of Green Township in account current with said township from Feb. 10, 1830, to April 1, 1832. " Dr. "1830. To amount of town tax received this year from John G. Richardson, collector. [This extended into 1831]........................................................... To amount of tax received for 1832 [that is, 1831-32], per John Morse, collector................................ Under charge on town tax.................................. ~ C,.. "Feb. 10. By commission on $7.36, at 5 per cent......... Paid on town order in favor of J. Bronson............... Commission on $48.96, at 5 per cent...................... Paid order in favor of J. B. Tompkins..................... By paid order in favor of Jabe Bronson................... I " " William H. Cross........... " (" " E. S. Hanchett.................. ( " " " A. F. Bolton.................... c" " i" John Morse..................... i" " i" Seth Dunham................... c" " " J. Hanchett...................... "( " " Seth Dunham................... ( " " " Town Book...................... $7.36 48.96 56.32 50 56.82 37 $1.00 2.45 14.00 5.25 6.00 6.00 6.00 4.00 3.25 3.00 7.00 1.00 $59.32 " Oerseerts of Highways.-E. S. Hancbett, District No. 1; Joseph Hanchett, District No. 2; John All n, District No. 3; Jabe Bronson, District No. 4; Horace D. Judson, District No. 5; Martin Barnhart, District No. 6; Samuel Smith [poundmaster], on Bronson's Prairie, Joseph C. Corbus, on Coquish Prairie; Harvey Warner, on Coldwater Prairie. "Moved and carried that all fences four rails high shall not be laid to exceed four inches apart, " Moved and carried that no stud horse or colt over two years old be allowed to run at large. " Moved and carried that one dollar is bid on wolves. "Moved and carried that the next annual township-meeting will be held at the house of John Morse." "The board of town auditors for the year ending Sept. 25, 1832, composed of Seth Dunham, Supervisor; John Morse, Town Clerk; Robert J. Cross, Justice of the Peace, allowed the following accounts of township officers: Joseph Hanchett, $1; Robert J. Cross, $5; Phineas Banor [Bonner], $1; Seth Dunham, $7; Allen Tibbits, $4.:37; James B. Tompkins, $7; John Morse, $2." Substantially the same records are to be found in the town book of Coldwater, but in different order and more elaborate form. It was in the spring of 1832 that the first person of wide-spread reputation selected a home in Branch County, and among all the prominent men who have resided there, few, if any, were as widely or favorably known as the one of whom we speak. While young Wales Adams was engaged in his business on Prairie River, toward the close of a spring day, there arrived at the log tavern near his mill a portly, dignified, well-dressed, middle-aged gentleman, showing in his face and manner the evidence of both culture and authority, who, with one companion, rode up on horseback (the usual mode of traveling then) from the eastward over the Chicago road. This was Right Reverend Philander Chase, uncle of the great statesman, Salmon P. Chase, first Episcopal bishop of Ohio, founder of Kenyon College, in that State, and the man who may also be considered as, to a great extent, the founder of the Episcopal Church west of the Alleghanies. Bishop Chase was then fifty-six years old, having been born at Corinth, N. H., on the 14th day of December, 1775. His life had been a very active one; he having resided several years in Louisiana, in which State he was the first Protestant minister; and having afterwards performed great services in building up Episcopacy in the West. His companion was Bezaleel Wells, Esq., of Steubenville, Ohio. Mr. Chase had resigned the bishopric of Ohio and the presidency of Kenyon College, and was now seeking a location for a farm, with perhaps some intention of establishing a similar institution in the wilderness. He had had reason to expect that he would be appointed bishop of Michigan, and was anxious to find a suitable place for his intended work in that Territory. The circumstances attending the bishop's settlement in Branch County are so graphically related by him, in his published "Reminiscences" or autobiography, that we quote a few sentences from that work. It will be observed that he speaks of himself in the third person: "It was Friday night when they [Messrs. Chase and Wells] reached a place called 'Adams' Mills,' on one of the streams of St. Joseph's River. Here Mr. Wells heard of his sons on Prairie Ronde; that they were doing well. "'And who is this?' said the landlord of a log-cabin Balance due the Supervisor for 1831 [that is, 1831-32] 2.5 "SETH DUNHAM, " Supervisor. 50 " This may certify that we, the undersigned, members of the township board of the township of Green, have examined the above account, and find it correct. "JOHN MORSE, Clerk. "ABRAM F. BOLTON, J. P. "JABE BRONSON, J. P." Below we give a copy of the record of the election, copied from the town book of Girard, which was probably the original book of Green: "The electors of the township of Green met at the mill on Coldwater River the 2d of April, 1832, for the election of township officers and for other purposes, and Lemuel Bingham was chosen moderator, who, with Abram F. Bolton, justice of the peace, and John Morse, town clerk, composed the board. The following officers were elected by resolution: Seth Dunham, Supervisor; John Morse, Town Clerk; Allen Tibbits, John Corbus, Wales Adams, Assessors; Robert J. Cross, James B. Tompkins, David J. Pierson, Commissioners of Highways; Seymour L. Bingham, Constable and Collector; James L. Guile, Constable on Bronson's Prairie; Lemuel Bingham, Poormaster; William H. Cross, Treasurer; William McCarty, Benjamin Smith, E. S. Hanchett, Allen Tibbits, Commissioners of Schools; Seth Dunham, Asel Kent, Inspectors of Schools.

Page  46 46 HIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tavern to Mr. Wells, in a low voice; ' who is this whom you have with you? Is he come out to purchase lands?' "Mr. Wells replied, ' He may purchase if he finds some that suits him.' "Mr. Judson, for that was the man's name, then raising his voice, said aloud, as if still speaking to Mr. Wells, ' I believe most men are fools; for they go on in flocks, and follow each other like sheep in search of good land; when, if they would stop, they would find much better in the regions through which they pass so rapidly. Much more beautiful scenery and richer land are to be found in this neighborhood than farther west. And men would find it so, if they would only stop, go about, and examine.' " These words were meant for the ear of the writer. He took them so, and inquired,"' Where is this good land you speak of?' "'Within eight miles of this, to the southeast, there is a charming limpid lake, surrounded with rising burr-oak and prairie-lands, interspersed with portions of lofty timber, fit for building. The streams are of clear and running water; and, like the lake, abound in the finest kind of fish; and, what is quite an essential point, these lands are now open for market, and (excepting some choice sugar-tree eighties already taken by persons from Indiana) may be entered by any one going to White Pigeon, where the land-office is kept.' " ' Will you show me these lands if I stay with you a day or two?' "' If I do not, Mr. Adams, the owner of the saw-mill, will. I will furnish him with a horse, and Thomas Holmes, who lives near us, shall go along with you on foot, with his rifle, to kill game and keep off the wolves.' " The whole of this speech of Mr. Judson seemed so inviting and practicable to one in the condition of the writer that he could not resist the invitation offered." The next day (Saturday) Mr. Wells proceeded to Prairie Ronde. On Sunday the bishop held services at Mr. Judson's log house. On Monday, Messrs. Chase and Adams set out on horseback along an Indian trail, followed by "Tom Holmes," before mentioned, a noted woodsman and hunter of the locality. The two gentlemen conversed together as they rode on, the bishop relating how he had visited England, interested the English in the support of Episcopacy in the great Western field, and obtained liberal gifts of money to enable him to found and sustain Kenyon College. Owing to dissensions among his people, he had felt impelled to resign his charge. He informed Mr. Adams of his expectations of becoming bishop of Michigan, but at the same time appeared to be extremely downcast in regard to the future, saying he would be glad, if he could, to make his home amid the deepest recesses of the Rocky Mountains. Pursuing their way, they reached the shore of Gilead Lake, where the bishop was delighted with the lovely scenery, then in all the pristine beauty of nature. John Crory, who had begun a cabin in the present township of Gilead only about a month before, was then the only resident in all the four fractional townships on the south line of Branch County. The bishop was so well pleased with the country to which Mr. Adams had piloted him, that he soon after purchased a section of land there, and moved thither with his family, remaining nearly four years. During this time he again visited England, but did not carry out his supposed scheme of founding a college in Gilead. In fact, not being appointed bishop of Michigan, his plans were necessarily changed. In April, 1835, he was appointed bishop of Illinois, and in July, 1836, his family removed to that State. Another event of the spring of 1832 was the laying out by Tibbits and Hanchett of the village which has since become the city of Coldwater. It was then called Lyons, in honor of Mr. Tibbits' native town in New York. Not long afterward the name was changed to Coldwater, the Coldwater post-office was moved thither, and the name has ever since adhered to that locality; the original Coldwater on the river-bank being completely overshadowed and at length absorbed by its more prosperous rival. In May of the year 1832 an event occurred which startled from their propriety all the people of Branch County, together with most of those throughout Southern Michigan, and for a short time seemed likely to put a stop to all the improvements so rapidly being planned and prosecuted. This was the outbreak of the celebrated " Black Hawk war." The scene of actual strife was far away in Illinois and Wisconsin, but the white population was very sparse from Branch County thither, and Indians bent on vengeance have long arms. Besides, no one could tell whether the Pottawattamies, scattered through Southern Michigan, might not make common cause with the warriors of Black Hawk, and turn their tomahawks upon their white neighbors. No hostile disposition, however, was manifested by these ancient enemies, and the whites seem generally to have trusted to their friendship. Scarcely had the first news of the troubles arrived, than a dispatch went through from the government agent at Chicago, asking for the aid of the Michigan militia to defend that place, then an insignificant hamlet in a marsh at the head of Lake Michigan. The brigade of militia in the southern part of the Territory was commanded by Brig.Gen. Joseph W. Brown, a near relative of Maj.-Gcn. Jacob Brown, the hero of the war of 1812 and at one time commander-in-chief of the United States Army. Gen. J. W. Brown possessed much of the martial fire of the soldier of Lundy's Lane, and promptly responded to the call. He ordered his brigade to take the field, the rendezvous being at Niles, in Berrien County. The militia regiments of Monroe and Lenawee Counties readily obeyed his orders, and in a few days company after company was to be seen marching westward over the Chicago road, each man clad not in bright blue clothes with brass buttons, but in the rude garb of a backwocdsman, with rifle, or musket, or shotgun, on his shoulder, as chance might determine, and with accoutrements equally varied at his side. Beniah Jones, Jr., of Jonesville, Hillsdale Co., was at this time major, commanding a battalion of militia, consisting of one company in Hillsdale County and two in Branch. On tl.e 22d day of May he received orders from Gen. Brown to call out his battalion and march westward to repel the enemy. The order must have been very promptly obeyed, for the men were called out, got together

Page  47 list 7:lr 0 HISTORY OF BRANCI COUNTY, MICHIGAN. in companies, and marched to Niles by the 25th of that month. We are indebted to Harvey Warner, Esq., of Coldwater, for a copy of the muster-roll of the battalion, furnished him by Dr. Enoch Chase, formerly of Coldwater, who was both surgeon and adjutant of Maj. Jones' command. We give below a copy of the roll (omitting the Hillsdale County company), both as an interesting relic of itself and as showing the growth of Branch County up to that time: "May 22d, 1832, Major B. Jones received orders from Gen. Joseph W. Brown to muster his Battalion in the 3d Brigade, 2d Division, M. M. "May 25th, present on duty-Major, Beniah Jones, Jr.; Adt.,.Enoch Chase; Q. M., Edmond Jones; Surgeon, Enoch Chase, M.D.; Q. M. S., Abiel Potter; -, Ambrose Nicholson, Staff Officers. "John Morse, Fife Major, sick; absent. "Abram F. Bolton, Capt. of 1st Company; John Allen, Lieut.; Harvey Warner, Ensign. " Non-com. officers.-E. S. Hanchett, 1st Sergeant; James M'Carty, Isaac Eslow. "Privates.-Seymour Bingham, Jonas Tilapan, George IIanchett, Moses Herrick, Wm. H. Cross, John Wilson, Philip Ledyard, Henry Johnson, James Craig, Martin Barnhart, Benjamin 11. Smith, Robert J. Cross, Henry Van Hyning, John Parkinson, James B. Tompkins, Joseph C. Corbus, Phineas Bunner, John Cornish, Hugh Alexander Chauncey Morgan, Mr. Decrow, Marvin Hill, Newell Hill, Joseph H. Fowler." Note on margin: "This company was mustered into service May 24th, and dismissed June 3d, 1832. "Second company (Hillsdale) omitted. "3d company.-Seth Dunham, captain; Jeremiah Tillotson, lieut.; Wales Adams, ensign. "Non-com. officers.-James M. Guile, 1st Sergeant; Thomas Holmes, 2d Sergeant; George W. Gamble, 3d Sergeant; Philip Omsted, 1st Corporal; Frederick Lyons, 2a Corporal. " Privates, Horace D. Judson, Daupheneus Holmes, Elizer Lancaster, Isaac Smith, Daniel Smith, David J. Persons, David Clark, Moses Omsted, Joseph Edwards, Joshua Ransdell; John G. Richardson, John Rose, Alfred S. Driggs, Sylvester Brockway." Note on margin: " Mustered into service May 26th, and dismissed June 3d, 1832. " The above is a true copy of the returns made by the captains of the several companies to me. " COLDWATER, June 4th, 1832. "ENOCH CHASE, Adt." Mem. on back of rGll: "Col. Bitman, Dr. 16 horses, to hay, stabling....................................... $4.00 To house-room............................................................... 2.00 $6.00" Indorsement on back: "Battalion Roll, "May, 1836, "Mustered at Niles." Some of the foregoing names are marked " absent" on the roll, but as it does not specify whether the men so designated had remained at home or were merely out of camp temporarily, we have not marked them in the copy. We infer from other data that only those who marched with the company were placed on the roll, as some who are known to have gone with it are marked " absent." According to this roll there were in Branch County in May, 1832, at least fifty-six males capable of bearing arms, and supposed to be between eighteen and forty-five years of age. In fact, however, we are informed that some entered the ranks who were above the latter age, and others who were less than eighteen. The women, children, and old men left behind were for a few days in a state of great dismay lest their friends should be destroyed by the bloody Indians, and terrifying rumors flew through the scattered settlements by the score. Scarcely, however, had the militia reached Niles, when messengers from the West brought the welcome news that Black Hawk and his bands had been utterly defeated, and that all danger was over. As appears by the roll, the troops returned and were mustered out at Coldwater on the 4th of June. There were two or three hundred Pottawattamies encamped where Orangeville (Union township) now stands, during a large part of the spring, and this did not tend to decrease the nervousness of the inhabitants. They manifested, however, a perfectly peaceful disposition. Later in the season there was another alarm, and a draft of a hundred men was ordered from Jones' battalion. Fifty or sixty responded, and were placed under the command of Capt. Bolton, being encamped for two or three weeks at his place on Coldwater River. Black Hawk, the cause of all this trouble, is said by Drake, the Indian historian, to have been a Pottawattamie by birth, but to have been brought up among the Sacs. The Black Hawk war caused the people and the government to be all the more anxious to have the Indians removed beyond the Mississippi. Another treaty was made in October, ]832, by which nearly all the lands to which the Pottauwattumies had any claim in Michigan were ceded to the United States, except the Nottawa-seepe Reservation. This treaty provided for an individual grant of a square mile to " Topenibee, the principal chief," and another to "Pokagon, the second chief." This is the last mention we find of either of them in the treaties, and shortly afterward " Penaishees, or Little Bird," became the head chief of the Pottawattarmies. The "war" put a sudden stop to emigration for that year, and its effects were seriously felt for two years more. Eastern people could not discriminate between the warlike Sacs and the peaceful Pottawattamies, and looked upon the whole West as dangerous ground. The stages which had been running over the Chicago road during the spring of 1832 had so little business after the excitement that the owners were obliged to take them off at heavy loss. The line was, however, soon re-established by a firm of which Gen. J. W. Brown was the head. 1832 was also celebrated as the cholera year. The people were almost as badly alarmed by it as by the war, but, like the war, we believe it did not enter Branch County, though it came close to its borders: a whole family dying just over the line in Calhoun County. It was now deemed that there was, or soon would be, people enough in Branch County to justify the formation of two townships.* For some unknown reason the name of "Green" had become unpopular, and it was decided to drop it. The passage of the following act was accordingly procured: "An Act to organize two townships in the county of Branch. " Be it enacted by the Legislative Council of the Territory of Michigan, That all that part of the county of Branch known and distin guished on the survey of the United States as townships numbered 5, 6, 7, and fractional township 8, south of the base line, in ranges numbered 5 and 6, west of the principal meridian, be a township by the name of Coldwater, and the first township-meeting shall be held at the house of John Morse, in said township. A

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. "SEC. 2. That all that part of the county of Branch known as townships numbered 5, 6, 7, and fractional township numbered 8, south of the base line in ranges numbered 7 and 8, west of the principal meridian, be a township by the name of Prairie River, and the first township-meeting shall be held at the house of Jabez Bronson, in said township. "SEC. 3. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and after the last day of March next. "Approved June 29, 1832." This divided the county into two equal parts by a north and south line. It will be observed that the vast territory north of Branch County, which was at first a part of Green township on its organization, had been formed into other townships before this period. The first grist-mill in the county was erected in the summer of 1832, being located beside the Pocahontas sawmill before mentioned, three-quarters of a mile south of Branch. The principal proprietor was Dr. Hill. It was a very small affair, with one stone, about' two feet in diaueter, and the people still frequently sent their grain to Tecumseh, seventy miles distant, to get it ground. Sometimes, indeed, as Mrs. Holbrook says, they went to mill in a "caldron-kettle,"-that is, they took a vessel of that kind to pound their grain in instead of a mortar. The following record shows the hotel-keepers of Branch County in 1832-33, and also the price of wolf-scalps at that time: "At a meeting of the Town Board of Audit for the town of Green, held at the house of John Morse, Jan. 1, 1833, present, Seth Dunham, supervisor, Silas A. Holbrook, deputy town clerk, Robert J. Cross and Jabe Bronson, justices, licences to keep tavern were granted to Ellis Russell, John Morse, Harvey Warner, Jeremiah Tillotson, Frederick Lines, Jabe Bronson, and Clarissa Judson. " After which the following accounts were audited and allowed: "Luke Camp, 2 wolf-scalps...................................... $2.00 Eleazer Lancaster, 1 wolf-scalp............................... 1.00 John Allen, services as school commissioner.............. 1.00 John Corbus, services as assessor (1831, 1832)........... 6.00 Abram F. Bolton, services as school commissioner and town board................................................ 2.00" By this time the seventy or eighty votes of the county felt as if they were strong enough to have a county government of their own. Accordingly, in January, 1833, they petitioned the legislative council to that effect, and that body passed the following act: "An act to organize the county of Branch: "Section 1. Be it enacted by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, That the county of Branch shall be organized from and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the other counties of this Territory are entitled. "Section 2. That all suits, prosecutions, and other matters now pending before the courts of record of St. Joseph County, or before any justice of the peace of said county of St. Joseph, shall be prosecuted to final judgment and execution in the same manner as though the said county of Branch had not been organized. " Section 3. That this act shall take effect and be in force from and after the 1st day of March next. "Approved Feb. 1, 1833." The county of Branch accordingly began its independent existence on the 1st day of March, 1833. That date therefore naturally marks the beginning of a new era, and we adopt it as the beginning of a new chapter. I I iCHAPTER IX. FROM ORGANIZATION TO 1840. Change of Name of Prairie River-First County Officers-First Record of Deed-Deed of Earliest Date-First Mortgage-First Court of Record-Probate of First Will-The County Clerk's Office -First Marriage Record-A Certificate by Bishop Chase-First Record of Board of Supervisors-First Circuit Court and Grand Jury-Opening the Chicago Road-Sale of Nottawa-Seepe Reservation-Indignation of the Band-Attempted Assassination-First Settlement in Union-First Lawyer in County-Formation of Girard-Prevalence of Sickness-Fluctuation of Prices-Increase of Emigration in 1835-County Bounty on Wolves-New State Constitution-Dispute with Indiana affecting Branch County-Emigration in 1836-Formation of Quincy and Batavia-Indian Murder-A Fantastic Funeral-Murder of Qausett-A Unique Sepulchre-Whortleberries for the Dead-Seizing the Skeleton-Running a Durwin-Anson Burlingame-Speculation-Masonville-Goodwinsville-State Conventions-The Branch County DelegatesAdmission of the State-State Roads-Great Excitement in 1837 -Grand Scheme of Internal Improvements-The Southern Railroad -Five New Townships-Building a Jail-Wild-Cat and "RedDog" Currency-First Newspapers-Wonderful Number of Taverns-The Great Crash-Hard Times-Three more TownshipsMore about the Jail-Good Crop of Wolf-Scalps-Board of County Commissioners-Terrible Sickness-The Poor-Farm-Habits of the Indians-Murder of Sauquett-Arrest of the Murderer-Removal of the Indians-Their Subsequent Fate-Beginning of a New Era. As was stated in the last chapter, the act dividing Green into the two townships of Coldwater and Prairie River took effect on the 1st day of March, 1833. The latter township afterwards became Bronson. As Green comprised the whole county, we have recorded a large part of its official proceedings in the general history, but now that separate townships have been established we must leave their story to be told in their respective township histories. We will mention one somewhat curious fact, however, as it involves the resuscitation of the old name, Green. Among the Territorial laws is an act approved April 23, 1833, changing the name of the township of Prairie River to that of Green. The law changing the name back to Prairie River is not given in the statute-book, but must have been passed that same session, as at the meeting of the supervisors the ensuing autumn that township was represented under the name of Prairie River. This was not changed to Bronson till several years later. At the first election for county officers, held in April, 1833, William McCarty was chosen sheriff, and Wales Adams clerk, Seth Dunham treasurer and register of deeds. Peter Martin was appointed probate judge by the Governor. The new register and treasurer moved to Branch, the countyseat, in the woods, and established an office in temporary quarters there. Clerk Adams also appointed Mr. Dunham deputy clerk; so that he performed the duties of three offices. The first public records in the county were made in the register's office. The first record of a deed was made on the 4th day of April, 1833, the deed itself being dated January 28 the same year. The grantor was John Allen, and the grantee was the register himself, Seth Dunham. The consideration was two hundred dollars, and the property was described as follows: " The equal individual one-fourth part of a mill privilege, together with three acres of land, situate and lying

Page  49 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 49 - - - - - --- -- on the east side of Coldwater, being a part of section 30, in township 6, south of range 6 west, beginning at a cherrytree on the mill-dam across Coldwater, and thence running north three chains to the creek; thence north twenty-one degrees east, three chains and eighty links to a stake on the bank of the creek; thence east four chains and fortyseven links to a stake; thence south seven chains and twenty-five links to the pond; thence north sixty degrees west to the place of beginning,-containing three acres, more or less." This was part of the " Pocahontas" Mill property above Branch. The deed, which contained a covenant of warranty, was executed in presence of William Dunham and Robert J. Cross, and was acknowledged before Robert J. Cross, justice of the peace, on the day of its date. The deed of earliest date which we could find recorded in the book was dated Jan. 19, 1831, more than two years before the organization of the county. The grantors were Hugh Campbell and Emma, his wife; the grantee was Joseph C. Corbus. It was acknowledged on the day of its date before Beniah Jones, Jr., who described himself as a justice of the peace for Lenawee County, his residence being at Jonesville, Hillsdale Co., then attached to Lenawee. It was filed for record on the 10th day of June, 1833, and covered the east half of the northeast quarter of section 21, township 5 south, range 6 west (now Girard). The first mortgage on record was dated Jan. 25, 1833, being made by James B. Stuart, of Ypsilanti, Washtenaw Co., to Abram F. Bolton, then of Napoleon, Jackson Co. The consideration was twelve hundred dollars, and it covered the southwest quarter fraction of section 17, in township 6 south, range 6 west, containing a hundred and sixteen acres. This was the site of Mr. Bolton's unfortunate city, where the county-seat was first located. The mortgage in question was signed in presence of H. Warner and Robert J. Cross, acknowledged before Robert J. Cross on the same day, and filed for record on the 13th day of May, 1833. The fee was one dollar, being somewhat higher than at present. It was discharged on the 9th day of January, 1836. The first court (higher than that of a justice of the peace), a session of which was held in the county, was that held by Peter Martin, judge of probate. The record is as follows: "Estate of John Corbus, deceased. "At a special session of the probate court, held for the county of Branch, at the store of Silas A. Holbrook, in the township of Coldwater, on the 20th day of August, A.D. 1833. "In the matter of the estate of John Corbus, deceased: Upon the petition of Silas A. Holbrook and Joseph C. Corbus, praying to be appointed administrators on the estate of the said John Corbus, deceased, late of Branch County; the court having duly considered the said petition: ordered that administration be committed to the said petitioners, on said estate, and they are hereby authorized to settle the same as the law directs, and to make a final return to this court on the 20th day of August, 1834; said administrators having been duly sworn. Michigan, deceased, and you are hereby required to have a true inventory taken of all the said estate, and that you make due returns to this court within three months from the date hereof, and also make a final return of all you shall do in the premises within one year from this date. "Dated Branch, Aug. 20, 1833. [L. S.] " PETER MARTIN, "Judge of Probate, Branch County, Michigan Territory." "Fees, Administration bond........................................50 Letter of administration...............................37 Sealing same.................................................25 W arrant of appraisal.....................................25 Seal.25 O ath............................................................25 Filing bond...........................6........... 61 $1.94" The second letters of administration were granted to Dr. Enoch Chase, on the estate of Paul Dewitt, on the 21st day of October, 1833, and no more were granted till September, 1834. Only forty-eight letters of administration were granted down to December, 1841. The county clerk and his deputy had very little to do down to the holding of court in the autumn of 1833. One of his duties was to record marriage certificates. The following is a copy of the first one on record: "TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN, COUNTY OF BRANCH. " I, Robert J. Cross, a justice of the peace for the county aforesaid, do hereby certify that on the 14th day of July, 1833, I married Allen Stoddard, of Detroit, Michigan Territory, to Mary Estlow, of Branch County, according to the act to regulate marriage. Coldwater, 28th September, 1833. ROBERT J. CROSS, J. P." The second certificate was recorded by Alfred L. Driggs, justice of the peace, certifying the marriage of the worthy clerk, Wales Adams, and Polly Waterman, both of Prairie River township. We also go forward a year and insert here the sixth record on the book, and the first one made by a minister of the gospel, a very brief one, signed by Bishop Chase, which reads as follows: "MICHIGAN TERRITORY, BRANCH COUNTY. " I certify that on the 25th day of December, 1834, I joined Samuel Chase and - Russell in holy wedlock, in presence of a congregation assembled for Christian worship. PHI. CHASE." It may be added that two hundred and twenty-four marriage certificates are recorded in the first book devoted to that purpose, extending from July 14, 1833, to the 2d day of August, 1842. Supervisors were duly elected for the townships of Coldwater and Prairie River, who constituted the whole board. At the first meeting the " board" consisted of one man, as appears by the record for that year, which we give entire: "Silas A. Holbrook, supervisor for the township of Coldwater, did appear at the Court-House in the village and county of Branch on the first Tuesday in October, the day appointed by law for the meeting of the Board of Supervisors of the respective counties in the Territory of Michigan. "There not being a quorum present, the meeting of the board was adjourned to the house of James B. Stuart, to meet on the fifteenth of said month. - "The board met according to adjournment; to wit, on the fifteenth day of October, A.D. 1833. Present-Silas A. Holbrook, from Cold "Attest, SETH DUNHAM, Register." "TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN, 8S. REGISTER'S OFFICE, BRANCH COUNTY. "To Joseph C. Corbus and a Silas A. Holbrook. You are hereby appointed joint administrators of the estate of John Corbus, late of the township of Coldwater, in the county of Branch, and Territory of

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. water, and Jeremiah Tillotson, from Prairie River Township; Jeremiah Tillotson being appointed president of the board, and Seth Dunham clerk. " The board then proceeded to the transaction of business. Ordered that the following accounts be allowed and orders drawn on the treasurer for their respective amounts: To William McCarty, sheriff of said county, for putting up notices of delegate election................... $5.00 Summoning grand jury for Oct. term, 1833............ 10.00 Services in the case of the People vs. David Stanton, June 14, 1833.............,............ 2.871 _ i Fees, James B. Tompkins, a justice of the peace in the above case................................................ Robert J. Cross, ditto......................................... Seymour L. Bingham, ditto................................ Hiram B. Hunt, witness..................................... Seth Dunham, Deputy Clerk, County-canvasser of delegate election...................................... Making out notices to assessors for jury............... Drawing grand jury and issuing vesire................. 871 2.25 $1.00 1.00 1.50 $3.50 " Ordered that all the demands against the townships of Green, and which have been audited by the said township board, be redeemed by the county of Branch, and orders drawn on the treasurer for the respective amotunts. Town order in favor of Philip Omsted....................... $1.00 Moses Omsted, ditto............................................. 2.00 W illiam Shay....................................................... 1.00 John Croy.................................................. 2.25 Benjamin Booth.................................................. 1.50 Philander Chase................................................. 1.50 David J. Pierson................................................. 7.00 John M orse......................................................... 1.00 Abisha Sanders........................................... 1.50 James B. Tompkins...................................... 11.00 Robert J. Cross................................................... 1.32 Ordered that five dollars be raised to purchase a blank book for the use of the board........................... $5.00 That there be raised twenty-five dollars for the township expenses of Coldwater, and twenty-five dollars for Prairie River township........................ 50.00 "Ordered that one-half of 1 per centum be raised for township and county expenses for 1833. "The board then adjourned to meet again on Monday, the 21st day of October, at the county clerk's office. "The board met pursuant to adjournment, and the following accounts audited: In favor of Silas A. Holbrook for services, three days attending the board........................................ $3.00 Taking collector's bond........................................ 1.00 $4.00 Jeremiah Tillitson, two days attending the board and taking collector's bond................................... 3.00 Allowed to Seth Dunham for services as clerk of the board..5........................................................ 5.00 Warrant isued to Seymour L. Bingham, Collector for Coldwater.................................................... 99.63 To James M. Gile, Collector for Prairie River township.............9.................................... 97.27 " Ordered that Seth Dunham be and he is authorized to purchase a blank book for the use of the board, and the board then adjourned without day. " J. TILLITSON, ) "S. A. HOLBROOK. J Spervisors. "SETH DUNHAM, Clerk." The first Circuit Court was held by Hon. William A. Fletcher, Circuit Judge, in October, 1833. The ensuing record shows the opening of the court, with the names of the first grand jury: "At a session of the Circuit Court of the Territory of Michigan, holden in and for the county of Branch, at the court-house in the village of Branch, in said county, on Monday, the 21st day of October, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty-three; present, William A. Fletcher, presiding judge; Silas A. Holbrook and William A. Kent, associate judges. I i I -I 1, - - "The court being duly opened, the grand jury were called, and the following persons answered to their names: Jeremiah Tillitson, Lemuel Bingham, Abisha Sanders, Elisha Warren, Benjamin II. Smith, Loren Marsh, John Cornish, Joseph Hanchett, Peter Martin, John Wilson, James B. Stuart, Joseph C. Corbus, David J. Pierson, Christopher Hartsough, Allen Tibbits, Robert J. Cross, Ellis Russell, Samuel Craig, Frederick Line. Thereupon Robert J. Cross was appointed foreman. The jury were then sworn, charged by the court, and retired to consider of their presentment. "Ordered that Neal McGaffey be prosecuting attorney the present term. "The foregoing minutes were examined and signed in open court the 21st day of October, 1833, and then the court adjourned without day. "WM. A. FLETCHER, Presiding Judge. "WALES ADAMS, Clerk. "SETH DUNHAM, Deputy." We have been at some pains to show the various official beginnings of the new county. We now turn to matters of more general interest. During the year 1833 the government built the Chicago road through the county of Branch, forty feet of it in the middle being leveled and the stumps being " grubbed" out, while for thirty feet on each side the trees were cut as low as possible. In September, 1833, George B. Porter, Territorial Governor of Michigan, made a treaty with Sauquett, the halfbreed chief before mentioned, and several other Indians who claimed to be chiefs, by which they agreed to cede to the United States the Nottawa-seepe Reservation, the last home of the Pottawattamies in Michigan. The band was to remain two years, and then to be removed beyond the Mississippi. A majority of the band were bitterly opposed to the treaty, declaring that Sauquett and his confederates had no authority to make it, that bribery had been used to procure their assent, and that they, the malcontents, would never accept the payment agreed upon nor leave the land of their ancestors. The " big payment" for the purchased lands came off in December, 1833, at Marantelle's trading-post, in the present township of Menden, St. Joseph County. Shortly before the payment the United States officials took thither several wagon-loads of goods and several thousand dollars in silver, to make the payment agreed upon. All the Indians of the band were assembled at the designated point, and a bitter dispute was carried on among them regarding the acceptance of the payment. A majority were in favor of rejecting the money and goods, and making a desperate effort to remain on the reservation. Negotiations were kept up for several days. Sauquett and his friends were in a minority, but he was eloquent and influential, and used all his eloquence and influence to bring about the acceptance of the payment and the ratification of the treaty. He was finally successful, and the Indians received the goods and money, though with great dissatisfaction. In the course of the proceedings, however, Sauquett came very near sacrificing his life. Having imbibed an extra allowance of whisky one day (we believe it was just after the acceptance of the payment), he came upon the ground where the warriors were assembled mounted upon a fine horse, with a splendid saddle and equipments, dressed in the uniform of a military officer, with epaulettes, sash, and plumed hat, and armed with sword and pistols (these r LI

Page  51 51 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. arms and equipments had been presented to him by Governor Porter). Swinging his sword over his head, he cried out," I have sold the land, and would sell it again for two quarts of whisky." Instantly a warrior named Quansett sprang forward, snatched one of Sauquett's pistols from its holster, cocked it, aimed it at the chief's breast, and pulled the trigger. It missed fire. Sauquett immediately struck at the assassin with his sword, cutting through his blanket and a large plug of tobacco rolled up inside of it, but not wounding him. For a short time a battle royal seemed imminent between the infuriated factions, but Mr. Marantelle, who had great influence over the Indians, took Quansett out of the way, and persuaded the others to refrain from violence. Emigration went forward but slowly through the year, notwithstanding the opening of the Chicago road. Still, quite a number of new settlers came in. In the autumn Justus S. Goodwin made the first settlement in the present township of Union, locating at the site of Union City. Mr. Goodwin was a lawyer, and had practiced several years before coming to this county, in which he was the first member of the legal profession. As may be imagined, there being no litigants but wolves and bears around Union City, he did not at first attempt to practice there, devoting himself to the more promising employment of building a saw-mill. Afterwards he practiced there for several years; the village which grew up there being at first known as Goodwinsville. About the same time, or a little later, Abram Aldrich established himself at what is now known as Orangeville, in the same township, and began the erection of a grist-mill there. This was the second grist-mill in the county, and really the first of any consequence. In the spring of 1834 a new township was formed out of the northern tier of survey-townships; two being taken from Coldwater and two from Prairie River. The pioneers suffered in full measure all the usual hardship incident to the conquest of the wilderness, and were also subjected to even more than the usual quantum of sickness. The soil was extremely fertile and some of it quite wet; when turned up by the plow, malarious gases escaped in great quantity, and the fever and ague was extremely prevalent and very severe. As an item of evidence on this point, we may mention that in 1834 the Board of Supervisors allowed Dr. Hill sixty dollars for medical attendance on county paupers. In that sparse and poor but industrious and independent population, paupers were very few and professional services cheap; all the paupers must have been sick to have involved an expenditure of sixty dollars. Great inconvenience was also felt on account of the extreme fluctuation of the prices of produce. In the spring, if there was much emigration, nearly all the grain would be consumed for food and seed; and, as all supplies had to be brought from Ohio at a heavy expense, the prices of farm produce would rule extremely high. After harvest, when the people had plenty to sell, it would sink to a quarter of the previous amounts. Harvey Warner, Esq., relates that he has paid ten dollars a barrel for flour brought froin Ohio before harvest, and after harvest the same year he sold his wheat for thirty-seven and a half cents a bushel. Transportation from Lake Erie was nine dollars a barrel. In 1835 emigration increased very largely. The fears aroused by the Black Hawk war had passed away, and the Chicago road again teemed with white-covered wagons, filled with grave-looking women and tow-headed children, while one or two brawny men tramped by the side of each; some with rifles on their shoulders, and some with only the peaceful ox-goad, but all intent upon making a home for themselves and families in the fertile West. Every little while a family dropped off in Branch County. Log houses went up here and there in every direction (fiame ones were quite unthought of outside of two or three little villages, and even these were exceedingly scarce), and in every direction, too, at the proper season, were seen the dense clouds of smoke arising from the logging-field, where grimy men and straining cattle with infinite toil prepared the timbered land for the plow. A few sheep began to be introduced; but they required sharp watching and the most careful guarding at night to protect them from the gray-backed prowlers, whose howls could be heard every night in the woods. The first county bounty for wolves was offered by the Board of Supervisors on the 6th of October, 1835, in the following terms: "Ordered by the board, that every person who shall take and kill a full-grown she wolf within the limits of the county of Branch, shall be entitled to receive as a reward the sum of $2, and to be paid out of the county treasury; and for every whelp the sum of $1, to be paid in manner aforesaid." It was in this year that the State constitution of Michigan was formed by a convention elected for the purpose and adopted by the people, whereupon application was made to Congress for admission as a State. This was postponed another year on account of the celebrated controversy with Ohio (commonly called the " Toledo war") over the possession of a narrow strip between the two States, running from Toledo to the east line of Indiana. This controversy affected the size of Hillsdale County, but not of Branch, the Indiana line being a little east of the east line of the latter county. The contest with Ohio, with its mustering of militia and its furious proclamations on either side, made a great commotion. It is perhaps not generally known that there was a similar controversy between Michigan and Indiana which affected the limits of Branch County. By the law forming Michigan Territory, passed in 1805, its southern boundary was a line running east from the southern boundary of Lake Michigan. In 1816, when Indiana was admitted as a State, its northern boundary was by act of Congress moved ten miles farther north. Michigan objected to this on the ground that the ordinance of 1787, passed before the adoption of the Federal constitution, had designated the line through the southern extremity of the lake as the boundary between the States thereafter to be formed, and that Congress had no power to change it. But the ordinance of 1787 did not definitely make that the line (though it might be inferred that such was its meaning), and besides, Congress held the power to make whatever laws it saw proper regarding the Territories up to the time of their admission as States.:, I3 0: W

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. The Indiana controversy was lost sight of in the more exciting one with Ohio; but the Legislature of Michigan passed a law making an offer to Indiana to submit the boundary question to the Supreme Court of the United States. Indiana paid no attention to this proposition, the influence of Congress was against interfering with the boundary it had itself established, and Michigan finally gave up the contest. Had its views prevailed, Branch County would have been just ten miles longer north and south than it now is. In the spring of 1836 emigration set in with redoubled volume. In the language of one of the old settlers, it seemed as if the whole country was alive with emigrants. By this time all the prairie lands in the county were purchased from the government, and the new settlers crowded into the heavy timber and attacked the giant whitewoods and black walnuts with dauntless energy. The present township of Noble was settled in 1836, and in fact by the close of this year there was not a survey-township in the county in which there were not some white settlers. Two new civil townships were formed this year, Quincy and Batavia. The former embraced the present townships of Algansee and California, while the latter included the tract now known as Bethel and Gilead. The time for the removal of the Indians under the treaty of 1833 had now elapsed, but they showed no inclination to leave their old homes. The whites speedily occupied their reservation at Nottawa-seepe, but there was still such an immense amount of unused land in this part of Michigan, that they could roam around almost at will without coming into collision with their civilized neighbors. There were a few cases in St. Joseph County of serious conflicts between individuals of the rival races, but there were none of any consequence in this county. There were, however, a number of conflicts among the Indians themselves, some of which ended fatally. Some of these arose out of the old feud about the sale of the reservation, mingled with whisky, and some sprang from whisky alone. Of the latter class was one which occurred in the spring of 1836, when a drunken young Indian struck his mother with a club and killed her. Roland Root, Esq., who settled at Coldwater that year, helped bury her. The Indians made a coffin-a fearful-looking thing-out of pieces of wood split off from a tree, put the corpse in it, and then put it on two poles. Some Indians started to carry it to the burial-place. But they had assuaged their grief with numerous drinks of whisky, and in a short time some of them fell down and the corpse fell out. Then they fastened the poles on either side of a pony, the rear ends dragging on the ground, and on these, just behind the pony, they fastened the coffin with strips of bark. In this way they managed to reach the grave and buried the body. Then a dish of " bouillon" (soup) was placed at the head of the grave, for the use of the departed spirit, and the Indians returned to finish their spree. The woman's husband, Topinabee (not the aged chief of that name, who was probably dead at that time, but a good-natured, rather dull Indian of the band), did not accompany the corpse to the grave, but went off by himself to mourn his loss. This loss, however, was considered to be made good to him when the murderer (who we conclude was the son of the slain woman by another husband) gave him a pony and a gun. This settled matters with the bereaved husband, and as the slayer was drunk when he committed the murder, the tribe considered it a case of excusable homicide. A still more exciting event was the murder of Quansett, the same who had attempted to kill Sau-au-quett, as before related, at the time of the payment, in 1833, in St. Joseph County. The old feud had been kept up, and one day the two men engaged in a bitter quarrel at Coldwater. Sau-auquett had a little squaw who was at times quite amiable, but who, when her passions were aroused, or she was under the influence of liquor, was as fierce as any of the warriors. While Sau-au-quett and Quansett were calling each other all the hard names they could think of, this squaw stood behind her husband. Either thinking that Quansett was about to make an attack, or becoming incensed at his abuse, she snatched her husband's long, green-handled huntingknife from his belt, slid around behind Quansett, and plunged the knife into his back, driving it entirely through him. He fell dead with scarcely a struggle. This murder, too, was condoned by the presentation of a pony, saddle, and bridle by Sau-au-quett to the son of the murdered man. Quansett was buried in a very singular manner, even for Indians to adopt. They cut down a large whitewood-tree, cut notches in it, and split off a slab on the upper side. Then they dug out and burned out a hole large enough to hold the corpse. After laying it there they replaced the slab on the top. Then they tried to fell trees across the big whitewood, to hold the slab down; but they had not the white man's skill in the use of the axe, and their attempt was a failure. So they contented themselves by driving stakes crosswise over the slab into the ground. Some time afterwards (in berry-time) young Harvey Haynes went to this curious grave with a friend, pushed away the slab, and looked in. The body lay there somewhat decayed, and at its head were several quarts of whortleberries which some friendly hand had placed there. Whether it was really expected that the warrior's spirit could live on whortleberries, or whether the act was merely an expression of friendship, is a point we must leave for the decision of those more thoroughly versed in the Indian character than ourselves. The same autumn Dr. Conkling, a physician practicing at Coldwater, determined to increase his store of medical lore by obtaining the skeleton of poor Quansett. He accordingly took the remains of the body from its singular receptacle, and carried it over north to the banks of Mud Creek, taking along a small kettle to facilitate his operations. There he boiled the flesh from the bones, and returned at night with the latter in a bag. If the Indians discovered the offense they were unable to find out the perpetrator, otherwise it might have fared hard with the lawless son of Esculapius. There was a council held at Coldwater, in 1836 or 1837, on the subject of going West, in accordance with the treaty. The Pottawattamies came from far and near. Penaishees, or Little Bird, the acknowledged head chief of the tribe,

Page  53 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 53 was present, but did not take either side of the controversy. He was seventy-five years old, and, when called on to speak, said he had but a little while to live, either in the East or the West, and would leave the decision of the question of emigration to younger men, who had more interest in the matter. There was a good deal of desultory eloquence, and many denunciations of the white men who had obtained their land, but nothing definite was agreed upon, and the Indians still continued to wander about the country. Mr. Marsh still carried on his trading-house west of Coldwater River. He was accustomed not only to trade with the Indians who came to his post, but to send out at intervals a number of ponies and mules loaded with cloth, calico, ammunition, and other suitable articles, probably including a supply of whisky, to make the circuit of the Indian encampments for a wide distance around. The articles in question were traded for furs, either by Marsh himself or by a clerk in charge, and the furs were brought back to the post by the same means of transportation. This was called " running a durwin," though we are unable to tell the signification of the last word. Among the accounts audited by the Board of Supervisors in 1836 was one of fifty dollars, by George W. Jewett, for services as prosecuting attorney at the October and April terms, 1835 and 1836. This was twenty-five dollars per term, which was certainly reasonable enough. No permanent prosecuting attorney had as yet been appointed for the county. Another vote of the board allowed two dollars to Joel Burlingame, for the use of a jury-room. This gentleman came to Branch about 1835, and kept the tavern there for several years. With him came a tall, slim, tow-headed youngster, with blue eyes, light complexion, and pleasant face, apparently about fourteen years old. Twenty years later he was a prominent member of Congress from Massachusetts, and still ten years later he was known on three continents as the statesman and diplomatist, Anson Burlingame. The boy was an ordinary-looking youth, and not especially noticed by ordinary observers for brightness of intellect. He did chores about the tavern, ran of errands, tended bar, and performed the usual miscellaneous tasks incident to his situation. He was fond of hunting and was an excellent marksman,-an attribute which, when he became a Congressman, gave him exemption from the challenges and canings by which the slave-driving chivalry endeavored to carry their points. After four or five years' stay in Branch County, young Burlingame returned to Detroit, whence the family had come, and entered the office of a friendly lawyer, who had observed his promising characteristics and desired to aid him. Thence he went to the law-school at Cambridge, Mass., the very centre of New England culture, and graduated there with high honor. Not only that, but the raw Branch County boy was able to begin practice in competition with the able jurists of the Massachusetts bar, to achieve very speedily a decided success, to enter the arena of politics with equal good fortune, and to become, while yet comparatively a young man, one of the most prominent members of the national legislature. His subsequent career as minister to China, and then as minister from China to the whole civilized world, is a part of the history of the nation, but can hardly be dwelt upon here. To return from the field of international affairs in 1868 to the forests of Branch County in 1835, the next accounts after Joel Burlingame's, ordered paid by the supervisors, were one of two dollars to Zachariah Crook, one of three dollars to O. B. Wright, and another of the same amount to the same person, all for wolf-scalps. As this was all that was paid that year for that purpose, it is evident that the reward offered was not enough to tempt the pioneers into the wolf-business. There were certainly wolves enough to operate on, if it had been worth while. The great increase of emigration naturally favored speculation, which was indeed rampant all over the country. The old site of Coldwater, formerly owned by Captain Bolton, was now platted as a village by the name of Masonville, in honor of the youthful Governor of Michigan, Stevens T. Mason. Its proprietors had not yet despaired of obtaining the location of the county-seat there, and a vigorous contest for that honor went on between Branch, Coldwater, and Masonville. There was also much excitement at the mouth of the Coldwater, where the village of Goodwinsville (now Union City) had been laid out in 1835. This point was considered to be at the head of navigation on the St. Joseph River, and a proper point for the connection of that navigation with a canal from Lake Erie. The value of railroads not having yet been demonstrated, canal and river navigation was looked on as the most reliable, and the people of Goodwinsville believed their place almost certain to become the metropolis of Southern Michigan. The difficulties attending the admission of Michigan as a State have already been mentioned. The State government went into full operation in 1835, but Congress declined to admit it into the Union, except on condition that it should acknowledge the title of Ohio to the disputed territory. The Legislature called a convention, which met at Detroit in September, 1836, to decide on the acceptance or rejection of the proposition of Congress. Hon. Harvey Warner was the delegate from Branch County; he being the first member from this county of any legal State Assembly. The proposition of Congress was rejected, but Mr. Warner voted in its favor and signed a protest against the action of the majority. The people were believed to be in favor of accepting the proposition and entering the Union. Another convention was therefore called informally, to which delegates were elected by general consent. James B. Tompkins, of Girard, was chosen as delegate from this county, but did not attend the convention. That body met in December, at Ann Arbor, and accepted the proposals of Congress, and in the forepart of 1837 Michigan was admitted as a State. Though there were as yet no railroads, everything went ahead at railroad speed for the time being, under the influ ence of an inflated currency. Some idea of the general eagerness for improvements may be gained from a dry item to be found in the Territorial laws. On a single day (March

Page  54 M6 IISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 26, 1836) no less than eight State roads were authorized by the Legislature to be laid out wholly or partially in the county of Branch. They were as follows: One from Coldwater through Centreville and Constantine (St. Joseph County) to the Indiana line. The commissioners to lay it out were Hiram Alden, Benjamin Sherman, and Columbia Lancaster. One from French's tavern, where the Chicago road crossed Prairie River, to Constantine. Commissioners, William Meek, Willis T. House, and William A. Kent. One from Adrian, Lenawee Co., to the section line, a mile north of the line between townships 6 and 7; thence west on the same line, as near as may be, into Branch County, and to the Chicago road. Commissioners, Addison J. Comstock, John Hutchins, and George C. Gibbs. One running from Prairie Ronde, Kalamazoo Co., to the Chicago road, near Jonesville, Hillsdale Co. Commissioners, Andrew McKinstry, Isaiah W. Bennet, and J. B. Tompkins. One from Coldwater through Girard and Goodwinsville (now Union City) to or near Battle Creek, Calhoun Co. Commissioners, Matthew Brink, Martin Barnhart, and Sands McCarnly. One from French's tavern to Centreville, Cassopolis, and the mouth of the St. Joseph River. Commissioners, Thomas W. Langley and E. B. Sherman. One from the county-seat of Calhoun County to that of Branch County, and thence, in the direction of Fort Wayne, to the Indiana line. Commissioners, Sidney S. Olcott, Martin Olds, and Jared Pond. One from the county-seat of Branch County to intersect the Chicago road near the east end of Coldwater Prairie. Commissioners, Elisha Warren, Augustin J. Goddard, and Seth Dunham. Although these highways bore the imposing title of "'State roads," yet it was expressly provided that the State should not be liable for damages or expenses, and that they should be under the management of the township commissioners, the same as township roads. The act was to become void as to all roads not laid out by the 1st day of January, 1840. The year 1837 opened with the excitement of business and speculation at greater height than ever before. The newly-admitted State began its career by projecting a vast scheme of internal improvements, intended to flood the people with prosperity in the briefest possible time. A law was passed in February providing for three railroads to be built by the State government: the Northern, Central, and Southern. The Southern road was intended to run through the southern tier of counties, and there was naturally much strife as to the location. Lines were surveyed through Coldwater and Branch, and work was commenced on the road in Lenawee County by commissioners appointed by the State. There was also much talk of running the Central road through Goodwinsville, over the route now followed by the air-line branch of that road. In fact, there was a very general expectation that all the people would become rich in a few years, through the influence of the numerous improvements projected. While awaiting the fruition of their schemes, we will turn for a time to other matters. Possibly it was on account of the suddenly-developed (imaginary) wealth of the county that so many new townships were formed this year; no less than five being added to the list: Union, Sherwood, Ovid, Gilead, and Elizabeth (now Bethel). This just doubled the previous number. Down to this time the courts had continued to be held at the school-house at Branch, and criminals were kept in the jail of St. Joseph County. It was now deemed proper that Branch County should have a building of its own, and the following extracts from the records of the Board of Supervisors show the action of that body on the subject. The meeting is described as having been convened at the court-house in the village of Branch; but this was merely a form of speech, the school-house being brevetted a court-house by the courts and boards which held their sessions there. The record reads thus: "Ordered, that arrangements be made forthwith for erecting a jail, and that Martin Olds, Elijah Thomas, and John Waterhouse be and they are hereby appointed a committee to superintend and to contract for the erection of said jail, and that the same be completed on or before the second Tuesday of March next. "Ordered, that five hundred dollars be and the same is hereby appropriated for the erection of the same. " Ordered, that said committee select a suitable site for said jail on one of the lots belonging to the county in the village of Branch." Although the building thus authorized is described by the humble name of jail, it was intended that a part of it should be occupied as a court-room. It was built during the summer of 1837, of hewed logs, about thirty feet square, the lower part being the jail and the upper part the court-room. This was the only public edifice in the county, while the county-seat remained at Branch. This was the celebrated period of" Wild Cat" and " Red Dog" currency. The removal of the deposits by President Jackson, and the consequent breaking down of the United States Bank, had resulted in the granting of charters to an innumerable swarm of State banks, with little coin and insufficient security, which made haste to issue bills to an almost unlimited extent. These were generally called "Wild-Cat" banks. Frequently these wonderful financial institutions were too poor to pay for engraving plates of their own, with their respective names upon them. To meet their wants, a large number of bills were engraved, with the name of the bank in blank. Quantities of these were purchased by the poorer banks, which had their own names printed on them in red ink. From this circumstance that was called " Red Dog" currency. Two of these manufactories of unlimited wealth were started in the county,-one at Branch and one at Coldwater,-but both very speedily collapsed. A more complete account of them will be found in the history of Coldwater city and township. The first newspapers in the county were also begun this year, one at Branch, called the Michigan Star, which had a few weeks' priority, and one at Coldwater, named the Coldwater Observer. A fuller description of these two organs of public information is given in the chapter devoted to the press. As another indication of the amount of business then going on in the county, especially in the way of emigra

Page  55 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 55 tion and travel, Dr. Alger, of Coldwater, mentions that in the forepart of 1837 he went from Quincy to Sturgis, and found thirty-three taverns on the Chicago road in this county. In the latter part of 1837 this prosperity began to fade rapidly away. It did not all disappear at once, but in less than a year it was gone, and the people were worse off financially than they have ever been, either before or since. It was soon found that mere pieces of paper, inscribed " we promise to pay," when there was nothing to pay with, would not long retain their purchasing power, and the wealth of the people turned to ashes in their hands. Land, which had been carried to high-tide prices by the prevailing inflation, especially wherever there was a possibility of building a village, now sank to a third, or less, of its former value. Emigration came to a standstill. Farm produce sank so low that it would not pay for transportation. Farmers were unable to purchase even the commonest necessaries of life, aside from what they could raise, and nearly every business-man was overwhelmed by hopeless bankruptcy. Perhaps the supervisors thought it was particularly necessary for the farmers to raise sheep and make their own cloth, as they would certainly be unable to buy any, for in October, 1837, they voted a bounty of five dollars apiece for the scalps of full-grown wolves, and three dollars each for those of whelps. In the forepart of 1838 three more new townships were formed,-Butler, Mattison, and Algansee. The two first named embraced only their present areas, but the last also included the present township of California. The jail contracted for the previous year had been erected according to agreement, but the agreement did not include the finishing of the upper room so as to be fit for the use of the courts, or at least the contractor did not so construe it. After considerable hesitation and discussion, the following account was audited and paid: " THE COUNTY OF BRANCH DR. TO STEPHEN BATES. To building jail per contract with supervisors........ $370.00 To extra work making cornice............................. 10.00 Cutting out three cell-windows............................ 1.50 Three window-panes.......................................... 1.50 $383.00" The five-dollar bounty of the previous fall evidently stimulated a sharp onslaught on the wolves by the marksmen and trappers of Branch County, the more vigorous, probably, because other avenues to money-making were to a great extent closed. The supervisors' records show the following audits: "Oct. 2, 1868. J. B. Woodruff, 3 wolf-certificates.......................... $15.00 Jacob S. Sorter, wolves..................................... 39.00 Myron Towsley, wolves....................................... 13.00 Jeremiah Morrill, wolves.................................... 13.00 W illiam Mitchell, 2 wolves.................................. 10.00 J. M. Blazer, 1 wolf............................................ 5.00 Cornelius Van Aiken, 3 wolves.............................. 15.00 Horace Graham, 3 wolves.................................... 13.00 A. Arnold, 1 wolf............................................... 5.00 "Oct. 4, 1838. Simeon Bassett, killing 2 wolves (besides State bounty).................................................. 10.00 $138.00" It seems to have been thought that the wolf-business was becoming too profitable for the treasury of the county, for the order giving five dollars bounty was immediately repealed. The jail being still unfinished, the following resolutions were adopted by the board on the 4th of October: " Resolved, That the building designed for a county jail be put in a state that it may be used as such as soon as can consistently be done. " Resolved That the sum of two hundred and fifty dollars be raised and applied to that purpose if that amount shall be required." At this period the Board of Supervisors was superseded by a board of three county commissioners, elected by the county at large, who performed the duties previously assigned to the supervisors. The new board, consisting of Charles G. Hammond, Enos G. Berry, and Wales Adams, met at Branch on the 22d of November, 1838,'and drew lots, as required by law, to determine the length of their terms of service. The first named, drew a term of one year, the second of two years, and the third of three years. Thenceforth, during the continuance of the board, one new commissioner was elected each year and held for three years. The contract for finishing the jail was not let until March, 1839, Elisha Warren being the contractor. No court was held in it until the fall of 1839, and it was used as a court-house and jail only about four years. The wolf-bounties seem to have been soon restored, for in July, eleven were paid by the commissioners, at eight dollars, though possibly this was paid by the State through the county officials. Cornelius Van Aiken received pay for two scalps; J. Wilson for one; Marshall Bixby for one; J. S. Sorter for three; J. Waterman for two; Myron Towsley for one; William Mitchell for one. We have taken considerable pains to record the amount of the business done in wolf-scalps, as it shows to some extent the condition of the county. When there were many wolves it may safely be calculated that there were but few sheep, and when no more scalps were brought before the honorable board it may safely be calculated that farms were pretty numerous throughout the county. The " Wild-Cat" banks, though now generally dead, still continued to vex the souls of the people by their unpleasant odors as much as did the wolves by their bloody deeds. In July, 1839, an order was passed by the board of commissioners directing that seventy-five dollars of "WildCat" money, received by Seth Dunham as treasurer, should be accepted. It was also ordered at the same time that a farm of a hundred and twenty acres should be purchased from Mr. Dunham. This was soon placed under the charge of the overseers of the poor, and has been used as a county poor-farm ever since. To add tenfold to the disasters of the period, the latter part of 1837 was characterized by fearful sickness throughout the county. Nearly every one was attacked by the ague, and in hundreds of cases ague was but the prelude or attendant of some more deadly disease, all springiag from the malaria let loose by cultivation. It is saidtha thirty-two died out of a population of about one hundred and

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. forty at Coldwater, and a similar fatality devastated the greater part of the county. In 1839 a tragedy occurred near Coldwater which created a decided sensation in both this county and St. Joseph, and perhaps had a strong influence on a question of much importance to the settlers,-the removal of the Indians. The band of Pottawattamies, so often before mentioned, with the few Ottawas and Cl;ppewas intermingled with them, had continued to roam over the two counties, notwithstanding the treaty of 1833 and their acceptance of the payment under it. There were still a host of deer and other game in the forest, though the number was yearly lessening before the advance of the pioneers. The payments yearly made by the United States eked out their resources, and nearly all were strongly averse to removing to the unknown country to which they were destined by the treaty. Their intercourse with the whites was generally friendly, though there were occasional quarrels between individuals of the two races, arising either from the too free use of whisky or a dispute about its sale. None of these troubles resulted in bloodshed. The squaws frequently brought wild plums and cranberries in their mococks, or bark baskets, to trade for calico, sugar, etc., at the stores in the few little villages of the county, while the Indians themselves frequently had venison or furs to dispose of for cloth and powder, and, above all, for whisky. " Me swap" was a common expression in Branch County forty years ago. Sau-au-quett continued to be regarded as the head man of the tribe, though his authority had greatly waned since he had brought about the sale of the Nottawa-seepe Reservation, in 1833. The old feud arising out of that treaty, which had resulted in the death of Quansett (as well as of others outside of the county), was still kept up, and many of the warriors hated the stalwart half-breed with smothered but undying rage. The tragedy before alluded to occurred near Coldwater. After being together, drinking more or less throughout the day, Sau-au-quett and a warrior named Kakotomo went to a wigwam on the peninsula, between Mud Creek and Coldwater Lake, near the road from Coldwater to Battle Creek, to sleep during the night. Kakotomo had long hated the chief on account of the sale of the lands, but probably there had been some new quarrel to stimulate his wrath into action. With the Indian's usual duplicity toward his foe, he dissembled his anger until there was a good opportunity to indulge it to the fullest extent. When Sauau-quett was stretched in profound sleep Kakotomo arose, drew the chieftain's long knife from its sheath, and drove it through his body into the ground. He died with scarcely a struggle. The next day the body was discovered. It was known that Kakotomo was the last person with him, and when charged with the murder he did not deny it. "Sau-au-quett sell Indian's land. Indian kill Sau-auquett. Who care?" The murderer was promptly arrested by the authorities of Branch County. Sau au-quett's friends came and de manded him, in order that they might punish him in their own fashion. Their request was, of course, refused. In a short time the crime was condoned by them on account of the gift of a pony, blankets, saddle, etc., to Sau-au-quett's nearest relatives by the friends of Kakotomo, according to Indian custom. Then the friends of the homicide came and demanded his release. The murder had been paid for and everybody was satisfied. Why should the poor man be kept in prison any longer? But the officers were equally impervious to this appeal. Yet there was a strong disposition on the pare of the whites to make the murder subservient to their wish to get the Indians out of Michigan. It was not pleasant to have them running their knives through each other in defiance of our laws, nor was it desirable to assume the task of trying and punishing them with all the formality and expense of civilized tribunals. And if they found that they were allowed to kill each other with impunity, they would be very likely to satiate their capricious hatred upon some of the whites in a similar manner, as in fact had been the case in St. Joseph County. Besides, the vagrant, begging habits of the Indians, those earliest of Michigan tramps, were unquestionably disagreeable to the enterprising and industrious pioneers of Branch County. When the noble red man, brawny and stalwart, but ready to starve to death rather than to labor, sought food and shelter for himself, his wife, and his papoose, it was contrary to the custom of the emigrant fronm New England or New York to refuse such a trifle, but it roused his contemptuous anger to look upon a man so indolent and shiftless. All were anxious that the Indians should go. Application was made to the Governor of Michigan, and by him to the general government. The Governor also wrote to the Hon. E. G. Fuller, prosecuting attorney of Branch County, authorizing him to enter a nolle prosequi in the case of the State of Michigan vs. Kakotomo, provided it would expedite the removal of the Indians. The band, as a whole, would not agree to remove on condition of Kakotomo's release, but some of the friends of the prisoner promised to promote a removal if he was let loose, and the assassin himself, to whom imprisonment was worse than death, was more than willing to place himself far beyond the reach of the white man's law. At length, in the autumn of 1840, all other means having failed, Gen. Brady was sent from Detroit with a detachment of United States troops to effect the removal of the Indians. A small force was sent into Hillsdale County to gather up the band of Baw-Beese, while the main body undertook the management of those in Branch and St. Joseph Counties. It was not an easy task. The older and more intelligent Indians submitted quietly, though sullenly, to what was plainly an inevitable necessity, but many of the squaws hid themselves in the forest, and many of the young warriors broke away even after they had been gathered into camp and were surrounded with troops. But at last, after several days' manoeuvering, all or nearly all were collected together, Baw-Beese and his band were brought in from Hillsdale County, and then the mournful cortege, closely guarded by the soldiers, set out for the far West. The Indians were escorted by land to the Illinois River, and thence taken by steamboat down that stream and the Mississippi to St. Louis, and up the Missouri to

Page  57 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 57 Council Bluffs, Iowa, where a new home was assigned them. A few escaped from the soldiers on the way and returned to Michigan. They did not dare, however, and perhaps did not wish, to seek the vicinity of their former home, but went into the northern part of the State, where we believe a few of their descendants reside at the present day. The tribe was greatly dissatisfied with its residence at Council Bluffs, partly on account of the scarcity of timber, and partly because of the nearness of the ferocious Sioux, who then, as now, roamed over the prairies of Nebraska and Dakota, and who were the terror alike of frontier whites and of the weaker Indian tribes. A few years later they accordingly consented to exchange their reservation at Council Bluffs for a home in the Indian Territory. When the Territory of Kansas was organized in 1854, they sold their claim to the government, but reserved a tract of ten miles square on the north side of the Kansas River, a short distance above Topeka, the present capital of the State, where they still reside. It may interest some of those who now possess their old homes to know that this once ferocious tribe, the terror of a thousand miles of frontier, has learned many of the arts of peace, and is reported by the officials of the Indian Bureau to be in a more prosperous condition than the average Indians located upon reservations. The removal of the Pottawattamies was the last important act affecting Branch County, occurring in the fourth decade of this century, and also marked a decided change in the condition of the county. Hitherto there had been an almost unintermitting struggle between the pioneers and the wilderness. Hardship, sickness, and death assailed the people at every step, and, notwithstanding the spasmodic financial prosperity of two or three feverish years, the whole county still displayed at least as much of the appearance of a hunting-ground as of a farming region. But after 1840 its condition was rapidly changed, and though it was several years before even half of the timber was felled to the ground, the howl of the wolves ceased to echo along the hill-sides at night, yet that year, more nearly than any other, marks the line between the pioneer period and the period of agricultural development. We therefore begin the new era with a new chapter. By the census of 1840 the population of Branch County was five thousand seven hundred and fifteen. CHAPTER X. FROM 1841 TO 1861. The County-Seat Question-Removal to Coldwater-County Commissioners Abolished-Burning of the Jail at Branch-The Long Struggle over Building a New Jail-The Erection of a CourtHouse-Rapid and Enduring Progress-A Last Look at the Wolves-Census of 1850-Building the Michigan Southern Railroad-General Prosperity-The Approach of War-Our Method of Writing the History of Branch County in the War. IN the beginning of the fifth decade probably the principal subject of public discussion particularly pertaining to Branch County was the location of the county-seat. The principal competitors were Branch and Coldwater, for Mason8 I ville had small hopes except as a compromise location between the other two. Branch had the advantage of being in possession of the coveted boon, and besides it was the nearest to the centre of the county. On the other hand, Coldwater was surrounded by much the most thriving settlement. The Coldwater Prairie was so easily cultivated that every one who could get a piece of it did so, and others, attracted by the nearness of neighbors, settled in the edges of the adjoining forest. Supported by the trade of the farming population around, Coldwater grew and flourished, while Branch, surrounded by a frowning forest, had only its glory as the county-seat to depend upon. Moreover, the proprietors of the latter village were so sure that the county-seat would be retained there that they held lots at a decidedly high price, while those of Coldwater, being desirous of drawing the capital thither, put their prices down to reasonable figures. After several years of contest between the partisans of the two localities, a law was at length passed by the Legislature authorizing the county commissioners to re-locate the county-seat. For the year 1842 the commissioners were Hiram Shoudler, of Union (chairman); Oliver D. Colvin, of Kinderhook; and Hiram Gardner, of Mattison. The last-named gentleman had been chosen the previous autumn, in place of Wales Adams, of Bronson, and doubtless the county-seat question entered prominently into the election. Immediately after the assembling of the board in January, 1842, it decreed the removal of the county-seat to Coldwater, and there it has ever since remained. The last record of the meeting of the board at Branch is dated Jan. 3, 1842, while its first session in Coldwater was on the 10th day of March in that year. The same year the board of county commissioners was abolished, and the supervisor system re-established throughout the State; the first meeting of the new board being held at Coldwater on the 4th of July, 1842. As one of the conditions of removal, a number of the principal citizens of Coldwater gave a bond for three hundred dollars, to be applied to the erection of a court-house and jail at that point. This was not a very munificent sum, but it was about as much as the building at Branch had cost. For several years, however, notwithstanding numerous efforts in that direction, no county building was erected in Coldwater, the courts meeting in temporary rooms rented for the purpose. Meanwhile the jail at Branch was burned down by a prisoner confined in it, and it has been asserted in print that some of the people of Coldwater contributed to pay him for the deed. Until a new one should be built, Branch County prisoners were confined in the jail of St. Joseph County, and one of the records of the period shows that the sheriff of that county was authorized by the supervisors of Branch to buy a "cheap coat" for an indigent prisoner from the latter county. Although Branch County was now rapidly approaching a civilized condition, yet the wolves still made wool-growing a somewhat risky business, as is shown by the records of bounties paid. At the session of the supervisors in Octo ber, 1843, they audited and allowed no less than five claims for bounty,-one by Jeremiah Morrill, one by James Owen, one by Joseph Cady, and two by C C. H ayes.

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. At that October session the board passed a resolution recommending the electors of the county to raise four hundred dollars to erect a jail, besides the three hundred dollars due from the citizens of Coldwater, and directed the clerk to submit the proposition to a vote of the people. But there was as much struggling over the question as might have sufficed to build a State capitol, and in the January following the resolution was rescinded. In lieu of it, one was adopted requesting the electors to authorize the supervisors to raise sufficient money to build county building by a tax extending over four years. This plan also seems to have fallen through, for in January, 1845, we find the board again recommending the electors on the subject; this time to raise five hundred dollars in 1845 and five hundred in 1846, which, with the three hundred dollars due from the citizens of Coldwater, was to be used to build a jail. Ballots were ordered to be prepared for " Jail" and No Jail." In October, 1845, still another resolution was passed, recommending the electors to raise a thousand dollars for a jail. The board seemed to be determined, in the words of one of John Hay's heroes, " to resoloot till the cows come home," and this effort seems to have been successful, for the next spring it was resolved to let the building of the jail to the highest bidder. In the succeeding fall the board levied a thousand-dollar tax to pay for the jail which had been erected during the summer of 1846, and in January, 1847, they voted to accept the same. The next move was for a court-house. In the spring of 1847 the people voted that one should be built, but the vote was a very close one,-eight hundred and thirty-four votes being cast in favor of the requisite tax, and seven hundred and ninety-four against it. In October, 1847, the board resolved that four thousand dollars should be raised to build a court-house; fifteen hundred that year, fifteen hundred in 1848, and a thousand in 1849. Five hundred dollars was also voted to build a poor-house, and the superintendents were authorized to advertise for its erection at a sum not exceeding that amount. At this time temporary apartments were rented for a court-room and a clerk's office at fifty dollars per year, and one for a register's office at twenty dollars. The same month it was resolved that a court-house should be built for five thousand dollars, and the proposal of G. W. Davis to erect it for that sum was duly accepted. The following year (1848) the present court-house in Coldwater was erected. It was accepted by the supervisors in the autumn, and in December of that year was first occupied for public purposes, that being the end of a seven years' struggle over the erection of county buildings. Meanwhile the progress of the county was rapid and enduring. There was not the extraordinary inflation of the prices of real estate seen in 1834, 1835, and 1836, but, on the other hand, there was no danger of the panic of 1837. New farms were opened in every direction, and the area of cultivated land in the old ones was largely increased. In some instances frame houses were built upon farms, though as a general rule log houses were still in use, except in the villages. Our friends, the wolves, of whom we have spoken so _ often before, were gradually disappearing before the rifles and traps of frontiersmen, inspired by the hope of the eight dollars bounty which was then allowed for each scalp. In January, 1846, certificates were issued for one scalp each to David Potter, Lawrence Decker, Joseph Harris, Joseph Towsley, and James Johnson. In December, 1848, there is a record of a certificate issued to Christopher Spafford, and in October, 1850, there were issued one to Ezekiel Hayes, Jr., and two to James O. Johnson. These were the last payments of which we have seen any record. Possibly one or two more wolves were killed in the county, but it will be substantially safe to assume that after the middle of the century Branch County was free from these enemies of the sheepfold. By the census of 1850 the county had twelve thousand four hundred and seventy-two inhabitants, its population having more than doubled in ten years. Up to this time the county had not known the presence of a railroad. The break-down of the great system of State works begun in 1837 had been so complete, that people were frightened at the idea of building a railroad in Michigan. By extraordinary exertion, and at immense cost, the State had succeeded in constructing the Southern road as far as Hillsdale in 1843, but was utterly unable to build it any farther. Even this, however, was a great boon to the people of Branch County, as it was certainly far easier to haul their produce in wagons for twenty or even forty miles than to prolong the task over nearly a hundred miles of execrable road which lay between them and Lake Erie. The Southern Railroad having been sold in 1846 to a company, of which Edwin C. Litchfield was the head, it was hoped that it would be speedily pushed forward through Branch County. But the new company could not muster the necessary means for several years, and up to the close of 1850 no advance had been made except over the four miles between Hillsdale and Jonesville. But in the beginning of 1851 everything was ready for a grand forward movement, which was carried out with extraordinary rapidity. Thousands of workmen were employed all along the line from Jonesville to Chicago. Early in the summer the track was laid down across Branch County, and the locomotive went screaming merrily through the townships of Quincy, Coldwater, Batavia, Bethel, and Bronson. Still the work went forward with ever-increasing zeal, unstayed even by the cold of winter, and in March, 1852, the cars ran over the road from Lake Erie to Chicago. This placed Branch County in close connection with the outer world, with the swiftly-growing metropolis at the head of Lake Michigan, and with the great markets of the East. In about three years more a line was completed from Toledo to Buffalo, connecting there with the system of roads which afterwards became the New York Central, and forming a continuous all-rail line from New York to Chicago, passing through Branch County. Over this line rolled nearly the whole tide of Western emigration, and it could not be but that a large part of it would be stayed on the fertile lands of Branch County, which were not yet entirely occupied by farmers. The vacant lands, however, were speedily purchased, and those

Page  59 59 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. which had been settled during the previous twenty years now took on the appearance of thorough cultivation. In a majority of cases the log houses of' the pioneers were exchanged for frames, pumps took the places of the picturesque, but inconvenient, well-sweeps, which had formerly risen in every yard, orchards presented their luscious fruit in ample abundance, and school-houses and churches rose wherever necessary, to promote the intellectual and spiritual welfare of the people. Even the mischievous imp of feverand-ague became less malignant than before, as the soil was subdued by cultivation, and the too-abundant water was removed by drainage. In fact, the decade from the beginning of 1851 to that of 1861 was one of almost unchecked prosperity. The population increased from twelve thousand four hundred and seventy-two to twenty thousand nine hundred and eightyone (sixty-eight per cent.), and the increase in wealth was still greater. As the whole country, East and West, North and South, shared in greater or less degree in the same good fortune, it was hard to believe that any could be found mad or wicked enough to change the scene for one of war and devastation. Even while, during the fateful winter of 1860-61, State after State was seen declaring in favor of secession, and asserting its readiness for war, men still hoped against hope that some means of reconciliation would be devised. But the rage of the slaveholders at the election of a President who was not a propagandist of slavery, could be satiated by nothing but the destruction of the Union, and so all lovers of their country were brought face to face with the question whether they would ignobly permit that country to be ruined by traitors, or would defend it by force of arms. When the rebel guns sounded the fall of Sumter on the 14th day of April, 1861, the question was speedily decided. Of the gallant part taken by the men of Branch County in the terrible contest of the next four years, the following chapters will speak. In those chapters we give brief sketches of the services of all the regiments and batteries of which any considerable number went from Branch County. To each sketch is appended a list of the officers and soldiers from Branch County who served in that particular regiment or battery. Where less than thirty were from Branch County we can give, as a rule, no history of services, but a list of all the names is furnished in the closing chapter of the war record. These lists are taken from the published reports of the adjutant-general of the State, corrected whenever practicable by members of the various organizations. The histories of the services of regiments and batteries are also based on the adjutant-general's reports, but in numerous cases officers and soldiers belonging to them have furnished us with circumstances, reminiscences, and details which could be obtained from no other source. CHAPTER XI. FIRST INFANTRY.* The President's Proclamation-The Governor's Call-Raising the First Regiment of Infantry for Three Months-Company C from Branch County-Its First Officers-Going to Washington-Entering Virginia —The Battle of Bull Run —Reorganization for Three Years-Guarding the Baltimore and Washington Railroad-On the Peninsula-Its Battles there-Sent to Pope-Second Bull RunTerrible Loss-Antietam and Fredericksburg-The Campaign of 1862-Hard Fighting at Gettysburg-The Campaign of 1864 -Numerous Battles-The Siege of Petersburg-The Final VictoryThe Return-The Number Slain or Died. THE THREE MONTHS' REGIMENT. THE day after the surrender of Fort Sumter, the President of the United States called upon the loyal States of the Union for seventy-five thousand men to suppress the rebellious uprising in the South. On the following day (April 16, 1861) was published the proclamation of the Governor of Michigan, calling for volunteers to fill twenty companies, which, with the requisite field and staff officers, were to compose two regiments of infantry, though only one regiment was required under the President's call. Three days after the issuance of the Governor's proclamation the 1st Regiment was ready for muster, and on the 1st of May following it was mustered, seven hundred and eighty strong, into the service of the United States for three months, by Lieut.-Col. E. Backus, U. S. A., at Fort Wayne, Detroit, the regiment being then fully equipped with arms, ammunition, and clothing, ready for service, and awaiting the orders of the War Department. One of the companies of the regiment (C) was composed of men of Branch County, its nucleus being a Zouave company which had been organized in Coldwater some time previous to the opening of the war. This company joined the regiment with a strength of about eighty rank and file, and under command of the following-named officers, all residents of Coldwater: Ebenezer Butterworth, captain; Charles E. Eggleston, first lieutenant; George H. Eggleston, second lieutenant. The field-officers of the regiment were Orlando B. Wilcox, colonel; Lorin L. Comstock, lieutenant-colonel; Alonzo F. Bidwell, major. Orders for its movement having been received on the 13th of May, the 1st Regiment of Michigan left Detroit on that day, and proceeded to Washington. It was the first regiment to reach the National Capital from west of the Alleghany Mountains, and was not second in equipment and soldierly qualities to any regiment which had arrived from any other State. Its appearance on Pennsylvania Avenue was hailed with joyful acclamation, and the great President, before whom it marched in review, addressed its officers and men in most complimentary terms, and through them thanked the State of Michigan for the patriotism and alacrity with which she had responded to the call for help. The 1st was assigned to duty with the command of Col. (afterwards Gen.) Heintzelman, and when the movement across the Potomac into Virginia was made, on the 24th * This includes both the three months' and the three years' organizations.

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of May, it led the advance of the Union troops across Long Bridge, driving in the rebel pickets along the river, and entering Alexandria by the Washington road, simultaneously with the arrival of Ellsworth's Zouave regiment by steamer. The first and only battle of this regiment was that of Bull Run, July 21, 1861, at which time its brave colonel was in command of the brigade of which the 1st was a part. On that disastrous field it was in the thickest of the fight, eagerly pressing forward to engage the enemy, losing heavily, but fighting with stubborn heroism, and establishing that bright reputation for gallantry which Michigan troops so uniformly maintained throughout the war. In this engagement Capt. Butterworth (of Company C) and Lieuts. Mauch and Casey were wounded and taken prisoners, and afterwards died of their wounds while in the enemy's hands. Col. Wilcox was also wounded and umade prisoner, and was exchanged after fifteen months' captivity. At the expiration of its three months' term of service the regiment returned to Michigan, and was mustered out Aug. 7, 1861. THE THREE YEARS' REGIMENT. After the muster-out and discharge of the three months' men the 1st Regiment was reorganized for a three years' term of service. The men for the new regiment were principally recruited in the counties of Wayne, Jackson, Washtenaw, Lenawee, Monroe, Hillsdale, and Branch; this county contributing a large part of the members of Company E and a few men to other companies. The reorganized 1st Infantry left its rendezvous at Ann Arbor (excepting two small detachments, which followed soon after) on the 16th of September, 1861, and proceeded to Washington, D. C. Among the earliest duties to which it was assigned was that of guarding the Baltimore and Washington Railroad; and in this it was engaged during the winter of 1861-62, with its headquarters and winter camp at Annapolis Junction. In the month of March, 1862, it moved to the Peninsula with the Army of the Potomac, to join in McClellan's campaign against Richmond. During that campaign it took an honorable part in the battles of Mechanicsville, June 26, 1862, Gaines' Mills, June 27, and Malvern Hill, July 1. At the close of the Peninsular campaign the 1st was placed in the army of Gen. Pope, and fought under that general at Gainesville, August 29, and at the second Bull Run battle, August 30. In the last-named engagement it lost its colonel, adjutant, four captains, and more than half its members killed or wounded. Rejoining the army of Gen. McClellan, it fought during his fall campaign of 1862 at Antietam, September 17, and Shepherdstown Ford, September 20; and after the assumption of the command of the army by Gen. Burnside it fought under him in the terrific battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December 13. The next spring it took part in the campaign of Chancellorsville, and after numerous severe marches reached Gettysburg on the 2d of July, 1862, in time to engage in that memorable encounter. Nearly a third of the small number which followed its banner were killed or wounded on that fied. During the remainder of the year and the early part of 1864 the 1st was engaged in the various movements made in Virginia by the Army of the Potomac, and in the mean time was reorganized as a veteran regiment. Going into the great campaign of 1864 on the 1st of May, the regiment took part in most of the battles and skirmishes of that terrible time, including Alsop's Farm, Spottsylvania, North Anna, Jericho Mills, and Cold Harbor. In June, 1864, when the 4th Infantry went home to be mustered out and reorganize, its veterans and the later recruits were assigned to the 1st and remained with it until June, 1865. It took an active part in the siege of Petersburg, was present at the battle of Weldon Railroad, and participated in the desperate conflict of Poplar Grove Church, where alone it carried two strong fortifications, and a part of an intrenched line. The regiment remained engaged in the siege of Petersburg throughout the winter; taking part in the battle of Hatcher's Run in February, and in another conflict at the same place in March. It was also engaged in the closing battles of the great struggle, including the events at Appomatox Court-House, April 9. After Lee's surrender it was moved to City Point, and remained there until May 16, then went by water to Alexandria, arriving there on the 18th, and on the 16th of June went by rail to Louisville, Ky., reaching there on the 21st. It was encamped on the opposite side of the river, at Jeffersonville, Ind., and was mustered out of service on the 9th of July. The command arrived at Jackson, Mich., on the 12th of the same month, and was there paid and discharged. The losses of the 1st during the war were one hundred and forty-six men and fifteen commissioned officers killed in battle or died of wounds, and ninety-six men and one officer died of disease. MEMBERS OF TIE FIRST INFANTRY (THREE MONTHS) FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Company C. Ebenezer Butterworth, capt.; enl. May 1, 1861; captured at battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; died in rebel hospital, of wounds. Aug. 17,1861. Charles E. Eggleston, 1st lieut.; etl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. George II. Eggleston, 2d lieut.; enl. May 1, 1861; must.,out Aug. 7, 1861. Charles B. Lincoln, 1st sergt.; enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Samuel N. Andrews, 2d sergt.; eel. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. George Rhodes, 3d sergt.; enl. May 1, 1861; captured at battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; confined in Libby prison; must. out May 20, 1862. Charles P. Whitcoml, 4th sergt.; enl. May 1, 1861; captured at battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; confined in Libby prison; must. out May 2, 1862. Joseph 11. Crup, 1st corp.; enl. May 1, 1861; must. out A;gg. 7,1861. Curtis S. Mills, 2d corp.; enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Albert R. Potter, 3d corp.; enl. May 1, 1861; must, out Aug. 7, 1861. Sylvester B. Wright, 4th corp.; enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Nelson Abbott, musician; enl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Silas L. Parker, musician; enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. PRIVATE8. Henry C. Adams, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Benjamin F. Archer, enl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. George W. Abbott, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Albert C. Allen, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Henry Abbott, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Lorenzo F. Brown, enl. Mity 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. William L. Burritt, eeil. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Henry Butler, eel. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Peter Budawa, eil. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Martin Burleson, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Charles Bickford, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Aar'on Bagley, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. James Bennett, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. William H. Bryon, eel. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861.

