A history of northern Michigan and its people
Powers, Perry Francis, 1857-1945., Cutler, H. G. (Harry Gardner), b. 1856.

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Page  I __ ___ A HISTORY OF Northern Michigan AND ITS PEOPLE BY PERRY F. POWERS Assisted by H. G. CUTLER Editor of the Lewis Publishing Company ILLUSTRATED VOLUME I THE LEWIS 1912 PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO - ---- --- ---- - -- -- - -----

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Page  III INTRODUCTION Why should there be a history of Northern Michigan? Why should it seem a desirable and proper expenditure of time and effort to gather together and present the earliest incidents and traditional and recorded statements touching movements and conditions in a single section of Michigan? What worthy purpose can be served through a history of Northern Michigan that cannot be as well or better served through the inclusion of such records and reviews, as are here included, in the history of our state as a whole? These questions have suggested themselves to the writer and they are here expressed in order that the answers, which present themselves with most conclusive force, may also be given. We have believed it to be true that Northern Michigan possesses a history so unique and that its material development and progress and the lives of its people have been along lines so greatly influenced by its products and its peculiarities as to give more than ordinary value to a permanent, collective and conscientious record of the incidents and movements relating to the conditions and situations, to the men and women of Northern Michigan. We have come to very well know that the varying conditions of life have most to do with the characteristics and peculiarities of people. If it is further true, as we are so many times told, that here in the United States there is being developed from the combination of the peoples of many lands, characteristics and types quite apart from those possessed by any of the nations from which they came, it will probably not be questioned as to the source and cause for this unique type. This land in which we, as a nation, have our homes, its possessions of soil and climate so widely varying and representative in themselves of many other entire nations, its varying products, its great distances, its continental mountain ranges and its unusual lakes and rivers, have been most important contributory influences to the activities and peculiarities of the American people. As individuals, we have absorbed not a little of the self-sufficient and bold and assertive characteristics of our native and adopted homeland. That such influence exists has been especially illustrated throughout the development of the section and counties known as "Northern Michiiii

Page  IV iV INTRODUCTION gan. " If no other reason could be given, this alone would be sufficient to justify a separate review of this section and its people. Hardly any other state in the Union presents such varying products and activities as are provided and made necessary through the natural differences that exist between what are known as "Southern Michigan" and "'Northern Michigan" and the "Upper Peninsula." The problems that have related to life and to living in what we have here somewhat arbitrarily selected as the territory of Northern Michigan have not only developed and modified the means and the methods and outlook of the women and men who have been connected with them, but they have had a very strong influence upon the history of our state as a whole. The difficulties relating to pioneer life in Northern Michigan had not been duplicated in the earlier settled sections. They provided for common efforts and common sympathies and produced problems and interests through which strong sectional relations were developed. Through many years, Michigan held first place in the Union as the great pine timber and lumber producing state. More than to other single industry, perhaps, Michigan owes its progress and prosperity throughout the past half century to its timber and lumber products and resources. To a very large extent is it further true that the territory of Northern Michigan was the section that provided the several important industries and the enormous wealth directly and indirectly related to the timber and lumber and wood-working industries. It has often been complainingly referred to by the people of Northern Michigan that their territory provided foundations for the great fortunes that later have most enriched and assisted in building up the larger cities and other sections of their commonwealth, as well as of other states. The abandoned mill site and the almost obliterated sawdust accumulations of some of the former great logging and lumbering communities of Northern Michigan mutely but very eloquently testify to the sources of fortunes that have been and are being spent in adding to the value of life and the enjoyment of living in other more favored localities. But the best that Northern Michigan has produced is that which it has retained and which has become a permanent feature of its life. The fact that its pioneers had more to struggle against in order to provide homes for themselves and the necessary accompaniments of homes developed in them a degree of aggressive energy which has remained as a distinct sectional possession. Sometimes the terms and phrases, "Northern Michigan spirit," "Northern Michigan sentiment," and "Northern Michigan point of view" have been made use of through the press and from the platforms of our state, and very rarely has it been necessary to add anything to the explanation and understanding which such phrases would very readily give. The life of Northern Michigan and the people of Northern Michigan throughout their earlier years of existence, at least, have produced results sufficiently unique to be deserving of independent and separate presentation. There has been an honest effort in the pages that follow to mention the men and women to whom much is due in connection with Northern Michigan's first settlement and pioneer hardships. It would hardly be

Page  V INTRODUCTION v possible to escape injustice in the preparation of a list of those to whom such tribute should be paid. Surely it will be true that many who never figured prominently in county or community or sectional history performed service worthy of formal praise and permanent record. This almost necessary feature of injustice is recognized as a part of every effort that seeks to do justice to worthy and helpful service. But there are many names prominently known and connected with the pioneer work in Northern Michigan which the volumes of this history have sought to so properly and directly relate to their efforts and their accomplishments as to give them an enduring place in the memory of those of pressent years and the years to come whom they so splendidly served. Northern Michigan has almost ceased to be the section of forests and timber and lumber, or the abiding place of its earliest pioneers. Its first days of record and those to whom from succeeding generations will recognition and credit be due for service well and worthily rendered, will soon be memories. The section of Michigan which this history represents is now known and rapidly becoming better known as the orchard and garden section through which our state in a few years will be enriched even beyond its bountiful provision of earlier years. In connection with the arrival and acceptance of this new era for Northern Michigan it is desirable that the years gone by should be remembered. Gratitude is one of the most beautiful of all of the better qualities of our human kind. It enriches and adds enjoyment to its possessor as well as to those to whom it is directed and attached. That this sentiment may have larger and more active existence in connection with the movements and incidents herein recorded is a sincere purpose and wish in the mind of the writer in connection with this work. In the general history such topics as the Physical Features of Northern Michigan, Mound Builders, Indians, Lumber Industries and some others are treated because they seem logically to be subjects of general application to the region as a whole; in the history of the counties, therefore, these topics are largely ignored. The chief object in the sections devoted to counties and cities has been to picture present conditions in some detail, giving only so much of the past as is explanatory or necessary to the historical and logical basis of the present. Speaking from the sectional standpoint, the general plan in the arrangement and grouping of the county histories is to present the Grand Traverse region; then the counties of the Huron shore; finally to take up the interior counties, passing from north to south-keeping in mind, although not closely, their comparative importance. This plan was also adopted because the Grand Traverse region was, generally speaking, the pioneer section of Northern Michigan. In the county histories are brought out, in detail, the physical features of Northern Michigan boldly sketched in the general history; and especially the great central plateau is fully set forth, the histories tracing in special sections of the country the distinct ridge, or water-shed, which separates such great systems as those of the Manistee, Muskegon,:heboygan, Au Sable and Tittabawassee rivers, of Grand Traverse and Saginaw bays. It has been made moie evident in the county histories that Northern

Page  VI vi INTRODUCTION Michigan is divided so distinctly by its surface geology into eastern and western portions that its very railroad systems were obliged to conform to this physical peculiarity, and it is only within comparatively recent years that her railroads have been fairly bound together by east and west lines. Until this work is further advanced Northern Michigan will not be a united section of the state. To this interior physical feature of the central plateau and the sharply divided watersheds of Northern Michigan is added the fact that this part of the state is bounded on three sides by great bodies of water, thus intensifying its isolation from neighboring territory. While these two physical conditions have retarded its development in comparison with other commonwealths whose territories lay adjacent to sections which have stimulated their development, this very outward isolation and interior division have developed a splendid type of manhood and womanhood-self-reliant, strong, straight-forward, enterprising and moral. In finally bidding adieu to this work, both of labor and love, the writer wishes especially to acknowledge his indebtedness to the following works, as sources of valuable information in the preparation of the history of Northern Michigan. Special credit is also given them in various portions of the history. Surface Geology of Michigan; 1908; by Alfred C. Lane for the Michigan State Geological Survey. * Bulletins of U. S. Census Bureau, including population statistics and Forest Products of the United States. Michigan Geological and Biological Survey; sites of aboriginal remains; 1910. E;arly History of Michigan; 1888; S. D. Bingham. Michigan in the Civil War; 1880; by John Robertson, adjutant general. History of Michigan, civil and topographical; 1839; James H. Lanman. Michigan Tradesman; Origin of County Names; June 15, 1910. History of the Grand Traverse Region; 1883; by Dr. M. L. Leach; Grand Traverse Herald, publisher. The Traverse Region; 1884; publishers, H. R. Page & Company, Chicago. History of the Lake Huron Region; 1883; same publishers. Michigan Legislative Manual, 1911. History of Michigan; 1910; by Lawton T. Hemans. * The statistics of population published in each county history may be perplexing Without the explanation that the township figures sometimes include cities and villages, whose populations, in the same columns, follow separately. The totals, therefore, at the foot of the columns will not be correct unless the figures of the villages and cities are excluded; in other words, the totals are the additions of the township figures alone. It sometimes also happens that the total population of the county will not conform to the addition of the township figures, the explanation being that, in such cases, certain townships have been annexed or absorbed-the names of the townships given in the tables being those in existence in R10.

Page  VII INTRODUCTION * History of the Northern Peninsula; 1911; Alvah L. Sawyer. Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections. Men of Progress; 1900; by Evening News Association, Detroit. Northern Michigan; 1905; B. F. Bowen & Company, Chicago. Publications of the Western Michigan Development Bureau. Publications of the Northeastern Michigan Development Bureau. Publications of the Detroit & Mackinac Railway Company. Publications of the Traverse City Board of Trade. Centennial History of Manistee County, containing addresses of Hon. John C. Blanchard and Hon. B. M. Cutcheon. Manistee, the Salt City of the Unsalted Seas; 1910; American Printing Company. Ludington, Gateway of the Northwest; 1910; Ludington Board of Trade. Centennial History of Alpena County; by David D. Oliver. Alpena; dates of events, 1862-1902; Alpena Argus. Antrim County; 1910; by authority of Board of Supervisors. Centennial History of Cheboygan County; by Rev. W. H. Ware. Cheboygan Up-to-Date; 1898; Cheboygan Democrat. History of Wexford County; 1903; by John H. Wheeler. Cadillac City Directory; 1900; by W. A. Norton. History of Alcona County; 1877; by Charles P. Reynolds. "Back to the Farm in Crawford County;" 1910; by authority of Board of Supervisors. "Beauty Spots in Leelanau;" 1901; by Wilber E. Campbell. Various sourvenir editions issued by the newspapers of Northern Michigan, including the Cheboygan Tribune, Gladwin Record, Empire Leader, Missaukee Republican, West Branch Times and the Onaway Outlook. Interviews with prominent citizens of all classes. In the collection of this historical material requests for information, as a rule, have met with full response, but if in any portion of the work there appears to be insufficient treatment the defect is caused simply because the subject matter is not avhilable, for both editors and publishers have endeavored in every possible way to gather all the facts for a fair presentation of every section and community in Northern Michigan. PERRY F. PowERs.

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Page  XVII INDEX Abbott, A. A., 434, 435. Abbott, J. C., 329. Abrahamson, Martin, 689. Abbs, William H., 1251. Ackerman, Charles B., 1071. Adams, C. F., 518. Adamski, Frank C., 663. Agriculture in Northern Michigan, 218. Agricultural Societies in Northern Michigan, 218. Aishcum (see Lake) county. Alanson, 315. Alba, 334. Alcona Agricultural Society, 219. Aleona county-Mention, 34, 94, 137, 223; physical advantages, 498; population, 500; the first settlers, 500; leading fishermen, 501; founders of Harrisville, 501; county organized, 503; Harrisville, 504; Lincoln and Mikado, 504. Alcona County Agricultural Society, 504. Alden, 334. Alfalfa, 29. Allen, Jesse, 785. Allen, Thomas T., 1041. Allouez, Claude Jean, 37. Alpena, 225. Alpena "Argus-Pioneer," 149, 150. Alpena county-Mention, 34, 94, 123, 137, 223; physical features, 459; population and property, 460; first surveys and settlers, 461; David D. Oliver appears, 462; village of Fremont born, 465; organization of the county, 465; a turning point, 467; first years as a city, 469; water and light, 470; schools and public buildings, 472; religious, 473; industries and banks, 473; outside of Alpena, 474. Alpena County Savings Bank, 474. Alpena "Evening Echo," 150. Alpena "Evening News," 150. Alpena "Farmer," 150. Alpena National Bank, 474. Alpena Portland Cement Company, 474. "Alpena Weekly Argus," 150. Alway, Curtis D., 1199. American Regime Commenced, 77. American Wood Rim Company, 485. Amerson, Harvey S., 903. Ann Arbor Railroad Company, 179. Anderson, Aaron F., 983. Anderson, Henry J., 1166. Andresen, Thomas E., 654. Andress, Perry, 331, 332. Andrus, Enoch, 162. Andrus, George F., 1081. Annand, George, 1301. Antrim (see Furnaceville). Antrim county-Mention, 34, 94, 129, 137; physical features, 316; villages and county's population, 318; historic and prehistoric, 319; Abram S. Wadsworth, the county's pioneer, 320; James McLaughlin, 321; first burial in the county, 322; Elk Rapids a fact, 322; early county affairs, 323; county organized, 324; first courthouse and jail, 325; county seat moved to Bellaire, 326; Bellaire, present county seat, 326-30; Elk Rapids of today, 330; Mancelona, 331; Central Lake, 333; stations and postoffices, 333; organization of the townships, 334. Archibald & Murray, 201, 202. Arenac county-Mention, 93, 137; physical, 537; population, 538; organization, 539; Standish, the county seat, 540; Omer City, 540; Au Gres and Twining, 541. Arenac County Agricultural Society, 540. "Arenac County Independent," 162. Armstrong, John, 1073. Ashton, Benjamin D., 998. Ashton, Edwin L., 1000. Atlanta, 488.. Au Gres, 541. Au Gres "Enterprise," 162. Au Sable, 511. Au Sable & Northwestern Railway, 508, 529. Au Sable-Oscoda fire of 1911, 513. Au Sable river, 508, 529. xvii

Page  XVIII xviii:2Vll INDEX Babcock, Arthur R., 161, 645. Babcock, Henry S., 1268. Babcock Grain Company, 545. Backus, Absalom, 204. Backus, Albert S., 204. Backus Brothers, 511. Bahel, C. W., 752. Bahle, Lewis E., 721. Bailey, Charles E., 359, 360. Bailey, George W., 797. Bailey, John, 359, 360. Bailey, Philip E., 762. Baker, Herbert F., 1267. Baker, Samuel W., 780. Baldwin, 550. Bank of Charlevoix, 287. Bank of Grayling, 497. Bank of Tustin, 547. Banowske, August F., 1215. Barber, Henry, 1023. Barber, William W., 1049. Barker, Lorenzo A., 609. Barker, John S., 323. Barker, "Ren," 156, 162. Barnard, Alonzo, 726. Barnard, James H., 729. Barnes (see Gaylord). Barnes, S., 256. Barnes, Smith, 259. Barnhart, William J., 812. Barrett, Joel L., 13i4. Barton, Ronald, 782. Batchelor Timber Company, 528. Bates, MelVin A., 735. Bates, Morgan, 140, 241. Bates, Morgan (Mrs.), 258. Bates Thomas T., 262, 602. Bates, T. T. (Mrs.), 258. Baumberger, Charles A., 1042. Bay View, 313. Beach, Eugene M., 1168. Beahan, Charles C., 810. Bear Creek, 299, 300, 306. Bear Lake, 389. Beaverton, 536. Bechtold, Frederick W., 328, 329, 330. Bedell, Edgar E., 1207. Bedford, Thomas, 276. Beebe, Henry, 917. Beers, Charles M., 911. Beever, George W., 890. Belknap, Howard M., 1272. Bell, John, 285. Bellaire, 326-30. Bellaire State PanJ, 33Q. Bellant, CharJes, 40., Bench and Bar-Territorial supreme courts, OlQ; district cports, 111; lower courts, 111; territorial circuit co0ur, 112: state iupreme and cireouit courts, 112; under the 1800 ooSrtitution, 113; under the 1909 consti4u tion, 114; circuits and judges, 115; history of settled jurisdiction, 116; the case against King Strang, 116; early practice in Grand Traverse region, 117; Judges Littlejohn and Ramsdell, 119; in Cheboygan county, 120; in Emmet county, 122; Alpena county, 123; Manistee county, 126; Leelanau county, 129; Antrim county, 129; Charlevoix county, 130; Wexford county, 131; Kalkaska bench and bar, 133; Iosco county, 133; Michigan State Bar Association, 134. Benedict, Homer G., 685. Bennett, George, 1138. Benzonia Academy, 365. Benzonia College, 365. Benzie county-Mention, 95, 137; physically, 355; population and property, 357; first settlers, 358; founding of Frankfort and Benzonia, 358; Homestead, 361; county's "Declaration of Independence," 361; county seat contentions, 362; Frankfort of today and yesterday, 363; Benzonia, 365; Honor, 366; Lake Ann, 367. "Benzie County Leader," 163. "Benzie County Patriot," 163, 1130. Benzonia, 365. Berry, J. U., 493. Bewick, 470. Big Beaver island, 279, 270. Bigge, Carl A., 1149. Birtch & Eldridge, 201, 205, 476. Bisbee, C. G., 473. Bisbee, Watson F., 991. Bishop, Roswell P., 565. Black, Albert W., 696. Black lake, 440, 478. Black river, 499. Blair, Austin, 229, 230. Blake, Henry A., 614. Blake, W. Ernest, 1174. Bleazby, Arthur A., 133. Blodgett, D. A., 420. Blumenthal, B., 527. Boardman, 437. Boardman, Captain, 194, 195, 196. Boardman, Horace, 194, 195, 196, 249, 252. Boardman River Electric Light and Power Company, 256. Bolen, James, 1330. Bonneville, Antonie E.,, 786. Boon, 423. Booth, James H., 830. Bontecou, Joseph C., 159, 1298. Bontecou, Margaret C., 159, 1301. Borucki, John, 656. Boetwick, Theron, 323. B0ochard, Edward A., 1005. owen, Warren, 159.

Page  XIX INDEX xix Boyne City, 278, 287. "Boyne City Citizen," 149. Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena Railroad, 176. "Boyne City Enterprise," 149. "Boyne City Journal," 149. "Boyne City Times," 149. Boyne Falls, 292. Boyne river, 267. Brackett, Frank E., 1046. Bradford, Cecil G., 717. Bradford, Howard D., 620. Brandenburg, H., 421. Breakenridge, E. A., 465. Briggs, Charles C., 899. Briggs, Harry J., 156, 981. Brink, Charles S., 491, 492. Bristol, Howard C., 1305. Broadwell, Hillyard, 201, 204. Brockway, Charles T., 472. Brooks, Edwin J., 237. Brown, George G., 1075. Brown, Henry L., 126, 371. Brown, John W., 334. Brown, Waldemar E., 662. Brownson, Jay J., 898. Bruce, Daniel D., 789. Brutus, 315. Buckley, 423. Buckley, Edward, 1196. Buckley, James, 741. Burdick, William, 354. Burdickville, 354. Burley, George A., 547. Burmeister, Byron, 601. Burnham, Victor C., 126. Burr, Teresa R., 672. Burston, William, 750. Burt lake, 440. Burtch, Jonathan, 462, 463. Busch, Schuyler, 1135. Buttars, Archie, 305. Cable, Albert, 309. Cade, Peter B., 1065. Cadillac, 413-20. Cadillac, Antoine de la Mothe, 62-5, 69. Cadillac "Daily Enterprise," 154. Cadillac "Evening News," 152. "Cadillac Globe," 154. Cadillac State Bank, 420. Cadillac "Weekly Citizen," 154. Cameron, Duncan A., 1016. Campbell, Julius, 892. Campbell, J. A., 1337. Canfield, Alfred R., 162, 734. Canfield, John, 192, 373, 376, 377. Cannon, Ellery C., 1043. Caple, William H., 950. Carle, William F., 834. Carleton, George N. P., 1087. Carp lake; 337. Carpenter, Seth L., 125, 469. Carpenter, Warren D., 723. Carrier, Chauncey T., 359. Carter, Daniel, 123, 167, 463, 466, 467. Carter Sarah L., 167. Cartier, Antoine E., 1187. Cartier, Charles E., 793. Cartier, Desire E., 706. Cartier, Warren A, 1186 Case, Earl J., 889. Case, George N., 1039. Case, Ralph, 876. Cass, Lewis, 53, 85. Central Lake, 333. Central Michigan Land Company, 554. Central plateau of Northern Michigan, 12. Chandler, Merritt, 483, 574. Chandler, W., 453. Chamberlain, Harman, 467. Champenois, L. P., 422. Chapelle, Edward W., 875. Chapelle, Walter L., 1137. Chapman, Willis E., 1203. Charlevoix, 278, 278-87, 297. Charlevoix county-Mention, 34, 95, 100, 130, 137; diverse advantages, 264; property valuation, 265; population (1890-1910), 266; the Pine lake region, 266; "Waking of the Northland," 269; Holy island, 269; known three centuries ago, 270; rule of King Strang, 271; the county and the county seat, 277; organization of towns, 279; Charlevoix a village, 279; in communication with Lake Michigan, 281; the Charlevoix and Chicago resorts, 283; Charlevoix as a corporation, 284; banks, 287; Boyne City, 287; East Jordan, 288; other county communities, 292. Charlevoix County Agricultural Society, 265. Charlevoix County Chamber of Commerce, 265. "Charlevoix Journal," 149. "Charlevoix Sentinel," 147. Charlevoix resort, 283. Chase, Irvin, 572. Chase, Spencer C., 1240. Cheboygan, 448-57. Cheboygan county-Mention, 34, 95, 120, 223; waterways and their influence, 438; soil and its products, 440; transportation facilities, 441; population and property, 443; county organization, 444; first settlement, 446; founding of Cheboygan, 448; churches, 450; improvements of waterways, 450; Duncan becomes Cheboygan, 454; the city of Cheboygan, 454; Wolverine, 457; Mackinaw City, 457; Tower, 458; stations and postoffices, 458.

Page  XX TnT'I1'.'V XX IXAi. Cheboygan County Savings Bank, 457. "Cheboygan Democrat," 160. Cheboygan, name of, 445. "Cheboygan News," 161. Cheboygan "Northern Tribune," 160. Cheboygan Paper Company, 455. Cheboygan river, 438. Cheboygan Slack Water Navigation Oomeplty, 450. 'C"Ve ga Trin e," 160. Chsiweu et (see Maitmorency) county. chiftgo ort, 284. C4 stoer, Leon, 892. Chichester, Lew A., 1259. Childs, George W., Jr., 977. Chippewas, 40-53, 72. Chittenden, Clyde C., 132. Ohubb, Alok o, 219. Church of the iGuarmi Aigels, 755. Churchill, C. eson, 158, 159, 1053. Churchill, Hobart D, 1211. Churchill, Howard L., 1213. Civil government-First counties, 85; condensed history by counties, 87; sources of names, 89; basis of state government, 101; served in the legislature, 103. Clare City, 553. Clare county-Mention, 96, 138; general, 551; population and railroads, 551; settled and organized, 552; Clare City, 553; Harrison, 553; Farwell, 554; Temple, 554. "Clare County Cleaver," 162. "Clare Courier," 162. "Clare Sentinel," 162. Clark, A. B., 427. Clark, John M., 1263. Clark, L. A., 159. Clark, Lewis J., 410, 414, 422. Clarke, James T., 311. Clarke. William J., 311. Clayton, George W., 144, 146. Clinch, R. Floyd, 261. Clune, John H., 1332. Coan, Edward A., 1185. Coates, William E., 675. Coats, W. R., 928. Coffinberry, W. L., 427. Cole, Galen B., 297. Cole, George W., 306. Cole, John, 202. Collier, Charles S., 1106. Collins, James, 150, 151. Collins, John H,, 1024. Comfort, John C., 474. Commercial Bank, West Branch, 527. Commonwealth Power Company, 508. Comstock, Andrew, 470. Comstock, A. W., 470. Comstock, William B., 470. Conklin, Charles, 1017. JmJ.& Conklin, Lorenzo J., 549. Conkling, Edgar, 457. Conover, Wellington J., 997. Copeland, Jared, 520. Copemish, 389. Cook, John E., 328. Cook, William C., 1320. Cooper, Charles E., 151. Cooper, Richard, 309. Com, Cales C., 162, 719. Coraell, Alexander S., 1148. Cornell, Stephen H., 682. Cotton, George R., 365. County names, sources of, 89. Cournyer, B. J., 161. Covert, John A., 948. Cowles & Campbell, 251, 254. Cramer, William C., 1336. Cramtmr, Edgar A., 1201. "Crawford Avalanche," T12. Crawford county, 97, 138, 494-7. Crawftd, Ralph W., 154. Crisp, George L., 895. Croked river, 440. Cross, Alden E., 1064. Cross village, 48, 50, 299. Cross, Wesley M., 792. Crow, Amos B., 775. Crowley, David H., 1256. Cueny, Benjamin A., 992. Cueny, William F., 1202. Culligan, Patrick, 474. Culver, William T., 1162. Cummer, W. W., 420. Cummins, George J., 916. Curry, Thomas, 703. Curtis, David R., 263. Curtis, Henry, 1114. Custer, 403. Cutcheon, B. M., 171, 239, 371, 380. Cutler, F. W., 235. Cuyler, George A., 835. Dablon, Claude, 36. Dafoe, 476. Dafoe, Lemuel G., 1248. Dailey, Erastus R., 1084. "Daily Resorter," 158. Dame, Joseph, 346. Danaher, Michael B., 1262. Dann, Arthur E., 163. Danser, George S., 817. Darling, Lou S., 804. Davis, Harry C., 261. Davison, Crosier, 501. Davy, Vernal R., 869. Dawson, Fred R., 1013. Day, D. H., 339. Dayton Last Block Works, 493. Deadman, Byron B., 733. Deadman, John F., 731. Deadman, Richard H., 809.

Page  XXI INDEX xxi Decker, Freeman L., 1247. De Gowin, Moses, 1330. De Kruif, William, 1338. De Jean, Peter, 309. Delzell, J. T., 156. Dempsey, James, 1193. Dennis, Orville, 580. Detroit & Charlevoix Railroad, 176. Detroit & Mackinac Railway Company. 186. Detroit, Siege of, 75. Deuel, Andrew L., 568. Devil River (see Ossineke). Dewey & Rouse, 157. Dexter & Noble Lumber Company, 330. Doane, George W., 666. Dickinson, George W., 863. Diebold, John G., 649. Diffin, E. C., 211. Diggins, Delos F., 590. Diggins, Esther G., 590. Diggins, Fred A., 1068. Dixon, J. H.-(Mrs;), 286. Dixon, John S., 280, 285, 296. Dobson, W. B., 150. Dolson, William L., 974. Dona, Nazaros, 340. Donovan & Huckle, 161. Dorr, George J., 453. Dorsey, John, 352. Doudna, John F., 1139. Dougherty, Peter, 250, 300, 351. Douglas, Anna M., 680. Douglas, William E., 678. Douglass, Samuel F., 121. Douseman, Michael, 462. Dow, Herbert L., 665. Dunan, Norman W., 808. Duncan (see Cheboygan). Duncan, J. W., 449. Dunham, Charles C., 835. Dunham, George A., 387. Dunn, Howard W., 696. Dunn, Wesley, 696. Dunn, Wesley & Son, 696. Dunwell, Frank P., 673. Durfee, Elmer N., 664. Duryea, R. C., 453. Dwight, A. A., 491. Ealy, John M., 520. Ealy, McKay & Co., 520, 527. East Jordan, 200, 278, 288. East Jordan & Southern Railroad, 290. East Jordan Lumber Company, 289. Eastman, Milo, 1101. Eastport, 333. East Tawas, 517. Edgerton, Will E., 713. Edwards, W. H., 524. Elberta, 364. "Elberta Alert," 163. Eldred, Anson, 462. Eldridge, 511. Elk Rapids, 322, 330. "Elk Rapids Eagle," 155. Elk Rapids Iron Company, 330. "Elk Rapids Progress," 155. Ellis, J. J., 527. Elsworth, R. H., 395. Elwell, John S., 659. Emerick. Frank, 115, 126. Emerson, Curtis, 511. Emmet county-Mention, 34, 40, 97, 122, 138, 277; summer resort region, 293; population and property, 294; organic history, 295; physical features, 297; early history, 299; the Presbyterian mission, 300; Petoskey, the county seat, 300-8; Harbor Springs, 308-13; Harbor Point, 313; Bay View, 313; other villages and stations, 315. "Emmet County Independent," 158. Emmet County State Bank, 311. Empey, W. F., 289. Empire, 349. Empire & Southeastern Railroad, 180. English regime, 70-7. Epworth Assembly grounds, 402. Epworth League Railroad Company, 185. Evan Seed Company, 528. Evans (D. J.) & Company, 204. Evart, 546. "Evart Review," 156. Fairbanks, Earl, 791. Falmouth, 430. Farwell, 554. 'Farwell Register," 162. "Farwell Sun," 162. Ferguson, Edwin I., 764. Ferguson, T. A., 132, 422. Ferris, John L., 1338. Ferris, Theodore A., 827. Fife Lake (village,) 263. Filer, Delos L., 242, 626. Filer, E. Golden, 387, 630. First Agricultural Fair, 218. First National Bank, Boyne City, 287. First National Bank, Cheboygan, 456. First National Bank, Ludington, 402. First National Bank, Manistee, 3~7. First National Bank of Petoskey, 307. First National Bank, Reed City, 546. Fish, Walter J., 1151. Fisher, J. E., 242. Flanders, 476. Flanders, "Doc" Selden W., 1243. Fletcher, Addison F., 472. Fletcher, A. F., 201. Fletcher, Allan M., 474. Fletcher, Frank W., 474. Fletcher, George N., 201, 203, 464, 465, 466, 467.

Page  XXII xxii * v ZLX11 INDEX Fletcher Paper Company, 474. Fochtman, Frank, 774. Foley, James, 1171. Ford, Charles R., 122. Forsyth, Edward, 160, 1276. Foster, Eugene, 681. Foster, Frank A., 1160. Fountain, 403. Fowler, Curtis, Jr., 235. Fowler, Frank L., 1348. Fowler, Granville F., 958. Fox, Amos, 304. Fox & Rose, 280. Frankfort, 363. Frazier, Clark L., 151, 152. Frederick, Reuben D., 151. Freeman, Alexander G., 1158. Fremont, 464, 467. French, Fremont F., 527. French, Irving C., 685. French, M. H., 527. French regime, 65-70. Friedrich, A. V., 260, 262. Friske, Peter, 773. Fruits, 27 (see also under counties). Furbush, Eugene H., 867. Furnaceville, 332. Fur trade, 67-9. Gardner, Edwin N., 1273. Gardner, Louis A., 987. Garfield, Charles W., 170. Gage, L. H., 427. Gagnier, Louis N., 1027. Garland, M. L., 159. Garland, Samuel, 261. Gasser, Sanford, 422. Gaston (see Harrietta). Gates, Elgin M., 1306. Gauntlett, James W., 1342. Gaylord, 493. Gaylord Manufacturing Company, 493. Gaylord Motor Car Works, 493. Gaylord, Nelson J., 904. Gaylord State Savings Bank, 493. Gebhardt, Otto H., 1277. Geology-Great lakes as glacial pools, 1; surface, 3; preglacial history, 3; the ice age, 4; walled lakes, 5; glacial boulders, 5; lake deposits, 7; road gravels, 7; bog lime, 8; peat, 8; river silts, 8; connection of surface deposits and soils, 9; central plateau, 12; topography, 15. Gerber, Harry, 546. Gerber, Joseph, 546. Gerhardt, J. A., 852. Germaine, William D. C., 1078. Gerow, Arthur M., 455, 939. Gerow, Arthur R., 1057. Gerrish, Nathaniel L., 182. Gerrish, WVinfield Scott, 182. Giddings, J. W., 152. Giesman, George R., 650. Gilchrist, Frank W., 474, 1279. Giles, Charles H., 367. Gilpin, Samuel, 603. Gladwin county-Mention, 93, 138; physically, 530; increase in population, 531; first settler and settlement, 532; Gladwin, the county seat, 535; Beaverton, 536. "Gladwin County Record," 163, 532, 535. Glen Arbor, 343, 352. Glen lake, 338. Glenn, Joseph C., 198, 289, 291. Glerum, George A., 1341. Goddard, Ezra G., 177. Goheen, E., 820. Goldsmith, E. R., 158. Good roads, 189. Goodale, David C., 256. Goodale, D. C. (Mrs.), 257. Goodale, Helen, 256. Goodenough, Daniel W., 767. Gordon, Newbury, 1308. Gowans, Oliver J. 780. Grand Forks (see Beaverton). Grand lake, 478. Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, 174. Grand Rapids & Northwestern Railroad, 184. Grand Traverse College, 361, 365. Grand Traverse county-Mention, 97, 117, 138; physical features, 244; Traverse City and villages, 245; products of the soil, 246; twenty years' growth, 248; Old Mission founded, 250; first school and first shipbuilding, 251; the Mission and Old Mission, 252; founding of Traverse City, 252; land office transactions, 255; Traverse City incorporated, 256; public schools, 256; churches, 257; libraries, 258; Board of Trade and banks, 260; Northern Michigan Insane Asylum, 262; County Medical Society, 263; village and town history, 263. Grand Traverse County Medical Society, 263. "Grand Traverse Herald," 140. Grant, Isaac, 820. Grant, John H., 805. Graverat, G. A., 238. Gray, Asa C., 587. Gray, Charles J., 881. Gray, E. George, 1157. Grayling, 497. Green, Alonzo B., 913. Green, E. H., 130, 147, 285. Green, H. N., '420. Green, O. B., 452. Green, Sanford M., 134. Greenfield. William, 747.

Page  XXIII INDEX xxiii Greenville treaty, 53, 82. Gregory, W. J., 387. Grier, Theophilus C., 134. Griffin, Lewis, 347. Griffin, W. H., 149. Griggs, John F., 232. Grimore & Son, 211. Griswold, H. D., 168. Guelph Patent Cask Company, 366. Gumm, Julius E., 1192. Hale, C. D., 186, 187. Hale, C. E., 260. Hall, B. W., 409. Hall, Elias, 646. Hall, Rufus, 328. Hamlin lake, 403. Hamilton, Frank, 639. Hamilton, Guy, 873. Hammond, C. A., 261. Hammond, Finley M., 1015. Hammond, L. G., 546. Hammond, W. L., 261. Hampton, C. D., 311. Hampton, Charles S., 158, 305. Hanchett, W. P., 470. Hankey, Christopher F., 1132. Hannah, Elsie R., 560. Hannah, Julius T., 261, 559. Hannah, Lay & Company, 196, 197, 253, 254, 255, 257, 260, 261. Hannah, Perry, 241, 253, 256, 260, 261. 408, 409, 593. Hannen, J. W., 260. Hanson, John K., 722. Hanson, Marius, 754. Harbor Point Association, 311. Harbor Springs, 308-13. "Harbor Springs Graphic," 159. Harger, Ezra, 421. Harper, Thomas, 1285. Harrietta, 421. Harrington, Elisha, 468. Harris, Benjamin, 501. Harris, Henry H., 501, 502. Harris, John M., 790. Harris, Levi 0., 501, 502. Harris, William, 278. Harrison, 553. Harrison, H. L., 469. Harrisville, 223. Hart, George A., 956. Harwood, Harvey, 465. Hastings, Ernest W., 1209. Hastings, John, 328. Hatch, Reuben (Mrs.), 259. Haulter, K. A., 1190. Hawkins, O. E., 156. Hawkins, Orrin E., 1178. Hawley, Frank W., 1163. Haynes, Charles E., 1294. Haynes, Elbert J., 1294. Haynes, James, 1292. Hazell, William E., 1339. Hazelton, E. H., 183. Henika, C. B., 306. Henry, E. T., 366. Herald and Record Company, 142. Hersey, 544. Heumann, Fred G., 982. Heysett, E. Nelson, 831. Hickox, Alfred A., 329. Hicks, Mariette, 288. Higgins, John A., 725. Higgins, S. G., 214. Hill, H. U., 220. Hill, William, 501. Hillman, 488. Hinkley, Dana H., 1333. Hinman, W. G., 314. Hisey, William, 527. Hodgson, John, 482. Holden, Charles H., 119, 236. Holden, James S., 162. Holden, S. M., 500, 501. Holden & Davison, 205. Holdsworth, William, Sr., 412. Holland, Nelson, 524. Holley, M. B., 260. Holliday, G. Arthur, 763. Hollister, Chauncey, 412. Holmes, J. D., 125. Holmes, George B., 1219. Holmes, George H., 1221. Holmes, Warren M., 879. Holy island, 269. Homestead, 361. Honor, 366. Honor Public Building Association, 367. Hopkins, George W., 693. Horen, Michael, 1129. Home, M. W., 448. Home, Thomas, 655. Hornkohl, Alex. C., 788. Horticulture in Northern Michigan, 170. Houghton, Douglass, 93. Houghton, John C., 1083. Howard, Merl, 159. Howard & Van Ettan, 205. Howe, Burton S., 133. Hubbard lake, 498. Hubbard Lake (postoffice), 476. Hudnutt, J. C., 413. Hudson, William G., 635. Hull, Charles F., 972. Hull, H. S., 261. Hum, John F., 1143. Humble, Joseph, 192. Humphrey, George P., 1099. Humphrey. Watts S., 452. Hurons, 36, 42, 51, 52. Hutton, Henry C., 1173.

Page  XXIV xxiv INDEX Hutzler, Horace G., 154. Hyde, George, 661. "Illustrated Saturday Sun," 146. Indians-Origin of the, 34; when first found by the whites, 36; Hurons, 36, 51; Ottawas and Chippewas, 40-53; "Men of the Falls," 41. (See also under Hurons, Ottawas and Chippewas.) "Indian Worship," 498. Indian river, 440. Indian River (postoffice), 458. Industries of Northern Michigan, 221. (See also under counties.) Innes, William P., 174. Intermediate chain of lakes, 318. Iosco county-Mention, 34, 98, 133, 138, 224; census figures revised by fire, 506; industrial transformation, 507; rivers and lakes, 508 history of Au Sable, 511; Oscoda village, 513; the Au Sable-Oscoda fire, 513; Tawas City, 515; East Tawas, 517-20; Whittemore, 521. "Iosco County Gazette," 146. Ironton, 292. Jackson, A. G., 520. Jackson, Charles R., 146, 1297. Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Railroad, 492, 493, 524. Jackson, Wylie & Company, 493. Jennings, 430. Jennings, Ray F., 1142. Jenny, William, 468. Jepson, George H., 1018. Johnson, Canute A., 796. Johnson, Donald, 1175. Johnson, Peter, 1136. Johnson, William H., 474, 616. Johnston, James, 1082. Johnston, John, 250. Joseph, Hyman, 712. Jonois, Father, 50. Joslin, D. R., 150, 305. Judges (see Bench and Bar). Kaczmarek, Francis A., 851. Kahn, J. J., 614. Kahn, Samuel B., 837. Kalkaska county-Mention, 34, 98, 133, 138; general description, 430; statistics, 433; first settlers and politicians, 433; organization, 434; Kalkaska, the county seat, 434; Boardman, 437. Kalkaska County Agricultural Society, 219. "Kalkaska Leader and Kalkaskian," 157. "Kalkaskian," 157, 435. Kanotin (see Ioaco) county. Kautawaubet (see Wexford) county. Kawaxicum, 376. Kaykakee (see Clare) county. Keep, John, 988. Keiser, Addison A., 832. Kelly, John F., 767. Kelly, William B., 1090. Kent, W. A., 144. Kerley, Harry J., 716. Keseberg, Arthur F., 694. Keskkauko (see Charlevoix) county. Kieldsen, Fred S., 417. Kieldsen, John L., 1283. Kihnke, Emil E., 619. Kimball, Thomas Y., 854. Kimball, William H., 710. King, James A., 1179. Kingscott, Edgar J., 824. Kingsley, 263. Kirster, Joseph, 387. Knapp, E. S., 236. Knight, H. V., 472. Kobe, Edward E., 1208. Kramer, Solomon W., 1246. Krebs, William, 978. L'Arbre Croche, 42, 46, 50. Ladd, John R., 1067. LaChappelle, Edward, 205. LaChappelle, Francis J., 205, 1329. LaChapelle, George W., 993. Ladies' Library Association, Traverse City, 258. Lake Ann (village), 367. Lake City, 429. Lake City "Plain Dealer," 163. Lake county-Mention, 98, 139; general, 548; population, 548; organic and pioneer history, 549; villages, 550. Lake City "Republican," 162. Lake Superior Iron & Chemical Company, 330. Lamb, Fred S., 115, 132. Lamport, Warren W., 269, 302. Land tenure under French, 65. Land titles (early American), 84. Lane, Alfred C., 3. Lanman, James H., 65. Lanman's "History of Michigan (1839)," 65, 71. Lansing resort, 313. Larke, Frederic Denny, 480. Larsen, H. B., 738. Larson, Edward, 1316. Larson, Lauritz A., 894. LaRue, Frank J., 1110. LaRue, John, 340, 354. Latham, D. R., 334. Latta, William, 1069. Lawyers (see Bench and Bar). Lay, Albert Tracy, 260, 261, 576. Lay, A. T. (Mrs.), 257.

Page  XXV INDEX XXV Leach, 252, 300. Leach, DeWitt C., 147. Leach, M, L., 13, 32, 43, 140, 234. Lecuyer, Peter, 987. Ledger, Henry E., 271. Lee, Abner S., 314. Leelanau (see Carp) lake. Leelanau county-Mention, 40, 98, 100, 129, 139; characteristics, 335; Carp lake region, 337; Glen lake region, 338; population and property, 339; first settler, 340; Northport founded, 341; first "Fourth" in Traverse region, 342; first years of growth, 342; county organized, 345; Northport, first county seat, 346; Leland, present county seat, 348; Empire, 349; Sutton's Bay, 350; Provemont, 351; Omena and Peshabatown, 351; Glen Arbor and Burdickville, 352. Leland, 343, 348. "Leland Enterprise," 161. Lemon, Rollin F., 951. Leroy, 547. "Leroy Sun," 157. Levering, 315. "Levering Enterprise," 159. Lewis, John C., 261. Lewis, William F., 814. Lewis, William J., 962. Lewiston, 488. Lincoln, 504. Line, David A., 971. Lisk, George A., 605. Lister, Anna S., 1012. Lister, Frederick, 1011. Littlejohn, Flavius J., 119, 129. Little Traverse (Harbor Springs), 48, 50, 122, 278, 297. "Little Traverse Republican," Harbor Springs, 159. Little, William, 157, 167, 305. Livingston, Burton E., 14. Livingston, J. W., 527. Lobdell, E. J., 485, 1353. Lobdell & Churchill Manufacturing Company, 485. Lockwood, James K., 201, 203, 464, 465, 467, 473. Lockwood & Minor, 203, 204. Long lake, 267, 440, 478. Long Lake (station), 509. Loud, Gay & Company, 513. Lucas, 430. Luce, Carlton W., 520, 938. Ludington, 59, 62, 397-403. "Ludington Appeal," 146. "Ludington Chronicle," 146. "Ludington Record," 146. Ludington State Bank, 402. Lumber industries-Manistee county, 192; Grand Traverse region, 194; east and west shores, 197; Charlevoix county, 198; Cheboygan county, 200; first mills in Alpena county, 201; Iosco county lumbering, 204; Alcona county, 205; historic summary, 205; melting of the pine forests, 209; last big rollway on the Cedar, 210; present status of lumbering, 212. Lund, Julius B., 1229. Lupton, 528. Lupton, Emor, 528. Lurvey, Claude B., 1131. Luther, 550. Luther Exchange Bank, 550. MacArthur, Clark J., 1037. McAlvay, Aaron V., 114, 132. McArthur, John B., 1253. McArthur, Southwick & Company, 200. McBain, 430. McCabe, George W., 967. McCartney, Edward J., 709. McClelland, Robert, 254. McCullough, W. M., 1322. McCune, William G., 737. McDonald, Daniel J., 1255. McFadzen, William H., 748. MacGillis, James, 970. McGillivray, Will, 146. McGinley, James F., 239, 240. McGovern, Daniel, 878. McIntire, H. N., 162. McIntyre, Frank, 1107. Mack, John N., 1291. McKay, Donald W., 608. McKay, George D., 1323. McKay, Robert C., 527. McKillop, Daniel, 457. Mackinaw City, 446, 457. McKinley, Henry C., 942. McKinley, Peter, 200, 448. McKnight, Edward E., 759. McLain, John S., 414. McLaughlin, James J., 321, 341. McLean, E. 0., 146. McLeod, A., 200, 449. McLeod, R., 200, 449. McManus, William L., Jr., 1281. McMillan, Archie, 314. McMullen, Bartlett H., 1120. McMullen, Daniel P., 1086. McPhee, Malcolm, '871. McRae, Donald, 946. Madison, James S., 146, 645. Magill, William, 371. Magmer, James M., 688. Mahon, George, 1233. Mahoney, Daniel, 1317. Maiden, W. P., 167, 454. Maile, J. L., 450. Main, J. Connine, 115. Malone, Dennis E., 1167.

Page  XXVI xxvi INDEX Maltby, William H., 241. Maltz, George L., 470, 474. Mancelona, 334. "Mancelona Herald," 155. Manistee county-Mention, 34, 99, 126, 139; changes in population, 368; the county and its name, 370; pioneer history, 373; Justice Wadsworth visits "Manistee," 374; settlers prior to 1850, 375; the last Chippewa chief, 376; growth of school system, 376; 1854-5, a great era, 377; Manistee churches, 378; Manistee in the sixties, 379; noted Vanderpool-Field case, 379; the fire of 1871, 380; after the fire, 384; general advance, 384; city and the county of the present, 385; Copemish, Bear Lake and Onekama, 389. "Manistee Advocate," 146. Manistee Board of Trade, 385. "Manistee Daily News," 145. "Manistee Democrat," 145. Manistee fire of 1871, 380. "Manistee Gazette," 144. "Manistee Times," 145. "Manistee Tribune," 144. Manistee & Grand Rapids Railroad, 185. Manistee & Luther Railroad, 185. Manistee & Northeastern Railroad, 185. Manitou county, 100. Manton, 420. Manton, George, 421. Manseau, Antoine, 348. Maqueston, I. H., 414. Marion, 547. "Marion Dispatch," 157. Marquette, Jacques (Father), 36, 57-62, 373, 395. Martin, George, 118. Martin, George B., 291. Martin, James B., 846. Martin, Jane A., 923. Martin, Joel, 922. Martin, Thomas A., 1127. Martin, Webster C., 1214. Mason, A. E., 285. Mason, Stevens T., 393. Mason & Oceana Railroad, 185. Mason county-Mention, 34, 99, 139; soil, products and general prosperity, 390; population and property, 392; Mason county and her godfather, 393; memories of Father Marquette, 395; city of Ludington founded, 397; a great transportation system, 399; industries and finances, 400; civic and social, 402; Scottville, Custer and Fountain, 403. Massacre at Fort Michilimackinac, 72. Mauntler, Henry, 1153. Mayne, Frederick W., 115. Meads, Carl F., 935. Mears, Charles, 242. Meegisee (see Antrim) county. Merschel, Andrew J., 698. Mesick, 423. Mesick, William S., 907. Metheany, Eldon L., 1108. Methodist State Camp Ground Association, 313, 314. Meuffels, Henry H., 378. Michigan, source of name, 89. Michigan's epochal year (1840), 171. Michigan Central Railroad Company, 172. Michigan State Bar Association, 134. "Michigan State Democrat," Cadillac, 154. Michigan Veneer Works, 474. Michilimackinac, 62-5, 71, 72, 76, 77. Michilimackinac county, 87. Middle village, 48, 299. Mikado, 504. Military history-Early Civil war movements, 228; Fourth and Sixth districts' enrollment, 231; troops furnished by counties, 233; commissioned officers, 234; Grand Traverse region, 234; Manistee county in the war, 239; Alpena county, 241; home coming of Michigan troops, 241; Robertson's tribute to Michigan soldiers, 242; Spanish-American war, 243; Third Regiment, M. N. G., 243. Millard, Oliver L., 1093. Miller, Carroll E., 1094. Miller, Edward E., 884. Miller, Hugh R., 288. Miller, John, 288. Miller, John I., 348. Miller, Joseph K., 466. Miller, William, 634. Millersburg, 485. Milliken, James W., 621. Miltner, Henry, 825. Minchin, George W., 156, 1032. Miner, Glenn R., 919. Ming, Frederick R., 1286. Minor, E. B., 263. Minor, John S., 201, 465, 467. Mio, 529. Mio "Mail-Telegram," 162. Missaukee county-Mention, 99, 139; products of the soil, 424; population and property, 426; organic, 426; first events, persons and things, 427; Lake City, 429; McBain and other centers, 430. "Missaukee County Reporter," 162. "Missaukee Republican," 163. Mitchell, Austin W., 184. Mitchell, George A., 152, 412, 415. Mitchell, William W., 591. Moloney, Vet S., 1050.

Page  XXVII INDEX xxvii Monaghan, John, 606. Monroe, James H., 1030. Montague, H., 260. Montmorency county, 99, 139, 486-8. Montmorency, Duke of, 99. Moon, William E., 1231. Moore, James, 309. Morgan, James, 260. Morgan, William, 260. Morris, George A., 1271. Morrissey, Francis M., 975. Mortimer, John J., 1233. Mosher, George A., 159. Mound Builders-Remains of, in Northern Michigan, 32; location by counties, 34. Mrack, Father, 348, 351. Mullerty, F., 263. Mullet lake, 440. Munger, John J., 978. Munson, James D., 262, 1029. Murphy, Fred E., 1310. Murray, William J., 1085. Myers, Jacob I-I., 612. Nauman, C. L., 525. Negwegon (see Alcona) county. Neihardt, Samuel E., 597. Neil, Nicholas, 850. Nelson, Charles, 632. Nelson, John F., 1097. Nelson, Redington & Co., 281, 290. Nelson, W. C., 161. Nerlinger, Amil F., 599. Nettleton, D. C., 290 New Mission, 48. Newspapers-List by counties, 137-40; birth of Northern Michigan newspapers, 140; Manistee a close second, 144; Mason county, 146; Iosco county, 146; Charlevoix county, 147; Alpena county, 149; Wexford county, 151; Antrim county, 155; Osceola and Lake counties, 156; Kalkaska county, 157; Emmet county, 157; Otsego and Roscommon counties, 160; Cheboygan county, 160; Leelanau, Presque Isle and Ogemaw counties, 161; Clare,, Crawford, Oscoda, Arenac and Missaukee counties, 162; Benzie and Gladwin counties, 163. "News and Express," Cadillac, 152. Newville, Robert E., 952. Nicolet, Jean, 36, 54-57. Nix, John R., 743. Noble, Henry H., 323, 325. Noble, Oscar, 428. Noll, John, 1009. Northern Michigan Insane Asylum, 262. Northport, 341, 343, 346. Northrup, Elmore S., 1143. Northwest territory, 52, 79-82. Norwood, 292. Notipekago (see Mason) county. Noud, Patrick, 990. Oakes, Benjamin F., 906. O'Brien, Michael, 861. Ogemaw county-Mention, 34, 101, 139; population, 523; early settlement, 523; Ogemaw Springs, 525; West Branch really founded, 526; incorporated as a village, 527; banks, trade and industries, 527; West Branch a city, 528; Rose City, 528; Prescott and Lupton, 528. Ogemaw County Agricultural Society, 527. Ogemaw County Bank, 527. "Ogemaw County Herald," 161. Ogemaw Grain and Seed Company, 528. Ogemaw Lumber Company, 525. "Ogemaw Republican," 161. Ogemaw Springs, 525. Okkuddo (see Otsego) county. Oldfield J., 201, 465. Old Mission, 48, 250. Olds Cheboygan Lumber Company, 456. Oliver, David D., 123, 201, 205, 335, 462, 463, 465, 469, 476, 481, 482, 1335. Oliver, Floyd E., 963. Omeena (see Grand Traverse) county. Omena, 351. Omer City, 540. Omer "Progress," 162. Onaway, 483-5. Onaway "Inter Lake," 161. "Onaway Outlook," 161. O'Neal William, 828. Onekama, 389. Oppenborn, Christian A., 652. Orcutt, Frederick H., 474. Ordinance of 1787, 79. Osceola county-Mention, 101, 140, 528, 529; products and population, 542; Hersey, the county seat, 544; Reed City village, 545; Evart, 546; Marion, 547; Tustin and Leroy, 547. Osceola County Agricultural Society, 547. "Osceola County News," 156. "Osceola Outline," 156. Oscoda, 513. "Oscoda-Au Sable Press," 146. "Oscoda Press," 513. Ossineke, 474, 500. O'Toole, Felix, 512. Otsego county-Mention, 101, 140; products of the soil, 489; population, 490; settlement of the county, 491; other pioneer items, 493; Gaylord, 493; Vanderbilt, 494. Otsego County Agricultural Society, 493. "Otsego County Herald and Times," 160, 491.

Page  XXVIII xxviii ~ * XXVlll INDEX Otsego Lake (village), 492. Ott, John, 1296. Ottawas, 40-53, 74. Overpack, Silas C., 707. Pailthorp, C. J., 306. Palmer, Ambrose E., 326. Palmer, 0., 162. Palmer, Oscar, 960. Parker, W. E., 311 Parkhurst, J. W., 546, 571, Parmenter, Edward L., 472. Patrick, John Lewis, 236. Patterson, Len J., 147, 1116. Pattie, Donald D., 1303. Payne, Albert S., 912. Payne, William W.,.1285. Pearly, Palmer & Company, 428. Pedden, John, 736. Pehrson, John, 783. Pellston, 315. "Pellston Journal," 159. Peltier, James E., 1146. Pennell, James M., 1260. People's Bank, Boyne City, 287. People's Saving Bank, East Jordan, 291. Pere Marquette Railroad Company, 177. Pere Marquette Steamship Company, 399. Perry, George W., 155. Perry, John, 409, 410, 422. Perry, John M., 1258. Peshabatown, 351. Peters, Richard G., 818. Peterson, Peter T., 849. Peterson, Robert H., 1126. "Petoskey City Record," 158. "Petoskey City Weekly Times," 157. "Petoskey Evening News and Resorter," 158. Petoskey, Ignatius, 302, 303. "Petoskey Independent," 158. Pfister & Vogel Leather Company, 456. Phelps, Clarence J., 1159. Physicians-First regulating act, 164; pioneers, 166. Piehl, David, 1347. Pierce, Benjamin F., 511. Pilcher, E. H., 314. Pine lake, 266, 267, 281. Piret, A. D. J., 450. Platz, Charles, Jr., 161. Pomeroy, Wellington N., 1276. Pontiac, 42, 44, 74, 75. Pool, Wilber B., 801. Population of Northern Michigan (1860 -1910), 226. (See also under counties.) Porter, Andrew, 300. Porter, Reuben G., 745. Posen, 486. Post, Jacob J., 1104. Postal, Frank S., 900. Postal, James R., 1054. Potter, E. K., 203. Potter, Frederic N., 671. Potter, James J., 667. Potter, John D., 822. Potter, Samuel, 377. Potter, W. S., 300. Poutre, J. Ephraim, 923. Powell, Fred, 1170. Powers, Perry F., 152. Pratt, Edwin S., 1001. Pratt, Edwin S. (Mrs.), 259. Pratt, Fred H., 1168. Prescott, 528. Prescott, C. H., 187, 528. Prescott, George A., 692. Prescott, Rola E., 860. Presque Isle county-Mention, 34, 101, 223; strong features, 477; lakes and streams, 478; statistics, 480; Indian lore, 480; introduction to white settlers, 481; founding of Onaway, 483; remarkable growth, 483; Rogers, the county seat, 485; Millersburg, 485; Posen, 486. "Presque Isle County Advance," 161. "Presque Isle County News;' 161. Presque Isle County Savings Bank, 485. Press (see Newspapers). Preston, George T., 297. Price, A. J., 1309. Price, Harry S., 1237. Price, S. Ai, 210. Price, W. Harry, 1252. Proctor, Frank, 1096. Products-Distribution of, 24'; fruits, 27; vegetables, 28; alfalfa, 29; stock raising, 29. Property valuation in Northern Michigan (1910), 227. Provemont, 351. Pyant, Joseph, 309. Quackenbush, Irving, 1133. Quaintance, M. F., 306. Quay, Homer H., 589. Quinlan, John F., 853. Quinlan, Thomas, 306, 853. Rachow, Warren J., 750. Rademaker, John H., 1181. Raff, George W., 561. Railroads-Northern Michigan split into two parts, 171; father of Michigan railroads (Michigan Central), 172; Grand Rapids & Indiana, 174; northern connecting links, 176; Pere Marquette railroad, 177; Ann Arbor railroads, 179; first logging railroad in the world, 182; Ludington railroads, 184; Manistee railroads, 185; Detroit & Mackinac Railway Company, 186.

Page  XXIX INDEX xxix Rakestraw, Orlin L., 777. Ralston, David, 1055. Ramsdell, Jonathan G., 120, 126, 127, 128, 130, 132, 363. Ramsdell, Thomas J., 387, 427. Ramsay, Albert W.. l111..Ramsay, C. S., 160. Ramsay, Dora M., 160. Ramsey, C. E., 149. Ransom, Henry C., 563. Ransom, W. C., 173. Rath, William, 778. Rayburn, Elisha B., 1223. Rayburn, Robert H., 741. Rea, H. E., 682. Redpath, John, 1234. Reed, William, 1222. Reed City, 545. "Reed City Clarion," 156. Reed City Woolen Mills, 545. Reeder, Mary (Mrs.), 427. Reeder, Washington, 427. Reeder, William, 427. Reek, Henry G., 1026. Reeves, James, 168. Reycraft, George E., 1035. Reycraft, John J, 690. Reynolds, C. P., 219. Reynolds, Charles H., 657. Reynolds, William H., 659. Rice, Francis Y., 844. Rice, George S., 843. Rice, John M., 132, 152. Rice, William W., 840. Richard, Gabriel, 396, 397. Richardi, Henry, 329, 1033. Richardi, Robert, 328, 329. Richards, Robert A., 847. Richards, W. H., 330. Richardson, Frederick L., 924. Richmond S. Albert F., 633. Riess, John J., 772. Rietz, Charles, 384. Risk, Robert A., 1004. Rittenhouse, John C., 1019. Roberson, William B., 769. Robinson, John R., 428. Robinson, M. 0., 262. Rogers City, 225, 482, 485. Rogers, Robert, 70, 71. Rood, H. A., 255. Roscommon county, 101, 554-5. Roscommon (village), 555. "Roscommon Herald," 160. "Roscommon News," 160. Rose, Charles H., 582. Rose, Emma L., 584. Rose, Eugene L., 305, 954. Rose, H. E., 527. Rose, Hiram 0., 280, 304, 305, 306, 314. 347, 1121. Rose, Perry W., 305. Rose, Roselle, 158, 305. Rose City, 528. Rose City "Review," 161. Rosman, Alfred W., 642. Ross, Donald G., 210. Ross, George, 210. Ross, Ronald, 210. Ross, William, 210. Rothwell, H. G., 504. Round lake, 267, 281. Row, Orange A., 437. Ruch, Albert F., 909. Rutherford, Henry, 253. Sacred Rock, 481. Saginaw treaty, 53. St. Helen Development Company, 554. St. Peter, Godfrey, 782. Salt industry in Northern Michigan, 214. Sammons, Frank M., 452. Sammons, Jacob, 448. Sanborn, James L., 1324. Sanborn, Wilson H., 883. Sanders, M. S., 260. Sangster, Albert E., 1266. Santo, John R., 260, 1021. Sawyer, Alvah H., 79. Sawyer, Charles T., 146. Saxton, John J., 761. Schoolcraft, 250. Schoolcraft, Henry R., 93, 94. Schram, Charles H., 838. Schultz, Henry, 1346. Schumacher, Anthony, 571. Schumann, 0. P., 162. Scott, Blair F., 839. Scottville, 403. Searle, Will Z., 1059. Searles, Asbury M., 457. Secord, Marvil, 532. Secrist, William A., 965. Seibert, Jacob E., 239, 240. Selby, Dayton D., 1098. Seven Mile Point, 48, 501. Seymour, John, 969. Seymour & Peck Company, 367. Shank, Laban H., 1217. Sharpe, Nelson, 115. Shawono (see Crawford) county. Shay, Ephraim, 1289. Shephard, William C., 1326. Shepherd, Frank, 115, 1062. Sherman, 422. "Sherman Pioneer," 151. Shien, Peter E., 684. Shipp, F. J., 888. Shirley, V. W., 901. Shirtliff, L. D., 700. Simmons, Abraham, 953.

Page  XXX XXX INDEX Simon, B. F., 313. Simons, James C., 1140. Simons, L. Verna, 1140. Slavery in Michigan, 83. Sleeping Bear Point, 337. Slepicka, Joseph F., 1056. Smallwood, I. C., 535. Smith, Charles W., 1218. Smith, David, 452, 453. Smith, Edward, 513. Smith, Flavel J., 1204. Smith, Fred P., 814. Smith, G. L., 305. Smith, Henry B., 1165. Smith, Joseph, 376. Smith, Lemuel R., 325. Smith, Obed, 467. Smith, Ralph C., 1003. Smith, Samuel J., 928. Smith, Wesley T., 1304. Smith, Willard A., 147, 1123. Smith, William H., 491. Smith, William W., 858. Smith, Van Valkenburg & Company, 204, 517, 518. Smurthwaite, Thomas, 260, 797. Smyth, Brougham H., 161. Smyth, C. L., 161. Snody, James R., 984. Soils-Types of Northern Michigan, 9; peat, muck and meadow, 11; investigation, 15; nature of, 16. Sorenson, Alfred, 745. Sorenson, Carl, 745. Sorenson, Herluf, 745. Sorenson, Olaf, 745. Sorenson, Olaf & Sons, 745. South Arm Lumber Company, 289. South Frankfort (see Elberta). South Harrisville (Springport), 500. Spencer, George H., 1177. Sprague, Elvin L., 142, 144, 155. Sprague, Victor D., 1089. Springport (see South Harrisville). Squier, W. P., 291. Standish, 540. State Bank of East Jordan, 291. State constitutions, 101. State Geological Survey, 3. State lands open to purchase, 220. State Pomological Society, 219. State representatives, 104. State senators, 103. Stearns, Justus S., 1311. Stearns Lighting and Power Company, 400. Stearps Salt and Lumber Company, 400. Steel, Orlando, 1191. Steele, Morgan L., 1109. Steele, N. M., 378. Steele, William H., 1221. Steffes, J. M., 758. Steinmetz, Arthur, 649. Stever, Millard F., 1150. Stewart, Alfred, 492. Stewart, E. W., 132. Stewart, John A., 1008. Stockman, M. J., 283, 285. Stockman, M. J. (Mrs.), 286. Stone, Hamilton, 437. Stout, Helen, 259. Strang, Charles J., 149. Strang, James J., 100, 116, 270, 271-7, 295. Stray, George N., 1183. Stronach, Adam, 192, 374, 375. Stronach, James, 192, 375. Stronach, John, 118, 192, 371-374. Stronach, Joseph, 374, 375. Stuart, Alexander A., 869. Summer resort "business," 222. Sunday, Lewis W., 776. Sutherland, George, 1020. Sutherland, J. G., 134. Sutton's Bay, 355. Sweet, Charles A., 996. Swem, L., 547. Switzer, George 0., 698. Taft, A. C., 150, 151. Tawas Beach, 509. Tawas chain of lakes, 509. Tawas City, 515. "Tawas Herald," 147. Taylor, C. H., 255. Temple, 554. Terwilliger, H. H., 152. Terwilliger, John M., 144, 154. Thacker, Callie (Mrs.), 259. Thayer, B. E., 161. Therry, Nicholas, 10,72. Third Regiment, M. N. G., 243. Thomas, H. T., 520. Thompson, Edwin E., 1321. Thompson, George, 378. Thompson, R. L.. 435. Thompsonville, 365. Thompsonville "News," 163. "Thunder Bay Monitor," 150. Thunder Bay River and Harbor Improvement Company, 467. Thurston, Albert, 936. Thurston, Charles A., 937. Thurston, A. & Son, 936. Tifft, George W., 358. Tinklepaugh, J. N., 157. Titus, Leon F., 261. Tolfree, John, 527. Tonedogana (see Emmet) county. Topinabee, 458. Topography, 15. Torch Lake (village), 333. Torch Lake & Alpena state road. 491. Townsend, Sherman S., 1144.

Page  XXXI INDEX xxxi Townships (see under counties). Tower, 458. Trask, L. H., 313. "Traverse Bay Eagle," 142. Traverse City, 245, 252-62. "Traverse City Eagle," 155. Traverse City State.Bank, 260. Traverse City, Leelanau & Manistique RaiaWiy, 185. Trude, *rank T., 886. Trumpour, David A., 995. Tucker, A. W., 151. Turnbull, James D., 125. Turner, James W., 920. Tustin, 547. Tuttle, Jonathan B., 233. Tweddle, John J., 1238. Tweedale, Charles B., 708. Twenty-eighth judicial circuit, 131. Twining, 541. Umlor, W. H., 260. Unwatin (see Osceola) county. Upton, George E., 653. Usewick, Frederick, 1274. Utter, Charles, 660. Valley, Joseph, 1052. Vance, Arthur H., 1103. Vanderbilt, 494. Van Ettan lake, 508. Van Sickle, Frank A., 1113. Vaughan, Sylvester, 618. Vegetation-Types of, 17; upland types, 18; lowland types, 21; hardwood types, 22. Vegetables, 28. (See also under counties.) Viall, John C., 150, 701. Vincent, John, 448. Vogel, John, 427. Voorhees, Sherman G., 1327. Voorheis, Jacob, 363. Wabassee (see Kalkaska) county. Wachtel, P. B., 307. Wade, Reuben, 1060. Wadsworth, Abram S., 197, 320, 374. Wadsworth, Henry, 128. Wadsworth, J. M., 328. Wait, S. E., 251. Walker, Frederick R., 586. Walker, James B., 241. Walker, John J., 784. Walrond, John E., 1344. Walter, Lewis L., 870. Walter, Robert E., 1241. Ward, Eber B., 177, 398. Wardell, Joshua M., 1147. Ware's (Rev. W. H.) "Centennial History of Cheboygan County," 448, 452. Warner, Dwight G. P., 1124. Warren, C. A., 157. Warren, Leroy, 334. Watson, Byron M., 1316. Watson, Carl L., 1130. Watson, L. C., 306. Weadock, 458. Weadock, Thomas A. E., 397. Weaver, John W., 945. Weber, Al. H., 160. Wechter, Carl J., 1156. "Weekly Times-Sentinel," Manistee, 145. Weidman, R. H., 524, 526. Weiffenbach, Charles, 330. Weimer, Emery D., 596. Weine, Paul, 794. Weldt, John W., 1152. Welsh, Thomas R., 1013. Welton, Frank, 261. Wendall, Theodore, 296. Wente, William, 944. Wentworth, Alexander, 276. Wequetonsing, 311. West, T. F., 1134. West Branch, 526-8. West Branch Flour Manufacturing Company, 528. "West Branch Times," 523. West Branch "Herald-Times," 161. West Harrisville (see Lincoln). Weston, Colwell & Company, 504. Weston, Frederick C., 1038. Westover, George D., 546. Wetmore, Fred C., 132. Wexford county-Mention, 34, 101, 131; civil and physical, 404; building of the state road, 407; the county and county seats, 411; early history of Cadillac, 413; village and city corporations, 415; death of George A. Mitchell, 417; the present city, 418; Manton, 420; Harrietta, 421; Sherman, 422; Mesick, Buckley, Boon and Yuma, 423. Wexford County Agricultural Society, 219. "Wexford County Pioneer," 151. Wheeler's "History of Wexford County," 408. Wheeler, H. H., 132. Wheeler, John H., 151, 410, 413. White, Elmer E., 877. White, Robert, 501. White, Shubal F., 132. White, William H., 1226. Whiting, J. L., 470. Whitney, Frank M., 1345. Whittemore, 521. Whittemore, C. H., 146. Whittemore, Gideon 0., 515. Whittemore, James O., 146, 511, 518. Widmark, Francis O., 1320. Widmark, H. P., 1319.

Page  XXXII xxxii INDEX Widmark, H. P. & Son, 1319. Wiggins, A. G., 288. Wilce, E. Harvey, 1092. Wilce Co., The T. 1092. Wilhelm, Charles, 262. Wilhelm, Emanuel, 1047. Wilkinson, Arthur, 739. Willard, Albert E., 1077. Williams, Oliver T. B., 124. Willaon Hoop Company, 289. Wilson, Farwell A., 1117. Wilson, Isaac, 201. Wilson, W. Henry, 771. Widigan, W., 428. Withey, Charles A., 115. Wftter, Wak C., 715. Wolverine, 457. 'Wolverine Courier," 161. Wood, Charles, 1176. Woodruff, Clintohi D., 856. Woodruff, Henry H., 1154. Woodworth, W. F., 124, 133. Wright, Alfred, 524. Wright, Charles R., 309. Wright (D.) & Company, 524. Wrisley, Charles I., 1044. Wegazer, John M., 705. Wyandots (see Hurons). Wyandotte (Wyandot) county, 95. Wyman, William A., 801. Yeo, William G., 1319. Yerkes, Louis N., 927. Yockey, Henry, 803. Young, A. S., 1245. Yuma, 423. Zoon, Fred B., 329. Zuck, John Q., 815.

Page  1 History of Northern Michigan CHAPTER I GEOLOGY, SOIL, PRODUCTS THE GREAT LAKES AS GLACIAL POOLS-SURFACE GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN-PRE-GLACIAL HISTORY —ADVANCE AND CAUSE OF THE ICE AGE-EFFECTS OF THE ICE ADVANCE-WALLED LAKES-GLACIAL BOULDERS —LAKE DEPOSITS —ROAD GRAVELS-BOG LIME-PEATRIVER SILTS-CONNECTION OF SURFACE DEPOSITS AND SOILS-TYPES OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN SOILS —CENTRAL PLATEAU OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN-AREA OF SOIL INVESTIGATION-TOPOGRAPHY-NATURE OF SOILS -UPLAND AND LOWLAND TYPES OF VEGETATION-THEIR DISTRIBUTION -FUTURE OF THE REGION-PRODUCTIONS OF THE SOIL. To the scientific scholar and investigator the study of interior geology is of profound interest-a study by which the mind's eye penetrates to the very foundation of the earth-but to the student and writer of human history it is sufficient to examine into the surface geology of the earth, by which is determined its great ridges, and its valleys and depressions formed by interior convulsions and by the vast glaciers and bodies of water which operated in prehistoric times. With a vivid imagination and a logical mind one may form quite a distinct picture of any section of the earth's surface under consideration. THE GREAT LAKES AS GLACIAL POOLS The lakes now washing the shores of Northern Michigan-Huron and Michigan-may be considered but the scanty remains of far vaster bodies,of water; but the meltings of huge glaciers which came down from the north, covered all of the northern section of what is now the United States and, with the changes of climate, dissolved into what 1

Page  2 2 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN may be considered in comparison with the original masses of ice and water as but small pools which settled in the deeper depressions of the earth's surface. It is immaterial to speculate as to the probable duration of the glacial period, but is sufficient to know from numerous physical evidences that vast fields of ice and snow covered the entire country north of the Ohio and Missouri rivers and from the Atlantic ocean to the Rocky mountains. What is now northern Michigan was in the southern rim of this glacial region. The departure of these great glaciers undoubtedly worked great changes of the earth in this vicinity. When the ice had so far receded A STRETCH OF HURON'S SHORE as to have its southern boundary about midway in the present state of Michigan, great lakes were formed which, although covering far greater areas then those which are now known, were the parents of the present system. Their present outlet through the St. Lawrence river then continued to be a solid mass of ice, affording no outlet whatever. The lower portion of the present Lake Michigan had its outlet through the state of Illinois, along about the course of the present drainage channel into the Mississippi river. Lake Iroquois existed as an immense body of water, covering the area now embraced by both Lake Erie and Ontario, and much other surrounding territory, and that, too, found its outlet to the south, and its water flowed with the then natural drainage of the country to the southward into the Gulf of Mexico. With the passing of time, the surface of the northern country gradually lowered, and the

Page  3 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 3 icefield continued to recede until the natural drainage of this lake region changed its course, and the waters of our lakes found their way out through the St. Lawrence. Lake Iroquois was drained off until her surface had fallen many hundred feet from its highest altitude, and the waters were divided into the two present lakes, Erie and Ontario. It was at this period that the waters of the Niagara river, flowing from Lake Erie into Lake Ontario, began to cut the mighty gorge which now furnishes such a Mecca for tourists, and at the same time is the most authentic evidence of the period of time that has existed since the departure of the glacial era. It is generally conceded, from computations as to the amount of cutting accomplished, that this has taken ten thousand years; and corroborative evidence as to the extent of this period since the ice age is found in the wearing of some of the rocks along the shores of Lake Michigan. We may therefore safely conclude that man existed in the territory now known as Northern Michigan more than ten thousand years ago. SURFACE GEOLOGY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN But the significance of surface geology, as especially related to the section of Michigan covered by this work, has been so thoroughly investigated and reported by the State Geological Survey that we condense the following from the publication of 1907, prepared by Professor Alfred C. Lane. While the deeper geology of Michigan implying, as it does, a study of salt, coal, oil, gypsum, copper and iron, is of great importancethe importance of the knowledge of surface geology may be estimated when we consider its relation to agriculture, to the clay industries, to the development of peat and cement factories. All these depend largely for their material upon surface deposits. Road materials are also largely surface deposits. And the study of such deposits, their origin, extent, and the way they occur, is the field of surface geology. But besides this, questions of water supply, the kind of material to be met in railroad cuts, canals, tunnels and foundations for dams, and other engineering works, all depend for their satisfactory solution upon knowledge of the surface geology. PRE-GLACIAL HISTORY The deposits of Michigan are separated into two classes by a very sharp line, which corresponds to a very long interval of time during which the state was eroded. Geological history has been divided into four great divisions, the Archeozoic, Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic. During the first two of these periods the harder rocks, including those which contain copper, iron and coal were laid down. They are the bony frame work, so to speak, of the two hand-like peninsulas of which Michigan is composed. The oldest of these rocks are found somewhere northwest of Marquette. This may be called the negative pole of the state, from which the hard rocks dip. The positive pole would then be the Saginaw valley, towards which the rocks dip in every direction,

Page  4 4 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN under which the beds lie like a pile of saucers decreasing in size to the middle. This might be considered the hollow of the palm of the Lower Peninsula. But after these rocks were formed the state appears to have been above sea level, and the rocks cut and worn into hills and valleys by streams, the general aspect of the country being perhaps much as Arkansas or Tennessee at the present date. The elevation which carried the state above water seems to have carried it to a higher elevation than at present, for we find caves, river valleys and channels in the ancient rock surface which go quite below sea level. The most important of these valleys in the rock surface seems to have passed west from Saginaw, past Alma, and then turned somewhat northward and to have passed beyond our tracing beneath Lake Michigan somewhere between Manistee and Ludington, where the bed rock surface is beneath sea level. ADVANCE AND CAUSE OF THE ICE AGE As long as elevation continued erosion naturally also would continue. But at the close of the Tertiary a great ice sheet overspread Michigan coming from centers lying at first northward from the west of Hudson's bay and then from east of Hudson's bay. This sheet of ice was what is known as a continental glacier, such as now buries Greenland. Other glaciers are found in Alaska, the Rocky mountains, especially the Canadian Rockies and in Switzerland. As to the fact of this great ice sheet overspreading a good part of North America geologists are now entirely agreed. There is no such agreement as to the cause. A number of causes may have helped to produce the ice sheet, and once started there are a number of causes which would tend to make it grow. In the first place a greater height of land would promote precipitation as snow rather than rain, and the minute the snow fall, which even now often lingers in the Huron mountains until the first of June, lingered so as to accumulate from year to year we have conditions for steady growth of the ice sheet. After once the surface of the country is covered by white snow throughout the year there will be so much more heat reflected that the mean annual temperature will be much lower. At the time of the ice age in Michigan there seem to have been large lakes out west, and anything which would tend to increase the amount of snow fall in the winter would tend to promote the ice age. As the ice age seems to have extended widely over the world, and there were great ice sheets in Europe at about the same time as America, it is almost certain, however, that no mere local conditions contributed to bring about the ice age. One may imagine that the sun gave out less heat. Changes in the relation of the earth's orbit to the sun have also been appealed to. Sometimes the earth's orbit is more nearly circular than at others. At present the northern hemisphere has its winter when its pole is turned away from the sun at the time the earth is nearest the sun. In some 10,000 years or so the earth will be nearest the sun in the summer of the northern hemisphere, and an attempt has been made to connect the ice ages with these astronomical changes.

Page  5 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN EFFECTS OF THE ICE ADVANCE As the ice advanced it swept over the surface removing more or less of, and mixing up the previously existing soils, tearing off or plucking the sharp and loose ledges and reducing the form of the bed rock surface to one of smooth round outlines and curves of least resistance. Outcrops of rocks which had thus been smoothed by the ice have been likened to sheeps' backs, and to the curves of a canoe turned bottom side upwards. Besides this the ice did considerable cutting in the hard rock. Just how much is a serious question. Where the limfestone, or sandstone or other hard cap was left as a table land on top of a hill of soft shale the ice seems to have in many cases pushed it clear off. These have been scratched on the rock by the ice passing over it, or more properly perhaps by the sand and stones held in the ice. Now every such scratch means the removal of a little rock flour, and the results of this removal we have in the clays laid down under the ice or in pools in front of it-our glacial clays. It is said that sixty per cent of the mixed material thus found comes from within a few miles. The average thickness of the glacial material scattered over Michigan has been computed as about three hundred feet. If this be so then perhaps an average of something like one hundred and eighty feet may have been removed by glacial erosion. A good part of the balance certainly has come from across the lake in Canada, where there is very much less drift and the rocks are nearly bare, while on the other hand we find numerous varieties of Canadian rocks in this state. On the other hand something should be added for Michigan material carried farther south, but it must not be forgotten that this thickness represents not merely the matter removed from fresh rock, but also all soil and decayed rock which may have been there before. Still the limestone flour which makes up twenty-five per cent of our clays is not soil or decayed rock, but the direct effect of glacial erosion. WALLED LAKES So far as we at present know the salt ocean never reached the region of Michigan, and that class of deposit need not be considered. But not only were there, unquestionably, ice bergs in these old lakes, from the ice front, but the lakes were frozen themselves in the winter, and so in the midst of lake clays we are liable to have occasional stones, though their general bedded character is quite different from that of the boulder clay. Moreover, around the edges of the lakes ridges are pushed up and boulders worked to the shore, as they are at the present day, forming the so-called walled lakes. The interesting stone wall in Sanilac county is a relic of such a former walled lake, and in many places a fairly continuous line of boulders marks the former shore line. GLACIAL BOULDERS A word may well be given to the boulders themselves. These are popularly known as hard heads, field stone, and the like. They have

Page  6 6 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN some value themselves, and it is worth something to get rid of them from the farm. They are used very commonly for underpinning, but rarely for stone walls such as are so characteristic of New England. They often command a price of something like four dollars per cord. Many very handsome buildings have been constructed from them. The lower story of the new medical building at Ann Arbor and the Baptist church in Lansing are good illustrations of buildings made from these boulders. Their origin has often excited local interest. In many cases their peculiar character is such that we can almost beyond question tell from what region they came. For instance, there is a peculiar conglomerate of white sand with bright bits of red jasper which strikes the eye almost at once and is widely scattered throughout the drift of Michigan, especially that ice which came through or across Saginaw valley. A rock precisely like this is found in what is known as the original Huronian area which lies near Thessalon, east of the "Soo" and north of Georgian bay, and there can be but little doubt that these pebbles were largely derived from that region. There was a singular rock with eye-shaped or orbicular balls in it discovered by H. P. Parmelee of Charlevoix and figured by J. F. Kemp, whose original resting place, however, we do not know. This is not surprising since among all these hard heads of boulders there is a very great variety. Prof. Alexander Winchell collected at Ann Arbor specimens of over one hundred distinct varieties of rock. In fact probably samples of every rock to be found in Canada between Lake Huron and Labrador could be found among these boulders. This would indicate of course the Nipissing mining district, and samples of considerable value in themselves, of lead, iron, gold, and other ores, and mica and other valuable substances have been sent into this office for determination. Such samples are, however, of no more worth than the sample itself. They are no sign of paying accumulations in the same region of anything similar. Very frequently these boulders have very queer shapes and as such have attracted the admiration of residents and are set up around houses. It is easy to see that no ordinary process of rolling or battering could ever get the rocks into such shapes and a little careful study will show that the projecting ridges which tie together these grotesque shapes are veins of quartz or some other material chemically more resistant than the rock as a whole, and that the shape of the boulders is due to chemical corrosion. Anyone who will study parts of the northern country which are so lightly glaciated that the original weathered surface still remains-this is true of a part of Mt. Homer in the Huron Mountains-will readily recognize the origin of these pebbles. The same grotesque, deeply pitted surface bound together by harder projecting lines, like the veins of one's hands, is characteristic of many of the weathered non-glaciated outcrops north. These freak boulders represent the remnants of the old, chemically-corroded surface of the rocks which have been plucked and torn away by the ice, but not shaped by it.

Page  7 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 7 LAKE DEPOSITS The east side of the Lower Peninsula up to an elevation of two hundred feet and more above the lake has been washed by the glacial lakes, while on the west side the same belt is much narrower, being only from one hundred feet above the lake, down. It is worth while to consider the characteristics of these soils. These glacial lakes were muddy with a very slowly settling rock flour, which would be called clay in fineness and plasticity, but is not at all kaolin. In fact, it corresponds more to the dictionary (not the factory) definition of marl. Usually about a quarter is dissolved by acids and may be classed as a limestone or dolomite flour. There is also a large amount of finely divided quartz and feldspar and other minerals. Every once in a while in these glacial clays a big stone or pebble may be dumped from the melting of an ice cake. But very often they are quite free from any coarse grit, and very well bedded in thin layers. Even when free from coarse grit these glacial clays always contain, however, a large proportion of sharp fine particles, so that they may be used for brass polishing. As the water level dropped it was in shallow water for a longer or shorter time, and then coarser, sandier deposits accumulated. These are sometimes quite thick, but in general it is characteristic of the old lake bottoms that they have stiff clays overlain by more sandy clays, and sands which may very often be shallow. Throughout the whole lake bottom region the sands will rarely be so deep that trees or alfalfa can not get near enough to the bottom to get water, and very many excellent orchard sites are found on the old sand ridges. These lake clays are often brick clays. But owing to the amount of lime they will not generally burn hard or very red. They are white to light orange or buff. The lime has, however, often been leached out of the upper few feet, which then makes a redder brick. While they may be of value for pottery, brick and tiles, experience so far goes to show that they are not fit for making Portland cement. For this purpose there must be a uniformity in composition with low magnesia, which they do not possess. Nor will they generally make face, front, or paving brick. ROAD GRAVELS The road gravels are the old beach lines, especially the very highest lake borders, where they cut and concentrate the gravel from stony till, and the overwash gravels, kames, eskers and valley trains connected with the ice front. These gravels deposited in powerful swift flowing streams in or from the ice are on the whole the best, and are deposited in almost all parts of the state. In all our gravels there is enough binder. The great channel that comes down by Mecosta, that around Grand Rapids, the upper valley of the Cass, the esker that runs from Mt.

Page  8 8 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Hope cemetery, Lansing, south, are but conspicuous examples. The Tecumseh gravel is shipped clear to central Ohio. The Miami gravel is the prevailing formation. BOG LIME With all the lime in the clays that we have mentioned it is no wonder that the waters of Lower Michigan, especially the spring waters, are hard. In fact it may almost be said that they are normally saturated with bicarbonate of lime or its equivalent. Where this water is exposed to air and sunshine whether in lakes or standpipes it is rapidly decomposed and the carbonate of lime thrown out. Shell producing animals do a small part of the work, but by far the greatest part of the work is done by lowly lake weeds, especially vine-like forms of the Chara family. Others like Schizothrix take part. But this latter makes more or less firm coatings with a fibrous cross fracture over bits of stick and dead shell, and makes the pebble-like bodies known as marl biscuit. The soft white or blue slime which fills some of our lakes to a depth of very many feet is the Chara-lime. Probably one-third of the five thousand or more lakes of Michigan have more or less bog lime, and there are very many bogs which were once lakes that have been filled with it. It is often covered over with peat. It is most frequent in the upper chains of lakes in spring-fed lakes with cold water; in lakes of the higher parts of the state in the morainal regions. PEAT This deposit in the broadest sense includes all accumulations of nearly pure vegetable matter. Muck is not so pure. Davis distinguishes a number of classes according to their origin. But, since the higher and southern parts of the state have been longest exposed, there has been the greatest length of time for the accumulation and decomposition of peat deposits there. Moreover there are the divides where the drainage is most uncertain. There too are the old glacial dumping grounds and the abandoned channels of the waters draining them. This then is the region of our greater deposits of peat. Some peat is also found back of the old beach ridges especially the very highest ones, and those of Algonquin and Nipissing time. It very commonly fills up small lakes and may build out over deposits of Chara bog lime. The oldest, blackest, and most decomposed is in the south part of the state along the old glacial drainage channel system from Niles northeast toward the Thumb. RIVER SILTS Most Michigan rivers overflow their banks-of late years more than ever. In certain cases, miles and miles of country are naturally thus covered. When the muddy waters of the swollen streams thus spread over their flood plains a deposit of mud takes place which is heaviest and

Page  9 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 9 coarsest near the main channel, finer and lighter at the margin. Thus the flood plains are built up and are normally somewhat higher next the stream. Along the margins of the flood plains next the bluffs is likely to be a swampy belt. These flood plains are well stratified, but in irregular layers. We do not find the enormously thick beds without apparent break which are so characteristic of the glacial clays. They are generally very fertile, and their fertility is ever renewed. CONNECTION OF SURFACE DEPOSITS AND SOILS It is obvious that there is a close connection between the various kinds of surface deposits and soils. Dune sand is a kind of soil, and at the same time a particular kind of deposit. The fact is a classification of cicul- and surface deposits deal with the same material but from a different point of view. The surface geologist is studying them in the first place to see how they came to be, the soil expert to see what they are good for agriculturally. But if there is any difference in two soils there must have been some difference in their origin and hence the surface geologist, if he has an economic factor in view, can always make some distinction between soils which would be separated by a student of soils simply from the view of the department of agriculture. The geologist has also other uses in view. On the other hand some knowledge of how the soils were formed would be of the very greatest assistance in mapping different kinds and helping one to look out for important factors. Two soils of equal fineness may both pass for clay, but if one were a very fine rock flour with a great variety in chemical composition, while the other was almost entirely hydrosilicate of alumina, the agricultural value of the same, I think, would be very different. While all of the factors could be found out by sufficient detailed chemical and physical investigations, yet one can not analyze every foot, and there is often great need in soil mapping of knowing the geologic history. TYPES OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN SOILS The United States Department of Agriculture have so far mapped the following soil areas, which are sufficient to give us a fair idea of the types of the soils in the Lower Peninsula, though an area in the Grand Traverse region is urgently needed, and one to give us some clue to the soils of the western part of the Upper Peninsula, and thus there are still important types of soils which they have not touched. The following descriptions of their soils are taken from the United States soil survey field book. It will be noticed that the most important factor in their classification is the relative proportion of grains of different fineness in the soil and subsoil. There are a few types to which no locality name is given. These are as follows: "Dune sand-The dune sand consists of loose, incoherent sand forming hillocks, rounded hills, or ridges of various heights. The dunes are found along the shores of lakes, rivers or oceans and in desert areas.

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The\y are usually of no agricultural value on account of their irregular surface, the loose, open nature of the material, and its consequent low water-holding capacity. The dunes are frequently unstable and drift from place to place. The control of these sands by wind-breaks and binding grasses is frequently necessary for the protection of adjoining agricultural lands. In certain regions, where levelled and placed under irrigation, the dune sand is adapted to the production of truck crops and small fruits." The dune sands occur around the edges of the present lakes and also along the lines where the lakes formerly existed. They are nearly SOIL DEPOSITOR OF NORTHERN MICHIG\AN pure silica, and the softest waters in the state have been obtained from them. In fact, near East Olive, the excessive softness of the water is supposed to have something to do with a hoof disease. The sand is also shipped from Port Crescent in Huron county for furnace linings. There is, however, quite a little difference in the sharpness of the dune sands in the different regions. The longer it has been handled of course the more rounded it gets, and in many cases it is derived from sands already rounded. Muck, Peat and Meadow-The term muck as used by the department of agriculture is practically the same as peat, being, however, applied to the more decomposed varieties, such as are found for instance around Kalamazoo, and are used very extensively in this state to grow celery, peppermint, etc. It occurs in the more extensive swamp areas especially those south of Saginaw bay. Further north the material will

Page  11 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 11 be more commonly classed by them as peat. It may overlie to a varying depth any of the other soils. It is particularly likely to overlie also what is known as marl or bog lime, which occasionally occurs in this state in what might be called a formation by itself as described below. The peat overlying bog lime is not so likely to be sour, whereas many other peats contain sulphate or other organic salts of iron, and in that case are very likely to be sour. Such beds are very likely to be underlain by hardpan of quite a different nature from the till to which the term is also applied. This hardpan is cemented together by iron, and may pass gradually into deposits of bog iron ore, which may also contain considerable quantities of manganese. Small deposits of bog iron ore are found in various places in the state, as in Branch county, as well as in the Upper Peninsula, but are of no present commercial value. The soil book of the department of agriculture describes muck and meadow as given below. Meadow is generally a term applied to various kinds of bottom land. PEAT "This is vegetable matter consisting of roots and fibres, moss, etc., in various stages of decomposition, occurring as turf or bog, usually in low situations, always more or less saturated with water, and representing an advanced stage of swamp with drainage partially established. MUCK "This type consists of black more or less thoroughly decomposed vegetable mold, from one to three feet or more in depth and occupying low, damp places, with little or no natural drainage. Muck may be considered an advanced stage of peat brought about by the more complete decomposition of the vegetable fibre and the addition of mineral matter through decomposition from water and from Aeolian sources, resulting in a finer texture and closer structure. When drained, muck is very productive and is adapted to corn, potatoes, cabbage, onions, celery, peppermint and similar crops." MEADOW "This term is used to designate low-lying, flat, usually poorly drained land, such as may occur in any soil type. These areas are frequently used for grass, pasturage, or forestry, and can be changed to arable land if cleared and drained. The present character of meadow is due to lack of drainage, and the term represents a condition rather than a classification according to texture. Textural variations frequently occur in meadow areas on a scale too small to permit of detailed mapping. In many areas the term 'meadow' has also been used to represent small bodies of bottom land occasionally or frequently subject to overflow, which are normally placed under cultivation and constitute land of high value for the production of various general farm crops. Within these bottoms the soils vary frequently in texture, even within small areas,

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN and on account of occasional overflow the character of the soil at any one point is subject to change. The use of this term should be avoided whenever it is possible to separate such areas into distinct soil types." CENTRAL PLATEAU OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN With the recession of the prehistoric glaciers and great bodies of water, not only did the lake system of the northwest, as we know it, come into being, but the land surface of Michigan was fashioned into its present configuration. Perhaps the most striking physical feature of Northern Michigan has become known as the "central plateau. " Commencing near the southern line of the territory covered by this history and extending along the shore as far north as Leelanau point is a succession of elevated bluffs. These bluffs are mostly the lakeward termini of a succession of elevated ridges extending inland and converging to a common axis. In the southern portion their course is about east, northeast, varying more to the eastward as we go north, until, on reaching town twenty-six north, we find them running nearly due east. Passing this point, their course varies to the southward. In the northern portion of Leelanau their course is about south, southeast, and in Antrim and Charlevoix counties nearly south by east. Following the converging lines of these elevated ridges inland, we find them centering at or near the headwaters of the Big Manistee river, where they form a high plateau, covering a large area, from which the larger rivers of Northern Michigan take their rise. The height of this plateau has been estimated by different surveyors at from seven hundred to nine hundred feet above the level of Lake Michigan. The general character of these ridges is that of elevated table-lands, gently rolling and gradually sloping to the river valleys on either side. These slopes, however, are frequently intersected by lateral valleys, which form beds of small streams and water-courses, that take their rise in the numerous little lakes which rest upon the highest levels. These little lakes, varying in size from a few acres to several sections in extent, are so numerous, and their waters are so deep and pure, that they form an important feature in the topography of these elevated tables, as the larger lakes do in the topography of the lower lands near the coast. So attractive are these lakes in their quiet beauty, that the first settlements of the interior were always made upon their borders. Starting from the axis of these ridges, and following them to their lakeward termini, we find these lateral valleys and ridges increasing in number and abruptness as we proceed, until, as we approach the lake, we find them broken into high bluffs and deep ravines. Another peculiarity characteristic of this western shore is the location at every river mouth, and upon every large point of land jutting out into the lake, of a small lake, varying from one to several miles in extent, separated from Lake Michigan by narrow bars of land. These lakes are supposed to be the remains of bays and inlets once a portion of the great lake, when that was at a higher level than now. Another peculiarity in the topography of this shore, which will be found to have a bearing upon its agricultural resources, exists in the system

Page  13 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 13 of terraces which are found, more or less distinctly marked, upon the borders of all the large rivers, around the margins of the lower-level lakes, on the shores of Grand Traverse bay, and frequently bordering the great lake itself, especially at the mouths of the large rivers. At some points as at Pine Lake in the county of Charlevoix, these terraces are so plainly marked as to form the principal and most pleasing feature of the landscape view. The lower terraces are usually narrow and sometimes worn entirely away; but the higher ones often extend to a great distance inland-as at Manistee-where the upper terrace, rising about ninety feet above the lake, extends several miles inland east.. A./H E..............., '........... a:.. a-j TYPICAL INLAND LAKE OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN of Lake Manistee. The causes which have produced these terraces and barred across these bays and inlets, forming them into lakes, are interesting subjects of speculation, and will be considered when treating of the recent geological changes which have taken place in this region, and which have determined to a great extent the character and quality of the soil. Dr. M. L. Leach, who is high authority on matters connected with Northern Michigan, has this to say in further description of the high central plateau referred to above: "The high central plateau of Northern Michigan is often referred to by writers who have occasion to speak of the topographical features of the country. Its character is not as well understood as it should be. Dr. Rominger, in his report on the geology of the Lower Peninsula, says 'that the high plateau in the northern part of the peninsula has its peculiar soil, a thick uni

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN form mass of fine sand, containing few pebbles and a small proportion of argillaceous constituents. In accordance with it is the vegetation; the pine tree finds a congenial home in these sandy hill lands, and their surface is overgrown with splendid forests of this tree, to the exclusion of almost every other kind. This soil, as long as some humus is mixed with it, may give a fair potato crop, or, by careful attendance, garden vegetables can be raised, but its productiveness is so soon exhausted and its moisture so soon lost, that it can never be used for agriculture on a large scale with any prospect of success.*' This statement of Dr. Rominger is of the same character as that made by Horace Greeley, many years ago, to the effect that the whole northern part of the state was worthless for farming purposes. Both statements, no doubt, were made without sufficient and careful examination, and therefore were based on insufficient data. "To get a clear understanding of what is meant by the high central plateau, it is necessary to glance briefly at the general topographical configuration of the Lower Peninsula. The surface configuration presents two grand swells, or regions of elevation, separated by a broad valley, each having its long axis running in a northeasterly and southwesterly direction. The long axis of the more southernly of these swells may be indicated somewhat accurately by a line drawn from Port Austin, near the mouth of Saginaw bay, to the southwest corner of Hillsdale county. In the north part of Oakland county, this swell attains an elevation of five hundred and twenty-nine feet, but the highest summit is in Hillsdale county, where it reaches an elevation of six hundred and thirteen feet. " The valley separating this region of elevation from the more northerly one is accurately traced from Saginaw bay up the Saginaw and Bad rivers and down the Maple and the Grand. The highest part of this valley is a flat, swampy tract in the southeast corner of Gratiot county, where the headwaters of the Bad river start within three miles of the eastern bank of the Maple, and is not more than seventy-two feet higher than Saginaw bay. "The long axis of the more northerly swell may be indicated approximately by a line drawn through Gaylord, near the center of Otsego county, and Bond's Mill, in the eastern part of Wexford county. The broad undulating summit of this swell is the central plateau alluded to." From the above descriptions it will be at once evident how closely the present productiveness and material development of Northern Michigan is related to surface geology and the physical features of the country; how its fertile soils were produced by the offscourings of glaciers and great lakes and rivers, which were in operation thousands of years before man appeared upon the scene. The special relation between the soils of the country and the natural and cultivated vegetation which they produce has been scientifically investigated by Professor Burton E. Livingston, of the Chicago University, in behalf of Michigan Board of Geological Survey. The course and results of such investigations * This was written before a careful study had been made of rotation of crops and the scientific reinvigoration of deficient or exhausted soils.