Page  61 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 61 Jonas P. Brown, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Chas. Brinkerhoof, enl. May 1, 1861; wounded at Bull Run, Va., July 21,1861. Chauncey S. Blivin, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Thomas Blivin, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Daniel B. Campbell, enl. May 1, 1861; nust. out Aug. 7,1861. Hamilton Collier, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Edward Catlin, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Edward Craft, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Lester B. Callahan, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. George Conger, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. George D. Drury, enl. May 1,1861; taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, Va., and confined in Libby prison; must. out May 20,1862. Martin Damm, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Gilbert Declute, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Lafayette Finch, enl. May 1, 1861; must. cut Aug. 7, 1861. Smith W. Fisk, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out. Aug. 7,1861. David Fox, enl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Isaiah Fox, en]. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Irving S. Graham, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Edward Gavitt, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Charles Holmes, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Daniel M. Holmes, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. William Hense, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Leander C. Handy, enl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Solomon Holben, enl. May, 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Charles C. Harvey, enl. May 1,1861; taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; confined in Libby prison; must. out May 20,1862. James D. C. Harvey, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Smith H. Hastings, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Edward Hewitt, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Benj... Knappen, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Edward Knappen, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Edward B. Kirby, ell. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Edward Lewis, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Franklin Minzey, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Jolin S. Mossman, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Squire W. Mellendy, enl. May 1, 1861; must. Aug. 7, 1861. Wilson Meddaugh, enl. May 1, 1861; must. Aug. 7,1861. Joseph McKinne, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. John Olmstead, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Philo P. Peckham, tnl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Horace L. Perkins, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Franklin Roberts, enl. lay 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Calvin D. Strong, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. John D. Smails, enl. May 1, 1861; taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861; confined in Libby prison; must. out May 20,1862. John Sullivan, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Cady Smith, enl. May 1,1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Squire S. Skeels, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Baxter Strong, enil. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Ross A. Warner, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. Robert Will'ams, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7, 1861. George Wriglit, enl. May 1, 1861; must. out Aug. 7,1861. Ralston Walker, eni. May 1, 1861; taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, Va., July 21, 1861; confined in Libby prison; must. out May 20, 1862. MEMBERS OF THE FIRST INFANTRY (THREE YEARS) FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Abram S. Kirkland, 2d lieut.; enl. May 30, 1863; 1st lieut. (as sergt.), July 15, 1863; must. out with regimeint, July 9,1865. George H. Eggleston, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 17, 1861; res. March 28,1863.' Alexander Black, Co. E; disch. at Washington, D. C., Jan. 23, 1863. William H. Barniham), Co. E; accidentally killed, Oct. 18, 1862. Henry C. Babcock, Co. E. William F. Braddock, Co. E; must. out July 9,1865. Robert W. Baker, Co. C; disch. John N. Bunker, Co. E; died of disease, Washington, D. C., July 13, 1863. Joseph D. Bennett, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864. James Corey, Co. E; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March 7, 1862. Edward Curtis, Co. E; must. out July 9,1865. Daniel Cook, Co. E; disch. at Fort Schuyler, Jan. 23, 1863. John Clarke, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Oct. 10, 1864. Ira S. Chappell, Co. E; disech. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 25,1863; must. out July 9,186.5. James G. Depue, Co. E; died in action at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 30,1862. Theodore Davis, Co. E; discli. at expiration of service, Sept. 9, 1864. Crayton D. Eldred, Co. E; dischi. Jared Evans, Co. E; died of disease in Washington, D. C., May 3,1864. Beech N. Fisk, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 16, 1864. David Fox, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Oct. 30,1864; was in battles of Bull Run, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. George Hillman, Co. E; died in action at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862. Francis E. Hadley, Co. E; disch. by order, Dec. 15,1862. Amos Hunt, Co. C; disch. for disability, April 10,1863. Abram S. Kirkland, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864; must. out July 9, 1865. James Lauver, Co. E; disch. May 1,1862. Simeon P. Miles, Co. C; died in action at Bull Run, Va., Aug. 3(, 1862. James M. Vane, Co. E; died of disease in Richmnond, Jan. 15, 1864. William J. Moody, Co. E; must. out July 9, 1865. Martin J. Miney, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17,1864. Oscar Nash, Co. A; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864. Ludovic Nye, Co. E; disch. Sept. 8,1862. George F. Niverson, Co. E; disch. at Potomac Creek, Jan. 3, 1863. Theodore E. Oliver, Co. C; disch. Nov. 17,1862. HIenry C. Odell, Co. D: disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 25, 1863. Byron Potter, Co. E; killed in action at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862. Ansel J. Potter, Co. E; died of disease, Washington, D. C., Aug. 20, 1863. James E. Perry, Co. E; disch. David C. Reynolds, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 9,1864. Hlazleton Saunders, Co. E; disch. Jan 21,1862. Hiiram Sweet, Co. E; died in action at Gettysburg, Pa., July 2, 1863. James C. Smith, Co. E; disch. for disability, Feb. 9,1863. George It. Skinner, Co. E; discl Jan. 3,1863. Nelheliah Spencer, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 25, 1863. C. A. Tonpkins, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Oct. 30, 1864. Geo-ge F. Trumbull, Co. E; disch. Nov. 17, 1862. Burinet A. Tucker, Co. E; died of wounds in Washington, D. C., Sept. 10,1862. Horace M. Withington, Co. E; died in action at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862. Emmet R. Wood, Co. E; died in action at Bull Run, Aug. 30, 1862. Eugene Wilson, Co. E; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 9, 1864. Jefferson Woods, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Dec. 25, 1863; must. out July 9, 1865. Willard Whitney, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17,1864; must. out July 9, 1865. William Whalen, Co. E; disch. to re-enl. as veteran, Feb. 17, 1864. Levi Webb, Co. B; died of disease at Burr Oak, Mich., Feb. 7,1865. Henry E. Whitney, Co. E; died of disease at Washington, D. C., Jan. 2,1863. Leonard Wliitnoyer, Co. B; must. out July 9, 1865. David Williamls, Co. C; discharged for disability, Nov. 1,1862. CHAPTER XII. SEVENTH INFANTRY. Branch County in the Seventh-Ball's Bluff-West Point and Fair Oaks —The Seven Days' Fight-The Battle of Antietam-Fredei icksburg-Crossing the Rappahannock under Fire-The Charge up the Heights-The Great March to Gettysburg-Severe Conflict thereSpottsylvania-Cold Harbor-Fighting Before Petersburg-Storming the Enemy's Works-Final Victory-Muster-Out-List of Officers and Soldiers. THE 7th Michigan Infantry was formed at Monroe during the summer of 1861. The number of Branch County men who served in its ranks during the war was a few more than fifty, viz., about forty in K company, ten in I company, and one or two each in B, C, and D. The regiment left Monroe for Virginia on the 5th of December, 1861. Arriving there, it was stationed on the upper Potomac. It was one of the regiments detailed to go to Ball's Bluff on the 21st of October, under Gen. Baker, and shared the losses inflicted by the sudden and overwhelming attack of the enemy on that disastrous day. In the spring of 1862 the 7th went with the Army of the Potomac to the Peninsula, where it was engaged in the siege of Yorktown, and afterwards in the affair at West Point, on the 7th of May. It also took an active part in the battle of Fair Oaks, on the 31st of May and 1st of June. When the Confederate force was massed to attack the Union right, the 7th was with the columns which were steadily forced through the disastrous " Seven Days' Fight," taking part in the actions at Peach Orchard Creek on the 29th of June, at Savage Station on the same day, at White Oak Swamp on the 30th of June, at Glendale on the same day, and finally, on the 1st of July, at Malvern Hill, when victory at length perched on the Union standard, and the rebel hordes were repulsed with terrific loss. The 7th went northward with the Army of the Potomac,

Page  62 - 62 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - --- and was present at the second battle of Bull Run. It then crossed the Potomac with McClellan, took part in the battle of South Mountain, and on the 17th of September, 1862, stood face to face with the enemy on the field of Antietam. Here it was engaged in one of the hottest struggles of the war, and bravely maintained itself throughout, though the victory which it achieved was purclased at the cost of a list of killed and wounded embracing more than half the men present in the action. After Antietam the 7th continued with the Army of the Potomac, in its marches through Northern Virginia, until the 11th of December, 1862, when that army stood on the north side of the Rappahannock, gazing across at the enemy's works at Fredericksburg. During the night of the 10th the Union engineers had laid a pontoon-bridge partly across the stream, but at daylight the rebel sharpshooters soon drove them away. Volunteers were called for to cross the river, and seize a foothold on the opposite shore. Lieut.-Col. Baxter, then in command, called on the 7th for that duty, and as one man they responded to the call. Foremost of all the army they sprang into the boats and set out for the opposite shore. The rebel bullets fell thick and fast among them, and many were slain or wounded, among the latter being their gallant commander, but still they held on their way, and at length made good their landing. Close behind them came a Massachusetts regiment. The two formed on the bank, dashed up the heights above, drove the enemy from his intrenchments, and captured several hundred prisoners at the point of the bayonet. The pontoons were then laid across the river, and a portion of the army crossed in safety. The subsequent disasters which befell the forces of Gen. Burnside in that action cannot dim the glory of this brilliant exploit of the 7th Michigan Infantry. The regiment acted as provost-guard at Falmouth until the 3d of May, 1863, when it again crossed the Rappahannock to take part in the battle of Chancellorsville. It was not closely engaged, but the enemy's artillery fire wounded ten of the men. During the Gettysburg campaign the 7th underwent even more than the usual hardships of that torrid and dusty period. On the 27th of June, it marched thirtyseven miles; on the 28th, six miles; and on the 29th, thirty-two miles; making seventy-five miles in three days; a remarkable exploit when it is considered that every soldier carried a rifle, bayonet, cartridge-box, belts, blanket, haversack, and canteen, and that the marching in column in a cloud of dust is twice as fatiguing as walking by a single individual. On the 2d of July the 7th arrived at Gettysburg, and was immediately placed in the front of battle on Cemetery Hill. In this exposed position it remained until the close of the action on the 3d of July, meeting and repelling some of the fiercest attacks of the enemy. So much had the regiment been depleted by its previous conflicts, that only fourteen officers and one hundred and fifty-one men went into this fight. Of this small number twenty-one were killed (including the commander, Lieut.-Col. Steele) and forty-four wounded; the total of casualties being nearly half of the whole number engaged. After taking part in the pursuit of the enemy, the 7th went to New York a short time during the enforcement of the draft, and then returned to the Army of the Potomac. On the 7th of December, after considerable marching and skirmishing in Northern Virginia, it went into winter quarters at Barry's Hill. Here, notwithstanding all its hardships and losses, one hundred and fifty-three men re-enlisted as veterans, and the regiment was sent home to Monroe the 1st of January to recruit. After a thirtydays' furlough, it returned to Barry's Hill, where it remained until the grand advance of the army on the 3d of May. It was lightly engaged in the Wilderness on the 5th of May, but on the succeeding day it had a severe conflict with the enemy, having eight men killed, thirty-eight wounded, and eight missing. On the 10th, it was at Spottsylvania Court-House, where it was subjected to a severe fire from the rebel sharpshooters, and also made an assault on the enemy's works. The total of casualties during the day was five killed and twelve wounded. The next day it was again slightly engaged, and on the 12th it took part in Hancock's charge on the left of the enemy's line, eleven of the men being wounded. The next day there was another fight, where the 7th had three men killed and ten wounded. Continuing with the Army of the Potomac the flank movements to the left, which constantly brought it nearer to Richmond, the 7th passed the North Anna and Pamunkey Rivers, being frequently engaged as skirmishers, and on the 30th and 31st of May and 1st of June it lost six killed and had nine wounded. At Cold Harbor it gallantly charged the enemy's works, but the long lines of intrenchments, behind which the rebel marksmen leveled their deadly rifles in almost perfect security, proved impervious to the thinned ranks of the 7th and their comrades, and the regiment fell back with a loss of sixteen killed and wounded. The 7th reached the lines in fiont of Petersburg on the 15th of June, and at once entered on the tedious picket and trench duty, fighting nearly every day, and having twentythree killed and wounded during the first ten days. In the battles of Strawberry Plains and Flussier's Mills (August 14 and 17) it had three men killed and eleven wounded. It was also engaged in the battle of Reams' Station on the 25th of August. On the 26th of October the 7th was one of the regiments which advanced on the enemy's right, and the next day it took part in no less than three battles,-those of Hatchers' Run, Burgess' Tavern, and Boydton Plank-Road. In this movement the 7th, alone, captured four hundred and eighty men and twenty officers of the 26th North Carolina rebel infantry. From the beginning of the campaign to the 1st of November, the feeble regiment in these constant battles and skirmishes had had forty-one men killed and one hundred and thirty-one wounded, besides thirty-six captured by the enemy, and thirty reported as " missing in action," some of whom were killed and some captured. And still, the Herculean task of destroying the rebel army was uncompleted. The regiment remained in front of Petersburg during the

Page  63 HISTORY OF BRANCHC COUJNTY, MICHIGAN. 63 I winter, sharing all the dangers and hardships of the army, but not suffering as severely in killed and wounded as during the previous six months. On the 2d of April, the 7th, with detachments of the 1st Minnesota and 19th Massachusetts, were ordered to attack the enemy's works at Cat Tail Creek. They advanced steadily to their task, and notwithstanding the fire from the rebels, safely ensconced behind their intrenchments, the 7th dashed boldly forward, reaching the enemy's lines (the first of the Union forces), and driving out the gray-back defenders at the point of the bayonet. The assaulting brigade quickly captured two forts and three cannons; then, turning in flank, it swept along the rebels' works, capturing five other forts, and about five hundred prisoners. The regiment was less fortunate on the 7th of April, when, after capturing many prisoners, it was cut off from the main army by a large force of rebel infantry and cavalry; and, in attempting to fight its way through, had three officers and thirty-four men taken prisoners. In the afternoon it was relieved and joined its brigade. Two days later Lee's army surrendered, and the most serious trials of the 7th Michigan were ended. It was sent to Louisville, Ky., and Jeffersonville, Ind., in June, very much to the disgust of the men; but was mustered out at Jeffersonville on the 5th of July, 1865, sent immediately to Jackson, Mich., and paid off and disbanded on the 7th of that month. MEMBERS OF THE SEVENTt INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Jeremiah Buys, Co. K; died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 15, 1862. Hezekiah Brooks, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. William H. Burns, Co. K; died of wounds at Antietam, Md,, Sept. 17, 1862. David Blanchard, Co. K; disch. for disability, June 10, 1865. Albert A. Blanchard, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Horace Calhoun, Co. I; died of wounds at White Oak Swamp, June 30, 1862. Chauncey G. Cole, Co. I; must. out July 5, 1865. Nelson W. Clark, Co. K; disch. by order, July 21, 1865. Daniel Clouse, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Alonzo Converse, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Madison J. Eggleston, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Lewis Fry, Co. K; disch. by order, June 24, 1865. Samuel Fry, Co. I; disch. by order, July 31, 1865. John B. Ford, Co. K; missing in action, Aug. 25, 1864. Fred H. Gould, Co. I; died of disease near Yorktown, Va., May 13, 1862. Alonzo Glass, Co. I; died of wounds at South Anna River, Va., June 1, 1864. John Green, Co. 1K; must. out July 5, 1865. Charles R. Green, Co. K; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Dec. 18, 1863. Oliver Green, Co. K; missing in action, June 2, 1864. Lorenzo Gates, Co. K; died of wounds, Sept. 25, 1862. Lorenzo C. Hurd, Co. K; disc. for disability, Nov. 24,1862. Edwin E. Howard, Co. C; disch. for disability, Nov. 1, 1861. Onias Iopkins, Jr., Co. K; disch. May, 1863. James Hopkins, Co. I; missing at Cold Harbor, Va., June 9, 1864. Nathaniel Hopkins, Co. K; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Daniel Holbrook, Co. K; missing at Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 28,1864. William J. Leary, Co. I; died of wounds at Fair Oaks, Va., May 31, 1862. William Latta, Co. K; died of disease at Washington, Nov. 8, 1862. David S. Meddaugh, Co. K; disch. Dec. 25, 1861. John Monroe, Co. K; died at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 5, 1864. Mallon Meyer, Co. I; died of disease in summer 1862. Thomas Miler, Co. K; missing at Hatcher's Run, Oct. 28, 1864. Darius Monroe, Co. K; disch. by order, May 31,1865. Truman E. Mason, Co. K; disch. to enl. in U. S. Cav., Oct. 21,1862. Walter Nichols, Co. K; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Dec. 18, 1863. James Pepper, Jr., Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. George Pedler, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Joseph Pullman, Co. K; disch. by order, Jan. 13,1865. William Queer, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Hiram Refner, Co. B; must. out July 5, 1865. Henry Rogers, Co. K; died of disease at Windmill point, Va., Jan. 7, 1863. Clark Reynolds, Co. C; died in action at Antietam, Md., Sept. 17,1862. Justin Shaply, Co. K; died Jan. 29, 1862. Andrew J. Silliway, Co. I; died of disease at Washington, D. C., July 1, 1864. Edbert Schemerhorn, Co. K; disch. May 25, 1865. James Sheffield, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Thomas Silliway, Co. K; must. out July 5, 1865. Levi R. Tuttle, Co. K; disch. at expiration of service, Aug. 22,1864. John Taggott, Co. K; mulst. out July 5, 1865. William B. Valade, Co. D; missing at Hatcher's Run, Va., Oct. 28,1864. Zachary Wells, Co. I; must. out July 5, 1865. Stacey F. Weatlierby, Co. K; d'sch. by order, July 21, 1865. CHAPTER XIII. NINTH INFANTRY. Field and Staff of the Ninth-Company G from Branch County-Its First Officers-The Regiment goes to Kentucky-And to Tennessee with Mitchell, in his Advance-Six Companies at Murfreesboro' Attacked by Forrest in Force-Long and Hard Fighting-Gallantry of the Ninth-Final Surrender to Overwhelming Numbers-Subsequent Parole and Exchange-Services of those not Captured-The Ninth as Provost-Guard-Complimented by Gen. Thomas-Re-enlistment of Veterans-In the Atlanta Campaign-Full Ranks again -Subsequent Services-List of Members. THE 9th Infantry Regiment, of Michigan, was raised during the latter part of the summer, and in the early autumn of the year 1861. Its rendezvous was at Fort Wayne, Detroit, where its organization was perfected, under the following officers: William W. Duffield, colonel; John G. Parkhurst, of Coldwater, lieutenant-colonel; Dorus M. Fox, major; Ennis Church, surgeon; Cyrus Smith, assistant surgeon; James G. Portman, chaplain; Henry M. Duffield, adjutant; Charles H. Irwin, quartermaster. The 9th was composed mainly of men from counties lying on and to the north of the line of the Michigan Central Railroad; but contained one company * raised in Coldwater and other parts of Branch County. This was designated as G company, and its first officers were George N. Chase, captain; Mortimer Mansfield (of Coldwater), first lieutenant; William A. Hull (of Coldwater), second lieutenant. The regiment having been armed with weapons of an inferior class, was mustered into the United States service for three years, by Capt. H. R. Mizner, U. S. A., at the rendezvous, Oct. 23 and 25, 1861, and on the last-named day left Detroit for the seat of war in the Southwest, being the first regiment from Michigan which entered the field in the Western departments. It reached Jeffersonville, Ind., on the 27th, and on the following day was moved by steamboat to Salt River, Ky. It was soon after engaged in the construction of a defensive work on Muldraugh's Hill, and made its winter quarters in that vicinity. During their stay at that place the men of the 9th were terribly afflicted with measles and other disorders, as many as four hundred having been on the sick list at one time. Immediately after the fall of Fort Donelson, the regiment was moved by transports from Salt River to Nashville, Tenn., where it remained for some weeks; then moved to Murfreesboro', and was posted there from April to July, as one of the chain of detachments which were placed to guard the rear and communications of Gen. O. M. Mitchell, in his advance on Huntsville, Ala. During that time it formed part of the force with which Gen. Negley made a t Other companies of the regiment were afterwards recruited to a considerable extent from this county.

Page  64 4 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. demonstration against Chattanooga, reaching the north bank of the Tennessee River, opposite the town. After that expedition it was again stationed at Murfreesboro' and vicinity, and on the 13th of July the six companies which were at that place (the other four, under command of Maj. Fox, being at Tullahoma) were attacked by a body of the enemy's cavalry, three thousand five hundred strong, under Gen. N. B. Forrest. Of this battalion of the 9th at Murfreesboro', one company was quartered in the court-house, and five companies (including the company from Branch County) were camped in a body in the northeastern outskirts of the village,-all under command of Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst. Col. Duffield was present but not on duty; he having arrived in the evening of the 11th, in company with Gen. Crittenden, on business connected with the formation of a new brigade, of which Col. Duffield was to have the command. The 3d Minnesota Infantry Regiment was encamped on the bank of Stone River, less than two miles to the northwest of the town, and with it was Hewett's (1st Kentucky) Battery. Forrest's attack on the camp of Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst's battalion was made at four o'clock in the morning of Sunday the 13th of July. He had evidently expected that it would be a surprise, but such did not prove to be the case, for Col. Parkhurst had suspected, or had by some means been warned of, their approach, and stood prepared to give them a very warm reception. The result was that the first attack was successfully repelled, with considerable loss to the enemy, who then withdrew, and proceeded to attack the company occcupying the court-house. Upon the withdrawal of the enemy from his front, Col. Parkhurst at once dispatched a messenger to the colonel of the 3d Minnesota, at Stone River, informing him of the situation, and asking him to come to his (Parkhurst's) assistance. With this request the officer in question, for what doubtless seemed to him good reasons, declined to comply. It was believed that he might have done so with good prospects of success, he having a comparatively large force, including an efficient battery. Certainly any attempt of Col. Parkhurst-with his little force of less than three hundred men, and no artillery-to effect a junction with the Minnesotians, in the face of such an overwhelming body of the enemy, would have been almost fool-hardy. At the court-house the attacking party met a very warm reception from the defending garrison, who held them at bay for two long hours, and only surrendered when they found such a course inevitable. Immediately after their capture they were sent to the rear, in the direction of McMinnville, without an hour's delay, for the rebel commander believed that his work might at any moment be interrupted by Union reinforcements from either or all of the several detachments posted at different points in the vicinity; a very natural supposition, and one which might very easily have been verified. From the siege of the court-house the enemy returned to the attack of Col. Parkhurst's position, which, during the brief cessation of hostilities had been strengthened by such slight defenses as the men had been able to construct in the short time, and with the insufficient means and materials at their command. Slight as they were they afforded some shelter to the defending force, who though outnumbered more than ten to one by their assailants, fought with the most determined and persistent bravery till past noon, when, as it became evident that they need look no longer for succor, and that further resistance was useless, their leader submitted to the inevitable, and surrendered. During the eight hours through which they had stood at bay their loss had been thirteen killed and eighty-seven wounded. The enemy admitted that his own loss in killed alone had been thirty-five, and there is little doubt that it was much beyond this figure. Among the captured officers were all those of the regiment belonging in Branch County, viz., Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, Capt. Mansfield, and Lieut. Hull. The first and last mentioned were marched away by the victorious rebels. Capt. Mansfield being unable to endure the march was left behind, paroled, as was also Col. Duffield, who had been badly wounded during the fight. His companion in his unfortunate visit to the post-Gen. Crittenden-had also been captured at the hotel in the village, and was taken away with the other prisoners, to whose numbers was also added the Minnesota Regiment before mentioned, and the men and officers of Hewett's Battery. At McMinnville, Forrest paroled the enlisted men whom he had captured, and they returned to Nashville, whence they were sent to Camp Chase. He, however, retained the officers and took them to Knoxville. From there they were sent to Atlanta, then to Madison, Ga., where they remained for a considerable time, then to Columbia, S. C., to Salisbury, N. C., and finally to Libby prison, at Richmond, where they were eventually paroled. Col. Parkhurst was exchanged in December, 1862. In the mean time the portion of the regiment which had escaped capture at Murfreesboro' had been engaged against the enemy at Tyree Springs, Tenn., and at Mumfordsville, Ky., about the time of Gen. Buell's advance from Louisville to Perryville and Bowling Green. On the 24th of December, 1862, Lieut.-Col. Parkhurst, then in command of the 9th (Col. Duffield was permanently disabled by the wounds received at Murfreesboro', and resigned less than two months after that time), reported for duty at the headquarters of Gen. Thomas, near Nashville, and was assigned to duty as provost-marshal; his regiment (reorganized and with ranks refilled by the exchanged prisoners) being detailed as provost-guard of the 14th Corps. The remark was made by Gen. Thomas, on the issuance of the order assigning it to that duty, that he had fully acquainted himself with the history of the part taken by the regiment in their defense of the post of Murfreesboro' against Forrest, and that just such a regiment was what he needed at his headquarters. The duty to which the 9th was thus assigned was performed by the regiment from that time until the expiration of its term of service. For the manner in which they performed the duties devolving on them at the battles of Stone River and Chickamauga (particularly the former), Col. Parkhurst and the regiment were warmly complimented by Gen. Thomas. When that general assumed the chief command of the Army of the Cumberland, after Chickamauga, Col. Parkhurst (who had received his promotion to the colonelcy Feb. 6, 1863) was made

Page  65 65 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. provost-marshal-general of the department, and the 9th became provost-guard at army headquarters. In December, 1863, the regiment, to the number of two hundred and twenty-nine, re-enlisted as a veteran organization, received a veteran furlough, and returned to Michigan in a body, arriving at Coldwater in January, 1864. At the expiration of its furlough, reassembling at the same place, it left on the 20th of February for the front, with its ranks filled to about five hundred men. At Chattanooga it returned to duty at headquarters, and in the summer and fall of 1864 participated in all the operations of the Army of the Cumberland in Georgia and Tennessee. It entered Atlanta on its evacuation by the enemy, and was there engaged in provost duty till that city was abandoned by the Union forces, when it returned to Chattanooga. During October, sixty-nine members were discharged by expiration of their term of service, but as a large number of recruits had been received during the year, the regiment, on the 1st of November, 1864, numbered eight hundred and ninety-seven enlisted men. It remained in Chattanooga until the 27th of March, 1865, when it was moved to Nashville. There it stayed on duty at headquarters and as guard at the military prison until the 15th of September, when it was mustered out of the service, and on the following day left for Michigan. It arrived at Jackson on the 19th of September, and one week later the men were paid off and disbanded, when they returned to their homes and to the avocations of peace. MEMBERS OF THE NINTH INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. John G. Parkhurst, Coldwater, lieut.-col.; enl. Sept. 10, 1861; captured at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 13, 1862; released Dec. 3,1862; col., Feb. 6, 1863; brevt. brig.-gen., May 22, 1865; must. out Nov. 10, 1865. Mortimer Mansfield, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Oct. 12, 1861; capt., Jan. 7, 1862; captured at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 13, 1862; released Aug. 8, 1862; must. out Sept. 15,1865. William A. Hull, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Oct. 12, 1861; 1st lient., Feb. 8, 1862; captured at Murfreesboro', July 13, 1862; released Dec. 3, 1862; capt., April 9, 1863; resigned Aug. 22, 1864, to enter gunboat service. Charles W. Bennett, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. Jan. 17, 1863; capt. in U. S. colored troops, Oct. 26, 1863; brevet major, Oct. 1865; must. out June 14, 1866. Rev. Joseph Wood, chaplain; enl. Feb. 19, 1864; not mustered. Robert Eberhard, Co. G; disch. by order Sept. 28, 1865. Thomas A. Eberhard, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles E. Gregg, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. George Gregg, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Isaac Gould, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Dennis Blacken, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Joseph F. Hill, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William Hassett, Co. D; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Henry Nessey, Co. D; must. out June 20, 1865. Parker Howes, Co. D; must. out June 20, 1865. Henry Hungerford, Co. D; must. out Jan. 21,1865. John S. Haines, Co. D; must. out June 20,1865. Piiches Hilliar, Co. G; disch. to enlist as veteran, Dec. 7, 1863. Marion A. Howard, Co. H; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles Jordon, Co. G; died of disease at West Point, Ky., Dec. 1, 1861. John W. Klotz, Co. D; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Henry C. Kenyon, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William Krapohl, Co. G; must. out. Sept. 15, 1865. John P. Kidney, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15,1865; came from 4th Inf. Frank Lester, Co. C; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Fred. Lautz, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Fred. Lipstaff, Co. G; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. Charles P. Lake, Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Henry Lake, Co. K; disch. by order, Sept. 28, 1865. Fred. Miller, Co. H; died of disease at Coldwater, Mich., Feb. 14,1864. George Mathews, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Francis McGurk, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Alex. McIntyre, Co. G; disch. by order, June 20,1865. Daniel R. McKay, Co. G; discb. by order, June 20,1865. 9 Henry Melvin, Co. G; disch. by order, June 20,1865. Alvin Marks, Co. I; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. George H. Newell, N. C. S.; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Lewis W. Nathans, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Thomas L. Nixon, Co. H; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Andrew Nupher, Co. G; disch. to enlist as veteran, Dec. 7, 1863. Dewitt Pierce, Co. C; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Addison J. Peckham, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Daniel G. Parker, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Joseph E. Penner, Co. H; died of disease at White Pigeon, Mich., Dec. 7, 1861. Riley Pierce, Co. H; must. out Sept. 15,1865. Henry Robinson, Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Jeremiah Rhodes, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. John Ross, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles E. Rhodes, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. David Rodgers, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Simon Ream, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. George Rogers, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Adams Reed, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Barnard L. Rider, Co. K; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., May 24,1865. James Reynolds, Co. G; died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 13,1862. William J. Sternbaugh, Co. G; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 13, '65. Barlow Smith, Co. G; disch. to enlist as veteran, Dec. 7, 1863. Charles F. Smith, Co. A; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Armonus Springsteen, Co. E; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Rodolph Stickler, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Bernard Schlieting, Co. G; disch. Jan. 16, 1865, for pro. in 45th Wis. Vols. James F. Schemerhorn, Co. G; disch. to enlist as veteran, Dec. 7, 1863. Levi Sprague, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Benj. F. Safford, Co. I; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. Calvin D. Smith, Co. I; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. Alex. Tracy, Co. I; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Thaddeus Vining, Co. I; disch. by order, Sept. 28, 1865. Michael Unrah, Co. B; died of disease at Galien, Mich., Sept. 1862. B. E. Williams, Co. G; died of disease, June 1, 1864. Henry Wiser, Co. G; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 3, 1864. John Winsey, Co. G; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 12, 1864. Henry C. Westfall, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Ira M. Ware, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Wm. H. Withington, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Isaac Widemner, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Carlos Whitmore, Co. G; must out Sept. 15, 1865. Steward Wilcox, Co. K; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. Dyer Wood, Co. K; disch. by order, May 15, 1865. Lanson C. Wilder, Co. K; disch. by order, June 20, 1865. Charles H. Yates, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. James Allen, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Samuel E. Acker, Co. G; disch. March 14,1865, for promotion in U. S. C. T. Henry Bennett, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Peter Bohn, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Dwight G. Bolster, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Henry Bordenas, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles W. Bennett, Co. G; in battles Stone River, Chickamauga, Nashville, etc.; promoted. (See officers.) Jackson Brown, Co. G; disch. by order, Sept. 28, 1865. Howard Bradley, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 24,1862. William E. Bennett, Co. K; must out Sept. 15, 1865. Eli Bowen, Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Oren Bowen, Co. K; disch. by order, Sept. 25, 1865. James Barnes, Co. G; disch. for disability, Sept. 20, 1862. Winton B. Brooks, Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles W. Babbitt. Co. K; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Reuben S. Babbitt, Co. K; disch. by order, May 12, 1865. James Callaghan, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Nelson 0. Caroyl, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Lebannah E. Corder, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William Cannady, Co. B; must, out Sept. 15,1865. Lester 0. Chapman, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Charles Conrad, Co. G; died of disease at Coldwater, Mich., Aug. 15, 1862. Stillman Crandall, Co. I; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Wm. A. Clark, Co. D; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1862. Henry Crippen, Co. I; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Herbert B. Davis, Co. G; died of disease, April 1, 1864, at Chattanooga, Tenn. Isaac Doughty, Co. B; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William J. Dyer, Co. D; disch. by order, Sept. 29, 1865. Melvin Dickinson, Co. C; disch. by order, Sept. 9,1865. Francis Duniug, Co. F; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Andrew Demarest, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865; disch. to enlist as veteran, Dec. 7, 1863. George W. Demarest, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. Henry J. Dufres, Co. G; disch. by order, Feb. 10, 1865. Lafayette Davis, Co. H; must. out Sept. 15,1865. James D. Edwards, Co. C; must. out Sept. 15, 1865. William Eberhard, Co. G; must. out Sept. 15, 1865.

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CHAPTER XIV. ELEVENTH INFANTRY. Companies B, H, and D principally from Branch County-Where they were Raised, and their First Officers-Muster of the Regiment -It goes to Kentucky-Sent to Tennessee in May, 1862-Over the Mountains after Guerrillas-Back to Nashville-Sent to Louisville, Ky.,'and Mounted-After John Morgan-On Foot Again-Back to Nashville-Building Fortifications-The Battle of Stone RiverCol. Stoughton's Report-The Regiment's Loss-On Duty as Provost-Guard-The Advance in June, 1863-Skirmish at Elk RiverFight at McLemore's Cove-The Battle of Chickamauga-Transferred to 14th Corps-The Victory of Mission Ridge-Pursuit of the Enemy-Resaca, etc.-The Georgia Campaign of 1864-Marietta, Peach-Tree Creek, and Atlanta-Chasing Wheeler-Muster out of the Old Regiment-New Organization-It goes to Chattanooga-Services in Tennessee-Its Return and Discharge. THE 11th Michigan Infantry Regiment was raised in the summer and autumn of 1861. It was composed of men from Branch, Hillsdale, St. Joseph, and other southern counties of the State, and had its rendezvous at White Pigeon, in St. Joseph County, where it was organized under authority received by Col. William J. May, its first commanding officer. Two of its companies-B and Hwere made up almost entirely, and another —D Companyvery largely, of men belonging to Branch County. Company B was recruited at Quincy by Captain Melvin Mudge, assisted by Francis M. Bissell (afterwards its captain) and others. It left that place on the 22d of August and reported at the rendezvous, where, on the 24th, it was mustered into the United States service, with full ranks, by Captain H. Tilden, U. S. A. Its first officers were Melvin Mudge, of Quincy, Captain; Jerome Bowen, of Butler, First Lieutenant; Miles Warren, of Butler, Second Lieutenant. The nucleus of Company H was formed at Coldwater at about the same time; it was moved thence to the rendezvous, and there filled by recruits arriving in squads from Coldwater and other parts of the county. The first officers of this company were: Captain, John L. Hackstaff, of Coldwater; First Lieutenant, Samuel C. Mills, of Coldwater; Second Lieutenant, Leonidas E. Mills, of Coldwater. Company D was largely recruited in Bronson and vicinity, and in the early days of the organization was frequently mentioned as "the Bronson Company." The following were its first officers: Captain, Benjamin G. Bennett, of Burr Oak, St. Joseph Co.; First Lieutenant, John R. Keeler, of Burr Oak, St. Joseph Co.; Second Lieutenant, Theodore P. Kesler, of Bronson, Branch Co. Afterwards, upon the promotion of Capt. Bennett and the resignation of the two lieutenants, the three offices were all filled by Branch County men. The several companies of the regiment were mustered into the United States service at different dates, from August 24 to September 11,-their term of enlistment being three years. The original field and staff officers of the regiment were as follows: Colonel, William J. May; Lieutenant-Colonel, William L. Stoughton; Major, Benjamin F. Doughty; Surgeon, Dr. William N. Elliott; Assistant Surgeon, Nelson I. Packard; Chaplain, Holmes A. Pattison; Adjutant, Samuel Chadwick; Quartermaster, Addison T. Drake. Having received its armament (consisting of Belgian and other muskets of indifferent quality) the lth Regiment brokecamp at White Pigeon on the 11th of December, and about midnight took railway transportation and proceeded to Louisville, Ky., where it was encamped for a short time in the southern suburbs of the city. From that place it was moved to Bardstown, Ky., in which vicinity it remained through the winter, suffering severely from sickness (measles and smallpox) among the men. In the latter part of March the regiment removed to Belmont, Ky, where it was engaged in guarding the railroad. While at this place the men exchanged their inferior arms for Springfield rifles. On the 1st of April the resignation of Col. May was accepted, and Lieut.-Col. Stoughton was promoted to the colonelcy of the regiment. On or about the 3d of May the 11th moved by rail to Louisville, and thence by steamer on the Ohio and Cumberland Rivers to Nashville, Tenn., joining the command of Gen. Negley. There it remained on picket and ordinary camp duty for two or three weeks, and was then moved rapidly to Columbia, Tenn., on account of a reported raid of the rebel Gen. John Morgan in that direction. The command remained at Columbia for some weeks, Capt. Mudge, of Company B, acting as provost-marshal of the town during that time. From Columbia the regiment moved to Pulaski, and soon afterwards to Murfreesboro', Tenn.; thence (under orders from Gen. Dumont) it marched eastward across the mountains to the Sequatchie Valley in pursuit of guerrillas; but as only a few scouts were seen it soon moved back to Nashville, from which point it was dispatched by railroad to *Gallatin, Tenn., being again in pursuit of the redoubtable John Morgan, with whose rearguard a slight skirmish was had on the 13th of August. From this expedition the 11th moved to Bowling Green, Ky., and from there to Louisville. Here the regiment was mounted (though in a very indifferent manner), and marched (as mounted infantry) once more in chase of John Morgan, who was reported to be in the vicinity of Frankfort, Ky. The regiment moved to that place, and also to Paris and Georgetown, but the rough riders of Morgan had escaped, and the 11th returned to Louisville, where it was dismounted, and, resuming its infantry status, proceeded by rail back to Nashville. There it was joined to the 29th Brigade, in the command of Gen. Negley; the other regiments of the brigade being the 21st and 69th Ohio, and 19th Illinois. The lieutenant-colonel and major of the regiment were then respectively Nathaniel B. Eldridge and Sylvester C. Smith; promoted as such vice Stoughton, promoted, and Doughty, resigned (Aug. 18, 1862). On the approach of Gen. Buell's army from the Tennessee River, on its way to Kentucky in pursuit of the invading forces of Bragg, the 11th was moved out to Murfreesboro' to meet the column, and after its passage through the town the regiment marched in its rear back to Nashville, where it became stationary for a time. While there Company B, under command of Second Lieut. F. M. Bissell (First Lieut. Bowen being at the time on the sick list and Capt. Mudge absent on recruiting service), was ordered to commence the erection of a defensive work in the southern suburb of the town, this being the first

Page  67 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 67 movement made towards the fortification of Nashville. The work which was then commenced by that company (and soon after completed under direction of Capt. St. Clair Morton) was the one known as Fort Negley, the principal one in the chain of works which afterwards encircled the city. At the opening of the campaign of Murfreesboro' by Gen. Rosecrans, the 11th moved with its brigade, Dec. 26, 1862, on the Murfreesboro' turnpike, reaching Nolansville the same night, and, during the succeeding four days, passing Stewart's Creek and Overall's Creek to the bloody field of Stone River, where the regiment was to receive its initiation to the wild work of battle. What that work was, and how the brave men of the 11th performed it, is well told in Col. Stoughton's official report of that furious engagement, from which we extract as follows: "On the morning of the 31st of December heavy firing was heard on our right and front, and apparently rapidly approaching the position occupied by the 2d Brigade. The regiment was immediately formed and marched to the brow of the hill near brigade headquarters. The skirmishing soon after indicated the approach of the enemy to the right of this position, and my regiment was formed in line of battle under cover of a ledge of rocks about one hundred yards in this direction. The skirmishing continued with much spirit for nearly an hour, when a heavy roar of musketry and artillery announced that the principal attack of the enemy was being made on our left and rear. I immediately gave orders to change front on first company, which was promptly executed under a heavy fire, and the regiment advanced in line of battle to the crest of the hill from which Shultz's battery had first been driven, and poured a well-directed and effective fire into the advancing columns of the enemy. "The firing continued with spirit and energy until orders came to retire. The fire of the enemy was apparently concentrated upon this point, and was terrific. Men and officers fell on every side. The regiment fell back about eighty yards, was again formed, and then delivered its fire upon the enemy as he advanced over the hill, then retiring to the cover of the cedar woods in our rear. Here some confusion was at first manifest. A large number of regiments had fallen back to this place for shelter, and the enemy's infantry and artillery opened upon us from all sides except from the left, towards the Murfreesboro' pike. Order, however, was promptly restored by our division and brigade commanders, and my regiment, with others, moved slowly to the rear, keeping up a steady fire upon the enemy. When nearer the cleared field to the right of the Murfreesboro' pike, the regiment was rallied, and held the ground for twenty or thirty minutes. It was then marched about half-way across the open field, when orders came to charge back into the cedars. My regiment promptly obeyed my orders, rallied on the colors, and charged into the woods with great gallantry, checking the enemy by the sudden and impetuous attack. After delivering one volley orders came to retire, and the regiment fell back in good order to the left of the Murfreesboro' pike.. Here closed the active operations of that day. " On the 2d of January we were again called into action. In the afternoon of that day we were posted, as a reserve, in an open field in the rear of our batteries, on the right of the left wing of our army. Between three and four o'clock the enemy made a heavy attack with artillery and infantry on our front. My command was kept lying upon the ground, protected by a slight hill, for about half an hour. At the expiration of this time the enemy had driven back our forces on the opposite side of the river, one regiment crossing in great disorder and rushing through our ranks. As soon as the enemy came within range, my regiment with the others of this brigade, rose up, delivered its fire, and charged across the river. In passing the river my line of battle was necessarily broken, and I led the regiment forward to a fence on a rise of ground and reformed the line. "Here the firing continued for some time until the enemy was driven from his cover and retreated through the woods. My regiment was then promptly advanced to the edge of the woods, and continued to fire upon the enemy as he fled in disorder across the open field in front to his line of intrenchments. At this time the ammunition was nearly exhausted, and my regiment, with the others in advance, formed in line of battle, threw out skirmishers, and held our position until recalled across the river. The 1ltl was among the first to cross Stone River, and assisted in capturing four pieces of artillery, abandoned by the enemy in his flight. " I cannot speak too highly of the conduct of the troops under my command. They fought with the bravery and coolness of veterans, and obeyed my commands under the hottest fire with the precision of the parade-ground." The total loss of the regiment during those terrible days at Stone River was one hundred and eleven in killed and wounded and twenty-nine missing. Upon the occupation of Murfreesboro' by the Union troops, after the battle of Stone River, Col. Stoughton was made provost-marshal of the town, and the regiment remained there on duty as provost-guard until June 24, 1863, when it moved forward with the army on the road to Tullahoma. It then formed part of the 2d Brigade, 2d Division of the 14th Army Corps, under Gen. George H. Thomas. On the 1st of July it was engaged in a sharp and obstinate skirmish with the enemy at Elk River, Tenn., where it suffered slight loss. After this fight it was encamped at Decherd, Tenn., until the general forward movement of the army in September, which resulted in the battle and defeat of Chickamauga. In this campaign the regiment moved with Thomas' Corps to Stevenson and Bridgeport, Ala., crossed the Tennessee River, entered Georgia, moved up the Trenton Valley, and thence crossed the mountains southeastwardly through "McLemore's Cove" to Davis' Cross-Roads, or Pigeon Gap, where it was engaged with the enemy, and assisted in covering the retreat of the divisions of Baird and Negley from Dug Gap, Ga. A few days later (Sept. 19 and 20, 1863) the 11th took an active and prominent part in the disastrous fight at Chickamauga. In that battle it was under command of Lieut. Col. Mudge, of Quincy, Col. Stoughton being then in command of the brigade. This brigade (the 2d) held a most important point in the line of the 24th Corps, when,

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I in the afternoon of Sunday, Sept. 20, the hosts of the enemy, then fresh from the defeat and rout of the Union right wing under McCook, came exultingly on to overwhelm the troops of the steadfast Thomas. The shock was unwaveringly met and successfully repelled by the veterans of the 14th Corps. The 11th Michigan here fought with great gallantry and persistence, repelling charge after charge of the enemy, losing eighty-three in killed and wounded, and being one of the last regiments to retire from the lost field, "when utter darkness closed its wing" over the slaughter of the day. The following morning Col. Stoughton took a position commanding the gap to the southeast of Rossville, expecting each moment to hear the crash of rebel fusillades along his front. He, however, held the position through the day and the succeeding night, until four o'clock on the morning of the 22d (the entire Union army having in the mean time retreated, leaving this brigade alone on the outpost), when, hearing sounds which indicated that the enemy was preparing to advance, he quietly and successfully withdrew his pickets and moved the command with all possible speed to Chattanooga, which was reached without the loss of a man. The successful movement of the brigade, and the admirable conduct of the troops composing it, were afterwards highly complimented by General Thomas. In the reorganization of the army which followed the campaign of Chickamauga, the 11th became part of the 2d Brigade of Gen. King's (1st) Division of the 14th Corps. It remained with the other troops of the army, beleaguered, in Chattanooga until the 25th of November, when it marched in its place with the line that moved to the assault of the frowning works of the enemy on Mission Ridge. Far above the Union army-then commanded by Gen. Grant-on those bristling heights were the Confederate forces of Gen. Bragg, their position, apparently almost impregnable by nature, being strengthened by long lines of intrenchments with numerous redoubts, which seemed able to defy every attempt which could be made by the most desperate enemy. No military achievement equal to the conquest of those lines had been accomplished in America since the army of Wolfe surmounted the Heights of Abraham and vanquished the legions of Montcalm before the walls of Quebec. But Wolfe made his way to the top of the heights by means of a night surprise, while at Mission Ridge the two armies were too large for that, and the Union forces were drawn out in broad day, with all the Confederate hosts as interested spectators. Yet when the order was given the long blue lines advanced steadily up the embattled steeps, sometimes climbing by means of bushes, and firing as they went at the enemy (who from his vantage ground sent thousands of bullets throughout their devoted ranks), pressing on without a thought of retreat, and finally driving the foe in utter confusion from all his rifle-pits, intrenchments, and redoubts, capturing thousands of prisoners and scores of cannon, and seizing the key-position of Georgia and the Southeast. The 11th Michigan was one of the m tive and valiant regiments in the great charge, and was one of the very first to reaO the enemy's works. 1' had tirty-nine men killed and wunded, including among the former its gallant commander, Maj. Bennett. I.The 1th hastened in pursuit of the flying foe, and at Graysville it charged their rear, aiding in the capture of Ferguson's Battery, with caissons and horses complete. It was then stationed at Rossville, Graysville, and vicinity until the 7th of May, when it entered on Gen. Sherman's Georgia campaign. It was engaged at Resaca, Ga., May 14, and at New Hope Church on the 27th. At the lastnamed place it remained eight days in an exposed position, almost constantly under fire. Again joining the pursuit, it participated in a successful charge on the intrenchments near Marietta, having thirteen men killed and wounded. At Peach-Tree Creek, on the 20th of July, it lost eleven killed and wounded, and at the battle in front of Atlanta, on the 7th of August, it had fifteen men killed and fifteen wounded. The regiment's term of service having now expired, it returned to Chattanooga, August 27, but three days after its arrival there, was ordered to join a column sent in pursuit of the rebel Gen. Wheeler, who was then raiding in Tennessee. On this service it marched to Murfreesboro', and thence to Huntsville, Ala., but finding no enemy, it returned to Chattanooga, September 13, and on the 18th started for Michigan, leaving behind one hundred and fiftytwo veterans and recruits with unexpired terms. It was mustered out at Sturgis on the 13th of September, 1864. ELEVENTH INFANTRY REORGANIZED. It was determined, however, not to lose the name and prestige of a regiment which had won such renown, and even before its muster out, orders were issued by the Governor for its reorganization. This was not accomplished until the 18th of March, 1865, when the new 11th was concentrated at Jackson. The new regiment contained more than one hundred members from Branch County. About the 1st of April it proceeded to Chattanooga, where it was joined by the veterans and others who had been left behind on the return of the old regiment. By this time the fighting in the West was over, but the regiment was retained in Tennessee until the middle of September, mostly engaged in guarding railroads, etc., in the eastern part of that State. It was paid off and disbanded at Jackson, Mich., on the 23d of September, 1865. MEMBERS OF ELEVENTH INFANTRY (OLD ORGANIZATION) FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Melvin Mudge, Quincy, capt., Co. B; onl. Aug. 24, 1861; lieut.-col.,Jan. 7, 1863; must. out at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles Moase, Bronson, capt., Co. G; enl. Aug. 24, 1861; res. Feb. 14, 1862; reappointed Feb. 14,1862; res. Nov. 14,1862. John L. Hackstaff, Coldwater, capt., Co. H; enl. Aug. 24,1861; res. March 11, '62. Jerome Bowen, Quincy, 1st lient., Co. B: enl. Aug. 24, 1b61; res. Nov. 26, 1862. Samuel C. Mills, Coldwater, 1st lieut., Co. H; enl. Aug. 24, 1861; res. June 24, '62. Miles Warren, Quincy, 2d lient., Co. H; enl. Aug. 24,1861; res. Feb. 8, 1862. Theo. P. Kessler, Bronson, 2d lieut., Co. H; enl. Aug. 24,1861; res. Feb. 12,1802. Leonidas E. Mills, Coldwater, 2d lileut., Co. H; enl. Aug. 24, 1861; res. June 23, 1862. Francis M. Bissell, Quincy, 2d lieut., Co. B; enl. Feb. 19, 1862; 1st lieut., Nov. 26, 1862; capt., Jan. 7, 1863; disch. for disability, June 4, 1864. Linus T. Squire, Quincy, 2d lieut., June 24, 1862; 1st lieut., Jan. 1, 1863; adjt., Aug. 3,1863; must. out at end of service. Sept. 30, 1864. Edward W. Catlin, Algansee, 2d lieut.; enl. M^rch 12, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 10, 1862; capt., Jan. 13, 1864; died of wounds received, Aug. 7, 1864, near Atlanta, Ga. Benj. F. Hart, Bronson, 14 lieut., Co. D; enl. Jan. 9,1864; must. out S,.pt. 30, '64. Chauncey E. Koon, Allen, 2d lieut., Co. B; enl. Nov. 26, 1862; let lieut, Jan. 7, 1863; ca;lt., Jan. 17, 1864; must out at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James C. Cushman, Bronson, 1st lieut., Co. H; enl. Aug. 3, 1863;-nust. out at end of service, Spt. 30, 1864.

Page  69 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 69 Henry C. Adams, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. March 1,1865; must. out Sept. 16,'65. Irving S. Graham, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. June 1, 1865; must. Oaut Sept. 16,1865. Frank H. Lane, Bronson, capt.; enl. Jan. 7, 1863; dismissed July 13, 1864. Herman C. Adams, Co. B; disch. by order to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1, 1863. Jesse Belcher, Co. B; trans. to 16th Mich. Inf., Sept. 20, 1861. Augustus Barjerow, Co. B; disch. to enlist in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Henry C. Bennett, Co B; disch. for disability, June 4,1862. Levi Busley, Co. B; disch. for disabillty, July 1, 1862. Oliver Busley, Co. B; died in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862. Nathaniel E. Burch, Co. B; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 11, 1862. Marcius J. Bissell, Co. B; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., March 16, 1862. Jerry M. Burleson, Co. B; dlich. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Joseph A. Bowen, Co. B; disch. by order, May 31, 1865. Ozro A. Bowen, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Andrew Clark, Co. B; died of disease at Belmont Furnace, Ky., April 18, 1862. Thomas Clark, Co. B; disch. for disability, Sept. 15, 1862. Christopher Conly, Co. B; disch. for disability, Oct. 18, 1862. Win. H. Cummings; died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., Nov. 25, 1863. William Clemens, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1,1863. George W. Catlin, Co. B; trans. to 16th Mich. Inf., Sept. 20, 1861. John F. Cole, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Lyman L. Cole, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James B. Daggett, Co. B; trans. to 16th Mich. Inf., Sept. 20, 1861. Eugene Debois, Co. B; disch. for disability, Nov. 20, 1862. Henry S. Danks, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Melvin T. Edmonds, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 3), 1864. William II. Emens, Co. B; disch. for disability, April 19, 1863. Wilbur S. Harding, Co. B; disch. for disability, May 14,1863. Samuel Hedge, Co. B; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 28, 1863. Edwin J. Hull, Co. B; disci. for minority, Sept. 10, 1862 Andrew J. Hawse, Co. B; disch. for minority, Sept. 10, 1862. Daniel Haynes, Co. B; died Jan. 2, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River. William W. Johnson, Co. B; died Dec. 31, 186'. Francis Jerome, Co. B; disch. for disability, Feb. 11, 1863. William Kerr; died of disease, at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Feb. 13,1863. Adelbert E. Lockwood, Co. B; disch. for disability, June 4, 1862. John McGinnis, Co. B; disch. for disability. Levi McGinnis, Co. B; died at Murfreesboro', Feb. 4, 1863, of wounds. Edward C. McDonald, Co. B; disch. for disability, Oct. 4, 1862. Halsey Miller, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Fred. Maltmnan, Co. B; di ch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Orrin P. Nichols, Co. B; died in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862. Derry Nichols, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Milo D. Niles, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Joseph W. Perkins, Co. B; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 8,1862. Charles V. Patterson, Co. B; died at Kingston, Ga., of wounds, Aug. 24, 1864. James Pierce, Co. B; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 21, 1862. Halsey E. Philips, Co. B; disch. for disability. Ogden B. Philips, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Menzo Philips, Co B; disch. at expiration of service, Dec. 9, 1864. Thomas C. Poynes, Co. B; disch. for disability, Dec. 2,1862. Edward Poynes, Co. B; disch. for disability, March 9, 1863. Edwin Poyncs, Co. 1B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Aaron J. Parsons, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles A. Reed, C,,. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. George N. R. Runyon, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William I. Rogers, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Ansel Rich, Co. B; taken prisoner at Chickamauga; died at Andersonville, Ga. Roseo Somes, Co. B; disch. for disability, June 4, 1862. David Sidley, Co. B; disch. for disability, July 1, 1862. George Slayton, Co. B; disch. to enlist in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862 Peter L. Schwartz, Co. B; disch. to enlist in regular ser\ ice, Nov. 25, 1862. George Schwartz, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Martin Schwartz, Co. B; died at Litchfield, Mich, Feb. 5, 1864. James Sweezey, Co. B; disch. at expiration of servi:e, Sept. 3), 1864. Melvin Shear, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. John G. Scripture, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Joseph T. Tindall, Co. B; diclh. for disability, Oct. 28, 1862. William H. Tindall, Co. B; died at Murfreesboro' of wounds. George W. Taylor, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Jonathan S. Tindall, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. George Turpin, Co. B; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. George Upton, Co. B; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., May 23, 1862. Geo. W. Van Valkenberg, Co. B; died at Annapolis, Md., Feb. 5, 1863. James M. Van Camp, Co. B; disch. by order, Jan. 31, 1863. Tracy Vaughn; trsis. to 16th Mich. Inf., Sept. 20,1861. Jaslier Williams, Co. B; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., March 22, 1862. John C. Weller, Co. B; disch. for disability, Aug. 10, 1862. John Welch, Co. B; disch. for disability, April 17, 1863. Washington Whitney, Co. B; disch. by order, May 29, 1865. William A. Wheeler, Co. B; was in battle of Stone River; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps; disch. in 1864. Andrew Bair, Co. C; disch. for disability, Dec. 9, 1861. Hubbard F. Buffum, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 28, 1862. Henry Burleson, Co. D. David G. Burleson, Co. D; discl. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samnel A. Clark, Co. D; died of disease, April 1, 1862. Jesse J. Christy, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Stp-t. 30, 1864. John W. Coe, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. George Chandler, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1862. Henry C. Cady, Co. C; trans. to Medical Department, April 1, 1862. Jehiel Driggs, Co. D; disch. for disability, May 19,1862. A. M. Dusenberry, Co. D; died of disease, Feb. 16, 1862. Oliver Evarts, Co. D; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 28, 18-3. Lyman Evans, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles W. Eggleston, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James Ensign, Co. A; missing in action at Clilckamauga, Sept. 11,1863. W.lliail H. Edwards, Co. D; disch. for disability, Aug. 14, 1862.George W. Griffin, Co. D; disch. for disability, March 6,1863. Anson T. Gilbert, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. John George, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Johnl A. Gary, Co. C; died of wounds at Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 7, 1864. John ltenigan, Co. D; died of disease, March 28, 1862. Richard M. Hines, Co. D; died of disease, Jan. 25, 1862. Johnl Henlerson, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 10, 1862. Daniel W. Holbrook, Co. A; disch. for disability, Oct. 28, 1863. Harry N. Hanilton, Co. D; disch. for disability, Dec. 4, 1863. Charles Hamilton, Co. D; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 1, 1864. William L. Hoxie, Co. D; died in action at Davis' Cross-Roads, Ga., Sept. 11, 186:3. Charles D. HIamner, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Wellington Henderson, Ca,. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Henry E. Hallrewer, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Jacob E. Kenbarger, Co. D; disch. by order, May 29,1865. Wm. II. T. Kelluml, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Melvin J. Lyon, Co. D; di-ch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel W. Loring, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Charles W. Leigli, Co. A; disch. by order. Gordon Lynch, Co. C; disch. for minority, Nov. 6, 1861. Thomas McLaughlin, Co. D; disch. for disability, Oct. 30, 1862. Jerome Milliman, Co. D; disch. for disability. William 11. Melvillp, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. Hatrmon Otto, Co. D; di ch. at expiration of service, S pt. 30, 1864. Henry Patten, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1814. John W. Purdy, Co. D; discth. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Charles E. Pirdy, Co. D; disch at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Jacob Peeler, Co. D; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 10, 1863. John W. Quayle, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Clarkson Robinson, Co. D; disch. for disabilitf, Oct. 30, 1862. George L. Smith, Co. D; discl. for disability, Feb. 20,1862. Stephen Sliippy, Co. D; died of disease, Feb. 8, 1862. Daniel A. Shippy, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. David R. Smith, C.). D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Homer C. Smith, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Joseph Tubbs, Co. D; disch. for disability, June 20, 1862. Willian Tice, Co. D; disch. for disability, Feb. 28,1863. Charles A. Wilber, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Wallace Wilber, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Ephraim Worden, Co. D; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. John H. Alsdorf, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Mathew Adams, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Solomon B. Alsdorf, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William Black, Co. H; died of disease, Feb. 19, 1862. Franklin Bennett, Co. H; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862. George Blair, Co. H; disch. for disability, May 14, 1862. Eugene Barton, Co. H; disch. by civil authority, Sept. 27, 1861. William Burroughs, Co. H; disch. for disability, July, 1863. William Brown, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Alfred G. Brown, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. John Bennett, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Stephen Burleson, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Chester Bates, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Alphonzo Bush, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William Chamterlain, Co. H; died in action at Stone River, Tenn., Dec. 31, 1861. George W. Carleton, Co. H; died of disease, May 12, 1862. Henry Crull, Co. H; died of disease, Feb. 9, 1862. Iliralm Cusick, Co. H; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 10, 1863. Aretus Corwin, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 26, 1862. Horace Crull, Co. H; disch. for disability, April 9,1862. Richard Chamberlain, Co. H; disch. for disability, April 29, 1882. Abel Coon, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. William J. Dates, Co. H; died of disease, March 22, 1862. Orlando Derry, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Seth L. Dusenberry, Co. fl; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Benj. Eastman, Co. H; died near Atlanta, Ga., of wounds, Aug. 7,1864. John Franklin, Co. H; disch. to enl. in regular service, Dec. 8, 1862. Willian W. Fell, Co. H; disch. for disability, Jan. 26, 1864. Edwin S. Franklin, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. George Franklin, Co. H; disch. by order, Sept. 1, 1863. Walter M. Graves, Co. H; died near Atlanta, Ga., of wounds, Aug. 7,1864. William H. Gould, Co. H; died of disease, Feb. 2,1862. Janes H. Griffin, Co. H; died of disease, Jan. 28,1862. Chauncey B. Green, Co. H; died in action at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1863.

Page  70 to HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. George W. Geyer, Co. H; died in action at Stone River, Dec. 31,1863. Edwin A. Green, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. George S. Griffin, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. John Green, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 16,1861. Stillman Hedge, Co. H; died of disease at Annapolis, Md Edwin Higgins, Co. H; disch. for disability. Solomon Haynes, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov 9, 1863. Albert Hewes, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. James M. Harris, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1861. Albert E. Knappen, Co. H; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., May 16,1862. Edward S. Knappen, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. John Kesler, Co. H; disch. to enl. in regular service, Dec. 8, 1862. Anthony Leversoe, Co. H; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 10,1862. Marvin Malleson, Co. H; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862. Fay Mead, Co. H; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds, Jan. 27,1864. Robert Machin, Co. H; died at Chattanooga, Tenn., of wounds. Wm. Harrison Mudge, Co. H; disch. for disability, Aug. 24, 1862. James Martin, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service Sept. 30, 1864. Newton Mitchell, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. George S. McKnight, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Dennis Myswick, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. -John E. Nichols, Co. H; disch. for disability, Aug. 9, 1862. Warren H. Newburg, Co. II; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 30,1863. William Portors, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel Phelps, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 23, 1862. William P. Reynolds, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, May 3, 1865. Lorenzo D. Reynolds, Co. H; disch. for disability, March 14,1863. Irving A. Sheldon, Co. H; died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Jan. 18,1863. Franklin Stearns, Co. H; died of disease, March 10, 1863. Edwin H. Seabury, Co. H; disch. for disability, July 7, 1864. Anthony Stevenson, Co. H; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 10, 1862. Abram Stowell, Co. H; trans. to Andrews' Battery. Abram E. Stowell, Co. H; trans. to Batt. F, 1st Lt. Art., Oct. 20, 1861. Grove M. Tyler, Co. H; died of disease, March 10, 1862. Charles 0. Twist, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 28,1861. Alson A. Tifft, Co. H; disch. for disability, Nov. 21, 1863. Andrew M. Turner, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Edward A. Turner, Co. IH; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Zibina G. Trim, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Joseph Turner, Co. H; died of disease at White Pigeon, Dec. 7, 1861. Harvey Vanderhoff, Co. H; died at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Feb. 4, 1863, of w'ds. Harvey E. Warren, Co. H; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 2,1862. Warren Wilcox, Co. H; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Jan. 15,1861. Winm. L. Wheeler, Co. H; died of disease at White Pigeon, Mich., Nov. 9, 1861. Aaron 0. Wood, Co. H; disch. for disability, May 25, 1862. Charles Whitehead, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 26, 1862. Samuel E. Warren, Co. H; disch. for disability, June 29, 1862. Johnson Willson, Co. H; disch. for disability, Oct. 21, 1862. Charles Webb, Co. HI-I; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles Wilson, Co. H; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 30,1864. Stephen V. Warren, Co. H; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 1, 1863. MEMBERS OF THE ELEVENTH INFANTRY (NEW ORGANIZATION) FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Samuel A. Arnold, Co. A; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., March 24,1865. Adam E. Akenhead, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Giles A. Bixler, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Laurenberg B. Brown, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. David H. Brennan, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John Babb, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Joseph A. Bowen, Co. B; must. out May 26, 1865. George W. Burdick, Co. B; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Lafayette Barton, Co. B; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Obadiah Blass, Co. F; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 1, 1865. Henry E. Burnside, Co. F; must. out Sept. 14, 1865. Joseph B. Badger, Co. F; must. out May 16, 1865. Alvah J. Belote, Co. I; must. out Sept. 14, 1865. Israel L. Bullock, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Edwin Bundy, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Benj. F. Barber, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Herman Crawford, Co. B; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn, April 17,1865. Fred. B. Cutler, Co. B; died of disease at Jackson, Mich., May 24, 1865. Augustus F. Clark, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles N. Carpenter, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Frank Cockley, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Jonas C. Cheney, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16,1865. William L. Craft, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James A. Corey, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Obadiah Davis, Co. F; died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, July 8, 1865. Manly Dunham, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,18657 Harvey Dubois, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Michael Dunn, Co. D; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. I Henry C. David, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Charles Davis, Co. F; must. out Aug. 29, 1865. Charles W. Eggleston, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. William H. Francis, Co. F; must. out May 18, 1865. Joseph Failing, Co. B; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., April 24, 1865. Francis Graham, Co. A; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles Greenman, Co. F; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 12, 1865. Thomas Gunthrop, Co. F; must. out Sept. 14, 1865. John A. Gregg, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Augustus Gorham, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Sherebriah Hayward, Co. B; died of disease at Jackson, Mich., May 24, 1865. Norman F. Henry, Co. B; died of disease at Chattanooga, May 1, 1865. Anthony K. Hower, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Elmer E. Hibbard, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. John S. Houston, Co. F; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 4, 1865. Edward A. Iloughtaling, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Francis M. Hadley, Co. F; must. out Sept 16,1865. James Harrington, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Alonzo Howe, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. George D. Harding, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James W. Harris, Co. K; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Harlow M. Holcomb, Co. K; must. out July 26, 1865. Joseph Jenkins, Co. F; died of dis ase at Nashville, Tenn., June 6, 1865. Jacob E. Kenbarger, Co. D; disch. by order, June 20,1865. Daniel Keeler, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Norris Kellan, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Benj. P. Lyons, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Joel Loomis, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Eber Loomis, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16; 1865. Charles Lewis, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles H. Lindsley, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John E. Mills, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Lester Miller, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Joseph L. Milligan, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Walter Marshall, Co. B; nuust. out S pt. 16, 1865. Zenas Niles, Co. B; died of disease in Nashville, Tenn., April 8,1865. Gilbert S. Norton, Co. I; must. out Sept. 25, 1865. Wm. H. Needham, Co. I; must. out Oct. 14,1865. Byron Rustine, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Hiram Rustine, Co. I; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Horace J. Robinson, Co. I; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 11, 1865. Emmons Russell, Co. C; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., May 30, 1865. Albert Richmond, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Jerome Ralph, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles H. Robinson, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Solomon W. Robinson, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Lucien E. Rowe, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Orlando H. Richardson, Co. B; died of disease at Chattanooga, May 1, 1865. William A. Sweetland, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John H. Stockwell, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16,1865. David A. Steel, Co. B: must. out Sept. 16,1865. George W. Sexton, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. James N. Sorter, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Andrew Sorter, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Paul Shiffler, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Charles Stuart, Co. C; must. out July 12, 1865. William Studley, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Andrew Sitters, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Joseph H. Shippy, Co. C; must. out Sept. 30,1865. Johun Smith, Co. E; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. George E. Sherman, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John G. Skinner, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Zebedee Swan, Co. I; must. out Sept. 28, 1865. George Turpin, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Martin Vanderhoff, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Kilborn Voorhees, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Jacob A. Vanorys, Co. 11; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Abraham Vancuran, Co. H; must. out Sept. 16,1865. Daniel Wolf, Co. B; died of disease at Cleveland, 0., May 29,1865. Almon L. Wright, Co. B; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 27, 1865. W. Whitney, Co. B; must. out June 16, 1865. Henry W. Waterbury, Co. B; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Henry C. Williams, Co. B; must. out Aug. 1, 1865. Wilson Wyland, Co. C; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. J. W. Walls, Co. E; must. out May 15,1865. Andrew E. Wilbur, Co. F; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Calvin C. Weaver, Co. F; must. out Aug. 12,1865. Amos Whitman, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. Storrs Wilbur, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865. John Weaver, Co. I; must. out Aug. 7, 1865. William H. Weller, Co. 1; must out Sept. 16, 1865. Martin H. Williams, Co. I; must. out Sept. 16, 1865.

Page  71 HISTOUY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 71 __I l I I CHAPTER XV. FIFTEENTH, SIXTEENTH, AND SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. A Scattering Representation-From Parade-Ground to Battle-Field -The Fifteenth at Pittsburg Landing-Battle of Corinth-Siege and Capture of Vicksburg-Victorious in Georgia-The March to the Sea-Through the Carolinas-Ordered to Arkansas-Brought Home and Disbanded-List of Officers and Soldiers-A Scant Delegation in the 16th-That Regiment in the Seven Days' FightHeavy Loss at Gaines' Mill-Second Battle of Bull Run-Antietam, Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville-Hotly Engaged at Gettysburg-Sharp Fight in the Wilderness-Subsequent ConflictsStorming the Works at Poplar Grove Church-Hatcher's RunThe Final Struggles-The Muster Out-List of Members-Branch County in the 17th Infantry-To the Front in August, 1862-Hard Fighting at South Mountain and Antietam-The Fredericksburg Campaign-From Virginia to Mississippi-Then to East Tennessee -Fight at Turkey Creek in November, 1863-Defense of Knoxville-Once more to the East-The Wilderness, Spottsylvania, etc. -Heavy Loss-Siege of Petersburg-Final Movements and Return Home. THE 15th Infantry, raised under Col. J. M. Oliver at Monroe, left that place for the front on the 27th day of March, 1862. The Branch County soldiers who served in its ranks during the war, numbered nineteen in Company A, two in Company B, two in C, one in E, one in F, two in G, ten in H, two in I, and fifteen in K,-making fifty-four men scattered among all the ten companies of the regiment. The 15th was transferred almost instantaneously from the peaceful parade-ground at Monroe to the storm of battle at Pittsburg Landing. It arrived the evening of the 5th of April, 1862. The next day the battle opened, and the 15th was hurried to the front, taking an active and gallant part, and having thirty-three officers and men killed, and sixty-four wounded, while seven were reported missing. The regiment served through the siege of Corinth, and was on duty in the vicinity until that place was attacked by the rebel generals, Price and Van Dorn, on the 1st and 2d of October, 1862. It was then on outpost duty, ten miles northwest of Corinth, and was assailed by the whole rebel fbrce. It fell back, contesting the ground inch by inch, and, with some other regiments, held the enemy in check during the whole of that day, giving ample time for Gen. Rosecrans to prepare for the next day's conflict, in which he won a complete victory over the rebel army. The casualties of the 15th were thirteen killed, thirty-two wounded, and five missing. The regiment served in Northern Mississippi until June, 1863, when it was ordered to Vicksburg. Having been assigned to the 9th Corps, it took part in the siege of that city, sharing the hardships and dangers, which were at length rewarded by the surrender of the place (together with the grand army of Gen. Pemberton) on the evermemorable Fourth of July, 1863. The 15th remained in Central Mississippi during the summer, and in October was sent, with the 5th Corps, to reinforce the Army of the Cumberland. It was detained in Northern Alabama until February, 1864, when a portion of the men re-enlisted, and the regiment was sent home on veteran furloulgh, returning to take part in Gen. Sherman's Georgia campaign in May. After unnumbered wearisome marches and many skirmishes, the 15th found itself in the 5th Corps, in front of I I the enemy, near Decatur, Ga. The rebels drove back the 17th Corps, which was on the left of the 5th. The 15th Michigan was ordered to take possession of an exposed position some distance from the line of its corps. On the regiments arriving near the point indicated, it was found to be in possession of the enemy. The men of Michigan did not hesitate, but moved gallantly forward, and, after a brief but sharp conflict, captured the position with seventeen rebel officers, one hundred and sixty-seven men, and three stands of colors. The loss of the 15th was only four killed and six wounded. On the 28th of July the regiment won another victory over an assailing force of the enemy, which was driven off with heavy loss, leaving its dead and wounded on the field. Still another triumph was gained, near Jonesboro', on the 31st of August, when the enemy attacked the fortified camp of the 15th and was most decisively defeated. After the surrender of Atlanta, the regiment went to Northern Alabama, to operate against the rebel Gen. Hood, but returned in time to " march to the sea" with Sherman. It also marched through the Carolinas with that general; went from Washington to Little Rock, Ark., in June and July, 1865; returned to Detroit in August, and was discharged on the 1st of September. MEMBERS OF THE FIFTEENTH INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Rufus Kibbee, surgeon; enl. April 9, 1862; res. Oct. 3, 1862. Benjamin Archer, Co. A; died in action at Shiloh, Tenn., April 6, 1862. Chauncey Ames, Co. F; must. out Aug. 13,1865. John Brower, Co. A; disch. Sept. 8, 1862. Lewis F. Bassett, Co. A; died near Atlanta, Ga., June 17, 1865. Abner R. Beebe, Co. A; disch. by order, July 10, 1865. Henry Ballard, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13. Oscar Bloss, Co. E; disch. by order, Sept. 11, 1865. Daniel S. Burdick, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Jacob Beam, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George Babcock, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. George W. Clark, Co. A; disch. by order, Aug. 5, 1865. Martin Cass, Co. G; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Horace E. Dalton, Co. A; disch. lay order, Nov. 18, 1865. George W. Fenton, Co. A; disch. for disability, June 14,1862. Samuel Fry, Co. A; disch. by order, Oct. 18, 1863. Edwin J. Fields, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13,1865. David Fox, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Samuel A. Grice, Co. H; disch. by order, May 31,1865. Miner S. Hoyt, Co. A; died of disease at Corinth, Miss., May 25, 1862. Lewis W. Hilton, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. James Holliday, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Henry Hudson, Co. C; must. out Aug. 13, ]1865. Watslip Kahout, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Wm. H. Lamberton, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Wesley Morse, Co. A; disch. for disability, Nov. 26,1862. Charles McClure, Co. A; disch. to re-enl. in Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 18, 1864. Willson McClure, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Simon Mathews, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Edgar Osburn, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13,1865. David Perrin, Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Charles Richey, Co. I; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. David Rich, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Nelson Richardson, Co. A; diech. for disability, Feb. 28, 1863. Elijah Ransome, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. David Shook, Co. A; disch. for disability, March 4,1863. Edwin J. Start, Co. A; died of disease at Shiloh, Tenn., June 13, 1862. Edward Sawdey, Co. C; died of disease at Camp Denison, 0., March 8,1865. Charles Sheldon, Co. G; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Amos Stokes, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Sylvester E. Spencer, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Henry J. Smith, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John W. Stafford, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. Thomas Shalon, Co. K; disch. for disability, June 25, 18-. James Thornton, Co. H; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Jacob H. Terry, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Charles Thompson, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13, 1865. John Watson, Co. A; died of disease near Camp Stevenson, Ala., Dec. 15,1863. Isaac Walburn, Co. A; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Thomas C. Winters, Co. A; disch. for disability, Nov. 7, 1862.

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Joseph Woods, Co. B; must. out Aug. 13,1865. Niles Whipple, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13,1865. John Warfield, Co. K; disch. by order, May 30,1865. Charles Wilkinson, Co. K; disch. for disability, June 5, 1865. George S. Warner, Co. K; must. out Aug. 13,1865. SIXTEENTH INFANTRY. The 16th barely comes within the limit we have prescribed as entitling a regiment to mention in these pages. It had, according to the adjutant-general's rolls, twenty-one members who were residents of Branch County, viz., one in Company A, five in C, six in E, two in F, four in G, two in H, and one in I. It went to Virginia in September, 1861. In the spring of 1862 it moved with the Army of the Potomac to the Peninsula and was engaged in the battles of Hanover Court-House, Gaines' Mills, and Malvern Hill. At Gaines' Mills alone it had no less than forty-nine officers and soldiers killed, one hundred and sixteen wounded, and fifty-five missing. At the second battle of Bull Run it had sixteen killed, sixty-three wounded, and seventeen missing. At Antietam it was in reserve. At Fredericksburg it had twenty-three men killed and wounded, and at Chancellorsville one killed and six wounded. At Middleburg, on the 21st of June, 1863, the regiment captured a piece of artillery with nineteen officers and men, itself having nine men wounded. It was hotly engaged at Gettysburg, having twenty-four officers and soldiers killed, thirty-six wounded, and two missing. The next battle of the 16th (which in the mean time had reorganized as a veteran regiment) was at the Wilderness, where, on the 7th of May, 1864, it was sharply and gallantly engaged, having thirty-five officers and men killed and wounded. The evening of the 8th, the rebels attacked the regiment while on the march, but were repulsed, and a rebel colonel and a large number of men were captured. On the 22d of May the 16th defeated the enemy's rearguard and made another large capture of prisoners. After numerous skirmishes and two or three serious conflicts, it reached the lines in front of Petersburg on the 17th of June. On the 30th of September it was part of the force which stormed the works at Poplar Grove Church, its commander, Colonel Welch, being killed, and fifty-two others being killed and wounded. The regiment remained on duty before and near Petersburg until the 6th and 7th of February, 1865, when it was engaged in the battle of Hatcher's Run and suffered heavy loss. It was also engaged to some extent in the conflicts at Five Forks, Amelia CourtHouse, High Bridge, and the crowning glory of Appomattox Court-House. After being ordered to Louisville, Ky., and Jeffersonville, Ind., in June, it was finally sent to Jackson, Mich., in July, where it was paid off and disbanded on the 25th of that month. MEMBERS OF THE SIXTEENTH INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Earl M. Aikin, Co. E; died of disease in the field in Virginia, June 14, 1865. Levi Beecher, Co. E; must. out July 8,1865. George W. Catlin, Co. C; died of disease near Sharpsburg, Va., Oct. 26, 1862. John W. Croft, Co. I; disch. by order, June 16, 1865.. William Dillon, Co. A; must. out July 8,1865. Leonard Dean, Co. E; must. out July 8, 1865. Levi Dicey, Co. E; must out July 8,1865. Evelin Earl, Co. E; must. out July 8,186f. John C. Geedy, Co. E; mast. out July 8,1865. Benj. -. Hanford, Co. C; must. out July 8, 1865. Adam Hower, Co. G; must. out July 8, 1865. Rob't Herot, Co. G; must. out July 8, 1865. Abram Mosier, Co. C. Alonzo Meyers, Co. C; died of disease at Davis hosp., N. Y., May 21,1865. Jesse Mann, Co HI; must. out July 8,1865. James H. Nye, Co. G; must. out July 8, 1865. Lawrence M Nye, Co. H; must. out July 8, 1865. Joseph Rounge, Co. G; disch. by order, June 13, 1865. Joseph Webb, Co. C; must. out July 8,1865. John H. Warren, Co. F; must. out July 8,1865. Silliman Woodard, Co. F; died of disease at City Point, Va., April 21,1865. SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY. Recruiting for the different companies composing the 17th Infantry was commenced in the spring and early part of the summer of 1862. Branch County contributed nearly fifty men to the ranks of the regiment during its service, viz., about twenty each to companies C and H, and a few to A, B, E, and G. Company C had for its first commander Capt. Henry B. Androus, of Coldwater, and the first captain of Company H was Charles A. Edmonds, of Quincy. The regimental rendezvous was at Detroit. The 17th was the first regiment which left the State under the President's call of July 2, 1862, for three hundred thousand volunteers, the date of its departure from Detroit being Aug. 27, 1862, at the time when the hosts of the enemy were almost in sight of the dome of the capitol. At Washington the regiment was at once assigned to duty in the army of Gen. McClellan, and moved with that army into Maryland, in the campaign of Antietam. On the 14th of September, only eighteen days after its departure from Detroit, it took part in the fierce battle of South Mountain, where it sustained a loss of one hundred and forty-one in killed and wounded. On the 17th, only three days after South Mountain, the regiment fought again, and with equal gallantry, in the desparate struggle of Antietam, where its loss in killed and wounded was one hundred and five. On the 1st day of November, just five weeks after it left Michigan, the 17th had lost in killed and wounded and deaths by disease the remarkable number of two hundred and sixty-six men. From Maryland the regiment crossed into Virginia, and marched by way of Warrenton to Falmouth, on the Rappahannock River, where its camp was pitched on the 18th of November. During the operations against Fredericksburg, December 12 to 14, it performed some service in skirmishing, and crossed the river with the army, but was not engaged in the great battle of the 13th. It embarked at Aquia Creek on the 14th of February, 1863, proceeded to Newport News, Va., remained there till March 19, and then moved by transport to Baltimore, and thence by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Ohio River to Louisville, Ky. From that point its movements were as follows: March 28, to Bardstown, Ky.; April 3, to Lebanon; April 29, to Columbia, and thence to Jamestown, which was reached on the 31st of May. From Jamestown, June 4, it moved to Louisville, thence to Cairo, Ill., and from there, by the Mississippi, to the Yazoo River, encamping near Haynes' Bluffs, Miss. It proceeded to Milldale Church, June 22, and thence, on the 4th of July, it moved with the column advancing on Jaqkson, Miss. The regiment arrived there July 10, having had some slight skirmishing, but no general engagement.

Page  73 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 73 I Again (Aug. 3) it embarked and proceeded by river to Louisville, and thence by land to Crab Orchard, Ky., moving from that point with the Army of the Ohio into East Tennessee. From Knoxville it went to Blue Springs, Tenn., and then back to Knoxville, arriving there Oct. 14. Six days later it marched, by way of London, to Lenoir Station, remaining there until November 14, when it marched to the Tennessee River below Loudon to oppose the forces of Longstreet, who was then moving towards Knoxville. From this position it was compelled to retreat; and while marching with the brigade, as rear-guard of the column, it was severely engaged at Turkey Creek, losing twenty-six killed and wounded. Returning to Knoxville, it took an active part in the defense of that place during the siege operations from Nov. 17 to Dec. 5, 1863, suffering much from lack of sufficient and proper rations. Upon the raising of the siege and retreat of the enemy, the 17th moved in pursuit to Rutledge; Blain's Cross-Roads, and other points as far up the valley as Morristown. About the middle of March, 1864, the 9th Corps, to which the 17th was attached, received orders to report at Annapolis, Md. Under this order the regiment marched from Knoxville on the 22d, crossed the Cumberland Mountains to Nicholasville, Ky. (one hundred and eighty-six miles), from which place it proceeded east by railroad to the point of destination. From Annapolis, where it received about two hundred recruits, the regiment marched with its corps, by way of Washington, to Warrenton Junction, Va., and became a part of the grand army of Gen. Grant, with which it moved through the bloody campaign of 1864, from the Rapidan River to Petersburg. It was hotly engaged in the battles of the Wilderness, at Ny River, May 9, and at Spottsylvania Court-House on the 10th, 11th, and 12th. On the day last mentioned its loss in a single charge was twenty-three killed, seventy-three wounded, and ninety-three taken prisoners, out of a total of two hundred and twenty-five men engaged. Reduced in numbers to a mere handful, the remnant of the regiment was detailed on the 16th of May to act with the engineers. In that duty it was with the corps in all its movements to and across the James River and through the siege of Petersburg. It was engaged and did good service in the repulse of the rebel attack on Fort Steadman, March 25, 1865, where it took sixty-five prisoners. It participated in the final assault on Petersburg, and, with its division, entered the city upon its evacuation. Ou the 23d of April the 17th moved to City Point, and on the 25th embarked on transports for Alexandria, from which place it marched to Washington, and thence to Tenallytown, Md., remaining there until May 22, when it moved back to Washington, and took its place in the great review of the Army of the Potomac on the 23d. It tlen returned to camp, and remained till June 3, when it was mustered out of service. On the 4th it started for Michigan, arriving on the 7th at Detroit, where it was paid and disbanded. MEMBERS O THE SEVENTEENTH INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Henry B. Androus, Coldwater, capt., Co. C; enl. Juno 17, 1862; captured at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864; escaped, Jan. 6, 1865; must. out with regt., June 3, 1865. 10 Charles A. Edmonds, Quincy; pro. to capt., Co. H, June 17,1862, from 1st lieut., Bat. A, 1st Lt. Art., May 28, 1861; wounded in action at South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862; honorably disch. for wounds, Jan. 16, 1863. Benjamin F. Clark, Quincy, 2d lieut., Co. I; enl. June 17, 1862; wounded in battle of South Mountain, Sept. 14, 1862; honorably disch. for wounds, Jan. 16, 1863. Daniel Holway, Coldwater, 2d lieut., Co. C; enl. Feb. 24, 1863; pro. to lst lieut., Sept. 19,1863; pro. to capt., Jan. 6, 1865; bvt.-maj., April 2,1865; must. out with regt., June 3, 1865. Josiah Billingsby, Coldwater, 2d lient.; enl. July 4,1863; pro. to 1st lieut., Oct. 19,1863; killed in a skirmish near Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 20, 1863. Joseph Bailey, Co. C; died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12,1864. Charles Barber, Co. H; must. out June 3,1865. John Cory, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. Charles R. Cory, Co. H; must. out June 3,1865. Lyman L. Colby, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. Jesse D. Critchfield, Co. H; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. Richard C. Chamberlain, Co. C; disch. for disability, Jan. 5, 1863. Burr Clark, Co. C; must out by order, June 17, 1865. George M. Dalley, Co. H; died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. John F. Evans, Co. G; died of disease at Washington, DT. C., Feb. 22, 1863. Milo Greenfield, Co. C; must. out June 3, 1865. Frisbie Hutchinson, Co. C; disch. by order, June 10, 1865. James Heller, Co. H; died in action at South Mountain, Md., Sept. 14, 1862. Andrew J. Hawse, Co. H; disch. for disability, Dec. 29,1862. Samuel Harmon, Co. H; disch. for disability, Feb. 6, 1863. Daniel Heller, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. Moses E. Laughlin, Co. H; taken prisoner in action at Knoxville, Tenn.; died at Andersonville, Aug. 17,1864. William Hillman, Co. H; missing in action at Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 29, 1863. Leonard E. Minor, Co. C; died Dec. 26, 1862, of wounds, at Antietam. Alfred Milnes, Co. C; disch. for disability, June 3, 1865. Henry McNall, Co. A; disch. for disability, March 4, 1865. James K. P. Meddaugh, Co. H; disch. by order, June 5, 1865. John Nepass, Co. IH; must. out June 3, 1865. George Otis, Co. H; disch. for disability, Feb. 4, 1863. John Petch, Co. C; died in acti)on at Spottsylvania, May 12, 1864. David S. Piatt, Co. C; died of disease at Frederickville, Md., Dec. 12, 1862. Charles F. Potter, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. David Rapp, Co. C; must. out June 3, 1865. Charles Rapp, Co. C; dishonorably disch. by order, July 15, 1865. Andrew P. Smith, Co. E; died at Andersonville, Ga. William Sprague, Co. G; trans. to 2d Mich. Inf. Henry E. Sisson, Co. H; must. out June 3, 1865. Alfred J. Teachout, Co. C; disch. for disability, Jan. 1, 1863. Julius M. Tompkins, Co. C; died in action at Spottsylvania, Va., May 12, 1864. Anson M. Vicory, Co. C; disch. by order, Feb. 23,1863. Wallace Weller, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. Charles Weller, Co. C; must. out June 3, 1865. Paris C. Whiting, Co. C; must. out June 3, 1865. William S. Wood, Co. C; must. out June 3, 1865. George Whitten, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 15,1864. Garrett C. Whitesides, Co. H; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Feb. 15, 1864. Aaron V. Waterbury, Co. It; killed by explosion of Steamer "Sultana," on Mississippi River, April 28,1865. Ellis W. Yates, Co. B; died of disease at Ca:up Nolson, Ky., March 30, 1864. CHAPTER XVI. NINETEENTH INFANTRY. Its First Colonel from Branch County-Companies C and H from that County-Their First Officers-The Regiment in the Army of the Cumberland —Hard Fight at Thompson's Station-Four Regiments Surrounded by Six Brigades-The Surrender-Exchanged and Reorganized-On Duty under Rosecrans in 1863-Company D-Again Captured-In the Georgia Campaign in 1864-Desperate and Victorious Fight at Resaca-Col. Gilbert Killed-Other Battles-The March to the Sea-Through the Carolinas-To Washington —Home-List of Officers and Soldiers. THE Nineteenth Regiment of Michigan Infantry was raised from the counties of Branch, St. Joseph, Kalamazoo, Cass, Berrien, Van Buren and Allegan, in the summer of 1862, under the President's call of July 2, for three hundred thousand men. Its rendezvous for recruitment and organization was at Dowagiac. Branch County was represented in the regiment by Companies C and H, and some fifty or sixty more men from the. county served in iti

Page  74 744 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. other companies. The first commanding officer of the 19th was a citizen of Coldwater, Col. Henry C. Gilbert, who fell, mortally wounded, while bravely leading his command in a charge at the battle of Resaca, Ga., in the campaign of Atlanta. The adjutant of the regiment, Lieut. Hamlet B. Adams, and its chaplain, Rev. Isaac Coggeshall, were also of Coldwater. The Branch County companies were officered from the county as follows: ConLpany C.-Charles P. Lincoln of Coldwater, captain; Smith W. Fisk, of Coldwater, first lieutenant; Lucius M. Wing, of Coldwater, second lieutenant. Company H.-George H. White, of Coldwater, captain; James A. Shoecraft, of Coldwater, second lieutenant. The 19th broke camp at the rendezvous, on the 14th of September, 1862, proceeded by rail to Cincinnati, Ohio, thence to Nicholasville, Ky., and later, towards the close of the year, to Danville, Ky. It had been assigned to duty with the 4th Brigade of the 1st Division of the Army of Kentucky, which, on the formation of the Department and Army of the Cumberland, was transferred to that army, as a " Reserve Corps." As a part of that corps, the regiment moved from Danville early in February, and reached Nashville on the 7th, proceeding thence to Franklin, Tenn. On the 4th of March, 1863, the brigade,-composed of the 19th Michigan, the 33d and 85th Indiana, and the 22d Wisconsin Regiments,-numbering one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven men, strengthened by two hundred men of the 124th Ohio, with detachments of' three regiments of cavalry, about six hundred strong, and a full battery of artillery, all under command of Col. Coburn, moved out from Franklin on a reconnaissance in force. After a march of about four miles, the enemy's outposts were encountered, but they retired before the Union skirmishers, and the brigade bivouacked there for the night. Resuming the march on the following day, they found the enemy in force and strongly posted at Thompson's Station, nine miles from Franklin. At the point where the turnpike crosses the railroad, the enemy opened fire on the forces of Col. Coburn, who immediately formed his men, and ordered a section of the battery to occupy a hill on the left of the road, sending the 19th Michigan and 22d Wisconsin to support it. The 33d and 85th Indiana, with the other guns of the battery, took position on a hill on the right. The enemy had two batteries posted on a range of hills, three-fourths of a mile in front and south of the position of the Union troops. The 33d and 85th Indiana made a demonstration on the left of the enemy, to draw him out or charge his batteries, as circumstances might dictate. This movement was made under a most galling fire from the enemy's batteries, and when the station was reached, two entire brigades of dismounted rebel cavalry were disclosed, strongly posted behind stone walls and other defenses. As it was found impossible to advance farther under the severe and incessant fire, the regiments were ordered to retire to their former position on the hill, supported by a squadron of cavalry; but, for some unexplained reason, the cavalry failed to occupy the supporting position as intended. No sooner had the two regiments commenced to fall back than they were pursued by two rebel regiments, firing rapid volleys into the retiring Union force, which was at the same time under fire from the enemy's batteries. But as soon as they reached the hill the Indiana regiments turned upon the rebel pursuers and drove them back at double-quick, killing Col. Earle, of Arkansas. The enemy rallied and charged desperately, and were handsomely repulsed; but it soon became evident that the command of Col. Coburn had here encountered the entire cavalry force of Bragg's army, consisting of six brigades, respectively commanded by the rebel generals Forrest, Wheeler, French, Armstrong, Jackson, and Martin,-numbering in all at least twelve thousand men, under the command of Gen. Van Dorn. On the left the enemy, under Gen. Forrest, advanced on the position occupied by the 19th Michigan and its companion regiment, the 22d Wisconsin. At the time the attack was made, the section of artillery posted with these two regiments hurriedly left its position, and at the same time Lieut.-Col. Bloodgood, of the Wisconsin regiment, with three companies, left the field without orders, moving off by the left flank, and joining the retreating Union cavalry and artillery; but the 19th and the remainder of the 22d Wisconsin bravely poured in their fire and held the assaulters at bay for fully twenty minutes. Forrest, checked in his advance, made a circuit with his whole force beyond the ground occupied by Col. Coburn, to the east, with the intention of turning his left flank. The 19th and 22d were then moved to the west side of the turnpike, leaving the 33d and 85th Indiana to protect the southern acclivity of the hill. The four regiments had scarcely formed in line behind the crest when Armstrong's rebel brigade charged from the east and the Texans from the south. The fighting now became terrific. Three times the enemy charged gallantly up the hill, and thrice were they forced back with severe loss. In one of these charges the colors of the 4th Mississippi were captured by the 19th Michigan. The fighting became desperate. The enemy, having gained possession of the hill on the east of the road, were sweeping the Northern ranks with canister, and, bravely as the Union troops fought, it soon became evident that the struggle was hopeless. Their ammunition was nearly exhausted, and Forrest, who had already cut them off from Franklin, was advancing on their rear. Col. Coburn faced his command to the north to meet and repel this new danger, and thus Forrest was held in check until the Union men had expended their last round of ammunition. Then the brave band fixed bayonets, determined to charge through the enemy's lines and escape; but just then it was discovered that still another line lay in reserve and still another battery opened on them from an unexpected quarter. Escape was now hopeless, and, to avoid a further and useless loss of life, the command surrendered, having lost one hundred and thirteen in killed and wounded. Col. Gilbert had had his horse shot under him in the early part of the engagement, and throughout all the fierce engagement had borne himself most gallantly. When he offered his sword to the Confederate commander, the latter declined to receive it, with the remark that " so brave an officer, com manding so gallant a regiment, deserves to retain his arms." A part of the 19th had escaped capture at Thompson's Station. This small body, with those who had been left in

Page  75 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 75 II ~ ~ camp at Franklin, were sent to Brentwood, organized with the remaining fragments of the brigade, and placed under command of an officer belonging to another regiment. This force was surrendered by that officer to the rebel General Forrest on the 25th of March, without the firing of a gun. The enlisted men were soon paroled and sent North; the commissioned officers were exchanged on the 25th of May following. The 19th was reorganized at Camp Chase, Ohio, and on the 8th of June left Columbus to engage once more in service at the front. It reached Nashville on the 11th, and from that time was engaged in ordinary camp and picket duty until July, when it was ordered forward, to form part of Rosecrans' column, advancing on Tullahoma. The regiment was ordered back to Murfreesboro' on the 23d of July, to do garrison duty in the fortifications at that point and along Stone River, where Company D was captured in a stockade, on the 5th of October, by a rebel cavalry force under Gen. Wheeler. After having been plundered, the men were released on parole. About the last of October the 19th was ordered to McMinnville, Tenn., where it remained, engaged in the construction of fortifications and in similar duty, until the 21st of April, 1864, when it was ordered to join its division and march with the strong columns of Sherman into Georgia. It reached Lookout Valley on the 30th, and moved forward with the army on the 3d of May; being then in the 1st Brigade, 4th Division of the 20th Army Corps. Moving by way of Buzzard's Roost and Snake Creek Gap to Resaca, it was, with its brigade, desperately engaged in the battle at that place on the 15th, on which occasion it gallantly charged and captured a battery of the enemy, afterwards holding the position against all efforts to retake it. It was in that charge that Col. Gilbert received the wound from which he died at Chattanooga on the 24th of May. The total loss of the 19th at Resaca, in killed and wounded, was eighty-one. It was again engaged at Cassville, Ga., on the 19th; at New Hope Church on the 25th; at Golgotha, June 15; and at Kulp's Farm, June 22; losing in these transactions eighty-three, killed and wounded. Joining in the pursuit of the enemy after his evacuation of the position and works at Kenesaw Mountain, the 19th-then under command of Maj. John J. Baker-crossed the Chattahoochie, and took part in the battle of Peach-Tree Creek, July 20, in which its loss was thirty-nine killed and wounded; among the latter being the commanding officer, Maj. Baker. During the remainder of the siege of Atlanta, the regiment was constantly on duty, much of the time under artillery fire, but took part in none of the general engagements; its loss during that time being eight, killed and wounded. In the early days of November, 1864, the 19th was quartered in the city of Atlanta, and on the 15th of that month moved with its brigade (the 2d of the 3d Division, 20th Corps) on the storied march to Savannah, taking active part in the siege of that city until its evacuation on the 21st of December. It remained near Savannah until Jan. 1, 1865, when, with the companion regiments of its command, it moved across the Savannah River into South Carolina. It crossed the Pedee River at Cheraw on the 2d of February, arrived at Fayetteville, March 11, destroyed the arsenal and other public buildings at that place, and moved thence towards Raleigh. On the 16th the enemy was found in heavy force at Averysboro'. Here the second brigade was ordered to assault the works, and carried them with great gallantry, capturing the guns and a large number of prisoners; the loss of the 19th being nineteen in killed and wounded. At the battle of Bentonville, on the 19th, the regiment stood in line of battle, but was not ordered in. From Bentonville, the 19th moved to Goldsboro', arriving there on the 24th, and then marched to Raleigh. Here it remained until the war was closed by the surrender of Johnston's army. Then, with its corps, it faced northward, and marched through Virginia to Alexandria, where it arrived on the 18th of May. Six days later it marched with the bronzed and tattered veterans of Sherman's army, in its memorable review, on the 24th of May, through the streets of the national capital. From that time it remained in camp near Washington till June 10, when it was mustered out of the service and ordered to Michigan. Covered with honor, the men of the 19th returned to Jackson, and were there paid off and discharged on or about the 15th of June, 1865. MEMBERS OF THE NINETEENTH INFANTRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Ienry C. Gilbert, Coldwater, col.; enl. Aug. 8,1862; died at Chattanooga, May 24,1864, of wounds received in action at Resaca, Ga., May 15,1864. Isaac Coggeshall, Coldwater, chaplain; enl. Aug. 5, 1862; res. Sept. 6, 1863. Hamlet B. Adams, Coldwater, 1st lieut. and adjt.; enl. Aug. 14, 1862; pro. to capt., May 1, 1863; must. out July 5, 1865. Charles P. Lincoln, Coldwater, capt., Co. C; enl. July 28, 1862; res. April 26, 1864. George H. White, Coldwater, capt., Co. H; enl. July 28, 1862. Smith W. Fisk, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. July 28, 1862; res. Jan. 31, 1863. Lucius M. Wing, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. July 28,1862; pro. to 1st lieut., May 1,1863; q -m., May 25, 1864; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. Timothy G. Turner, Coldwater, 1st lieut. and q.-m.; erl. Nov. 18, 1862; res. May 25, 1864. James A. Shoecraft, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. July 28, 1862; 1st lieut., May 1, 1863; wounded at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5,1863; res. Jan. 11, 1864. Lucius Phetteplace, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. May 1, 1863; capt., Oct. 28, 1863; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. William M. Norris, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Dec. 1, 1863; capt., Oct. 28, 1864; res. Nov. 4,1864. Lucien B. Barnhart, Union, 2d lieut.; enl. Jan. 23,1864; 1st lieut., Oct. 28,1864; capt., Jan. 11, 1865; must. out June 1(, 1865, with regt. William L. Tyler, Batavia, 1st lieut.; enl. Oct. 28, 1864; capt., Jan. 15,1865; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. George A. Russell, Girard, 1st lieut., Co. C; enl. Oct. 28, 1864; capt., May. 8, 1865; must. out June 10 with regt.; in all the battles in which the regiment took part, Thompson's Station, Atlanta, Savannah, Bentonville, etc. Joseph M. Alexander, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. May 25, 1864; 1st lieut. and adjt., June, 1865; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. John J. Morsman, 2d lieut.; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. Hamilton S. Miles, 2d lieut.; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. Henry Butler, 2d lieut.; must. out June 10, 1865, with regt. Company C. Asa Alexander, disch. for disability, July 30, 1863. Henry Austin, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Jan. 5,1863. Alonzo Berry, died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 27, 1862. Chauncey L. Brown, died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 9,1863. Franklin M. Barnes, must. out June 10, 1865. Samuel Bates, must. out June 10, 1865. George W. Brown, must. out June 10, 1865. Henry Butler, must. out June 10, 1865. Alfred Beddell, must. out June 10, 1865. Harris A. Burke, must. out July 5,1865. J. C. L. Baughman, disch. for disability, May 13, 1865. William H. Bryan, disch. for disability, May 9,1865. Jacob Doff Bary, disch. for disability, May 7, 1863.

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Aaron Buffum, disch. for wounds, July 27,1863. Charles W. Bray, tran& to 10th Mich. Inf. John Corey, trans. to Yet. Res. Corps, May 1,1864. Hebides Culver, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Arthur B. Chevois, disch. for disability, May 13,1865. Samuel Colsin, must. out May 20,1865. Don A. Cole, must. out June 10,1865. Thomas Colan, must. out June 10,1865. Charles H. Demorest, must. out June 10,1865. John Demorest, died of disease at Camp Chase, 0., May 9,1863. Charles S. Davis, diseh. for disability, Jan. 5,1863. Benj. V. Draper, disch. for disability, April 10,1863. Joseph R. Dickinson, disch. for disability, May 22,1863. Thomas J. Evans, must. out June 10,1865. William Finch, must. out June 10,1865. E. R. French, disch. for disability, Oct. 24,1863. William H. Fonda, trans. to Yet. Bes. Corps, April 10; disch. July 15,1865. Giles G. Gordon, disch. for disability, July 8,1864. Erastus B. Green, died in action at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5,1863. Orson Gage, must. out June 10,1865. Stephen Gilbert, must. out June 10,1865. Stephen L. Hawley, must. out June 10,1865. Henry Halleck, must. out June 10,1865. Julius Herriff, must. out May 27, 1865. Freeman Havens, trans. to Yet. Res. Corps, April 26,1864. Amos L. Hervey, died at Columbia, Tenn., March 8,1863, of wounds. Edward Hewitt, must. out June 8,1865. George W. Hewitt, disch. for disability, May 11, 1863. George W. Jackson, must. out June 10,1865. David Johns, disch. for disability, Dec. 10, 1862. Hiram G. June, died at Nashville, Tenn., March 10,1863, of wounds. Charles Kirk, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 30, 1865. Alugustus Lord, must. out June 10, 1865. Charles Lindsey, disch. for disability, Oct. 13,1863. Thomas Munyon, died of disease at Gravel Point, Ohio, Oct. 5,1862. George Miller, must. out June 10,1865. Hamilton S. Miles, must. out June 10,1865. George J. F. Miller, must. out June 10,1865. Daniel J. Massey, must. out June 10,1865. Erasmus R. Moore, disch. for disability, Aug. 6,1864. Noble N. Marks, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1,1863. John Phineas, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 12,1863. Joseph Polite, disch. for wounds, Aug. 19,1863. Erastus W. Page, died of wounds, July 20,1864. William L. Parker, died of wounds at Resaca, Ga., May 25,1864. Charles J. Pope, trans. to Yet. Res. Corps, March 15,1864; disch. July 5, 1865. Eleazur Post, must. out June 10, 1865. John Post, disch. Nov. 1863. Andrew Pender, must. out June 10, 1865. Philip Pitcher, must. out June 10, 1865. Leander Stevens, must. out June 10, 1865. Ora B. Stevens, must. out June 10, 1865. George D. Sinclair, died of disease at Atlanta, Ga., July 18,1864. Calvin D. Strong, died of disease at Coldwater, Mich., Sept. 5,1864. Mark H. Smith, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Jan. 10,1863. Ery W. Taylor, dischb. for wounds. George Tottinglam, died at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5, 1863, of wounds. Newell W. Thomas, must. out June 10, 1865. Edward H. Tullman, niust. out June 10, 1865. Cyrus J. Titus, must. out June 10, 1865. Daniel S. Vanblarcom, must. out June 10, 1865. Martin Vanblarcom, must. out June 10, 1865. George W. Whitehead, must. out June 30, 1865. Edward C. Wilcox, must. out June 10,1865. Jedediah Wilcox, must. out June 10, 1865. Charles H. West, died at Resaca, Ga., May 16,1864, of wounds. George W. Worden, died July 20,1864. Benjamin Wilcox, disch. for disability, Feb. 1, 1863. Robert Williams, trans. to 10th Mich. Inf. Sergt. Whaley, died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Jan. 10,1863. John Zwener, must. out June 10, 1865. John B. Van Orman, disch. for disability, May 6,1863. William R. Van Orman, disch. for disability, June 17, 1863. Company H. Walter J. Allen, died of disease at Camp Chase, Ohio, March, 1863. Heman Batterson, died in action at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5,1863. Elisha J. Brown, must. out June 10, 1865. Delos Bates, must. out June 10,1865. James H, Bakter, disch. for disability, March, 186& Francis F. Carlo, disch. for disability, Feb. 4,1863. Frank Cirn, disch. for disability, July 6,1863. Alanson Curtis, disch. for disability, Sept. 4,1863. D. V. B, Cushman, must. out June 10,1865. Calvin Cummings, must out June 10,1863. Edwrt~I B. Cook, must. out June 10,1865. I I - A tfred'Cheney. must. out June 10, 1865. Henry B. Canfield, disch. for promotion, Nov. 1,1864. Charles S. Davis. disch. for disability, Jan. 5, 1863. William Depue, died in action at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5,1863. Alonzo Dickerson, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Amos Darwin, must. out June 10,1865. William Ellis, must. out June 10,1865. Jonathan Edwards, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 12, 1863. Jefferson J. Eastman, must. out June 10, 1865. Martin Elliott, disch. for disability, May 16,1863. Francis Fuller, disch. for disability, July 13,1863. Benjamin Fuller, died of disease at Chattanooga, July 2,1864. Jesse W. Fetterly, died of disease at Jeffersonville, Oct. 8, 1864. John E. Fetterly, must. out June 10, 1865. Joseph A. Fetterly, must. out June 10,1865. George W. Fetterly, must. out June 10,1865. Terrence T. Goodwin, disch. for promotion, Dec. 2,1863. William F. Gillett, must. out June 10,1865. James E. Gibbs, must. out June 10, 1865. William Green, must out June 10,1865. Timothy Hurley, disch. for disability, Aug. 8, 1864. Philo P. Henderson, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Dec. 15,1863. Barnard Hawley, must. out June 1it, 1865. Charles F. Housman, must. out. June 3,1865. Henry Harmen, must. out June 15,1865. L. 0. Halsted, died in action at Thompson's Station, of wounds, March 5, 1863. Charles Jordan, must. out June 10,1865. William A. Jordan, must. out June 10, 1865. Charles Kirk, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Jan. 30,1865. Harrison H. Kendig, must. out June 10,1865. Robert Kelso, must. out June 10, 1865. Reuben Lyter, must. out June 10,1865. Wilson S. Lylly, must. out June 10, 1865. Harlan P. Lawrence, disch. for disability, January, 1863. Marion R. Morritt, disch for disability, July 7,1863. Edward V. Monroe, must. out June 10, 1865. Horatio A. Moody, must. out June 10, 1865. John J. Morseman, must. out June 10, 1865. Thomas Mathews, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Nov. 24,1862. Joseph Morgan, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863. E. N. Nulendy, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., March, 1863. Enoch Olney, disch. for disability, Oct. 4,1864. Thomas E. Pierce, must. out June 26, 1865. Nelson C. Peckham, must. out June 10, 1865. Jolin Paul, must. out June 10, 1865. Mannoah Iloshon, must. out June 10, 1865. Harrison Rockafellow, must. out June 10,1865. McKenzie Sumner, disch. for promotion, Dec. 2,1863. Henry Sanford, Sr., must. out. June 10,1865. Henry Sanford, Jr., must. out June 10,1865. Francis Sanford, must. out June 10,1865. Thomas G. Sumner, must. out June 10, 1865. Samuel S. Smith, disch. for disability, Nov. 1862. Luke Stellings, disch. for disability, Oct. 26, 1865. Robert Stewart, must. out June 10, 1865. Melville W. Simmons, must. out June 10, 1865. George W. Shay, must. out June 10,1865. Stephen Taylor, died of disease at Atlanta, Ga., Sept. 20,1864. Q. H. Thompson, disch. for disability, July 7, 1863. Marcus L. Thornton, must. out June 10, 1865. Peter Thornton, must. out June 10, 1865. Alvah Vanderhoof, must. out June 10,1865. David Vanderhoof, must. out June 10,1865. Daniel S. Warren, died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Aug. 25,1863. William Wilson, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March, 1863. David G. Williams, disch. for disability, May 15,1863. W. N. Willard, disch. for disability, June 3, 1863. Martello W. Wells, died of disease at Camp Denison, 0., Nov. 25,1862. George M. White, must. out June 10,1865. John R. Winsley, must. out June 10, 1865. Lewis C. Waldron, must. out June 10, 1865. William Broukey, Co. I; must. out June 10,1865. Herman Boughton, Co. G; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 13,1863. Chauncey L. Brown, Co. G; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 9, 1863. George Benedict, N. C. S., died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 5, 1863. Jeremiah Brink, Co. G; must. out June 10,1865. Jabez Carlisle, Co. E; trans. to 10th Mich. Inf. Joseph Coalcliff, Co. G; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 12, 1863. Homer Carter, Co. G; disch. for disability, July 7, 1863. Jacob Ecthleman, Co. E; trans. to 10th Mich. Inf. Carlton Gates, Co. G; disch. Jan. 5, 1863. John Hunter, Co. I; must. out May 23,1865. Jacob Kreiger, Co. I; must. out June 15,1865. Henry Kratz, Co. I; must. out May 10,1865. August Kreiger, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. William P. Kidney, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Michael Le Graff, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1866.

Page  77 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 7I William Lindley, Co. G; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 19,1863. Fletcher E. Marsh, N. C. S., disch. for promotion. Addison P. Moore, Co. G; must. out June 10, 1865. Elijah Miers, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Daniel A. Miller, Co. I; disch. for disability, Nov. 2,1864. Robert Miller, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. August Morlock, Co. I; must. out June 10,1865. Charles McCane, Co. I; must. out June 10,1865. Fred. Meyer, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Edward Newton, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Nicholas Nester, Co. I; must. out July 13,1865. George W. Olds, Co. D; died of disease in Nashville, Tenn. Henry A. Potter, Co. G; disch. for disability. William L. Parker, Co. G. Richmond F. Parker, mus.; was in battles of Resaca, Cassville, Dallas, Atlanta, Kenesaw, Averysboro', and Bentonville; disch. June 10, '65. Hiram F. Penland, Co. I; disch. June 30,1865. Charles E. Reynolds, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Charles Ripley, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Edward P. Shaw, Co. G; died of disease at Cincinnati, O., Oct. 8,1862. Abner Sherwin, Co. G; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Feb. 19, 1863. Benjamin K. Secor, Co. G; died of disease, April, 1863. William W. Swain, Co. E; trans. to 10th Mich. Inf. Albert Stimson, Co. I; must. out June 10,1865. Fred. Seifer, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Andrew Slanker, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. Ansel Stone, Co. I; must. out July 2,1865. Michael Welch, Co. I; must. out June 10, 1865. William Watson, Co. G; disch. for disability, Jan. 19,1863. Albert A. Webster, Co. I; disch. for disability, Jan. 4, 1865. CHAPTER XVII. TWENTY-EIGHTH INFANTRY AND FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS. Formation of the Twenty-Eighth-Company C from Branch County -First Officers-Company I-To Kentucky and Tennessee-In Defense of Nashville-Starting for Mississippi and Bringing up in North Carolina-Fight at Wise's Forks-On Duty in North Carolina until June, 1866-Return and Discharge-Formation of the First Sharpshooters-After John Morgan-Branch County Representation-In the Wilderness-Nature of the Service-Heavy Loss at Spottsylvania-Cut off and Charging back-Eighty-four Missing-Capturing Works without Results-Casualties in the Campaign -Defense of Fort Steadman-The First Regiment in PetersburgThe End-List of Members. THE 28th Infantry was completed by consolidation with it of partially-formed companies, originally intended to form the 29th Infantry. The rendezvous of the 28th was at Kalamazoo. One of its companies (C) was composed principally of Branch County men, and its first officers were all residents of Coldwater, viz., Captain, David B. Purinton (afterwards major); First Lieutenant, George W. Bowker; Second Lieutenant, Chauncey H. De Clute. A smaller number of men belonging to this county were in Company I, whose original lieutenants were Frank Plogert and Harlow E. McCarey, both being citizens of Coldwater. A few men from Branch County were scattered among the other companies. The organization of the 28th was completed in October, 1864, and it left Kalamazoo on the 26th of that month for Louisville, Ky., arriving at that city on the 29th. On the 10th of November it was ordered to Camp Nelson, to guard a wagon-train from that place to Nashville, Tenn. Arriving at that city on the 5th of December, it was assigned to temporary duty, and from the 12th to the 16th took part in the defense of the place against the army of Hood. After the battle it remained on ordinary duty at Nashville until Jan. 11, 1865, when it was embarked on steamboats, under orders to proceed to Eastport, Miss. But on reaching Paducah, at the mouth of the Tennessee River, orders were received changing its destination to Louisville, Ky. Arriving at Louisville January 18, it was ordered to Annapolis, Md.; but while on the way to that place a further modification of orders was received, under which it was moved to Alexandria, Va. There, having been assigned to the 2d Brigade, 1st Division, of the 23d Army Corps, it embarked on ocean transports for Morehead City, N. C., where it arrived February 24, and at once left by railroad for Newbern, reaching that point on the following day. On the 2d of March the regiment moved, with its command, on the road to Kinston, but encountered the enemy, under the rebel general Hoke, at Wise's Forks, and was there engaged on the 8th, 9th, and 10th, losing one officer and six men killed and thirteen wounded. After this affair, the march was continued, the regiment reaching Kinston on the 14th and Goldsboro' on the 21st of March. It was then with its brigade placed upon the duty of guarding the railroad line, and so continued until the 9th of April, when it was moved by way of Goldsboro' to Raleigh, arriving there on the 13th. After the closing of the war by the surrender of Johnston, the 28th remained in North Carolina, engaged on duty at Goldaboro', Raleigh, Charlotte, Lincolutown, Wilmington, and Newbern, till the 5th of June, 1866, when it was mustered out of service. It was paid off and disbanded at Detroit, immediately after its arrival there, on the 8th of June, 1866. David B. Purinton, Coldwater, capt.; enl. Aug. 15,1864; bvt.-maj., March 13, 1865; must. out June 5,1866, with regiment. George W. Bowker, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 15,1864; capt., April IT, 1865; must. out June 5,1866, with regiment. Frank Plogert, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 15, 1864; capt., Sept. 12, 1865; must. out June 5, 1866, with regiment. Chauncey H. De Clute, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 15,1864; 1st lieut., March 28,1865; must. out June 5, 1866, with regiment. Harlow E. McCarey, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 15,1861; 1st lieut., May 8, 1865; must. out June 5, 1865, with regiment. Company C. Reville M. Amidon, must. out by order, May 31, 1865. Monroe C. Beadle, must. out Sept. 7,1865. Dewitt C. Beadle, must out by order, May 26,1865. Henry Bearis, must. out Sept. 13,1865. John Bearis, must out June 5,1866. James A. Bellinger, must. out June 5,1866. Wellington Bennett, must. out June 5,1866. Charles E. Bogart, must. out June 5,1866. George Brightman, must. out June 7, 1865. James A. Barns, must. out June 5,1866. Andrew Bair, must. out June 12,1865. David C. Coffman, died of disease at Jeffersonville, Ind., Feb. 2,1865. Eugene Canwright, mustered out May 18,1865. Cortlandt Chapman, must. out June 5, 1866, George Chapman, must. out June 5, 1866. James Chapman, must. out June 5,1866. Robert Chivers, must. out June 5,1866. Wilson B. Chronester, must. out June 1, 1865. Frank Curn, must. out May 2,1865. Horace A. Crall, must. out May 2,1865. Reuben Cole, must. out May 18, 1865. Orlando Cornell, must. out June 5,1866. Perry C. Clermont, disch. for disability, Aug. 31,1865. Charles D. Cluff, must. out June 8,1865. Mortimer F. Davis, must. out May 17,1865. Oscar I. Davis, dich. for disability, June 4,1866. Peter G. Dehn, must. out June 5, 1866. George H. Devens, must. out June 7, 1865. Philip Funde, must. out June 9, 1866.

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - Henry Firth, must. out June 5,1866. Oscar W. Frazer, must. out June 9, 1866. John Gamby, disch. at end of service, Feb. 6,1866. Judson B. Gibbs, must out May 3, 1866. William Goodenough, must. out by order, May 10, 1866. Reuben I. Grove, must. out June 5, 1866. C. W. Kimmelmenn, must. out Feb. 26,1866. Win. Hungerford, must. out by order, April 25, 1866. Erastus Jennings. must. out June 26,1865. Jacob Keller, must. out May 18, 1865. Stephen Ladon, died of disease at Nashville, Jan. 20,1865. Alex. Lamond, must. out June 5, 1866. Charles Lattin, must. out June 5,1866. John Libhart, must. out July 26, 1865. Samuel H. Lossing, must. out June 5, 1866. Alonzo McLaughlin, must. out June 5, 1866. Charles W. Morse, must. out June 5, 1866. John C. Meegan, died of disease at Shelby, N. C., June 23, 1865. Alfred A. Norton, must. out June 5, 1866. Wilion Norton, must. out July 26,1865. Willis S. Norton, must. out July 26, 1865. Daniel Pratt, must. out by order, May 17, 1865. Charles E. Perry, must. out by order, May 26, 1865. John H. Rainon, must. out by order, May 3, 1866. Daniel S. Robinson, must. out June 8,1865. James M. Rawson, must. out June 27,1865. Hezekiah Sweet, disch. for disability, July 14, 1865. James E. Sprung, must. out June 5, 1866. Peter Sheeler, must. out June 5, 1866. James A. Shelden, must. out Sept. 12, 1865. William I. Smalley, must. out June 5,1866. Charles A. Woodward, must. out May 12,1865. Henry B. Winslow, must. out June 2, 1865. George W. Wiley, must. out May 27,1865. Hosea Bushnell, Co. K; must. out July 1, 1865. Wm. G. Chamberlain, Co. I; must. out July 1, 1865. George Dustine, Co. I; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Nov. 10, 1864. Dustin Dockham, Co. K; must. out July 1, 1865. James Eggleston, Co. K; must. out May, 1865. William W. Fenno, Co. H; must. out June 5, 1866. Russell Humiston, Co. I; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., June 9,1865. John W. Hudson, Co. I; must. out June 5,1866. Franklin Hamlin, Co. I; must. out June 8, 1865. Israel Hammond. Co. I; must. out May 26,1865. John S. Lovejoy, Co. K; must. out May -, 1863. Luther Gray, Co. I; must. out June 19, 1865. Abram A. Smith, Co. I; must. out May 31, 1865. Marshall M. Smith, Co. I; disch. for disability, Dec. 21, 1865. William W. Stratton, Co. I; disch. for disability, March 7, 1866. Marcellus K. Whetsel, Co. I; disch. for disability, June 5, 1865. FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS. The formation of the 1st Michigan Sharpshooters was begun in the autumn of 1862. Its headquarters were at Kalamazoo, but were changed in the spring of 1863 to Dearborn. In the summer of that year, six companies, all that were then formed, were ordered to Southern Indiana, to check the progress of John Morgan and his rebel raiders, but they soon returned to Michigan, and the regiment had its ranks full by the 16th of August. Branch County was represented in the ranks of this regiment by about thirty men, of whom nearly all were in Company H; the few others being in Companies B, C, and I. On the 16th of August the regiment proceeded under orders to Chicago, to act as guard to a camp of rebel prisoners. It remained on this duty until March 17, 1864, and was then ordered to Annapolis, Md., where it was assigned to the 2d Brigade, 3d Division, 9th Corps. It soon joined the Army of the Potomac, and met the enemy for the first time in the battle of the Wilderness, on the 6th and 7th of May, where it had twenty-four men killed and wounded. From their name, the Sharpshooters were evi dently intended to act principally as skirmishers and advance guards, fighting in detail, picking off rebel officers and artillerists, and other similar work. 'But these careful ar rangements regarding particular corps often do not work well in the rough practice of the battle-field, and the record of the body in question does not seem to have been seriously different from that of any other infantry regiment. The Sharpshooters behaved with great gallantry at the battles near Spottsylvania Court-House, on the 9th, 10th, and 12th days of May, in which the regiment suffered severely, having thirty-four killed, and one hundred and seventeen wounded. It also had a sharp skirmish at the crossing of the North Anna River on the 23d of May. Although taking part in numerous skirmishes and other hostile operations, it was not again very warmly engaged until the charge made on the enemy's works before Petersburg on the 17th of June. The Sharpshooters gallantly pushed their way into the intrenchments, and twice, with other regiments, met and repulsed the rebels, who charged to recapture the works. At length, however, the rebels threw a large force in the rear of this regiment, it being on the extreme left of its corps, compelling it either to surrender or break through the enveloping lines. The men promptly chose the latter course, and by a rapid charge most of them made their way through and rejoined their comrades. The regiment had thirty-one killed, forty-six wounded, and eighty-four missing. On the 30th of July the Sharpshooters charged, in the advance of their brigade, on the works next to the fort, which was blown up by the celebrated Petersburg mine, capturing the intrenchments and about fifty prisoners. As, however, the Union forces were unable to force their way through the blown-up fort, the regiment was obliged to retire. During the remainder of the summer and autumn it was engaged in trench and picket work, alternating with numerous conflicts, none of them very severe, yet sharp enough, so that the casualties between the opening of the campaign and the first of November footed up one hundred and six killed in action and two hundred and twenty-seven wounded. Forty had also died of disease in the same time, and one hundred and fifty-eight were reported "missing in action," of whom some were killed, some were taken prisoners, and some had probably deserted. The Sharpshooters continued engaged in the arduous duties of the siege of Petersburg until the 25th of March, 1865. On that day Companies I and K were a part of the garrison of Fort Steadman. The rebels attacked that post, but were defeated with severe loss, the Union men charging out and capturing a large number of prisoners. The end was now rapidly approaching. Nearly every regiment was kept constantly fighting, and the Sharpshooters had their full share of the deadly work. On the 3d of April the regiment was ordered to move forward in the advance at half-past three in the morning, when it was found that the enemy had evacuated Petersburg. The column pushed on, and the 1st Michigan Sharpshooters were the foremost Union regiment to enter the city. After doing service on the Southside Railroad until the surrender of Lee, the regiment went with its division to Washington. It remained in that vicinity until the last of July, when it retarned to Jackson, Mich., and on the 7th of August was paid off and disbanded.

Page  79 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 79 MEMBERS OF THE FIRST SHARPSHOOTERS FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Henry S. Fish, Coldwater, 1st lieut., Hall's S. S.; enl. Aug. 19, 1864; trans. to 1st Mich. S. S.; must. out July 28, 1865. Robert F. Bradley, Co. H; disch. for disability, Sept. 5, 1864. James L. Burnes, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. Jeremiah Burcher, Co. H; diedof disease in 1st Division hospital, June 13,1865. Alvin H. Barber, Co. H; died of disease in Chicago, Ill., Oct. 15, 1863. Daniel H. Conklin, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. Joseph A. Conklin, Co. H; must. out June 22, 1865. Stephen H. Conklin, Co. H; must. out July 28,1865. Reuben Cornell, Co. H; must. out July 28,1865. Henry Crag, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. William H. Dupuy, Co. H; must. out July 28,1865. Charles Durfey, Co. H; died in Andersonville prison, Sept. 3, 1864. William H. Durfey, Co. H; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Andrew J. Ellis, Co. H; must. out May 15,1865. Derrick Hauken, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. Joshua C. Hedglen, Co. B; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. George Haulterbraud, Co. H; died of disease in Chicago, Ill., Jan. 3, 1864. John Kelley, Co. H; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Hugh Kennedy, Co. 1i; must out June 10, 1865. Thomas McLaughlin, Co. -; disch. for disability, June, 1864. Lewis Priest, Co. H; must. out July 17, 1865. William Ross, Co. H; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1865. John Rainbow, Co. H1; must. out July 28, 1865. George W. Sackett, Co. H; must. out July 1, 1865. Jacob Sackett, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. Benjamin F. Smith, Co. H; must. out July, 1865. Henry Smith, Co. H; committed suicide while on guard, Sept. 5, 1863. William H. Stebbins, Co. I; must. out June 1, 1865. George Tanner, Co. C; must. out July 28, 1865. Andrew West, Co. H; must. out July 28,1865. CHAPTER XVIII. FOURTH AND FIFTH CAVALRY. Formation and First Field-Officers of Fourth Cavalry-The Branch County Company-Its First Officers-The Regiment in KentuckyAttacking and Pursuing John Morgan-Services in TennesseeCharging and Routing a Rebel Brigade in May, 1863-Numerous Conflicts-Victories and Defeats-Hard Service in Winter of 1863 -64-The Georgia Campaign — Hard Fight at Lattimore's MillFollowing Hood-Horses all worn out-Regiment RemountedAttack on Selma-Charging and Capturing Intrenchments-Capture of Jefferson Davis-The Muster-out-List of Members-The Fifth Michigan Cavalry-Company M from Branch County-Off to Virginia-Its Engagements in 1863-Kilpatrick's Raid in March, 1864-Dahlgren's Raid-In Sheridan's Expedition in May-Numerous other Conflicts-The Victory of Trevillian Station-In Front of Washington-Fight with Mosby-Other Combats of 1864 -In Sheridan's Raid to the James-In the Final Struggle-The Grand Review-Sent to Fort Leavenworth-Some Men Transferred — Regiment Mustered Out-List of Officers and Soldiers from Branch County. FOURTH CAVALRY. THE raising of the 4th Michigan Cavalry Regiment was authorized in the early part of July, 1 862, as part of Michigan's quota of eleven thousand six hundred and eighty-six men to be furnished under the President's call for troops to retrieve the disasters of the Seven Days' battles before Richmond. The rendezvous of the 4th was established at Detroit, and the regiment having its ranks filled was there mustered for three years' service, on the 29th of August. Its field-officers were: Colonel, Robert H. G. Minty, promoted from lieutenant-colonel of the 3d Michigan Cavalry; Lieutenant-Colonel, William H. Dickinson; Majors, Josiah B. Park, Horace Gray, Joseph W. Houston. One of the companies (G) was furnished by Branch County, as were also about twenty-five men serving in sev eral other companies of the regiment. The first officers of Company G were: Captain, Barber N. Sheldon, of Quincy; First Lieutenant, Daniel Duessler, of Quincy; Second Lieutenant, Julius M. Carter, of Ovid. The regiment left Detroit on the 26th of September, and proceeded to the seat of war in Kentucky, by way of Louisville. Being fully armed, mounted, and equipped, it was placed in active service without much delay. It was in the advance in the attack on the guerrillas of John Morgan at Stanford, Ky., and joined in the pursuit of those raiders to Crab Orchard. In the attack on Lebanon it also led the advance, charging into the town two miles before the infantry, driving out Morgan with an equal or superior force, and capturing a large amount of stores. On the 13th of December the regiment, by a forced march, surprised and captured the pickets at Franklin, Tenn., driving out a large force of the enemy with heavy loss. It led the extreme advance to Murfreesboro', and, after the capture of that place, was engaged in numerous excursions, driving back the enemy's cavalry which infested the country, and capturing several hundred prisoners. In May, 1863, followed by detachments of other regiments, the 4th led a gallant charge into the camp of three Confederate regiments of cavalry, routed them, and took fifty-five prisoners and the colors of the 1st Alabama. When the Army of the Cumberland advanced from Murfreesboro' in June, the 4th was again in the lead, and engaged in innumerable conflicts. It was always successful until it reached the vicinity of Chattanooga, where it was several times driven back by the enemy. The season's service was so severe that on the 1st of November only about three hundred men were mounted. After constant service through the winter, mounted and dismounted, among the mountains of Southeastern Tennessee, the regiment returned to Nashville the last of March, where it received fresh horses and new equipments. It then returned to Sherman's army, which it accompanied in the Georgia campaign, constantly engaged in the same kind of arduous service before described. Its hardest conflict was on the 20th of June, at Lattimore's Mills, when with the 7th Pennsylvania Cavalry it engaged three brigades of rebel cavalry. It twice charged the enemy with the sabre, and repulsed several charges made by them. Having finally fallen back to its supports it aided in meetilg an attack by Gen. Wheeler's whole force, which was driven back with heavy loss. In this affair the regiment, which had about three hundred men present, had thirtyseven killed and wounded. After the capture of Atlanta, the mounted men of the regiment followed Hood's army northward, nearly to the Tennessee River, harassing his rear, capturing prisoners, etc. By this time all the horses but a hundred were again worn out. These were transferred to another command, and the 4th was reunited on foot at Nashville in October. It was remounted at Louisville, Ky., and by the last of January, 1865, was at Gravelly Spring, Ala. Leaving there the 12th of March, it set out with other regiments on a long raid through Alabama, swimming rivers, building corduroy roads, seizing towns, capturing Forrest's artillery, and finally capturing the city of Selma, defended:: f::.):o D A

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. -- -I by very elaborate fortifications, and by at least seven thousand men under Gen. Forrest. At one point fifteen hundred dismounted cavalry, of which the 4th was a part, charged the intrenchments and captured them in twenty minutes, having had three hundred and twenty-four men killed and wounded. This was on the 2d of April. On the 20th, after numerous adventures, the command reached Macon, Ga., where the news of the surrender of the rebel arms caused the cessation of fighting. The 4th, however, gained still another title to renown by capturing the rebel president, Jefferson Davis, near Abbeville, Ga., on the 10th of April, 1865. The regiment soon after marched to Nashville, where it was mustered out on the 1st of July, being disbanded at Detroit on the 10th. The list of its battles and skirmishes numbered ninety-four. Few of them, it is true, were very severe, but the number of them shows thit the regiment was full of energy and valor. MEMBERS OF THE -FOURTH CAVALRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Barber N. Sheldon, Quincy, capt.; enl. Aug. 13, 1862; maj., Aug. 23, 1863; wounded in action at Kingston, Ga., May 8, 1864; bvt. lieut.-col., March 13,1865; must. out July 2, 1865. Daniel Duesler, Quincy, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 13,1862; capt., Feb. 1, 1863; hon. disch. for disability, June 27, 1863. Julius M. Carter, Ovid, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 13, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 24, 1862; wounded in action at Kingston, Ga., May 18, 1864; capt., July 9,1864; bvt. maj., March 13, 1865; hon. disch. for disability, May 17, 1865. Ienry D. Fields, Bronson, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 13, 1862; res. March 1, 1863. Jeremiah Duesler, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Feb. 18,1863; res. April 21, 1864. Henry A. Potter, Ovid, 2d lieut.; enl. Feb. 16, 1863; 1st lieut., March 31, 1863; capt., Aug. 1, 1864; must. out July 1, 1865, with regiment. Alfred Purinton, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 1, 1864; 1st lieut., May 10, 1865; must. out July 1, 1865, with regiment. Lorenzo J. Southwell, Ovid, 2d lieut.; enl. Dec. 10,1861:; must. out July 1,1865, with regiment. Company G. Benj. F. Archer, must. out July 1,1865. Wm. G. Beebe, disch. for disability. Phineas Burkholder, disch. for disability. Wm. Burdick, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 30, 1863. Matthew N. Burdick, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 15, 1864. Lewis R. Bridge, disch. by order, July 6, 1865. Mathew Brayton, died of disease, at Murfreesboro', Tenn., June 24, 1863. Milton Beesmer, died of disease, at Nashville, Tenn., March 1, 1863. Wm. H. Bradford, must. out July 1, 1863. Wm. H. Burt, must. out July 1, 1863. Wm. E. Bradley, disch. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862. John Browers, disch. by order, June 19,1865. John Cavanaugh, disch. by order, July 14, 1865. Martin Cass, disch. for disability, March 8, 1863. Charles Carter, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Feb. 8, 1863. Ira L. Canfield, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 25, 1862. Henry Cusick, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 7, 1864. Wim. Casselman, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30,1864. Aaron M. Chase, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 15, 1864. Martin Cloonan, must. out July 1, 1865. Jeremiah Craig, must. out July 1, 1865. Winfield Day, died of disease at Quincy, Mich., May 20,1861. Wm. Dobson, died of disease at Bridgeport, Ala., Nov. 17, 1863. Gamalia Dickinson, disch. for disability, Sept. 16,1863. John Daggett, disch. for disability, April 11, 1863. Howard Gaffney, died of disease at Springfield, Ky., Nov. 5, 1865. Edwin E. Hungerford, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Feb. 17, 1863. George W. Jones, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., June 8,1863. Warren Leland, disch. for disability, Jan. 12, 1865. Whitfield Lampman, must. out July 1,1865. Charles M. Magden, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 18, 1863. William H. Mayden, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 21, 1864. Francis Maguire, must. out July 1, 1865. George Myres, must. out July 1, 1865. John C. Nichols, must. out July 1, 1865. Henry Norton, disch. for disability, Nov. 1862. Joseph Odren, disch. by order. James G. O'Brien, must. out Jnly 1, 1865. Joseph Perrin, must. out July 1, 1865. Lewis Perrine, disch. for disability, May 4, 1863. Elias H. Prout, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Feb. 27, 1863. William H. Prout, died of disease at Nashville, Teun., March 10, 1863. 'William H. Palmeter, must. out July 1, 1865. Samuel Ruff, must. out July 1, 1865. Cary Reed, must. out July 1,1865. Franklin Roundy, must. out July 1,1865. James Swarthout, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Jan. 23, 1863. Robert T. Smith, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 10, 1863. John Skinner, disch. for disability, Feb. 6, 1863. John A. Skinner, must. out July 1, 1865. William Swartliout, must. out July 1, 1865. John Sullivan, must. *t July 1, 1865. Philetus Siggins, irtm, out July 1, 1865. Albert Stickney, disch. for disability, Feb. 16, 1863. Elias H. Scales, disch. for disability, March 3,1863. William H. Thompson, disch. for disability, April 18, 1863. William Trask, disch. for disability, Dec. 28,1862. George H. Trask, must. out July 1, 1865. Jacob N. Trask, must. out July 1, 1865. George W. Van Sickle, must. out July 1, 1865. George Whaley, died of disease at Danville, Ky., Oct. 25,1862. William Wood, disch. for disability, May 5,1863. Elisha C. Williams, disch. for disability, Feb. 3, 1863. Oliver M. Wentworth, disch. for disability, March 27,1863. W. R. Wentworth, must. out July 1, 1865. Henry Woodmaster, must. out July 1, 1865. Daniel H. Bush, Co. A; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30,1863. Benona Burch, Co. I; died at Dallas, Ga., May 27,1864, of wounds. Ambrose Burleson, Co. I; died at Noonday Creek, Ga., June 20,1864, of wounds. John Bailey, Co. M; died in Andersonville prison, July 3, 1864. Henry Cosier, Co. I; disch. for disability, June 8, 1863. Zenas B. Cheney, N. C. S.; disch. by order, Nov. 16, 1863. Aaron B. Fowell, Co. I; disch. for disability, Jan. 12,1861. Solomon Fosmith, Co. I; must. out July 1, 1865. William Filkins, Co. K; must. out Aug. 15,1865. J. V. T. Gauthouse, Co. I; missing in action at Selma, Ala., April 2, 1865. Henry S. Hewitt, Co. I; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 19, 1862. Charles W. Hartwell, Co. I; disch. by order, July 21,1865. Jerome B. Heth, Co. I; must. out July 1,1865. Martin Hecathorn, Co. I; must. out July 1, 1865. Orlando Hawley, Co. I; died at Lavergne, Tenn., Dec. 29, 1862, of wounds. James Ogden, Co. A; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 22,1864. James Pope, Co. I; disch. for disability, Sept. 15, 1862. Thomas Reeves, Co. K; died of disease at Nashville, April 23,1864. William Simpson, Co. I; must. out July 1, 1865. Ira C. Stockwell, Co. C; must. out July 1, 1865. Elbert Terril, Co. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864. O. F. Underhill, Co. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, July 1, 1863. Pembroke Vandemark, Co. D; must. out Aug. 15, 1865. John H. Williams, Co. I; disch. for disability, Feb. 15, 1865. Edward H. Wood, Co. A; trans. to. Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863. FIFTH CAVALRY. The 5th Michigan Cavalry Regiment was raised in the summer of 1862, under authority from the War Department and the Governor of the State to Joseph T. Copeland, then lieutenant-colonel of the 1st Cavalry. The rendezvous of the regimentv was at Detroit, where its organization was perfected, and it was mustered into the service of the United States on the 30th of August, in the year named; the field-officers being as follows: Joseph T. Copeland, colonel; William D. Mann, lieutenant-colonel; Ebenezer Gould, Luther S. Trowbridge, Noall H. Terry, majors. One company (M) was composed of Branch County men. Its officers when mustered were Smith H. Hastings, of Coldwater, first lieutenant; Andrew D. Hall, of Quincy, second lieutenant; the company at that time having no captain. For about three months after its muster the regiment remained at the rendezvous without receiving arms, and at the time of its departure for the seat of war the men had been but partially armed, though fully equipped. The command left Detroit for the front on the 4th of Decem ber, 1862, and proceeded to Washington, where it remained through the winter. In the spring of 1863, after having been fully armed, it was attached to the 2d Brigade of the

Page  81 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 81 3d Division of the Cavalry Corps, Army of the Potomac. As it is impracticable to furnish a detailed account of its almost innumerable marches, and constantly-changing movements and counter-movements during the campaign of 1863, we give in brief a list of the engagements with the enemy in which the regiment took part during that eventful year, namely: Hanover, Va., June 30; Hunterstown, Pa., July 2; Gettysburg, Pa., July 3; Monterey, Md., July 4; Cavetown, Md., July 5; Smithtown, Md., July 6; Boonsboro', Md., July 6; Hagerstown, Md., July 7; Williamsport, Md., July 7; Boonsboro', Md., July 8; Hagerstown, Md., July 10; Williamsport, Md., July 10; Falling Waters, Va., July 14; Snicker's Gap, Va., July 19; Kelly's Ford, Va., September 13; Culpeper Court-House, Va., September 14; Raccoon Ford, Va., September 16; White's Ford, Va., September 21; Jack's Shop, Va., September 26; James City, Va., October 12; Brandy Station, Va., October 18; Buckland's Mills, Va., October 19; Stevensburg, Va., November 19; Morton's Ford, Va., November 26. At the close of the active operations of 1863, the 5th went into camp at Stevensburg, Va., passing the winter there, and in picket duty along the line of the Rapidan. About the 1st of March it took part in the raid of Gen. Kilpatrick to the defenses of Richmond, where it was attacked March 2 by the enemy in large force, and obliged to retire to New Kent Court-House, where it joined Gen. Butler. A detachment of the regiment had accompanied Col. Dahlgren in the famous raid in which he lost his life. It advanced to within five miles of Richmond and drove the enemy from his first and second lines of defense, but was finally compelled to retreat behind the Chickahorniny. At Old Church the body containing the detachment of the 5th was attacked and compelled to cut its way to White House Landing, which was reached on the following day. On the 11th it embarked at Yorktown, moved by the York and Potomac Rivers to Alexandria, and thence to the camp at Stevensburg. It was then transferred from the 3d to the 1st Cavalry Division at Culpeper Court-House. The 5th took an active part in the famous campaign of Gen. Grant, in 1864. It crossed the Rapidan on the 5th of May, and on the 6th and 7th was hotly engaged with the enemy in the Wilderness. It was in Sheridan's great cavalry expedition against the rebel communications; fighting at Beaver Dam Station on the 9th of May, at Yellow Tavern on the 10th and 11th, and at Meadow Bridge on the 12th. On the 14th it crossed the Chickahominy at Bottom's Bridge, marched thence to Malvern Hill, and from there to Hanover Court-House, destroying railroad track and bridges. It crossed the Parnunkey River at White House on the 22d; and, marching by way of Aylett's and Concord Church, rejoined the Army of the Potomac, near Chesterfield, on the 25th. It was in the action at Hawes' Shop, May 28,.at Baltimore Cross-Roads on the 29th, and at Cold Harbor and Old Church Tavern on the 30th. Again, on the raid along the line of the Virginia Central Railroad, it fought at Trevillian Station, June 11, where the enemy were driven several miles, leaving in the hands of the Union troops about six hundred prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, one stand of colors, six caissons, forty ambulances, and fifty 11 wagons. On the 12th it was engaged a few miles nearer Louisa Court-House on the Gordonsville Road, and, passing thence towards the James River, crossed that stream and marched to Jerusalem Plank-Road, south of Petersburg. On the 4th of August it embarked for Washington, and moved thence through Maryland and across the Potomac, to Halltown and Berryville, Va. It fought at Winchester on the 11th, and at Front Royal on the 16th of August. On the 19th a squadron of the regiment was attacked by Mosby's guerrillas, and was driven to the main body, with a loss of sixteen killed and mortally wounded. Among the subsequent engagements of the regiment during the valley campaign of 1864 were Leetown and Shepardstown, Aug. 25; Opequan Creek, Aug. 28; Smithfield, Aug. 29; Berryville, Sept. 3; Summit, Sept. 4; Opequan, Sept. 19 (where it routed the enemy's cavalry, broke his infantry lines, captured two battle-flags and four hundred prisoners); Luray, Va., Sept. 24 (captured forty prisoners); Mount Crawford, Va., Oct. 2; Woodstock, Oct. 9; Cedar Creek, Oct. 19 (capturing a large number of prisoners, and driving the enemy in great confusion); and Newtown, Nov. 12, where it fought an entire brigade of the enemy. After the last-named action, the regiment returned to Camp Russell, near Winchester, Va., where it remained until Feb. 27, 1865, when it broke camp and moved southeast, as part of Sheridan's force, on the famous raid of that general to the James River. It was engaged in action at Louisa Court-House, March 18, 1865, and, joining the Army of the Potomac before Petersburg, fought under Sheridan at Five Forks, Va., March 30 and 31, and April 1. On the 2d of April it was engaged with the enemy on the Southside Railroad; on the 4th at Duck Pond Mills; on the 6th at Sailor's Creek; and then took part in the closing events at Appomattox Court-House, from the 6th to the 9th of April, 1865. After the surrender of Lee the 5th moved with the Cavalry Corps to Petersburg, and was ordered thence, shortly afterwards, to North Carolina. It returned to Washington, D. C., in time to participate in the grand review of the veteran armies of Grant, Sherman, and Sheridan, in the latter part of May. Immediately after this it was moved West with the Michigan Cavalry Brigade, by the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad and the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, to St. Louis; thence by steamer on the Missouri River to Fort Leavenworth, Mo. There the men having two years or more to serve were transferred to the 1st and 7th Michigan Cavalry; and then, on the 22d of June, the 5th was mustered out of service. The regiment reached Detroit on the 1st of July, where the men received their pay and dispersed. MEMBERS OF THE FIFTH MICHIGAN CAVALRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Andrew D. Hall, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 14, 1862; res. June 5, 1863. Smith 11. Hastings, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 14, 1862; capt., Jan. 10, 1863; wounded at Trevillian Station, Va., June 12, 1864; major, Aug. 9, 1864; lieut.-col., Nov. 10, 1864; col., Dec. 17, 1864; must. out June 22, 1865. Madison N. Bibbins, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. March 4, 1864; 1st lieut., Aug. 10, 1864; capt., Feb. 1, 1865; must. out June 22, 1865, with regiment. Amos Bingham, Quincy, 2d lieut., enl. Oct. 27, 1864; 1st lieut., Feb. 1, 1865 must. out June 22, 1865, with regiment.

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - —.:1 -. — — ~ --- - I William H. Hunt, Coldwater, 2d lieut. (as sergt.); must out June 22,1865, with regiment. Henry M. Fox, Coldwater, 2d lient. (as sergt.); must. out June 22,1865, with regiment. Company M. William Andrews, must. out June 19,1865. John Adams, disch. by order, July 7,1865. William H. Black, died of disease at Washington, D. C., Aug. 13,1864. Levi Busley, missing in action at Richmond, Va., March 2,1864. Amos Bingham, disch. for promotion. Thomas Bingham, disch. by order. Henry Baines, must. out June 19,1865. Matthew B. Burger, disch. for disability, March 3,1865. Nathan C. Canfield, died of disease at Detroit, Dec. 3,1862. Charles C. Craft, killed by guerrillas in skirmish at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. Peleg Canner, disch. for disability, May 23, 1863. Orrin D. Curtis, disch. by order, June 26,1865. Sylvester T. Chase, must. out June 19, 1865. Parmenio Casey, must. out June 19,1865. Peter M. Dubendorf, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Charles A. Ford, must. out June 19,1865. Henry M. Fox, must. out June 19, 1865. James A. Furgeson, must. out June 19,1865. Isaiah Fox, killed in skirmish by guerrillas at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19,1864. John H. Gripman, died in Andersonville prison, April 8,1864. Charles H. Goodrich, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Arnold Goodman, disch. for disability, May 15,1865. David Gibbins, must. out June 19, 1865. Charles M. Hobbs, must. out June 19, 1865. William H. Hunt, must. out June 19, 1865. Seymour H. Hogle, disch. for disability, Feb. 28,1863. William H. Harkness, died of disease at Annapolis, Md., Aug. 2,1863. Fernando A. Jones, must. out June 19,1865. Stephen Keyser, disch. by order, Sept. 1, 1863. Fluette King, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Charles Little, died in prison at Richmond, Va., April 28,1864. Spencer Leigh, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Zelotes Mather, died of disease at Frederick, Md., Aug. 19,1863. Calvin McCreery, died in action at Hawes' Shop, Va., May 28, 1864. William Milliman, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. William Marshall, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Jonas H. McGowan, disch. for disability, Dec. 4, 1862. James Mills, must. out June 19, 1865. John R. Morey, captured in Dahlgren's raid around Richmond, Va.; must. out June 19,1865. William Nivison, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 31, 1864. Robert B. Nivison, must. out June 19,1865. Nesbit J. Nevel, must. out June 19, 1865. Edward S. Ogden, died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 27,1864. Isaac C. Osburn, killed in skirmish by guerrillas at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. Samuel I. Osburn, disch. by order, May 27,1865. Ephraim Oviatt, must. out June 19, 1865. John H. Pratt, must. out June 19,1865. Ezra Post, must. out June 19, 1865. P. M. Reynolds, must. out June 19,1865. John A. Snyder, died in prison at Andersonville, Ga., Sept. 27,1864. Squire E. Skeels, killed in skirmish by guerrillas at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. Howard Simons, must. out July 24,1865. Wm. F. Teachout, disch. by order, Aug. 11, 1865. Horace M. Tifft, missing in action at Richmond, Va. Albert I. Tifft, must. out June 19, 1865. Dexter B. Taylor, must. out June 19,1865. Charles Thompson, must. out June 19,1865. Orim Van Gilder, trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. M. L. Vicory, killed in action at Smithfield, Va., Aug. 29,1864. Hiram Vaukying, disch. for disability, Jan. 15,1864. Wm. S. Van Gieson, disch. by order, July 5, 1865. Samuel K. Vanderker, must. out July 13,1865. Francis M. Wright, died of disease at Baltimore, Md., Sept. 10, 1864. Jarvis Watkins, died in action at Toledo Tavern, Va., May 6,1864. William H. Watkins, must. out June 19,1865. Vincent Watkins, must. out June 19,1865. George White, killed in skirmish by guerrillas at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19,1864. H. C. Worthington, killed in skirmish by guerrillas at Berryville, Va., Aug. 19, 1864. Milo Beard, Co. I; trans. to 1st Mich. Car. James Cobb, Co. I; trans. to 7th Micl- Cav. Edward Carr, Co. C; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. John Dennis, Co. G; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav. Elisha Demorest, Co. I; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Jasper Eldred, Co. I; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Edward Fox, Co. G; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav. Michael Kanouse, Co. C; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. MosesIKanouse, Co. C; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Isaac Lake, Co. B; disch. by order, June 26,1865. Charles H. Osterhout, Co. K; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. Charles Prentiss, Co. G; trans. to 1st Mich. Car. James J. Pendill, Co. G; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav. Lucius Stray, Co. G; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav. Minard 0. Van Gilder, Co. L; trans. to 7th Mich. Cay. Colbert Van Gieson, Co. L; trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. George 0. Van Gieson, Co. L trans. to 7th Mich. Cav. CHAPTER XIX. EIGHTH, NINTH, AND ELEVENTH CAVALRY. Branch County in the 8th Cavalry-In Kentucky in 1863-Chasing Morgan-Capturing Prisoners-To East Tennessee-Defeated at Athens-Skirmishing in the Valley-On Foot to Kentucky-Remounted-Joins Sherman-In the Atlanta Campaign-Drives the Enemy from Sherman's Flank-Surprised and Routed-Back to Nashville-Skirmishing with Hood-Consolidated with the 11thMustered out-Its Officers and Soldiers-Rendezvous of 9th Cavalry at Coldwater-Company I from Branch County-To Kentucky in May, 1863-Fight with Guerrillas-Divided, to Capture Morgan —Complete Success-Victory by every Detachment-With Burnside in East Tennessee-Brilliant Success at Cumberland Gap -Numerous Engagements-Repulsed by Infantry-Dismounted and Remounted-Routing Morgan-Under Kilpatrick around Atlanta and down to the Sea-Battles and Skirmishes-Through the Carolinas-Other Engagements-To Baltimore and Home-Mustered out-List of Members-Branch County in the 11th Cavalry-Scouting in Kentucky-Defeating Morgan-Defeated at Saltville, Va.-Guerrilla Fighting in Tennessee-Routing Vaughn in Virginia-From Tennessee to South Carolina-Complete SuccessA long Raid-Consolidated with the 8th Cavalry-Mustered out -List of Officers and Soldiers. EIGHTH CAVALRY. THIS regiment, the rendezvous of which was at Mount Clemens, did not take the field until May, 1863. Durilng its service it contained about eighty men from Branch County, principally in Companies B, C, and M, with a few individuals scattered through Companies A, D, E, G, H, I, and L. Two of its captains-Henry L. Sillick and Elijah J. Devens-were of this county, the former being a resident of Quincy and the latter of Coldwater. The Rev. Norman L. Otis, of Union City, was chaplain of the 8th during all the latter part of its term of service. Immediately on entering the field the regiment was placed on active duty in Kentucky, and was one of the foremost in the pursuit of the guerrilla chief, John Morgan, throughl Indiana and Ohio. At length, overtaking him at Buffington Island, O., it immediately attacked and routed his command, capturing two hundred and seventeen prisoners, besides killing and wounding a considerable number. The regiment then proceeded to East Tennessee. At Calhoun and Athens, in that State, on the 20th and 27th of September, the brigade to which it belonged was defeated and driven back by a large rebel force under Gens. Forrest and Wheeler, the 8th having forty-three killed and wounded and several missing. The regiment was very actively engaged marching and skirmishing up and down the Valley of the Tennessee until the forepart of February, 1864, when it turned over its horses to the quartermaster's department and marched on foot to Mount Sterling, Ky. It was there remounted, and in June joined Gen. Sherman's army at Big Shanty,

Page  83 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 83 - S ~~I... Ga. As a part of the cavalry force under Gen. Stoneman, the 8th advanced towards Atlanta, covering the right of Sherman's command, and frequently engaged with the enemy. The latter were usually forced to retire, but on the 3d of August, after the regiment had been cut off from the main force, and had cut its way through the enemy, after seven days and nights of continuous marching, with almost no sleep, it was surprised and routed, with the loss of two hundred and fifteen officers and men, mostly taken prisoners. The remainder of the regiment was employed on picket duty until the middle of September, when it was ordered to Kentucky, and then back to Nashville. The 8th was engaged through the month of November in skirmishing with the cavalry advance of Hood's army, being several times surrounded by the enemy, but always managing to cut its way out. After Hood was defeated at Franklin and Nashville, and driven out of Tennessee, this regiment had no service more severe than suppressing the guerrillas which still infested the country. In July the 11th Cavalry was consolidated with the 8th, the combined regiment retaining the latter name. It was mustered out at Nashville on the 22d of September, 1865, and disbanded at Jackson about the 30th. OFFICERS AND SOLDIERS OF THE EIGHTH CAVALRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Henry L. Sellick, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. Nov. 1, 1862; capt., Aug. 31,1863; res. Oct. 27, 1864. Elijah J. Devens, Coldwater, capt.; enl. Nov. 1, 1862; res. April 8, 1864. Smedley Wilkinson, Quincy, 1st lieut.; enl. Nov. 1,1862; res. Jan. 10, 1864. David Noteman, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Nov. 1, 1862; res. June 21, 1864. Walter Burritt, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Nov. 1, 1862; res. Jan. 4, 1864. Charles 0. Twist, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 31,1863; res. Sept. 14, 1864. Henry M. Burton, 2d lieut.; enl. May 2, 1864; res. May 17, 1865. Horace Woodbridge, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Jan. 8,1865; hon. disch. July 20, 1865, on consolidation with 11th Cav. Norman L. Otis, Union City, chaplain, hon. disch. Sept. 22,1865, with regiment. Benjamin C. Barnes, Co. I; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. George Bates, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. William Ball, Co. B; disch. by order, June 18, 1865. Jacob Baker, Co. H; must. out Oct. 9, 1865. Francis Beedle, Co. M; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., May 3,1864. Cassius Burritt, Co. M; must. out Sept. 19, 1865. Hiram Blackmer, Co. B; traps. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864. William Beecher, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. William Buffington, Co. I; must. out Sept. 22,1865. Walter Besemer, Co. B; disch. by order, July 20, 1865. David W. Burring, Co. M; must. out Sept. 29, 1865. Aretus Corwin, Co. M; disch. for disability, March 20, 1865. Jeremiah Coleman, Co. B; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Nov. 27, 1863. John H. Chivois, Co. E; must. out Sept. 22,1865. James C. Church, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. Benj. F. Clark, Co. B; must. out June 10, 1865. Stephen Combs, Co. B; disch. June 12,1865. Alexander Fisk, Co. B; died of disease, 1864. George Franklin, Co. M; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Nov. 1, 1863. William Filson, Co. B; died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Dec. 16, 1863. Lewis R. Foot, Co. B; killed by explosion of steamer on Mississippi River, April 15, 1865. William J. Foster, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22,,1865. George Garboll, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Francis Hadley, Co. M; disch. for disability, April 28, 1864. Enos B. Hadley, Co. M; must. out May 22, 1865. Julius Houghtaling, Co. L; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Horace W. Hunt, Co. B; must. out May 15, 1865. Peter W. IIughes, Co. M; disch. for disability. Vernon C. IIowe, Co. M; disch. for disability, Nov. 24, 1864. Julius Henry, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Edwin J. Hall, Co. B; disch. by order, Sept. 7, 1865. Francis Jerome, Co. B; missing in raid on Macon, Ga., Aug. 3, 1864. James Kubeck, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22,1865. Jonathan Lossing, Co. B; died in Andersonville prison, March 29, 1864. Thomas J. Lossing, Co. B; must. out June 13, 1865. Erastus J. Lewis, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. John M. Landon, Co. C; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. James Lowrer, Co. M; disch. for disability, March 20, 1865. William McKinney, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22,1865. Edward C. McDaniels, Co. B; disch. June 6, 1865. David Musselman, Co. H; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Reuben T. Mathews, Co. M. Anson W. Merritt, Co. E; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Henry C. Norton, Co. B; killed by explosion of steamer, April 15,1866. Mortimer J. Nash, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. William Newman, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1855. Edgar T. Ormsby, Co. M; disch. for disability, Oct. 13, 1864. John B. Parkinson, Co. B; disch. for disability, Oct. 19, 1863. Henry N. Perrine, Co. B. William Powers, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Eliphalet Page, Co. B; disch. by order, Sept. 7, 1865. J. A. Rustine, Co. B; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., March 21, 1864. John W. Rogers, Co. B; must. out June 10, 1865. Elias Rose, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. L. B. Robbins, Co. B; must. out June 10, 1865. John Smith, Co. B; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., April 10, 1864. George Smith, Co. B; missing in action at Henryville, Tenn., Nov. 23, 1863. Samuel Spencer, Co. B; died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Dec. 16, 1863. Charles Sutherland, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22,1865. Erwin Splitstone, Co. A; died of disease at Pulaski, Tenn., Nov. 18, 1864. Charles G. Seabury, Co. B; must. out June 15, 1865. Cyrus H. Spafford, Co. I; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Calvin E. Seamons, Co. D; must. out. Sept. 22, 1865. David A. Varnum, Co. B; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Ammon 0. Wood, Co. M; died at Andersonville prison, Sept. 8, 1864. Oliver M. Wentworth, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Aug. 1864. John Weller, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 1, 1864. Charles Wright, Co. B; trans. to Vet. Res. Corp.s, Jan. 15,1864. Sanford E. Wood, Co. B; discharged. Manly C. White, Co. B; disch. by order, June 15, 1865. Lewis C. Wheeler, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. O. H. Woodworth, Co. M; disch. for promotion, Sept. 13,1864. Seth Whitten, Co. M; disch. for disability, Feb. 18,1865. Jonathan Wilson, Co. M; disch. for disability, April 2, 1865. William J. Young, Co. C; must. out Sept. 22, 1865. Charles A. Zimmernnan, Co. G; must. out Oct. 10, 1865. NINTH CAVALRY. This regiment had its rendezvous at the city of Coldwater, and its formation was commenced there in the autumn of 1862. One company (I) was largely recruited in Branch County by its first captain, Jonas H. McGowan, of Coldwater. Capt. Otis H. Gillman, of Company K, was also a resident of Coldwater, and men of Branch County were found serving in nearly all the companies. The regiment, except two incomplete companies, left the rendezvous about May 20, 1863, and moved to Louisville, Ky., and thence to Hickman's Bridge. On the 12th of June it was ordered in pursuit of Everett's guerrillas, and engaged them at Triplett's Bridge, capturing a considerable number. July 4 it joined in the pursuit of Morgan's guerrilla forces, following them through Kentucky, fighting their rear-guard at Lebanon, and capturing a lieutenantcolonel and fifty prisoners. At Westport, Ky., on the 12th of July, the regiment was divided into three parts. One detachment, proceeding by river to Cincinnati, joined Gen. Hobson's forces, who pursued and overtook Morgan's force at Buffington's Island, in the Ohio River, and there captured five hundred prisoners, with three pieces of artillery and a large number of small-arms. Another portion took boats at Lawrenceburg, Ky., on the 14th, went to Portsmouth, Ohio, landed, pursued the enemy towards Chester, Meigs Co., Ohio, overtook him, and captured a part of his force; and then, joining Gen. Shackleford's command, at Buffington's Island, marched to Eight-Mile Island, where the foe was again engaged, and more than a thousand prisoners captured. The remaining part of the regiment received orders on the 24th to join the pursuit of the portion of Morgan's forces which had escaped capture at Buffington's Island. Under these orders the detachment

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF BRANCH' COUNTY, MICHIGAN. moved by railway to Mingo Junction, on the Ohio River; and, marching thence towards Steubenville, overtook the enemy near that town on the 25th of July, skirmished with him during the night, and in the morning forced an engagement which resulted in the rout of the rebel raiders, with a loss of sixty-seven killed and wounded, and three hundred and five prisoners; this being almost double the number of men in the attacking Union force. After this expedition the detachments were reunited at Covington, Ky., and the regiment joined Gen. Burnside's expedition to East Tennessee; engaging the enemy at Loudon, September 2, and reaching Knoxville on the 3d. Making little or no stop there, it marched on to Cumberland Gap, where it took part in the movements which resulted (September 8) in the surrender of the enemy's force at that point, consisting of two thousand five hundred men with fourteen pieces of artillery. The 9th was engaged with the enemy at Carter's Station, September 21; at Zollicoffer, on the 25th; at Leesburg, on the 29th; at Blue Springs, October 5 and 10; and at Rheatown, on the 11th. After this it was encamped at Henderson Station for some time, engaged in scouting and cavalry picket duty. On the 6th of November it moved towards Knoxville, skirmishing with the enemy at Clinch Mountain on the 7th, and was engaged in a sharp fight, two miles from Moorestown, on the 10th. At Bean's Station, on the 14th, it was attacked and driven towards Rutledge. From this time until the 15th of January it was almost constantly engaged in skirmishing, scouting, and most fatiguing picket duty. On the 16th it moved from Dandridge towards Bull Gap, encountered the enemy's infantry in heavy force at Kinsbro's Cross-Roads, and was repulsed with a loss of thirtytwo killed, wounded, and missing. From that field it retired by way of Strawberry Plains to Knoxville; reaching that place with two-thirds of its men dismounted; the horses having been worn out by reason of the severity of the duty on which they had been engaged. The regiment returned to Kentucky to be re-equipped, and was in camp at Nicholasville in that State through the month of May, 1864. On the 8th of June it was once more moved in pursuit of its old antagonist, John Morgan, whose forces it encountered at Cynthiana at four o'clock in the morning of the 12th, routing them and taking one hundred and ten prisoners. It continued the pursuit until Morgan entered the mountains, and then the 9th returned to Nicholasville, where it remained until July, when it moved southward to join the army of Gen. Sherman. It reached the vicinity of Atlanta on the 8th of August, and on the 9th joined the Cavalry Division under Kilpatrick, with whom it was employed in the operations around Atlanta, till the fall of the city, and afterwards in the great march to the sea. It was engaged at Stone Mountain, Ga., Sept. 13, 1864; at Lovejoy's Station, November 16; at Clinton, Ga., November 19; at Griswoldville, November 20; at Macon, November 21; at Milledgeville, November 24; at Louisville, November 26; at Waynesboro', November 28 and December 4;* at Cypress Swamp, December 7; near. On this occasion it charged with the sabre, taking four hundred prisoners, and for its gallantry received special notice in Gen. ShermaIAS re-rt to the War Department. Savannah, December 9; Arnold's Plantation, December 11; and at Altamaha Bridge, December 17. From December 18 it remained camped near Savannah until Jan. 27, 1865, when, with its division, it started on the Carolina campaign, crossing the Savannah River into South Carolina at Lister's Ferry on the 3d of February. In its progress through South and North Carolina, the regiment was engaged in the following fights and skirmishers: at Salkehatchie, S. C., February 6; White Pond, February 9; Aiken, S. C., February 11; Lexington, February 15; Broad River Bridge, S. C., February 17; Phillips' CrossRoads, N. C., March 4; Wadesboro', N. C., March 5; Solemn Grove, N. C., March 10; Averysboro', N. C. (general engagement), March 15; Bentonville, N. C. (general engagement), March 20 and 21; Raleigh and Smithfield Railroad, N. C., April 11; Raleigh, N. C., April 12; Morrisville, N. C., April 13, 1865; the last-named fight resulting in the surrender of Raleigh to Kilpatrick. Resuming the march, on the 14th the 9th moved by way of Chapel Hill (where the news of Lee's surrender was received), Hillsboro', Greensboro', and Lexington to Concord, where it encamped on the 14th of May, and where it was mustered out of service, July 21. It marched thence to Lexington, where it took railway transportation to City Point, Va., thence by river and bay to Baltimore, and then by rail to Pittsburgh, Cleveland, Detroit, and Jackson, where it arrived on the 30th of July, and was paid and disbanded. It has been stated (and there is no reason to doubt the assertion) that the last hostile shot in the great Rebellion, east of the Mississippi, was fired by the 9th Michigan Cavalry. MEMBERS OF THE NINTH CAVALRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Jonas H. McGowan, Coldwater, capt.; enl. Nov. 3, 1862; res. Jan. 27, 1864. Otis H. Gillam, Coldwater, capt; enl. Nov. 3, 1862; res. March 11, 1864. Smith W. Fisk, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Nov. 3, 1862; wounded in a skirmish with Morgan's raiders at Salineville, 0., July 26, 1863; disch. for disability, Nov. 5,1863. John D. Smails, California, 2d lient.; enl. Dec. 29,1863; 1st lieut., March 15, 1864; must. out July 21, 1865, with regiment. Charles H. Smith, Girard, 2d lieut.; enl. March 27, 1863; 1st lieut., Jan. 17, 1864; capt., Aug. 19, 1865; must. out July 23, 1865, with regiment. Benton T. Russell, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. as sergt., Feb. 27, 1865; must. out July 21,1865, with regiment. George W. Howard, 2d lieut.; enl. as sergt., Oct. 26, 1864; must. out July 21, 1865, with regiment. Alfred K. Miller, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. as sergt., June 27, 1865; must. out July 21,1865, with regiment. Milton Allen, Co. C; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 2, 1864. Samuel Allman, Co. B; must. out June 12, 1865. Alexander Black, Co. K; killed in action at Stone Mountain, Ga., Oct. 2,1864. James Ballard, Co. D; died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., April 23, 1864. Lyman Bates, Co. K; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Jan. 19,1864. Ashael L. Baird, Co. G; disch. for disability, Feb. 23, 1864. George R. Bennett, Co. K; disch. for disability, March 16,1864. Warren E. Bills, Co. B; must. out July 21, 1865. Benjamin F. Belden, Co. A; must. out July 21, 1865. George W. Bartram, Co. K; must. out June 21,1865. Warren A. Blye, Co. I; disch. for disability, June 1, 1865. Stanley Bidwell, Co. I; disch. for disability, June 1, 1865. George Blair, Co. I; must. out June 12, 1865. Zebulon Birch, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Peter B. Case, Co. I; died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., May 14,1864. Rice W. Chapman, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Louis Creer, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Collins W. Cutter, Co. L; must. out Aug. 14, 1865. Charles Degalier, Co. B; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., March 13,1864. Benjamin Duck, Co. L; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15. Wm. R. Dunn, Co. I; missing in action, March 12,1865. Clharles Drake, Co. I; disch. for disability, April, 1863. Jeremiah Depue, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Alphonzo Dawson, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. John Dawson, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. William Danton, Co. H; must. out July 21, 1865.