Page  15 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 15 as they affect a considerable area of the central plateau of Southern Michigan, is thus condensed: AREA OF SOIL INVESTIGATION That there is a marked relation between the natural vegetation of the state and the nature of the soils has long been known, at least in a general way. To determine exactly what this relation may be, both quantitatively and qualitatively, is, of course, a problem which it will take a long time to solve. A beginning can best be made by a careful study of small areas, and such a beginning was made in 1900 and 1901 by the present author in his study of the' distribution of soils and vegetation in Kent county. The investigations reported in the present paper were made in the summer of 1902, the area chosen being those townships of Roscommon and Crawford counties which embrace the lands set aside by the legislature of 1901 as the Michigan Forestry Reserve, together with portions of certain adjacent townships. The work was carried on under the auspices of the bureau of forestry of the United States department of agriculture, in conjunction with the Board of Geological Survey of Michigan. TOPOGRAPHY The region consists of a series of ridges and depressions. The former are sometimes several miles wide, but more often narrow; they are always comparatively low, seldom rising more than one hundred and fifty to two hundred feet above the level of Higgins and Houghton lakes, which lie in the center of the reserve. These ridges are terminal moraines, left by the ice sheet as it melted back at the close of the last glacial epoch. Between them are lower and more level stretches consisting, for the most part, of plains which gently slope downward from the ridge margin to the nearest stream. These were produced by the outwash of materials from the ice margin at the time the moraines were being formed, and their surface has been more or less eroded by water action since that time. Owing to the fact that they were formed by water action, the material of these plains is quite thoroughly freed from finer particles, and thus consists largely of sand. Gravel deposits are very rare throughout the region, and in the true sand plains it is seldom that one finds even good sized pebbles. It appears that the water from which the material was deposited was not moving swiftly enough to transport the gravel, but carried sand and clay. The finer particles, clay and loam, were carried away in the streams, but the sand remained in its present position. The ridges, on the other hand, are more heterogeneous in composition. They were not so thoroughly washed by water while they were being piled up, and hence contain considerable quantities of finer particles, clay and loam, and of coarser ones, gravel. Sand is the predominating substance in their composition, however. They are usually bordered by rolling slopes of loamy sand which descend gently to the

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN sand plains. A few of the ridges contain clay enough to make this soil best described by the term clay loam, or even loamy clay. The whole country is underlain by clay, but this is generally far from the surface, sometimes one hundred feet or more. Some of the depressions have clay surface soil. They were prbably under cover of the ice sheet at the time of formation of the neighboring moraines and sand plains, or were the bottoms of glacial lake*. The lowest portions of the depressions, whether these have sand or clay as surface soil, are almost always occupied by swamps or lakes. Through the swamps the very lowest part is often marked by a meandering stream channel, the line of drainage for all the region which lies between the neighboring ridges. NATURE OF SOILS The soils of this region are nearly all sandy. The only exceptions to this statement are a few low clay areas together with the Murray hills, parts of Norway hill, and portions of the great southern ridge in T. 21 N., R. 1 and 2 W., which are the only ridges which can truly be called clayey. The surface soil of these ridges contains considerable quantities of sand, however. The other ridges are of gravelly and loamy sand, that is their surface soil is mostly of sand, but with a sufficient admixture of fine particles to produce a marked difference in physical properties from that of the true sand plains, while they also contain pebbles and sometimes scattered boulders. The slopes downward from these ridges are of sand, either pure or loamy. They seldom contain many pebbles of any considerable size, thus being more thoroughly washed by water than are the ridges. The true sand plains contain little or no loamy material and no pebbles. They are of a fine, grayish white sand, which drifts readily by the wind when loosened. I have seen the surface soil actually blown away and piled in miniature dunes along the wire fences, in places where the worst of the sandy soils had been attacked for cultivation. Obviously, difference in degree of water-washing, and hence of sorting of particles, determines these different soil characters. Sandy soils are composed of coarse particles and contain much silica, loamy soils are of finer particles and contain considerable quantities of alumina, while clay soils are of still more finely divided materials and contain a much larger percentage of alumina. Since all of this material was transported to its present position by glacial action, and since it must have been quite thoroughly mixed by this agency, it is reasonable to suppose that, had it not been water washed during and after its deposit, it would be at least fairly uniform in its mineral constituents. The washing process sorted the soils according to size of particles, but also according to their chemical nature. This is partly due to the fact that alumina breaks down into fine particles more readily than does silica. It is also due to the fact that, in well-washed soils, even the less soluble constituents are apt to be actually dissolved and washed out to a greater or less degree. Thus, phosphates and sulphates are usually less abundant in well-washed soils than in those less thoroughly washed.

Page  17 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 17 In this glaciated region, fine soils, such as clay, were either deposited under the ice of the glacial epoch, and hence not well washed, or else they were deposited from deep and very slowly flowing water. The former variety therefore usually contains many coarser particles, as loam, sand, and pebbles. In the case of loamy soils, a good part of the fine material has been washed out, but a considerable amount remains with the sand, so as to give it a loamy character. Since the washing here was not thorough, pebbles are often found amongst the sand and loam. This is especially so of the ridges. The water which flowed over such soils at the time of their formation must have been moving with a velocity such that it deposited or left unmoved sand and gravel together with some finer material caught between the coarser particles, but carried away most of the latter. Sandy soils are still more thoroughly washed; the gravel was left farther up stream, usually on the slopes of the ridges, while the clay was held in suspension, to be deposited at a lower level, where the velocity decreased. The nature of the soil particles themselves often plays an important part in determining the water-retaining and water-lifting power. Especially is this so in the case of humus, which is composed of organic debris, decayed plant parts and, to some extent, of animal offal. Pure humus has a great power to hold and lift water. This is partly because of its very fine particles, but is also to be traced in part to the actual penetration (by imbibition) of the liquid into the intermolecular spaces of the organic substance itself. Thus, by admixture of humus to a coarse (and therefore porous and permeable) soil, the water-retaining power of such a soil is increased. The filtering power, or permeability to water, of a soil increases, of course, with decrease in its capillary power. Also, its permeability to air increases in the same way. It will be here noted that sandy soils usually exhibit a marked scarcity of soluble salts. This fact may be explained in part by the "leaching" action of the percolating waters as well as by the thorough washing to which these soils were subjected at the time of their deposition. The water of precipitation percolates rapidly through these porous soils and may often wash the soluble salts down toward the level of the ground water, a process which is termed "leaching. " In humus soils, it is probably not to the point to determine humus content and water capacity after the humus has been mixed with the lower layers; the effect of the organic substance is very much more marked when the humus lies as a distinct layer on the surface than when it is distributed through the underlying soil. The humus layer acts like a sponge filled with water, and allows the water to pass slowly down in the underlying layers and thus keep them moist much longer than would otherwise be. THE TYPES OF VEGETATION The vegetation of the region may be sub-divided into several types or plant societies. These grade more or less into one another, but there are few places where an observer would be puzzled to determine what Vol. 1-2

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN particular type he was in. There are to be distinguished, four types on the uplands and three on the lowlands. These will be described in the following paragraphs. Practically all the area under discussion has been lumbered. A virgin pine forest is almost entirely unknown now, though some of the finest pine of the state was cut here. What hardwood areas there are have been left almost untouched until recently, except for the removal of the white pine originally scattered through them. But the hardwood, too, is now being rapidly removed, and it will not be long before there will be none left. In the lowlands, the merchantable arbor-vitae or white cedar has very largely been removed, as has also much of the spruce and even considerable quantities of tamarack. (1.) THE UPLAND TYPES A. The Hardwood Type.-There is very little hardwood in the region studied, but what there is, is typical of all Northern Michigan Areas so covered have not been so thoroughly lumbered as those covered with pine forests. The original form of this type comprised the following characteristic trees: sugar maple, beech, hemlock, red and American elm, balsam fir, yellow birch, some spruce, and scattered white pine, the latter of enormous size, together with such low forms as raspberry, squaw-berry, Lycopodium clavatum, yew, June-berry, Echinosperum virginicum, American pennyroyal, red-berried elder, Solidago caesia, etc. Maple, beech and hemlock made up three-fourths of the forest, sometimes one and sometimes another of the three being most numerous. Lumbering has affected this type very little, excepting by the removal of the white pine and some of the hemlock. Hardwood lumbering is now going on in the areas covered by this type, in these operations everything is being removed which is merchantable. Fires have not injured this form of forest to any great extent, and the original humus usually remains. B. The White Pine Type.-This is typical pinery, often containifig little besides white pine. Usually, however, there is an admixture of Norway pine, and often of hardwoods. The type is quite sharply distinguished from the preceding, but not nearly so well marked off from the following type, into which it grades in many places. As has been stated, there is at present hardly any of this type in the region under discussion. In lumbering, all the pine was removed and the subsequent fires have killed practically all the young growth of this tree as well as the scattering hardwoods. Over vast stretches originally covered with white pine there are now no trees at all. They are regions of dwarfed white and red oaks, red maple, and a number of shrubs. The oaks and maples are rarely more than twice as high as a man; they are burned down every few years, and exist here at all only because of the fact that they sprout from the roots which are seldom killed by the fires. These shrubby oaks and maples thus possess enormous roots which are partially dead or dying, gnarled and contorted and deformed by frequent burning. It is these whicll are called "grubs" by dwellers in the region.

Page  19 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 19 Among the lower forms occurring here may be mentioned the following: —Stag-horn sumach, Monarda fistulosa, brake, huckleberry (Gaylussacia resinosa), blueberry (Vaccinium pennsyivanium, canadense and vacillans), sweet fern, Solidago concolor, witch-hazel, etc. The ground between the blackened stumps is now thoroughly covered by densely growing sweet fern, huckleberry, and blueberry, the growth of the former of these being so luxurious that the numerous prostrate logs are often entirely hidden from sight, so that passage through these old "pine slashings" is rendered very difficult. GROVE OF WHITE PINES C. The Norway Pine Type.-At the time of lumbering, this type consisted mainly of the species for which it is named, but usually contained scattering white pine and more numerous, though often dwarfed, red and white oaks and red maples. The present aspect of this type is much the same as that of the preceding. The two oaks, red maple, and seedling Norway are the characteristic trees now. Seedling Norways are more numerous than in the preceding type, perhaps because of the greater number of seed trees here as well as the somewhat greater ability of this species to withstand fire than that possessed by the white pine. The low plants are much the same as in the last, Solidago caesia of that type is replaced here by S. juncea, and Liatris seariosa is common here, while in the other group it was of rare occurrence. D. The Jack Pine Type.-This is the most open of the series and occurs in the most sterile sands of the area. The only trees are the jack

Page  20 U I / i A I 4 I [Courtes\ Detrlit & Mackinac Railway Company] OLD-TIME PINERIES

Page  21 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 21 pine, scarlet oak, choke cherry, and seedings of Populus tremuloides and P. grandidentata. All but the pine and oak are hardly more than shrubs. The pines occur in two forms, one with a tall trunk and a crown of short branches at the summit, the other with branches longer and extending nearly to the ground. The former is called by lumbermen "black jack pine," the second "yellow jack pine." The shape of the tree is of course caused by its place of growth, the former occurring in dense groups, the latter in the open. Besides the trees, there occur as characteristic on the jack pine areas the following low plants:-Brake, Solidago memoralis, the three blue-.berries above mentioned (but not huckleberry), bearberry, sweet fern, sand cherry, pin cherry, Andropogon scoparius and furcatus, Danthonia, Liatris cylindracea, dwarf willow, reindeer lichen, etc. This type comprises the worst part of what is called "the plains." (2.) THE LOWLAND TYPES For the most part, the swamps which were originally wooded have not been denuded of forest. Where they contained white pine, that was taken out, leaving the other trees, which protected the undergrowth and soon produced a dense, almost jungle like formation. Within the past few years the merchantable arbor-vitae and tamarack have been removed from these swamps, but there are almost always left enough small trees to produce shade. Also the swamps have not been subjected to burning nearly so often as the uplands, and are generally in much more nearly their original condition than are the latter. The three types may be described as follows: E. The Open Meadow Type.-This is treeless or nearly so, partly open hay meadow, largely of "blue-joint," (Calamagrostis canadensis),, partly of bulrush and cattail marsh, and partly of sphagnum bog. It grades into the other two types. F. The Tamarack and Arbor-Vitae Swamp.-This is the typical swamp of the region. It contains tamarack, arbor-vitae or white cedar, black and white spruce, and balsam fir, which form dense and often impassable, thickets. In some localities the tamarack occupies almost all the ground to the exclusion of other trees, and in other places the same is true of the arbor-vitae. But there is not nearly so much tendency here for these two trees to form separate and distinct types as, is found farther south.* There the tamarack seems to occupy the portions of the swamp lands which are most poorly drained, the arborvitae growing best in localities where drainage is more thorough, yet still not complete enough for the river swamp vegetation. Here the question of drainage does not appear to play so important a part. G. The Mixed Swamp.-This formation is found near swamp margins, especially where the underlying clay is near the surface. Thus, it often occurs along lines where the hardwood forest reaches down toward the swamp. It may be looked upon as intermediate between the tamarack and arbor-vitae type and that of the hardwood. * For a description of the conditions further south in the state, the reader is referred. to the author's paper on Kent county.

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN There is always a great mingling of species here. Aiong the trees are: Tamarack, arbor-vitae, the spruces, balsam fir, white and yellow birch (Betula papyrifera and lutea), black ash, hemlock, mountain ash, sugar maple, Prunus serotina, white pine, June-berry, etc., together with such low forms as raspberry, blackberry, brake, Lycopodium clavatum, yew, alder, and Ilex verticellata. The relative proportions of the different trees vary from one locality to another, and nothing definite can be stated in this regard. DISTRIBUTION OF HARDWOOD TYPES The Uplands.-The Hardwood Type occurs in this region always in soils which contain considerable amounts of clay. Such soils are always covered to a depth of several inches with leafmold or humus, and in this layer the seedlings of hardwood and hemlock grow and thrive. The white pine type occurs on the Murray hills, on the most clayey parts of Norway hill, and on the great northwestern moraine, in T. 21 N., R. 2 W. These soils are often as clayey as those of many of the hardwood areas, but are higher and therefore better drained. It also occupies most of the gravelly ridge in T. 25 N., R. 2 W. Very often the swamp margins are occupied by this type, especially where the slopes are not abrupt, a condition which gives humus a chance to collect in and upon the sand. The Norway Pine Type occupies gravelly ridges and loamy sand plains. The soil here is somewhat better than in the location held by the next type, but it is generally too poor for profitable general agriculture. As will be seen by a glance at the map, most of the uplands studied were originally covered by this type. The Jack Pine Type occupies only the most thoroughly washed of the sand plains. Excepting in the northern two tiers of townships and in T. 24 N., R. 2 W. there is practically none of this type in the area. These localities lie in the valley of the Au Sable. The parts lying about the head waters of the Muskegon have abundant plains of loamy sand, but these support the type of Norway pine. This fact has no connection with the rivers themselves, however, for farther down the Muskegon are to be found typical jack pine barrens. The soil of this type is almost worthless for agriculture; it is light and dry, and where the surface is broken it is apt to be wind blown, and often forms small traveling dunes. This has been the fate of many once cultivated fields in the northern portion of the Beaver Creek valley and also still farther north in the neighborhood of Grayling. The Lowlands.-As has been said, the distribution of the lowland types was not worked out with accuracy. Great difficulty was experienced in studying such areas, for the swamps are often almost utterly impassable. The greatest areas of open marsh encountered are as already described. There are doubtless many areas of like nature which were not seen at all, but these cannot be of very great extent. In the swamps the ground is covered with a layer of humus, usually of the nature of peat, and there seems to be no difference in this substance between the sand and the clay areas. Neither is there any

Page  23 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 23 apparent difference in the swamp vegetation whether it is upon sand or clay. As cannot be too often repeated, the physiography of the Southern Peninsula of Michigan depends very largely upon glacial topography, however, so that if we wish to trace backward beyond the soils the chain of cause and effect which determine plant distribution here, we come at length upon the purely geological agencies which, at the end of the last glacial epoch, caused one locality to be left a till moraine, another a sandy or loamy one, and still another a sand plain or clay plain, or a pond. Of the upland series, the hardwood type of vegetation seems to need the most water, the most soluble soil content, and the most humus. Probably this is the reason why this type occupies the moister soils of the uplands, no matter whether these are moist through nearness to the underground water table or through greater lifting power of the soil itself. The types of white, Norway, and jack pine seem to require less water in the order of their arrangement. Probably the Norway and jack require more air in the soil than either the hardwood or the white pine. The typical tree forms of both the last named types occur in the mixed swamp quite commonly, but neither Norway or jack pine have been found in soil which is wet the greater part of the year. Throughout the region it seems that each type occupies soils which correspond in water content to its needs. It must be remembered here that a sand or loam soil near the water level may contain much more water than one of loam or clay where the water is farther from the surface. This idea offers, perhaps, an explanation for the occurrence of hardwood on low loam in T. 25 N., R. 4 W. Addition of surface humus has also perhaps, raised the water-holding power of the soil to the neighborhood of that manifested by clay itself. The subsoil is such here that the white or Norway type might be expected. The statement so frequently met with that the white pine will not come up after it has once been cut off and the ground burned over, seems to strike wide of the truth in this region. The writer visited almost every square mile of the uplands, and he is thoroughly convinced that scattering seedlings of white pines are now evident on practically all areas originally covered by that species, which have not been recently subjected to the action of fires. Seedlings of the Norway are now, however, more numerous on these areas than are those of the white itself. They are plentiful throughout the region on light soils excepting the very lightest. Fires destroy the young growth of the white pine and also prevent humus formation. Thus, as long as the fires are allowed to occur so frequently, the water capacity is not apt to rise and the growth of nitrifying bacteria is not apt to increase. But the presence of the few white seedlings is evidence that the species can grow if protected. Indeed, the best young stands of any kind that the writer has seen are of this tree, and they promise exceedingly well for reforestation. As has been said, the Norway is coming in quite freely in the areas originally covered by this species and by the white. The degeneration goes no further, however; and it is rare to find even individual jack

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN pines in any of these areas. Indeed, there is evidence in some places that the Norway is rapidly advancing its seedlings into the areas held by the jack. The hardwood forest reappears quite rapidly when cut. This is doubtless in part due to the fact that this material does not burn so readily nor so violently as do the pines. The scattered white pines which formerly characterized these forests in the eyes of the lumbermen, are not returning. They were perhaps only a relic of a past generation of forest. Hemlock is reproducing well and will return with the beech and maple if, through lack of humus, the soil does not become too dry for the seedlings. The sugar maple is best for reclaiming cut over lands. Its saplings stand close together and do not seem to suffer from one another's shade, while they prevent the dying out and oxidation of the surface soil. THE FUTURE OF THE REGION Since there has been considerable discussion in the state concerning the utility of these lands for various purposes, it may be well to consider this subject briefly here. On the uplands most of the different kinds of soil have been tested for agriculture, the clay hills and the clay plains, both of compartively small extent, make excellent farming land. The gravelly and loamy sand of most of the ridges is easily tilled, and, with enough care, yields good crops, but the soil is too light, and the amount of energy necessarily expended in cultivation is much greater than in heavier soils. On the worst sand plains, originally covered with very open stands of jack pine and scarlet oak, tillage is almost out of the question. With constant manuring and cultivation, this sand can be held in place and made to produce fair crops, but the expense, in time and energy, if not actually in money, make such crops cost much more than they will actually bring on the market. Some of this land is so situated that irrigation would be possible, and this may some time become a practical line of investment. The grazing of cattle on the Norway and jack pine plains is practicable, and is being carried out successfully by several holders in Roscommon county. Several forms of bunch grass and the shade of the scrubby oaks and pines, are the valuable features. But it requires many acres for a few cattle, and it is doubtful whether the small landholder can ever accomplish much in this direction. Practically all the small holders who are succeeding at grazing, are pasturing their cattle, in good part, on the lands of the state and of other individuals. The swamps which are abundant in the region, would all make excellent garden land if properly cleared and drained. It appears that the most promising use to which to put the swamps is that suggested by A. C. Lane, of the Michigan Geological Survey, namely, to derive fuel peat from them. Samples assayed from fifty-two per cent to seventyfive per cent combustile material. A number of tests have been made of the ability of the ridges and more loamy plains to support apple trees, with considerable promise of success.

Page  25 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 25 The feasibility of reforestation seems practically proved. Every student of plant growth who has worked in the region has become convinced that the main reason for the failure of natural reforestation here lies in the repeated and destructive fires. With the fire nuisance removed, it is quite certain that nearly all of the upland area would spring up to seedlings of white and Norway pines. Further than this, it seems very probable to the present writer that, if the land which will now support nothing better were kept covered with Norway forest, it would eventually become (through the accumulation of humus) capable of supporting a good growth of white pine, which might be planted among the Norways when the time was ripe for it. How long this process of amelioration might take, it is useless at present to conjecture; there is no locality in the region which is free from fires, and thus no possibility of collecting data for this purpose. It appears from these investigations that the main factor in determining the distribution of the forest on the uplands of this region, is that of the size of soil particles, the sorting of which dates back, almost entirely, to the glacial epoch. The size of particles determines the amount of air and moisture in the soil, and these in turn determine the amount of humus formation and the growth of nitrifying organisms, and, to some extent at least, the amount of soluble salts. A factor of less relative importance, because applicable only over small areas, is that of the nearness of the underground water level to the surface. This affects the uplands only along swamp borders. In a broad way, physiography may be said to determine the vegetational distribution here. The physiographic features depend largely upon glacial topography. Thus geological factors have, in one way or another, determined the nature and distribution of surface soils and the distance below the surface of the underground water level, and so these factors have determined vegetational distribution. It is probable that many dry soils may at length become moist enough to support one of the more moisture loving types of vegetation, simply by increase in humus content, which must go on slowly at first but more rapidly as the amount of this substance increases. The lowlands are covered with a vegetation which seems to be able to bear excess of water and paucity of oxygen in the soil. From the open meadow and coniferous swamp, we pass, with better and better drainage, through the mixed swamp to the hardwood or the white pine of the uplands. It appears that the natural reforestation of the pine areas with the Norway, and, to some extent, at least, with white pine, is practicable if the fires can be suppressed. Orcharding gives some promise of success on the ridges and loamy plains, and, together with forestry, offers probably the best use to which to put this region which contains so little good land for general agriculture. Although the above observations and deductions made by Professor Livingston, under direction of the Michigan Geological Survey, relate specifically to a comparatively limited area they apply quite closely to most of the interior country covered by this history.


Page  27 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 27 PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL In general, it may be said that the soil of Michigan, especially the western portion of the southern peninsula, consists of every variety known to agriculturists or horticulturists. Originally much of this area was covered by heavy forests both of pine and hard wood and the results of comparatively a few years in the raising of all kinds of crops have proven that the generally accepted idea of the pioneers as to the strength and productiveness of land which would support timber is correct in all its essential features. The heavy clay land and sand loam of the hardwood forests which flourished in the early days are still found in every county of northwestern Michigan, these classes of soil forming about fifty per cent of the total. The muck lands of the swamp areas form about 8.4 per cent of the total acreage. The hills and plains of the sand loam known as white pine and Norway pine lands form the lesser part of the soil of all the counties, averaging 26.5 per cent of the whole acreage. The mixed pine and hardwood areas comprise 14 per cent of the whole. And lastly there are the much maligned "jack pine plains," the area of which in the whole of western Michigan is not to exceed 4.1 per cent of the total available arable lands. On all of the other soils spoken of the farmers and fruit growers are "making good," and it is believed, as already stated, that the "jack pine plains, " under scientific treatment, can be made valuable for agriculture and horticulture. Some of the best of the fruit lands of western Michigan were at one time white pine and Norway pine areas. Peach orchards which produce a value of from $200 to $600 and more per acre per year are found in Mason, Manistee and Benzie counties; in the other counties where this class of land is found, there has been no recorded attempt to grow this fruit, and therefore the success or failure of the industry is unknown. It is generally believed that apples will not do well on the lighter sand loams, but in Wexford, Mason, Manistee and Benzie counties this has not proved true. Apples are raised in all of them, and profiting by the experience of the pioneers, there are thousands of trees being set throughout these counties. In the hardwood areas, especially those which lie near to the great lake, or upon the bays or inland lakes of any considerable size, fruit culture has attained the greatest perfection in western Michigan. Here are also the most thickly populated sections, and where general agricultural activity is greatest. Nearly all the fruits are successfully grown in every county of western Michigan. Apples are universally successful; the extent of the "peach belt" is difficult to define, although it is generally accepted as a fact that this fruit will do better on an elevated location near to a body of water. Certain varieties of cherries are universally grown, and with great success. Pears, plums and apricots do well wherever peaches are grown. The small fruits, such as strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries and currants, do well everywhere. So far as berries are concerned location does not count so much as proper care. Perhaps next in importance to the cultivation of fruit comes the

Page  28 28 HIST-GRY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN potato crop of northwestern Michigan, as there is no portion of this entire country where that tuber cannot be grown successfully. In many instances potatoes are even planted among the stumps of recently cleared ground and returns from this crop have often more than paid the original cost of the land. Sugar beets are also raised pron'tably in many sections. The hay crop is also profitable, and various counties over as far north as Emmet have produced wheat in yields as high as forty bushel per acre. The growing of garden seeds such as peas, beans, radishes, pumpkins and squash, is also a profitable industry, as well as the raising of garden truck for canning and pickling. Interesting and instructive information along this line is furnished by the Western Michigan Development Bureau, whose investigations cover Antrim, Benzie, Charlevoix, Emmet, Grand Traverse, Kalkaska, Lake, Leelanau, Manistee, Mason, Missaukee, Osceola and Wexford counties all embraced within the scope of this work. If half of the world lives out of a can nowadays, as has been asserted by authority, the only reason a greater percentage do not eat canned stuffs is that there is not enough canned. The canning and pickling industry has assumed important proportions in western Michigan in the past few years, and is still growing rapidly. There are now in the territory of the bureau nine plants engaged in canning the products of the farms and orchards. The factories employ an aggregate of 2,500 men, women and girls during the canning season, besides the number engaged in growing the products which are put up. The packing plants put up a great variety of fruits and vegetables. Commencing with the earliest fruits of the summer the pack runs through the strawberry, raspberry, cherry, blackberry, peach, plum, apricot and apple seasons, wherever such plants are equipped for handling fruits. Green peas, string beans, green corn, pumpkin, squash and other vegetables are handled by practically all of them. As fast as growers can be found willing to undertake the growing of sufficient acreage, the pickle industry is springing up, and cucumber pickles are salted in brine at stations in this territory at the present time. This is an industry that is bringing out the superior quality of the warm, quick-growing sand loam soils of this region, and is making lands valuable which have for years been considered of little worth. No figures are at hand to show the value of this product to the growers of this territory for the past year, but many growers report yields exceeding 300 bushels per acre, for which they received from 50 to 60 cents per bushel at the salting station. Crushed fruits and fruit flavors, which are so largely used in the making of ices, and for flavoring ice cream and soda water, is a new industry to Michigan. A plant for the preservation of fruits for this purpose was opened in the season of 1909, and has proved so successful that the capacity will be greatly enlarged. The flavor of western Michigan fruit products enables the manufacturer to obtain a greater price than for such products grown elsewhere. The soil and productions of northeastern and eastern Michigan are similar to those described in connection with the western portion of the Southern Peninsula. Not only potatoes but sugar beets are raised

Page  29 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 29 in abundance; wheat produces from twenty to thirty bushels per acre, rye sixteen to twenty bushels, oats thirty to fifty bushels, peas twenty to thirty, beans twelve to twenty, and clover seed from three to twelve bushels. The hay crops range from one and one-half to three tons per acre. The dominant feature of the soil in northeastern Michigan is gravelly loam, upon which grew the great forests of pine for which this section of the state was noted. The soil, as a whole, is peculiarly adapted to all root crops such as potatoes, sugar beets, onions, turnips, carrots and cabbage. Such crops as wheat, oats, rye, buckwheat, timothy, clover and alfalfa have also been successfully raised in northeastern Michigan. During the past few years great attention has been given to the growing of clover for its seed in northeastern Michigan and the results have been astounding. Experienced farmers can hardly credit the statement that as high as twelve bushels of clover seed per acre have been hulled, but such is a fact, which can be proved beyond dispute. An average of the district would probably show about four bushels to the acre. Alfalfa is also receiving considerable attention at the hands of individual farmers and also from the state experiment station, and thousands of acres are now being successfully grown throughout the district. This will materially increase the prosperity of the district and attract many new settlers, for when farmers learn that clover seed is so successfully grown and that alfalfa promises to become one of the great forage crops they will buy land and locate in the district. The lower peninsula of Michigan, on account of the water protection surrounding it on the north, east and west, is pronounced by experts to be the most favored location for fruit growing in the United States. This is especially true when the high flavor of the fruit and its keeping qualities, together with its nearness to the fruit markets, is taken into consideration. Numerous apple orchards are in the district and during the past few years the attention of horticulturists has been attracted to this apple belt, with the result that large tracts of land have been purchased to be planted to orchard. Strawberries, raspberries, blackberries, gooseberries, currants, grapes and all small fruit grow to perfection. On the uncleared land there grow wild hundreds of bushels of blueberries, raspberries and blackberries, which require only picking and bring good prices. Northeastern Michigan, with its wonderful natural growth of grass, pure water and even climate, is essentially a stock raising country. Cattle, sheep and hogs do splendidly on the natural pastures which this land affords. For dairy farming the conditions are unsurpassed anywhere. Sheep breeders all over the country are fast recognizing the great advantages offered in northern Michigan for the production of the high-grade wool and mutton. Many of the foremost sheep breeders have recently purchased lands and more are giving the subject serious attention. The abundance of browse, clover and grasses makes these lands, even in their wild state, immediately available for pasturing sheep, while the pure water and the healthy, bracing climate keep all live stock in splendid condition.


Page  31 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 31 The above statements as to the products of northeastern Michigan apply with particular force to the counties with, which this history is concerned-Cheyboygan, Alpena, Gladwin, Arenac, Ogemaw, Roscommon, Crawford, Otsego, Presque Isle, Iosco, Alcona, Montmorency, Oscoda and Clare. Much of the information given has also been collated from the literature issued by the Northeastern Michigan Development Bureau. 9

Page  32 CHAPTER II FIRST LORDS OF THE SOIL ABORIGINAL REMAINS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN-ORIGIN OF THE RED MAN-WHEN FIRST FOUND BY THE WHITES-THE HURONS-OTTAWAS AND CHIPPEWAS-AT THE TIME OF PONTIAC'S CONSPIRACYOTTAWAS OF L'ARBRE CROCHE-OTTAWAS OF GRAND TRAVERSE-EXTINGUISHMENT OF THE INDIAN. The evidence is strong in all the country northwest of the Ohio river, that a race of men once inhabited the land who were powerful, warlike and semi-civilized. The Indians found there by the first white incursionists had traditions of a "race of giants, swift of foot and powerful enough to kill buffalo with their hands. They were so large and strong," continues one of their traditions, "that they defied their Maker and derided him. The Ruler tried to kill them by shooting the arrows of lightning at them, but these glanced off without harm; so He sent a great rain, and the ground became so full of water and so soft, that these heavy people sunk in it and were drowned." It was the belief of some Indians that the fossil remains of elephants, mastodons and other huge animals were the bones of these people. Others held that the fantastic rock pinnacles, such as exist in the Pictured Rocks of the Lake Superior region, were the ruins of gigantic temples. ABORIGINAL REMAINS IN NORTHERN MICHIGAN Whatever the fate of the Red Man's forefathers or predecessorswhether they perished in some cataclasm of nature, were driven away through the fortunes of war or migrated to a milder southern land, the most marked evidences of their existence are found in the mounds in which are embedded gigantic trees, with their record of annual rings marking these works as of hoary antiquity. As to the Mound Builders of AMichigan, the following account is reproduced from the "History of the Grand Traverse Region by Dr. M. L. Leach: "There is indubitable evidence that the Mound-Builders wrought the copper mines of Lake Superior-that the work was carried on by large bodies of men through a period of hundreds of years-but the evidence that they established permanent settlements there is wanting. The most reasonable theory is that the laborers spent the summer in the mines, but retired for the winter to a more genial clime. Hence, 32

Page  33 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 33 it becomes an interesting problem to determine the northern limit of their permanent abode. "It is evident that they had populous settlements in some of the more fertile districts of the southern part of the state. Farther north their remains are found less frequently, and are of a less imposing character. Characteristic earth works (whether built for defense or for civil or religious purposes is uncertain), are found in Ogemaw county. Mounds are known to exist in Manistee county. That outlying colonies extended north to the Grand Traverse country, scarcely admits of a doubt. Around Boardman Lake, near Traverse City, several small mounds formerly existed, some of which have been destroyed in the search for relics. One small burial mound has been opened within the village limits. "The sites of several ancient manufactories of stone arrow-heads have been found. In excavating for a street, on the bank of Boardman river, in Traverse City, such a location was discovered, marked by the presence of great numbers of chips of flint, or hornstone, the refuse of the material used for making the arrow-heads. At Charlevoix, the soil for a foot or more in depth, on the top of the bluff, north of the mouth of the river, contains great numbers of these flint chips, together with some unfinished arrow-heads that were spoiled in making and thrown away. Another well marked site of an arrow-head manufactory, is on the farm of John Miller, on the north shore of Pine Lake, about a mile from the village of Boyne City. "Fragments of ancient pottery, having the markings common to the pottery attributed to the Mound-Builders, is found at the locality last mentioned, and also within the village limits of Boyne City, as well as sparingly in other places. "At Charlevoix, in excavating a cellar, an ancient grave was opened, in which was found a great number of beautifully finished flint arrow-heads, and a quantity of copper beads. In the same locality, some boys amusing themselves by running up and down the steep bank of the "Old River," discovered a piece of copper protruding from the gravelly bank. An examination resulted in the finding of two knives and two bodkins, or piercing instruments, all of copper. "The evidence seems conclusive that the Mound-Builders, the most ancient inhabitants of the territory of the United States of whom we have any knowledge, had extended their scattered frontier settlements into the Grand Traverse country. Here, perhaps, mining expeditions from the more populous south called to make their final preparations for the northern summer trip, and here some of the returning miners were accustomed to spend the winter. "That ancient people have long since disappeared. Of the reason and manner of their disappearance no record remains, except, perhaps, a vague and shadowy tradition, which seems to imply that they retired towards the south, before the fierce and savage race that succeeded them in the occupancy of the country. "It may be objected," concludes Dr. Leach, "that the Indians made and used flint arrow-heads and stone axes, and that therefore the finding of these relics is no evidence of the former presence of the MoundVol. 1-3

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Builders. I freely admit the possibility that in the cases mentioned the arrow-heads were made by the Indians, but I am fully convinced that at least three-fourths of all the stone implements and ornaments found in the United States are the work of the Mound-Builders. In regard to the pottery of the Grand Traverse country, its marking and general appearance place it with the pottery of the Mound-Builders. As to the copper ornaments and implements, the fact is well established that the Indians knew nothing of the copper mines, and did not put copper to any practical use till the white men taught them how." From the last compiled list of the sites of aboriginal remains in Michigan, prepared by Prof. Harlan I. Smith and published as a part of the 1909 Geological and Biological Survey of the state, are selected the following which are embraced in the counties covered by this history: Alcona county: East Hubbard lake mounds; Henry mounds; North Hubbard lake mounds; Section 11 Greenbush mounds; South Hubbard lake mounds; Sturgeon Point mounds; West Harrisville mounds; Roe lake mounds. Alpena county: Thunder Bay river mounds; Devil lake mounds; Devil river mounds. Antrim county: Elk Rapids earthwork; Custer mound; Round lake mounds; Torch lake earthworks; Wequagamaw mounds; Grass lake mound and earthworks. Charlevoix county: Charlevoix Parmelee graves; Clarion mounds and graves. Cheboygan county: Indian river camp site; Columbus camp site; Pigeon Cheyboygan mounds. Emmet county: L'Arbre Croche village site; Mackinac mounds. Iosco county: Tawas losco mounds; Tawas Point mounds; Alabaster mounds. Kalkaska county: Rapid river earthworks; Torch river mounds; Clear Water mounds. Manistee county: Sauble lake mound; Manistee mounds and shell heaps; Bear lake mounds. Mason county: Sauble river mound. Ogemaw county: Rifle river earthworks, Nos. 1 and 2; Rifle river mounds; Hauptman earthwork; Churchill enclosures, Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Presque Isle county: Oqueoc mound. Wexford county: Boone earthworks; Cadillac earthworks; Wexford shell heaps. ORIGIN OF THE RED MAN The Red Men found in possession of the country by the white race felt that they must account for the presence of these mounds and the fantastic shapes fashioned by nature, which so mystified and awed them. Therefore their traditions pictured their gigantic ancestors as wiped out by a deluge, which left behind only such faint evidences of their former power as these mounds and strangely fashioned ruins in the sandstone of the northern regions.

Page  35 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 35 Following the destruction of this race of giants "the Great Ruler made another race which he again destroyed because it was too powerful; then he made a man and woman and placed them on earth; other people and animals he made in the sky, and sent the lightning his messenger to place them on earth, and having enclosed them in a cloud of lightning sent them down with a crash that sunk them all in the ground which was still wet and soft. The lightning felt so grieved at the result that he cried. Now, whenever he strikes the earth he is reminded of that mishap and cries; hence the rain and thunder. All these men and animals being thus struck underground were in confusion, until one day the mole burrowed to the top and the sudden rush of light put his eyes out. So he decided to remain beneath the surface, which he has constantly done ever since; but the rest crawled up through the hole made by the mole, and their distribution over the face of the globe began." In the perplexities they encountered during their first days they were, according to tradition, constantly assisted by the magic articles contained in a medicine bag given by the Great Spirit to a young boy; so it is youth, personified, that conquers the world, and this was merely a race, in its youth, working out its destiny. It was the young spirit which made way through the pathless forest and over foaming rivers and deep ravines, but the ignorance and superstitution of the race demanded some visible object as a proof of supernatural help when any difficult thing had been accomplished, and the medicine bag furnished this object. To it they attributed the production of animals, fish and snakes unknown to them before. They were not many degrees removed from the cave man who seldom ventured far from his lair, and the things of the forest and field were all new to them, so they were glad to believe the magic bag contained the first arrow point as a model for future weapons, and the seed of corn and tobacco for food and comfort. The primitive Indian gave his imagination full play in finding reasons for the existence of things, and their condition; thus the first cedar was bent because it had supported the weight of the Indian race and saved them from destruction and the crooked tendency of these trees was thereby established for all time. The crow was turned black in a futile effort to bring fire from the sun, and the swallow received his black feathers in a like vain attempt. Almost every natural object had some such notion connected with it, and volumes might be filled without exhausting the material in this line. The Indian legends in regard to their origin are almost endless. They declare themselves to be aborigines, a declaration only supported by fable or allegory. One authority will declare they climbed up the roots of a tree to the surface of the earth, while another that they casually saw daylight through the top of a great cavern, and climbed to find it. They claimed mysterious kinship with animals that burrowed; always the tradition, or memory, of cave or underground life, clung to them, which at least suggests that they were descendants of the primitive cave men, and that their line goes back unbroken to the beginning of life on this continent. In their traditions they skip thousands of years from the flood to the present time, and fill the interval with the wildest mythology, or demonology. Each leading family has some great

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN hero or Manito who overcame these demons and delivered the Indians from their spells; whether you call this hero Manabozho, Neo, Glooskap, Hiawatha, Tirawa or Hinun, depends merely on the locality; the cffice is the same-to benefit mankind-just as it was the office of the evil qualities, personified as Artotarho, Malsum, Enigon-ha-het-gea, and others, to destroy them. WHEN FIRST FOUND BY THE WHITES When Nicolet and his white successors, French and English, first visited what is now Northern Michigan in 1634, they found the soil, the lakes, and rivers, in possession of various tribes of the great Algonquin nation whose dominion stretched also far to the east. The Hurons and Chippewas, with their allies the Ottawas, were most closely connected with the history recorded in this work. THE HURONS The pioneer French priests, traders and explorers soon discovered that Hurons were more tractable and dependable than either the Chippewas or Ottawas. They were evidently not warriors from choice and were prone to found villages and semi-civilized communities. When the fierce Iroquois drove them from their hunting grounds many of them had fled to the Chippewa country. The Iroquois followed and carried their work of destruction into the northern country. Iroquois Point, on Lake Superior, commemorates a battle where the Iroquois were so thoroughly defeated by the Chippewas and Foxes, who were allied at that time, that they never attempted further encroachment on Chippewa territory. The struggling bands of Hurons who thus became identical with the Chippewas and Ottawas, were the first to welcome Nicolet and Marquette to the country of the Great Lakes and were their faithful companions on their toilsome and dangerous voyages through the vast regions -then unexplored by the whites. It was among them that the French priests founded their largest and most stable missions, and probably no stronger band of affection ever existed between the white and red man than that which bound, together the French and the Hurons. The letter written by Father Marquette to Father Dablon, in 1672, regarding the Huron mission at St. Ignace, is characteristic of this sentiment: "My Reverend Father: The Hurons, called Tionnontateronnous, or the tobacco nation, who composed the mission of St. Ignace at Michilimakinang, began last summer a fort near the chapel, in which all their cabins were inclosed. They have been more assiduous at prayer, have listened more willingly to the instructions that I gave them, and have acceded to my requests for preventing grave misconduct and their abominable customs. One must have patience with savage minds who have no other knowledge than the devil, whose slaves they are, and their forefathers have been; and frequently relapse into those sins in which they have been reared. God alone can give firmness to their

Page  37 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 37 fickle minds, and place and maintain them in grace, and touch their hearts while we stammer into their ears. This year the Tionnontater. onnous were here to the number of three hundred and eighty souls, and they were joined by over sixty souls of the Outaouasinagaux. Some of the latter came from the mission of Saint Francois Xavier (Green Bay), where Reverend Father Andre spent last winter with them; and they appeared to me to be very different from what they were when I saw them at the point of St. Esprit. The zeal and patience of the father have won over to the faith hearts which seemed to us to be very adverse to it. They desire to be Christians, they bring their children to the chapel to be baptized, and they are very assiduous in attending prayers. "Last summer, when I was obliged to go to the Sault with Rev. Father Allouez, the Hurons came to the chapel during my absence, as assiduously as if I had been there, and the girls sang the hymns that they knew. They counted the days that passed after my departure, and continuously asked when I was to return. I was absent only fourteen days, and, on arrival, all proceeded to the chapel, to which many came expressly from the fields, although these were very far away. I cheerfully attended their feasts of squashes, at which I instructed them and called upon them to thank God, who gave them food in abundance while other tribes, who had not yet embraced Christianity, had great difficulty in preserving themselves from hunger. I cast ridicule on their dreams and encouraged those who had been baptized to acknowledge Him whose children they were. Those who gave feasts, although still idolators, spoke most honorably of Christianity; And they were not ashamed- to make the sign of the cross before everyone. * * * "A savage of note among the MTurons invited me to his feast, at which the chiefs were present. After calling each of them by name, he told them that he wished to state his intentions to them, so that all might know it;-namely, that he was a Christian; that he renounced the God of Dreams and all their dances replete with lasciviousness; that the black gown was the master of the cabin and that he would not abandon that resolution, whatever might happen. I felt pleasure in hearing him, and at the same time I spoke more strongly than I had hitherto done, telling them that I had no other design than to place them on the road to Paradise; that that was the sole object that detained me with them and compelled me to assist them, at the risk of my life. As soon as anything has been said at a meeting, it is at once spread among all the cabins. This I soon recognized, through the assiduity of some at prayers and through the malice of others who endeavor to render our instructions useless. * * "Over two hundred souls left last fall for the chase. Those who remained here asked me what dances I prohibited. I replied in the first place that I would not permit those which God forbids, such as indecent ones; that, as regards the others, I would decide about them when I had seen them. Every dance has its own name; but I did not find any harm in any of them, except that called 'the bear dance.' A woman, who became impatient in her illness, in order to satisfy both her God and her imagination, caused twenty women to be invited. They were covered with bear skins and wore fine porcelain collars;

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN growled like bears. Meanwhile the sick woman danced and from time to time told them to throw oil on the fire, with certain superstitious observances. The men who acted as singers had great difficulty in carrying out the sick woman's design, not having as yet heard similar airs, for that dance was not in vogue among the Tionnontateronnous. I availed myself of this fact to dissuade them from the dance. I did not forbid others that are of no importance for I considered that my winter's sojourn among them had been profitable, inasmuch as, with God's grace, I had put a stop to the usual indecencies. * * * Although the winter was severe, it did not prevent the savages from coming to the chapel. Many came thither twice a day however windy and cold it might be. In the autumn I began to give instructions for general confession of their whole lives, and to prepare others who had not confessed since their baptism, to do the same. I would not have believed that savages could render so exact an account of all their lives. * * * As the savages have vivid imaginations, they are often cured of their sickness when they are granted what they desire. Their medicine men, who know nothing about their diseases, propose a number of things to them for which they might have a desire. Sometimes the sick person mentions it, and they fail not to give it to him. But many, during the winter, fearing that it might be a sin, always replied with constancy that they desired nothing, and that they would do whatever the black gown told them. "I did not fail, during the autumn, to go and visit them in their fields, where I instructed them and made them pray to God, and told them what they had to do. * * * A blind woman who had formerly been instructed by Rev. Father Brebeauf, had not during all these years forgotten her prayers; she daily prayed to God that she might not die without grace, and I admired her sentiments. Other aged women, to whom I spoke of hell, shuddered at it, and told me they had no sense in their former country, but that they had not committed so many sins since they had been instructed. * * * "God had aided, in a special manner, the Hurons who went to hunt; for he led them to places where they killed a great number of bears, stags, beavers and wild-cats. Several bands failed not to observe the directions I had given them respecting prayers. Dreams, to which they formerly had recourse, were looked upon as illusions; and, if they happened to dream of bears, they did not kill any on account of that; on the contrary, after they had recourse to prayer, God gave them what they desired. "This, my Reverend Father, is all that I can write to your Reverence respecting this mission, where men's minds are more gentle, tractable and better disposed to receive the instructions that are given them than in any other place. Meanwhile I aml preparing to leave it il the hands of another missionary, to go by your Reverence's Order and seek toward the South Sea new nations that are unknown to us, to teach them to know our great God, of whom they liave hitherto been ignorant." What has long been knownl to Michigan writers and pioneers as the G(lland Traverse Region was properly within the sphere of Father Marquette's mission, whose headquarters were at St. Ignaee, but it is not

Page  39 . - Ip -1.;a Al, j - 'PfO4 [C(oltc~s Dettoit & la(lkinac i:llafi a ( m1l,.lll l WHEN NORTHIERN MICHIGAN WAS YOUNG: A CHIPPEWA MOTHER

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN known that he ever visited the beautiful wilderness bordering on Grand Traverse or Little Traverse bays, or that he even coasted along the shore. Popular belief credits him, however, with having visited some of the Ottawas who, after the terrible devastation of their coutnry by the Sioux about 1671 had fled westward with the Hurons. The Hurons had stopped at St. Ignace; the Ottawas continued on to the Manitoulin islands. OTTAWAS AND CHIPPEWAS The Ottawas were neighbors and allies of the Chippewas and were bound by ties of kinship also, as intermarriage between the tribes was common. They were so like the Chippewas in most ways that they need no especial description. Of the same Algonquin stock, they have the same language, nearly, the same dress, religion, myths and general customs. The Ottawas were less savage and fickle, however, than the Chippewas. They were somewhat in advance of their neighbors in agriculture, partly because they lived, most of them, on the southern mainland, and partly because they were naturally more peaceful and possessed greater intelligence. From the first they were more kindly disposed toward the whites, and often saved them from the attacks of the more savage Chippewas. The one great Indian of this tribe, who helped to make Michigan history, was Pontiac. As he was half Chippewa, his mother having belonged to that tribe, and of the otter totem, which gave him high rank among them, the Chippewas were especially drawn to his side. Pontiac's plan of organizing the Indians and driving out the whites was well conceived, and showed a mind far in advance of his time. With almost supernatural foresight, he saw the downfall of his race in the coming of the whites. This had not been so apparent when there was only the French to deal with; for they amalgamated with the Indians, and were content to live on equal terms of possession, hut when the English came the keen mind of Pontiac recognized them as men who would be masters; never brothers of his race. Had the savage tribes who followed him possessed cohesion and self-control, the story would have been different, and Michigan would have waited long for civilization and peaceful settlement. As stated in Sawyer's History of the "Northern Peninsula," from which much of the foregoing is condensed: "When Jean Nicolet, with his Huron companions, ascended the St. Mary's river on his fanous journey which brought himn finally to Green Bay, he passed the nation of Beavers, formerly called Amieways. They lived at one time upon the Beaver islands * near the Michigan shore, but afterward moved to the Manitoulin islands,t a locality to which all Indians in the vicinity attached much importance, believing it was the abode of spirits, a belief easily suggested by their natural beauty and the frequent mirage in their neighborhood. The Beaver tribe was no doubt a branch of * Northwest of Emmet County, but now inc(lulded in St. James anti Peaine townships, Charlevoix county. t Now is Leland township, Leelanau county.

Page  41 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 41 the great Algonquin nation, which had separated from the main body in its westward migration. The tribe was esteemed one of the noblest, and claimed descent from the Great Beaver, a Manido next in importance to the Great Hare, which was the principal Algonquin divinity. "At Sault Ste. Marie Nicolet found a powerful nation. They were called Baouichtigonin by the early French writers (Relations of 1640). There are several variations of this name given in the different Relations. The Iroquois called them Estiaghicks, or Stagigroone; the Sioux called them Raratwaus, and the French called them Saulteurs. All of these names refer to their location near the Falls. The Iroquois word contains also an allusion to their Algonquin descent. (The French traders called all northern Indians Ottawas, or Saulteurs, regardless of tribal distinctions.) "MEN OF THE FALLS" "These Men of the Falls were the immediate ancestors of the Chippewa or Ojibway nation, one of the largest and most powerful of the northwest tribes. Like the Menominees, they came from the Nipissing country. Their territory when discovered by the whites extended along the St. Mary's river, which they held in company with their kinsmen and allies, the Ottawas, clear across the Upper Peninsula of Michigan on Lake Superior, and as far south as the headwaters of the Menominee river. They controlled many islands including Mackinaw, and across northern Wisconsin west to the headwaters of the Mississippi and south to the Chippewa rivers. When first visited by the whites, the Chippewas were powerful enough to maintain themselves against the Sioux on the west and the Iroquois on the south. * * * "Nicolet has recorded this friendly attitude of the Indians toward the whites at their first meeting, and Fathers Raymbault and Isaac Jogues, who visited Sault Ste. Marie in 1741, corroborated this. They were given a cordial reception, rest and refreshment by the Chippewas. They also obtained much information from these Indians, concerning the Great Lake (Superior), and the fierce tribe called Nadoussioux (Sioux, or Enemies-snake-like-ones), who lived beyond its borders and would not permit the Chippewas to enter their hunting grounds. The history of the Jesuit fathers in Michigan is closely woven into that of the Chippewas and Ottawas. "The Chippewas were allies of the French in their colonial wars with England which broke out in 1754, after years of bickering. Many of them were in the siege of Quebec; and Montcalm was a great hero to them. Led by Pontiac, whose mother was a Chippewa, under Sieur Charles de Langlade, they helped defeat Braddock in his ill-starred campaign against Fort du Quesne (1775). It was with great difficulty that the English gained their allegiance after the French had been overcome. "In the period which elapsed between the surrender of the French in 1759 and the treaty of peace of 1763, much ill feeling had been engendered among all Indians by their untactful treatment by the English. The Chippewas, naturally warlike and full of a deadly hatred for

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the English, fell readily in with the schemes of Pontiac, the Ottawa. In the massacre at Fort Mackinaw in 1763 they took the lead. "Menominees and Ottawas took no part in the massacre. The French were not molested and were apparently on good terms with the savages. "The chief who led the Chippewas in this massacre was Mina-vavana. He was very tall and unusually fierce and stern in aspect. He is often spoken of in history as 'The Grand Sauteur.' It had been part of Pontiac's scheme to destroy the fort at Green Bay, and Chippewas, Ottawas and Pottawottomies, who formed sort of an alliance known as the 'Three Fires,' were designated for this work, but they were prevented by the Menominees from carrying out the plan. "'In the War for Independence the Chippewas sided with the British, any many American scalps hung at their belts. In defense of the Indians it may be said that the countless cruelties which marked the border warfare, were not usually of their own volition; they were usually instigated by white men who knew perfectly the Indian manner of fighting. "The Chippewas made peace with the United States government in 1785 and 1789. This did not last long, however, and in 1790 they joined the Miami uprising under Little Turtle, but they were completely defeated by General Wayne in 1793, and the next year again made a peace-treaty with the United States. Many of the northern Chippewas joined Tecumseh in the Indian confederacy of 1810. They also fought with the British under Colonel Robert Dickson and were in the attack on the Americans at Ford Mackinaw in the war of 1812-14. The Chippewas were first recognized formally by the American government as a treaty tribe in the treaty of Greenville in 1794, in which they, with the Ottawas, ceded the island of Michillimackinac and other dependencies to the United States government." THI PERIOD OF PONTIAC'S CONSPIRACY At the time of Pontiac's conspiracy, nearly ninety years after the death of Marquette, the Hurons had settled mainly at Detroit and Sandusky, where they had taken the name of Wyandots. The mission had been transferred from St. Ignace to L'Arbre Croche (the Crooked Tree) south of the Straits. This is also said to be the period at which the Ottawas reached their height of power. L'Arbre Croche seems to have been used by the French as a general Inamle for the Ottawa settlements along the shore of Lake Michigan, in the western part of what now constitutes the county of Emimet. The village of I'Arbre Croche proper, so named from a crooked pine tree-a ('onspicllous and convenient landmark for the voyageurs coasting ill their canoes along the shore-was on the site of Middle village of the present day. Another conspicuous landmark of those days was a huge cross of cedar tilmber standing on the brow of the bluff at what is now, from the circumstance, called ('ross village. Whether it was erected by Father Jollois, or solme one wlho preceded himn, is inot kiiown.

Page  43 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 43 By whomsoever erected, it stood there for many years, being repaired or renewed by the willing hands of the Catholic Ottawas. OTTAWAS OF L'ARBRE CROCHE Dr. M. L. Leach has written the following regarding the part taken by the Chippewas and Ottawas of the Grand Traverse region in the history and development of the northern Michigan covered by this work: "The Ottawas of L'Arbre Croche, under their head chief, Nesaw-kee, could (at the time of Pontiac's conspiracy) muster two hundred and fifty warriors. Many of them were nominal Catholics. Profiting by the instruction of the missionaries, they had made some advancement in civilization, and cultivated the ground to a greater extent than formerly. South of L'Arbre Croche, in the western part of the Michigan peninsula, there were other settlements of Ottawas, and there was PRESENT-DAY ABORIGINES a strong band in the vicinity of Detroit, under the immediate chieftainship of the renowned Pontiac. "The principal village of the Chippewas in the northern part of the peninsula, was on MIackinac island. The village contained a hundred warriors. There was another smaller village at Thunder Bay, where dwelt their chief, Minavavana. There were also numerous settlements of the Chippewas in the Saginaw valley and on Grand river. "A part of the Wyandots, as we have already seen, were living at Detroit, and the Pottawattamies occupied the southwestern portion of the peninsula. Theoretically, the peninsula, or, at least, the northern part of it, belonged to the Ottawas and Chippewas, the former claiming the western and the latter the eastern portion, the boundary between them being an imaginary line drawn due south from the fort at Mackinaw. "At the close of the French and Indian war, in accordance with the terms of capitulation agreed to by the French at Montreal, all the military posts of the northwestern wilderness passed into the hands of the

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN English. The Indians throughout the region were the enemies of the English and the firm friends of the French. It was with ill concealed displeasure that they saw the English come among them. The haughty and sometimes brutal treatment received from the latter, so different from the easy familiarity and kindness of the French, instead of tending to allay the irritation, had only the effect of increasing it. The first English traders at Mackinaw, who came after the removal of the French garrison and before the English troops arrived, ventured there at their peril. They succeeded in propitiating the Chippewas, but the Ottawas of L'Arbre Croche, a strong body of whom were at Mackinaw, were bent on mischief. The traders saved their goods, and perhaps their lives, only by arming their followers, barricading themselves in a house, and holding the Ottawas at bay, till the arrival of the troops assured some degree of security. "Pontiac, an Ottawa by birth or adoption, having won distinction at the head of a numerous body of his braves at the memorable battle of the Monongahela, contributing not a little to the defeat of Braddock's army, now smarting under wrongs both fancied and real, and foreseeing the probable ruin of his people before the increasing strength of the English, conceived the bold plan of cutting off all the frontier military posts, almost at a single blow. So well were the arrangements of the wily chieftain carried out that, in a short time, with the exception of the garrison at Detroit, not a British soldier remained in the region of the Great Lakes. "The fall of Mackinaw, next to Detroit the most important post in the western country, has been a theme of thrilling interest both to the historian and the writer of romance. In the events grouped around the tragic fate of the garrison, the people of the region the history of which we are endeavoring to trace bore a conspicuous part. "When, towards the end of May, 1763, the Chippewas of Mackinaw heard that Pontiac had already struck Detroit, they at once resolved on the immediate destruction of the English at the fort. Their number had recently been largely increased by tile arrival of several bands from other localities. Though confetlderate with tile Ottawas of L'Arbre Croche, they determlined to proceed independently of the latter, securing all tile plunder and glory to themselves. "It was the fourth of June, the birthday of King George. Trle Chippewas came to the fort, inviting the officers anld nmen to come out and witness a game of baggattaway. their favorite hall-play, which had been arranged between them and the Sacs. several bands of whom, from the Wisconsin river, were encamped in thie vicinity. The unsuspecting commander allowed the gates to be thrown wide open, and some of the soldiers went out to watch the gamle. The Indian women collected near the entrance, each with a weapon concealed under her blanket. When the excitelment of the game had apparently reached its height, tile ball receive(l a blow that sent it over the palisade, into the area of the fort. It seemed an accident, but was really a well executed part of the plan of attack. In an instant there was a rush of players through the gateway, as if to recover the ball. lbt. as they passed the women each snatched a weapon. and fell upon tlhe nearest unsuspect

Page  45 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 45 ing and defenseless Englishman. The bloody work was quickly colnpleted, and a general cry was raised of 'All is finished.' There were at the fort thirty-four officers and soldiers, constituting the garrison, and four traders. Of these, one officer, fifteen soldiers, and one trader were killed. The others were made prisoners. Of the prisoners, five soldiers were soon afterwards killed by an infuriated brave who had not been present at the assault, and took this method of expressing his approval of what had been done, and of his hatred of the English. "It is uncertain what would have been the fate of the remaining prisoners, had there been no check to the doings of the Chippewas. Probably most of them would have met death by torture. Their lives had not been spared from motives of humanity or clemency. The French had looked coolly on, neither helping the Indians nor offering protection to the English. The latter, however, found a friend in Father Jonois, the Catholic missionary at L'Arbre Croche. But by far the most effectual aid came from the incensed Ottawas. Confederates of the Chippewas, it was their right to be consulted in matters of such moment as the destruction of the English, or, at least, to be invited to join in the execution of the project. Regarding themselves as slighted and wronged, if not insulted, they resolved to revenge themselves by taking the control of matters into their own hands. "A party of seven Chippewas, with four prisoners, started in a canoe for the Isles du Castor (Beaver islands). When about eighteen miles on their way, an Ottawa came out of the woods and accosted them, inquiring the news, and asking who were their prisoners. As the conversation continued, the canoe came near the shore, where the water was shallow, when a loud yell was heard, and a hundred Ottawas, rising from among the trees and bushes, rushed into the water, and seized the canoe and prisoners. The astonished Chippewas remonstrated in vain. The four Englishmen were led in safety to the shore. The Ottawas informed them that their captors were taking them to the Isles du Castor merely to kill and eat them, which was probably not far from the truth. The four prisoners soon found themselves afloat in an Ottawa canoe, and on their way back to Mackinaw, accompanied by a flotilla of canoes, bearing a great number of Ottawa warriors. "Arrived at Mackinaw, the Ottawas, fully armed, filed into the fort, and took possession of it. A council of the two tribes followed, in which the wounded feelings of the Ottawas were somewhat soothed by a liberal present of plunder, taken from the whites. The prisoners seem to have been divided, the Ottawas, because they were the stronger party, or for other reasons, being allowed to keep the greater number. The Ottawas soon after returned to L'Arbre Croche, taking with them Capt. Etherington, Lieut. Leslie, and eleven more. They were disarmed but, probably through the influence of Father Jonois treated kindly. Father Jonois performed a journey to Detroit in their behalf, bearing a request to Major Gladwin for assistance, but that officer, beleagured by a horde of savages, could do nothing. "In the meantime, Capt. Etherington had found means to communicate with Lieut. Gorell, commanding the little garrison at Green Bay, requesting him to come with his command immediately to L'Arbre

Page  46 46 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Croche. Gorell had the fortune to secure the good will of the Menominees, ninety of whom volunteered for an escort. As the fleet of canoes on the way approached the Isles du Castor, warning was received that the Chippewas were lying in wait to intercept them. Immediately the Menominees raised the war song, and stripped themselves for battle. The alarm, however, proved to be false. When the party reached L'Arbre Croche, they were received with honor, and presented the pipe of peace. After a series of councils, to which the Chippewa chiefs were invited, the latter reluctantly consented not to obstruct the passage of the soldiers to Montreal. Accordingly on the eighteenth of July, the English, escorted by a fleet of Indian canoes, left L'Arbre Croche, and, going by way of the Ottawa river, reached Montreal the thirteenth of August. "Parkman, in his History of the Conspiracy of Pontiac," continues Dr. Leach, "says that the name of the Ottawa chief at L'Arbre Croche has not survived in history or tradition. This is a mistake. His name, Nee-saw-kee, is familiar to the Ottawas of to-day. His grandson, Nee-saw-wa-quat, a chief of the Little Traverse Indians, died in 1857. "From the massacre at Mackinac in 1763 up to the close of the war of 1812, a period of fifty-two years, we are able to gather from history and tradition only meager accounts of events occurring strictly within the limits of the Grand Traverse country. It was not at any time the theater of active war. The Ottawas were still the only inhabitants, except here and there an adventurous fur-trader, or possibly a zealous Roman Catholic missionary. "That the Ottawas of L'Arbre Croche were concerned, directly or indirectly, in most of the Indian troubles of the northwestern frontier, occurring during the period alluded to, scarcely admits of a doubt. They were probably represented at the grand Indian council held near the mouth of Detroit river, in 1786. Some of their warriors, no doubt, were present at the battles in which Harmar and St. Clair were defeated, and some of their braves may have fallen before Wayne's victorious army, on the banks of the Maumee. One of their noted chiefs, Saw-gaw-kee, a son of the former head chief Nee-saw-kee, was a firm believer in the Shawnee prophet Waw-wa-gish-e-maw, or, as he is called by the historians, Elkswatawa. It does not appear that either Tecumser or the prophet visited L'Arbre Croche in person, but the influence of the prophet was sufficient to induce a deputation of Ottawas from that vicinity to visit the distant Indian villages on Lake Superior, with a message he professed to have received from the Great Spirit, incended to rouse them against the Americans. "When, in 1812, war was declared between the United States and Great Britain, Capt. Roberts, commanding the British post on St. Joseph's island, was able in a short time to gather round him a thousand Indian warriors, for the capture of the American fort on the island of Mackinac. It is probable that nearly the whole force of the Ottawa warriors of L'Arbre Croche and the scattered bands around Grand Traverse Bay, was engaged in that enterprise. The affair ended in the complete success of the British, happily without the shedding of blood. Two years later, when the Americans, under Col. Croghan, attempted

Page  47 IiJ 'I i,:I::::,~:~:: ~i-iii~.~ i::::~:::...: i? r5~C I:?i::~ i qI lr AMONG THE RICE SWAMPS OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN to retake the fort, they were foiled mainly by the large force of Indians the British commander had again been able to gather to his standard. In this attempt the Americans suffered severe loss. The most shocking barbarities were practiced on the bodies of the slain. They were literally cut to pieces by their savage conquerors. Their hearts and livers were taken out, and cooked and eaten, and that too, it is said, even in the quarters of the British officers. More than forty years afterwards, when the Indians had become friendly towards the Americans, and the settlements of the latter had reached the Grand Traverse country, Asabun, an Indian of Old Mission, used to be pointed out as one who had been seen running about with a human heart in his hands, which he was devouring. Another, a chief by the name of Aish-qua-gwon-a-ba, was credited by the settlers, whether justly or not, with keeping a number of scalps, the trophies of his prowess at Mackinac, carefully hidden away in a certain trunk. If, as their tradition asserts, the Ottawas were at the height of their power and glory at the time of Pontiac's war, a later period was the golden age of those at L'Arbre Croche, with reference to the prosperity that comes from peaceful pursuits. OTTAWAS OF GRAND TRAVERSE '"The principal and most permanent settlements of the Ottawas were at Cross village, Middle village, Seven Mile Point, and Little Traverse; but between the first and last of these places, wigwams, singly and in groups, were scattered at intervals all along the shore. A few families had their home at Bear creek, on the south side of Little Traverse bay. There were gardens on the height of land, a mile or more hack from the shore, not far south of the present village of Norwood. andi a camping place, frequently occupied, on the shore. There were gardens on the peninsula in Grand Traverse bay and a village at Old Mission. West of the bay, a small band llad their home on the point afterwards known as New Mission, and another on the shore of Lake Michigan, at or near the site of the present village of Leland. Their dwellings were of various sizes and shapes, and were constructed of a variety of materials. The most substantial and permanent consisted of a frame of cedar poles, covered with cedar bark. One of these, called o-tmaw\-gay-ko-gaw-lnig, was suare or oblong, with perpendicular walls, andl a roof witll a slope ill opposite directions, like the simplest form of framie houses among white men. Another, the ke-no-day-we-gaw-mig. lia(l perpendicular end walls, )blt the side walls in the upper part were )(bent inward, meeting along the middle line, thus foriming the roof in shape of a broad arch. Houses of this kind were sometimes fifty or sixty feet long, and h1ad places for three fires. The ne-saw-wahl-e-gun and the Nwah-ge-no-gawn, were light but very serviceable houses, consistilng of t'ra11es of' poles covered witih nmats. Tie former was cone- shaped; tile latter regularly convex at tle top. 11The1 Imats, ten or twelve feet long alnd three or four wille, were made of the long, slender leaves of the cat-tail flag (Typha), properly cured and carefully sewed together. WhelL suitablly adjusted oll tile frames, with the edges lapping. they itiaid;ai setrviceable roof. lheiilg light. ald(l, whllei rolled up, inot incoln

Page  49 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 49 venient to carry, they were used for traveling tents. Houses of mats were often used for winter residence in the woods, and were not uncomfortable. The ah-go-beein-wah-gun was a small summer house for young men, usually constructed of cedar bark on an elevated platform resting on posts, reached only by ascending a ladder. Winter houses in the woods were sometimes built of slabs, or planks, of split timber. They were often cone-shaped, and were made tight and warm. They were called pe-no-gawn. In the woods, even in winter, they sometimes lived in temporary wigwams of evergreen boughs, which they managed to make comfortable. "The Indian houses were without windows. The fire was built upon the ground, in the center if the lodge was small; or there was a row of fires down the middle line, in a long ke-no-day-we-gaw-mig. A hole in the roof, above each fire, served for the escape of the smoke. A raised platform, a foot or a foot and a half high, covered with mats, along the sides of the room, served for a seat during the day and for a sleeping place at night. The mats, some of them beautifully ornamented with colors, were made of rushes found growing in shallow lakes, ingeniously woven together with twine manufactured from the bark of the slippery elm. "In their gardens the Ottawas cultivated corn, pumpkins, beans, and potatoes. Apple trees, the seed for which was originally obtained from the whites-either the Jesuit missionaries or the fur traderswere planted in every clearing. Wild fruits, especially choice varieties of wild plums, were grown from seed introduced from their distant southern hunting grounds. At the time of the present writing, fruit trees of their planting are found growing wild in the young forests that have sprung up on abandoned fields. The gardens were frequently some distance from the villages. The owners resorted to them at the proper season, to do the necessary work, living for the time in portable lodges or in temporary structures erected for the occasion. Though they hunted more or less at all times, winter was the season devoted more especially to that pursuit. Then the greater part of the population left the villages, and scattered through the forest. The chain of inland lakes in Antrim county, having its outlet at Elk Rapids, was a favorite resort, on account of the facilities for fishing, as well as for hunting and trapping. Many plunged into the deeper solitudes of the forest, and fixed their winter abode on the Manistee, the Muskegon, or the Sauble. Others embarked in canoes, and coasted along Lake Michigan to its southern extremity, from there making their way to the marshes of the Kankakee and the hunting grounds of northern Indiana and Illinois. Several families had their favorite winter camping place on the northeastern shore of Boardman lake, within the present corporate limits of Traverse City. Here the women and children remained, while the hunters made long trips in the woods, returning to camp, with the spoils of the chase, several times during the winter. One principal advantage of the location was the abundance of pickerel in the lakean abundance that seems fabulous to the white fisherman of the present day. They were caught with spears, through holes cut in the ice, and were an important addition to the winter supply of food. Vol. 1-4

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN "In spring traders came from Mackinac, and sometimes from other places, to barter goods for furs. Not infrequently, however, the Indian hunter, accompanied by his wife and children, preferred to visit the center of trade with his peltries, in person. Then, sometimes, there was a brief but fearful indulgence of the Indian's appetite for strong drink. At home sobriety usually prevailed. "How long the Jesuits continued active work at L'Arbre Croche after the time of Father Jonois, is not known. There seems to have been a long period during which the Indians were left to themselves. The great cedar cross remained standing on the brow of the bluff at (Cross village, a memorial of the devotion and zeal of the early mission OLD INDIAN TRAIL. NORTHERN AMICHIGAN aries, but their teachings had been forgotten. It is said that when the ground was afterwards reoccupied, only one Indian could be found who could prove himself a Christian by making the sign of the cross. "In 1825 the Catholics sent a missionary to reoccupy the long abandoned field. Seven Mile Point was chosen as a center of operations, and a church was immediately built. The building was about twenty feet by forty in size, constructed, like the better class of Indian houses, of the most suitable materials readily obtainable-cedar timbers for the frame, and for the coverine cedar bark. Seven Mile Point not proving a satisfactory location, in 1827 the mission was moved to Little Traverse. At the latter place a church, of cedar logs, was built the following year. About the same time a similar church was built at Cross village. The

Page  51 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 51 work of the missionaries was successful, a considerable number of Indians readily becoming Catholics. "About 1839 and 1840 the population was greatly diminished by a sudden exodus, caused by distrust of the Indian policy of the United States government. Fearing to be forcibly removed beyond the Mississippi, fully one-half of the Indians, it is said, took refuge in Canada." This may be said to be the concluding chapter of Indian history in the northern Michigan of which we write. EXTINGUISHMENT OF THE INDIAN But the Indians of Michigan, in common with those between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers, saw the "handwriting on the wall" when the new comers to their territory were known to be representatives of the people further to the east who had triumphed over the great King of England. In December, 1786, after nearly all the original states of the Union had ceded their northwestern lands to the general government a grand confederate council of the Indians northwest of the Ohio was held near the Huron village at the mouth of the Detroit river, and was attended by the Six Nations, the Hurons, Ottawas, Miamis, Shawanese, Chippewas, Cherokees, Delawares, Pottawatomies and confederates of the Wabash. The ground of difference between the Indians and the United States was a question of boundary, the Indians maintaining that the Ohio river was not to be crossed by the Americans. The council was pacific, providing that the United States did not encroach on their lands. The Indians were not included in the treaty, and it became a nice legal question how far the United States had a right to advance upon the territory then occupied by the Indians. The savages attributed the mischief and confusion to the fact that the United States would "kindle the council fires whenever they thought proper without consulting the Indians." The posts in Michigan thus withheld from the possession of the United States were Detroit and Mackinac; and Great Britain, in order to strengthen the post against the incursions of the Americans took immediate measures to garrison the fort at Detroit, under instructions from Lord Dorchester. It was finally determined to call a grand council of the Indians in which the whole ground of complaint between the savages and the United States should be discussed, and a final determination made, if possible. As was natural, the Hurons, who had the confidence both of their own people and the United States, were the chief promoters of the proposed compromise and earnestly invited the federation of eastern Indians-the Five Nations-to send representatives to the council. This invitation read: MESSAGE OF THE HURONS OF DETROIT TO THE FIVE NATIONS "January 21, 1788. "Brethren: Nothing yet has reached us in answer to the messages sent to the Americans on the breaking up of our general council, nor

Page  52 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN is it now probable that we shall hear from them before our next meeting takes place, a circumstance that ought to expedite us in our business. The nations this way have adhered hitherto to the engagements entered into before we parted, at least as far as has come to our knowledge, and we intend immediately to call them to this council fire, which shall be uncovered at the time appointed; that without further delay some decisive measures may be finally fixed upon for our future interest, which must govern hereafter the conduct of all nations in our alliance. And this we intend to be our last council for the purpose; therefore it is needless to urge further the indispensable necessity of all nations being present at the conclusion of affairs tending so much to their own future welfare and happiness. "And we do in a particular manner desire you, the Five Nations, to be strong and punctual in your promise of being with us early and in time; and that not only the warriors, but the chiefs of your several nations, attend on this occasion. We shall therefore endeavor to have as many of the western and southern Indians as possible collected." "STRINGS OF WAMPUM. No records of this council have been discovered, although the accounts of the proceedings, it is believed, were forwarded to Lord Dorchester. It is probable that there was a division in.their deliberations, because two treaties were held at Fort Harmar which were attended by only a portion of the Indians. These treaties were held by General St. Clair, in January, 1789; in the first place with the Five Nations, with the exception of the Mohawks; and in the second place with the warriors and sachems of the Wyandots, Delawares, Ottawas, Chippewas, Pottawatomies and Sac. In 1785 a treaty had been held with the Ottawas, Chippewas, Delawares and Wyandots at Fort McIntosh by which a belt of land commencing at the River Raisin and extending to Lake St. Clair, with a breadth of six miles along the strait, was ceded to the United States; and to this was added a tract of twelve square miles at Michilimackinac. In the treaty of Fort Harmar, in the year 1787, all the stipulations embraced in the former treaties were confirmed. From 1796 to 1805 Michigan was attached to the northwest and Indiana territories. On the 15th of August of the former year, Secretary Sargent, by proclamation, organized the county of Wayne. It included the lower and the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula, a large tract across the northern border of the present states of Ohio and Indiana, and a strip along the entire western shore of Lake Michigan, including the present sites of Chicago, Milwaukee and Green Bay. In all this territory, over which so many times had swept the tide of war during the previous hundred years, the only land under cultivation was the narrow border extending from the River Raisin to Lake St. Clair. To this the Indian title had been secured by Governor Arthur St. Clair. of the Northwest territory, it being described as "the post of Detroit with a district of land beginning at the mouth of the River Rosine, at the west end of Lake Erie and running up the southern bank

Page  53 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 53 of said river six miles, thence northerly and always six miles west of the strait, until it strikes the Lake St. Clair." It also secured the post at Mackinaw and twelve miles square around it. The consideration was $6,000. In 1795 General Wayne by the Indian treaty made at Greenville, Ohio, had secured the same territory in Michigan; also the islands of Mackinac and Bois Blanc, and a piece of land on the straits of Mackinac three miles in length and three miles back from the straits between Lakes Huron and Michigan. At this treaty twelve tribes were represented by 1,113 Indians-the most prominent being the Wyandots (Hurons), Delawares, Shawanese, Ottawas, Chippewas and Pottawatomies. In 1808 Governor Hull secured a tract of land running north from the mouth of the Auglaize river until it intersects the latitude of the outlet of Lake Huron, thence northeast to White Rock. The southern boundary was the Maumee river. This tract covered the land east of the present meridian line.... By the treaty made at Saginaw in 1819, General Cass obtained in addition the strip "commencing six miles south of the base line on the boundary of the 1808 treaty, thence west sixty miles, thence north in a direct line to the head of Thunder Bay river; thence down the same to the mouth." General Cass, in his report of this acquisition, says: "A large portion of the country ceded.is of the first character for soil and situation; it will vie with any land I have seen north of the Ohio river. The cession probably contains more than six million acres." The above were the principal cessions of land by the Indians up to the time they were thrown upon the market as public lands in 1818.

Page  54 CHAPTER III PLANTING OF THE WHITE MAN NICOLET LANDS ON MICHIGAN SOIL-THE COMING OF MARQUETTE-HIS DEATH AND BURIAL-CADILLAC AND MIICHILIMACKINAC-INSECURE AND BURDENSOME LAND TENURE-MONOPOLIES RETARD PROGRESSFUR TRADE ENRICHES ONLY THE RICH-ENGLISH FLAG SUPPLANTS THE FRENCH-INDIANS REBEL-MASSACRE AT FORT MICHILIMACKINAC -SIEGE OF DETROIT RAISED-NORTHERN MICHIGAN BECOMES AMERICAN SOIL. The planting of the white man in the territory now embraced by the state of Michigan is generally conceded to commence with the coming of Jean Nicolet to the Soo in 1634. A young man of good education and religious instruction he had received a thorough training among the Indians of the east, under the care of Champlain, who was the undisputed head of the fur trade as patronized by the French government. Twenty-three years before the coming of Nicolet, Champlain had established a trading post on the island of Montreal and held a council with the Hurons who had come to him from their far western country. In 1617 the latter had personally traversed the shores of Lake Huron, but it remained for his younger and equally enthusiastic disciple, Nicolet, to actually plant his feet on the soil of Michigan. He was well qualified to be the representative of Champlain and the great trading company which the latter headed, known as the Hundred Associates. His mission was a double one-to develop trade among the Indians and to discover, if possible, the northwest passage to India and the Orient. During the latter part of June, 1634, Nicolet was ready to set out from Quebec upon his eventful journey. At that time there were in all Canada but six Jesuits. To three of these the Huron mission was assigned, and they were accompanied a portion of the trip by Nicolet on his way to the Winnebagoes. At that time there were many savages from the west at that point. It was difficult to get them to permit so many white men to accompany them on the return journey, and many hardships and privations had to be endured, even in the early part of the journey; for there was a scant diet, many portages had to be made and the savages required a large share of the labor to be performed by the whites. Nicolet could not tarry long with the Algonquins of the isle with hom lie had lived so long, as lie was to go to the luron villages onil 54


Page  56 56 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the borders of Georgian bay before entering upon his journey into the unexplored country on his mission to the Winnebagoes. He made his way up the Ottawa to the Mattawan; thence to Lake Nipissing; and thence down French river to Georgian bay, upon which he coasted southward in a canoe along the shore to the villages of the Hurons. This trip to the Hurons was far out of his course from the Ottawas to the Winnebagoes; and it is evident that he went there on a mission from Champlain to inform the Hurons of the desire of the governor of Canada to have amicable relations established between them and the Winnebagoes, and to secure a few of the Hurons to accompany him on his mission of peace. After his ceremonies with the Hurons had been completed, Nicolet struck boldly out into undiscovered regions where he was to encounter savage nations never before visited by white men, so far as the records show. It was a voyage full of danger, and one that would require great tact, courage and the constant facing of difficulty. No Frenchman, however, was better adapted to the occasion. Nicolet had brought with him presents with which to conciliate the tribes he should meet. Seven Hurons accompanied him, and a birch bark canoe bore a white man for the first time along the northern shore of Lake Huron and upon St. Mary's river to the Falls-Sault Ste. Marie; thence again down the river, many miles on Lake Michigan and up Green bay to the home of the Winnebagoes; and that first canoe was the leader of a van of a mighty commercial fleet that has since developed upon the great inlandseas. NICOLET ON MICHIGAN SOIL As Nicolet came westward, entering St. Mary's river, his canoes were pushed onward to the foot of the rapids, where the intrepid young Frenchman, with his seven Huron companions, rested with the "People of the Falls." at their principal village on the south, or Michigan shore. They were still with the great Algonquin Indian nation, among whose more eastern tribes Nicolet had been trained in their woodscraft and tongue. From Lake Huron the voyagers had threaded their way-first through narrow rapids, then into and across placid lakes and around beautiful islands, until they had finally come to within fifteen miles of the largest fresh water sea in the world, stretching away in its grandeur a distance to the westward of over four hundred miles. It is not recorded that Nicolet ever ascended the river above the fall, or set eyes upon Lake Superior. Where he rested amid a cluster of wigwams, indicating the center of the commerce of savagery, now stands the beautiful and business-like city of Sault Ste. Marie, overlooking one of the finest of all commercial waterways. After a brief rest at the Falls, Nicolet returned down the strait, and it is thought he passed through the western "detour" and through "the second fresh water sea" (Lake Michigan), being the first white man to set eyes upon its beautiful and broad expanse, the straits of Mackinac and the island of that name. He continued along the north

Page  57 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 57 shore of the lake, stopping on the southern coast of the Upper Peninsula, from time to time, until he reached the Bay of Noquet-the northern arm of Green bay. After visiting the Menominee and Winnebago in what is now Wisconsin, as well as the Illini in the prairie country and the south, he proceeded to return in the spring of 1635. He had, in reality, been the primal discoverer of the "Territory Northwest of the Ohio." He had traveled four hundred leagues beyond the Huron village at the Soo, his homeward journey being also via Mackinac and the Grand Manitoulin islands. As near as can be ascertained he reached Three Rivers about July 20, 1635. THE COMING OF MARQUETTE Various Jesuit missionaries visited the Soo and penetrated beyond to the Lake Superior region within the succeeding thirty years, but the coming of Father Marquette to that point in 1668 was really the first event, after the landing of Nicolet, which had an effect upon the opening to white settlement of Northern Michigan below the Straits of- Mackinac. This heroic figure not only skirted many of its beautiful shores with his fellow priests and dusky comrades, but drew his last feeble and labored breath upon the territory to which this work is devoted. In 1669 Marquette was joined at the Sault by Pere Dablon, superior of the Huron mission, and they were soon established in a square fort of cedar pickets enclosing a chapel and a house, with growing crops of wheat, maize, and peas in their clearing. In the fall of the same year, Marquette took charge of the mission at La Pointe, and Dablon remained at the Sault. In 1871 he returned from the La Pointe mission and established the mission of St. Ignatius (St. Ignace). At St. Ignatius, Marquette learned from the Indians of the existence of a great river to the west, which was said to flow through fertile lands that were peopled with tribes who had never heard of the Gospel of Christ, and he was filled with a desire to explore that country, preach to its people and discover whether the great river flowed to the Gulf of Mexico or to the Pacific ocean. The locality of St. Ignace had been theretofore a favorite resort for the Indians on account of the abundance of fish and game. Marquette recognized its additional strategic advantages as holding control of the water highway to the farther west and it was because of his early recognition of these numerous advantages that, in 1671, he established the mission at the old town of Michilimackinac. Under the sanction of the king, and still pursuing the hope of discovery of a passage to the Pacific ocean, Count Frontenac, successor to Talon, who had retired in failing health, sent Joliet to Michilimackinac where he joined Father Marquette, and they prepared for their journey of exploration and discovery the following spring. In 1673, May 17th, these two men set out from St. Ignace in two bark canoes, with five Frenchmen and a goodly supply of provisions. They took their course down the shore of Lake Michigan and Green bay, thence up the Fox river to Lake Winnebago, and across the coun

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN try and down the Wisconsin river to the Mississippi which they discovered June 17, 1673. They followed down that river to the mouth of the Arkansas, where Marquette concluded the course of the stream was to the Gulf of Mexico. After a few days of rest and conference with the natives, the explorers set out upon their return, reaching Green bay in September. In the meantime Father Marquette had been transferred to this mission and, being tired from the effects of his long journey, he stopped at this mission while Joliet proceeded to Quebec to make reports of their discoveries. About a year later Marquette again set out upon another southward trip, this time with a view to establishing a mission among the Indians of Illinois. He was in feeble health and stopped for the winter a short distance up the Chicago river from its mouth. On his return the following spring, he was too feeble to stand the journey, and with his companions disembarked on the shores of Lake Michigan at the mouth of the Pere Marquette river, where he died May 19, 1675. There his companions buried his body and erected a cross to mark the site of his grave, but from this place the bones of his body were removed the following year, by friendly Indians from various tribes, to St. Ignace, where they were buried with proper ceremonies in a vault beneath the chapel, the ceremonies having been in charge of Father Nouvel, then superior, assisted by Father Pierson. This chapel was destroyed by fire in 1700, and the site seems to have been lost track of for nearly two hundred years, until, in 1877, Father Jacker identified the spot and there was erected thereon a marble monument. The mortal remains were reverently borne to Marquette college, Milwaukee, in whose keeping they remain. DEATH AND BURIAL OF MARQUETTE It seems to be the fate of some of the princely characters of history that either the places of their birth, or the exact scenes of their exit from the earth, should be matters of doubt. This is particularly the case regarding the passing, away of Father Marquette, although beyond a doubt his soul took its flight from his disease-racked body somewhere near the mouth of the river which bears his name, in the vicinity of the present city of Ludington. The following from the pen of a local writer brings the life and lonelv death of Father Marquette into the bustling activities of the present: "Because it was at Ludington that death 's imperative summons called him who well may be termed the patron saint of all Michigan, the river that here finds its way into the big lake, the beautiful body of water that forms Ludington's splendid harbor and many of the commercial and industrial enterprises of the community, bear the revered name of Pere Marquette. "The great railway that stretches its myriad of steel arms over the length and breadth of the Lower Peninsula honors this loved and historic name because when it first reached out toward the northwest, the line from Flint found its terminal at the spot where the sainted

Page  59 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 59 Jesuit missionary bowed to the final will of His Master. Ludington itself once was called Pere Marquette, yet today there is not even the rough, wooden cross put there and maintained by the Indians more than two centuries ago to mark the approximate spot where Pere Marquette breathed his last after blessing the devoted voyageurs who vainly tried to bring him alive to his beloved Michilimackinac. "There have been some doubts raised by other east shore cities as to the authenticity of the claim that Pere Marquette died at the mouth of the river which now bears his name, but it seems to be the opinion of the majority of the historians who have gone into the matter that here is the spot where his death occurred, and within the memory of white settlers still alive there has been told by Indians here the legend of the burial place of the 'great white saint' in whose honor the redmen always maintained a great rough cross. "The story of Pere Marquette's life in its relation to early Michigan history is familiar to every one who has attended school in the Wolverine state or made even a casual study of Michigan history. How he came to this wilderness and by sheer force of his faith and the influence of his kindly ministrations prepared the way for an almost peaceful conquest by the vanguard of civilization, need not be elaborated upon. It almost is as familiar throughout the state as is the name itself. "Pere Marquette was one of the earliest among those who gave up their lives to the peculiarly exacting and hazardous missionary work of the Jesuits. He joined the order in 1654. It had been organized only a little more than one hundred years prior to that date and, as among the Catholic orders of that day, was little more than an infant organization. "The order was made possible, according to able historians, through the effect of Rudolph of Saxony's 'Life of Christ' upon one of the old world warriors who occupied his time during an enforced idleness by reading this exceptional story. He refused at first to read, but when all other literature failed at last turned to it and soon became engrossed. "The book marked the turning point in his life. He devoted himself to the church and indirectly was responsible for the organization of the Company of Jesus, which Calvin subsequently called the Jesuits. It represented the beginning of strenuous life in the Catholic church along the line of a worldwide missionary movement. "As stated, Jacques Marquette joined the order in 1654, and after serving his novitiate asked permission to go among the first Jesuit fathers who came to the then new America. He it was who lifted up the Christian cross in the wilderness of the lake region and paved the way among the Indians with an example of Christly life and forbearance that gave the redmen of this district a different idea of the whites than was the case in most sections where the Indian was forced to give way before the onward march of civilization. "Everywhere throughout the lake region the Indians knew and loved the 'little white father.' His name was as magic among them. Small wonder indeed that after his example few among the aborigines of Michigan hesitated to extend a welcome to other whites. He spread


Page  61 1I1STORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN.1 the gospel of his God through countless miles of wilderness and laid the foundation for the church of Michigan today. ' Then came that historic trip down the Mississippi. It was there, in 1675, the good Pere Marquette became a prey to that great scourge of the present-tuberculosis. At first it seemed but a passing illness and he continued. When he realized the disease was to terminate his earthly work for the church Pere Marquette left the little party and in a stanch canoe paddled by two sturdy and loyal French-Canadian voyageurs started upon a race with death. "The good father expressed but one wish. He wanted to reach his mission at Michilimackinac and there seek his reward from the One he had served so well. It was perhaps one of the greatest incidents of devotion and physical endurance anywhere recorded in the annals of Michigan history. The two paddlers worked ceaselessly, day after day, paddling eighteen and twenty hours of each twenty-four, taking the frail canoe against the great surges of storm-tossed Lake Michigan. A kind Providence, indeed, watched over the little vessel and gave strength to the paddlers. " 4Up the east shore of Michigan they made their way, camping when flesh and blood no longer could stand the strain, but getting away after an hour or two of sleep. Death gained steadily, however, and when opposite the mouth of the river which subsequently was to bear his name the face of the Little White Father told his devoted voyageurs that death was very near. They nodded and increased the pace. A gesture of the thin hand stayed them. Pere Marquette, too, realized the end was near and directed them to land upon the little peninsula formed between what now is Pere Marquette lake and Lake Michigan. "The sturdy paddlers carried the wasted figure ashore and hurriedly built a rough hut upon the sandy beach of the great lake. Then, at the behest of the dying father, the men went to snatch a few moment 's rest. They sank into a sleep seemingly as deep as death itself, but at the first faint call from the lips of the priest they were up and stand. ing at his side. They arrived just in time to receive his benediction. "They hollowed a grave out of the sand on the beach and erected a rough cross above the resting place of the mortal remains of the immortal Pere Marquette. Then they took up the sorrowful journey, the bearers of sad tidings to the mission at 1\ichilimackinac. "Perhaps a year of two later a hunting party of the Ottawas found the grave and the cross. Remembering the kindness of the Little White Father they exhumed the body, prepared it for burial in accordance with tribal custom and started for M\ichilimackinac with a great funeral escort of warrior laden canoes. "On approaching the mission they were met by another great flotilla of canoes and all formed into funeral formation and to the accompaniment of the death chant of the Indians, the body of Pere Marquette was taken to the mission he loved and there, amid great ceremony, consigned to its permanent resting place. "This is the story of the death of Pere Marquette. They named the river that flowed by and the small lake it forms in passing after the Little White Father. In the early days they called the settlement that

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN has since grown to the city of Ludington, Pere Marquette. Each day sees from two to a dozen great car ferries steaming past that scene of his death with the name 'Pere Marquette' emblazoned in big white letters on the port and starboard bows. Locomotives pass within hearing of that historic spot with 'Pere Marquette' inscribed upon the tender, drawing all sorts of railway vehicles upon which are also found these historically magic words. "There is a sincere regret in Ludington that the name of the city was ever changed from the original Pere Marquette. There is a movement on foot at present to mark the approximate spot of his death with a suitable monument. It is said the exact spot has been swallowed up by the shifting sands and now lies under the water of Lake Michigan, but the fact remains that Pere Marquette died within a few steps of the deserted village of Butters and that from the exact spot of that historic deathbed scene of more than two centuries ago, one might now see the solitary smokestack of the old Butters sawmill." CADILLAC AND MICHILIMACKINAC Prior to the founding.of Detroit, in 1701, the old town of Michilimackinac (Mackinaw City), was the headquarters of the military, trading and exploring expeditions conducted by the French government. With the establishment of the Northwest Fur Company, in 1694, Antoine de la Mothe Cadillac was appointed to the command at Michilimackinac, where the natives were exhibiting the same feelings of unrest and hostility that pervaded practically all Indian nations at that period. This fur company established its base of operations at Michilimackinac, thereby largely increasing the number of traders that ranged throughout the surrounding country with that place as the center of operations; and a more extensive armed force seemed essential, and was provided for the subjugation of the natives in that section. The coming of Cadillac as commander, and his methods of government were so obnoxious to, and were so resisted by the missionaries of the locality, that it became notorious that he meant to destroy their missions. In writing from Michilimackinac to the governor general, August 3, 1695, Cadillac said: "The village is one of the largest in all Canada; there is a fine fort of pickets, and sixty houses that form a street in a straight line. There is a garrison of well-disciplined chosen soldiers, consisting of about two hundred men, besides many others who are residents here during two or three months of the year." He also comments on the air as being penetrating, and therefore making the daily use of brandy a necessity to prevent sickness. He speaks of the Indian villages in the vicinity being about a pistol shot distant from the French village, and of its having a population of six thousand or seven thousand persons. He also speaks of their occupation, and says that all lands are cleared for about three leagues around the village, and that they were very well cultivated, and of them he says: "They produce a sufficient quantity of Indian corn for the use of both the French and the savage inhabitants. The question is then, what reason can there be for this prohibition of intoxicating drinks in regard to

Page  63 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 63 the French who are here now? Are they not subjects of the king, even as others? In what country, then, or in what land, until now, have they taken from the French the right to use brandy, provided they did not become disorderly?" This letter is not only authoritative evidence of the popularity of this part of the country in the eye of the Indians, but it shows that the French had attained to a considerable settlement and that the fields were made to add to the products of the forests and the waters, their quota of a substantial and varied sustenance sufficient for all. It is also a serious commentary on existing conditions wherein a strife had grown up between the traders and the missionaries, and wherein Cadillac took the part of the traders, who in order to promote advantageous bargains had brought into the country large quanCADILLAC tities of brandy which they disposed of alike to the Indians and the French. This was against the protests of the missionaries, who found it seriously affected and impeded their ecclesiastical work, and was demoralizing, generally, to the inhabitants of both races. Cadillac's letter was written because of complaints made by the missionaries to the home government of this evil effect of the traffic, and Cadillac seems to have placed the advantage of a more profitable trade above the moral question of the effect upon the characters of the people, as judged from the form of his argument. He quotes upon this subject from an address to him by some of the chiefs and inhabitants as follows: "Oh chief, what evil have thy children done to thee that thou shouldst treat them so badly? Those that came before thee were not so severe upon us. It is not to quarrel with thee that we come here; it is only to know for what reason thou wishest to prevent us from

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN drinking brandy. Thou shouldst look upon us as thy friends, and the brothers of the French, or else as thy enemies. If we are thy friends, leave us the liberty of drinking; our beaver is worth thy brandy, and the Master of Life gave us both, to make us happy. If thou wish to treat us as thy enemies, do not be angry if we carry our beavers to Orange (Albany) or to Cortland, where they will give us brandy, as much as we want." This question of the effect of the liquor traffic caused serious conflict between the missionaries on the one hand and the military and the traders on the other, from which much friction resulted at a time when they were seriously in need of the closest harmony. It is claimed to have had much to do in adding to the turbulent temper of the savages, and their unrest which the events of the whole country were then but too plainly evincing; and who can tell how great a part it may have had in firing the temper of those savages to the point of the subsequent massacres? The friction thus engendered between the missionaries and the military, as well as the threatening attitude assumed by the Indians, may well be considered as the cause of the disruption that soon followed, when the Jesuits withdrew from this section of the country, and their work in this vicinity was abandoned with little perceptible enduring effect; for, noble as was the work, it was applied almost exclusively to the Indian race, and its effects were very largely effaced in the absolute reign of the traders that was paramount for the century to follow. Another event of the times exhibited still further discord between the missionaries and the military, which latter were in accord with the officials of the government. The savage Iroquois had waged furious wars upon the Hurons and punished them relentlessly in many encounters, and the French believed that the Iroquois' assaults were at the instigation of the English. The French, for the purpose of protecting their interests in this lake country against the intrusions of the English, endeavored to har, monize and unite the opposing Indian nations, and therefore form a barrier to English progress. The French and the English had clashed over the territory west of the Alleghanies, and the Jesuits who had been active as missionaries among the Iroquois found themselves out of sympathy with the Canadian officials. This is strongly evidenced by the fact that when Cadillac took up the mission of establishing a colony at Detroit but one Jesuit came with him. He was Father Nalliaut and he did not remain a day. He was later succeeded by representatives of the Recollet order. Immediately on the return of Cadillac to Quebec, in 1697, he presented to Governor Frontenac his plans for the establishment of a fort at Detroit, and the advantages of the location for that purpose. Before any definite action was taken thereon Frontenae died, and was succeeded in 1698, by Louis Hector de Callieres, as governor general. Father Carheil presented to the newly appointed governor general the protest of the mission of St. Ignace against the plans of Cadillac as being calculated to destroy the missions at and about St. Ignace; but,

Page  65 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 65 notwithstanding this protest, in 1701 Cadillac obtained authority to establish a military post at Detroit. INSECURE AND BURDENSOME LAND TENURE We have dwelt somewhat at length on this contest at old Michilimackinac over the liquor traffic, because its relates directly to the country covered by this history, and is also the starting point of the conflict between the advocates of temperance and anti-temperance which has continued to this day; and the reader will note that many phases of the question in 1695 and 1911 are very similar. But the growing differences of opinion between the men of the Cross and the men of the world were not the only causes for the unpromising social and industrial conditions which were the outgrowth of French dominion. The missions were abandoned, but the form of land distribution which prevailed did not encourage the settlement of the French peasantry; the fur traders were migratory and few remained to found homes and families. Grants of land were made by the French governor of Canada and Louisiana which were required to be confirmed by the King of France. The commandants of the forts were also allowed to grant permissions of occupancy to the settlers and lands were occupied by the French settlers without permission. On that ground are based some of the old French titles to land in the state. The regular grants made to the settlers were encumbered with the most illiberal and burdensome conditions, calculated to cripple the freedom of the tenant and the progress of husbandry. Even the first grant which was made at Detroit in 1707, six years after Detroit was founded, by Cadillac to Delorme, interpreter for the King, clearly exhibits the feudal spirit of the French policy. It conveyed only thirty-two acres. The right of hunting hares, rabbits and partridges was reserved. A further exposition of this interesting but retarding period of French dominion over the territory now covered by Northern Michigan is thus given in James H. Lanman's history of 1839: "The grantee was required to pay five livres quit-rent on the 20th of March of each year; and also the sum of ten livres in peltries, until a current money should be established, and that sum was thenceforth to be paid in money. He was also required to begin to clear and improve the concession within three months from the date of the grant on pain of forfeiture. He was required to plant, or help to plant, a long May-pole at the door of the principal manor on the 1st of May in every year. If the grantee failed in this, he was bound to pay three livres in money or peltries. He was also bound to pay for the right of grinding at the moulin bannal, or mill of the manor. All the timber wanted for the construction of fortifications, boats and other vessels, was reserved; and no person was permitted to work on the land at the trade of a blacksmith, gunsmith, armorer, or brewer, within the first ten years from the date of the grant, without the consent of the grantor. On every sale of the lands, the duty was to be paid called the lods et ventes. All effects carried to or from Montreal were required to be sold by the grantee or other Vol. I-5.

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN person, who, with his family, was a resident, and not by clerks, foreigners, or strangers. If the grantee sold to a foreigner with permission7 the duties required were increased to a great degree. The grantee was forbidden to trade brandy with the Indians, and in some cases he was bound to obtain a brevet of confirmation within two years. Similar grants, equally burdensome, were also made in 1734, by Charles Marquis de Beauharnois, governor for the king in Canada and Louisiana, to St. Aubin; and in 1750 by De la Jonquiere to Antoine Robert, of lands on the Detroit river. The abridgment of the rights of the tenants was further effected in 1745 by an edict which passed ordaining that no country houses should be built on plantations of one acre and a half in front and forty back, and the scarcity of springs in the interior thus confined the settlements along the banks of the streams. The influence of national policy is nowhere more strongly exhibited than in the contrast with that period of the sturdy American enterprise whieh is now acting on the soil. "Beside the unequal and burdensome tenure of land distribution, springing from the coutume de Paris, equal and exact justice could not be administered in doubtful matters, except on application to the governor of Canada. At a subsequent period numerous grants were made by R. de Bellestre, then the commandant of Detroit; and there is on record a cause of Claude Campeau against M. Cabacier praying for an injunction to prevent the demolition of a mill when M. Landrieve was commandant of that post. In 1753 a temporary order was given, sent to the governor-general, and finally received the signature of the Marquis Du Quesne. The record shows that the government of the posts on the lakes was subject to the authority of the commandants under the cognizance of the governor-general; and it also establishes the fact that there was no organized court or settled system of jurisprudence. "'In 1749 a number of emigrants were sent out at the expense of the French government, who were provided with farming utensils and all the means necessary to advance a colony. These were settled at Detroit; but no material advantage was gained to the posts on the lakes. because there was too little energy and system in the government, and too little enterprise in the people. Surrounded by streams and forests yielding abundance, removed from the settled portion of the world, there was but little motive presented to their minds for the exertion of energy and ambition. " About this period the policy of the French government was exercised to establish a chain of posts from Quebec to the mouth of the Mississippi, in order to secure the trade, overawe the Indians, and environ the English power, which was then confined to the Atlantic seaboard. In 1751 the fort of Detroit, as well as those on the upper lakes, continued to be in a weak condition. About thirty French farms or plantations were scattered along the banks of the river and the colony contained a population of about five hundred, besides the Indians in the free villages who could at that time command about four hundred warriors. Detroit was then an important point of French influence o0 the northwestern lakes.

Page  67 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 67 MONOPOLIES RETARD PROGRESS "The progress of the country under the French government was obstructed by the fact that this region was long under the monopoly of exclusive companies chartered by the French crown. The design of these companies, especially the governors and intendants. was to enrich themselves by the fur trade; and accordingly they had little motive to encourage agriculture or general settlement. By that policy the intendants accumulated large fortunes by the trade, while they averted from the observation of the French crown the actual condition of the colonies in Canada. They much preferred that the French inhabitants should undergo the labor of procuring furs, while they might reap the profits, rather than that these tenants should become the free husbandmen of a fertile soil. It was reverence for rank, ignorance of the true principles of republican freedom, and, in some measure perhaps, a virtuous loyalty which they felt toward their monarch, that induced them to yield their allegiance to the colonial administration. FUR TRADE ENRICHES ONLY THE RICH "The fur trade was the principal subject of mercantile traffic upon the coast of Michigan, and its central point was the shores of the northwestern lakes. Large canoes, laden with packs of European merchandise, advanced periodically through the upper lakes, for the purpose of trading for peltries with the Indians; and these made their principal depots at Michilimackinac and Detroit. In order to advance the interests of the trade, licenses were granted by the French king, and unlicensed persons were prohibited from trading with the Indians in their own territory under the penalty of death. The ordinary price of these licenses was six hundred crowns. They were generally purchased from the governor-general by the merchants, and by them sold out to the Canadian traders or the Coureurs des Bois. The privilege granted in a single license was the loading of two large canoes, each of which was manned by six men, and freighted with a cargo valued at about a thousand crowns. They were sold to the traders at an advance of about fifteen per cent more than they could command in ready money at the colony. The actual profits on these voyages was generally about one hundred per cent. In this traffic the merchant acquired most of the profit, while the trader endured most of the fatigue. On the return of the expedition, the merchant took from the bulk of the profit six hundred crowns for his license, and a thousand crowns for the prime cost of the exported goods. From this sum the merchant took forty per cent for bottomry and the remainder was then divided among the six Coureurs des Bois, whose share, for all their hardship and peril, was only a small consideration. "The active agents of the fur trade were the Coureurs des Bois, the pilots of the lakes. Sweeping up in their canoes through the upper lakes, encamping with the Indians in the solitude of the forests, they returned to the posts, which stood like lighthouses of civilization upon the borders of the wilderness; like sailors from the ocean, to whom they

Page  68 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN were not dissimilar in character. They were lavish of their money in dress and licentiousness. They ate, drank, and played all away, so long as their goods held out; and when these were gone, they sold their embroidery, their lace and clothes; and they were then forced to go on another voyage for subsistence." The scope of French enterprise upon the lakes was mainly confined to the fur trade during the whole period of the French domination; and the general course of the traffic may be known by the words of La Hontan, written at Montreal in 1865: "Much about the same day, there arrived twenty-five or thirty canoes belonging to the Coureurs des Bois, being homeward bound for the great lakes and laden with beaver skins. The cargo of each canoe amounted to forty packs, each of which weighs fifty pounds and will fetch fifty crowns at the farmer's office. These canoes were followed by fifty more of the Ottawas and Hurons, who came down every year to the colony, in order to make a better market than they can do in their own country of Michilimackinac which lies on the banks of the Lake of Hurons, at the mouth of the Lake of the Illinese. Their way of trading is as follows: Upon their arrival they encamp at the distance of five or six hundred paces from the town. The next day is spent in ranging their canoes, unloading their goods, and pitching their tents, which are made of birch bark. The next day they demand audience of the governor-general, which is granted them that same day in a public place. Upon this occasion each nation makes a ring for itself. The savages sit upon the ground with their pipes in their mouths, and the governor is seated in an arm-chair; after which there starts up an orator or speaker from one of these nations, who makes an harangue, importing that his brethern are come to visit the governor-general, and to renew with him their wonted friendship; that their chief view is to promote the interest of the French, some of whom, being unacquainted with the way of traffic and being too weak for the transporting of goods from the lakes, would be unable to deal in beaver skins if his brethren did not come in person to deal with them in their own colonies; that they know very well how acceptable their arrival is to the inhabitants of Montreal, in regard of the advantage they reap by it; that in regard the beaver skins are much valued in France, and the French goods given in exchange are of inconsiderable value, they mean to give the French sufficient proof of their readiness to furnish them with what they desire so earnestly. That by way of preparation of another year's cargo, they are come to take in exchange, fuses, powder, and ball; in order to hunt great numbers of beavers, or to gall the Iroquese, in case they offer to disturb the French settlements. And, in fine, that in confirmation of their words, they throw a porcelain colier, with some beaver skins, to the Kitchi-Okima (so they call the governorgeneral), whose protection they lay claim to, in case of any robbery or abuse committed upon them in the town. The spokesman having made an end of his speech, returns to his place and takes up his pipe, and the interpreter explains the substance of the harangue to the governor, who commonly gives a very civil answer, especially if the presents be valuable; in consideration of which he likewise makes them a present

Page  69 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 69 of some trifling things. This done, the savages rise up and return to their huts to make suitable preparations for the ensuing truck. "The next day the savages make their slaves carry the skins to the house of the merchants, who bargain with them for such clothes as they want. All the inhabitants of Montreal are allowed to traffic with them in any commodity but rum and brandy; these two being excepted upon the account that when the savages have got what they wanted, and have any skins left, they drink to excess, and then kill their slaves; for when they are in drink they quarrel and fight, and if they were not held by those who are sober, would certainly make havoc one of another; however, you must observe that none of them will touch either gold or silver. "As soon as the savages have made an end of their truck, they take leave of the governor, and so return home by the river Ottawas. To conclude, they did a great deal of good, both to the poor and rich; for you will readily apprehend that everybody turns merchant upon such occasions. "' Such was the condition of Michigan under the French domination,' concludes Lanman. The energies of the colonists were directed to the aggrandizement of their 'seigneurs' through the fur trade. Agriculture was checked by feudal clogs. The few French peasants scattered around their posts, or mixed with the savages, adored their lords and their priests. Amiable, contented, removed from the populated parts of the world, dwelling in bark or log cottages, stretching along the banks of the streams and surrounded by pickets, they were goaded by no impulse of ambition or avarice; they felt no fear, save when bands of the Iroquois advanced to the surrounding forests; for the Iroquois, says Charlevoix, 'set all Canada on fire.' They yielded a cheerful allegiance to their lords, because they loved monarchy. The free schools of the east had scattered intelligence through the English settlements; but they were in ignorance. The conciliatory and mild but artful spirit, first sent abroad by Ignatius Loyola in founding the order of the Jesuits, diffused its influence through the frame-work of society in Michigan; and the thunders of the Vatican had crossed the ocean, and rolled along the shore of the lakes." Cadillac remained in charge of Detroit, which he founded, until called away from the colony in 1710. That settlement, which was the outer gateway to the Northern Michigan of today, continued to exist but showed little signs of growth during the period of French control. Meanwhile the rival claims of France and England to the same territory in the valley of the Ohio and elsewhere, led to quarrels which culminated in the French and Indian war, during which the French lost the forts of Niagara, Ticonderoga and Crown Point. At Niagara, the English secured a victory which carried with it the control of the situation at Michilimackinac, Detroit and other lake posts. This was in July, 1759, and at the same time the siege of Quebec was in progress where Wolfe had under his command a force of eight thousand men, and was supported by Admiral Saunders with his fleet of twenty-two large ships and some smaller ones. The siege continued for months with attack after attack met by stubborn defense, in a con

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN flict between two of the bravest commanders that ever met in battle, both of whom, in the final act of that long drama of war met their deaths on the famous plains of Abraham in that most sanguinary conflict, which gave to the British arms the possession of that almost impregnable fortress. Montreal now alone remained as a French stronghold, and after considerable siege, by both land and naval forces, it too, on September 8, 1760, surrendered, and the province of New France closed its last chapter in history. It was not until 1763 that the results of the war were fully decided upon by the treaty of Paris, whereby the king of France surrendered all Canada to England, and was permitted to retain Louisiana which was shortly thereafter transferred to Spain. ENGLISH FLAG SUPPLANTS THE FRENCH Immediately after the surrender of Montreal, Maj. Robert Rogers was sent to take possession of Detroit and to command that and other western lake ports. He took with him about two hundred Royal Rangers, and en route was reinforced by American infantry from Pittsburg. The English were now penetrating new territory to meet a foe well protected by fortifications, and supported by the savages of the lake region, who, through the teaching of the Jesuits, had become close friends of the French. They much preferred them to the English because the French met them as associates, while the English would not; and, furthermore, these Indians of the lake region had for years been accustomed to think of the English as the allies of their most dreaded savage foes, the Iroquois. It is not surprising that, under such circumstances, the English found the French and the lake Indians combined to resist, to the last, subjugation of the lake posts by their enemy; and, being forewarned, they were armed for their defense and even more; for Pontiac, the great chief, with a delegation of followers, met Major Rogers at the.present site of Cleveland and demanded of Rogers information as to his mission, and why he had dared to come into the country without permission. Rogers informed him of the surrender of the territory by the French to the English, and that he had come to take command at Detroit; and also gave to Pontiac assurances of friendship for the Indians, and of their kind treatment at the hands of the English. After further conferences Pontiac appeared to be satisfied; the pipe of peace was smoked, and Pontiac tendered his assistance to Major Rogers in continuing his trip to Detroit. Reaching the vicinity of Detroit communications were exchanged by messenger between Major Rogers and the French commander, Bellistre, occasioning considerable delay and uneasiness to the small force of English, in the presence of such strange and savage surroundings, until finally, on November 29th, the fort was surrendered and the English flag, for the first time, supplanted that of the French within the territory now comprising the state of Michigan. A retrospect of French government in the Michigan of today reveals the fact that the most prominent feature of its mismanagement was the neglect to develop the agricultural and other material resources

Page  71 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 71 of the country looking toward permanent colonization and settlement. Very little land was cleared, few permanent improvements were made, and the settlements were small and weak, as the fur trade, which was the chief occupation of the people, was not calculated to build up and sustain large and thriving settlements. Hence, at the close of the French and Indian war, the little trading posts of Sault de Ste. Marie, Michilimackinac and Detroit were the meager results of a hundred years of French control and colonization in the future state of Michigan, and the old town on the present site of Mackinaw City was the only visible evidence of the rich' and populous domain known as Northern Michigan, south of the Straits. " 'The social condition of Michigan was not much altered by the transfer of its dominion from the French to the British government," says Lanman, in his "History of Michigan." "The French subjects were permitted by the capitulation of Montreal, to remain in the country in the enjoyment of their civil and religious rights; and the fur trade was prosecuted upon the lakes with much energy by English companies, who employed French agents in its prosecution. So far as the advancement of agriculture and colonization was concerned, the policy of England in Michigan was not better than that of France. About the year 1763 the British monarch issued a proclamation restricting the extinguishment of native title. By this proclamation the English governors were prohibited to issue grants of land excepting within certain prescribed limits; and the English subjects were also forbidden to make purchases of the Indians, or settlements, without these bonds. These grants, purchases and settlements, were, however, made, and they form an important part of the ancient claims to land afterward adjudged by the land board of Michigan. Even after the treaty which granted the right of possession to the limited state, this power was assumed on the part of the inhabitants. "Settlements were made by the French along the principal streams of the lakes. The farms scattered upon the banks of the rivers were of narrow form surrounded by pickets, and the cottages (about fifty in number) on the straits of Detroit, with orchards by their sides, were constructed of logs, with roofs of bark or thatched with straw. It is stated by a contemporary of that period that wheat was sown in rows. Potatoes were first introduced by the English. "The Canadian-French were an affable and contented class of men preserving the same habits as now prevail among them throughout the state. Schools were unknown, and the instruction of the children continued to be derived from the Catholic priests. Coin began to be introduced under English jurisdiction, while peltries were chiefly the circulating medium. The first horses used at Detroit were introduced from Fort Duquesne and these were taken from the English by the Indians at Braddock's defeat." Soon after the surrender of Detroit to Major Rogers, the English commander proceeded to Michilimackinac to personally take charge of the post there, leaving Captain Campbell at Detroit; but he found it impossible to make the trip at the late season, either by land or water, and so he returned east leaving MIichilimackinac, the Soo and Green Bay,

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN although formally ceded to the British, in the actual control and government of the French; and thus they remained until the spring of 1761, when they too formally surrendered to the English, and the French withdrew permanently from their possessions and claims in Michigan, although the forts at Michilimackinac, Sault Ste. Marie and St. Joseph, were not occupied by the English until the fall of that year. INDIANS REBEL But the Indians did not like the change from the government of the social, easy-going, intermingling French to the cold, calculating aggressive English, and the French who remained in the country did what they could to fan the savage flames of resentment against the advancement of the new "proprietors" of their soil and hunting grounds. The brave, fiery and able Algonquin, Pontiac, saw his opportunity to organize the western tribes against the invasion of this more dangerous type of white man, and his so-called "conspiracy" fell but little short of its desperate purpose. His conspiracy consisted in a plan to organize all the tribes into a combination to drive out the English, and to maintain exclusively for the Indians the country northwest of the Ohio. To this end he sent his representatives to all the tribes north of the Ohio and into Canada and as far west as the Mississippi. This work was carried on so secretly and cautiously that not a word of it came to the ears of the English until the spring of 1762. The activities of that war were of short duration within the territory of which we write, but the great chief visited the Upper Peninsula in the building up of his plans, and gained considerable individual following from the tribes of this section who followed him to the contests below the straits, and all the frontier posts became endangered practically at one time. The English had only a small garrison at Fort St. Joseph, and that fort was quickly captured and its garrison sent to Detroit for exchange; while at Michilimackinac a terrible massacre gave that stronghold into the treacherous hands of the Chippewas. MASSACRE AT FORT MICHILIMACKINAC The fort, about half a mile southwest of the present site of Mackinaw City, was occupied by Major Etherington, ninety-two soldiers and four English traders. The commander had full and timely warning of the designs of the Indians, but foolishly disbelieved the reports and neglected all precautions. On the second of June, 1763 (the King's birthday), the savages engaged in a game of ball near the gates of the fort. The officers and soldiers, unsuspicious of danger, were idle spectators of the sport. About noon the ball was thrown into the fort and the dusky players rushed after it through the open gate. A party of squaws standing near furnished the assassins with tomahawks which had been concealed beneath their blankets and the massacre began. Details of this terrible affair which dyed with blood this pioneer soil of Northern Michigan are thus given:* * As a result of the massacre at Fort Michilimackinac Lieutenant Jamette and seventy men were killed and scalped, and Major Etherington, three of the English traders and twenty-three soldiers were taken prisoners and afterward released.

Page  73 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 73 "In the midst of the game there was an Indian war-yell, and the crowd of Indians who had rushed after the ball within the pickets, were seen furiously cutting down and scalping the English within the fort; while many of the English were struggling between the knees of the Indians, who scalped them while alive. The Canadians around the fort did not oppose the Indians, or suffer any injury. Henry the trader had seen from his window the butchery of the garrison, and finding that his unaided arm was insufficient to cope with the savages, who had by that time acquired the mastery, soon crawled over a low fence which divided his own house from that of M. Langlade, and entering, requested some aid by which he could be preserved from the general massacre. M. Langlade, a Canadian, who had been looking out at his own window, turned for a moment to the trader, and shrugging his shoulders, replied in French that he could do nothing for him. 'Que voudriez-vous, que j'en ferais?' said this white savage. At that moment, a slave belonging to Langlade, of the Pawnee tribe of Indians, carried him to a door, which she opened and informed him that it led to the garret, where he was desired to conceal himself. She then locked. the door with great presence of mind and took away the key. Through an aperture in the wall Henry could command a complete view of the fort. He beheld the barbarian triumphs of the savages in their foulest and blackest form. Heaps of dead lay around the fort, scalped and mangled. The dying were shrieking and writhing under the tomahawk and scalping knife, the bodies of the English soldiers were gashed and their blood was drank by the savages from the hollows of joined hands, amid demon-like yells. Henry remained in terrible suspense for some time, until he heard the cry, 'All is finished,' and at the same time some of the Indians entered the house where he was concealed, and inquired of Langlade whether there were any Englishmen in the house. Mr. Langlade replied that he could not say; that he did not know of any; they might examine for themselves. The Pawnee slave had secreted Henry by stealth, and did not communicate the fact to anybody. The Indians, however, were brought to the garret door. The key was soon produced, and the Indians, besmeared with blood and armed with tomahawks, ascended the stairs just as Henry had crept into a heap of birch-bark vessels which were used in making maple sugar and which lay in the further end of the garret. After making two or three turns around the room, they departed without discovering him. The dark color of his clothes, and the absence of light in the room probably prevented his discovery. There was at that time a mat in the room; Henry fell asleep; and he was finally awakened by the wife of M. Langlade, who had gone up to stop a hole in the roof. She was surprised to see him there: remarked that the Indians had killed most of the English, but that he might hope to escape. Henry lay there during the night. All chance of flight seemed to be lost. He was without provisions, surrounded by savage enemies, and was four hundred miles from Detroit. "At length the wife of Langlade determined to point out Henry's place of concealment, and showed the Indians the garret. Her design, she stated, was to prevent the destruction of her own children,

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN which would take place if an Englishman was discovered concealed in her house. Unlocking the door, she was followed by several Indians, naked down to their waist and intoxicated, who were led by Wenniway, a chief. This warrior was more than six feet in height, and his face and body were covered with charcoal and grease, with the exception of a ring of two inches in diameter which encircled the eye. At their entrance Henry roused himself from the bed which was in the garret, and Wenniway, the chief, advancing with his lips compressed, seized him by the coat with one hand, and with the other held a large carving-knife, as if to plunge it into his breast, while his eyes were steadfastly fixed on his. Gazing for a moment, he dropped his arm, and said, 'I won't kill you.' He had been engaged in many wars with the English, and had lost a brother, whose name was Musinigon. 'You shall be called after him,' said the savage. Henry was afterwards stripped of his clothes. He was subsequently carried to L'Arbre Croche as a prisoner, where he was rescued by a band of three hundred Ottawas, by whom, however, he was soon returned, and finally ransomed by Wawatam. Several of the bodies of the English who had been slain at Michilimackinac, were boiled and eaten, and Henry, when a prisoner, was given bread by the Indians cut with the knife which had scalped his countrymen. At the capture of Michilimackinac only one trader, M. Tracy, lost his life. Seventy of the English troops were killed, and the rest, together with the prisoners at St. Joseph and Green Bay, were kept in safety by the Ottawas until peace, and then freely restored or ransomed at Montreal. The massacre of the garrison, and the destruction of the fort by burning, completed this project, which exhibits the strongest lines of tragedy. A number of canoes, filled with English traders, also arrived about the same time; and these were dragged through the water, beaten, and marched by the Indians to the prison lodge. The massacre took place on the 3d of June; and the savages, who were about four hundred in number, entertaining apprehension of the English and the other Indians who had not joined them, soon retired to the island of Mackinac. There Henry was concealed by Wawatam from the intoxication of the savages in the 'salt rock,' where he lay for one night on a heap of human hones. The post of Michilimackinac having been destroyed, the savages seemed to have glutted their revenge; while some repaired to the post at Detroit, to aid Pontias in that siege. "The operations of Pontiac in this quarter soon called for efficient aid on the part of the English government, and during the season Gen. Bradstreet arrived to the relief of the posts on the lake with an army of three thousand men. Having burned the Indian corn-fields and villages at Sandusky and along the rich bottoms of the Maumee, and dispersed the Indians whom he there found, he reached Detroit without opposition. The tribes of Pontiac, with the exception of the Delawares and Shawanese, finding that they could not successfully compete with such a force, laid down their arms and concluded a treaty of peace. Pontiac, however, took no part in the negotiation, and retired to the Illinois, where he was assassinated about the year 1767 by an Indian of the Peoria tribe. The Ottawas, the Pottawatto

Page  75 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 75 mies, and Chippewas made common cause in revenging his death, by waging war and nearly exterminating the tribes of the murderer. That terrific drama, got up by this son of the forest, stamps his name with greatness. The living marble and the glowing canvass may not embody his works; but they are identified with the soil of the western forest, and will live as long as the remembrance of its aboriginal inhabitants, the Algonquin race." SIEGE OF DETROIT RAISED In the meantime an attempt to gain entrance to the fort at Detroit by craft had been twice frustrated by Major Gladwin, who had succeeded Captain Campbell as commandant, and when Pontiac discovered that his designs were known he boldly led the attack on that stronghold in person. The siege, which lasted from early in May until late in October, included the awful massacre at Bloody Run, which was the only engagement fought outside the fort. The English force of 250 men were ambushed by the wily Indians and seventy of the men were killed and forty wounded. Within the fort the watchful garrison had little to fear except that the siege might continue until the provisions were exhausted. Fortunately, the food of the besiegers first gave out, and it became necessary for the Indians to raise the siege and go an their annual hunt. Major Gladwin at once laid in a good supply of provisions for the winter, in anticipation of a possible renewal of hostilities, but the Indians made no further demonstration until spring when the negotiations of Sir William Johnson and the approach of General Bradstreet in the summer induced them to relinquish their purpose. Gladwin county, northeastern Michigan, has a worthy sponsor in the gallant and able commandant at Detroit. The result of Pontiac's conspiracy was that the Indians captured eight of the ten posts which they attacked, hundreds of Englishmen were killed and a reign of terror prevailed throughout the valleys of the west. But its great leader failed in the ultimate object of his masterly campaign-the driving of the English from the interior of what is now the great Middle West. As it was, the term following the protracted French and Indian wars, accompanied by awful savageries, greatly retarded the settlement and general development of Michigan. When the treaties had been duly signed with the several tribes which had been embraced in Pontiac's conspiracy English military officers were sent to again take command of the forts regained, and to Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie came Captain Howard for that purpose, from which time those points remained at least formally in the possession of the English until their acquisition by the United States at the close of the Revolutionary war. With the coming of peace, English and Dutch traders followed in the footsteps of the French to reap the rich rewards offered by the fur trade, but employed the French coureurs des bois as their agents. A controversy between the Hudson Bay Company and the Northwest Company over the division of the territory was adjusted by an

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN arrangement in the nature of a modern "trust," by placing the control of the two companies under one management; all governmental restrictions such as the French had imposed upon the fur trade were removed and free trade in furs was established. The policy adopted by English in regard to the Indians was intended to extend to them pretty much the same freedom which they had originally enjoyed, but to hold over them such supervising control as to prevent tribal wars; to allow to them the principal portion of the territory north and west of the Ohio as their hunting grounds, and to acquire from them the province of Quebec, then including Michigan, which was peopled almost entirely with French. They were accustomed to the government of France and unfamiliar with that of England; were almost exclusively of the Catholic religion, and so, with the coming of the English governor Carlton, the affairs of Canada were placed in the hands of the military and were not very satisfactory until the passage by parliament, in 1774, of the "Quebec act." This provided for a governor and council and also for the application of the criminal laws of England; the establishment, by appointment of the crown, of local courts with both civil and criminal jurisdiction; and granting the free exercise of religious belief to the inhabitants of the province; also allowing them to retain their church property. The act also extended the boundaries of the province so as to include all the great lakes, and the country south thereof to the Ohio and west to the Mississippi river. Because of this latter clause opposition was engendered in the ranks of the followers of William Penn, who claimed for his colony a considerable territory within that sought to be given to Quebec; and it also met with disapproval from the settlers in the seaboard colonies of the Atlantic coast, with whose western boundaries the act came in conflict. Although Michigan was then within the province of Quebec and subject to her government, there was little occasion for laws beyond those enforced by the military, as the colonies had not as yet assumed any great pretense in numbers. Accurate figures are not accessible, but the best that can be obtained are from a census taken at Detroit in 1773 by a justice of the peace, wherein the population of that place was given as two hundred and ninety-eight men, two hundred and twenty-five women, one hundred and forty-two young men and women, five hundred and twentyfour children, ninety-three servants, and eighty-five slaves. The area of cultivated land is placed at one thousand and sixty-seven acres, or a trifle over a section and a half. But a small settlement existed at Michilimackinac, which was made up almost wholly, aside from the small garrison, of the traders and coureurs des bois, and they were of the character to be expected, considering the environment from which they came and the lack of restraint with which they were surrounded. While among them were to be found men who had come from refined and educated families, including in some instances those from families high in royal favor, they were for the most part of a far different cast, as, for instance, such as those heretofore spoken of who had at an early day been gath

Page  77 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 77 ered from the prisons of France, brought to New France for a private colonizing purpose and, meeting with adverse conditions, had been compelled to subsist on an island in a wild state for a term of years, and were then given a measure of relief by being assisted by the French government to engage in the Canadian fur trade. Such an element could not be expected to maintain a very high standard of morality and decency, and it is probable that in the colony at Michilimackinac this element furnished a larger percentage of representatives than in that at Detroit, where a feeble attempt at permanent colonization and cultivation of the soil was being made. So far as white population and real civilization were concerned, Michigan really was but an insignificant quantity at the time the colonies of the east declared their independence. Although Michilimackinac had been third in the permanent settlements within the present territory of the United States, being ranked in priority only by St. Augustine and Jamestown, her early settlers gave their attention to the attempted Christianizing of the savages and to the commercialism of the fur trade, making practically no effort at colonization except as an incident to one or the other of those objects. This territory was in English control and was the scene of English activity during the Revolutionary struggle, and while Cornwallis was engaging the colonial forces in Virginia, General Haldimand was busily fitting out an expedition which was sent forward from Detroit. This was made up of regulars under Captain Bird, of the Detroit militia, under Joncaire, and a large body of Indians, also under Captain Bird. The savage excesses of the Indians in the scalping of the settlers were too much even for their military associates, and after terrible experiences of that nature in Kentucky Captain Bird concluded to return to Detroit, but not, however, until the acts of the Indians had so exasperated the Kentuckians that they determined to cut off the retreat, which they did, and in the doing of this they succeeded in scattering the Indian forces. Captain Sinclair succeeded De Peyster, at Michilimackinac and he was made lieutenant governor and also superintendent of Indian affairs for the province. It was on his arrival, in 1779, that the post was transferred from the south side of the strait to the island. Without waiting for authority from Governor Haldimand, he built the new fort on the island, but his report thereof was approved by that officer against the protests of residents of the settlement. At his request the name of Michilimackinac was retained and the post was called "Fort Mackinac. " Thus concluded the history of old Fort Mackinac, and thereafter the locality is withdrawn as an important agent in the making of the history of Northern Michigan. NORTHERN MICHIGAN BECOMES AMERICAN SOIL During the entire period of the American Revolution the posts of Michilimackinac and Detroit were occupied by British garrisons, and, although the treaty of Paris of 1783, which terminated the war, pro

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN vided for their surrender to the United States, Great Britain retained possession of them until July, 1796, when Michigan became in reality, for the first time, an American possession. But by treaty and the extension of civil government the area of the present Michigan was American soil and included in the vast "territory northwest of the Ohio river" nearly a decade before it was formally relinquished by the British. After the Americans gained actual possession of the territory, the Lower Peninsula formed the single county of Wayne in the Northwest territory and was entitled to one representative in the territorial legislature.

Page  79 CHAPTER IV CIVIL GOVERNMENT FOUNDED ORDINANCE OF 1787 —NORTHWEST TERRITORY DISMEMBERED-SLAVERY IN MICHIGAN-FOUNDING OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT-STATUS OF LAND TITLES-ERECTION OF FIRST COUNTIES-TABULAR HISTORY OF COUNTIES-SOURCES OF NAMES-BASIS OF STATE GOVERNMENT-IDENTIFIED WITH STATE GOVERNMENT-SERVED IN THE LEGISLATURE. As has been stated, although the ordinance creating the Northwest territory was passed by congress in 1787, the retention of Michigan posts by the British until 1796 made the latter year the practical beginning of the American territorial period. This great civil instrument contains six articles of compact between the original states and the people and of the territory to be carved into commonwealths of the Union, and it provides that these articles shall forever remain unalterable except by common consent. As organized by that ordinance, the Northwest territory included what are now the states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan and Wisconsin, and that part of Minnesota east of the Mississippi river. ORDINANCE OF 1787 The following interesting and broad epitome of the establishment of civil government in Michigan is taken from Alvah H. Sawyer's "History of the Northern Peninsula:" "Prior to that (the passage of the 1787 ordinance), this territory, following the signing of the treaty, was nominally controlled by the Jefferson ordinance of 1784. which provided the first American government for this territory and by which Jefferson attempted to abolish slavery in the United States north of the Florida line. Up to 1784, there were no United States surveys of western lands and therefore no lawful western settlers. except on old French or British grants, and grants to the attaches of military posts. In 1785 an ordinance was passed by congress providing for surveying lands into townships six miles square, and for subdividing these into sections one mile square, and for their sale by sections and lots; and this ordinance provided for the reservation of section sixteen in each township for school purposes. This opened up a way and offered an inducement to settlers, for now titles could be acquired that could be relied upon. "The Northwest territory ordinance of 1787, which was passed by 79

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN congress after a vast amount of consideration, involving heated debates on important points and principles, was considered by many as one of the greatest achievements ever attained in the way of government. Of it so a great a constitutional writer as Justice Cooley said: 'No charter of government in the history of any people has so completely stood the tests of time and experience.' While the ordinance provided a model temporary government of the great territory, its greatest value was found in the enduring principles provided by it to be engrafted into the government of the states to be erected therefrom. "It provided: "1. For religious liberty. "2. The right of habeas corpus, trial by jury, proportionate representation, inviolability of private contracts, etc. "3. 'Religion, morality and knowledge, being necessary to good government and the happiness of mankind, schools and the means of education shall forever be encouraged.' "4. That navigable waters are to remain free public highways. "Shortly thereafter, these principles, that gave to the ordinance referred to references as 'immortal,' were embodied in the constitution of the United States, and have become the vital part of our supreme law. "Following the revolution, as the westward journey of the 'star of the empire' was again taken up, the movement to Ohio was forwarded by the Ohio Company of Associates, organized in 1786, on call of General Rufus Putnam and General Benjamin Tupper, after they had made an exploratory trip into that country, but not until the summer of 1787 were they able to secure the action of congress, organizing the territory and providing for the sale of government lands. The general agent of the company, also largely instrumental in its organization and in the drafting and passage of the ordinance of 1787, was Manasseh Cutler, of Connecticut. In 1788 the first delegation from the Associates, under Mr. Cutler, reached Ohio and founded Marietta; though numerous 'squatters' had preceded them and settled in advance of the government survey. Eevrything in the way of settlement was haphazard until the coming of the Ohio Company, which took up and forwarded the organization of a regular government. "General Arthur St. Clair, governor of the territory, with other appointed officers, arrived at Marietta, Ohio, in July, 1788, and there on the 17th of that month, with due ceremony proclaimed the first civil government of the United States over the territory now within the state of Michigan. Up to that time this territory had been controlled by the French and English under military rule administered from the centers at Detroit and Michilimackinac. "Before any headway could be made with the government land surveys and the sales of government lands, it became necessary to acquire in some way the claims of the Indians to those lands; and for that purpose a commission had been appointed in 1784. This commission treated with numerous individual tribes, but ignored the northwestern confederacy, and the confederacy in turn ignored the various treaties with the individual tribes; so that really nothing was accomplished toward the desired end for some two years or more, during which time the Indians

Page  81 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 81 became restless, and, through their confederacy, they communicated their grievances to congress, in December, 1786, by means of a document supposed to have been prepared by Joseph Brant, in which it was said: " 'We think the mischief and confusion which has followed is owing to your having managed everything respecting us in your own way. You kindled your council fires where you thought proper without consulting us, at which you held separate treaties, and have entirely neglected our plan of having a general conference.... Let us have a treaty with you early in the spring. We say let us meet half way, and let us pursue such steps as become upright and honest men. We beg that you will prevent your surveyors and other people from coming on our side of the Ohio river.' This address was unheeded, as Governor St. Clair considered the confederacy of the tribes was not enduring, and he believed it best to continue negotiating with the individual tribes, but his mistake became apparent later, November 4, 1791, at 'St. Clair's defeat' on the Wabash. "Hostilities continued until finally the treaty of Greenville was signed August 3, 1795, following the defea' of the confederated tribes by the forces of General Anthony Wayne a year previous. Among the numerous tribes of this confederacy which joined in this treaty of Greenville were the Ottawas and Chippewas, from this section of the territory. When General Wayne, in the summer of 1794, was, with his force of twenty-six hundred well drilled soldiers and one thousand mounted Kentuckians, pressing hard upon the centers of the confederation, he made another effort to carry out Washington 's desire to secure peace and avoid war, and he sent a message to the chiefs offering the terms of the Muskingum treaty as a basis of lasting peace. This was refused, and the refusal is attributed to the fact that the Indians were influenced by the English who were still holding possession of the territory, and by their assurances of superior strength, with which they had been infused by their victory over Governor St. Clair. "The belief that the English were aiding and abetting the Indians in their fight against the United States finds further basis in the fact that the Indians, on rejecting the proffered peace, retired to the English Fort Miami, which had been constructed by Governor Simcoe, in 1794, long after the English had ceded their rights in this territory to the United States. When General Wayne, on the 20th of August, 1794, advanced to within one mile of Fort Miami the confederated tribes were prepared to meet him, strongly barricaded by fallen trees. The Indians were soon routed, many slain, and the others scattered, and the English fort came into possession of the Americans. "Major Campbell, who was in charge of the garrison at Detroit, protested against the possession of the British fort by General Wayne, but met with a sharp defiance and was reminded that the British were occupying American soil, and had built the fort thereon since the signing of the treaty. The decisive victory of General Wayne, which was at least in part on Michigan soil, and was participated in by Ottawas and Chippewas from Michilimackinac and Sault Ste. Marie, was imVol. 1-6.

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN portant in many ways, and had unquestionable influence in the results that soon followed, including Jay's treaty, in November of that year, and the treaty of Greenville in August of the following year, followed by the evacuation of Michigan territory by the British pursuant to the terms of Jay's treaty. It also put an end to the terrible Indian warfare that had continued throughout the territory, and thus opened up to settlement a large region of fertile lands, over which there started that ever-increasing horde of western emigrants that pushed forward to the west, and upon tangents to the northward, with the final result we now perceive; the entire Northwest territory divided into and making up five of the most prominent states of the Union, and a considerable contribution to another like prominent state." In 1798 the Northwest territory became entitled to elect a territorial council with representatives of the various districts of the territory. The district of Wayne included the Lower Peninsula and parts of Ohio and Indiana, and was entitled to one representative in the council. Consequently, in December of that year, an election for the district of Wayne was held in Detroit, at which James May of that city is supposed to have been chosen as such representative, and the people of that section were given their first opportunity of exercising the glorious privilege of the elective franchise. No record of the election can be found and it is supposed to have been considered void, for a new election was held in January following. The representatives met at Cincinnati, February 4, 1799, and chose ten freeholders to constitute the territorial council, the first legislative council in which the people of any part of Michigan were represented. The ordinance organizing the Northwest territory provides, that "As soon as a legislature shall be formed in the district the council and house, assembled in one room, shall have authority, by joint ballot, to elect a delegate to congress." Pursuant to this provision, William Henry Harrison was, in 1799, elected the first delegate to congress to represent the Northwest territory, and in March, 1800, he was appointed chairman of a committee of congress on the division of the Northwest territory. As the result, the territory was divided into two districts by a line running from the mouth of the Kentucky river north to the Canadian boundary, the western part being called "Indiana territory" and the eastern part "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio," the boundary line dividing what is now Michigan, into two parts. Harrison was appointed governor of Indiana territory and also Indian agent, and held the office until his appointment, in 1813, as major general in the American army. NORTHWEST TERRITORY DISMEMBERED The territory was dismembered by the formation of the state of Ohio, by act of congress passed April 30, 1802, and thereupon what is now Michigan became part of the territory of Indiana. Thus was blotted from history the name "Territory Northwest of the River Ohio." Nothing of importance to Michigan. history occurred during the brief union with Indiana except the passage of a congressional act, in

Page  83 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 83 1804, "providing for the disposal of the public lands within the territory to which the Indian title had been extinguished. By this act section 16 in each township was reserved for the use of schools within the same, and an entire township was to be located in each of the diss tricts afterward forming Michigan, Indiana and Illinois for a seminary of learning. This was the germ of the university fund in Michigan and of the primary school fund." SLAVERY IN MICHIGAN The ordinance of 1787 had provided that "there shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in the said territory, otherwise than in the punishment of crime, whereof the party shall have been duly convicted. " Under both French and English rule there had been a few slaves in Michigan. Some were brought in, but most of them were Indians purchased from the savages who had captured and held them as household servants. Under Jay's treaty the right of ownership in both these classes was held to be good. There is no record to show the number, but it is probable that there were a few Qf these Indian slaves in the region of the straits, both on the island of Mackinac and on the southern mainland. In fact, in some of the writings of the early Jesuits references are made to the slaves held by the Indians of that region. None were returned in the census of 1800, when Wayne county was attached to the territory of Ohio. In 1810 the county comprised the entire territory of Michigan and was divided into four civil districts. Twenty-four slaves were returned by that census, of whom seventeen were in the civil district of Detroit, four in Erie, two in Huron and one in Mackinaw. In 1820 no slaves were returned, and in 1830, thirty-two were enumerated. Of these all but one were from the territory now forming a part of Wisconsin. One slave was returned from Oakland county, a female between the age of fourteen and twentyfour. With the census of 1830 ended the slavery records of Michigan, which, furthermore, mostly concerns the Detroit district and has little to do with Northern Michigan. FOUNDING OF CIVIL GOVERNMENT On January 11, 1805, congress passed an act for the organization of Michigan territory, and on March 1st, President Jefferson appointed General William Hull its governor and Indian agent. The governor and other territorial officers arrived at Detroit on the 12th of June, that year, only to find that the capital (which had been but a two-acre town of little houses surrounded by a palisade of strong pickets) had been destroyed by fire. When they took the oath of office on the second Tuesday in July some of the houses had been erected on the old site. Despite this unfavorable outlook for the territorial government, "a judicial system was established and the territorial militia was disciplined and brought into the field. The attention of congress was also called to the land claims which were made by the settlers, founded on oceu

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN pancy, or grants under the French and English governments. On October 10, 1805, a report was made of the affairs of the territory and forwarded to congress, and in May, 1806, the first code of laws was adopted and published for the territory, called the Woodward code after Augustus B. Woodward, one of the judges. The code was signed by Governor Hull and Augustus B. Woodward and Frederick Bates, judges, by which a civil government for the territory covered by the present state of Michigan was at length established, and military rule, whether by French, British or American commandants, forever abolished in times of peace. As stated, prior to the organization of the territory what is now Michigan had been included in Wayne county of the Northwest territory, which boasted a crude "court of common pleas," with headquarters at Detroit. This court was continued when the territory of Michigan.was created in 1805. STATUS OF LAND TITLES It was not until 1806 that congress began in earnest to consider the status of land titles in Michigan. In that year Judge Woodward made a report to the secretary of the treasury which was laid before conLEWIS CASS gress in which he stated that the total amount of land in cultivation did not exceed 150,000 acres, or a little more than six townships. He described the farms as from two to four acres front on the river, the houses about twenty-five rods apart, and the people "honest beyond comparison, generous, hospitable and polished." He reported in all 422 farms, with dates of settlement running from 1763 to 1801. Nearly

Page  85 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 85 all were held on French claims, bordered on rivers, with from two to five acres frontage and forty acres depth (a French acre was about fourfifths of an American acre). As appeared from the report made by the register of the land office at Detroit in December, 1806, only six of these farms embracing less than 4,000 acres had valid titles. The appointment of Lewis Cass as civil governor of Michigan in 1813 was the commencement of a stable order of things in the matter of land titles, as of all else, and marked the starting point of the substantial development of Michigan. Under him the government acquired by various treaties all lands south of Grand river to the headwaters of Thunder Bay river, as well as such as were required to make the post at Fort Mackinac safe against Indian attacks, thus safeguarding the interests of traders and settlers in Northern Michigan. Great Britain possessed Michigan from the time of Hull's surrender in August, 1812, until Perry's naval victory of September, 1813, and the Americans reentered Detroit on the 29th of that month. Lewis Cass was appointed civil governor of Michigan territory October 9, 1813, but Fort Mackinac was not evacuated by the British forces until the spring of 1815. The survey of public lands was begun in 1816 and two years later had progressed sufficiently to permit the authorities to begin the sale. With the settlement of the interior, which practically began in 1818, came substantial growth and prosperity to the southern part of the Lower Peninsula which gradually extended northward. ERECTION OF FIRST COUNTIES Until 1817 there had been but one county organization-that of Wayne. In that year Monroe, the second county in the territory was established, and named in honor of the president who was then expected, and who, in August of that year, visited the territory, accompanied by a number of distinguished civil and military officials. It was in this same year that the University of Michigan was created, and primary schools were established at Detroit, Monroe and Mackinaw. In January, 1818, Macomb county was established, as the third county of the state, and it was followed in October of that year by the organizing of Michilimackinac, Brown and Crawford counties. Michilimackinac included the whole of the Upper Peninsula and a part of what is now Wisconsin, and was therefore the fourth Michigan county organized. It had its seat at Michilimackinac. Brown county included the eastern part of the present state of Wisconsin, with seat at Green Bay; and Crawford county included the western part of the present state of Wisconsin, with seat at Prairie du Chien. Soon after General Cass became governor of Michigan, in 1813, he issued a proclamation erecting the county of Michilimackinac, of which Mackinac (on the island) became the county seat. This county was bounded by the Cheboygan river on the east, by the Manistee river on the south, west by the Manistique and north by Canada; so that it included substantially the northwestern section of the area covered by this history, as well as the eastern half of the Upper Peninsula. The

Page  86 86 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN center of the fur trade had long been transferred to the Islanid of Mackinac and its activities to the country north of the straits, and for several years after the accession of Cass to the gubernatorial chair the traders clamored for some legal means by which disputes among themselves and with the Indians might be legally settled. It is true the laws of the territory provided a system of county courts, and Mackinac county maintained such a court after its organization. This court was, however, presided over by a layman, and naturally slight realization of legal remedies resulted. It was an expensive proposition to resort from various parts of the county to Mackinac, with witnesses to a legal controversy, and this fact, together with the questionable chance of getting justice at trial, caused many grievances to be overlooked, or to be fought out in the open arena of their origin, where the question of right became one solely of might. True there was an appeal from the county court to the supreme court at Detroit, and on appeal in those times, the case could be tried by jury; but it was an expensive proposition to the people of this then remote region; and this was not all-the supreme court had its session in Detroit once a year, and that in the very last of September, so that navigation to the northward was very likely to be closed against the vessels of those days, before the litigants could return after the trial was over. In 1822 this grievous situation was laid before congress by James Duane Doty, who had removed to Green Bay, then in Brown county, Michigan territory, and in his communication he informed congress of the resulting hardships to the traders, and related that the Indian debtors believed their debts to the traders were paid by a tender of a due amount of furs at the trader's residence, and if the trader was absent he was pretty certain to lose his claim. In that communication a showing was made as to the importance of the trade of this section, and it was claimed it produced' a larger revenue than any other, with the possible exception of Orleans. Mackinac was claimed to have yielded duties to the extent of $40,000 in 1807, while in the month of November, 1821, the same point exported 3,000 packs of fars, and it was claimed that the sale of foreign goods in the tributary territory amounted to a million dollars annually. Upon these representations, congress passed an act in January, 1823, providing for a district court for this locality, to have jurisdiction over all offenses and transactions concerning commerce, and dealings with the Indians, and also the usual jurisdiction of the county courts. Mr. Doty was made judge of the new court. In March of the same year an act was passed whereby congress made important changes in the form of territorial government, so that legislative power of the territory was vested in the governor and a council of nine persons, these nine to be selected by the president and confirmed by the senate from a list of eighteen to be elected by the people of the territory; and by the same act the judges were given equity as well as common-law powers. So that to a considerable extent, the people of the northern portion of the Southern Peninsula are indebted to the necessities and exer

Page  87 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 87 tions of the traders and settlers of the Upper Peninsula for the advancement of civil government over their country. When Michigan became a state, in 1837, Michilimackinac county was extended west to the Menominee river and in 1840 south to Saginaw bay. The courts were still held at Mackinac, which village was the center of all civic affairs for Northern Michigan, and during that year (1840) all of the Southern Peninsula at the head of Grand Traverse Bay was laid off as the county of Omeena. This, however, had a brief existence, as the legislature of that year, for the purpose of forwarding the work of the geological and topographical survey, divided that portion of the new state into twenty-eight counties. CONDENSED HISTORY BY COUNTIES It will become more plainly evident that 1840 was a great formative year in the civil history of Northern Michigan by presenting the matter, as to the creation of its counties, in condensed form: Aishcum-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Lake, March 8, 1843. Notipekago-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Mason, March 8, 1843. Unwatin-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Osceola, March 8, 1843. Kautawaubet-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Wexford, March 8, 1843. Mikenauk-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Roscommon, March 8, 1843. Kanotin-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Iosco, March 8, 1843. Negwegon-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Alcona, March 8, 1843. Shawono-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Crawford, March 8, 1843. Wabassee-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Kalkaska, March 8, 1843. Okkuddo-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Otsego, March 8, 1843. Cheonoquet-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Montmorency, March 8, 1843. Anamickee-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Alpena, March 8, 1843. Keskkauko-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Charlevoix, March 8, 1843. Tonedogana-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Emmet, March 8, 1843. Kaykakee-Date of act, April 1, 1840; changed to Clare, March 8, 1843. In the following table is a list of the counties covered by this historical narrative, showing the date when they were laid out (on paper),

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the counties to which they were successively attached for judicial and other civil purposes and the year when they were organized for practical government: Alcona county-Laid out 1840; attached to Cheboygan, 1853; Alpena, 1857; Iosco, 1858; Alpena, 1859; organized 1869. Alpena county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; organized 1857. Antrim county-Laid out, 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Grand Traverse, 1853; organized 1863. Arenac county-Laid out 1831; absorbed by Bay county in 1857; organized 1883. Benzie county-Laid out 1863; attached to Grand Traverse, 1863; organized 1869. Charlevoix county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Emmet, 1853; organized 1869. Cheboygan county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; organized 1853. Clare county-Laid out 1840; attached to Saginaw, 1840; Midland, 1858; Isabella, 1859; Midland, 1869; Mecosta, 1869; organized 1871. Crawford county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; Iosco, 1858; Antrim, 1863; Kalkaska, 1871; organized 1875. Emmet county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; organized 1853. Gladwin county-Laid out 1831; attached to Saginaw, 1840; Midland, 1855; organized 1875. Grand Traverse county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; organized 1851. losco county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Saginaw, 1853; organized 1857. Kalkaska county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Grand Traverse, 1853; Antrim, 1863; organized 1871. Lake county-Laid out 1840; organized 1871. Leelanau county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Grand Traverse, 1853; organized 1863. Manistee county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Ottawa, 1846; Oceana, 1851; Grand Traverse, 1853; organized 1855. Mason county-Laid out 1840; attached to Ottawa, 1840; Oceana, 1851; organized 1855. Missaukee county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Grand Traverse, 1853; Manistee, 1858; Wexford, 1869; organized 1871. Montmorency county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; Alpena, 1857; organized 1871. Ogemaw county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; Midland, 1859; Iosco, 1861; incorporated with losco, 1867; organized 1875. Osceola county-Laid out 1840; attached to Ottawa, 1840; Newaygo, 1857; Mecosta, 1859; organized 1869. Oscoda county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboy

Page  89 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 89 gan, 1853; Alpena, 1857; Iosco, 1858; Alpena, 1859; Alcona, 1869; organized 1871. Otsego county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; Alpena, 1858; Antrim, 1863; organized 1875. Presque Isle county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1841; Cheboygan, 1853; Alpena, 1858; organized 1871. Roscommon county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Cheboygan, 1853; Midland, 1859; organized 1875. Wexford county-Laid out 1840; attached to Mackinac, 1840; Grand Traverse, 1853; Manistee, 1855; organized 1869. SOURCES OF NAMES As a fitting supplement to this tabulated list are presented the following extracts from the columns of the Michigan Tradesman, relating to the sources from which the names of the various counties, as well as the state itself, are derived: "The county names of Michigan present a subject both interesting and difficult. Owing to the fact that the county-making power-governor, legislative council or legislature-has in no instance when laying out and naming a county seen fit to indicate its motive in assigning a certain name to a county or the historical significance of such name, it is frequently difficult and sometimes impossible to determine with certainty the origin of their names. "When the name is of Indian origin the meaning is frequently doubtful, due to the difficulty in reproducing in English letters the sounds uttered by the Indians, and when the word comes through the French the difficulty is increased. These facts are illustrated in the treaties made with the Indians. Each secretary, in writing out the treaty, in the attempt to reproduce the names of the chiefs who affixed their marks, spelled the names as they sounded to him, the result being, for example, that the Pottawatomie chief, Aishcum, had his name spelled in seven different ways in the eight different treaties which he signed. In the French transcription the sound Inini was by the French written Illini. When the word was repeated to an Indian for translation, the slight difference in sound might indicate an entirely different meaning from the one belonging to the original word. This is the probable explanation of the widely differing meanings which we shall see given to the Indian names of some of the counties. "The word Michigan first appears as applied to land area in the congressional proceedings of 1804, culminating in the act of January 11, 1805, establishing the Territory of Michigan, which included the present Lower Peninsula, but extending southward to a line drawn due east from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan and also that part of the Upper Peninsula east of Mackinac. "Prior to that, in 1784, a committee of the Congress of the Confederation, of which Jefferson was chairman, reported a plan for government of the Northwest territory and its ultimate division into ten states. One of these was to be named Michigania, to extend westward from Lake Michigan to the Mississippi river and include a large part

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN of the present state of Wisconsin. Fortunately, this report was not adopted, as our Lower Peninsula was to be a state with the appropriate but cumbersome name, Cherronesus, a Greek word meaning peninsula. "Nicholas Perrot, who spent the years from 1665 to 1699 among the Indians of the Great Lakes, in his Memoir Upon the Customs and Manners of the Savages, in giving an account of the warfare between the Iroquois and the Hurons, after the serious defeat of the latter, says they went after a time to Huron island, at the mouth of Green bay, and the following year, upon hearing of the approach of a large band of Iroquois, they withdrew to 'Mechingan,' where they constructed a strong fort. From the connection he meant by this term the district including the northern part of Wisconsin and the western part of the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. "The name Michigan, applied to the territory and state, unquestionably was taken from the lake, and that, in turn, had emerged in its present form after many vicissitudes, and was the survival of differing forms and other names. "The first map to show a body of water at all corresponding to Lake Michigan was that of Sanson, made in 1656, and showing the Strait of Mackinac and an opening at the west into an undefined body of water called Las de Puans. This name was soon after appropriated to the Baye des Puans, which subsequently became Grande Baye, corrupted into Green Bay. "The map of Du Creux, or Creuxius, of 1660, clearly indicates the Lower Peninsula and the lake on the west and calls it Magnus Lacus Algonquinorum seu Lacus Foetium, the last word having the same meaning as Puans. "Allouez, one of the Jesuit fathers, in his journal of 1666, refers to 'Lac des Illimouek (probably a mistake for Illiniouek, found elsewhere in the journal), a large lake which had not before come to our knowledge.' "The map accompanying the Jesuit Relation of 1670-1 shows the northern part of Lake Michigan under the name Lac des Illinois. This relation speaks of the 'Lake called Mitchiganons, to which the Illinois have given their name.' The map itself is remarkably accurate, so far as Lake Superior is concerned, but does not attempt to give anything but the extreme northern part of Lake Michigan, and that not with accuracy. Joliet's map of 1674, while showing the entire lake for the first time, is not at all accurate in its outlines and calls the lake 'Lac des Illinois ou Missihiganin.' "In another map, the author of which is not known but which appears to have been made shortly after the map of Joliet, Lake Michigan appears as 'Michiganong ou des Illinois.' Marquette's map of 1673-4. which showed only the west shore of Lake Michigan, calls the lake 'Lac des Illinois,' while Thevenot's map of 1681, which he published as Marquette's, calls it 'Lac de Michigami ou Illinois.' "A map ascribed to Franquelin, dater 1682, calls the lake 'Michiganong ou le Grand Lac des Illinois dit Dauphin.' "Franquelin's map of 1684, much the most complete and accurate map of the Great Lakes up to that date, shows the lake under the name


Page  92 92 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN of 'Lac des Illinois,' while his map of 1688 calls it 'Lac des Illinois ou Michiganay." "A map by Coronelli of 1688 bears the name for the lake 'Lac des Illinois ou Michigani ou Lac Dauphin.' "Denonville, Governor of Canada, in a memoir of 1688, says that La Salle navigated Lake Huron and thence through that of 'the Illinois or Missigans.' "Raudin's map of 1689 has it 'Lac des Illinois ou Missiganin.' "The Del'Isle map of 1703 calls it 'Lac des Illinois,' and to Lake Huron gives the name 'Lac Huron ou Michigane.' "In a memoir by Cadillac, written probably about 1697, he describes the countries where he has been during the three years past and in his first reference to this lake calls it 'Lac Michigan ou Illinois,' but during the remainder of the article always calls it Lac Michigan. "In the Jesuit Relation of 1712 Pere Marest, a Jesuit priest who had spent some time in Illinois with the Indians, speaking of his return in 1711 to Mackinac, says, 'We sailed the whole length of Lake Michigan, which is named on the maps Lake Illinois without any reason since there are no Illinois who dwell in its vicinity.' "The name Michigan became firmly established as the name of this lake by the time of the maps of Delisle, in 1739, of Bellin, in 1744, and of Mitchell, in 1755, although for some time the issue was doubtful whether this name would not be attached to Lake Huron. "Gallinee's map of 1670, while not disclosing any knowledge of Lake Michigan, and a very inaccurate knowledge of the western shore of Lake Huron, has the latter lake much larger than the reality, under the name Michigane ou Mer Douce des Hurons. The original map made by Gallinee, which was deposited in the Department of the Marine at Paris, has disappeared, but three direct copies are known to exist and these disagree as to whether the final 'e' in Michigane is accented. There are some confirmatory facts to indicate that it should be accented, the Franquelin map of 1688 and the Del'Isle map of 1703 indicating this. The written account by. Gallinee of his journey, upon which the map was based, does not, however, indicate the 'e' to be accented. "In the description of the journey, which was from Niagara river up through Lake Erie, the Straits and Lake Huron, Gallinee says. 'We entered the largest lake in all America, called the Fresh Water Sea of the Hurons, or in Algonquin, Michigane,' thus indicating the latter word to be the translation of 'Le plus Grand Lac,' and being substantially the translation of the name found on the map of Creuxius, Magnus Lacus Algonquinorun. "Moll, in his map of 1720, has Lake Michigan named Illinese Lake or Michigan, and Lake Huron, Huron Lake or Michigan. "It seems to be reasonably clear that the meaning of the word is the Great Lake, although the real derivation is somewhat uncertain, the first part of the word 'michi' certainly meaning great, or large, and is the same as Missi in Mississippi, Mississaga, and other names. "Schoolcraft derives the word from 'mitchaw,' great, and Sagiegan, lake, but this seems unlikely as it is not common to find an Indian com

Page  93 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 93 pound word so greatly contracted as would be necessary to reduce Mitchaw-Sagiegan to Michigan. "Some authorities also give the meaning of the word Michigan as a place for catching fish, but this again seems improbable. "Arenac county has had a checkered career. Laid out in 1831, in 1857 a large part was taken off and put into the newly formed Bay county. In 1859 the balance was added to that county and in 1883 it was re-established with its present limits. The name was manufactured by Schoolcraft in accordance with a formula which he developed more fully somewhat later. He analyzed Indian words, obtaining the general meaning, and then by combining various roots and using the proper consonants to give euphony he could produce a large number of words 4of Indian basis, which could be applied to localities as a more or less descriptive name. In this manner the syllable ac, derived from auk or akke, which means land or earth, gives the idea of locality, and Arenac is compounded from the Latin arena, sand-the derived meaning of place of combat comes from the fact that such places are sanded -and ac and therefore means sandy place. " Gladwin county laid out, with Arenac, in 1831, was named in honor of Major Henry Gladwin, who was in command of the Fort at Detroit during its memorable siege by Pontiac in 1763-4, and who for his gallant defense was promoted to lieutenant colonel and who afterwards served with distinction upon the British side during the Revolutionary war. " The United States surveys of the Lower Peninsula had been nearly completed when Michigan became a state in 1837, the wholesale Indian title to its lands having become completely extinguished by the treaty of the previous year. Douglass Houghton, the first state geologist, in his second annual report to the legislature of 1839, recommended that the remainder of the Lower Peninsula be subdivided into counties, as it would assist him in making his surveys and maps. He repeated that recommendation to the legislature of 1840; whereupon twenty-eight new counties were laid out, making for the first time a complete subdivision of the Lower Peninsula. The result of this legislation, so far as it affects the portion of the peninsula covered by this work, may be seen by a reference to the table already published of the twenty-eight counties thus legally created, all but one received Indian names, probably at the suggestion of Henry R. Schoolcroft, geologist, scholar, historian, Indian agent and legislator, who had negotiated the treaty of 1836 by which the northeastern part of the Lower Peninsula and the eastern portion of the upper had been ceded by the Indians to the United States, and who was fairly entitled to such honor. The legislature of 1843, however, changed the names of sixteen of the twenty-eight counties, in order to honor historical characters connected with the founding and development of Michigan as a commonwealth of white citizens. Five of the new names were of Irish origin, supposedly in deference to that strong racial element represented in the legislature of that year.

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Alcona county was first named Negwegon. The latter was the name of a well-known Chippewa chief who was a firm friend of the Americans in their conflict with the British terminating in the War of 1812. He was a fine type of the race, over six feet high, muscular, courageous and of strong intellect. He was known also as the Little Wing, the translation of his name. Alcona was undoubtedly a word manufactured according to the Schoolcraft formula in which "al" is the Arabic for "the." "Co" is the root of a word meaning plain or prairie. "Na" is a termination meaning "excellent;" hence the entire word has the meaning "the fine or excellent plain." Alpena county was originally named Anamickee. The latter name was that of a Chippewa chief who signed the treaty of 1826 negotiated by Schooleraft and was a peculiarly appropriate name for this county. The word means thunder, and the county, as laid out, included the entire shore of Thunder bay. The name of the Bay was the English translation of the French "Anse du Tonnere," which appears as early as the map of Franquelin in 1688, and which was probably so called from the Indian name, the Indians believing that it was peculiarly subject to thunder storms. Schooleraft, in his travels of 1820, refers to his belief and says: "What has been so often reiterated as to the highly electrified state of the atmosphere at this Bay seems to have no foundation in truth; there is nothing in the appearance of the surrounding country-in the proximity of mountains or the currents of the atmosphere-to justify a belief that the air contains a surcharge of the electric fluid. In no place does the coast attain a sufficient altitude to allow us to suppose that it can exert any sensible influence upon the clouds, nor is it known that any mineral exhalations are given out in this vicinity, as has been suggested, capable of conducing towards a state of electrical urativility in the atmosphere." The retention of the original name would have preserved this historical tradition and been preferable to the rather meaningless name which was substituted. Alpena was a word manufactured by Schoolcraft from the Arabic "al," meaning "the," and either "pinai," meaning "partridge," or "penaissee," meaning "bird." In one place in his writings he himself gives the latter word as the one entering the combination, the name Alpena therefore meaning the bird country, but the former seems more probable, and the word therefore means the partridge, or partridge country. Antrim county was originally named Meegisee. The latter was the name of a Chippewa chief who signed the treaties of 1821 and 1826, the latter of which was negotiated in behalf of the United State by Schooleraft, and the meaning of the word is Eagle. The present name was one of the five Irish names to which reference has been made and is taken from that of a county in the northeastern part of Ireland. The name, as it appears printed in the act of 1843, is Antim, and is only one of the evidences of careless proof reading found in the act, as several other names are misspelled by omission or change of a letter. It is

Page  95 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN difficult to properly characterize such a substitution as this and several others. While some of the Indian names as originally given were not particularly euphonious or pleasing, yet they all were more or less appropriate, while with scarce an exception the substituted names were chosen without any reference to locality, historical connection or general appropriateness. At the session of 1863 the county of Benzie was established, being taken from the lower part of Leelanau county. The derivation of this name is somewhat uncertain. One explanation is that it is a corruption of Betsey, the popular name of the river which runs through the county. The word " Betsey, " however, is itself a corruption of the French name of the river, Riviere Aux Bee Scies, which means the river of the saw bill or Merganser duck, and is the translation by the early French travelers of the Indian name of the stream, Uns-zig-o-ze-bee, which has the same meaning. Another and more probable explanation is that it is derived from Benzonia, which was settled in 1858, and was the first county seat. This village was settled by a colony from Ohio and one of its purposes was to found an institution of learning, which was subsequently carried out. The name Benzonia has been stated to be composed of two Hebrew words meaning Sons of Light, or by another interpretation, Sons of Life, and by still another, Sons of Toil, but Professor Craig, of the University of Michigan, says that it is most improbable that the word is derived from the Hebrew, and if it were, it could not have any one of the above meanings. If, therefore, the name was given in the belief it had such meaning, it seems probable that the scholarship was faulty. The county name might have been given as a contraction of the name of this village, the largest settlement in the county or, possibly, as a combination of the first syllable of the village Ben, with the last syllable of the river, thus making Benzie. Charlevoix county had as its original name Keskkauko, who was a leading chief of the Saginaw Chippewas and as such signed the Indian treaty of 1819. He was a noted character in his day, of a tyrannical, overbearing disposition, little disposed to recognize any system of court or legal procedure. He was finally tried and convicted at Detroit of being accessory to the murder of another Indian in January, 1826, and avoided suffering the penalty of the law by taking poison conveyed to him by one of his wives. The present name was given in honor of Pierre Francois Xavier de Charlevoix, the French Jesuit missionary, traveler and historian. Born in 1682, he came to Canada in 1705 and made extensive travels up the St. Lawrence, through the Great Lakes and down the Mississippi in 1721 and wrote during the following year his important history of New France, which, however, was not published until twenty years later. Cheboygan county, laid out and named in 1840, was extended in 1853, to take in Wyandotte county, which was also laid out in 1840, immediately south of the former county, but was never organized and lost its identity, as stated above. It seems a pity that this latter name

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN was not preserved in some county, as the Indians whose name it bears were an important element of our aboriginal population. The name Wyandotte is a corruption from Wendat, the name by which the Hurons who occupied the region in Canada around the foot of Georgian bay called themselves. They occupied this region at the time of the coming of Champlain in 1615 and were closely related in language and descent to the Iroquois, but were even then at deadly enmity with them. Lacking, however, the fierce and persistent fighting qualities of the latter, they were defeated and nearly exterminated in 1649. A portion of them fled to the Island of St. Joseph, then to Michilimackinac, then to Manitoulin island, then, still pursued by the Iroquois, to Green Bay, then, about 1657, a few leagues farther west to the Pottawatomies and a few months later still farther west to the Mississippi. From there menaced by the Sioux in 1660 they came to the region of Black river, Wisconsin, then a little later joined the Ottawas at Chequamegon bay and about 1670 moved back to St. Ignace, and not long after down to Detroit, Sandwich and Sandusky, where they lived under the protection of the French and became known as Wyandots, uniting with the Chippewas, Ottawas and other Indians in their treaties with the United States. Cheboygan county is named from the river of the same name and has had nearly as many meanings ascribed to it as it has letters. Haines says it is derived from chi (abbreviation of Kitchi), meaning great, and poygan, pipe. Another derivation giving the same meaning and more in consonance with the French form of the name of the river is Kiehibwagan. Werwyst derives it from ji-bai-gan, a perforated object, hence a pipe. Another derivation is from Chab-we-gan, place of ore, which is neither appropriate nor probable. Hatheway, referring to Sheboygan, Wisconsin, derives the name from Shab-wa-way-kin, which expresses the tradition of a great noise coming underground from Lake Superior being heard at this river. This, however, seems doubtful, as the Wisconsin name is the same word as the Michigan, although the first letter is S instead of C, and this meaning could not be applicable to both places and, as a rule, the Indian names had more or less close applicability to the location. Still other derivation is from Zee-bwa-gan, cane, or hollow bone. Sibwagan, according to Baraga's Ojibwa dictionary, means sugar cane. There is one derivation which should not be omitted, on the authority of Richardson's Beyond the Mississippi: An old chief who had several daughters, but no son, upon being congratulated upon the arrival of another daughter ejaculated with the greatest disgust, "Sheboy-gin," and strode from the place. And when a town sprang up there it was called by common consent "Sheboygan." Clare county had as its original name Kaykakee. The latter word is Chippewa, meaning pigeon hawk, and was the name of a chief from the Sault referred to in the treaty of 1826.

Page  97 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 97 Clare was another of the Irish names substituted in 1843, and was taken from a county in the western part of Ireland. Crawford county, which must not be confounded with the Crawford county of 1818, was originally named Shawono, from a noted Chippewa chief who lived many years at the Sault, was doubtless personally known to Schooleraft and who, in behalf of his people, signed several of the treaties with the United States, or possibly from a Potcawatomie chief of the same name who was a party to several of the Indian treaties with the United States. The word Shawono means southerner and the same word is found in the name applied by others-not tiemselves-to the tribe known as Shawnees. It is somewhat uncertain ior whom this Crawford county was named. To the legislature of 1843, which made these changes in the names, there was presented a memorial by Jonathan Lamb, of Washtenaw county, praying that if changes in name were made one of the counties should receive the name of Crawford and the petition was granted. The former Crawford county, by the act of congress establishing the Territory of Wisconsin in 1834, had ceased to be a part of Michigan, and whether the new county was intended to restore the same name or to perpetuate the name of Colonel William Crawford, who was captured by the Indians and burned at the stake near Upper Sandusky in 1782, is now rather difficult to deter. mine. The original petition has not been preserved, but evidence based upon family tradition seems to render it reasonably certain that Mr. Lamb's desire was to commemorate the Colonel Crawford of tragic fate. Emmet county, still another of the changes to Irish names, was originally named Tonedogana for an Ottawa chief who was evidently well known and of some importance, as he signed several of the treaties with the United States affecting lands in Michigan. In the treaties his name is always followed by the words "the dog," as if they were the translation, but doubt is now thrown upon that meaning. The name Emmet was given in honor of the Irish patriot, Robert Emmet. Grand Traverse county was in 1840 named Omeena, the change to the present name being made in 1851 and 1853, the first act being defective in leaving a small unattached and unorganized territory, as Omeena county, and this mistake was remedied at the following session, when the remainder of the county was merged into Grand Traverse. The Indian name means either "the point beyond" and would have reference to the narrow peninsula jutting up into Grand Traverse bay, or, as Verwyst says, a corruption of ominau, "he gives to him." Grand Traverse county takes its name from the bay upon which it borders, which itself was so named from the fact that the early French voyageurs, who always traveled in canoes and were compeled to coast the shores of any large body of water, when they passed along the east shore of Lake Michigan, found two considerable indentations of the coast line, which under ordinary conditions they were accustomed to cross from headland to headland. The smaller crossing they called la petite traverse. The larger, about nine miles across, they called la grande travVol. I-7

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN erse, or the long crossing, and this name was transferred to the bay. The Indian name of the bay was Gitchi Wekwetong, which means large bay. losco county was first named Kanotin. The latter name was that of an Ottawa chief referred to in the treaty of 1836, as living in the Grand river district. His name may be derived from the Chippewa word meaning wind, and it is difficult to see any reason for discarding this pleasing euphonious name. Iosco was, apparently, a favorite name of Schoolcraft's. In 1838 he published losco, or the Vale of Norma, about fourteen printed pages reminiscent of his boyhood in Albany county, New York, and in 1839 he published Algic Researches, consisting of translations and adaptations of Indian tales, and among them is one entitled losco, or a Visit to the Sun and the Moon, a tale from the Ottawa, said to have been related by Chusco, an Ottawa chief. It relates the travels and adventures of five young Indian men, the eldest of whom bears the name Iosco, and a young boy. In the Myth of Hiawatha, published in 1856, and which contains many of the same tales and legends found in Algic Researches, appears this one, but in this the boy bears the name loscoda. It had been said that losco was a word manufactured by Schoolcraft according to his formula, but it seems more probable that he found it and then worked out his derivations. In one place in his writings he says it means water of light, but in another he analyzes it into parts of three words meaning "to be," "father" and "plain." Kalkaska county was originally named Wabassee. The latter was the name of a Pottawatomie chief who signed the treaty of 1821, and the word itself means swan. Kalkaska was spelled in the act of 1843 Kalcasca and in its present form looks like a "sure enough" Indian word, and if it is really that, its probable derivation is from the Chippewa and means "burned over." It is, however, possible that it is a Schooleraft manufactured word. Leelanau county probably had its name suggested by Schoolcraft, as in his "Algic Researches" is found Leelinau, an Ojibwa tale, the story of an Indian maid living along the south shore of Lake Superior, and in one of his volumes he gives the word as meaning delight of life. In his Hiawatha the heroine says, "From her baby name of Neenizu, my dear life, she was called Leelinau." Lake county was first named Aishcum. The latter name was that of a well known Pottawatomie chief who was a party to all the treaties with the United States in behalf of his people from 1818 to 1836, his name being spelled in seven different ways, illustrating the difficulty of identifying some of the old Indian names, as each individual in transcribing them might use different combinations in English or French in the endeavor to represent the original sound. The word in Chippewa would mean increasing, more and more, going farther. The name Lake is peculiarly inappropriate to this county, as it is an inland county. contains but few lakes and none of any size.

Page  99 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 99 Missaukee county was named for an Ottawa chief who signed the treaties of 1831 and 1833. The meaning of the word is somewhat uncertain, Verwyst saying that it is a corruption of Missisaging, meaning at large mouth of river. Another derivation is from Mississauga, an Indian tribe at one time living at the northern end of Georgian bay, the word meaning people of wide mouth river. Montmorency county was originally named Cheonoquet for a Chippewa chief who was a party to the Indian treaties of 1807, 1815, 1825 and 1837, his name meaning Big Cloud. It is uncertain whom the name Montmorency was intended to commemorate, and there does not seem to be any one of that name of sufficient prominence in American or Michigan history to justify this action. It is possible some legislator of 1843 thought this a fine high sounding name, preferable to any Indian name, however melodious or full of meaning. There was a Duke of Montmorency, High Admiral of France, who, in 1620, bought the Lieutenant-Generalship of Canada and a few years later sold it again without ever having set foot on this continent. There was also a de Laval-Montmorency, the first Roman Catholic Bishop, of Canada, an energetic, faithful churchman, who made great efforts to prevent the giving of ardent spirits to the Indians and who for many years during his bishopric, from 1658 to 1684, exerted a very powerful influence in New France. If a French name were to be chosen, it is unfortunate the name of some one of the early, active, energetic explorers, rulers or military men who came in personal contact with this lake region was not selected. Mason county was originally named Notipekago. The latter was the Indian name of Pere Marquette river and the county was appropriately named after its most prominent natural feature. The meaning of the Indian name was "river with heads on stocks," referring to a tradition that at an early period a band of Indians encamped at the mouth of the river was nearly exterminated by some Pottawatomies and their heads cut off and placed on stocks. The present name was to commemorate Stevens T. Mason, the first governor of the state, who came originally from Virginia and was appointed secretary of the Territory by President Jackson in July, 1831, then only 20 years of age, but who rapidly overcame the prejudices against him and acquired popularity and a firm stand in the hearts of the people of Michigan. Manistee county took its name from the river which flows through it and empties into Lake Michigan within its borders. The word is Indian and various meanings have been ascribed to it. Among others are Vermilion river, Lost river, Island in the river. Hon. B. M. Cutcheon, in an address at Manistee, said that one meaning given to the word was river with islands, which would not be appropriate, and that another and more poetic one was spirit of the woods. Still another interpretation is river at whose mouth there are islands. It does not seem that this or similar meanings could be correct, as it does not at all correspond with the fact. Another meaning is, the river with white bushes on

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the banks, referring to the white poplar trees found there. The name is thought to be in origin identical with Manistique in the Upper Peninsula. Charlevoix gives the name of the latter river as La Manistie. (Verwyst says that Manistique is from Manistigweia, meaning Crooked river.) Early maps and references have the same name for the Manistee and Manistique rivers. The Franquelin map of 1684 has what appears to be this river, bearing the name Aramoni. His map of 1688 has it as La Manistre. Bellin's map, 1744, calls it Riviere d'oulamanities, while Mitchell's map of 1755 shows this river as Manistie, but the one in the Upper Peninsula as Oulemaniti. Schoolcraft in his travels of 1820 calls his river Manistie. Blois Gazetteer of Michigan, published in 1838, gives the name Monetee to both rivers. This word probably is derived from onumunitig or oulaman, meaning ochre or red powder, which the Indians used in decoration and face painting. In one of the early English maps of the Upper Peninsula a river is shown apparently to represent the Manistique river and is called Red Clay river. The legislature of 1855 established the county of Manitou, consisting of the Manitou islands, the Beaver islands and the Fox islands, giving to the county the name of the lower islands, Manitou. At that time James J. Strang, the Mormon King of Beaver islands, was a member of the house of representatives from Newaygo county, to which all the Grand Traverse region was then attached. Beaver islands, his stronghold, had a population of nearly 2,000, which gave him great political strength in his district. Several petitions were presented to this legislature praying that these islands be detached from Emmet county, and the committee to which the matter was referred, after stating "that a feeling of deep distrust and repugnance approaching warlike hostility exists between different classes of people inhabiting the islands and the mainland in that part of the state," "respectfully but earnestly" recommended that a separate town and county organization be given to the Beaver and Fox islands. In the bill, however, which was reported, the Manitou islands were added, and the name of the new county reported by the committee as Beaver county was, upon motion of Strang himself, changed to Manitou. Strang's death the following year by murder and the rapid dispersal of his followers soon removed the necessity of a county organization and, after being for some years attached to other counties, it was finally disorganized in 1895, and Manitou and Fox islands were incorporated into Leelanau county and the Beaver island into Charlevoix county. The name itself is an Algonquin word, meaning spirit, but it refers rather to the mysterious and unknown powers of life and of the universe. Tradition is that many years ago two powerful tribes, one from the Northern Peninsula and one from the Lower Peninsula north of Grand river, were at war. The northern band attacked and as they supposed annihilated the others and then retired to these islands. There were, however, seven survivors, who at night followed, attacked them while asleep and destroyed nearly all, and escaped without being seen. The few survivors thought this an act of the spirits, hence called the island Manitou.

Page  101 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 101 Otsego county was at first named Okkuddo. The earlier name is said to mean sickly, but no chief or prominent person of that name appears. The latter name was taken from Otsego county and lake in New York. This would be a Mohawk Iroquois word meaning clear water. Another meaning is said to be welcome water or place where meetings are held. Schoolcraft says the first part of the word denotes a body of water, hence lake, and the term ego means beautiful, hence beautiful lake. Osceola county was originally named Unwatin. The latter was probably the name of an Ottawa chief, as such a one is referred to in the treaty of 1836. Why such a name taken from an Indian chief of Michigan should be changed to Osceola, the name of a Seminole chief from Florida, even although the latter had a national prominence and his unfortunate experience with the whites and unhappy death in 1838 were then fresh in the mind, it is difficult to see. The name Osceola is said by some authorities to mean Black Drink, by others, the Rising Sun. Oscoda county has a name of Schoolcraft manufacture, meaning pebbly prairie from os, for ossin, stone or pebble, and coda from Muskoda prairie. Ogemaw county takes its name from the Chippewa word for chief. One of the leading Saginaw chiefs for many years and who signed the treaty of 1819 was called Ogemaw-ki-keto, chief or head speaker. Presque Isle county was so named from the narrow peninsulaPresque Isle-jutting out into Lake Huron toward the eastern end of the county and which was a well known feature to the early canoe travelers under that name. Schoolcraft speaks of it in his travels of 1820 as a place where by portaging 200 yards they saved a distance of six or eight miles. Roscommon county was another of the Irish changes of 1843, from Mikenauk, the name the county first bore, and certainly not a change for the better. Mikenauk was an Ottawa chief, his name meaning turtle, who is referred to in the Indian treaty of 1836 as a chief of the first class. Roscommon is a county in the central part of Ireland. Wexford county was originally named Kautawaubet and is the last of the Irish changes. The original name was that of a chief of some prominence from Sandy Lake, referred to by Schoolcraft several times, who signed the treaty of 1825, his name signifying broken tooth. Wexford is the name of a county in the southeastern part of Ireland. BASIS OF STATE GOVERNMENT The state constitution under which Michigan was admitted into the Union, by congressional act approved January 26, 1837, provided for the appointment by the governor (with the advice and consent of the senate) of the secretary of state, auditor general and attorney general.

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The joint legislature approved the gubernatorial appointment of the superintendent of public instruction. All state officers above mentioned served for two years, the governor and lieutenant governor being elected. Judges of the state supreme court were appointed by the governor, with the advice and consent of the senate, for a term of seven years. The provisions of the constitution providing for the improvemnents of roads, canals and navigable waters in the interior of the state, as well as for establishment of banks of issue, had little bearing on the history of the northern portion of the Lower Peninsula. Wild speculation and inflated and unsecured issues of paper money, so frequent in southern Michigan and the more settled sections of the northwest, brought on the financial panic and the confusion of all permanent projects which marked the period from 1837 to 1844, and thus retarded all real development in the northern part of the state. It was not until after the adoption of the constitution of 1850 that this portion of the commonwealth evinced signs of stability. The most radical change in the second constitution was that providing for popular election of all the heads of state departments and judges of the supreme court. In April, 1906, the people voted in favor of another revision of the state's fundamental law. The delegates comprising the constitutional convention assembled at Lansing in October, 1907, and completed the revision in March of the following year, its work being approved by vote of the people November 3, 1908. What is known as the constitution of 1909 is therefore now the basic law of the commonwealth of Michigan. By that instrument, of course, the offices of governor, lieutenant governor, secretary of state, state treasurer, commissioner of the state land office, auditor general and attorney general were made elective, and the functions of government were classified as executive, judicial and legislative. The judiciary was divided into supreme, circuit and probate and justices' courts, the incumbents of which were chosen by popular vote. Provision was made for the organization and incorporation of counties, townships, villages and cities and for purposes of education. The superintendent of public instruction came into being, the State university with its board of regents, the State Board of Agriculture with its Agricultural College, the College of Mines, the State Normal College and Normal schools, with the continuation of a system of primary schools. Section II provided: "The proceeds from the sale of all lands that have been or hereafter may be granted by the United States to the state for educational purposes and the proceeds of all lands or other property given by individuals or appropriated by the state for like purposes shall be and remain a perpetual fund, the interest and income of which together with the rents of all such lands as may remain unsold, shall be inviolably appropriated and annually applied to the specific objects of the original gift, grant or appropriation." Section 12: "All lands, the titles to which shall fail from a defect of heirs, shall eseheat to the state, and the interest on the clear

Page  103 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 103 proceeds from the sales thereof shall be appropriated exclusively to the support of the primary schools." Section 13: "The legislature shall appropriate all Salt Spring lands now unappropriated, or the money arising from the sale of the same, where such lands have already been sold, and any funds or lands which may hereafter be granted or appropriated for such purpose, for the support and maintenance of the Agricultural College." Section 14: "The legislature shall provide by law for the establishment of at least one library in each township and city; and all fines assessed and collected in the several counties, cities and townships for any breach of the penal laws shall be exclusively applied to the support of such libraries." Section 15: "Institutions for the benefit of those inhabitants who are deaf, dumb, blind, feeble-minded or insane shall be always fostered and supported." Under the head of "Corporations" the constitution provided that such bodies might be formed under general laws but not created, "nor shall any rights, privileges or franchises be conferred upon them by special act of the legislature." No corporation was to be granted a franchise for a longer period than thirty years, "except for municipal, insurance, canal or cemetery purposes, or corporations organized without any capital stock for religious, benevolent, social or fraternal purposes; but the legislature may provide by general laws, applicable to any corporations, for one or more extensions of the term of such corporations." The different sections of the article on "Corporations" announced the individual liability of stockholders; pronounced against disrimination in transportation charges and against railroad consolidation or monopoly, and laid down the principle that "no general law providing for the incorporation of trust companies or corporations for banking purposes, or regulating the business thereof, shall be adopted, amended or repealed, except by a vote of two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature. Such laws shall not authorize the issue of bank notes or paper credit to circulate as money. " SERVED IN THE LEGISLATURE The state senators and representatives who have served their constituents in the territory covered by this work, most of whom have resided within the counties therein included, are as follows. In the list embracing the senators the subdivisions indicate name, postoffice address and sessions of service. In the list relating to representatives the names given in the third subdivision 'are those of counties, which were included in the various districts, and where only one is given it is to be understood that in the year designated it formed a district alone: SENATORS Barnum, Ezra C.; Petoskey, Emmet; 1895, '97, '98. 'Barton, Walter W.; Leland, Leelanau; 1887. *.\Aln representative

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Bell, George W.; Cheboygan, Cheboygan; 1879. Burch, Marsden C.; Hersey, Osceola; 1877. Cannon, Ellery Channing; Evart, Osceola; 1901, '03. Carton, Augustus C.; East Tawas, losco; 1907. Chittenden, Clyde C.; Cadillac, Wexford; 1895. Cobell, George G.; Traverse City, Grand Traverse; 1897. Doherty, Alfred J.; Clare, Clare; 1901, '03, '05. *Fairbanks, Earl; Luther, Lake; 1907, '09. *Farr, Augustine W.; Onekama, Manistee; 1901, '03, '05. Forsyth, Alexander; Standish, Arenac; 1897, '98. Foster, Eugene; Gladwin, Gladwin; 1909. *Francis, Wm. H.; Frankfort, Benzie; 1885. Fridlender, Charles A.; Oscoda, Iosco; 1891, '92. Giddings, J. Wight; Cadillac, Wexford; 1887, '89. Gilbert, Peter; Sterling, Arenac; 1891, '92. Gullifer, Freeman O.; Au Sable, Iosco; 1883. Harshaw, Andrew; Alpena, Alpena; 1887, '89. Henry, Charles R.; Au Sable, Iosco; 1885. Hickock, James W.; Walton, Grand Traverse; 1853. Holcomb, James E.; Wolverine, Cheboygan; 1891, '92. Leavitt, Roswell; Bellaire, Antrim; 1889. McMullen, Daniel P.; Cheboygan, Cheboygan; 1899, '00, '01. Mears, Charles; Lincoln, Mason; 1863, '64. Mears, William J.; Boyne Falls, Charlevoix; 1893. tMilliken, James W.; Traverse City, Grand Traverse; 1898, '99, '00. -M\Iing, Fred R.; Cheboygan, Cheboygan; 1907, '09. *Mitchell, Wim. H.; E. Traverse Bay, Gd. Traverse; 1873, '4, '5. *M3offatt, Seth C.; Northport, Leelanau; 1871, '72. Moffatt, Orlando C.; Traverse City, Gd. Traverse; 1903, '05. Palmer, Ambrose E.; Kalkaska, Kalkaska; 1901. Pierce, Charles S.; Oscoda, Iosco; 1893. Prescott, George A.; Tawas City, Iosco; 1895, '97, '98. Prindle, Frank L.; Gladwin, Gladwin; 1891, '92. Smith, Alvah G.; Lake City, Missaukee; 1899, '00. *Turnbull, James D.; Alpena, Alpena; 1893. Walker, James B.; Benzonia, Benzie; 1865. Wesgate, Ansel W.; Cheboygan, Cheboygan; 1887. Wetmore, Fred C.; Cadillac, Wexford; 1907, '09. Wheeler, A. Oren; Manistee, Manistee; 1891, '92, '95. Wilkinson, Robert R.; Eastport, Antrim; 1891, '92. Williams, Fitch R.; Elk Rapids, Antrim; 1877. *Woodruff, Henry; Farwell, Clare; 1885. REPRESENTATIVES Agens, M. Levy; Ludington; MIason; 1905, '07, '09. Alexander, Sylvanus; Wexford; Wexford and Lake; 1889, '01, '02. * Also representative. IElected to fill vacancy caused by resignation of George G. Cobell, of Traverse City.