Page  85 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 85 Albert E. Evans, Co. K; must. out June 7,1865. Daniel Francis, Co. H; must. out July 21, 1865. David Franklin, Co. G. Philip Fonda, Co. I; ditch. for disability, Feb. 29, 1864. John Fisher, Co. I; disch. for disability, Dec. 17, 1863. James Fitzgerald, N. C. S.; must. out July 21,1865. Jackson Gillam, Co. I; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Dec. 1863. Henry G. Goode, Co. B; must. out July 21, 1865. Hiram Hulse, Co. I; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., Dec. 1863. William A. Harkins, Co. B; must. out July 21, 1865. Eugene Hillard, Co. E; must. out July 21, 1865. John A. Holmes, Co. E; must. out July 21,1865. George F. Hartzell, Co. L; must. out July 21, 1865. William S. Hopkins, Co. K; must. out July 21,1865. John Hiverly, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. Francis M. Jones, Co. B; must. out July 21,1865. Ira G. Kinne, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Oliver Lapier, Co. B; must. out July 21,1865. Francis La Bonte, Co. F; must. out July 21, 1865. Robert G. Long, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Martin Lockwood, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Fred Miller, Co. D; disch. for disability. John T. Merriss, Co. I; disch. for disability. E. D. McGowan, Co. I; disch. by order, July 25, 1864. George Moon, Co. I; missing in action. John E. McCarty, Co. L; must. out July 21,1865. Alfred K. Miller, Co. L; must. out July 21,1865. John McPhail, Co. E; must. out May 29, 1865. William H. Moore, Co. E; must. out June 12,1865. Elias Michael, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. David F. Misener, Co. I; must. out July 5, 1865. Nelson R. Nye, Co. E; must. out July 21, 1865. David Nelson, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Henry I. Ogden, Co. I; must. out June 12, 1865. Isaac W. Pierce, Co. E; must. out June 12,1865. William H. Rose, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Joseph Robinson, Co. E; must. out June 12, 1865. Henry Rynder, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Batt., May 8, 1863. William Rowley, Co. F; trans. to 11th Mich. Batt., May 8, 1863. W. W. Scott, Co. K; died of disease at Covington, Ky., July 26,1864. James Stubbs, Co. L; died in Andersonville prison, July 15,1864. Thomas Sudboro, Co. L; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. Erastus L. Smith, Co. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. Samuel S. Smith, Co. K; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. Jacob Sliirnerly, Co. I; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15,1864. John A. Smith, Co. A; must. out July 21, 1865. George Selleck, Co. E; must. out July 21, 1865. Luther W. Smith, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. Jephtha Simpson, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. James D. Studley, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. Jesse Taft, Co. I; must out July 21, 1865. Hazel Tyrrell, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. George W. Thayer, Co. 11; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., July 6, 1864. George W. Thayer, Co. B; must. out July 21, 1865. John Uhlm, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. F. Vanderhoof, Co. G; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April, 1864. John H. Wells, Co. F; disch. for disability, June 14, 1865. Benjamin Wilkins, Co. K; must. out July 21, 1865. Benj. F. Wilder, Co. I; must. out Jan. 23, 1865. Aug. Wentworth, Co. I; must. out July 21, 1865. ELEVENTH CAVALRY. This regiment contained about thirty men from Branch County, all of whom, with the exception of two or three, were members of Company M. The regiment was organized at Kalamazoo, and left that rendezvous in December, 1863, for the scene of war in the Southwest. After scouting in Kentucky about six months, the 11th came in collision with the noted rebel cavalry leader, John H. Morgan, at Mount Sterling, and after a sharp action utterly routed his command. On the 12th of June it came up with the remainder of his force at Cynthiana, and again the sons of chivalry were compelled to fly before the men of Michigan. In the latter part of September, 1864, the regiment moved with its division on a long and tedious raid over the mountains to Saltville, Virginia. The place was found to be fortified and well defended by a large force under General Breckinridge. The attack failed, and the command returned to Kentucky. In the latter part of November the 11th was ordered to East Tennessee, where it was engaged in the usual fighting with guerillas and rebel cavalry until the middle of January, 1865, when it marched with General Stoneman on an important raid into Virginia. On the 16th of January it fought with Vaughn's Brigade all day near Abington, Va., completely routing it and capturing all its artillery and two hundred and fifty men. After defeating Breckinridge's infantry, destroying the salt-works at Saltville, burning an arsenal, and capturing a large quantity of supplies and artillery, the command passed over the mountains into Kentucky, three-fourths of the horses being worn out and the men dismounted. In the early part of March the regiment, with new horses, again went to East Tennessee, and joined another expedition of General Stoneman into North Carolina. At Salisbury, in that State, on the 12th of April, the command defeated a large force of the enemy, capturing eighteen hundred prisoners and twenty-two pieces of artillery.. It then passed on through South Carolina into Georgia, and on the 11th of May captured the cavalry escort of Jefferson Davis near Washington, Georgia. It then went back through South Carolina to East Tennessee. On the 20th of July, the 11th was consolidated with the 8th Michigan Cavalry, taking the name of the latter regiment. The consolidated regiment was mustered out in September, as already narrated. MEMBERS OF THE ELEVENTH CAVALRY FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Abram E. Stowell, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Aug. 1, 1863; res. Nov. 14,1865. Martin S. Perkins, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 1, 1863; res. June 18, 1865. Edwin R. Bovee, Co. M. William E. Burtless, Co. M. Edward Bates, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. David Blass, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Charles S. Dunn, Co. A; disch. by order, July 12,1865. Willian J. Foster, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Thomas B. Fulcher, Co. M; disch. by order, Aug. 10,1865. Otto Gould, Co. M; disch. by order, July 12, 1865. George Garboll, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. John W. Hulburt, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Thomas Howe, Co. M; disch. by order, Aug. 10, 1865. Julius Henry, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. James Kubeck, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. George H. Kimball, Co. M; disch. by order, July 12, 1865. James Loomis, Co. M; must. out Sept. 11, 1865. Erastus J. Lewis, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. John M. Landon, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. James C. Mosher, Co. L; disch. for promotion. Mortimer J. Nash, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. William Newman, Co. M; trans. to 8th Micl. Cav. William Powers, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Wesley Preston, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Charles Sutherland, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. David Sidler, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. H. C. Thompson, Co. M; must. out June 12, 1865. Lewis C. Wheeler, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Oliver M. Wentworth, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. William J. Young, Co. M; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. Charles Zimmerman, Co. A; trans. to 8th Mich. Cav. CHAPTER XX. BATTERY A, FIRST LIGHT ARTILLERY.* Its Common Name-Its Formation-Called the Coldwater Light Artillery-Guns received at Detroit-Two-Thirds Volunteer for Three Years-Ranks Filled-Muster-in - First Officers-Goes to the. Its first official designation was that of " 1st Michigan Battery." Six batteries were raised in Michigan in 1861-62, being numbered respectively from one to six. In the latter part of 1863 six more

Page  86 006 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Front-Scene in Cincinnati-" Stick to Coldwater"-Sent to West Virginia-Rich Mountain-Receives Ten-Pound Parrotts-Battles of Elkwater and Greenbrier-Useless Preparations-Selected for Important Duty-The Advance under Gen. Mitchell-The First Shot at Bowling Green-A Forced March-Advance to Huntsville, Ala.-Important Capture-Success at Bridgeport-Back to Louisville-Good service at Perryville-In the battle of Stone RiverVictory at Hoover's Gap-Defeat at Chickamauga-Five Guns Lost-At Chattanooga till end of War-List of Members. THis battery was almost universally known and mentioned by the name of its first captain, " Loomis' Battery." Its formation was commenced very soon after the issuance of the President's first call for troops, on the 15th of April, 1861. It was composed very largely of Branch County men, its nucleus being an artillery company (so called) which had been in existence in Coldwater for some time before the commencement of the war, under command of Capt. John W. Culp. The recruiting of this company up to the required number was an easy task at that time, and was accomplished in a few days. Immediately afterwards, the men and officers of the "Coldwater Light Artillery" as they had named themselves, left Coldwater for their designated rendezvous at Detroit, there to be organized and drilled for a term of service of (as they then believed) three months' duration, like that of the 1st Michigan Infantry. On reaching Detroit the men of the battery made their first halt at the fair grounds, and in the same evening were most hospitably entertained at the Michigan Exchange Hotel. Soon after, they were marched to the fort (Wayne) near the city, for drill, military instruction, and practice under Lieut. Smith, a West Point officer, who had been assigned to that special duty. They here received their equipment of guns,-six indifferent brass six-pounders, including the one which they had previously used while recruiting at Coldwater,-all being the property of the State, and a part of its artillery armament, which then consisted, all told, of eighteen guns; the other twelve of which, according to the report of Quartermaster-Gen. Fountain for 1862, were supposed to be distributed among various towns and cities of the State. He says: " Our twelve remaining brass cannon might be collected together and rifled at an expense of about sixty dollars each." Certain it was, that without such alteration they were well-nigh worthless, and even with it they could by no means be made good and serviceable pieces. The harnesses furnished to the battery were also incomplete and inferior in nearly every essential particular, but there was a full complement of excellent horses, purchased expressly for the use of the battery in Branch County. Early in May it was announced that the United States would accept the battery only on condition that the enlistments were made for a period of three years, and that such as declined to accept these conditions would be discharged, and left at liberty to return to their homes. Under these were raised; the whole being officially considered as the 1st Regiment of Michigan Light Artillery; the batteries being designated by letters from A to M inclusive (omitting J). In fact, however, the batteries still operated separately, the fieldofficers being assigned to staff duty. It is, therefore, impossible to give a connected history of the regiment, but separate sketches are fished of those batteries which were largely from Branch County. circumstances about one-third of the men and some of the prospective officers withdrew. The ranks were very soon recruited to their full strength, and the battery was mustered into the United States service by Lieut.-Col. E. Backus, U. S. A., for three years from May 25-28, 1861. The wishes of the men were consulted in the selection of officers, and the following, recommended to the Governor, were duly commissioned: Cyrus O. Loomis, captain; Charles A. Edmunds, Otis H. Gillam, first lieutenants; Roland Root, Robert G. Chandler, second lieutenants. The" Coldwater Light Artillery" (afterwards designated as the "First Michigan Battery," and later as " Battery A, First Michigan Artillery") left Detroit, one hundred and twenty-three strong, on the 1st of June, and proceeded by rail for Cincinnati, where they arrived in the forenoon of Sunday, while the good people of that city were preparing for church services. Infantry troops, on their way to the seat of war, had already passed through the city, but no artillery had been seen there; and as the command, with its grim guns and other imposing paraphernalia, moved through the streets, it was an object of great curiosity. In the patriotic excitement of the occasion the people neglected the call of the church-bells, and congregated by thousands along the thoroughfares to gaze upon the novel and warlike spectacle. Especially was the admiration of hundreds of total-abstinence men and women manifested at sight of the magic word " Coldwater," painted on the caissons and limber-chests, for they believed it to be an exponent of the strict temperance principles of the members of the battery. A benevolent-looking gentleman, evidently a clergyman, addressed one of the officers, and, with pride and pleasure written all over his features, as he pointed to the inscription, said, " That's right, boys; keep clear of whisky and stick to cold water! That and patriotism will take you through." The advice was excellent, but perhaps the battery boys temporarily forgot it afterwards in the smoke and dust of Perryville and Chickamauga. From Cincinnati the battery was moved by rail to Camp Dennison, being the first artillery command which arrived at that famous rendezvous. Several days later, it was moved by railroad to Marietta, Ohio, being greeted with great enthusiasm along the entire route, but particularly at Chillicothe and Marietta. From the latter place it was moved by steamboat down the Ohio to Parkersburg, W. Va., and thence (after an encampment of a few days) proceeded by rail to Clarksburg, W. Va., where, with two or three Indiana infantry regiments, it was posted on the heights commanding the town and its approaches. After a short stay at this place, the command moved to Buckhannon, where a large body of Union troops were found concentrated, and where the men of the battery first saw Maj.-Gen. George B. McClellan. Here also, during their stay of one or two weeks, they received their first inspection, July 4, 1861, the inspecting officer being Brig.-Gen. Sill, who was afterwards killed at Stone River. On or about the 8th the battery moved with other troops towards Rich Mountain, a part of the Laurel Hill range, which is there cut by a defile through which passes

Page  87 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 87 the Staunton and Western turnpike. On the west slope of this mountain a force of the enemy, about three thousand strong, was intrenched in heavy earthworks, and it was against this force that the army of Gen. McClellan was moving. As they drew near the mountain in the afternoon of the 10th of July, the pickets of the enemy were encountered, and in a skirmish with them a man of the 9th Ohio Regiment was killed. This was the first bloodshed seen by the soldiers of the battery. Early the next morning the battle of Rich Mountain was commenced and fought by Gen. Rosecrans, with a detachment of the army confisting of the 8th, 10th, and 13th Indiana, and 19th Ohio. The remainder of his forces, including the Coldwater battery, were held by Gen. McClellan in readiness to participate, but their services were not required, for the Indiana regiments which were engaged went in with a fury which was almost ferocity, and carried all before them. They recollected the stigma which had been cast upon troops of their State for discreditable behavior in the Mexican war, and one, at least, of their regiments had inscribed on its colors the words " No Buena Vista." They had resolved on this occasion to wipe out the old stain, and they did so most completely. From Rich Mountain the battery moved with its companion troops to Beverly, where it gave material assistance in the capture of a large quantity of forage and other supplies which were greatly needed. From that point it was moved to the defense of Cheat Mountain Pass, in which position it remained for some weeks, and while there was newly equipped with ten-pounder rifled Parrott guns from the Pittsburgh arsenal; the old armament being given to a battery, then recently formed, of Virginia Unionists. Though the battery had been in an exposed position, and for some hours under fire at the battle of Rich Mountain, its first actual engagement was that at the mouth of the Elkwater, W. Va., in the latter part of July, where it did good service. It was again engaged at Greenbrier, W. Va., October 3, where, with Howe's (regular) battery, it disabled all but one of the fifteen cannon which the enemy had upon the field, and also succeeded in exploding their magazine. It was under a hot fire for more than four hours, and ceased firing only when the last round of ammunition was expended. In this action a loss of about six hundred was inflicted on the enemy, while the Union loss was very small in comparison. In the night after this engagement, the battery bivouacked on the Greenbrier Mountain, from which place it moved back to the campingground at Elkwater. Soon after, it was moved to Huttonville, and here the men, thinking this would probably be the place of their winter quarters, commenced the construction of a suitable camp for that purpose. They were, however, not long after removed to Philippi, where they again commenced the construction of winter quarters for men and horses, but once more their labor proved to have been expended in vain; for in a few days after their arrival, orders were received from the War Department directing the battery to be transferred to Louis ville, Ky., and its commander to report in that city to Gen. D. C. Buell. The cause of this transfer was a projected movement of Gen Buell southward from Louisville through the States of Kentucky and Tennessee, to the Tennessee River. When this movement had been definitely decided on, Gen. Buell wrote to the War Department asking that one of the best regular batteries, one in which he could place confidence (for it was a characteristic of that morose martinet that he had little confidence in any volunteer troops, infantry, cavalry, or artillery) to occupy such positions, and to perform such duties as could only be entrusted to skilled and tried artillerists in the contemplated campaign. To this application of Gen. Buell, Gen. Halleck replied, in effect, as follows: " I cannot send you such a regular battery as you desire; but I send you, instead, Capt. Loomis' First Michigan Battery, which you will not find inferior in any respect to the best among the regular artillery." The order for the battery to report to Gen. Buell in Louisville was the result of this correspondence. The command thereupon broke camp and marched to the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, at Webster, from which point the men, horses, armament, etc., were shipped by rail to Parkersburg, and thence by steamer on the Ohio River to Louisville. There Capt. Loomis received orders to join the division of Gen. O. M. Mitchell, at his camp of instruction and organization at Bacon Creek. Here the command remained until February, 1862, when it advanced with the division towards Bowling Green, where the enemy was reported as being in heavy force. Upon approaching the town, it was found that the Big Barren River (on the south side of which the town is situated) was enormously swollen and impassable. This movement on Bowling Green had been a complete surprise to the enemy. Abbott, in his " Civil War in America" says of it, —" Gen. Mitchell, with his heroic, devoted, and thoroughly-disciplined band, had succeeded in cutting off all intelligence of his movements, simply by their rapidity. He had sent out his scouts so adroitly in advance, that they seized every solitary one of the enemy's pickets, and no man succeeded in crossing the river to carry the news of his advance to Bowling Green. A cannon planted upon an eminence sent the first emphatic warning to the enemy, in the form of a shell.... The very first intelligence the enemy had of his approach was from the bursting of a shell in the midst of a railroad depot, where several regiments of the rebels were congregated. They were, however, preparing to evacuate, alarmed by the movement of the army and gunboats up the Cumberland. They had destroyed all the bridges across Green River, and with trains of cars loaded with supplies, were preparing to escape through Nashville. The sudden fire from Gen. Mitchell's batteries scattered the foe in such consternation that they had not even time to fire the trains; and the engines, the cars, and their abundant freight were thus saved. That very night a rope ferry was constructed across the river, which by the early dawn had conveyed over enough of the cavalry and infantry to take possession of the town, the enemy flying before them." That first cannon-shot, sent screaming across the Big Barren as above narrated by Abbott, was fired by Lieut. Roland Root, of the First Michigan Battery, and that battery it was, too, whose guns and horses were first crossed upon the frail scows of the rope ferry which he mentions. Abbott, hw

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - I --- — ever, is incorrect in stating that " the engines, the cars, and their abundant freight were thus saved," for all escaped, except the one train attached to the locomotive which was disabled by the shot from Loomis' battery. The damages to the engine were repaired with but little delay, and with it Gen. Mitchell made a personal reconnoissance along the railroad towards Nashville, being accompanied by Capt. Loomis and other officers, and having with them a small force, including one gun of this battery, under the immediate command of Lieut. Hale. A few days after, the battery was rapidly moved forward to " Murrell's Cave," and after a short stay it was advanced with the greatest possible speed to Edgefield, on the Cumberland River, opposite Nashville. So great was the haste in which this march was performed that in one day Lieut. Root, commanding the battery, had occasion to order eleven horses to be "cut out" and left by the way, lamed, exhausted, or otherwise disabled by the extreme severity of the work which they were forced to perform. The reason why this unusual speed was required was to gain control of the Cumberland River at Nashville at the earliest possible moment, to prevent the destruction of boats on the river, and to afford assistance, if necessary, to the fleet of Con. Foote and the troops of Gen. Grant, which had a few days before accomplished the reduction of Fort Donelson. The 1st Michigan, the foremost of the five batteries ac. companying Mitchell's force, entered Edgefield at headlong speed, and without a moment's delay took possession on a knoll upon the river-bank fronting Nashville, being the first Union battery which turned its guns upon that rebel city. The orders received by its commanding lieutenant, from Gen. Mitchell, were to double-shot with canister and promptly open fire upon the least indication of a movement along the river-banks. But no movement was made, and it proved that the enemy's forces had evacuated the city, which was occupied by the troops of Gen. Mitchell on the 25th of February. The battery encamped on the Murfreesboro' turnpike, where it remained for two or three weeks, and then moved on to the town of Murfreesboro', making a stay there of about the same duration. On the 3d of April it moved with the infantry troops successively through Wartrace, Shelbyville, and Fayetteville, on the Elk River, to Huntsville, Ala., the vicinity of which place was reached in the evening of April 10. In the early morning of the 11th the advance entered Huntsville, having previously torn up the railroad track above and below the town, thus preventing the trains concentrated there from escaping. Twenty-four locomotives, one hundred cars, and very large quantities of forage and military stores were captured, and, better than all, a principal object of the expedition, the severing of communication between Chattanooga and Corinth, by the line of the Memphis and Charleston Railroad, was accomplished. Soon after the occupation of the town (April 28) a section of the 1st Battery, under charge of Lieut. Root, accompanied Gen. Mitchell on an expedition to Bridgeport, Ala., to destroy the railroad bridge across the Tennessee River at that point. They were transported by railroad to a place a short distance above Stevenson, Ala., where the gns were taken from the cars, and for the remainder of the distance were hauled by the men, with incredible labor and difficulty, over roads and through morasses of the worst description to Bridgeport. Here they opened upon the enemy on the opposite side of the river with so much vigor as to compel him to evacuate his position,-the second shot fired, striking and completely dismantling a locomotive attached to a train loaded with military stores. The rebel commander, Gen. Leadbetter, caused the southern end of the magnificent railroad bridge to be set on fire, and then retreated with great precipitation. A considerable amount of forage and other stores, which had been collected on the Bridgeport side by the enemy, fell into the hands of the Union forces, who, after burning the north end of the bridge (leaving the central spans unharmed), retired to Stevenson, and thence to Huntsville, —the guns of the battery being hauled back to Stevenson by the aid of farmers' oxen and mules which had been impressed into that service. Two guns captured at Bridgeport were also brought back in the same manner. On the 2d of July, Gen. Mitchell was superseded by Gen. Lovell H. Rousseau, under whose command the battery lay at Huntsville and immediate vicinity until the incursion of the rebel general Bragg into Tennessee, and his rapid march towards Louisville, Ky., compelled the evacuation of Huntsville, the union of Gen. Rousseau's troops with the main bodv under Gen. Buell, and the march of the whole army to the Ohio River. In this movement the 1st Michigan Battery took part, and, passing northward through Tennessee and Kentucky, over nearly the same route by. which it had advanced under Gen. Mitchell (except a detour by way of Elizabethtown and Salt River, Ky.), reached Louisville with the army of Gen. Buell about the middle of September, 1862. After a short season of rest and reorganization, the army again faced southward on the 1st of October, still bent on the pursuit of Bragg, who had in the mean time started on the retreat towards Tennessee. Overtaking him at Chaplin Hills, near Perryville, Ky., on the 8th, the left wing of the Union army gave him battle, and a fierce engagement ensued. In that engagement Loomis' battery took so prominent a part that Adj.-Gcn. Robertson, in his official report for 1862, said of it that " it saved the right wing of the Union army from being flanked in the important action at Perryville, Ky." After this action the battery moved with the army to Tyree Springs and Nashville; and thence, in the campaign of Murfreesboro', to the field of Stone River. There, in the great battles of Dec. 31, 1862, and Jan. 1 and 2, 1863, it again distinguished itself as at Perryville, and was complimented in high terms by its corps commander, the brave and steadfast Gen. Thomas. Encamping at Murfreesboro', after the Stone River battle, the battery remained at that place until the advance of Rosecrans' army on Tullahoma, June 24, 1863, when it moved with the column, and on the following day was hotly engaged at Hoover's Gap, Tenn., where it silenced the enemy's batteries and added a new page to its already bright record. Thence, moving on through Manchester, Decherd, and Cowan, Tenn., to Stevenson and Bridgeport, Ala., it crossed the Tennessee River at the latter place about the 4th of September, passed over Raccoon, Sand, and

Page  89 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 89 i Lookout Mountains to McLemore's Cove, skirmishing at various points on the route. Thence it proceeded to Chickamauga, which it reached on the 19th, and entered the tremendous battle which raged there on that and the following day. This was the hottest and most disastrous battle in its experience. In obedience to an order (from an evidently incompetent source) it moved to a position on the very skirmish-line, in a thicket where its movements were necessarily cramped, and where, although within a few yards of the enemy's strong line, it had no adequate infantry support. No sooner had it taken its place there than a rebel regiment rose up from an ambush, and poured its volleys into the very faces of the cannoneers. Forty-six horses and many men fell before this murderous discharge, and in hardly more time than is necessary for the recital five of the six guns were in the hands of the enemy. The guns were subsequently retaken-four of them by Gen. Willich and the other by another command-in the campaign of the following year; the remaining gun being saved by a single horse,-" old Sam,"-the only survivor of the splendid team belonging to it. The same fearful fusillade which wrought all this disaster to the battery killed its brave commander, First Lieut. George W. Van Pelt, of Coldwater. At Chickamauga, Battery A fought its last battle. In its dismantled condition it retreated with the army to Chattanooga. While here twenty-two of the men of the battery re-enlisted as veterans, and the battery remained here till the close of the war, when it returned to Michigan, arriving at Jackson on the 12th of July. On the 28th of that month it was mustered out of service, and its members were paid and discharged soon after. MEMBERS OF BATTERY A FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Cyrus O. Loomis, Coldwater, capt.; enl. May 28, 1861; col., Oct. 8, 1862; bvt. brig.-gen., June 20, 1865; must. out July 29, 1865. Otis H. Gillam, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. May 28, 1861; res. March 8, 1862. Roland Root, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; eul. May 28, 1861; 1st lieut., Oct. 6, 1861; res. Nov. 17,1862. Robert G. Chandler, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. May 28, 1861; 1st lieut., Oct. 6, 1861; res. Nov. 24, 1862. George W. Van Pelt, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Oct. 6, 1861; 1st lieut., Nov. 24, 1862; killed in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863. Almerick W. Wilbur, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. Nov. 24, 1862; 1st lieut., Sept. 21, 1863; capt., Sept. 5, 1864; must. out July 28, 1865, with battery. John M. Tilton, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 21, 1863; 1st lieut, Sept. 6, 1864; res. March 6, 1865. John W. Streeter, Union City, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 6, 1864; 1st lieut., May 25, 1865; must. out July 28, 1865, with battery. William R. Peet, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; must. out July 28,1865, with battery. Hezekiah E. Burchard, disch. to enlist as vet., Feb. t1, 1864. William H. Bush, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Robert J. Bradley, disch. for disability, March 25, 1863. John Botemar, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Orrin A. Barber. Admiral B. Burch, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Edward M. Brown, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Lafayette M. Burleson, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Levi Beard, must. out July 28, 1865. Joseph Billingsly, died in rebel prison. Aaron R. Burroughs, must. out July 28,1865. James B. Burtless, must. out July 28,1865. Peter Berdama, died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 26, 1864. James Barnes, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles Barnes, must. out July 28, 1864. Martin Buell, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Edgar H. Bargduff, must. out July 28, 1865. Thomas Baird, must. out July 28,1865. Jeremiah V. H. Cudner, must. out July 28, 1865. William R. Card, disch. by order, May 22, 1865. Edward P. Clark. 1' Augustus A. Cudner, must. out July 28, 1865. Jesse Culver, must. out July 28, 1865. Harvey Crawford, must. out July 28, 1865. Contarini Crawford, must. out July 28, 1865. Don P. Cushman, disch. at end of service, Sept. 20, 1864. Wilbur B. Crawford, disch. by order, May 30, 1865. Simon L. Culver, must. out July 28, 1865. Asa B. Cornell, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Cornelius Claus, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Ransom Cory, must. out July 28, 1865. Bradley Crippen, disch. at end of service, Oct. 29,1864. William J. Culp, must. out July 28, 1865. Lester Carson, disch. for disability, May 16, 1863. Wm. Dubendorf, disch. for disability, Oct. 21, 1862. Sela R. Day, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. John Dillon, died at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 6,1863, of wounds. Daniel Demarest, died in Andersonville prison, June 17, 1864. Edward F. Davis, must. out July 28, 1865. Win. H. Eldred, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Aug. 11, 1863. Edward E. Ellis, must. out July 28, 1865. Martin V. Elliott, must. out July 28, 1865. George L. Freemyer, must. out July 28, 1865. Bradley C. Farman, must. out July 28, 1865. Samuel W. Finney, disch. for disability, May 22,1865. John Golden, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Marcus A. Gage, died at Stone River, Tenn., Jan. 13, 1863, of wounds. Andrew Grosse, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Warren J. Gould, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30,1864. Luman B. Gibbs, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Isaac Groesbeck, died in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19, 1863. Archibald Grove, disch. at end of service, June 13, 1864. John Gackler. Andrew J. Hanna, discl. at end of service, May 31,1864. Thomas J. Harris, must. out July 28, 1865. James Haynes, disch. at end of service, Maiy 31, 1864. James B. Haggerty, died of disease, Jan. 13, 186:3. John Iheller, died at Clamtplin Hills, Ohio, Oct. 8, 1862, of wounds. Sheldon Havens, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Charles E. Hastings, disch. March 31,1863. Joseph R. Iarris, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Clinton A. Hutchinson, must. out July 28,1865. Win. 11. Haynes, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., May 21, 1864. Alonzo C. Hayden, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Bruce G. Iawley, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Charles E. Judd, must. out July 28, 1865. Henry H. Kellogg, disch. at end of service, May 31,1864. Martin Kelly, must. out July 28, 1865. John W. Kennedy, must. out July 28,1865. Charles A. Lee, must. out July 28,1865. Stillman E. Lawrence, must. out July 28,1865. Francis J. Lewis, disch. for disability, April 9,1863. William Lynde, must. out July 28, 1865. Abijah P. Lyke, must. out July 28, 1865. Clark Miller, must. out July 28, 1865. Jerome Matler. Leander A. McCrea, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. John A. Mosher, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. John H. Munion, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Peter Montavon, must. out July 28, 1865. James P. McCarty, died in action at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 19,1863. John J. Martin, must. out July 28, 1865. David C. Nichols, died at Stone River, Jan. 13, 1863, of wounds. Jared Nichols. Bernard O'Rourke, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, May 15, 1864. Silas Patten, disch. for disability, Dec. 13, 1865. William Peet, must. out July 28, 1865. Cornelius J. Patten, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. William J. Pattison, disch. for promotion. William A. Post, must. out July 28, 1865. Lewis C. Richardson, must. out July 28,1865. Robert Roulstone, must. out July 28, 1865. Thomas A. Robinson, must. out July 28,1865. Henry M. Rapright, must. out July 28, 1865. Linus H. Stevens, must. out July 28, 1865. George W. Smith. John W. Streeter. Watson Spencer, disch. at end of service, May 31, 1864. Myron Hi. Smith, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1864. Samuel J. Smith, must. out July 28, 1865. Charles F. Smith, must. out July 28, 1865. Charles K. Stevens, must. out July 28, 1865. Sylvanus Titus, disch. for disability, March 18, 1863. Sylvester Taylor, must. out July 28, 1865. Lucius M. Tousley, must. out July 28, 1865. Asa G. Van Blarcom, disch. at end of service, Sept. 30, 1861. Ira C. Van Aken, must. out July 28, 1865. Henry Vosburg, must. out, July 28,1865.

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Edward M. Vanderhoof, must. out July 28,1865. Henry Wells, disch. at end of service, May 31,1864. Alva H. Wilder, must. out July 28,1865. George W. Webb, must. out July 28, 1865. William H. Webb, must. out July 28, 1865. James A. West, must. out July 28,1865. Webster N. Wilbur, must. out July 28, 1865. Henry Wheeler, disch. by order, June 9,1865. Lorenzo Winegard. CHAPTER XX I BATTERY D. Its Other Names-Formation and First Officers-It Joins Buell's Army-First under Fire at Pea Ridge, Miss.-Back to Louisville, and thence to Chattanooga-Its Engagements-Loss of Guns at Chickamauga-Manning's Twenty-pounders at Chattanooga-To Nashville and Murfreesboro'-In Garrison at Fortress Rosecrans to the End of the War-Slightly Engaged with Hood-Return Home -List of Officers and Soldiers. THIS organization-the first official designation of which was the 4th Michigan Battery, but which was most commonly mentioned as '" Church's Battery"-had its rendezvous at White Pigeon, with that of the 11th Infantry, the recruiting and organization of the regiment and the battery being nearly simultaneous, and the two commands leaving White Pigeon together for the front. Fully three-fourths of the members of the battery were recruited in Branch County (the recruiting stations being at Coldwater, Quincy, and Union), but Calhoun, St. Joseph, and Hillsdale Counties were also represented in it. The first officers of the battery were William W. Andrews, captain; Josiah W. Church, of Coldwater, and James M. Beadle, of Union City, first lieutenants; Edward S. Wheat, of Quincy, and Henry Corbin, of Union City, second lieutenants. Captain Andrews was soon after superseded by Captain Alonzo F. Bidwell,-formerly major of the 1st Michigan three months' regiment,-who resigned August 2, 1862, and was succeeded in the command of the battery by Josiah W. Church, promoted to captain at the same date. The Battery left Michigan on the 9th of December, 1861 in company with the 11th Infantry, as before mentioned, and proceeded to join the army of General Buell in Kentucky. With that army it moved southward to the Tennessee River, arriving at Pittsburg Landing near the close of the fierce conflict of Shiloh, and too late to take part in the battle. From Pittsburg Landing it moved forward with the army to the neighborhood of Corinth, where Lieutenant Church's section was slightly engaged with the enemy at " Pea Ridge," Mississippi, this being its first experience under hostile fire. After this it took part in the operations around Corinth until May 29, 1862. Later in that year it marched with Buell's army in the "chase" of the rebel Gen. Bragg to Louisville, Ky., and thence back to Nashville, Murfreesboro', Tullahoma, and Chattanooga. During these campaigns it was present and engaged at Perryville, Ky., Oct. 8, 1862; at Stone River, Dec. 31, 1862, to Jan. 2, 1863; at Hoover's Gap, Tenn., June 26, 186:3; and at Chickamauga, Ga., Sept. 19 and 20, 1863, where its guns and entire equipment were captured by the enemy. From Chickamauga it retired with the army to Chatta nooga, where the men were placed on duty in Fort Negley, to man a battery of twenty-pound Parrott guns, which they used with effect on the enemy in the actions at Lookout Mountain and Mission Ridge, Nov. 24 and 25. The battery moved from Chattanooga, December 5, for Nashville, where it went into winter quarters. On the 3d of March, 1864, it proceeded to Murfreesboro', and remained there as part of the garrison of Fortress Rosecrans until the end of its term of service. At that place it was several times (from Dec. 12 to 16, 1864) slightly engaged with the extreme right of the rebel army of Hood, then operating against Nashville. On the 15th of July, 1865, it left Tennessee for Michigan, and on the 22d of the same month arrived at Jackson, where it was soon after paid and discharged. MEMBERS OF BATTERY D FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Josiah W. Church, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Sept. 1, 1861; capt., Aug. 2,1862; major, March 14,1864; res. March 14,1864, for disability. James M. Beadle, Union City, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 2, 1861; res. June 20,1862. Henry B. Corbin, Union City, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 10, 1861; 1st lieut., June 20, 1862; capt, March 23, 1864; must. out at end of service, Feb. 8, 1865. Edward S. Wheat, Quincy, 1st lieut.; enl. June 20,1862; must. out at end of service, Feb. 8, 1865. Daniel W. Sawyer, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. Aug. 2, 1862; 1st lieut., March 23, 1864; must. out at end of service, Jan. 31, 1865. Jesse B. Fuller, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 24, 1862; capt., Feb. 8, 1865; must. out Aug. 3,1865, with battery. Solomon E. Lawrence, Union City, 2d lieut.; enl. March 23,1864; 1st lieut., Feb. 8, 1865; res. June 21,1865. Samuel A. Blodgett, 2d lient.; enl. Feb. 8,1865; 1st lieut., June 21,1865; must. out Aug. 3, 1865, with battery. George W. Annis, 2d lieut.; enl. Feb. 8, 1865; must. out Aug. 3, 1865, with battery. Albert J. Baldwin, 2d lieut.; enl. June 21, 1865; must. out Aug. 3, 1865, with battery. George Seymour, 1st lieut.; enl. Jan. 31, 1865; must. out Aug. 3,1865, with battery. Edward F. Allen, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., April 25, 1865. Leonard Austin, disch. for disability, May 27, 1862. Myron Austin, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. George E. Aiken, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Henry C. Adams. disch. for disability, May 27,1862. Benjamin F. Barber, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. William H. Beck, must. out at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Harvey Barry, discb. for disability, Oct. 28, 1862. William H. Buell, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. Sidney Buell, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30,1864. Charles Burnett, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Erastus Barber, died of disease at White Pigeon, Mich., Dec. 11, 1861. Henry Barry, died of disease at Triune, Tenn., April 15, 1863. Leander Burnett, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Jerry Baker, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Dewitt C. Beach, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Lafayette Bartlett, died of disease at Murfreesloro', Tenn., April 1, 1865. Matrtin F. Brower, died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., Dec. 10, 1861. Frank C. Beck, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Harvey Bills, disch. for disability, Aug. 1, 1862. Albert J. Baldwin, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Ira. B. Buell, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Manly Bucknell, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Chauncey H. Bailey, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Arthur E. Bartlett, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Henry J. Burton, must. out Aug. 3, ]865. Aaron Bagley, Jr., must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Austin Buriett, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Henry Beem, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Charles W. Champney, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 30, 1864. John Chivois, disch. for disability, April 28,1862. John H. Chivois, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. William Colburn, disch. at end of service, Nov. 2,1864. Jeremiah A. Church, disch. for disability, July 9,1863. Robert Crawford, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. John C. Corbin, dlied of disease, at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 25,1863. Ira Crandall, disch. by order, June 30, 1865. John A. Calhoun, must. out Aug. 3. 1865. William M. Corey, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Stephen W. Chapnman, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. John Chard, must. out Aug. 3,1865.

Page  91 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 91 Gilbert D. Clute, muit. out Aug. 3,1865. George W. Chaffee, disch. Feb. 28, 1863. Ansel J. Davis, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Eber L. Dodge, disch. for disability, July 30, 1862. Albert Durfee, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. George B. Davis, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., March 27, 1865. Clinton Dewey, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 19, 1864. Marvin M. Denison, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William J. Davis, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Lyman J. Dane, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Oscar N. Denison, disch. for disability, July 23, 1863. Francis Fry, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Lewis Gardiner, died of disease at Gallatin, Tenn., Jan. 7,1863. George W. Gates, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Hiram T. Grant, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Judson Guernsey, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Benjamin Hess, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Norman S. Hawes, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Horace Hall, disch. for disability, April 25,1863. Ashael Hill, disch. for disability, Dec. 4,1862. Abner Hillman, must. out Aug. 3,1865. John Henry, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Andrew J. Hawes, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Elias Hively, disch. for disability, July 11, 1862. James M. Holiday, disch. at end of service, Sepit. 17, 1861. James A. Harding, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. Henry Harmon, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Henry Hecatharm, must out Aug. 3, 1865. Leonard Hulbert, must. out Aug. 3,1865. George Haymaker, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Frank Haymaker, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Levi B. Halsted, disch. for disability, April 28,1862. Wells Harrison, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Lewis E. Jacobs. Henry J. Jones, must. outSAug. 3, 1865. Nathaniel Jones, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Varney B. Jones, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Samuel Killmena. Ansel Knowles, disch. for disability, Aug. 27, 1862. Peter J. Kidney, died of disease at Monterey, Tenn., May 13, 1862. Alonzo C. Kimball, disch. by order, June 17, 1865. Josiah Kimball, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Samuel Kilburn, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. George W. Kilburn, died of disease at Corinth, Miss., June 23, 1862. William H. Kellogg, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Caleb H. Lincoln, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 4, 1864. Wm. H. Lincoln, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Cornelius D. Leech, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Riley Layhm, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Henry W. Lock, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William Loucks, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Frank Lilley, must. out Aug. 3,1865. James M. Lock, must. out Aug. 3,1865. David W. Moore, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Horace Maxon, disch. for disability, July 11, 1862. Jesse L. Maxon, disch. for disability, May 13,1862. Jesse R. Mathews, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Byron L. Mitchell, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. George V. Meseroll, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Estes McDonald, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. William A. Morley, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. John T. Morford, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William H. Morford, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Cornelius J. Myers, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Marcellus Morrell, must. out Aug. 3,1865. John W. Norton, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Charles Norton, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Samuel H. Nichols, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Michael O'Rourke, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Milton Ormsby, disch. Harvey L. Ormsby, died of disease at Paducah, Ky., July 2, 1862. Edgar T. Ormsby. Albert Olmstead, died of disease at Camp Halleck, Tenn., April 27, 1862. Porter Olmstead, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Patrick O'Rourke, disch. by order, May 24, 1865. George Olmstead, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Laman Olmstead. Jarvis Petch, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Albert Pinkerton, must. out by order, June 30, 1865. Henry A. Peters, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Joseph Polite, must. out Aug. 3,1865. William Roblyer, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. Angusa Rhode, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Mason F. Rowe, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Charles M. Richards, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Henry Runyan, must. out Aug. 3,1865. William W. Swayne, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Martin Swayne, must. out Aug. 3,1865. George M. Sims, died of disease at Louisville, Ky. Henry Seymour, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Albert Shelmire, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. William H. Studley, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Charles W. Stafford, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Daniel B. Saunders, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Andrew Shafer, disch. for disability, Dec. 1, 1861. Joseph M. Snyder, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. George W. Swift, died of disease at Camp Gilbert, Ky., Jan. 20, 1862. Carlisle Smith, must. out Aug. 3,1865. George H. Shelt, must out Aug. 3, 1865. David R. Spencer, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. John StaIhlnecker, must. out Aug. 3,1865. George Seymour, must. out at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. John Studley, must. out at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Isaiah Swift. William Sutton, died of disease at Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 22, 1862. Caleb Simmons, died of disease at Cincinnati, Ohio, July 15, 1862. Etihan D. Starks, died of disease at Gallatin, Tenn., Dec. 24, 1862. Augustus F. Taylor, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. Albert D. Tyler, disch. for disability, July 11, 1862. Joseph Taylor, died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., July 16, 1864. John Taylor, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. William Taylor, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Charles T. Torrey, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Edwin A. Tenney, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Charles Van Vliet, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., Oct. 28,1863, of wounds. John P. West, disch. for disability, Feb. 13, 1863. George E. Wolcott, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17,1864. Loren M. Waldo, disch. for disability, July 28, 1862. Joseph M. Wisner. Herman Wedemann, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. George Warren, disch. for disability, Sept. 9, 1863. Storrs Wilbur, disch. at end of service, Sept. 17, 1864. Martin V. Wrighlt, disch. for disability, April 28, 1862. Albert D. Wetherby, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. Hiram C. Wilber, must. out Aug. 3,1865. John H. Wilber, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Asa H. Wilber, must. out Aug. 3,1865. Thomas C. Winters, must. out Aug. 3,1865. David Wetherell, must. out Aug. 3, 1865. CHAPTER XXII. BATTERY F. Its Names, Place of Formation, and Officers-To Kentucky in March, 1862-A Detachment at Henderson-A Dastardly Murder-Reception of Guns, etc.-Defeat at Richmond and Loss of Guns-Again Equipped at Louisville-One Section acts against Morgan-On Duty in Kentucky-Capt. Hale made Major-Over Cumberland Mountains-On Duty at Knoxville-In the Georgia Campaign of 1864 -Its Engagements-Victory after Victory-First Shell into Atlanta -Silencing Rebel Batteries at Utoy Creek-After Hood-Back to Chattanooga and Columbia-Cut off from Thomas' Army-A Long Detour to join him-In Battles of Franklin and Nashville-To Washington in January, 1865-Thence to North Carolina-Home at Last-Its Officers and Soldiers. THIS battery, first known (like its predecessor, Battery A) as the " Coldwater Light Artillery," afterwards designated as the " Sixth Michigan Battery," and still as "Battery F, First Michigan Light Artillery," was composed largely of men of Branch County, recruited and organized at Coldwater in October, 1861, and mustered into the service of the United States, by Lieut.-Col. J. R. Smith, U. S. A., Jan. 9 and Feb. 14, 1862, for the term of three years. The original officers of the battery were John S. Andrews, captain; Luther F. Hale, Norman S. Andrews, first lieutenants; George B. Tyler, Henry A. Hutson, second lieutenants. The company, full in numbers and in excellent spirits and,: X condition, left the State on the 3d of March, 1862, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky., where they were to receive their ^'h ":,: y:

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. equipments. While awaiting these, they were stationed, for drill and instruction, at West Point, Ky., about twenty miles below the city of Louisville. From that place a detachment of the company, acting as infantry, was sent in the latter part of June with the Louisville Guard, Capt. Daly, -all being under his command,-to Henderson, Ky., on the Ohio River, to protect that place and disperse a band of guerrillas who were reported to have made an incursion there. While on this duty, Lieut. George B. Tyler was shot and killed in cold blood by a guerrilla or citizen sympathizer with rebels. This cowardly and treacherous act was consummated while Lieut. Tyler was quietly sitting upon the steps of a house in Henderson, in company with Capt. Daly and Lieut. Daly, of the Louisville Guard. This was the first casualty sustained by the company. Returning from the Henderson expedition, they received their horses, guns, and other equipments, and the company became a battery in fact as well as in name. Immediately following this it was moved by railroad to Lexington, Ky., where it was for the time attached to Gen. Cruft's brigade, and with that command marched towards Richmond, Ky., to meet the invading force under the rebel Gen. E. Kirby Smith. The battle of Richmond opened in the morning of the 30th of August by a tremendous attack of the enemy on the brigade of Gen. Manson, who was about four miles in advance of Gen. Cruft. The latter, hearing the noise of the battle, pressed up with all speed to the assistance of Manson. The 6th Battery was soon in position and engaged, doing good service; but notwithstanding the bravery of officers and men, not from any fault or shortcoming of theirs, but from lack of sufficient infantry support, and as a result of the general disaster and rout of the day, they lost all their guns, the greater part of their horses, and all their camp and garrison equipage. They also lost several killed and wounded, and a large number of men taken prisoners, but paroled on the field. The remainder of the company fell back with Cruft's command to Lexington, which was evacuated by the Union forces, and all retired to Louisville, where the battery command was encamped about three miles outside the city. Here, after a time, they received a partial equipment, and the battery was reorganized. The vacancies caused by the death of Lieut. Tyler, as before mentioned, and by the resignation of Lieut. Henry A. Hutson, July 19, 1862, were filled by the promotion of Byron D. Paddock and George Holbrook to be second lieutenants. About this time a guerrilla raid through Elizabethtown and adjacent portions of Kentucky was made by the rebel Gen. John Morgan, and one section of the battery, under Lieut. Paddock, was ordered to join Capt. Gay, of the cavalry in their pursuit. This service was performed, and upon its return this section was moved across the Ohio to Jeffersonville, Ind., but soon after returned to Louisville and joined the remainder of the Battery. The Battery remained at that place until the close of the year, and while there completed its equipment. The resignation of Capt. Andrews was here tendered and accepted, being dated Dec. 5, 1862, leaving Capt. Luther F. Hale (promoted from first lieutenant, December 5) in command. One section of the Battery, under Lieut. Paddock, was stationed at Bowling Green, and on the 13th of December the other two sections, under Capt. Hale, were moved to Munfordville for the protection of the great railroad bridge at that point. In these positions the two portions of the Battery remained through the winter, spring, and early part the summer of 1863. About the first of July, in that year, the section of Lieut. Paddock moved to the fortifications at Glasgow, Ky., and not long afterwards rejoined the other sections at Munfordville. In October the entire command moved to Glasgow, where it remained until near the close of the year. During this year (Aug. 3) a special order of the War Department had been issued recognizing the several Michigan batteries as composing the "First Regiment Michigan Light Artillery," in which Capt. Hale had been made major, by promotion dated Sept. 1, 1863; Lieut. Paddock being advanced to the captaincy of the battery, made vacant by Capt. Hale's promotion. In the new regimental organization the battery was designated as " Battery F, 1st Michigan Light Artillery." On the 24th of December, 1863, the Battery left Glasgow, and proceeded by way of Louisville to Nicholasville, Ky., and thence over the Cumberland Mountains, by Hall's Gap and Burnside Point, to Knoxville, where it arrived on the 22d of January. On this march both men and horses suffered severely from the extreme cold and the scarcity of rations and forage. At Knoxville the Battery remained on garrison duty until the 24th of April, when it was newly equipped with ten-pounder Parrott guns and assigned to the 2d Division of the 23d Army Corps. With that division it left Knoxville and marched south to join the army of Gen. Sherman, then preparing to move against Atlanta. The route ran through Charleston and Cleveland, Tenn., to Red Clay, Ga. (which last-named place was left on the 7th of May), and thence by Rocky-faced Ridge through Snake-Creek Gap to Resaca, Ga., where the Battery did good service in the battle of May 12, in which the 2d Division lost nearly one-third of its numbers. The battery was also engaged in skirmishes almost daily. On the 17th it moved south, across the Ostanaula and Coosawatchie Rivers, and on the 20th camped at Cassville, remaining there till the 23d, when it again moved south, crossing the Etowah River and engaging in a lively fight with the retiring enemy. It crossed Pumpkin-Vine Creek on the 26th, and was constantly engaged in skirmishing, marching and countermarching until the 9th of June, when it was engaged in the fight at Lost Mountain. Again, on the 11th, it was engaged, and on the 14th shelled the enemy out of his works. From this time the skirmishing was continuous until the 22d, when the battery took part in the action at Kulp's House, in which the 20th and 23d Corps were engaged. It was in the battle of Kenesaw Mountain on the 27th of June, and on the 8th of July drove a rebel battery from its position at the Chattahoochee River, causing it to abandon one of its guns. The battery crossed the Chattahoochee on the 11th, and assisted in driving the enemy out of Decatur. On the 21st of July it was engaged between Decatur and Atlanta, and the same day threw the first shell from

Page  93 IIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 93 the Union lines into the latter city. On the 22d, the Battery took position fifteen hundred yards from the enemy's works, and from that time kept up a slow but steady and constant fire upon the city, until the night of August 1, when with the 23d Corps it moved around the rear of the army and took position on the extreme right, at East Point. On the 4th the Battery was engaged in a severe fight at Utoy Creek, in which the equipments and wheels of two of its guns were destroyed, notwithstanding which it held the position and succeeded in silencing two of the enemy's batteries. On this occasion the Battery attracted much attention and favorable comment on account of its stubborn and effective fighting, and from this time until the fall of Atlanta it was almost constantly engaged in skirmishing with the enemy. Upon the evacuation of the city by Hood, Battery F took part in the pursuit, following the retreating enemy to near Jonesboro'. It then returned to Decatur and went into camp, but resumed pursuit on the 4th of October, crossing the Chattahoochee River, striking the railroad near Marietta, following the track to Kingston, and then crossing to Rome. It left Rome on the 14th, and passed through Resaca and Snake-Creek Gap, where it camped and remained until the 19th. It then marched to the westward, crossed the Alabama line, and reached Cedar Bluffs, on the Coosa River, on the 21st. Leaving Cedar Bluffs on the 27th, on the 30th of October the battery arrived at Chattanooga, where it was newly equipped, after its arduous campaign of six months' duration, in which it had moved and fought through the hills and passes of Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama, a distance of more than eleven hundred miles. Early in November the command, in company with the 23d Army Corps, was moved by rail to Nashville, and thence to Johnsonville, on the Tennessee River, where it was encamped from the 11th to the 24th of that month. It then broke camp and marched with the 1st Brigade of the 2d Division in the direction of Columbia, and remained in the field near that point until December 1, when, on the approach of Hood's army, it commenced the retreat with its brigade from near Beard's Ferry, on the Dutch River, to Nashville, making a forced march, in which it became necessary to impress the horses and mules of farmers along the route, to supply the places of battery-horses which were " cut out" and left by the way. Arriving within seven miles of Nashville on the night of the 2d, the enemy was found to be in force in front and occupying the roads to the city. In short, the command found itself cut off from the army of Gen. Thomas. It therefore became necessary to fall back, and under cover of night a successful retrograde movement was accomplished, the brigade capturing two of the cavalry pickets of the enemy. The march was continued in good order and without halt during the whole of the night. In the morning a rest of an hour was taken, and the march then resumed and continued to Charlotte, where the Battery encamped, after a rapid and almost unbroken march of thirty-six hours, in which a dis tance of sixty miles had been accomplished. Again, early in the morning of the 4th, the men were on the road and pressing on with all practicable speed towards Clarksville, which place was not reached until the afternoon of the 5th, when the Battery, with the other troops, crossed the Cumberland River and camped. They remained there during that night and the following day, then, resuming the march, proceeded along the right bank of the Cumberland and arrived at Edgefield, opposite Nashville, in the evening of the 8th. Recrossing the river, the battery moved to the south of Nashville, and participated actively and gallantly in the operations from the 12th to the 16th of December, including Thomas' great and decisive battle which crushed and routed the army of Hood. This closed its service in the field for 1864. Its equipment was replenished at Nashville, and in its reorganization fifty men of the battery had re-enlisted as veterans. Early in 1865 (January 19), Battery F left Nashville with Gen. Schofield's corps, under orders to move to Washington, D. C. Its equipment-except horses-was turned over to the proper officer at Louisville, and the command proceeded by river to Cincinnati, and thence by rail to Washington, arriving there February 2. Seventeen days later (having in the mean time received a new armament of Rodman guns) the Battery moved to Alexandria, and on the 20th took transports for Fort Fisher, N. C., but arriving there on the 24th, after the reduction of that stronghold, proceeded without disembarking to Morehead City, and thence by railroad to Newbern, reaching there on the 26th. On the 3d of March, Battery F left Newbern with the 1st Division, and on the 10th was engaged with the enemy at Wise's Forks, in which action it maintained its previous high reputation for gallantry and efficiency. It reached Kingston on the 15th, and on the 21st arrived at Goldsboro', remaining there until the 5th of April, when, having become short of men, it was ordered back to Newbern to refit for field service; being at the same time detached from the 1st Division. But its field service was over, for the Confederacy was crushed and its warlike power gone. The battery, then under command of Lieut. George Hawley (Capt. Paddock having resigned April 6, 1862), remained at Newbern until June, 1865, when it faced homeward, moved to Washington, and thence to Jackson, Mich., where it arrived on the 24th, and was mustered out of service on the 1st of July. The record of its service from first to last was a good and an honorable one. MEMBERS OF BATTERY F FROM BRANCH COUNTY. John S. Andrews, Coldwater, capt.; enl. Oct. 15, 1861; res. Dec. 5, 1862. Luther F. Hale, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Oct. 15, 1861; capt., Dec. 5, 1862; major, Sept. 1, 1863; lieut.-col., March 14, 1864; res. Nov. 17, 1864. George B. Tyler, Coldwater, 1st lieut.; enl. Oct. 15, 1861; killed in action, June 29, 1862, at Henderson, Ky., by guerrillas. Byron D. Paddock, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. July 1, 1862; 1st lieut., Dec. 5, 1862; capt., Sept. 1,1863; must. out at end of service, April 6, 1865. George Holbrook, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 1, 1862; 1st lieut., Sept. 2, 1863; must. out at end of service, Jan. 10, 1865. William H. Brown, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Dec. 5,1862; res. March 15, 1864. Marshall M. Miller, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. March 15, 1864; 1st lieut., Jan. 19, 1865; wounded in action at Marietta, Ga., June 27, 1864; must. out July 1,1865, with battery. George Hawley, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Sept. 2,1863; 1st lieut., Jan. 10,1865; capt., April 6, 1865; must. out July 1, 1865, with battery. John Hughes, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; as sergt., April 6, 1865; must. out July 1, 1865, with battery. John B. Allen, must. out July 1, 1865. Hiram B. Avery, disch. for disability, May 15, 1862. Joseph Badger, disch. for disability, June 12, 1862. Manderville Bates, disch. for disability, March 2,1863. Charles Brayton, must. out July 1,1865.

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. _ __ Daniel Burleson. Joseph Bedell, died of disease at Quincy, Mich., March 15, 1865. Charles Bridge, died of disease at Glasgow, Ky., Nov. 17, 1863. Gideon S. Baker. George 0. Bush. Martin L. Burleson, must. out July 1,1865. Samuel Butcher, must. out July 1, 1865. William H. Brown. David H. Carter, must. out July 1,1865. Albert Cummings, disch. for disability, Sept. 27, 1862. Levi Coup, disch. at end of service, Jan. 14, 1865. Francis C. Corneille, must. out July 1, 1865. Charles D. Christian. Levi Cory. George W. Clark, disch. for disability, June 12,1862. Watson R. Cole, disch. by order, June 7,1865. James D. Cole, disch. for pro. to 12th U. S. Col. Heavy Art. Harvey Dart, died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Jan. 29, 1863. Ambrose David, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Leman Dibble, disch. at end of service, April 28, 1865. Calvin J. Dart, disch. at end of service, April 19, 1865. Harvey Darwin, must. out July 1, 1865. Isaac C. Estlow, must. out July 1, 1865. John G. Gould, must. out July 1,1865. Webster Goodrich, disch. for disability, Sept. 24, 1862. Isaac Grundy, must. out July 1, 1865. John Graham, must. out at end of service, Jan. 14, 1865. Ienry A. Hutson. George H. Hawley, disch. to re-enl. as vet., Feb. 20, 1864. William E. Holmes, disch. for disability, June 12, 1862. Joseph J. Hartwell, must. out July 1, 1865. John Hughes, nust. out July 1, 1865. George Holbrake. James M. Hulbert, must. out July 1, 1865. William H. Howe, disch. for disability, Feb. 20,1863. Michael Holweg, must. out July 1, 1865. Marquis L. Hayner, disch. to take com'sn in 12th U. S. Col. H. Art. Frederick Keeler. Joseph Lapointe. Leverett Lee, must. out July 1,1865. Willard Le ase, must. out July 1, 1865. Gideon Lease, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Marshall M. Miller, disch. to re-enl. as vet., Feb. 20,1864. Joseph McKinney, must. out July 1, 1865. David C. Myers, must. out by order, Jan. 27, 1865. George W. Misner, disch. for disability, June 12,1862. Nathan Morse, disch. for disability, May 15,1862. Peleg S. Manchester, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Jan. 19,1865. Asher M. Miller, disch. for disability, Nov. 26, 1862. Philo P. Miller, disch. for disability, Feb. 26,1863. William W. Misner, must. out July 1, 1865. James H. McCauley, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Sanford H. McCauley, disch. at end of service, Aug. 19, 1865. James McCrea, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Isaac McCrea, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. John W. McGinniss, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Samuel B. McCourtee, disch. to re-enl. as vet., Feb. 20,1864. Sylvester W. McNitt, must. out July 1, 1865. Wm. N. Millard. James Morrill, must. out July 1, 1865. Wesley J. Nichols, must. out July 1, 1865. William H. Pratt, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Gideon Pease. Eben Palmeter, disch. for disability, Jan. 28,1864. Joseph Palmeter, disch. by order, May 11, 1864. James T. Porter, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Benson f Paddock, disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862. Cyrus W. Parker, must. out July 1, 1865. Sherman B. Ransom, disch. to accept com'sn in 12th U. S. Col. H. Art. James M. Ransom, disch. for disability, May 15, 1862. Andrew J. Shook, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Almiron L. Sharp, died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Dec. 28,1864. Stephen D. Sherman, disch. for disability, Nov. 18, 1862. Abram E. Stowell, disch. for disability, Oct. 14, 1862. Truman A. Smith, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Samuel L. Stowell, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. William Taft, disch. by order, July 1, 1865. Harrison Taylor, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. David S. Thompson. Rowland F. Underhill, disch. for disability, March 11,1863. Abner T. Van Yorst, disch. for disability, Oct. 3, 1863. Nicholas Van Alstine, must. out July 1, 1865. Amos Vanderpoel, must. out July 1, 1865.,a Samuel Wright, must. out July 1, 1865. Isaac H. White, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. William H. White. Abram L. Webb, disch. for disability, April 28, 1862. David E. Wedge, disch. for disability, April.28, 1862. Carleton Wakefield, must. out July 1, 1865. CHAPTER XXIII. BATTERY G. Raised at Coldwater and Kalamazoo-First Officers and Non-Commissioned Officers-To Louisville, Ky., in February, 1862-Equipped -To Cumberland Gap in May-To West Virginia in NovemberTo the Yazoo River in December-The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou -To Arkansas Post-To Vicksburg and Carrolton, La.-To Texas in November, 1863-Its Services there-Back to Louisiana in June, 1874-To Mobile in October-Operations in April, 1865-Mustered out in August-List of Officers and Soldiers. THIS battery was made up chiefly of men belonging in Branch County. Recruiting for it was commenced at Coldwater by Capt. Charles H. Lanphere, in the fall of 1861. At the suggestion of Col. Charles E. Stuart, of the "Stuart Rifles" (afterwards designated as the 13th Michigan Infantry), the rendezvous of Lanphere's Battery was established at Kalamazoo, where its ranks were filled, and it was mustered into the United States service, one hundred and sixty-six strong (officers and men), Jan. 16, 1862. The original officers of the battery were Charles H. Lanphere, captain; Edwin 0. Lanphere, Alvin T. Lanphere, first lieutenants; James H. Burdick, Robert M. Wilder, second lieutenants. Its non-commissioned officers were Orsemus Doty, orderly sergeant; George L. Stillman, quartermaster-sergeant; Alanson Conkling, Horace Smith, Ira G. Wisner, Edwin E. Lewis, Simeon H. Frank, Theodore F. Garvin, sergeants; Elliott M. Burdick, Jonathan G. Waltham, Adam V. Thompson, Abraham Cooper, Elisha Moyer, James S. Briggs, Sylvester B. Wright, Oliver Franklin, Hiram L. Brace, Joseph Woolston, Richard Hart, Moses A. Hewitt, corporals. Under a misconstruction of orders (which were intended to apply only to the 13th Infantry, but which were interpreted as including also Capt. Lanphere's command), the battery, in company with the 13th, left Kalamazoo on the 12th of February, 1862, and proceeded to Louisville, Ky., where it arrived February 14, and soon after received the equipment which it should have received at Kalamazoo, and which had followed the battery from that point by way of New Albany, Ind. On the 4th of March it was moved to West Point, Ky.; thence, April 1, to Louisville; and thence, May 3, by way of Lexington, Ky., to Cumberland Ford, where it arrived May 18. From this place it moved, with the forces of Brig.-Gen. Morgan, by way of Big Creek Gap,-a distance of one hundred and fifty miles,-to Cumberland Gap, where it arrived on the 18th of June, the enemy having evacuated the gap the previous morning. Here the battery remained until September 17, when it was moved northward, and arrived at Greenupsburg, Ky., on the Ohio River, Oct. 4, having used but one ration in a march of sixteen days, and having skirmished with the enemy at Caney Bottom, Ky. From Greenupsburg it was moved to Portsmouth, 0., and in November, 1862, the battery formed a part of the forces of Gen. Cox, moving up the valley of the Great Kanawha, in West Virginia, to

Page  95 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 95 I Ganley Bridge, which had been evacuated by the enemy one day before their arrival. On this campaign the Battery did excellent service. From West Virginia it was moved to Cincinnati, where it arrived November 21, and moved thence to Memphis, Tenn., reaching that city December 3. There it joined the command of Gen. Sherman, and left on the 20th with the expedition destined for the Yazoo River, in Mississippi. On this expedition it took part in the battle of Chickasaw Bayou,-December 28 and 29,-in which action it used two thousand one hundred and sixty rounds of ammunition and performed good and gallant service. Here Capt. Lanphere was wounded, leaving the Battery temporarily in command of First Lieut. Robert M. Wilder, who had received promotion to that grade Oct. 22, 1862, First Lieuts. A. T. Lanphere and E. 0. Lanphere having resigned,-the former on the 5th of June and the latter on the 24th of October, 1862. The Battery embarked Jan. 2, 1863, to move with the expedition against Arkansas Post, under command of Gen. McClernand. During the fight there and the capture of that place it was not engaged, but was held in reserve. It was then moved to Young's Point, and thence to Milliken's Bend, where it was on duty until April 8, when it embarked on transports and successfully ran the blockade at Grand Gulf, after which it took part in the campaign in which Gen. Grant moved his army to the rear of Vicksburg. On the 23d of April it participated in the sharp fight at Choctaw Bayou, and was engaged in the battle of Port Gibson (or Thompson's Hills) on the 1st of May, 1863. Battery G acquired much distinction in the latter contest, and was thus mentioned in the report of Gen. McClernand: " The splendid practice of Lanphere's and Foster's Batteries disabled two of the enemy's guns and contributed largely to our success." Again the Battery was engaged at Champion Hills, May 16, and at Black River Bridge on the following day. On the 19th it arrived at Vicksburg. It was among the batteries which first opened fire on the works and town, and was present and actively engaged in the operations against the place until the surrender, on the 4th of July. Taking part in the movement on Jackson, it was engaged in the skirmishes of the 8th, 9th, and 10th of July, and on the 11th took position before the fortifications of the town, and gave valuable aid towards the defeat and expulsion of the enemy. After the evacuation of the rebel works the Battery returned to Vicksburg, and in August was moved by transports to Carrolton, La., where it remained stationed there through the months of September and October. Early in November it was transported to New Orleans, where on the 13th of that month it was embarked for Brazos Santiago, Texas. On reaching there it was ordered to Aransas Pass, where it arrived November 20, and marched thence towards Fort Esperanza, on Matagorda Island. It arrived near the works on the 27th, and on the 29th was warmly engaged With the enemy. From that time it remained in the vicinity until December 30, when it moved to Decrow's Point. Jan. 4, 1864, it moved up the bay to Indianola, and was posted there till the latter part of May, having been several times engaged in skirmishes with the enemy during that time. Then it was moved back to Fort Esperanza, and on the 13th of June embarked on transports and proceeded to New Orleans and Carrolton, La. It remained at Carrolton till October 9, when it was moved by water to Mobile Bay, arriving at Fort Morgan on the 11th, and soon after went into camp at Navy Cove. The Battery remained in the vicinity of Fort Morgan until the 10th of April, 1865, when it was moved up in front of Mobile, and took part in the operations against the city until the surrender of that place. It was then ordered to garrison the "Bay Battery defenses" of Mobile, and continued on that duty till the 19th of July, when, under orders to that effect, it left Mobile Bay for Michigan, and was mustered out of service and discharged at Jackson, Aug. 6, 1865. MEMBERS OF BATTERY G FROM BRANCH COUNTY. Charles H. Lanphere, Coldwater, capt.; enl. Oct. 3, 1861; res. Sept. 1, 1863. Albin T. Lanphere, Coldwater, 1st lient.; enl. Oct. 3,1861; res. June 5, 1862. James H. Burdick, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Oct. 3, 1861; capt., Sept. 1, 1863; must. out at end of service, Jan. 17,1865. Robert M. Wilder, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Oct. 3, 1861; 1st lieut., Oct. 22, 1862; res. May 3, 1863. George L. Stillman, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. Feb. 15, 1863; 1st lieut., Sept. 1863; must. out Aug. 6,1865, with battery. Edwin E. Lewis, Coldwater, 2d lient.; enl. June 6,1862; 1st lieut., April 19, 1864; capt., Jan. 7, 1865; must. out Aug. 6,1865, with battery. Elliott M. Burdick, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. April 19,1864; must. out Aug. 6, 1865. with battery. Theodore F. Garvin, Coldwater, 2d lielt.; enl. as sergt., April 6, 1865; must. out Aug. 6, 1865, with battery. George H. Abbott, disch. at end of service, Marcl 4, 1865. Robert H. Abbott, disch. for disability, June 16,1863. Philander L. Alden, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Elijah C. Branch, disch. for disability, Nov. 4,1862. Clinton J. Ball, (lied of disease at Fort Gaines, Ala., Nov. 25,1864. George Busier, died of disease, April 25, 1862. Hiram L. Brace, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Aaron Barnes, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Nathaniel R. Barnes, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. George N. Brown, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Archibald D. Cooper, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. George W. Clark, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Daniel J. Cook, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Francis L. Cain, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Ezra S. Corey, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Edgar A. Craft, disch. to enl. in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Stepl en B. Campbell, disch. for disability, July 15, 1862. Daniel B. Campbell, disch. for disability, April, 1862. Reuben Cornell, disch. for disability, April 11,1862. Daniel Douglass, must. out Aug. 6,1865. William Dillen, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Benjamin F. Dumont, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Austin Engle, disch. for disability, March 4,1864. Jeremiah Ferguson, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, March 5,1864. William S. Gibson, trans. to Yet. Res. Corps, Sept. 25, 1864. Charles M. Gay, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Lyman J. Goodell, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Daniel J. Gibson, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Sept. 25,1864. Moses A. Hewett, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, April 10, 1864. Daniel Higgins, disch. for disability, March 1,1862. George W. Harris, disch. by sentence of G. C. M., Sept. 6,1862. Tobias Iaynes, died of disease at Pass Cavallo, Texas, June 7,1864. Edwin R. Hause, died of disease at New Orleans, July 21,1865. Francis Harvey, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. James D. C. Harvey, died of disease near Perkie's Plantation, La., May 31, 1863. William Hurst, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Albert Johnson, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Elias Johnson, must. olt Aug. 6, 1865. Benjamin Knickerbocker, disch. for disability, Aug. 10,1863. Frederick Knickerbocker, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Philander Knapp, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Somers Leland, disch. for disability, June 16,1863. Sidney Leland, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Henry Lindenburg, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Thaddeus E. Lawrence, died at Paducah, Ky., Feb. 9,1863, of wounds. James A. Mason, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Charles R. Moore, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Charles Huffman, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Emanuel G. Miller, must. out Aug. 6,1865.

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. John W. McDonald, died at Paducah, Ky., Jan. 18,1863, of wounds. Morgan Marquette, died of disease at Cumberland Gap, Tenn., Aug. 3,1862. Benjamin S. Osburn. Cortlandt Olds, disch. for disability, Oct. 20,1864. John Osterman, died of disease near Vicksburg, Tenn., July 1, 1863. Samuel A. Peterson, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Edwin Palmeter, disch. for disability. Henry Patterson, disch. to enter U. S. Navy, Aug. 25,1865. William E. Page, diclh. at end of service, Feb. 12, 1865. John Ray, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Jacob Raupp, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Elijah Smith, discl. for disability, Feb. 1863. Peter Snooks, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. William Snooks. Fred. Schnoerstine, disch. to enlist in regular service, Nov. 25, 1862. Frederick Schmidt, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28, 1865. Fayette N. Swift, disch. at end of service, Jan. 28,1865. Seymour Straight, died of disease at Young's Point, La., March 3,1863. Samuel Smith, disch. for disability, Aug. 19,1862. Chester L. Stephens, must. out Aug. 6, 1865. Smith Taylor, disch. for disability, Aug. 27, 1862. William H. Thurber, disch. for disability, Aug. 28, 1862. Lyman Thurber, disch. for disability, Nov. 26, 1862 John J. Vickory, disch. for wounds, April 17, 1863. Aaron Van Antwerp, must. out Aug. 6,1865. Sylvester B. Wright, disch. at end of service, Jan. 17, 1865. CHAPTER XXIV. OTHER BRANCH COUNTY SOLDIERS. Soldiers of the 2d Infantry-Of the 3d Infantry-4th Infantry-6th Infantry-10th Infantry-12th Infantry-13th Infantry-14th Infantry-24th Infantry-25th Infantry-26th Infantry-27th Infantry-3l~th Infantry-102d United States Colored TroopsDuesler's Sharp-Shooters-5th New York Infantry-llth Connecticut Infantry —st Cavalry-2d Cavalpy-3d Cavalry-7th Cavalry-Merrill Horse-Battery C-lst Light Artillery-Battery E-Battery I-Battery K-Battery L-Battery M-Cleveland Light Artillery-First Engineers and Mechanics. BESIDES the regiments and batteries of which sketches have been given, there were many others, each of which contained a few soldiers from Branch County. Of such soldiers we give a list in this chapter. SECOND INFANTRY. John Q. Adams, Co. B; died at Washington, D. C., June 10, 1864, of wounds. Feron Anderson, Co. B; died of wounds, July 18, 1864. Fletcher Alford, Co. G; disch. at expiration of service, July 12, 1864. Wesley Banfield, Co. B; missing in action near Petersburg, Va., Sept. 30,1864. Robert A. Belton, Co. B; died at Portsmouth Grove, R. I., June 17, 1864, of wounds. William J. Baldwin, Co. A; must. out July 28, 1865. Mandeville Bates, Co. D; must. out July 28,1865. Edward E. Gibson, Co. D; disch. for disability, Sept. 30, 1864. Andrew Granger, Co. A; must. out Aug. 8, 1865. Ludlow A. Hollenbeck, Co. A; disch. for disability, Aug. 16,1864. Elijah Hammond, Co. B; must. out July 28, 1865. Charles J. Moore, Co. H; must. out July 28, 1865. George McKewn, Co. H; died in hospital, 1st Div., 9th A. C., July 25, 1864. Ralph Truax, Co. D; must. out May 12, 1865. James Upton, Co. B; must. out Aug. 2, 1865. THIRD INFANTRY. Anderson Brown, Co. G; missing in action, Jan. 4, 1864. Sidney J. Burlington, Co. F; trans. to 5th Inf., June 10,1864. FOURTH INFANTRY. David H. Wood, Quincy, 2d lieut.; enl. July 26, 1864; 1st lient. Oct. 24, 1865; must. out May 26,1866, with regiment. Amos Aldrich, Co. E; died of disease at San Antonio, Texas, Feb. 8,1866. Charles Brownell, Co. E; must. out Aug. 21, 1865. Henry E. Beale, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Jan. 29, 1864. Samuel B. Corbus, Co. E; must. out May 26, 1866. Canfield A. Fisk, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, June 29, 1864. William H. Holconb, Co. B; died of wounds at Washington, D. C., Feb., 1863. John A. Homer, Co. C; disch. for disability, April 28,1863. Thomas Jones, Co. E; must. out May 26, 1866. John Kinney, Co. C; disch. for disability, Feb. 8,1863. John P. Kidney, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, June 29, 1864. Joseph Price, Co. C; died of wounds received in action, July 31, 1862. Jacob Roupp, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, Oct. 1, 1863. Cessna Smith, Co. E; must. out Aug. 21, 1865. Andrew J. Tindall, Co. E; died of disease at Murfreesboro', Tenn., Jan. 1, 1865. Oren Vangilder, Co. I; disch. to enl. in regular service, Dec. 24,1862. Charles Wademan, Co. C; disch. at expiration of service, June 29, 1864. George Williams, Co. C: died at New York City, Aug. 10, 1862. Jerome B. Youngs, Co. C; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Jan. 15, 1864. SIXTH INFANTRY. George W. Barry, Co. K; disch. by order, July 24, 1865. Charles W. Hewitt, Co. C; disch. to re-enl. as vet., Feb. 1, 1864. Joseph W. Ralph, Co. C; must. out Aug. 20, 1865. Iorenzo P. Van Slyke, Co. I; must. out Aug. 20, 1865. Benjamin Whenton, Co. I; disch. by order, Sept. 2, 1865. Roman S. Whipple, Co. K; disch. by order, July 24, 1865. TENTH INFANTRY Charles W. Bray, Co. K; must. out July 19, 1865. Jabez Carlisle, Co. A; must. out July 19, 1865. Joseph Echtinaw, Co. A; must. out July 19,1865. John Huffman, Co. G; must. out July 19,1865. TWELFTH INFANTRY. William Buck, Co. C; disch. by order, Oct. 12,1865. Robert Cosgrove, Co. B; disch. by G. C. M., Dec. 14, 1865. Albert L. Gibson, Co. H; must. out Feb. 15, 1866. Lewis Hause, Co. B; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Aug. 1, 1864. Nathan A. Johnson, Co. B; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark4 July 15, 1864. Patrick Keeley, Co. D; must. out Feb. 15, 1866. Thomas McEvoy, Co. E; discl. by order, Oct. 13, 1865. William II. Savage, Co. A; disch. at expiration of service, Sept. 9,1865. Daniel Tice, Co. B; must. out Feb. 15, 1866. THIRTEENTH INFANTRY. Abel E. Barber, Co. E; disch. by order, June 8, 1865. Stephen Brooks, Co. I; disch. by order, June 8,1865. Sier Baird, Co. I; disch. by order, June 8, 1865. Benj. Cleveland, Co. E; died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Feb. 9, 1865. Josephus Clark, Co. I; disch. by order, Aug. 4, 1865. Hiram Evans, Co. E; died of disease at Savannah, Ga., Jan. 15, 1865. Calvin B. Ferris, Co. I; died of disease, March 3,1865. Levi R. Fuller, Co. I; disch. by order. Charles W. Hoxie, Co. I; must. out July 25, 1865. Horace June, Co. I; died of disease at Troy, N. Y., April 2,1863. James Ransom, Co. I; discl. lby order, June 8,1865. Peter B. Tindall, Co. I; disch. by order, June 23, 1865. Milton R. Thompson, Co. E; disch. by order, June 26, 1865. FOURTEENTH INFANTRY. John W. Arnold, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. Archibald Bates, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. John L. Bowers, Co. B; must. out July 18, 1865. Dwight L. Burbank, Co. B; disch. by order, Aug. 2,1865. Andrew Doyle, Co. G; disch. by order, June 22, 1865. Jefferson L. Friend, Co. A; must. out July 18,1865. Thomas G. King, Co. B; must. out July 18, 1865. Sylvester Kilbourn, Co. B; must. out July 18, 1865. William Kelso, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. William Luke, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. George McKnight, Co. G; disch. for disability, June 12,1865. Robert McMurray, Co. B; must. out July 18, 1865. Charles Reynolds, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. Christian Perkins, Co. H; must. out July 18, 1865. Jeremiah Shane, Co. D; disch. for disability, Nov. 11, 1865. Ambrose Stevens, Co. G; died of disease at Newbern, N. C., May 27, 1865. John J. Smith, Co. G; must. out July 18, 1865. Augustus Thies, Co. H; must. out July 18, 1865. Lewis Warner, Co. B; must. out July 18, 1865. Franklin Warren, Co. C; disch. for wounds, June 18,1865. TWENTY-FOURTH INFANTRY. Austin Birch, Co. -; must. out June 28,1865. Jonathan W. Crawford, Co. E; must. out June 30, 1865. Theodore Dickinson, Co. -; must. out June 30, 1865. George Frear, Co. E; must. out June 30,1865. John French, Co. F; must. out June 30,1865. Elmore Gates, Co. -; must. out June 30, 1865. Peter D. Gibson, Co. -; must. out June 30,1865. Carlton Greenleaf, Co. B; must. out June 30, 1865. Charles Leigh, Co. E; must. out June 30,1865.

Page  97 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 97 I Melvin G. Lincoln, Co. E; must. out June 30, 1865. Ezra Lewis, Co. I; must. out June 30, 1865. William A. Peavey, Co. -; must. out June 30,1865. John Sterling, Co. A; died of disease at Culpeper, Va., April 14, 1864. George Vandine, Co. E; must. out June 30,1865. George E. Walcott, Co. E; must. out June 30, 1865. Julius M. Ward, Co. E; must. out June 30, 1865. TWENTY-FIFTH INFANTRY. Oliver H. Blanchard, Co. E; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Feb. 13, 1865. J. S. Manning, Co. D; died of disease at Knoxville, Tenn., April 1, 1864. Edward P. Wlitmore, Co. D; disch. for disability, March 25, 1863. Bruce C. Wilcox, Co. E; must. out June 24, 1865. TWENTY-SIXTH INFANTRY. Nelson Kenney, Co. G; died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Dec. 20, 1863. TWENTY-SEVENTH INFANTRY. Edwin P. Warren, Co. H; must. out July 1, 1865. THIRTIETH INFANTRY. Abram R. Colburn, N. C. S.; must. out June 30,1865. Oscar Denning, Co. D; must. out June 30,1865. Thaddens Eddington, Co. A; must. out June 30, 1865. Thomas B. Farley, Co. A; must. out June 30,1865. James E. Foster, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. Charles A. Gilbert, Co. A; must. out June 30, 1865. James A. Kent, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. Alex. Lesprence, Co. D; must. out June 30, 1865. Floyd Moulton, Co. A; must. out June 30, 1865. John Sullivan, Co. A; must. out June 30, 1865. Peter H. Van Etten, Co. A; must. out June 30,1865. Asa Woolcott, Co. H; must. out June 30, 1865. ONE HUNDRED AND SECOND U. S. COLORED TROOPS. John Delany, Co. B; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. George H. Goins, Co. IB; must. out Sept. 30,1865. George C. Smith, Co. B; must. out Sept. 30,1865. John Saunders, Co. B1; must. out Sept. 30,1865. John H. Thomas, Co. C; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. Charles Johns, Co. I; must. out Sept. 30, 1865. DUESLER'S SHARPSHOOTERS. James Curtis, Benjamin Carter, Elisha R. Philo, Wallace W. Root, Byron E. Williams. FIFTH NEW YORK INFANTRY (DURYEA'S ZOUAVES). F. D. Newberry, eul. in April, 1861; mnust. out May 14,1863; with regiment in the principal battles of the Army of the Potomac. ELEVENTH CONNECTICUT INFANTRY. C. V. R. Pond, acting q.-m. Sept. 30, 1861; commissioned q.-m. in 12th Conn. Inf.; took part in the naval engagement at Fort Jackson and in the capture of New Orleans; disch. March 4, 1864. FIRST CAVALRY. Samuel L. Brass, Ovid, 2d1 lieut., April 11,1865; must. out, March 10, 1866, with regiment. Barton S. Tibbits, Coldwater, 2d lieut. (as sergt.), July 10, 1865; must. out March 10, 1866, with regiment. William Bronson, Co. B; must. out March 10, 1866. John Dennis, Co. G; must. out Dec. 5, 1865. Elisha Demarest, Co. M; must. out March 25, 1866. Edwin Fox, Co. G; must. out Dec. 5, 1865. Charles Prentis, Co. I; must. out Dec. 5, 1865. James J. Pendill, Co. K; must. out May 11, 1866. Lucius Stray, Co. E; must. out March 2, 1865. SECOND CAVALRY. William H. Tallman, Coldwater, 2d lieut., March 1, 1864; capt., Oct. 7,1864; trans., June 8, 1865, to 136th U. S. C. T. Henry W. Walker, Ovid, 1st lieut. and quartermaster, July 31, 1865; not must. Washington Bulson, Co. G; must out Aug. 17, 1864. John M. Colwell, Co. I; died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., Aug. 13, 1862. George W. Hand, Co. M; must. out Aug. 17, 1865. Henry G. Johnson, Co. G; must. out June 3, 1865. Nelson Norton, Co. H; must. nut Aug. 30,1865. Frank Zahninger, Co. M; must. out June 17,1865. THIRD CAVALRY. John C. Baker, Co. K; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., April 7,1864. Charles A. Cook, Co. M; must. out Feb. 12, 1866. Thomas Davis, Co. F; died of disease at Rienzi, Miss., July 25, 1862. Fred Eberhard, Co. A; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., July 23,1864. George Hawley, Co. G; must. out Feb. 12, 1866. 13 Henry M. Lily, Co. A; must. out Feb. 12, 1866. Theodore Oliver, Co. A; died of disease at Brownsville, Ark., Aug. 25,1864. Mike Reynolds, Co. G; must. out Feb. 12,1866. John Vorhees, Co. K; died of disease at Brownsville, Ark., Aug. 25, 1864. Martin Vanderhoof, Co. M; must. out Feb. 12, 1866. Jasper L. Wooden, Co. A; must. out March 17, 1866. SEVENTH CAVALRY. Edward Carr, Co. F; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. Elisha Demorest, Co. H; trans. to 1st Mich. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. Peter M. Dubendorf, Co. M; must. out Dec. 8, 1865. James Eldred, Co. C; must. out March 27, 1865. Charles Goodrich, Co. M; trans. to Ist Mich. C tv., Nov. 17, 1865. Michael Kanouse, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Moses Kanouse, Co. F; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. Spencer Leigh, Co. H; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. William Marshall, Co. H; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. William Milliman, Co. II; nust. out Dec. 15, 1865. Charles H. Osterhout, Co. L; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. William S. Page, Co. A; trans. to 1st Mici. Cav., Nov. 17, 1865. Minard 0. Van Gilder, Co. Ht; must. out Dec. 8, 1865. Colbert Van Gieson, Co. E; must. out Dec. 15, 1865. George 0. Van Gieson, Co. E; must. out Dec. 15,1865. MERRILL HORSE. Henry H. Larkin, Co. L; must. out May 4,1865. BATTERY C, FIRST LIGIIT ARTILLERY. Harry Brown. John F. Button, mustered out June 24,1865. Benjamin Cole, died in hospital at Camp Clear Creek, July 16, 1862. George W. Cole, must. out June 22, 1865. Warren R. Corey, must. out June 24, 1865. Merrill Fuller, must. out June 24, 1865. Hiram Ferguson, must. out June 24,1865. Albridge F. IHaldlay, must. out June 24, 1865. William H. Harris, must. out June 24, 1865. William A. Hall, died in hospital at St. Louis, Mo., Jan. 18,1862. George W. Houck, must. out June 24, 1865. Seymour H. HIoyle, must. out June 24, 1865. Amos Hunt, disch. for disability, April 1, 1863. Lorenzo Leffingwell, must out June 24,1865. Loreinzo Mosher, must. out June 24,1865. Adelbert Mudge, must. out June 24,1865. John C. McLean, must. out by order. John S. Nichols, must. out June 24, 1865. William Sweeney, disch. to re-enlist as veteran, Dec. 28, 1863. Thomas J. Stewart, disch. by order, June 24,1865. Joseph Tubbs, must. out June 24,1865. Henry H. Wilber. Hiram Wiser, must. out June 24, 1865. Ira A. Wright, must out by order, July 6, 1865. George Winter, must. out June 22, 1865. BATTERY E. William H. Barry, must. out Aug. 30, 1865. Ezra C. Chase, disch. by order, May 29, 1865. Porter B. Hewitt, trans. to Vet. Res. Corps, Oct. 18, 1864. Alonzo Randall, must. out Aug. 30,1865. BATTERY I. Thomas Brady. Theodore Craig, must. out July 14,1865. W. I{. Compton, disch. for disability, Dec. 22, 1862. Elislha H. Colwell, must. out July 14,1865. Moses Crawford, must. out July 14,1865. William Davis, disch for disability, April 27. Elijah Forbes, must. out July 14, 1865. John M. C. Forbes, must. out July 14, 1865. Ilenry Hoag, must. out July 14, 1865. John Jordan, must. out July 14,1865. William Kennedy, died of disease at Atlanta, Ga., Oct. 16, 1864. Jerome Milliman, must. out July 14,1865. Seth Millimian, must. out July 14,1865. Leonard Pursell, must. out July 14,1865. Alfred Reynolds, must. out July 14,1865. George Sitford, died of disease at Washington, D. C., March 2,1863. William S. Smith, must. out July 14, 1865. William J. Scott, must. out July 14,1865. John Sage, must. out July 14, 1865. John N. Warren, must. out July 14,1865. Harvey M. Williams, must. out July 14,1865. A. B. Zimmerman, disch. for disability, Oct. 24,1862. BATTERY K. Marsden Miller, must. out July 22,1865. Ransom Simmons, must. out Aug. 22, 1865. w, "I.