Page  105 H1STORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 105 Ashton, Benjamin D.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse and Kalkaska; 1887. Austin, Daniel; Ludington; Mason; 1889. Bagot, Richard W.; Elk Rapids; Antrim, Charlevoix and Kalkaska; 1893. Baker, Herbert F.; Weadock; Cheboygan; 1907, '09. Baldwin, Frank A.; Gaylord; Alpena, Montmorency and Otsego; 1887. Barry, John A.; Iarrietta; Wexford; 1907. Bishop, Roswell P.; Ludington; Mason; 1883, '93. Blacker, Robert R.; Manistee; Manistee; 1883, '85. (b) Blakely, Abraham R.; Alpena; Alpena, Montmorency, Otsego, Oscoda and Crawford; 1893. Bolton, Earl B.; Gaylord; *Alpena and Presque Isle; 1901, '03. Bonnell, Benjamin C.; Pioneer; Wexford, Lake, Kalkaska and Missaukee; 1883. Brott, Charles A.; South Boardman; MIissaukee; 1907. Bunting, Archibald F.; Empire; Leelanau; 1905, '07. Burdick, Noah W.; Mancelona; Antrim; 1899, '00, '07, '09. Burt, Edwin; Isabella City: Isabella, Montcalm and Clare; 1863, '64. Caldwell, John; Monton; Wexford; 1897, '98. Campbell, H. Frank; Sherman; Wexford, Missaukee and Clare; 1893, '95. Campbell, Thomas G.; Gladwin; *Midland and Clare; 1901. '03. Canby, Israel; Harbor Springs; Emmet, Cheboygan and Charlevoix; 1883. Canfield, Irvin S.; Alpena; Alpena; 1905. tCannon, Ellery C.; Evart; *Osceola and Osceola and Missaukee 1885, '07. Case, Arthur T.; Homestead; *Leelanau, Antrim and Benzie and Leelanau and Benzie; 1885, '07. Cathro, John J.; Alpena; Alpena, Crawford, Osceola and Otsego; 1895. (c) Chafey, Merrit N.; MIanistee; Manistee and Mason; 1873. Chandler, David G.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse; 1909. Churchill, Worthy L.; Alpena; Alpena, Iosco, Ogemaw, Alcona, Oscoda, Montmorency, Presque Isle, and Cheboygan; 1875. Clark. Jasper N.; Poulson; Mason; 1895, '7, '9. Cole, William B.; Ludington; Manistee and Mason; 1875. tComstock, Horace H.; Otsego; Allegan; 1849. Cummins, George J.; Harrison; Clare; 1909. tCurtis, William L.; Petoskey; Cheboygan; 1901. Cutcheon, Otis E. M.; Oscoda; Midland, Iosco, Gladwin. Roseommon and Ogemaw; 1881, '82. Dafoe, Lemuel G.; Alpena; Alpena, Montmorency and Otsego; 1891, '92. Decker, Freeman L.; Lake City; Missaukee; 1905, '09. * Two districts. tAlso senator. (b) Vice George W. Swift, resigned. (c) Resigned before extra session of 1S74 and succeeded by Andrew J. Dovell.

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Dennis, Orville; Lake City; *Wexford and Missaukee; 1901, '03. Dixon, John S.; Charlevoix; Emmet, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Leelanau, Antrim, Otsego, Crawford, Kalkaska, Missaukee and Wexford; 1863, '64. Double, Thomas E.; Vienna; Presque Isle; 1905, '07. Dougherty, Archibald K.; Elk Rapids; Charlevoix, Antrim and.Manitou; 1887. (d) Dovell, Andrew J.; Manistee; Manistee and Mason; 1874. Dundass, Robert W.; Ludington; Mason and Lake; 1881, '2. Dunlap, Abijah B.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse; 1865, '67. Dyer, Walter R.; Standish; Iosco, Alcona and Arenac; 1889. tFairbanks, Earl; Luther; Wexford; 1903, '05. tFancher, Isaac A.; Mt. Pleasant; Midland, Isabella, Gladwin, Clare and Roscommon; 1873, '74. tFarr, Augustine W.; Onekama; Manistee; 1877. Fenton, Charles B.; Mackinac; Mackinac, Cheboygan, Chippewa, Elnmet and Presque Isle; 1867, '71, '72. Ferguson, Thomas A.; Sherman; Grand Traverse, Wexford, Missaukee, Kalkaska, Crawford and Manitou; 1873, '4, '5. Ferris, Jacob; Greenville; Montcalm, Isabella, Osceola and Clare; 1859. Fleischhauer, Alfred AI.; Reed City; Osceola; 1897, '98, '99, '00. Foster, William H.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse; 1897, '98, '99, '00. Francis, James; Alpena; Alpena; 1903. tFrancis, William H.; Frankfort; Leelanau and Benzie; 1879. Fraser, Charles L.; Petoskey; Charlevoix, Emmet, Antrim, Otsego and Manitou; 1881, '82. Gargett, James; Alma; Gratiot, Midland, Gladwin and Roscommon; 1863. '64. Gerrish, Nathaniel L.; Hersey; Mecosta, Osceola and Lake; 1875. Gibbs, James L.; Mayfield; *Grand Traverse and Wexford and Grand Traverse and Manitou; 1877, '85. Gibson, John; Detroit; Wayne; 1871, '72. Gillam, George E.; Harrisville; Iosco; 1897, '98, '99, '00. Gray, Humphrey S.; Ludington; Mason; 1899, '00. Green, Edward H.; Charlevoix; Charlevoix, Antrim, Emmet, Mackinac and Otsego; 1873, '4, '5. Gustin, Henry K.; Alpena; Alpena; 1897, '98, '99, '00. (f) Hall, De Vere; West Branch; Ogemaw, Crawford, Oscoda and Roscommon; 1891. Halladay, Frayer; Ashton; Osceola; 1903. Hampton, Charles S.; Harbor Springs; Emmet, Charlevoix and Cheboygan; 1885. Hannah, Perry; Traverse City; Grand Traverse; 1857. Harley, Charles I.; Riverton; Mason; 1901, '03. Harley, William; Scottville; Mason; 1891, '92. *Two districts. (dl Vice Merrit N. Chafey, resigned..Also senator. if Seat vacated by removal from district before extra session of 1892.

Page  107 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICIIGAN 1(07 Harris, William; Norwood; Antrim; 1889, '95, '97, '98. Hart, Henry; Midland City; Midland, Isabella, Gladwin, Clare and Roscommon; 1875. Hoeft, John, Jr.; Rogers; Presque Isle; 1909. Holden, Dennison F.; Oviatt; Leelanau and Benzie; 1891, '92. Hoobler; Samuel R.; Worth; Iosco, Alcona and Arenac; 1887. Hosner, Orcott V.; Frankfort; Leelanau and Benzie; 1873, '74. tHowell, William T.; Hillsdale; 1842; Newaygo, Mecosta, Lake, Osceola and Mason; 1861, '2, '3. Huntley, Victor F.; Manton; Wexford; 1909. Jackson, Andrew; Sault Ste. Marie: Cheboygan, Mackinac, Chippewa and Schoolcraft; 1879. Kelley, Louis L.; Farwell; Clare; 1905, '07. Kelley, Robert J.; Alpena; Alpena, Alcona, Presque Isle, Oscoda and Montmorency; 1877. Knight, Richard; Atwood; Leelanau, Antrim and Benzie; 1883. Lockwood, James K.; Alpena; *Midland, Alpena, Iosco and Isabella, 1867; and Alpena, Alcona, Cheboygan, Iosco, Montmorency, Ogemaw, Oscoda, and Presque Isle, 1873, '74. Lonsbury, Philo M.: Reed City; Lake and Osceola; 1895. Markey, Daniel P.; West Branch; 2Iosco, Otsego, Crawford, Oscoda, Alcona and Ogemaw, 1885; and Ogemaw, Crawford, Oscoda, and Roscommon, 1887. Marsh, William D.; Midland; Midland, Clare and Gladwin; 1891. '92. Martin, E. Broox; Reed City; *Osceola. Kalkaska, Missaukee and Crawford, 1881, '82; and Osceola, 1883. Marvin, Dighton R.; Hersey; Osceola; 1905. Maxwell, Andrew C.; Bay City; Bay, Alcona, Alpena, Cheboygan, losco, Montmorency, Ogemaw, Oscoda and Presque Isle; 1865. McArthur, William; Cheboygan; Cheboygan, Mackinac, Chippewa and Schoolcraft; 1877. McCarthy, John J.; Standish; Iosco; 1903, '05, '07. McFadzen, William H.; Oak Hill; Manistee; 1909. McGovern, Daniel; Tustin; Osceola and Missaukee; 1891, '92. tMing, Fred R.; Cheboygan; Cheboygan; 1905. Mitchell, William H.; E. Traverse Bay; *Grand Traverse, Mason, Lake, Manistee, Leelanau, Manitou, Antrim, Otsego, Crawford, Kalkaska, Missaukee, Wexford and Benzie; 1869, '70; Grand Traverse, Mason, Lake, Manistee, Leelanau, MAanitou, Antrim, Otsego, Crawford, Kalkaska, Missaukee, Wexford, Benzie and Charlevoix; 1871, '72. tMoffatt, Seth C.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse and Wexford; 1881, '82. Monroe, James IH.; Traverse City; Grand Traverse; 1903, '05. '07. Orth, George; Au Sable; Iosco, Alcona and Arenae; 1891. '92. Oviatt, George; Chase; *Wexford, Lake, Kalkaska and Missaukee and Wexford and Lake. 1885, '87. * Two districts tAlso senator.

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Paddock, Robert W.; Charlevoix; Charlevoix; 1903. Pailthorp, Charles J.; Petoskey; Charlevoix, Antrim, Emmet, Otsego and Manitou; 1879. Palmer, Oscar; Grayling; losco, Crawford, Otsego, Ogemaw, Osceola and Alcona; 1883. Palmer, Walter H.; Reed City; Osceola, Kalkaska, Missaukee and Crawford; 1877, '79. Pearson, William J.; Boyne Falls; Charlevoix; 1909. Perry, Charles W.; Pierport; Manistee; 1895, '7, '8. Perry, John M.; Tustin; Osceola; 1907, '09. Persons, Alonzo E.; Alpena; Alpena; 1861, '62. tPost, Floyd L.; Coleman; Midland, Gladwin and Roscommon; 1885. Potter, Edward K.; Alpena; Alpena, Montmorency and Otsego; 1889. Probert, William; Bear Lake; Manistee; 1879, '89. Ramsdell, Thomas J.; Manistee; Manistee; 1861, '62. Read, J. Herbert; Copemish; Manistee; 1899, '00, '01, '03, '05. Reader, George H.; Scottville; Mason; 1887. Reynolds, Richard B.; Inland; Leelanau; 1903. Rice, William E.; Rogers City; Cheboygan, Emmet, Presque Isle and Manitou; 1895. Richards, George D.; Wolverine; Cheboygan; 1903. Robinson, George J.; Alpena; Alpena, Presque Isle and Montmorency; 1883. Seymour, Henry W.; Sault Ste. Marie; Cheboygan, Chippewa, Schooleraft and Mackinac; 1881, '82. Sharpe, Albert E.; East Tawas, losco; 1901. Shephard, Frank; Cheboygan; Cheboygan; 1897, '98, '99, '00. Slosson, Willis M.; Reed City; Osceola and Missaukee; 1889. Stone, Clement W.; Houghton; Midland, Iosco, Gladwin, Ogeinaw and Roscommon; 1877. Stroud, Alonzo J.; Horton Bay; Charlevoix; 1905, '07. Tinklepaugh, Jacob N.; Kalkaska; Gd. Traverse and Kalkaska; 1889, '91, '92. Totten, William D.; Kalkaska; Antrim; 1901. Turner, Stanley W.; Mason; *Ingham, 1877; and Ogemaw, Crawford. Oscoda and Roscommon, 1889. Utley, William S.; Big Prairie; Newaygo, Mecosta, Lake, Osceola and Mason; 1865. Van Kleeck, James; Midland City; Midland, Gladwin and Roscommon; 1883. Vinton. David, Jr.; Williamsburg; Grand Traverse and Manitou; 1883. Wachtel, Philip B.; Petoskey; *Cheboygan, Emmet and Presque Isle, 1889, '91, '93; and Cheboygan, Emmet, Presque Isle and Manitou, 1893. Warner, Dwight G. F.; Frankfort; Leelanau; 1909. *Two districts. tAlso senator.

Page  109 HISTORY OF' NORTHERN MICHIGAN 109 Wendell, Jacob A. T.; Mackinac; ~,"Mackinac, 1855; Mackinac and Manitou, 1865; Mackinac, Cheboygan, Chippewa, Emmet and Presque Isle, 1869, '70. Williams, Charles W.; Kassan; Lcclanau and Benzie; 1889. Wing, Giles MI.; Manistee; Manistee; 1881, '82. Wright, Charles R.; St. James; Manitou; 1861, '62. Yeo, William T.; West Branch; Toso; 1909. ' Three districts.

Page  110 CHAPTER V BENCH AND BAR TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURTS-THE LOWER COURTS-TERRITORIAL CIRCUIT COURTS-UNDER THE 1850 CONSTITUTION-UNDER THE 1909 CONSTITUTION-JUSTICE A. V. MCALVAY-CIRCUITS AND JUDGESHISTORY OF SETTLED JURISDICTION-THE CASE AGAINST KING STRANG -EARLY PRACTICE IN GRAND TRAVERSE REGION-JUDGES LITTLEJOHN AND RAMSDELL-COURTS AND LAWYERS IN CHEBOYGAN COUNTY— EARLY JUSTICE IN EMMET COUNTY-FIRST JUDGES AND LAWYERS IN ALPENA COUNTY-MANISTEE COUNTY'S FIRST LAWYER-JUDGE RAMSDELL'S REMINISCENCES-IN LEELANAU AND ANTRIM COUNTIES -CIRCUIT COURT OPENED IN CHARLEVOIX COUNTY-THE FIRST LAWYER-TWENTY-EIGHTH CIRCUIT AND WEXFORD COUNTY-KALKASKA BENCH AND BAR —IOSCO COUNTY-MICHIGAN STATE BAR ASSOCIATION. As a matter of historic investigation it is of interest to trace the origin of the various courts of justice which have extended their jurisdiction over the northern half of the southern peninsula of Michigan. Reference has already been made to the Quebec act of 1774 which provided that the civil law of Paris and the criminal law of England should prevail in that region as well as the country farther to the north and northwest. So although it may satisfy historic curiosity to know that William Dummer Powell, afterward chief justice of Upper Canada, was the first to preside over the court which sat at Detroit until 1796, when Jay's treaty went into operation, it is well understood that Northern Michigan was virtually an unpeopled region and was little affected by the supreme court and courts of common pleas and quarter sessions which convened in that city, the seat of justice from 1778 of the Canadian "district of Hesse.", TERRITORIAL SUPREME COURTS By the ordinance of 1787 the Northwest territory was provided with a governor, secretary and three judges, who composed the supreme court which held sway over the Northern Michigan of today. The judges, with the governor, constituted a legislature empowered to compile laws selected from the statutes of the original states, but not to enact original laws. The new territory acquired by the Jay treaty, which included all of Michigan and Wisconsin containing any 110

Page  111 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 111 settlements, was attached to the Northwest territory as the county of Wayne, and it was during the year when that treaty became operative (1796) that the authorities made the first appropriation ($85) for a court in Detroit after Michigan came under control of the United States. One session of the supreme court was held in that city annually and John C. Symmes, the presiding judge who lived in Cincinnati, never missed a session until the Northwest territory was dismembered by the setting off of Ohio in 1800. The territory of Michigan was set off from Indiana in 1805, a separate government modeled after that of the Northwest territory being created on June 30th of that year. Under the provisions of its constitution the supreme court consisted of a chief and two associate justices appointed by the president of the United States. The judge holding the earliest commission was named chief justice, or if two held commissions of the same date the oldest judge was placed at the head of the court. The term of office depended solely on "good behavior." No radical change was made in the provisions governing the organization and jurisdiction of the supreme court until 1824, Augustus B. Woodward having served as chief justice during the entire period and James Witherell as one of his associates. TERRITORIAL DISTRICT COURTS At first the supreme court had original jurisdiction in all cases involving the title to land, capital criminal cases, and divorce and alimony suits, and afterwards in all cases to which the United States was a party, as well as all actions of ejectment. During the existence of the district courts, from 1805 to 1810, jurisdiction in civil matters involving sums to exceed $500 was divided, and after the organization of county courts in 1815 the supreme court had jurisdiction over ejectment and civil actions when more than $1,000 was in controversy. "It also determined all legal questions arising in circuit courts on motion for new trial, in arrest of judgments or cases reversed, and issued writs of error to circuit and county courts." Soon after the organization of the territorial government, on July 25, 1805, an act was adopted establishing three distinct courts to be held by the judges of the supreme court, one annual term to be held for the district of 1Michilimackinac. Demands exceeding $20 were to be adjudicated by that court. In 1807 two associate judges, residents of the district, were added to the members of the court, but proved really of small assistance in the settlement of controversies. There is on record in the archives at Fort Mackinac a commission issued to Samuel Abbott, dated July 10, 1807, as associate justice of the district court of Michilimackinac. These courts were abolished in 1810 and for the succeeding five years there was no intermediate judicial body between the supreme and justices' courts. THE LOWER COURTS In 1815 county courts were established, its members consisting of one chief and two associates appointed by the governor. As stated by

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the "Michigan Manual: "They had exclusive jurisdiction over all claims exceeding a justice's jurisdiction and not exceeding $1,000, but no jurisdiction in ejectment. Until 1818 final appeal lay to the county court from justices' courts. Chancery jurisdiction was then given them and provision was made for the appointment of masters in chancery. When the act to establish county courts was passed, Wayne county was the only one organized, and the district of Michilimackinac was excepted from the provisions of the act. After the establishment of circuit courts (1824) the county courts began to decline." By act of the governor and judges, July 27, 1818, a court of probate was established in each county. A "Court of General Quarter Sessions of the Peace" had already been provided for by act of November 25, 1817, composed of the justices of the county courts and the justices of the peace of each county. They were required to hold four stated sessions per year, their duties being similar to those of the board of supervisors as now constituted. Judicial officers (other than the federal judges), including justices of the peace, were appointed by the governor. TERRITORIAL CIRCUIT COURTS In 1824 a radical change was made in the organization and functions of the supreme court, its three members being required to hold an annual term in each of the counties of Wayne, Monroe, Oakland, Macomb and St. Clair and special sessions in Michilimackinac, Brown and Crawford whenever deemed advisable "in their sound discretion." Circuit courts were established in name during the following year, but were still held by the judges of the supreme court. In 1827 two circuits were added, but the same discretionary powers were continued as to holding special terms in the counties named, Michilimackinac being, of course, the circuit which embraced the present territory of Northern Michigan. In 1833 the county courts in the territory east of Lake Michigan, except in Wayne, were abolished and their places supplied by the "(ircuit court of the territory of Michigan," comprising one judge for the circuit and two associates for each county, whose respective terms were four and three years. The courts already existing were called "superior circuit courts" and were empowered to issue writs of error to the lower circuit courts. William A. Fletcher was judge of the circuit court of the territory from its organization until the coming of statehood. STATE SUPREME AND CIRCUIT COURTS The first state constitution framed by the convention of 1835 became operative when the enabling act for the admission of the state was approved by popular vote June 15, 1836. By act approved March 26th of that year the state had been divided into three circuits, each of which was presided over by a judge of the supreme court, each to hold court in the -several counties of his circuit and all to sit together

Page  113 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 113 for the decision of appeals. These courts were given the same powers as the territorial circuit courts, except in chancery matters. Under the state constitution equity matters were vested in a court of chancery until that body was abolished in 1846. The circuit judges, under the first state constitution, were appointed by the governor and confirmed by the senate for a term of seven years. The circuit assigned to Chief Justice Fletcher comprised the counties of Monroe, Lenawee, Hillside, Jackson, Washtenaw, Oakland and Saginaw; that assigned to Associate Justice George Morell, Wayne, St. Clair, Lapeer, Michilimackinac (Northern Michigan) and Chippewa, and that assigned to Associate Justice E. Ransom, the counties of Berrien, Cass, St. Joseph, Calhoun, Kalamazoo, Allegan and Kent. As under the territorial system, two associates were chosen for each county. They were known as "side judges," were not necessarily lawyers, and, as they were generally considered more ornamental than useful-perhaps a part of the political "graft" of those days-were dispensed with in 18'46. UNDER THE 1850 CONSTITUTION In that year a county court was established by statute, comprising a judge and associate, elected for a term of four years. The second judge was to act only in cases where the first was "a party in interest or in cases of absence or disability. The court was to sit in term on the first Monday of each month and during such part of the month as might be requisite for transacting the business before it. This court was the fruit of a reform agitation largely centering in Washtenaw county, which demanded cheaper and more speedy means of securing (or trying to secure) justice for the average citizen or poor litigant than was afforded by the circuit courts. It was not a popular institution with the lawyers, who dubbed it 'the one-horse court.' It went out of existence with the adoption of the constitution of 1850. The circuit judges, sitting together, constituted the supreme court of the state until the system was changed as hereafter noted. "Section 1 of article 6 of the constitution provides, 'The judicial power is vested in one supreme court, in circuit courts, in probate courts, and in justices of the peace,' with authority on the part of the legislature to establish municipal courts in cities. It was provided that after six years the legislatures might provide for what was popularly termed an independent supreme court, 'to consist of one chief justice and three associate judges,' to be elected by the people. This power was acted upon by the legislature of 1857, and judges were elected at the spring election in that year, the court being organized January 1, 1858. The term of the judges was eight years, and they were so classified that their terms expired successively every second year. It is provided in the constitution that the court, when established, should not be changed for eight years. To what extent changes might be made after eight years may be a matter of construction. In 1867 the legislature so far departed from the letter of the constitution as to provide that the judges should be elected as judges or justices Vol. I-S

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN of the supreme court, without designating any person as chief justice, and that the senior judge in service should be chief justice. An even number of judges was found to work great inconvenience, because on some questions of importance there was an equal division, and hence no decision. In 1885, a bill was introduced in the state senate by Senator Hubbell, of Houghton, providing for an additional judge. An examination of the convention debates of 1850, made at his request, showed quite clearly that the intention was to have a bench of four judges only. Whether this was his reason for not pressing his bill is not known, but no action was had upon it at that session. At the next session a bill was passed for a fifth judge with a ten year term." To recapitulate: Under the first state constitution, the supreme court consisted of a chief justice and two associates, appointed by the governor, who also had jurisdiction over three circuits, and their term of service was seven years; the constitution of 1850 provided that for the term of six years the five circuit judges of the state should constitute the supreme court, their office being made elective; in 1857 the members of the supreme court were made by legislative enactment to consist of one chief and. three associates, elected by the people for a term of eight years; the legislature of 1887 increased the number of justices to five and lengthened the term to ten years, and in 1903 the court was made to consist of eight justices, with term reduced to eight years. Under the first state constitution Michigan was divided into three circuits, over which the supreme court judge presided; the constitution of 1850 made the circuit judge elective and the term of office six years. In 1879 the state was divided into thirty-five circuits; in 1899. the Thirty-sixth was created; in 1901, the Thirty-seventh and Thirtyeighth and in 1907 the Thirty-ninth and last. UNDER THE 1909 CONSTITUTION The constitution now in force, which was accepted by the people November 3, 1908, vests the judicial power of the state in "one supreme court, circuit courts, probate courts, justices of the peace and such other courts of civil and criminal jurisdictions inferior to the supreme court, as the legislature may establish by general law, by a two thirds vote of the members elected to each house." The supreme court consists of a chief justice and seven associates, two new members of that body being elected biennially. Four terms of court are held annually, its jurisdiction being generally understood. JUSTICE A. V. MCALVAY Justice Aaron V. McAlvay, whose term expires December 31, 1915, has had his home at Manistee since 1871. The following biography is from the Michigan "Red Book" of 1911: "Aaron Vance McAlvay was born at Ann Arbor, Washtenaw county. Michigan, July 19, 1847. His early years, when not in school, were spent on his father's farm. Mr. McAlvay received his early education in the public schools of Ann

Page  115 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 115 Arbor, being graduated in 1864. He was graduated from the literary department of the University of Michigan in 1868, with the degree of A. B., and in 1869 from the law department with the degree of LL. B. He taught school for one year before graduation, located at Manistee in 1871, and began the practice of law, continuing his practice until 1878 when he was appointed judge of the nineteenth judicial circuit to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Hon. H. H. Wheeler. At the expiration of the term he returned to practice and continued the same until June, 1901, when he was appointed judge of the same circuit, and was elected November, 1902, without opposition. He was appointed a non-resident lecturer in the law department of the University of Michigan in 1897 and filled that position until his resignation in October, 1903. In 1910 the University of Michigan conferred upon him the degree of LL. D. Mr. McAlvay was united in marriage with Miss Barbara Bassler of Ann Arbor in 1872 and six children have graced this union, five of whom are now living. He was elected justice of the supreme court for the three years' term, November 8, 1904, and reelected for the full term April 1, 1907, by a vote of 220,044 to 114,567 for George P. Stone, 11,600 for Winent H. D. Fox, and 5, 126 for James H. McFarlan. Justice McAlvay was chief justice during the year 1907. CIRCUITS AND JUDGES By the constitution of 1909 the courts of the thirty-nine circuits into which the state is divided are also required to be held four times each year in every county organized for judicial purposes. Circuit courts have "original jurisdiction in all matters civil and criminal not excepted in this constitution (1909) and not prohibited by law, and appellate jurisdiction from all inferior courts and tribunals and a supervisory control of the same. They shall have power to issue writs of habeas corpus, mandamus, injunction, quo warranto, and certiorari and to hear and determine the same; and to issue such other writs as may be necessary to carry into effect their orders, judgments and decrees and give them general control over inferior courts and tribunals within their respective jurisdictions and all such other cases and matters as the supreme court shall by rule prescribe." The judges of the circuit courts are elected for a term of six years, and those who are now serving the portion of Michigan of which we write are: Frederick W. Mayne, Thirteenth circuit, Charlevoix; Charles A. Withey, Nineteenth circuit. Reed City; Main J. Connine, Twenty-third circuit, Oscoda; Frank Emerick, Twenty-sixth circuit, Alpena; Fred S. Lamb, Twenty-eighth circuit, Cadillac; Frank Shepherd, Thirty-third circuit, Cheboygan; Nelson Sharpe, Thirty-fourth circuit, West Branch. The Thirteenth judicial circuit includes Antrim, Charlevoix, Grand Traverse and Leelanau; the Nineteenth, Lake, Manistee. Mason and Osceola; the Twenty-third, Alcona, Iosco and Oscoda; the Twentyeighth, Benzie, Kalkaska, Missaukee and Wexford; the Thirty-third, Cheboygan, Emmet and Mackinac; and the Thirty-fourth, Arenac, Crawford, Gladwin, Ogemaw, Otsego and Roscommon. Mackinac, in the

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Thirty-third circuit, is the only county named in the foregoing list which is not included in this history, and the only one omitted is Clare, in the extreme southern tier, which, with Isabella and Midland, comprises the Twenty-first judicial circuit, over which presides Peter F. Dodds, of Mt. Pleasant. Under the constitution of 1909 the probate courts of the state "have original jurisdiction in all cases of juvenile delinquents and dependents," besides the powers usually ascribed to them. The judges are elected for a four-years' term, provision being made for "more than one judge of probate in counties with more than one hundred thousand inhabitants." Such additional judges are chosen at alternate biennial elections. Justices of the peace were appointed by the governor during territorial times, but all the state constitutions have made them elective officials, with terms of four years. Not to exceed four justices of the peace are elected in each organized township, the legislature providing for city justices. HISTORY OF SETTLED JURISDICTION The history of settled jurisprudence in the territory of Northern Michigan covered by this work had its origin in the constitution of 1850. The first subject of adjudication of the higher courts, within this area, was the Mormon King, James J. Strang, of Big Beaver island, who had established his capital at St. James, and settled a colony and erected a kingdom around it which threatened the supremacy of the Utah monarchy. While visiting a brother in the city of Detroit, President Millard Fillmore was informed that among the remote islands of Lake Michigan a person named Strang had established what he termed a kingdom, but which actually was but a nest of freebooters engaged in robbing the mails and counterfeiting the coin. The president dispatched the armed steamer "Michigan" to the insular kingdom and ordered the arrest of the king for treason. THE CASE AGAINST KING STRANG The United State authorities decided to proceed against Strang also for trespassing on the public lands and stealing timber, his kingdom being at the time under the jurisdiction of the district court of Wayne county. The "Michigan" was therefore placed under orders of District Attorney George C. Bates, and, with a force of deputy marshals to serve warrants upon the king and his lieutenants sailed from Detroit for Beaver Island late in May, 1851. About midnight the steamer reached the harbor of St. James, and the following morning King Strang and two-score other Mormons surrendered themselves to the officers of the law. These officers had been told that they would find the workshop of the counterfeiters in an artificial cave fashioned from Mount T'isgah, but failed to locate it. Whereupon a court was convened under an awning on the steamer's deck, in St. James harbor, and a great mass of testimony was taken

Page  117 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 117 before United States Commissioner W. D. Wilkins. Over one hundred witnesses were examined. Strang was represented by Colonel A. T. McReynolds, the government's legal champion being, of course, District Attorney Bates. As a result of the examination the United States officials released many of the Mormons and steamed for Detroit with King Strang and a few of his leading men. "There, from the latter part of May until the 9th of July, was held a trial that attracted attention all over the country. The indictments against Strang were on twelve counts, including mail robbery, counterfeiting and treason. He conducted his own defense with such skill and shrewdness as to result in his acquittal. His speech to the jury was highly dramatic. He pictured himself a martyr to religious persecution. He was a master of emotional oratory and on this occasion particularly so. His acquittal was gained in the face of a violent local prejudice and the most virulent attacks in the local press. It was a victory that gave him an immense prestige at home and aided him abroad. "Biding his own opportunity, Strang planned to secure the machinery of the law in his own hands. He so shrewdly manipulated politics that the solid vote of Beaver Island became of great concern to politicians. To the discomfiture of the people of Mackinac, in 1851, the Mormons elected all the county officers. They now had the sheriff and the entire machinery of the law and could do as they pleased. A Mormon sheriff could serve the warrants, a Mormon jury convict and a Mormon judge sentence anyone resisting the mandate or authority of the king. "In 1853 King Strang secured his own election to the legislature by clever political manipulation. His candidacy was not announced until election day; the Mormons then plumped their votes for him and snowed under their unsuspecting enemies, who supposed their own candidate would go in without opposition. An attempt was made to prevent Strang from taking his seat by serving an old warrant for his arrest. To outwit his foes, Strang barricaded himself in his stateroom and withstood a siege until the boat entered the St. Clair, when he broke down the door and sought neutral territory by jumping on a wharf on the Canadian shore. Arrived at the capital, he ascertained that his seat would be contested. He argued his own case, and made such a favorable impression that he obtained the disputed seat." King Strang was a lawyer and had practiced in New York and Wisconsin before he joined the Mormons of Nauvoo, Illinois, and led a rebellion against Joseph Smith and the council of twelve. He therefore may be considered the first resident lawyer of the northern section of the Lower Peninsula, as the examination of himself and leaders aboard the "Michigan," and under the jurisdiction of the United States district court, may be called the first trial of a ease in that territory before a regularly constituted bench of justice. EARLY PRACTICE IN GRAND TRAVERSE REGION Grand Traverse was the first of the counties between the straits of Mackinac and the Saginaw valley to enjoy a permanent judicial organ

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN ization, and the constitution of 1850 was the basis for the founding of law and order, through the courts, in that region. Prior to that year matters in dispute were settled in a crude way through the justices' "courts." A picture of the times prior to the coming in of the regular judicial machinery, with the increase of population and civil organization of the counties, is thus given by General B. M. Cutcheon, in his centennial address at Manistee; but the picture will apply to most of the justices' courts of 1849: John Barret's saloon "was a small room and contained a small box stove about twenty inches long, a bunk and a bench. It was full of men drinking and drunken. The furniture of the room consisted of two whisky barrels, a wash basin and a ladle; they drew the whisky in the wash basin, and every man helped himself with the ladle, and when the wash basin was emptied it was filled and passed again, at twenty-five cents a round. I have seen, said he (a settler of '49 is telling the story), in one Sunday, seventeen couples of men stripped and fighting around that place. The nearest justice was John Stronach at old Stronach mills, and only a trail to reach there. When called on he gravely took his statutes under his arm; the court made his way on foot, or in a canoe, down to the mouth, and held court in Barret's saloon." "The exercises were introduced by a drink all around. Then the case was heard, and the court was not annoyed by lawyers or embarassed by law. Having heard the evidence the court delivered his opinion as follows: 'Well, boys, this is a bad muss, and I guess you'd better settle it.' The parties were usually of the same opinion, and a drink of whisky all around closed the exercises." Although the act for the organization of Grand Traverse county was approved April 7, 1851, that instrument contained no provision for organizing a township and choosing inspectors of election, and the county therefore remained without a legal government until the special election of May 9, 1853. During the preceding winter the legislature had passed the act to complete its organization, providing for the special election of May and attaching to it, for judicial purposes, the counties of Antrim, Kalkaska, Missaukee, Wexford, Manistee and Leelanau. At the May election, George N. Smith, a son of Lyman, the first settler of the Traverse region south of Traverse City, was elected judge of probate, and Thomas Cutler was chosen clerk and register. At that time Grand Traverse county was included in the Eighth judicial circuit, George Martin being the presiding judge. The first circuit court in the county was held at Mr. Cutler's house on the 27th of July, 1853, and Ebenezer Gould was appointed prosecuting attorney by the court. A. S. Wadsworth was foreman and Dr. D. C. Goodale clerk of the first grand jury. Benjamin Adsit heads the list on the record, and the familiar names of Samuel K. Northam, Elisha P. Ladd, Henry D. Campbell, Joseph Dame, Thomas Hitchcock and Lewis Miller follow. At that time Robert McLellan, afterward a prominent and respected farmer on the peninsula, was admitted to the bar. The first trial by jury of which there is any record, was that of James E. Scott, for murder. It commenced on the 24th of August, 1855, and ended on the following day, the jury finding him guilty. He was

Page  119 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 119 sentenced to imprisonment in the state prison for fifteen years. The business of the courts was evidently dispatched with commendable celerity in those days. The first attorney in the county was C. H. Holden, who moved to Traverse City from Northport in the fall of 1858, having been elected prosecuting attorney at the fall election. Soon afterward C. H. Marsh, located there, and in the spring of 1862, J. G. Ramsdell moved from Northport to Traverse City, having located at Northport in the fall of 1861. George P. Griswold, E. C. Tuttle and 0. H. Mills were also early lawyers. In the spring of 1865, E. S. Pratt and L. D. Boynton came to the city and were associated together in practice. Boynton afterward went away, but Pratt remained and was long the senior member of the law firm of Pratt, Hatch & Davis. JUDGES LITTLEJOHN AND RAMSDELL The first judge to serve Grand Traverse county after it became attached to the Ninth circuit was Hon. Flavius J. Littlejohn, who was succeeded in 1866 by Judge J. G. Ramsdell. The following is one of the best sketches ever published of Judge Littlejohn and is from the pen of Edwy C. Reid, of the Allegait Journal: "On the morning of the 28th of April, 1880, ex-Judge F. J. Littlejohn was stricken with pain in his bowels and was forced to stop at his daughter's, Mrs. A. S. Butler, a short way off, not being able to go home. He remained there in great pain and dangerously sick for a few days when, becoming better, he was taken home, but not at any time afterward able to quit his bed except for short times. He remiained in full possession of his mental powers and conversed quite freely though at times his voice was made weak by pain. His physician fromLL the first doubted his ability to effect a cure, but thought it possible to to restore him to his former state." The venerable jurist, however, passed away on May 15, 1880. "Judge Littlejohn was born in Herkimer county, New York, in July, 1804. He graduated from Hamilton college in 1827, and delivered the valedictory address. In 1830 he was admitted to the bar. He practiced law at Little Falls in his native county until the spring of 1836, when his health failed and he sought a home in the West. He settled in Allegan, being among the pioneers of that section of the country. He was engaged for some years as a surveyor, engineer and geologist. In the fall of 1841 he was elected to the lower house of the legislature and was afterward chosen for second and third terms. In 1845 he was elected to the senate. He was president pro tem of that body during the lengthy session of 1846, when the revised statutes of that year were adopted. He was again returned to the house in 1848 and sat as a member during its first session at Lansing. He was also elected to the same body in 1855. As a legislator his labors were arduous and his influence salutary. He was the originator and chief advocate of many measures which, having become laws, have strongly aided the growth and development of the state. In 1849 he ran as a Whig and

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Free-ooil candidate for governor, making a thorough canvass of the state and lacking little of an election. 'The only county office Mr. Littlejohn ever held was that of circuit court commissioner, but his defeats were always because of political questions, he having been a Democrat since 1850. He was frequently, however, made a candidate by his party whose confidence and respect he always retained. "In the interval between his last two elections to the house, Mr. Littlejohn returned to the practice of his profession, in which he had also been engaged for the previous ten years. In 1858 he was elected judge of the Ninth circuit. This circuit had been newly organized and embraced, territorially, some twenty counties, viz.-those lying along the eastern shore of Lake Michigan from Van Buren to Emmet, besides the contiguous inland counties. No reliable means of public conveyance then existed-there were not even roads-and the performance of his duties was therefore difficult. "In 1875 or 1876, Judge Littlejohn prepared the material from which an historical work was compiled. As a lecturer he was, a few years since, in frequent demand, being sought both for his logic and his eloquence. In public matters he was always prominent and his influence was for good, his labor in the cause of temperance Deing constant and effective. Living always a moderate and exemplary life, he professed Cbristianity only in his later years, but he was then very firmly convinced of its truth and did some work for its advancement. As a citizen and a judge he always bore a spotless reputation, and goes to his grave full of honors and of years, widely known and as widely respected, peacefully and in faith moving to his reward." Jonathan G. Ramsdell was a native of Wayne county, Michigan; commenced the study of law at Lansing and was admitted to the bar in 1857. For a time he held the office of circuit court commissioner of Ingham county, and for four years was clerk of the Supreme court. In 1861, by request of the governor, he became identified with the Agriculture College as a lecturer on commercial law, having during the campaign of the previous year visited the Grand Traverse region and familiarized himself with it while making political speeches. About that time he went to Manistee to assist his brother, Hon. T. J. Ramsdell, at a term of court. The fall and winter of 1860 he spent at Northport, but had purchased a large tract of fruit land in Grand Traverse county, upon which he moved as a homestead in the spring of 1862. He engaged successfully in the practice of law, and as circuit judge from June 19, 1866, to December 31, 1875. He was both able and popular. COURTS AND LAWYERS IN CHEBOYGAN COUNTY Under the act of 1853 by which the counties of Cheboygan and Wyandotte were erected into Cheboygan county, the county seat was established at Duncan, and the counties of Alpena, Presque Isle, Montmorency, Otsego, Crawford, Oscoda, Alcona, losco, Ogemaw and Roscommon were attached to it judicially. In the new county therefore centered the judicial functions of most of the eastern half of the tpr

Page  121 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 121 ritory covered by this work. Cheboygan did not assume organized civil government, however, until at the special election of May, 1855, when Bela Chapman was chosen judge of probate and Samuel H. Price, circuit court commissioner. The first session of the circuit court was held in the United States land office, at Duncan, on the 22nd of July, 1856, and was presided over by Judge Samuel F. Douglass. In the following mouth, Duncan was displaced by "the town of Inverness" as the seat of justice for the county. At the time of his death March 28, 1898, Judge Douglass was the oldest member of the Detroit bar and had held leadership for several generations, until old age and threatened paralysis incapacitated him for the activities of his profession. He was born in Wallingford, Rutland county, Vermont, February 28, 1814, but western New York was his home from infancy to early manhood. Judge Douglass studied law under able instructors until he came west to Detroit, in 1837, and was admitted to the Michigan bar in the following year. He commenced practice at Ann Arbor, but returned to Detroit, which was his home city during the many years of his practice and judicial service. He was also active and prominent in municipal affairs. In 1845, and on the first creation of that office, Judge Douglass was appointed reporter of the state supreme court, and in that capacity published the first two volumes of its decisions, 1843-7 inclusive. The constitution of 1850 divided the state into eight judicial circuits, of which Wayne county was the third, and provided for the election of a judge for each circuit, the eight together to constitute the supreme court. This was Michigan's first' experiment of an elective judiciary. At the first election, under the constitution, Judge Douglass, who had run as an independent candidate, was chosen by a large majority. This was a most flattering compliment, as he was known as a decided Democrat. But he was not an aspirant for the bench, his name had not been used until a few days before the election, and the confidence in him, irrespective of his political connections, was general; hence his election. He held the office until the spring of 1857 and gave unqualified satisfaction to the bar and his associate judges, but declined a renomination and returned to practice. For thirty or more years thereafter he was an acknowledged leader at the Detroit bar. James S. Douglass, the first circuit court commissioner who is known to have really served in Cheboygan county, had to be admitted to the bar in 1857 in order to legally qualify. So Judge B. F. H. Witherell (who had succeeded Judge Samuel F. Douglass) asked James S. Douglass, who was regarded as most eligible for the office, whether he had read Blackstone or Kent. He replied "no." The judge handed him a copy of Blackstone and a pair of green spectacles and told him to read it at once. After perusing its pages a few minutes to become posted upon the points of the law of which it seemed most necessary that he should be informed, the judge asked him a few questions, he was admitted to the bar and appointed circuit court commissioner. It may be noted of Judge Witherell that his admission to the supreme court of the United States was made on motion if Daniel Webster.

Page  122 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN For the greater part of the period between 1830 and 1840 he filled the offices of probate judge and prosecuting attorney for Wayne county. In 1843 he became judge of the district criminal court, then consisting of the counties of Wayne, Washtenaw and Jackson, and held the office until it was abolished by the constitution of 1850. Some years afterwards he was chosen to the position of circuit judge of Wayne county to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Judge Douglass, in 1857, whose term he completed. At the expiration of this he was again elected and had served about four years of his third term at the time of his death, having occupied the position altogether ten years. In his prime the Judge was over six feet in stature and weighed about two hundred pounds. He was genial and kindly in his disposition and one of the sturdiest Democrats of his day. The judicial machinery of Cheboygan county was thus early planted and set in motion, but it was several years before the legal field was considered fruitful enough to attract permanent practitioners. Among the first to appear were D. R. Joslin, George W. Bell and Watts S. Humphrey. who settled at the village of Cheboygan in the spring of 3869. EARLY JUSTICE IN EMMET COUNTY In 1855 the few people of Eminet county who lived on the mainland determined to throw off the Mormon yoke which had been placed on them through the heavy preponderance of anti-Gentiles living on the Beaver group of islands. To accomplish this Theodore Wendall, of Mackinaw City, and John S. Dixon, of Charlevoix, went to Lansing and succeeding in cutting off the Mormon kingdom from the reorganized county of Emmet. Under the legislative bill passed for the purpose Mackinaw City was made the county seat and at the first election held at Little Traverse (Harbor Springs), on the first Tuesday in June, 1855, a full set of officers were chosen, including A. J. Blackbird as probate judge. It was nearly twenty years thereafter before the first resident lawyer opened his office in Emmet county, as now organized. In the fall of 1874, Charles R. Ford located at Little Traverse (now Harbor Springs) andl soon afterward was elected prosecuting attorney. It is said that this pioneer member of the bar was a cigarmaker, preacher, lawyer and a "victim of temptation." He only remained about two years and left for other fields, being reported drowned in 1883. D. R. Joslin came from Cheboygan in the winter of 1875 and located at Petoskey. Soon after C. J. Pailthrop settled in Petoskey, and in the fall of 1875 J. G. Iill located at the same place. The next were Turner and Andrews, A. J. Southard and George W. Stoneburner, who located at Little Traverse. Mr. Joslin remained only a few years and removed from the county. The bar in 1884 was composed as follows: Petoskey-C. J. Pailthorp, J. G. Hill, Clay E. Call, Jay L. Newberry, M. S. George, Ira G. Mosher, Ezra C. Barnum, H. F. Higgins, David Herron, John Mosher, R. C. Dart and D. C. Paige; Harbor Springs-Benjamin T. Halstead,

Page  123 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MiCHIGAN 123 WAade P. Smith, George W. Stoneburner, Alphonso J. Southard, Andrew L. Dedel and William Crosby. FIRST JUDGES AND LAWYERS OF ALPENA COUNTY From 1840 until 1853 Alpena county was one of the unorganized counties of Northern Michigan attached to the county of Mackinac for judicial and all other purposes, but by the legislative act of 1857 it was given a separate corporate existence. By the same act the counties of Alcona, Oscoda, Montmorency and that portion of Presque Isle lying east of range 4 were attached to Alpena for judicial and municipal purposes. The first township election in January, 1858, resulted in the choice of David D. Oliver (the first permanent settler of the county), Russel R. Woodruff, Lewis Atkins and Isaac Wilson. Mr. Oliver was an old surveyor and was elected county surveyor at the general election in the following November, while David Plough, who had but recently moved from Bay City to work on the Alpena light house, was chosen circuit court commissioner. Mr. Plough afterward became state road commissioner, county treasurer, judge of probate and city comptroller of Alpena, and was prominent in other ways, besides going into history as the country's first circuit court commissioner. The following from the "Centennial History of Alpena County" by David D. Oliver is a concise, graphic and thorough account of the establishment of the judiciary and legal practitioners in that section of Northern Michigan: "Soon after the writer was elected justice of the peace in 1857 he purchased a justice docket and Tiffany's Justice Guide, being the first docket and law-book used in the county. At the spring election of 1 p58, Daniel Carter was elected justice of the peace, and the writer, having no desire to do any business in the justice line, turned over to Mr. Carter his docket and law-book. "Some time during the summer of 1859 Leonard Jewell came into the river with a sail boat, having liquor on board to sell. As soon as he commenced to sell his liquor J. K. Miller brought suit against him before Daniel Carter. There were, at that time, no lawyers in the town, and Mr. Carter was very young in the business. However, it so happened that Obed Smith, who was then a justice of the peace in St. Clair county and who had some experience in law matters, was in Fremont on a visit. So Mr. Smith, after instructing Mr. Carter in regard to his duty as justice of the peace, then acted as counsel for Mr. Miller. The case was tried. It was proved that he had sold liquor unlawfully and he was fined. The boat was anchored out in the stream and the constable had taken the rudder ashore to prevent the boat leaving until they had got through with it. Jewell pretended that his money to pay the fine was on board the boat and requested the privilege of going after it, which was readily granted, the supposition being that he could not go away without his rudder; but what was their surprise when they saw him sailing out of the river steering his boat with an oar. There was no boat to chase him and bring him back.

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN so they had to let him go, but he never came back to sell liquor. This was the first law business transacted in the county. ''Under the constitution of 1850 the judiciary was changed making eight circuit judges, each presiding over a circuit. This number was soon enlarged, and in 1857 Alpena was placed in the Tenth judicial circuit, which was composed of the following counties: Saginaw, Gratiot, Isabella, Midland, Iosco, Bay and Alpena, the unorganized counties attached to them for judicial and municipal purposes. Subsequently the circuit was changed and in 1876 Alpena was placed in the *Eighteenth judicial circuit, composed of the counties of Bay, Iosco, Alcona, Alpena, Presque Isle and Otsego. "The constitution of 1850 also fixed the salaries of all officers, making the circuit judges' $1,500 a year, a sum barely sufficient to pay the board and traveling expense of some of the judges in the northern counties; and they were compelled to seek relief through the several boards of supervisors, who, in order to do the justice denied by the legislature, were compelled to violate the laws of the state and become a law unto themselves. "The first session of the circuit court was held in the Myers block, in October, 1860, and presided over by Judge Woodworth. The court officers were: William R. Bowman, sheriff, and Addison F. Fletcher, clerk. Oliver T. B. Williams was the only resident lawyer. He had moved to Fremont in the spring of 1860. He was a man of considerable ability and in the fall of 1860 was elected first prosecuting attorney. Judge Woodworth held but one or two sessions of court and was succeeded by the Hon. James Birney, who held but one session of court each year until the fall of 1865, when the Hon. Jabez G. Sutherland was elected. Judge Sutherland held two sessions of court each year until 1870, when he was elected to congress. The Hon. T. C. Grier was appointed to fill the vacancy and held the May term for 1871. Judge Grier died before the time of holding another session of the court and the Hon. Sanford M. Green, elected to fill the judgeship, was the presiding judge in 1876. "Alpena has been very fortunate in her selection of circuit judges. All have been lawyers, old and experienced jurists and well headed. The court's officers, in 1876, were: Thomas B. Johnston, sheriff; John Thompson, under sheriff; George W. Jones, deputy sheriff; Charles N. Cornell, clerk; Alexander McDonald, deputy clerk; Victor C. Burnham, prosecuting attorney; A. M. Haynes, reporter and John H. Stevens, circuit court commissioner. "The circuit court continued to be held in the Myers block until 1863, when the first session of the court convened in the so-called Hitchcock court house, and all the county officers and records were moved there and so remained until 1870, when the building was destroyed by fire and many of the papers were burned, including the court records, records of the board of supervisors and of marriages, deaths and naturalization, and some assessment rolls, account books and vouchers. The court and offices were then removed to rooms over Potter Brothers' * Now in the Twenty-sixth circuit.

Page  125 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 125 hardware store, where they remained until they again passed through the ordeal of fire, but this time without being scorched, as everything belonging to the court and records were saved. The court was then held in the Union schoolhouse until the Potter block was finished, when the court and county offices were removed to rooms prepared for them over the hardware store of Potter Brothers, where they remain in 1876. "The following were the members of the Alpena bar in 1876: Obed Smith, J. B. Tuttle, R. J. Kelley, J. D. Turnbull, J. D. Holmes, J. H. Stevens, V. C. Burnham and A. R. McDonald. All survived the Centennial year excepting Obed Smith, who died at his residence in Alpena on the 20th day of November, 1876. He was the oldest member of the bar, being an octogenarian. He was admitted in 1862. He was a Mason in good standing, and was buried with Masonic honors-the Alpena bar attending his funeral in a body. He was one of the early settlers of Fremont, having built the first steam sawmill in the county in 1859. In 1865 he built the first bridge across Thunder Bay river between Dock and Second streets. He was active in business, temperate in habits, truthful in his expressions and was just in his dealings with his fellow men." One of the most prominent pioneer attorneys of Alpena county was Seth L. Carpenter, first mayor of the city. He was a Maine man, born in 1825, served in the Mexican war, returned to his native state to be married and in 1848 moved to Wisconsin, where he taught school, studied law and was admitted to the bar (1854). After practicing his profession in Wisconsin for three years he returned to Maine, where he continued in that field until he located at Alpena in 1868. In the fall of 1870 Mr. Carpenter was elected county clerk and in the spring of the following year first mayor of Alpena. By 1872 he had amassed considerable property, and in that year went to Minnesota, where he engaged in farming on a large scale. But he was a victim of the grasshopper plague, lost nearly all his property, and in 1878 returned to Alpena, where he resumed practice, served as city attorney in 1881-2 and became a well known corporation attorney in connection with the lumber interests. J. D. Holmes, born and educated in Michigan and a Union soldier in his boyhood, studied law at Pontiac, was admitted to the bar in 1868 and in July of the following year permanently located at Alpena. During his earlier practice he was a partner with Hon. J. B. Tuttle, circuit judge. He was city attorney, in 1871-2, and circuit court commissioner of the county; was prosecuting attorney for the county in 1873-4, actively engaged in prosecuting violators of the Prohibitory law of the state; and in 1877 was prominently mentioned as the Republican nominee for the circuit judgship of the Twenty-third circuit. James D. Turnbull and Victor C. Burnham, who located for practice at Alpena city in 1872, may also be classed as pioneer lawyers. Mr. Turnbull came out of the Civil war as a lieutenant in the Twentieth Michigan infantry; was admitted to practice in 1871, at Chelsea, Michigan, in the Washtenaw circuit, and located at Alpena in the spring of the following year. He served as city comptroller in 1875-79, as

Page  126 126 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN representative in the legislature in 1878-80 and 1880-82, and was always ranked as an able lawyer and a leading Democrat. Victor C. Burnham, a Wayne county man, studied law at Saginaw and the Michigan university, graduating from the latter with his degree in 1871. In the following year he located at Alpena, where he subsequently served as United States commissioner, circuit court commissioner, city attorney and in other offices which demonstrated his legal ability. Hon. Frank Emerick, present judge of the Twenty-sixth circuit, is a native of Ypsilanti, Michigan; graduated from the law department of the State University and was admitted to the bar in 1874. In April, 1881, having already held the offices of prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner of Washtenaw county, he moved to Alpena and formed a partnership with Seth L. Carpenter. In April of the following year he was elected judge of the Twenty-sixth circuit, which then also embraced Otsego county. MANISTEE COUNTY 'S FIRST LAWYER Manistee county perfected its civil organization by the election of its officers on the first Monday of April, 1855, at which H. L. Brown was chosen both probate judge and prosecuting attorney-seemingly an unusual combination of official functions. But the first settled attorney did not appear until 1860. Let General B. M. Cutcheon tell the story in his own way: "Early in 1860 came a young attorney with a one-horse sleigh and a box of law books. 'Manistee' was then located below 'Canfield's Hill.' There was no hotel. He brought up at Canfield's boarding house. D. L. Filer was then boss, and the young lawyer was informed that in order to be taken in he would need to see Filer, and that Filer was up to the roadway, scaling logs. The young lawyer had an idea that 'scaling logs' was pealing the bark off. "With some misgivings he unpacked his box of books, and struck his shingle down at 'the mouth.' He was the pioneer of that noble fraternity, who by learning, large views, strict morality and integrity, and a wise interpretation and enforcement of the laws, have done as much as any class of men to bring law out of lawlessness, to educe order from chaos and to foster public morals and intellectual progress. "The young attorney was the Hon. Thomas J. Ramsdell. His old gray horse and sleigh he traded with D. L. Filer for the forty acres of land on which the residence of John M. Dennett stands, near the trotting park. "The first document that appears upon the records of Manistee county, drawn by him, is a deed and acknowledgement of Hugh and Susan McGuineas executed March 26, 1860. "The first retainer paid to a lawyer in this county was paid by Hugh Me Guineas and for this he deserves a monument. He has always remained a patron of the bar. In November, 1860, Mr. Ramsdell was elected representative in the lower house of the legislature, and this one term is all the representation that Manistee has ever had in

Page  127 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 127 the legislative or judicial branches of the government in the twenty-one years since the county was organized.* "Mr. Ramsdell became at once a leading man in public affairs, and there have been but few enterprises having in view the material, mental or moral improvement of the community in which he has not been active. In 1867 he became one of the incorporators of the Boom Company. During the same year he advocated the erection of the Union School house, and became the contractor himself. During the war he was one of the most active in raising funds to secure enlistments, and has been ready to take hold of anything that promised to enhance the importance of Manistee. "Perhaps I may as well say here what is necessary about the legal fraternity of Manistee. Mr. Ramsdell was followed in the same year by W. W. Carpenter (now of Howell, Michigan), who remained but a short time and migrated. Next came, in 1865, Capt. Geo. W. Bullis seeking an opening to practice, as well as to recuperate a physical system broken down by hard service in the army. Next in order, in the spring of 1867, came Daniel W. Dunnett, a young graduate of Ann Arbor who remained about three years and migrated to Kansas. In May, 1867, came E. E. Benedict, and in July, B. Al. Cutcheon, the one joining in partnership with Mr. Ramsdell, the other with Mr. Bullis. "In 1868 S. W. Fowler located at Manistee in the double capacity of editor and attorney. Alexander H. Dunlap followed the same year, succeeded by C. H. Marsh and N. W. Nelson in 1869, by Dovel in '71 and Morris and MeAlvay in '72. "I am aware that it does not become us lawyers to blow our trumpet, but on my own responsibility I undertake to say, that I do not believe that there is a town in the state, that taking its whole history, can show a more public spirited, temperate, courteous, high-toned bar than that of Manistee. " RAMSDELL 'S REMINISCENCES Judge Ramsdell himself has contributed the following interesting chapter to the pioneer legal history of the Manistee region to the anniversary number (1899) of the Daily -News: "In the year 1860, passing on the Indian trail, following the crest of the sand bluffs about half way between Bear Lake and Portage one's attention would have been arrested by the remains of a log cabin. Near it stood a large hemlock tree upon which, beautifully carved, were the words 'Capt. J. Patterson, died Nov. 15th, 1835.' The cabin was erected to accomnmodate the crew of a boat wrecked at that point, belonging to Newberry of Detroit. The crew were saved but the captain being the last one to leave the boat was so chilled and exhausted that lie died and was buried near the tree. There were sufficient supplies saved from the wrecked boat to keep the crew during the winter and in the spring they found. their way to St. Joseph. This was probably the first settlement of any kind made by white men in the county. Two years from this * Written in 1876.

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN time, in 1837, parties sought to obtain water power for milling purposes on the Manistee river and built a house on the river below the mouth of the south branch which stood for many years and was spoken of as 'The Old House.' This house was built to accommodate a crew who were to work on a dam and much timber was taken out for constructing the dam. Capt. Humphrey sailed a vessel and brought it into Manistee river but had difficulty in getting over the bar and that fact, together with the apparent cost of constructing the dam, discouraged the enterprise and it was abandoned. "Henry Wadsworth, one of the four justices of the peace of the Territory of Michigan, whose jurisdiction extended from Grand Rapids north to the Straits, told of coming on 'The Old House,' a few years after its construction and, to his great surprise, finding it occupied by a number of men who exhibited great nervousness at his approach and appeared very ill at ease in the presence of a stranger among them. As he glanced about the cabin he saw evidences of tools for making counterfeit money and he afterwards learned that counterfeit money was made here and sent by means of Indian ponies to other parts of the country for circulation. "The first circuit court in these regions was held by Flavius Josephus Littlejohn, author of the 'Legends of Michigan.' He was a man remarkable for his versatility of talent, the charm of his conversatior was irresistible and his great, good heart made him beloved by all N\1o knew him. In his judicial capacity one found him ever tender witl the criminal and averse to giving pain. He held his court in the dance-room of any available hotel. During his first term of court no lawyer was located at Manistee but lawyers from Newaygo or Grand Haven accompanied him and picked up what business they could during the court session. "'The first attorney (Ramsdell himself) settled here during the winter of '59 and '60. He came through from Grand Haven to Manistee with a horse and cutter following the Indian trail. As he neared the town he found himself at the foot of a steep hill well nigh impassable from the icy condition of the road. The attorney stood in great perplexity wondering how he would ever succeed in getting his cutter loaded with his law books up to the summit of that hill. He had about resolved to carry his books up, an armful at a time, and then help his horse to pull the empty cutter up, when a sound of drunken shouting and boisterous merriment reached his ears and he was accosted by a band of men who had been spending the profits of a successful shingle steal in the saloons of the town. At first they stood by, amused by the predicament of the young attorney, when one of them by chance called out, 'What is your name?' At the reply he turned to his fellows with a beam of satisfaction and the hearty exclamation: 'Scotchy, by George. let's give him a hand.' When he reached the town the young lawyer found many who were ready to give him a hand. Until his advent the processes of the law were an inscrutable mystery, the.methods of its procedure unknown; it was more often the strong who prevailed. For instance, he found a certain Stillman Stubbs confined in jail on a criminal offense, namely, a breach of trust, having failed to

Page  129 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 129 live up to a contract which he had taken for clearing land for a man named Walker. The justice found that Walker had trusted Stubbs to clear land, which Stubbs had not done. Stubbs must therefore be guilty of breach of trust. Another man walked from Traverse to Manistee to get a writ of habeas corpus to let him out of jail, not appreciating the fact that the habeas corpus could do no more for him than he had done for himself. Still another complained to the attorney that he could not collect a debt owing him from the justice of the peace, for the justice had garnisheed himself and so claimed that it would be contempt of court should he pay the bill. "One evening the attorney and a young friend, wishing to cross the river, called across to a man in a canoe on the opposite bank asking him to take them over; but the man showed no inclination to oblige them. Thereupon, the friend suggested: 'Tell him it's the lawyer that wants to cross.' When these magic words were shouted across the river the man jumped up with the utmost alacrity and goodwill, it must be confessed much to the lawyer's surprise, as he had not before appreciated the majesty of his calling." LEELANAU COUNTY The act under which Leelanau county was organized was approved in February, 1863, and in the following April John E. Fisher was elected judge of probate and E. Cromwell Tuttle, prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioners among the other county officers. The first term of circuit court for the new county was held at the village of Northport, May 5, 1864, by Judge Flavius J. Littlejohn. This first term of circuit court, over which Judge Littlejohn presided, was held in a school house on the hill in Northport. According to the records there was no business before the court further than to appoint some minor county officials and to designate the common jail of Grand Traverse as the proper "lock-up" for Leelanau county. The second term was more lively. It was held September 15th and Judge Littlejohn disposed of three civil cases. The first criminal case appearing on the court docket is that of the People vs. Peter Drew, for adultery. It is entered under date of September 14, 1865, and was continued until June 19, 1866, when a "nolle" was entered. The first grand jurors of the circuit court were summoned for the August term of 1867. As stated Judge Littlejohn was the first to preside over the circuit of which Leelanau formed a part. He held four terms of court-the first commencing May 5, 1864, and the last September 15, 1865. ANTRIM COUNTY Antrim county, which had been organized by the election of its first officers on April 6, 1863, was also in Judge Littlejohn's circuit. In fact, he convened court at Elk Rapids, three days before he passed south to favor the taxpayers of Leelanau county. The Traverse Bay Vol. I-9

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Eagle, although but two years old, could make itself heard some on this point, as witness: "On Monday, May 2, was held the first term of the circuit court ever held in Antrim county. Elk Rapids enjoyed for a whole day the presence of a judge and two lawyers. There was little business before the court, it appearing that there was no place in Antrim county where naughty folk could be shut up. It was ordered that if anybody in said county shall hereafter do anything very naughty, he shall be shut up in the jail of Grand Traverse county and Antrim county shall pay his board bill. It appearing that Antrim county had neither prosecuting attorney nor circuit court commissioner, it was ordered that J. G. Ramsdell, Esq., fill these offices till his successor shall be elected and qualified. "This is all that was done, except to metamorphose an Englishman into a bred and born Yankee, after which sleight-of-hand performance the court adjourned sine die, which means in English without dying; wherefore it is probable that we shall see the court again, though we can't tell when. "In the evening the Judge made a political speech to the citizens of Elk Rapids." At that time Antrim county belonged to the Ninth judicial circuit, and Jonathan G. Ramsdell mentioned in the preceding extract, succeeded Judge Littlejohn as its presiding judge. The county was afterward attached to the Thirteenth circuit. CIRCUIT COURT OPENED IN CHARLEVOIX COUNTY The first session of circuit court in and for Charlevoix county was held in the hall over Fox & Rose's store, in August, 1869, Hon. J. G. Ramsdell presiding. The record shows that court opened on the 24th of August, but no judge being present it adjourned to the following day, when Judge Ramsdell having arrived the business before the court was dispatched. The first case on the docket was "The People vs. Walker McCool," on information for maliciously burning wood. The cause was continued to the next term of court. The appointment of Archibald Buttars as county clerk was approved, and the Antrim county jail was designated as the common jail for the county. THE FIRST LAWYER Edward H. Green, the pioneer lawyer of Charlevoix county, who located at Charlevoix in 1868, was born at Reamstown, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, Oct. 31, 1834. His early education was obtained at the district school and at the normal school at Millersville. At the breaking out of the Civil war he was one of the first to respond to the call of President Lincoln for troops to defend the nation. On April 19, 1861, he enlisted at Maytown, Pennsylvania, in the three months' service. Afterward he enlisted in Company E, One Hundred and Seventh Pennsylvania Infantry; made a brilliant war record and endured all the suffering and hardships possible to pass through and live. He was first promoted to lieutenant, then to captain, and at the

Page  131 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 131 close of the war was breveted major in recognition of gallant services. At the battle of Bull Run he received gun-shot wounds through the foot and thigh and was obliged to lie upon the ground for several days before his injuries could receive attention. He was taken prisoner but turned over to a hospital for treatment, and as soon as he was able to get about he returned to service, although entitled to discharge for disability. He was then made lieutenant and shortly afterward captain. At the battle of Spottsylvania, in 1864, he was taken prisoner and for ten months endured the suffering of Libby, Macon and other southern prisons. In July, 1865, after the close of the war, he was mustered out of service, a physical wreck, as many another who survived that terrible conflict. In the winter of 1865-6 he taught school, and then entered the University of Michigan, from which he graduated in March, 1868, and immediately thereafter was admitted to practice law in the supreme court of Detroit. Mr. Green then started in pursuit of location, and, acting upon the suggestion of Judge Ramsdell, of Traverse City, located in Charlevoix, then a part of Emmet county. He was the first lawyer to locate between Traverse City and the Straits, and the field at that time was not calculated to fascinate a young attorney who had both fortune and fame to acquire. Just about that time the county seat of Emmet county had been located at that point, and the immense forests of timber surrounding Pine Lake led Mr. Green to reason that this must sometime become a business point. At the August term of court Mr. Green was appointed prosecuting attorney for Emmet county, and upon the organization of Charlevoix county, in 1869, was elected its first prosecuting attorney. He was also the first circuit court commissioner and also held the offices of county treasurer, supervisor, and deputy collector of customs, besides having been twice elected on the Republican ticket to the state legislature. His early experience was diversified. He cleared the lot for his dwelling and built it himself. It was while working upon this house that he received his first retainer, which was twenty dollars from Dennis T. Downing to defend him in the county clerk embezzlement case. He was editor of the Charlevoix Sentinel, from its first issue in April, 1869, to February 11, 1871. During the winter of 1868-9 he taught the village school. It will thus be seen that Major Green's pioneer experiences covered a wide range, but it will be observed that they were all in line with the theory that working for success is surer than idly waiting for it. In addition to his practice as a lawyer Major Green held the offices of treasurer of the county and deputy collector of customs. TWENTY-EIGHTH CIRCUIT AND WEXPORD COUNTY When Wexford and Benzie counties assumed civil organization in 1869 they were attached to the Thirteenth judicial circuit, the unorganized county of Missaukee being attached to Wexford. In 1873 Wexford county was made a part of the Nineteenth, and in 1881 of the Twenty-eighth. The latter circuit then composed Wexford, Mis

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN saukee, Kalkaska, Benzie and Roscommon-the only change in the circuit since its establishment in 1881, being the excision of Roscommon which is now included in the Thirty-fourth circuit. Early judges of the Twenty-eighth have been Hons. J. G. Ramsdell, Shubal F. White, H. H. Wheeler, A. V. McAlvay (now associate justice of the state supreme court), S. D. Haight, J. B. Judkins and Silas S. Fallass. Judge Fallass, one of the old and respected lawyers of Cadillac, came to that city in 1872, soon after his graduation from the law school of the state university and his admission to the bar. In the fall of the same year he was elected prosecuting attorney, which office he held for two years. He was a member of the board of supervisors for five years and was a leading actor in many of the stormy events of the famous Wexford county seat war. In April, 1882, he relinquished a lucrative law practice to accept the position of circuit judge by appointment from Governor Jerome. He was unanimously nominated for election as his own successor by the bar convention of the circuit and was elected in the following November. Judge Fallass took a prominent part in all the local affairs of Wexford county, and in 1885 was a strong opponent of General B. M. Cutcheon in the congressional race in the Forty-ninth district. The first judge of the new Twenty-eighth judicial circuit, created by the legislature in January, 1881, was Hon. John M. Rice, who resigned from the bench in April, 1882, and was succeeded by Judge Fallass. The other residents of Wexford county who have presided over the Twenty-eighth circuit have been Hons. Fred H. Aldrich, Clyde C. Chittenden and Fred S. Lamb. The first lawyers in Wexford county were T. A. Ferguson, who was appointed prosecuting attorney soon after the county was organized in 1869, and E. W. Stewart, both of whom located at Sherman. The next lawyers were Silas S. Fallass and D. A. Rice, who located at Clam lake, now Cadillac, in 1872. W. H. Cavenaugh, R. L. Rice, E. P. Sawyer and D. E. McIntyre came soon after. The members of the bar in 1884 were: E. F. Sawyer, J. R. Bishop, W. C. Haire, J. B. Rosevelt, S. J. Wall, E. Eugene Haskins, D. A. Rice, W. H. Parks, H. M. Dunham, D. E. McIntyre, M. L. Dunham, Clyde C. Chittenden. While the county seat remained at Sherman, that place always had one resident lawyer, generally two and sometimes three. Since it was removed to Cadillac the village has been without an attorney at law most of the time. As facetiously remarked by one of its citizens: "An old saying that 'blessed be nothing' can well be quoted by Sherman just now, as it has no lawyer.^ Among the leading members of the bar now residing at Cadillac are Judge Fred S. Lamb, of the Twenty-eighth circuit; Fred C. Wetmore, ex-probate judge and now district attorney for the Western district of Michigan; Eugene E. Haskins, D. E. McIntyre and E. F. Sawyer. Hon. Clyde C. Chittenden, for ten years judge of the Twenty-eighth circuit, first came to Cadillac in 1883, and prior to ascending the bench had served as circuit court commissioner, prosecuting attorney and state senator. He was both a professional and a public leader. He

Page  133 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 133 was first elected circuit judge in 1900 and resigned from the bench in the fall of 1910, moving at that time to Seattle, Washington, where he is still successful in the practice of his profession. KALKASKA BENCH AND BAR In 1840, when the northern part of the southern peninsula of Michigan was divided into unorganized counties the present territory of Kalkaska was laid off and named Wabassee. In 1843 it assumed the name by which it is now known, and the county was successively attached to Grand Traverse and Antrim counties for judicial purposes. Kalkaska remained attached to the latter until its own civil organization was completed in 1871, it being included in the Thirteenth judicial circuit. Burton S. Howe was the first lawyer to locate in Kalkaska county for the purpose of practicing law. A. T. Kellogg had been admitted to the bar and held the office of prosecuting attorney of the county, but did not make the practice of law a pursuit. Mr. Howe was born at Centerville, St. Joseph county, Michigan, in 1838. In September, 1861, he enlisted in the Fourth Michigan Battery. At Pittsburgh landing he received severe internal injuries, and a gun-shot wound in his left hand. At the end of eighteen months he was discharged for disability and returned home. He engaged in the hardware business but, suffering from injuries received in the war, was led to take up the study of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1868, and practiced in St. Joseph county until the winter of 1874, when he removed to the village of Kalkaska and was the only attorney in the county for about two years. He held the office of prosecuting attorney one term. Arthur A. Bleazby was the second lawyer to locate in Kalkaska county. He is a native of Ireland and emigrated to Canada with his parents at the age of six years. He attended school there and subsequently entered college. Before completing the course he came to the States, and in 1861 enlisted at Lockport, New York, and went into services with Colonel Ellsworth. He remained in the service about two years, and soon after his return north went to Kalamazoo, Michigan, and entered Kalamazoo College. After graduating from that institution he studied law in the office of Severance & Burroughs, and was admitted to the bar in 1873. Having business interests at Niles requiring his attention, he went there and remained until March, 1876, when he removed to the village of Kalkaska, and engaged in the practice of law. He held the office of prosecuting attorney one term and was extensively connected with the business interests of the village. losco COUNTY It was a matter of "journal" record that the first term of the circuit court for Tosco county was commenced at the courthouse in Tawas City, on Tuesday, the 17th day of May, 1859. The circuit judge failed to arrive and no business was transacted until August 9th following. Court was held in the room over the Whittemore store, Judge W. F.

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Woodsworth presiding. The first case tried was that of Amos Miner vs. Archibald Phillips. The next court was held August 1, 1860; and the case tried was that of William Daggett vs. Charles Harris. On May 25, 1861, Judge James Birney held court one day, and Judge Birney presided June 24, 1862. The peace and dignity of the State of Michigan and County of Iosco seem to have been held in great respect during those years, and but little business came into court. Upon what meat lawyers fed is not explained in the recorded proceedings of the court. It was the custom of the court to open in due form at the stated time, but the honorable circuit judge only appeared at long intervals. The next business done in court after 'June, 1862, was upon June 13, 1866, at which time Judge J. G. Sutherland presided. This session lasted two days and in September following a term of like length was held. In June, 1867, Judge Sutherland held court one day and Hon. Josiah Turner occupied the bench on September 17, 1867. From this time, as the population increased and civilization tightened its grasp upon this ambitious region, litigants multiplied and the cloud began to turn its silver lining toward the legal fraternity. In 1868 Judge Sutherland held court one day in May, and two days in October, and was an incumbent of the circuit bench for three days in May and two days in October, 1869. In 1871 Judge Sutherland was succeeded by Hon. Theophilus C. Grier, who continued judge of this circuit until his death in 1872, when he was succeeded by Hon. Sanford M. Green. Judge Green held court at Tawas City until the division of the Tenth circuit in 1877, when Iosco county became a part of the Twenty-third circuit, with Hon. J. B. Tuttle as judge. It has since remained in that circuit. The first session of the Probate court for Iosco county was held on the first Monday in March, 1859, Gideon O. Whittemore presiding. The first entry in the records is the application of William Hill of Alcona county for appointment as guardian to a minor son, Sam Hill. Gideon O. Whittemore was succeeded in 1864 by James O. Whittemore, who was succeeded by David J. Evans in 1868, by O. E. M. Cutcheon in 1874, and James E. Whittemore was then reelected and held the Probate bench for some years thereafter. MEMBERS STATE BAR ASSOCIATION The Michigan State Bar Association is now in the twenty-second year of its corporate life and is one of the strongest organizations of the kind in the northwest, its membership numbering over 660. It is safe to say that there are few members of the Michigan profession, in substantial standing, who are not identified with the association, and its published membership is a fair index of the personnel of the fraternity. We have therefore collated therefrom the names of lawyers who reside in the counties covered by this publication: Alpena.-James Frances and Michael O'Brien. Boyne City.-James M. Harris.

Page  135 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN13 135 Cadillac.-F. 0. Gaffney, D. E. McIntyre, E. F. Sawyer and Fred C. Wetmore. Cheboygan.-Maxwell W. Benjamin and James F. Shepherd._ Clare.-Joseph F. Bowler and C. W. Perry. East Tawas.-Edwin Rawden. Gladwin.-Isaac Foster. Grayling.-George L. Alexander. Harrison.-George J. Cummins, Francis M. Morrisey and John Quinn. Kalkaska.-J. L. Boyd and Ernest C. Smith. Ludington.-M-V. B. Danaker, Henry C. Hutton, A. A. Keiser, John Phelan and C. G. Wing. Manistee.-Charles N. Belcher, Frank L. Fowler, Leland S. MacPhail, Roy M. Overpack and R. D. Smith. Marion.-W. L. Kinney. Pellston.-Frank L. Keating. Petosky.-C. J. Pailthorp. Reed City.-B. N. Savidge. Roscommon.-Charles L. De Waele. Standish.-John J. McCarthy. Traverse City.-H. C. Davis, Parm C. Gilbert, Fred H. Pratt and M. W. Underwood. West Branch.-Nelson Sharpe.

Page  136 CHAPTER VI PROFESSIONAL LIFE CONTINUED NEWSPAPERS OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN-BIRTH OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN JOURNALISM —THOMAS T. BATES-MANISTEE AS A CLOSE SECONDMASON COUNTY-IOSCO COUNTY-CHARLEVOIX COUNTY-WILLARD A. SMITH-ALPENA COUNTY-WEXFORD COUNTY-ANTRIM COUNTYOSCEOLA AND LAKE COUNTIES-KALKASKA COUNTY-EMMET COUNTY -ROSELLE ROSE-OTSEGO AND ROSCOMMON COUNTIES-CHEBOYGAN COUNTY-LEELANAU COUNTY-PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY-OGEMAW COUNTY-CLARE AND CRAWFORD COUNTIES-OSCODA COUNTY-ARENAC COUNTY-MISSAUKEE COUNTY-BENZIE COUNTY-GLADWIN COUNTY-EXPLANATORY —FIRST REGULATING ACT —THE PIONEER PHYSICIANS. Such professional life as relates to newspaper work and to medicine is essentially of a personal nature; unlike that which centers around the bench and bar, it has primarily little connection with the state or with public affairs. The editor and the physician are concerned in the proper conduct of the newspaper and medical and surgical practice, while the judge is the state's officer of justice and the lawyer is bound to the court by all the ties of official connections and self-interest. This chapter is therefore to deal with those professions which are especially personal in their nature, although the calling of the journalist has so expanded as to partially transform its functions from a personal to a public nature. NEWSPAPERS OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN As a solid basis for a sketch of newspaper work and newspaper life in Northern Michigan, with a somewhat extended mention of the pioneer newspaper men who have contributed to' its establishment and growth, is herewith presented a list of existing newspapers in the counties included in this history. It is rather an exposition of the survival of the fittest in the newspaperdom of that section of the state. In the first division of the list, where names of newspapers are placed in parentheses it is an indication that the two are associated under one management; in the last division the appearance of two dates indicates the years when weekly and daily editions were established, or the years when consolidated papers were founded: 136

Page  137 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 137 ALCONA COUNTY *Alcona County Review, Harrisville; Rep., 1877. *Herald, Lincoln; Ind.-Rep., 1907. ALPENA COUNTY *Argus-Pioneer (Evening News), Alpena; Rep., 1871. tEvening Echo (Farmer), Alpena; Ind., 1890. tEvening News (Argus-Pioneer), Alpena; Rep., 1899. *Farmer (Evening Echo), Alpena; Ind., 1898. ANTRIM COUNTY:Argus, Alden; Ind., 1910. *Independent, Bellaire; Rep., 1895. *Torch, Central Lake; Rep., 1893. *Antrim County News, Elk Rapids; Ind., 1909. *Progress, Elk Rapids; Rep., 1872. *Herald, Mancelona; Rep., 1879. 'News, Mancelona; Rep., 1908. ARENAC COUNTY *Enterprise, Au Gres; Rep., 1906. *Progress, Omer; Rep., 1895. *Arenac County Independent, Standish; Ind., 1882. BENZIE COUNTY *Benzie County Patriot, Frankfort; Rep., 1897.:Banner, Benzonia; Rep., *Benzie County Leader, Honor; Rep., 1908. Alert, Elberta; Ind.-Rep., 1911. *News, Thompsonville; Ind.-Rep., 1894. CHARLEVOIX COUNTY **Citizen. Boyne City; Rep., 1881. t*Journal, Boyne City; Rep., 1883, 1909. *Times, Boyne City; Rep., 1911. *Courier, Charlevoix; Rep., 1883. *Sentinel, Charlevoix; Rep., 1869. *Charlevoix County Herald, East Jordan: Rep., 1897. *Enterprise, East Jordan; Rep., 1882. * Weekly. * * Semi-weekly. tDaily. t*Daily and weekly.

Page  138 138 138 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN CHEBOYGAN COUNTY;`Denioerat, Cheboygan; Dem., 1880. *Nexws, Ch eboygan; Ind., 1886. *Trib~une, Cheboygan; Rep., 1875. * Courier, Wolverine; Rep., 1904. CLARE CO[UNTY "Courier, Clare, Ind., 1895. "Sentinel, Clare; Rep., 1878. "'Clare County Cleaver, Harrison; Rep., 1881. *Su11. Farwell; Ind., 1907. CRAWFORD COUNTY "Crawford Avalanche, Grayling; Rep., 1879. EMMET COUNTY -"Graphic, Harbor Springs; Rep., 1895. *Republicani, Harbor Springs; Rep., 1876. "Journal, Peliston; Rep., 1903. T{Evening News & Resorter, Petoskey; Ind., 1883. *Jndependent, Petoskey; Ind., 1875. GILADWIN COUNTY * Clarion, Beaverton; Ind., 1895. *Gladxvin County Record, Gladwin; Rep.. 1878. GRAND TRAVERSE COUNTY '''Grand Traverse Herald and Traverse Bay Eagle, Traverse City; Rep., 1858, 1864. fRecord-Eagle, Traverse City; Rep.. 1897, 1893. *Monit~or, Fife Lake; Ind., 1891. *-Eeho, Kingsley; Ind., Josco COUNTY M, —osco County Gazette, East Tawas; Rep., 1868. *Press, Oseoda; Rep., 1877. *Tawvas Herald, Tawas City; Ind., 1883. KALKASKA COUNTY *Kalkaska Leader and Kalkaskian, Kalkaska; Rep., 1874, 1878. *Weekly. ' *Semi- weekly. "Daflv

Page  139 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 139 LAKE COUNTY *Lake County Star, Baldwin; Rep., 1873. *Observer, Luther; Rep., 1892. LEELANAU COUNTY Journal, Empire; Rep., 1900. Leelanau Enterprise, Leland; Rep., 1877. Leader, Northport; Rep., 1900. Leelanau News, Sutton's Bay; Rep., 1903. MANISTEE COUNTY *Beacon & Onekama Lake Breeze, Bear Lake; Ind., 1888. *Progress, Copemish; Ind., 1902. t*Advocate, Manistee; Rep., 1883, 1885. tNews, Manistee; Ind., 1894. *Michigan Volkszeitung, Manistee; Dem., 1890. **Times (News), Manistee; Rep., 1866. Kindergarten Primary Magazine (monthly), Manistee; 1888 MASON COUNTY *Review, Fountain; Rep., 1910. *Chronicle, Ludington; Rep., 1901. tNews, Ludington; Rep., 1901. *Record-Appeal, Ludington; Rep., 1867, 1874. *Enterprise, Scottville; Rep., 1885. MISSAUKEE COUNTY *Missaukee Republican, Lake City; Rep., 1884. *Plain Dealer, Lake City; Ind., 1887. *Chronicle, McBain; Ind., 1890. MONTMORENCY COUNTY *Tribune, Atlanta; Rep., 1886. *Herald, Hillman; Rep., 1901. *Journal, Lewiston; Rep., 1893. OGEMAW COUNTY *Review, Rose City; Rep., 1904. *Herald-Times, West Branch; Rep., 1878, 1890. *Ogemaw Republican, West Branch; Rep., 1896. * Weekly. * * Semi-weekly. 'Daily. t*Daily and weekly.

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN OSCEOLA COUNTY *Review, Evart; Rep., 1871. *Osceola County News, Hersey; Rep., 1908. *Sun, Le Roy; Ind., 1910. *Dispatch, Marion; Rep., 1890. *Clarion, Reed City; Rep., 1872. *Osceola County Herald, Reed City; Rep., 1870. OSCODA COUNTY *Mail-Telegram, Mio; Ind.-Rep., 1881. OTSEGO COUNTY *Otsego County Herald & Times, Gaylord; Rep., 1875, 1905. PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY *Presque Isle County News, Millersburg; Rep., 1901. *Inter-Lake, Onaway; Rep., 1902. *Outlook, Onaway; Rep., 1898. *Presque Isle County Advance, Rogers; Rep., 1878. ROSCOMMON COUNTY *Herald, Roscommon; Rep., 1907. *News, Roscommon; Rep., 1875. WEXFORD COUNTY Enterprise, Buckley; Rep., 1880. t*Globe, Cadillac; Ind., 1898. tEvening News (News & Express), Cadillac; Rep., 1900. *News and Express, Cadillac; Rep., 1872, 1886. *Tribune, Manton; Rep., 1879. *Sun, Mesick; Rep., 1901. *Pioneer, Sherman; Rep., 1872. BIRTH OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN NEWSPAPERS It was at Traverse City that the first newspaper of Northern Michigan had its birth, in 1858, its sponsor being Morgan Bates, founder of the Grand Traverse Herald, who also had the honor a quarter of a century ago of issuing the first real history of the Grand Traverse region (written by Dr. Morgan L. Leach). As Mr. Bates was the father of the press in that section of the state *Weekly. t Daily. t*Daily and weekly.

Page  141 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 141 he is certainly worthy of an extended notice. Born at Queensbury, Warren county, New York, near Glen's Falls, July 12, 1806, at an early age he became a printer's apprentice at Sandy Hill, and when twenty established the Warren (Pennsylvania) Gazette. Here Horace Greeley worked for him as a journeyman printer, and a strong friendship grew up between them, which continued till the close of Mr. Greeley's life. Afterwards he worked for Greeley as foreman in New York as Greeley had worked for him at Warren. In Greeley's office he was associated with several other young men who afterwards made their mark in the newspaper world, among whom were Elbridge Gerry Paige, better known by his norn de ptume of "Dow Jr.," and George Wilkins Kendall, the projector and first publisher of the New Orleans Picayune. In 1883 Mr. Bates came to Detroit, and was employed as foreman in the office of the Advertiser. In 1839 he purchased that journal, in company with George Dawson, afterward connected with the Albany Evening Journal. Mr. Dawson soon retired from the firm, and Mr. Bates becoming sole owner, conducted the paper till 1844, when, in consequence of the defeat of the Whig party whose policy he had ably advocated, he prudently sold out. In 1849 Mr. Bates went to California, by way of Cape Horn. After two years, he returned by way of the Isthmus. In 1852 he again sought the land of gold, going again by way of Cape Horn. He remained in California until 1856 and during that period he was for more than a year sole owner and publisher of the Alta California, daily and weekly. The daily was at that time the only one published west of the Rocky mountains. Returning to Michigan, he was employed for some time in the auditor general's office, at Lansing, till he removed to Traverse City, in 1858. To most men Traverse City would have seemed the most unpromising place for establishing a newspaper, while in reality it was the most eligible in the state, a fact Mr. Bates's experience and knowledge of the business enabled him to see. The first number of the Herald made its appearance on the 3d of November, 1858, and in his salutatory Mr. Bates defined his editorial position in unmistakable terms. "In politics we admit no such word as neutrality," he writes. "We hate slavery in all its forms and conditions, and can have no fellowship or compromise with it. We entertain no respect for any party or any religion which sanctions and supports it, we care not from what source they derive their authority; and regard that politician, minister, or layman, who advocates its extension and perpetuity, as an enemy to the human race and false to the God we worship. Entertaining these views on what we regard the great political issue of the day, we shall support, with zeal and firmness, to the best of our ability, the Republican organization, so long as that party shall be true to the principles that now govern it." When the control of the general government passed into the hands of the Republicans, in 1861, Mr. Bates was appointed by President Lincoln to the registership of the land office at Traverse City. He held the office till 1867, when his outspoken condemnation of the policy of

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN President Johnson's administration was followed by his removal. On the accession of General Grant to the presidency he was re-appointed and continued to hold the office until his death. He was four times elected treasurer of Grand Traverse county, and would no doubt, have been again the choice of the people had he not declined the honor. In the fall of 1868 he was elected lieutenant governor on the Republican ticket, the office coming to him unsolicited as a worthy tribute to his character and services. Mr. Bates was twice married. His first wife died in 1855; the second preceded him to the grave by a little more than a year. His own death occurred March 2, 1874, at the age of sixty-eight. In December, 1867, less than five years before his death, Mr. Bates had sold the Herald to DeWitt C. Leach, a man of wide public reputation and strong character. In 1849 he had served as a member of the state legislature from Genesee county; in 1850 as a representative in the Michigan constitutional convention and for several years afterward as state librarian. In the fall of 1856 he was elected to congress from the Fourth district which then embraced the northern portion of the Lower peninsula and all of the Upper and was reelected in 1858. In recognition of his splendid services for Unionism and his fine, stalwart character, President Lincoln appointed him United States Indian agent for Michigan in March, 1861, in which position he served four years, moving from Lansing to Traverse City in the fall of 1865. In 1867 Mr. Leach was elected a member of the constitutional convention which met at Lansing, and shortly afterward purchased the Herald of Mr. Bates, conducting its publication for nine years. In 1876 he sold the Herald to Thomas T. Bates, who, by various purchases and consolidations, has since come into virtual control of the press of Traverse City, and is one of the best known and most influential journalists in Northern Michigan. His biography will be found elsewhere. The Herald and Record Company was incorporated in 1904, its present officers being Thomas T. Bates, president; George G. Bates, vice president; J. W. Hannen, secretary; and Clara N. Bates, treasurer. In 1910 this company secured control of the Eagle-Press, which had been incorporated in 1897, with M. G. Sprague as president, as well as the Fife Lake Monitor and Kingsley Echo, thus absorbing the second oldest newspaper established in the Northern Michigan covered by this work. The Traverse Bay Eagle was the second newspaper published in the Lower Peninsula north of Big Rapids, Antrim county, the last of March, 1864, by E. L. Sprague, under the name of the Elk Rapids Eagle. It first appeared as a very small folio sheet, the size being only fifteen by nineteen inches. At the end of the first year James Spencer became part owner and publisher, and the paper was enlarged to twenty by twenty-six inches. On January 1, 1866, the name was changed to Traverse Bay Eagle and the paper was enlarged to twentytwo by thirty-two inches. In the spring of 1866 a power press was purchased, the first in the Grand Traverse region, and in the fall of the same year the paper was moved to Traverse City, and Lyman C.