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. BATTERY L. Isaac Barjaron, disch. for disability, Jan. 13, 1865. Stephen M. P. Bates, died of disease at Knoxville, Oct. 25,1864. Roland Collingsworth, must. out Aug. 22, 1865. Albert S. Cooper, must. out by order, May 27,1865. Benjamin Douglass, must. out by order, July 22,1865. Calvin Darwin, must. out Aug. 22, 1865. John Finch, must. out Aug. 22,1865. John Granger, disch. for disability, April 1, 1864. James Gallup, disch. by order, Sept. 26, 1865. Henry Goodrich, discb. by order, May 22, 1865. Henry Hopkins, disch. by order, Nov. 21, 1864. Robert M. Hazard, must. out Aug. 22, 1865. John Huffman, must. out Aug. 22,1865. David Hopkins, died of disease at Camp Nelson, Ky., Sept. 18,1863. Orrin J. Harding, must out. Aug. 22, 1863. Daniel C. Larrabee, must. out by order, May 24, 1865. Marsden Miller, must. out. Peter Nagle. Gaines Rudd, died of disease at Ashland, Ky., Sept. 1, 1863. Isaac A. Rapright, must. out Aug. 22, 1865. Van Rensselaer Sherman, must. out Aug. 22,1865. Vickery Jackson, disch. by order. Stephen Wilcox, must. out Aug. 22,1865. BATTERY M. George H. Moulton, Coldwater, 2d lieut.; enl. July 16, 1863; 1st lieut., Oct. 26, 1863; must. out Aug. 1, 1865, with battery. George Stewart, disch. by order, May 29, 1865. CLEVELAND LIGHT ARTILLERY. Levi Fish, enl. April 18, 1861; disch. July 28, 1861; in battle of Carrick's Ford. FIRST REGIMENT ENGINEERS AND MECHANICS. Hiram A. Blackman, Co. K; disch. for disability. Levi H. Curtis, Co. E; disch. at end of service, Feb. 15,1865. CHAPTER XXV. BRANCH COUNTY SINCE THE WAR. The Returning Volunteers-Business Speculation-The Panic-Comparison with "Wild-Cat" Times-Mansfield, Coldwater and Lake Michigan Railroad-Air-Line Division of Michigan CentralCereal Products of Branch County-The Last Census-Taxable Land and Improved Land-Principal Productions in 1874-End of Consecutive History. AFTER the war the volunteers who came thronging back by thousands to their old homes indulged in but a brief interval of recreation, and then plunged with the usual American ardor into the various avocations of peace. The facilities were ample for business of all kinds,-more ample than safe. The currency had become both-depreciated and inflated by the war, so that money was plenty and property was high. To a sanguine people it seemed as if every enterprise which was proposed must necessarily succeed. There were few left to tell how speculation with an inflated currency resulted in 1835, '36, and '37, and to a considerable extent the people followed the old track. Excitement, over-trading, extravagant expenditure, and reckless speculation became the order of the day. Ordinary farming-land rose to prices varying from fifty to one hundred dollars per acre, and village property advanced still more in proportion. Nearly everybody became rich-on paper. At length, in the fall of 1873, speculation reached its utmost limit of expansion, the bubble burst, and a panic ensued. The reign of "hard times" ensued, from which even now the country is only barely beginning to recover. Branch County shared the seeming prosperity of tle days of speculation, and the adversity which necessarily followed, in common with the rest of the United States; but, being in the very home of the ferocious " wild-cat" and the rabid "red-dog" of forty years before, there is a peculiarly good opportunity to trace the financial resemblances of the two periods. There was one material difference. In the panic of 1837 nearly the whole currency of the country became absolutely worthless within a short period after the first alarm was given. In that of 1873 the currency was sustained by the pledge of the Government that it should be redeemed in coin, which the people generally believed, and which has just been carried out. Consequently, the currency stood firm amid the surrounding wreck, and the disaster was not half as severe as that inflicted in 1837 by the financial monsters before alluded to. Among the enterprises begun during the " flush times," and brought to at least a temporary stand-still by the "hard times," the most important one affecting Branch County was the Mansfield, Coldwater and Lake Michigan Railroad. This road, beginning at Mansfield, in the State of Ohio, was designed to traverse that State and Indiana in a northwesterly direction, cross the old line of the Michigan Southern at Coldwater, and continue in the same general direction to Lake Michigan, at Grand Haven. Large subscriptions were obtained in Branch County, and a line was surveyed through the townships of California, Algansee, Ovid (the northeast corner), Coldwater, and Girard. Most of the track through those townships was graded, and it was confidently expected that a very brief period would give the farmers of Branch County another outlet to the markets of the East. But " hard times" was too great an obstruction for the financial engineers of the Mansfield, Coldwater and Lake Michigan Railroad to overcome or evade; the work was abandoned, and a long, dreary embankment is all that now remains in Branch County to remind the traveler of that intended highway of commerce. A large section of the road is, however, in use in Ohio, and a small one near its northern end, and there is reason to believe that, as the financial condition of the country shall improve, means will be found to complete this important work. Another, and a more successful undertaking, was the construction of the Air-Line Division of the Michigan Central Railroad. This division extends from Jackson to Niles, traversing in Branch County the townships of Union and Sherwood, and the northwest corner of Mattison. This, being the shortest, is now the main line of travel for that road. But though railroads, as well as manufacturing enterprises, undoubtedly enhance the prosperity of the regions in which they are situated, yet the main reliance of Branch County is and must ever be its fertile soil, deep, rich, and almost inexhaustible, and abundantly supplied with water by the numerous lakes and streams which diversify its surface. This no " hard times" can take away, and naught but a reversal of the order of nature will prevent its re warding the labors of the farmer with an ample harvest. The following table shows some of the principal products at the date of the last attainable report:

Page  99 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 99 Cereal Products of Branch County raised in 1877, and on the Ground in 1878. Cd (1),r. Am A7 W hole County..................... Algansee............................ Batavia.............................. Bethel................................ Bronson.............................. Butler................................ California........................... Coldwater........................... " City.................... " " 1st ward......... Gilead................................ Girard................................ Kinderhook....................... Mattison............................ Noble................................. Ovid................................... Quincy............................... Sherwood........................... Union (estimated)............... 39,573 2,689 2,557 2,316 2,876 2,629 1,569 2,004 15 15 2,253 3,259 1,65:3 2,715 2,057 2,725 2,377 3,601 2,5 8 520,903 40,223 32,506 31,841 42,340 29,402 23,484 30,411 150 150 32,672 44,747 2t,261 36,810 28,857 39,281 32,59:3 45,399 33,927 45 0 &E 5~a) - 0 tOt =; <3 C 13.16 40,981 30,782 8794 64 2624 14.96 3,128 2,618 832... 246 14.40 2,642 2,475 677.. 189 13.75 2,6561 2,385 666 208 14.72 3,107 2,238 574 165 11.18 3,01 2,0941 572 3 208 14.97 1,577i 907 216 13 93 15.18 2,241 2,094 630 61 193 1 8 40 3... 8 10 8 40 3... 8 14.50 2,502 1,911 222... 100 13.733,6291 2,236 933 15 203 15.89 1,859[ 1,214 241 24 92 13 56 2,8771 2,268 738... 192 14.0: 2,1(6 i 1,519 238... 111 14.42 2,955 1,921 682 3 212 13.71 2,684 2,4571102!0... 227 12.61 4009 2,375 547... 177.......................... The last complete census of the State was taken in 1874. At that time the population of Branch County was twentyfive thousand seven hundred and twenty-six. Of these, eleven thousand two hundred and forty-two were married, being thirty-four and six-sevenths per cent. of the whole number. The amount of taxable land at that time was three hundred and seventeen thousand three hundred and eighty-six acres; the number of acres of improved land was one hundred and sixty-eight thousand four hundred and three. The following table shows the principal productions of the county at that time, and we presume there has been no great change since then: CHAPTER XXVI. THE PRESS OF BRANCH COUNTY. General Remarks-The Basis of this Chapter-The Michigan StarThe Coldwater Observer-The Branch County Democrat-The Coldwater Sentinel-The Branch County Journal-The Branch County Republican-The Branch County Gazette-The Democratic Union-The Southern Michigan News-The Coldwater Union Sentinel —The Republican- The Bronson Herald-The Union City Independent-The Quincy Times-The Union City Register-The Literary Reporter-The Greenbacker-The Quincy Herald-The Coldwater Weekly Press. THE press is so widely recognized as an institution of unrivaled importance, and its influence, either for good or evil, in each county is of such a general nature (extending certainly to the farthest limits of the county, if not beyond), that it is the practice of the publishers of this and similar works to consider the various newspapers of a county not as local matters pertaining to the places in which they are published, but as subjects of general interest, to which a chapter of the general history of the county should in each case be devoted. In this chapter of the present work is given a concise sketch of the various newspapers of Branch County. It is based on an article published by Hon. Harvey Haynes, of Coldwater, on the same subject, and considerable portions of that article are incorporated in it. Some additions and changes have been made, however,some reminiscences of early newspapers have been obtained fiom Hon. E. G. Fuller and others, and several files of journals, have been carefully examined for facts on this subject. THE MICHIGAN STAR. The first newspaper published in Branch County was the Michigan Star, the first number of which was issued by the " Branch County Printing Company," at the village of Branch, then the county-seat, in May, 1837. It was under the editorial supervision of Mr. Charles P. West, then county clerk, who edited the paper with spirit and ability. But it was generally conceded among the knowing ones that when anything extremely cute was to be written, the pen of his sister, Miss Laura West, was called into requisition. The life of this paper, however, like "terrestrial happiness," was of short duration. The population of the county was sparse, much sickness prevailed among the pioneers, and the rival village gave it no encouragement, hence less than a year (we believe it barely lived through the next winter) ended the career of the Michigan Star. It was Democratic in politics, though rather friendly to the Whigs, who had no organ of their own in the county. THE COLDWATER OBSERVER. The people of Coldwater knew full well that it would never do to let the rival village monopolize the printing of the county. They were striving at every opportunity to procure the removal of the county-seat to their own locality, and it was quite likely that the existence of a newspaper in Branch, and the non-existence of one in Coldwater, might decide the result of the struggle. Thomas N. Calkins and E. G. Fuller (tlhe former being one of the physicians, and the latter the only lawyer, of Coldwater) circulated a sub Bushels of wheat............................................ Bushels of potatoes........................................ Tons of hay................................................ Pounds of wool............................................... Pounds of pork (marketed)............................. Pounds of cheese......................................... Pounds of butter.......................................... Barrels of cider...................................... Gallons of wine (est.)...................................... Pounds of maple-sugar.................................... Horses, 1 year old and over............................. Mules........................................................... Work oxen.................................................... Milch cows................................................... Other cattle, 1 year old and over........................ Swine, over 6 months...................................... Sheep, over 6 months....................................... 486,689 135,366 23,489 191,648 2,613,828 49,636 539,444 7,920 4,000 51,908 9,890 94 318 10,504 11,140 16,632 46,604 At the same time there were twenty-two flouring-mills in the county, three being run by steam and nineteen by water. They contained sixty-five runs of stone, and produced during the year one hundred and thirty-four thousand nine hundred and fifty-four barrels of flour. There were also, besides seven planing-mills, fifty-two saw-mills, thirty-five propelled by steam and seventeen by water, the whole number producing fourteen million one hundred and eighty-four thousand feet of lumber. We have now given a rough consecutive history of Branch County fron the earliest times to the present day. To this we will now subjoin a few chapters devoted to special subjects which could not well be made a part of the connected account.

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. scription paper, and the business men of Coldwater promptly subscribed-it was in the flush times, just before the great panic-enough to buy a press and a supply of type. Dr. Calkins was to be the principal editor and manager, but Mr. Fuller assisted largely in the editorial work. The proprietors procured the services of J. Ketchum Averill, the foreman of the Michigan Star, and the new paper was issued in his name as publisher, the actual owners being those who had subscribed to purchase the material. There was much excitement over the new paper, and great anxiety to get out the first number. Dr. Calkins had enough knowledge of printing to set up type,-after a fashion,-and he frequently worked busily at the case. One day, when the hurry was greatest, he called on Mr. Fuller to help set type, and the latter, who had never attempted such a task before, managed, with much tribulation, to arrange a "stick-full" in the course of an hour. He afterwards set up type enough to print one column, but this closed his experience as a printer. At length the first number was issued, on the 18th day of July, 1837, and great was the rejoicing of the Coldwater people thereat. It was called the Coldwater Observer. A considerable part of the first number was devoted to a description of the celebration of the Fourth of July, then just past, at Coldwater, including a remarkably good oration by Dr. Calkins. The doctor was a fine speaker, and a peculiarly able writer, but these gifts were but doubtful benefits to him, as he was fonder of making speeches and writing editorials than of attending to the more lucrative duties of his profession. The Observer was a journal of Democratic tendencies, and the doctor's vigorous editorials attracted wide attention from his brethren of that party. In less than a year he was offered a position as editor, or one of the editors, of the Detroit Free Press, then, as now, the leading Democratic journal in Michigan, at a salary of one thousand dollars a year, which was at that time considered a very large sum. He accepted the offer, but only remained on the Free Press one year. He afterwards edited a paper at Ann Arbor. He was succeeded as editor of the Observer by another physician, Dr. Bement, who changed the name of the journal to the Branch County NAews, and under him it was about as much Independent as Democratic. He, however, left the county in a few months, and though the paper maintained a feeble existence a little longer, its publication was soon entirely suspended. THE BRANCH COUNTY DEMOCRAT. Some months after, two young men named Jocelyn and Horton, took the material in charge, and published a very clever journal, under the name of the Branch County Democrat; but some misunderstanding occurring between them and the owners of the press, the type were knocked into "pi." Thus ended the second attempt to establish a paper in Coldwater. The Democrat was decidedly Democratic. THE COLDWATER SENTINEL. These repeated failures were rather discouraging, and for a while Branch County was without a newspaper; but in April, 1841, Mr. Albert Chandler, then an active young man and a practical printer, was induced to take hold of the business. On or about the 12th of that month he issued the first number of a Democratic journal, called the Coldwater Sentinel; that number being dressed in mourning on account of the death of President Harrison. From that time to the present Branch County has never been without at least one newspaper. Mr. Chandler was young, active, industrious, and, withal, blessed with a sound judgment. He made a good, readable, and permanent paper, remaining at the head of the business for nearly eight years. Files have been preserved in the office of the present Coldwater Republican, beginning April 12, 1844, that number being designated as Vol. IV., No. 1. It was a four-page sheet, twenty inches by thirtytwo, filled with good reading matter, and thorough-going Democracy, as distinguished from Whigism. The nomination of Polk and Clay took place shortly after, and the Sentinel did yeoman service throughout the campaign in favor of the former. The firm-name of the proprietors was then Chandler & Haynes, Mr. Albert Chandler being the editor and John T. Haynes the junior partner. In the forepart of 1846 the firm became Chandler & Stillman, the junior partner being Dr. Henry B. Stillman, who had recently been county clerk. In September of the same year Dr. Stillman gave way to Mr. David Waterman, and the firm-name became Chandler & Waterman. In the month of November, 1847, the office and material were leased for a year to Mr. Samuel K. Christy. We believe that Mr. Chandler retained an interest in the paper until 1849, when Mr. Elihu B. Pond became editor and proprietor. Mr. Pond began a " new series" of the Sentinel, of which No. 1, Vol. I. was dated on the 7th of December, 1849. He was an active, able man, and made the paper a decided success. It was now somewhat increased in size, being under Mr. Pond's administration twenty-two inches by thirty-six. In June, 1854, S. W. Driggs and the late Col. H. C. Gilbert purchased the paper, and Col. Gilbert wielded the pen as editor with tact and talent. He was an early settler of Coldwater, having moved thither friom New York in 1841. He was a lawyer by profession. Active, untiring, whatever he undertook was sure to succeed if within his power. In 1862 he enlisted in the cause of his country as colonel of the 19th Michigan Infantry, and after two years of active service was mortally wounded at Resaca, Ga., while leading his regiment upon the enemy's works. After a few days of suffering he was relieved by death. His remains were brought home and interred in Oak Grove Cemetery, there, by the side of father, mother, sister, brother, and son, to sleep the sleep that knows no waking. In the fall of 1856, Messrs. Driggs & Gilbert sold to Barrett & Reynolds, who conducted the paper some two years, Mr. Reynolds being the editor. He, too, was a pioneer boy, a son of the late Deacon Reynolds, of Coldwater. Barrett & Reynolds in turn sold the Sentinel to Judge J. H. Gray, also a Branch County pioneer, but now a resident of Virginia. By him the press was sold, and went to Port Huron, where it was used to print the Port Huron

Page  101 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 101 Press. Through all its changes the Sentinel was Demo-' cratic in politics. THE BRANCH COUNTY JOURNAL. This, the first Whig newspaper in the county, was started at Coldwater on the 11th day of November, 1851, by B. F. Thompson. It was a four-page sheet, with seven columns on a page. Its first number announced that the cars were running over the Southern Michigan Railroad as far west as South Bend, Ind., and stated that, from the rapid rate of progress in road-building, it was expected they would reach Chicago by the 1st of January following. Although that work went on with extraordinary rapidity yet it did not quite make good the hope of the newspaper, the road being finished to Chicago in the spring of 1852. Mr. Thompson's father became part owner of the Journal in June, 1852, the firm-name being C. A. & B. F. Thompson. On the 8th of March, 1853, it was transferred to E. J. Hard and H. B. Robinson. These gentlemen conducted it about two years, and sold it to Messrs. Barns & Way, who published it for a year or more, when it was sold to Bates Dewey and Clinton B. Fisk. These in turn sold to E. B. Dewey, who removed the press to Elkhart. Up to 1855 the Journal continued to advocate Whig principles, but on the disbanding of the Whig and the organization of the Republican party, the Journal adopted the latter's views, and thenceforth supported them with fairness and ability. THE BRANCH COUNTY REPUBLICAN. In the fall of 1857, Messrs. Eddy & Gray commenced the publication of the Branch County Republican, which, as its name implied, supported the principles of the party of freedom. Its proprietors being active and attentive to business, the Republican was soon a power in the county, and took a decided lead under the editorial control of those competent gentlemen, Mr. Eddy acting as editor-in-chief. In about a year and a half Mr. Eddy sold to Mr. J. A. Boyd, who after a short time sold to Judge Gray. He, with his son Horace J. Gray, continued to make a good paper until 1861, when they sold to F. B. Way, who changed the name to the Branch County Gazette. THE BRANCH COUNTY GAZETTE. Notwithstanding the change of name, this paper was decidedly Republican in politics, and throughllout the war was the leading and almost the only Republican paper in the county. It supported the administration of President Lincoln with untiring zeal, and its columns were constantly in use to urge the maintenance of the Union and the vigorous prosecution of the war. Mr. Way, being in poor health, at length sold to Messrs. Brewer & Burr. J. H. McGowan, Esq., now member of Congress from this district, was editor a part of the time that the paper was owned by Messrs. Brewer & Burr, and was succeeded by C. P. Benton. In 1868 the Gazette was sold to the owners of the present Republican, and consolidated with that paper. THE DEMOCRATIC UNION. In 18-9 a journal with the above name was commenced at Coldwater, by J. L. [Iackstaff, and by him conducted until 1861, when patriotism induced him to go to the war, and the paper was discontinued. It was a spicy sheet and Democratic during its brief existence. THE SOUTHERN MICHIGAN NEWS. The Southern Michigan News was brought out for public favor at Coldwater in 1863, by T. G. Turner, Esq., but its existence was short, for its editor went to the war and the publication was suspended. This paper was Republican in politics. THE COLDWATER UNION SENTINEL. In 1864 the fixtures of the News were purchased by F. V. Smith and W. G. Moore, who started the Coldwater Union Sentinel, and published it several years. It was full of local news, and it is safe to say that in that department it has never been excelled by any paper printed in the county. It was of large size and printed in fine type (brevier and nonpareil), and for a country paper contained an immense amount of reading matter. It supported the Union cause, but was most thoroughly Democratic in politics, full of inm, and waged hot warfare with the opposing Gazette and Republican. In 1870, Messrs. Smith & Moore sold out to Gibson Brothers, who continued the Sentinel as a lively Democratic journal until the building in which it was printed was partially burned and the press seriously injured, when the publication of the paper ceased. THE REPUBLICAN. On the 23d of August, 1866, Major D. J. Eastonthen lately from the ranks of the 19th Michigan Infantry, in which he had done gallant service for three years-started The Republican, at Coldwater. Like all its predecessors, it was a weekly paper, but was more ambitious as to size than any of them, being an eight-page sheet, each page having five columns and being twelve inches by twenty in dimensions,-the whole paper being twenty-four inches by forty. It was fiom the start a thoroughly Republican journal, and has so continued from that time till this. In December, 1866, Dr. P. P. Nichols purchased an interest in the Republican and became one of the editors. Messrs. Easton & Nichols issued a wide-awake Republican paper for about a year, when they sold out to Messrs. W. J. & O. A. Bowen. The latter is understood to have been the editor-in-chief, altlhough the former also contributed to the editorial columns. In 1868, as before stated, the owners of the Republican purchased the Branch County Gazette, and since then the consolidated paper has held the unquestioned position of the principal Republican journal of the county. In a short time, Mr. O. A. Bowen sold out his interest to go to Montana. The new firm was Bowen, Dunham & Moore, and these were ere long succeeded by Bowen, Rose & Skeels, the last-named gentleman, Mr. F. L. Skeels, doing the larger part of the editorial work. During and notwithstanding all these changes, the Republican continued to be an able and interesting paper in both its political and its news columns. Early in 1873, Messrs. A. J. Aldrich & Co. bought out

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I the last-named proprietors of the Republican, and have ever since remained its owners, publishers, and editors. On the 23d of August, 1875, Aldrich & Co. made a new venture in Branch County journalism, bringing out their paper as a semi-weekly. The enterprise proved successful. and the Republican has appeared twice a week ever since. Although strongly devoted to its party, it is noted for its independence of thought and expression,-an independence alike creditable to its proprietors and supporters. Materially speaking, the Republican is now a four-page twentyfour column sheet, twenty-four inches by thirty-six, well printed on good paper, and presenting a most acceptable appearance to the eye as well as the mind of the reader. THE BRONSON HERALD. This was the first paper published in the county outside of Coldwater, except that pioneer of journalism, the Michigan Star, at Branch. The Herald was established in the fall of 1865 at the village of Bronson, by T. Babcock & Co., who brought the press from Hudson, Lenawee Co. It was neutral in politics, but must have been a very acceptable paper, as its circulation was at one time, we believe, between six hundred and seven hundred. But as the star of empire was moving westward rapidly, the proprietors of the Herald suspended its publication in the fall of 1871, and made their way toward the setting sun, halting in Adams Co., Neb., where, at the latest advices, they were publishing a journal called the Adams County Gazette, on the press formerly employed in Bronson. TIE UNION CITY INDEPENDENT. This pioneer of Union City journalism was established in that village in October, 1867, by Dr. Alexander H. Pattee. It closed its brief existence in the summer of 1868. THE QUINCY TIMES. This paper, the first journalistic venture in the village whose name it bears, was established on the 11 th of September, 1868, as a six-column folio, weekly, by R. W. Lockhart, being then, as ever since, non-partisan in sentiment. At the end of six months it was purchased by Ebenezer Mudge, S. Mowrey, and L. L. Briggs, who published it under the firm-name of "The Times Company," the first-named gentleman being the editor. Under this administration the number of columns per page was increased from six to seven, and then to eight. The paper was managed to the satisfaction of the community, and soon attained a circulation of about five hundred. On the 25th of March, 1876, Mr. A. C. Culver purchased the Times, and became the sole editor and proprietor. His course has been equally satisfactory, and although it was deemed best in February, 1877, to reduce the number of columns per page from eight to six, yet the journal in question has never had a better standing nor had a better support than at the present time. THE UNION CITY REGISTER. The Register began its existence on the 20th of August, 1869, Major D. J. Easton (the founder of the Coldwater Republican) and Mr. Jerome Bowen being its originators. It was then as now a seven-column folio, twenty-two inches by thirty-six, and was then as now decidedly Republican in its politics. After about two years, Mr. Bowen sold his interest, since which time the major has been sole editor and proprietor. Major Easton's personal popularity, ready pen, and business skill have made the paper a decided success, and it now numbers some nine hundred subscribers. The Register is printed on a steam-press, and is in every respect up to the times, and a credit to the place which supports it. THE COLDWATER REPORTER. This journal was first issued as an independent paper, at Coldwater, in 1872, by J. S. Conover. It was conducted by him for a little over a year, when he sold it to J. A. Hull. In the year 1874 Mr. Hull disposed of the Reporter to Messrs. Knowles and Thorpe. In the forepart of 1876 Mr. Thorpe sold his interest to Mr. J. S. Egabroad. Of late, Mr. Egabroad, as sole editor, has given the paper a decidedly Democratic turn; and, being a forcible and vivacious writer, has made it quite a lively and militant sheet. THE LITERARY REPORTER. This six-column monthly quarto, employed largely as an advertising medium, has been issued by C. W. Bennett, at Quincy, since December, 1872. It has a circulation of six hundred copies. THE GREENBACKER. The Greenbacker was established at the village of Quincy, in May, 1878, by L. E. Jacobs; and, as may be inferred from its name, was devoted to the principles of the " Greenback" party. It advocated the success of " Greenback" doctrine with great vigor until October 1 of the same year, when it ceased f9r lack of greenbacks. THE QUINCY HERALD. On the 1st of November, 1878, Mr. C. V. R. Pond, having obtained the material of the late Greenbacker, established a small but lively weekly at Quincy, called the IHerald, which still enjoys an apparently healthy existence at that village. COLDWATER WEEKLY PRESS. This journal began its existence in October, 1877, as a four-page, six-column weekly; its founders being B. L. Kingston and J. L. Dennis. On the 17th of the succeeding month Mr. D. D. Waggott bought the share of Mr. Dennis, and on the 1st of March, 1878, purchased that of Mr. Kingston, becoming sole proprietor and editor, and remaining so until the present time. A daily was issued from the office from January 1 to March 15, 1878; but this effort was found to be too enterprising even for so enterprising a city as Coldwater, and was given up. The weekly, however, immediately after the stoppage of the daily, was enlarged to seven columns per page, which is its present size. The Press supported the principles and candidates of the Greenback party with great energy during the campaign of 1878, and still continues its advocacy of that party.

Page  103 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 103 CHAPTER XXVII. THE STATE PUBLIC SCHOOL.* Its Unique Character-Its Functions-Nature of other Charitable Institutions-Governor Baldwin's Action-A Special CommissionTheir Report-Joint Committee in the Legislature-Mr. Randall Chairman-Their Report-Action of the Grand Army-Mr. Randall's Views-He presents a Bill-Its Supporters-Passage of the Law-The Board of Commissioners and Board of Control-Location of the Site —uildings opened-Description of Them-The Law regarding Admission-Large Numbers Come-New Buildings -L. P. Alden, Superintendent-The Work done by the ChildrenReligious Services-Dress and Appearance of the Children-Their Health-Going into Families-Letters from Children-Specimen Letters-Improvements made since 1875-Number of Children who have been at School-Names of Officers and Employees. THIS institution, "The Michigan State Public School for Dependent Children," located at Coldwater, is believed to be the only one of its kind in the world,-that is, the only combined school and asylum established and maintained by a State or nation which admits all dependent children having no efficient natural supporters, and which is without any of the attributes of a penal institution. We have called it a combined school and asylum, for such it is; its official as well as common title of ' State Public School" only describes a portion of its functions. There have been numerous asylums which have also afforded education to orphans and others; but these were supported by private charity, and were generally local in their beneficence. States, too, of late years have established reformatory institutions whither children of evil tendencies were sent to be reclaimed to upright lives; but it was reserved for Michigan to take the lead in establishing an institution in which every child within the jurisdiction of the State, who has no property and no one to take care of it, may be received, supported, and educated at the expense of the State until a private home can be provided for it. Whether any evil will finally result to the community by promoting the " shiftlessness" or imprudence of parents is yet to be seen; thus far the effect upon the children themselves, and indirectly upon the State, has been unquestionably good,-extremely good. The first official action in the chain of proceedings which resulted in the establishment of the State school at Coldwater was taken by Hon. H. P. Baldwin, who, in the fall of 1868, before assuming the duties of the office of governor, to which he had been elected, visited several of the State institutions and some of the county jails and poorhouses, and became convinced of the necessity of improvement in their general management, and of a revision of our laws relative to them. He, therefore, in his inaugural message recommended such a revision and the appointment of a commission to examine and consider the whole subject connected with our punitive and reformatory institutions, ' The facts in this chapter are derived from a paper on the school, prepared, at the request of the State Board of Centennial Managers, for the Centennial Exhibition, by Hon. C. D. Randall, from an address by Superintendent L. P. Alden on" The School and its Purposes," from the fifth annual report of the Board of Control, and from some minor documents. In many cases we have used the language of the papers mentioned. which should report on or before the meeting of the next Legislature. In accordance with this recommendation a joint resolution (Laws of 1869, page 442) authorized, and the Governor appointed, the commission during that session. The appointees were Dr. S. S. Cutter, of Coldwater, Hon. C. I. Walker, of Detroit, and Hon. F. H. Rankin, of Flint, gentlemen eminently qualified for the peculiar and difficult work allotted them. They spent several months in their investigations, visiting many of the county and State institutions of Michigan, and also those of other States. Their report to the Legislature of 1871 was drafted by Hon. C. I. Walker, and was able and exhaustive, covering most of the questions in social reform which had attracted public attention, showing careful research, and containing many valuable recommendations. In submitting this report, Gov. Baldwin, in his message in January, 1871, called especial attention to the facts and recommendations therein relative to dependent children, in and out of the county poor-houses, and asked for legislation for their relief. This report gave the number of these children under sixteen years of age, and gave a vivid account of their lamentable condition in the county poor-houses. It showed very plainly that there was not, nor could there be, in such asylums, any separation or classification of inmates, so that from necessity the children were kept in close contact with the adult inmates of both sexes, who were often the physical, mental, and moral wrecks of their own excesses. They also had to associate daily, in crowded rooms, with the diseased, insane, and idiotic. In such a school of ignorance and vice as this, which the average county poor-house afforded (and they are no worse in this than in other States), with all these evil influences about them, the prospects for the young were gloomy indeed. These influences, too, operated strongly to attach the child permanently to the pauper and criminal class in which he was reared; the system thus working most effectually to propagate and perpetuate, from one generation to another, a dependent and criminal class of very low mental and physical type, the ratio of increase in that class being greater than in the community at large. The commissioners suggested three plans of relief, based on the experience of other States and countries, but none going as far in the way of State action as that afterwards adopted. When the Legislature of 1871 convened, it was soon generally understood that the matters treated by the special commission would furnish some of the most important work of the session. It was early decided there should be a joint committee of the Senate and House, composed of the committees on the reform school and State prison in the Senate, and the like committees in the House, forming a body of sixteen members. At the request of the chairman of the special commission, Senator C. D. Randall, of Coldwater, accepted the chairmanship of the Senate committee on the reform school, which would probably make him chairman of the joint committee. The joint committee then elected him to that position. During the usual vacation of a few days, the joint committee visited the State charitable, penal, and reformatory institutions, and on its return held several meetings, discussing freely what recommendations should

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - -- -- be made. After a full discussion, the committee instructed the chairman to report as he did Feb. 15, 1871. This report largely adopted the views and conclusions of the special commission in regard to needed improvements in the penal and reformatory institutions of the State, and also in regard to proposed aid for dependent children. The following language was then used in this report, which was the first appearance of the subject in that or any previous Legislature: ' Your committee also recommend that among the institutions of this State there be established, at an early day, a State Public School, after the plan of that in Massachusetts, for the maintenance and education of indigent children. This class is now generally kept in our poor-houses, which are unfit places in which to rear and educate boys and girls, and whence it cannot be expected they will go bettered in mind and morals. It would be a noble work for the State to do, and it is to be hoped that it will soon take them in its fostering care." When this report was drawn the writer was not aware that the Massachusetts institution recommended, was partially penal and reformatory. At this same time the association of ex-soldiers, known as the Grand Army of the Republic, were making efforts to have the Legislature establish an asylum for the children of deceased and indigent soldiers. The leading men of the Grand Army, however, readily assented to the suggestion that the proposed institution should be open to all the dependent children of the State, and thus another and a powerful influence was added to those tending in the direction of the proposed institution. The special commission appointed by Governor Baldwin, though presenting very convincing testimony and strong arguments, accompanied them with no bill as the embodiment of their scheme in regard to legislation for the benefit of the class of children referred to. The joint committee of the Senate and House in its first report, though presenting other bills at that time, presented none for the benefit of dependent children. But subsequently in the session, Mr. Randall, after giving the subject as careful a study as he could, became strongly impressed with the idea that it was time the State should assume control of these children. The first fifty days of the session, after which no bills could be introduced, were rapidly drawing to a close, when, without the aid of precedents, for none existed for the institution desired, he prepared such a plan as to him seemed nearest right as an educational preventive project based on our common-school system, having no regard to our penal or reformatory systems. Reports of commissions of various States, especially in Ohio and Massachusetts, furnished useful suggestions, but not a basis for the organic law of the proposed school, for they all treated of institutions of a mixed character, partly penal or reformatory, none having treated of an institution purely preventive, beginning with children before they had become criminal. Michigan already had a reform school, so there was no good reason for establishing one of a mixed character. Mr. Randall felt that governments, through all ages, had never treated the dependent-chlildren question correctly. The poor-house, the work-house, the industrial schools have always, especially in England, received the innocent and criminal alike, and put them under the same treatment, with the same associations. Under this regimne, dependent children became criminals, and the governmenits, not as a remedy, but as a necessity, erected large and expensive reformatories and prisons, to reform or punish those whom earlier preventive treatment, in all probability, would have saved to a better fate. As education was conceded to be the best preventive of pauperism and crime, especially when assisted by moral and religious training, it was Mr. Randall's aim, in drafting the plan of the proposed school, to construct the scheme directly on the educational basis of our common-school system, combining temporary support of the younger dependent children in a home under the supervision of the State during minority. On that plan, accordingly, was.the bill drawn,-a plan disconnected entirely from our penal system, so that no taint of crime or sentence, or suspension of sentence, should attach to any inmate; so that none in after-life should ever have cause to blush that he or she had been a ward of the State in a school where the house had been built and the school maintained by the same system of taxation that supports the common schools of the State. The law thus drawn was on the 22d day of February, 1871, the last day of the session for introducing bills, presented in the Senate and referred to the joint committee. On the 3d day of March, after a full discussion of its provisions, the chairman, by the unanimous instruction of his committee, returned the bill to the Senate with a recommendation for its passage. This measure soon found in the Legislature many friends and no active opponents. While it was under consideration the following gentlemen visited Lansing, and in public addresses favored it, viz.: Z. R. Brockway, Esq., Hon. C. I. Walker; Rev. E. C. Wines, D.D., LL.D., the noted philanthropist of international reputation; Rev. Dr. Mahan, president of Adrian College; and Rev. Dr. Gillespie, now bishop of the Protestant Episcopal diocese of Western Michigan. No address was made in either House in opposition to the bill. It had in the main been recommended by the special commission, by the joint committee, and the press. On its final passage in the Senate there were twenty-three ayes and four noes. In the House there were seventy-three ayes and ten noes. It received the signature of Governor Baldwin on the 17th of April, and thus was established what is believed to be the first government institution ever established exclusively for the children of the poor to which poverty alone gives admission. The law appropriated thirty thousand dollars to the school, and commissioners were appointed to locate it, erect the buildings, and take charge of the institution. The first commissioners were Gov. H. P. Baldwin, ex officio, C. E. Mickley, and N. G. Isbell. Messrs J. S. Barber, C. D. Randall, and Dr. S. S. Cutter were afterward members of the board of commissioners. In 1874 the board of commissioners was superseded by a " board of control" of three members, appointed by the Governor and Senate for six years, one every two years. The first members were C. E. Mickley, President; C. D. Randall, Sec retary and Treasurer; and Dr. S. S. Cutter. The beautiful site, salubrious climate, and pleasant surroundings of Coldwater marked that city as a proper loca

Page  105 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 105 tion for the proposed institution, and when, in addition, the citizens donated a site for the school and twenty-five thousand dollars in cash, the commissioners had no hesitation in locating it at that point. The site chosen was on an eminence a mile north of the centre of the city, and just outside of the corporate limits, commanding a fine view of the city and its suburbs, and of a wide-spread succession of smiling fields, stretching far up and down the fertile valley of the Coldwater. A further appropriation was made by the Legislature in 1873, and the buildings were ready for use in May, 1874. These consisted of the main or " administrative" building, which was in the shape of a cross, three stories high besides the basement, having a frontage of one hundred and ninetyeight feet, and in the central part a depth of one hundred and seventy-five feet. In this were located the rooms for the superintendent and his family, and other officers, receptionrooms, dining-room, school-rooms, shoe-shop, sleeping-rooms for the employees, etc. Near it were several " cottages," as they are called, although they were two stories high, and their dimensions were nearly forty feet by thirty. These were designed to accommodate thirty children each, under the charge of a lady manager; the lower stories of each being fitted with a room for the manager, sitting-rooms for the children, and a bath-room, while the upper story was divided into dormitories for the children. All the buildings were of brick. From this it will be seen that the plan of the institution was of a mixed description, containing, as is believed, so far as possible, the benefits of the congregate system with that of separate families. This plan has been continued till the present time, and no doubts have been expressed but that it is the best that can be employed. The school was opened on the 21st of May, 1874, with Zelotes Truesdell as superintendent. The law provided for the admission of children between three and fourteen years of age, on the certificate of the judge of probate of the county from which each might come, only to be issued to dependent children, ascertained to be of sound mind and free from any chronic or infectious disease. They were to remain at the school until sixteen, provided homes could not be found for them before that time in private families. After the children were sixteen the board of control was vested with discretion to retain them in the school or return them to their counties. As soon as the school was opened the children were rapidly sent in from all parts of the State, and in less than a year the accommodations of the buildings were exhausted. Further legislative aid was obtained during the session of 1875, and during the following summer several new cottages were erected, bringing the whole number up to eight, besides a hospital. The latter was forty-eight feet by thirty-three, while the new cottages were forty by thirtythree. Like the first buildings, these were also of brick. As thus increased, the buildings accommodated two hundred and fifty children. In July, 1875, Mr. Lyman P. Alden, a college graduate and a successful man of business, was appointed superintendent, and having shown marked ability in the position, has been retained in it ever since. 14 From that time to this, the school has continued to perform its beneficent functions with great regularity, apparently succeeding most admirably in the purposes for which it was instituted. About one-third of the children are too small to work, but every child large enough has some work to occupy it from two to three hours per day, either on the farm, in the laundry, shoe-shop, sewing-room, knitting-room, or in performing some domestic work. Each child attends school from four to five hours per day, and the very best and most experienced teachers are employed. Only the common English branches are taught. Telegraphy has lately been introduced, and bright children who are physically too weak to labor on the farm, or who have been in some way crippled, are so instructed as to become self-supporting. All of the larger boys are taught the manual of arms, and are furnished with carbines. The food is simple and plain but of the best quality of its kind, and the variety is sufficient to stimulate the appetite. A garden of eighteen acres furnishes a large amount of vegetables for the use of the institution. About seven hundred bushels of apples were grown on the farm last year, but not enough to supply the school with all that could be used to advantage. A few cows are kept on the grounds, but not enough to supply the wants of the school, as there is but little pasture, and over one thousand dollars' worth of milk is purchased each year. The moral culture of the children receives proper attention in both the cottages and the school-rooms, and religious services are held for them every Sunday in the chapel, being conducted by the superintendent, assisted by ladies and gentlemen of various religious denominations from the city. The older boys, in charge of a teacher or manager, attend services each Sabbath at one or another of the city churches. The boys wear a plain, coarse, but neat uniform dress, consisting of dark jacket and gray trousers; the girls are habited in an equally plain costume suited to their sex. The children of both sexes have a hearty, healthy, cleanly look, as different as can well be imagined from the depressed appearance of many of the youthful inmates of almshouses, and which has come to be known as a "' poor-house look." The health of the children is above the average. No ailment, however slight, is treated at the cottages; the invalid, on the appearance of the first symptoms of disease, being removed to the hospital. By far the greater portion, however, are speedily returned cured, without the administration of medicine, through the employment of a proper hygienic regimen. During the year closing September 30, 1878, there were only two deaths among over four hundred children who were in the institution; the average constant membership being about three hundred. As before stated, the object of the school is to furnish temporary support and instruction to the children until they can be placed in families which are willing to take them. The Governor has appointed agents in some thirty of the principal counties of the State to find homes for the chil dren, and to see that they are well treated when placed in them. The superintendent also acts as the agent of the school in regard to this branch of the work. By these

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. means, and by the voluntary application of citizens, a large part of the children are provided for in that manner. Numerous letters are received from agents and guardians regarding the children thus cared for, generally showing favorable results; though sometimes serious faults are discovered in the children, and sometimes harsh treatment is inflicted by those who should be their protectors. The children thus sent away from the institution are also encouraged to write to the superintendent, and many of their letters are decidedly interesting in their childish simplicity. From those published verbatim et literatim, in the last report of the board of control, we select two, one apparently by a girl, and the other by a boy: "February 4, 1878. "DEAR SIR:-I sit down to write you a few lines to let you know that I am well, and getting along very nicely. Now I will tell you all about it. I think that I have got A good home. I am going to try to keep my place this time. They have been very kind to me and I will try to please them, I have great deal of fun. They have got a little boy here. He makes lots of fun. I like him very mutch. He is a nice little boy. She is a very nice lady. She has a great deal of company and she has got a great many kind friends. They all seem to be glad to see her. He is a nice man. They have got a young man. He is always getting off something to make fun. they are all good christian people. they have got a very pleasant place. We all go to church but we did not go to-night because she was sick. This lady's sister thinks of coming out there to get A girl hot over ten years old. She will have a good home for her. She has got an organ and she wants one that can learn to play. I like my home very mutch. I cannot think of anything more to write so good by to all. "M ---H." "December 12, 1877. "DEAR MR. ALDEN:-I received your nice letter some time ago and was very much pleased with it. Should have answered it before this had there not been so much sickness in the family. I like it here. There are two children in the family-a little boy 16 months old (his name is Burtie) and a girl four years old, her name is Mertie; she goes with me to feed the calf and hogs. I used to see Robbert Gambol at Sunday school, but I guess he has ran away. Henry Huntly is in this place. I go to school-like my teacher ever so well. I belong to the singing school, but can't read notes yet. My guardian let me husk corn on shares; I have got 12 bushels. I am going to buy a pig and feed it. I helped put in the wheat last fall, and I have 1~ acres of my own. I was to visit you about two weeks ago, but you was not there. I saw all the new buildings; think it looks nice. If you get a letter from all the children it will keep you busy reading, so I guess I will not write much. Will close by hoping you will send a nice letter again sometime. "A Boy Friend, " J G-." Since 1875 there has been but one cottage added, but this is a large one, sheltering sixty children, so that now full three hundred are cared for in the institution. A new building for an engine-house and laundry has also been erected lately. The whole number of children received into the institution down to the 1st day of February, 1879, was six hundred and ninety, of whom three hundred and ten had been placed in families. Four hundred and twelve were cared for last year, including those placed out during the time; the expense for each being eighty-one dollars and sixty-seven cents, which is stated to be very little more than it would have been in poor-houses.' I I I I The principal employees of the institution are the superintendent, matron, clerk, teachers, cottage managers, and hospital manager. A complete but simple set of rules has been prescribed for their government, and the management of the institution seems to go on with great smoothness considering the number and age of the children. Though corporeal punishment is not absolutely interdicted, yet great care is taken that it shall not be harshly or needlessly administered, and we believe no complaint has ever been made that such is the case. Such is the history and some of the characteristics of the "Michigan State Public School for Dependent Children,"an institution which is certainly unique in its character, and which its friends believe is destined to take the lead in an important reformation in the treatment of such children throughout this country if not throughout the world. The State Public School exhibit at the Centennial formed a quarto volume, including the papers by Messrs. Randall and Alden, mentioned at the beginning of this chapter, embracing a lithographic view of the buildings, ten photographic views (exteriors and interiors), plan of cottages, plan of grounds, outline plan of all the buildings, annual reports of the boards of control for 1874 to 1875, etc. Upon the exhibit thus made, a diploma and medal were awarded. No other institution having any resemblance to this received an award. The following is the text of the report of the judges, as accepted by the United States Centennial Commission, and in conformity with which an award of diploma and medal was decreed to the State Public School: " The undersigned, having examined the product herein described, respectfully recommend the same to the United States Commission for award, for the following reasons, viz.: For the exhibit of plans, drawings, historical sketches and reports, showing the advantage of the separation of children untainted by crime from those more properly cared for in a reformatory institution; for the adaptation of the separate house- or cottagesystem to the needs of said State Public School; and for the evidence of thoughtful planning and careful work in the establishment." The report of the judges and diploma adorn the walls of the principal office of the school, and the medal is carefully preserved in the library. We close with a list of the present officers and employees of the institution,-Board of Control: Hon. James Burns, President, Detroit; Hon. Henry H. Hinds, Stanton; Hon. C. D. Randall, Secretary and Treasurer, Coldwater. Superintendent, Lyman P. Alden. Clerk and Steward, Daniel G. Blackman. Matron, Mrs. Lena P. Alden. Cottage Managers, Mrs. Lucretia Champlin, Mrs. Martha Bissell, Mrs. Agnes McCollum, Mrs. Sarah Watson, Mrs. Fannie Russell, Miss Sarah D. Parsons, Miss Jennie Hall, Mrs. Ann Glynn, Miss Hattie L. Evarts, Miss Sarah Ten Eyck. Teachers, Miss Anna Sanderson, Miss Anna French, Miss Ella Cretors, Miss Lucelia E. Staples, Miss Frances C. Staples, Miss Florence McCollum. Hospital Manager, Miss Agnes Walter. Attending Physician, Dr. S. S. Cutter.

Page  107 107 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. CHAPTER XXVIII. COUNTY SOCIETIES. Branch County Agricultural Society-First Meeting-First OfficersFirst Fair-Premiums on Stock-Premiums Awarded to LadiesThe Fair in 1853-Extension of Fair in 1854-New Features in 1855-Permanent Fair-Ground-Legal Incorporation in 1857-Adjournment in 1861-Scant Premiums in 1862-A New Fair-Ground -A Sheep-Shearing Festival-Building of Floral Hall-Receipts in Various Years-More Land-Present Officers-List of Presidents-The County Grange-Its Organization-First Officers' Meetings-Object-Branch County Pioneer Society-The Bar Association-First Officers-Object. BRANCH COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. THE first meeting looking to the formation of an agricultural society in Branch County was held, pursuant to notice, on the 17th day of October, 1851, Asahel Brown being chosen president, and E. B. Pond secretary. F. V. Smith, Alvarado Brown, and J. B. Tompkins were appointed a committee to draft a constitution, while John Root, Darwin Wilson, Oliver Burdick, Jr., and William P. Arnold were made a committee to nominate officers for the proposed association. They made the following nominations, which were confirmed by the meeting: President, James B. Tompkins; Vice-President, John Allen; Secretary, F. V. Smith; Treasurer, H. W. Wright. A corresponding secretary was also named in each township, as follows: Butler, Jason Bowen; Quincy, Elijah Leland; Algansee, Asahel Brown; California, Israel R. Hall; Ovid, Daniel -; Girard, Solomon L. Lawrence; Union, J. C. Leonard; Batavia, Joseph Peterson; Bethel, E. B. Williams; Gilead, Emerson Marsh; Noble, Darwin Wilson; Bronson, John Holmes; Mattison, John Culver; Sherwood, B. F. Ferris. A constitution was also adopted for the government of the society. By its association the society was to be called the Branch County Agricultural Society, its design being declared to be to promote improvement in agriculture and the kindred arts. There was to be an executive committee, consisting of the president, vice-president, secretary, treasurer, and two other members, who were to have the general management of the affairs of the society. The officers already chosen were to hold office until the first annual meeting, which was fixed for the 11th of November of that year. It was provided that any person might become a member by paying one dollar, and might continue so by paying half a dollar annually. The payment of five dollars made the payer a life-member, and authorized him to attend the annual meetings of the executive committee and participate in the discussions. The first annual meeting was held at the time mentioned above, when the following permanent officers were chosen: President, J. B. Tompkins; Vice-President, William Smith; Secretary, F. V. Smith; Treasurer, Elijah Leland; Executive Committee, Daniel Wilson and L. P. Austin. Corresponding secretaries were again named, most of those before designated being selected. The first annual fair of the society was held at Coldwater village, on the 7th of October, 1852. The whole sum appropriated for premiums was only two hundred dollars. Joseph R. Williams, of Constantine, St. Joseph Co., was chosen to deliver the first address. Brief and meagre indeed was the premium-list. Among the premiums offered were the following: Class 1, short-horns: for the best bull, three years old or over, $3; for the best cow, $3. Class 2, Devons: the same premiums. Class 3, grades: the same. Class 4, natives: the same. Class 5, working oxen and steers: best yoke oxen, four years old, $2; best five yoke, from one town, $3; best yoke three-year old steers, $1; best two-year old steers, $1. Class 6, fat cattle: best steer or ox, copy Mlichigan Farmer. Class 7, horses: best stallion for all work, four years old, $2 and Rural New Yorker; best brood-mare, four years old, $1 and Rtural New Yorker, etc. The premium offered for the best cultivated and managed farm in the county was a set of silver teaspoons worth $6. When the time came, the executive committee had their headquarters in the court-house, while the crowd and the exhibits occupied the ground outside. Members, their wives, and their children under eighteen were admitted on the fiftycent tickets of the members, while single tickets were placed at the moderate price of ten cents. The principal awards to ladies at this first fair were the following: To Miss C. H. Williams, for best salt-rising bread, "Miss Leslie's Receipt Book"; to Mrs. E. Chapman, for best hop-rising bread, same; to Mrs. L. R. Austin, best milk-rising bread, the same; to Mrs. J. G. Brooks, ten pounds butter, $2 and copy "Modern Housewife"; to Mrs. Jane Lee, for best variety of wines, jellies, cakes, etc., copy " Modern Housewife"; to Mrs. Roland Root, for best cheese, copy " Modern Housewife"; to Mrs. L. D. Crippen, for best catsup of domestic manufacture; to Mrs. Horace Lewis, for best ten yards white flannel; to Mrs. W. H. Hanchett, best ten yards rag carpet; to Mrs. A. Chandler, best pair knit stockings; to Mrs. E. Martin, best patch-work quilt; to Mrs. E. G. Parsons, for best specimen worsted work; to Mrs. N. T. Waterman, best worked collars; to Mrs. L. D. Crippen, for best variety of dahlias; to Mrs. J. H. Beach, for best variety of house-plants; to Mrs. Edward Chapman, best dressed flannel; to Mrs. D. C. Morehouse, best pair linen stockings; to Mrs. N. D. Sykes, assortment needle-work; to Mrs. F. V. Smith, same; to Mrs. O. R. Clark, for beautiful, white, quilted spread; to Mrs. C. B. Fisk, for worsted work; to Mrs. S. M. Denison, for woolen stockings; to Miss Harriett A. Crippen, for beautiful embroidered shoes; to Miss R. A. Champion, for gent's dressing-gown; to Mrs. H. N. Hubbard, for one coverlid; to Mrs. C. B. Fisk, for a parlor bouquet; to Miss Amelia Noyes, for the same; to Mrs. David Rice, ten yards yarn carpet; to Mrs. T. J. Webb, for fancy work-box; Mrs. W. H. Hanchett, one coral card-basket; Mrs. J. R. Hall, one pair worked ottomans; Mrs. E. G. Parsons, one footstool. The prize for the best farm was given to Elijah Leland, of Quincy. From these modest beginnings the progress has been slow but steady up to the present time. At the second fair, in

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1853, four hundred dollars were allotted for premiums, and the prizes for the best cattle were advanced to five dollars. Hon. Charles E. Stewart delivered the address. The provision in the constitution for corresponding secretaries in each town was stricken out. In 1854 the time of the fair was extended to three days. The premiums remained at about the same size as the year before, but a larger number were offered. In 1855 two or three new features were introduced, premiums being offered for the best performances on the piano, melodeon, and dulcimer, and also for the best specimens of female horsemanship, both in riding on horseback and in driving one or two horses. At the annual meeting, in 1854, it was resolved to buy land for a permanent fair-ground. A bargain was accordingly made with Mr. Bradley Crippen to purchase six acres on the Battle Creek road, near the north line of the village of Coldwater, the price being seven hundred dollars,two hundred in cash, and the rest in three equal annual payments. As the society was not legally incorporated it could not hold land itself, and the contract was made by Darwin Wilson to hold the tract in question in trust. In 1857 the society was incorporated, the official authority being vested in a president, secretary, treasurer, and five directors. The first officers under the new organization were Asahel Brown, President; Hiram R. Alden, Secretary; C. B. Fisk, Treasurer; and Samuel Morey, Philo Porter, Lyman Millett, Jas. Clisbee, and Oliver Burdick, Jr., Directors. At the fair in 1857 no prizes were offered for female horsemanship, but several ladies volunteered to grace the occasion. The judges praised their proficiency, and also gave thanks to Capt. Andrews and the members of the Coldwater Light Artillery, for the gentlemanly escort afforded by them to the ladies. Some perhaps laughed at the military semblance of the gallant militiamen; but when the time of trial came nearly every man of the Coldwater Light Artillery was to be found in front of the foe. The report made in June, 1858, showed that the whole receipts during the second year of the society's existence were two hundred and seventy-one dollars and nine cents, while in 1857 they had increased to nine hundred and sixty-nine dollars and seventy-one cents. At that time (1858) the association numbered five hundred and fifty actual members. There was then a debt of two hundred and fiftyseven dollars,-one hundred and forty dollars being still due on the land contract and one hundred and seven dollars for fencing. At the fair of 1858 new buildings were found necessary, and were erected. There were six hundred and forty-seven entries, but on account of bad weather the number of membership-tickets was comparatively small. The annual membership-fee was raised to one dollar, where it has been continued ever since. There were fairs held in 1859 and 1860, but there is no record of them on the books. In 1861,the attention of the people was so completely taken up by the great war, and so many of the active young farmers had gone forth to meet their country's enemies, that it was determined to adjourn the fair till the next year. In 1862 a fair was held, but the society seems to have been very much cramped for money, judging from a resolution passed by the board of directors. It provided that the treasurer should pay, first, the current expenses of that year for labor, etc., next the debts of the society, and last the premiums which might be awarded. This left but a poor chance for the prize-takers, but they were allowed the privilege of applying the unpaid amounts in membershiptickets the next year. In 1863 the number of directors was increased to six,these being elected for two years, the terms of three expiring each year. It was about this time that the society sold its land on Grand Street, and bought twenty acres on Marshall Street, near the north line of the city of Coldwater,-that is, the Agricultural Society anrd the Horse Breeders' Association bought it in company, the former fitting up the track and grand stand, while the latter fenced the ground, built walls, etc. This arrangement has been maintained till the present time. In 1864 the exigencies of the war, then in the very crisis of decision, again prevented the holding of either a fair or an annual meeting. Just after the close of the war the jubilant farmers, whose sons and brothers were then returning home by the hundreds, held a peculiar festival under the auspices of the authorities of the association. It was called a sheep-shearing festival, and occurred on the 7th of June of that year. Premiums were offered for the best sheep and one of five dollars for the best shearer. A large number of shearers attended with their sheep, but probably the trouble was thought to be greater than the enjoyment or profit, for the scene was not repeated. The following year, 1866, a large hall was built for the exhibition of flowers, fruits, and other delicate products, and called Floral Hall. The cost was about two thousand four hundred dollars. This year a premium of ten dollars was offered for the best span of draft horses, while the prizes for choice cattle were somewhat reduced. The total receipts were about eight hundred dollars. The institution was now well started on the road to success; and in 1867 the receipts were much larger than the year before, and the debts of the association were nearly paid up. In 1867 the total receipts were fourteen hundred and twenty-seven dollars and ninety-nine cents; of which nearly a thousand dollars was applied in payment of debts. This necessarily involved a very meagre premium list, and the next year the receipts fell to three hundred and ninetythree dollars and forty-seven cents. A very decided effort was made to improve on this situation, a judicious premium list was offered, and the affairs of the institution were again put in the proper train. In 1871 thb number of the board of directors (quite as commonly called the executive committee) was increased to ten, the terms of five expiring every year. From this time to the present the society has been prosperous both in regard to its financial condition and as to the interest excited among the farmers. In 1875 the receipts amounted to $1809.34; in 1876, to $2968.84; in 1877, to $2983.70; and in 1878, $2682.71. For the last four

Page  109 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 109 I years the society has employed the same secretary (Mr. J. D. W. Fisk) continuously; a fact which has conduced much to its success. In 1878 the association bought eight acres more of land, on the north side of its former purchase, for sixteen hundred dollars, and two acres on the south side for eight hundred dollars, thus making a tract of thirty acres in all. The following are the present officers of the association: President, William Joseph; Secretary, J. D. W. Fisk; Treasurer, Charles H. Austin; Board of Directors, John H. Jones, A. M. Drumm, E. C. S. Green, Charles Hamilton, A. C. Fisk, Myron A. Holway, J. M. Selover, George W. Vanaken, R. E. Copeland, and E. W. Treat. We close with a list of the previous.presidents: James B. Tompkins, 1851-52; Darwin Wilson, 1853; Alvarado Brown, 1854; Elijah Leland, 1855; Darwin Wilson, 1856; J. H. Culver, 1858; Harvey Warner, 1859; James S. Antisdale, 1861-62-63; J. B. Crippen, 1864-65; Cyrus E. Luce, 1866-67; Albert Chandler, 1868-69; John Allen, 1870; George W. Van Aken, 1871; Henry C. Lewis, 1872; Charles Upson, 1873; Cyrus G. Luce, 1875-76; Henry B. George, 1877-78. THE COUNTY GRANGE. Branch County Pomona Grange, No. 22, was organized on the 21st of March, 1878, by C. L. Whitney, general deputy for Michigan, on a petition presented by George W. Van Aken, John G. Parkhurst, Mrs. J. G. Parkhurst, Eli Bidleman, H. B. George, Mrs. H. B. George, Charles H. Austin, I. C. Fonda, A. S. Archer, J. C. Pierce, Mrs. J. C. Pierce, Wm. Joseph, Wallace E. Wright, John H. Jones, Mrs. John H. Jones, Darwin Thompson, and John Bell. The first officers were as follows: Worthy Master, Henry B. George, of Coldwater Grange; Overseer, Darwin Thompson, of Gilead Grange; Lecturer, John G. Parkhurst,. of Batavia Grange; Steward, C. H. Austin, of Batavia Grange; Assistant Steward, J. C. Pierce, of Coldwater Grange; Treasurer, George W. Van Aken, of Girard Grange; Secretary, Wallace E. Wright, of Champion Grange; Ceres, Mrs. William Joseph, of Quincy Grange; Flora, Mrs. J. G. Parkhurst, of Batavia Grange; Lady Assistant Steward, Mrs. Hiram Horton, of Coldwater Grange. The worthy master, secretary, and four other members constitute the executive committee. The first members were William Joseph, G. W. Van Aken, Eli Bidleman, and D. Thompson. Regular annual meetings are held on the third Thursday of March in each year, at the hall of Coldwater Grange. Regular quarterly meetings are held on the Tuesday nearest the full moon, in the first month of each quarter, at the same place. There are now forty-five members. The society is designed -to promote social intercourse among the members, and especially to form a link between the State granges and the subordinate granges, and thus conduce to the beneficent workings of the order of Patrons of Husbandry. BRANCH COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY. Meetings of the pioneers of Branch County have been held for several years, at which the remnant of those who led the way in the conquest of the widerness have assembled to revive their recollections of the olden time, and compare them with the facts of the present day. On the 16th of August the organization of the Branch County Pioneer Society was perfected, its object being to promote the social intercourse of the old settlers, and to preserve whatever relates to the history of the county, and especially to its early settlement. The present officers are as follows: President, Harvey Warner; Recording Secretary, Harvey Haynes; Corresponding Secretary, T. C. Etheridge; Treasurer, S. N. Treat; Executive Committee, Albert Chandler, H. D. Miller, and Henry Lockwood; Vice-Presidents, Algansee, F. D. Ransom; Batavia, M. P. Olds; Bethel, Nelson Card; Bronson, Wales Adams; Butler, Milo White; California, James H. Lawrence; Coldwater township, Origen F. Bingham; First Ward Coldwater City, William B. Sprague; Second Ward, D. I. P. Alger; Third Ward, Allen Tibbits; Fourth Ward, Dr. J. H. Bennett; Gilead, Samuel Booth; Girard, J. B. Tompkins; Kinderhook, George Tripp; Mattison, William W. McCarty; Noble, Walter W. Smith; Ovid, Stewart Davis; Quincy, W. P. Arnold; Sherwood, Isaac D. Beall; Union, Hiram Doubleday; village of Quincy, Samuel P. Mowry; village of Union City, David Cooley; village of Bronson, James Ruggles. BRANCH COUNTY BAR ASSOCIATION. This is a very youthful society, having been formed in February, 1879. Its object is not only to promote good feeling among the members, but to elevate the tone of the profession and to frown down all unworthy practices which may possibly gain ground among the lawyers of Branch County. The following were the first officers elected: President, Noah P. Loveridge; Vice-President, M. A. Merrifield; Secretary, A. J. McGowan; Executive Committee, Chas. Upson, F. L. Skeels, and H. H. Barlow. CHAPTER XXIX. BRANCH COUNTY CIVIL LIST. State Officers-Representatives in Congress-Judges of Circuit CourtProbate J.udges-Prosecuting Attorneys-Sheriffs-County Clerks -Registers of Deeds-County Treasurers-County Commissioners -Associate Judges of Circuit Court-County Judges and Second Judges-Circuit Court Commissioners-County Surveyors-State Senators-Representatives in Legislature-Members of Constitutional Conventions. STATE OFFICERS. Charles G. Hammond, Auditor-General (appointed), April 13, 1842, to May 31, 1845. George A. Coe, Lieutenant-Governor; elected in 1854 for two years; served in 1855-56; re-elected in 1856 for 1857-58. Charles Upson, Attorney-General; elected for two years, in 1860; served in 1861-62. J. H. McGowan, Regent of State University; elected in April, 1869, for eight years. Charles A. Edmonds, Land Commissioner; elected for two years, in 1870; served in 1871-72. C. D. Randall, Commissioner of State Public School; appointed in 1873; on supersession of Commissioners by Board of Control in 1874; appointed member of that board for six years.

Page  110 110 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I _ _ 1 I.- _ i S. S. Cutter, appointed Commissioner of State School in December, 1873; appointed member of Board of Control in 1874; resigned. REPRESENTATIVES IN CONGRESS. Charles Upson, elected in 1862; re-elected in 1864-66; served from March 4, 1863, to March 4, 1869. J. H. McGowan, elected in 1876; re-elected in 1878; service began March 4, 1877. JUDGES OF CIRCUIT COURT. Charles Upson, elected in spring of 1869, for six years, from Jan. 1, 1870. David Thompson, to fill vacancy, 1878. John B. Shipman, elected in 1878, for six years, from Jan. 1, 1879. PROBATE JUDGES. Peter Martin (appointed), 1833-37. Martin Olds (appointed), 1837-40. Edward A. Warner (appointed), 1841. William B. Sprague (appointed), 1842-44. Esbon G. Fuller (appointed), 1844-48. Harvey Warner (appointed), 1849; afterwards elected by the people; held till Dec. 31, 1856. Jonathan H. Gray, elected in 1856, for four years, from Jan. 1, 1857. Nelson D. Skeels, elected in 1860, for four years, from Jan. 1, 1861. David Thompson, elected in 1864, for four years, from Jan. 1, 1865. David W. Green, elected in 1868; re-elected in 1872-76. PROSECUTING ATTORNEYS. Esbon G. Fuller, appointed in 1837; reappointed in 1840. H. C. Gilbert, appointed in 1843; reappointed in 1846. Elon G. Parsons, appointed in 1849; served till close of 1850. James W. Gilbert, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. John G. Parkhurst, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. John W. Turner, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Egbert K. Nichols, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858; reelected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860; re-elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. L. T. N. Miller, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. George A. Coe, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Wallace W. Barrett, elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. Jonas H. McGowan, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870; reelected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872. Frank L. Skeels, elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874; re-elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876. Simon B. Kitchell, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878; reelected in 1878. SHERIFFS. William McCarty, elected in 1833; served to end of 1834; re-elected in 1834; served in 1835 and 1836. James B. Stewart, elected in 1836; served in 1837 and 1838. John H. Stevens, elected in 1838; served in 1839 and 1840; re-elected in 1840; served in 1841 and 1842. Anselm Arnold, elected in 1842; served in 1843 and 1844; re-elected in 1844; served in 1845 and 1846. Hiram Shoulder, elected in 1846; served in 1847 and 1848. James Pierson, elected in 1848; served in 1849 and 1850. Philo Porter, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852; re-elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Daniel Wilson, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. David N. Green, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858; re-elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860. John Whitcomb, elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862; re-elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Charles Powers, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Lucius M. Wing, elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868;re-elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870. Lewis B. Johnson, elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872; re-elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874. Jason T. Culp, elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876; re-elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. Loring P. Wilcox, Coldwater, elected in 1878. COUNTY CLERKS. Wales Adams, elected in 1833; served to end of 1834; re-elected in 1834; served in 1835 and 1836. C. P. West, elected in 1836; served in 1837 and 1838; re-elected in 1838; served in 1839 and 1840. Henry B. Stillman, elected in 1840; served in 1841 and 1842; reelected in 1842; served in 1843 and 1844. C. P. Benton, elected in 1844; served in 1845 and 1846; re-elected in 1846; served in 1847 and 1848. S. C. Rose, elected in 1848; served in 1849 and 1850. P. P. Wright, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852; re-elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Eben O. Leach, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Benjamin C. Webb, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858; reelected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860; re-elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. Henry N. Lawrence, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864; reelected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866; re-elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. Francis M. Bissell, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870; re-elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872; re-elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874. Frank D. Newberry, elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876; reelected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878; re-elected in 1878. REGISTERS OF DEEDS. Seth Dunham, elected in 1833; served to end of 1834; re-elected in 1834; served in 1835 and 1836. Leonard Ellsworth, elected in 1836; served in 1837 and 1838; reelected in 1838; served in 1839 and 1840; re-elected in 1840; served in 1841 and 1842; died in October, 1842; George A. Coe acted till Dec. 31, 1842. Jared Pond, elected in 1842; served in 1843 and 1844; re-elected in 1844; served in 1845 and 1846. Selleck Seymour, elected in 1846; served in 1847 and 1848; re-elected in 1848; served in 1849 and 1850. Albert L. Porter, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852; re-elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Curtis S. Youngs, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Francis B. Way, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858. Franklin T. Eddy, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860; reelected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. Phineas P. Nichols, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864; reelected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Charles A. Edmonds, elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868; reelected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870. Daniel A. Douglas, elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872; reelected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874. Franklin T. Eddy, elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876; reelected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. William H. Donaldson, elected in 1878. COUNTY TREASURERS. Seth Dunham, elected in 1833; served in 1833 and 1834.'J. G. Corbus, elected in 1840; served in 1841 and 1842. John T. Haynes, elected in 1842; served in 1843 and 1844; re-elected in 1844; served in 1845 and 1846; re-elected in 1846; served in 1847 and 1848; re-elected in 1848; served in 1849 and 1850. Hiram R. Alden, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. Wales Adams, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Hiram Shoudler, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856; re-elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858. Cyrus G. Luce, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860; re-elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. Moses V. Calkins, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864; re-elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866; re-elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. John Whitcomb, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870; re-elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872. Loring P. Wilcox, elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874; re-elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876. James R. Dickey, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878; re-elected in 1878. * No record of treasurers to be found from 1835 to 1840.

Page  111 111 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. COUNTY COMMISSIONERS.* 1838.-Charles G. Hammond, chairman; Enos G. Berry, Wales Adams. 1839.-Same commissioners. 1840.-Enos G. Berry, chairman; Wales Adams, Hiram Shoudler. 1841.-Wales Adams, chairman; Hiram Shoudler, Oliver D. Colvin. 1842.-Hiram Shoudler, chairman; 0. D. Colvin, Hiram Gardner. ASSOCIATE JUDGES OF CIRCUIT COURT. Silas A. Holbrook (appointed), 1833-36. William A. Kent (appointed), 1833-36. William B. Sprague (appointed), 1837 and 1838. Chester G. Hammond (appointed), 1837-40. Enos G. Berry (appointed), 1839 and 1840. William A. Kent (appointed), 1841-44. Martin Barnhart Girard (appointed), 1841-46. Jehial H. Hard, 1845 and 1846. COUNTY JUDGES AND SECOND JUDGES. William A. Kent, county judge, 1847-50. Jacob Shook, second judge, 1847-50. Justin Lawyer, county judge, 1851. Darwin Littlefield, second judge, 1851. CIRCUIT COURT COMMISSIONERS. Esbon G. Fuller, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. John G. Parkhurst, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. Justin Lawyer, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854; re-elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Joseph B. Clark, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858. Wallace W. Barrett, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860; reelected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. David Thompson, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Franklin E. Morgan and Willard J. Bowen, Coldwater, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Willard J. Bowen and Jonas H. McGowan, Coldwater, elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. Willard J. Bowen and Asa M. Tinker, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870. Frank S. Skeels and Ezra Berry, elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872. Ezra Berry and Charles D. Wright, elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874; both re-elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876. Charles D). Wright and Charles N. Legg, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. Charles N. Legg and Norman A. Reynolds, elected in 1878. CORONERS (SINCE 1854). Isaac Middaugh and Israel R. Hall, elected in 1854 for two years, from the following 1st of January. A. C. Fisk and Charles D. Brown, elected in 1856 for two years, from the following 1st of January. John H. Bennett and Charles D. Brown, elected in 1858. George W. Johnson and Elmer Packer, elected in 1860. Warren Byrnes and Elmer Packer, elected in 1862. Daniel Miller and John C. Hall, elected in 1864. Moses E. Chauncey and Barnabas B. Shoecraft, elected in 1866. John H. Bennett and Geo. W. Johnson, elected in 1868. Jerome S. Wolcott and Nathan Tetterly, elected in 1870. Chas. H. Lovewell and Jacob Kincaid, elected in 1872. Chas. H. Lovewell and Edward Purdy, elected in 1874. Jerome Wolcott and Aaron A. Van Orthwick, elected in 1876. Roland Root and Delanson J. Sprague, elected in 1878. COUNTY SURVEYORS (SINCE 1854). Philip H. Sprague, elected in 1854 to serve two years, from the fol-, lowing 1st of January. Murray Knowles, elected in 1856 for two years, from the following 1st of January; re-elected in 1858. Silas H. Nye, elected in 1860. Amasa R. Day, elected in 1862; re-elected in 1864. Norman S. Andrews, elected in 1866; re-elected in 1868. Titus Babcock, elected in 1870. J. H. Bennett, elected in 1872; re-elected in 1874. Murray Knowles, elected in 1876; re-elected in 1878. SUPERINTENDENTS OF COMMON SCHOOLS. Walter S. Perry, elected for two years in April, 1867. Albert A. Jones, elected for two years in April, 1869. Albert A. Luce, elected for two years in April, 1871. Milo D. Campbell, elected for two years in April, 1873. COUNTY DRAIN COMMISSIONERS. John H. Bennett, elected for two years in April, 1869. George W. Fisk, elected for two years in April, 1871. STATE SENATORS. Samuel Etheridge, Coldwater, elected in 1838; served in 1839 and 1840. Edward A. Warren, Coldwater, elected in 1841; served in 1842 an 1843. George A. Coe, Coldwater, elected in 1845; served in 1846 and 1847. Enos G. Berry, Quincy, elected in 1847; served in 1848 and 1849. Alfred French, Bronson, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. Joseph C. Leonard, Union, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. L. T. N. Wilson, Coldwater, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Asahel Brown, Coldwater, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860. Darius Monroe, Bronson, elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862; re-elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Cyrus G. Luce, Gilead, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866; reelected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. John H. Jones, Quincy, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870. Caleb D. Randall, Coldwater, elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872. Jonas H. McGowan, Coldwater, elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874. John H. Jones, Quincy, elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876. Franklin E. Morgan, Coldwater, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. REPRESENTATIVES IN LEGISLATURE. Hiram Alden, Coldwater, elected for one year in 1835 (term began in November of that year); re-elected in 1836 to serve in 1837. William A. Kent, Prairie River (now Bronson); elected in 1836 to serve in 1838. Jared Pond, Branch, elected in 1838, served in 1839. Charles G. Hammond, Union, elected in 1839; served in 1840; reelected in 1840 to serve in 1841. Justus Goodwin, Union, elected in 1841; served in 1842. Martin Olds, Batavia, elected in 1842; served in 1843. Wales Adams, Bronson, elected in 1843; served in 1844; re-elected in 1844; served in 1845. William B. Sprague, Coldwater, elected in 1845; served in 1846. Alvarado Brown, Quincy, elected in 1846; served in 1847. Justus Goodwin, Union, elected in 1846; served in 1847. Alvarado Brown, Quincy, elected in 1847; served in 1848. B. F. Ferris, Sherwood, elected in 1847; served in 1848. George A. Coe, Coldwater, elected in 1848; served in 1849. Oliver D. Culver, Kinderhook, elected in 1849; served in 1850. Roland Root, Coldwater, elected in 1849; served in 1850. Sol. L. Lawrence, Girard, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. Roland Root, Coldwater, elected in 1850; served in 1851 and 1852. William P. Arnold, Quincy, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Jas. B. Tompkins, Girard, elected in 1852; served in 1853 and 1854. Cyrus G. Luce, Gilead, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. H. C. Hurd, Union City, elected in 1854; served in 1855 and 1856. Elijah Leland, Quincy, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858. Edward Perry, Union City, elected in 1856; served in 1857 and 1858. Augustus S. Glessner, Coldwater, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860. Edward Perry, Union City, elected in 1858; served in 1859 and 1860. Wm. Chase, Kinderhook, elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. Homer C. Hurd, Union City, elected in 1860; served in 1861 and 1862. Jesse Bowen, Quincy, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Charles W. Wetherby, Gilead, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Aura Smith, Girard, elected in 1862; served in 1863 and 1864. Harvey Haynes, Coldwater, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. * Elected for three years (the term of one expiring each year), and performing the same duties as supervisors.

Page  112 112 E IISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. John H. Jones, Quincy, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Darius Monroe, Bronson, elected in 1864; served in 1865 and 1866. Julius S. Barber, Coldwater, elected in 1866; served in 1867 and 1868. Isaac D. Beall, Sherwood, elected in 1866. John H. Jones, Quincy, elected in 1866. Isaac D. Beall, Sherwood, elected in 1868; served in 1869 and 1870. Ezra Bostwick, Union City, elected in 1868. James A. Williams, Quincy, elected in 1868. J. A. Williams, Quincy, elected in 1870; served in 1871 and 1872. Harvey Haynes, Coldwater, elected in 1870. Geo. F. Gillam, Bronson, elected in 1870. Geo. W. Van Aken, Coldwater, elected in 1872; served in 1873 and 1874. Erastus J. Welker, Kinderhook, elected in 1872. Geo. P. Robinson, Noble, elected in 1874; served in 1875 and 1876. Geo. W. Van Aken, Coldwater, elected in 1874. Erastus J. Welker, Kinderhook, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. Rodney K. Twaddell, Quincy, elected in 1876; served in 1877 and 1878. Rodney K. Twaddell, Quincy, elected in 1878. Calvin T. Thorp, Sherwood, elected in 1878. MEMBERS OF CONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTIONS. Convention of September, 1836, Harvey Warner, Coldwater. Convention of December, 1836, James B. Tompkins, Girard.* Convention of 1850, Wales Adams, Bronson; Alvarado Brown, Quincy; Asahel Brown, Algansee. Convention of 1867, Cyrus G. Luce, Gilead; Asahel Brown, Coldwater. *Did not take his seat. I "Y~, I:1 i~:-;

Page  [unnumbered] 9.

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Page  113 CITY OF COLDWATER. THE early associations of Coldwater, as of the entire region surrounding it, are inseparably connected with the Indian; and yet this peculiar race enter but little into the actual history of the early settlement of the hamlet. The foremost pioneers came but a few years before the government had consigned them to their Western reservations, and they were but passive characters in the scenes which accompanied the first clearing of the country,-leading a nomadic life, pitching their wigwams here and there as pleasure or abundant supplies of game might dictate, and continually living in the fear of the edict which should remove them from their native forests and consign them to the hunting-grounds of the far West. The first projectors of the village have so far perpetuated the memory of the Indian as to have christened it in their own language. It was originally called Lyons, one of the early residents having named it after his native town of that name in New York State. But, upon conferring with others, who, like himself, were enigrants, it was decided to give it the name, it at present bears, of Coldwater, from the Indian Ch/Luksew-ya-tish. In the bed of the little river, which runs through the western portion of the city, were springs constantly bubbling up of very much lower temperature than the surrounding water. The Indian placed his hand in this water and exclaimed chuck-sew-ya-bish! (cold water.) Hence the derivation of the word. As early as 1830 there was no thoroughfare other than the Chicago road. This ran through the northern portion of the present city, and was simply the Indian trail followed by them in their westward wanderings, and marked out in the year 1829. It was not worked until 1832, and consisted before that time of simple guides or marks, such as were employed by the tribes; the blazing of trees and clearing of brush furnishing the only intimation to the traveler that his course was a direct one. On the ground now covered by the cemetery and one and a half miles west was a trading-post, and another was located two and a half miles east. In 1830, Hugh Campbell located the ground now occupied by the Lewis Art Gallery on Chicago Street, and erected a log house, living there until the following year. Afterwards came Abram F. Bolton, who died in Napoleon, Jackson Co., some years since, and John Morse, who kept a hotel two miles east and twenty rods south of the present Chicago road. Then came Lemuel Bingham and family, Robert J. Cross, and William H. Cross, and entered all the land on section 22, with the exception of two lots on the west side of the section. Col. A. F. Bolton was the first justice of the peace for Coldwater, receiving his appointment in the fall of 1830; Robert J. Cross being the second, of whom it is. related that on being proposed for the office he at first declined, 15 but on being pressed accepted on condition that one of his friends, better versed in judicial lore, teach him the difference between a summons and a subpoena. The first trial by jury was also held before the colonel, in the year 1836, who did not recognize any absolute necessity for receiving his commission before dispensing justice, and forthwith sentenced the culprit, who was a mulatto, and had been convicted of larceny. Joseph Hanchett took up the east half of the northeast quarter of section 21, and Robert Abbott took up the west half of the northeast quarter of the same section. At this time the whole of Branch County was known as the township of Green, and attached to St. Joseph County for judicial purposes. The county-seat in the year 1831 was Masonville, on the Coldwater River. It was subsequently removed to Branch, and finally Coldwater bore away the laurels. The strife connected with the question of a countyseat is familiar to the early residents, and the rival aspirants for this distinction were uncertain as to the issue until 1842, when a decree of the Legislature fixed it at Coldwater. Allen Tibbets, one of the earliest pioneers, who still resides in Coldwater, and retains a vivid recollection of early events, entered the west half of the southwest quarter of section 22, and at the same time owned the west half of the northwest quarter of section 22. Mr. Tibbets then occupied the log house built by Hugh Campbell, a very primitive affair, with no floors, and the beds resting on the ground. Rude and uncomfortable as this shelter seems to us in these later days of luxury, Mr. Hanchett was glad to share the comforts which its limited quarters afforded. Mr. Tibbets, who was a clergyman, has the distinction of preaching the first sermon in Coldwater. He is now in his seventy-fifth year, and in many interesting conversations with the writer has given a very remarkable record of his life. He relates the following: "I never swore an oath or took a chew of tobacco or smoked a whole cigar. I never bought or sold a drink of whisky or brandy for myself. I never owned or carried a pistol. I never made a kite or played a game of marbles. I never sung a song or played a game of checkers, billiards, or croquet, nor a game of cards. In a travel of over one hundred thousand miles by public conveyances I never met with an accident or was a moment too late when it depended upon my own exertion. I never skated a rod or struck a man a blow with my fist. I can repeat more of the Bible than any man living of whom I have any knowledge. I have given instruction to more than two hundred thousand pupils. I am the only one alive of the persons who composed the first church in this city and county. I have given away more real estate to this city than all its other inhabitants. I preached for fifteen years and traveled more than five hundred miles attending 113

Page  114 :14 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. funerals, and all the salary I ever received was a pound of tea worth seventy-five cents." Surely a very remarkable record. The village of Coldwater was laid out in 1832. The post-office at this time was one and a half miles west, at Masonville, with Harvey Warner as the first postmaster; but it was later removed to Branch, and the postmaster, retaining his office, also removed to that point. In 1833 an office was established at Coldwater, with Silas A. Holbrook as postmaster. In July of 1832, those of the early settlers who had children were desirous of having them receive such instruction as was possible in an unsettled country, and Miss Cynthia Gloyd opened a school in a cabin one mile east of the public square, with nine pupils. In 1834 the first public school building was erected on the corner of Hudson and Pearl Streets, and this was soon after superseded by the " old red school-house," which stood on the north end of the same lot on Hudson Street, and was later used as a blacksmith-shop. The original site of this school building was intended to be on the corner of Chicago and Clay Streets, which at that early day was an unbroken piece of woods, but Mr. Tibbets made a proposition tb change the location to one more convenient and accessible, and offered to donate a lot six by twelve rods in size for the purpose, which offer was accepted, and the school-house was at once erected. Peter Martin, who has since died in Wisconsin, erected a saw-mill in 1832, and for a time furnished most of the material which the settlers used in making for themselves comfortable habitations. Before that time a pilgrimage to the Pocahontas mills, one mile south of the village of Branch, was necessary when timber was to be dressed and made ready for use. At the latter mills was sawed the timber for the construction of the first frame house, which was built by Harvey Warner for Silas A. Holbrook. In 1832 the village was platted, the survey having been made by James B. Tompkins, who still survives and resides in the township of Girard. The previous year, Joseph Hanchett erected what for the times was a residence far in advance of the log houses of the day. It was simply a block-house, the timbers of which were hewn outside, and gave it a more finished aspect than was common among its less pretentious neighbors. It stood on ground now covered by a portion of the east side of Monroe Street, north of Chicago Street, and opposite the post-office. At this era there were no grist-mills nearer than Tecumseh or Constantine, and the meal used for food, which was principally corn, was ground by a novel and interesting process. An oak log, about two and a half feet in diameter, was chopped to a length of three feet and placed on end. By chopping and burning, a mortar-like hole was made in the top of it, after which, by means of a spring-pole with a pounder attached to the end, the corn, which was placed in the depression made at the top of the log, was pounded. It was then sifted, the finer portion being made into cornbread and the coarser into samp. In this primitive manner did the early pioneers of this now flourishing ind beautiful city subsist. Wild animals were frequently to be seen, and wolves were not uncommon visitors at the door-yards of the inhabitants. Early i.n 183 the little munit was thrown into the 7 I greatest excitement and alarm by the startling report that Black Hawk, a noted chief of the Pottawattamies, was leading the Indians of the West and North on an expedition of plunder and massacre. The report, alas! proved too true. A call upon the scattered settlers was quickly made, and all capable of bearing arms were summoned to the field. In a few days the quiet village was thronged with soldiers and resounded with the strains of martial music. Soon the little army, augmented by all the neighbors for miles around, took up the line of march for the more immediate scene of strife, commanded by Gen. Brown, of Tecumseh, who acted under Gen. John R. Williams, of the regular army, then stationed at Detroit. A few days of intense anxiety supervened. One sultry day in June was seen approaching in the distance a single horseman, covered with the dust and foam of hard travel. The consternation of the inhabitants who remained at home was intense, when the stranger proclaimed the fact that " The Indians have burned Chicago, massacred all the inhabitants, and are sweeping through the settlements and rapidly approaching us!" This intelligence, which, for the time, was believed, was not contradicted until the following day, when the stage brought the glad tidings that matters were safe at the West. Gen. Brown and his command went as far as Niles, and there encamped. An engagement occurred beyond Chicago, and the desperate chief was captured. The troops then returned to their homes. The only communication between Chicago and Detroit at this time was by stage. This mode of travel, however primitive it may seem to us, was in early days regarded not only as speedy but luxurious. These stages were well appointed, and stopped at all the settlements. The first death that occurred in the village was that of a child of Allen Tibbets, aged about two years, who died Oct. 17, 1831, and was buried on Mr. Tlbbets' old farm. The remains were, later, removed to the cemetery. A death had occurred previous to this, but none in the settlement of Coldwater. The first child born in the village was a child of Allen Tibbets,-Harriet Maria,-and the date June 11, 1832. The first marriage was that of Dr. Enoch Chase and Miss Ellsworth, the doctor having been surgeon and adjutant of the battalion commanded by Maj. Jones in the Black Hawk war. The first physician in Coldwater was Dr. Wm. Henry, who arrived in the summer of 1830 fioml Cayuga Co., N. Y. He was a gentleman of advanced years. This was before the tide of emigration had set in, and emigrants to theT'erritory were principally attracted to the east side. An arrival at that time was an event, and a family appearing with the intention of making a permanent location was welcomed with a degree of cordiality which could leave no question of its genuineness. John Wilson and wife came in 1832, and located on the ground now covered by Dr. John H. Beach's residence, Mr. Tibbets offering them the lot as an inducement to build. Silas A. Holbrook opened a store in 1831, the goods having been furnished by Glover Hibbard, who came the following year, and died, after a very brief residence, of congestive chills. One of the old.residents describes the village at this time as little more than a vast farm, with hills of corn and grain cover

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Page  115 3F BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 115 I -.. HISTORY ( I ing the present squares of the city. Many new-comers were obliged to camp out until suitable accommodations could be afforded them, though there was certainly no lack of such hospitality as was possible to offer. The year 1835 was rendered memorable by the advent of a colony from the East, some of the leading spirits of which, by their enterprise and business capacity, materially influenced the destiny of the future city. Among them were Bradley Crippen and his four sons,-Lorenzo D. (who died in this city in 1864), Philo H., Benjamin, and Rev. Elliott M.,-James Fisk, Thomas Dougherty (who still survives), Francis Smith, Dr. William B. Sprague (living in the city), Dr. Darwin Littlefield, James Haines and his sons John T. (who died on shipboard while en route for California), Levi, Harvey, and James. James Haines, on his arrival, erected a very comfortable abode, one and a half stories high, Harvey Warner being the carpenter. The houses previous to this time had been built without stone foundations,-there being no stones on the open prairie, and it was supposed'none on the timber-land which had notbeen cleared. It was also very difficult to construct wells, as it was almost impossible to obtain stone with which to wall them. About 1835 the village assumed a more progressive aspect, improvements were marked, and new life was infused into the hamlet by the increasing emigration. Allen Tibbets built during the year a frame house, which was not only spacious but imposing in comparison to its humbler neighbors. S. A. Holbrook erected a building, and Dr. Chase also built on a lot sold him by Mr. Tibbets, on condition that he would erect within two years a residence upon it. Buildings were in such demand that it was difficult to keep pace with the wants of the community. Every new structure that rose had an immediate tenant, and the want of lath and plaster was no obstacle to the occupant. Parley Stockwell, who still survives, and resides in the city, came in 1835, and engaged for a while in buying cattle and supplying the residents with fresh meat. He speaks with much satisfaction of the generosity of James Hanchett, who, soon after his arrival, loaned him money with which to buy fourteen head of cattle, for which he paid fifty dollars apiece, and refused any security for the loan. Chauncey Strong came during this year, and entered eighty acres of land where a portion of the State school buildings now stand. He inclosed one hundred dollars with which to make a payment on this land, and placed it in the post-office at Mason. But the money never reached its destination, payments for land then being made at Kalamazoo. Mr. Strong being little able to bear the loss, the citizens raised a subscription, and the land was rapidly paid for, precautions having been taken to guard the second time against postal accidents. The agitation of the point at which to locate a countyseat finally induced the Governor to appoint a commission to determine upon the site. This commission embraced Henry Disbrow, Daniel O'Keefe, and Charles Grant. They selected Branch, it being the geographical centre of the county, and entered a considerable tract of land at that point. These lands were offered later at such extravagant rates that it was not easy to become a purchaser, and much I dissatisfaction ensued. Finally a petition was circulated praying for the removal of the seat, and after several efforts it was ultimately changed to its present location. On so slight a tenure as this at one time hung the destinies of Coldwater. Between the years 1836 and 1840 much sickness prevailed, fever and congestive chills being very common, and often fatal., Twenty-five and thirty deaths a month were not uncommon. This was generally attributed to a mill-dam south of the city. The people resolved to rid themselves of the nuisance, and one morning in a body charged upon the offending structure and tore it down. Mr. Frink, one of the proprietors, having remonstrated, they threw him into the water without ceremony. The sanitary condition of the place improved from that time, and ultimately became perfectly healthy. In 1836, L. D. Halsted came from New York State and opened a tailor-shop. Bringing with him nothing but a thimble as the badge of his craft, he has continued to reside in Coldwater, where by industry and application to business he has earned a competence. In 1837 the village of Coldwater was organized, with a president, board of trustees, and other officers necessary to a village government. We have been so fortunate after much research and labor as to find the original record of the first election, and herewith afford our readers an excellent fac-simile of the document. The same year the Coldwater Bank was organized, and forms so important a part of the early history of the city that we have devoted some space to it under the head of the " Banks." The first ball given in Coldwater occurred Jan. 8, 1838. Hull and Arnold's orchestra furnished the music. Mr. Hull taught the first dancing-school, in the winter of 1839, and gave the music at the inauguration ball of Gen. Harrison, in 1841, of James K. Polk, in 1845, at the American House, and of Gen. Taylor, in 1849, at the Franklin Hotel. They have continued fiom that time to the present to furnish excellent music on all prominent social occasions, being now in the forty-second year of their organization. At this time there were two hotels,-the Eagle and American,-byo of which did a flourishing business. The first Methodist church was also erected at this period, which was a substantial structure, built of wood, and six years later the first Baptist church was constructed. All supplies at this time were brought from Detroit, the round trip being a distance of two hundred and forty miles. Prices were high, -a barrel of salt costing twelve dollars to deliver, and nails eight dollars, with three dollars added for transportation. The first brick building was erected for Messrs. Porter & Wendell and Skeels & Lewis, who occupied it as a store, the site being the present location of the Michigan Southern Bank. Later, Dr. Wm. B. Sprague erected, on Chicago Street, a pretentious residence, which is still standing. One of the events of the year 1840 was the Tippecanoe campaign. The citizens of Coldwater held a Hard Cider Log Cabin celebration, which rivaled in zeal if not in numbers the political rallies of the present day. It was the great occasion of the year, and the growing village was the centre of such an enthusiastic crowd of patriots as was seldom gathered together in the Territory. ' S 1f. 1.;

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN..~~~".................... Farmers from the East came in numbers, and the country adjacent to the village was rapidly settled and improved. In 1842 the wheat crop was almost entirely blasted by insects, and prices rose correspondingly; but, as a compensation for this disaster, the year following produced the largest wheat crop ever known since that period. In 1847 and 1848 brick houses became more numerous, Bradley Plato having established a brick-yard at Branch, and supplied the increasing demand. Roland Root had previously built a house which had a stone foundation, and was regarded as one of the finest residences of the time. We give a resume of the business aspect of the village at this time. There were four hotels,-the Morse, kept by Christopher Dickenson; the Eagle, kept by John J. Curtis, and standing on the site of the present Southern Michigan; the American, kept by Anselum Arnold; and the National, at the west end of the village, kept by Alanson Bacon. These, with one exception, were all burned at later periods. The Franklin was built in place of the American, and kept by Dr. Hanchett, and the present Southern Michigan superseded the Eagle. The leading business men were Lockwood & Williams, Mr. Williams having died in 1849; Bullard & Cole, A. T. Groendyke, Roland Root, John T. Haynes, Asa Parish & Co., and Coon Brothers. The lawyers were E. G. Fuller, who still survives and is in active practice; George A. Coe, who died in this city in 1869; John W. Turner; H. C. and James Gilbert. The physicians comprised the following names: Drs. William H. Hanchett, H. B. Stillman, Darwin Littlefield, and Napoleon Byron Welper. Dr. Isaac P. Alger began practice in 1848, Dr. S. S. Cutler, the year previously, and Dr. John H. Beach in 1850. A more extended review of the medical profession and the bar of the city will be given in its appropriate place. The tailors were William H. Harpham, John D. Wood, and Lorenzo D. Halsted. The druggists were Drs. Littlefield, Hanchett, and Stillman. There were two newspapers, the Coldwater Sentinel, published by Albert Chandler; and the Branch County Journal, issued by Thompson Brothers. The first school, of nine pupils, had developed in numbers so rapidly that three district schools w*e the outgrowth of this early effort; and, after some agitation of the matter by the citizens, the present Union school was organized, its roll now embracing eleven hundred scholars. The painters were Silas Bellamy, Morris Howe, and one Melvin. The wagon-maker was Burt Etheridge, who also enjoyed a considerable reputation as a millwright. The machinists were O. C. Graham and William Walton. The blacksmiths, Levi Burdick and John Hyde. Henry Moore was watchmaker for the citizens of the little village, and his work bore evidence that he had learned his trade thoroughly. Ramsdell, Pelton & Co. were the proprietors of the only oil-mill and distillery. An event of much interest in 1849 was the first general training. General Stevens commanded the brave militia, who performed their evolu-tions on this occasion much to the delight of the youth of the neighborhood and the amusement of the older heads. In 1852 the present court-house was built, and though not now remarkable for architectural grace, is superior in.i:: ee to the edifice as it originally stood. The awk ward arrangement of certain appointments connected with the court-room elicited from one of the judges the remark that the architect who designed it deserved to be sentenced to the penitentiary. About this time oqcurred the robbery of the county treasury. The treasurer had drawn sixteen hundred dollars to be distributed among the various school districts. He placed the funds in his safe, which was apparently no more secure against the cunning of the skillful cracksman than are those of the present day. During the night the lock was broken and the money abstracted. Several parties were suspected, and one Sandy arrested, tried, convicted, and sentenced to the penitentiary. The township of Coldwater had already been paid, but the loss fell heavily upon other less fortunate townships. By a special act of Legislature the money was reassessed back to the State, and the various townships were reimbursed, the State sustaining the loss. The year 1850 is remembered from the disastrous fire that occurred on the south side of Chicago Street, and which consumed the early records of the village, then in the village clerk's office. This was but the forerunner, however, of a conflagration on the opposite side of the street the year following, sweeping the whole block in its progress, and creating great havoc among the inhabitants. As a remarkable evidence of the energy and ambition of the business men of that day, it may be stated that immediately new and commodious buildings rose phoenix-like from the ruins of the old, and in a very brief time all evidence of the late calamity was effaced. During that year the Michigan Southern Railroad-the track of which had been laid the preceding year-was completed, and the road in operation. With this railroad came an era of prosperity to the country. Farmers found an outlet for their produce, and at rates much below the ordinary cost of transportation, while the little village was rendered easily accessible to purchasers. The inhabitants of Coldwater were thrown into consternation during the building of this road by a riot among the laborers who were employed in its construction. The agent of the company was one Sargent, who had allowed his finances to become sadly entangled, and the men, not having for some time received any pay, rebelled and became very boisterous. They advanced en masse to the portion of the road adjacent to the city, and proceeded to tear up the track and fill the space with dirt. Matters at length became so serious that a resort to extreme measures was necessary. The marshal with a posse of men was ordered to the scene of the disturbance, and for a time it seemed that bloodshed was inevitable, but by the excellent tact of the marshal, Mr. Roland Root, the matter was finally quieted, and the men eventually received a portion, if not all their pay. At this period money was not as plenty as it afterwards became. Mr. John Roberts relates as an instance of this fact that he and a brother purchased a tract of land, giving a mortgage therefor, the interest payable in good potatoes at cash price. The mortgagee found it difficult to sell from the peculiar character of the interest payment. Among the most interesting pioneers whom it has been* the writer's pleasure to meet, are Mr. and Mrs. Caleb B.

Page  117 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 117 1832. 1834. 21, 1831..6, 1831. 335. Peckham, who came from Cayuga County, N. Y., in 1836, and located upon a tract of land one mile south of the city. They have been united in marriage sixty-seven years, and are still hale and active, though this venerable gentleman is able to indulge in a retrospect embracing nearly ninety years. They now reside in the city, having retired from the busy cares of the farm. The good citizens of the village were resolved to maintain the moral character of the community, as the following ordinance indicates: "AN ORDINANCE TO PREVENT GAMBLING. "The President and Trustees of the Village of Coldwater ordain as follows: "SECTION 1. If any person shall keep, or knowingly suffer to be kept, in any house, building, yard, garden, or dependency thereof by him actually used or occupied, within the limits of this corporation, any table for the purpose of playing at Billiards, or suffer any person to resort to the same for the purpose of playing at Billiards, Cards, Dice, or any unlawful game, every person so offending, shall, for each and every such offense forfeit the sum of One Hundred Dollars. "SECTION 2. If any person shall keep, or knowingly suffer to be kept, in any house, building, yard, garden, or dependency thereof, or in any field by him owned or occupied, within the limits of this corporation, any Nine-Pin Alley, or any Alley to be used in the playing of Nine Pins, or any other like game, whether to be played with one or more balls, or with nine or any other number of pins, or shall suffer any person to resort to the same for the purpose of playing at any such game, every such person so offending shall, for each and every such offense, forfeit the sum of One Hundred Dollars. "SECTION 3. All penalties and forfeitures mentioned in this Ordinance may be recovered in an action of Debt, before any Justice of the Peace, residing in this Village, in the name of the ' President and Trustees of the Village of Coldwater,' for the use of the Corporation. "SECTION 4. This Ordinance shall take effect and be in force immediately after it shall have been published in the Coldwater Sentinel three weeks successively. "Passed Sept. 18, 1851. "H. WARNER, President. "E. G. FULLER, Recorder." The village continued to increase in dimensions and importance, though no events of special moment transpired. The churches were rebuilt, and new and imposing structures took the places of the old. In no one thing does Coldwater indicate her advance and the moral sentiment which pervades the community more than in the devotion of her citizens to church interests. The various denominations vie with each other in the elegance of their church edifices, and an unusual proportion of the whole population are regular attendants on divine service. During this period - 't many pubiic and private buildings were erected and various enterprises established, which aided greatly in advancing the interests of the place. Some of these are already treated more fully as separate organizations in this history. In 1861 the citizens, having become more ambitious in the science of government, obtained a city charter, and the village became from that time known as the city of Coldwater, with its regularly-elected mayor and board of aldermen. The following are the original entries made on territory now comprised within the city limits: SECTION FIFTEEN. John Morse, 80 acres, Oct. 14, 1830. A. F. Bolton, 80 acres, Jan. 15, 1831. L. L. Bingham, 80 acres, Jan. 27, 1832. John Morse, 80 acres, Dec. 11, 1 Enoch Chase, 80 acres, July 15, Robert J. Cross, 80 acres, Jan. 9 Robert H. Abbott, 80 acres, Jan James Fisk, 80 acres, Jan 12, 18 SECTION SIXTEEN-PUBLIC SCHOOL LAND. Harvey Warner, 5 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. E. G. Fuller, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. W. H. Hanchett, 5 acres, Sept., 1842. D. Waterman, 25%06 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. C. H. Williams, 2%Ou acres, Aug. 8, 1837. James Pierson, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. James Pierson, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. John T. Haynes, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. Wm. H. Cross, 5 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. Roland Root, 5 acres, Sept., 1842. L. D. & P. H. Crippen, 17T%~ acres, Sept. 1, 1842. J. T. Haynes, 21%5 acres, April 20, 1847. L. D. & P. H. Crippen, 45is% acres, Sept. 1, 1842. Wm. L. Gilbert, %i2 acre, Feb. 27, 1843. L. D. & P. H. Crippen, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. L. D. & P. H. Crippen, 5 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. Ira Paddock, 10 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. Thos. Dooherty, 10 acres, Aug., 1837. Wm. L. Gilbert, 10 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. A. Chandler, 5 acres, Sept., 1842. Roland Root, 5 acres, Sept., 1842. L. D. Crippen, 10 acres, Sept., 1842. E. W. Crippen. 10 acres, Dec. 7, 1842. P. H. Crippen, 10 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. P. H. Crippen, 10 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. Isaac Pierce, 20 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. Joseph II. Hanchett, 20 acres, May 1, 1843. John A. McCrea, 40 acres, April 26, 1855. W. H. Paddock (admin.), 20 acres, April, 1855. George Quick, 20 acres, April, 1855. Asa Parish, 20 acres, April, 1855. D. Littlefield, 20 acres, April, 1855. W. Chapman, 20 acres, April, 1855. S. A. Holbrook, 20 acres, April, 1855. B. Crippen, 3%46 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. H. Buell, 10 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. Isaac Pierce, 90^i5 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. B. Crippen, 10 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. J. H. Hard, 10 acres, June 10, 1846. T. Doogerty, 10 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. James Pierce, 20 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. B. Crippen, 20 acres, Aug. 8, 1837. J. G. Warner, 20 acres, Sept. 1, 1842. B. W. Crippen, 20 acres, Sept., 1842. A. Parish, 20 acres, Sept., 1842. J. F. Haynes, 40 acres, Sept., 1842. J. F. Haynes, 2-6%9 acres, Jan. 15, 1851. J. F. Haynes, 5 acres, Jan., 1851. George Quick, 5 acres, Jan., 1851. E. G. Parsons, 2T:j acres, Jan., 1851. J. G. Parkhurst, 4J7o7 acres, Jan., 1851. SECTION SEVENTEEN. Abram F. Bolten, 89f7Q% acres, Dec. 1, 1829. Junius H. Hatch, 63%:~ acres, Aug. 23, 1833. Junius H. Hatch, 63N^3 acres, Sept. 10, 1833. Sylvester Smith, 73x5yu acres, June 11, 1835. SECTION TWENTY. E. S. & J. H. Hanchett, 52 acres, April 8, 1835. Joseph Hanchett, 62-f5 acres, June 12, 1835. Parley Stockwell, 54~ru acres, Aug. 31, 1835. SECTION TWENTY-ONE. Joseph Hanchett, Jr., 80 acres, Oct. 9, 1830. Elisha Warren, 80 acres, Nov. 8, 1831. Peter Martin, 80 acres, May 28, 1832.;~

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - - I Joseph Hanchett, 40 acres, Oct. 9, 1834. Ephraim Priest, 40 acres, Nov. 18, 1834. Elijah Ferguson, 40 acres, Jan. 6, 1835. Andrain Abbott, 80 acres, June 6, 1831. Robert J. Cross, 80 acres, June 21, 1831. L. D. Crippen, 40 acres, June 12, 1835. Joseph Hanchett, 40 acres, June 12, 1835. L. D. & P. H. Crippen, 40 acres, July 18, 1835. Hugh Campbell, 80 acres, Oct. 9, 1830. Robert J. Cross, 240 acres, Oct. 9, 1830. Wm. H. Cross, 80 acres, Oct. 9, 1830. Robert J. Cross, 80 acres, Nov. 1, 1830. Wm. H. Cross, 80 acres, Nov. 1, 1830. Allen Tibbetts, 80 acres, June 21, 1831. Among the chief attractions of the city is the Lewis Art Gallery, an extensive collection of foreign and American works of art, which by the munificence of the owner are enjoyed by the public at stated times. The refining influence of such a collection can scarcely be measured, and its effect in creating taste for art and a correct eye for color is very apparent in the immediate parts of the State from which the gallery is easily accessible. A comprehensive idea of the enterprise and its merits will be given elsewhere. The Ladies' Library Association, which was established some time after, in its quiet way has accomplished equally as much, and merits a more extended history in its proper place. It is the province of the city historian not so much to relate facts and occurrences that have come within the observation -of present inhabitants, or trace the later progress of the city, which is to most readers already as familiar as "household words," but to bring down from the musty records of the past such early pioneer experiences as will enable us to connect the past with the present. This we have very briefly done, and the little hamlet of nearly half a century gone was but the germ which, fostered and encouraged by the spirit of enterprise born in the sturdy hearts of the early emigrants, has developed into the attractive and beautiful city of Coldwater, with its long, wide streets, lined with elegant residences and rich foliage, its costly churches, its well-developed business enterprise, and the refinement and culture of its inhabitants. METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. The first society of the Methodist Episcopal Church of Coldwater was organized by Rev. E. H. Pilcher, preacher in charge of Tecumseh circuit, June 19, 1832, in the log house of Allen Tibbits. Its membership consisted of four persons, viz., Allen Tibbits, local preacher, Caroline M. Tibbits, his wife, Joseph Hanchett, and Nancy Hanchett. This was the first religious society organized in Branch County. The first sermon preached in what is now the beautiful city of Coldwater was delivered by Allen Tibbits, in his own little log house, on the fourth Sabbath of July, 1831. In October, 1831, Rev. E. H. Pilcher preached the first funeral discourse ever delivered in Branch County. It was the funeral of a daughter of Alien Tibbits, the first white person who had died in the county. In the fall of 1832, Rev. William Sprague became the pastor of this little flock, and during his pastorate Miss Amelia Harrison was added to the membership. Rev. Henry Colelazer became the pastor in 1833, and continued for one year. In the fall of 1834 it is probable that Elnathan C. Garret, or Rev. Mr. Manier, succeeded Henry Colclazer in the pastorate. The society remained the same in numbers up to the fall of 1835, when it was greatly strengthened by the coming of a colony of Methodists, consisting of the followingnamed persons: Bradly Crippen and family, his three sons, Lorenzo D. Crippen, Philo H. Crippen, and Elliott M. Crippen, and their wives; Dr. Wm. B. Sprague and wife; Dr. D. Littlefield and wife; Thomas Daugherty and wife; James Fisk and wife; and Rev. Francis Smith and wife. Some of the children belonging to these families were also connected with this society at the same time. During this year Coldwater Mission was organized, with Richard Lawrence as missionary. It was embraced in what was then known as the Ann Arbor district,-Henry Colclazer presiding elder. It only remained a mission one year, however. At the close of the year 1835 the society ceased to be a mission, and was organized into a self-supporting circuit, and remained so until 1846, when it became a station. In 1836, Peter Sabin was preacher-in-charge, and Lewis Smith assistant. In 1837, Peter Sabin was preacher-incharge, and Lorenzo Davis assistant. In 1838 the Coldwater Society was attached to Marshall District, E. H. Pilcher presiding elder, Jas. F. Davidson preacher-incharge, and Levi Warriner assistant. In 1839, Roswell Parker was preacher-in-charge, and Jonathan Jones assistant. In 1840, Roswell Parker was preacher-in-charge, and Benjamin Sabin assistant. In 1840, James Fisk and several others withdrew from the Methodist Episcopal Church, in consequence of some difficulty in regard to the use of instrumental music in the church, and organized what is now the Wesleyan Church in this city. The first house of worship built in Coldwater was built by this society in 1836-38. It was a wooden structure and cost about thirty three hundred dollars, and stood upon the same ground now occupied by the present edifice. It was dedicated in June, 1838, Rev. Henry Colclazer preaching the dedicatory sermon. Two sessions of the Michigan Annual Conference were held in that building. The first was held in 1844, Bishop Hamline presiding. The second was held Oct. 1-7, 1856, Bishop T. A. Morris presiding. During this session of the Conference the present pastor, Rev. J. I. Buell, was received on trial into the itinerant ministry of the Methodist Episcopal Church. The second house of worship built by this society was the one it now occupies. It is a beautiful brick structure, having an auditorium with a seating capacity of about 800, a commodious lecture-room, two class-rooms, a fine suite of parlors, an organ-loft, and a pastor's study. It is lighted with stained glass of the. most elegant design and workmanship, the front window unsurpassed by any in the State. This building was erected in 1865-69 at a cost of twenty-five thousand dollars. It was dedicated Jan. 26, 1869, by Rev. F. M. Eddy, D.D. In 1878 an addition to this building was erected. This addition is eighteen feet by thirty-seven feet, and gives the suite of parlors, the organ-loft, the rear-entrance, and the(t beautiful study for the pastor. It was built at a cost of

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Page  [unnumbered] ALONZO WATERMAN. ALONZO WATERMAN. The life of Mr. Waterman was comparatively uneventful, marked by few incidents save such as occur in the life of every successful merchant and business man. He was emphatically a "man of affairs," industrious, sagacious, enterprising, and public-spirited, early developing those qualities which so largely contributed to his success in after-life, and made him so apt in originating, and prompt and efficient in carrying out his well-laid plans. He was born April 10, 1810, near Syracuse, N. Y., and came to this county in 1832, settling in Bronson. He engaged in mercantile business there with his brothers, but during the next two years spent some of the time East. In 1834 he returned for a permanent residence. While living at Bronson he married Miss Matilda, daughter of Dr. Hiram Alden, one of the early settlers and prominent men of Coldwater, who died in Detroit while attending the Legislature. When the county-seat was changed to Coldwater, and that promised to be the important point in the county, Mr. Waterman moved there, and engaged in the hardware business for several years, and there died, July 29,1877. In 1845 his wife died, leaving two children,-Mrs. H. C. Fenn and Miss Alma Waterman. In 1849 he married Mrs. Adelia Williams, who departed this life in 1870. Mr. Waterman had by his active, industrious, and frugal habits accumulated a large property, and for the last twenty-five or thirty years of his life his time was principally taken up in loaning money and renting his property. He was very unpretending, and never made a display over what he contributed to public enterprises. He was always liberal in his gifts to the'church of his choice,-the Methodist Episcopal,

Page  119 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 119 I about thirteen hundred dollars. During this year, also, an elegant pipe-organ was placed in the church. This was a gift to the church from the estate of one of its honored, but now sainted members, Alonzo Waterman, and his two daughters, Mrs. Mary C. Fenn and Miss Allie A. Waterman. It cost two thousand two hundred and fifty dollars; is very highly appreciated by the society, and stands as a speaking monument to the generosity of its donors. At different periods since 1835 this church has received valuable accessions by immigration, though nearly all of those who came during the few years that immediately followed have passed to their heavenly home. David Holmes and a few others of this class still remain to honor the church. Of the large number of those who have been converted in this church, and who, from the active part which they take in bearing its burdens and sharing its responsibilities, may be honorably mentioned, are Albert Chandler and wife, William S. Gilbert, John Roberts, and L. Vanvalkenburg. Some of the men who have been converted in this church and counted among its membership have arisen to places of distinction in the nation and in the ministry. General Clinton B. Fisk may be mentioned in connection with the former, and Rev. L. R. Fisk, D.D., president of Albion College, and Rev. M. A. Daugherty among the latter. The church has been favored with several extensive revivals of religion. One in 1839-40, under the labors of Rev. J. F. Davidson; one in 1843-44, under the labors of Rev. John Erconbeck and Benjamin Sabin; one in 1854-55, under the labors of F. B. Bangs and J. Adams; and one in 1876, under the labors of Rev. I. Cogshall. This church has always been growing and progressive in all departments of Christian effort. Its membership in 1878 was four hundred and thirty-six. It has a Sunday-school, including officers, teachers and scholars, of about three hundred members. As a most interesting fact, this church once had enrolled among its membership four of the persons who were members of the first society of Methodists ever organized in this State. They were Robert Abbott, Betsey Abbott, William McCarty, and Maria C. McCarty, and their memorable dust now lies buried in our city cemetery. THE BAPTIST CHURCH. The history of the Baptist Church of Coldwater is like that of most other churches in the West. From a small and discouraging beginning, made by a "faithful few," dependent upon the Baptist Home Mission Society for support and aid, it has grown to be one of the strong churches of the denomination in the State, and has already returned to the Home Mission cause, many fold. In July, 1833, Parley Stockwell, the first Baptist, took up his residence here. He was soon followed by Rice Arnold and Prudence, his wife,-parents of Wm. P. Arnold, of Quincy,-Dr. Hiram Alden and family, and Chauncey and Nathan Strong and families. During the following year they were visited by several Baptist clergyman, one being the Rev. E. Loomis, agent of the Home Mission Society. On the 31st of December, 1834, a meeting was held at I I I the residence of Dr. Alden, on Chicago Street, now owned and occupied by Deacon Matthias Van Every, to consider the propriety of forming a Baptist church. Nathan Strong was appointed moderator and Dr. Alden clerk. After prayer and mature deliberation, on motion of Chauncey Strong " the clerk was directed to draft an article to be circulated among the members of the Baptist denomination in this vicinity desiring to form a conference for the purpose of maintaining the regular worship of God, and for the edification and growth in grace of each other." Tlhe following article, " We the undersigned, feeling desirous of maintaining the visible worship of God, agree to form ourselves into a conference for that purpose, promising to attend to all the regular appointments for that object when circumstances will permit," was signed by Chauncey Strong, Nathan Strong, Wm. D. Strong, Geo. W. Arnold, H. Alden, Parley Stockwell, Ann Logan, Melita Alden, Prudence Arnold, Eunice Strong, Sally Strong, Betsey Strong, Sarah Strong, Nathan H. Strong, Sarah Sheldon. The conference met, Jan. 17, 1835, at the Red SchoolHouse, at the corner of Hudson and Pearl Streets, and by the advice of Rev. E. Loomis, missionary of the American Baptist Home Mission Society, agreed to invite the churches of Clinton, Swainsville, and Napoleon to hold a council in Coldwater, on Wednesday, Feb. 11, 1835, to take into consideration the propriety of constituting a church. Rev. E. Loomis was empowered to invite such other ministering "brethren as he might deem proper to take part." At a meeting of the conference, Feb. 9, 1835, Brother Hiram Alden was appointed to represent the conference in said council, and the articles of faith and covenant of the Baptist Church of Malone, N. Y., were adopted as the articles of faith and covenant of this church. "Feb. 11, 1835, in pursuance of letters missive from the Baptist conference in Coldwater, a council assembled at the house of H. Alden to consider their members' standing, etc., and if thought proper to give them fellowship as a church. On examining credentials it was found that the following brethren were authorized to act in the council: Clinton Church, Rev. R. Powell, Deacon Reuben Downs; Rev. W. T. Hall, from the church in Greenfield, Indiana; and Rev. E. Loomis, agent of the American Baptist Home Mission Society. ' Council organized by appointing Rev. W. T. Hall moderator and Rev. E. Loomis clerk. Prayer by Rev. R. Powell. Brother H. Alden, of the conference and acting as their representative, presented to the council their proceedings thus far and the letters of the members. On examination it was found that the following brethren and sisters were prepared to enter into the church, viz.: Brethren Chauncey Strong, Nathan Strong, Wm. D, Strong, Geo. W. Arnold, Hiram Alden, Parley Stockwell, and Nathan H. Strong; Sisters Ruth Strong, Thankful Ferguson, Melita Alden, Prudence Arnold, Eunice Strong, Sally Strong, Betsey Strong, Sarah Strong, and Sarah Sheldon." The council examined their proposed articles of faith and covenant, and, after some amendments, approved of them and " Resolved, That we recognize the above-named brethren and sisters as a regular Baptist church." Rev.. R.

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Powell preached on the occasion, and Rev. W. T. Hall presented the hand of fellowship. The church was without a settled pastor until October of the same year, being supplied part of the time by Rev. E. Loomis, of the Home Mission Society. June 8, 1835, the church voted to unite with the La Grange (Indiana) Baptist Association, requesting Rev. E. Loomis to represent them, and raising seventy-five cents for the minutes. During this time four members were received by letter. Oct. 3, 1835, Nathan Strong and Geo. W. Arnold were chosen deacons, and Hiram Alden clerk. Rev. Reuben Graham was admitted as a member, and officiated as pastor from that time until Sept. 12, 1837, preaching part of the time at Branch. Nine were received by letter and one by baptism. After closing his pastorate he lived on his farm near Branch, preaching in the neighborhood and at Ovid, and subsequently uniting with this church. He died a few years ago, and is buried with his wife on the Baptist church burial-lots in Oak Grove Cemetery, where the church and society erected a suitable tombstone in memory of their first pastor. From September, 1837, to December, 1842, the records of the church show that Rev. Wnl. B. Brown was called to be the pastor Dec. 18, 1838, and again in June, 1842. During this time, in March, 1840, Rev. John Southworth, of Tekonsha, father of W. S. Southworth, of this city, was pastor, preaching half of his time here and the other half at Bronson. About this time he held a revival-meeting at Ovid, in the Lockwood neighborhood. He afterwards settled at Colon, founding the Baptist church there, and assisting in building up the church at Burr Oak. The records show that an " Elder Carter" was here, and we are informed that a minister by the name of Mallory officiated as pastor. While W. B. Brown was pastor, Rev. T. Z. R. Jones assisted in a revival-meeting in the " Red school-house." In the fall of 1838, John T. Haynes and wife, Armilla (present wife of Emerson Marsh), united with the church by letter from the church at North Penfield, N. Y. He was a man of enterprise and untiring energy, devoted to the church of his choice. Liberal to a fault, no sacrifice was too great for him to make, and when he built his large residence at the corner of Division and Washington Streets (now owned by Dr. Cutter), he made one large room of the first story to accommodate the social meetings of the church. His house was the home of the pastors and their families for months at a time. Dec. 18, 1838, the Rev. William B. Brown was called as pastor, remaining until July, 1842, the church receiving twenty-one members by letter, ten by baptism, and one by experience. During this time he was assisted in a revival-meeting by Rev. T. Z. R. Jones. In December, 1842, the Rev. James Davis was settled as pastor. He was a man of pre-eminent piety and great moral worth. He married the widow of Rev. Eddy Mason, who gave to the ministry three sons who have a national reputation, and one daughter, Mrs. Haswell, to the Foreign Mission cause. One daughter was married to Hon. George A. Coe. From here Rev. Mr. Davis removed to Bronson, purchasing a farm near the village. He preached there, and aided materially in building up the church at that place. During his pastorate, which closed in July, 1844, twenty were added to the church by letter, seven by experience, and fourteen by baptism. While he was pastor, the church united with the Presbyterians, under Rev. Mr. Mills, in a series of remarkable revival-meetings held in the second story of a frame building at the northeast corner of the public square and Chicago Street, known as the " Coon Pen," so called because the Whig party held its club-meetings there. Up to this time the church had no permanent place of worship, meeting at private houses, in a schoolhouse at the corner of Pearl and Hudson Streets that was rejected by the school district, and in the school-house on Clay, a few rods south of Chicago Street. The Baptists and Presbyterians met together for a long time, the congregations joining when their respective pastors officiated. In June, 1843, the clerk reported fifty-three members. On the 12th of August, 1843, the church and society was organized under the statutes of Michigan, and on the 20th of December following voted to build a house of worship, and purchased the lot where Seely's Block now stands. John T. Haynes, Samuel Etheridge, and Henry Lockwood were appointed a committee to circulate a subscription to raise the necessary funds. The trustees, Elisha Jennings, Harvey Haynes, Samuel Etheridge, A. Van Blarcuin, Calvin Pratt, A. Richards, and John T. IIaynes were the building committee, and were authorized to " contract to build a meeting-house with the subscription and to use it at their discretion." A fine frame church was soon thereafter erected. Nov. 10, 1844, the church settled Rev. J. A. Keyes as pastor. He remained until August, 1845. Twelve were received by letter, one by experience, and three by baptism during this time. A Sabbath-school was organized under his pastorate. In October, 1845, Rev. Oliver C. Comstock was installed as pastor, and remained with the church until June, 1848. Thirty-five members were received by letter and three by baptism, under his ministrations. He was an able and powerful preacher, having been a physician in the State of New York, and was elected to three successive terms of Congress from that State; was ordained to the ministry in Washington City; he returned home and declined a renomination, and was called to the pastorate of the First Baptist Church in Rochester. In 1834 he was chaplain in Congress, and after coming to this State was twice elected to the office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, and represented Branch County one term in the Legislature. From here he removed to Marshall, where he died in 1860 at the age of seventy-nine years. In November, 1848, the church called the Rev. Anson P. Tucker, who was pastor until May, 1850. He was a man of superior talent, and an attractive preacher. He belonged to the noted Tucker family so well known in New York, there being five brothers, Baptist clergymen, and all of them men of large experience and reputation. During this time there were received twenty-two by letter, seventeen by baptism, and seven by experience.

Page  121 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 121 Oct. 20, 1850, the church called F. O. Marsh to the pastorate, and he was ordained as a minister by a council held with the church, Dec. 19, 1850. He remained with the church until October, 1853, during which time eight were received by baptism, thirty-one by letter, and two by experience. In June, 1851, the church having been a member of the St. Joseph River Association, asked for and received a letter of dismission, to unite with the Hillsdale Association. In the winter of 1852-53 the church sold their lot on Chicago Street and bought the lot on the corner of Monroe and Pearl Streets, removing their building there. With the surplus money a parsonage was purchased, being the present residence of Dr. Marsh, on West Chicago Street. From December, 1853, to June, 1856, Rev. E. J. Corey was pastor, and during this time thirty-five were received by baptism, fifty-four by letter, and two by experience. In January, 1857, Rev. A. A. Ellis was called as pastor, and remained until April, 1858, the church receiving four members by baptism, ten by letter, and two by experience. June 3, 1858, Rev. Edwin Eaton, of Monroeville, Ohio, was chosen pastor, continuing until April, 1866. He was an able and popular man, and greatly beloved by everybody. While he was pastor one hundred and forty-two were added to the church by baptism, seventy-seven by letter, and twentytwo by experience. From here he was called to the church at Muscatine, Iowa, and the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him. He died at La Grange, Mo. During his ministry the present church edifice was erected. In March, 1855, the question of building a larger church was discussed, and a committee appointed to consider and report thereon; but not until Jan. 19, 1863, did the subject assume a tangible shape. At a meeting of the church and society, on motion of Rev. E. Eaton, it was "Resolved, that in the opinion of this meeting, it is both practicable and expedient for us to build a church edifice this present year." B. Etheridge, E. H. Dunks, A. S. Glessner, Harvey Haynes, and B. S. Webb were appointed a committee to select a site, and on motion of H. C. Lewis, it was resolved that a church be built, costing not less than ten thousand dollars. At a subsequent meeting, Feb. 2, 1863, the present site, at the corner of Division and Pearl, was agreed upon, Mr. Lewis giving half the ground and one thousand dollars, and Mr. Allen the other half of the land and seven hundred dollars. A. Allen, A. S. Glessner, and E. H. Dunks were chosen building committee. Burt Etheridge, Harvey Haynes, T. C. Etheridge, and D. N. Green were afterwards added to the committee. Under the management of the committee, the work of building progressed rapidly, so that on Sunday, Nov. 13, 1864, Rev. E. Eaton preached the first sermon in the lecture-room. In August, 1865, the audience-room was finished and furnished, and the church dedicated, free from debt, Rev. E. Curtis preaching the dedicatory sermon. It was the first church edifice erected in Coldwater of any pretensions, costing, furnishing included, about twenty-five thousand dollars. Since that time a bell, weighing two thousand and fifty pounds, has been hung in the belfry, 16 and last year one of Johnson & Son's best pipe-organs was built in the church at a cost of two thousand five hundred dollars. After the close of the pastorate of Rev. E. Eaton, Rev. E. Curtis, who is well and prominently known in Michigan, supplied the church for a time, and was settled as pastor in September, 1866, continuing until September, 1868. Sixteen were received by baptism, thirty-one by letter, and one by experience during this time. From Oct. 25, 1868, to December, 1870, Rev. N. Pierce was pastor. Forty-one were received by baptism, twentynine by letter, and four by experience during his ministry. From here he was called to the Baptist church at Springfield, Ill., where he died a few years ago. June 11, 1871, Rev. W. T. Lowry, of Minneapolis, the present pastor, commenced his labors. During his pastorate the church has been very prosperous, enjoying one of the greatest revivals in its history. Under his ministry there have been added to the church one hundred and twentysix by baptism, forty-nine by letter, and nineteen by experience. From its first organization the church has numbered with its members some of our most prominent and useful citizens, beginning with Dr. Hiram Alden, who at the time of his death was one of the prominent men in the State; Samuel Etheridge, father of Theo. C. Etheridge; William Winans, who was elected deacon Jan. 10, 1846, and filled the office until his death; John T. Haynes, whose name appears more frequently on the records of deeds in this county than any other name, and whose benevolence was proverbial. Calvin Pratt was elected deacon April 7, 1843, and Mathias Van Every Aug. 4, 1849, and they have faithfully filled their offices ever since. The present officers of the church are William T. Lowry, Pastor; D. B. Purinton, Clerk; Henry T. Smith, Treasurer; Nathan Harlow, Sabbath-school Superintendent; Calvin Pratt, Luther F. Hale, Mathias Van Every, J. H. D. Warren, Joel N. Brink, and R. M. Reed, Deacons; Geo. Starr, B. L. Webb, George W. Fisk, J. Clark Pierce, A. S. Glessner, and P. P. Nichols, Trustees. THE PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH. The Sessional Records of the First Presbyterian Church of Coldwater contain the following entry: "COLDWATER, Sept. 30, 1837. "Agreeable to public notice, a meeting was held on the abovenamed day in the school-house in the village of Coldwater, Branch County, State of Michigan, for the purpose of organizing a Presbyterian church, at which time the Rev. P. W. Warenor presided and preached a sermon, after which the following individuals presented letters of their regular standing in other Presbyterian churches, and were regularly organized into a church of Christ, viz.: Luther Stiles and Clarissa his wife, James Smith and Abigail his wife, Edmond Sloan and Catheron (ine?) his wife, E. G. Fuller, Ambrose Grow and Eliza his wife, Mrs. Reynolds, wife of Alexander Reynolds, Mary Ann Reynolds, Sophronia Reynolds, Mrs. Amaty Cruson, Mary Smith, James Smith, Jr., Lydia Smith. "The church then proceeded to the choice of Luther Stiles and James Smith as ruling elders, and Edmond Sloan was elected as a deacon. On motion [it was] resolved to have the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper administered to-morrow afternoon. Closed with prayer by the moderator. "P.. W. WARENOR, Moderator. "LUTHER STILES, Clerk."

Page  122 1f22 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. In a sermon by Rev. S. C. Hickok, pastor of the church, 1844-47, it is stated that before the above organization " the Methodist and Baptist Churches were organized, and among the people were found some of our denomination." During the winter of 1837-38, the Presbyterian Church was blessed with a good number of additions, from among whom were several who afterwards became strong pillars in the church. Among this number were Silas A. Holbrook, William H. Cross, and Alexander Reynolds, who are recognized among the early pioneers of this county. Mr. Warenor, who organized the church, seems to have been a sort of itinerant, for by the record bearing date Jan. 8, 1838, we find that Charles W. Girney was moderator of a meeting of the session, and report says that he stopped here over Sunday, in October, 1837, while on his way to Sturgis, and quartering at the old Eagle House, he made inquiries if there was a Presbyterian Church in the place. Receiving an affirmative answer, he made arrangements to preach on the Sabbath. Word was sent out that preaching might be expected in the old red school-house, which was located on Hudson Street. The people were pleased with Mr. Girney, and an arrangement was perfected by which he was to preach a year, dividing his time between the infant church in Coldwater and the Congregational Church at Union City. For his services each church was to pay him one hundred and fifty dollars,-making a yearly salary of three hundred dollars. Mr. Girney was in early life a blacksmith in Steuben Co., N. Y. He was not an educated man, but was possessed of good natural abilities, and any amount of tact. He spoke extemporaneously, and was practical in his application of gospel truth to his hearers. He was also a man who seemed to feel, in an excessive degree, his own unworthiness. It is said of him that at one time shortly before his death he, in company with another (" Father" James Fisk, who told the writer the story), visited a woman who was just at the point of death. In an adjoining room her husband lay in a stupor, beastly drunk. They went in and tried to arouse him, telling him that his wife was dying. The poor man just barely raised himself, and could command his senses only long enough to say, " Yes, they tell me so," and then fell back again to his former drunken insensibility. Said Mr. Girney: "There is but little difference between that man and me. Nothing but the grace of Christ has made me what I am." In 1838, Mr. Girney went away, and for two years the little church seems to have been without a stated preacher; and in the interim the names of Rev. J. P. Cleaveland, Rev. William Stephen, and Rev. William Littlefield are recorded in the sessional records as having acted as moderator, and it is reasonable to infer that they preached while in the village. In 1838, we find that Silas A. Holbrook was chosen a ruling elder, and William H. Cross a deacon, in the church. In 1841, a committee was sent to visit Rev. Charles W. Girney, and see if he could not be induced to return as stated preacher. It is reported that he gave the church a sound scolding for placing so much confidence in him; and in July of that same year Mr. Girney died, and the church felt most deeply its sore bereavement. Rev. S. C. Hickok, in his sermon dedicating the first church, says of his loss to the church i " His prospects for usefulness were high; the ex pectations of the church were high; and at the moment when they seemed in possession of a rich treasure,-a treasure they loved most ardently and sincerely,-God interposed and took him hence." His grave, marked by a plain marble slab, may be found in the old burying-ground on what is now known as Morse Street. In 1842, Rev. Louis Mills, who had been associated with Mr. Girney, while in New York, in the blacksmith trade, and who came West with him to Oberlin (Ohio), where they both studied for the ministry, was called to act as stated preacher to succeed Mr. Girney. He occupied the pulpit until some time in the summer of 1844. During these early years, from 1837-44, the church held its meetings sometimes in the red school-house on Hudson Street, sometimes in the school-house on Clay Street back of the brick store, so generally known as the " Crippen store," and sometimes in the court-room, which was in the upper story of a wooden building on Chicago Street, which occupied the ground where the late Dr. J. H. Buch's residence now stands. This building was familiarly known as the " Coon Pen," which took this name from the fact that the first floor was occupied as a store, and a great many coon-skins were taken there in trade. On Wednesday, Aug. 9, 1843, at five o'clock P.M., a meeting was held at the "regular place of meeting" (the old " Coon Pen"), to organize a church and society under the statute. Under the resolution the society was to be known as the " First Presbyterian Society of Coldwater," and, as the law required, six trustees were elected, and the period of their office fixed by lot, as follows: for one year, Milton H. Fuller and Edson Bundict; for two years, Cornelius Van Aken and Orsamus B. Clark; for three years, Henry C. Gilbert and Silas A. Holbrook. During the same year the idea of building a church was conceived. It was a difficult task to undertake, and much more difficult to accomplish. But, somehow or other, the sturdy pioneer always looks difficulties in the face and goes forward. All of these early settlers had little property and a great deal less ready money. Produce and timber they had in abundance. The former was worth but little, and the latter was actually valueless; but money-they hadn't any. They did have brave hearts and strong hands, and with these were themselves able to build a church. A subscription-paper was started, and produce and timber and labor were pledged, and as much money as each thought he might be able to raise. One man paid his subscription in hay, another promised to turn a certain amount of tailoring towards its erection, and others promised to do a certain amount of work upon the building. In this way the church was built,-a church that, in those days. would have been a credit to a much larger and older and richer community. In the spring of 1844 some of the members of the church living in Kinderhook desired to organize a church of their own, which was done with the full consent of the church in Coldwater,-the pastor, Rev. Louis Mills, ordaining Moses J. Peck as ruling elder and John Waterhouse as deacon. In the fall of 1844 Rev. Louis Mills had gone and Rev. S. C. Hickok had been employed as stated minister. He was spoken of as " a very fine scholar." The chulch had

Page  123 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 123. I eighty-seven persons in its communion when he entered upon his work. At this time the new church-building was dedicated. It was not a pleasant day. It was muddy under foot and cloudy overhead. But, reader, could you and I have been in some out-of-the-way corner we might have seen the people coming in from every road, bringing their children with them, that they all might rejoice together in the work of their hands. We might have felt, too, the silence and solemnity of the whole congregation as the mininister led his people to the throne of grace in thankfulness for all the mercies of the past, which had reached their culmination in the joy of their hearts that day. It was an occasion full of that eloquence which speaks in deeper tones than human utterance, —and when the minister came to these words, "And now, brethren, repenting of our sins, and humbly imploring pardon, that, with clean hands and pure hearts, we may enter into this house of God, and rendering thanksgiving and praise to Almighty God for his goodness, let us dedicate this house to Him;" and when the congregation all arose, as they did arise when the minister pronounced these words, we can imagine that the pentup forces of many hearts gave vent to tears of joy and thanksgiving, whose incense went up before God as a perpetual memorial. Rev. S. C. Hickok served the church so acceptably that at the end of a year measures were taken to install him as pastor. This was done some time in October, 1845, and for his services he was to receive the sum of four hundred dollars per annum. In the month'of August, 1845, Mr. Hickok desired the church to unite with him in a request to the Presbytery that the relations existing between them might be dissolved. This request was granted. The close of his pastorate completed the first decade of the existence of the First Presbyterian Church of Coldwater. During this ten years the membership had increased from sixteen to one hundred and five. From this time forward the church continued to prosper. In the spring of 1818 a call was extended to Rev. Elihu P. Marvin, who remained here until the summer of 1851, when he removed to Milford, Mass., and subsequently became the editor of the Boston Congregationalist and Recorder. His salary was four hundred and fifty dollars. Rev. O.W. Mather was called, in the summer of 1851, to occupy the pulpit for one year, at a salary of five hundred dollars. In May, 1853, Rev. R. S. Goodman was settled as pastor over the church, at a salary of five hundred dollars for the first year and six hundred dollars per annum thereafter. His pastorate continued until the fall of 1860, when the relations were dissolved. He is now pastor of the Presbyterian Church at Kendallville, Ind. During the winter of 1859 several members were dismissed to form a Congregational Church. At the end of the second decade, in 1857, the membership of the church had reached one hundred and eighty persons. In November, 1860, Rev. Horace C. Hovey accepted a call and labored with this church two years. He is now preaching in Fair Haven, Conn., a suburb of New Haven. Early in 1863, Rev. G. L. Foster became the stated minister, and remained nearly three years. He died some two years since at Holly, in this State. In December, 1865, a calL was extended to Rev. W. C. Porter, who had acted as chaplain in the Union army from 1861 to August, 1865. He remained until December, 1871, when he removed to Fort Scott, Kan., where he has since labored. His salary, when called, was nine hundred dollars, which was subsequently increased to twelve hundred dollars. At the end of the third decade, in 1867, there were two hundred and twenty-eight members in communion and fellowship with this church. On the 1st of April, 1872, Rev. J. Gordon Jones entered upon his labors as minister at a salary of fifteen hundred dollars, and continued to perform the duties of that office until Oct. 1, 1878. He is now visiting the home of his youth, in Wales, Great Britain. In October, 1878, a call was extended to Rev. H. P. Collin, of Oxford, N. Y., to become pastor of the church, at an annual salary of fourteen hundred dollars. He is now acting most acceptably in that capacity. The present membership of the church numbers two hundred and ninety-three, and the records show that eight hundred and seventeen persons have united since the organization of the church in 1837. In 1864 the society canvassed the question of building a new church edifice. As a committee to determine upon plans and to enter into a contract for labor and materials the following were appointed: R. F. Mockridge, John O. Pelton, Shelby A. Harrington, Ives G. Miles, and David B. Dennis. The work was begun, prosecuted, and completed under their general direction at a cost of $32,000, and the present elegant and substantial edifice is the result, which was dedicated Oct. 12, 1869, Rev. Charles N. Mattoon, D.D., of Monroe, preaching the dedicatory sermon. The following are the names of the different persons who have served as officers since the organization of the church, with the time of their election, but without noting the length or terms of service: DEACONS, 1837-79. Edmond Sloan, elected Sept. 30, 1837. William H. Cross, elected Feb. 2, 1839. Alexander Reynolds, elected April 3, 1841. David R. Cooley, elected Jan. 13, 1844. Alvin Upson, elected Jan. 18, 1852. James Smails, elected Jan. 27, 1856. Daniel Gilbert, elected Jan. 6, 1861. Ransom E. Hall, elected Jan. 3, 1867. ELDERS, 1837-79. Luther Stiles, James Smith, elected Sept. 30, 1837. Silas A. Holbrook, elected Feb. 2, 1839. Seth C. Hanchett, elected April 3, 1841. Daniel Gilbert, elected Jan. 4, 1845. David R. Cooley, Ira Lee, elected Jan. 31, 1846. Hiram Shoudler, Nelson D. Skeels, elected March 27, 1849. Alvin Upson, Wm. H. Beach, John H. Phelps, elected Feb. 16, 1851. Elihu Mather, Wm. McMechan, elected Jan. 4, 1852. John F. Rogers, elected April 16, 1854. Emerson Marsh, elected Jan. 28, 1855. John Chandler, elected Jan. 27, 1856. Wm. T. Knowlton, elected Jan. 15, 1857. David H. Davis, Joseph D. W. Fisk, elected Jan 6, 1861. H. B. Moore, H. N. Lawrence, elected Dec. 21, 1865. John T. Gilbert, elected Jan. 7, 1869. Thomas H. Vance, elected Jan. 5,1871. David Bemiss, Abram J. Aldrich, elected Dec. 31, 1874. George H. Barber, elected Nov. 8, 1877. Isaac N. Shaw, elected Jan. 2, 1879.

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. TRUSTEES, 1843-1879. Edson Benedict, Silas A. Holbrook, Orsamus B. Clark, Cornelius Van Aken, Milton H. Fuller, Henry C. Gilbert, elected Aug. 9, 1843. Albert L. Porter, elected July 30, 1844. Seth C. Hanchett, De Witt C. Ransom, elected Aug. 2, 1845. Ezbon G. Fuller, elected Aug. 10, 1846. Nelson D. Skeels, Horace Lewis, elected Aug. 2, 1847. Loren R. Austin, elected Aug. 1, 1849. Robert F. Mockridge, elected July 22, 1850. Samuel M. Dennison, James W. Gilbert, John Chandler, elected June 16, 1851. Alvin Upson, John Alien, elected Nov. 3, 1851. Justus Goodwin, elected July 6, 1852. Edwin R. Clarke, Curtis S. Tucker, elected Sept. 7, 1852. Philander Reynolds, Wi. McMechan, elected July 25, 1853. James Smails, elected Aug. 29, 1853. Ives G. Miles, elected July 24, 1854. An interim exists between Aug. 6, 1855, and Dec. 16, 1861, wherein the records appear to be lost. Joseph D. W. Fisk, Ransom E. Hall, David HI. Davis, Richard H. Drake, elected Dec. 1, 1861. Julius H. Barber, elected Oct. 26, 1863. John O. Pelton, elected Oct., 1864. Lorenzo D. Halsted, Henry B. Moore, elected Dec. 3, 1866. Thomas H. Vance, elected Nov. 11, 1867. Thomas W. Dickinson, elected Nov. 14, 1870. Albert A. Dorrance, elected Oct. 23, 1871. De Witt Cook, elected Dec. 8, 1873. Abram J. Aldrich, elected Dec. 6, 1875. James Carleton, elected Dec. 18, 1876. David F. Cole, Wm. A. Knowlton, elected Jan. 4, 1878. ST. MARK'S PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHUIRCH.* "Oryanization.-Pasted upon the fly-leaf of the old parish register is a much-faded document, a copy of which is transcribed into the parish history. Upon examination, this document gives the information that a meeting was held February 9, 1848, ' at the White School-house in the village of Coldwater in the county of Branch (that being the place where the society statedly attend for Divine worship)' by certain qualified voters for the purpose of organizing a parish under the name of 'St. Mark's Church.' The organization was effected in accordance with the statute and the following officers chosen: " Wardens.-Joseph H. Moss, S. W.; Richard Greenwood, J. W. " Vestrymen.-Luman Howe, Ezbon G. Fuller, Lorenzo D. Crippen, James Pierson, George A. Coe. "It further appears from the records that the instrument was executed on the first day of March, 1848, but it was not received for record until the sixteenth day of June following,-just thirty years ago to-day. The first senior warden of the parish, who is how the only living member of the original corporation still worshiping with us, informed me that he is of the opinion that an organization was effected a year or two earlier than this, but that the records were lost and so never placed on file. "Rectorsips.-In parochial history, the successive pastorates furnish convenient periods for recording events of interest. This parish is indebted to the Rev. Joseph Wood for valuable information not only of the period of his own pastorate, but also of all the accessible facts relative to the This sketch is taken from a discourse delivered by the rector on the occasion o0 the thirtieth anniversary of the parish organization, Trinity Sday, June 16, 1877. I i i I preceding years. In his handwriting we find some thirteen pages of valuable records, covering the period from February, 1848, to December, 1865. "The date of the first service held at Coldwater where our liturgy was used is not known to me, neither do we certainly know what clergyman was the pioneer in this matter. It lies, perhaps, between the Rev. Darius Parker, of Paw Paw, and the Rev. Levi H. Corson, of Jonesville, both of whom did hold services here at an early day. Possibly this was true of others also. But such services were quite irregular previous to the parish organization; and for want of such regular services, it was quite customary for the first junior warden to walk to Jonesville on Saturday. "The first rector of St. Mark's was the Rev. George Willard, first sent here as a missionary in 1848, by the bishop of the diocese. Mr. Willard remained here about six years. A part of that time he held service in the public-school houses and a part of the time in the county courthouse. Mr. Willard remained until the early part of the year 1855. During his stay there were reported forty-seven baptisms, twenty-two confirmations, thirty marriages, and twenty-six burials. "The second rector was the Rev. G. M. Skinner, who came after an interval of a few months. Reorganization of the parish under the revised statutes was effected Aug. 10, 1855, the Rev. Mr. Skinner presiding at the meeting. The officers chosen at that time were: "Wardens.-Joseph H. Moss, S. W.; J. B. Southworth, J. W. "Vestrymen.-Davis Smith, Richard Greenwood, George A. Coe, Marcellus H. Parker, John G. Parkhurst. "Mr. Skinner was rector until 1859. During his stay services were held in the court-house. A lot was purchased on Hanchett Street and a foundation laid, but from a defective title the enterprise was abandoned. " The statistics of the four years are: baptisms twentyeight, confirmed eleven, married eight, burials sixteen. "After Mr. Skinner's resignation, lay services were kept up by the then senior warden, who holds also that position at the present time. The Rev. Messrs. Barker, Corson, and Etheridge also officiated occasionally. Much interest was developed during the Lenten season of 1860, and a large class was prepared for confirmation. " The third rector was the Rev. Henry Safford, who was called to the parish in March, 1860. The confirmation class which grew up during the vacancy was presented by Mr. Safford and confirmed in April of that year. Prosperity is the record of that period, and the successful effort to build a church, which followed soon after, proves conclusively that when the heart is interested the hand will work. It seems an impartial judgment that the religious interest which manifested itself in that Lent of 1860 was the impulse which, kept in motion, gave the parish a church in 1862. This building was also on Hanchett Street. Originally it was of wood, twenty-four by sixty feet, with a recess-chancel fourteen by sixteen feet. The cost of the building and lot was about three thousand dollars. The church was con secrated by the bishop of the diocese April 14, 1863. "In the month of May following, Mr. Safford resigned the rectorship, which he had held for three years. During

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Page  125 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 125 I that period there were recorded twenty-eight baptisms, forty-four confirmations, twelve marriages, twenty-nine burials. "The Fourth Rector.-On the fifteenth of June, 1863, the Rev. Joseph Wood became rector of the parish. At this point a fact appears upon the records which it were well to bear in mind in our missionary work,-especially in reference to diocesan missions. The parish had attained the age of fifteen years, and it is recorded that St. Mark's, Coldwater, had received missionary aid to the amount of two thousand dollars and upwards. Since that time the parish has been self-supporting and has contributed largely to mission work. " We notice in the rectorate of Mr. Wood a second modification of the parochial organization to conform to the act of Feb. 15, 1857. It was at this time, also, that the old cabinet-organ was purchased for five hundred and fifty dollars. "At the time of Mr. Wood's resignation, December, 1865, the statistics of his ministry were as follows: baptized, forty-seven; confirmed, twenty-two; married, five; buried, twenty. "The next (fifth) rector was the Rev. J. Wainwright Ray. The number of worshipers had increased so much that more room was desired in the church,-the former plan of building on the corner having been given up on account of the sale of a portion thereof. The wings, holding two more rows of slips, were accordingly added, and the capacity of the church increased to upwards of four hundred sittings. Mr. Ray left the parish on All-Saints'-day, 1868, having been rector nearly three years. Fifty-two baptisms are reported, thirty-nine confirmations (another class ready), twenty-nine marriages, and twelve burials. "The sixth rector of this parish was the Rev. George P. Schetky, D.D., who entered upon the rectorship Feb. 7, 1869. The Ladies' Aid Society, though not organized at this time, appears more frequently on the records, and ever since, as before, it has been an efficient helper in parish work. Not seldom the ladies' organization is the very beginning of a parish, and such, I believe, was the case with the Ladies' Aid of St. Mark's. We learn that this instrumentality liquidated the parish debt of two hundred and seventy-five dollars on the Feast of the Ascension, 1869. Later a rectory was bought with the funds of this society, and on April 9, 1870, the rector entered the pleasant home thus provided on East Chicago Street. Dr. Schetky, having accepted a call to Trinity Church, Marshall, resigned his charge Sept. 12, 1870, and renewed his resignation September 21, which was accepted by the vestry September 29. Baptisms reported are forty-seven; confirmations, thirty-five; marriages, seven; burials, twelve. "The rectorship was filled for the seventh time by the Rev. Henry Safford, who was recalled at the beginning of the winter of 1870. He entered upon his duties on Christmas-day, and continued rector until the spring of 1874. During this period the parsonage was purchased by the rector, and the vestry, feeling the growing incon venience of the old location, remedied the difficulty by the purchase of our present most desirable lot. The price paid (three thousand five hundred dollars) was necessarily a large one, and a debt of some twelve hundred dollars remained until a recent date. But as years go by and centrally-located sites are taken up, the wisdom of securing this property will appear to all, if indeed it does not to-day. Twenty-nine baptisms are recorded in the second rectorship of Mr. Safford, also seventeen confirmations, twenty-two marriages, and thirty-eight burials. " For various reasons the parish remained vacant over a year. " The eighth rector, the Rev. Herbert J. Cook, who is the present incumbent, was elected to the position in April, 1875, and entered upon his duties in June following (the sixth day). " Within the last three years the parish of St. Mark's has undergone some important changes, and these changes, let us hope, are in the line of advancement. Easter-day, 1876, saw a large offering of some twelve hundred dollars laid on the altar for the erection of this chapel. The work was carried to completion during the summer, and the ladies came forward with two hundred dollars additional for the purchase of substantial reversible seats. This gives us a comfortable auditorium and a fine Sunday-school room. Next came the sale of the rear portion of the old church lot, in 1877, and finally, in the autumn of the same year, of the balance of the property. But the work did not stop with our removal. The Ladies' Aid Society has purchased an organ which has proved a most valuable help in our worship. The total outlay will be six hundred and forty dollars, together with the old organ. The chapel, too, has had some much-needed improvements. A vestry-room, with furniture, has been added by individual generosity. The ventilating-windows, both useful and beautiful, have been' placed in position in the same way. Nor should we forget the fact that the Easter offering of above five hundred dollars, with additions since made, have put the parish practically out of debt, and the pledges and subscriptions made for current expenses lack but a little of being adequate for all the necessities of the year. It gives great pleasure, also, to be able to add that our missionary offerings have also materially increased. It is to be hoped that this will continue to be the case, and that this parish may be a practical illustration of what can be accomplished by regular and systematic offerings. You may be interested to know the amounts given for objects outside the parish in the year just closed. Diocesan missions, $70; domestic missions, $39.16; Christmas fund for aged and indigent clergymen, $18.50; foreign missions, $12.04; Indian mission, $12.10; Freedmen missions, $9.45; increase of ministry, $6.59; Bible and Common Prayer-Book Society, $5.50; diocesan assessment, $28. Total, $201.34. " Upon examination of the register the following statistics appear of the past three years: baptisms, 58; confirmations, 49; marriages, 16; burials, 24. We report this year 139 communicants, of whom, I regret to say, only about one-fifth are males. * " To summarize the statistics of thirty years, it appears that the eight rectorships have averaged a little less then four years each. In the parish, besides a few ministeral not here counted, which have been performed while the parish has been vacant, we find the sum total to be: bap

Page  126 :'::::: —::; ~:':; 126 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. tisms, 336; confirmations, 239; marriages, 129; burials, 187. Other items of interest, such as average attendance at church, Holy Communion, and Sunday-school, must be omitted for lack of time in this hasty sketch." The present vestry of St. Mark's Church are as follows: Mr. D. S. Harrington, Senior Warden; Hon. N. P. Loveridge, Junior Warden; H. C. Safford, Secretary; Hon. C. D. Randall, D. C. Powers, M.D., Mr. Elijah Ball, Mr. George Fitch. Since the date of that discourse, the list of parochial statistics has been extended in all departments. Steps have been taken and plans secured for a new church. The architect is Mr. Henry Dudley, of New York. The edifice (of which we give a sketch) is to be located by the side of the chapel, fronting on Chicago Street. The material is stone, and accommodates about four hundred. The style is Gothic, with massive tower. A commodious vestibule, approached through tower and porch, opens into a nave eighty by thirty-three and a half feet. Organ and vestry rooms are each sixteen by fifteen, and the chancel in twenty by twenty. The approximate cost of the building will be ten thousand dollars. The following extract from a letter recently received by the rector from the Rev. D. Barker, of Paw Paw, Mich., will throw additional light upon the early history of the parish: "CLAREMONT, N. H., July 22, 1878. "REVEREND AND DEAR BROTHER,-I see by ' our dioceses' that you are in doubt whether I or Mr. Corson was the first (church) clergyman who preached in Coldwater. "I performed service and preached, not in 'the white,' but in the little, old, red school-house, on the first Sunday in January, 1842, and administered the Holy Communion to six persons, of whom three were Dr. William Bacont, Mrs. Bacon, and their daughter, Maria Bacon; and I think Mr. Joseph H. Moss was another. Mr. Moss was there, and so was Mr. Coe, though not a communicant. Dr. Bacon moved to Jonesville that year, and so had nothing further to do with historic church matters in Coldwater. I continued to officiate there occasionally till May, 1843, when I went into a distant part of the diocese. Even then, I came all the way from Dexter in a carriage, and spent one Sunday in Coldwater. In 1843, measures were commenced for the organization of a parish. A meeting was called and the legal notice given in calling a formal meeting to that effect. "In consequence of my distance, I gave up the care of that mission, and the Rev. Richard S. Adams (now of Brooklyn, N. Y.), who was then missionary at Battle Creek, took charge of it, and completed the organization, as I supposed. "I should suppose Mr. Moss would remember those facts... "Yours truly, "D. BARKER. "The Rev. H. J. COOK, Rector of St. Mark's Church." The facts correspond with the recollection of Mr. Moss, as referred to in the beginning of the rector's historic discourse, and the statement of the Rev. Mr. Barker is doubtless correct, thus completing our early records. ST. CHARLES BORROMEO ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH. The history of this church, which is located on Harrison, between Clay and Pierson Streets, is among the oldest in the city, the society having been organized in 1849 by Rev. Father Smoulders, of Monroe, Mich. The lot at present occupied was bought in 1856, and a small frame church erected upon it, which was destroyed the folowig year. Rev. Joseph Kindikens, at that time, on stated occasions, held service, and by a too rigid surveillance over the young men of the village, who no doubt were fit subjects of this watchfulness, had rendered himself obnoxious to them. Expecting him on Sabbath morning to say mass, and presuming that he would arrive as he had done before on Saturday evening and lodge in the church building, they placed kegs of powder, stolen from the drugstore of Mr. Rufus Kibbe, under the building, and during the night of the 7th of June, 1859, it was blown to fragments. Father Rychaert, with the help of the citizens, who subscribed $900, built the present brick structure in 1860. Previous to 1860 there had been no resident pastor, services having been conducted by pastors from neighboring parishes, who came at stated periods to Coldwater, and held their services at private houses before the erection of a church building. The first pastor who resided in the parish was Rev. Father C. Korst, who, in 1867, built the present brick parsonage. He also officiated as pastor at Mendon, where he built a commodious church, and others at White Pigeon, Sturgis, and Bronson, all of which are in a flourishing condition. The Sabbath-school of St. Charles Borromeo parish numbers sixty-five children and one hundred and twenty-five families. The pastor contemplates building a new church edifice at an early day. WESLEYAN METHODIST CHURCH. An old school-house, one and a half miles south of the village of Coldwater was, in 1850, the scene of the first service held by this denomination. Their numbers were at this early date small, and the first church organization was effected with but six members, three of whom are now living. Not having a church building, the service was still conducted in a school-house within the village limits, until a plain but substantial building was erected, corner of Church and Hudson Streets, which they still occupy and maintain in excellent condition. Elder Soddy for a time officiated as leading elder, and the present pastor is Elder Williams, who resides in the suburbs of the city. There has been a Sunday-school maintained in connection with the church, until it was recently temporarily suspended. Since the above facts were furnished us we have discovered among the records in possession of the county clerk the following " articles of association" of the First Wesleyan Methodist Church of Coldwater: "This is to certify that we, the undersigned, citizens of Coldwater, in the county of Branch and State of Michigan, do hereby associate together for the purpose of forming a Wesleyan Methodist church in this city, with a view of becoming a body corporate, to the end that this church may enjoy all the rights and privileges conferred by law upon religious bodies and societies in the State of Michigan, under the act entitled 'An act concerning churches and religious societies, establishing uniform rules for the acquisition, tenor, control, and disposition of property conveyed or dedicated for religious purposes, and to repeal chapter fifty-two of the Revised Statutes, approved February 13, A.D. 1855.' The object of this church is to provide suitable ways and means for worship, to publish the truth of the gospel as revealed in the Holy Scriptures and in nature, and to oppose error in every form in which it may appear. The form of worship and mode of discipline adopted by the church are such as are contained in the discipline of the Wes

Page  127 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 127 1 --- I I leyan Methodist Connection of America. The corporate name of this church is the First Wesleyan Methodist Church of Coldwater. " Dated COLDWATER, November 27, A.D. 1861. "S. B. Smith. Salmon Chapman. John P. Bradley. Aaron Burritt. C. B. F. Bennett. Wm. C. Woodward. D. J. Smith. "Olive Bullock. E. Paine. Fanny Chapman. James Fisk. Silas Burton. C. Coffman. "This certifies that on the 27th day of November, A.D. 1861, most of the persons whose names are subscribed to the foregoing articles of association assembled together at the Wesleyan Methodist Church in the city of Coldwater (that being the regular place of worship for the Society) for the purpose of incorporating themselves as a church or religious society under the act of the Legislature of the State of Michigan, entitled ( an act concerning churches and acquisition, tenor, control, and disposition of property conveyed or dedicated for religious purposes, and to repeal chapter fifty-two of the Revised Statutes, approved February 1:, A.D. 1855,' and in pursuance of notice duly given fifteen days previous to said 27th day of November, 1861, and on two successive Sundays in the place where said church meet for public worship next preceding said 27th day of November, 1861, the persons belonging to said church would meet at the time and place aforesaid for the purpose of incorporating themselves as a church, under the provisions of the act aforesaid and for the purpose of electing trustees and transacting such other business as might be necessary. And we further certify that S. B. Smith was by a majority of the said persons so met, as aforesaid, chosen Chairman, and S. Chapman, Clerk, and J. P. Bradley and S. Chapman were appointed Inspectors. On motion it was resolved that the number of trustees for the church be fixed at six. The meeting then proceeded to elect by ballot six trustees, which resulted in the election of the following persons, viz.: "C. B. Peckham, James Fisk, S. Burton, A. Munyon, A. Burritt, C. Coffman. The trustees then elect were divided into three classes by lot, which drawing resulted as follows: C. B. Peckham and C. Coffman, for one year; James Fisk and A. Burritt, for two years; A. Munyon and S. Burton, for three years. The said meeting determined and declared that the said church should be known in law as 'the First Wesleyan Church of Coldwater.' " In testimony whereof we, the said J. P. Bradley and S. Chapman, who were chosen inspectors of the election aforesaid, have hereunto set our hands and seals this 27th day of November, A.D. 1861, at Coldwater, Branch Co., Mich. came to Coldwater every third Sabbath to hold service. In 1868 the society purchased the church building formerly belonging to the Presbyterian congregation, and after moving it to the present location, corner of Jefferson and Perkins Streets, thoroughly repaired it; Mr. Flandermeyer having been very active in accomplishing this result. In April of 1878, Rev. F. Hauser was settled as resident pastor, and still continues in this relation. The Sabbath-school connected with the church, though not large, is in a very prosperous condition. Its present officers are, Elders, Herman H. Flandermeyer and Ernst Leaders; Trustees, H. Carls, Charles Monacrow, August Carls. COLDWATER CITY SCHOOLS. The first authentic records of the history of the schools oP the city of Coldwater date back to 1839, the time when a new district, known as District No. 11, was set apart in accordance with the following copy of a notice to notify the taxable inhabitants: " To J. J. CURTIS, a taxable inhabitant of School District No. Eleven (11), of the township of Coldwater: "SIRm,-You will hereby take notice that we, Allen Tibbits, Henry Burl, and Henry B. Stillman, School Inspectors of the said township of Coldwater, have formed a School District in said township, numbered it, and bounded it as follows, to wit: Said district shall comprise all of sections nine and sixteen, and that part of section number twenty-one lying west of Division Street, in the village of Coldwater. "The first meeting of said District will be held at the Central Exchange in the village of Coldwater, on Saturday, the 1st day of June next, at four o'clock P.r. of that day, A.D. 1839; and you will, in pursuance of the laws, notify every'qualified voter of said District, either personally, or by leaving a written notice at his place of residence, of the time and place of meeting, at least five days before said meeting; then and there to transact such business as the law directs. "Given under our hands this 20th day of May, 1839. (Signed) " HENRY B. STILLMAN, "ALLEN TIDBITS, School II" HENRY BUEL, petar8." At the meeting, nothing was done except to elect the following officers: Silas A. Holbrook, Moderator; Orasmus B. Clark, Director; and Henry Lockwood, Assessor. At a meeting held eight days after it was unanimously resolved that the District Board be authorized to purchase from Robert Abbott a part of village lot No. 104; and at the next meeting, June 29, 1839, the board was authorized to raise by tax four hundred dollars, which, with seventy-five dollars due from the old district, was to be expended in building a school-house and paying for the lot for the same. At a census of the district, taken Sept. 27, 1839, there were found to be sixty-eight children between the ages of five and seventeen. H. S. Shoudy was employed to teach four months and a half at eighteen dollars per month. At the census taken the following year (1840), the number of children of school age had increased to ninety-three. At a meeting held in October of this year it was voted that those sending scholars should furnish one-quarter cord of wood for each scholar, and Mr. Etheridge was employed as teacher, at fourteen dollars per month, boarding with his employers. The first building erected was situated upon the now vacant lot in the Second Ward; but at a meeting held Sept. 27, 1847, it was voted to raise fifteen hundred dollars to "JOHN P. BRADLEY. [SEAL.] SALMON CHAPMAN. [SEAL.] "In presence of Aaron) Burritt, Charles F. Bennett, Wm. C. Wodward. "STATE OF MICHIGAN, 1 BRANCH COUNTY. 88. " On the 27th day of November, A.D. 1861, before me, a notary public in and for said county, personally appeared John P. Bradley and Salmon Chapman, known to me to be the persons who executed the above certificate and acknowledged that they executed the same for the uses and purposes therein mentioned, and as their free act and deed. "F. T. EDDY, "Notary Public. "Filed and recorded Dec. 18, 1861. "B. C. WEBB, " Clerk." GERMAN LUTHERAN CHURCH. The denomination above mentioned first established themselves in Coldwater in 1861, not having at that time a church edifice, but holding their first services in the Branch County Court-House, Rev. H. Speckhart being the first pastor. In 1865, Rev. J. Hahn, now of Sebewaing, Mich., succeeded him, under whom a permanent organization was effected. During his pastorate he resided at Hillsdale, and

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I build a new school-house. This house is still standing, and is now used as a ward school-house. To the older portion of our community it will be better known as the "Old Brick School-house," situated on Clay Street, in the Third Ward. Besides this building there are now in the city the High School or central building, southwest corner Pearl and Hudson Streets, and the Fourth Ward building, between Chicago and Pearl Streets. In the central building are employed thirteen teachers, and the seating capacity is seven hundred and ten. In the Third and Fourth Ward buildings are employed four teachers each, and the seating capacity of these buildings is respectively two hundred and thirty and one hundred and ninety-eight, making a total of twenty-one teachers and a seating capacity of eleven hundred and twenty-eight. The length of the school year is forty weeks. The graduating class of 1878 numbered twenty. The following is the corps of instructors for the present year, 1878-79: J. S. Crombie, B.A., Superintendent, Higher Mathematics and Chemistry; F. A. Barbour, B.A., Principal, Latin and Greek; Miss E. Pruden, Preceptress, French, Botany, etc.; Mrs. L. A. W. Stevens, Assistant Preceptress, Mathematics, English, etc.; Miss Cora F. Titus, Grammar Department; Miss Flora C. Titus, Grammar Department; Miss Ermine Howe, Second Intermediate Department; Mrs. Mary A. Pratt, Second Intermediate Department; Miss Anna E. Howe, Second Intermediate Department, Third Ward; Miss Mary E. Cutter, First Intermediate Department; Mrs. Franc P. Card, First Intermediate Department, Third Ward; Mrs. Lucia F. Gilbert, First Intermediate Department, Fourth Ward; Miss Flora J. Burns, Second Primary Department; Miss Flora Oakley, Second Primary Department; Miss Nellie L. Orr, Second Primary Department, Third Ward; Miss Dell Root, Second Primary Department, Fourth Ward; Miss Belle Stevenson, First Primary Department; Miss L. M. Burdick, First Primary Department; Miss Anna L. Cook, First Primary Department, Third Ward; Miss Emma Krichbaum, First Primary Department, Fourth Ward; Miss Mary O. Hyde, First Primary Department, Fourth Ward. The general statistical information for the current school year to April is as follows: 1876-77. 1877-78. 1. Population of city (about).............................. 5000 5000 2. Number of children between five and twenty... 1210 124~5 3. Total enrollment........................................ 1032 96) 4. Number of non-resident students90. 63 9M 5. Cash valuation of property.............................. $50,000.00 $50,000.0t0, 6. Cost of superintendence and instruction.......... 9,144.50 6,188.00 j 7. Cost of incidentals....................................,225.11 1,308.33 8. Cost of education per capita for superintendence and instruction....................................... 12.39 8.37 9. Cost of education per capita for incidentals...... 3.01 1.77 10. Average per capita cost for whole school......... 15.40 10.14 j 1876-77. -E |i || ^i 3 |1 |1 mI I 11. Absolute enrollment................................... 677 223 132 1032 12. Average number belonging.............................. 480.7 161.8 95 737.5 13. Average daily attendance.................................435.4 146.6 92 674 14. Number men teachers...................................... 1... 2 16. Number women teachers................................. 2 18i 16. No. pupls to each teacher, based on averge number belonging.............................................. 42 32 27 37 I 1877-78. a..: E 2lE E CD c O 11. Absolute enrollment...................................... 600 229 131 960 12. Average number belonging.............................. 455.9 180 103 738.9 13. Average daily attendance................................. 420.4 166.5 98 684.9 14. Number men teachers............................................. 1 2 15. Number women teachers.................................. 11 5 2 18 16. No. pupils to each teacher, based on average number belonging.............................................. 41 36 29 38 In classifying teachers in the above table, question 15, the four years prior to entering the high school is considered the grammar grade. The high school is organized in four courses of study (the first three arranged with special reference to the requirements of the university, the fourth a purely English course). The Classical, Latin and Scientific, and Scientific and Engineering are each four years in duration, the English course three years. The graduates of the first three courses are admitted to the freshman class of the University of Michigan without further examination. Admnission.-Applicants for admission to any department above the primary must give evidence of their fitness to enter that department. All candidates should be present promptly the first day of the term, as any delay is a loss to themselves and a serious hindrance to the class. Examinations.-Examinations are held in all classes in the High School Department during advance work, ard oral daily reviews and examinations are also made, and on the completion of a study, or at the end of the term, a final examination of the entire subject is had. The average of the monthly and final examinations constitute a pupil's standing in scholarship. A standing of seventy-five per cent. in each term's work of each study pursued is required before the pupil will be passed. The classes in the other departments are examined by the superintendent as often as practicable. At the close of every year there are public examinations of the classes to be promoted in the several departments. Diplomas.-Students completing any of the prescribed courses of study in the high school will receive a certificate of graduation signed by the superintendent and members of the board of education. There are two kinds of diplomas,-the ordinary diploma, given the same as heretofore, and the regular diploma, which entitles the holder to enter Michigan University without further examination. Candidates receiving the latter will have the fact of such admission stated on their diplomas. The following are the members of the school board since 1839: 1839-40.-S. A. Holbrook, Moderator; O. B. Clark, Director; R. Wood, Assessor. 1840-41.-S. A. Holbrook, Moderator; O. B. Clark, Director; G. Dolson, Assessor. 1841-42.-S. Etheridge, Moderator; J. Wilson, Director; A Parish, Assessor. 1842-43.-L. Stiles, Moderator; H. Warner, Director; A. Chandler, Assessor. 1843-44.-L. Stiles, Moderator; R. Root, Director; J. Pierson, Assessor. 1844-45.-S. A. Holbrook, Moderator; A. L. Porter, Director; C. B. Dresser, Assessor.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] THOMAS DOUGHERTY. Photos. by E. Kindmark. THOMAS DOUGHERTY. MRS. THOMAS DOUGHERTY. The name of Thomas Dougherty was one of the best known among the early citizens of Coldwater. He has been for more than forty years so closely identified with the material interests of this city and county, that a sketch of his life will be as appropriate at this time as it is entitled to fair record. He was born at Cambridge, Washington Co., N. Y., Feb. 29, 1800. When he was eleven years of age his father, with the family, consisting of a wife and seven children, moved to Penfield, N. Y., where he purchased a farm. The subject of this sketch lived at home until he attained his majority, when he went to Masadon, where he became acquainted with Harriet Aldrich, daughter of Abram Aldrich, whom he married, Jan. 1, 1823. In 1825 he purchased a farm at Penfield, immediately took possession, and remained there some ten years, when he sold out and came to Michigan with his wife and four children, arriving in Coldwater, Sept. 10, 1835, where he purchased a farm of two hundred and eighty acres, which included the present site of the State School. He also entered some six hundred acres of land in the county. In the spring of 1836 he formed a partnership with Rev. Francis Smith and Dr. Sprague, which firm erected a sawmill, and the following year built a flouring-mill, which was the first mill at Coldwater, and was a valuable acquisition to the embryo city. Some ten years later, as the demand for lumber increased and the water-power decreased, Mr. Dougherty built a steam saw-mill, which was the first steam mill of any kind in Branch County. This mill he managed successfully for thirteen years. He was at one time in the mercantile business, and one of the chief actors in Coldwater in his day. Contributed liberally to the erection of the first Methodist Episcopal Church, of which himself and wife were first members, and helped to organize. Also contributed liberally to the erection of the present edifice. They have been the parents of five children, of whom three are now living,-two sons and one daughter. After a long and industrious life, this pioneer couple look back to the small beginning and laying of the foundations of most of the early manufactories, schools, churches, etc., of Coldwater, and feel the satisfaction of having contributed their share. Mr. Dougherty came to Coldwater with considerable means, and with it assisted in most of the local public enterprises of his day. After a married life of more than a half-century, this veteran couple find themselves in the enjoyment of good health, an ample competency, and the respect of all.