Page  143

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN I Wilcox was admitted as a partner, the firm being Sprague, Spencer & Wilcox. The paper was at this time enlarged to an eight-column folio. One year later Mr. Wilcox retired, Sprague & Spencer purchasing his interest. At the same time, a steam engine and boiler were purchased, to drive the press. Previous to this, however, at the time Mr. Wilcox became a partner a job press was added to the office, the first ever brought into this region. In 1872 Mr. Spencer's health failed, and the management of the office devolved entirely upon Mr. Sprague. The first of January, 1880, the paper was again enlarged to a nine column folio. In July, 1882, Mr. Spencer sold his interest to Mr. Sprague, the original owner and publisher. These are the main facts in connection with the establishment of the Traverse Bay Eagle, whose daily edition was first issued in 1893. As stated the Eagle-Press was organized in 1897, and the Morning Record established the same year, the latter being changed to an evening edition four years afterwards. Outside of Traverse City are published the Monitor, at Fife Lake, and the Echo, at Kingsley. On the whole Fife Lake has not been a fertile field for the growth of newspapers. In 1881 the Fife Lake Eye was started and succumbed in the following year. About the time of its decease E. B. Dennis commenced to issue the Fife Lake Comet, but its course was spent by March, 1884. The Fife Lake Monitor was established in 1891 by Bert Hough. J. M. Terwilliger purchased it in 1893, selling the paper to W. A. Kent in 1902. Mr. Kent discontinued the Monitor in 1910, selling its subscription list to the Traverse City Herald. MANISTEE A CLOSE SECOND Manistee closely followed Traverse City as a newspaper town with a substantial future. The first newspaper in the county, the Manistee Gazette, appeared at the county seat December 17, 1864, and from that date until January, 1868, was published by Robert R. Rice. This pioneer in the journalistic field was established through the influence and active aid of Judge T. J. Ramsdell; was a small sheet devoted chiefly to local matters and was Republican. In 1868 Mr. Rice's failing health forced him to relinquish its publication and sell his property to Hon. S. W. Fowler, then of Jackson. The new proprietor enlarged the paper and changed its name to Manistee Times. The village had then between two and three thousand inhabitants. The first power press in the county was brought to Manistee in the summer of 1868 and placed in the office of the Manistee Times, which thereupon developed into a five-volumn quarto. Hon. E. L. Sprague, the veteran editor of the Traverse Bay Eagle, helped to place "the monster press," as it was then called, in position, and by his superior knowledge of the business proved a true friend of the Times. The Manistee Tribune commenced its publication in 1869, edited by Geo. W. Clayton of Ludington for a time; afterward by John E. Rastell who continued it for two years. R. Hoffman also published a paper from 1871 to 1875 called Manistee Times; passing into the hands

Page  145 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 145 of App. M. Smith, it continued thus until 1881, when it was purchased by H. S. Hilton, enlarged and in 1886 consolidated with Manistee Sentinel, joint proprietors. In 1875 the Manistee Standard, published by 0. H. Godwin was bought by Colonel Fowler and merged with his paper into the Times and Standard. Ten years later this was sold to James Madison, who, in partnership with App. M. Smith, published it for a year under the name of Manistee-Sentinel, afterward Times-Sentinel. In 1874 a small paper called the People's Advocate was issued for a brief period; a Democratic paper called also the Advocate, was published by E. J. Cady till 1881, when it changed proprietors, V. W. Richardson of Milwaukee taking charge for three years when J. P. O'Malley became its owner and later S. C. Thompson as joint proprietor and name changed to Manistee Democrat. Early in the year 1894 twenty-five prominent business men of the Salt City, realizing that a daily newspaper was a necessity to the growth of the city, organized the News Publishing Company, which was incorporated with a capital stock of $15,000 for the purpose of publishing a non-partisan daily and carrying on a general job printing business. The first board of directors were Edward Buckley, president; E. E. Douville, vice president; Geo. A. Hart, secretary; Robert R. Blacker, treasurer; H. W. Carey and A. J. Dovel. The plant of the Manistee Weekly Times-Sentinel was purchased by the News Company and a month later the Daily Democrat was absorbed. The first daily newspaper that saw the light in Manistee was published during the noted Vanderpool trial in February, 1870, in the office of the Manistee Times, and gave the daily court proceedings in that famous case. Its publication continued for two weeks and the history as published was from the pen of the lawyer-editor, Colonel Fowler, with Mrs. Fowler as assistant and proof-reader. Clarence W. Lee, city editor of the Traverse Bay Eagle, a thorough Ohio newspaper man who had assisted Mr. Sprague in the establishment of that paper, became managing editor of the Manistee Daily News at its founding in 1894, and continued to guide it, in that capacity until May, 1899, when Herbert Harley, still president of the News Publishing Company, succeeded him. In March, 1901, the office of publication was moved from the Fowler to the Engelmann block, and in 1907 Mr. Harley erected the building with special view to accommodate the News and its semi-weekly edition, the Manistee Times. Upon taking possession of the new building, the News installed the first linotype machine at Manistee; also the first press in the county to print from roll paper. It was back in 1883 that the precursor of the Manistee Advocate had its beginning. In 1874 the first paper to bear the name of Advocate was issued under the title of the People's Advocate, suspending after a brief period. In 1878 it was revived by E. J. Cady, and in 1881 passed into the hands of V. M. Richardson. In 1884 J. P. O'Malley and S. C. Thompson secured control, branching out into the Manistee Democrat, which was later run separately and finally suspended in 1901. In 1883 the Labor Advocate came into the field, changing its Vol. X-10

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN name later to the Mauistee Advocate, having since been issued continuously as a weekly paper until the present time. It was by a slow process that the paper was developed from its humble beginning into its present form. In October. 1892, James S. Madison, the present proprietor, purchased a half interest in the plant. Six months later, in March, 1893, he bought the remaining interest of John P. O'Malley, and has conducted the business independently since. Acting upon his own initiative, in April, 1895, Mr. Madison launched a daily edition in addition to the weekly publication of the Advocate. MASON COUNTY Mason county has always been considered a good field for news - paper publications, both as a profession and a business, and the institution was initiated about the time that Pere Marquette (Ludington) was born as a village. On September 17, 1867, the Record was established by George W. Clayton and the Appeal was founded by Messrs. Cole, father and son, June 27, 1873, shortly before the village of Pere Marquette became Ludington. Hopkins & Darr succeeded Mr. Clayton in the conduct of the Record, which was combined with the Appeal in 1903. Charles T. Sawyer, who had been identified with the business since 1899, purchased the interests, successively, of Messrs. Hopkins, and Darr, and April 1, 1911, purchased the News, which had been founded by W. Scott Luce as a daily in 1901. Mr. Luce had also established the Illustrated Saturday Sun, in 1907, which was also absorbed by the new management, under the style of Record Company. Besides the publications owned by the Record Company, of which Mr. Sawyer is president, the only newspaper in Ludington is the weekly Republican journal, the Chronicle, founded in 1901 and conducted by E. 0. McLean. lOSCo COUNTY The losco County Gazette was started at Tawas City in 1868, by James 0. and C. H. Whittemore. In September, 1869, Charles S. Hilbourn purchased the office and published the paper until October, 1873, when H. E. Hoard assumed control and continued the business until February, 1881, when he sold it to the present proprietor, Charles R. Jackson, who removed the office to the village of East Tawas. Mr. Jackson is a native of Shiawassee county, Michigan, where he learned the printer's trade. In January, 1877, he came to Tawas City, and was with Mr. Hoard in the Gazette office until he made the purchase. Mr. Jackson is an able journalist and a wide-awake citizen. For further particulars, of a more personal nature, the reader is referred to Mr. Jackson's biography published elsewhere. Although Oscoda had a newspaper as early as 1877, the real predecessor to the existing Oscoda-AuSable Press was established in 1896. Will McGillivray, its editor and postmaster of Oscoda, is a bright, plucky young journalist, who has done much to maintain the courage of the community so stricken by the terrible fire of 1911.

Page  147 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 147 The Tawas Herald, of Tawas City, was founded in 1883, and is now conducted by Len J. Patterson. CHARLEVOIX COUNTY Charlevoix county is in the pioneer journalistic territory of Northern Michigan, and in the person of the venerable Willard A. Smith, of the Sentinel, has the distinction of still maintaining one of the honored fathers of the profession. He is, in fact, the veteran journalist of that section of the state, having been in harness, as a sturdy worker and thinker, for more than forty-two years. A sketch of his life and his long and honorable career as a newspaper man is published elsewhere in this work. The Charlevoix Sentinel itself has been an important factor in the general development and progress of Charlevoix county and Northern Michigan. In 1869 the county of Charlevoix was organized. At that time DeWitt C. Leach was publishing the Grand Traverse Herald and Willard A. Smith was a compositor in the office of the Grand Traverse Eagle. Mr. Leach desired to establish a newspaper in the new county and selected young Smith as the proper person to come to Charlevoix and manage the enterprise. A satisfactory arrangement was effected and Smith took such material as he thought necessary from the Herald office and it was transported to the new field of journalism. An office was set up in the Althouse building, near the Fountain City House, and Saturday, April 24, 1869, the first number of the Charlevoix Sentinel was issued for DeWitt C. Leach by Willard A. Smith, with Major E. H. Green as editor. Its field was wide, for north of Traverse City there was no competition. Charlevoix village was scarcely a prophecy and even if every white family in that territory had each paid for one copy during the year, the publisher would not have grown rapidly rich. Turning back the issues of fifteen years to the early numbers we find a well printed and well edited local newspaper. Public questions are there discussed with candor and ability, and the make-up of the paper displays the work of a printer skilled in his craft. The paper was a five-column folio and was printed on a Washington hand press. Thus the business of the village was fairly presented at that time. During the second year the office was removed to a building at the corner of Clinton and Bridge streets. On March 12, 1870, Mr. Leach sold the establishment to Willard A. Smith. Mr. Green continued editor until February 11, 1871, when he retired from a position which he had very ably filled and Mr. Smith became sole editor and proprietor, as at present. In 1874 the paper was changed to a six-column folio, afterward to a five-column quarto, and in 1881 to a six-column quarto. In 1871 Mr. Smith built an office on Main street. Subsequently that building was moved to Bridge street and occupied a time, when it was again moved and the present Sentinel building erected upon its site. Mr. Smith continued sole proprietor until August, 1883, when he sold

Page  148 ^/-^ * tl/ / z5X BAGI It I

Page  149 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 149 a half interest to Ed. F. Parmelee, and the firm became Smith & Parmelee. At that time the paper was increased to a seven-column quarto. Mr. Smith afterward purchased Mr. Parmelee's interest. When first established the Sentinel was the official paper of seven counties, including two of the Upper Peninsula. Since that time its field has narrowed, as population multiplied upon this inviting domain, but it has ever maintained a high standard of independence and its influence has been continuous, strong and elevating. The Charlevoix Journal was established by Charles J. Strang, and the first number was issued in June, 1883. The paper is a five-column quarto, is Democratic in politics and is conducted with evident ability. Charles J. Strang, founder of the Journal, was a son of the late James J. Strang, leader of the Michigan Mormons. He was born at St. James, Beaver Island, Michigan, April 6, 1851, and after the death of his father in 1856 he moved to Walworth county, Wisconsin, and three years later to Jackson county. In February, 1860, he located in Eaton county, Michigan. He was educated in the district schools of the county, and in March, 1868, entered the office of the Eaton Rapids Journal as an apprentice, where he worked one year. Subsequently he worked at Bay City, Michigan, three years, in western states one year, at Charlotte, Michigan, two years, and at Lansing eight years. In June, 1883, he located at Charlevoix and established the Journal as above stated. The present editor and proprietor is C. E. Ramsey. A daily edition, Evening Journal, was established in 1909. Other long-established papers in Charlevoix county are the Citizen and Journal, of Boyne City, founded respectively in 1881 and 1883. The Standard, deceased, was first issued from that city by William Mears, March 11, 1881. At the beginning of the third volume the name was changed to the Statesman. Rev. T. J. Hill and P. A. Badour were editors of the Standard and the Statesman. The Boyne City Times was established in fall of 1911 and is edited by W. H. Griffin. In the spring of 1882 East Jordan had become of sufficient importance to induce the establishment of a local newspaper. The Boyne City Enterprise had been started at Boyne in September, 1880, by Budd & Garrison, and on April 7, 1882, it was moved to East Jordan by E. N. Clink, who conducted it alone until April 14, 1883, when W. F Palmiter purchased a half interest in the office. On October 11th following Mr. Clink rented his interest to Thomas F. Nelson. On the night of November 18, 1883, the office was destroyed by fire, and the publication of the paper was suspended until February 21, 1884, when it was resumed by Palmiter & Nelson, the latter having purchased the interest belonging to Mr. Clink. The present editor and proprietor is C. L. Lorraine, who bought the paper in 1891. His son, R. L. Lorraine, has been in active charge for several years. ALPENA COUNTY The four newspapers published in this county are all issued from the city of Alpena. The Argus-Pioneer stands for both age and stabil

Page  150 150 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN ity. Wrapped in it is the pioneer history of journalism in Alpena county. On April 29, 1863, D. R. Joslin, a lawyer, issued the initial number of the Thunder Bay Monitor, the first paper published in Alpena county. It was a five column folio. In his salutatory the editor announced that he was in favor of a vigorous prosecution of the war, and would also dedicate his paper to serving the best interests of the village and county. Mr. Joslin, in 1866, sold the office to David D. Oliver, who employed James A. Case to edit the paper and manage the business. The name was then changed to Pioneer. Mr. Oliver afterward sold an interest to Robert S. Toland, and still later disposed of his remaining interest to James K. Lockwood. In the fall of 1868, A. C. Taft purchased the office and paper, which had been changed in name to Pioneer. Succeeding publishers have been Fred C. Fletcher and H. C. Hainmel, who sold to the Evening News when it was founded in 1899. The Alpena Weekly Argus was first issued on June 29, 1871, by John C. Viall. Mr. Viall was born at Pittsfield, New York, March 9, 1842. and in the fall of 1850 had removed to Michigan with his parents, who settled at Pontiac. He attended the Union schools until fifteen years of age, at which time he entered a printing office to learn the trade, which he followed for many years. In 1871 he came to Alpena on a tour of observation. After looking over the field he became convinced that there was a good opening for a Democratic newspaper, and he proceeded forthwith to start an office. The Argus was first located in the McDonald block, a wooden building destroyed in the fire of 1872, and subsequently rebuilt of brick. The fire wiped out of existence every vestige of the Argus printing establishment, and left Mr. Viall only his debts and a good credit, which he had worked hard to earn. His clear grit came to his rescue, and scraping together what money he could, he immediately purchased a new outfit and opened a new office in two rooms of Mr. Bolton's residence on the north side of the river, which that gentleman kindly placed at his disposal. Although heavily burdened with debt, he resumed the battle with increased energy, and extricated himself from all his embarrassments. Mr. Viall conducted the Argus until December, 1908, and in September, 1909, a combination of Alpena citizens was formed comprising James Collins, the veteran journalist, W. B. Robertson and Thomas J. Ferguson. These gentlemen purchased the Pioneer, consolidated it with the Argus, and also bought the News, which had been started the previous month by A. C. Taft. The consolidated business is now owned by Mr. Collins. The Evening Echo was founded by James Collins as the Daily Echo in April, 1890. It was sold by Mr. Collins to J. D. Turnbull in 1891, and came into possession of W. B. Dobson, its present proprietor, in 1898. The Farmer, also conducted by Mr. Dobson as a weekly. was established by the latter in 1898. The daily and weekly are issued under the corporate management of the Echo Printing Company, of which Mr. Dobson is president. The Frolic was a journalistic enterprise started in August, 1873, by William Boulton, author of the "Centennial History of Alpena County." The office of the Frolic was located in the backwoods of

Page  151 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Alpena county, a mile and a half from the nearest neighbor. It was afterward printed in the city and was continued up to 1880, when its publication was suspended. The Michigan Labor Journal was established in Alpena, 1883, by Horton Williams. The publishers in June, 1883, were Williams & Metcalf. The Journal was a state paper, and ably conducted, but finally fell by the wayside and suspended publication in 1892. James Collins conducted it for eight years. The Reporter, the first daily in the county, was started by A. Dinsmore in February, 1882, and published by him until April, 1883, when he sold to Mr. Taft and merged into the Pioneer. Later in the spring Mr. Taft revived the daily, but after a few weeks its publication was again suspended, the patronage not being commensurate with the expense and trouble. WEXFORD COUNTY Wexford was one of the first of the interior counties in Northern Michigan to welcome journalism and newspaper pioneers. The year 1872 was large with events for the county, as the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad had by that time thoroughly bound its communities to the outside world, and its substantial future was assured. The old town, Sherman, and the new town Cadillac, or Clam Lake, blossomed forth with newspapers almost simultaneously. In the early days of 1873 there came to Sherman, the county seat, two young and energetic men from Howell, Livingston county, Michigan, to see what encouragement they could get toward the establishment of a newspaper. Everybody was anxious to have a newspaper started and it did not take long to secure pledges enough to warrant the venture, and on the first day of May, 1872, the first issue of the Wexford County Pioneer was printed. The publishers were Charles E. Cooper, late editor of the Manton Tribune, and A. W. Tucker. This was the first newspaper venture in the county. After running the paper together a few years, Mr. Tucker sold out his interest to Mr. Cooper, who continued in control until 1877, when he sold it to C. S. Marr, who conducted it for a little more than a year. It then went into the hands of H. F. Campbell and John H. Wheeler, where it remained until January, 1880, when Mr. Campbell sold his interest to Mr. Wheeler, who thus became the sole owner. Mr. Wheeler published the paper for twelve years, at the end of which time he sold it Reuben D. Frederick, who still retains it and is therefore one of the old war horses of the profession in Northern Michigan. Upon assuming the proprietorship of the paper in 1883, Mr. Frederick changed its name from the Wexford County Pioneer to the Sherman Pioneer. Clam Lake was still a lumber camp deep in the woods when the News was founded. The Cadillac News and Express tells the story of its birth and growth: "About the middle of March, 1871, Clark L. Frazier, of Manistee, in company with Justice Ingram, Dr. John Leeson and George Butts, all then residents of Manistee, constituted a sleigh

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN load who drove across the country and through the woods to the new settlement of Clam Lake. Mr. Frazier, who was conversant with the printing business, came to investigate the opening here for a newspaper and printing office. A conference with George A. Mitchell, the founder of the place, resulted in the donation of a desirable business lot on Mitchell street, the same being now owned by Dr. Leeson and E. F. Sawyer, and the residence lot, where now stands the dwelling of J. W. Cummer. Mr. Mitchell further arranged to subscribe for twentyfive copies of the proposed newspaper, and gave such other substantial assurance of business support that instead of returning with his companions to Manistee, Mr. Fraiser at once proceeded south by the new railroad to procure his printing outfit. The Clam Lake News had its birthplace in the first frame building erected in the bustling new settlement. On the fourth day of July, 1872, the printing office was removed to Doctor Leeson's building, and the printing office apartments for some time had neither doors nor glass windows. "In 1873 Mr. Frazier sold his paper to J. A. and O. Whitmore, of Adrian, Michigan. Jayno A. Whitmore, the son, removed here and conducted the business until the summer of 1878, when C. T. Chapin brought on a job printing outfit from Toledo, Ohio, and assumed control of the office. In January, 1879, John M. Rice purchased the interest of the Messrs. Whitmore, and the paper was published by Rice & Chapin for several months, when Rice sold his interest to Mr. Chapin. In the fall of 1880, H. H. Terwilliger, of Mason, Ingham county, became an associate owner of the News, but retired on January 1, 1881, to engage in the banking business at Montague, Muskegon county. On the tenth of February, 1882, the News was purchased by J. W. Giddings & Company. The political vigor and influence of the paper was largely enhanced by Mr. Giddings, who filled the editorial chair until he was honored with a seat in the state senate, serving as lieutenant governor in 1893-4." It was while Mr. Rice was serving his constituents at the state capital, in March, 1887, that the paper was sold to the News Publishing Company, E. E. Haskins filling the editorial chair until succeeded by John M. Rice, at the consolidation of the News with the Saturday Express, May 16, 1887. The latter was first issued in December, 1886, by Chapin & Sill. Perry F. Powers, the present publisher of the Evening News and News and Express, the weekly edition, succeeded the News and Express Publishing Company, on December 1, 1887. Mr. Powers had but recently come to Cadillac, having within the previous two years, in association with George C. Smithe, made the Ypsilantian a representative paper of Southern Michigan. Having faith in Northern Michigan, he transferred his activities to Wexford county. He has made the News and Express felt in the best sense of the word and the Evening News has also been molded into one of the influential dailies of Northern Michigan. Mr. Powers has served as president both of the State Press Association and of the Michigan Republican Press Association, as president of the State Board of Education, as auditor general of the state, in 1901-4, and in 1911 was appointed by Governor Osborn

Page  153 KJj

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN as state commissioner of labor, his term expiring January 1, 1913. The Daily Enterprise was a newspaper venture started in the summer of 1880, and backed by A. K. Moyer, E. F. Sawyer, S. S. Fallass, George Holbrook, Daniel McCoy, J. G. Mosser and a number of other citizens, to aid in forwarding the removal of the county seat from Sherman to Cadillac. John B. Rosevelt, an active and vigilant young attorney, was the managing editor, and upon his vermilion head at that time fell the wrath of the "north half" fighters in the county seat struggle. This was the predecessor of the Enterprise, now published at Buckley. The Wexford Cotunty Citizen had an existence from August 16, 1884, to June, 1885. It was printed at the job office of C. T. Chapin and was edited and published by Prof. H. M. Enos. The first Democratic paper published in Cadillac was established by Alfred Rindge, at Mendon, St. Joseph county, Michigan, in June, 1882. It was afterward moved to Cadillac and named the Weekly Tiimes. This paper was absorbed and succeeded by the Michigan Stat( Democrat, a paper which had been first established in Detroit by M. T. Woodruff. Mr. Woodruff continued the publication of the State Democrat, with a single partial intermission in the summer of 1889, when Bright & Tweedie were publishers, until December 10, 1891, when it passed into possession of George S. Stanley, formerly of Coluinbiaville, Lapeer county. In 1884 Mr. Stanley began the publication of the Daily Citizen. and in 1906 changed the name of his weekly publication, the State Democrat to the Weekly Citizen. In May, 1911, Mr. Stanley sold both publications to Perry F. Powers, and removed to Muskegon to assume the business management of a daily newspaper in that city. The Cadillac Globe, weekly, was founded by John M. Terwilliger, on September 1, 1898. Mr. Terwilliger had had previous newspaper experience as reporter and solicitor for the Cadillac State Democrat and as editor and publisher of the Fife Lake Monitor for five years. He was also the founder of the Boardman River Current. In July, 1899, Ralph W. Crawford became associated with Mr. Terwilliger in the publication of the Cadillac Globe, and in July, 1909, the publication of an evening paper, The Daily Globe, was entered upon by a corporation organized for that purpose with Messrs. Terwilliger and Crawford as majority stockholders and in full charge of the management and direction of the publishing company's affairs. The Manton Tribune was established in October, 1879, by Marshall McClure, but remained only a short time under his control. It then passed into the hands of A. J. Teed and soon afterward became the property of E. C. Cooper. In September, 1883, it passed into the hands of H. F. Campbell. Horace G. Hutzler, the present editor and proprietor, purchased the Triblne in 1892. Before the list in Wexford county is exhausted mention must be made of the Enterprise, founded at Buckley in 1880, and of the Sun, established at Mesick in 1901.

Page  155 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 1D5 ANTRIM COUNTY As an early settled section of the Grand Traverse region Antrim county put forth several pioneers of the Northern Michigan press. The first of the brood was the Elk Rapids Eagle, born March 31, 1865, under the fatherhood of Elvin L. Sprague. It was a three column folio, the size of the page being sixteen by thirteen inches. The Elk Rapids advertisers in the first number were as follows: Dexter & Noble, dealers in lumber, lath and shingles, dry goods, groceries and provisions; James P. Brand, notary public; S. Edwin Wait, architect and builder; George Goodhue, manufacturer of boots and shoes; Lemuel R. Smith, who offered 3,000 apple trees for sale; and Ada R. Sprague, milliner. The paper stated that four men were wanted as substitutes for the Union army by citizens of Elk Rapids. It was also mentioned that a dock would be completed at Elk Rapids during the following season. The Eagle was afterward removed to Traverse City and continued as the Traverse City Eagle. Mr. Sprague was born in Gill, Massachusetts, December 22, 1830. In 1836 he removed with his parents to Washtenaw county, Michigan, where they settled. He remained at home and in the vicinity until 1853, when he came to the Traverse region where he afterward lived and bore an active part in its affairs. He first located at Elk Rapids, where he assisted in the erection of a grist-mill for the firm of Craw & Company. He worked in the mill after it was in operation until 1860, when he came to Traverse City and was in the employ of Hannah, Lay & Company as salesman in their store for three years. He then returned to Elk Rapids and started the Eagle as heretofore stated. From that time until his death he was in the newspaper business. He was treasurer of Antrim county six year and was prominently identified with the early history of that county. He was one of the early school teachers of Elk Rapids, having taught two terms in 1858 and 1859. In the fall of 1864 he married Sarah E. Spencer, of Elk Rapids. Their wedding tour embraced a trip to Traverse City, where the marriage ceremony was performed, and the return to Elk Rapids which was their home until 1872, when they moved to Traverse City. The Elk Rapids Progress was established in 1872, by E. L. Sprague, who sold it to H. E. Gemberling, and Mr. Gemberling, in turn, to B. F. Davis. Early editors were F. R. Williams, James Parkinson, E. L. Sprague, Giles Daubeny, H. E. Gemberling and B. F. Davis. The Progress was first published as a six-column folio, was changed to a five-column quarto, and then back to its original size and form. Since 1905 it has been edited and published by George W. Perry, one of the old and still active journalists who have done such fine "promoting" for Northern Michigan. Mr. Perry's detailed record will be found elsewhere in this work. The Mancelona Herald was established in 1879 by Clark S. Edwards and L. E. Slussar. At that time there were but a few families in the village, and the outlook for newspaper success was not particularly assuring. With the advent of a local paper, however, the prospects of the village began to brighten and the following year a tide of

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN prosperity set in that soon made the village an established and growing community. On April 1, 1882, Mr. Edwards retired and Mr. Slussar became sole owner and editor. It is now conducted by 0. E. Hawkins. The Antrim County News, of Elk Rapids, was established by its present editor and proprietor, H. J. Briggs, in 1909. The Bellaire Breeze was an early journalistic venture, which has died down, it being established by Albert S. Abbott, September 29, 1881. Another enterprise which failed to survive the buffets of the average pioneer journal was the Antrim County Record, whose first number appeared on November 7, 1883. OSCEOLA AND LAKE COUNTIES Osceola county has seven newspapers. The pioneers were in order named as follows: The Osceola Outline, Reed City Clarion and the Evart Review. The first named has passed out of existence. The Osceola (Hersey) Outline was established June 5, 1871, by (D. A.) Blodgett & Teal; within a year John F. Radcliffe bought the Blodgett interest and also that of the other partner, and, with exception of one year when W. G. Cameron was editor, conducted the paper until a short time before his death in June, 1906. For several months the paper was not published; then the plant passed to the hands of M. Walls and the old paper was renewed. The good will of the paper was sold by Mr. Walls, in 1909, to the Osceola Publishing Company which had recently purchased the Reed City Democrat, and had established the Osceola County Herald at Reed City. The Osceola County News (Hersey) was then established by R. L. Lewis, and is now published by business men at the county seat, being edited and managed by J. T. Delzell. The Reed City Clarion was established by C. K. Fairchild, in the spring of 1872, and the ownership passed during the next few years to T. D. Talbot, Minchon Brothers (G. W. and J. T.) C. E. Barnes and "Ren" Barker, who conducted the paper more than twenty years, then sold an half interest to E. Blair, the publishers now being Barker & Blair. The Evart Review was established by W. R. Hess, October 20, 1872. In April, 1873, Irvin Chase, present judge of probate, purchased a half interest and in April, 1874, bought out W. H. Hess, and continued the publication as sole owner until January 1, 1881, when he sold to Minchin Brothers (G. W. and J. T.) who published the same until January 1, 1884, when George W. Minchin became sole proprietor by purchase of his brother's interest and has continued as editor and publisher during the past thirty-one years. The fourth paper to be established was the Tustin Advance, by H. C. McCollough in 1878, which was succeeded by the Echo by E. J. Luick. "Del" McGovern then became possessed of the plant and for several years published the Topics. The Times has also been lately issued by Will. A. McDowell. A paper printed by 0. H. Hovey, at Reed City, called the Times,

Page  157 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 157 was the first paper printed at LeRoy in 1883. Its successor was established by R. H. Alien in 1884, and continued for several years. George A. Glerum, at one time county clerk, was the owner, and the publication ceased. After various attempts to keep it alive for a time, it is now succeeded by the Sun, C. A. Warren, publisher. The Marion Dispatch was established in April, 1889, by George B. Howe, druggist. The paper was managed by Mr. Howe about two years, when C. T. Chapin, of Cadillac, became owner and publisher, who sold to W. H. Hess, the founder of the Evart Review. He was succeeded by C. T. Sadler, who published the paper for a number of years under the name of Dispatch-Leader. The paper passed to the hands of Lawrence & Reed, March 8, 1908, and to J. Clemens, June 8, 1908, and April, 1909, Dewey & Rouse, the present publishers, bought the plant who cut the hyphened name, which is now plain Despatch. Lake county is represented in the newspaper field by the Lake County Star, founded in 1873, and the Observer, of Luther, established in 1892. They are both Republican. KALKASKA COUNTY The Kalkaskaian was the first newspaper published in Kalkaska county. It was first issued March 6, 1874. In January of that year Charles P. Sweet came to Kalkaska from Van Buren county with the view of starting a newspaper at the county seat. He first established his printing office in the Mapes building, where he carried on business until he erected a structure of his own called the Kalkaskaian building. He remained there until the new brick block was completed in 1880 when he removed to rooms in the second story. Mr. Sweet, the founder of the Kalkaskaian, had been twenty years in the business when he came to Kalkaska. In 1876 he platted an addition to the village and also engaged in the clothing business, amassing, in various lines, considerable property. In May, 1878, the Kalkaska Leader was established at Kalkaska, by J. N. Tinklepaugh and E. B. Dennis. The consolidation of these two papers, in 1911, under the management of J. N. Tinklepaugh under the name The Kalkaska Leader and The Kalkaskian, makes the latter the only newspaper in the county. EMMET COUNTY The middle and late seventies brought the first newspapers to Emmet county close on the heels of the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad; the clang of the press even slightly preceded the snort of the horse. It was on August 8, 1874, that Dr. William Little issued the Petoskey City Weekly Times, the first newspaper of the county, and although it was only a little sheet four by six inches and but a few circulars were struck off from an old proof press owned by the Doctor, it died with its first number. Two issues of the Emmet County Democrat had already appeared, but they were printed in Chicago and "did not count" in local history. The first newspaper which was printed in Emmet

Page  158 158 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN county, and survived the first day of its birth, was that same Democrat, which was printed on an old Washington handpress at Petoskey by Roselle Rose, pioneer journalist, on the 14th of May, 1875. The Democrat was published for a few months in the Dickerson store and then the office was removed to a little building sixteen by eighteen feet in size, which stood just south of Mr. Rose's residence at the corner of Mitchell and Petoskey streets. The same building afterward performed the humbler duties of a woodhouse, at the rear of the editor's residence. He occupied that building for some time and then removed to the main street. Mr. Rose was born in the town of Pike, Wyoming county, New York, in the year 1847. After beginning active life for himself he engaged in farming. In 1869 he was obliged to seek a change of occupation and climate on account of his health, and for that purpose removed to Michigan and settled in Plainwell, Allegan county. At that place he was engaged in the drug and insurance business and afterward was connected with the newspaper at that place. In 1875 he moved to Petoskey and started the first newspaper published in the county, as already stated. The first money he received in his business there was from the late Dr. Little, and the first job printing was a quantity of envelopes for James M. Burbeck, of Harbor Springs. In the winter of 1886, Mr. Rose sold the Democrat to a syndicate of Petoskey business men. In 1878 the Emmet Coumity Independent was started in what was then the Indian village of Little Traverse, now Harbor Springs. Charles S. Hampton, who had served as principal of the first graded schools in Petoskey and Little Traverse, was editor and proprietor of the Independent, which, despite the difficulties and obstacles incident to the publication of a paper in a new and sparsely settled region steadily grew in strength and public favor. It was started with less than a five hundred dollar outfit, and its office was the old weatherbeaten trading post building, but within five years it occupied a spacious and convenient building of its own on Main street, and had a fully equipped newspaper and job office, including good steam presses. During the summer of 1883 the publisher issued a six-column daily paper called the Daily Resorter, which was so well received by the public and especially by the summer visitors that it has never been suspended. It was at first published ten weeks during the year. In December, 1887, the Independent was moved from Harbor Springs to Petoskey and consolidated with the Democrat. Soon afterward C. E. Churchill entered Mr. Hampton's employ and in April, 1900, with E. R. Goldsmith, he purchased the Democrat and Daily Resorter of Mr. Hampton. In 1902 they made a year-round-daily of The Resorter, under the name The Petoskey Evening News and Resorter. Mr. Goldsmith died in 1904, Mr. Churchill then becoming sole owner of the papers. In 1905 the name of the weekly was changed from the Independent Democrat to the Petoskey Independent and the policy of the paper was also changed from Democratic to independent. The Petoskey City Record owes its origin mainly to James Buckley, a hardware merchant in the village of Petoskey. TIn the summer of

Page  159 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 159 1878 Mr. Buckley associated with himself, George A. Mosher, a practical printer, and June 20th issued the first number of the Petoskey City Record, a seven-column folio paper, bearing the practical motto "For your good and our profit." The paper from its start presented a neat appearance, and was highly creditable as a pioneer enterprise. The first of January, 1879, Mr. Buckley withdrew to engage in other business, and Mosher & Gibson became proprietors. In the summer of 1879 the paper was enlarged to an eight-column folio. Mr. Gibson remained in the business but a short time, and was succeeded by Frank M. Pray. In December 1880, Mr. Pray withdrew and Mr. Mosher continued the business alone for weeks. In January, 1881, C. E. McManus purchased an interest and the firm became Mosher & McManus, and in September of that year F. S. Freeman became proprietor. Capt. Joseph C. Bontecou assumed the editorship and ownership of the Record in April, 1883, and conducted it with courage and ability until his death March 25, 1904. Captain Bontecou went into the Union army before he had graduated from Ohio Wesleyan University and resided in Chicago and Jackson, Michigan, before coming to Petoskey to purchase the Record. A biography of his eventful life is published elsewhere. At his death in 1904 the affairs of the paper were assumed with courage and success by his daughter, Miss Margaret C. Bontecou, who sold the business in October, 1911, to C. E. Churchill. The Little Traverse Republican, the first newspaper published at Harbor Springs, was started in May, 1876, by Warren Bowen. L. A. Clark did the mechanical work, and the following September purchased the office, over which throughout most of the subsequent development of the enterprise, he has presided. The Republican was started as a six-column folio. The paper has been and is Republican in politics, and a stanch advocate of local interests. Mr. Clark continued as editor and proprietor from the time he purchased the office in 1876 until 1910, when he sold to M. L. Garland, its present owner. Mr. Clark is a native of the city of Cleveland, Ohio. At the age of thirteen years he began to work at printing at Hillsdale, Michigan, and has followed printing and journalism most of the time since. In April, 1861, he enlisted in Company A, Twelfth Indiana Regiment, and was in service about two years. He was then transferred to the government bureau of printing at Nashville, Tennessee, where he remained until the close of the war. In the spring of 1876 he came to Harbor Springs from Missouri. In 1877 he was appointed postmaster which office he held until the spring of 1884. He also served as president of the Harbor Springs Novelty Works and Saw-Mill Company and has extensive farming interests in the county. The Harbor Springs Graphic made its appearance in 1895; is Republican in politics; H. S. Babcock, editor and proprietor. The Pellston Journal came to life in 1903, with L. A. Grayson editor; The Pellston Journal Company, publishers. The Levering Enterprise came to life in the spring of 1911, and is published by Merl Howard. The Emmet County Appeal, a socialist paper, was launched in 1908 at Harbor Springs by Jos. Womock; and about a year ago was pur

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN chased by William Kilpatrick and his son Vernon, and the plant moved to Petoskey. The Square Deal, a daily effort by the Appeal, lived less than two weeks during the fall of 1911. Emmet county is something of a graveyard for papers, having furnished a resting place for The Standard, a Democratic paper by Joseph C. Wright, which made its appearance at Harbor Springs early in the nineties; The Artesian Well, by Robert Wright, at Harbor Springs, after a short life in the early nineties; The Petoskey Herald by Robert Wright, lived about a year in Petoskey, in 1892-3; The Alanson Inter-Lake had a short career and was consumed by fire and never "Phaenixed;" The Lyre was a magazine adventure of J. C. Wright which lived only a couple of years, 1900-1. OTSEGO AND ROSCOMMON COUNTIES Gaylord, Otsego county is a point at which journalism became early rooted. The Herald, still flourishing, was founded in 1875, and the Elmira Gazette, now deceased, was started by C. S. Edwards in 1882. The second existing journal, the Times, is of recent birth, 1905. Roscommon county also promised so well in 1875 that her News was founded, the Herald not appearing until 1907. CHEBOYGAN COUNTY Of the four newspapers published in this county three are issued from the city of Cheboygan. The first journal launched was the Manitawaba Chronicle, which Dr. W. P. Maiden put forth from Cheboygan village in 1871. It was a weekly, twelve by eighteen inches in size, and only twelve numbers were published. Another short-lived paper was the Cheboygan Free Press, started by Thomas Bentley and James J. Brown in January, 1876. The Northern Tribune, which survives as the Tribune, was started by William Chandler, in July, 1875. In January, 1882, C. S. Ramsay and C. J. Hunt purchased interests in the office, and became actively identified with the paper, Mr. Ramsay as editor, and Mr. Hunt in the mechanical department. In the summer of 1882, Merrit Chandler became interested in the business. In the spring of 1883 the Tribune Company was organized, and Rev. R. M. Thompson, who had become a stockholder, succeeded Mr. Ramsey as editor, the-latter of whom has been at the head of the Tribune since 1885. Miss Dora M. Ramsay, his daughter, has been in active editorial charge for some time. The Cheboygan Democrat was first issued February 12, 1880, by two young men from Bay City, Edward Forsyth and Milie Bunnell. At that time Cheboygan had no railroad communication and the outfit had to be brought in by sleigh from Petoskey at a cost of nearly three cents per pound, and those who know what printing material, presses, composing stones, lead type, etc., weigh can furnish their own estimates of costs. In the fall of 1883, Mr. Forsyth erected the building in which the Democrat is now located. Since February, 1911, on account of Mr. Forsyth's failing health, Al. H. Weber has been conducting the Demo

Page  161 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 161 crat as lessee and manager. A sketch of Mr. Forsyth, who is one of the associate editors of this work, will be found elsewhere. The Cheboygan News was founded in the fall of 1886 by Brougham H. Smyth, upon whose death October 23, 1893, C. L. Smyth & Company, present proprietors, succeeded to the ownership. Besides the Tribune, Democrat and News, Cheboygan county has the Courier, at Wolverine, founded in 1904 and now conducted by B. E. Thayer. LEELANAU COUNTY The oldest existing newspaper in Leelanau county is the Enterprise, published at Leland, but founded at Northport by B. H. Derby in 1877. In 1879 Mr. Derby sold it to W. C. Nelson, the present editor and proprietor, who has been its owner continuously with the exception of a short period when George A. Cutler had a half interest in it. Following the change in the county seat the Enterprise was moved to Leland in January, 1883. The Leelanau Tribune was started by A. H. Johnson, at Northport, in June 1873. In the winter of 1877-8, Mr. Johnson removed it to Suttons Bay. In 1880 it was sold to the Tribune Publishing Company, who changed its name to the Tribune and removed it to Traverse City, where, after a short time, its publication was discontinued. Mr. Nelson commenced his career as a printer on the-Leelanau Tribune. The Northport Leader, Empire Journal and Leelanau News, of Suttons Bay, are all of comparatively recent birth. PRESQUE ISLE COUNTY The only newspaper which has passed the age of thirty in Presque Isle county is the Presque Isle County Advance, of Rogers, founded in 1878, with Charles Platz, Jr., as its present editor and proprietor. The Outlook, of Onaway, was established in 1898; Presque Isle County News, Millersburg, in 1901, and the Inter Lake, Onaway, in 1902. OGEMAW COUNTY The Ogemaw County Herald was the first paper established in West Branch and had the field to itself from 1878 to 1882. Jay Allen conducted the Herald from 1880 to June, 1890, when he consolidated it with the Times, which had been established by Weeks and French in 1882. Mr. Allen continued as editor and proprietor of the HeraldTimes until October, 1902, when Arthur R. Babcock assumed its ownership and management which he still retains. The Ogemaw Republican, founded in 1896, is under the ownership of George L. Donovan and John W. Huckle, under the style of Donovan & Huckle. Rose City also has its Review, by B. J. Cournyer, founded in 1904. Vol. I-11

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN CLARE AND CRAWFORD COUNTIES The pioneer newspaper in Clare county was the Farwell Register, established by James S. Holden in 1871 and published by him for nearly twenty years. Farwell's present newspaper is The Sun, edited by Charles C. Coors. The Clare Press made its first appearance in 1878. This paper was started by A. F. Goodenough, who in 1880 sold to D. E. Alward, by whom it was published for eight years. In 1890 it was consolidated with Marvin D. Eaton's Clare Democrat, which paper had been established four years before. E. D. Palmer and R. G. Jefferies began publication of the Clare Sentinel in 1892 and later bought the Democrat-Press plant, merging it with the Sentinel. R. G. Jefferies, Welch & Bennett and Palmer & Andrus successively owned this paper and in November, 1911, it became the property of Enoch Andrus, Mr. Palmer retiring from the firm. A. Ray Canfield established The Courier at Clare in 1895 and has ever since published it. At present (1911) his son is associated with him in the business. The Clare County Cleaver of Harrison, was founded in 1881; present editor, Jesse Allen. Crawford county is represented by the Crawford Avalanche, of Grayling, a good weekly edited and owned by O. Palmer. It is over thirty years old, having been founded in May, 1878, by Maurer, Masters & Brown. It was transferred to Salling, Hanson & Company in January, 1880, and Dr. O. Palmer in February, 1881. On July 1, 1911, the latter disposed of the paper to O. P. Schumann, the present proprietor. OSCODA AND ARENAC COUNTIES The Mail-Telegram, published at Mio, where it was founded in 1881, does its full share in conserving the interests of Oscoda county. It is owned and edited by G. Houston. Several substantial papers flourish in Arenac county. The veteran of them all is now the Arenac County Independent, founded in 1882, and conducted by Harry M. Myers. Its previous proprietors were James J. Decker and Nelson Ireland. Then there are the Progress, of Omer, started in 1895, and the Enterprise, Au Gres, established in 1906. MISSAUKEE COUNTY Several early attempts were made to plant newspapers in Missaukee county before the Republican was established at Lake City in 1884. In 1873 S. W. Davis commenced the publication of the Missaukee County Reporter, at that place, but it only lasted two years. The Journal, also of Lake City, was established by L. A. Barker, familiarly known in newspaper circles as "Ren" Barker, April 27, 1877, who was publisher and editor up to April 22, 1884, when it was sold to H. N. McIntire, and consolidated with the Lake City Leader, a paper which Mr. McIntire had established in 1883. In May, 1884, the name

Page  163 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 163 of the consolidated papers was changed to New Era. The Journal, started as a seven-column folio, had previously been enlarged to eight columns. In November, 1882, the office was burned, but the Journal continued its weekly appearance without missing a number, although it eventually succumbed to give place to the Republican. The latter is now owned and edited by Orville Dennis. The Plain Dealer was established at Lake City, in 1887, by M. To Woodruff, under the name of Missaukee Independent. Mr. Woodruff sold it to George S. Stout in September of that year and in 1891 its name was changed to the Plain Dealer. In 1903 its ownership was transferred to R. W. Bird and later to C. W. Newton. The latter sold it to a stock company of local people. BENZIE COUNTY Although Benzie county has no newspapers of long standing-the oldest being the News, of Thompsonville, established in 1893-the journalistic field was cultivated as early as 1870. About May 1st of that year A. Barnard commenced to issue thb Citizen from Benzonia, but it was discontinued in the following summer. W. F. Cornell founded the Weekly Express, at Frankfort, in June, 1870. Its plant was burned in 1881, but the paper resumed publication and continued for several years thereafter. In 1872 appeared the Benzie Countty Journal under the auspices of a joint stock company organized at Benzonia, and its publication was continued until January, 1882. A still later publication of Benzie county was the South Frankfort News, established by James M. Gillmore in 1884. The existing papers, besides the Thompsonville News, are the Benzie County Patriot, of Frankfort, founded in 1897, the Benzie County Leader, Honor, first issued in 1908, and the Elberta Alert, founded in 1911. GLADWIN COUNTY The oldest and leading paper in the county is the Gladwin County Record, founded in 1878. Eugene Foster has been identified with the Record from the start and his brother, Isaac, became associated with him in 1884. Foster Brothers are still its publishers and editors, and are strong and well known journalists and citizens. The Clarion, the only other paper in Gladwin county, was founded at Beaverton in 1895. Arthur E. Dann is its present owner and editor. EXPLANATORY In the foregoing text, which may be considered an accompaniment to the tabulated list of newspapers classified alphabetically, the history of the press of Northern Michigan has been traced chronologically, special stress being placed on the pioneer journals and journalists. While the counties have been taken up in the general order of priority as

Page  164 161 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN fields for newspapers and newspaper men, the record of each county has been sketched before another has been considered. With this explanation the subject is dismissed, not because it is considered absolutely complete, but simply that the space at the writer's disposal forbids further elucidation. FIRST REGULATING ACT Long before there were any regular physicians to regulate in Northern Michigan the territorial legislature passed an act designed to drive quacks and incompetents from practice, the same having already secured a foothold and done much mischief in the settled communities of the south. The act became the basis for later legislation along the same line, and was the forerunner of the present well regulated State Medical Society and numerous county organizations which, with existing statutes, make it now almost impossible for an ignoramus or a rascal to place human life in jeopardy even in the most obscure hamlet or district. "On March 12, 1827," says Dr. 0. C. Comstock in "The Medical Profession in Michigan" (Michigan Pioneer and Historical Collections, Vol. 22), "an act of the territorial legislature of Michigan was approved which did much to save suffering pioneers from the horde of ignorant quacks found in every settlement and doing their deadly work without restraint." The preamble is in the following words: "Whereas, well regulated Medical Societies have been found to contribute to the advancement and diffusion of true science and particularly the healing art. "Section 1-The Medical Society of the territory of Michigan, as already incorporated by that name, shall continue to be a body politic and corporate. "Section 2-County Societies to be formed of persons in regular standing in the Territorial Society and commissioned by said society for that purpose. " Section 3-Doctors exempted from military duty, serving on juries. "Section 4-Proceedings of its annual and other meetings to be filed in the office of the county clerk. "Section 5-Society. after an approved examination, may grant diplomas. "Section 6-Restrictions in reference to the examination of students. "Section 7-Appointment and duty of censors. "Section 8-No person shall commence the practice of physic or surgery within any of the counties of this territory until he shall have passed examination and received a diploma from one of the medical societies established or to be established as aforesaid; and if any person shall commence the practice without having obtained a diploma for that purpose he shall forever thereafter be disqualified from collecting any debt or debts incurred by such practice in any court in this territory. "Section 9-That if any such person, except those who were residents in and have continued to reside and practice within the ter

Page  165 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 165 ritory since 1819, shall practice physic and surgery without being regularly licensed, such person shall forfeit and pay twenty-five dollars for each and every offense of which he may be duly convicted, to be recovered with costs of suit before any justice of the peace of the county where such penalty shall be incurred by any person who will prosecute the same, except army surgeons. "Section 11-No person shall be admitted to an examination as a candidate for the practice of physic and surgery in this territory unless he shall have previously studied medical science four years after the age of sixteen with a regular physician and surgeon-but any portion of time of the study, not exceeding one year during which the candidate after the age of sixteen shall have pursued classical studies, shall be accepted in lieu of an equal portion of time of the study of medical science, and if he shall have attended one or more complete courses of medical lectures on all the branches of medical science in any medical college or institution, the same shall be accepted in lieu of one year spent in the study of medical science as aforesaid, the commencement of his studies to be certified to-not to be licensed under twenty-one years of age. "Section 12-Physicians and surgeons who may have received diplomas in other states cannot practice in this territory until they have satisfied the censors of the territorial or county society that their medical education has been full and complete, as is here required. "Section 13-Persons practicing, without reporting to or connecting themselves with some society, shall incur the penalty named in Section 9 of this act. "Section 16-That upon complaint in writing, filed with any county inedical society charging any practitioner of physic or surgery within such county with having been guilty of infamous crime, habitual drunkenness, or with gross ignorance and incompetency, every such medical society at a regular meeting thereof may proceed to investigate such charge or charges, and if upon such investigation and due proof of the facts so charged the person complained of shall be found guilty by a vote of two-thirds of all the members present, then such medical society is hereby authorized and empowered to suspend such person from the practice of physic and surgery, and the person so suspended, if he continue to practice physic and surgery within this territory during the time of his suspension, be subject to the penalties of Section 9 of this act. The person so suspended shall have three months' notice of the filing of charges and have a copy thereof. The testimony in the case shall be in writing and filed with the records of the medical society. The suspended practitioner may appeal to the Territorial Medical Society. "Section 18-Witnesses to be subpoenaed. If refusing to appear and testify, liable to a fine of twenty-five dollars. Swearing falsely, perjury, and liable to its pains and penalties. "Section 26-Copy of diplomas and licenses to be deposited with county clerks. Charges made before that is done not collectible at law." This act of twenty-nine sections, passed in the infancy of the territory, is remarkable in many particulars, as regards doctor, quack and

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN client. It proved how early the importance of regulating the practice was recognized, and gave birth to the earlier medical societies of the counties which, under state regulations, have since so multiplied. THE PIONEER PHYSICIANS The physicians of a new country, in some guise or other, appear about the time that the first settlers arrive. In Northern Michigan the Jesuit priests first ministered to the physical as well as the spiritual needs of both the red man and the white. The Protestant missionaries were pioneers in medical practice when the Grand Traverse region commenced to take on the semblance of a growing country of permanent settlements. Among the best known of these Godly, albeit irregular practitioners, was Rev. Peter Dougherty, who came to Old Mission and the Grand Traverse region in May, 1839. During the period of Mr. Dougherty's residence at Old Mission, there being no physician in the country, he was often applied to for medicine and advice for the sick. On one occasion, after Mr. Boardman had established himself at the head of the bay at the place where Traverse City now stands, he was called to prescribe for Mrs. Duncan, who was keeping a boarding-house at that place. He found Mrs. Duncan very sick. Two or three days after, not having heard from his patient in the interval, he became anxious for her safety and resolved to get some information in regard to her condition, and to send a further supply of medicine, or repeat his visits. There were some men from Boardman's establishment getting out timber at the harbor on the west side of the peninsula (Bowers' Harbor), which they were conveying home in a boat. Hoping to get the desiredc information from them and to send the necessary medicine by their hand, he walked across the peninsula to their place of labor. The men had gone home with a cargo. Thinking he might get to Boardman's in time to return with them on their next trip he started for the head of the bay on foot, making his way as rapidly as possible along the beach. There was no bridge over Boardman river near the boarding-house, and, on his arrival, the skiff used for crossing was on the other side. There was no time to lose. Not to be delayed he quickly entered the stream and waded across, the cold water coming up to his chin. Fortunately he found his patient much improved; unfortunately, the boat in which he had hoped to return was already nearly out of sight. on its way back to the peninsula. Mr. Dougherty would have been hospitably entertained could he have been persuaded to remain, but he felt that he must return home. Not stopping to put on a dry suit that was offered him, he partook of a hasty lunch and set out on his return. Some one set him across the river in the skiff. As soon as he was out of sight in the woods, he resolved to dry his clothes, without hindering himself in the journey. Taking off his shirt, he hung it on a stick carried in the hand, spreading it to the sun and air as he walked rapidly along. The day was warm, and the sun shone brightly. When the shirt was partly dry, he exchanged it for his flannel, putting on the shirt and hanging the

Page  167 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 167 flannel on the stick. It was near sundown when he reached home, thoroughly fatigued, but happy in the thought that his patient was getting well. This is but a sample of how the pioneer practitioners of medicine had to dispense with their dignity in order to do tleir duty. Among the early practitioners of Traverse City may be mentioned Dr. Holton, who located there in the spring of 1852 and Dr. D. D. Ashton, who came about ten years later. Benzie county's pioneer physicians included Dr. Alonzo J. Slyfield, of Frankfort, who located in 1848, and Dr. Isaac Voorheis, of a later date. Dr. William Little, a graduate both of Michigan University and Rush Medical College, Chicago, located at Petoskey for practice in 1868, and in 1870 Dr. Lewis Levi settled at the village of Boyne as its first physician. In 1868 Dr. William H. Nelson opened a drug store at Northport, Leelanau county, also practicing medicine for which he was fully qualified. Another early physician of that county was Dr. R. H. Monroe who located at tviatt. The first physician in Alpena county was Mrs. Sarah L. Carter. Her husband, Daniel Carter, was the first postmaster of Fremont and one of the founders of both the city and county of Alpena. Mrs. Carter was among the pioneer women of the region and from November, 1856, to about 1862 everybody depended upon her for medical services. She did not come into the country to practice, and did not intend to let it be known that she was familiar with the use of medicine and treatment of the sick, but she had hardly reached her new home in the wilderness before the services of a physician were in such urgent need that she could not refuse to render aid. Before coming to Alpena county, circumstances had brought her into contact with the sick, until she had become skilled as a nurse and successful in the use of medi cines, and in the new settlement to which she came her knowledge was a great blessing. Her services were continually in demand and sometimes for months she would have scarcely time for rest or attention to her own household duties. About 1862 a Dr. Truax located at Alpena, but did not remain long. Dr. W. P. Maiden, who came in July, 1865, is generally considered the first regular practitioner of the county whose career is permanently identified with her people. In the fall of 1874 Dr. Maiden organized the Alpena County Medical Society, one of the first to be founded in Northern Michigan, at his house in Alpena. He was elected president; James McTavish, vice president; and J. F. McSween, secretary and treasurer. The members of the society all resided in Alpena and were as follows, the names of their alma maters and dates of graduation being given: William P. Maiden, Queen's College, Kingston, 1862, and Bellevue Hospital, New York, 1873; James McTavish, Eclectic Medical Institute, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1866; Augustus Jeyte, Medical College University of Buffalo, New York, 1856; J. F. McSween, Detroit (Michigan) Medical College, 1870; George H. Shelton, Medical College University of Michigan, 1872.

Page  168 168 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Among the first physicians to locate at Cheboygan were Dr. A. M. Gerow, in 1868, and Dr. Thomas A. Perrin, in 1873. Dr. James Reeves, the first resident physician at East Tawas and perhaps in losco county, located for practice in 1868. The first physicians to permanently locate in Wexford county were Dr. H. D. Griswold, who settled at Sherman, and Dr. John Leeson at Clam Lake, both in 1872. The story of Dr. Leeson's coming is told somewhat in detail. "Dr. Leeson visited the Clam Lake lumber camp," says the narrator, "from which the city of Cadillac developed, in November, 1871, walking from LeRoy, which was as far as the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad was then built. The Doctor spent one night in the place and walked out the next morning, with no desire and less expectation that he would ever return to the shores of the Clam Lakes to spend the best days of his life. He returned again, however, in March, 1872, and in the following month of that year entered upon his permanent residence here. He opened the first drug store in the fol lowing May, and in connection with his practice and drug business more fully developed the preparation of the famous Tiger Oil, which had in an incomplete way been inaugurated at Manistee." This was Cadillac's father of local physicians. The first physician in the village of Kalkaska was Dr. E. Morgan, who was a resident of the county several years. Dr. E. R. Boyd, also a physician at Kalkaska, located there in 1882, and Dr. Zina Pitcher came in the following year.

Page  169 CHAPTER VII GENERAL MATERIAL DEVELOPMENT FIRST NORTHERN MICHIGAN INDUSTRY-MICHIGAN'S EPOCHAL YEAR (1840)-SPLIT INTO TWO PARTS-FATHER OF MICHIGAN RAILROADS -THE GRAND RAPIDS & INDIANA —NORTHERN CONNECTING LINKSTHE PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD-ANN ARBOR RAILROAD-FIRST LOGGING RAILROAD IN THE WORLD-LUDINGTON AND MANISTEE RAILROADS-THE DETROIT & MACKINAC-GOOD ROADS-FIRST LUMBERING OPERATIONS IN MANISTEE COUNTY AND GRAND TRAVERSE REGION -CHEBOYGAN AND ALPENA COUNTIES —osCO AND ALCONA-HISTORIC SUMMARY-MELTING OF THE PINE - FORESTS-PRESENT STATUS OF LUMBERING-THE SALT INDUSTRY-AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES-STATE LANDS OPEN TO PURCHASE-DIVERSE INDUSTRIES -GROWTH THROUGH NATURE'S FAVORS-GROWTH IN STATISTICS. It is only from the early forties that Northern Michigan can be said to have continuously developed; and that, notwithstanding the terrible shock and drain of its best resources, human and material, caused by the Civil war. Even during that period it was in its infancy, as compared with Southern Michigan, and this is most strikingly illustrated in its splendid contributions to the Union cause-splendid, in proportion to its resources, but small in actual numbers of brave men and good dollars. Even in the late seventies the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad was but just penetrating to the northern sections of that territory into the Grand Traverse region, and it was almost a decade afterward before the Pere Marquette, the Michigan Central and the Mackinac & Detroit lines commenced to push up into the territory from the pineries and salt districts above Saginaw, Ludington and Manistee. The years 1841-3 were seasons of very hard times, the abatement of the strong speculative fever which marked the previous half decade having left business enterprises torpid and exhausted. The legislation of the years mentioned had been largely devoted to passing various measures of financial relief, such as extending the time for collecting taxes, and, as in all other periods of readjustment, "times were dull." Iut the state had been surveyed to a large extent, and the resources of Northern Michigan, both as to timber, soil and minerals, had been set forth in a new and favorable light. By the division of that part of the state into counties-even by the changing of most of their names from 169

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Indian to historical nomenclature-a substantial semblance of civil government had been given to the country between Mackinaw City, the Pere Marquette river and the Saginaw valley. Even from the times of the early Jesuits and the later Protestant missionaries the riches of Northern Michigan in its natural resources of timber had been understood in a vague and general way; but in the early forties those vast riches which dwelt in the forests of pine and hardwood still lay dormant, and there were not to exceed half a dozen little saw-mills in all the broad region covered by this history. FIRST NORTHERN MICHIGAN INDUSTRY As to practical results, horticulture had its birth in Northern Michigan before the industries which are consolidated under the comprehensive term of "lumbering;" for in the very early records of the missions established by the French are references to old apple and pear trees which they found planted on the sites of Michilimackinac, Sault Ste. Marie and Detroit, indicating that when white men first came into the country the climate and soil of Michigan had already had a most favorable test as to their adaptability to fruit raising. Further, "the great age to which the first plantings of trees attained and their productiveness indicated strongly the possibilities of the future in the growing of fruit. The plantations of both apples and pears made on both sides of the Detroit river, or at D'Etroit, the straits, as it was then written, were very productive in fruits, and as this was on the line of travel of many of the tribes of Indians who each autumn took a trip from our peninsula to English and French stations in Canada, it is not singular that fruit trees sprang up along their trails, which are mentioned in the early records of the country about Pontiac and the Saginaw valley as old and productive trees when first the white man penetrated the wilderness of these regions.*" Horticulture spread northward from the Detroit district, Grand River valley, St. Joseph, Benton Harbor, Kalamazoo, Grand Rapids and the Saginaw valley, but the first state society for its encouragement was not organized until 1870 (at Grand Rapids) and fifteen years afterward the only county societies established in Northern Michigan were those in Mason county (Ludington), Manistee county (Manistee). Benzie county (Benzonia), Wexford county (Cadillac) and Osceola county (Evart). Consequently, although horticulture is much older than lumbering it has been of slower development, and commenced to fairly come into the great sources of wealth and prosperity in Northern Michigan at about the time that her pine forests had been practically cleared away. In fact, the fruit raiser followed very closely on the heels of the lumberman, and much of the most productive land for apples, peaches, pears, plums and berries in Northern Michigan was formerly covered with forest growths. * Hon. Charles W. Garfield in address delivered at Lansing in 1886 during semicentennial celebration of Michigan's statehood.

Page  171 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 171 MICHIGAN'S EPOCHAL YEAR (1840) Before entering into a detailed account of the founding of the lumber industries of Northern Michigan, and the establishment of the railway system of that part of the state, as a direct result of their development, the writer feels justified in pausing a moment to insert a picture of the state as drawn by Hon. Byron M. Cutcheon in his "Fifty Years of Growth in Michigan" (1892). He speaks of that epochal year 1840: "It is no part of my purpose to dwell at all upon the events which fill the years from 1830 to 1840. In many respects they are the most interesting years in the history of the state. Here belong the administration of the Boy Governor, Stevens T. Mason, who was acting governor at nineteen; the rapid rush of immigration and the settlement of the interior across the southern portion of the state; the boundary war with the neighboring state of Ohio; the addition of the Upper Peninsula to the domain of the state; the founding of our educational system, including the University of Michigan; the great land speculative excitement, when paper towns were platted upon every stream and by every waterfall; and the banking craze-a special development of the cheap money insanity which has passed into history as the 'wild cat' epoch. During this decade also arose the schemes to gridiron the state with railroads and canals, which fostered every form of speculation, and ultimately plunged the state into disastrous debt and brought it to the brink of repudiation." In 1840 Chippewa and Mackinac were the only organized counties in the Upper Peninsula, with 534 and 923 population respectively. Ludington, Manistee, Cheboygan, Alpena-not one of these, or any other of the progressive cities in Northern Michigan with which this history deals had an existence. Detroit and Monroe were the only incorporated cities in the entire state. In 1840 the railroad system of Michigan consisted of three short lines-the Erie & Kalamazoo, from Toledo to Adrian, 33 miles; the Detroit & Pontiac, from Detroit to Royal Oak, 12 miles (one locomotive); the Detroit & St. Joseph, from Detroit to Ypsilanti, 29 miles. The last was the most pretentious, its rolling stock consisting of four small locomotives, five passenger cars and ten small freight cars. SPLIT INTO Two PARTS The railroad system which now partially accommodates Northern Michigan has its base on the east and west lines of the Michigan Central and Pere Marquette railroads. These great corporations, as well as the Grand Rapids & Indiana and the Detroit & Mackinac roads, have now north and south lines converging at Mackinaw City, the extremity of the Southern Peninsula. The Grand Rapids & Indiana pushes its system up between the lines of the Pere Marquette and Michigan Central lines, while the Detroit & Mackinac hugs the Huron shore as far as Alpena, venturing further inland as far as Cheboygan, and occupies northeastern Michigan. But while Southern Michigan has a network of lines running in all directions, that part of the state north of

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the Pere Marquette road which runs from Saginaw to Ludington has virtually no east and west lines. The eastern and western portions of Northern Michigan are as foreign countries; but small spurs are shooting out toward the interior from all the four north and south systems, so that before many years it is probable that this serious defect in the transportation facilities of that section of the state will be remedied. FATHER OF MICHIGAN RAILROADS As is generally known, the Michigan Central is the father of the railroad system of Michigan, although the Grand Rapids & Indiana reached the extremities of the Southern Peninsula shortly after it. In his annual message to the state legislature of 1837-8, Governor Mason reminded its members of the undeveloped resources of the state and exhorted it to prompt action in providing canals and railroads. "The period has arrived," said he "when Michigan can no longer, without detriment to her standing and importance as a state, delay the action necessary to the development of her vast resources of wealth." Animated by the same spirit, the legislature promptly responded, and passed an act for the construction of three lines of railroad across the state-one from Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph river; one from Monroe to New Buffalo, and one from the mouth of Black river to the navigable waters of Grand river, or Lake Michigan. Thus was Southern Michigan early provided for by the governor and legislature in their recommendations to future generations. In the face of the "wild cat" banking, limitless speculation, panic, depression and threatened bankruptcy, the state of Michigan continued work upon its three east and west trunk lines until 1846, when the Central had been completed to Kalamazoo and the Southern to Hillsdale. Early in the session of that year's legislature a syndicate of Boston capitalists through their agent proposed to the state authorities the purchase of the Central road. The proposition was favorably reeeived by the legislature to whom it was referred by the governor; and a bill chartering the Michigan Central Railroad Company and providing for the sale to it of the Michigan Central Railroad for the sum of $2,000,000 in due time became a law. With the acquisition of its property the Michigan Central Railroad Company at once commenced the extensions and improvements that have made it the chief railroad property in the state. The old line was relocated and reconstructed along its former tortuous course up the Huron valley, relaid with heavy rail to Kalamazoo, and in the spring of 1849 "the locomotive for the first time roused the echoes among the dunes of Lake Michigan. The Southern Company, lacking in financial ability, was less prompt in carrying out the engagements required by its charter, and it was not until after much supplementary legislation and an almost entire change in corporate ownership that work was at last commenced in good earnest. From that tinme the strife between it and its old rival for the first entrance into Chicago waxed very warm; and so close was the race that both crossed the corporate limits of that city within a few hours of each other, in May, 1852.

Page  173 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 173 " Soon after the other of the first trio of Michigan railroads resumed the work of extension, and November 22, 1858, the Detroit & Pontiac, rechristened as the Detroit & Milwaukee railway, ran its first train into Grand Haven; and Governor Mason's prophesy that within twentyfive years from the admission of the state three railroads would cross its territory from east to west met with fulfilment. "* What is known as the Detroit & Bay City Railroad-a division of the Michigan Central was organized May 6, 1871, and the main line opened to Bay City, July 31, 1873. In 1866 the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Railroad had purchased the franchises and land grant of the Amboy, Lansing & Traverse Bay Railroad Company, including the road already built from Owasso (Shiawassee county) to Lansing, and in July, 1873, finished the road to Gaylord (Otsego county), 236 miles north of Jackson "and," says a report of 1878, "will undoubtedly, at no distant day, extend their line to the straits of Mackinac." In May, 1875, the original Michigan Central defaulted and its property was sold to the Michigan Central Railroad Company, which also secured the section road from Bay City to Owasso, finished by the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw road, as noted, and in possession of the old Michigan Central. The present company was formed February 236, 1881, and in the fall of that year the line was completed to Mackinaw City. The following proprietary and leased railroads are portions of the great Michigan Central system which penetrates the territory covered by this work from north to south:Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw Railroad runs from Jackson to Mackinac City, over 295 miles (with branches 355 miles). It was chartered February 24, 1865, and acquired the incomplete Amboy, Lansing & Traverse Bay Railroad, which had been operated between Owasso and Lansing in 1863. It was leased September 1, 1871, to the Michigan Central Railroad Company, at a rental of $70,750 per annum, that company also acquiring the original land grant. During 1901 the Saginaw Bay & Northwestern Railroad (sixty-two miles) was merged into this road. Detroit & Charlevoix Railroad runs from Frederic to East Jordan, Charlevoix county, forty-three miles, and Blue Lake Junction to Blue Lake, eight miles; total, fifty-one miles. It was chartered and opened in 1901, and is a northwestern spur from the main line. The original charter of the Michigan Central Railroad Company was repealed in 1900, and the company was incorporated under the general railroad law of Michigan, on December 30, 1901. The railroad forms a part of the New York Central system, but is operated as an independent organization. The present stations on the Michigan Central, which are at the same time postoffices, are as follows, those selected being in the counties embraced in this history: Mackinaw Division-Standish, Sterling and Alger, Arenac county; * Major W. C. Ransom's address at Michigan's semi-centennial celebration at Lansing, June 15, 1886.

Page  174 174 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN West Branch and Beaver Lake, Ogemaw county; St. Helen and Roscommon, Roscommon county; Grayling and Frederick, Crawford county; Waters, Otsego Lake, Sailing, Gaylord and Vanderbilt, Otsego county; Trowbridge, Wolverine, Rondo, Indian River, Topinabee, Mullett Lake, Cheboygan and Mackinaw City, Cheboygan county. Saginaw Bay & Northwestern Division-Rhodes, Highwood and Gladwin, Gladwin county. Twin Lakes Branch-Grayling and Lovells, Crawford county; Kneelands, Oscoda county; Vienna and Lewiston, Montinorency county. THE GRAND RAPIDS AND INDIANA The Grand Rapids & Indiana main line runs from Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Mackinaw City, Michigan, a distance of over 366 miles. It passes through west of the central portions of Northern Michiganthe western townships of Osceola county and the eastern of Wexford, where (at Cadillac) it sends off branches toward Lake Michigan on the northwest and Lake Erie on the far southeast; cuts through a southeastern corner of Grand Traverse county, with branches running northwest to the extremity of Leelanau county, on Lake Michigan; then passes through northwestern Kalkaska county and central Antrim into Charlevoix county; turns north to Petoskey, and thence northeast and north, through Emmet county, to Mackinaw City. The original survey of the Grand Rapids & Indiana trunk line was made in the late fifties, but the Civil war and other events and conditions detrimental to railroad construction delayed the actual building, so that nearly fifteen years passed before the line reached Reed City, or the Northern Michigan of this history. The engineer father of the road was General William P. Innes, of Grand Rapids, who died at his home in that city on August 2, 1893. He was born in New York City and came to Michigan, in 1853, as a civil engineer in the employ of the Detroit, Grand Haven & Milwaukee (then the Oakland & Ottawa) Railroad Company. He remained in the employ of that road until its completion, when he took charge of the Amboy & Lansing, then extending from Jonesville to Saginaw, and was with that road until 1861. In 1857 he made the preliminary survey for a road from Grand Rapids to Mackinaw, being the land grant road afterward merged into the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. In the Civil war he was colonel of the Michigan regiment of engineers and mechanics and for a time was military superintendent of railroads of the department of the Cumberland In its extension northward the Grand Rapids and Indiana road reached Morley, Mecosta county, in October, 1869, and Big Rapids a year afterward. In the closing days of 1870 Reed City (the first station in our historical territory) was bound to the outside world through the iron horse, and thereafter progress was more rapid. Cadillac celebrated her advent into the list of railroad towns before the close of the year 1870 and in 1871 Traverse City followed. By the spring of 1874 Boyne Falls (a creature of the road) and Petoskey had been reached, and then, for some years the enterprise lagged, for the good

Page  175 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 175 1 (D5 reason that land titles were somewhat insecure in Emmet county, and tile inlan(l region from Petoskey to Mackinaw City was wilderness. The general settlement of the county and the development of its agricultural resources had been delayed by the fact that the lands of Emnlmet county were still subject to the Indian treaty. In August, 1874, the eastern tier of townships came into market, and April 15, 1 875, the remainder of the county was thrown open to actual settlers. At that timle the white population of the county was about one hun(Ired and fifty. As stated, the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad had just opened a highway of travel and transportation through the county, and the village of Petoskey had just entered upon its career. Upon PUTTING A RAILROAD THROUGH NORTHERN MICHIGAN the date named the books were opened at the United States Land Office at Traverse City, and so great was the rush for land that over eight hundred claims were entered during the first three days. Under an act of congress soldiers in the late war could homestead one hundred and seventy acres of land while a citizen could homestead only eighty acres; consequently the greater portion of the land was taken by soldiers who settled upon homesteads of one hundred and sixty acres. During the summer and fall of 1875 a steady stream of immigration poured into the wilderness of Emmet county and wilderness it indeed was. There was not a road in any direction in the woods except onie state road to Cheboygan. The settlers who came in scattered over thle county so that settlement was general, and the woods resounded with the sturdy strokes of the woodman's ax, and log cabins were set in the numerous openings in the wilderness. But the development of the interior country did not warrant the

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN extension of the Grand Rapids & Indiana road to Mackinaw City until 1882, although Bay View had secured connections in 1876 and Harbor Springs in 1880. The corporation now known as the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railway Company was chartered in July, 1896, under the laws of Michigan and Indiana, to take over the railroad and property of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company, which was sold under foreclosure August 1st of that year. The company owns practically the capital stock of the Traverse City Railroad Company and a one-third interest in the Mackinac Transportation Company. The following lines, in Northern Michigan, are now operated by the Grand Rapids & Indiana: Main line-Fort Wayne, Indiana, to Mackinaw City, Michigan, 366.63 miles. Missaukee branch-MAissaukee Junction to Michelson, Michigan, 81.94 miles. Missaukee City spur-Northward from Ardis Junction, 3.85 miles. Harbor Springs branch-Kegomic to Harbor Springs, Michigani.5.91 miles. Traverse City railroad, from Walton to Traverse City, Grand Traverse county, 25.86 miles. The stations and postoffices along the lines of the Grand Rapids & Indiana in the territory under consideration are as follows: Northern division-Mackinaw City, Cheboygan county; Carp Lake, Levering. Van, Pellston. Brutus, Alanson, Oden, Conway, Bay View and Petoskey. Emmet county; Clarion and Boyne Falls, Charlevoix county; Elmira, Otsego county; Alba and Mancelona, Antrim county; Westwood, Leetsville, Kalkaska and South Boardman, Kalkaska county; Fife Lake, Grand Traverse county; Manton, Cadillac and Hobart, Wexford county; Tustin, Le Roy, Ashton, Crono and Reed City, Osceola county. Harbor Springs branch-We-que-ton-sing and Harbor Springs, Emmet county. Missaukee branch-Michelson, Roscommon county; Jennings, Lake City, Falmouth, and Missaukee City, Missaukee county. Traverse City branch-Summit City, Kingsley, Mayfield and Traverse City. Grand Traverse county. NORTHERN CONNECTING LINKS The Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena railroad is a line twenty-seven miles in length. from Boyne City, Charlevoix county, to Gaylord, Otsego county, and is a connecting link between the Grand Rapids & Indiana and the Michigan Central systems. The Detroit & Charlevoix Railroad runs from East Jordan, Charlevoix county, to Frederic, Crawford county, forty-four miles, and also connects the Grand Rapids & Indiana and the Michigan Central lines.

Page  177 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 177 THE PERE MARQUETTE RAILROAD The Pere Marquette railroad which is the great transportation agent for the extreme southwestern and western sections of Northern Michigan was chartered in January, 1857, as the Flint & Pere Marquette railroad, to build the line from Flint to Pere Marquette (afterward Ludington), on Lake Michigan, a distance of 171 miles. The western division of the line was from Saginaw to Pere Marquette and was surveyed in 1862 by Ezra G. Goddard, of the former place. Mr. Goddard, who died at Saginaw, July 13, 1893, became a resident thereof in 1862, the year of his preliminary survey. He was a native of Massachusetts and passed his mature active life as a civil engineer in connection with railroad work. He was first employed by the Worcester & Nassau railroad in his native state, and was afterward engaged with the Buffalo, Corning & New York, the Richmond & Danville, the Virginia Central and Northern Central. Then, at the early age of twentynine, he was appointed chief engineer of the Cleveland, Ohio & Indiana, Cleveland & St. Louis and Terre Haute railroads. After leaving Worcester for a time he made his home at Ithaca, New York, his duties finally taking him to Winona, Minnesota, where he was in charge of the engineering work on the Winona & St. Paul railroad. Mr. Goddard's next railroad work was his survey of the Pere Marquette route. He afterwards became heavily interested in the lumber industries of both the northwest and south, but retained his home at Saginaw, where he was recognized as an able business man and a substantial, courteous citizen. From the first the headquarters of the Flint & Pere Marquette road -that is, its western division-were at the place whieh did not assume the name of Ludington until 1874. That locality was not only the leading lake port and outlet for the rapidly developing lumber and salt industries of northwestern Michigan, but was largely dominated by the remarkable energy, enterprise and foresight of Captain E. B. Ward, nephew of Captain Samuel Ward. The younger man became even more widely known than his uncle in the more modern world of industrial and commercial development. Beginning life as the humble servant of his prosperous uncle, his energy and genius for great undertakings made him the leading ship owner on the greatest waterways of the globe; more specially, he was identified as president with the early embarrassments of the Pere Marquette road and guided it into safe waters. He was also largely interested in railways west of the Mississippi river; was the largest pine land owner in all the vast pine region of these north-central states, and built the first of Ludington's immense saw mills. As a promoter of the iron industries of the northwest he obtained national fame. Locally, Detroit claimed him, as well as his famous uncle, both of whom had much to do with the development of enterprises which were at the basis of the progress of Northern Michigan. The first locomotive to reach Flint over the Pere Marquette road arrived in that city during the spring of 1863. The line had been completed as far as Saginaw, but it afforded such a limited outlet, or the Vol. I-1 2

Page  178 178 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN city was so distracted with the events of the Civil war, that the arrival of the first locomotive seems to have excited no special attention. Work on the Flint and Holly road was begun the same spring that the above named section of the Pere Marquette road was completed, and largely through the untiring energy of Governor Crapo, president of the company, it was graded, tied, ironed and ready for the rolling stock in about eighteen months. The trip of the first locomotive, Pere Marquette, in November, 1864, was the occasion of great rejoicing. A few years later the road was sold to the Flint & Pere Marquette Company at a handsome advance upon its original cost, and prior to 1880 the latter added the Flint river division, extending from Flint to Otter lake, to its system. Early in 1882 the Flint & Pere Marquette system had been extended to Manistee, and along in 1887-8 the latter city entered into the business of railroad building herself by constructing the lines known as the Manistee & North-Eastern and the Manistee & Grand Rapids. The extension of the Flint & Pere Marquette, with its numerous spurs lakeward and inland, is a matter of such detail that it is beyond the province of this work, and it is of such comparatively recent date that the information is accessible through the newspapers and other agencies. As we know it today, the Pere Marquette Railroad Company was chartered December 11, 1907, under the laws of Michigan and Indiana, being a consolidation of the Pere Marquette Railroad Company organized in December, 1899, and of one of its subsidiary companies, the Pere Marquette Railroad Company of Indiana, organized in 1903. The principal lines owned by the road as they affect Northern Michigan are the following: Grand Rapids to Bay View, 247.10 miles. and Saginaw to Ludington. 217.40 miles. The stations, which have the distinction of being postoffices. on the various lines of the Pere Marquette Railroads passing through the territory covered by this history are as follows: Main line (Grand Rapids to Bay View)-Baldwin, Peacock and Irons, Lake county; Dublin, Brethren, Kaleva and Henry, Manistee county; Thompsonville, Wallin and Bendon, Benzie county; Interlochen, Grawn, Acme, Bates and Williamsburgh, Grand Traverse county; Elk Rapids, Alden, Bellaire, Central Lake and Ellsworth, Antrim county; Barker Creek and Rapid City, Kalkaska county; Phelps. Charlevoix and Bayshore. Charlevoix county; Petoskey and Bay View, Emmet county. Honor branch-Honor, Benzie county. Kalkaska branch-Rapid City, Kalkaska; Spencer and Sharon. Kalkaska county. Toledo to Ludington-Beaverton, Gladwin county; Clare, Farwell. Lake, Chase, Nirvana and Baldwin, Lake county; Chippewa, Sears, Evart, Hersey and Reed City, Osceola county; Branch, Walhalla, Custer, Scottville and Ludington, Mason county. Clare to Harrison-Clare. Hatton, Harrison and Leota, Clare county.

Page  179 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 179 Walhalla to Manistee-Walhalla, Fallman, Fountain and Free Soil, Mason county; Stronach, East Lake and Manistee, Manistee county. ANN ARBOR RAILROAD The Ann Arbor Railroad Company operates from Toledo, Ohio, to Frankfort, Benzie county, northwestern Michigan, a distance of over 300 miles. It was chartered September 21, 1895, under state laws, as successor to the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North Michigan Railway Company, whose property was sold under foreclosure on July 2d of that year. The company operates three car ferries from the Frankfort terminus on Lake Michigan, which afford connection with the Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul, Chicago & North-Western, Wisconsin Central and Canadian Pacific systems and with the Kewaunee, Green Bay & Western, the Wisconsin & Michigan and the Manistique & Lake Superior railroads. The line was formerly controlled by the Detroit, Toledo & Ironton Railway Company, through stock ownership, but on April 1, 1910, control passed to the present management, and the road has since been operated as an independent line. The stations and postoffices along the 113 miles of the Ann Arbor Railroad which runs within the territory covered by this work, are as follows: Clare, Farwell, Lake George, Clarence and Temple, Clare county; Summit, Grand Traverse county; Marion and Park Lake, Osceola county; MeBain and Lucas, Missaukee county; Cadillac, Boon, Harrietta, Yuma, Mesick and Bagnall, Wexford county; Harlan, Pomona and Copemish, Manistee county; Thompsonville, Beulah, South Frankfort and Frankfort, Benzie county. The details of the building of the Ann Arbor line from Mt. Pleasant, Isabella county, to Frankfort, Benzie, are given in Wheeler's "History of Wexford County." "During the winter of 1883-4," says that publication, "the surveyors of the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad visited Northern Michigan, taking observations as to the most desirable route for the extension of their road. They visited Sherman, Wexford county, looked over the approaches to the Manistee river from the north and south, and expressed themselves as well satisfied with the feasibility of crossing at that point and following the valley of the Wheeler creek northward, running a little east of Wexford corners and then dropping over into the Boardman river valley, thus making an easy grade into Traverse City. The people in the western part of the county were greatly elated over the prospects of having a railroad near their farms, but railroads have queer ways and their building is accompanied often with vexatious delays, and so it happened that when the Chicago & West Michigan Railroad was built several years later it took an entirely new route and did not touch Wexford county; in fact, it was run so far west as to be of very little practical benefit to the farmers of the county. "In the meantime the Toledo, Ann Arbor & North Michigan Railroad Company had been organized and had started in to build a road to some points on the eastern shore of Lake Michigan. The projectors of this undertaking were the Ashleys, of Toledo-father and two sons,

Page  180 1i0 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Harry and James, or 'Jim, as he was called. Neither of these parties had much mtoney of their own, but they had enterprise and push. especially 'Jim.' who could overcome more difficulties and surmount more obstacles than a half a dozen ordinary business men; and it was largely through these qualities that the road was completed, though its building covered a period of several years, and more than once it was said 'The Ashleys have got to the end of their rope and the road will never go any farther;' but still the next year would witness another extension, and so little by little the work progressed. In the sulmmer of 1886, through the promise of thirty-five thousand dollars on the part of the city of Cadillac, the work of extending the road from MIt. Pleasait, Isabella county, its then terminus, to Cadillac was undertaken. A large force of men were put to work at various points along the line and before September the laying of rails was commenced. This work progressed from both ends of this section, the rails being brought to Cadillac over the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad to use il laying the northern end of the section. Winter set in before the last rail was laid, and some of the grading and several miles of track laying was done when the snow covered the ground to a depth of several inches. But notwithstanding the cold and the snow the first train over the new extension reached Cadillac within the time agreed upon, January 1, 1887, and its arrival marked a new era in the county's history. "To fittingly celebrate this event the railroad company gave a free excursion to Alma (its junction with the Pere Marquette in Gratiot county) and a free dinner at the celebrated Wright Hotel of that place, inviting many of the prominent men of the city and the county at large, and the city arranged for a grand banquet at the Hotel McKinnon when the party, including railroad officials and the railroad commissioner of the state, should return in the evening. 'During the summer of 1887 the road was completed as far as Harrietta and graded some distance west of that place, and the following year it passed on through Wexford county, reaching Frankfort in the fall of 1889. The Ashleys bought a piece of land and platted the village of Harrietta in 1888, the name being a combination made from Harry Ashlev and the name of his intended wife, Harrietta Burt. The village of Boon was platted about the same time, and the next year witnessed the platting of the village of hMesick. A year or two after this the village of Yuna was platted. making four villages as the direct result of tar building of the Toledo, Ann Arbor and Northern Michigan Railroad, as it was called, but now known as the Ann Arbor Rail road. This road, penetrating as it did one of the best farming seclions of the county, gave a new impetus to the farming industry arpd since its coming a marked and steady growth of that industry has been noticeable. Not only did it open up a more direct and less expensive market for the shipment of farm products, but it stimulated the lumbering business to such an extent that the demand for the prodtuits of the farm for the mills and camps greatly increased the home market and correspondingly the prices received for such products. The lumbllering operations growing out of the building of this road being

Page  181 ENGINE AND TRAIN ON THE FIRST LOG(GING RAILROAD OF THE WORLD [Logging locomotise built b> Porter, Bell & Company, builders of light locomotives, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.] [Lake George & Muflskegon lier I1 Ti., W 8 eminsh, Manager, near Famrell, 3Michigan ]

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN largely confined to the hardwood of the county, resulted in causing the clearing of thousands of acres of land and transforming them into productive farms, as every acre of hardwood land, when once cleared, makes food-farming land." FIRST LOGGING RAILROAD IN THE WORLD In January, 1877, Winfield Scott Gerrish completed what, so far as is known, was the first logging railroad in the United States or the world. It was about six miles in length and ran from Lake George on the main line of what is now the Ann Arbor Railroad to the headwaters of the Muskegon river. Both by training, and perhaps by inheritance, Mr. Gerrish was the proper man to have achieved this distinction. His father, Nathaniel L. Gerrish, was a native of Maine, in which state he spent the first thirty-seven years of his life, working in its pineries and on its farms. Both kinds of work were calculated to harden him into a stalwart man. As such, in 1857, he moved with his family to Werner, Wisconsin, where he continued lumbering until 1861, when the household located at Croton, Newaygo county, and remained there for eight years, or until the pine was nearly exhausted in that section of the Muskegon valley. Mr. Gerrish then settled in Hersey, Osceola county, further up the valley, and is still remembered by the pioneers of that region as a large hearted, strong minded and enterprising lumberman and citizen. In 1875-6 he represented the Mecosta district in the legislature and continued his logging and lumbering operations at Hersey until 1881, when chronic rheumatism forced him to withdraw from one of the most active and commendable careers known among Northern Michigan lumbermen. In that year he became a citizen of Cadillac, Wexford county, where he became interested in the planing mill business, as a member of the firm of Cummer & Gerrish. After some years he retired from all business. His death, at the home of his daughter, Mrs. D. F. Higgins, of Cadillac, on the 13th of October, 1895, removed from the community a splendid man of usefulness and high honor-a worthy father of Winfield Scott Gerrish. The son was also born in the Pine Tree state, and spent his life from the age of twelve to twenty-four in the region near Croton, on the Muskegon river, in the southeastern part of Newaygo county. He commenced log driving when he was eighteen, and in the autumn of 1873, when in his twenty-fifth year, made his first large logging contract. From this point on, let the American Lumberman tell the story of how the first logging railroad was built and operated in the United States: "The timber was to be banked on the Dock and Tom creek, and delivered in the Muskegon. The following spring (1874) found him with his logging done in good time, and preparations completed for the drive. Driving was presently begun and vigorously prosecuted, but this treacherous stream, the terror of log drivers of the Muskegon district, soon shrunk to a rivulet, while the drive was not finished. In those days the 'State of Mainers,' as the Maine lumbermen were familiarly called, knew everything, so to speak; this possibly was a mild illusion, yet they were quite free with their advice to the green Michi

Page  183 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 183 gan boys. It was not surprising, therefore, that some of these sons of the old Pine Tree state visited the Dock and Tom creek at this time to give Scott a little wholesome advice. The stream being carefully examined, and a council thereafter duly held, the young logger was most emphatically advised to abandon the drive, but he happened to be of a contrary opinion. 'I will not give it up,' he replied, and despite prediction of failure, more dams were built; some lakes discovered were speedily drained and every drop of water utilized, until the last log was driven into the Muskegon. Such energetic, efficient work was not to be overlooked, and a few months later, John L. Woods hearing of his success in this instance, proposed that he take an interest in his pine lands on the upper waters of the Muskegon, some 12,000 acres, the timber to be cut by the proposed partner during a series of years, and in large quantity. The proposition being accepted, a much larger field was now before him. "In 1874, in connection with E. H. Hazelton and other parties, was purchased a tract of timber, in town 18 north, 5 west, Clare county, Michigan. Not a tree had been cut in this township. There were at this time few, if any, townships in the state so heavily timbered, but being remote from water from six to ten miles, the pine was not available, and therefore of little value. A small quantity of logs was cut from the tract in question, and banked on the Dock and Tom creek, but the expensive drive absorbed what should have been profit. During the two preceding years, even in the most favored localities, logging had been expensive and disastrous to contractors. Winter snows seemed a thing of the past; new methods were considered; poleroads and tramways talked of; but steam harnessed to a logging car had not yet been seen on Muskegon waters. "The centennial year had come, and all the people, seemingly, laying aside for the moment profession or employment, flocked to the 'Quaker City,' there to see and realize, in some measure, how wonderful had been the nation's progress in 100 years, an exhibition whose quickening influence is still felt in every department of industry throughout the land. With the multitude went Scott Gerrish, his lovely wife and beautiful boy. Those were busy, pleasant days. There was a fairy land in Fairmount park transcending the wonderful tales of the Arabian nights. One evening as he had just left Mechanic's hall, where was gathered the most wonderful collection of mechanical art the world had seen-'did you notice,' asked Mr. Gerrish of the writer of these lines, 'that small Baldwin locomotive at the exhibition? Just the kind of a horse to haul logs without snow!' "This was a germ idea. A few days later, returning to Michigan, plans were matured to build a steam railroad for logging purposes with light rail and equipment, connecting Lake George in town 18-5, with the Muskegon river, six miles distant. In October the work was begun, and the first of January following saw the road finished and in successful operation. "Of course the croakers, never silent when new methods are to be tried, predicted a failure of the enterprise, and ruin for the owners, yet a few months later some of these same men, riding over the road

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN and witnessing its successful operation, were loudest in their approval, and their repetition of the exasperating 'I told you so' was as glibly constant as if it had applied to failure instead of success. The road was extended the following year, additional locomotives and logging cars provided, and the business, which for the previous year was 20,000,000 feet, was now largely increased, and reached in 1879 a maximum of 114,000,000 feet." Mr. Gerrish afterward became largely interested in various Muskegon mills, part owner of the Saginaw Bay & Northwestern logging railroad, and prior to his death May 19, 1882, was probably the largest individual logger in the world, his highest annual contribution to Muskegon river being 130,000,000 feet in 1879. While making plans for an extension of his operations into the Georgian bay country, Louisiana and Georgia, he was stricken with sudden and mortal illness, at the home of a sister in Evart. He was only a little past thirty-three at the time of his death, which was caused by an affection of the spine and acute inflammation of the kidneys. The late Austin W. Mitchell, of Cadillac, was another leading lumberman and manufacturer who was largely identified with the building of logging railroads in Northern Michigan, especially in Wexford and Missaukee counties. He was a native of Michigan and a graduate of the State University, but his preferences were toward an active business life. After serving in the internal revenue department for several years, in 1879, then twenty-seven years of age, he bought a section of pine land at Jennings, Cedar Creek township, Wexford county, six miles north of Cadillac, and in March of the following year began the manufacture of lumber at Bond's mill. He afterward became associated with his brother, William W., both in the purchase of timber lands in Michigan and New Mexico and the manufacture of pine products, maple flooring, handles and other articles which are made from soft and hard woods. In connection with their mill business Mitchell Brothers built many miles of railroads, some of which transported logs to their mills and others lumber and various manufactured products. A. W. Mitchell, the pioneer and founder of all these operations, died in 1902, while on his way to Japan in a vain search for restored health, being still a man of middle age. LUDINGTON RAILROADS The Grand Rapids & Northwestern Railroad is a line projected from Ludington to Grand Rapids, ninety-eight miles. It was chartered February 1, 1908, under the laws of Michigan. The project is for the relocation and extension into Ludington and Grand Rapids of the Mason & Oceana railroad, and for the establishment of a line of car ferries with terminals in Milwaukee and Manitowoc. The company owns the entire west shore of Ludington harbor where car ferry slips and transfer docks and warehouses will be built. It will occupy the Bridge street terminal at Grand Rapids in conjunction with the Grand Trunk. The company owns all the capital stock of the Mason & Oceana railroad, which it has completed from Ludington to Cobmoosa, Michigan,

Page  185 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 185 thirty-five miles, and newly graded the section from Ludington to Crystal valley, twenty miles. The Mason & Oceana Railroad was originally organized in 1886, and has been used primarily for the logging operations of the Butters Salt and Lumber Company of Ludington. Its equipment is practically worn out, and the burning of the lumber company's plant put the narrow gauge railroad out of business, as that corporation gave the road ninety per cent of its earnings. The 'Epworth League Railroad Company was organized March 9, 1895, chartered for thirty years on April 1st and opened May 30th of that year for the purpose of accommodating summer tourists to summer resorts north of Ludington. In July, 1901, the name was changed to the Ludington & Northern. MANISTEE RAILROADS The Manistee & Luther Railroad, whose southeast line is from Eastlake to Eleanor, thirty-three miles, was chartered March 26, 1886, chiefly for logging purposes to which it is still virtually confined. The Manistee & North-Eastern Railroad, from Manistee to Traverse City, is over seventy miles long (with branches 183 miles) and was opened in sections between January 14, 1889, and July 1, 1892; branches opened at various subsequent dates. It was originally chartered January 7, 1887. The stations and postoffices on the main line and branches of the Manistee & North-Eastern which traverse Northern Michigan are as follows: Main line-Manistee, Norwalk, Kaleva and Copemish, Manistee county; Grayling, Crawford county; Nessen City, Lake Ann and Cedar Run, Benzie county; Karlin, Interlochen and Traverse City, Grand Traverse county. River branch-Kaleva and Marilla, Manistee county; Buckley, Wexford county; Walton, Grand Traverse county; Grayling, Crawford county. Platte river branch-Honor, Benzie county. Omena branch-Schomberg and Provemont, Leelanau county. The Traverse City, Leelanau & Manistique Railway's main line is from Hatchs to Northport, Leelanau county, and is a virtual continuation of the Manistee & North-Eastern. It is about twenty-four miles in length, and the controlling company was organized under state laws September 19, 1908, as successor to the Traverse City, Leelanau & Manistique Railroad Company whose property was sold under foreclosure April 17, 1907. Its main stations are Traverse City, Grand Traverse county, and Keswick, Sutton's Bay, Omena and Northport, Leelanau county. The Manistee & Grand Rapids Railroad was chartered November 17, 1889, under state laws, and the line completed from Manistee to Marion (Osceola county), (seventy-two miles) and from Dighton to Hartwick (Osceola county), (five miles) on May 1, 1893. As is evident from the name, the line, as projected, will be 116 miles in length -from Manistee to Grand Rapids. The principal stations on the Man

Page  186 186 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN istee & Grand Rapids are Manistee and Filer City, Manistee county; Millerton, Mason county; and Peacock, Luther and Edgetts, Lake county. The people of Manistee take just pride in this road, which is purely a home concern; or to quote a local print: " The Manistee and Grand Rapids Railroad is distinctively a Manistee enterprise, organized in November, 1889, and financed entirely by local capital. Projected originally as a logging road to bring to our home mills great bodies of timber held by local lumbermen, this road at present operates over some seventy miles of track, extending in a southeasterly direction from Manistee, traversing the southwestern portion of Manistee county; the northeastern section of Mason county; from west to east entirely across the central part of Lake county; and into the rich farming lands of Osceola county, crossing the northern extension of the Pere Marquette Railroad at Peacock, the Grand Rapids and Indiana Railroad at Tustin, and connecting with the Ann Arbor Railroad at Marion, the eastern terminal of the line, and is fast becoming a very important factor in the freight and passenger business between Manistee and the outside world. By the construction of this railroad there was opened for settlement one of the most promising sections of Western Michigan, in the cities, villages and on the farms of whose great fruit belt, are already to be found a full half million of inhabitants, with land and opportunities awaiting four times as many more." The Empire & Southeastern Railroad is a line eleven miles in length which runs through the southwestern corner of Leelanau county into Benzie county, where it connects with a spur of the Pere Marquette system. THE DETROIT & MIACKINAC2 What is so well known as the Detroit & Mackinac Railway Company has extended its lines into northeastern Michigan by way of Jackson, Lansing and Saginaw. The old Jackson & Lansing was organized February 23, 1864, and in the following year the name changed to the Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw. Its line was completed to Mason in 1865, to Lansing in 1866 and to Wenona, on Saginaw bay, December 6, 1867. In 1871 the Detroit & Lansing Railroad was organized under the general law and built through to Lansing. In 1876 it was consolidated with the Ionia & Lansing and still later with the Detroit, Lansing & Northern. In the same year the Detroit & Bay City was organized, and quickly extended to both Saginaw and Bay City, and now constitutes a portion of the Detroit & Mackinac system. These two roads were built largely by those interested in the Michigan Central Company. The originator of the present Detroit & Mackinac Railway was the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad, which was projected by C. D. Hale, of Tawas City, as a logging road. In 1878 the Lake Huron & Southwestern Railway Company was organized with Mr. Hale as manager. Under his direction the road was built in the summer of 1878, * The map of the Detroit & Mackinac railway is published in this chapter because it is the only one of the large transportation systems mentioned which lies almost entirely in Northern Michigan.