Page  129 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 129 1845-46.-J. T. Haynes, Moderator; A. Chandler, Director; J. D. Wood, Assessor. 1846-47. —H. Warner, Moderator; A. Parish, Director; A. Chandler, Assessor. 1847-48.-T. Daugherty, Moderator; F. D. Crippen, Director; G. A. More, Assessor. 1848-49.-G. A. Coe, Moderator; A. T. Groendycke, Director; J. D. Wood, Assessor. 1849-50.-D. Waterman, Moderator; J. T. Haynes, Director; H. M. Wright, Assessor. 1850-51.-G. A. Coe, Moderator; rector; J. O. Pelton, Assessor. 1851-52. —G. A. Coe, Moderator; rector; R. Root, Assessor. 1852-53. —G. A. Coe, Moderator; rector; H. Dickson, Assessor. 1853-54.-J. Chandler, Moderator; rector; J. D. Wood, Assessor. A. Chandler, DiA. Chandler, DiA. Chandler, DiE. B. Pond, Di 1854-55.-W. H. Beach, Moderator; J. G. Parkhurst, Director; J. 0. Pelton, Assessor. In 1855 the number of the board was increased by adding four trustees. 1855-56.-G. Willard, Moderator; J. H. Beech, Director; D. Thompson, Assessor; A. Chandler, G. A. Coe, S. P. Noyes, A. L. Porter, Trustees. 1856-57.-D. B. Dennis, Moderator; T. N. Wilson, Director; J. 0. Pelton, Assessor; A. Chandler, G. A Coe, J. Chandler, A. L. Porter, Trustees. 1857-58.-A. Allen, Moderator; C. S. Tucker, Director; C. Pratt, Assessor; A. Chandler, I. P. Alger, J. Chandler, A. L. Porter, Trustees. 1858-59.-D. Smith, Moderator; C. P. Benton, Director; L. D. Brewer, Assessor; A. Chandler, C. B. Fisk, J. Chandler, I. P. Alger, Trustees. 1859-60.-C. S. Tucker, Moderator; A. Allen, Director; J. A. Brookins, Assessor; J. Chandler, D. C. Morehouse, I. P. Alger, C. B. Fisk, Trustees. 1860-61.-S. S. Cutter, Moderator; D. B. Dennis, Director; C. D. Randall, Assessor; D. C. Powers, C. Upson, C. P. Benton. 1861-62.-S. S. Cutter, Moderator; D. B. Dennis, Director; C. D. Randall, Assessor; D. C. Powers, A. Allen, J. 0. Pelton. 1862-63.-A. Allen, Moderator; S. S. Cutter, Director; J. 0. Pelton, Assessor; C. D. Randall, D. B. Dennis, C. S. Tucker. 1863-64.-A. Allen, Moderator; S. S. Cutter, Director; J. 0. Pelton, Assessor; J. B. Crippen, D. B. Dennis, C. S. Tucker. 1864-65.-J. B. Crippen, Moderator; S. S. Cutter, Director; F. T. Eddy, J. Murphy, D. B. Dennis, C. S. Tucker. 1865-66.-F. T. Eddy, Moderator; J. H. McGowan, Director; J. B. Crippen, J. Murphy, E. Eaton, S. S. Cutter. 1866-67.-F. T. Eddy, Moderator; J. H. McGowan, Director; J. Murphy, D. H. Davis, A. Allen, E. Eaton. 1867-68.-A. Allen, Moderator; J. H. McGowan, Director; F. T. Eddy, D. H. Davis, J. H. Beech, A. Chandler. 1868-69.-A. Allen, Moderator; F. T. Eddy, Director; 17 A. Chandler, N. P. Loveridge, D. H. Davis, T. C. Etheridge. 1869-70.-T. C. Etheridge, Moderator; N. P. Loveridge, Director; J. H. Beech, J. H. McGowan, D. Thompson, A. Chandler. 1870-71.-J. H. Beech, Moderator; N. P. Loveridge, Director; H. C. Lewis, R. F. Mockridge, Justin Lawyer, D. Thompson. 1871-72.-J. H. Beech, Moderator; N. P. Loveridge, Director; H. C. Lewis, R. F. Mockridge, Justin Lawyer, D. Thompson. 1872-73.-J. H. Beech, Moderator; N. P. Loveridge, Director; R. F. Mockridge, T. C. Etheridge, D. Thompson, George Starr. 1873-74.-J. H. Beech, Moderator; T. C. Etheridge, Director; R. F. Mockridge, D. Thompson, George Starr, H. B. Townsend. 1874-75.-R. F. Mockridge, Moderator; T. C. Ethe, ridge, Director; George Starr, D. Thompson, H. B. Townsend, A. A. Dorrance. 1875-76.-D. Thompson, Moderator; A. A. Dorrance, Director; R. F. Mockridge, D. Cook, J. Murphy, D. C. Powers. 1876-77.-R. F. Mockridge, Moderator; J. Murphy, Director; A. A. Dorrance, D. C. Powers, M. Mansfield, J. F. Pratt. 1877-78.-F. V. Smith, President; Justin Lawyer, Clerk; D. W. Tinkham, H. D. Robinson, G. S. Foster, 0. B. Moore, G. W. Stevens, J. R. Champion. LADIES LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. During the year 1865 a number of ladies instituted a movement to secure the presence of some of the most eminent names in the lecture field in Coldwater, and to insure the success of their undertaking, they determined to first raise a fund which could be drawn upon to make up any deficit that might be occasioned by adverse circumstances. This was done with a series of entertainments,-the whole netting the sum of about five hundred dollars. The following year a course of lectures was duly furnished, but the eagerness for platform eloquence had somewhat abated, and no regular course was given thereafter, but the money put at interest until the amount aggregated six hundred dollars. The establishment of a library with the money was a favorite idea with the ladies, and on the evening of Dec. 13, 1869, the members of the Lecture Association, and those more particularly interested in having raised the funds in their hands, met at the residence of F. V. Smith, Esq., to consult about the formation of a Ladies' Library Association, to which, if formed, they would turn over the money in their possession. Several gentlemen present afJs advocated the plan. It was decided to form such an assoelation, and articles drawn up by a committee appointed at a preliminary meeting were signed by twenty-two ladies. The Legislature was petitioned for a charter, by-laws framed, and the association duly organized with the following charter members: Margaret L. Powers, Marietta K. Love ridge, Georgiana L. Cutter, Emeline Barber, Mary A. Wade, Mariet Smith, Harriet D. Morgan, Mary C. Champion, Mary Shipman, Alma Lewis, Alice C. Randall, Lizzie P.

Page  130 130 HIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. _ j 4_.. I _ Woodward, Ardessa Crippen, Helen L. Lanphere, Harriet L. Mockridge, Olivia Safford, Josephine P. McGowen, Addie Wing, Sallie G. Nichols, Mary A. Rose, Ann Van Valkenburg. By an article of the constitution, any lady of legal age paying one dollar into the treasury becomes a member of the association, and is entitled to a vote at the usual meeting. No gentleman is permitted to vote or is eligible to office, but the annual payment of one dollar affords any gentleman the privileges of the library. The payment of thirty dollars constitutes the individual a life member, who, together with wife or husband, is entitled to the privileges of the library during the existence of the corporation. December 20, the first board of directors was elected by the association. They are fifteen in number, and remain in office three years, and the arrangement is such that onethird of them retire from office each year, to give place to new members. The institution now had a being and a name, and the board set about furnishing the objects which had called for the existence of the organization, viz., the establishment and maintenance of a library for affording and encouraging useful and entertaining reading, and the furnishing literary and scientific lectures, and other means for intellectual improvement in the city of Coldwater. The city was patiently canvassed to procure memberships, and over three hundred annual memberships were sold, and twenty-three life memberships. As the result of their persistent efforts, the ladies at the beginning of 1870 found themselves possessed of twelve hundred and fifty dollars. The selection of a suitable room was a matter of much solicitude, which Dr. Beech promptly set at rest, by offering the parlors in his own house for the use of the library, rent free. This offer was gladly accepted, and books to the value of one thousand dollars were immediately ordered, Messrs. Upson and Lewis kindly transacting the necessary business in Detroit. Five hundred dollars more were expended the same year for books. At the end of the first year the library numbered twelve hundred volumes, around which nucleus the succeeding years have deposited their contributions. The officers of the board for the first year were: President, Mrs. Alma Lewis; Vice-President, Mrs. Georgia Cutter; Treasurer, Mrs. N. Harrington; Recording Secretary, Mrs. Z. P. McGowen; Corresponding Secretary, Mrs. G. L. Cutter. At the beginning of its career, the library was most fortunate in receiving liberal support. Beside the material aid furnished by those gentlemen who purchased life memberships, the city papers did all the necessary printing the first year gratuitously, Mr. F. V. Smith furnishing tickets, catalogues, etc. Dr. Beech more especially earned the lasting gratitude of the association by both his early and longcontinued generosity. The library occupied his parlors until the summer of 1874, when he further evinced his good-will by presenting the association with a building in the rear of his dwelling, and a lease for five years of the ground upon which it stands. The board repaired and furnished it at a cost of about three hundred and fifty dollars, and the library has since occupied its pleasant and accessible rooms. The money for repairs was all obtained by donations or entertainments. Thus it has come to pass that, while other like associations have had to pay out a large percentage of their income for rent, and depend upon volunteered services in the office of librarian, the Coldwater Library has always had a home without charge, and the board have been enabled after the first year to paly a regular salary to a librarian, who not only attends to the circulation, sale of tickets, collection of fines, etc., but has such a personal supervision of the books as tends in no small degree to their preservation. The "stitch in time," etc., needs frequent illustration in a circulating library. The board have also been enabled to keep the price of tickets at the nominal sum of one dollar, and so bring the advantages of the library within the reach of all. Present officers: Mrs. G. H. Turner, President; Mrs. R. Coe, Treasurer; Mrs. G. Van Valkenberg, Recording Secretary; Miss Kittie Cutter, Corresponding Secretary. THE LEWIS ART GALLERY. Coldwater derives much importance in the southern portion of the State from its extensive collection of works of art, known generally as the Lewis Art Gallery. The building is very centrally located on Chicago Street, and adjoining the residence of its founder, Mr. H. C. Lewis. It is unnecessary to indulge in fulsome praise of the munificence which inspired the establishment of this gallery, or to discuss the public spirit and generosity displayed by its projector. It is sufficient to say that it has given great pleasure not only to the citizens, but to those who are enabled by close proximity to the city to visit it frequently, and its influence upon the taste of the community is even more apparent here than in larger cities, where a love of art is fostered and encouraged by the presence of good pictures. The collection is thrown open to the public on Saturday of each week, and during the winter the apartments are comfortably heated, and no restrictions are placed upon visitors other than are demanded by the observance of the rules which govern good breeding. The gallery is divided into two compartments, the first being principally hung with foreign pictures, and copies of the famous pictures of artists of repute abroad. The farther compartment embraces a collection of portraits of much merit,-many of them originals, others excellent copies,the subjects being celebrated English, French, and American characters. These portraits, together with a large proportion of the pictures, are from the Thompson collection, very well known to Bostonians, and which were originally intended to form the nucleus of a gallery to be ultimately donated to the city of Boston. Some slight circumstance diverted the collector from his original purpose and consigned them to the auction-room, from whence many of them came to Coldwater. The remainder of the collection adorned the palatial halls of the late Le Grand Lockwood's residence at Norwalk, Conn. We regret that it is not possible to obtain from Mr. Lewis, who is abroad, a history of' the pictures and many incidents relating to their purchase, which would be of much interest to the reader. A brief review of some of the most interesting works is all that we are able to offer

Page  131 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 131 under the circumstances. Among the copies of the old masters in the first gallery, and perhaps the chef d'oelvre of the collection, is a superb copy of Murillo's " Conception," displaying not only the individuality of this great master, but his remarkable grace of outline and harmony of color. There is also a fine copy of Raphael's " Transfiguration," and three copies of Correggio,-an "Adoration," "Christ and Mary Magdalene,' and " Clrist and the Woman of Samaria at the Well,"-all indicating the abso.utc mastery of this artist in the wonderful effects produced by the skillful handling of light and shadow. There is an excellent copy of the "Aurora" of Guido, and another of Claude Lorraine's " Harbor of Civita Vecchia." In this gallery is also a charming little interior of modest proportions, " The First Attempt to teach a Child how to Walk," full of the cheerful life and warm color of the Dutch school. Among the pictures which we are informed belonged to the Lockwood collection are Eastman Johnson's " Boyhood of Lincoln," a work which considerably enhanced the already wide reputation of the artist, and which may be regarded, perhaps, as second to none in the gallery in point of merit. " A Roman Beauty' is one of the most superb bits of coloring, and near it hang Kaufman's picture of " Admiral Farragut in the Shrouds of his Vessel at the Battle of Mobile," a work of considerable repute, and a " Chimney Sweep Making his Toilet," remarkable for its spirit and conscientious drawing. Among the portraits are an excellent copy of Gilbert Stuart's " Washington," the original of which adds to the fame of the Lennox Gallery, New York; a strong drawing of Benjamin Franklin, and another of President Wayland, and many admirable portraits of female celebrities. Indeed, the whole collection of portraits is so excellent as to add greatly to the interest of the gallery. Among the larger pictures are an "Emigrant Train Attacked by Indians," by Charles Winsor, a work of considerable reputation, remarkable for its vigorous handling and its truth to nature. It is regarded as one of the most valuable in the collection. Near it hangs " Mary Queen of Scots Accusing John Knox of Treason," a work of much historical interest, and "The Angel Appearing to Hagar in the Wilderness," said to have been pronounced almost faultless as an anatomical study. "The Sleeping Beauty," by Wight,-the subject taken from one of Tennyson's poems,-attracts attention not only from its size, but from its fine coloring and its happy effect of drapery. One of the most conspicuous gems of the whole collection is a picture of the Dusseldorf school, " Luther taken Prisoner to the Castle of Wartburg." The mediaeval tone of the picture, the fine drawing, and its suggestive character all combine to make it one of the choicest works upon the walls of the Lewis Gallery. There are also many choice bits of statuary both in bronze and marble, but our limited space does not admit of so extended a notice of this very pleasant and instructive place of resort as its merits deserve. MASONIC LODGES. Freemasonry first had a permanent foothold in Coldwater in 1847, there having been many Masons in the village prior to that time, but no organized lodge. From that period to the present the institution has grown and prospered until it has become an established power in the city. No special events have marked its progress, however, other than participation in occasional public ceremonies to which the various lodges were invited.. Tyre Lodge, 2No. 18.-This lodge, which ranks as the oldest in the city, holds a charter bearing date April 1, 1847, its first officers having been John T. Haynes, W. M.; Henry Buell, S. W.; Amos Bacon, J. W.; Samuel P. Noyes, Treas.; Andrain Abbott, Sec. Its early members were Ichabod Davis, James Sloecraft, Myral Comstock, Elisha Warner, Bradley Crippen, William Keyes, Samuel Etheridge. Its officers have been, from that date, successively: 1848.-George W. Davis, W. M.; E. G. Parsons, S. W.; D. Haynes, J. W.; Dorset J. Goff, Treas.; Henry C. Gilbert, Sec.; J. S. Davidson, S. D.; L. D. Halsted, J. D.; S. C. Hanchett, Tyler. 1849.-George W. Davidson, W. M.; Harvey Warner, S. W.; Elisha Warren, J. W.; D. J. Goff, Treas.; Henry C. Gilbert, Sec.; Lucius E. Mills, S. D.; L. D. Halsted, J. D.; E. Lawrence, Tyler. 1850.-John T. Haynes, W. M.; Albert L. Porter, S. W.; L. E. Mills, J. W.; Daniel Mills, Treas.; N. T. Waterman, Sec.; John H. Stevens, S. D.; L. D. Halsted, J. D.; D. Haynes, Tyler. 1851.-Lucius E. Mills, W. M.; Elijah C. Sternes, S. W.; A. T. Macary, J. W.; D. J. Goff, Treas.; N. T. Waterman, Sec.; M. Mansfield, S. D.; L. D. Halsted, J. D.; B. H. Cutler, Tyler. 1852.-A. T. Macary, W. M.; Mortimer Mansfield, S. W.; Louis T. N. Wilson, J. W.; Harvey Warner, Treas.; Corydon P. Benton, Sec.; S. P. Noyes, S. D.; D. J. Goff, J. D.; B. H. Cutler, Tyler. 1853.-Wales Adams, W. M.; Albert L. Porter, S. W.; C. P. Benton, J. W.; Daniel Mills, Treas.; Seaman L. Dart, Sec.; D. Littlefield, S. D.; E. C. Sternes, J. D.; B. H. Cutler, Tyler. 1854.-Mortimer Mansfield, WX M.; C. P. Benton, S. W.; A. F. Bidwell, J. W.; Elihu Mather, Treas.; Franc. B. Way, Sec.; S. L. Dart, S. D.; G. H. White, J. D.; E. C. Sternes, Tyler. 1855.-Corydon P. Benton, W. M.; S. L Dart, S. W.; Origen Bingham, J. W.; Elihu Mather, Treas.; J. C. Montgomery, Sec.; R. H. Drake, S. D.; A. Pierce, J. D.; J. G. Buffham, Tyler. 1856.-Corydon P. Benton, W. M.; S. L. Dart, S. W.; Wm. J. Jones, J. W.; A. McCrea, Treas.; J. F. Pratt, Sec.; J. B. Stevenson, S. D.; B. M. Bordine, J. D.; B. H. Cutler, Tyler. 1857.-Seaman L. Dart, W. D.; W. J. Jones, S. W.; R. H. Drake, J. W.; A. McCrea, Treas.; David Bovee, Sec.; J. B. Stevenson, S. D.; H. W. White, J. D.; B. M. Bordine, Tyler. 1858.-Seaman L. Dart, W. M.; John H. Beech, S. W.; Almon L. Lytle, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; D. Bovee, Sec.; E. W. Markham, S. D.; John G. Buffham, J. D.; Ariel Pierce, Tyler. 1859.-Seaman L. Dart, W. M.; A. L. Lytle, S. W.; David Bovee, J. W.; C. P. Benton, Treas.; P. P. Nichols, R:d

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Sec.; Frank Plogart, S. D.; M. Mansfield, J. D.; J. G. Buffham, Tyler. 1860.-Scaman L. Dart, W. M.; A. L. Lytle, S. W.; D. Bovee, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; John Murphey, Sec.; F. Plogart, S. D.; Wm. H. Abbot, J. D.; R. H. Drake, Tyler. 1861.-Seaman L. Dart, W. M.; A. L. Lytle, S. W.; D. Bovee, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; John Murphey, Sec.; F. Plogart, S. D.; O. C. Graham, J. D.; R. H. Drake, Tyler; Rev. H. Safford, Chaplain. 1862.-Seaman L. Dart, W. M.; A. L. Lytle, S. W.; D. Bovee, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; John Murphey, Sec.; 0. C. Graham, S. D.; N. Rosenbaum, J. D.; R. H. Drake, Tyler; Rev. H. Safford, Chaplain. 1863.-Seaman L. Dart, W. M.; A. L. Lytle, S. W.; D. Bovee, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; George Ferguson, Sec.; 0. C. Graham, S. D.; N. Rosenbaum, J. D.; George Mansel, Tyler. 1864.-D. Bovee, W. M.; 0. C. Graham, S. W.; Geo. Ferguson, J. W.; A. Allen, Treas.; C. J. Manvel, Sec.; D. Cooley, S. D.; J. L. Hill, J. D.; Geo. Mansell, Tyler. 1865.-D. Bovee, W. M.; 0. C. Graham, S. W.; N. Rosenbaum, J. W.; R. H. Drake, Treas.; C. J. Manvel, Sec.; M. G. Townsend, S. D.; J. L. Hill, J. D.; Geo. Mansell, Tyler. 1866.-D. Bovee, W. M.; John Murphey, S. W.; Nathan Rosenbaum, J. W.; R. H. Drake, Treas.; Geo. M. Dumon, Sec.; H. J. Woodward, S. D.; Wm. Anderson, J. D.; H. Toland, Tyler. 1867.-David Bovee, W. M.; 0. C. Graham, S. W.; N. Rosenbaum, J. W.; A. McCrea, Treas.; R. A. Hall, Sec.; H. E. Macary, S. D.; Z. C. Cheeny, J. D.; S. Darrow, Tyler. 1868.-D. Bovee, W. M.; D. B. Purinton, S. W.; R. A. Hall, J. W.; R. H. Drake, Treas.; Geo. M. Dumon, Sec.; Z. C. Cheeny, S. D.; J. L. Hill, J. D.; Geo. Firth, Tyler. 1869.-D. Bovee, W. M.; Wm. C. Burns, S. W.; R. A. Hall, J. W.; R. H. Drake, Treas.; Geo. M. Dumon, Sec.; J. A. Ashbaugh, S. D.; A. Smith, J. D.; D. Fox, Tyler. 1870.-D. Bovee, W. M.; W. C. Burns, S. W.; R. A. Hall, J. W.; George Starr, Treas.; G. M. Dumond, Sec.; J. A. Ashbaugh, S. D.; A. Smith, J. D.; G. H. Taylor, Tyler. 1871.-D. Bovee, W. M.; J. A. Ashbaugh, S. W.; G. H. Taylor, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; C. F. Stygles, Sec.; H. A. Wolcott, S. D.; Wm. Draubaugh, J. D.; G. Firth, Tyler. 1872.-D. Bovee, W. M.; J. Ashbaugh, S. W.; G. H. Taylor, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton, Sec.; H. A. Wolcott, S.-D.; A. J. Foster, J. D.; Geo. Firth, Tyler. 1873.-The same. 1874.-D. Bovee, W. M.; A. J. Foster, S. W.; G. H., Taylor, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton, Sec.; D. S. Phinney, S. D.; Geo. Firth, Tyler. 1875. —D. Bovee, W. M.; A. J. Foster, S. W.; Wm. C. Burns, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton Sc.; D. S. Phinney, S. D.; Wm. Draubaugh, J. D.; Geo. Firth Tyler. 1876.-D. Bovee, W. M.; A. J. Foster, S. W.; E. W. Holmes, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton, Sec.; D. S. Phinney, S. D.; J. W. Brown, J. D.; Daniel Fox, Tyler. 1877.-D. Bovee, W. M.; A. J. Foster, J. W.; E. W. Holmes, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton, Sec.; L. A. Peckham, S. D.; J. W. Brown, J. D.; D. Fox, Tyler. The following statistics give an idea of the working of the lodge since its organization: Initiated. December, 1847....... 11 " 1848.......34 " 1849...... 3 " 1850..... 2 " 1851...... 9 " 1852..... 5 " 1853...... 5 " 1854....... 19 " 1855...... 8 " 1856...... 15 " 18&7...... 8 " 1858....... 5 " 1859...... 15 " 1860...... 18 " 1861..... 9 " 1862...... 26 " 1863......26 " 1864......44 " 1865...... 26 " 1866...... 22 " 1867...... 30 " 1868....... 15 " 1869....... 26 " 1870...... 8 " 1871...... 8 1872..... 6 " 1873..... 3 " 1874...... 4 " 1875...... 9 " 1876...... 6 " 1877...... 2 " 1878...... 1 Raised. 10 24 3 2 11 5 3 10 12 11 9 4 12 15 11 22 22 29 14 13 25 6 21 18 6 3 4 5 5 5 2 2 D. From other Total Died. lodges. lmeub's. 0 4 24 0 5 63 1 1 64 1 1 49 2 6 61 1 3 50 1 6 59 0 6 81 1 3 80 2 5 94 1 0 89 1 0 77 3 1 100 0 6 119 0 2 118 1 4 150 2 5 174 4 7 204 2 6 220 4 7 228 2 9 251 1 10 245 4 12 243 2 3 251 3 2 251 4 1 250 3 6 247 3 3 252 3 3 249 5 5 249 3 0 237 3 3 222 It will be seen by the foregoing table that the total membership the first year of its organization was 24, showing a decided growth fiom that time to the present. Its officers are D. Bovee, W. M.; A. J. Foster, S. W.; E. W. Holmes, J. W.; R. A. Hall, Treas.; D. B. Purinton, Sec.; Charles E. Fanning, S. D.; G. W. Fox, J. D.; Daniel Fox, Tyler. The following impressive dirge is used by the lodge in ceremonies attending the burial of its members: "Solemn strikes the funeral chime, Notes of our departing time: As we journey here below, Through a pilgrimage of woe! "Mortals, now indulge a tear, For mortality is near! See how wide her trophies wave O'er the slumbers of the grave! "Here another guest we bring, Seraphs of celestial wing, To our funeral altar come, Waft this Friend and Brother home. "Lord of all! below-aboveFill our hearts with Truth and Love; When dissolves this earthly tie, Take us to thy Lodge on high." Coldwater Lodge, No. 260.-This lodge was organized from Tyre Lodge, No. 18. Several members being desirous to establish another lodge in Coldwater, made application

Page  133 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 1-33 to the officers of the Grand Lodge of the State for a dispensation, which was granted Feb. 10, 1869, with the following gentlemen as its first officers: Thomas S. Dorsey, W. M.; Nathan Rosenbaum, S. W.; George Ferguson, J. W.; H. J. Woodward, Sec.; S. S. Scovill, Treas. Its present officers are N. Rosenbaum, W. M.; A. E. Thompson, S. W.; E. S. Taylor, J. W.; S. H. Egabrood, Sec.; John P. Fiske, Treas. The regular communications are held the first Monday evening of each month. The lodge has a hall, spacious and well appointed, in which the meetings are held. Jacob's Commandery, No. 10.-The following gentlemen first applied for a dispensation to organize a commandery in Coldwater: Franklin T. Eddy, Wales Adams, Norman L. Southworth, Asa G. Rose, Joseph A. Rose, Charles H. Putnam, Richard H. Drake, Artemus Allen, Leaman L. Dart, Lyman Sleeper. The application bore date March 3, 1860, and the charter was granted June 6 of the same year, with its first officers as follows: Franklin T. Eddy, E. C.; N. L. Southworth, Gen.; Artemus Allen, Capt.Gen.; S. L. Dart, Recorder. Its present officers are R. A. Iall, E. C.; S. S. Scovill, Gen.; R. G. Chandler, Capt.Gen.; D. B. Purinton, Recorder. Its present membership numbers seventy. Temlple Chapter, No. 21, R. A. M.-The charter of this chapter bears date Jan. 13, 1859, the following gentlemen having applied for a dispensation: Edwin Perry, John H. Beach, N. L. Southworth, David Burns, E. Mather, Samuel Etheridge, Wales Adams, Abram McCrea, S. L. Dart, Levi Daggett. Its first officers were Edwin Perry, High-Priest; John H. Beach, King; N. L. Southworth, Scribe. Its present officers are A. J. Foster, High-Priest; Wm. C. Barnes, King; Sylvanus S. Scovill, Scribe; J. Wesley Brown, Treas.; David B. Purinton, Sec. This chapter has been prosperous since its organization, and increased its list of members until it now numbers one hundred and twenty-seven on its rolls. The regular meetings are held the first Wednesday of each month. Mount Moriah Council, No. 6, R. and S. M.-This organization was formed November, 1859, under a dispensation granted by the T. I. G. P. of the State of Michigan. Its first officers were S. L. Dart, T. I. G. M.; M. Mansfield, D. I. G. M.; R. H. Drake, P. C. of W.; J. B. Stevenson, C. of G.; D. Bovec, G. S.; F. T. Eddy, Recorder; A. Allen, Treas. Its present officers are D. B. Purinton, T. I. M.; John P. Fisk, D. I. M.; J. A. Ashbaugh, P. C. of W.; W. C. Barnes, C. of G.; M. H. Parker, Treas.; S. B. Kitchel, Recorder; A. A. Unangst, S. and S.; D. Fox, Sentinel. Its regular meetings arc held the first Thursday of every month. INDEPENDENT ORDER OF ODD-FELLOWS. Coldwater Lodge, No. 31.-The Order had its first organization in the city as early as the year 1848, Coldwater Lodge, No. 31, having been formed in February of that year. No authentic record of the transactions of the body can be obtained, but from one of the oldest members we learn that it was for a time prosperous, but the harmony which at first characterized its sessions unhappily termi nated in discord, and the lodge surrendered its charter in 1855, and for a time was practically defunct. It at this time owned some property, which was scattered among its members, and four cemetery lots which had been deeded to it by the corporation reverted again to the donors. Dec. 17, 1871, the lodge was resuscitated with the following officers: Gilbert Sherman, D. D. G. M.; H. D. Warren, N. G.; J. A. Brookins, V. G.; A. Halstead, Recording Sec.; H. N. Moore, Treas.; Hiram Baker, Permanent Sec. The lodge having been again established on a flourishing basis, an effort was made to redeem the lots which had been awarded to the original body by the corporation. These it was learned had been sold and were already in use, but a compromise was effected by which other lots of equal value were given the new organization. The present officers of the Coldwater Lodge are Alfred Milnes, D. D. G. M.; L. A. Peterson, N. G.; J. S. Conover, V. G.; C. W. Johnson, Recording Sec.; W. H. Allen, Permanent Sec.; Alfred Milnes, Treas. The present membership is seventy-five. Bethesda Lodge, No. 268.-This lodge was organized November 5, 1875, by George Dean as Grand Master of the Grand Lodge of the State. Its first officers were Theodore Lyman, N. G.; James Anderson, V. G.; Charles D. Wright, Recording Sec.; James A. Brookins, Permanent Sec.; Thomas Smith, Treas. Trustees: James Anderson, Thomas Smith, J. H. D. Warren. Its present officers are S. Egerbroad, N. G.; David Bartlett, V. G.; J. H. D. Warren, Recording Sec.; M. H. Parker, Permanent Sec.; James Anderson, Treas. Trustees: Gilbert Sherman, Charles Chapman, James Anderson. OAK GROVE CEMETERY. The original plat comprised in this cemetery was owned by individual parties, and embraced about eighteen acres. The deed conveying it to the Oak Grove Cemetery Association bears date July 15, 1854, and the party making the conveyance is George A. Coe. In the year 1869 it was deemed best to enlarge the dimensions of the inclosure, and about one hundred acres more were added, the deed of conveyance having been given by C. V. L. Kibbe to the city of Coldwater in that year. The original association included the following list among its first officers: Orsamus B. Clark, President; George A. Coe, Clerk; James Pierson, Collector; George A. Coe, Treasurer; John Luck, Sexton. The following description of the ground embraced in the original plat is found in the records: "All that certain piece or parcel of land situate, lying, and being in the town of Coldwater, in the county of Branch and State of Michigan, described as follows, to wit: Beginning at a point on the north line of the Chicago Road, on the west bank of Coldwater River, at a cedar stake; northwardly, westwardly, and southerly, along the centre of the ditch at the base of the hill, and around the same until it intersects the north line of the Chicago Road, and from thence eastwardly, along the north-line of the Chicago Road, about one humn

Page  134 1 134 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. dred rods, to the place of beginning, containing about eighteen acres, more or less, and being a part of the north half of the southwest fractional quarter of section seventeen. "The object of such association or corporation is declared to be the dedication of said piece of land for a cemetery or burying-ground, and the fencing, improving, ornamenting, and keeping the same for the purposes aforesaid." Oak Grove Cemetery is remarkable for its picturesque location and its varied natural beauties. Its walks and drives-which are numerous and traverse nearly the whole extent of the grounds-are lined with luxuriant shadetrees, and the beautiful sloping hills of the north end look out upon an expansive sheet of water, which adds greatly to the attractiveness of the location. The vault, situated in the central portion of the grounds, is bordered with a very tasteful arrangement of hedge, and displays much taste. There are also various plans for improving and beautifying the inclosure, which will from time to time be carried out. Many fine monuments and memorial-stones mark the graves, and the attentive care given the private lots is evidence of the tender memories that departed friends have left behind. Altogether, this cemetery impresses the visitor not only by its exceedingly beautiful natural advantages, but by the admirable manner in which art has added to their attractions. THE BAR OF COLDWATER. While the bar of this county has never produced a Cicero, or a Demosthenes, a Webster or Clay, it is thought that it will compare favorably with the bar of any interior county in the State. In the spring of 1837, E. G. Fuller, Esq., a young attorney from New York State, while journeying westward towards Chicago and Milwaukee, in search of a place to locate, was induced by the beauty of Coldwater and the surrounding country, to rest over the Sabbath. He discovered that there was no attorney here, and was finally induced to settle in the young and rising village of Coldwater. Some amusing incidents occurred at this first admission to the bar. A committee of three gentlemen, "learned in the law," was appointed to examine the young attorney, and report as to his legal attainments. The first question asked was as to his politics. On being told that he was a," Jackson Democrat," two of the committee expressed entire satisfaction; the other one, however, had a question or two more to ask. " Did he ever expect to run for the Legislature? and if so, did he expect to be elected?" After this question was answered, the trio of "legal lore" were entirely satisfied, and the first attorney of Branch County was duly admitted to practice in all the august courts of the State. Very soon after he was commissioned by the Governor of the State as prosecuting attorney of the county, and held the office for several years. In 1844 he was elected judge of probate for the county, and served four years to the entire satisfaction of his con stituency. Since his retirement from the probate judgeship he has devoted his time mainly to the practice of his profession and in supervising the culture of a farm which he owns in the south part of the city. He is a good law I yer, still in excellent health, and practicing in California, where he is temporarily sojourning with a son. In 1838, or about that time, another attorney found Coldwater a place of sufficient attraction to" pitch his tent." This was Edward A. Warner, Esq., an agreeable and intelligent young man. He soon obtained a good practice, and was constantly working his way upward in the hearts of the pioneers, when death claimed him as her own. He has been sleeping in the " silent city," over the river, nearly thirty-five years. George A. Coe, Esq., fresh from his studies in Rochester, N. Y., found the quiet little village of Coldwater, in 1839 or 1840. Politics ran high in those days, and Mr. Coe, being a good Whig, was doubly welcomed by the Whigs, as both of the former gentlemen were Democrats. Possessed of fine personal appearance and social attractions, he at once became a great favorite, and business flowed in upon him abundantly. He was soon after elected justice of the peace, member of the Legislature in 1848, State senator, and lieutenant-governor in 1854 and 1856, presiding in the Senate chamber with great satisfaction. Indeed, as a presiding officer le had few equals. After his retirement from legislative duties he was again elected justice of the peace and supervisor, both of which offices he held at the time of his death, in 1869. He was a good lawyer and a general favorite in society. Louis T. N. Wilson, Esq., a pioneer boy, entered the office of Lieutenant-Governor Coe, and commenced the study of law, Jan. 16, 1843. Being a bright and active young man, full of ambition, he soon acquired a sufficient knowledge of the profession to procure his admission to the bar. In the spring of 1851 he was elected justice of the peace, in 1854 State senator, and in 1870 prosecuting attorney, all of which positions he filled with marked ability. Official positions, however, interfered with his legal business, and he now devotes himself strictly to his profession. He possesses a bright, active mind and great brilliancy of speech, added to a thorough knowledge of the law. Judge David Thompson, also a pioneer boy, commenced the study of the law in Coldwater, at an early day. His studious and thoughtful habits soon gave him a good knowledge of the profession, and in due time he had a fine practice. Pleasant and agreeable in his intercourse with those around him, he was held in esteem by all. Some years ago he was elected justice of the peace, but resigned, because its duties interfered with his professional pursuits. He was elected judge of probate in 1864, and served with satisfaction. He was afterwards appointed circuit judge, by Governor Croswell. Judge Thomas N. Cooly, for many years past upon the Supreme bench of this State, stopped in Coldwater a short time at an early day; but clients were too poor and scarce for men of his genius and ability. He left the field' to others, much to the regret of those best acquainted with his eminent learning and ability. General J. G. Parkhurst, came from Central New York about 1850, and entered into partnership with the late Lieutenant-Governor Coe. He was elected prosecuting attorney in 1852, and served with credit to himself. Early in the Rebellion he was appointed a lieutenant-colonel of one

Page  135 1_35 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. --------------- _ _ 7 _, of the Michigan regiments, and served till the end of the war. He was brevetted brigadier-general for gallant services in the army. Since the war he has given but little time to the practice of law, having other business to take his entire time. Justus Goodwin, Esq., practiced in the county early, though he lived on a large farm just outside the county. Union City, in an early day, was called after him," Goodwinville." In later years he moved to Coldwater, but never obtained a great practice, as he preferred out-door exercise to a sedentary life. His death occurred some years ago. He was considered an able lawyer and a genial gentleman. Cephas B. Dresser came here many years ago, a young man, but remained only a short time. He was called a well-read lawyer. We understand he now resides in Hillsdale. Harris, a good, sound lawyer, came early. His stay was short. Cause, doubtless, the want of well-to-do clients,-a very good reason. Caleb D. Randall, also a pioneer boy, came previous to 1840, with his father's family, Dr. Alvah Randall, and settled in Bronson. After he was admitted to the bar he came to Coldwater, and entered upon a good practice. He was elected State senator in 1870, and drafted the bill establishing the " State Public School." Although a sound lawyer, his practice of late years has been limited. Being president of the Michigan Southern National Bank, his time is occupied with its affairs. Edward J. Hard, an industrious lawyer, settled here in an early day. His career was short, however, for death soon claimed him as its own. E. G. Parsons, one of the early lawyers, was prosecuting attorney for several terms. He was a shrewd lawyer and a social gentleman, we believe. His present residence, as far as known, is in the State of Missouri. In 1841 or 1842, Daniel Gilbert, Esq., moved here from Western New York with two sons, H. C. and J. W. Gilbert. The father, through age and infirmities, practiced but little, but was a good counselor, and may truly have been called "A fine old English gentleman, All of the olden time." He died many years ago. H. C. Gilbert, the elder son, was a man of untiring perseverance, and an able and eloquent lawyer. He was Indian agent for the State under President Pierce's administration. After the expiration of his term of office he purchased a large farm in the town of Coldwater, and planted an extensive nursery. His farming, however, was no more profitable than that of the distinguished Horace Greeley. In other words, he enriched his coffers the wrong way. Upon the breaking out of the Rebellion he was appointed colonel of one of the Michigan regiments, serving with great gallantry and giving up his life for the Union he loved so well. His remains were brought home and interred in Oak Grove Cemetery. James W., the younger of the two sons, was also an ex cellent lawyer, but possessed of a less robust constitution than his brother. Hard study brought on disease, and in the prime and beauty of manhood his life was cut short. Justin Lawyer, Esq., was an early attorney in the county. Many years ago he was elected county judge, but the Legislature, we believe, dispensed with his services by repealing the law under which he was elected. Having been engaged in other business a large portion of the time since, his practice has been limited. He is a gentleman of fine social qualities and a sound attorney. E. S. Jennings, Esq., came here many years ago, and, though able and eloquent, his stay was short. Egbert K. Nichols, Esq., was an attorney in the county years ago. He was elected county prosecuting attorney, but his stay was not sufficiently long to form any idea as to his abilities. We understand he went East from this State. Hon. Charles Upson, when a young man, came from the land of wooden nutmegs, and settled in the county of St. Joseph. He was there elected State senator, but later he settled in Coldwater. As his fame had preceded him, he at once entered upon a large and lucrative practice. In 1862, 1864, and 1866 he was elected to Congress from the district of which Branch formed a part, and served with great acceptance to his constituency. He also served as circuit judge, but resigned on account, we believe, of inadequate salary. Hon. J. W. Turner came to Coldwater from the eastern part of the State many years ago. He had served in the Legislature of the State with much ability, and his services had been appreciated by the people of this county. He entered at once upon a good practice. When the Republican party was organized at Jackson he was present, and entered heartily into the work. Being a fine speaker, his services as a "stumper" were in brisk demand. He was several times elected prosecuting attorney of the county, and it is not too much to say that no man ever filled the office more acceptably to the people or with greater credit to himself. Howell, Esq., an earnest and thorough attorney, stopped in Coldwater at an early day. Clients too poor and scarce, doubtless, influenced his removal. Joseph B. Clarke, Esq., one of the best-read lawyers in the county, remained a few years in Coldwater. He was a brother of " Grace Greenwood," and possessed many traits of character in common with that distinguished lady. He left twenty years or more ago. Willard J. Bowen, Esq., an early pioneer boy of this county, settled in Coldwater years ago. He was considered a good lawyer, but his time being too much occupied in other pursuits, his practice was neglected in consequence. Moses S. Bowen, Esq., a lawyer of fair ability, great tact, and perseverance, practiced in the county several years. He left many years ago. He was regarded as a ial, pleasant gentleman. Hon. F. E. Morgan was a thorough student, well versed in the law. He was elected State senator in 1876, and served with ability. He was a quiet gentleman and an able counselor. Hon. J. H. McGowen came to Coldwater in 1859 or 1860. After superintending our city schools for a time, he enlisted in the army as a captain of cavalry, and was in the celebrated chase after the great rebel John Morgan,

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. I through Indiana and Ohio, and very nearly lost his life in the " Morgan raid." After peace was restored he was elected prosecuting attorney, and served four years. In 1872 he was elected State senator, served one term; in 1876 was elected to Congress, and re-elected in 1878. He is a fine speaker and courteous gentleman. Noah P. Loveridge, Esq., came to Coldwater from Central New York some fifteen years ago. He soon entered upon a successful practice, and by strict attention to business soon merited the esteem of the people. He is a thorough student, genial and affable in manner, and enjoys the confidence of the community. David B. Dennis, Esq., came to Coldwater some twentyfive years ago. Although a good attorney, he has given but little time to professional pursuits. He has served as supervisor and justice of the peace, but his private affairs claim his closest attention. Judge John B. Shipman came to Coldwater nearly twenty years ago, from St. Joseph County, where he studied in the office of Hon. H. H. Riley. His pleasant and agreeable manners soon brought him hosts of friends as well as a lucrative practice. We think it safe to say that there is no more thorough student of the law to be found, and none more highly respected. In the fall of 1878 he was elected circuit judge for the district composed of St. Joseph and Branch Counties, and is now clothed with a judicial garb. Timothy G. Turner, Esq., who came about twenty years ago, was lawyer and editor, and finally enlisted during the war. He is now residing in the West. Wallace W. Barrett, Esq., studied in Coldwater years ago. Was elected prosecuting attorney in the fall of 1860, but on the breaking out of the war he resigned his office and went to the front as a captain of infantry. His gallant services in the army won for him a commission in the regular army, a position few obtained who were not given a military education at West Point. We think he now ranks as major. Levi Sprague, Esq., an attorney of untiring energy and perseverance, practiced in Coldwater years ago, but went from here to Chicago, and now, as we understand, makes a speciality of police-courts practice of that city. Frank D. Skeels, Esq., studied law in Coldwater, and soon after his admission to the bar was elected prosecuting attorney for the county, and was re-elected in 1874, serving four years with ability. He still practices in the city. Simon B. Kitchel was elected prosecuting attorney in 1876, and re-elected in 1878. He possesses a considerable knowledge of the law and has a good degree of perseverance. John R. Champion, Esq., came to Coldwater at an early day with his father's family, the late Reuben J. Chai i Esq. He was in the army several years, and after the swords were returned to their scabbards, in addition to other duties he studied law, and was admitted to the bar. He has twice been elected mayor of Coldwater City, and is a man of fine social qualities. There are several young attorneys in Coldwater in addition to the above. Among them we may name Henry C. Clark, Esq., or, as they call him, Alderman Clark; Charles N. Legg, Esq., Charles D. Wright, Esq., -- Barlow, Esq., N. A. Reynolds, Esq., A. T. Lamphere, Esq., Andrew J. McGowan, Esq., and Harry C. Safford, Esq. These are all young men of fair abilities, and have a promising future before them. PHYSICIANS. "Doctor, forgive me, if I dare prescribe A rule for thee thyself, and all thy tribe, Inserting a few serious words by stealth: Above all price of wealth The Body's jewel,-notfor minds profane, Or hands, to tamper with in practice vainLike to a woman's Virtue is Ml]an's Health, A heavenly gift within a holy shrine! To be approached and touch'd with serions fear By hands made pure, and hearts of faith severe. E'en as the Priesthood of the ONE divine!" HOOD. The physicians who settled in Coldwater previous to 1840 were men of very good ability, and some of them of quite marked character,- leaving an impress upon the community which has long outlived them. Their practice extended far over the sparsely-settled country; and many are the tales of hardship and suffering they related among the early pioneers of this county. Many times they had to be physician, nurse, and adviser; and by their sympathy and cheerfulness, and by their advice in business and family matters, they gave comfort and hope to the home-sick and desponding whose health and vivacity had been taken from them by the enervating influence of the malaria, which, with scarcely an exception, more or less affected all. The physician, better than any one else, knows the trials and hardships of the pioneers who had to battle with disease, and sometimes almost famine. The first physician who settled in Coldwater was Dr. William Henry, from Scipio, Cayuga Co., N. Y., in the summer of 1830. He was about seventy years of age, well educated, and a man of acknowledged ability. He practiced medicine here about two years, and then removed to Sturgis, Mich., where he died. Dr. Hill, of Indiana, aged about fifty-five years, in 1830 settled at Pocahontas, now " Mills," above Branch. He was a practical business man, and built the first " grist-mill" in the county, at the place where he lived. He left in 1832, and went to Lagrange, Ind. Dr. Enoch Chace came to Coldwater from Vermont in the fall of 1831, and practiced medicine until 1834, when he removed to Milwaukee, Wis., where he has been engaged in farming and making the celebrated Milwaukee white brick, an extensive bed of the clay for which he found on his farm. ' He isistill living there, and has become wealthy. 4.Dr. Chace was the only physician of this place, so far as is known, who went before the Board of Censors of " The Medical Society V the Territory of Michigan," and obtained a license 6 practice medicine and surgery in the Territory. This society was established and the license given according to statute made and provided;" and this legal supervision of medical matters in those early times may explain why all the pioneer physicians of Coldwater were men of fair ability. A copy of the license of Dr. Chace is inserted as an interesting relic of the early times. ^i

Page  137 137 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 4' TERRITORY OF MICHIGAN. "To all to whom these presents shall come, or may in any way concern, the President, Secretary, and Censors of the Medical Society of the Territory of Michigan: "Whereas, Enoch Chase hath exhibited unto us satisfactory testimony that he hath studied Physic and Surgery for the time and in the manner directed by law. '' Now, know ye, that by virtue of the power vested in us by law, WE DO GRANT unto the said Enoch Chase the privilege of practicing Physic and Surgery in this Territory, together with all the rights and immunities which may pertain to Physic and Surgery. "R. S. RICE, " WILLIAM CHAPIN, Censors. "JOIIN S. WHITNEY, "In testimony of which we have caused the seal of Society to be affixed at the city of Detroit, this 7th day of July, A.D. 1831. "STEPHEN C. HENRY, "President. "R. S. RICE, " Secretary. "The above is a true copy of said license. "JOHN MORSE, " Clerk of the town of Green. "CoLDWATER, Aug. 1, 1831." Dr. Win. H. Hanchett came from Summit Co., O., in the fall of 1832, just after the close of the Black Hawk war. He was a most energetic, indefatigable worker for the advancement of the interests of Coldwater, and established a reputation and character that made him, for many years, the largest and most successful practitioner of medicine in the county. From 1846 to 1850 he was in partnership with Dr. S. S. Cutter, now of this city. In 1851 he emigrated to California, and after a residence of several years in that State he removed to Eugene City, Oregon, where he died. Dr. Hiram Alden came from Westfield, N. Y., in 1834. He was a well-educated and energetic man; an active Democrat; entered into politics; was elected to the Legislature of Michigan, on a local issue, in 1837, and to the office of Commissioner of Internal Improvement in 1838, which office he held until his death in 1839. He was the father of Mrs. A. Waterman, Mrs. R. Root, Mrs. 11. Haynes, Mrs. H. C. Lewis, of Coldwater, and of Mrs. John Lewis, of Jonesville, Mich.; and of four sons, Rathburn, Isaac, Philander, and Willis, nearly all of whom have been prominently identified with the society of Coldwater from its earliest times. Dr. Bigsbee, botanic physician, a kind-hearted, hardworking man, did what he could to cure disease here from 1833 to 1845, when he had to succumb to the Destroyer, and died in the west part of the township of Quincy, where he had gone to live some years previous. Dr. Darwin Littlefield, of Vermont, after graduating from the medical college at Castlcton, came here from Penfield, N. Y., in 1835, and engaged in the practice of medicine, in which he continued until a few years previous to his death, when he had to abandon it almost entirely on account of failing health. He died in 1870, aged sixty-five, Dr. Littlefield's wife, who survives him, is sister of the late L. D. Crippen and Philo Crippen, now resident here, who, with their families, have been largely identified with the growth and prosperity of this city from early times. Dr. Littlefield was always lively, social, and kind-hearted, and 18 took great delight in being a prominent leader of the choir in the Methodist church. Dr. Wm. B. Sprague, graduate from Albany Medical College, New York, settled on the farm where he now lives, in the east part of this city, in 1835. He engaged to some extent in the practice of medicine for a few years, when, on account of poor health, he changed his occupation to farming; but his counsel and advice have often been sought by other physicians in consultation for many years since he ceased active practice. Dr. Corwin, from Lyons, N. Y., practiced medicine here in 1838. He was an old man, well educated, and died in a short time after coming here, at Mansonville, on the river, in the west part of the city. Dr. D. Clark, from Rochester, N. Y., practiced here a short time in 1837, when he left for St. Louis, Mo., where he died. He was the father of Mrs. Sampson, who now lives with her cousin, Wm. Scovill, in the township of Coldwater. Dr. Calkins, from Albion, N. Y., was a partner of Dr. Win. H. Hanchett in this city for a short time in 1838, when they dissolved, and he, Dr. Calkins, edited the Coldwater Observer for a year or so, and then left the place. Dr. H. B. Stillman resided in early life at Cherry Valley, N. Y., where he studied medicine and surgery with the celebrated Dr. White of that place. After finishing his studies,-graduating from Castleton Medical College, New York,-he commenced the practice of his profession in Toledo, 0., where he lived two years, and removed to Branch, which was then the county-seat of this county, in 1838, and in 1844 he permanently settled in Coldwater, which place had then been for several years the principal town, and had been established the county-seat against its rival, the village of Branch. Dr. Stillman was elected county clerk while living at Branch, which office he held for several years after removing to Coldwater. He was a Democrat until the breaking out of the war of the Rebellion, when he united with the Republicans. He was an active politician, particularly well read in all political matters pertaining to this country, and gave his attention more to such subjects than to medicine, but in all matters his judgment was good. Dr. Bacon, from Ithaca, N. Y., in 1841 commenced the practice of medicine here. He was a finely-educated man, of fine personal appearance and cultivated manners. He left in about a year and a half afterwards for Illinois. Dr. Matthew Gill came here from Albany, N. Y., in 1840, where he graduated, and in about two years left for Battle Creek, where he has since resided and practiced medicine until two or three years ago, since when he has been in the role of " traveling physician," treating hemorrhogid diseases. He married while here Miss Susan ske., daughter of James Fiske, a very worthy pioneer, and father of Rev. Luther R. Fiske, president of Albion College, Michigan, and of D. W. J. Fiske and Mrs. I. G. Miles, of this place. Dr. Peter Sprague, elder brother of Dr. Wm. B. Sprague, of this place, and father of Philander Sprague, Esq., of Batavia, in this county, came here from Broadalbin, N. Y., in 1844; and after following his profession here

Page  138 138 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. for a few years he went to live on his farm in Batavia, Michigan, where he died in 1860. He married while here Mrs. R. Hull, owner of Hull's addition to the city of Coldwater; but she, preferring to live in Coldwater, did not go with her husband to Batavia. Dr. N. B. Welper practiced the " healing art" here from 1846 to 1856, when he removed to Hillsdale, Mich., where he subsequently edited a Democratic paper. He died at Hillsdale. Dr. William L. Clarke, graduate from Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, emigrated from Rochester, N. Y., to this place in 1848, and followed his profession here until 1852, when he went to Chicago, where he now lives and has a very fine practice in medicine and surgery. Dr. Clarke was an unusually well-educated physician when he came here, and was considered one of the best surgeons who had ever resided here. His father was a noted physician, and he is brother of Mrs. Sarah E. Lippincott, of Philadelphia, whose nom de plume is " Grace Greenwood." From 1845 to 1848, Coldwater could boast of having what the regular educated doctors called a noted quack in Dr. Fasey, who did quite a large business, part in respectable families, for which he charged enormous fees, and generally managed to collect them. He kept a fine establishment, dressed well, and made a fine personal appearance. He was an Englishman. He was ruined in his practice here by the discovery of a medicine he was using largely for a patient, who soon died. Dr. Stocking, facetiously called " Socks," held forth here as a ' Thompsonian doctor" from 1845 to 1850. He had only the simplest rudiments of any kind of education, and yet there were people here in those days, some of them " well to do" and reasonably well informed, who were so attached to red pepper, lobelia, and " No. 6," that they would trust their health and their lives in the hands of an ignoramus, if he were only called a Thompsonian. Dr. Stocking, on being asked if he had ever studied anatomy, physiology, or chemistry, replied, " No; I am not the kind of doctor that has to study them things. It is the other fellers —the regulars-that have to do that. I know Thompson's book. Didn't he say in that that he learnt his anatomy on himself and his botany in the hayfield? And that book I know is all right, because there was a patent issued on it by the Patent Office of the United States of America, which is authority enough for me. By that book I will be tried for malpractice if I am accused." Said his interrogator, "Do you feel the pulse and examine your patients to ascertain the nature of their complaints?" " Well, I do, just for the looks of the thing. But it makes no difference, for I give them a " regular course" any way. " What is that?" said his questioner. "Why," said the doctor, "a regular course of medicine, according to Thomps*;is to tommence at No. 1 and go right through to No. 6." " Suppose that fails?" " I'll give him another course; and so on, over and over, until my patient gets well or dies, if he will let me; and that's all I profess; and that's all there is in Thompsonianism." The doctor was very plain in personal appearance-almost ragged sometimes; but he was quick and shrewd, and had a ready fund of native wit, and afforded,a large amount of amusement by his eccentricities. He let all the light that was in him shine; and lived up to his profession honestly,-which was to give his patients from No. 1 to No. 6, according to Thompson, and repeat, if they would let him or if they did not die! Says Crabbe, all such quacks are"Void of all honor, avaricious, rash, The daring tribe compound their boasted trashTincture or syrup, lotion, drop, or pill: All tempt the sick to trust the lying bill. There are among them those who cannot read, And yet they'll buy a patent and succeed; Will dare to promise dying sufferers aid. For who, when dead, can threaten or upbraid? With cruel avarice still they recommend More draughts,more syrups to the journey's end. 'I feel it not.' 'Then take it every hour.' 'It makes me worse.' 'Why then it shows its power.' 'I fear to die.' ' Let not your spirits sink,'You're always safe while you believe and drink!'" Dr. S. S. Cutter studied medicine in this place, commencing in the fall of 1842. His preceptor was Dr. Wm. H. Hanchett, with whom he commenced practice after graduating from Geneva, N. Y., Medical College in 1846. He was a partner of Dr. Hanchett's until 1850, since which time he has continued in the pursuit of his profession here alone, except in 1851 and a part of 1852 he was in partnership with Dr. S. H. Estabrook, his brother-in-law, and has sustained a high reputation professionally as well as a social position. He was a member of the board of trustees, when this place was under a village charter, and member of the common council, since it became a city,. several times. He was president of the village corporation from March 1, 1859, to April 1, 1860, when this place was organized as a city, since which time he has had the office of mayor one year. From 1858 to 1864 he was a member of the board of education, during which time the Central school-building.was erected, and the schools thoroughly reorganized. As moderator for two years and director for three years, he gave a large portion of his time to the work of' elevating the standard of the public schools, and in making their work more thorough and efficient. In 1862 he was appointed United States examining surgeon for pensions, which office he now holds. In 1869 he was appointed by Gov. H. P. Baldwin chairman of a special commission, authorized by joint resolution of the Legislature of this State, on penal, pauper, and charitable institutions. The object of this commission was to ascertain by investigation the imperfections of such institutions, in this State, and recommend any changes found necessary. He, with the other members, spent a large portion of time in traveling in this and other States, and made a report to the Governor, which was presented to the Legislature in 1870. The report recommended many radical changes in the administration of these affairs, some of which have been adopted, and among them is the State Public School, located in this place. He was a member of the board of control of this institution for six months previous, and for a year and a half after its opening, in 1874, and gave a large portion of his time in endeavoring to make what was then an experiment for the State a successful charity. It has become so.

Page  139 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 139 I Dr. C. S. Tucker came from Portage Co., Ohio, in 1840, and settled on a farm in Kinderhook, in this county, and in 1844 he located in this place, where he has since lived. He has had a large and lucrative practice, and has accumulated thereby a handsome fortune, which he is now enjoying in his fine residence in the second ward of this city. Dr. J. H. Beech came from Gaines, Orleans Co., N. Y., to this place in 1849, and resided here until his death, in the fall of 1878. Dr. Beech was, during the time he lived here, one of the most accomplished and energetic physicians of this city. He had an extensive practice, surgery being for a long time his specialty, in which he was deservedly noted, not only in this place, but largely throughout the State. He was surgeon of the 24th Regiment Michigan Volunteers for nearly three years during the war of the Rebellion, and during that time served as one of the principal surgeons on the operating board in the Army of the Potomac. He was for several years a member of the board of education of this city, and for two years he held the office of mayor. He was always active in work, and very liberal in donations for all worthy public improvements. By his industry in his profession alone, he accumulated a reasonable competence, and died honored and respected by his fellow-citizens. Dr. I. P. Alger studied medicine in this place with Dr. Wm. H. I1anchett and Dr. H. B. Stillman, commenced the practice in 1849, and still holds forth as a disciple of Esculapius. He has been always an active politician, generally acting with the Republicans; and has been ever ready to take the stump in any political contest, although he always speaks from motives of principle and not for personal ends or emoluments, as he has never been a candidate for or a seeker after office. The doctor is quite fluent and witty in his speeches, a very good story-teller, and never severe upon his opponents, but quite evenly canvasses both sides of a question. He has been very active in collating facts of the pioneer' life of this county, and is a member of the State Pioneer Society. Dr. S. H. Estabrook, after studying medicine with his brother-in-law, Dr. S. S. Cutter, and graduating from the medical department of the University of New York, commenced the practice of medicine here in 1851, as a partner of Dr. Cutter, and after about two years he located in Quincy, Mich., where he went into the business of selling drugs and medicines. He married while here a daughter of A. L. Porter, Esq. He was well educated and successful as a practitioner. He died at Ottawa, Kan., where he had resided for several years, in 1878. Dr. Rufus Kibbe came here from Lenawee Co., Mich., where he had an extensive and profitable practice, and engaged in selling drugs and medicines on the corner in this city now belonging to his estate, in 1851. After accumulating quite a large property he retired from that business, and was engaged more or less in the practice of medicine until his death, in the fall of 1878. Dr. Tuttle, son-in-law of Judge Goodwin, of this county, followed his profession here from 1851 to 1853, when he left for Texas, where he died during the war of the Rebellion. Dr. Nathan Hewitt, now residing in Gilead, in this county, was a partner of Dr. D. Littlefield in 1852. Dr. P. P. Nichols, after graduating from Jefferson Medical College, Pa., came here from Philadelphia, where he was born and educated, and located in Coldwater in 1856. After practicing about a year he entered into partnership with Dr. H. B. Stillman. Although he was finely educated for his profession, and possessed natural ability for it, after continuing in practice about three years, he relinquished it for other pursuits,-he having been elected to the office of registrar for Branch County. The doctor has always been esteemed very highly as a citizen, possessing genial social qualities that have made him a universal favorite. Dr. Geo. K. Smith read medicine with Drs. Hanchett and Cutter, of this place, and, after graduating from the Cleveland (Ohio) Medical College, commenced practice here in 1852; and the same year he went to California, where he followed his profession until 1863, when he was appointed post surgeon at Fort Yamhill, Or., and subsequently he held the same position at Fort Lapwai, Idaho, and at the latter place he was appointed by the Governor of Washington Territory, physician to the Nez Perces, at the agency near that place. In 1866 he resigned his commissions and returned to this place, and was engaged in mercantile pursuits until 1869, when he resumed the practice of medicine, and still continues it. Dr. L. C. Marsh has practiced medicine here since 1853. In 1864 his brother, Dr. D. C. Marsh, was a partner of his for a short time, when he left for Texas, but returned here, after several years, to die at his father's residence. Dr. L. C. Marsh has always sustained a good reputation here as a gentleman and a reputable practitioner. Dr. Maxon, eclectic and botanic physician, flourished here, in what he called the " healing art," from about 1849 to 1855. The last urgent call he had, so far as is known, was from the sheriff of the county, who was " after him" on account of some bank-notes he had passed that were not properly engraved and signed. Dr. D. C. Powers graduated from Berkshire Medical College, at Pittsfield, Mass., in 1848, and very soon after, he went to California, and returned to Cayuga Co., N. Y., where he had lived and studied medicine, and located in Auburn, N. Y., in 1850, where he pursued his profession for two years, and then left for California again. He left that State in 1855, and located here as a homoeopathic physician. He acted as surgeon in the army from April, 1862, to July, 1864. He has been a member of the board of education for six years; and for two years he has been mayor of this city. He has held for several years the position of one of the directors in the Southern Michigan National Bank. The doctor has had, during all the time he has lived here, a large and lucrative practice. He has been an active supporter, by work and liberal contributions, to the church and many enterprises for public improvement. In his profession he is held in high estimation by his medical confreres and his patrons for his prudence and skill, and by the community generally he is esteemed honorable and high-minded. Dr. Gully, hydropathist, established a " water-cure" here

Page  140 1:40 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. about 1856, in the old Exchange Hotel on West Chicago Street. Although he had the aid of a very ardent disciple, N. T. Waterman, the institution "came to grief" for the want of support and funds, and had to close in a year or two. Dr. George Ferguson commenced the practice of medicine in Ovid, in this county, in 1854, and in 1859 he located in this pl in thin the business of selling drugs and medicines, which he closed out in 1868, and resumed his profession, in which he still continues, and is doing a creditable business. Dr. Ford, eclectic, "cancer and corn doctor," with no preparation or education except mostly what could be gained by filing saws, " went into" the credulous and superstious of this place and vicinity, from 1855 to 1860, and succeeded in making quite a large number-some of them quite respectable people-believe he had the power to "Heal a' their ills Wi' ready art." Dr. J. H. White and Dr. Gregory, who were associated together in the practice of homeeopathy, came in 1854. Dr. White remained until 1861, when he removed to Chicago, and accepted a professorship in the homoeopathic medical college located in that city, and from there removed to New York. In Coldwater he enjoyed an excellent reputation as a physician and a large practice, and is now pursuing his profession in New York, where he ranks among the leading physicians of the homoeopathic school in that city. Dr. Gregory removed to Ohio after a two years' residence in Coldwater. Dr. B. F. Benham came in 1861, and practiced homoeopathy for two years; and Dr. J. M. Long, the same year, succeeded Dr. J. H. White, and is now one of the leading homoeopathic practitioners. Dr. Long has an extensive practice, and has established a reputation not only as a skillful physician, but as a man of much integrity of character. He is a firm believer in the school of medicine he represents, and enjoys an enviable reputation among his professional brethren of the homceopathic school. Dr. John H. Bennett commenced the practice of medicine in Algansee, in this county, in 1854, and permanently located in this place in 1864, where he resides now, still practicing his profession. The doctor displayed great energy in obtaining his medical education. Unaided and alone he took up the study of civil engineering, and so far perfected himself that, he states, in 1852 he was appointed division engineer in the construction of the Binghamton and Syracuse Railroad in New York, and that he attended to this business as a pastime while studying medicine. He was elected coroner in 1858, and since that time he has held that office and the office of county surveyor nearly continuously. He and Dr. H. B. Stillman were appointed surgeons for the " draft" by Gov. Blair in 1863. He was alderman in this city from 1865 to 1869, and during that time became the father of the celebrated " Bennett ditch," which saves this place almost every year from being largely overflowed with sur face water. He has given considerable attention to the study of geology, and has rendered important aid to the State geologist in his survey in this county. He has a large practice, but he always takes time in political contests to " stump" the county, and sometimes beyond it. He is an incisive, energetic speaker, and very severe upon his opponents. Dr. Bunker, homoeopath and eclectic, and Dr. Gee, homoeopathist, were located here from 1862 to 1864, when they left the place,-the latter with another man's wife. Dr. Dake created considerable sensation here from 1865 to 1866 as a " clairvoyant doctor," and on account of some other practices, which it may not be prudent to mention, he obtained considerable money; and he was a " charming doctor." Dr. Miner, professed homoeopathist, came here in 1848 and remained one year. He was from Algansee, in this county, where he had practiced as an eclectic; and where he obtained considerable notoriety for curing ulcers by the use of cat-skins taken off immediately after the animals were killed, and applied to the sore while they were warm. There was great destruction of cats in those days; upwards of eighty of the feline species having been killed to cure one sore leg! Dr. George W. Whetford, eclectic, located here in 1867, and still continues to practice medicine. He is a hardworking man; and has done a large amount of business, more especially in the country. Dr. N. S. Daniels and Dr. H. W. Vanderhoof, students of Dr. Whetford, practiced more or less with the latter from 1873 to 1877. Dr. R. B. Jefferds located where he now lives, a mile and a half east of this city, in 1867. He studied medicine with Prof. Edward Moore, of Rochester, N. Y., and in 1847 graduated from Berkshire Medical College, at Pittsfield, Mass. He practiced in Orleans Co., N. Y., and in Marshall, Mich., until 1858, when he removed to Lansing, Mich., and engaged in selling drugs and medicine until 1861, when he raised a company for the war. He was first lieutenant Company G, 3d Regiment Michigan Volunteers, and was subsequently promoted to the captaincy. Dr. Jefferds is a well-educated man, and successful in practice. Miss S. Fidelia Baker, M.D., after graduating from the Woman's Medical College, Philadelphia, located here in 1872, and remained for about three years, when she removed to Chicago, where she is doing a large and paying business, and is esteemed very highly for her scholarly attainments, and for her skill and ability in medicine. She succeeded well while here, and left a large number of friends who sincerely regretted her departure. Miss Dr. Livingston, homoeopathist, practiced medicine here during 1875 and 1876. Dr. Frank Buckland, after graduating from the medical department of the University of New York, served as surgeon in the army during the war of the Rebellion, and located in this place in 1868. After practicing his profession here five years he removed to Illinois, where he died. He left a wife who survived him two years, and who was a daughter of Dr. Rufus Kibbe, of this city. Dr. Buckland was a young man of fine personal appearance and good at-. tainments, and sustained an excellent reputation in the practice of medicine. Dr. Rogers, homoeopathist, practiced here from 1862 to

Page  141 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 141 1865. He was an upright, honorable gentleman, and had a fair amount of business in his profession. Dr. H. B. Townsend came here in 1860 from Wisconsin, where he had been in the drug and medicine business, and engaged in the practice of his profession, in which he continued until 1875, when he removed to Ann Arbor, in order to facilitate the education of his daughter, who had been admitted into the classical course in the university there. The doctor, while here, was an active member of the board of education for several years; and he always took a deep interest in all matters pertaining to public education. He was successful in practice, and always was a thorough student, giving much of his time to study, not only in his profession, but in general literature. Dr. Collins, "Indian doctor," but not an Indian, made quite a sensation here from 1860 to 1862. A part of this time he had as co-worker a Dr. Stevens, who, as well as his confrere, could not have been charged with overtaxing his brain with hard study or knowing too much. Dr. Whitehorn located here in 1866, and practiced here one year. Dr. L. Wurtz, graduate from the Cincinnati Medical College, established himself here in the practice of his profession in 1875. He came here from Jackson, Mich., where he had lived and practiced medicine for several years. His attention has been given largely to the treatment of diseases of the eye and ear, in which he has been successful. For two years he has held the position of health officer of this city. Dr. Charles Lovewell studied medicine here, and then graduated from the medical department of the University of Michigan in 1871, when he commenced practice here with Dr. J. H. Bennett. In 1875 he removed to Chicago, where he is doing well. Dr. Wm. Burdick, homoeopathist, practiced in partnership with Dr. D. C. Powers for one year, in 1874 and 1875. Dr. L. Wassabo commenced here as a " doctor" in 1875, and still remains here. Dr. Charles E. Smith, homceopathist, practiced here about a year, as a partner of Dr. I. M. Long, in 1875 and 1876. Dr. - Cady, eclectic, has been in practice here about two years previous to this time, and still continues. Dr. G. V. Voorhees, graduate from Bellevue Medical College, New York, commenced practice in Adrian, Mich., in 1870, and five years after he removed to South Bend, Ind., where he pursued his profession until the fall of 1878, when he settled in this place. The historian is happy to acknowledge his indebtedness toDr. S. S. Cutter in the compilation of the foregoing very comprehensive sketch. BANKS. EARLY WILDCAT BANKING IN COLDWATER. "You do not yet know, my son, with how little wisdom the world is governed;" said Oxenstierua in 1648, when the people as an element of control in politics was compara tively unknown. And when we call to mind the many edicts that have been promulgated, the many laws enacted by autccratic, arbitrary authority which during the ages have been submissively and blindly obeyed by the people, though bringing them irreparable injury in estate and deprivations of civil and religious liberty, we are, seeing this, painfully impressed that history proves only too conclusively the truth of this remarkable saying of Sweden's great chancellor, that it takes very little wisdom to govern mankind. The laws of all countries for all time since paper currency has been used have been remarkable in attempting to create a value where none existed. Paper currency, which only promised to pay money, has been confounded with money itself so much and so long that it has been largely treated as money itself. But whenever the issue of this currency materially exceeded the money it promised to pay, in any country, its value depreciated down to the amount of the actual money in that country, or lower, and often became worthless. The examples of France and England, and of our own country, fully illustrate this. When Michigan was a Territory, there was no general banking law, the banks being incorporated by special charters, which were substantially the same. The capital in each case was nominally one hundred thousand dollars, with the right to increase the same to three hundred thousand dollars. The circulation could be three times the amoufit of the capital paid in, and in case of an excess of circulation beyond that amount, the directors permitting it became personally responsible. For this issue no security was required by bonds, stocks, mortgages, or anything else. By such a law one Coldwater national bank could issue with its one hundred thousand dollars capital three hundred thousand dollars of circulation, and one Southern Michigan national bank, with its one hundred and sixty-five thousand dollars, could issue four hundred and ninety-five thousand dollars,-nearly half a million. This excessive circulation must have been based not on the ability to redeem on presentation, but the ability to pay when the bills discounted were collected, which had been taken for the bank-bills issued. Such an amount of currency would have made banking very profitable if the bill-holders had not asked to have their paper promises redeemed, which they did, thus bringing ruin upon them in the great panic of 1837-38. The following-named were Territorial banks: Bank of Michigan, chartered 1817; capital $100,000. Bank of Monroe, chartered 1827; capital $100,000. Bank of Pontiac, chartered 1835; capital $100,000. Bank of River Raisin, chartered 1832; capital $100,000. Bank of Washtenaw, chartered 1835; capital $100,000. Bank of Wisconsin, chartered 1835; capital $100,000. Bank of Erie and Kalamazoo, chartered 1835; capital $100,000. Merchants' and Mechanics' Bank, chartered 1835; capital $200,000. All these banks failed, mainly for want of a proper capital as compared with their circulation. In January, 1837, Michigan was admitted into the Union as a State. This was an era of the wildest speculation. The pioneers of that time yet living, relate vividly the oft-repeated story of excessive prices of wild or unculti vated lands, and of lots in prospective villages and cities, which now have nothing but the recorded plat in the office of the registrar of deeds to indicate their location. This

Page  142 142 I4ISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. speculation was no doubt largely owing to the great amount of paper money afloat on the State. It took a great amount of currency to buy property, and thus property was called high when it really was the nioney which had depreciated. In March, 1837, a general banking law was enacted, making the business free to all. Under this law was the early banking in Branch County, of' which this paper treats. The general provisions of this law were fairly drawn, except that in the two important features that concern most the public-security to the bill-holders and a bona fide capital to secure the depositors-they were inadequate. The capital must not be less than fifty thousand dollars or more than one hundred thousand dollars. The issue could be two and one-half times the capital paid in. The interest should not exceed seven per cent. on discounts, and the banks were required to make semiannual dividends, thus assuming the banks' ability always to do this. The security for the payment of the banks' obligations were to be bonds and mortgages on real estate, to be held by the bank commissioner, and the specie in the vaults of the corporation. Few banks had this specie, though the law required thirty per cent. of the capital to be paid in " legal money of the United States." These specie deposits furnished little reliable security. The fact was the bank commissioner, whose duty it was to examine these banks once in three months was often deceived, as one bank would inform another when the commissioner was coming, and the banks would borrow money to exhibit to the commissioner and return it when he went away. In this manner the same specie would often serve for the use of several banks. Surely our financial pioneers were not wanting in skill to bank without money. A good story is told of ex-Governor Felch to the effect that when he was State bank commissioner going from one bank to another on his round trip he noticed a familiar look in the boxes containing the silver. After reaching the end of his route, though finding all the banks supplied with specie, he suddenly turned back and, re-examining the banks, found them without coin. John Alden, an old and respected citizen of Coldwater, relates how, when a young man, between Detroit and Pontiac, he drove the team which carried the coin from bank to bank for the commissioner to examine. This was the system of banking which was inaugurated in the early days of Michigan, the overthrow of which so shocked this State, financially, that many years elapsed before a recovery from its effects. It was under the general banking law of 1837 as amended that Branch County took never-to-be-forgotten lessons in financiering. The county then had a population of four thousand, and the village of Coldwater numbered about five hundred souls. Coldwater was ambitious. The men of business who planned and worked were full of energy and activity. There were many men of first-class business ability and sterling worth. The history of the old Coldwater Bank illustrates the system of banking in this State in the early days. Some of the facts here are from the public records and others are from the lips of old and reli able citizens, among whom thanks for assistance are due Hon. E. G. Fuller, Mr. Philo H. Crippen, and Thomas Dougherty. This bank was organized in December, 1837. IThe capital named was one hundred thousand dollars. The books of the bank, which cannot be found, would no doubt correct some of the figures here given. The stockholders were Hanchett & Holbrook, William A. Kent, L. D. & P. H. Crippen, James H. Hanchett, Robert Baker, R. J. Champion, William Reynolds, H. Cowles, Ed. Sloan, B. Crippen, Lewis Goddard, of Detroit, John J. Curtis, Loren Marsh, John Conley, Martin Olds, Harvey Warner, Lot Whitcomb, J. S. Ware, Enoch Jones, L. Taylor, and E. G. Fuller. The first board of directors were L. D. Crippen, P. H. Crippen, Win. H. Cross, Loren Marsh, Thomas Dougherty, Morgan L. Collins, Walter W. Prentice, Daniel 0. Hoyte, and Lewis Goddard. L D. Crippen was President; George Nichols, Cashier; and a Mr. Mandel, Teller. The bank was located in a little one-story building on the north side of Chicago Street, where Mr. L. Sloman's and Mr. Flandermeyer's stores now stand. The following is a copy of one of the bonds given to secure general creditors and billholders: " Know all men by these presents, that we, Lorenzo D. Crippen and Philo H. Crippen, of Coldwater, of the County of Branch and State of Michigan, stockholders in the bank of Coldwater, are held and firmly bound unto ROBERT ABBOTT, Auditor-General of the State of Michigan, and his successors in office, for and in behalf of the people of said State, in the penal sum of five thousand four hundred dollars lawful money of the United States of America, to be paid to the said Robert Abbott, Auditor-General as aforesaid, or his successors in office; for which payment well and truly to be made, we bind ourselves, our heirs, executors, and administrators firmly by these presents. "Sealed with our seals, and dated the 8th of December, one thousand eight hundred and thirty-seven. " Whereas, an association has been formed under an act entitled an 'Act to organize and regulate Banking Associations,' approved March 15, 1837, with a capital stock of one hundred thousand dollars; and whereas, the said association is to be known and designated by the name of the Bank of Coldwater, and the office for the transaction of the business of said bank is located at the village of Coldwater, in the County of Branch, in the State of Michigan; and whereas Lorenzo D. Crippen, Philo D. Crippen, Wm. H. Cross, Loren Marsh, Thomas Dougherty, Morgan L. Collins, Walter W. Prentice, Daniel 0. Hoyte, and Lewis Goddard have been duly elected the directors of the said Bank of Coldwater, by the subscribers to the capital stock of said association, in the mode presented in said act; now, therefore, the condition of this obligation is such, that if the said Bank of Coldwater, punctually, on their becoming due, pays all debts which may be contracted by said association or its agents, and shall discharge all liabilities which may exist against it, and if the said Bank of Coldwater shall faithfully redeem at the time, and in the manner prescribed by the act above referred to, all notes and obligations issued by it, then, and in that case this obligation to be void. Otherwise in full force and virtue. Executed the day and year aforesaid. In presence of " LORENZO D. CRIPPEN, "PHILO H. CRIPPEN." The career of the Coldwater Bank was not solely affected by the times. There were other and more internal causes which determined results in its case. The specie of this bank was similar to that of others under the same system. It existed only on paper: it never saw the bank. The certificate of a Mr. Brown, of Detroit, showing the requisite specie in American half-dollars was deposited in his bank to the credit of the Coldwater Bank, did the work. This satisfied the examining officers, and the certificate was returned to'Mr. Brown, it having been loaned fraudulently, there having been no specie to represent it in his bank or elsewhere. Before the issue of bills a new election of