Page  187 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 187 from the Hale mill, at Tawas City, to township 21 north, of range 4 east, in Ogemaw county, a distance of twenty-one miles, at a cost of $90,000. Mr. Hale continued manager of the company until February, 1879, when the pressure of private business made it necessary for him to resign. In the spring of 1879 the company made an assignment, and in DETROIT & FORD OSC DA October of that year the road was purchased by C. H. Prescott, of Bay City, who had a short time previous purchased an extensive mill property at Tawas City. Mr. Prescott operated the road alone for several months, and then organized it under the name of the Tawas & Bay County Railroad. This road was mentioned in 1880, as follows: "Not the least among the enterprises which are at present of benefit to the place, and bid

Page  188 188 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN fair to be the means of its future wealth, is the Tawas & Bay County Railroad. On Monday a party of ladies and gentlemen, composed of Mr. Prescott, the president of the road, with his wife; Superintendent Clark and wife; Mrs. John McKay and her mother; Mrs. Johnson, of Bay City, and the writer, took possession of the only palace car on the line, and started for the western terminus of the road, drawn by a powerful little six wheeled freight engine, which has done duty for two years without a repair, other than what has been made in a country blacksmith shop, which fact speaks to the credit of the builders and the care of those having it in charge. This road penetrates the pineries for a distance of twenty-five miles, its western terminus being in the southwestern corner of section 14 of town 21, range 4 east, or about twelve miles from Summit, on the Mackinaw division of the Michigan Central. The extreme western portion is newly laid, and not yet ballasted, but by far the greater portion is as well ballasted as any road in the state. The superintendent, Henry Clark, is an experienced railroad constructor and bridge builder and he has worked the road-bed as systematically and skilfully as though intended for passenger traffic. That he has been successful is fully proven by riding over the road, as did our party, on an ordinary log truck without springs, and the softest seat being a pine plank covered with a blanket. This fifty mile ride was made without fatigue even to the ladies in the party. The ballast is of superior quality, easily handled and forming a solid and impervious bed. Cross ties instead of stringers are used, and are placed nearly twice as close as ordinarily, thus compensating for light iron which, when so tied, is fully adequate to the service of a narrow gauge road-three feet, two inches-and costs much less. 'There are now two engines in use, one being used for making up the trains, and the other for hauling, running two trips each way every day. Another engine is being negotiated for, and will be on the track by the close of navigation, when the trips will be increased to four. Beside hauling logs to the mills, all the lumber sawed at McIver's mill, and the product of a large shingle mill is transported to the lake. Settlers, to a large number, have already taken advantage of the traveling facility afforded and taken up farms along its line. Thirty or forty men are constantly employed either in extension of the main line, of branches to skidways, or in improving the road-bed. The entire work, from beginning to end, gives evidence that the managers contemplate not only permanency, but a great degree of service." Thus was born the Detroit & Mackinac system, as a crude logging railroad running from Tawas City twenty-five miles into the pine forests of Ogemaw county. Within a few years, however, the vigorous management behind the Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad was pushing the line southward from Tawas City to Bay City and northward from Alpena to Cheboygan. On September 20, 1886, the first train entered Alpena county over the Ossineke road and ran into a temporary depot about three miles from the village. In August, 1891, the second survey of the line into Presque Isle county was made, and on November 20, 1893, the first regular train run over the Alpena & Northern road. The

Page  189 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 189 Detroit & Mackinac Railway Company was chartered under state laws in the following year, and the old Detroit, Bay City & Alpena Railroad went out of existence. The new road was a reorganization of the old to acquire by purchase the railroads owned by the latter, running from Alger, Arenac county, to Alpena, 105 miles, in addition to several logging branches aggregating about seventy miles. It acquired these, as well as the railroad known as the Alpena & Northern, twenty-five miles, and all these properties were consolidated, as above mentioned. In 1901 the shore road was built from a point nine miles north of Au Sable to Harrisville, connecting there with the main line. The branch from Alpena west to Hillman, Montmorency county, a distance of twenty-five miles, was opened for traffic in December, 1909. The main line of the Detroit & Mackinac runs from Bay City to Cheboygan, 196.24 miles, and its branches are: Emery Junction to Rose City, 31.21 miles; Emery Junction to Prescott, 11.85 miles; Omer to Au Gres, 7.95 miles; Lincoln Junction to Lincoln, 14.38 miles and Alabaster Junction to Alabaster, 22.40 miles. These, with the various logging branches (76.11 miles) give the system, which accommodates northeastern Michigan, 364.49 miles of trackage. The chief stations on the Detroit & Mackinac Railway are: South division-Saganing, Pine River, Omer, Twining and Turner, Arenac county; Emery Junction, McIvor, Tawas City, East Tawas and Tawas Beach, Iosco county; Greenbush and Harrisville, Alcona county; Ossineke and Alpena, Alpena county. North division-Alpena, Cathro and Bolton, Alpena county; Posen, Metz, Millersburg and Onaway, Presque Isle county; Tower, Alcha and Cheboygan, Cheboygan county. Rose City division-Emery Junction and Hale, losco county; Longlake, Clare county; Maltby, Lupton and Rose City, Ogemaw county. Lincoln branch-Mikado, Gustin and Lincoln, Alcona county. Au Gres branch-Omer and Au Gres, Arenac county. Prescott division-Emery Junction and Whittemore, losco county; Prescott, Ogemaw county. Hillman branch-Alpena and Lachine, Alpena county; Emerson, Chippewa county; Hillman, Montmorency county. The Au Sable & Northwestern Railway is operated from Au Sable to Comins, Oscoda county (over fifty miles) and Hardy to Curran (Alcona county) (seven miles). It was chartered December 26, 1907, as successor to the Au Sable & Northwestern Railroad Company, and continued to be used chiefly as a logging line by H. M. Loud's Sons Company until the time of the sweeping fire of 1911. GOOD ROADS By this term is meant, not good railroads but well-built highways for farmers, automobilists, pleasure seekers and travellers generallyroads to accommodate both those who ride in vehicles of any kind and those who prefer nature's mode of locomotion. The Good Roads movement has come to stay and grow in Northern Michigan, and in the reform is especially demonstrated the progressive spirit of the rural

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN communities. Fine highways radiate from almost every village, and every county seat is certain to be an active center for them. Under the system of state rewards for the building of highways of a fixed standard, hundred of miles of the best roads that clean stone and gravel can make are yearly being added to the systems of each county. Good roads mean almost as much to the farmer as good railroad and boat transportation; good roads effect an enormous saving in the cost of hauling produce to the nearest loading station, and the farmers of Northern Michigan have shown that they understand the meaning of this economy. Under the law, the state offers a reward for every mile of highway built according to specifications furnished by the state highway commissioner; that is to say, the state will pay $1,000 per mile for a macadam road built in accord with its instructions, $750 for the highway surfaced with slag from the iron furnaces, and $500 for the road built of gravel. The result is that there has sprung up a keen rivalry between the different townships of the counties, and the proposition to vote bonds for the purpose of building good roads almost invariably carries when submitted to the voters. This progressive spirit is exerting a wonderful influence in the settlement of the country; there are sections in this territory where stone or gravel roads have been built through a populous section to the borders of the wilderness, and the result is that settlement is pushing back the frontier so rapidly that soon Northern Michigan will have no frontier. FIRST LUMBERING OPERATIONS The development of the lumber industries of Northern Michigan was the primary force which drew the railroads into that country; to a large extent the growth of the salt industries also contributed to their extension from Saginaw to Ludington and their construction along the Lake Huron and Michigan shores. Lumber, salt, climate, scenery and fruit were the chief forces contributing to the growth of Northern Michigan, the first named having almost abandoned the field-and the last being now first. When the railroads had fairly established themselves in the northern country the benefits became mutual. Mills were built; lumbermen came into the regions around Manistee, Ludington, Alpena and Cheboygan in solid companies; camps, villages and cities appeared; general trade and commerce were founded and expanded, and another civilization was developed from the wilderness. Railroads were built in widely separated sections of the country to assist logging operations and get the first outputs of lumber to the shores of both lakes, whence they were shipped by water to the southern markets. As all the lumber industries developed and communities were founded and grew and required better transportation facilities, these old logging roads were absorbed into the various systems which have already been described. The zenith of the lumber industries in Northern Michigan was reached in 1888, since which they have gradually declined, though still presenting features of imposing magnitude.

Page  191 - -w'-n) V v II rx B ~se x 'j~k 8, j --- _ r B 9 —, f~ JYB r Ic C r a;, 1 Y., "in B j, W BIi i,: s, *:- I i` fJ I z- :d I d ~ I i WAITING FOR THE SAW MILLS

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN LUMBERING IN MANISTEE COUNTY The first sawmill built within what is now Manistee city-the first one of any consequence in the county and the shores of northern Lake Michigan, in the territory with which this work deals, was built by James and Adam Stronach, and was afterward known as the Humble mill, from Joseph Humble, who owned and operated it. Next after this was erected the Joseph Smith mill, soon followed by the Bachelor mill, the latter located on the point at the outlet of Manistee lake on the south side. As the coming of the Stronachs is coincident with both the first settlement of Manistee county and the planting of the lumber industry on the shores of northwestern Michigan, the following account of their coming is reproduced from General B. M. Cutcheon's Centennial address: "In the fall of the year 1840 John Stronach of Berrien county, Michigan, accompanied by his brother Joseph Stronach of Muskegon, coasted along this shore in a small sail boat, until they arrived at the mouth of the Manistee. They were met by a party of Chippewas, who treated them cordially, and gave them information of the county. "Hiring a company of Indians to take them in their canoes, they explored the Manistee until they came to an ancient 'jam' of logs, flood wvood and fallen trees, and finding no good place for a dam, they returned and explored the 'Little River, ' called by the Indians 'Mamoosa' or 'dog-river.' After locating a point for a millsite they set sail and returned to Muskegon. "The following spring, about the 13th of April, John Stronach chartered the schooner 'Thornton' of St. Joseph to convey them and their machinery and supplies to the Manistee. "They arrived at the mouth of the Manistee on the 16th of April, 1841, and from that day dates the actual, permanent, white settlement of -Manistee county. "They found it impossible to enter the river, on account of the shallowness of the water, there being not to exceed three feet on the average between Lake Michigan and Manistee lake. "Unable to enter the stream, they constructed a pine raft, bound together with cross pieces and wedges. "This raft they towed with the yawl to and from the vessel, until the cargo except the cattle, was landed; the cattle they threw overboard, and all but one swam safely to the shore. "They found the yawl boat of the wrecked schooner 'Anadogge' and this they used to tow their raft loaded with machinery and supplies to the head of the little lake and up the 'Mamoose' or 'LittleDog' to the site of Stronach mills. A camp was built, a road cut, a dam constructed, and by the close of 1841 the first saw mill that ever startled the silence of these unbroken forests, was ready for operations. " In 1849, the year during which the Chippewa Indian reservation came into the open market, John Canfield caine to Manistee, took up land near the mouth of the river and commenced the erection of a

Page  193 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 193 steam sawmill on the site of the large plant so well known in later years under the ownership of Canfield & Wheeler. In 1852 the Stronach, Smith, Bachelor and Canfield (two) mills were still in operation. They all used the upright or muley saw-circulars were then unknown-and were cutting a few thousand feet of lumber daily. In the following year (1853) occurred what a few old lumbermen still remember as the timber war. "It happened in this way," says one of them who writes from vivid recollections: "In those days there was a good deal of land in the United States, much of it belonged to the government and of necessity a good deal of it had to be left out of doors nights. "Now there came to be a general opinion abroad that this was a free country. This opinion was supposed to be derived from the glorious Declaration of Independence. "People reasoned like this: This timber belongs to the Government. This is a Government of the people, by the people, for the people. "We are the people. Ergo, this timber belongs to us. "Quod erat demonstrandum! The very thing to be proved! Therefore we will take our timber, and if history can be credited they did. "Our venerable Uncle Samuel arose in his wrath; he sent out his officials. One Williams was U. S. timber agent, and Durkee was U. S. marshal. All Michigan was one district with seat in Detroit. The marshal came on with his cohorts; he shut down mills; he seized logs; he gobbled shingle bolts; he went on the booms and put U. S. on all the logs; he forbade the sawing of logs until a settlement was effected; the mill men were contumacious, and the war was vigorous. At this time the Hon. Stillman Stubbs was keeping a sort of tavern on the north side, near Shannon's place. The U. S. marshal made his headquarters there. He was greatly lionized. The hands from the mills on the other side of the river resolved to give him a special display of fireworks. So they prepared large balls of wicking saturated in spirits of turpentine, and after His Excellency had retired for the night, the night being warm and the windows being open, they threw their lighted fireballs into the marshal's windows, and so gave him a grand illumination. To add to the vexation, the marshal's boat was sunk in the lake. Some arrests were made and some refused to stay made. There is a tradition which has come down from that remote period, of one who was sleeping, like the apostle of old, bound between two soldiers, and how he 'slid out' in light marching order! But I am not aware that he ever claimed supernatural deliverance. "In 1854 the timber war came to a head. The mill men carried 'the war into Africa,' and the marshal, instead of 'seeking new fields to conquer,' was finding all the employment he needed in defending himself. The war ended like most of wars-in a compromise-and I believe that it has never since been renewed. The idea that this is a free country has suffered an eclipse." Vol I — 3

Page  194 194 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN THE GRAND TRAVERSE REGION As the Manistee river at its mouth was the center of the pioneer lumbering operations on the Michigan shore of the northwestern part of the state, so was the region around Grand Traverse bay the scene of activities of only a little later date. In 1847 Captain Boardman, a thrifty farmer living near Napierville, Illinois, purchased of the United States government a small tract of land at the mouth of the river which bears his name, and furnished means to his son, Horace Boardman, to build a sawmill. The latter with two or three men in his employ, arrived at the river in the early part of June of that year, and immediately commenced the construction of a dwelling. The place selected was on the right bank of the stream, a little way below where it issues from Boardman lake. The exact location of the building was in what is now East street, Traverse City, between the center of the street and its southern boundary, just east of the eastern boundary of Boardman avenue. It was a house of modest pretensions as to size, being only sixteen feet by twenty-four, and one story high. The material for the walls was pine logs hewn square with the broad-ax. In after years, it was known to the inhabitants of the village as the "old block-house." It was eventually destroyed by fire. On the 20th of June, a week or more after Mr. Boardman's arrival, the "Lady of the Lake," owned by him and sailed by Michael Gay, one of his employers, arrived in the mouth of the river with supplies. There came with Gay a man by the name of Dunham, who, having been in the bay on a previous occasion, acted as pilot. After assisting for a few days in the building of the house, Gay was dispatched with the little vessel to the Maniton Islands, to bring on a party of employes, who, it had been arranged, should come as far as the islands by steamer. Returning, the "Lady" entered the river on the 5th of July. There came in her as passengers Mr. Gay's young wife, then only about fifteen or sixteen years of age, and her four-months' old baby, Mr. and Mrs. Duncan, a hired girl named Ann Van Amburg and several carpenters. Only the walls of the house had as yet been erected. The building was without roof, floors, doors or windows. A sort of lean-to, or open shed, with a floor of hewn planks, had been built for a temporary kitchen against one side of the house in which a cook stove had been set up. A tent was now constructed of some spare sails, inside the unfinished building, for the accommodation of the two married couples and the girl. The single men shifted for themselves. The company lived in this manner during the remainder of the summer, as the house was not finished until the sawmill was so far completed as to saw lumber. It had been Mr. Boardman's intention to throw a dam across the river at some point not far below the lake and build a sawmill on that stream. The convenience of residing near the mill had been the main consideration that determined the location of the blockhouse. After a more thorough exploration of the country, however, and an estimate

Page  195 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 195 of the probable difficulties in the way of building, he was led to modify his plan. Mill creek, a small stream that has its source in the hills to the south and west of the bay and enters the Boardman at the western angle of its bend, seemed to offer facilities for cheaply building a small mill that should answer existing purposes. He therefore determined to build on that stream, with the intention of erecting afterward a larger and more permanent structure on the Boardman. By that plan he would have the advantage of the smaller mill for making boards, planks, and timbers for the larger, thus avoiding the difficulty of obtaining from a distance the lumber it would be necessary to have before a large mill could be put in a condition for service. There was no place nearer than Manistee where lumber could be obtained, and the "Lady of the Lake" was too small and too unsafe to be relied on for bringing any large quantity such a distance. It was not easy at that time to induce vessel masters to enter the bay, which to them was an unexplored sea. Immediately after the arrival of the carpenters, all hands were set to work upon the mill. The "Lady of the Lake" made a trip to Manistee after plank for the flume. When the frame was ready all the white men at Old Mission and several Indians came to help raise it. It took three days to get it up. It was finally got into a condition to be set running about the first of October. Then some of the first boards made were used to complete the blockhouse which up to that time had remained unfinished. It was a long walk from the house to the mill. The path from one to the other ran along the southwestern bank of the Boardman. For convenience of reaching it from the house, a footbridge of poles was thrown across the river at the canoe landing. This slight structure was afterward replaced by a broader and firmer bridge, on which wagons could cross. In after years the sawmill was remodeled and put to a variety of uses. It was known among the inhabitants of the village as the "old planing-mill." All vestiges of the bridge have long since disappeared. The mill having been completed, and there no longer being suitable employment for the mechanics who had been engaged upon it, it be came necessary to provide for their conveyance home. It was arranged that Mr. Boardman should take them in the "Lady of the Lake" to the Manitous, where they could get passage on one of the steamers that were in the habit of touching there. He would then freight his vessel with supplies, which he expected to find waiting there and return. The only opening in the forest visible to the party as they landed, was the narrow clearing which had been made for the tramroad. Following this, Captain Boardman keeping well in advance, his party soon arrived at the mill. The mill was not running. On entering the house, the hands were all found there, amusing themselves with the game of old sledge. After shaking hands all round, Captain Boardman said to his son, "Horace, how is this, that you are not running the mill?" The reply was: "Father, it was a little rainy to-day; the boys outside couldn't work very well, and they wanted the men in the mill to make up the number for the game; so I concluded to shut down for a time, in order that they might have a little fun." This easy way of doing

Page  196 196 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN business did not suit the energetic old farmer, Captain Boardman, who was now more fully convinced that the property had best be sold. After looking over the premises for a day, a party consisting of Mr. Hannah, Horace Boardman, Mr. Morgan, and a man named Whitcher, with packs of blankets and provisions, set out to explore the country and examine the timber along the Boardman river. At the end of a week, Mr. Hannah estimated that they had seen at least a hundred million feet of pine on government land open to sale. This was a sufficient inducement to the firm to accept Captain Boardman's proposition to sell them his entire interest in the property, consisting of a sawmill, the cheap buildings that had been erected and about two hundred acres of land, on which the village plat was afterward located, for $4,500. The first work done by the new owners was to construct a tramroad from the bend of the Boardman to the mill, so that logs floated down the stream could be hauled out at the bend and transported over land to the mill, whence the lumber, as formerly, could be run down to the slab-wharf for shipment. The next task performed, which proved to be one of no small magnitude was the clearing of the river, so that logs could be floated down from the immense tracts of pine on the upper waters. It was not merely here and there a fallen tree that had to be removed. In some places the stream was so completely covered and hidden with a mass of fallen trees and the vegetation which had so taken root and was flourishing on their decaying trunks that no water could be seen. Ten long miles of the channel had to be cleared before the first pine was reached. With an energy and a steadfastness of purpose that ever after marked the transactions of the firm, the work was pushed on till logs could be run down the stream. The sawmill had only a single muley saw. Finding from a few months' experience that it was too small and too slow for their purposes, Hannah, Lay & Company determined to construct a new one to be run by steam power. A site was selected on the narrow tongue of land lying between the lower part of the river and the bay, where, on one hand, logs could be floated in the stream directly to the mill, and, on the other, the lumber could be loaded on vessels by being conveyed only a short distance on trucks. The project was executed in 1852, and the next year the mill went into successful operation. About the first work done in the steam mill was to saw up the pine timber on the tract of land now occupied by the city. It was cut into bridge timber for the Illinois Central Railroad Company, which used it for constructing a bridge over the Illinois river at La Salle. In those days the lumber was all carried across the lake in sail craft. The first vessel that carried for the firm and brought in the boilers of the steam mill was the "Maria Hilliard." No lake surveys had been made in the region of Grand Traverse bay and the masters of vessels were guided more by guess than by charts. Amusing anecdotes are told of their experiences, one of which we repeat. The "Richmond" one very dark night was beating up the bay against a light head-wind. On attempting to tack for some unaccountable reason she would not come in stays, and as she seemed to be fast the captain was

Page  197 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 197 forced reluctantly to let her remain. When daylight revealed the situation, what was his surprise to find his vessel lying close to a bold, wooded shore with her bow-sprit entangled among the trees. When the pine in the immediate vicinity of the mill had been worked up, Hannah, Lay & Company commenced the system of lumbering common on the streams of Northern Michigan, even at that day giving employment, summer and winter, to a large number of men. EAST AND WEST SHORES In the meantime lumber camps were being established both on the eastern and western shores of Grand Traverse bay and along Lake Michigan in what is now Leelanau county. Antrim county, in the vicinity of Elk Rapids, was a pioneer locality for the building of sawmills and the founding of the industry. It happened, as was the case in so many other districts of the lumber country, that the pioneer settler of Antrim county, Abram S. Wadsworth, was a lumberman and settled therein because of its advantages for mill-building and operating. Mr. Wadsworth was a native of Durham, Connecticut and came from Rochester, New York, to Michigan at the age of twenty-one years. He spent some time in Monroe and later located lands in Portland, Jonia county, and built the first mill-dam built across the Grand river in that region. That he first visited the Grand Traverse region in 1846, there is no doubt, but as to his movements during the next few years accounts differ. As nearly as we can ascertain, in 1846 he came northward, coasting in a small boat, and voyaging as far as the Pictured Rocks in Lake Superior and thence to Mackinaw. Thence he went by steamer to Detroit and thence returned home. The next spring, accompanied by his brother-in-law, Samuel K. Northam, he took his family to Detroit, where the party embarked on a propeller for Mackinac. From the latter place they found passage on a schooner as far as Cross village, Emmet county. There, after camping for several days on the beach, waiting for a storm to subside they embarked in a small boat for Old Mission, Grand Traverse county. At Middle village they again went into camp, and waited two days on account of rain. The next stop was made at Little Traverse (Harbor Springs) where they hoped to obtain provisions of the Indians. They only succeeded, however, in getting a few potatoes and a single loaf of bread. The party had lived on fish until that food had ceased to tempt the appetite. The children, especially, were suffering for want of their accustomed diet. After leaving Little Traverse they were favored with pleasant weather and got on rapidly. The last day the bay was rough and they had some fears about crossing to Old Mission from the eastern shore, along which they had been coasting. Seeing a smoke on the shore near Elk river they ran to it. Fortunately they found there some Indians with an excellent sea boat, wcho were about to cross. As a matter of precaution, Mrs. Wadsworth and the children were put into the Indians' boat, which was navigated by Mr. Wadsworth and one of the Indians, while Mr. Northam and the re

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN maining Indians occupied Mr. Wadsworth's boat. In a short time the party landed at Old Mission in safety. They arrived at Old Mission July 16, 1847. Mr. Wadsworth remained some time at Old Mission, but being a man that had had much experience in mills he saw the immense water power that was running to waste on the east side of the bay, and bought the land where Elk Rapids now stands. About the spring of 1849 he built a small log cabin near the present site of the town hall at Elk Rapids village. This was the first building put up by the white man in Antrim county of which there is any account; at all events this was the initial movement in the direction of settlement. There, with Samuel K. Northam, his brother-in-law, assisted by some Indians, he peeled a quantity of hemlock bark and shipped it to Racine, Wisconsin. About that time he was employed by the government in the re-survey of lands, and with the funds arising from his work and his bark, he erected a house on his lands, and late in the fall his family settled therein. Thus was the first shipment made from the pineries east of Grand Traverse bay and a commencement made in the founding of Elk Rapids. In 1851 the Wadsworth family moved again to Connecticut and spent some time in that state. Later they returned and spent some three years more in Old Mission; thence they returned to Elk Rapids, and, finally, after various changes, made that place their permanent home. Mr. Wadsworth died in Traverse City in June, 1871. In 1850 Mr. Wadsworth began to make preparations for building a sawmill. In the winter of 1850-1 James McLaughlin put up the frame of the first saw-mill on the east side of the bay. It was designed for a picket and lath-mill. In the spring of '51 Wadsworth sold out to a man by the name of Norris, but for some cause the property came back into Mr. Wadsworth's hands and in November, 1851, McLaughlin moved his family to Elk river. As Mr. Wadsworth had surmised, the excellent water power at Elk Rapids soon attracted other manufactories besides lumber mills-shingle and planing mills, a rolling pin factory, cement mills, etc. Northport and Sutton's Bay, on the west shore of Grand Traverse bay, and Leland, Glen Arbor and Burdickville near Lake Michigan, further west, were all the sites of sawmills erected in the fifties. They turned out some lumber and did quite a business in supplying the early steamers with cordwood fuel, in shipping bark to southern ports and (later) in supplying the railroads of Southern Michigan with ties. These statements, in fact, apply to all the lumber camps and towns of Northern Michigan. CHARLEVOIX COUNTY Lumbering in Charlevoix county is a comparatively modern indusary. In the summer of 1879 J. C. Glenn moved his sawmill from Leland, Leelanau county, to East Jordan, and erected it upon the shore of the lake. William P. Porter, also of Leelanau county, became a partner of Mr. Glenn under the firm name of Glenn & Porter. The

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Page  200 200 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN timber had been exhausted in the vicinity of Leland and the mill was moved to this point on account of immense quantities of hard wood timber in this vicinity. Mr. Glenn was a native of Pennsylvania and settled at New Mission in 1855, being one of the pioneers of Leelanau county. He remained at New Mission about two years, and then engaged in farming which he carried on successfully for several years. He came to Leelanau county with only five dollars to start with, and realized enough from his farming operations to start himself in other business. He engaged in the manufacture of lumber at Leland and carried it on about ten years, until his removal to East Jordan in 1879, as already stated. The starting of this mill was the beginning of East Jordan as a business center. Some industry was needed as a nucleus of business interests and activities. The lumbering operations of Glenn & Porter gave employment to men, made a market for logs and opened the way for other interests to follow. Mr. Glenn opened a store and carried on mercantile business for many years. At the time the mill was established at East Jordan there were only five or six families at that point. The firm built a boarding-house and docks, erected a number of store buildings and dwellings and was active in many ways in building up the village. CHEBOYGAN COUNTY The first sawmill in Cheboygan county was built in the winter of 1846-7, by A. and R. McLeod. It had two old-fashioned upright saws set in frames and a lath mill attached to it. It cut in its best days from ten to fifteen thousand feet of lumber in twenty-four hours. In the winter of 1848-9 Peter McKinley built the first steam sawmill in Cheboygan county. It was situated at the mouth of the river and had two upright saws, capable of cutting from eight to twelve thousand feet of lumber in twenty-four hours. It was kept in running order for only a few years and then allowed to go into decay. In 1865 the property was purchased by the firm of MeArthur Southwick & Co. In the fall of 1866 they sold the Duncan property, including about 1,200 acres of land and some village property, to Messrs. Sanford Baker, Archibald Thompson, and Robert Patterson, who took hold of the business under the firm name of Baker, Thompson & Co. This was really the beginning of Duncan City as a business point. For ten years or more the property had lain idle, and the buildings were little more than wrecks. The new firm immediately put the property in condition to be operated. In 1868 Messrs. Thompson and Patterson sold their interests to Mears & Co. of Chicago. and the firm was changed to Baker, Mears & Co. In 1870 Thompson Smith, of Toronto, Canada, purchased the interest owned by Mears & Company, and two years later Messrs. Baker and Smith divided the property, Mr. Smith retaining the Duncan property, and Mr. Baker taking other property. By 1883 Cheboygan had become established as one of the leading

Page  201 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MIC(J11GAN 201 lumber centers of Northern Michigan, as is evidenced by the following list of establishments, with a statement of their output for that year: Thompson Smith: Sawed lumber, 26,000,000; on dock, 10,500,000; lath, 10,000,000. William Smith: Sawed lumber, 7,000,000; lath, 3,000,000. W. & A. McArthur: Sawed lumber, 14,000,000; on dock, 500,000; lath, 2,000,000; pickets, 30,000. Southern Michigan Cedar & Lumber Company: Sawed lumber, 4,000,000; on dock, 1,000,000; shingles, 8,000,000; shingles on dock, 1,000,000. Quay & Son: Sawed shingles, 2,500,000. J. B. McArthur: Sawed lumber, 7,500,000; on dock, 1,000,000. Nelson & Bullen: Sawed lumber, 20,000,000; on dock, 2,000,000; lath, 2,000,000. Young & Co.: Sawed lumber, 2,500,000; on dock, 700,000. Mattoon, Ogden & Co.: Sawed, 3,500,000; on dock, 1,200,000. There were also a few small mills in the county not included in this list that would slightly increase the aggregate product for the year. FIRST MILLS IN ALPENA COUNTY The first sawmill in Alpena county was built at Ossineke, or Devil river, by the firm of Birch & Eldridge, in 1844. Mr. Birch had previously visited the mouth of Thunder Bay river in pursuit of a mill site, and decided to build one on the river at the rapids. He commenced getting out timber for a dam, but Indians interfered and drove the party away. On the first day of August, 1845, Isaac Wilson, a native of the State of New York and his wife, who was a native of the State of Rhode Island, with their little son, Charles Henry, then seventeen months old, accompanied by Mr. Wilson's sister, were landed by the good schooner "Baltic" at Devil river. Mr. Wilson had come to this wilderness home, on the west shore of Lake Huron, to run the recently abandoned sawmill built by Birch & Eldridge. This isolated family lived there six weeks before seeing the face of a white person, and claim to have been the first actual settlers between Lower Saginaw, now Bay City, and Thunder Bay island, which was at this time occupied by a few temporary fishermen from the latter place and Detroit, who usually left for their homes in the fall. During this time the mill at Ossineke was the solitary monument of permanent industry in all this wilderness. In the fall of 1847 the old Ossineke mill property was purchased by David D. Oliver. That was a watermill, and was afterward torn down, when in 1866 a steammill was built. That mill was destroyed by fire in 1872. The pioneer lumbermen at Alpena were Geo. N. Fletcher, James K. Lockwood, John S. Minor, Archibald & Murray, A. F. Fletcher, J. Oldfield and Hillyard Broadwell. The first move toward lumbering was the building of a dam. This was partially done in the summer of 1858. At that time John S.

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Minor and J. Oldfield had acquired portions of Mr. Lockwood's interest at Alpena, and, in company with Geo. N. Fletcher, they located the dam and arranged that Mr. Fletcher should go ahead and build it. It was intended to build canals and furnish water-power for mills, but they found so much quicksand that the project had to be abandoned. The dam was not entirely finished until 1863. The first lumbering was done in the winter of 1858-59 by Archibald & Murray. They had a contract to put in the river one million feet, more or less, of logs for Lockwood & Minor. The logs were taken from STEAM LOG LOADER IN THE THUNDER BAY REGION town 31 north, range 6 east, and the contract price was about two dollars per thousand feet. Men's wages were from fourteen dollars to sixteen dollars per month, the lumbermen agreeing to stay until the drive was done. Mr. Samuel Boggs felled the first tree cut into saw logs; Mr. E. K. Potter scaled the first log, and also measured the first cargo of lumber that left Alpena, which was carried by the schooner "Meridan," Capt. Flood, in the latter part of the summer of 1859. The first steps toward building a sawmill on the site of the city were taken in December, 1858, when John Cole arrived at Alpena, accompanied by a number of mechanics, for the purpose of building two sawmills, one at each side of the dam which had been commenced

Page  203 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 203 that season. One of the mills was for Lockwood & Minor and the other for George N. Fletcher. The timber was got out and framed, but neither was finished at that time. The timber for Mr. Fletcher's mill was burned up in one of the numerous fires that afflicted the place. E. K. Potter, one of the lumbermen who was in the first Lockwood & Minor camp, thus writes of these pioneer operations in the great Alpena pineries: "In the fall of 1858 Lockwood & Minor inaugurated the first lumber operations on the Thunder Bay river. Contracts were let to Archibald and Murray, and Alvin Cole. It being something new to provide a supply of everything for six months, in a country as new and undeveloped as this was, it is not to be wondered at that the supplies run short long before spring, and by the first of February, 1859, that 'General Scarcity,' you spoke of, was here in full dress uniform. I was in the lumber camp that winter, and with sorrow beheld the last piece of pork hung up by a string, over the center of a rude table, as a reminder of happy by-gone days of peace and plenty. Mr. Whitefish stepped in and took the place of honor which had been occupied by Hog, and held the balance of power from that time until the 16th of March. Mr. J. K. Lockwood being informed of our sad state, had his good schooner, the J. S. Minor, fitted out and started for Alpena, or Fremont, as it was then called, with pork, beef, sugar, etc., and she arrived as above stated, on the 16th of March, and to all appearances, it was just as cold and winter-like as at any time during the winter. We felt rejoiced to hear the news in camp, that the Minor had arrived with provisions, and we all sang Mr. Lockwood's praise, as many a poor man and his family have had occasion to do since; and I will here say to Mr. Lockwood, more than to any other man, belongs the credit of starting and keeping in motion the then small lumbering operations which gave employment to the few who were here, and thus securing the necessaries of life until better times should change the then discouraging situation of affairs, it being right after the dreadful panic of 1857, which will be remembered by all as the hardest times this country had seen for fifty years. Messrs. Lockwood & Minor built the so-called 'Island Mill,' in 1860, which was the principal means of support for this then small and poor village, for three or four years. One pair of horses did the log hauling for the mill in the summer and the lumber woods was the present site of Alpena. Down timber and burnt timber, and in fact everything that would make a piece 6x6, was hauled to the little mill, and squared, and the block ends cut off, and shipped to Cleveland, and pork, tea, sugar, etc., brought back in return; and thus, from year to year, the 'log' was kept rolling, until today we have, from this small beginning, which has been so imperfectly described, a city of nearly, if not quite, five thousand inhabitants, an honor to the founders, who, while striving to advance its interests and that of its inhabitants, in all proper ways, have not, by selfishness, grown rich in this world's goods, but they have the satisfaction of knowing that they helped their fellowman." Mr. Fletcher and the firm of Lockwood & Minor having failed to build the two water mills referred to were anxious to have their logs manufactured into lumber, and gave sufficient inducement to Messrs.

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Obed Smith and Harman Chamberlain, of St. Clair county, to determine them to erect a steam sawmill at Fremont; and in the spring of 1859 they commenced the work of building the first steam sawmill in Alpena county. They pushed forward the work with vigor, and in August or September of the same year they sawed the first boards. This was an important and an encouraging event. All before had been failure, disappointment and expense, without any adequate returns. Now the mill would give employment to the people, and the proceeds would furnish the means to purchase the necessaries of life. The first work done by this mill was to cut the logs belonging to the firm of Lockwood & Mimor. This occupied the balance of the season of 1859, and a part of 1860. The mill was destroyed by fire on April 17, 1863, but was immediately rebuilt by George N. Fletcher, who was interested in the property. The next mill was built by Hillyard Broadwell in the summer of 1859 about four miles up the river, where a dam was also built. It commenced running in the fall of 1859 and Mr. Broadwell operated it until 1870. In 1871 it was sold to Speechly & Lee, who run it a short time. The mill stood idle for a number of years and finally burned in 1882, and the dam was carried away soon after. About the first sale of logs was made by Geo. N. Fletcher. They were white pine logs and were sold at three dollars and fifty cents per thousand. As late as 1864 a few houses and sawmills constituted Alpena; it was but a small, crude lumbering camp. Iosco COUNTY LUMBERING The old Whittemore mill at Tawas City was the pioneer of the industry in losco county. It was built in 1854 by Charles H. Whittemore, who was the owner of the property until it was bought by MieBain & Whitney in 1878. In the early 'eighties the product of the mill was about 7,000,000 feet of lumber a season. In the year 1863 the firm 'of Smith, VanValkenburg & Company commenced the erection of a sawmill at Sand Point, but after the timbers were partly prepared, decided to locate the mill at East Tawas, and early in 1864 the timbers were removed to that point. In 1869 the property passed into the possession of the Tawas Mill Company, and was popularly known as the Company mill. The Emery mill, located at East Tawas, was built in 1867-8 by the firm of D. J. Evans & Co. They operated it about two years, and were succeeded by the firm of W. G. Grant & Son. In 1875 the firm of Grant & Son failed, and H. W. Sage & Company, Bay City, came into possession of the property under mortgage. In May, 1877, it was purchased by Temple and Hiram A. Emery, under the firm style of Emery Brothers. Absalom and Albert S. Backus, composing the firm of Backus & Brothers, settled in Au Sable in the fall of 1865, before any dock was built on the shore thereabouts. Steamboats and sail craft landed supplies on the banks of Sable river, lightered by small fish-boats, Mes

Page  205 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 205 sers Backus built their little sawmill, which had a cutting capacity of but 10,000 feet a day, and represented the pioneer of the kind between Tawas and Harrisville. It was burned in 1867, but was afterward rebuilt and greatly enlarged. This was the first sawmill to be erected at the mouth of the Au Sable. ALCONA COUNTY By the early fifties the reputation of the pine along the Huron shore was established at all points, and at no locality from Bay City to Alpena was such pine visible from the lake as that seen in the forests of Alcona county. In 1854 Messrs. Holden & Davison, two pioneer fishermen, became partners in logging and lumbering and purchased the pine lands and valuable mill privilege at Harrisville; built a small water mill of one saw, and commenced the first manufacture of lumber in Alcona county. Mr. Davison continued his fishing business, intending to close it up as soon as his numerous advances had been realized, and then invest in pine lands, whose rapidly increasing value offered better inducements in his sagacious judgment, than either fishing or lumbering. Already the land hunters were swarming on every stream and waters adjacent to the lake, and the stroke of the woodman's ax was echoing along the rivers and lake. Many were the struggles to be first to locate the government and state pine lands that were in close proximity to the lake shore. Conspicuously successful in this important business was Edward Chappelle, a son of Francis LaChappelle, Sr., one of the pioneer coopers of the region. He had been under the teaching of D. D. Oliver, of Devil river, a noted woodman, and learned much of his woodcraft that required all the sagacity of an Indian, combined with the endurance of a white man trained to the business. HISTORIC SUMMARY It is a fact not generally known that as early as 1836 a sawmill was built at Van Ettan Lake, near the Au Sable, by the firm of Howard & Van Ettan. They expended quite a sum there to build a watermill, but after their dam had been carried away or undermined two or three times they were obliged to abandon the enterprise. They never sawed any lumber. In 1844 a sawmill was built at Devil river, now Ossineke in Alpena county, by the firm of Birch & Eldridge. In 1854 Messrs. Holden & Davison built a small watermill at what is now Harrisville. The Whittemore mill, at Tawas City, was built the same summer. The first lumbering in Alpena county was done in the winter of 1858-9, and the first mill built in the spring and summer of 1859. From this time the lumber business continued to increase, and the hitherto unknown region of the shore began to come into notice. For purposes of comparison the following figures are presented representing substantially the lumber business of the Huron shore re

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN gion in 1867-8 when the first reliable figures were collected, and 1882-3, which was a high-water mark. 1867-8. Capital Mill and Iocation Invested Mason, Doty & Luce., Alpena........$ 70,000 L. M. Mason & Co., Alpena.......... 150,000 E. Harrington & Co., Alpena........ 125,000 B. H. Campbell & Co., Alpena.......87,000 J. Oldfield & Co., Alpena............ 150,000 H. Broadwell & Co., Alpena......... 8,000 John Trowbridge & Co., Trowbridge Point............... 15,000 John Trowbridge & Co., Corlies...... 60,000 Loud, Priest & Gay, Au Sable....... 300,000 Backus & Bro. Au Sable...........: 75,000 A. Burrows, Au Sable.............. 8,000 C. H. Whittemore, Tawas City...... 45,000 Smith, Van Valkenburg & Co., East Tawas.................... 50,000 Adams, Swanky & Co., East Tawas.. 50,000 Weston, Colwell & Co., Harrisville.... 60,000 D. D. Oliver, Devil River.......... 36,000 Other mills, Devil River............ 84,000 Lumber 5,200,000 9,750,233 10,000,000 5,795,539 6,500,000 1,500,000 1,000,000 3,000,000 12,700,000 1,200,000 800,000 3,800,000 7,100,000 2,800,000 6,850,000 2,497,606 5,000,000 Lath 2,167,000 4,403,450 2,000,000 1,518,850 3,000,000 o....... 1,500,000 3,294,000........ 1,500,000 700,000 2,000,000 504,867 1,000,000 Num ber of m ills...................................... Amount of capital invested............................ Lumber cut in 1867.................................. Lumber on the dock unsold.......................... Number of men employed............................... 19 $1,380,000 85,335,872 8,979,772 772 The following is the number of feet of logs run out of the Au Sable river from 1867 to 1882: 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 48,800,000 34,102,341 44,500,000 60,000,000 52,000,000 105,000,000 96,148,000 52,000,000 55,000,000 47,150,000 68,800,000 62,000,000 113,000,000 138,500,000

Page  207 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 207 1881............................................... 160,232,347 1882................................................ 200,000,000 Total............................................ 1,337,232,688 THE Au SABLE OF TODAY The following table gives the total cut of logs on all streams tributary to Au Sable and Oscoda during the season of 1882-3: PINE RIVER Pack, Woods & Co.................................. 25,000,000 D. A. M cDonald..................................... 2,500,000 0. S. & L. Co....................................... 21,000,000 B. Killmaster & Co................................... 3,000,000 J. H. Killmaster..................................... 2,000,000 Joseph Dudgeon...................................... 3,500,000 Roberts & Cowley.................................... 500,000 McKay Bros......................................... 500,000 58,000,000

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Au SABLE RIVER-MAIN STREAM D. A. McDonald...................................... 7,000,000 0. S. & L. Co........................................ 5, 000,000 Moore, Whipple & Co................................ 5,000,000 Cristy Bros.......................................... 8,000,000 Moore & Tanner..................................... 4,000,000 Penoyar Bros.......................................... 2,000,000 Platt & Millen........................................ 1,500,000 Dease & Hayes........................................ 3,000,000 T. F. Thompson...................................... 3,000,000 I. P. Pulcifer........................................ 2,000,000 Jones & Porter....................................... 3,000,000 Kinney & Beard...................................... 1,000,000 Gardner Bros......................................... 1,500,000 Joseph Dudgeon...................................... 1,000,000 Thickstan & Manwarring.............................. 2,000,000 W. H. Clough........................................ 500,000 49,500,000 SOUTH BRANCH Moore, Whipple & Co................................. 2,000,000 Emery Bros........................................... 6,000,000 Win. Jenkinson...................................... 3,000,000 11,000,000 UPPER SOUTH BRANCH Pack, Woods & Co.................................... 2,000,000 J. E. Potts........................................... 1,500,000 Moore, Whipple & Co.................................. 8,000,000 O. S. & L. Co...................................... 4,000,000 The B. L. Anderson Co............................... 3,000,000 Wonderly, Rimington & Co............................ 4,000,000 Martin Bresnaham.................................... 2,000,000 24,500,000 NORTH BRANCH Pack, W oods & Co.................................... 15,000,000 J. E. Potts....................................... 17,000,000 Gratwick, Smith & Fryer Lumber Co................... 25,000,000 Cheesebrough & Charleton............................. 7,000,000 S. 0. Fisher......................................... 8,000,000 Stephen Moore........................................ 1,500,000 Penoyar Bros........................................ 1,500,000 Platt & M illen....................................... 3,000,000 78,000,000

Page  209 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 209 PERRY CREEK' J. E. Potts......................................... 5,000,000 Grand total.......................................226000,000 MELTING OF THE PINE FORESTS The early logging railroads and the extension of regular lines into the interior of Northern Michigan have so decimated the pine forests which lie far from the lake counties that lumbering in soft woods is a dying and, in most sections, a dead industry. Lumbering in this age and day is an entirely different proposition from the operations of forty or even thirty years ago. Most of the pine is gone and it is the hardwood that is now being largely lumbered. As has been well stated, "the lumbering industry while tending toward the vanishing point is still flourishing." It may be added that its hopes are now largely centered in the development of the hardwood products used in the manufacture of furniture and all cabinet work, flooring and much interior woodwork, and a variety of other articles. Wexford county is a fair illustration of this transformation. In 1872 Cadillac was a crude railroad station on the G. R. & I. line standing in the midst of a dense pine forest extending from a mile in one direction to three or four in others. George A. Mitchell commenced lumbering in the summer of that year, and twenty years afterward Cadillac was a flourishing city of over 4,500 people, but with the pine woods nearly gone in the vicinity of the place. The nearest solid body was about five miles away toward the southeast, and for some years her large mills had been supplied from timber brought from ten to fifty miles away. As announced by' a local print of Cadillac in the early nineties: "Within the last year one of the largest mills in Northern Michigan has been built here exclusively for the manufacture of timber which grows at a distance of from forty to sixty miles. What the pine forests have done the others will do. The pines have led the way and the hardwoods are already following." And still later, 1903: "The year 1872 witnessed the inauguration of the stupendous lumbering operations which have at last swept away nearly the last vestige of the large tracts of pine timber which the county then possessed. In addition to the heavy operations along the Manistee river the new village of Clam Lake (Cadillac) was a genuine lumbering town. As early as June, 1872, there had been two sawmills (each with a capacity of twenty-five thousand feet per day) put in operation, and a few months later two others were started, with a capacity of forty and sixty thousand feet per day, respectively. These four mills manufactured about four million feet of lumber per month, or nearly fifty million per year. If one stops a moment to contemplate the work of these mills and those built soon afterward at Haring, Long Lake, Bond's Mills, McCoy's Siding and on the shores of Clam lake, and their constant operation for ten, fifteen and twenty years each, Vol. 1-14.

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN he can get some idea of the vast wealth in the pine forests in Wexford county at that early day." LAST BIG ROLLWAY ON THE CEDAR Still later (1906), from the columns of the Gladwin Record: "Ross Brothers have been the only large operators in timber on the Cedar and Tobacco rivers during the last fifteen years. "Their output of lumber for a number of years was not far from the 10,000,000 mark, besides large products of shingles and ties. For the last few years, however, this record has been cut about half, and this year will be some 6,000,000 feet of logs on the Cedar and Tobacco rivers. "The Ross brothers are a family of lumbermen. Their honored father, Donald Ross, the founder of Beaverton, was one of the first to manufacture sapless-paving from cedar. The four sons are engaged in lumbering extensively; Ronald and William being the firm of Ross Bros. at Beaverton, and George and Donald G. being heavy operators in the upper peninsula. The first-named are also large stockholders in the LaClede Lumber Co., having a large mill and big timber holdings at LaClede, Idaho. "The past eight years Ross Bros. have been fortunate in having S. A. Price for their superintendent of work in the woods. Mr. Price has had an experience of 30 years in the lumberwoods. He attends strictly to business, having very little time for recreation, and sometimes few hours for rest. To make the rounds of the camps, buy and scale logs, bolts and ties gives him a round of work for which few men would have the endurance. Mr. Price is one of those whole-souled men so typical of woods-life, and is popular with all. "During the past two years, Martin Price of Merrill, Saginaw county, a brother of Superintendent S. A. Price, has had charge of one set of camps of Ross Bros. on the Cedar, seven miles north of Gladwin. He has had an experience of 30 years lumbering, the greater part of the time foreman of camps, 20 years in Michigan and 10 years in Florida, Idaho and Washington. He is a hale fellow well met with all. Notwithstanding the bad winter for logging he has banked his quota of logs, the last season's work at these camps. As a woods foreman he has few equals. "It was the good fortune of the writer to be included in a recent party of visitors to these camps, and to enjoy the hospitality of Messrs. Price. In the party were Alex Graham, Guy E. Smith, M. H. Aitkin, Grover Goodrum, M. E. Baker, Harry Robinson, D. G. Fraser and Eugene Foster. A dinner in camp is one to satisfy the appetite, and the dinner that day included all that could be desired. The boys will look forward with pleasure to their next annual visit to the camps. "Ross Bros. expect to have 4,000,000 feet of logs on the Cedar this year, of which Martin Price has banked 1,000,000 feet; Peter Ladd,

Page  211 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 211 jobber, will put in 1,000,000 feet; John Sharkey, logs and cedar; W. R. Looker, 150,000 pieces of cedar. F. J. Reithel's mills will saw 500,000 feet, and a mill near Meredith about the same, to be shipped from Gladwin. On the Tobacco A. P. Clark will have 200,000 feet, and John Reagle 200,000 feet. Besides a large amount of logs, etc., have been bought on bank and at small mills. "A few years 'picking-up' and lumbering on these streams will be completed, after over forty years operations, and an output reaching perhaps 500,000,000 feet or more from the Cedar and several times as much from Tobacco and branches. "According to the recollection of E. C. Diffin, the first lumbering on the Cedar was done in 1866 by 'Bill' VanWay, who had camps just east of the present site of the city cemetery. Among the heavy operators have been Moore, Smith & Co., Tiff Jerome, Butman & Rust, Hamilton, McClure & Co., J. F. Rust & Co., D. W. Rust & Son, Lane & Busch, Rust Bros., and Ross Bros. "Perhaps the largest camp in lower Michigan is being operated by Grimore & Son at Winegar's, and this will be the last big camp in these parts. They are getting out several million feet of logs which are being shipped by rail to Bousfield & Co. and Ross & Wentworth at Bay City. They will have another winter's work there." These pictures drawn of the status of lumbering in Wexford and Gladwin counties are but illustrative of the waning of the pine industries of Northern Michigan. But the fruit raiser is close upon the retreating lumberman of the pineries, and even in certain sections of the hardwood country the farmer follows that class of lumberman so closely that what was this year a solid forest will next year be cleared and planted to potatoes or rye or wheat. The wonderful results that have been accomplished in the manufacture of lumber, as well as the wasteful devastation of the pine forests, are due not alone to improved machinery, but to improved systems of labor, as well. In no other business are the systems and methods of labor more thoroughly organized and adhered to. From the time the towering pine in the forest is noted in the minutes of the land hunter, until in the form of lumber, lath and shingles, it is piled upon the vessel or car, there is no deviation from carefully devised plans of action. The logging operations form a distinct business by themselves and during the winter months create a new world which drains the manufactures centres of quite a considerable part of their population. Thousands of people observe sawmills in operation, devouring logs with marvelous rapidity, without having any conception of the methods employed to obtain the logs. The logging camp, and the process of converting the tree into logs and placing them in the streams, are interesting factors of the lumber business, but these methods have been so often described that space will not be devoted to the narrative here. Machinery, method and fires have nearly swept away the once noble pineries of Northern Michigan. The fires have cleared away square

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN miles of brush and debris, and left much land free and as it can be purchased by the farmer at low prices these conflagrations, which have sometimes raged even at the cost of human life, will prove to be evils not unmixed with good. PRESENT STATUS OF LUMBERING According to the bulletin issued by the national Bureau of the Census May 19,1911, Michigan now ranks tenth of the states in the I p. I~_ COUNTRY IN THE TRANSITION STATE production of lumber, which amounts to 1,889,724,000 feet, manufactured by 1,323 mills. In all the states bordering on the Great Lakes a marked decrease is shown as compared with the figures of 1899. In the latter year Michigan's output was 3,018,338,000 feet. The marked decreased in Michigan, Wisconsin and Minnesota, is attributed solely to the diminishing supply of white pine. Yellow pine has ranked first in quantity of product since the output of white pine began to fall off decidedly in the middle nineties, and in 1909 the yellow-pine output amounted to 36,6 per cent of the total, or three and one-half times as much as its nearest competition, Douglas fir. Oak holds third place, with 9.9 per cent of the total produetion, while white pine has dropped to fourth place, and hemlock to fifth. Spruce and western pine ranked, respectively, sixth and seventh in both years. In 1909, for the first time, a production of more than one billion feet of maple was recorded. The eight woods named furnished 82.8 per cent of the country's lumber product in 1909.

Page  213 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 213 Michigan now ranks first in the production of maple lumber, her 961 active mills turning out 543,214,000 feet valued at $8,664,263. This was over fifty-nine per cent of the total production in the United States. She also leads in the output of beech lumber, with 111,340,000 feet, or more than twenty-one per cent of the total manufacture of the United States. In basswood products Michigan's output is only exceeded by that of Wisconsin, the two states cutting one-half of the total, of which the Wolverine state is credited with more than seventeen per cent. Michigan is also second in elm and birch products, Wisconsin again being her only competitor. Wisconsin, Pennsylvania and Michigan, in the order named, now supply about two-thirds of the hemlock lumber produced in the United States. There is little difference in their comparative importance as producers, each having an output of over twenty per cent. Michigan has nearly 800 mills in operation, manufacturing 614,622,000 feet valued at $7,289,417. In 1909 Wisconsin and Michigan together cut one-half of the total output of basswood lumber, and the balance was contributed by twenty-six states, none of which cut large quantities. Elm is another hardwood in the production of which Wisconsin leads. Of the total cut of 347,456,000 feet in 1909, reported by thirtyfour states, Wisconsin furnished 21.7 per cent. Michigan ranked second, with 16.8 per cent, and Indiana third, with 11.6 per cent of the total. Although elms are very widely distributed throughout the eastern half of the United States, no large quantity of elm lumber was cut in any state other than the three above mentioned, which together supplied one-half of the total production. As a whole, the production of elm lumber is decreasing, the heaviest decreases within the decade being in Michigan and Ohio. These two states produced 202,856,000 feet of elm lumber in 1899 and only 45.1 per cent as much in 1909. The production of elm lumber in Wisconsin has remained at practically the same level for the past ten years. Michigan stands fourth both in the production of cedar and ash lumber, although she stands low in the percentages of cedar manufacture as compared with Washington, which now puts out fifty-three per cent of the total. Michigan's quota is a trifle over five per cent. The manufacture of ash lumber is widely and quite evenly distributed, Arkansas leading with 11.4 per cent of the total product and Michigan being fourth with 8.5 per cent. Northern Michigan is making rapid strides in the manufacture of veneers, so that the following from the census of 1911 will especially interest that part of the state: "The consumption of logs in veneer manufacture in 1909 occurred principally in Illinois, Michigan, Florida, Wisconsin, Indiana, Tennessee, Missouri, and Arkansas, ranking in the order named. Each of these eight states reported a consumption of over 25,000,000 feet, log scale, and together reported 249,658,000, or 57.2 per cent of the total consumption. Of the twenty-nine states reported separately, both in 1908 and 1909, twelve showed de

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN creases in the amount of wood consumed in the latter year. The principal gains in quantity consumed in 1909 were in Michigan, Arkansas, Virginia, and New York, all of which states report gains of over 8,000,000 feet. Maple was used principally in Michigan and in New York, and formed 45.9 per cent of the total quantity of wood consumed in the former state and 31.6 per cent in the latter. "Michigan used 457,362 cords, or 39.8 per cent of the total wood consumed in hardwood distillation in 1909. This quantity, reported by fourteen establishments, was 146,452 cords more than that consumed by the Michigan establishments in 1908. The consumption per establishment, moreover, was greater by over 4,400 cords in 1909 than in 1908, and the average cost per cord was 55 cents higher." Only within the last few years has any considerable quantity of Wisconsin and Michigan twenty-nine and twenty-eight per cent retamarack lumber been sawed. It is cut almost entirely in the Lake states, Minnesota supplying approximately two-fifths of the total, and spectively. Hemlock bark, which in 1909 had the lowest average cost of any of the barks used for tanning, was used principally in Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Michigan, West Virginia, and New York, these five states, ranking in the order named, consuming 620,693 tons, valued at $5,680,044, which represented 88.9 per cent of the total quantity and 88.3 per cent of the total value. Michigan produced 100,285 tons of tanbark and tanning extract, valued at $1,225,655. Michigan is seventh in pulp-wood consumption, and 43.8 per cent of the wood used is hemlock. The foregoing figures apply to Michigan as a state, but, although Northern Michigan is a term, the statistics and general statements as to the status of lumbering and lumber manufactures are closely significant of conditions in that section of the state. THE SALT INDUSTRY Northern Michigan is one of the greatest producers of salt in the world, and much of that article of prime necessity comes from the territory covered by this history. The historical part of the subject has been so well traced by S. G. Higgins in the 1902 "Proceedings of the Michigan Political Science Association" that liberal extracts are taken from his paper. "During the last forty years," he says, "upwards of 85,000,000 barrels of salt have been manufactured in the state of Michigan. Beginning in 1860, with a production of 4,000 barrels, it has steadily increased from year to year, with a total of over 600,000 barrels in 1890 and 4,000,000 barrels in 1898. In 1866 the manufacturers received an average price of $1.80 per barrel, including the cost of the barrel. The price steadily declined until in 1896 it reached 35 cents per barrel, containing 280 pounds of salt, and the manufacturer paid out of this price the cost of the barrel, 15 cents. At the present time Michigan manufactures about one-quarter the total salt production of the Tnited States.

Page  215 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 215 "Probably no other state in the Union has developed so many valuable mineral resources as the state of Michigan. We have iron, copper, salt, coal, gypsum, limestone, sandstone, marble, silica and many other minerals in great abundance, and the prosperous condition of the state is largely due to the development of these mineral industries, although much of our wealth has come from the pine forests, which, unfortunately, have been principally cut off and sawed into lumber. The manufacture of salt with the exhaust steam of the lumber mills and the cheap fuel accessible at these mills in the form of stabs and sawdust have enabled the manufacturers of Michigan to produce salt at the exceedingly low prices which have prevailed for a number of years. What the conditions will be when the lumber is exhausted yet remains to be seen. "It was known during the earliest settlement of the country that the Indians formerly supplied themselves with salt from springs in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan, but the development of our salt industry begins with the report of the state geologist, Dr. Houghton, in 1838. In his report Dr. Houghton says: 'On the Tittabawassee river in Midland county numerous indications of the existence of brine springs were noticed, extending from the mouth of the Chippewa river, as far as I ascended the former stream, being a few miles above the mouth of Salt river. Upon either side of the Tittabawassee river, between the points noted, small pools of brackish water were observed, as also, occasionally, springs discharging a similar water in small quantities; and although an examination showed the waters to contain large quantities of the salts of lime and occasionally of iron they were never destitute of more or less salt. " 'Springs of a more decided character occur in the vicinity of the mouth of Salt river. The first observed occurs in the stream near the right bank of the Tittabawassee, a little below Salt river, and at the time of my visit was covered by some two to two and a half feet of water. The spring was found by actual measurement to discharge about seventy gallons of water per hour. Nearly a mile above this spring upon the same bank and elevated from eight to ten feet above the water of the river, is a second spring discharging a somewhat larger quantity of water. Near by, but at a greater elevation, several small springs of brackish water were seen issuing from the sloping bank, which upon examination were found to contain a notable quantity of salt. " 'The quantity of water discharged from these springs is small, but when considered in connection with those already noticed they become matters of considerable interest, since they serve to show that the salines are not confined to one or two springs, but are dispersed over a large district of country. Brine springs are known to exist near the mouths of Flint and Cass rivers, in Saginaw county, and also in Sanilac county, but as they occur in a flat section of country the unfavorable season compelled me to defer examining them until some future time.' " From 1838 to 1859 the state of Michigan, through its legislatures, governors and geologists, devoted itself to the encouragement of the

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN salt industries of the Saginaw valley, locations being selected and wells sunk under the patronage of the commonwealth. After the expenditure of many thousands of dollars, under state appropriations, the practical results were scarcely tangible, and then private enterprise took up the enterprise; and the promoters of the first salt manufacturing company in Michigan, East Saginaw Salt Manufacturing Company, requested the legislature to pass an act granting a bounty of ten cents per barrel on salt produced from Michigan brine. The manufacture was regarded with so much doubt that one of the legislators offered an amendment that the bounty be fixed at ten cents per bushel, instead of ten cents per barrel; the amendment was promptly adopted, rather as a joke, and the bounty was thus made fifty cents per barrel. Not long afterwards, sober second thought came to the members of the legislature and the original amendment, fixing the bounty at ten cents per barrel, was adopted. The first successful salt well in Michigan was sunk to a depth of 647 by the East Saginaw Company, in 1859-60, on land in that city belonging to Jesse Hoyt. The first salt was made from this well under the personal superintendence of Dr. H. C. Potter, afterward vicepresident and general manager of the Flint & Pere Marquette Railroad Company, 4,000 barrels of salt being manufactured the first year. "The success of this first well," continues Mr. Higgins, "together with the bounty offered by the state, caused great excitement throughout the Saginaw valley and thousands of dollars were invested in sinking additional wells. The state refused to pay the bounty earned by the East Saginaw Salt Manufacturing Company and a mandamus was asked against the board of state auditors to require them to audit the accounts for bounties due under the act of February 15, 1859. "It has been popularly understood that the Supreme court at that time declared this bounty law to be unconstitutional. On the contrary the court sustained the bounty law and held that the Salt Company had acquired a vested right to the bounty upon all the salt manufactured up to the time a change in the law took effect by the enactment of a subsequent statute and that the company could not be deprived thereof by the passage of the subsequent act. There is no doubt but the passage of this bounty law by the state legislature had a very large influence in turning the attention of private capital to the enterprise, similarly to the manner in which a subsequent bounty law has induced the investment of nearly $5,000,000 in sugar factories in this state during the last two years. It is to be regretted that the state, after receiving such generous response from investors 'in the salt and sugar industries, should have treated them in such an unsatisfactory manner. Admitting that the bounties were too high, the state, to be just, should have promptly made such appropriations as would have given some compensation, in both these instances, to the pioneers who invested in these enterprises, relying upon the solemn promise of the state to pay the bounty. How long the state of Michigan might have waited for the development of its salt and sugar industries had it not been for these bounty laws, no one can tell, but it is certain that they very decidedly hastened the investment of capital.

Page  217 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 217 "While the writer would not be understood as favoring the bounty system as a rule, it is certainly a very remarkable inducement to the development of a new industry, and if such a proposition should hereafter arise for the encouragement of any other line of business it is to be hoped that the bounty will be made moderate and that the pledge of the state will not be lightly disregarded after the investor has put his money into the enterprise. Such a practice as the state has followed in these two instances, if adopted in private business, would brand any firm or company with dishonor. The constitution does not prohibit the payment of such bounties, and the legislature has the authority to do as it sees fit in making the appropriation." The group of rocks which form the lower peninsula has been graphically compared to four oblong saucers, one within the other, depressed in the center of the state and cropping out at the edges. The upper saucer is known to geoligists as the "Waverly group" and is formed of the salt-bearing sand rock which is the source of the Saginaw brine. "It is a sea-shore rock. Prints of seaweeds are found in it and shark's teeth, some of enormous size; and also the remains of enormous reed trees are found, testifying to the proximity of land. Hence we can infer that the waves of the Devonian sea, whose rocky bottom was far below, here dashed against the shore and deposited their briny burden for our use. "Let us understand that the formation which gives the most valuable salty brines in the Saginaw valley (and in the districts to the north) is named the Waverly group by Dr. Rominger, formerly state geologist, and consists of a series of sandstones and blue and red shales amounting to from 1,000 to 1,200 feet in thickness. This formation commences at the bottom of the gypsum formation and extends downward to the black shales as seen at Sulphur island, Thunder bay. Indications of rock salt have never been found in any of the salt weRs of Saginaw valley; but the outcrop of this Waverly group on tb e eastern shores of Lake Michigan is composed of sand-drift, some six hundred feet in thickness, which has long ago been deprived of its salt. Borings at Manistee, in the northwestern part of the state, passed through six hundred feet of sand, then into the limestones of Hamilton group and lastly of the Helderberg group, striking at the distance of 1,950 feet from the surface, the rock salt of the old Devonian ocean, and corresponding, in all probability, to the rock salt of Wayne county and Goderich. In making these borings brines of various strengths were found at different depths, but all below 1,400 feet. "Salt wells in Wayne, Manistee and Mason counties reach the solid salt beds, and fresh water is pumped into the wells, where it becomes saturated with the salt, and it is then pumped to the surface and evaporated. In recent years the vacuum pan process has been introduced in a number of salt works in Bay, Manistee, Mason, St. Clair and Wayne counties, the remainder of the salt being principally manufactured by open steam evaporation. The vacuum pan salt, however, cakes more than the other and sells for a lower price. There is only a small amount of solar salt manufactured in the state."

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN All the salt in Michigan is inspected under a state system, pursuant to an act of the legislature passed in 1869 and amendments since adopted. This insures good quality and uniformity. The state is divided into eight inspection districts, of which Iosco county forms the fourth; Manistee county, the sixth and Mason county, the seventh. AGRICULTURE AND AGRICULTURAL SOCIETIES With the clearing away of the forests by lumbermen and fires, horticulturists and agriculturists have come to occupy the land. Until Northern Michigan was pretty thoroughly denuded of its pineries, the cultivation of fruit and the standard crops did not make rapid advances. But within the past fifteen years its productiveness in these lines has been thoroughly demonstrated, and has been set forth in a previous chapter. The standard crops of Northern Michigan are hay and forage, potatoes and seeds. In actual value ($36,037,000) the first named was the leading crop in the state, and the following figures may be largely credited to that part of Michigan-the statistics given being for the year 1911. Hay and forage showed an increase of 386,803 acres, or 16.6 per cent between 1899 and 1909. From 1,245,441 acres in 1879, hay and forage increased to 2,024,736 in 1889; to 2,328,498 in 1899; and again to 2,715,301 in 1909. The total yield in 1909 was 3,632,919 tons, valued at $36,037,000, over 50 per cent of which was "timothy and clover mixed." The average yield per acre for all hay and forage was 1.3 tons; the average value per acre $13.30. During the decade prior to 1909 potatoes increased 53,520 acres, or 17.2 per cent. From 1879, when 128,848 acres were harvested, potatoes rose to 198,476 in 1889; to 311,963 in 1899; and again to 365,483 in 1909. The aggregate yield in 1909 was 38,243,828 bushels, as compared to 23,476,444 bushels in 1899. The average yield per acre was 105 bushels; the average value per acre $27.10. Value of crop $9,913,778. Dry edible beans increased from 167,025 acres in 1899 to 398,133 acres in 1909, a gain of 231,108 bushels or 138.4 per cent. The total yield in 1909 was 5,195,055 bushels, as compared to 1,806, 413 bushels in 1899. The average yield per acre was 13 bushels; the average value per acre, $24. The organization of county fairs and societies to encourage agriculture was of infrequent occurrence prior to 1880, as the lumbering and salt industries held the stage to the exclusion of almost all else until well along toward 1890. The pioneer fair in Northern Michigan was held at Benzonia, Benzie county, on the eighth of October, 1864, several years before the organization of the county agricultural society. The previous notice was short, and the day was blustering and unpropitious, yet the fair was not a failure. The grains and vegetables exhibited were, for the most part, first crops from new ground imperfectly worked. There were no premiums, the only award being an honorable mention by the committees, the merit of the article being

Page  219 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 219 classed as extra good or fair. There was but little fruit. Of livestock of all kinds, only three animals were mentioned by the committees, presumably the only three present. This fair was mainly gotten up by W. S. Hubbell and H. E. Steward. Among the articles exhibited were twelve green pumpkins, and one solitary peach in a bottle. The next year the fair was a little better and continued to improve as the county developed. In 1867 a county society was organized and the following year the grounds at Benzonia, consisting of six acres of land, were purchased. In 1873 the State Pomological Society was held at Traverse City, and Benzie county exhibited four hundred plates with fruit and divided the first premium with the peninsula in Grand Traverse county. The Alcona Agricultural Society was organized in 1872,:it a public meeting called for that purpose, and a committee appointed to draft bylaws and other rules and regulations. These were drafted and submitted by C. P. Reynolds and adopted by the meeting, and the first election of officers was held at the courthouse in 1873, when George Hamilton was elected president, Edward Chapelle treasurer and C. P. Reynolds secretary. Mr. Reynolds made a certified report of said organization to the board of supervisors, who granted the sum of $100 to the society in aid of its finances. The first annual fair of the society was held at the courthouse, October 16, 1873, which was well attended and over $200 paid to prize-takers in the various departments; and the first exhibition was pronounced a success, although it had required weeks of personal exertion to collect the articles from various parts of the county, bring them to the place of exhibition and arrange them in their several classes. There is evidence of an early interest in the agricultural advancement of Wexford county, in the fact that before its population had reached 3,000 a county agricultural society was organized. Early in October, 1873, a meeting was held at Sherman, a report of which was published in the local paper as follows: "At a meeting of the citizens of Wexford county at the courthouse in this village on Tuesday last for the purpose of organizing an agricultural society, the following committee was chosen to draft articles of association: T. A. Ferguson, C. Hollister and I. N. Carpenter. The committee were requested to make their reports on Thursday evening, October 16th. As no more business came before the meeting, after a few remarks, it adjourned until Thursday evening, at seven o'clock P. M. "Sherman, October 16, 1873-The meeting was called to order by Alonzo Chubb, chairman. On motion H. B. Sturtevant was chosen secretary pro tem. On motion of William Mears the report was accepted and the committee discharged. On motion the articles were voted on separately and adopted. On motion of George Wheeler the society proceeded to elect the following officers: President-Alonzo Chubb, Cleon; vice-president-A. Lamb, Clam Lake; T. A. Ferguson, Hanover and Warren Seaman, Cedar Creek; secretary-George Manton, Colfax; treasurer-C. J. Manktelow, Selma." In 1878 a number of the leading farmers of Kalkaska county determined to interest themselves in promoting its agricultural interests, and

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN with that end in view a farmers' club was organized. The meeting for the purpose of effecting an organization was held at the courthouse in Kalkaska, Wednesday, July 24, 1878. A committee on permanent organization was appointed to report at a subsequent meeting. August 15th an adjourned meeting was held, of which H. U. Hill was chairman and D. D. Smith secretary. A permanent organization was effected by the election of the following officers: President, H. U. Hill; vicepresidents one from each township; secretary, C. H. Metzgar; treasurer, Henry Spence. The object of the organization was to facilitate the study of agriculture, gather statistics for local and general circulation and promote the general welfare of the county. Stated meetings were held for discussion and the membership of the organization steadily increased. In April, 1879, it was decided to organize for a county fair, and such an organization was effected. J. E. Rainbow was elected president, C. H. Metzgar, secretary, and Henry Spence, treasurer. A constitution and bylaws were adopted and a very successful fair was held in the fall of that year. Grounds were provided and buildings erected. This society has been liberally encouraged by the people of the county and village, and its annual exhibitions have increased in variety and interest. STATE LANDS OPEN TO PURCHASE Agriculturists who are interested in taking up lands in Northern Michigan should know that over a third of a million acres may be purchased directly from the state through the Land Office at Lansing. No local agents are employed by that department which does not engage to furnish information. Plats, however, are sold at the legal prices and those who desire to purchase are advised to examine the lands for themselves. Full information as to all these lands is given in the Michigan Manual for 1911, to which all interested are referred. The present object of the editor is to indicate the various amounts which the state offers for sale in the counties embraced in this history: Swamp Primary Tax HomeLand. School stead Land. Acres. Land. Acres. Counties. Acres. Totals. Alcona.302.63 440.00 30,543.48 31,286.11 Alpena. 801.73 80.00 15,080.59 16,002.32 Antrim.1............... 1.00 531.40 647.40 Arenac............... 40.00 5,769.80 5,809.80 Benzie.................160.00 160.00 Charlevoix........... 158.25 601.02 759.27 Cheboygan............ 1,026.20 735.35 11,841.90 13,900.13 Clare................. 40.00 413.03 3,395.37 3,848.40 Crawford............. 2,920.00 40.00 33,506.16 36,466.16 Emmet............... 240.00 280.00 2,499.99 3,019.99 Gladwin.............. 135.00 200.00 6,302.81 6,637.90

Page  221 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 221 Swamp Land. Acres. Primary School Land. Acres. Tax Homestead Land. Acres. Counties. Grand Traverse....... losco................. Kalkaska............. Lake................. Leelanau.............. Manistee.............. M ason................ Missaukee............. Montmorency.......... Ogemaw.............. Osceola............... Oscoda............... Otsego................ Presque Isle.......... Roscommon........... W exford.............. 560.00 79.00.... 40.00 80.00 32.18 120.00 418.95 487.11..... 9,019.32 796.86 13,946.97 120.00 30,104.87 620.65 159.20 258.20..... 360.00..... 240.00..... 9,234.01 400.00 38.067.79.... 18,082.09..... 6,122.86 200.00 30,342.77 240.00 7,845.77 240.00 29,891.97..... 3,875.42..... 5,397.36,384.44 313,642.57 Totals. 9,019.32 15,303.83 30,303.87 620.65 417.40 360.00 240.00 9,274.01 38,507.79 18,162.09 6,122.86 39,523.85 8,205.77 30,577.38 4,362.53 5,397.36 334,936.19 Totals......... 7,557.05 4 In addition to the swamp, primary school and tax homestead lands are the Agricultural College lands, comprising small areas in all but Oscoda county. The lands of this class held by the state amount to the following: Alpena county, 40 acres; Cheboygan, 296.68 acres; Missaukee, 40 acres; Oscoda, 8,948.90 acres and Presque Isle, 26.46 acres. DIVERSE INDUSTRIES Perhaps Northern Michigan now contains as great a diversity of manufacturing plants as can be found in the country. The old lumber centers —Ludington, Manistee, Traverse City, Cheboygan and Alpenastill turn out the standard products, such as lumber, shingles and lath, but with the development of horticulture and agriculture, the opening of hardwood tracts and the demands of modern communities, they have added such branches as the manufacture of baskets, crates and all kinds of fruit packages; potato and seed planters and agricultural implements in general; furniture, billiard cues, veneering, maple flooring, game boards, and what not? Canneries and flour and grist mills, have sprung up in all directions, as well as foundries and iron works on a small scale. Ludington makes watch cases and game tables, as well as manufactures wood and salt, boasting not only the largest salt plant in the world (capacity 7,500 barrels daily), but the leading factory in the production of game boards. Manistee, the "Salt City," includes, besides her great lumber and salt industries, a plant for the manufacturing of lumber machinery and implements, a factory which turns out hardwood sideboards and chiffoniers, candy and shirt factories,

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN boiler and engine works and other even more diverse manufactories. Traverse City claims the largest oval dish factory in the world and the largest basket factory in the state and has also plants for the making of maple flooring, starch, plows and leather; its tannery one of the largest west of New York. Then comes Alpena with its pulp works, canneries, veneer manufactories, breweries and cement and lime plants, besides her old-line lumber and shingle mills. Cadillac is one of the most flourishing interior points in the line of industrial life. Her pineries have been eaten away, but manufactories for hardwood furniture, maple flooring, charcoal, wood alcohol, pig iron, chemicals, carriage stock and sawmill machinery have replaced the old order of things to her manifest advantage. Reed City is a noted manufacturing point for hardwood flooring. In all of Northern Michigan there is not a community of a thousand people which has not established some form of industry to contribute to the convenience and prosperity of the people. GROWTH THROUGH NATURE'S FAVORS Climate, scenery and nature as a whole have also contributed in a marked degree to the development of all Northern Michigan-particularly northwestern Michigan. In the earlier periods the steamers of the great lakes brought little parties of visitors to the beautiful country around the two Traverse bays, who returned to their homes smitten with its charms. The reputation as an ideal region for those seeking rest, recreation and invigoration spread abroad, the coming of the railroad and the added incursion of visitors broadened its fair name, and Charlevoix, Harbor Springs, Petoskey and the picturesque and freshening regions around became annually so many Meccas for tired and restless pilgrims who flocked thither in thousands, by boatloads and trainloads, from every section of the universe. Substantial stores and industries; great hotels; meeting places for literary and religious organizations; villages, towns and cities followed in the wake of this periodical migration which was ever leaving behind not a few permanent settlers who could not break away from these charms of nature. As stated more in detail: "Western Michigan is the playground of hundreds of thousands of people from the inland cities of the middle west and south. The 'summer resorter' is a development of the oldtime picnic party, and in the process of development from the drive to the country, with its merry crowd of young and old, spreading a feast beneath the trees on the banks of the river, the great resort centers of this region have come to be known throughout the United States. Here the climate plays an important part in making this an ideal vacation country. In the old days 'back home,' a picnic was not a picnic unless the scene was laid on the banks of a river; here, in the land where lakes are so numerous, the resorts are principally located on the shores of Lake Michigan, or upon the banks of some one of the hundreds of beautiful rivers and inland lakes which dot the country. From Holland, with its Macatawa Park and Ottawa Beach, through Grand Haven, Muskegon, Whitehall and Montague; Pentwater, Ludington and Ham


Page  224 224 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN lin lake, Manistee and Onekama lake; Empire, Glen Haven and Glen Arbor with their Glen lake; Leland at the outlet of Lake Leelanau; Northport and Northport Point, at the entrance of Grand Traverse bay, and down that bay to Traverse City, passing Omena, Sutton 's Bay, Old Mission and Neahtawanta and Edgewood, all well known to the summer-loving folk of many states; Elk Rapids, at the outlet of the Intermediate Lakes Chain, extending for a distance of over seventy miles into the interior and including such beautiful bodies of water as Elk lake, Round lake, Torch lake (the rival of any lake in America for beauty); Clam, Grass, Intermediate and Central lakes, easily reached through the beautiful towns of Alden, Bellaire and Central Lake; and Charlevoix, the queen of the northern resorts; "There's only one Petoskey," the center of the Little Traverse bay region, round which are situated Bay View, Ramona Park, Roaring Brook, Wequetonsing, Harbor Springs, Harbor Point and Forest Beach. "And of the lakes of the interior contiguous to the great lake ports mentioned, there are hundreds, each with its community of summer enthusiasts, and many of them supporting good hotels. The rivers and brooks throughout the whole territory are the natural home of the brook trout, and the lakes are as naturally the habitat of the black bass, the pike and the lordly muscallonge, while the smaller pan fish, such as perch, bluegills and rock bass, abound everywhere. "The woods' coverts furnish the sportsman with such sport as kings spend millions to preserve, in the gamiest of all game birds, the ruffed grouse. The lakes and water ways are the breeding ground of the wild duck, and in season these birds are plentiful. The swamps of the far interior shelter deer and bear, with occasionally a cat to enliven the monotony of the stilly night. "All of this paradise of picnic ground and sporting country is easily accessible to the tourist through any of the railway stations or lake ports. It is estimated that no less than five million strangers annually visit this section of Michigan, either for sport or for recreation." Northeastern Michigan has also its splendid actualities and its brighter future as a summer resort country, only awaiting better transportation facilities and a more thorough "advertising" to equal the older and more developed country of the northwest. Along the line of the Detroit & Mackinac railroad may be found numerous beautiful spots, a few "improved" by the hand of man-or rather made accessible to the general public not inclined to "rough it"-but more presented fresh from the hand of nature. In losco county are the sparkling Tawas lakes, with the popular summer resort at East Tawas known as the Beach, with its thorough accommodations as to lunching, boating, dancing, etc., and its large hotel and charming cottages. This is the finest summer resort on Lake Huron. Further north is what is left of Au Sable village, but the trout still run plentifully in the river-rainbow, speckled, brook and all the rest. Two miles away is Van Ettan lake, about half a mile inland from Huron,

Page  225 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 2"V which is also a pretty bathing resort, abounds in fish and its shores are being built up with cottages. Harrisville, Alcona county, is getting to be quite a resort, while Hubbard lake about midway between that place and Alpena, but some distance to the west of the railroad, is lined with fie beaches and well stocked with white fish, bass, pickerel and perch. It is reached from Alpena by public automobile, and in the summer season its waters are lively with sail boats, launches and steam yachts. Hubbard lake is eight miles long and varies in width from one to six miles; is surrounded by wooded hills and bluffs, and, in many respects, bears several striking resemblances to the famous Chautauqua lake. Alpena itself is by no means given over to lumber and cement, but lies in the center of a beautiful country which is the delight of fishermen, boatmen and tourists. The place is usually the headquarters of those who make flying trips to Hubbard and Long lakes, the latter about seven miles north of the city. Then there is Grand lake, in Presque Isle county, sixteen miles north, which is almost "unfished'" and therefore provides rare sport for the angles. This body of water is twelve miles long and averages two wide, embraces nineteen densely wooded islands, and is embedded in a region which furnishes the sportsman with such game as partridge, duck, deer, fox and (occasionally) b)lack bear. Resorts such as El Canjon Beach and "Stonycroft," within ten miles of Alpena, are provided with facilities for boating, bathing and fishing and furnish ideal camping sites-all of which tourists and sportsmen are rapidly learning. Rogers City, Presque Isle county, on Lake Huron, is reached by a spur of the Detroit & Mackinac road, and has become the center of quite a tourist's activity. Trout river flows into the big lake a mile north and there is also good hunting in the vicinity. Hay-fever patients are also flocking to all the country between Alpena and Cheboygan;and they know a good thing "when they can see it." The Presque Isle county chain of lakes, the sparkling, cool and teeming waters of Roscommon county to the west, and finally Cheboygan, which is now proud to be known as the "Hub City of the Resort Region, " provide more strong proofs that northeastern Michigan is also destined to owe much of its substantial development to its pure air, clear sunshine, crystal water, picturesque combination of lake, river and forest, and to all those provisions calculated to refresh and reinvigorate human kind. The distinction which Cheboygan has earned as a center of the summer travel and resorters is largely due to its favored natural position and harbor on the straits of Mackinac and that it has transportation lines to practically all northern resorts radiating from it as the base. It is also itself the center of a fine hunting and fishing country. The Cheboygan river, Mullet lake, Burt lake, Carp lake, Douglas lake, Sturgeon creek, Pigeon creek, Upper Black river, Little Black river, Elliott creek, Black lake and a number of others offering splendid sport, ranging from brook trout and small-mouth bass through all va Vol. T-15

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN rieties found in that section of the country. Deer, rabbits, squirrels, partridges, ducks and similar game and birds are plentiful. GROWTH IN STATISTICS The development of Northern Michigan has been traced in broad lines from lumbering to resorting, and the writer hopes he has put up a tolerably strong case in proof that all the agencies mentioned have played good parts in the general progress of this fair and vigorous land. Perhaps the most marked general evidence of its growth from infancy to lusty manhood is found in the population statistics which follow: Counties 1910 1900 1890 1880 1870 1860 Alcona........... 5,703 5,691 5,409 3,107 696 185 Alpena........... 19,965 18,254 15,581 8,789 2,756 290 Antrim.......... 15,692 16,568 10,413 5,237 1,985 179 Arenac.......... 9,640 9,821 5,683...... Benzie........... 10,638 9,685 5,237 3,433 2,184... Charlevoix....... 19,157 13,956 9,686 5,115 1,724... Cheboygan....... 17,872 15,516 11,986 6,524 2,196 517 Clare............ 9,240 8,360 7,558 4,187 366... Crawford........ 3,934 2,943 2,962 1,159 Emmet........... 18,561 15,931 8,756 6,639 1,211 1,149 Gladwin.......... 8,413 6,564 4,208 1,127 (b) Grand Traverse.... 23,784 20,479 13,355 8,422 4,443 1,286 losco............ 9,753 10,246 15,224 6,873 3,163 175 Kalkaska......... 8,097 7,133 5,160 2,937 424... Lake............. 4,939 4,957 6,505 3,233 548 Leelanau......... 10,608 10,556 7,944 6,253 4,576 2,158 Manistee......... 26,688 27,856 24,230 12,532 6,074 975 Mason............ 21,832 18,885 16,385 10,065 3,263 831 Missaukee........ 10,606 9,308 5,048 1,553 130... Montmorency.. 3,755 3,234 1,487.... (e) Ogemaw.......... 8,907 7,765 5,583 1,914 12 Osceola.......... 17,889 17,859 14,630 10,777 2,093 27 Oscoda........... 2,027 1,468 1,904 467 70 Otsego.......... 6,552 6,175 4,272 1,974 (e) Presque Isle...... 11,249 8,821 4,687 3,113 355 26 Roscommon....... 2,274 1,787 2,033 1,459 (e) Wexford......... 20,769 16,845 11,278 6,815 650... Totals.....328,544 291,663 217,204 120,704 38,919 7,798 The only counties in the above list enumerated by the census of 1854 were Emmet, with a population of 4,965; Gladwin, 14 and Grand Traverse, 911. Emmet is reported as follows: Peaine township, 2,020; Galilee, 588; Charlevoix, 1,706; unorganized territory, consisting of some small islands and about five townships of the main land east of Peaine, a few islands at the entrance of Green bay, and a very few small islands south of Charlevoix, 651. Total, 4,971. This census was

Page  227 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 227 taken when James J. Strang was king of the Beaver Island Mormons and of the realm, and false returns were made of the population, as was afterward satisfactorily shown. The counties embraced in this work are also worth something in dollars, as witness these figures indicating the valuation placed on their property by the various boards of supervisors and the state board of equalization, respectively, with the amount of state tax produced by each in 1910. Supervisors' State Board's Valuation (1906) Valuation (1906) Counties Alcona............. Alpena............... Antrim................ Arenac................ Benzie................ Charlevoix............. Cheboygan............ Clare................. Crawford............. Emmet................ Gladwin............... Grand Traverse...... Iosco.................. Kalkaska............. Lake................. Leelanau.............. Manistee............... Mason............... Missaukee............. Montmorency.......... Ogemaw............. Osceola................ Oscoda................ Otsego............... Presque Isle......... Roscommon............ Wexford............. $ 1,014,877 5,800,000 5,248,615 1,950,744 3,213,582 5,652,462 6,426,000 1,820,138 1,519,000 7,881,229 2,063,555 8,457,000 1,960,000 3,229,051 1,342,805 2,229,220 9,737,303 6,746,974 2,130,910 1,0000,000 2,337,000 3,892,000 800,000 2,777,769 2,654,246 952,580 6,098,000 $ 1,300,000 6,500,000 7,500,000 2,600,000 3,600,000 6,000,000 6,500,000 2,500,000 1,600,000 9,000,000 2,500,000 10,000,000 2,0000,000 3,600,000 1,400,000 3,0000,000 11,500,000 7,00000,000 3,000,000 1,500,000 2,500,000 5,500,000 900,000 3,000,000 3,000,000 1,000,000 7,0000,000 $115,500.000 State Tax $ 3,545.21 17,725.91 20,452,94 7,090.36 9,817.46 16,362.38 17,725.91 6,817.65 4,363.29 24,543.57 6,817.65 27,270.65 5,454.12 9,817.46 3,817.87 8,181.18 31,361.25 19,089.44 8,181,18 4,090.58 6,817.65 14,998.86 2,454.36 8,181.18 8,181.18 2,727.07 19,089.44 $314,975.80 Totals..........$98,936,060

Page  228 CHAPTER VIII MILITARY HISTORY EARLY CIVIL WAR MOVEMENTS-FOURTH AND SIXTH DISTRICTS ENROLMENT-TROOPS FURNISHED BY COUNTIES —COMMISSIONED OFFICERSTHE GRAND TRAVERSE REGION-MANISTEE COUNTY IN THE WARALPENA COUNTY —HOME COMING OF MICHIGAN TROOPS-ROBERTSON 'S TRIBUTE TO MICHIGAN SOLDIERS —SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR —THIRD REGIMENT, M. N. G. While the territory of Northern Michigan was being secured to the white man for purposes of civilization, and was being defended against the aggressions of England, after it became American soil, the active part played by its people was confined to the operations which centered at old Fort Michilimackinac and, later Fort Mackinac on the island. This, for the very good reason that actual settlers did not come into the country until some years after the lands from the straits to what, in 1840, became the southern bounds of Gladwin and Arenac counties extended to Lake Michigan, had been transferred to the United States by their aboriginal owners. At the outbreak and during the progress of the Mexican war, the settlers in the part of Northern Michigan to which this work refers were confined virtually to scattering settlements in the Grand Traverse region. In short until nearly the period of the Civil war the population was so sparse as to escape the national census enumerations. The only counties in this area which the United States census bureau deigned to notice prior to 1860 were Grand Traverse and Mason-the former being credited with a population of 900 in 1854, and the latter of 93 in 1850. So that until the period covered by the War of the Rebellion, Northern Michigan had no military history-that is, as a consolidation of civil communities. EARLY CIVIL WAR MOVEMENTS Northern Michigan played a gallant part in all the battles and campaigns of the Civil war and raised an unusually large proportion of troops, considering the small population of that period. Prior to the opening of the rebellion only these counties had been organized between the Saginaw valley and the straits of Mackinac: Grand Traverse, Emmet, Cheboygan, Mason, Manistee and losco. For the purpose of forming a background to the narrative of the Civil war which especially concerns Northern Michigan it is necessary 228

Page  229 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 229 to trace the course of events in the state at large. As all Michigan patriots well known Governor Blair was the great and heroic figure in the drama of the war as it concerned that commonwealth. On Tuesday, April 16, 1861, four days after the firing on Fort Sumter, Governor Blair reached Detroit and in the afternoon held a conference with the state military officers and a large number of leading citizens and capitalists. President Lincoln had called upon the state to furnish one regiment of infantry fully armed and equipped to aid the national government in suppressing the rebellion. Although the treasury was comparatively empty the necessary funds for such purposes were promptly pledged by private citizens, and the chief executive at once issued a proclamation calling for ten companies of volunteers and directing the adjutant general to accept the first ten that should offer. The president's call upon Michigan for troops was promptly met by the muster in of the First regiment of infantry and its early movement to the seat of war in Virginia. In the meantime authority had been received from the war department to raise three other regiments, but at the same time stating that it was "important to reduce rather than to increase that number." This authority only covered the Second, Third and Fourth infantry regiments already in process of recruitment, while many companies throughout the state not included in the organizations referred to, had been recruited without authority in the hope of obtaining places in those or other regiments. These companies were disappointed and most of them sought and found service in the troops of other states. This was largely the case with many of those who volunteered from the sparsley settled counties of Northern Michigan. Furthermore, many of those who fought bravely throughout the Civil war did not serve under officers who were residents of their home communities and therefore were absorbed in the commands which were credited to the more southern sections of the state. Under a law of congress passed August 3, 1861, President Lincoln was authorized to receive into service five hundred thousand volunteers in the prosecution of the war. In response to this requisition, Michigan continued a vigorous recruitment and up to December, 1861, had sent to the front thirteen regiments of infantry, three of cavalry, and five batteries of light artillery, with a total strength of sixteen thousand four hundred seveny-five officers and men. Ten of these regiments, one battery and one company had been clothed and partly armed by the state. In addition to this, thirteen companies had gone into the service of other state regiments, failing, as before stated, to find service in home commands. If any personal force more than another could be said to predominate in the raising, equipping and transportation of the troops to the front Governor Blair may be thus named. As long as he continued in office he was classed by President Lincoln and the entire country as one of those grand "war governors" of which the Union was so justly proud. His attitude toward the Rebellion and those who supported it is well illustrated in this extract, taken from his message delivered to the legislature on January 2, 1862; "I cannot close this brief address without an allusion to the great object that occupies all men's minds.

Page  230 230 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The southern rebellion still maintains a bold front against the Union armies. That is the cause of all our complications abroad and our troubles at home. To deal wisely with it is to find a short and easy deliverance from them all. The people of Michigan are no idle spectators of this great contest. They have furnished all the troops required of them, and are preparing to pay the taxes and to submit to the most onerous burdens without a murmur. They are ready to increase their sacrifices, if need be, to require impossibilities of no man, but to be patient and wait. But to see the vast armies of the Republic, and all its pecuniary resources used to protect and sustain the accursed system which has been a perpetual and tyrannical disturber, and which now makes sanguinary war upon the Union and Constitution, is precisely what they will never submit to tamely. The loyal states having furnished adequate means, both of men and money to crush the rebellion, have a right to expect those men to be used with the utmost vigor to accomplish the object, and that without any mawkish sympathy for the interest of traitors in arms. Upon those who caused the war, and now maintain it, its chief burdens ought to fall. No property of a rebel ought to be free from confiscation-not even the sacred slave. The object of war is to destroy the power of the enemy, and whatever measures are calculated to accomplish that object and are in accordance with the usages of civilized nations, ought to be employed. To undertake to put down a powerful rebellion, and, at the same time, to save and protect all the chief sources of the power of that rebellion, seems to common minds but a short remove from simple folly. He who is not for the Union, unconditionally, in this mortal struggle, is against it. The highest dictates of patriotism, justice, and humanity combine to demand that the war should be conducted to a speedy close upon principles of the most heroic energy and retributive power. The time for gentle dalliance has long since passed away." It was largely upon the advice of the governors of the loyal states, among whom Governor Blair was foremost, that President Lincoln issued his proclamation of July 2, 1862, calling for five hundred thousand men. Under date of July 28th, the president telegraphed to Governor Blair: "It would be of great service here for us to know as fully as you can tell, what progress is made and making in recruiting for old regiments in your state. Also, about what day the first new regiment can move from you, what the second, what the third, and so on. This information is important to use in making calculations. Please give it as promptly and accurately as you can." To this dispatch the governor instantly replied as follows: "Very little can be done in recruiting old regiments until the new regiments are filled up; although every exertion will be made to do so. The new regiments will commence to take the field about the 1st of September, or sooner, if possible, and will all be in service in the field during that month." It is with pride that the student of Civil war history is able to state that Michigan was no exception to the general rule that the states of the Union were able to raise their troops for service far in advance of their field equipment. The consequence was that the eight new regi

Page  231 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 231 ments which left Michigan fully armed, clothed, and equipped prior to the 19th of September, 1862, were well in readiness for the field some time before they actually marched to the front. On the completion of the eight regiments referred to it was ascertained that more companies had been raised than could be assigned to organized regiments, and on the 20th of August the Twenty-fifth and Twenty-sixth regiments of infantry were recruited and to them were sent these surplus companies. While great activity prevailed among the people and the State military department in meeting the call of July 2nd, strong hopes were entertained that the final requisition for additional volunteers had been reached, but on the 4th of August, 1862, the president issued an order for a draft to be made without delay of 300,000 men to serve for nine months. On the 9th of the same month general orders were issued from the war department assigning the quotas of the several statesthat of Michigan being 11,686, the same as under the preceding call. In pursuances of these orders and requisitions Governor Blair issued his proclamation to the proper officers of the townships and wards to make a complete census of those of military age and return the same to the county clerks of the state on or before the 10th of September following. The result showed that 91,071 men throughout Michigan were subject to the draft, and of the forty-two counties comprising the state three only had been organized which came within the territory covered by this history. The figures relating to them are as follows: Cheboygan county-Number of men enrolled, 109; number exempted, most of these being Indians, 72; number subject to draft, 37. Emmet county-Number subject to draft, 25. Mason county-Number of men enrolled, 111; number exempted, 76; number subject to draft, 35. It may be added to the above that 1,278 men were drafted under the president's call, but that although 97 were subject to draft in the three counties mentioned, none actually were thus called into service. FOURTH AND SIXTH DISTRICTS' ENROLMENT In March, 1863, congress passed "an act for enrolling and calling out the national forces," leaving the execution of the enrollment entirely in the hands of the federal authorities. Under the law referred to, the national force was declared to consist, with certain specified exceptions, of "all able-bodied male citizens of the United States and persons of foreign birth who shall have declared on oath their intention to become citizens under and in pursuance of the laws thereof, between the ages of twenty and forty-five;" and this force was divided into two classes, the first to comprise "all persons subject to do military duty between the ages of twenty and thirty-five years and all unmarried persons subject to do military duty above the age of thirty-five and under the age of forty-five;" and it was provided that the latter class "shall not, in any district, be called into the service of the United States until those of the first class shall have been called." Each congressional district was formed into an enrolment district, a provost marshal and

Page  232 232 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN board of enrolment provided for each, and these districts were again divided into sub-districts, consisting of wards and townships. The counties with which this history is concerned were included in the Fourth and Sixth congressional districts. The headquarters of the Fourth were at Grand Rapids with Norman Bailey, of Hastings, as provost marshal, and those of the Sixth were at Flint, Randolph Strickland, of St. Johns, being provost marshal of that district. In the Fourth congressional district were included the counties of Mason, Manistee, Grand Traverse, Cheboygan, Leelanau, Benzie, Emmet and Antrim, and the enrolment for the same was as follows: First Class Second Class Mason................................. 100 31 Manistee............................. 188 51 Grand Traverse........................ 203 91 Cheboygan............................ 36 24 Leelanau.............................. 143 50 Benzie.................................. 85 47 Em met................................ 27 15 A ntrim............................... 55 15 Alpena................................ 124 45 Iosco.................................. 58 14 Total............................... 1,019 383 In the Sixth congressional district were the counties of Alpena and losco. In the former county 124 were subject to the military duty in the first class and 45 in the second; in losco, 58 under the first class and 14, under the second. The wide extent of territory covered by the state of Michigan and the difficulty of communications in many portions of it at this period of its history delayed the completion of the enrolment until the fall of 1864. On the 27th of October a draft began in the Second, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth congressional districts and on the 5th of November in the First. Total number drafted in the state was 6,383, of which the Fourth district furnished 1,441 and the Sixth 1,022. On the 29th of July of this year (1864) the Sixth district was provided for by the appointment of Hon. John F. Griggs to take charge of the organization of a new regiment to be called the Thirty-first, with headquarters at Saginaw, and into this command went not a few of the volunteers and those who were drafted from the eastern portion of the Southern Peninsula. The counties of the western half sent a considerable quota of troops to the three companies which were raised in the Fourth congressional district. The Fourth district regiment was enabled to take the field and left the state with 726 officers and men, on the 22d of October, 1864. The Sixth district regiment completed its organization from its own territory and was the first of the new regiments to leave the state, having broken camp at Saginaw and taken their departure for Nashville on the 6th of October, with 856 officers and men.

Page  233 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 233 TROOPS FURNISHED BY COUNTIES Prior to November 1, 1864, the following number of troops had been furnished by the counties named, the figures not including the three months' infantry, Michigan companies in regiments of other states and some additional soldiers whose residence could not be ascertained. A lpena..................................................... 51 A ntrim..................................................... 22 B enzie..................................................... 47 Cheboygan.................................................. 29 E m m et..................................................... 36 Grand Traverse............................................. 166 Josco....................................................... 19 L eelan au................................................... 71 M ason...................................................... 48 M anistee................................................... 84 O sceola.................................................... 1 Total................................................... 574 A general summary, compiled from the reports of the adjutant general's office, shows the following to have been the total number of troops raised, either under the enrolment, enlistment or drafting system, in the several counties within the scope of this history: Enlistments Enlisted Enlisted previous to in Army in Navy Draft Total Sept. 19, '63 Total G'd Traverse... 14 3 10 28.. 28 Alpena.......... 39 12 51 7 58 Benzie.......... 25 1 44 70.. 70 Cheboygan..... 9.. 7 16 15 31 Emmet......... 12 6 18 21 39 G'd Traverse... 80 8 9 97 74 171 losco........... 6 1 17 24 1 27 Leelanau....... 33.. 45 78 20 98 Mason.......... 25.. 22 47 12 59 Manistee....... 69.. 13 82 6 88 Total....... 312 13 186 511 156 669 In closing the record showing the number of troops contributed by the various counties covered by this history to the rank of the Union troops, a brief word is due to the several colored soldiers who participated in the hardships and triumphs of the Michigan forces. Quite a number joined the One Hundred and Second United States Colored Infantry and Jonathan B. Tuttle, of Alpena, served as captain of Company C. The colored troops left Detroit in March, 1864: joined

Page  234 234 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the Ninth corps at Annapolis, Maryland, and afterwards acquitted themselves with honor at various engagements in Florida and South Carolina. COMMISSIONED OFFICERS The following are the commissioned officers credited to the territory of which we write, the rank given being that which they held at the time of discharge: Thomas C. Chase, losco county; first lieutenant, Company B, Twentysixth Infantry. John Earl, Harrisville; first lieutenant, died of disease, October 13, 1862. Anthony Eisworth, Stronach; second lieutenant, First Veteran Cavalry; discharged March 10, 1866. Clark D. Fox, Otsego; captain Thirteenth Infantry; killed at Chickamnauga, September 19, 1863. Garrett A. Graverat, Little Traverse (Harbor Springs); first lieutenant, First Sharpshooters; died of wounds received near Petersburg, Virginia, June 17, 1864. Miles Horn, Otsego; second lieutenant, Company F, Eighth Cavalry; died of disease at Kalamazoo, September 8, 1865. Samuel M. Hubbard, Otsego; captain, Nineteenth Infantry; wounded; discharged November 30, 1864. Thomas Kerry, Manistee; first lieutenant, Third Infantry; discharged May 25, 1866. Charles R. Lackey, Traverse City; first lieutenant, discharged, June 4, 1865. James F. McGinley, Manistee; captain Fifth Infantry; wounded, taken prisoner and died of wounds, October 27, 1864. Guy Newbre, Emmet county; Second lieutenant, First Sharpshooters; discharged for disability, October 22, 1864. John D. Potter, Alpena; first lieutenant, Company K, Third Infantry; mustered out May 25, 1866. Jonathan B. Tuttle, Alpena; captain First Michigan (One Hundred Cand Sixty-second U. S.) Colored Infantry; resigned May 12, 1864. Andrew J. Underhill, Grand Traverse; second lieutenant, Company A, Twenty-sixth Infantry; resigned December 31, 1862. THE GRAND TRAVERSE REGION An examination of the table in which is summarized the entire number of troops raised for Civil war service in the Northern Michigan of this history indicates that the Grand Traverse Region sent to the front more than one-half. It is therefore entitled to special consideration in this narrative and receives such in the following from the pen of Dr. M. L. Leach: "To avoid misunderstandings, it should be remembered that at the breaking out of the war, the unorganized counties of Antrim, Leelanau, and Benzie were attached to Grand Traverse for civil and judicial purposes. When, in this chapter, Grand Traverse county is

Page  235 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 235 mentioned, the territory of the three referred to is intended to be included. Grand Traverse county as thus defined, was divided into nine townships-Meegezee, Milton, Whitewater, Peninsula, Traverse, Leelanau, Centreville, Glen Arbor, and Crystal Lake. "The number of men in the territory alluded to of an age suitable for military service, making no allowance for exemptions on account of disability, could not have exceeded six hundred, and probably fell short of that number. From this territory, it is believed, more than two hundred went into the service within the next four years. Of course considerable accessions to the population resulted from immigration, during that period, thus increasing the number liable to military duty. "One of the first to volunteer was Curtis Fowler, Jr., son of Hon. Curtis Fowler, judge of probate for Grand Traverse county. Fighting bravely in the ranks of the gallant First, he was wounded at the battle of Bull Run, in July, 1861, was discharged from the service on account of disability from the wound, and returned home. His brother, Francis Z. Fowler, considering it a matter of honor as well as of patriotism that the family should be represented in the ranks of the defenders of the country, volunteered in his place, and laid down his life in the second battle of Bull Run the following year, 'the first martyr from Grand Traverse to the slaveholders' rebellion.' "Thirteen volunteers started from Traverse City on or about the 13th of September, 1861. Their names were as follows: Martin A. Hopper, Andrew McKillip, Isaac Winnie, James Nicholson, James Fitzpatrick, Wm. E. Sykes, Samuel A. McClelland, E. J. Brooks, Lewis Steele, Frank May, Aaron Page, Orselus Evans, and Thomas Lee. Of these the first five had been for a long time in the employ of Hannah, Lay & Co. On settling with them, Mr. Hannah made each a handsome present, and told them that if they were ever in distress or in need of funds, to draw on him at sight, and their drafts would be honored. Wm. E. Sykes was sheriff of the county. McClelland, Brooks, Steele, May, and Page were from Northport, Evans was from Whitewater, and Lee from Centreville. "At the time of leaving Traverse City, it was the intention of several of these men to enlist in Chicago, in Capt. Busteed's company of light infantry. We afterwards find some of them in the First New York Artillery, one of their number, McClelland, holding the rank of second lieutenant. At the battle of Malvern Hill, the first of July, 1862, the 'Grand Traverse boys' received special commendation from their officers for bravery and good conduct. Of the thirteen mentioned above, the following are referred to by name, in a published letter from Lieutenant McClelland-Sykes, Evans, McKillip, Nicholson, and Hopper. In the list of those specially commended, Lieutenant McClelland also gives the names of nine other 'Grand Traverse boys' in his company, of whose volunteering and enlistment we have no account. They were M. V. Barns. Albert M. Powers, A. N. Brown, Jared D. Delap, James Hutchinson, Charles A. Lee, Sidney Brown, Wm. Wilks, and Hiram Odell. "On the fourth day of October, 1861, fifteen volunteers left Traverse City for Grand Rapids, under command of F. W. Cutler, a recruiting officer. The following is the list of names: Edward Stanley,

Page  236 236 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Mathew Shanley, Eber Stone, Wmn. Callison, George Flack, Benjamin Rattelle, Dudley Wait, John O'Leary, Patrick Graham, George Askey, John Rodart, John Williams, Lewis Stevenson, Andrew Anderson, and Edward Dewaire. "On the 15th of August, 1862, John Lewis Patrick, a young man who had been for two years an apprentice in the office of the Grand Traverse Herald, started for Chicago, where he enlisted in the Mercantile Battery. Not long after, it fell to the lot of the paper on which he had wrought to publish his death, which occurred in the hospital at Memphis, Tennessee, on the first of February, 1863. The editor of the Herald, Morgan Bates, afterwards lieutenant governor, speaks thus tenderly of his young friend: 'He was one of the noblest and purest young men we ever knew, and it caused a heart-pang when he left us to volunteer for the defense of his country. All who knew him loved him, and his early death will cast a gloom over many hearts.' "In August, 1862, recruiting was lively. Capt. E. S. Knapp, (called L. Edwin Knapp in 'Michigan in the War,') assisted by Lieutenants Jacob E. Siebert, of Manistee, and Charles H. Holden, of Northport, raised a company in a short time, in Manistee and Grand Traverse counties, to which was given the name of the 'Lake Shore Tigers.' The following is an imperfect list of the men enlisted by Lieutenant Holden, in Grand Traverse, with the names of the townships to which they were credited: "Whitewater-P. D. Greenman, Francis Hopper, C. R. Lackey, Horace Philips, John A. Brainard, Milton Stites, John Duncan, Henry Odell, Oscar Eaton, George Allen. Traverse-Elias Langdon, Jr., Thomas Bates, Giles Gibson, Asa V. Churchill, George Moody. " Peninsula-Gilbert Lacnor, John A. Thayer. "Leelanau-Wm. H. Voice, Mortimer Boyes, Henry Budd, George W. Bigelow, Win. W. Nash, Henry Holcomb, Charles E. Lehman. "Centreville-George Ramsdell, Joseph Warwick, Melville Palmer, Win. Lawson, James Lee, Frederick Cook, Jacob Hans, Deidrick White, George W. Miller, John Egler, James Adameson, L. Grant, H. Dunekelow, Thomas McCreary, Charles E. Clark, George H. Mills. "Captain Knapp's company had originally been intended for the Twenty-first, but on arriving at Ionia, that regiment was found to be full. Application was next made to the Twenty-fifth, then organizing at Kalamazoo, but that being full also, the company finally proceeded to Jackson, and was mustered into the service as company A of the Twenty-sixth, under Colonel Farrar. "Lieutenant Holden, was prosecuting attorney of the county at the time of organizing the company, and resigned his office for the purpose of entering the service. He was mustered in as first lieutenant, and was afterwards made quarter master of the regiment. He resigned April 4, 1864, and was honorably discharged. The second lieutenant was Sewell S. Parker, of Monroe. Lieutenant Siebert, who helped to enlist the company, does not appear ever to have belonged to the Twentysixth. According to 'Michigan in the War,' he belonged to the Twentieth, and was killed in action at Poplar Spring Church, Virginia, Sep

Page  237 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN tember 30, 1864. Of the enlisted men from Grand Traverse, Sergeant Wm. H. Voice died in camp at Jackson, September 22, 1862; P. D. Greenman at Fairfax, Virginia, March 27, 1863; and George Moody at Yorktown, Virginia, July 15, 1863. "In the summer and fall of 1863, from the early part of July till late in October, Lieutenant Edwin J. Brooks, of Northport, was engaged in recruiting for the Tenth Cavalry, under Colonel Foote, having its rendezvous at Grand Rapids. Unfortunately there is at hand no list of Grand Traverse men who volunteered for that regiment under Lieutenant Brooks. Lieutenant Brooks was mustered in as first lieutenant of Company E. He was promoted to a captaincy April 25, 1864. March 13, 1865, he was made Brevet Major of United States volunteers 'for gallantry in action at Strawberry Plains east Tennessee, November 17, 1864.' On the same day he was further promoted to Brevet Lieutenant Colonel United States volunteers, 'for gallant and meritorious conduct through four years of active service.' He was mustered out and honorably discharged November 11, 1865. "I September, while Lieutenant Brooks was recruiting, the citizens of Traverse, anxious to make up the full quota of the township by voluntary enlistment, raised by subscription a fund for the payment of fifty dollars bounty to each recruit enlisted and credited to the township before the expected draft should take place. "On the 12th of October, official information having been received that the draft would take place on the 26th of that month, and that only eleven men were needed to fill up the quota of Grand Traverse county, the board of supervisors appropriated eleven hundred dollars lo a fund to be called the military bounty enlistment fund. The chairman and clerk of the board were authorized to draw orders on this fund for one hundred dollars each in favor of the first eleven men who should enlist and be sworn into the service of the United States prior to the 23d of the month, provided they should be accredited to the county in the coming draft. During the following winter, additional calls for troops made it necessary to hold out additional inducements for voluntary enlistment. In the month of February a series of war meetings was held in Traverse, which resulted in the calling of a special township meeting, to authorize the issuing of bonds for the purpose of raising money to pay bounties to volunteers. "The efforts at enlisting were successful. On the second day of March, forty-two recruits left Traverse City for the rendezvous at Grand Rapids, constituting the full quotas for Traverse, Peninsula. and Centreville. On the evening previous to their departure, the ladies gave them an entertainment, providing a bountiful supper, at the boardinghouse of Hannah, Lay & Co., at which a large proportion of the population of the village and surrounding country was present. Mr. Hannah presided, brief addresses were made by Hon. Morgan Bates and Rev. J. H. Crumb, and the scene was enlivened by patriotic and soul-stirring music, under the direction of Mr. Charles H. Day. " The following is a list of the volunteers: "Traverse-Albert S. Brooks. Earnest Crain, Win. W. Bradley,

Page  238 238 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN George L. Smith, Edward Beavis, Aaron Mettes, Myron A. Moody, Paul Gravel, Robert Myhill, James Lynch, Tobias F. Houghtaling, John Sutherland, Win. W. Johnson, Henry C. Fuller, Sands Moon, Alonzo F. Hopkins, John Flannery, James Monroe, George W. Hargraves, Wilson P. Johnson. "Peninsula-James Birney Lancaster, Charles Lonkey, Columbus Winnie, Richard W. Smith, Abram D. Langworthy, Francis L. Bourasaw, Wm. B. Munn, John M. Allison. "Centreville-Thomas Harmer, Adam Cook, James Manseau, Isaac Clark, James Mason, Jacob Burger, Clouve Warren, Martin Novotney, Ferdnand Kord, Philip Egler, Albert Norris, Henry Lemmerwell, James Clark, Martin Wachall. "Several of these men found their way into the Fourteenth regiment, and first entered upon active duty at the front in the vicinity of Nashville, Tennessee. Those known to have been in that regiment are Crain, Mettes, Gravel, Lynch, Lancaster, Lonkey, Winnie, R. W. Smith, Langworthy, Bourasaw, and Allison. The names of the regiments in which the others served are not known. Myron A. Moody died in hospital at Grand Rapids, March 26, 1864. "In the summer of 1864, the call for troops taxed to the utmost the patriotism and ability of Grand Traverse, as well as most other sections of the loyal north. On the 10th of June a draft was had, in Grand Rapids, for Whitewater, Elk Rapids, Milton, Centreville, Glen Arbor, and Leelanau. In August the township board of Traverse offered a bounty of two hundred dollars for recruits. On the 30th of the same month a meeting of the enrolled men of the township was held to raise funds to pay an additional bounty. Three thousand dollars was subscribed on the spot. With this sum the aggregate of bounties to each volunteer was raised to nearly six hundred dollars. Twenty-three men under the calls of the president, were due from the township. Eight had already been obtained, eight more came forward at this meeting, and the remaining seven were obtained within the next forty-eight hours. The names of all but one are contained in the following list: number joined the One Hundred and Second United States colored Wm. Tracy, Adolphus Payette, Harvey Avery, Ira Chase, Joseph Kunn, Nelson C. Sherman, Edward Morgan, Ora E. Clark, Wm. Sluyter, George Sluyter, Barney Valleau, Zodoc Wilcox, James Mason, John Reynolds, John Falrue, Leander Curtis, Album Atwill, Abram Adsit, Marcus Lacore, Michael Gallaghn, Anstin Brinnon, David Sweeney. All of these except Clark went into the Tenth Cavalry, and got their first experience of active war at Strawberry Plains, east Tennessee. "We close this imperfect war record of the Grand Traverse country with the following melancholy items: "Daniel Carmichael, of Traverse City, who was a member of a Wisconsin regiment, died in hospital at Lake Providence, May 6, 1863. "George Leslie, of Traverse township, died in the Shenandoah valley, September 22, 1864. "In the fight before Petersburg, on the 17th of June, 1864, Lieutenant G. A. Graverat, a gallant young officer from Little Traverse, laid down his life for his country. He was the second lieutenant of

Page  239 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 239 Company K, First Michigan Sharpshooters. While fighting by the side of his father in the trenches, he saw his parent shot dead. Bearing the body to a safe spot, weeping bitterly, he dug a grave with an old tin pan in the sand, and buried it. Then drying his tears, the devoted son returned to the battle. His rifle told with terrible precision among the rebel officers, till he was disabled, wounded in the left arm. He was brought to Washington, where the arm was amputated at the shoulder, resulting in his death on the 10th of the following month. Lieutenant Graverat was partly of Indian descent. He was but twentyfour years old, was highly educated, being master of several modern languages, besides being a fine portrait and landscape painter and an accomplished musician." MANISTEE COUNTY IN THE WAR How Manistee county participated in the War of the Rebellion is well told by General B. M. Cutcheon, in his historical address delivered at the centennial celebration held at Manistee; it will be remembered by "old timers" that the general was successively captain, major, and lieutenant colonel in the Twentieth Infantry, colonel of the Twenty-seventh and came home to Ypsilanti as a brevet brigadier general: "We come now to the war period. Manistee at this time was a spot in the wilderness, but nevertheless the 'shot heard round the world' was heard even here. Communication was slow and infrequent; the mails arrived once a week, brought overland from Grand Haven by John Blanchard. Thursday was universally known as mail day. Here, as everywhere else in the north the fires of patriotism were kindled. Recruiting officers not only from the lower part of this state but from neighboring states, visited Manistee to recruit their companies from the mills and the woods. Many of the first recruits went to Chicago to enlist, and among them Mr. J. H. Shrigley, who enlisted in the Chicago First Light Battery. Many from Manistee entered the old Third Michigan Infantry, but the largest number that enlisted in any one organization entered the Sixth Michigan Cavalry, Company I. "The adjutant general's report shows that the whole number that enlisted in Michigan organizations from Manistee county was 88-11 from Stronach, 10 from Brown, the rest from Manistee-composed of Manistee town, and city and Filer. But this is no fair criterion of the part Manistee took in the war, for beyond doubt nearly if not quite as many enlisted in other states as our own. "I wish I had time and space to enroll here the whole list of brave men who answered to their country's call. But I must forbear. Many of them sleep on battlefields; many more sleep at Andersonville and Belle Isle. In that roll of honor in the capitol at Lansing are the names of some Manistee men, the peers of any in patriotism and gallantry. There were two among them of whom I would especially speak, partly because they paid with their lives the full measure of devotion to their country. They are Lieutenant and Adjutant Jacob E. Seibert and Lieutenant and Adjutant James F. McGinley.

Page  240 2] 0 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The first, Adjutant Seibert, was my tent-mate at the tine he fell, shot through the body at the battle of Poplar Spring's Church, September 30, 1864. He was German by birth; served in the Prussian army in the body guard of the Crown Prince. He was every inch a soldier. He enlisted July, 1862, in the Twentieth Michigan as a private in Company A. He had been, and was, I think, at the time, deputy county clerk and register of deeds. He and E. Golden Filer enlisted together. Seibert was a splendid clerk, and they were so anxious to secure his services at brigade headquarters that he lost chances for promotion he might have had. It was my pleasure as commander of the regiment to promote him to sergeant, sergeant major, and finally to first lieutenant and adjutant of the regiment. In the first action after he received his commission he was killed by my side, in an almost hand-tohand encounter in front of Petersburg. We buried him on a grassy knoll, where he fell, with a cedar tree at his head. "He lies like a warrior, taking his rest With his martial cloak around him. 'The general commanding named one of the forts in front of Petersburg in his honor, and that is perhaps his most appropriate monument. "Lieutenant MeGinley went out in the old Third. He greatly distinguished himself by his cool daring and marked courage, and was one of the hundred men of Birney's division who received the Kearney Cross of the legion of honor in the French army. This cross he wore with great pride and honor, and after' being transferred to the old fighting Fifth, he was promoted to first lieutenant and adjutant for gallantry. I visited him at his quarters and parted from him the evening before his death. He fell at the battle of Hatchie's Run, in front of Petersburg, October 27, 1864, while leading his men with his a(customed gallantry. I hope the time may yet come when these two brave men, and their comrades who fell, may receive some fitting memerial at the hands of the people of Manistee. "Besides the promptness of the men in.enlisting, those who remained at home did their full share in raising subscriptions and voting bounlies, and assisting those who went. Seventy-seven hundred dollars were raised by subscriptions and voting bounties to the volunteers, and nearly as much more was raised by vote of the town, and this out of a population of only one thousand souls. War meetings were held, speeches made and feeling ran high. Nor were they always particular about the place and manner of holding their meeting. On one occasion a war meeting was called in 'Hans & Ton's' saloon, which stood where A. H. Dunlap's block now stands. The crowd was dense and the atmosphere, or that which served the purpose of an atmosphere, was denser. Among the speakers on this occasion was our excellent fellow citizen, Dr. Ellis, who mounted on a beer barrel, in an atmosphere so redolent of tobacco smoke and whisky that you could cut it with a cheese knife and shovel it out on a spade, and addressed the assembled crowd. "What greater evidence could I give of the patriotic fervor of the

Page  241 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 241 time? Manistee, the babe in the woods, performed her part well in saving the nation, and it forms an honorable page in her history." ALPENA COUNTY In 1860 the entire population of Alpena county was but 290 and in 1864 it had only increased to 674, but out of this small stock from which to draw men about thirty went to the front and fought with the best. In June, 1864, a special election was held at which it was unanimously voted to raise $100 for each volunteer. As is justly stated by "one who knows," "the enterprise and patriotism of a county that sends nearly one-half its voting population to do a soldier's duty can never be called in question." Greenbacks were first issued in 1862 and in 1864 began to be frequently seen in Alpena county. The supply of pitch and tar from the southern states and articles manufactured there being cut off by the blockade brought Norway pine into demand, and tar and turpentine reached fabulous prices. This brought a large number of people to Alpena to look for Norway pine from which to manufacture tar and turpentine; so that the later portion of the Civil war was somewhat of a "boom period" for the Alpena region. HOME COMING OF MICHIGAN TROOPS With the fall of the Confederacy in April, 1865, the Michigan troops began to arrive home, under orders from the war department. The Twentieth regiment was the first to arrive in Detroit, reaching that city on the 4th of June, 1865, and being enthusiastically received by the committees of ladies and gentlemen appointed for their reception and by large and enthusiastic crowds of citizens. Others followed in such rapid succession that Governor Crapo issued a general proclamation of welcome to the returning Michigan troops. Under date of June 13, 1865, the war department authorized the chief mustering officer of Michigan to turn over to the governor, at his request, all the colors of Michigan regiments, which provision proved the foundation of the splendid and pathetic collection which is now deposited in the rotunda of the capitol, and which has ever been a source of much pride to the soldiers of Northern Michigan as well as of the entire state. The reception of troops continued up to June 10, 1866, when the Third and Fourth regiments of infantry reached Detroit, being the last belonging to the state to leave the field. Before the last of the Michigan soldiers had been welcomed to home soil a movement had been inaugurated in Detroit for the erection of a grand monument, commemorating the valor and self-sacrifice of the soldiers and sailors of the Wolverine state. Several prominent citizens of the Northern Michigan covered by this history took a leading part in the raising of funds and their management for the erection of the grand memorial which now stands in Detroit. Among them may be mentioned Morgan Bates, Hon. James B. Walker and Hon. Perry Hannah, of Grand Traverse county; William H. Maltby, of Cheboygan; Vol. I-16

Page  242 242 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN J. E. Fisher, of Leelanau; Hon. Delos Filer, of Manistee county; and Hon. Charles Mears, of Mason county. ROBERTSON 'S TRIBUTE TO MICHIGAN SOLDIERS In completing this unworthy tribute to the faithfulness and bravery of Michigan soldiers we can do no better than quote the following from "Michigan in the War," by Adjutant General John Robertson, who gave the state such invaluable official service from 1861 to 1887: "Michigan troops, prominent at the onset of the rebellion, were in at its death. They were among those who, under the command of the brave and lamented Richardson, first opened fire on the rebels, in the vicinity of Bull Run, at Blackburn's Ford. They were with General McClellan in West Virginia, in the first year of the war, and were in South Carolina and Georgia in 1862, and during that year served with the Army of the Potomac on the Peninsula and in Maryland, with General Banks in the Shenandoah valley, in Virginia under General Burnside, in Louisiana under General Butler, and in Missouri with General Pope and Colonel Mulligan. "In 1863 they bore a conspicuous and gallant part in the ever memorable campaigns under General Hooker in Virginia, and General Meade in Pennsylvania, at the defense of Knoxville by General Burnside, at the capture of Vieksburg by General Grant, and on the celebrated Kilpatrick raid against Richmond. They were also engaged in the campaign of General Rosecrans against Chattanooga, and were actively employed in the field at various points in Tennessee, Mississippi, Kentucky and Louisiana, under other generals. "In 1864-5 they were with General Grant on his great march against Richmond and bravely participated in most of the hard fought battles of that eventful campaign. They were also with General Sherman on his remarkable march from Chattanooga to the sea, and were prominently engaged in most of his memorable and successful battles, and with General Sheridan in his matchless encounters with the enemy in the valley of the Shenandoah, where their sabres flashed in every battle. They took part in the gallant defense of Nashville by General Thomas, and were with Generals Stoneman and Wilson on their raids into North Carolina and Georgia. They were also at the capture of Mobile, and servied in Texas and Utah territory during a part of 1865-6. "Michigan was well represented at the surrender of Lee and Johnston-the termination and death of the rebellion, and a Michigan regiment captured the president of the so-called Confederacy, Jefferson Davis, in his inglorious flight to escape deserved punishment for his infamous treason and rebellion. "Michigan troops in all the campaigns and battles in which they participated, were most reliable, conspicuously brave and gallant. In every position in which they were placed, they were true, self-sacrificing, patient under hardship, murmuring not, meeting death by exposure, starvation and cruel treatment in rebel prisons, and many more by rebel bullets in sanguinary strife. "Aside from their acknowleded bravery and efficiency in battle,

Page  243 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 243 they were in a most remarkable manner entrusted with posts of honor and great responsibility, which could scarcely have been accidental, but with a purpose. "From the beginning of the war until its end, Michigan soldiers evinced a most persistent determination to fight on, until all rebels in arms against the government should be conquered and subdued, and if needs be, utterly destroyed, so that their country might live. That determination they most successfully carried out; they met the enemy in his 'last ditch,' and he was theirs; they compelled him to lay down his rebellious arms, to beg for quarter, peace, and even for bread, and submit, unconditionally, to the terms of their dictation. Having done that, the troops of Michigan returned to their homes, As the conquerors of the enemies of their country, the preservers of their nation, receiving the plaudits and gratitude of their fellow countrymen, and of every friend of freedom and humanity throughout the world." SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR Northern Michigan furnished its full quota of troops, both among the infantry and the naval reserves, during the short but nevertheless trying campaign against the Spaniards in Cuba and Porto Rico. They were distributed among the five regiments which were raised in the state and among the Michigan naval reserves. The Thirty-third and Thirty-fourth Michigan regiments formed part of the expedition under command of General Shafter against Santiago. The reserves were detailed on the auxiliary cruiser "Yosemite," and saw service at Havana, Santiago, Guantanamo, and San Juan de Puerto Rico. The Thirty-first regiment served at garrison duty for a time in Cuba, and. the Thirty-second and Thirty-fifth regiments which were quartered in southern camps on American soil. These commands did not see active service because of the sudden termination of the war, but whatever their duties, whether in garrison or on the field of battle, Michigan troops could always be relied upon; and this second generation of soldiers well upheld the prestige of the Civil war veterans. THIRD REGIMENT, M. N. G. The Michigan National Guard is a splendid organization consisting of a full brigade of three regiments, commanded by General P. L. Abbey, of Kalamazoo. The twelve companies comprising the Third Infantry are distributed over Northern Michigan, its lieutenant colonel, John B. Boucher, being a resident of Cheboygan. William T. Conboy, captain of Company K is also a citizen of Cheboygan, which is the headquarters of his command. Company D is stationed at Alpena, with Harry V. Knight as captain, and Company I is at Manistee in command of Charles Koch.

Page  244 CHAPTER IX GRAND TRAVERSE COUNTY TRAVERSE CITY AND VILLAGES-PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL-TWENTY YEARS' GROWTH-STEPS IN ORGANIC LIFE-OLD MISSION FOUNDED-FIRST SCHOOL-FIRST SHIPBUILDING-THE MISSION AND OLD MISSIONFOUNDING OF TRAVERSE CITY-LAND OFFICE TRANSACTIONSTRAVERSE CITY INCORPORATED-PUBLIC SCHOOLS-TRAVERSE CITY CHURCHES-LIBRARIES-BOARD OF TRADE-THE BANKS-NORTHERN MICHIGAN INSANE ASYLUM-COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY-VILLAGE AND TOWN HISTORY. Grand Traverse county, with an area of 317,440 acres of which nearly one-half is now given over to horticulture and agriculture, lies south of the bay for which it is named and forms the base of the rich and beautiful country around its shores popularly known as the Grand Traverse region. La Grande Traverse, as the bay was designated by the early French voyageurs, stretches from forty-four degrees and forty-five minutes to forty-five degrees and fifteen minutes north, being nearly thirty-five miles in length and eleven in width, with a coast line of about one hundred and thirteen miles. The southern portion is divided into the east and west arms by a belt of land from one to two miles in width and about seventeen miles in length known as the Peninsula. The east arm has an average width of about four and onehalf miles; the west arm is somewhat wider. The height of the bay and of Lake Michigan, above the level of the sea, is five hundred and seventyeight feet. The depth of water in the bay is generally from twenty to seventy fathoms. The east arm attains the greatest depth, being about a hundred fathoms at a point opposite Old Mission, and thence as far as Petobego lake. The maximum depth is six hundred and eighteen feet, and is found opposite Birch lake, and on a line between Old Mission and the north end of Elk lake. The entire bay constitutes a harbor secure from all except northerly winds; while the two arms of the bay are not seriously disturbed by storms from any direction. The shores of the bay, however, present a number of harbors, in which vessels may at all times lie with the utmost security. These brief facts convey no idea of the beauty and grandeur of this northeastern projection of Lake Michigan. Its upper reaches which gradually merge into the long finger thrust into Charlevoix and Emmet counties represent the ideal waters for the summer tourist. Grand Traverse county and Traverse City, possessing every charm of climate 244

Page  245 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 245 and scenery enjoyed by the region further north, are rapidly developing in commerce, agriculture, fruit-raising and diversified industries. TRAVERSE CITY AND VILLAGES The metropolis of the Grand Traverse region is now a city of more then twelve thousand people and has increased in population threefold within twenty years. Traverse is a well-built, progressive city of sound banks, large stores and varied manufactures, and has complete transportation facilities both by land and water; the railroads which give her access to all the markets of the south and north are the Grand Rapids & Indiana, Pere Marquette and Manistee & Northeastern. Traverse City has some ten miles of paved streets and forty-five miles of cement sidewalks; seven good school buildings, twenty churches and three substantial banks. Its public utilities include a municipal water plant and an electric light and power plant-the latter controled by a private corporation. No city in Northern Michigan is more intelligently, energetically or fairly exploited than Traverse City through its young and virile board of trade. Traverse City's exceptional transportation facilities make it a favorite center for excursionists bent upon getting the most enjoyment out of the Grand Traverse region. Partly within the city limits is Boardman lake which affords excellent fishing for pike, black bass and perch. Via Pere Marquette, there are pleasant trips to Duck lake (Interlochen) and Green lake, and trout fishing at Henry, State Road or Kaleva (fishing in Bear creek) and at Beitner on the Boardman. The Grand Rapids & Indiana runs convenient trains touching Sutton's bay, Omena and Northport. Fine' trouting trips are conveniently made to points on the Boardman river over this line, also. On the Manistee & Northeastern trips are taken to Fouch, Solon, Provement, Lake Ann and the fine trout fishing on the Platte river. In connection with steamer on Lake Leelanau, Fountain Point, Bingham, Leland and the resorts and cottages on that pretty body of water are reached. Around the head of East bay are popular cottage communities; two miles northeast of Traverse City on the west shore of the peninsula is Edgewood. Near the end of the peninsula famous for its fruit orchards and overlooking the beautiful harbor of Old Mission, is the village and resort of the same name. Old Mission is one of the very first settlements in all the north country and for thirty years has been renowned as a quiet summering place, so that each season finds it gay with a 'merry throng of recreation seekers. The pretty villages, resorts and lakes of Leelanau county to the northwest are also within easy reach of Traverse City, whose summer trade and travel therefore form quite a proportion of her local activities and attractions. Outside of Traverse City, there are no large centers of population in the county. The only incorporated villages are Kingsley, formerly Paradise and in the town by that name in the southern part of the

Page  246 26 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN county, and Fife Lake, in the extreme southeastern part. Kingsley, which has about five hundred people, has a slight advantage of Fife Lake in population. Both are stations on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, and were founded as a result of the building of that line through the county in the early eighties. PRODUCTS OF THE SOIL Grand Traverse county was never more prosperous or developing faster as a producer from the soil. Grand Traverse county is one of the most important potato-growing sections in the state, raising nearly two million bushels annually. Potatoes are a good crop for newly cleared land and they can be grown at a profit between the rows of trees in newly-set orchards. The annual yield varies from seventy-five to two hundred bushels to the acre, according to the richness of the soil, the attention given the growing crop and the favorableness of the season. Timothy hay is also a profitable and large crop in the river valleys and about the shores of the many inland lakes of the county, the average rainfall of thirty inches per season ensuring a constant and large vield. The raising of clover for seed is another large and growing industry, especially among the farmers of the Williamsburg section. Alfalfa is just becoming popular, although the plant has been growing upon the Grand Traverse Peninsula for thirty years. The gravelly, sandy soil which predominates seems to be just the thing for alfalfa. In several parts of the region the ground is strewn with pebbles and boulders that are filled with fossil remains. As these disintegrate, lime and other valuable elements of plant food are released and become part of the soil, and thus are available for the support of vegetation, particularly alfalfa, which is a lime-loving plant. And fruits have not even been mentioned! In Grand Traverse County. as in other sections of the region, "the apple is king," the varieties which especially flourish being Alexander, Baldwin, Canada Red. Duchess of Oldenburg, Grimes Golden, Hubbardston, Jonathan, King. Maiden Blush, Greening, Snow and Spy. The Grand Traverse apple tree acreage is so great and the crop so important that each suminer and fall a large number of buyers establish headquarters in Traverse City, going into the fruit sections to buy the fruit on the trees. As a cherry-producing region the Grand Traverse Peninsula 'has become one of the most important sections of the country. At first it was thought that cherries could be grown successfully in commercial quantities only at the tip end of the peninsula, but now it is eo'nwu knowledge that the whole Grand Traverse country is adapted to the growing of both sour and sweet cherries of exceptional keeping qualities and delightful flavor. The time is near at hand when a large share of Leelanau county and a goodly portion of the water front sections of Antrim, Grand Traverse and Benzie counties will be given over to the cherry-growing industry. The first special fruit train out of the Grand Traverse region left Traverse City one July morning in the summer of 1909. It was loaded with cherries. Peaches and plums constitute leading fruit crops of Grand Trav


Page  248 248 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN erse county. As the peach is from two to three weeks later in this section than in Southern Michigan it is usually marketed at high prices. In the growing of small fruits, such as raspberries, blackberries, strawberries, currants and gooseberries, the country is also rapidly progressing. It is only a few years ago that thoroughbred livestock was introduced to the Grand Traverse region, which is an ideal country for this branch of agricultural industry. The scores of inland lakes, swiftrunning streams and bubbling brooks, with abundance of nutritious forage, constitute most favorable conditions for the breeding of blooded stock, or milch cows. And, as has been so well stated: "Stock raising and fruit growing are two industries that dovetail into each other. The one requires the maximum of attention in the winter, the other in the summer. The former furnished the fertility that is so essential to the success of the latter." TWENTY YEARS' GROWTH Increase of population is one of the strongest evidences of growth, as people do not multiply and reside in a county permanently unless they find means for bettering themselves and adding to the general fund of prosperity. Uncle Sam, through his Census Bureau, furnishes evidence of the continuous growth of Grand Traverse county in his enumerations of 1890, 1900 and 1910. Civil Divisions 1910 1900 1890 Acme township............................. 731 692.. Blair township............................. 891 797 676 East Bay township.......................... 663 553 1,018 Fife Lake township, including Fife Lake village. 837 1,019 810 Fife Lake village........................ 340 456 394 Garfield township........................... 932 986 843 Grant township............................ 882 699 498 Green Lake township....................... 793 787 371 Long Lake township........................ 745 663 492 Mayfield township.......................... 977 878 560 Paradise township, including Kingsley village.. 1,747 1,693 1,357 Kingsley village......................... 497 419 Peninsula township......................... 1,262 1,134 957 Traverse City...............................12,115 9,407 4,833 W ard 1........................1,666......... W ard 2................................. 2,301 W ard 3................................. 4,388 W ard 4............................... 1406 W ard 5................................. 2,354.. Union township........................... 219 208 148 Whitewater township....................... 990 963 792 Totals..................................23,784 20,479 13,355

Page  249 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIlGAN )49 STEPS IN ORGANIC LIFE In tie civil and industrial development of Grand Traverse county certain important steps were taken which it is necessary to notice, in addition to those which may be traced in the general history. In 1840 that part of the state embraced in towns 25, 26 and 27 north, ranges 9, 10, 11 and 12 west, and town 28 of ranges 9 and 10 west, and including all the peninsula at the head of Grand Traverse bay, was laid off as a separate county and designated as Omeena. This was the mother of Grand Traverse county, which was organized by act of the legislature, approved April 7, 1851. In the winter of 1853 an act was passed to COURT HOUSE, TRAVERSE CITY complete the organization of Grand Traverse county and to make it coextensive with the original unorganized county of Omeena. The counties of Antrim, Kalkaska, Missaukee, Wexford, Manistee and Leelanau were attached to it for judicial and municipal purposes. The county seat was fixed at Boardman's Mills, the nucleus of Traverse City. The first county election was held at the house of Horace Boardman, founder of the settlement, on the 4th of August, 1851. Twenty-eight votes were polled and the following officers elected: Sheriff, William H-. Case; clerk and register, L. O. Schofield; judge of probate, George N. Smith; county judge, Joseph Dame; treasurer, Horace Boardman: prosecuting attorney, Orlin P. Hughson. A special election was again held May 9, 1853, at which seventy-one votes were cast and the following county officers elected: Judge o' probate, George N. Smith; sheriff, Norman B. Cowles; clerk and register. Thomas Cutler; treasurer. Hosner R. Cowles; prosecuting attorney,

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Robert McClelland; surveyor, Abram S. Wadsworth. The first regular election was held November 7, 1854. OLD MIssION FOUNDED The real history of Grand Traverse county commences in 1839 with the advent of the Protestant missionaries. In May of that year, Rev. John Fleming and Rev. Peter Dougherty arrived at the little cove on the northwestern shores of East Bay and the upper portion of the peninsula, known as Mission Harbor. They had come by boat from Mackinac, where they had spent the previous winter and had now ventured into this new region around Grand Traverse bay as agents for the Presbyterian Board of Missions. The day following their arrival an Indian chief with a number of men visited the missionaries, who informed the red men that they had come by direction of their agent at Mackiniac, Henry R. Schooleraft, and by permission of their great father, the president, to establish a school among them. After some uncertainties as to location, the mouth of Elk river at the present site of Elk Rapids being at one time almost decided upon, the school was finally located at the original site, Old Mission. The decision was made definite by the arrival of Mr. Schooleraft on June 20th, and on the following day the school and mission were established. In the fall John Johnston arrived at the Mission, having come by appointment of Mr. Schooleraft to reside there as Indian farmer. During the winter the mission family consisted of four men, Dougherty, George, Greensky and Johnston. Mr. Johnston had brought with him a yoke of oxen for use in Indian farming. There was no fodder in the country, unless he may have brought a little with him. Be that as it may, he found it necessary to browse his cattle all winter. In the spring of 1840 the log house which had been built at Elk Rapids the previous year was taken down and the materials were transported across the bay and used in the construction of a schoolhouse and woodshed. Until the mission church was built, a year or two after, the schoolhouse was used for holding religious services, as well as for school purposes. In the fall of 1841, besides Indian wigwams, there were five buildings at the mission-the schoolhouse and four dwellings. All were built of logs, and all, except Mr. Dougherty's house, were covered with cedar bark. The dwellings were occupied by Mr. Dougherty, missionary, Henry Bradley, Mission teacher, John Johnston, Indian farmer, and David McGulpin, assistant farmer. Mr. George was still there, and there had been another addition to the community in the person of George Johnston, who had come in the capacity of Indian carpenter. As regards race, the little community, the only representative of Christian civilization in the heart of a savage wilderness, was somewhat mixed. John Johnston was a half Indian, with a white wife; McGulpin was a white man with an Indian wife. All the others, except Greensky, the interpreter, were whites. In 1849 there were three stores at Old Mission, viz., Lewis Miller,

Page  251 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 251 A. Paul and Cowles & Campbell. Business was conducted at a great disadvantage. During that winter the mail arrived only twice. In the fall a man was sent on foot for it to Mackinac, but on his arrival at the straits he was compelled to wait until they froze over before he could get across to the postoffice on the island. Thus was founded Old Mission, the first settlement in Grand Traverse county. The Mission consequently has the credit of being the origin of many "first things, " among others of the pioneer school in the county whose founding and "first term" make an interesting chapter. FIRST SCHOOL In November, 1851, five young men arrived at Old Mission, in the schooner "Madeline," with the intention of wintering in the vicinity. Three of them were brothers named Fitzgerald. A fourth was William Boyce. The name of the fifth, who was employed by the others as cook, is not known. The five were all good sailors and three of them had been masters of vessels during the past season, but all were deficient in education. None of them were even fair readers and one of the number was unable to write his name. An eager desire to learn was the occasion of their coming. Here in the wilderness they would be removed from the allurements that might distract the attention in a populous port. It is probable, also, that diffidence arising from a consciousness of their own deficiencies made them unwilling to enter a public school where their limited attainments would be displayed in painful contrast with those of younger pupils. At Old Mission, the man who had been engaged as teacher failing to meet the contract, S. E. Wait, then only nineteen years of age, was employed at twenty dollars per month and board. Bryce and the Fitzgeralds were to pay the bills, the cook receiving his tuition in compensation for his services. The "Madeline" was brought round to Bowers' Harbor and securely anchored for the winter. The after-hold was converted into a kitchen and diningroom and the cabin used for a schoolroom. Regular hours of study were observed, and the men voluntarily submitted to strict school discipline. Out of school hours they had a plenty of exercise in cutting wood and bringing it on board, to say. nothing of the recreation of snow balling in which they sometimes engaged with the delight of genuine schoolboys. The bay that year did not freeze over until March. Previous to the freezing, the wood was brought on board in the yawl; afterward it was conveyed over the ice. Except by way of Old Mission, to which occasional visits were made, the party was entirely cut off from communication with the outside world. The progress of Mr. Wait's pupils in their studies was a credit to themselves and their youthful teacher. Their after history is not known, except that four of them were captains of vessels the following season. FIRST SHIPBUILDING On the 4th of October, 1853, the schooner "Robert B. Campbell," which was built by Cowles & Campbell, merchants, at Old Mission, was

Page  252 252 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN completed and launched at that place. She was built entirely of timber obtained at the head of the bay and sailed between Chicago and Old Mission. This was the first attempt at shipbuilding in the Grand Traverse region. The business, which on account of the abundance of timber adapted to that purpose, ought to have been extensively engaged in, does not seem to have prospered since. About this time the Pishaba Indians, then inhabiting the foot of the peninsula about eight miles north of Traverse City, built a fore-and-aft schooner sixty feet in length, with deck and cabin, called the "Maguzee," which sailed about the bay a few years; but as might have been expected she was poorly built and soon became worthless. The schooner "Arrow" also, in the winter of 1850-1, was brought from Mackinaw to Boardmaa river, where she was cut in two and lengthened out fron forty-eight to sixty feet. She afterward ran regularly between Mackinaw and Old Mission for three years. THE MISSION AND OLD MISSION "Concerning the mission," says Dr. Leach's history, "it only remains to mention that the financial embarrassment of the board, growing out of the war of the rebellion, necessitated the discontinuance of the work. The school was finally broken up, and the mission farm passed into other hands. Looked at from the Christian standpoint, the mission seems to have been moderately successful. A good understanding was always maintained between the missionaries and the Indians. Mr. Dougherty testifies that the latter were uniformly kind. Both at Old Mission and Mission Point, a considerable number were hopefully converted." Old Mission was platted in 1879 by L. N. Beers as Old Mission Harbor, but as a postoffice it is still known by its original name. It is somewhat of a summer resort, but chiefly interesting for its historic associations. FOUNDING OF TRAVERSE CITY The first settlement on the present site of Traverse City by Horace Boardman and his mill hands, in 1847, has already been described in the early history of lumbering. In the summer of 1848 a small wharf was commenced on the shore of the bay, and a tramway built for the purpose of transporting lumber to it from the mill. The next winter a beginning was made toward getting out timber for the construction of the contemplated large mill on the river. Mr. Boardman from time to time varied his business by getting out shingle bolts and hemlock bark for tanning purposes for the Chicago market. He cleared three or four acres of land, and was successful in the cultivation of garden vegetables. The summer of 1849 was marked by several incidents that added interest to the life of the settlement. A man of the name of Freeman came and got out a considerable quantity of hemlock bark for shipment, employing Indians to perform most of the labor. The bark was stripped from trees growing upon government land. There was no one

Page  253 HISSTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 253 in this remote region whose interest it was, or who considered it his duty, to prevent spoliations of the public property. The government had found it necessary to order a resurvey of the lands in the vicinity of the bay. For some time the surveyors' camps were pitched in the vicinity, the settlement being for them a sort of headquarters and base of supplies. Tn the employ of Risdon, one of the surveyors, was Henry Rutherford, afterward well known in the settlement, whose wife was with him. Word was brought to the women at the mill one evening that there was a woman in Risdom's camp. The announcement was sufficient to produce i flutter of excitement. Mrs. Duncan had visited the ladies at Old Mission, but Mrs. Gay, since her arrival at the river, had not seen the face of a civilized person of her own sex, except the two who had come with her. Setting out alone the next morning, she found her way to the surveyors' camp and spent the forenoon with Mrs. Rutherford, remaining to dinner in response to a cordial invitation from the latter. The cloth was spread on the ground, where there was a bit of clean grass, outside the tent, the company sitting around it in oriental fashion. The viands consisted of pork and potatoes, fried, with huckleberries for dessert. The next day Mrs. Rutherford returned the visit, dining with Mrs. Gay. Mrs. Rutherford was partly of Indian descent, nevertheless she was regarded as an important acquisition to the society of the colony. In this way was laid the foundation for the future society of Traverse City. In 1851 the firm of Hannah, Lay & Company located at what is now known as Traverse City and started upon a business career which proved wolnderflly successful. Mr. Hannah had previously visited that local

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN ity and ascertained by personal examination the great quantity of pine timber along the Boardman river, and, having had considerable experience in the lumber business, saw at once that there was a grand opening for a lucrative business. The firm bought a large quantity of pine land that cost them only one dollar and a quarter per acre. They started in a moderate way, for in those days markets were limited, prices were low, and transportation facilities were confined exclusively to sailing vessels on the lakes and it took from six to nine days to land s small cargo of lumber in Chicago from Traverse Bay. Their first sawmill was the one heretofore mentioned as having been built by Mr. Boardman and which they purchased of him. This what was known as a "Muley Mill," having but one upright saw, which under the most favorable circumstances would not cut more than two and a half or three thousand feet of lumber in twelve hours. This proved to be altogether too slow a process even for those slow times and accordingly, in the spring of 1852, they commenced the construction of the first steam sawmill ever built in Northern Michigan. Having already cleared out the Boardman river far enough to reach the first or nearest of their pine lands, they were in position to do what was then considered a "big lumber business." The advent of Hannah, Lay & Company was the "dawning of the morning" in the settlement and development of the whole Grand Traverse region. They furnished work for all applicants. They supplied the wants of all newcomers, and by their liberal and honorable dealings did much to encourage those seeking homes. But the home seekers were not numerous for the first few years. The vast unbroken forest that stretched back from the little opening made at Traverse City to a seemingly unlimited distance was not very inviting to those who had lived in an old settled country. So the fifties passed by and the total population in Grand Traverse county (Indians excepted) was twelve hundred and eighty-six. This included the people who were connected with the mill, the boardinghouse, the lumber camps and those who had been bold enough to strike out into the forests to make homes for themselves. It is needless to say to anyone who has ever entered the Grand Traverse region that the successors of Hannah, Lay & Company, known since 1883 as Hannah & Lay Mercantile Company, are still behind much of the advancement of the Grand Traverse region. The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held at the store of Cowles & Campbell, in the town of Peninsula, on Wednesday, July 27, 1853. Little was done and an adjournment was taken to the following day, the meeting place to be at the store of Hannah, Lay & Company in Traverse City. Another adjournment was effected before the board felt equal to business. A resolution was then adopted to the effect that there being a vacancy in the office of circuit court commissioner, the governor of the state would promote the general welfare by appointing Robert McClelland to said office. A petition requesting the board to legislate against the practice of throwing sawdust in the bay was promptly tabled. Orlin P. Hughson having escaped from the custody of the sheriff while under arrest a reward for his apprehension was authorized by the board.

Page  255 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 255 A proposition was received from Hannah, Lay & Company, offering to donate ground to the county for the use of county buildings, which was accepted and placed on file. Another proposition from the same firm to advance $600 for the erection of a courthouse and jail was also accepted. It was voted to expend the $600 in the construction of a courthouse and jail, and Robert Campbell, Wm. McKilip and Thomas Cutler were appointed a building committee. The first county buildings erected in 1854 were destroyed by fire about eight years afterward and rooms were rented by the county. For a good many years the county officers were located in the Leach building. In 1882 the question of erecting a new building or buildings, which had been agitated upon for some time was acted upon. The question of location then came up and a committee was appointed to ascertain the exact location of the county site. They reported that Hannah, Lay & Company had donated block 10 as a site, provided the county should erect a courthouse and jail within a year from the conveyance of the property, June 5, 1854, and that the same parties had conveyed block 10, without reservation, March 7, 1860. Courthouse and jail were completed in February, 1883. LAND OFFICE TRANSACTIONS What has been known as the Traverse City district was created out of the Ionia district and the office located at Duncan, Cheboygan county, with C. H. Taylor, register, and H. A. Rood, receiver. The first entry was made September 1, 1852. On November 1, 1857, Jacob Barns was appointed register and 0. A. Stevens, receiver. March 1, 1858, the office was moved to Mackinaw Island, and July 1, 1858, was closed there and opened at Traverse City, August 2, 1858. June 1, 1861, Morgan Bates was appointed register and Reuben Goodrich, receiver, and they were superseded, May 16, 1867, by L. G. Wilcox as register and E. Anneke receiver. May 18, 1869, Morgan Bates and Reuben Goodrich were reinstated in their old positions. July, 1, 1872, Perry Hannah succeeded Reuben Goodrich in the receiver's office. Morgan Bates died March 2, 1874, and on March 23, Seth C. Moffatt was appointed to the vacant registership, and held the position until July, 1878, when the office was discontinued, the books and papers pertaining thereto were transferred to Reed City and the two offices consolidated. When the office was moved to Traverse City, Northern Michigan was a vast wilderness. The state had already selected its " swamp lands" and the great reservations of the Grand Rapids & Indiana and Jackson, Lansing & Saginaw Railroads had been made. Since then several "Indemnity" reservations have been made by the state and the extensive agricultural college grant located. During the nineteen years and eleven months that the office was kept at Traverse City, the business transacted was as follows:

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Acres. Entered with warrants, act 1842...................... 256.20 Entered with warrants, act 1847...................... 2,440.00 Entered with warrants, act 1850...................... 16,872.29 Entered with warrants, act 1852...................... 320.00 Entered with warrants, act 1855...................... 299,246.68 Total land warrants entries........................ 319,135.27 Entered with agricultural scrip....................... 155,768.37 Entered with cash................................... 320,794.13 Whole amount purchased.......................... 795,697.77 Entered as homesteads............................... 1,048,101.91 Grand total of entries at Traverse City............. 1,843,101.91 TRAVERSE CITY INCORPORATED The question of incorporating the village was agitated for two or three years and finally in the winter of 1881 a bill was passed "to constitute a village corporate and known by the name of the village of Traverse City." The first charter election was held the third Monday of April, 1881; 229 votes were polled, and the following non-partisan ticket elected: President, Perry Hannah; clerk, Thomas W. Browne; treasurer, M. E. Haskell; assessor, Henry D. Campbell; street commissioner, John Kelley; constable, William J. Moody; trustees, Smith Barnes, Seth C. Moffatt, Homer P. Daw, Joseph B. Haviland, James Lee, Joseph E. Greilick. The Traverse City fire department dates back to the year 1877. On March 16th of that year a meeting was held at Leach's hall for the purpose of effecting an organization. A few months prior to that time a fund had been raised by subscription, and two small engines purchased. Two hose carts had also been ordered. At this meeting the Traverse City Fire Department was organized and officers elected, as follows: Fire marshall, S. Barnes; assistant H. D. Campbell; chief engineer, W. V. Harvey; fire inspectors, Charles Duprey and John Stevenson. Officers for the engines Wide Awake and Invincible were also elected. Other business relating to buildings, location, etc., was also transacted. With the introduction of water works in 1881 the fire protection of the village was completed. The fire department now consists of two modern steamers, two com)ination wagons, one hose and ladder trucks, one chemical engine and four hose carts, and seven paid and seventy-five volunteer members. The Boardman River Electric Light and Power Company, which furnishes the city with illumination and many of its factories with power, was incorporated in 1903 with a capital of $100,000. PUBLIC SCHOOLS The first regular teacher of a Traverse City school was Miss Helen Goodale, daughter of the pioneer physician, Dr. David C. Goodale, of

Page  257 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 257 Vermont, who came to the place in 1853 to keep the boarding house of Hannah, Lay & Company, and incidentally to practice. It was a part of the contract between the enterprising doctor and the firm that his daughter, then fifteen years of age, should teach school for one dollar a week and board. In those days there were nothing but subscriptions schools and Hannah, Lay & Company promised Dr. Goodale that if the people failed to pay the teacher's salary they would make up any deficiency. As yet, there had been no legal organization of a school district, and the best that could be done to provide Miss Helen with accomodations was to clean out a tumbled-down log stable that had been used by Mr. Spencer, in the winter of 1851-2, while getting out logs and timber. The building stood in what would now be the eastern part of Traverse City. But the school was opened with eleven pupils, Miss Helen afterward went to Chicago to better fit herself to instruct the boys and girls of the infant settlement, and finally became Mrs. T. A. Hitchcock, a highly respected and deeply beloved member of the community. District No. 1 was formed May 11, 1854, and the public system may be said to have been established in Traverse City and Grand Traverse county. The seven city schools as now organized comprise the High and Central school with an average attendance of 26 and 317, the latter figure covering eight grammar grades; Boardman Avenue school, 264; Elmwood Avenue, 316; Oak Park, 330; Union school, 284; State School for the Deaf, 6, and Booneville school, 16. L. L. Tyler became superintendent of schools in 1911, and G. H. Curtis is principal of the high school. Ten men and fifty-six women constitute the teaching force. Besides the usual courses taught in advanced high schools, the Traverse City institution has taken somewhat of a departure in establishing a department of agriculture and horticulture, including practical botany and soil analysis. TRAVERSE CITY CHURCHES The credit for arousing interest in religious matters and founding the first Sunday school in Traverse City rests with Mrs. A. T. Lay and Mrs. D. C. Goodale. In the early summer of 1853 they induced Hannah, Lay & Company to furnish an old log house for the purpose, and when the school finally met eight children reported and three teachers, Messrs. A. T. Lay and L. Schofield and Mrs. Goodale. The meeting was rather unsatisfactory, and on the second Sabbath the teachers assembled but no children appeared. At length Mrs. Goodale offered to go out and look for them, and, sure enough, she found them near by picking and eating huckleberries. They were gathered in from the hedges, but the Sunday school soon disbanded and no further attempts were made in that direction until the summer of 1858, when Rev. D. R. Latham, a Methodist minister and the first regular pastor, located at Traverse City. The first Methodist class in Traverse City was organized by Mr. Latham April 11, 1858, and consisted of William Fowle, Mrs. Goodale Vol. 1-If

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN and five others. The first meetings were held in the district school house which had recently been built. The First Congregational church was organized February 1, 1863, Rev. C. E. Bailey, of Benzonia preaching the opening sermon and receiving ten members which formed the society. Rev. J. H. Crumb was the regular pastor and Elvin L. Sprague the first deacon. Other pioneer churches were the First Baptist, organized in 1870; Grace Episcopal, 1873, and St. Francis Catholic, 1877. It should be stated regarding the activities of the Catholics that Father Mrack came to Traverse City as a missionary priest as early as 1855; that others visited the place and that in 1871 Father Herbstrit, of Sutton's Bay, built a small church in Traverse City. The first resident priest, however, was Rev. George Ziegler, who assumed charge of St. Francis Catholic Society in 1877. Traverse City has now twenty or more churches-three Methodist, two Lutheran, two Roman Catholic, two Congregational, two Disciples and two Christian Scientist, and representatives of the Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Free Methodists, Seventh Day Adventists, Friends and Latter Day Saints. It is also strong as a center of the secret and benevolent societies. The Masons, Knights of Pythias, Eagles and Elks all have large and well furnished halls, as does the Salvation Army which is well entrenched in its work. THE LIBRARIES In a notice of the forces which have worked for the uplifting of Traverse City, both morally and intellectually, too much stress cannot be placed on the Ladies' Library Association, and we therefore cheerfully accord its history a generous amount of space. On a July afternoon in the year 1869 a little company of Traverse City women met in the old Leach hall, on the corner of Front and Park streets, to organize a Ladies' Library Association, for books were scarce and prized in those days in a way that would be unappreciated by readers in these days of an over-abundance of reading-matter. At that time Flint had the only Ladies' Library in the state. Mrs. Morgan Bates presided as chairman of the meeting. Mrs. Reuben Hatch, Mrs. T. T. Bates and Mrs. C. K. Buck were appointed a committee to draft a constitution and by-laws and the meeting adjourned for one week. At the second meeting, the following officers were elected for a term of two years, dating from October, 1869: President, Mrs. Morgan Bates, Sr.; Vice-president, Mrs. Oscar L. Noble; secretary, Mrs. H. R. Hulburd; treasurer, Mrs. S. W. Arnold; librarian, Mrs. T. T. Bates; assistant librarian, Mrs. B. D. Ashton; corresponding secretary, Mrs. Reuben Hatch. From its organization the association has been largely composed of members who have its welfare at heart and who have given freely of money received from yearly dues and some entertainments, in the their time and talents in its service. By careful management of the earlier days, valuable property has been gained. There has been one

Page  259 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 259 legacy of $3,000 from the late Smith Barnes. The first real estate was purchased in 1871; following this several purchases and sales were made until in 1878 a building was erected on Front street just east of Cass, at a cost of $1,940; this property they sold in 1909 for $10,000. The building was a good investment in every way, for the first floor furnished ample room for the library as well as offices which always brought in good rental. The upper floor was known as The Ladies' Library Hall, for years the largest and best entertainment hall in the place, being used for parties and all theatrical performances until the City Opera House was built some twenty years later. Having sold this building the association decided to build a permanent home upon their lots on Cass street, for which lots they had paid $1,800 and shortly after the purchase had refused $2,200 for them. The cornerstone for this building was laid with impressive ceremony by the Grand Lodge of Masons of Michigan, on July 23, 1909, in the presence of a large number of people. The history of the association was given by the two women who had been members continuously since its organization, Mrs. Reuben Hatch of Grand Rapids and her sister, Mrs. Edwin S. Pratt; Mrs. Hatch has since passed away, on February 24, 1911; so Mrs. Pratt is the only living continuous member. She has been president since January, 1910, and always an active worker. When the building was completed a large reception was given to the husbands of the members and their friends, all of whom united in declaring it a most attractive, homelike place. It contains parlors, library with some four thousand volumes of carefully selected books, dining room, kitchen and toilet-room, all with the latest conveniences. Every two weeks during nine months of the year a "social afternoon" is held which the ladies greatly enjoy as many new ideas are exchanged over their pretty needlework, a short musical and literary program is given and last but not least all adjourn to the dining-room to partake of delicious refreshments prepared by a committee of seven, this committee changing with each time. It is also believed that at a not far-distant time the rooms may be kept open oftener and the work of the association broadened. In October, 1911, there are 175 members and the following officers: President, Mrs. Edwin S. Pratt; first vice president, Mrs. Arthur Wait; second vice president, Mrs. Thomas D. McManus; secretary, Mrs. J. V. McIntosh; financial secretary, Mrs. R. L. Corbett; treasurer, Mrs. C. J. Kneeland; librarian, Mrs. Callie Thacker, who has held this office many years. Board of Directors: Mrs. L. Soule, Mrs. J. B. Haviland, Mrs. Frank Kafka, Mrs. C. F. Hunter, Mrs. B. Thirlby and Mrs. O. P. Carver. Traverse City has also a convenient and well arranged Carnegie library of some eight thousand volumes, which is a further credit to her enterprise and intelligence. Miss Helen Stout is the librarian. The City Library is also a tribute to the women, having its origin in the Woman's Club of the Carnegie Library organized in 1891.

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN BOARD OF TRADE Traverse City can point to no one agency which is doing more for her advancement all along the line than her Board of Trade, which is the outgrowth of a Business Men's Association that was formed in 1886 and was carried on until it was permanently organized as a Board of Trade in 1899, with C. E. Hale as secretary, since which time the following gentlemen have filled that important office: Thomas Smurthwaite, J. W. Hannen, W. H. Umlor, M. S. Sanders, H. Montague and now M. B. Holley, who is the first paid secretary that it ever has had. The work was growing so fast that it was found that a paid officer was b- _ I ---- - -- - - -- ---- ------.. rs I.1 T.s:.1... I... A A THE BUREAU OF INFORMATION absolutely necessary. Former Mayor A. V. Friedrich was one of the active presidents, as were Mayor John R. Santo and W. H. Umlor, judge of the recorder's court. The Board has a neat building of its own at the foot of Cass street. It is designated "Bureau of Information, Board of Trade," and if ever a structure was well named it is this one. Mr. Holley, the secretary, is a storehouse of information, and the Traverse City Board of Trade is one of the most energetic publishing houses in Northern Michigan. THE BANKS The Traverse City State Bank is the oldest of the solid financial institutions which assist so materially in maintaining the good standing of the place. It is also a child of Hannah, Lay & Company. When that firm entered the banking business in 1856, it was composed of Perry Hannah, A. Tracy Lay, James Morgan and William Morgan. For

Page  261 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 261 a period of thirty-six years, or until 1892, this private bank as managed and controlled by its founders was a financial stronghold, its integrity never questioned, and safely passed through all panics and business disturbances. The duties of the partners were divided, Mr. Hannah looking after the interests in Traverse City and Mr. Lay the interests at Chicago, where their extensive lumber yards were located. In 1892 the private banking house of Hannah, Lay & Company was reorganized and incorporated under the laws of the state of Michigan as the Traverse City State Bank, with a fully paid up capital stock of $100,000. The first officers were Perry Hannah, president; A. Tracy Lay, vice president; J. T. Hannah, cashier, and Samuel Garland, assistant cashier, and they together with James Morgan and William Morgan subscribed for the stock. In 1903 the capital stock was increased to $200,000. In 1904, upon the death of Perry Hannah, his son, J. T. Hannah, assumed the responsibility of the local management. In 1905, when Providence called this young and promising son to join his father, A. Tracy Lay was elected president, R. Floyd Clinch, vice president, and Samuel Garland, cashier. The present officers are A. Tracy Lay, president; R. Floyd Clinch, vice president; Harry C. Davis, vice president, and A. J. Maynard, cashier, the last named assuming his position upon the recent death of Mr. Garland. The resources of the Traverse City State Bank were $381,000 in September, 1911; its capital stock, $200,000; surplus and profits, $105,000, and deposits, $1,887,000. The First National Bank of Traverse City first opened for business in the old Leach building, April 9, 1885. During its entire history the bank has had only three presidents: John C. Lewis, who was elected at the time of its organization, acted until 1894, when John T. Beadle was elected the first time. H. S. Hull was president from 1896 to 1902, at which Mr. Beadle, the present incumbent, was again chosen. There have been four cashiers of the bank: C. A. Hammond, W. L. Hammond, Frank Welton and the present cashier, Leon F. Titus, who has held this position since 1903. When the bank was established, it was capitalized at $50,000; in March, 1905, the capital was increased to $100,000, under a renewed charter granted by the United States government. In the spring of 1906 the bank purchased the lot on the northeast corner of Front and Cass streets where its present building was erected. The cornerstone of the new First National Bank building was laid on July 30, 1908, under the auspices of the Grand Lodge of Free and Accepted Masons of the state of Michigan. The ceremonies were directed with appropriate dignity by Grand Master Montague of Traverse City. Next to the opening of the new building, the laying of the cornerstone was the most significant event in the history of the bank. The resources of the First National Bank in September, 1911, amounted to $1,046,000, and its liabilities as follows: Capital and surplus, $125,000; bank note circulation, $100,000, and deposits, $821,000. The Peoples Savings Bank was organized in November, 1902. Its resources amount to $406,000; capital stock, $60,000; surplus and undivided profits, $2,800; deposits, $342,000. Present officers: H. S.

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Hull, president; A. V. Friedrich and Charles Wilhelm, vice presidents; M. 0. Robinson, cashier. NORTHERN MICHIGAN INSANE ASYLUM The Northern Michigan Asylum for the Insane at Traverse City was organized in 1881 and the first patient received November 30, 1885. Its first cost was $522,430.68 and its present value is $1,046,862.46. The property consists of forty-two buildings, occupying a site of 728 acres and the asylum cares for 1,384 patients. The trustees of the Northern Michigan Asylum are: Thomas T.. 4 NORTHERN MICHIGAN INSANE ASYLUM, TRAVERSE CITY Bates and H. C. Davis, Traverse City; W. W. Mitchell, Cadillac; M. F. Quaintance, Petoskey; W. Lloyd, Manistee, and E. S. Wager, Edmore. Resident officers: Drs. James D. Munson, medical superintendent; A. S. Rowley and W. D. Mueller, assistant superintendents; R. E. Wells and Adah Epperson, assistant physicians. Rev. D. Cochlin and Samuel Garland, both of Traverse City, are respectively chaplain and treasurer. The evolution of the hospital has been along many lines-development of its grounds, clearing and additions to its farms, and enlargement of the hospital by the construction of cottages and extensions to the main building. There has been a broadening out in the care of the insane; isolated provision is made for the treatment of tubercular patients, training school for nurses has been established and maintained, a dietician employed to look after foods and their preparation, and skilled men placed in charge of the gardens, green houses, orchards and other farm departments.

Page  263 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 263 COUNTY MEDICAL SOCIETY Grand Traverse county has a growing medical society with a membership of about 25. It was organized in 1902 with the following officers: Drs. A. S. Rowley, president; 0. Kneeland, vice president; 0. E. Chase, secretary, and F. P. Lawton, treasurer. Present officers: Drs. E. B. Minor, president; F. Houseworth, vice president, and R. E. Wells, secretary-treasurer. VILLAGE AND TOWN HISTORY The village of Kingsley, formerly Paradise, was brought into existence by the building of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad and was named in honor of Judson W. Kingsley, an early settler of Paradise township who came into the region about 1865. He was the first mrierchant and postmaster of the village, which was platted in 1882 by Dr. Myron S. Brownson, a pioneer physician, large land holder and founder of many early industries in the southern part of Grand Traverse county. Kingsley is a growing little place, with four churches, flour and planing mills, bank, electric light and water plant, and a good school. The village of Fife Lake was brought into being by the building of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. In the spring and summer of 1872 two villages were platted, called respectively "North Fife Lake" and "Fife Lake." The latter was made in June, 1872, by L. L. Shaw and others of Grand Rapids, and the north town was platted about the same time by Thomas T. Bates, who purchased the land of Hon. Morgan Bates. All contentions between North Fife Lake and Fife Lake were settled by the incorporation of the village under the latter name in 1889. It has now several churches, a fine school, weekly paper and a well established bank and is quite a shipping point for lumber products and potatoes. Traverse and Peninsula townships were organized at the time of the county, in 1851; Whitewater in 1859; Grant in 1866; Mayfield, East Bay, Long Lake and Blair in 1867; Paradise in 1870; Fife Lake in 1873; Garfield in 1882; and Green Lake in 1883. David R. Curtis, a cousin of Gen. Curtis, settled near the present site of Yuba postoffice in what is now the town of East Bay in 1852. In 1853 Messrs. Voice & Nelson built a sawmill at the head of East Bay, and the following year sold the property to Green & Holden who added steam to the water power. Captain F. Mullerty settled near the present site of Acme postoffice, in 1853, and was followed the next year by Isaac Love, W. IH. Fife, Gilbert Ainslie, Orrin B. Paige and A. T. Allen. Among those who came soon after were the Pulciphers, Joseph Sours, Enos Peck, George Brown and H. S. Beach, who settled in what are now East Bay and Whitewater townships.

Page  264 CHAPTER X CHARLEVOIX COUNTY DIVERSE ADVANTAGES-THE COUNTY STATISTICALLY-THE PINE LAKE REGION-HOLY ISLAND-KNOWN THREE CENTURIES AGO-RULE OF KING STRANG-THE COUNTY AND THE COUNTY SEAT-ORGANIZATION OF TOWNS —CHARLEVOIX AS A VILLAGE-THE CHARLEVOIX AND CHICAGO RESORTS-CHARLEVOIX AS A CORPORATION-SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES-BANKS-BOYNE CITY-EAST JORDAN-OTHER COUNTY COMMUNITIES. Charlevoix county, northeast of Grand Traverse bay, is one of the most prosperous and progressive sections of Grand Traverse region, and has attained its standing through several channels. In fact, perhaps of all the counties in western Michigan none presents more diversified advantages than Charlevoix. It has a national fame as a resort for seekers after health and recreation and its business houses feel the effects of the stimulation of the summer months throughout the entire year. Much of her permanent settlement has been derived from visitors who came only as transients but were charmed into lifelong residence. COUNTY'S DIVERSE ADVANTAGES Boyne City, with its 5,000 people, and East Jordan and Charlevoix, each of about 2,500 population, are also industrial centers which turn out all kinds of lumber products, leather, cement, flour, beet sugar, agricultural implements, fruit packages, chemicals and various iron fabrications. As a fruit-raising and an agricultural section Charlevoix county has taken her first steps, albeit she is far advanced in horticulture. With an area of 270,720 acres, 109,000 acres are already devoted to orchards and farms; and it is estimated, that another 100,000 acres are available for cultivation. The surface of Charlevoix county is gently rolling, dotted here and there with beautiful lakes and veined with streams well stocked with fish. Its remaining timber is mostly hardwood, which supplies many of the factories with their raw material. Fruit growing can nowhere be carried on with better assurance of success, as the influence of the lake usually keeps frosts off until the beginning of winter, and as her harvests are later than those of Southern Michigan during the last of 264

Page  265 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 265 the seasons her pears, berries and apples bring unusually high prices. The county also enjoys good home markets, particularly in the warm seasons. Outside of fruits, the large and standard crops are potatoes and seeds of every variety, with sugar beets as close competitors. Dairying and poultry raising are also growing and already profitable industries. All of which goes to prove the original statement, that perhaps the strongest characteristic of Charlevoix county is the diversity of her advantages. Two organizations which are doing much for the development of the region are the County Chamber of Commerce and the Charlevoix County Agricultural Society. The former is an association of Boyne City, Charlevoix and East Jordan business men and farmers who work in harmony to inform the public as to the true "inwardness" of the county and all its institutions. Organized in 1885, the Charlevoix County Agricultural Society has held a creditable fair each fall since, each annual exhibition increasing in variety, size and interest. Some years ago the society acquired forty acres of ground near East Jordan, and erected buildings which were then ample for the housing of the exhibits, but with the rapid progress in horticultural and agricultural matters of recent years in 1910 it was found necessary to erect the modern and up-to-date buildings which now stand upon the grounds. THE COUNTY STATISTICALLY The best idea of the comparative wealth of the townships and cities of the county is obtained from the 1911 assessment of real and personal property. Townships and Cities Acres Real Personal Total Bay.................. 10,064 $ 125,665 $ 11,690 $ 137,355 Boyne Valley......... 22,334 251,440 63,800 315,240 Chandler............. 23,039 230,670 49,350 280,020 Charlevoix twp........ 3,871 170,630 8,150 178,780 Evangeline............ 6,938 58,235 932 59,167 Eveline............... 15,856 207,760 11,770 219,530 Hayes................ 19,030 214,705 27,650 245,355 Hudson............... 22,226 162,850 36,280 199,130 Marion................ 16,020 252,025 23,935 275,960 Melrose............... 19,016 351,650 52,568 404,218 Norwood.............. 11,512 176,165 24,770 200,935 Peaine................ 28,675 88,625 11,675 100,300 St. James............ 6,957 78,140 39,400 117,540 South Arm............ 21,000 780,725 249,075 1,029,800 Wilson............... 21,572 197,080 7,925 205,005 City of Boyne City........... 1,117,148 614,978 1,732,126 City of Charlevoix.......... 1,327,375 326,420 1,653,795 Total.............. 248,111 $5,790,883 $1,560,368 $7,351,256 The grand total, as finally equalized, was $7,192,211.

Page  266 266 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Viewed from the standpoint of population, Charlevoix county shows a continuous advance. The details are furnished by the census of 1910, as follows: 1910 1900 1890 Bay township............................. 466 503 469 Boyne city............................... 5,218 912 450 W ard 1.............................. 819.. W ard 2.............................. 1,177 Ward 3.............................. 1,828........ W ard 4............................... 1,394........ Boyne valley township, including Boyne Falls village............................. 952 1,258 509 Boyne Falls village................... 325 431 Chandler township....................... 397 273 144 Charlevoix city........................... 2,420 2,079 1,496 W ard 1.............................. 447........ W ard 2.............................. 1,045........ W ard 3.............................. 898....... Charlevoix township...................... 207 178 22 Evangeline township...................... 228 342 269 Eveline township......................... 768 847 923 Hayes township.......................... 854 780 692 Hudson township......................... 673 255 118 Marion township.......................... 636 681 441 Melrose township................:........ 676 620 436 Norwood township........................ 366 652 484 Peaine township.......................... 370 372.... St. James township....................... 695 420 South Arm township, including East Jordan village............................ 3,426 2,839 2,103 East Jordan........................ 2,516 1,205 731 Wilson township.......................... 806 945 576 Total................................. 19,157 13,956 9,686 THE PINE LAKE REGION The most marked physical feature of Charlevoix county is Pine lake and the adjacent country. It is also the birthplace of its history and the scene of the most interesting and exciting events of its early life. To add to its importance, locally, and to its wider fame it has been celebrated by many pens, both in prose and poetry, as one of the loveliest of the many beautiful regions of mingled water and land which adorn Northern Michigan. At the center of the promontory between Grand and Little Traverse bays a small river used to wend its serpentine course into Lake Michigan. It was named See-pe-wa, or Green river. This stream was only about a quarter of a mile in length and came out of a small round lake. which was connected by a river about sixty rods in length with

Page  267 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 267 Long lake. Various names have been applied to these lakes and streams, such as Green lake, Mormon lake and finally Pine lake and Pine river and Pine lake region. The river has been made navigable for the largest vessels and Round and Pine lakes connected by an artificial channel. Round lake is a park-like body of water, covering an area of about thirty acres, upon the shores of which is situated the beautiful little city of Charlevoix, although its business and civic centers are on the river about three-quarters of a mile away. Pine lake stretches east and south some twenty miles. About five miles east it divides, South Arm extending, as its name implies, south to the distance of some five miles. Into the finger end of the south arm flows the Jordan river, the famous trout stream. East Jordan lies across the finger northeast of the river's mouth. The shores of Pine lake are bold and its waters deep; it embosoms some beautiful islands, is indented by numerous promontories separated by deep bays and harbors, and presents some really beautiful scenery. In 1865, long before any one ever thought of locating a summer resort in this locality, Professor Winchell, then state geologist, in one of his published reports said: "From the foot of Pine lake a scene of surpassing loveliness presents itself. We land perhaps upon the wharf at the mouth of Pine river. Before us is a sandy slope, on the left of which we discover the usual features of a new settlement. Beyond is the forest. It is a pleasant October morning, however, and we follow the well-beaten road through the fresh clearings which stretch out for about a mile inland. We emerge from a screen of forest trees and find ourselves standing upon an elevated bluff overlooking as lovely a sheet of water as the sun ever shone upon. You feel almost a transport of delight in emerging so suddenly from the depths of the habitual forest into a prospect so vast, so gentle in its features, so delicate in its tints, and so glowing in the sunshine of a fair October morning. Far away to the southeast for fifteen miles stretches the placid, smiling surface of the water, its white and pebbly shore chasing the contour of the hills in all its meandering sinuosities. The verdant ridges rise on every side from the shining shore line and hold the lake in their enchanted embrace, while rounded hill tops bubble up in rapid succession across the retiring landscape, till hill, vale, and sky, green, purple and blue, dissolve together in the blended hues of the distant horizon." When Professor Winchell wrote these words Charlevoix consisted of little more than a dock, a rude store and a boarding house. The name, the Boyne, was given by "Uncle" John Miller, a good Irishman and the first settler near its mouth, to the stream that empties into the head of Pine lake at the present village of Boyne. Next to the Jordan it is the most noted trout stream in this part of the state. It also affords a great variety of picturesque scenery.

Page  268 " II, " S1C ~i It4 I s Pa. I L ENTERING THE PINE LAKE REGION

Page  269 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 269 " THE WAKING OF THE NORTHLAND " This beautiful "northland" has been celebrated in verse by not a few poets but by none more strikingly than by Rev. W. W. Lamport, whose contribution, several years ago, to the columns of the Charlevoix County Herald is herewith republished: The slowly northing sun again Calls softly to the slumbering hills. The arbutus, waking in the glen, For joy her cup of fragrance spills. The wanton wind a-wand'ring goes Along the valley's rugged side, If he may find the sweet wild-rose And woo her for his blushing bride. From out its Antrim cradle springs The Jordan for its lakeward run, And to the bending willow sings Of summer's joyous reign begun. Adown the swiftly flowing stream Dances again the light canoe; And in the sunshine's golden gleam The troutman whips the tide anew. From yonder deadened hemlock tree The sable crow sounds his alarm; And on her snowy pinions free Slowly the gull wheels o'er the Arm. And sweetly trills the warbler's note; The robin sings his cheer-up song; While bursts from many a swelling throat The chorus of the feathered throng. Hail, happy harbingers of spring! Soft winds and flowers and warming streams. All hail ye joyous birds that sing, Responsive to the sun's bright beams. Ye tell us of the nearing day, That happy day so soon at hand, When friends shall come from far away To share anew our "summer-land." HOLY ISLAND Holy Island, situated in the south arm of Pine lake, about a mile and a half below Ironton, is historic and picturesque. It was set apart by the "Saints" as a place for holding the "Feast of First Fruits," in the summer of 1855. At that time it was an isolated spot where the feastings and revelries could go on undisturbed by Gentile settlers. The feast commenced on the first Sabbath after the full moon in August each year and generally continued several days. One of the principal articles of food was a roast ox or other animal, large enough to

Page  270 27(} HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN feed the multitudes assembled. James J. Strang, the Mormon King, explored the Pine Lake region, and his reports to the Northern Islander, the official Mormon newspaper on Beaver Island, gave the place great value in the eyes of the Saints, and Holy Island was to become sacred and devoted only to the worship of God. There was an evident intention to make it the future headquarters of a colony of Saints to be established on Pine lake. The death of Strang in 1856 prevented the realization of their ambitions in this locality as on Beaver island, the nucleus of the Mormon kingdom. Holy Island, which contains a trifle over eleven acres, is covered with evergreen and white poplar, and, commencing with the eighties various improvements have been attempted to convert it into a popular summer resort. KNOWN THREE CENTURIES AGO Big Beaver island and the islands scattered farther north are now embraced in St. James and Peaine townships, although much nearer the coast line of Emmet county, to which they were formerly attached in a civil and political sense. The story of the founding, rise and fall of the Strang Kingdom therefore is a chapter in the history of Charlevoix county. It is an accepted fact that a few years after Champlain founded the French colony at Quebec, in 1608, his operations had extended to Beaver island and that one of his trading houses was in operation at what is now St. James. Writing as late as 1883, Dr. M. L. Leach says: "Utensils left by them at different early periods are frequently found. Extensive fields which they cultivated are grown up to woods, and some remain in grass. But there are strong indications of the presence of civilization at a still earlier period. The French settlement in Canada dates in 1608, but there are extensive fields on Beaver which have been thoroughly cleared and cultivated; and some very fine garden plats remain with the beds, paths, and alleys as well formed as the day they were made, and laid out on an extended scale, on which trees have been cut of two hundred and four years' growth. Consequently these places have been abandoned, and grown up to timber, at least since 1650. But cultivated fields are generally several years abandoned before they grow to timber. These were too extensive and show too many signs of wealth and ease to have been the work of a few adventurers. There is room at least to believe that of the numerous European colonies which were planted in America and lost without their fate every being known, some one was carried captive to this recess of the continent, and allowed to remain in peace." In 1688 Baron La Hontan passed the Beaver and neighboring islands on his voyage to the St. Peter's early river of Minnesota, and other travellers and explorers, both French and English, became familiar with them while navigating the lakes between Canada and the Illinois and Mississippi valleys. But it was King Strang who made them best known to the people of the United States and first brought them within the pale of civil government.