Page  143 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 143 w directors was had, by which a majority of the directors were non-residents in the interest and control of Goddard and Ware. It had been agreed in the organization of the bank that Coldwater should have a majority of the directors, and the Detroit parties a majority of the stock, and this new election was a violation of the arrangement. George Nichols removed here before he was elected director, and was in Goddard and Ware's interest, and being cashier gave the Detroit parties inside control. Goddard was the ruling spirit. It was the special business of Goddard and Ware to organize banks, as they had done in other places, for the sake of what might be made from them. Goddard was a man about forty years of age, while most of the other directors were under thirty. He had established one bank at Brest, just north of Monroe, on the lake, and intended making it a great commercial and maritime centre. Under this regime and in the control of these men, the bills of the Coldwater Bank were issued to the amount allowed by law, as the writer has been informed. In legitimate banking these bills would have been properly paid out in making loans. There was no specie in the vaults to redeem them. Goddard had another theory with regard to these new bills, just fresh and crisp from the printers. He was a man of financial theories,too much so for our Coldwater merchants, farmers, lawyers, and doctors. His system, which he promulgated to the pioneers of Branch County, especially directed to the directors of the bank, was as follows: he declared it was not necessary for a bank to have specie of its own; a bank should create specie. The pioneer stockholders and directors living to-day will tell you how he bewildered and influenced them by his logical reasoning on creating specie. "What," said he, "is a bank good for unless it is well enough conducted to create its own specie? In order to create specie of your own you must exchange your circulation for it; you must take your bills away from home so they will be slow in returning for redemption, taking away the specie you have created. The way to obtain this specie by exchange is to get the bills of other banks with your bills, take these bills of other banks to their counters, get the gold on them and bring it home, and put it in your own vaults. In this way you have created specie, and have provided the bank with the material for redeeming your bills; and I can show you how to do it." M. L. Crippen, a gentleman of rare business ability, saw the fallacy of Goddard's plan, and objected; but Goddard and Ware had a majority of the directors, and consequently controlled the bank. Goddard very generously offered to give the bank his valuable time to go on the pilgrimage to exchange bills for bills and bills for gold, thus creating specie. So he and his coadjutors had their way, and he was permitted to take away twenty thousand dollars to create specie with, and also five thousand dollars as a personal loan. This event happened the winter or spring of 1838, most of it being taken the day the bank opened. Abont forty-one years have gone into history since that eventful day to the Coldwater Bank, when its distinguished and able financier, Louis Goddard, taught the directors and stockholders of that corporation how to create specie. Forty-one years since the day in the early springtime when Louis, with all due complaisance and financial bearing, gathered up the new, crisp bills before the signature of cashier and president were scarcely dry, and graciously taking leave of officers and directors, quietly walked out of the little one-story, wooden bank-building with his twenty-five thousand dollars, one-fourth the nominal capital of the bank, into the streets of the embryo village, with its wooden stores, wooden hotels, and wooden residences, nodded benignantly to chance acquaintances on the street, and took, no doubt from the "Central Exchange," the old-fashioned stage for the West, for the generous purpose of creating specie for his friends and the Coldwater Bank. About forty years have passed away since then, and the Coldwater Bank and the Coldwater people, who once knew him so well, have known him no more forever. Longer than the Israelites wandered in the wilderness has he been away from his Coldwater home. He never returned or sent back any of the bills he took away, payment in whole or part for them on any of the precious specie he had created. Of course he was an honest fellow, and is no doubt now among some of the Western tribes, creating specie. His friend Ware, of Detroit, believed implicitly in the system of Goddard, and for the good of the corporation also took away twenty-five thousand dollars, of which five thousand was a loan, the twenty thousand to be used to create specie with. But he took it some little time after the first depletion. It had depreciated in value, so that he restored seven thousand dollars he could not pass, converting seventeen thousand dollars for his own use. Each of the Detroit stockholders made a loan of five thousand dollars the night of the day the bank opened. So did a Mr. Collins, of Toledo. lie also took two thousand dollars to exchange for specie, which was the next week restored to thie bank for redemption in the original package, he having paid his own debt with it. George Nichols took enough with which to build a new house opposite the present Presbyterian church. Mr. Mandel, the teller, from Detroit, truly said, "They broke the bank the first night." The president, Mr. L. D. Crippen, and his brother, Philo H. Crippen, struggled hard to keep the bank afloat, even becoming personally responsible to the amount of twenty thousand dollars, but without success. The bills were finally taken for twenty-five cents on the dollar, and in 1838 the bank failed entirely. Like all the wild-cat bank-bills of the day, they were never redeemed. Beside the Coldwater Bank there were three efforts to organize one in the village of Branch, the principal mover in the matter being Mr. Joel Burlingame, the father of Hon. Anson Burlingame. His financial project, however, never met with success. The financial highway traveled by our Michigan pioneers, described in this paper, illustrates the weakness and dangers of the system described, and, as a contrast, brings out the strong points in the national banking system. To reach our present system, with its sound basis and stable currency, we have passed along a road which has been strewn with the ruins of corporations, business firms, and individuals. It is to be seriously hoped we shall not have to travel it again, and that by a more intelligent legislation we can say that Oxcnsticrua would be in error to say

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. of us, "My son, it takes very little wisdom to govern the world." The foregoing interesting and comprehensive history embraces copious extracts from a paper on early banking in Branch County, by Hon. C. D. Randall, the manuscript of which he has kindly loaned us. THE COLDWATER NATIONAL BANK. The Coldwater National Bank was organized May 30, 1865, by Henry C. Lewis, David B. Dennis, George Starr, Artemas Allen, Charles Upson, Charles B. Jones, Alonzo Waterman, Daniel Thompson, of Coldwater; David R. Cooley, of Union City; and Cyrus G. Luce, of Gilead,-a preliminary meeting for the purpose of subscribing to capital stock having been held May 20, 1865. Seven directors were elected at the meeting held May 30, and the following officers were elected, namely: Henry C. Lewis, President; Daniel B. Dennis, Vice-President; George Starr, Cashier; and they still continue to act in their respective offices. The stock of the bank has changed hands frequently, but, singularly, the number of stockholders has always remained just twelve. This bank succeeded the Exchange Bank of Dennis & Starr, and was the outgrowth of the first banking institution in Coldwater, the "wild-cat" Coldwater Bank having closed its doors in 1838, along with all others of that ilk in Michigan. Lorenzo D. Crippen and Clinton B. Fisk opened the first office, doing an exclusive banking and exchange business, under the name and style of the "Exchange Bank of Crippen & Fisk." They suspended payment in the fall of 1857, and were succeeded by Fisk & Lewis (Clinton B. Fisk and Henry C. Lewis); they by Lewis, Bidwell & Miles (Henry C. Lewis, Alonzo F. Bidwell, and Ines G. Miles); they by Lewis & Kellogg (Henry C. Lewis and George A. Kellogg); they by Lewis & Starr (Henry C. Lewis and George Starr); they by Clarke & Starr (Edwin R. Clarke and George Starr); they by Dennis & Starr (Daniel B. Dennis and George Starr); they by the Coldwater National Bank. Mr. Starr, the cashier of the present bank, was with Crippen & Fisk as book-keeper, in 1856, and has continued with each successive firm or bank. Previous to the organization of national banks the currency in use in this locality was issued by banks doing business under State laws. There were about sixteen hundred kinds of bills, and nearly as many more counterfeits raised and altered, every business man being supplied with " bank-note reporters," for ready reference. Few bills were taken without being critically examined and passed upon by a good judge as to their genuineness and soundness. Exchange on New York on such mixed money was sold at from one to three per cent. at a time. When the currency was nearly all from Illinois and Wisconsin, exchange went up to seven per cent.; this Illinois and Wisconsin currency was based upon Southern State stocks, and became known as "Red Dog," so much red ink was used on them. The minimum rate for loans on business or accommodation paper was two per cent. per month; from that rate up to five per cent. per month was taken to supply the demand -and credit of the borrower influencing the rate. In 1856, Fisk posted upon his show-case,,... "Arch says of late He's raised the rate Of this sort of shaving," which brought the lowest rate on small loans up to three per cent. per month. "Arch" was Fisk's teller,-Arch. 5I. Gibson. Crippen & Fisk suspended payment in 1857, at which time there was a panic and general crash all over the United States. But few banks went through without suspending specie payments. General resumption was brought about in a few months by popular demand and the inherent strength of the banks. The panic of 1857 was precipitated upon the county by the failure of the Ohio Life and Trust Company, doing business in New York, and proving unsound. Crippen & Fisk settled with all their creditors in full, no loss having been sustained by any dealer with them or any of their successors. The first "fire- and burglar"-proof safe in this county was used by Crippen & Fisk, and is now in the judge of probate's office. Messrs. Lewis & Kellogg, considering better security against fire and thieves desirable, had a vault of brick and iron built in the banking-office, and purchased one of the best burglar safes then made, and placed it inside of the vault. The Coldwater National Bank wanting still further security, purchased in 1870 a small burglar safe, and placed it inside of the safe bought by Lewis & Kellogg. It being necessary to keep pace with the ingenuity of burglars and thieves, the Coldwater National Bank, in 1876, had a new safe made with all the latest improvements,-a safe within a safe, both especially strong, of welded hard and soft steel. These safes are locked with a combination lock, having no key or key-hole; the outer safe has also a time lock, which has two of the best watch movements in it, and when set to lock and unlock at certain hours it does its work automatically, requiring only to be wound up once in fortyeight hours. This lock has also a " Sunday attachment," so that the safe is kept locked on that day. The cost of this time lock is four hundred dollars. The greater portion of the loans of the Coldwater National Bank are made out of the county, and some loans are made out of the State, which indicates a surplus of capital for this locality. The banks have been of great bepefit to this county in furnishing capital to move its stock, grain, and products, promoting and facilitating business generally. The present board of directors of the Coldwater National Bank are Henry C. Lewis, David B. Dennis, Chas. Upson, and Geo. Starr, of Coldwater; Wmi. P. Hurd, of Union City; and Jonathan Holmes, of Bronson. The bank has a large surplus to meet contingent losses. THE SOUTHERN MICHIGAN NATIONAL BANK. This bank was organized in accordance with a special permit from the comptroller of the currency before, under the national system, banking was made free. The articles of association are dated the 27th day of November, A.D. 1871, and are signed by Stephen S. Cutter, Caleb D. Randall, Julius S. Barber, Cyrus G. Luce, Henry Safford, Lester E. Rose, Edwin R. Clarke, John O. Pelton, David C. Powers, Luther F. Hale, Charles A. Spaulding, Robert F. Mockridge, Simon B. Kitchel, Alonzo Waterman,

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Page  145 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 145 Thomas W. Dickinson, and Hibbard F. Jones. The capital was fixed at $110,000, with the right to increase the same to $200,000. All the parties above named were originally stockholders in the bank, except Dr. S.-S. Cutter, who signed for Robert Reade, Esq., of New York. The other original stockholders, for whom other persons signed the articles, were Daniel E. Dyer, of Dansville, N. Y.; D. C. Smith, Shelbyville, Ill.; J. Sterling Smith, New York City; Lois Smith, of Bethel, Vt., Olivia Safford, of Coldwater; Mary Rodman, of Cleveland; Isaac Mains, Coldwater; Emeline Barber, Coldwater; Thomas Smith, Coldwater; N. P. Loveridge, Coldwater; Orlando Wilder, Orland, Ind. Hiland R. Hubbard, comptroller of the currency, under date of Jan. 16, 1872, issued his certificate, authorizing the association to commence business. The first board of directors consisted of Henry Safford, E. R. Clarke, J. S. Barber, C. D. Randall, L. F. Hale, D. C. Powers, and C. G. Luce. The first officers elected were C. D. Randall, President; C. G. Luce, Vice-President; Lester E. Rose, Cashier; and A. Sidney Upson, Teller and Book-keeper. The bank opened for business in the banking-rooms in the Southern Michigan Hotel block, on the 19th day of February, 1872, and continued there until the new bank building erected by the association, on the corner of Chicago and Monroe streets, was completed, to which the business was removed in the fall of 1872. The officers of the bank continue the same, and so does the board of directors, except that on the resignation of of Rev. Henry Safford, Mr. R. F. Mockridge was elected t9 the vacancy. On the 27th day of June, 1873, by a vote of the directors, the capital stock of the bank was increased $55,000, making the capital $165,000. There has been a surplus fund created, by additions each six months, to the amount of $18,000, making the capital and surplus $183,000. The capital is the largest of any in the State south of Detroit. The correspondents of the bank are, in New York, the Importers' and Traders' National Bank; in Detroit, the Second National Bank and the American National Bank; and in Chicago, the First National Bank. At this date the circulation of the bank is $99,000, and the loans and discounts, $178,756.15. The bank has $110,000 in bonds, to secure circulation, deposited with the United States treasurer. FARMERSI MUTUAL INSURANCE COMPANY OF BRANCH COUNTY. The mutual plan, as indicated by the title of this company, is the foundation-stone of its organization, which was effected Jan. 21, 1863, no policies having been issued, however, until July of the same year. Its first officers were Philo Porter, President; John S. Strong, Secretary; Directors, Asel Brown, Stuart Davis, Moses V. Calkins, George W. Van Aken, Edward W. Phettiplace. The number who by insurance are consti tuted members of the company are two thousand and seventy, and the amount of property at risk is $3,844,643. The officers are John Allen, President; J. C. Pierce, 19 i i i I Secretary; Directors, John H. Jones, Lawrence Rheabottom, L. D. Clark, James Ritchie, William M. Tyler. COLDWATER GAS-LIGHT COMPANY. This company was first formed in 1860, the stock having been divided among five shareholders, namely, A. W. Parkhurst, H. C. Lewis, I. G. Parkhurst, D. S. Harrington, and Artemus Allen. The capital stock at that time was 25,000 dollars, which was, in 1868, increased to $40,000. The company has seven miles of street-main pipe and 250 consumers. They have also a machine for crushing coke, for which there is a considerable demand in the city. The works were built in 1861, and are located on Chicago Street, with a well-appointed office facing the street. The present officers are I. G..Parkhurst, President; A. J. Crippen, Secretary; D. B. Dennis, Treasurer; Directors, R. M. Reed, C. G. Johnson, N. P. Loveridge. THE FIRE DEPARTMENT OF COLDWATER. The first effort to establish a fire department in Coldwater occurred in the year 1856, and in August of that year, after several preliminary meetings, the Excelsior Fire Covmpoay, No. 1, was organized, with the following names on its early roll: J. T. Pratt, James Bame, Henry C. Fenn, B. M. Bordine, Frank Marsh, J. H. Edwards, R. F. Mockridge, A. M. Gibson, E. W. Markham, W. R. Foster, L. C. Marsh, Albert Chandler, J. W. Gilbert, M. A. Crippen, J. R. Champion, J. S. Gibson, David Thompson, C. B. Fisk, D. W. Barns, C. Vanness, Jacob Smith. A committee, consisting of C. B. Fisk, R. F. Mockridge, and J. H. Edwards, was chosen to draft a constitution and bylaws. Later the following officers were elected: C. B. Fisk, Foreman; H. C. Fenn, First Assistant; James Bame, Second Assistant; R. F. Mockridge, Secretary; E. W. Markham, Treasurer; Jacob E. Smith, Steward. We find, by the records, that from time to time new names were enrolled, until the company became in numbers a powerful organization. The following uniform was, by unanimous vote, adopted: "Red jacket, with double-breasted blue collar; sleeves turned over at the wristband and trimmed with blue; pleated on the back, with belt at the waist, a white star on each side of the collar and a figure one on the left breast." In October of the same year a hose company was formed, limited to twenty boys, as follows: Finch Skeels, N. R. Champion, B. J. Wood, Orland Noyes, C. C. Eggleson, Edward Beach, James Swails, Gco. Holbrook, B. S. Tibbets, A. Burns, George Baker, Henry Peckham, James Raymond, Gay Bennett, R. G. Chandler, later additions having completed the requisite number. From the rather obscure minutes we gather that at the time the engine was purchased, the manufacturer, Mr. L. Button, having come with the machine, placed it in working order and instructed the firemen regarding its workings. The records contain further mention of the various fires that occurred during a series of years, together with very complimentary allusions to the valorous deeds performed by the firemen on these occasions.

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. - ----- - -—;I About the same date, or soon after the organization of the first engine-company, a hook-and-ladder company was formed. The records of this' company are not accessible but from all the facts at our disposal it appears that J. G. Parkhurst was its first foreman. Its members were all well-developed, robust men and represented a strong social element in the city, and on occasions of parade or on visits to neighboring cities their distinguished appearance was a matter of much gratification. During the summer of 1857 the department was invited to Hillsdale to participate in a grand firemen's parade, and the following year the same courtesy was extended them by the citizens of South Bend, Ind. On the latter occasion, Hon. Schuyler Colfax delivered the address of welcome. The event is especially memorable as one which reflected great credit.upon the Coldwater firemen and elicited from their entertainers very warm expressions of admiration. The hook-and-ladder company boasted among its numbers twenty men who weighed two hundred pounds each. In 1864 another company was organized, called the Undine, of which Dr. W. W. Whitten was foreman, and in connection with it the Hope hose Company No. 2. The engine belonging to this company was purchased at a cost of three thousand two hundred dollars, being regarded at the time as a fine piece of mechanism, and the hose-carriage was especially elegant in its appointments. This company was finally disbanded, and the engine disposed of at a greatly reduced price. In 1866 we find in the records the following: " Whereas, the Fire Department of Coldwater has kept pace with the growth of the city, till it now numbers two fire-engine companies and twvo hose companies, And, whereas, the experience of firemen in various cities of the Union has demonstrated the utility of their forming organizations known as "Fire Associations:" Be it resolved, that a committee of two be appointed from each company to consider the propriety of forming ' The Fire Association of the City of Coldwater,' for the purpose of maintaining that perfect harmony which has so happily existed in the department from its earliest organization, and to secure to all men that may be injured in the line of their duty as firemen, that every care and attention so requisite in the day of misfortune." In July, 1872, a total change occurred in the organization of the department. The Undine Company having, as before stated, disbanded, a new steam-engine of the celebrated Silsbee & Co.'s manufacture was purchased, and christened "The City of Coldwater," and the Excelsior Company lapsed into a new organization called " The City of Coldwater Steam Fire-Engine Company." The department under this reconstruction has proved its efficiency, and is justly a source of pride to the city fathers. The chief engineers have been successively R. F. Mockridge, E. W. Markham, M. M. Mansfield, I. P. Alger, William R. Foster, and the present incumbent, H. J. Drake. Its present officers beside the chief engineer are R. A. Hall, First Assistant Chief Engineer; F. Schaeffer, Second Assistant Chief Engineer; L. A. Dillingham, Foreman; C. H. Wharton, Assistant Foreman; Charles Lamb, Secretary; Louis Slo man, Treasurer; George Wendell, Chief of Hose; C. S. Ball, Pipeman; George Hathaway, Engineer of Steamer; L. L. Johnson, W. G. Moore, George Wendell, Trustees. MANUFACTURES. AMERICAN CIGAR COMPANY. Among the most extensive and profitable branches of industry in the city is the manufacture of cigars. The oldest of these establishments is the American Cigar Company, which was organized in January, 1873, with a capital of thirty thousand dollars. Its officers are L. M. Wing, President; George Starr, Vice-President and Treasurer. It employs from forty to sixty men and women, and supplies principally the markets of Michigan, Indiana, and Ohio with its products. In 1878 one million six hundred thousand cigars were manufactured, and sixteen thousand dollars paid for labor during the year. The leading brand of cigars is the "American," and the company are also wholesale dealers in fine-cut, smoking, and leaf tobacco. B. S. TIBBITS CIGAR MANUFACTORY. This establishment was organized Oct. 20, 1874, by B. S. Tibbits, who was, previous to that time, secretary of the American Cigar Company of Coldwater. It is located on Chicago Street, and occupies a building three stories high and eighty-four feet deep, and employs on an average seventy men and women, who are engaged in the manufacture of cigars. The business when first organized employed but four persons in its manufacturing department, but since that time has increased so steadily and rapidly that the above force is required to fill its orders. In 1878 the number of cigars made was one million nine hundred thousand, and the present year it is expected to reach three millions. It ranks, in capacity, fourth in the State in this branch of industry. O'SIIAUGIINESSY & CO. This firm are located at 92 Chicago Street, and established their business in 1876. They employ in the manufacture of cigars fifteen men, and produce during the year about four hundred and twenty-five thousand. They confine themselves exclusively to the manufacture of cigars, and find a market for them in Michigan and Indiana. F. A. FAIRBANKS. The establishment of F. A. Fairbanks is located on Monroe Street, and produces cut tobacco and cigars. It was started in 1877, and its present proprietor succeeded the following year. They make annually three hundred thousand cigars, beside finding sale for much cut tobacco. CIGAR BOX MANUFACTURERS. H. D. Robinson & Son.-The extensive manufacture of cigars in Coldwater creates a new branch of industry by the demand for cigar boxes which, of necessity, follows. Among the largest of these establishments is that of H. D. Robinson & Son, who succeeded to the business of Atkins, Gilbert & Co., which was begun in the year 1870, Mr. Robinson being the company. They manufacture cigar boxes exclusively, and employ in their business sixteen hands. Their present capacity is about two hundred thousand, the home-trade being the principal consumers. The building and steam-power used are both owned by he firm.

Page  147 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 147. Chandler & Wood.-This firm employs twelve men and women in the manufacture of cigar boxes. The firm has been established but a short time, but has already built up a large trade, which is rapidly increasing. They manufacture two hundred thousand annually, and find a market in Coldwater and other parts of the State, as well as in Indiana. FLOURING- AND GRIST-MILLS. William A. Coombs' Mills. -The history of these mills dates back to the organization of the village, in 1837, in which year they were built by a stock company, consisting of Francis Smith, Thomas Dougherty, and Dr. William B. Sprague, the location being at the west end of Pearl Street, in what is now known as the Fourth Ward. In 1838 they were sold to John I. Curtis and 0. B. Clark, Jr., who remained proprietors until 1841, when they passed into the hands of L. D. & P. H. Crippen. In 1844, P. H. Crippen disposed of his interest, and the firm became Crippen. & Dougherty, after which L. D. Crippen became sole owner. He conducted the mills for a period of years, during which time, in 1858, they were destroyed by fire, but were rebuilt the following year by the owner. James B. Crippen succeeded as proprietor and sold to E. R. Clark, who owned them until 1869, when they passed into the hands of the present owner, William A. Coombs. They have at present three run of stone, but the proprietor intends adding another and making other improvements during the following year. They have both water- and steam-power, and produce flour and feed. Coldwater Star Mills.-These mills are owned by David Harris, and were formerly known as the Oil-Mills, having been built in 1866. They occupy a commodious building, sixty feet square and three stories high with basement, and have three run of stone. THE COLDWATER LIGHT GUARD. The Coldwater Light Guard was organized August, 1871, and was mustered into the State service on the 11th day of November following, by Adjt.-Gen. John Robertson, with forty-one members. The commissioned officers were: Captain, George H. Turner; First Lieutenant, Abe E. Stowell; Second Lieutenant, C. H. De Clute. In January (1872) the company was supplied with the Springfield breech-loading rifles and accoutrements by the State, and at once entered upon a course of instruction. April 9, 1872, it was ordered to Detroit, to take part in the ceremonies of the unveiling of the soldiers' and sailors' monument in that city. This was the company's first appearance in public, notwithstanding which fact they won much credit for their soldierly bearing and gentlemanly deportment. On the 4th of July of the same year, the Light Guard, on behalf of the citizens of Coldwater, extended an invitation to the various companies of the State to be present and take part in a grand military tournament to be held in Coldwater on that day. Several companies were present, and among them the Adrian Light Guard, who were awarded a beautiful silk banner, offered by the citizens to the best drilled visiting company. During the following year the company made rapid progress in drill, especially in the manual of arms. -f ------------------- In June, 1873, First Lieut. Stowell and Second Lieut. De Clute resigned their commissions, and Clarence L. Hunter was elected as first and Edward R. Root as second lieutenants, to fill the vacancies. The 4th of July, 1873, was spent by the company in Union City, as the guests of the citizens of that place. In the early summer of 1873, the State Agricultural Society offered a premium of two hundred dollars to the best-drilled military company in the State, to be competed for at the State fair to be held in Grand Rapids the following September. The Coldwater Light Guard was accordingly entered for the contest, and set to work in earnest preparation for the event. On the 15th day of September they started for the scene of action, but with little real hope of success. They were hooted at as they passed through the streets in their cheap uniforms beside the elegantly-dressed companies from Adrian, Kalamazoo, and other places. But fine uniforms did not win, as was very soon ascertained when the Coldwater company commenced to drill, and the first premium was awarded them at the close of the contest, to the utter astonishment of every one. On the 3d day of October, 1873, the company was present and took part in the ceremonies of laying the cornerstone of the new State capitol at Lansing. In the spring of 1874, the companies in the State service having increased from seven (at the time the Coldwater Light Guard was mustered in) to twenty, the military authorities determined to organize them into regiments, which was accordingly done, and the Coldwater Light Guard was assigned to the 2d Regiment, " Michigan State Troops," and designated as " Company A' of that regiment. In the regimental formation, Capt. George H. Turner was selected for the majorship of the 2d Regiment, whereupon First Lieut. Hunter was promoted to the office of captain, Second Lieut. Root to the first lieutenantcy, and Ord. Sergt. Franklin Eaton to be second lieutenant. Under these officers the company made rapid progress in military tactics, attaining great proficiency in the manual of arms, and was acknowledged to be the best-drilled company in the State of Michigan. Wherever it went it was always the recipients of the highest praise for their excellent drilling and soldierly discipline. At this time the company was about seventy strong, rank and file. During the summer of this year (1874) the Light Guard received the new uniforms which had been adopted by the State Military Board for the State troops, and which added greatly to their appearance. The Light Guard decided to again compete for the premium of two hundred dollars offered by the State Agricultural Society to military companies at the State fair, in East Saginaw, in September, and during the summer were in active training, in which they were greatly encouraged by the lively interest manifested by the citizens of Coldwater, who seemed as anxious for their success as were the soldiers themselves, generously contributing the entire fund for the payment of their expenses to and from East Saginaw. The day of their departure, September 15, was one that will ever be remembered by each member of the command as one of the most agreeable in its history. Shortly before the hour for departure the company was marched to

Page  148 148 IIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. the elegant residence of Mr. F. V. Smith, where a splendid collation was spread upon his spacious grounds by ColdWat's fairest daughters, who were present in full force todminister to the wants of the " inner man." The day was beautiful in the extreme, and with the bright faces and gay attire of the ladies, the glittering arms and uniforms of the soldiers, enlivened by the excellent music of the celebrated Constantine Band, which accompanied the guard upon their trip, a scene of brightness and gayety was presented that is rarely equaled. As soon as the refreshments had been partaken of, Mrs. Josephine Hunter, wife of Capt. Hunter, stepped forward, and in behalf the wives, sisters, and sweethearts of the Coldwater Light Guard, presented to the company a magnificent stand of colors, wrought by their own hand. The beautiful gift was accepted by Capt. Hunter, in behalf of the company, in a very appropriate speech. The colors and the fair donors were saluted by the guard with three rousing cheers, the band playing " The Star-Spangled Banner." The company then marched to the depot, where a large concourse of people had assembled to witness their departure, and took the train for East Saginaw, where they arrived late that night. The following day the five companies present to compete for the premiums were marched to the Fair Grounds, and the contest began at two o'clock P.M., the drilling being confined to company movements and the manual of arms. All the companies exhibited exceptionally good drilling, and were heartily cheered. When the Coldwater Light Guard took the field they were greeted with rounds of applause by the thousands of spectators. Throughout their entire drill they exhibited their thorough training by the promptness and precision with which every nMovement was executed, their splendid manual of arms calling forth especial praise. At the close of the contest the companies were marched to the front of the judge's stand, and it was soon announced that the first premium had been awarded to the Coldwater Light Guard. The good news was immediately telegraphed to Coldwater, and the next morning (17th) the victors were en route for home, where they arrived at two o'clock P.M., and were greeted by a salute from one section of the famous Loomis Battery, and met by the mayor and common council, and a vast concourse of citizens, and escorted to their armory, where they were welcomed home in a very congratulatory speech by Mayor Champion. The following December the company headquarters were removed from Noyes' Hall, which they had occupied from the time of their muster, to Seely's Hall, which was the company's armory until December, 1877. At the annual election of officers in January, 1875, the commissioned officers were all re-elected. Little of interest occurred during the year 1875. The regular weekly drills were maintained throughout the year, and target practice instituted, in which the company were regularly exercised, and acquired considerable skill. The only trip made by the company this year was to Quincy and Hillsdale, the 3d and 5th of July, receiving at each.place a purse of fifty dollars. In January, 1876, the Guard again re-elected their able commissioned oficers. It was the desire of the members and their friends that the company should visit the Centennial during the summer, but the great expense attending such a trip precluded their going. The 4th of July, 1876, the Light Guard visited Detroit, and took part in the grand celebration in that city, being the guests of the Detroit Light Guard. The forepart of August the company was ordered into camp, with the rest of the 2d Regiment, at Reed's Lake, near the city of Grand Rapids, where they were six days undergoing the most rigid military training under that thorough soldier, Col. I. C. Smith. This was the company's first experience in camp life, but notwithstanding the hard work, the long battalion drills in the hot sun, and the severe discipline, they returned the better for it, and there is not a member of Company A who does not recall many pleasant remembrances of Camp Custer in '76. The 6th of September the Guard gave a grand centennial excursion to Put-in-Bay, Lake Erie, which was very successful, netting them nearly four hundred dollars. In January, 1877, the faithful and efficient officers, Capt. Hunter and Lieuts. Root and Eaton, relinquished their respective positions to other hands, after filling them with honor and credit to the State, to the company, and to themselves for nearly four years, and were succeeded by Charles N. Legg, as captain; Frank J. Dart, as first, and Lilburn P. Palmer, as second lieutenants. This election was probably the most exciting one in the whole history of the company. The ballotting continued until after midnight, and resulted in the election of the above-named commissioned officers. R. M. Amidon, who had served one term in the volunteer service during the war, and had been for five years a non-commissioned officer in the regular army, was elected orderly sergeant. Drills continued regularly during the spring and early summer, and a lively interest was maintained among the members of the company. In July came the Pittsburgh riot and the general strike of railroad men throughout the country. The expectation of being ordered into encampment had been abandoned, but on the night of July 24, Capt. Legg received the following telegram: "DETROIT, July 24, 1877, 6.30 P.M. "Your company will start to-morrow morning for the annual encampment. The quartermaster-general will give you authority to make contract for transportation. Bring blankets. Acknowledge receipt of this at once. "By order of the commander-in-chief. "JOHN ROBERTSON, "Adjutant-Ges." Capt. Legg telegraphed the following reply: "Order just received. Will start early. " C. N. LEGG, "Captain Co. A, 2d Regiment." Messengers were immediately dispatched to order out the men, and instruct them to report at the armory at eight o'clock the following day. Early on the morning of July 25, the company was duly assembled, when it was found that every member of the command then in the county was present and ready for duty. Two members only were necessarily excused; one of them had been wounded in the hand a few days before by the accidental discharge of a pistol, the other was suffering from a severe attack of rheu

Page  149 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 149 matism. Both, however, urged to be allowed to accompany the command in any capacity in which they could be of service. It had become generally known that the company had been^ordered to Grand Rapids, and soon rumors of riots and bloodshed along the route and at the point of destination filled the city. When the command reached the depot, escorted by the City Band, a large concourse of citizens and friends had gathered to witness their departure. When the time for leaving arrived, there were many lingering goodbyes to anxious mothers and friends, whose fears had been raised by these floating rumors. Soon the train sped away and proceeded on its journey without let or hinderance. The mobs disappeared as by magic in advance of the flying train. White Pigeon, which rumor had filled with bloodthirsty strikers, and through which it was prophesied the company would have to fight its way, was found almost as quiet as upon a Sabbath morning, and the train took up its northward journey calmly and peacefully. Nothing opposed its onward course, and about half-past seven P.M., the company reached Grand Rapids, and marched to Sweet's Hotel for supper. After supper the command took up its march for the camp in column of fours, with flag flying and drums beating. A crowd of workmen from the factories, and boys from the streets, and loungers from the saloons, soon filled the sidewalks and street, and commenced an infernal hooting. Cries of " You don't dare shoot!" and much threatening and abuse were indulged in, but onward moved the company with regular step and quiet mien. They reached the cars prepared to carry them to the camp-ground. Arrived there, they found six companies of the 2d Regiment already in camp, and by the following morning all the companies had reported. The following four days were passed peacefully in company and regimental drill, parades, and the usual duties of camp-life, and on the 30th the company returned to its armory with a feeling of satisfaction in having performed its mission honorably. In November of this year a civil organization known as the Coldwater Light Guard Company was duly incorporated with the following officers: President, Frank D. Newbury; Vice-President, Chas. N. Legg; Secretary, Alonzo Thompson. They at once purchased the vestry of the Episcopal Church their property on Hanchett Street, and fitted it up for an armory. Fifteen hundred dollars was the price paid for the property, and it was soon decided to make an addition for a stage at the rear of the building, and fit it up with scenery and properties for a public hall. The company issued its bonds, which were readily negotiated, for the sum of five hundred dollars, and went forward with its improvements. In February, 1878, Armory Hall was opened to the public, and since that time has been the popular hall of the city for theatrical entertainments, concerts, lectures, etc. It has a seating capacity of about five hundred, and is fairly supplied with scenery and stage properties. Other improvements are contemplated, and the company is justly proud of its success in securing an armory of its own and at the same time affording a good hall for the accommodation of citizens. In January, Frank D. Newbury was elected captain, and Charles N. Legg and Alonzo Thompson lieutenants. The year was only fairly prosperous. Quite a number of the older members were lost by expiration of term of enlistment, and the incentive to work afforded by the prospect of the annual encampment disappeared, as it was known that the military fund had been exhausted the previous year, aid that the company would not be called out as usual. Misfortune also attended the annual excursion, which had heretofore been highly successful and brought considerable funds into the hands of the company. The day preceding was rainy and forbidding, and when the train moved away in the morning it was still pouring in torrents. The company lost about forty dollars in the undertaking. In November the company again rallied. New members were enlisted,-among them one or two veterans of the organization,-and the spirit and enthusiasm once more revived. The squad and company drills were well attended. The prospect of annual encampment, and a feeling that their work in the past and usefulness to the State were beginning to be better appreciated by the people and the Legislature, led the members to take new interest in their duties and labors. In September Sharp's rifles were substituted for the Springfield army rifle, and gave general satisfaction to the company. At the annual election, Jan. 13, 1879, Frank D. Newbury was re-elected captain by the unanimous voice of the company, and Frank J. Dart and Wim. M. Mix were elected first and second lieutenants, respectively. Thus far, in 1879, the company drills have been better attended than at any former period in the company's history, and the outlook for the future of the Coldwater Light Guard is extremely promising. SKETCH OF THE TURF AND FIELD. A traveler through Branch County, even if his mind is fully occupied with mercantile pursuits, cannot fail to observe that the breeding, development, and sale of fine horses is a very prominent interest, and that the most successful farmers, such as Hon. Geo. W. Van Aken, John Allen, Esq., and many others of that class, have, for the past quarter of a century, followed the good advice contained in the old couplet: "Let this be still the farmer's creed, Of stock seek out the choicest breed." The profitable results of their experience stimulated and encouraged smaller farmers to follow their example, hence the business grew rapidly in extent and importance until the present day, when we find it has become a leading industry, which materially adds to the resources of this prosperous county. In some communities there is a class of persons who are disposed to underrate the value and character of horse-raising; but no such class exists in Branch, nor could a stranger, representing the views of those persons, receive a patient hearing within its precincts. Daily transactions of stock changing hands at remunerative prices-generally from two hundred to two thousand dollars per head-have thoroughly convinced rich and poor here that this interest exerts a highly beneficial influence on the trade and manufactures of the city of Coldwater and county at large. Everybody appears to take a deep interest and feel a just pride in the superior class of horses of which this county can boast. The farming class alone are not permitted to

Page  150 150 IIISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. monopolize the business; "all ranks and conditions of men," from the wealthy banker down to the humble artsan, engage, more or less extensively, in the enterprise, eaeh one vieing with the other in raising a high-priced aniimal, and nearly all report a profitable experience. It is true, that it takes many generations in the equine, as well as.the human family, to breed high qualities; but the hereditary principle in this, as in other things, can safely be relied upon. The production of a superior horse for speed, pleasure-driving, or business, is no longer a haphazard undertaking, but can be brought about with a reasonable degree of certainty, by the judicious mingling of the blood of the best families of horses, most of which have valuable representatives in Branch County. This county is to Michigan what Orange County is to New York State,-a grand nursery for the finest strains of blue blood in horse heraldry. Scattered all over the Union, and even in the neighboring dominion of Canada, may be found, for stock improvement, for road and racing purposes, horses of great excellence claiming Branch County as their birthplace. Coldwater and other towns of Branch are widely known as horse-marts for enterprising purchasers from the large cities, East and West, and the names of its representative horsemen, A. C. Fisk, E. C. Walker, F. L. Skeels, and others, are familiar at home and abroad. This county also contributes, directly and indirectly, more fast trotting horses to the regular racing-meetings than any other county that we know of, in Michigan or the adjoining States. The result of the enviable position occupied by the county in regard to stock-raising is to bring in a large amount of money from other places, and all classes reap a benefit from this industry, which adds so largely to the county's wealth. To give an idea, we may mention that one breed of horses alone has produced stock which has yielded one hundred thousand dollars and upwards. The foregoing truths are self-evident to those who have looked into the matter, but may require confirmation by those who have not. We will therefore take a cursory view of the progress of the industry. A thorough history would demand an amount of space and research requiring a special work to do it justice. It is not within the scope of this article to trace the business "from pillar to foundation-stone," or enter into a discussion of the breeding problem. We leave that duty to the special writers and inquirers after knowledge bearing on the subject. We must content ourselves with a brief outline of the rise and progress of the horse interest in the county through the principal importations, and record some of the more important events. Our field of choice will have to be limited to brief mention of stock horses whose names are "as familiar as household words." In art it is said the best things are necessarily few, but on investigating the horse question in Branch County we find that this rule will not apply. This county has a galaxy of great horses, most of them of national fame, and each having had some special merit to commend him, so that public opinion gives no particular animal an unequaled altitude in the mountain chain of greatness. There may be mountain peaks loom'ig up whose names are Vermont Hero, Magna Charta, -- Mambrino Chief, Tom Hunter, and Hambletonian Star, but even these do not cast a deep shadow upon many others, among them Green Mountain Black Hawk, Moscow, Belmont, Independence, and the Fearnaughts. The sources of information regarding the early horse history of the county are, unfortunately, scant, consisting for the most part of the unwritten memories of old inhabitants. From them we learn that the horses of " ye olden time" whose names are still current and popular, were fine specimens of Morgan blood, which family formed the ground-work of the county's horse structure. Green Mountain Black Hawk, first in point of excellence, was imported in the year 185-1, by A. C. Fisk, from Bridport, Vt., the home of the Black Hawks. This horse's sire was Sherman's Black Hawk (the North horse), dam by Gifford Morgan. He was a golden chestnut, with record of 2.39, and was sold for seven thousand dollars to E. Dorsey and J. Burk, of Jefferson Co., Ky., where he died. The late Wm. Conant accompanied him to Kentucky. Vermont lHero was next in order of importation, having been brought to Coldwater in the fall of 1852 from Bridport, Vt., where he was bred by B. Myrick. His sire was also Sherman's Black Hawk, and his dam by Harris Hambletonian. He was a substantially-built black horse, and was owned while here by Messrs. Fisk and 0. B. Clark. They sold him for two thousand dollars, and he was subsequently owned in Kalamazoo. His record was 2.37. This horse was the sire of the famous Gen. Knox, sold for ten thousand dollars when sixteen years old. Othello or Black Prince was bought by A. C. Fisk, of Ryder & Myrick, Bridport, Vt., and arrived at Coldwater in the spring of 1853. His sire was the celebrated Hill's Black Hawk (sire of Ethan Allen-2.15 with running mate-and hosts of other famous horses), dam by Young Hambletonian. Black Prince stood fifteen and a half hands high, and was a spirited, fine-looking animal, with a record of 2.39. Moscow or Defiance, Jr., comes next in order of importance according to date of importation, which was 1855. His sire was called Defiance, bred in Canada from English thoroughbred stock. Moscow's dam was also the dam of old Lady Moscow, record 2.32. Moscow was a dapper little bay horse, remarkable for great longevity. He was humanely killed at Centreville, Mich., when forty-two years old. He was the sire of Frank Moscow, and grandsire of McLane's Lady Moscow. In addition to the above-mentioned famous stock horses of an early day, the following importations, brought down to the year 1860, probably require a chronicler to refresh the memory of those in whose day they lived and flourished. Sherman Morgan, Jr., by old Sherman Morgan, was a stylish black horse, brought to Coldwater by Elliott Crippen, and remained here two years, when he was returned to his home in Vermont. The horse Young Trustee and the filly Highfiyer were both by the famous English race-horse imported Trustee. They were also brought to Coldwater by Mr. Crippen, who purchased them from their breeder, Col. L. G. Morris, Mount Fordham, N. Y. Butterworth's Black Hawv was a small black horse,

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Page  151 If~lw HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. bred in Vermont, and owned by Capt. Butterworth. He lost his life by the burning of a stable in Coldwater a year after his arrival here. Morgan Black Hawk was brought to Coldwater in the spring of 1854. He was by Hill's Black Hawk; dam, a Canadian mare. He remained here one season only, and was sold to parties fiom Chicago, Ill. Wa.rfield, Lacy, and Sir Archy, Jra., were all thoroughbred horses, from pure bred Kentucky families of running stock. They were not kept long in Coldwater. Returning to horses of national fame brings us first in order to Jla(gna Charta, a marvelous little bay horse, of beautiful form, admirable style and way of traveling. He is of Morgan descent, dam's breeding iuknown. He was bought when four years old by H. C. Lewis, S. M. Seely, and two other Coldwater gentlemen for six thousand five hundred dollars in the year 1859, and after passing through the hands of Chicago and Detroit parties finally returned to Branch County to '" lay his bones." He is still living in Girard, Branch Co., and has been eminently successful in building up this county's horse reputation. Belmont, by Irish Hunter, was next in order of importation. He was brought from Boston, Mass., in 1864, where he got a record close to 2.30. He was purchased in Coldwater by A. C. Fisk, who had just imported Mambrino Chief as a two-year old from Kentucky, and Mamnbrino soon divided the honors of Mr. Fisk's stable with Belmont, until finally the latter was sold to parties near Detroit, Mich. He was a solid-built gray horse, of much courage and endurance. The importation of MIambrino Chief, in 1864, marked an epoch in progressive stock-raising in Branch County. He was got by Clay's Mambrino Chief, sire of Lady Thorne (2.181), and his dam was almost thorough-bred. Mambrino has been at Coldwater ever since 1864, save three years in Boston, Mass., and was brought back fiom there in 1874. He can be seen almost any day on the streets of Coldwater. He is a large, rangy, dark-bay horse, remarkable for good breeding and great endurance. He was sold for $12,000, which has given him considerable prominence, and he has contributed largely to the advancement of the county's reputation. After Mr. Fisk sold Mambrino Chief he bought three other valuable sires, viz., Lexington Chief and Mambrino Patchen, Jr., in 1870, and Hambletonian Star the following winter. As Lexington Clief came earliest, we shall mention him first. He was brought from Kentucky. His sire, Kentucky Clay; his dam, Lady Warfield. He is a very wellbred horse, and shows it in his appearance; a blood-red bay of medium size, and is still owned by Mr. Fisk. Mambrino Patchen, Jr., next demands attention. He} was bred by Dr. Herr, Lexington, Ky.; sire, Mambrino Patchen; dam, Kentucky Maid. This horse is a large, wellformed animal; dark bay. Is at present at Angola, Ind., but remains the property of Mr. Fisk. Hambletonian Star is the next in point of time. He is well known thoroughout Michigan. We regret that want of space forbids full description. He was bred in Orange County, N. Y., and his sire was Rysdyk Hambletonian; dam, Lady Irwin. 11 is color is light bay, two white stock -ings behind and star in forehead. He is a very large, wellformed horse, and well bred. Independence deserves the next place in our sketches. He was 'bred at New York Mills, Oneida Co., N. Y., and comes fiom Abdallah stock, both his sire and dam tracing to old Abdallah. He is a very dark bay, about fifteen and three-quarter hands high, closely made and muscular horse. Gray Fearnangtht was the next valuable importation. He was brought here in the fall of 1874, by E C. Walker & Co., proprietors of the Marmbrino Fearnaught stables, Coldwater, and remained here three years, when he was recalled to his old home East. He was a dapple-gray horse of fine size and breeding, proud carriage. His sire was the famous' Fearnaught; dam's pedigree unknown. She was a gray mare; now owned in Trenton, N. J. Pathfinder was a very stylish horse, brought to Union City from New York State, and after remaining at Union about two years was sent back to New York State. He was a fine-looking dark-brown horse, of the average size. We do not know the name of his sire, but understand the Pathfinders trace to Hill's Black Hawk. HIlambletoniacn hunter was kept at Union City for a time. He is by Rysdyk's Hambletonian, dam's pedigree not traced. Color bay, and well proportioned; rather steep quarters, and back inclined to roach. He is now owned in Marshall, Micl. Beach's St. Lawrence, although not an importation, is worthy of particular mention. He was bred by the late Dr. Beach. This horse was a strongly-made animal, of great nerve and power; color, blood bay; sire, old St. Lawrence. He was sold to parties in a remote part of this State, and finally drifted back to Coldwater, where he died " with his harness on," in the year 1877..Marshall Chief, or the Goodrich Horse, was also owned in his latter years in this county, and died near Union City in 1878. He was a small dark-chestnut horse, a type of the old-time Morgan, and was a grandson of Hill's Black IHawk. Sparkle, commonly known as Charles, was by Tippo. He was a large bay horse, with bald face; was quite a good stepper, and sold by L. Darrow to parties in Rochester, N. Y. The thorough-bred blood calls for special mention. True, this county does not raise stock for the running turf, but some race-horses from the best families have been imported into it as a refining influence on the trotting and road stock. Caledonia and Surprise were both by the great sire of race-horses imp. '" Bonnie Scotland," and their dams were strictly thorough-bred. They were owned at Bronson, Mich. Erin-go-BBragh, also thorough-bred, was owned there. Liverpool, another thorough-bred, son of Bonnie Scotland, is kept at Mattison, in this county. Rtfe Ilunt, a finely-formed bay horse, is purely thoroughbred, his sire being Lightning, he by the great Lexington. His dam Nora Creina, by imp. Mahomet. He is owned by Messrs. E. C. Walker & Co., Coldwater. Returning to sires of general utility we find three more which merit favorable mention, horses of intrinsic merit and valuable to the county. First is Tomn Hunter, formerly called Blue Jay, Bred in Indiana, got by Secor's Black Hawk. Dam's pedigreiei t C: +:?+

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. traced. This horse was large and shapely, color gray. He had quite a reputation in Southern Michigan and Northern Indiana; was owned by A. T. Short, of Coldwater, and died here in August, 1878; his body occupies a stall of clay near the track of the Coldwater Driving Park. Marker was bought by F. L. Skeels & Co., of Alden Goldsmith, Orange Co., N. Y., in the fall of 1874. He is a blood-bay; stands sixteen hands high; a rangy horse, with plenty of substance. His sire is Volunteer, he by Rysdyk's Hambletonian. His dam, Misfortune, by Plow-Boy, son of Long Island Black Hawk. Royal Fearnaught is last, but not least, of the fine horses 'of this county. He was imported by E. C. Walker & Co., of Coldwater, from.Boston, Mass., in the fall of 1875, and broken to harness in 1876. He is a golden chestnut, stands sixteen hands high, and weighs eleven hundred pounds,a horse of remarkably fine appearance and action. His sire was the chestnut horse Old Fearnaught1 winner of the first ten thousand dollar purse at Buffalo. His dam, Lady Smithers, by Old Columbus, granddam by Harris' Hambletonian. Royal is still owned by Messrs. Walker & Co. Finally, as a matter of general information, we would like to throw some light on the breeding of the dams of the great trotters that Branch County has been the means of sending out, viz., Albemarle, 2.19; Edward, 2.19; and Manibrino General, 2.25k; but, unfortunately, much mystery enshrouds the colthood of these horses, and when our attention was directed to them we found the landmarks of their origin "Overgrown with black oblivion's dust." We have thus rapidly traced the growth of the horse interest in this county, and trust that our brief review will assist in stimulating this important industry. Appended is a table of the valuable trotting-horses, past and present, either owned or descended from stock owned in Branch County, classified according to their public records of 2.50 or better: Name of Horse. Magna Charta.............. Hannah D.................... Mollie.......................... Young Magna............... Royal Magna............... Judge W ithey............... Jennie Moore............... P. H. Baker.................. Bay Charlie.................. Little Hawk................. Roanoke...................... Mambrino Chief........... Mambrino General........ Mambrino Charta......... Novice......................... Juno............................ Kitty Fisk................... Chief........................... Mambrino Walker........ George B..................... Mambrino Chief, Jr...... W andering Jew............ Mambrino Oceanic,....... Woodchuck.................. Captain........................ Tom Hunter................. Albemarle.................... Alcyone....................... Balm of Gilead............. Blue Buck.................... Or. Mount. Black Hawk. Sherwood..................... Benny......................... W atchmaker................ Elder Sniffles............... John McCray................ Vermont Hero.............. Up and Up................... Lady M........................ Gen. Knox...............*... Othello, or Black Prince. Fannie......................... Sachem........................ Frank Moscow.............. Lady Moscow............... Belmont....................... Belle H........................ Hambletonian Star........ Edward........................ Independence............... athfinder................... Lady Beach.................. Gray Etna................. Old Tat........................ Mambrino Warner....... Name of Sire. Selor aod By whoniom Owned in Residence of Horse. Michiganll. Owner. Horse. Morgan Eagle, Jr........ bay stal.... L. Dean......................Girard. Magna Charta............ bay mare...........................................................1 " "............ bay mare.. W. Conant & Co.......... Coldwater......... "........................................................ " "........... chl. g......... Smith......................... Detroit............ "............ bay g........Judge Withey............. Rapids......... "........... ch. m....... H. N. Moore............... Coldwater........................bay s........ Dr. Parimeter.................................. ".............ba y g....... H. C. L e w is................. C o ld w a t e r........ " "............ blay g....... J. F. Pratt.................. "......... " "............ ir. g.......... I. Wagner.................. Colon............... Clay's Mamb. Chief..bay stal.... E.C. Walker & Co.......Coldwater......... I Mile cord Remarks. 2.301/ This horse is now 24 years old, and has always been identified with Branch County. 222124 Owned in Peiensylvaia. 2.27 Owned in Milwaukee. 2.29 Owned in Chicago. 2.32 2.32%2 2.34 Now owned in Cleveland, 0. 2.40 Now owned in Ligonier, Ind. 2.4t 2.41 Said to have trotted in New York in 2.26. 2.40 Could trot in 2.30. saddle, 2.29, harness, Walker's Mamb. Chief. bay g........ " ". cl. s * " " bay mare.. it ro. n........ " " " bay m...... St " bay s........ ' bay g....... ch.g......... ' " '" bay s........ " " bay........ " " ". s......... " " bayg........ bay s........ Secor's Black Hawk.... gray s...... Tom Hunter............... gray g...... " "............... gray in..... " ch................ ch g......... " "......... Sherman Black Hawk.. ch. s......... Gr. Mt. Black Hawk... cll. s......... c ill. g....... ' *..chll. g........; *;; '.'..cl. g. —,c h. g........ Sherman Black Hawk.. black s.... Vermont Hero............. bay g...... 4 ".............. gray m.... " "............. black s. Hill's Black Hawk...... black s..... m a c a r r m n c em a c t i n... Chas. H. Knowlton...... Quincy............ John Allen................. Coldwater......... W. G. Davis............... Colon................................................ Hyannis, Mass.. A. C. Fisk................... Coldwiter......... J. D. Mezner............... Burr Oak......... E. C. Walker............... Coldwater......... Jas. Lewis.................. Battle Creek..... E. C. Walker & Co...... Coldwater.......... Mr. Holmes................. Marshall.......... I). 0. Livermore................................. A. C. Fisk.................. Coldwater......... J. D. Mezner............... Burr Oak......... A. T. Short.................. Coldwater......... IWash. Pulver.............. Bethel............. A. T. Short.................. Coldwater........ A. G. Bexler............... Gilead.............. Mr. Burnside...................................... A. C. Fisk................... Coldwater. P. H. Daniels............... Laising. H. L. Sdleck............... Quincy...... H. N. Moore............... Coldwater......... F. V. Smith................ "......... F::isk & a: k.:.".:...:.:: C-olaIrd'water....... A. C. Fisk................... Coldwater........ 1...t. 2.30]/ 2.2512 2.34 2.36 2.31 2.34 2.39 2.40 2.40 2.41% 2.40 2.40) 2.32* 2.46 2.36 2.19 2.40 2.45 2.41 2.39 2.33 2.39 2.404 2.40 2.41 2.37 2.28 2.30 2.31% 2.39 2.41 2.40 2.37 2.30~ 2.32* 2.31 2.44% 2.19 2.41 2.32 2.42 2.40 2.32 2.304 This horse was formerly owned by A. C. Fisk, and sold for $12,0<)0; llis 5-imile record, 13.52. Now owned ini ltooklyn, N. Y. Now owned in St. John, N. B. Made %when five years old. Owned Iby G. L. Thacher. Bred in Boston. lOwned in Washington, D. C. Trotted at Hudson in 2.31t4. Trotted at Cambridge City, Ind., 2.29. When four years old showed a trial of 2.29. Trotted in 2.45 when three years old, and sold for $1500 Owned in Wauseon, 0. * When owned by C. R. Gassett, Boston. This horse died at Coldwater in the summer of 1878. Now owned in Rochester, N. Y. Now owned by Nye & Foster. Has trotted in 2.32. Sold to parties in Kentucky for $7000. Sire of Capt. Sillick, 2.35. Sold to parties in Kalamazoo. Sire of Lady Maud, 2.1814, etc. Bred in Vermont. Taken to Chicago. Shown trial 2.25%. * At Three Rivers. Sold for $2500. At four years old. Now owned in New York. Sire of Reaper, etc. Can trot better than 2.30. Trotted munch faster South. Campaigned South, where he beat 2.30. Died at Mansfield, 0. DBlaCK rlnce............... ibacK i... " "................... ' ".. "............ b. g.......... E. Van Valkenburgh... Hillsdale.......... Moscow..................... b. f W. Case.....................Burr Oak......... F. Moscow.................b.......... S. McLane..................Coldwater......... Irish Hunter..............g. s..... A. C. Fisk...................Coldwater......... Belmont............................ J. Hadley...................Detroit............. R. Hambletonian......... bay s....... A. C. Fisk................... Coldwater........ H. Star...................... ch. g........ Pearce & Co................ Niles............... Abdallah, Jr............... brown s.... H. Bailey.................... Coldwater........ Pathfinder................. br. s..... A.P. West.................. Union City....... B. St. Lawrence..................... A. T. Short.................. Coldwater.......................................................F. V. Smith................. "......................................... r. g......... A. Bedford............................................................ br. g......... C. Walker & Warner. i......... 0, I I. ~

Page  153 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 153 I The early and complete records of Coldwater we are unable to give, from the fact that there are none extant. In the year 1851, the fire to which we have already alluded swept away the archives of the village. Mr. E. G. Fuller was at that time village clerk, and the records were kept in his office. The building in which he was located was among the first to yield to the devouring flames, and with it was destroyed every full and complete chronicle of the civil organization and growth of Coldwater. This is but another of the many instances that illustrate the importance of placing valuable documents where they may be secure against the ravages of the fire. Had similar precautions been taken in the instance before us, we might gratify the interest of our Branch County readers with a consecutive record of the city since its first inception in 1837, when it was a little more than a hamlet. The following list of officers, from 1837 to 1851, is as complete as was possible to make it. Among the old papers in the rooms of the City Council were found statements of the early elections, and the oaths of office that had been filed by the city clerk. From these we have gleaned such fragmentary information as would enable us to give an imperfect record of the officers of the village of Coldwater until 1851, after which time it is complete: 1837.-Hiram Alden, President; Hiram Shoudler, Recorder; E. T. Paxton, Clerk; E. Sloan, L. D. Crippen, Francis Smith, B. J. Champion, James H. Hanchett, William Reynolds, Trustees. 1838.-L. D. Crippen, President; E. A. Warner, Recorder; William H. Cross, J. J. Curtis, John T. Haynes, R. J. Champion, E. G. Fuller, Thomas Dougherty, Trustees. 1839.-Silas A. Holbrook, President; E. A. Warner, Recorder; John J. Curtis, Esbon G. Fuller, Thomas Dougherty, Joseph Hanchett, Robert Wood, James Shoecraft, Trustees; James H. Hanchett, Treasurer; J. T. Haynes, Marshal. 1841.-James Shoecraft, Darius Littlefield, A. S. Glessner, Trustees. 1842. —David Williams, President; George A. Coe, Recorder; Henry F. Pelton, Deputy Recorder; D. S. Williams, Treasurer; J. H. Waterman, A. S. Glessner, W. Gilchrist, Albert Hammond, Trustees. 1843.-James Pierson, President; G. A. Coe, Recorder; L. T. M. Wilson, Deputy Recorder; William H. Kellogg, Treasurer; George Quick, Marshal; William Gilchrist, Overseer of Highways; A. S. Glessner, Kimball Parrish, Assessors; H. G. Gilbert, J. W. Davis, J. H. Waterman, J. B. Ramsdell, Trustees. 1844.-Henry Lockwood, President; George A. Coe, Recorder; John Root, Deputy Recorder; David Wood, Treasurer; George Quick, Marshal; Thomas Dougherty, Assessor; A. Chandler, James Pierson, William H. Hanchett, Harvey Warner, Trustees. 1845.-John Root and L. T. N. Wilson, Deputy Recorders; S. A. Holbrook, A. L. Porter, Assessors; D. S. Williams, Henry Lockwood, H. C. Gilbert, C. Wendell, David R. Cooley, George A. Kellogg, Trustees. 1846.-A. L. Porter, President; Corydon P. Benton, Recorder; L. T. N. Wilson, Deputy Recorder; Cornelius 20 Wendell, Treasurer; S. Perkins, C. P. Benton, Assessors; George Quick, Marshal; Isaac Pierce, Overseer of Highways; Christopher Dickenson, Asa Parrish, Henry Lockwood, William Walton, Nelson D. Skeels, Trustees. 1847.-Harvey Warner, President; Corydon P. Benton, Recorder; D. C. Morehouse, Deputy Recorder; S. Perkins, Marshal; George A. Kellogg, Treasurer; Myron A. Dougherty, S. A. Holbrook, Assessors; William H. Kellogg, Overseer of Highways; Christopher Dickenson, Hiram Shoudler, Henry Lockwood, James Van Duser, George A. Coe, William H. Hanchett, Trustees. 1848.-Harvey Warner, President; C. P. Benton, Recorder; D. S. Williams, Marshal; Albert Chandler, James W. Gilbert, Assessors; James Pierson, Harvey Warner, Overseers of Highways; William H. Hanchett, Henry Lockwood, Fred. V. Smith, James Van Duser, George A. Coe, C. Dickenson, Trustees. 1849.-Jared Pond, President; Henry C. Gilbert, Recorder; A. A. Amidon, Deputy Recorder; Hiram R. Alden, Treasurer; H. Lockwood, Marshal; F. V. Smith, H. Lockwood, Assessors; George Quick, Asa Parrish, Overseers of Highways; Matthias Van Every, Jasper Parrish, E. G. Fuller, John R. Winans, Trustees. 1850.-Jared Pond, President; L. T. N. Wilson, Recorder; Phineas P. Wright, Treasurer; John Root, David Thompson, Assessors; David S. Williams, Marshal; Henry C. Lewis, Asa F. Groendycke, Overseers of Highways; M. A. Dougherty, S. Perkins, F. V. Smith, A. L. Porter, L. D. Crippen, Trustees. 1851.-Harvey Warner, President; E. G. Fuller, Recorder; F. V. Smith, D. Littlefield, W. E. Clark, S. M. Dennison, R. F. Mockridge, Trustees. 1852.-Albert Chandler, President; James W. Gilbert, Recorder; Robert F. Mockridge, Treasurer; Harvey Warner, John Chandler, Assessors; L. T. N. Wilson, Marshal; Homer M. Wright, Albert L. Porter, Stephen S. Cutter, Sterling Perkins, Nelson D. Skeels, Chester S. Tucker, Trustees. 1853.-Hiram Shoudler, President; George A. Kellogg, Recorder; R. F. Mockridge, Treasurer; F. V. Smith, Marshal; Phineas P. Wright, James B. Crippen, Wm. H. Beach, Augustus S. Glessner, William A. Jackson, John Root, Trustees. 1854.-Alvin H. Burdick, President; Elihu P. Bond, Recorder; R. F. Mockridge, Treasurer; Jared Pond, Marshal; John Root, F. V. Smith, Assessors; Matthias Van Every, Robt. M. Wilder, Edwin R. Clark, Isaac Pierce, James W. Gilbert, Davis Smith, Trustees. 1855.-Hiram Baker, President; Justin Lawyer, Recorder; Geo. A. Coe, Treasurer; John C. Pelton, Marshal; Roland Root, F. V. Smith, Assessors; Leonard Bowker, Calvin Pratt, Morris Howe, 0. Bingham, M. H. Parker, Isaac P. Alger, Trustees. 1856.-Roland Root, President; Franklin T. Eddy, Recorder; Nelson D. Skeels, Treasurer; Cyrus A. Dun ning, Marshal; Edwin R. Clark, Cornelius Wendell, Henry C. Lewis, Philo H. Crippen, Daniel B. Dennis, Trustees. 1857.-Augustus S. Glessner, President; Franklin T. Eddy, Recorder; A. F. Bidwell, Treasurer; Alonzo Duncan, Marshal; John Root, David S. Williams, Assessorsi

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. Nelson D. Skeels, Mortimer Mansfield, James Pierson, Charles Upson, Jonathan H. Gray, John Waterhouse, Trustees. 1858.-Alonzo F. Bidwell, President; Ovid Allen, Geo. A. Coe, James A. McCarty, James H. Marsh, Stephen S. Peckham, Geo. W. Johnson, Trustees; Wallace W. Barrett, Clerk; Mortimer Mansfield, Marshal; Justin Lawyer, Treasurer; John Root, D. S. Williams, Assessors; Kimball Parish, Roland Root, I. P. Alger, Street Commissioners; Robert M. Wilder, Poundmaster. 1859.-Charles Upham, President; Devereux S. Harrington, Tyler M. Parish, Luke H. Whitcomb, Luther F. Hall, William H. Abbott, William Van Denbergh, Trustees; James A. McCarty, Marshal; Justin Lawyer, Treasurer; Hiram Shoudler, Assessor; Mortimer Mansfield, Street Commissioner; Daniel Chapman, Poundmaster. 1860.-Stephen Cutler, President; Uri Blodgett, S. T. F. Bullard, Ephraim A. Knowlton, David Thompson, John G. Ketchum, George B. Tyler, Trustees; P. P. Nichols, Clerk; John S. Youngs, Treasurer; William H. Abbott, Marshal; David B. Purinton, Assessor; Origin Bingham, Street Commissioner; Herman H. Flandermeyer, George D. Ford, Fire-Wardens; John Luck, Poundmaster. 1861.-In this year Coldwater obtained a city charter, with the following municipal officers: Albert Chandler, Mayor; Robert F. Mockridge, Clerk; John S. Youngs, Treasurer; Isaac Van Ness, Marshal; Matthias Van Every, Street Commissioner; Franklin D. Marsh, Collector; John Root, Justice. First Ward: Frederick V. Smith, Supervisor; Julius S. Barber, Alderman; Isaac Van Ness, Constable. Second Ward: Corydon P. Benton, Supervisor; Isaac P. Alger, Alderman; Eli W. Bovee, Constable. Third Ward: L. D. Crippen, Supervisor; Ephraim A. Knowlton, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: David N. Green, Supervisor; John D. Wood, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1862.-Albert Chandler, Mayor; Robert F. Mockridge, Clerk; John S. Youngs, Treasurer; Isaac Van Ness, Marshal; Matthias Van Every, Street Commissioner; Franklin D. Marsh, Collector; John Root, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: Frederick V. Smith, Supervisor; Julius Barber, Alderman; Isaac Van Ness, Constable. Second Ward: Corydon P. Benton, Supervisor; Eli W. Bovee, Constable. Third Ward: Lorenzo D. Crippen, Supervisor; Ephraim A. Knowlton, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: David N. Green, Supervisor; John D. Wood, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1863.-David B. Dennis, Mayor; Hiram D. Upham, Clerk; Ives G. Miles, Treasurer; Isaac Van Ness, Marshal; Winslow H. Sawyer, Street Commissioner; Theodore C. Etheridge, Collector; Benjamin C. Webb, Justice of the Peace, to fill vacancy; the same for full term. First Ward: Frederick V. Smith, Supervisor; John W. Culp, Alderman; Isaac Van Ness, Constable. Second Ward: Cory. P. Benton, Supervisor; A. S. Glessner, Alderman; Slocum Earton, Constable. Third Ward: Daniel W. Green, Supervisor; Abram McCrea, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Con stable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; John O. Pelton, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1864.-Justin Lawyer, Mayor; John Murphey, Clerk; George K. Bowker, Marshal; Amariah G. Stevens, Collector; Roland Root, Street Commissioner; George A. Coe, Justice of the Peace; George Starr, Treasurer. First Ward: Frederick V. Smith, Supervisor; Julius S. Barber, Alderman; George S. Gibson, Constable. Second Ward: Theodore C. Etheridge, Supervisor; Phineas P. Nichols, Alderman; Walter H. Lathrop, Constable. Third Ward: D. B. Purinton, Supervisor; Nelson H. Saunders, Alderman; Lansing M. Gray, Constable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; Edward W. Markham, Alderman; George W. Love, Constable. 1865.-Justin Lawyer, Mayor; John Murphey, Clerk; Robert M. Wilder, Marshal; Edward W. Benton, Collector; George Starr, Treasurer; David B. Dennis, Justice of the Peace; Matthias Van Every, Street Commissioner. First Ward: George S. Sweet, Supervisor; Hiram Foland, Alderman; George C. Gibson, Constable. Second Ward: Ovid Allen, Supervisor; Edwin R. Clarke, Alderman; Alexander Oderin, Jr., Constable. Third Ward: George A. Coe, Supervisor; Allen Tibbits, Alderman, full term; James A. McCarty, vacancy; Lansing M. Gray, Constable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; Franklin E. Morgan, Alderman; Darius Chapman, Constable. 1866.-John H. Beach, Mayor; William G. Moore, Clerk; George Starr, Treasurer; John Whitcomb, Marshal; Henry C. Williams, Collector; Matthias Van Every, Street Commissioner; Wallace W. Barrett, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: George S. Sweet, Supervisor; Byron D. Paddock, Alderman; George C. Gibson, Constable. Second Ward: Theodore C. Etheridge, Supervisor; P. P. Nichols, Alderman; Alexander Oderin, Constable. Third Ward: George A. Coe, Supervisor; William S. Gilbert, Alderman; Lansing M. Gray, Constable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; John H Bennett, Alderman; Stephen Paddock, Constable. 1867.-D. C. Powers, Mayor; D. J. Easton, Clerk; George Starr, Treasurer; John Whitcomb, Marshal; John Chandler, Collector; Matthias Van Every, Street Commissioner; Benjamin C. Webb, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: J. McGowan, Supervisor; Lewis B. Johnson, Alderman; John Whitcomb, Constable. Second Ward: T. C. Etheridge, H. O. Mosher, Aldermen; A. Oderin, Constable. Third Ward: George A. Coe, Supervisor; L. T. N. Wilson, Alderman; L. M. Gray, Constable. Fourth Ward: F. T. Eddy, Supervisor; G. W. Watson, Alderman; J. S. Wolcott, Constable. 1868.-David C. Powers, Mayor; John Murphey, Clerk; John P. Youngs, Treasurer; Roland Root, Street Commissioner; David B. Purinton, Justice of the Peace; Henry N. Moore, Marshal; Gilbert H. Taylor, Collector. First Ward, Jonas H. McGowan, Supervisor; James Anderson, Alderman; Ansel E. Thompson, Constable. Second Ward: Theo. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; David N. Green, Alderman; to fill vacancy, Parley G. Benton; Thomas McComb, Constable. Third Ward: George A. Coe, Supervisor; David Thompson, Alderman; William G. Kyte, Constable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; John H. Bennett, Alderman; Jerome P. Wolcott, Constable. 1869.-Phineas P. Nichols, Mayor; John Murphey, Clerk; Lester E. Rose, Treasurer; Isaac P. Alger, Justice

Page  155 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 155 of the Peace; Thomas Harrison, Marshal; Corydon P. Benton, Collector; John M. Saunders, Street Commissioner. First Ward: Geo. S. Sweet, Supervisor; Lewis B. Johnson, Alderman; Silas L. Devens, Constable. Second Ward: Theo. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; Thomas W. Dickenson, Alderman; full term, Nathan Rosenbaum, to fill vacancy. Third Ward: George A. Coe, Supervisor; Abram McCrea, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: S. S. Scovill, Supervisor; Bleeker L. Webb, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1870.-Justin Lawyer, Mayor; Wm. H. H. Halsted, Clerk; Lester E. Rose, Treasurer; David Thompson, Justice of the Peace, full term and to fill vacancy; Alfred Thompson, Marshal; John W. Saunders, Street Commissioner; Cornelius Van Ness, Collector. First Ward: David N. Green, Supervisor; Hiram Shoudler, Alderman; Silas S. Devins, Constable. Second Ward: Theo. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; Parley Burton, Alderman; Jeremiah Rogers, Constable. Third Ward: David Thompson, Supervisor; Wm. R. Foster, Alderman, full term; Hiram B. Robinson, to fill vacancy; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: S. S. Scovill, Supervisor; John R. Champion, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1871.-David B. Dennis, Mayor; W. H. H. Halsted, Clerk; Willard J. Bowen, Treasurer; Hamilton S. Miles, Marshal; John M. Saunders, Street Commissioner; Charles L. Truesdell, Collector; Benjamin C. Webb, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: David N. Green, Supervisor; Spencer Birdsell, Constable. Second Ward: William A. Coombs, Supervisor; J. Franklin Pratt, Alderman; Jeremiah Rogers, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Robert M. Wilder, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: S. S. Scovill, Supervisor; Bleeker L. Webb, Alderman; George W. Bowker, Constable. 1872.-Henry C. Lewis, Mayor; Wm. R. Foster, Clerk; Willard J. Bowen, Treasurer; Gurdon L. Howe, Collector; David B. Purinton, Justice of the Peace; John M. Saunders, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: David N. Green, Supervisor; George Cauwriter, Alderman; Geo. H. Whitehead, Constable. Second Ward: Theo. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; Uri Blodget, Alderman; Jeremiah Rogers, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; David Thompson, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourth Ward: Franklin T. Eddy, Supervisor; Jeremiah Wolcott, Alderman; John C. Hall, Constable. 1873.-Henry C. Lewis, Mayor; William R. Foster, Clerk; Willard J. Brown, Treasurer; Roland Root, Justice of the Peace; John M. Saunders, Street Commissioner; D. P. Cushman, Marshal. First Ward: I. D. W. Fisk, Supervisor; William Burns, Alderman; Spencer Birdsell, Constable. Second Ward: T. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; Henry C. Whitley, Alderman; Jeremiah Rogers, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Thomas Smith, Alderman; Andrew S. Rowell, Constable. Fourti Ward: Henry C. Williams, Supervisor; Lester E. Rose, Alderman; Charles Weller, Constable. 1874.-John R. Champion, Mayor; Charles L. Trues dell, Clerk; Willard J. Bowen, Treasurer; Alfred Thompson, Marshal; John M. Saunders, Street Commis sioner; Daniel Bovee, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: Daniel N. Green, Supervisor; Anthony R. Brown, Alderman; K. Parish, Constable. Second Ward: Theo. C. Etheridge, Supervisor; David B. Purinton, Alderman; John Ray, Constable. Third Ward: Allen Tibbits, Supervisor; Smith W. Fisk, Alderman; Lansing M. Gray, Constable. Fourth Ward: David S. Williams, Supervisor; John E. Allen, Alderman; Isaac Bair, Constable. 1875.-John R. Champion, Mayor; Charles L. Truesdell, Clerk; Willard J. Bowen, Treasurer; Job Williams, Marshal; Asa Waterhouse, Street Commissioner; Benj. C. Webb, Justice of the Peace. First Ward: Jacob E. Smith, Supervisor; William H. Abbott, Alderman; John Lennan, Constable. Second Ward: Levi W. Lee, Supervisor; Alfred Foster, Alderman; Charles M. Abbott, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Thomas Smith, Alderman; Frederick Schaffer, Constable. Fourth Ward: Albert F. Chandler, Supervisor; Herman H. Flandermeyer, Alderman; Henry Cook, Constable. 1876.-Stephen S. Cutter, Mayor; L. P. Palmer, Clerk; Wm. Job Williams, Marshal; David B. Purinton, Justice of the Peace; Willard I. Bowen, Treasurer; John M. Saunders, Street Commissioner. First Ward: Jacob E. Smith, Supervisor; Henry Ray, Alderman; Hamilton S. Miles, Constable. Second Ward: Levi W. Lee, Supervisor; William A. Coombs, Alderman; Wm. R. Waden, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Alfred Milnes, Alderman; Calvin J. Dart, for vacancy; Joseph H. Montague, Constable. Fourth Ward: David S. Williams, Supervisor; M. H. Parker, Alderman; John C. Hall, Constable. 1877.-Charles Upson, Mayor; L. P. Palmer, Clerk; Alfred Thompson, Marshal; George Starr, Treasurer; Roland Root, Justice of the Peace; John M. Saunders, Street Commissioner. First Ward: Daniel Halway, Supervisor; Henry C. Clark, Alderman; Spencer Birdsell, Constable. Second Ward: David B. Purinton, Supervisor; Clark Pierce, Alderman; George S. Culver, Constable. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Isaac McColom, Alderman; Joseph H. Montague, Constable. Fourth Ward: Wm. H. Donaldson, Supervisor; Sylvanus S. Scovill, Alderman; Lyman J. Goodell, Constable. 1878.-A. J. Foster, Mayor; Albert O. Wood, Clerk; Orlando G. Noyes, Marshal; John W. Turner, Justice of the Peace; Ransom E. Hall, Treasurer; John Keely, Street Commissioner. First Ward: Arthur R. Burrows, Supervisor; Fred. H. Flandermeyer, Alderman; Spencer Birdsell, Constable; Frederick V. Smith and Darius W. Fridham, members of School Board. Second Ward: David B. Purinton, Supervisor; George Firth, Alderman, full term; P. P. Nichols for vacancy; Geo. W. Lee, Constable; George S. Foster and Harvey D. Robinson, members of School Board. Third Ward: Roland Root, Supervisor; Alfred Thompson, Alderman; Joseph H. Montague, Constable; George W. Stevens and Oscar B. Moore, members of School Board. Fourth Ward: Charles V. L. Hibbee, Supervisor; I. S. Wolcott, Alderman; Fred. C. Meyer, Constable; John R. Champion and Justin Lawyer, members of school Board. 4ll

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES. JOHN H. BEECH, M.D., was born Sept. 24,1819, at Gaines, Orleans Co., N. Y. He was the son of Dr. Jesse Beech. He prepared for college at Gaines Academy, and graduated at Albany Medical College in April, 1841, immediately entering upon the practice at Gaines, in partnership with Dr. Martin Mason, an old practitioner at that place, with whom he continued two years; thenceforward pursuing the practice singly, member of the Branch County Medical Society; the Peninsular Medical Society, which he represented in 1854 and 1855 in the American Medical Association, and of which he was elected president in 1856; the American Medical Association, to which he made in 1855 a report on the "Topography and Epidemics of Michigan;" the Southern Michigan Medical Society, which he founded in 1873, and of which he was elected president in July, 1874; the Alumni Association of Albany Medical College, of which he was elected president in 1874; the American Public Health Association; was elected, April 12, 1870, corresponding member of the Detroit Academy of Medicine, and Nov. 7, 1871, of the Gynaecological Society of Boston, Mass.; and in 1876 was appointed special correspondent of the Michigan State Board of Health, in connection with which it may be stated the law of Michigan prohibiting the tying of the feet of small animals in transit for slaughter was the result of petitions originated and distributed by him. To each of the organizations above named he contributed practical papers and various medical journals.. In April, 1866, he was elected mayor of the city of Coldwater. In the same year he was elected president of the board of the trustees of the Coldwater Female Seminary, and from 1870 to 1875 (inclusive) was moderator of the Board of Education of the city. He was married, Jan. 20, 1842, to Miss Eliza C. Crowns, of Guilderland. Albany Co., N. Y., who died June 5, 1859. Jan. 5, 1861, he married, at Clarkson, Monroe Co., N. Y., Mary Jane Perry, who died June 24, 1872. Aug. 26, 1875, he married Mrs. Sarah E. Skeels, of Coldwater, who is a sister of Henry C. Lewis. Dr. Beech departed this life Oct. 17, 1878, leaving no issue. COLDWATER, MICii., March 30, 1879. MESSRS. EVERTS & ABBOTT: DEAR SIRS,-As I was among the early comers into this part of Michigan, I am requested to contribute something to the history of Branch County, which you are about to publish, by giving some account of myself, and by stating some of the incidents of its early settlement, with which I am familiar. I was born Feb. 28, 1797, in the State of New York, and was never outside of its limits till thirty-eight years afterwards, when I set out for Michigan. I have lived under the administration of all the Presidents, but for six days only under that of Washington. Quite early in life I was ambitious to become a doctor. Having always to depend upon myself, the fruition of that desire was deferred somewhat beyond my wishes, but with such means as I could obtain, after I became of age, I took a preparatory course, and started for Fairfield, Herkimer Co., N. Y., to attend the medical college, then in a flourishing condition at that place. My studies were continued at that school between three and four years, until I graduated in the winter of 1826. Going into the western part of the State in the fall of 1827, I settled in my profession at Webster Corners, on the Ridge road, ten miles east from the city of Rochester. Photo. by E. Kindmark, Coldwater. JOHN H. BEECH, M.D. until October, 1850, at which time he removed to Coldwater. Meantime he attended several courses of lectures, and spent one winter in New York, and one in the Philadelphia hospitals. During the war he rendered valuable service in the various hospitals and positions assigned him. He was acting assistant surgeon in the Army of the Tennessee in May and June, 1862; was commissioned surgeon of the 24th Michigan Infantry, Aug. 15, 1862; appointed member of the operating board of the 1st Army Corps before Fredericksburg, Va., Dec. 12, 1862; Dec. 21, 1863, made surgeon-in-chief (pro tem.) of the 1st Division of the 1st Army Corps, confirmed by special order April 12, 1864, and continued in the discharge of this duty, though the brigade (styled by Gen. McClellan the " Iron Brigade") was changed in divisions and corps, until Feb. 18, 1865; when it was broken up, and its veteran regiments sent North. At Gettysburg, Pa., he was appointed surgeon-in-charge of the Express Office Hospital, July 4, 1863, and continued to hold the position until the 5th of the following August, when illness compelled him to give it up. His resignation as surgeon of the 24th Michigan Infantry was accepted April 4, 1865. After the war he confined himself to consultations in medicine, operative surgery, and gynaecology. He was a

Page  157 HISTORY OF BRANCH COUNTY, MICHIGAN. 157 I remained at that point three years, then removed to Honeoye Falls, some sixteen miles south from that city, where I lived till I came to Michigan, in 1835. The Rev. Francis Smith, whose eldest daughter I married in 1831, having disposed of his home and other property, I was induced to set out with him on a tour West, in quest of a new home, intending to proceed as far as the Mississippi River, should nothing be met with to suit before we got there. We left our homes about the middle of May, and The parties on both sides in this matter, except myself, were men of more than ordinary ability and experience financially, and it would have been a paper of much interest to-day, had a journal of all that passed between the parties before the negotiations were completed been kept and handed down to the present generation. Mr. Fiske, L. D. Crippen, and P. H. Crippen, his brother, made arrangements to take possession immediately, while Mr. Bradley Crippen, Mr. Smith, and myself returned East, intending to remove with our families in the fall. On our return to Coldwater, we started the 8th of September, and arrived at our destination the 24th day of that month, passing through Canada on our route, having sent all our heavy goods by way of the Erie Canal and the Lake to Detroit. Early in the season of 1836 a partnership was formed, consisting of Francis Smith, Thomas Dougherty, and myself, with a view of building both a saw-mill and a flouringmill, at the west end of what is now Pearl Street, in our city. Work on the saw-mill was begun the same season, by a Mr. Worden, of the State of New York, and was finished some time in the fall. The flouring-mill was commenced quite early in the spring of 1837, and completed early in the following winter. The late Samuel Ethridge, well known to a