Page  271 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 271 RULE OF KING STRANG James J. Strang, whose personality has already been introduced to the readers of this history, was an eccentric, but a strong and a remarkable man. He was born in New York and passed most of his life until manhood in Chautauqua county, where he gained a local reputation for his wonderful memory and his forensic skill. He borrowed and devoured every law book he could obtain, was admitted to the bar, taught school, edited a newspaper, and practiced his profession as he could, before he married and moved to Racine county, Wisconsin. Here he resumed practice and was recognized as an able lawyer with a substantial future, when he came under the influence of one of those Mormon missionaries who were being sent abroad by Joseph Smith from the Nauvoo Church of Latter Day Saints. In January, 1844, he visited Nauvoo and Joseph Smith, was baptized, and upon the death of the latter, at Carthage, Illinois, with his brother Hyrum Smith, Strang endeavored to supplant Brigham Young by every means in his power. But the Council of Twelve opposed him. Strang seceded and led his followers to the City of Voree, Wisconsin, "on the prairie on White river, in the lands of Racine and Walworth," which he proclaimed had been designated as the site of the future Zion by Joseph Smith shortly before his death. He challenged all the old leaders of Mormonism to debate with him as to the justice of his claims, but in vain, and with the fall of Nauvoo, the Mormon stronghold in Illinois, and the exodus of Brigham Young and his followers across the Mississippi, Strang's colony at Voree alone remained in the northwest of the thousands who had embraced the faith of Joseph Smith. *It soon became apparent to Strang that the same conditions which had driven the Mormons of Nauvoo to a trans-Mississippi wilderness, would endanger the permanency of his colony in the course of a few years. For the growth of a Mormon community isolation was essential; where Gentile influences controlled the vicinage, there the utter annihilation of Mormonism was but a question of time. In his wanderings he had caught a glimpse from a vessel's deck of the natural beauty and seeming fruitfulness of a cluster of islands near the door that divides the great inland seas of Huron and Michigan. Here was an ideal seat of power, remote from the obtrusiveness of civil officers whose views of laws might differ from his own; yet not so distant from the line of travel as to render profitable traffic impossible. The waters teemed with excellent fish; the forests would furnish an abundance of most excellent timber; the soil needed but to be scratched to yield in multiplied plenty. To this land of promise could be led his Saints, and here would they wax fat and strong. If this was Strang's dream of empire, as subsequent events indicated, the beginnings were indeed humble. He is authority for the statement that he fixed on the islands in Lake Michigan as a place for a Mormon community in 1846. Nearly a year elapsed before his plans could be set in motion. With four companions he took passage on a * From article by E. Ledger, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

Page  272 I 171 - I -- 7 ` -- -111, 4-1-1-7 - -,, 19-f- A I I rol r - J

Page  273 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 273 little hooker, the captain agreeing to land them on Beaver island. They sold their blankets to pay their passage and on the 11th day of May stepped from the little sailing vessel upon the soil of the land which the leader prophetically declared would prove to them an inheritance. They were without a cent of money, but had provisions enough to last two days. Their reception was inhospitable in the extreme. At neither of the two trading houses then on the island could five penniless men arrange for lodging, so they sought the shelter of the woods. Constructing a camp of hemlock boughs, they undertook a thorough exploration of the island. Leeks and beechnuts served for food while they were thus engaged. Their perseverance brought its reward. They soon obtained employment, and it was not long before they had accumulated a store of provisions, built a log cabin and arranged for the use of a boat. Strang and two of the men returned to Voree to start the migration to the new land of promise. Winter locked upon the island a Mormon population of five men and thirteen women and children. The following winter the Mormons on the island numbered sixty-two, seventeen of them being men. In the summer of 1849 the Saints began to arrive in considerable numbers. Instead of confining their efforts to working for the traders at the harbor they now felt numerically strong enough to begin for themselves. Twelve elders went in various directions to summon the faithful to the new stake of Zion, and to seek additional converts. The islanders began the construction of a schooner, built a steam saw-mill and made a road to the interior, where the land was excellently adapted for agriculture. They manifested so much energy that the fisherman whose rude huts punctuated the coast here, as well as on the mainland opposite, took serious alarm. A land sale being held about this time, considerable friction occurred between Mormon and Gentile claimants of choice tracts. There arose an unpleasantness that later bore bitter fruit. It was claimed by the Saints that the fishermen induced the captains of vessels bearing Mormon emigrants not to land at the Beaver. Many were carried on to Wisconsin who had been ticketed from the east for the harbor of St. James, for so the Mormons had rechristened the horseshoe bend where vessels came to land, and where in stormy-weather they found a safe haven. It was not long before the Mormons bade fair to control the island. They but believed that they had come into their own, for this was the revelation given unto their seer and revelator long before their coming: "So I beheld a land amidst wide waters and covered with large timber, with a deep broad bay on one side of it; and I wandered over it upon little hills and among rich valleys, where the air was pure and serene, and the unfolding foliage, with its fragrant shades, attracted me till I wandered to bright clear waters scarcely ruffled by the breeze. And one came near unto me, and I said, What meaneth this? And he answered and said, Behold, here shall God establish His people. For He will make their arm strong, and their bow shall abide in strength, and they shall not bow to the oppressor, and the power of the Gentile shall not be upon them, for the arm of God shall be with them to supVol. I-i1

Page  274 274 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN port. It hath abundance in the riches of the forest, and in the riches of the earth, and in the riches of the waters. And the Lord God shall add possession unto the faithful, and give good gifts unto them that keep His law, and He will establish them therein forever." To appreciate the spirit animating the Saints in thus taking possession, one must realize the fervor of their faith in the revelation of their seer. There were among them some who had in mind mere pelf and plunder, but the greater number of the misled people was no doubt inspired by fanatic zeal. The law of Moses was their law, supplemented by the doctrines of Mormon and the visions of Strang. To follow these injunctions was to do no wrong, no matter what laws of the land they violated. Like the children of Israel, they were going from the wilderness to a land overflowing with milk and honey. As the people led by Moses had ruthlessly slain the Amorites, the Amalakites and the Midianites, so they felt justified in smiting the Lamanities, or Gentiles. There was this distinction, that they lived in an age when prudence forbade violent physical onslaught upon neighboring inhabitants, and legal strategy took the place of physical violence. This, at least, was the policy of the leaders, and they were implicity obeyed as a rule. The Mormons manifested their sense of ownership by giving new names to the physical distinctions of Beaver island. The beautiful land-locked harbor was called St. James. The cluster of houses that were reared on the ancient mounds along the shore-in the eyes of the Mormons the evidences of an extinct race alluded to in the Book of Mormon-they dignified by the name of City of St. James. A hill in the interior received the biblical name of Mount Pisgah. The river Jordan discharged into the lake the waters that poured into its bed from the Sea of Galilee. Thus did the nomenclature of the island receive the distinctive impress of its Mormon population. Encounters between Mormons and Gentiles soon became frequent. The Mormons planned a large tabernacle. While some of them were cutting out the timber for the structure, they were set upon and soundly beaten. Doubtless there is much truth in the claim made by the Mormons that up to this time they were more sinned against than aggressors. Drunken fishermen invaded their homes and subjected the women to indignities; debating clubs were attended by uninvited guests, whose boisterous conduct prevented proceedings. Men from old Michilimackinac came in boats to raid outlying farmhouses. Families sent by the missionary elders were met at the wharf and told to return to the boat, as all the Mormons would soon be driven away or killed. About the year 1850 the Saints began to retaliate in earnest. Their numbers had so increased that they could safely do so. The ambitions of Strang were about being realized. He had reorganized his community of Saints. The Book of the Law of the Lord, which he had "translated" from plates dug out of the hill at Voree, had added another sacred book to the Mormon library, ranking in the faith of the Beaver islanders with the Bible and the Book of Mormon. "Written on metallic plates long previous to the Babylonish captivity," as Strang

Page  275 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 275 explained to his credulous followers, the Urim and Thummim brought to him by an angel's hand had enabled him to interpret the characters thereof. Thus had he restored to the chosen people the ancient manuscript long lost to the Jewish nation. The sacred book kept in the ark of the covenant and lost when the children of Israel were hurried into captivity, came back after all these centuries by revelation given to Strang. And the Beaver island Mormons believed what he said. It was now open war between all the fishermen of the region, whether of Beaver and Mackinac islands, or the coasts of the Grand Traverse region, and the Mormons under Strang. Their energetic leader had announced the date of his coronation as July 8, 1850, and the opposition plotted to destroy his power and his budding kingdom before that decisive event should transpire. In May a general invitation was given by the Gentiles on all the fishing grounds to come to Whiskey Point, near the scene of the proposed coronation, and there celebrate the glorious Fourth-and "incidentally" to get into a fight with the Mormons who had called a general assembly at the same time and place. But the Mormons, under the alert Strang, had forestalled their intentions and provided themselves a real live cannon and heated balls, and their twelve artillerists were prepared to level all the shanties at Whiskey Point if they were molested in their legal services to be held in the unfinished Tabernacle near by. In a word, the plans of the Gentile fishermen quite miscarried. The threatened invasion having failed, the coronation occurred, according to programme, July 8, 1850. King Strang was now supreme on Beaver island, and bade fair to soon control the entire group of islands. His policy was to foster the fisheries as a source of profit to his colony and to use the power of political machinery to secure immunity for infractions of the law. As the population of the island multiplied and the power of the Mormons with it, the hatred of the traders and fishermen on the opposite coasts became more intense. The border feud became so bitter that the newspapers of Detroit, Cleveland, Buffalo and New York devoted considerable space to its incidents. As a rule, these accounts represented the Mormons as a band of pirates engaged in plunder and crimes of all kinds. The center of the hostile camp was at old Mackinac, and here plans were made for discomfiting the Mormons. It is difficult at this day to judge how far the Gentiles were in the wrong and in how far the Mormons. Doubtless there was much wrong on both sides. At first the advantage was with the Gentiles at Mackinac, for they had the machinery of government in their hands. The sheriff aided them by arresting Mormons and taking them to Mackinac for trial. On one occasion Strang and a company of workmen had gone to Hog island to save from the wreck of a vessel a yawl boat frozen in the shoals. A man named Moore, who had been chased off Beaver for selling whiskey, went before a justice of the peace at Mackinac and swore out a warrant for the arrest of thirty-one men on the novel charge that they had "put him in fear of danger." Sheriff Granger, with a posse of thirteen white men and thirty-two Indians, went to the island, where

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the men were, seized the boat of the Mormons, and, believing their prey secure, proceeded to the camp of the Mormons a little past midnight. A wild Irish hurrah and an accompanying Indian war-whoop awoke the Mormons to a night of terror and suffering. Hatless and shoeless they rushed into the woods and sought the protection of a swamp, while the sheriff's men plundered the camp and divided the spoils of war. The Mormons found a leaky fish-boat at the opposite end of the island, and this launched. It was a cold April morning. According to the account they afterwards gave, "the lake was spotted with vast fields of drift ice. With a boat preserved from sinking only by the ice frozen in it, without sails or oar locks, and with three unsuitable oars; not half clothed, no provisions, without a line to tie their boat nor an ax to repair any accident, they set out on the broad blue waters for a place of safety." It took twenty-four hours for them to reach Gull island, and here they spent five miserable days in a fish shanty before they managed to repair the boat sufficiently to proceed. After this a price was set on Strang's head, and several hundred armed men, including Irish fishermen and Indians hunted for him weeks to earn the reward of $300 offered by the sheriff for the body of Strang, "dead or alive." The arrest and trial of Strang and his followers in the spring and summer of 1853 have been described as the "first regular law case" in the Grand Traverse region. He was discharged and returned to his own, more autocratic than ever. Not a few of the Mormons themselves deserted the kingdom and joined the hostile fishermen on the small islands and mainland. King Strang conceived the idea of getting them back into the fold by strategy. A grand jury was therefore called at St. James and the Mormon sheriff and his posse went to Charlevoix (Pine river) to serve a summons on ex-Elder Savage, several other Mormons who had fled being also summoned as jurors or witnesses. When the papers were served on him Savage tore them in pieces and when the sheriff attempted his arrest a score of sturdy fisher lads attacked the Mormons, drove them to their boats and wounded several before they got out of reach. King Strang at once took steps to punish the colonists at Charlevoix, but the fisher boys and men had fled. Another serious encounter occurred when a Mormon constable attemlpted to arrest Thomas and Samuel Bennett, Gentiles who lived on Beaver island. They resisted; Thomas Bennett was instantly shot dead and his brother had one hand nearly shot away. Such episodes caused renewed activity in the Gentile strongholds among those who planned to sweep the Mormon settlements with fire and sword. Before their plans could be executed the king was assassinated by two of his rebellious subjects-Thomas Bedford and Alexander Wentworth. Bedford had been whipped by order of the king for some offense; he is said to have upheld his wife in disregarding the mandate to wear bloomers. Wentworth also had a grievance. About the middle of June, 1856, the "Michigan" steamed into the harbor, and by invitation of the captain King Strang proceeded to visit the vessel's

Page  277 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 277 officers. As he was about to step on the pier, two pistol shots were fired from behind, both taking effect. He turned and recognized the assassins as they fired again. As he sank to the ground they struck him over the head and face with the weapons, ran aboard the steamer and gave themselves up. They were taken to Mackinac, where the murderers were received as heroes. They were never brought to trial. The wounds of Strang proved fatal. He called his elders to his deathbed, gave them instructions for the government of his Mormon Kingdom, and as a last request asked to be taken to the city of refuge which he had founded in Wisconsin. There he died July 9, 1856, and there his bones rest in an unmarked grave. The kingdom fell with him. The Gentile invasion came soon after his removal to Voree. The fishermen came with torch to destroy and with ax to demolish. His printing office was sacked; the tabernacle was reduced to ashes and the Mormons were exiled. On the islands of Green Bay and its adjacent peninsula a few of them built new homes; some sought the land whence they had followed the prophet; the rest were scattered to the four points of the compass. Like that of the prophet Joseph, the life of the prophet James ended in a tragedy and the exile and dispersion of his people. THE COUNTY AND THE COUNTY SEAT The settlement of Charlevoix or Pine river followed the founding of the Mormon Kingdom on Beaver island by several years: As early as 1852, and perhaps earlier, there were fishermen located about Pine river, and in the spring of 1853 quite a colony was collected there. Captain T. D. Smith had an establishment in the bay, southwest of the mouth of the river, between it and Pine River Point. There were four more west of Smith, between him and the point, three at the mouth of the river, and one-half a mile farther north. These were not simply bachelors' homes, but contained families of women and children. There were also two other families in the vicinity, and other fishermen. At this time, in 1853, the counties of Emmet and Charlevoix were organized under the name of Emmet, and provision was made for organizing the town of Charlevoix to embrace the territory of the county. When Emmet county was reorganized in 1855 Charlevoix township held its first official meeting at the house of John S. Dixon, the "board" being represented by Galen B. Cole, sole supervisor. At the annual meeting in October of that year he created the towns of Evangeline and Eveline. Both the supervisor and George T. Preston, the clerk, were Mormons. In the winter of 1869 a bill was passed by the legislature fully organizing the county of Charlevoix. Prior to that time its territory, except the townships of Hudson, Boyne Valley, Wilson and South Arm, was a part of Emmet county; three of its organized towns, Little Traverse, Bear Creek and La Croix, had been in Emmet county, and three also, Charlevoix, Evangeline and Eveline, in the county of

Page  278 278 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Charlevoix. The county seat had been at Little Traverse, or Harbor Springs, until 1865, when the supervisors of Emmet county moved it to Charlevoix. The fight between Little Traverse and Charlevoix was taken up by Dennis T. Downing, Emmet county clerk, with such vigor that the bill was passed in 1869 which divided the territory, making Little Traverse the seat of justice for Emmet and Charlevoix, for the county by that name. A union convention to nominate county officers was held April 17, 1869. William Harris was chairman and Willard A. Smith secretary. Delegates were present from the several towns as follows: Charlevoix, J. S. Dixon, A. G. Aldrich, M. J. Stockman; Norwood, L. H. Pearl, Geo. Olney, Wm. Harris; South Arm, D. R. Cole, A. R. Struthers, Solomon Isaman; Evangeline, H. R. Miller, W. C. Fordham, E. R. Boynton; Eveline, S. Steele, J. Preston, Daniel Staley; Marion, L. W. Skinner, R. Williams, W. Vosburgh. A ticket was nominated as follows: Sheriff, Richard Cooper; treasurer, Jackson Ingalls; clerk, William Harris; register, M. J. Stockman; judge of probate, Philo Beers; prosecuting attorney and circuit court commissioner, Edward H. Green; superintendent of schools, John S. Dixon; coroners, L. W. Skinner and Solomon Isaman. The first election in the county was the general election on the first Monday of April. The highest number of votes polled was 213. The county election was held on the first Monday of May. The highest number of votes polled was 175. The ticket nominated at the convention was elected with the addition of William Miller for surveyor. In the organization of Charlevoix county, under the act of 1869, the south line of Emmet went through the middle of Bear Creek, and in order to get territory enough to make the new county of Charlevoix, the town of Hudson was taken from Otsego county and Boyne Valley, Wilson and South Arm from Antrim county. That settled the fight between Emmet and Charlevoix counties, and everything was quiet on the county seat question for a time. Then Boyne City and East Jordan got into the controversy and in 1885 the latter secured the prize. Boyne City held it from 1886 to 1897, when it returned to Charlevoix. How the last removal came about is told by Hon. William Harris, the old settler and prominent public citizen of Norwood township: "The final and successful attempt was made," he says, "at the meeting of the board in January, 1897. Petoskey, which had grown much faster than Harbor Springs, began to lay wires for the removal of the county seat to that place. The towns of Bear Lake, Spring Vale and Resort were near Petoskey and they wished to be set off into Emmet county. This Petoskey favored and of course Little Traverse, or Harbor Springs, opposed. Now if these towns could be let go to Emmet, they would vote for removal from Boyne City to Charlevoix. "At the same time there were bills pending in the legislature to disorganize Manitou county and attach the Manitous and Fox island to Leelanau county and the Beavers either to Emmet or Charlevoix

Page  279 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 279 county. Charlevoix did not want the Beavers very badly, thinking it not a very good trade to take the Beavers in place of territory let go to Emmet county. But while at the spring election there was a majority in favor of the removal of the county seat to Charlevoix, two or three of the towns whose supervisors had voted for removal had been defeated at the spring election and men who would oppose removal elected, and Boyne City would have a majority on the board. Former experience had shown what a majority of the supervisors meant in a county seat fight. "The bills pending in the legislature were passed and Beaver island, composed of three townships, was attached to Charlevoix county; Resort, Bear Lake and Springvale went to Emmet county; and the CHARLEVOIX COUNTY POOR FARM, NEAR EAST JORDAN county seat went back to Charlevoix after an absence of about thirteen years. ORGANIZATION OF TOWNS Thie organization of the towns of Charlevoix, Evangeline and Eveline 1have already been noted. South Arm, previous to the creation of Charlevoix county formed a part of Antrim, and was organized by the board of supervisors of the latter in March, 1868. The town of Norwood was set oft from Marion in April, 1869; Boyne Valley was organized at the January session of the board in 1873, and the town of Wilson at the same session; Hudson, at the October meeting of the county board in 1876; Hayes at the same times; Melrose, in October, 1877, and Chandler in July, 1880. CHARLEVOIX AS A VILLAGE The early events which transpired at Pine river have already been narrated. and we come to the starting point of Charlevoix as a village.

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The narration of events already given show that the site of Charlevoix village is historic ground. The Mound builders have left their traces and the character of the location would be sufficient evidence of its being a favorite resort of Indians. From the purchase of the land by John S. Dixon in 1854, until the beginning of the operations of Fox & Rose in 1864 nothing occurred that is connected with Charlevoix as a village. In the course of the summer of 1864 Mr. Dixon completed arrangements with the firma of Fox & Rose, of Northport, by which they were CHARLEVOIX HARBOR AT SUNSET to come here and build a dock to a sufficient depth of water for the accommodation of steamboats. H. O. Rose. of Petoskey. arrived and assisted in measuring the ground they were to have. which included all convenient dock sites around the mouth of the river. It was also arranged that Mr. Dixon was to take charge of a stock of goods which he was to dispose of in exchange for wood. and that winter was begun the propeller wood trade at the mouth of the river. Work on the dock was pushed as rapidly as possible. and before the close of navigation one was partially completed and everything was ready to receive wood. About the 25th of October there came a heavy northwest blow, the severest that had been known on the lakes for many years and carried away about a hundred feet of the dock, doing considerable damage to what was left.

Page  281 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHiGAN 281 This disaster was an unfortunate one, but did not discourage the firm which was composed of pioneer business men who had already been in the same kind of business at Northport for several years. Early in the spring they repaired the damages and completed the dock. When the goods were first shipped to Pine river in the fall an old block building was used, but during the winter of 1864-5 they brought lumber and put up a store. Returning to the spring of 1869 we find the activities of the little settlement directed toward building up a village. A spirit of improvement pervaded the place and the people who were there seem to have been determined to make their surroundings as attractive as possible. The question of opening a channel through to Pine lake began to be agitated, and in June steps were taken to carry out the project. Messrs. Redington, Nelson & Company built a dock near their mill on Round lake, and in July the new store of Fox & Rose on the south side of the river was filled with goods, and Archibald Buttars arrived from Northport to take charge of the mercantile business. The style of the firm was changed to A. Buttars & Company. Mr. Buttars became a leading business man of the place and afterward represented this senatorial district in the state senate. IN COMMUNICATION WITH LAKE MICHIGAN The improvement of Charlevoix harbor and the opening of a channel through to Pine lake were of incalculable advantage to Charlevoix county; in fact, without this improvement the county could not have attained its present state of development. The whole region of Pine lake was cut off from the commerce of Lake Michigan by a narrow sandridge that separated it from Round lake, and Pine river was a shallow stream coursing through the sand and emptied into the lake some fifteen rods south of its present outlet. There was a series of rapids with water from eighteen inches to two feet in depth. Only canoes and Mackinac boats entered and the latter were towed along the south banks with great difficulty. In 1868 a survey of Pine river was made by Major Wheeler, who reported insurmountable obstacles in the way of making a harbor and that a harbor refuge was not necessary at this point, owing to its proximity to other good harbors. His conclusions were based upon the fact that the River Improvement Company had commenced making a cut at the mouth of the river and owing to lack of funds had discontinued work. When the dredge arrived at the bridge Colonel Mansfield of the United States eorps of engineers arrived and at once saw the erroneous judgment of Major Wheeler's report. He immediately made a favorable report upon his recommendation and an appropriation was obtained from the government. Colonel Mansfield's report is dated August 26, 1873, and from it we make the following extracts: "A cursory examination satisfied me that no further survey was needed to project a plan of improvement. The stream connecting Round and Pine lakes

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN with Lake Michigan is only about 1,200 feet in length and from 75 to 100 feet in width. Its course where it entered into Lake Michigan at the time the survey was made, had been changed to a straight cut, and the depth of water at the time of my visit was about six feet, while the rapids spoken of had almost entirely disappeared, owing in some measures doubtless to the unusually high water in Lake Michigan. The current, however, was swift but did not indicate a difference in level of the lakes of over three inches. "I found a dredge at work in the river near the bridge making eleven feet water, the intention being to carry the depth entirely ONE OF COHARLEVOIX' HOTELS through with one cut of thirty-five feet width. No stone bowlders had been met. The material dredged was chiefly sand, with coarse gravel and small stone. In making the cut at the mouth of the river, no bowlders were met with to interfere with the work as had been feared; the bottom through the water here appeared to be composed of pebbles and small rounded stone or shingle, no stone larger than your fist. The bed and banks of the river throughout showed only a material that could easily be removed with the dredge, it being sand, marl, gravel and clay mixed. A crib pier was built on the north side about 460 feet in length last fall, and during the winter two cribs eighty feet over all were placed in on the south side. "The direction of the piers seems to be admirably well chosen. The physical formation of the shore here-the mouth of the river before any improvements were attempted being almost closed about 450 feet south of the present outlet indicates clearly the direction of the severe blows. namely. from the north and northwest. No storms from a di

Page  283 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 283 rection south of west can have any injurious effect upon the mouth of the river, as it is thoroughly protected by a jutting headland, a short distance off, in a direction nearly due west, therefore, in any improvements to be made here the north pier is, and will be the weather pier. The place seems, therefore, readily susceptible of improvement and at small expense. "The work already done is the result of the commendable spirit and energy of the people who seem to be thoroughly in earnest. In addition, the difficulty attending the navigation of the narrow tortuous and shallow stream connecting the waters of Round lake and Pine lake has been surmounted by a straight cut at the head of Round lake through a narrow neck of sand, gravel and marl. The banks are not revetted and notwithstanding the rapid current are not disturbed." Upon the strength of the report work rapidly progressed and resulted in placing Charlevoix in direct water communication with the ports of the Great Lakes. THE CHARLEVOIX AND CHICAGO RESORTS The Charlevoix resort was established in 1878, and its history is substantially as follows: The idea of establishing a resort at this point was first suggested by the organization of the Bay View Association and the location of the grounds at Petoskey. Hearing that certain Presbyterians contemplated a similar resort, several citizens of Charlevoix made an effort to induce them to locate at this point. Before this project was fully matured, a location near Harbor Springs was decided upon. While looking after the interests of this enterprise, the Charlevoix gentlemen succeeded in interesting H. W. Page, of Kalamazoo, in this location, and through his instrumentality the organization of the association was brought about. The articles of association and call for the first meeting were filed with the county clerk of Kalamazoo county, May 23, 1878, and with the secretary of state on the following day. On June 21, 1878, the first regular meeting of "The Charlevoix Summer Resort" was held at No. 63 Lovel Street, Kalamazoo. During the summer of 1878 six cottages were erected, and a substantial pier, with fourteen feet of water at the front, was built. Other improvements were made, such as the building of a bath-house, and the sinking of a well from which is obtained an abundant supply of delicious water, cold as ice. The amount expended in these improvements was $1,600. The number of persons who visited Charlevoix that summer because of the establishment of this resort, and who occupied the cottages or lived in tents, or found board in private families, and who considered the grounds of the resort as their headquarters, was considerably above one hundred. In 1879 a commodious boarding-house was built upon the grounds, in order to accommodate many visitors who desire temporary quarters. In May, 1880, the association purchased all the land directly north of the original twenty-acres deeded by M. J. Stockman, and lying between it and the channel and Round lake.

Page  284 284 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN In October, twenty-five acres more were purchased, giving the resort water front on Pine lake. The Chicago resort was located upon the north shore of Round lake, and upon an elevation commanding a magnificent view of the lakes and country around it. This resort was founded by a stock company of wealthy Chicago gentlemen for a private summer retreat for their families and their friends. The origin of this resort was related by a Chicago paper in the fall of 1880, as follows: "During the past summer a company of Chicago gentlemen desirous of taking a breathing spell during the hot July and August days, took a trip up in the region of the 'fishing line.' They visited Mackinac, Petoskey and Charlevoix. At the latter place they stayed several days, charmed by its surroundings, its cool nights, pleasant breezy days, pure air and the absence of the dust and heat of the city, all of which combined to make their stay very pleasant. One of the gentlemen, liking the place so well, secured a piece of land intending it for a summer residence lot. The three other gentlemen, meeting sometime after and comparing notes and opinions regarding Charlevoix, agreed to purchase a large tract of land and set it apart for a summer resort. This has been done, and a stock company formed, a charter obtained and enrolled under our state laws as the 'Chicago Summer Resort Company.' " From these two first "resort associations" developed "Charlevoix" reputation as an ideal place for out-of-doors recreation, and they largely advanced the prospects of the settlement on Pine river. The resorts and the village corporation were almost twins. CHARLEVOIX AS A CORPORATION Early in the year 1879 the question of obtaining a village charter pressed upon the minds of the people with considerable force, and early in February a public meeting was held to consider the subject. A resolution was adopted to the effect that it was the sense of the meeting that Charlevoix should be incorporated. A committee consisting of Messrs. Buttars, Eaton and Bell were appointed a committee to determine the boundary lines of the proposed incorporation. A petition was forwarded to the legislature, and the bill was passed and approved April 3d. The act reads as follows: "That all those tracts of land situated in the township of Charlevoix, in the county of Charlevoix, and state of Michigan, which are known and described as follows, to-wit: Lots numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26 and lot numbered 1, and the northeast fraction and the north half of the southeast quarter of section 27, all in township 34 north, of range 8 west, be and the same are hereby constituted a village corporate by the name of the village of Charlevoix. "The first election of officers for said village shall be held on the second Monday in April, 1879, at the town hall in said village, notice of which shall be posted in three public places by the board of registration, hereinafter appointed, at least the days previous thereto.

Page  285 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 285 "Byron See and Robert Miller are hereby constituted a board of registration for the purpose of registering voters for the first election to be held in said village, and said board of registration are hereby required to meet on the Saturday preceding the second Monday of April, 1879, aforesaid, and register all persons presenting themselves for registration, and having the qualifications of voters at annual township meetings. "The bridge now built and all that may hereafter be built across Pine river, within the territory described in section 1 of this act, shall be built, and maintained, as heretofore, by the township of Charlevoix, or the county of Charlevoix, and all moneys raised by general highway tax in the village of Charlevoix shall be expended under the direction of the highway commissioners of the township of Charlevoix, for the benefit of the highways of said township and village in the same manner as though said village was not incorporated. "The said village of Charlevoix shall in all things not herein otherwise provided be governed by and its duties and powers defined by an act entitled: 'An act granting and defining the duties and powers of incorporated villages,' approved April 1, 1875, and such amendments as may be made thereto. "In case the said officers are not elected at the time designated in section 2 of this act, an election for officers may be had at any time within one year from the time designated in said section 2 of this act, on notice being given as provided in said section." In 1881 the charter was amended so as to leave the grounds of the Kalamazoo resort outside the village limits, and to accomplish that section 1 was amended so as to read as follows: "That all those tracts of land situated in the township of Charlesvoix, in the county of Charlevoix and state of Michigan, which are known and described as follows, to-wit: Lots numbered 1, 2, 3 and 4, and the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26, and lot numbered 1, and the northeast fraction and the north half of the southeast quarter of section 27, all in township 34 north, of range 8 west, excepting that portion of the north half of the southwest quarter of section 26 aforesaid, known and described as follows, to-wit: Commencing at the northeast corner of the southwest quarter of section 26, thence west along the east and west quarter line of said section 26, eleven rods and two feet to the north and south quarter line of section 26 aforesaid, thence due north along said quarter line to the place of beginning, be, and the same are hereby constituted a village corporate by the name of the village of Charlevoix. " The first charter election was held Monday, April 28th and resulted in the election of the following officers: President, John S. Dixon; trustees, J. Milo Eaton, A. Buttars, W. A. Smith, J. M. Clark, Robert Miller, D. C. Nettleton; clerk, M. J. Stockman; treasurer, John Bell; assessor, E. H. Green; street commissioner, A. E. Mason. The city of Charlevoix was really founded on three corporate summer resorts and it has never lost its distinctive feature. There is no city in Michigan of its size which has more perfect hotel accommoda

Page  286 286 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN tions, and it is safe to say that during the summer season its population is increased on an average by ten thousand people. By no means, however, is Charlevoix prosperity temporary or spasmodic. Its settled population is nearly three thousand; its retail and wholesale trade is large; its stores, public buildings and residences are substantial and attractive; its streets broad and finely paved; its sidewalks well built and well kept, and its industries firmly established and growing. Among Charlevoix leading manufactures are lumber, shingles, boats, flour, cement and beet sugar, her fisheries still being active and productive. The Western Michigan Sugar Company, Charlevoix Rock Products Company and the Charlevoix Lumber Company are all leaders in its industrial growth, its fisheries being largely controlled by the Butell Fish Company and the Booth Packing Company. The shipments from Charlevoix include lumber and fish, wood bark, ties and cedar posts, beet sugar and flour, rock products and cement. The city is far from being simply a fashionable summer resort. SCHOOLS AND CHURCHES In the fall of 1861 a small log house was erected on the bank of Pine lake about fifteen rods south of where the Belvidere House afterward stood, on the Charlevoix resort grounds, and in the following winter Mrs. M. J. Stockman, who lived on the south side of Round lake, opened it as the first school in the village. Her salary was one dollar per week. In the fall of 1867 the first frame schoolhouse was built at the corner of State and Antrim streets to accommodate the children of the dozen white families which the village and vicinity then embraced. In 1873 a good building for the Union school was erected, and from that time on the public system of education, both of village and city, has developed along modern lines. Charlevoix at the present time has a handsome Central school and two well built ward schools. Religious life had its birth in Charlevoix long before the village had a corporate existence. Its first Sunday school was organized in the fa~l of 1859 by Mr. and Mrs. J. S. Dixon. Their children attended it, as well as those of S. F. Mason, Medad Thompson and Hugh Miller-ten scholars in all. Meetings were held in the Dixon log house near Pine lake. The Methodists organized their first class at A. D. Brady's, town of Marion, in the summer of 1867, and in the fall of that year the village of Charlevoix was made the head of a circuit. In January, 1868, a class of seventeen was formed in the village of Charlevoix, and a church building was completed in August, 1877. The Congregationalists got together in 1866-7 and in the fall of 1879 commenced to hold regular services under Rev. N. L. Otis in the schoolhouse. The cause was weak for a time but revived in 1882, and the church organization has since been continuous. Church activities at Charlevoix are now represented by societies of Congregationalists, Methodists, Baptists, Catholics and Episcopalians.

Page  287 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 287 BANKS The Bank of Charlevoix, established in September, 1882, was the first institution of the kind founded in the county. For some years the business was carried on by Lewis Reynolds and W. P. Brown, under the firm name of Reynolds & Brown. In July, 1883, the Merchants and Farmers Bank was established by the firm of Buttars, Upright & Company, with A. Buttars as president, A. R. Upright vice-president and G. S. Thomas cashier. In the following year the bank was reorganized under state laws and has since been known as the Charlevoix County Bank. Its assets are $250,000; responsibility, $100,000; and officers: John Nicholls. president; Harry Nicholls, vice-president and A. Buttars, cashier. The Charlevoix State Savings Bank was established in 1905. Present officers: R. P. Foley, president; G. C. Geiken and H. S. Harsha, vice-presidents, and W. J. Rachow, cashier. Its total resources amount to $203,885; paid-in capital stock, $25,000; surplus and undivided profits, $4,886; deposits, $173,992.73. BOYNE CITY Boyne City is a stanch little municipality of five thousand people, lying at the head of Pine lake and the mouth of Pine river, having railway connections through the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena line. It was incorporated in 1907, is lighted by electricity and has a perfect natural drainage supplemented by a fine sewerage system. Boyne City has well paved streets, lined with substantial business houses and residences, and a natural-gravity system of water works which furnishes an abundant supply for both domestic and industrial purposes. In the hills north and south of the city are the flowing wells and living springs from which are drawn the splendid water supply through sixteen miles of mains connected with two reservoirs. The mean pressure for the ordinary water supply is twenty-seven pounds to the square inch; for fire purposes a special reservoir is provided, which, when connected with the mains, raises the pressure to one hundred and fifteen pounds. The industries of Boyne City are various and many of them important. Its hardwood lumber mill, shingle plant, chemical works, sole leather tannery and brick yards are leading manufactories, and the car shops of the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena Railroad add to the still growing list of establishments. Flooring, veneer, boxes and baskets and wooden ware are also made and shipped. The industries and trade of Boyne City are financially handled through two banks. The First National is the only national institution of the kind in Charlevoix county. It is capitalized at $50,000; has a surplus of $10,000; and is officered by W. H. White as president, W. S. Shaw, vice-president and S. C. Smith, cashier. The People's Bank, established in 1907, is a private institution whose responsibility is placed at $500,000.

Page  288 288 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The settlement of what is now Boyne City commenced when John Miller took up land for a farm at the head of Pine lake in 1856. In 1869 the postoffice of Boyne was established and Mr. Miller was appointed postmaster. The office was kept at his house; the mail route at that time extended from Traverse City to Cheboygan. About the year 1871 Messrs. Esterly & Co. purchased the tract of land at the mouth of Boyne river with the intention of laying out a town. Circumstances prevented them from doing so and the site remained unoccupied, with the exception of one log house, until the original part of the Pine Lake House was built in 1874. In 1879 1Messrs. Nicholls & Morgan platted a large addition, called South Boyne, which was afterward incorporated into the village. It was in this section that the Cobb property was situated. During the years 1879 and 1880 the place began to develop, and almost the entire growth of the village has been since that time. Developments came so rapidly and continuously that the village was incorporated in 1885. In the meantime both educational and religious forces had entered into the development of the growing community. The first school was opened in a board shanty on Hugh R. Miller's farm and School Fractional No. 1 was organized in 1870 with that gentleman as director. In 1871 bliss Mariette Hicks commenced to teach the first public school in that building. In 1874 the school was moved to a log building near the shore of the lake, in what was afterward South Boyne. This property, including fifty-eight acres of school land, was sold in 1879 to a Mr. Cobb who made the purchase in order to establish a summer resort there. After the property was sold to him a good frame schoolhouse was built, which was replaced by the first brick structure devoted to school purposes in 1883. It was a two-story building and was pronounced at the time as "by far the finest school building in Charlevoix county. ' With a fine Central and High school and abundant provision to accommodate pupils in the four wards of the municipality, Boyne City would now smile over this enthusiastic statement. The church history of the city commences with the organization of the South Arm charge by the Methodists in September, 1873, with Rev. A. G. Wiggins as pastor in charge and Robert Thompson leader. Meetings were held at Mr. Thompson's house until 1875, when, under the care of Rev. Thomas Pierce, they were transferred to a log house in the village of Boyne. The present Boyne charge was formed in 1876 by Rev. D. H. Pierce. Presbyterian services were first held at Boyne by Rev. J. Beardsley in 1878. Methodists, Presbyterians, Baptists, Catholics and Evangelical denominations are now part of the religious life of Boyne City. EAST JORDAN A flourishing and growing village of more than twenty-five hundred people. at the extremity of the South Arm of Pine lake on its

Page  289 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 289 eastern shores, East Jordan is one of the three leading centers of population in Charlevoix county. W. F. Empey was the first settler at this point. He was born in Canada in the year 1840. In 1866 he came to MAichigan, although he had previously been in the states. For several years he was connected with the lumbering interests and had traveled over this part of the state locating pine land for a Toledo firm. In 1874 he built a store on the eastern shore of the South Arm, and the following year began putting up the first building on the present site of East Jordan for a store. About this time a blacksmith named John Vote came along and Mr. Empey induced him to locate here. He built a block building for a shop upon a lot opposite the future site of the Jordan River House, but he only remained a short time. In June, 1877, a postoffice was established and Mr. Empey was appointed postmaster. When the office was about to be established the question of a name for the settlement came up. Mr. Empey sent a number of names to the department, but they were rejected on account of there being other offices having the same; at last he sent among others that of East Jordan, which was adopted. Mr. Empey carried on his store also handled wood and bark and engaged in farming. In the fall of 1883 his store building was destroyed by fire. The lumber mills of East Jordan "made the town." The first to be established there was that of Joseph C. Glenn, in 1879, and it was the pioneer mill above Charlevoix on Pine lake. It was small, but successful because it had the right man behind it. Soon after its establishment W. P. Porter bought an interest in both mill and general store, and the business was thus conducted until 1888, when Mr. Glenn sold all his interests to Ames & Frost of Chicago. Thereupon was organized the East Jordan Lumber Company, which has been a never-failing source of strength and prosperity to the community. It has not only aided in the local advancement, but the corporation has been the means of developing fine fruit and farming lands in the county and the Grand Traverse region generally. It operates two sawmills and a large maple flooring plant at East Jordan and draws its lumber supplies from large tracts of both soft and hardwood lands which it owns in Charlevoix, Antrim, Kalkaska and Otsego counties. The East Jordan Lumber Company is one of those up-to-date concerns in Northern Michigan which has had the foresight to push the sale of its cleared lands for farming and fruit-raising purposes. The original plant of the East Jordan Lumber Company was erected on the west side of the South Arm, and in the eighties other sawmills followed its example. Stoppel & Company and Empey & Palmiter installed plants in that locality. In 1890 the sawmill of the former concern was purchased by the East Jordan Lumber Company and became its B mill. Later the Empey mill was moved away and on its site the East Jordan Company put up a plant for sawing cedar shingles. On the west side, also, John Monroe, Sr., erected a sawmill which was purchased and operated by the South Arm Lumber Company until it burned in 1902. The Willson Hoop Company also operated at East Vol. I-19

Page  290 290 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Jordan for a number of years what was then the largest hoop factory in the country, but the lack of elm stock caused it to discontinue about ten years ago. What is now known as East Jordan Station was formerly the village of South Arm, on the west side of the Arm. Its first industry was the lumber mill carried on by Nelson, Redington & Company. The name of Nelsonville was given to this locality, and in May, 1869 a postoffice was established about a mile from the present site of the village, and Mr. D. C. Nettleton, now of Charlevoix. was postmaster. At an early. -,- --....... _. - a~~. ~..~~i —~ --- — ~~ --- —-'~ I MAIN STREET, EAST JORDAN day Amose Williams, a character already mentioned, had squatted in this vicinity. Mr. Nettleton kept the postoffice a short time, and then removed to Charlevoix. The office was removed to Intermediate. At this time Charlevoix county was just beginning to be settled. Pine river was only a diminutive settlement, and the "head of the Arm" was far away in the wilderness. The present industries of East Jordan are flourishing and their future assured. The East Jordan Lumber Company continues to be in the foreground. As the headquarters of the East Jordan & Southern Railroad, which commenced operation in October, 1891, there are well-equipped machine and car-repair shops at this point. There are also cooperage and box factories and planing mills; flour mills and chemical works and enterprises are under way and likely to result in the establishment of several iron and brass foundries.

Page  291 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 291 The State Bank of East Jordan was the first financial institution organized in the village, having been founded by George B. Martin as a private enterprise in 1886. In 1891 Mr. Martin was succeeded by R. R. Glenn, who conducted it with Alex Bush until the former's death in 1895. This organization was succeeded by Glenn & Company in 1897, Mr. Bush retiring and being succeeded by George G. Glenn. In July, 1901, the bank was reorganized as a state institution with a capital of $20,000, with Joseph C. Glenn president, W. L. French vice-president and George G. Glenn cashier. The building which the bank occupies was erected in 1899. In 1909 the capital was increased to $50,1.. SCENE ON THE RIVER JORDAN 000, as at present. Its surplus and undivided profits amount to $5,000; its total resources, $306,543; deposits, $251,460. The People's State Savings Bank of East Jordan was established in October, 1910. It has a capital stock of $25,000 and its surplus and undivided profits amount to $1,622. W. P. Squier is its president and R. O. Bisbee, cashier. East Jordan owns its water works, the municipal plant, which is under the control of the mayor and two commissioners, having been erected in 1896. The village is furnished with light and power by a good plant operated by a private company. As will be correctly inferred from the above, East Jordan is having its initial experience of the commission form of municipal government, having been incorporated as such in July, 1911. Its commissioners are heads of three departments comprising (1) Public Utilities, (2) Streets and Sewers and (3) Finance, Health and Sanitation.

Page  292 292 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The public system of education embraces a Central school, in which is the High school, and the West Side and Jordan River buildings. East Jordan has a number of churches, the leading religious organizations being St. Joseph Cathoilc, Methodist, Presbyterian and Norwegian Lutheran. There are also societies of Episcopalians and Latter Day Saints. The secret and benevolent societies of the place flourish in the shape of large lodges of Masons, Knights of Pythias and Odd Fellows, with numerous minor organizations. OTHER COUNTY COMMUNITIES Boyne Falls, the second incorporated village in the county, was brought into existence by the construction of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. The town of Boyne Valley was organized in 1873 and in the spring of 1874 the railroad commenced operations. Boyne Falls was incorporated as a village in 1893. It is located on the Boyne river and has railway accommodations through the Boyne City, Gaylord & Alpena and the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroads. A good graded public school, three churches, a well organized public bank and a growing trade with the surrounding country, describe the status of this little village of three or four hundred people. Norwood, on the shore of Grand Traverse bay in the township by that name, and Ironton, on Pine lake in Eveline township, are small shipping centers, but rather interesting historically. Norwood, eleven miles southwest of Charlevoix was settled as early as 1866. A dock and sawmill were built and at one time it promised to become quite a lumber point. Ironton, on the other hand, did develop into a lively industrial place in the early eighties, through the operations of the Pine Lake Iron Company. Operations were commenced in 1879, but actual manufacturing was not realized until 1881. A few years afterwards the company were employing over two hundred men; but lack of support and transportation facilities and distance from profitable markets vaused the enterprise to fail and Ironton to disappear as an industrial community.

Page  293 CHAPTER XI EMMAET COUNTY POPULATION AND PROPERTY-ORGANIC HISTORY-PHYSICAL FEATURESEARLY HISTORY OF EMMET COUNTY-THE PRESBYTERIAN MISSION — PETOSKEY, THE COUNTY SEAT-IGNATIUS PETOSKEY-BEGINNING OF THE VILLAGE —AS VILLAGE AND CITY-HARBOR SPRINGS-BAY VIEW-OTHER VILLAGES AND STATIONS. Emmet county is one of the star summer resort sections of the northwest, and it is but necessary to mention Petoskey, Harbor Springs and Bay View to prove the positive statement. Its central region in this regard is Little Traverse bay, which deeply indents its coast from the west. This beautiful bay extends inland from the coast line of Lake Michigan about nine miles, and is six miles broad at its mouth. The water is clear and pure, and contains great quantities of fish. The CROOKED RIVER, INLAND WATER ROUTE scenery about the bay is romantic and the whole region is full of legendary interest. Upon the north and south shore are the villages of Harbor Springs and Petoskey and Harbor Point. We-que-ton-sing and Bay View are famous summer resorts. The beauties of this region have been told in prose and verse by numerous writers who have visited the locality and experienced an ecstasy of delight at what they beheld. The Indian name is We-que-ton-sing, meaning a small bay. A few miles east of Little Traverse bay are Crooked lake and river, the 293

Page  294 294 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN western terminus of the inland water route which connects the Grand Traverse and Cheboygan regions. The country around Little Traverse bay, as well as the coast to the north, is also identified with the Indian and missionary history of Northern Michigan, Little Traverse (Harbor Springs), Seven Mile Point, Middle Village, Cross Village and L'Abre Croche all carry with them the shadows and the sunshine of Indian romance; reminders of the vanished Ottawas and Chippewas, the long-gone fathers of Catholicism and Protestantism. Emmet county even embraces a fraction of old Mackinaw City, the oldest settlement in the Lower Peninsula, although the bulk of it lies in Mackinaw township, Cheboygan county. POPULATION AND PROPERTY There are few counties in Northern Michigan which have increased so rapidly in population within the past two decades as Emmet. The best picture of its growth in that regard is furnished by the United States census reports for 1890, 1900 and 1910, which are reproduced in detail. Civil Divisions 1910 Bear Creek township......................... 1,630 Bliss township............................... 694 Carp Lake township, including part of Mackinaw City village......................... 847 Mackinaw City village (part of)............. 126 Center township............................ 441 Cross township.............................. 600 Friendship township......................... 487 Littlefield township, including Alanson village... 1,055 Alanson village....................... 473 Little Traverse township, including Harbor Springs village........................ 2,268 Harbor Springs village.................... 1,805 McKinley township, including Pellston village... 2,120 Pellston village.......................... 1,089 Maple River township....................... 759 Petoskey City.............................. 4,778 Ward 1......................... 1,203 Ward 2.......................... 1,323 W ard 3................................. 1,018 W ard 4.................................. 1,234 Pleasant View township...................... 429 Readmond township....................... 600 Resort township........................ 780 Springvale township.......................... 737 West Traverse township...................... 336 1900 1890 1,387 1,153 704 202 561 98 636 544 369 877 2,152 1,643 354 516 5,285 341 479 752 630 344 236 219 484 305 343 1,488 1,052 140 603 2,872 278 433 Totals................................. 18,561 15,931 8,756

Page  295 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 295 As equalized by the board of review, the value of real and personal property in the county is given below: Civil Divisions Acres As Equalized Bear Creek.............................. 25,727.57 $ 936.002 Bliss.................................... 22,432.15 163,081 Carp Lake.............................. 30,654.20 209.518 Center.................................. 22,370.70 155,775 Cross Village............................ 6,353.26 96,660 McKinley............................... 22,181.21 417,315 Friendship.............................. 24,464.46 181,200 Littlefield............................... 13,680.58 227,436 Little Traverse.......................... 11,179.82 1,222,220 Maple River............................. 22,733.32 175,710 Readmond............................... 19,870.74 177,906 Resort.................................. 13,259.00 370,686 Pleasant View........................... 22,921.47 155,560 Springvale.............................. 28,004.07 182,845 W est Traverse........................... 8,287.35 363,185 City of Petoskey................................ 2,965,004 Totals............................... 294,120.10 $8,000,103 ORGANIC HISTORY Emmet had its origin in the counties of Tonedagana and Kishkokro, which were among the original divisions of Northern Michigan made in 1840. In 1843 these names were changed to Emmet and Charlevoix, which remained unorganized and attached to the old county of Michilimackinac until 1853. In 1847 the township of Peaine was erected, embracing the territory of the Beaver islands. In the course of that year three meetings were held to elect town officers, but did not succeed in effecting a regular organization. In 1851 the Mormons elected all the officers and had full control of affairs. In the winter of 1853 James J. Strang, the Mormon leader, was a member of the state legislature and succeeded in securing the passage of a bill uniting the counties of Emmet and Charlevoix and organizing them under the name of Emmet. The act so far as it related to county organization is as follows: " The people of the state of Michigan enact: 'That the county of Emmet shall be organized and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights, privileges and immunities to which by law the inhabitants of other organized counties of this state are entitled. "There shall be elected in the said county of Emmet, on the first Tuesday of May next, all the several county officers to which by law said county is entitled; and said election and the canvass shall in all respects be conducted and held in the manner prescribed by law for holding elections and canvassers for county and state officers: Provided, That the

Page  296 296 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN canvass shall be held at the village of St. James, in said county, on the Monday next following said election; and said county officers shall immediately be qualified and enter upon the duties of their respective offices, and their several terms of office shall expire at the same time that they would have expired had they been elected at the last general election. "And provided further, That until such county officers are elected and qualified the proper county officers of the county of Mackinac shall perform all the duties appertaining to the said county of Emmet, in the same manner as though this act had not passed. "The board of canvassers of said county, under this act, shall consist of the presiding inspectors of election from each township therein, who shall organize by appointing one of their number chairman, and another secretary of said board, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers, as in ordinary cases of election for county and state officers. "The county of Emmet shall have concurrent jurisdiction upon Lake Michigan and Green Bay with the other counties contiguous thereto. "All the islands, bars, rocks and lands under water contiguous to the said counties of Emmet and Charlevoix and within the state of Michigan, not heretofore by any legislative enactment. included within the body of any county in said state, together with so much of range 4 west as was heretofore included in Cheboygan county, are hereby annexed to said county of Emmet and shall for all purposes be deemed and taken to be within and a part of said county. "The county seat of said county shall be fixed by the board of supervisors of said county. "The register of deeds of the county of Emmet shall, on the request and at the expense of the persons interested, copy from the records in the office of the register of deeds at Mackinac all records of deeds and instruments in writing conveying, or in any wise limiting or affecting the title to any real estate in the county of Emmet as hereby organized, and the copies so made shall be made and deemed and taken to be original records for all purposes whatsoever." The act was approved January 29, 1853, and was to take immediate effect. At the same time the towns of Peaine, Galilee and Charlevoix were organized. The township of Peaine extended so as to include rocks, bars and land under water continguous to Beaver island. Galilee included all that part of Peaine in towns 37 north of ranges 10 and 11 west and south half of town 38 north of ranges 10 and 11 west. The first election was appointed at Ludlow Hill. The township of Charlevoix included all of the county of Charlevoix, and the first township meeting was appointed at the house of Galen B. Cole. In 1855 it was determined to secure better protection to the Gentile interests on the mainland and to secure this Theodore Wendall and John S. Dixon went to Lansing and secured the passage of a bill reorganizing Emmet county so as to include its former territory except the

Page  297 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 297 Beaver group, north and south Fox and territory west of the same. The first election under this act was held at Little Traverse on the first Tuesday in June, 1855, and the towns of Little Traverse, La Croix, Bear Creek and old Fort Mackinaw were organized. The county seat was established at Mackinaw City, but the county business was transacted at Little Traverse until 1867. In that year the county seat was removed to Charlevoix and in 1868 the board of supervisors met at that place. There was strong opposition to the county seat being removed to Charlevoix and in 1868 the county seal and some other property mysteriously disappeared. Dennis T. Downing, the county clerk, was supposed to be instrumental in their removal. An action for embezzlement was brought against him, but in 1869 the county of Charlevoix was organized and the county seat of Emmet returned to Little Traverse. Little Traverse, or Harbor Springs, remained in possession of the coveted prize until July 10, 1902, when Petoskey, which had outstriped it in population became the county seat by popular vote. The first meeting of the board of supervisors was held at Little Traverse in October, 1855, but there is no record of it among the county documents. The first election was not observed in any township but Charlevoix, where Galen B. Cole, the Mormon, was elected supervisor. Remembering that he was the sole board, the records of his rule are really humorous. For instance, in the appendix to the session laws of 1857 it is recorded that Galen B. Cole, "as chairman of the board, and George T. Preston, county clerk, certify that the several acts for the organization of the new township were cast by a majority of votes of all the members elected to the board of supervisors, upon due notice and application according to law, at an adjourned sitting of the annual meeting of the board of supervisors, the 22nd day of October, 1855." The first supervisors' meeting which is recorded in the county archives was held at Little Traverse, October 12, 1857, but only two of the three supervisors were present and no business was transacted. In 1869 the territory of Emmet county was divided and Charlevoix county organized, but no new towns were created in Emmet county until 1876. In 1875 the name of La Croix had been changed to Cross River township, and in the following year Friendship, Maple River, Bliss and Pleasant View townships were organized; followed by Readmond and Littlefield in 1877, Center in 1878 and Carp Lake in 1879. PHYSICAL FEATURES Emmet county, which is at the northwestern extremity of the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. contains 294,120 acres of land, and its general surface is characterized by north and south ridges. There are four of these ridges or ranges of hills, commencing on the north side of Little Traverse Bay. Two or three miles from the east shore of the lake colnmences the first range, rising to an altitude of about 350 feet, then descending gradually to a valley varying from one mile to two miles

Page  298 298 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN in width. Then commences another range like the first, running parallel and also descending into a valley. So on to the fourth range, which reaches an altitude of some six hundred feet above the water in the lake. The valleys are undulating and vary in altitude from one hundred to three hundred feet. Many parts of these ridges are table lands, where the very best farming lands are to be found with great fertility of soil, and susceptible of the highest state of cultivation, while the hills are equally fertile, but better adapted to fruit raising. The valleys include the meadow lands, which are much the same character of soil as the ridges and are adapted to all the varied purposes of agriculture. The general character of the soil throughout the county varies from a grey to a black sandy loam, which reaches from one foot to three feet in depth with a subsoil of clay; beneath this are clay, limestone and gravel. This sandy loam is strongly impregnated with lime. Throughout the entire county limestone rock is to be found in abundance everywhere upon the surface, with outcroppings of limestone ledges, indicating great strength of soil, which is further emphasized by the dense growth of hardwood in many sections of the county. This timber consists mostly of maple, elm and ash. Bird'seye maple especially has become an important article of manufacture and wealth. In some parts of the eastern and northern portions of the county extensive cedar swamps furnish an important supply of timber for shingles, cooperage and other purposes. They are supplied with the purest spring water and are sufficiently elevated to be easily drained. Where cleared of their dense growth of timber, they have been transformed into valuable fruit and farm lands. The county, though well supplied with fine springs of pure water, is not noted for its extensive streams. Maple river, the principal stream, heads on the north and bears south through the eastern portion of the county, emptying into Crooked lake east of Little Traverse bay. This stream is sufficiently large for rafting purposes, and is susceptible of slack water navigation; it also has sufficient fall for milling purposes. The next stream of importance is Bear creek, entering into Little Traverse bay at Petoskey. This stream has a magnificent water power. It has its source in Bear lake, Charlevoix county. These, with one other stream entering the Straits on the north, of sufficient size and fall to be utilized for manufacturing purposes, comprise all of any' importance in the county. Emmet county, like every other portion of the Grand Traverse region, is a fine fruit and potato country. The raising of garden seeds has also been a growing industry for some years and alfalfa is one of the coming crops. Stock and poultry raising and dairy farming are other branches which are encouraging the settlement of agriculturists in the county. It is estimated that 150,000 acres of fruit and farming land are still available; the present area in farms amounts to over 97.000 acres.

Page  299 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 299 EARLY HISTORY OF EMMET The Indian history applying to Little Traverse bay and the western shores of what is now Emmet county has been set forth in previous chapters, as well as the labors of the earlier Catholic priests. As also stated, the points most prominently associated with Indian and missionary history, in this territory, were L'Abre Croche, Cross village and Little Traverse. As L'Abre Croche occupied an elevated position that could be seen far out upon the lake and for a long distance along the shore, the name came to be applied to an extensive region. About OLD MISSION CHURCH, HARBOR SPRINGS 1825 the Catholics returned to this part of the Grand Traverse region to reestablish their missions. They first built a church at Middle village, a short distance below L'Abre Croche, but in 1827 moved the mission to Little Traverse. About this time a church was also built at Cross village. In 1853 business began at Little Traverse, and in 1855 Father Weikamp established the convent at Cross village. In 1852 an important movement was inaugurated at Bear creek, which was continued until merged in the greater enterprises of modern progress. The early history of Bear creek is almost entirely confined to matters connected with the Presbyterian mission, which was established in the year 1852. The name Bear creek is applied to the region in the vicinity of the mouth of the stream known by that name. The Indian name is MIuhquh Sebing.

Page  300 300 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN THE PRESBYTERIAN MISSION Dr. AM. L. Leach, long of Traverse City, and Rev. W. S. Potter, of Petoskey, have both written narratives of what transpired at this mission, and we quote portions of each: "About the year 1851 the number of Ottawas and Chippewas living at this point was increased by the coming of several families from Old Mission, where Rev. P. Dougherty had been laboring. Shortly after a request was made to Mr. Dougherty that a school might be established at Bear creek. By order of the Presbyterian board, under whose authority he was acting, Mr. Dougherty visited them in the winter of 1851-2 and made so favorable a report that the board determined to accede to their request, and Mr. Andrew Porter. who had previously spent some time as teacher at Old Mission, was appointed for the work. "Mr. Porter. with his family, left his home in Pennsylvania early in May. 1852. arriving at his destination the first of June. From Mackinac he canme in Captain Kirtlands vessel. the 'Eliza Caroline,' the captain bringing him for a very small sum. Mr. Dougherty had previously sent a vessel with a cargo of lumber for the construction of the necessary buildings. The pile of lumber on the beach served to guide Captain Kirtland to the proper landing. On leaving the vessel, the party were kindly received by the head man, Daniel Wells, or Mwake-we-nah, whom the band afterward elected chief; and who a few years later laid down his life for the country in the War of the Rebellion. Ite placed his best room at the disposal of 'Mr. Porter, till the mission house could be built. "The place selected for the mission was on the high land west of Bear creek. half a mile back from the bay. Itow to get the lumber to the spot was a problem that caused sonie anxiety. The only domestic animlal in thle settlement tlat could be put to such work was a single pony and the only vehicle was a cart, and then the new road which had recently been cut through the forest by the Indians was too rough and uneven for a wheel carriage of any kind. The anxiety, however, was soon removed by the announcement that the Indians of Little Traverse were offering their assistance. Soon after, on a set day, about seventy men and seven ponies with sleds were found to have come together on the beach ready for work. The ponies did very well, but more than half of the lumber was carried up the hill to the site of the proposed buildings on the shoulders of men. "''r. Porter found the Indians uniformly kind. Ile never failed to secure their services, when the services of a friend were needed. On first coming amnong them. lie and his family threw themselves upon their honor and honesty, never turning a key to prevent them from stealing, and. though they were then poor and often hungry, the confidence reposed in them was not betrayed." Some time after Mr. Porter's arrival, a Catholic mission was established at this point. It was the intention to build a church upon high ground, but Mr. Porter would not permit them to cross his domain and a small frame building was erected on the shore of the bay.

Page  301 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 301 For a considerable number of years after hMr. Guthrie's departure. the Bear creek church had no settled pastor. Mr. Porter continued his school and his religious work among the Indians. During the continuance of the mission, the Indians made steady improvement in farming. In 1852 there was only one pony and one plow among them. The surface of their small tields was strewn with the trunks of fallen trees, among which cultivation was carried on with no implement but the hoe. Afterward, when they had to some extent been provided with teams and farming utensils by the government according to treaty stipulations, their helds were cleared and plowed. Oats, wheat, corn and potatoes were the principal crops. Of the last two enough was usually raised to supply their own wants and leave a surplus for sale. Unfortunately the men sent to that locality by the agents of the government as Indian farmers, whose duty it was to instruct them in the art and practice of farming, were frequently too shiftless to do anything but draw their own salaries. A well remembered case will illustrate the statement. The Indians had become dissatisfied with one of this kind, and resolved if possible to get rid of himl. Accordingly an old chief was delegated to present a complaint to the agent, which he did in the following brief terms: "For the first year or two he would sometimes come out to the field where we were plowing, take hold of the plow handles and go half across the field, and then would say 'I am hungry,' and return to the village and remain there the rest of the day; but now he never comes near us at all." As the so-called farmer, who was sitting by and heard the complaint, had no defense to make, he was promptly discharged. For the first two or three years the expense of the mission was borne wholly by the Presbyterian board. After the establishment of Indian schools by the government, the one at the mission was adopted by the agent as a government school, and the usual salary was paid to Mr. Porter as teacher. About 1871 the government funds set apart by treaty for the benefit of the Indians being exhausted, and the board finding itself straitened for means, the mission was discontinued. The landed property of the establishment passed into other hands, and in 1875 Mr. Porter returned to his Pennsylvania home. Mr. Porter was for a long time justice of the peace and judge of probate. He was very popular with the Indians. and it is said had become so accustomed to their ways and habits that he was no longer contented after white people settled about him. In 1870 his mother, who was living with him, died at the age of ninety-six years. Hazen Ingalls was then living near by, and at Little Traverse were three or four white people. Mr. Porter, however, called about him his Indian friends and conducted the funeral services himself. By means of strings a long pole was fastened to the rude coffin, and with Indians as pall bearers his aged mother was buried in the grave he had dug near by.

Page  302 302 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN PETOSKEY, THE COUNTY SEAT Petoskey is a beautiful city of five thousand people situated on an amphitheater of imposing hills overlooking Little Traverse bay. It shares the honors with Charlevoix as the most noted summer resort of Northern Michigan and one of the most popular in the country. Steamers from every port around the Great Lakes enter its splendid harbor both to deposit crowds of gay excursionists and summer visitors and to facilitate her large trade, which cannot all be handled by her railroads-the Pere Marquette and Grand Rapids & Indiana systems. No resort in the country has a better reputation with asthmatic and hay-fever patients than Petoskey. This class of sufferers will appreciate "When Dust Is On the Rag Weed," from the pen of Rev. Warren W. Lainport, now of Mancelona, Antrim county, who has made rich contributions of poetry, both humorous and eloquent, to the Grand Traverse region in which he has long resided. When dust is on the ragweed, and the ragweed's in yer nose, When yer nose is full o'sneezin', and the sneezin' full o' woes; Then's come the time to pack your duds and quickly git away; Petoskey is the Mecca then, why don't you come and stay? When dust is on the ragweed, and the ragweed's in yer nose, And you keep a-sneezin, sneezin' till it lifts you off your toes, Why don't you buy yer ticket quick and git across the land? Petoskey is the Mecca then, for all the sufferin' band. Petoskey's got the atmosphere, without the other stuff;: You don't go sneezin' round as though you'd been a-takin' snuff; But all the summer long you find you're scoopin' in the health, While hotels and the Midway are a scoopin' in the wealth. There's lots o' fun an' frolic here, there's lots of things to do; And if religion's what you want, they got that at Bay View. So come along without delay, and don't forgit yer tin; The hotels an' the Midway, all '11 kindly take you in. And when the frost has nipped the fields, and the ragweed's lost its grip, Then you can pack yer duds agin and take the homeward trip. An' don't fergit to take along some souv'nirs of yer stay, And don't fergit we'd like to see you back agin some day. IGNATIUS PETOSKEY The city of Petoskey was named in honor of one of the original proprietors of the soil, and who had spent more than fourscore years of his life in its vicinity. In the year 1787 he was born at the mouth of a little creek near where the city of Manistee now stands. His father, Nee-i-too-shing (the Early Dawn) with others of his tribe, went

Page  303 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 303 down to the lake shore into the south country hunting and trapping, as was their custom. On their return well laden with skins and game they camped at Little creek near the mouth of the Manistee river. Here was born the "patron saint" of the village. Nee-i-too-shing put back THE OLD INDIAN CHURCH, PETOSKEY the t(eer-skin door of his rude lodge and looked up at the morning sky. Bright shafts of sunlight shot up like streaks of flame lighting the eastern woods. Just then the first cry of his new-born child came to lhis ear and he named him Pe-to-se-ga, which is translated as "the Rising Sun.' The home of the Chippewas was the region about Little Traverse bay. and the lodge of Nee-i-too-shing was about seven miles north and west of the present village of Harbor Springs. When l'e-to-se-ga was twenty-two years old, he took for his wife

Page  304 301 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICIIIGAN the daughter of a near neighbor, Keway-ka-ba-wi-kwa. They planted an apple orchard, the remains of which may still be seen. The missionaries gave him the name Neyas. He was afterward persuaded that Nevas was an abbreviation of Ignatius, and thus it became Ignatius Pe-to-se-ga, and later, when a village was to be named it assumed a corruption of his last name, Petoskey. When the government decided to try the experiment of schooling some of the brightest Indian children, Pe-to-se-ga sent his two eldest sons to a school in northern Ohio. It was a Protestant school and the priest objected and finally declared he must bring the children home or he would be excommunicated. His wife, womanlike, sided with the priest, and Pe-to-se-ga yielded, but so impatient did he become of such arbitrary rule that he left the spot where he had spent forty-three -ears of his married life, and moved with his family across the bay, settling on the south shore upon land now comprised within the limits of the city. He and his sons owned nearly all of what is now Petoskey. But the trouble did not cease. Protestant mission services were held within reach, and Pe-to-se-ga attended with his children. Mrs. Pe-tose-ga would none of it, so she left her husband and went with his brother to her own relatives on the north side of the bay. The chief took another wife. Several years passed, but the motherlove in the dusky breast overruled all other considerations and Mrs. ['e-to-se-ga came back to her family, and the woman who had usurped her place was dowered and sent forth. They had fourteen children, of whom eight sons and two daughters are still living. Mrs. Pe-tose-ga died in April, 1881, at the age of eighty-six, and some years after she was followed by Neyas Pe-to-se-ga, the centennarian. BEGINNING OF TIlHE VILLAGE The operations at Bear creek have already been narrated in the early history of the county, but other than geographical connection they had no relation to the city that has since grown up, and had not otlier and later influences combined to make this particular spot a center of activities. the associations of the locality might never have vested a populous community with historic interest. Of the early movements of the village we will now proceed to speak. The building of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad was the incentive to the development of the natural resources at this point and its improvement as a village site. Messrs. H. 0. Rose and Amos Fox had been pioneer business men in the Traverse region nearly twenty years and had already laid the foundation of Northport and Charlevoix. They had traded at Little Traverse, now Harbor Springs, and were familiar with this entire region. Knowing of the vast limestone formation on the shore of Little Traverse bay, they purchased about two hundred acres of land at this point. In the summer of 1873 the railroad to Petoskey was approaching completion, and Mr. Rose came there for the purpose of beginning business. The material for his house was got out at Traverse City and shipped thither by boat. The

Page  305 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 305 firm of H. O. Rose & Company (Ames Fox) first commenced selling from their miscellaneous and general stock of goods in a small log building near the residence of Ignatius Petoskey in June, 1873. As there was then no dock they were obliged to land their goods with a scow. In October, 1874, Mr. Rose wishing to devote his time more especially to lime manufacture, made a change by which the store came into possession of Fox, Rose & Buttars, consisting of Amos Fox of Charlevoix, Hiram O. Rose of Petoskey and Archie Buttars of Charlevoix, Mr. Buttars taking sole charge of the store, as well as the one which the firm operated at Charlevoix. Afterward the Petoskey store was rebuilt and enlarged, and following the dissolution of Fox & Rose, in 1882, the firms of Rose & Buttars and Rose Brothers & Company conducted and developed the business which did more than aught else to build up Petoskey in its early days. The Rose brothers were II. O., Eugene L. and Perry W. The first house actually built on the site of Petoskey was the board shanty erected on the bluff by G. L. Smith, familiarly called "Pa" Smith, in the early summer of 1873. In the same year Dr. William Little, the first physician, came from Traverse City on the same boat which brought Mr. Rose's stock of goods. He was in poor health, but liked the atmosphere so well that he camped out on the lake shore, and in November, the month after the Grand Rapids & Indiana road reached the locality, sent to Traverse City for his family. By January 1, 1874, a frame shack had been erected by the Doctor which he called the Rose House. This was the first hotel of Petoskey's numerous progeny and from it developed the Occidental. Dr. Little, however, its builder, was not permitted to see the transformation of the region, but died at Grand Rapids, November 19, 1875. In the previous year he had issued the first newspaper of the county, the Petoskey City WVeekly Times. The year 1875 gave the settlement a general business start. Early in the winter the first lawyer arrived in the person of D. R. Joslin, who had already been a pioneer at Alpena and Cheboygan, and on April 30th the first number of the Emmet County Democrat was issued by Roselle Rose and local happenings commenced to be recorded. In August of this year the status of Petoskey was summarized as follows: 118 houses, three hotels, ten stores, six saloons, one bakery, a blacksmith shop, two physicians, two lawyers, two churches, three lime kilns and one manufactory about to commence operations, with three dams across the river. Shortly after this summary was made the new school building was finished on Howard street and the first graded schools placed in charge of Charles S. Hampton, afterward editor of the Harbor Springs Independent. As VILLAGE AND CITY So rapid was the growth of Petoskey that in the fall of 1878, the question of incorporating the village began to be agitated. On November 30, 1878, a public meeting was held at McCarty's Hall for the purVol. I-20

Page  306 306 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN pose of taking action in the direction of obtaining a charter. A committee consisting of John G. Hill, H. O. Rose, A. S. Lee, W. M. Everett and George S. Richmond was appointed to draft a map of the territory to be incorporated and take such other steps as were necessary. The boundaries of the territory were described as follows: Commencing at the west eighth line of section 6, on the shore of Little Traverse bay, thence south 111 rods to quarter line, thence east 40 rods, thence south 80 rods, thence east 80 rods, thence south 80 rods to section line between sections 6 and 7, thence east 380 rods, thence north 1 mile to town line, thence west 80 rods, thence north on the quarter line of section 32, Town 35 north, Range 5 west to a point on Little Traverse bay, thence westerly along the shore to place of beginning, including nearly two sections of land. Hon. C. J. Pailthorp, representative in the legislature from this district, had charge of the matter, and in February, 1879, secured the passage of a bill granting the charter to the village. There were three tickets in the field at the first village election held in April, 1879. No. 2, the winning ticket, comprised H. O. Rose as mayor; L. C. Watson and C. B. Henika, trustees; Thomas Quinlan, treasurer; M. F. Quaintance, clerk; Abner S. Lee, assessor; Isaac L. Austin, street commissioner, and Joseph A. C. Rowan, constable. In 1881 the original water works were built and during that year also were graded the village schools under the laws of the state. The first principal under the graded system was Thomas H. Clayton. Petoskey was incorporated as a city in 1896. In 1902, the year of the removal of the county seat from Harbor Springs to Petoskey, a substantial court house was built by the city at a cost of $40,000 and leased to the county for fifty.years. The offices between the municipality and county are divided, headquarters for the fire department being in the basement of the building. The city owns its $100,000 electric light and power plant, as well as its water works. Its $85,000 water works plant, with one hundred and fifteen pounds pressure, forces an abundant supply through thirty miles of mains. Petoskey has a dozen miles of sewers, two public hospitals and brilliantly lights the business sections of her streets with the Tungsten arch system. As a residence and business town Petoskey presents an appearance of elegance, comfort and prosperity, with broad thoroughfares, solidlybuilt stores and thoroughly-stocked stores, a well-equipped public library and a modern system of popular education. Its central and four ward schools enroll about 1,100 students and carry a teaching force of more than thirty competent instructors. The Central High, Sheridan, Lincoln, Howard street and Edgerton schools are all high credit marks to Petoskey. The church history of Petoskey extends back to the old Bear creek mission established in 1852. Soon afterwards the Presbyterian society was organized, which evolved into the First Presbyterian church of Petoskey. Rev. George W. Cole, a Methodist missionary, came among the Indians west of Petoskey in the winter of 1874-5. The early history of Catholic mission work in this locality has been given, the pres

Page  307 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 307 ent church dating from July, 1881. Catholics, Methodists, Presbyterians, Seventh Day Adventists, Lutherans, Hebrews, Episcopalians, Christians, Menonnites and Christian Scientists are now all represented bly more or less vigorous societies, some of the houses of worship being both elegant and architecturally imposing. Petoskey numbers among its industries manufactories of lumber, maple flooring, pulp paper. flour, leather, lime cement, lath, cedar ties and blocks. A large plant for the salting of cucumbers was added in 1911. The city has two good banks-the First National and the First State, the former with a capital of $100,000 and the latter of $50,000. The First National was organized in 1878 and incorporated in 1900. It represents the first bank established in Emmet county, which was opened in May, 1878, by P. B. Wachtel. From his father and others, who had come to Petoskey. Mr. Wachtel learned something of the village while he was a resident of St. Mary's, Pennsylvania. Having a taste for banking. he decided to experiment at this far-northern place which was then considered but a raw settlement in the Indian country. Accordingly in May, 1878, he arrived at Petoskey and established his t)ank in a little frame house on Mitchell street. His capital was small,

Page  308 308 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN but Mr. Wachtel and his enterprise "took," for his deposits at the end of the first year of business amounted to $17,000! HARBOR SPRINGS Harbor Springs is a prosperous, attractive and interesting village of over two thousand inhabitants located on one of the finest harbors in the Great Lakes region formed by the projection of Harbor Point across the northern part of Little Traverse bay. Nine miles across the bay, a little east of south is Petoskey, and between these two points, along the extreme eastern shores of that beautiful and noble body of water are Bay View, Kegomic, Menonaqua Beach, Roaring Brook, Wequetonsing and other charming resorts which have made the region famous. Harbor Point is southeast of Harbor Springs, and beyond it are Wildmere Springs, Emmet Beach and Idylwilde, completing a continuous stretch of picturesque and homelike cottages, parklike grounds and splendidly improved tracts of shore lands. The Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad enables the visitor to make a delightful tour of inspection near the sunny shores of Little Traverse bay. Harbor Springs at one extremity of this noble garland of activity and beauty and Petoskey at the other, share alike the prosperity and the enjoyment which-attach to this section of the Little Traverse region. It is the small bay formed by Harbor Point that gave the place its Indian name of Wequetonsing, a name afterward appropriated by the resort to the east. The village was permanently christened with its present name when it was incorporated in 1881. During the earlier periods of its history it was known as Little Traverse. Harbor Springs takes its name from its harbor, known as one of the finest on the great lakes and from its beautiful springs of pure water, boiling and bubbling up in every part of the village. The analysis of this water, as made by Professor Kedzie, shows it to be even a purer water than the famous Waukesha or Bethesda waters of Wisconsin. Pipes are driven to a depth of from one hundred and seventy-five to two hundred feet and by gravitation the water raises from fifteen to twenty feet above the surface, where it is piped into the houses and cottages, thus giving a never-ending supply of the purest water at no cost except that of installation. The municipal water supply is obtained from these flowing wells and is likewise of the same quality. Owing to its excellent harbor, the steamship "Northland," the finest passenger steamer on the great lakes, owned by the Great Northern Railroad Company, makes Harbor Springs the only port of call on the east side of Lake Michigan, while many other steamers, including the "Manitou," ply between Chicago and Harbor Springs. It is this excellent boat and railroad service, together with the pure water and invigorating air, that makees Harbor Springs such a leading center of the resort region. and here are found people from

Page  309 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 309 nearly every state in the Union, who have their summer homes and enjoy the best there is in nature at nominal expense. The authentic as well as legendary history of the place is full of interest. Pieces of ancient crockery have been found here indicating that it was once a stopping place of the extinct race of Mound Builders on their journeys from Mexico to the Lake Superior mines. It is not known that it was ever in very early times an important Indian village, but it has unquestionably been a camping ground much frequented. It was in this quiet retreat that several of the noted chiefs of the war of 1812 spent their declining years, and here for years they assembled their people by hundreds to receive their annuities from the general government. We have already shown in the general history of the county, that about the year 1827 the Catholics removed from Seven Mile Point to Little Traverse, and built a church of cedar logs and covered it with bark. This was built by Rev. Father Peter De Jean who was the first resident priest at this point. Twelve or fifteen years later a more modern house of worship was erected beside the old log church. Among the acts of Father De Jean, worthy of remembrance, may be mentioned his founding of a liquor law which prohibited the use and sale of liquor, and which was rigidly enforced until about the year 1854. The year 1853 is the earliest point of continuous operations related to the present village. Prior to that time M'ackinae traders had sent goods to Little Traverse at various times for the purpose of trading with Indians, but none remained any considerable length of time. In the fall of 1853, Richard Cooper, afterward a citizen of Charlevoix, arrived at Little Traverse on the trading schooner "'Eliza Caroline,'" and opened a store for Captain Kirtland. He had previously been engaged in fishing at Beaver islands, but had returned to his home in Genesee county, New York. At the time of Mr. Cooper's settlement at Little Traverse the fishermen had already established themselves at several points on the northern part of Lake Michigan, but there were none at that place. That same fall, however, was marked by the arrival of Charles R. Wright, Albert Cable and James Moore. Wright and Cable at first stopped on the point and the others in the village and for years fishing was one of its leading industries. Some who came in those early days to fish remained to become identified with the permanent growth of the village and the region. Associated with the fishermen were always a number of coopers who generally had a shop near the fish shanties; thus cooperage was the first manufacture of Little Traverse. Small trading establishments, like that of Captain Kirtland under the management of Mr. Cooper, also sprang up at various points, drawing their custom from both the fishermen and the Indians. A few small vessels or "hookers," found a lucrative trade in going from place to place, selling supplies and whiskey and purchasing fish. It is said that the Captain never indulged in the sale of liquor, at least that he never sold it to the Indians; which is to his credit. Joseph Pyant was one of the best known early traders, who often "made" Little Traverse. He


Page  311 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 311 was of the noted Mackinac class, finally located at Little Traverse in 1855, was sheriff of Emmet county in 1858-64 and 1868-70, and served two terms as register of deeds. A postoffice was established at Little Traverse in 1861, but the great tide of immigration came in 1875-6 when all the lands of the county were thrown open to settlement. Real estate and professional men located, the fish dealers commenced to build new docks, a sawmill was erected by W. E. Parker on the bay shore, the Harbor Springs Republican was born and the Methodists organized their first regular society. The progress of the place was continuous and normal; other newspapers came into the field and helped the village along; Mr. Parker extended his interests both as to lumber manufacturing and general merchandizing; business houses carrying special lines of goods joined the procession, in 1880 railroad connection was secured with Petoskey, and by 1881 the people were ready and entitled to be incorporated under a village form of government. And more, visitors to the Little Traverse region had discovered the advantages of the village as a resort center. The movement had started at Harbor Point, several years before, in the form of what was known as the Lansing resort, and referred to in the incorporating act of Harbor Springs as the Harbor Point Association. Its grounds were excluded from the village site. The act incorporating Harbor Springs was passed by the legislature in the winter of 1881, and the first charter election in April of that year resulted in the choice of C. D. Hampton for president of the board; E. Bement clerk; E. J. Palmer treasurer; W. H. Miller assessor; Merritt Scott constable; W. W. Bowen, W. E. Parker, N. Hinman, J. M. Burbeck, I. Canby and E. H. Martindale, trustees. Ten years after its incorporation Harbor Springs had reached a population of more than a thousand and it has since about doubled It is an up-to-date village, with good water, electric light, clean wellpaved streets, and a thorough system of public schools. A community of noticeably intelligent people it has naturally given much attention to its educational institutions, and its schools are of the best. Harbor Springs supports two good weekly newspapers and Methodist, Baptist, Presbyterian, Catholic, Lutheran and Episcopalian churches. Both Catholics and German Lutherans have large parochial schools, and the former have long maintained the Convent of the Sisters of Notre Dame. As to the status of the village from a trade and an industrial point of view-it has in operation manufactories of' lumber, hoops, staves, iron, furniture and boats, and is quite a point of shipment for produce, grain, maple sugar and fish. Banking accommodations are furnished by the Emmet County State Bank, organized in 1905, of which William J. Clarke is president and James T. Clarke cashier. As stated, Wequetonsing and Harbor Point, are small resorts and virtual suburbs of Harbor Springs-the former on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad adjoining the village on the east and the latter on the peninsula to the southeast. Wequetonsing, as originally laid out in 1877, comprised eighty

Page  312 312 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN acres of land donated by the citizens of Harbor Springs. The enterprise originated and was founded in this wise. In the summer of 1877 Revs. McCord of Allegan and Essex, of Elkhart, visited all the.points along Grand Traverse and Little Traverse bays, with the idea of selecting a location for the establishment of a resort where worn-out / / WILLIAM J. CLARKE and sweltering humanity could repair to recover health and enjoy rational recreations. After an impartial survey of all points, they decided that Little Traverse possessed greater advantages than any other place and so reported to the synod which met that fall. In accordance with this report it was decided at a meeting held in Elkhart in the fall of 1877 to accept the gift of the citizens of Harbor Springs of the eighty acres of land situated on the harbor shore. An association was then and there formed for the purpose of improving the grounds and selling or leasing lots to parties desiring to put up cottages. In the spring of 1878 work began on the grounds, numerous lots

Page  313 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 313 were sold and a large boarding-house erected. On July 17, 1878, the grounds were formally dedicated, Hon. Schuyler Colfax delivering his famous address on Abraham Lincoln. The organization was not fully completed until the summer of 1879. August 6th a business meeting was held and L. H. Trask elected president; H. H. Pope, secretary; H. H. Dennis, treasurer. Streets have been laid out and a number of cottages erected in that year. The original site has since been increased, and the erection of cottages and beautifying of grounds have been constant. The Indian name of this place was Wa-ba-bi-kang, meaning a white gravelly shore, but the association evidently did not consider this as musical as the one adopted and the founders of Wequetonsing were right. Harbor Point was at first called the Lansing Resort from the circumstances which brought it into existence. In August, 1878, a party of Lansing people visited the spot and camped out. They were so delighted with the location and the many advantages it possessed, that before they left they began making arrangements for the purchase of the Point of Rev. Father Weicamp of Cross village, the owner of the land. They were successful in their negotiations and proceeded with the necessary steps of establishing a permanent resort. On August 28, 1878, a stock company was organized under the statute for park associations and the first officers were as follows: President, B. F. Simon; secretary, N. B. Jones; treasurer, Eugene Angell. The original stockholders numbered nineteen and the capital stock was $2,500, but so popular did the resort become that the capital stock was subsequently increased to $10,000. The grounds were laid out with winding walks and drives, the underbrush cleared away. A hotel, dock, boat and bath houses were built, and each year improvements have been added and new cottages erected until now everybody who delights in restful scenery and invigorating recreation is a friend to Harbor Point. BAY VIEW For thirty-six years Bay View has been the home of the Methodist Camp Ground Association and this fact founded it and is the striking feature of its history. Sometime in September, 1875, the citizens of Petoskey first learned that the Methodists of Michigan were desirous of selecting a site somewhere in the state for the purpose of holding annual camp meetings and establishing a summer resort. Soon after a committee consisting of ten leading members of the Methodist Episcopal church from different parts of the state was appointed to select a suitable site for this purpose, and in November of that year decided on locating at Bay View, at that time a dense forest. The land was then owned by a number of individuals, but Petoskey people, well knowing what an advantage it would be to them to have a permanent state camp ground at that locality at once took hold of the matter, and by liberal donations on the part of citizens enough money was raised by subscription to purchase the three hundred and thirty acres of land,

Page  314 314 IlISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN the price paid being nearly $3,000. The Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company agreed to furnish money to buy this land, providing payment for so doing would be guaranteed. which was done by a few leading citizens and as fast as the money was collected it was paid over to the company. \V. G. IHinman. o' the land department of the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad Company selected the site chosen, and to this gentleman. I. 0. Rose. Abner S. Lee, Arehie AMeMillan and a number of other leading citizens. is due much credit for the part they performed in estal)lisling this institution. The railroad company also did much WTOODL\AWN AVENUE, BAY VIEW toward furtlering tile project. It was first deeded to J. Mi. Matheney and b) hlim to the \Michigan State Camp Ground Association of the Methodist Episcopal church. By the conditions of this deed the associatiol agree(l to hold an annual camp meeting on these grounds for fifteen successive years, and during that time to expend in erecting cottages, laying out streets, parks. grading and in other ways improving the grounds, not less than $10,000. These conditions, as is well known, were far more than met by the association. In 1876 the Grand Rapids & Indiana railroad was extended to the camp grounds, where the first meetings commenced on August 1st. The dedicatory sermon was preached by Rev. E. H. Pileher, president of the association. Bay View is now one of the most prosperous resorts around the bay, nearly seven hundred cottages, two large hotels and numerous rooming houses standing upon the beautiful grounds of the Mlethodist Camp Ground Association. Its affairs are managed by the Bay View

Page  315 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 315 association and are in no way subject to the city government of Petoskey. The resort has provided not only everything necessary for mental and religious exercises but for general relaxation and recreation, including boating and fishing and a swimming pool and bowling alley. Nothing has been neglected to make the name Bay View fragrant with pleasant and invigorating influences. OTIER VILLAGES AND STATIONS Cross village, on Lake Michigan in the western part of the county, is little more than a historic memory. A huge wooden cross, several times replaced, has stood at this point since the establishment there of the first Catholic mission for the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians. From this fact, the town was first named La Croix and in 1875 changed to Cross village, although it has never been incorporated. In 1869 a postoffice was established there, and it is still on the list, but does not add much to Uncle Sam's receipts of the postal service. Alanson is quite a brisk little village, settled in 1877 and located on Crooked river about a mile north of Crooked lake. It is a station on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, has a sawmill and wooden ware factory and is the trading center of a thriving farming country. Levering, on the Grand Rapids & Indiana line twenty-four miles southwest of Petoskey, is the shipping point for a good farming, live stock and fruit country. It has a graded school, a bank, several good general stores, a stave factory and other evidences of growth. Brutus, a station on the same road several miles to the north, was the pioneer settlement of what is now M\aple river township, its founders, who came there in 1874, having been A. S. Lee and D. R. Sherman. A postoffice was established the same year. Above Brutus is Pellston, another postoffice and station on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad, which was founded by William H. Pells, of Paxton, Illinois, in 1882. A few years before he had commenced to purchase considerable tracts of land in the central portion of Emmet county, on one of which he platted Pellston.

Page  316 CHAPTER XII ANTRIM COUNTY VILLAGES AND COUNTY'S POPULATION —HISTORIC AND PREHISTORICABRAM S. WADSWORTH, THE COUNTY'S PIONEER-JAMES MCLAUGHLIN -FIRST BURIAL IN THE COUNTY-ELK RAPIDS A FACT-EARLY COUNTY AFFAIRS-ANTRIM COUNTY ORGANIZED-FIRST COURT HOUSE AND JAIL-COUNTY SEAT MOVED TO BELLAIRE-BELLAIRE, PRESENT COUNTY SEAT —ELK RAPIDS OF TODAY-MANCELONA-CENTRAI S LAKE -STATIONS AND POSTOFFICES-ORGANIZATION OF TOWNSHIPS. Antrim county includes the main stretch of the eastern shores of Grand Traverse bay. Torch, Round and Elk lakes, with Elk river and other connecting streams, extend into the county almost as far as its main northern line, forming with the Bay a long peninsula which juts out from the main body with a very narrow neck at Eastport. The largest and prettiest of these lakes is Torch lake, eighteen miles long and from one to two miles wide with a water surface of thirty square miles. It is said to be several hundred feet deep and lies parallel with the Bay, but flows in the opposite direction south and empties its waters through Torch river and Round lake into Elk lake, which also lies parallel with the Bay; thence the accumulated waters of all the rivers and lakes pour through Elk river into Grand Traverse bay, forming one of the largest and best water powers in Northern Michigan. The scenery about Torch lake is harmonious and picturesque. The river Jordan rises in Warner township and waters the northeastern sections of the county, the scenes along its courses being restful and beautiful. The county embraces five hundred and eighty-one square miles of land surface and fifty-five square miles of lake surface. Of this area there are four hundred and twenty-five square miles, or fifteen sections of land, on which there are rivers and running streams. The whole country is abundantly watered, excepting a couple of townships in the southeastern corner in which there are springs but no large creeks. Clam, Grass and Intermediate lakes discharge their waters through rivers bearing the same names, into the east side of Torch about six miles from the south end of it. These lakes and streams abound in fish, and during the season sportsmen come from all parts of the country to enjoy the rare sport that is here afforded. Antrim county lies in the belt which formerly was heavily timbered 316

Page  317 r i,M 11 'r Aft.,, "N. 'WI, Z, SCENES ON THE RIVER JORDAN

Page  318 318 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN with hardwood. This has been nearly all cut by lumbermen who are now offering the land for agricultural purposes. As all the heavy timber has been removed the lands are easily cleared and made ready for cultivation. Watered abundantly, they are well adapted to the raising of peas, beans, and seeds, and all root crops such as potatoes and sugar beets. It is also a fine grass and forage country, with pure water everywhere and a bracing climate tempered by the presence of Grand Traverse bay and Lake Michigan. Cattle raising and dairying are therefore bound to succeed, while the raising of apples, the small fruits and berries is a profitable and established industry. The Intermediate chain of lakes which lies almost wholly within the county extends from Elk Rapids, on the East arm of Grand Traverse I 4i VEGET ABLE GARDEN: EIGHTY ACRES OF RADISHES bay. to Echo, in the northern part of the county, a distance of almost seventy-five miles. The shores of these lakes, as well as of the arm, rise in a series of terraces from the water and there is no better farm and fruit lands in the county than are to be found in these districts. The entire area of 314,000 acres is more or less rolling, with some rough land and considerable tracts of muck soil. Fully ninety per cent of the acreage is considered tillable, with more than one-third already in farms. The county is traversed by four railroads-the Grand Rapids & Indiana, Pere Marquette, Detroit & Charlevoix and East Jordan & Southern-thus giving travellers and shippers excellent facilities. VILLAGES AND COUNTY'S POPULATION The four villages of Antrim county are all situated on or near its chain of lakes, with the exception of Mancelona in the southern por

Page  319 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 319 tion on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad. The largest are Bellaire, the county seat, just northeast of Grass lake on the Pere Marquette line, with a population of about 1,600; Elk Rapids, somewhat larger perhaps, on Elk lake and Elk river, and MAancelona mentioned above. The third village within the lake belt is Central Lake, a corporation numbering between eight and nine hundred people situated on the western shore of that serpentine body known as Intermediate lake. It is also a station on the Pere Marquette Railroad. With this etching of Antrim county as it is we present the figures taken from the census of 1910, showing its population at the end of the last three decades. Civil Divisions Banks township........................... Central Lake township, including Central Lake village........................ Central Lake village................... Chestonia township....................... Custer township.......................... Eeho township........................... Elk Rapids township, including Elk Rapids village............................. Elk Rapids village..................... Forest Home township, including part of Bellaire village..................... Bellaire village (part of).............. Total of Bellaire village in Forest Home and Kearney townships............. Helena township......................... Jordan township.......................... Kearney township, including part of Bellaire village............................. Bellaire village (part of).............. Maneelona township, including Mancelona village............................. Mancelona village...................... M ilton township.......................... Star township............................ Torch Lake township...................... W arner township......................... 1910 1900 1890 1,603 1,482 813 512 591 721 1,810 1,935 1,307 481 526 598 802 510 537 411 473 1,775 2,042 1,486 1,673.... 967 1,181 548 450 560... 1,050 762 496 1,157 926 482 1,371 1,143 600 697 537 440 437.... 2,323 1,205 868 380 350 311 2,560 1,200 737 957 329 829 2,729 1,226 928 598 488 701 Totals................................ 15,692 16,568 10,413 HISTORIC AND PREHISTORIC What people may have traversed portions of Antrim county in prehistoric days will never be known. There is no doubt that these portions of the county bordering upon the water were visited by the

Page  320 320 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN representatives of whatever races traversed this northern country. It was a favorite country with the Indians and the Mound Builders have left their relics in several places, the particular localities noted in a previous chapter. What white men may have built their camp fires here prior to the coming of the first settlers in the late forties is neither certain nor important; that some were in this region is probable. In 1840 the unorganized county of Megesee was laid off and in 1843 the name changed to Antrim. The unorganized county embraced the territory of townships 29, 30, 31 and 32 north and west of the line Tbetween ranges 4 and 5 west and east of Grand Traverse bay. This is the earliest defined existence of the territory of Antrim county. ABRAM S. WADSWORTH, THE COUNTY S PIONEER The pioneer settler in Antrim county was Abram S. Wadsworth, a native of Durham, Connecticut, who came from Rochester, New York. to Michigan at the age of twenty-one years. He spent some time in Monroe and later located lands in Portland, Ionia county, where he built the first mill-dam thrown across the Grand river in that region. Thllat he first visited the Grand Traverse region in 1846 there is no doubt, but as to his movements during the next few years accounts differ. As nearly as can be ascertained, in 1846 he came northward, coasting in a small boat and voyaging as far as the Pictured Rocks in Lake Superior and thence to Mackinaw, Detroit and home. The following spring, accompanied by his brother-in-law, Samuel K. Northam, he took his family to Detroit, where the party embarked on a propeller for Mackinac. From the latter place they found passage on a schooner as far as Cross village. There, after camping for several days on the beach waiting for a storm to subside, they embarked in a small boat for Old Mission. At Middle village the party again went into camp and were delayed two days on account of rain. The next stop was made at Little Traverse where they hoped to obtain provisions of the Indians. They only succeeded, however, in getting a few potatoes and a single loaf of bread. The party had lived on fish until that food had ceased to tempt the appetite. The children, especially, were suffering for want of their accustomed diet. After leaving Little Traverse they were favored with pleasant weather and proceeded rapidly. The last day the bay was rough and they hesitated about crossing to Old Mission from the eastern shore along which they had been coasting. Seeing a haze of smoke on the shore near Elk river they headed for it and there found some Indians with an excellent boat who were about to cross. As a matter of precaution, Mrs. Wadsworth and the children were put into the Indians' boat, which was navigated by Mr. Wadsworth and one of the Indians, while Mr. Northam and the remaining Indians occupied Mr. Wadsworth's boat. In a short time the party landed at Old Mission in safety, arriving there on July 16, 1847. Mr. Wadsworth remained some time at Old Mission, but being a man that had much experience in mills, he saw the immense water

Page  321 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 321 power that was running to waste on the east side of the bay, and bought the land where Elk Rapids now stands. About the spring of 1849 he built a small log cabin near the present site of the town hall at Elk Rapids village. This was the first building put up by a white man in Antrim county, of which there is any account and was the initial movement in its settlement. There, with Mr. Samuel K. Northam, his brother-in-law, assisted by some Indians, Mr. Wadsworth peeled a quantity of hemlock bark and shipped it to Racine, Wisconsin, the first recorded shipment of the county's natural products. About that time he was employed by the government in the resurvey of lands and with the funds arising from his work and his bark he erected a house on his property for his family who arrived late in the fall. In 1851 the Wadsworths removed to Connecticut and spent some time in that state, but returned and spent some three years in Old Mission; thence they relocated at Elk Rapids and finally after various changes made that place their permanent home. Mr. Wadsworth died in Traverse City in June, 1871. One of his sons, James M. Wadsworth, was a business men of Bellaire. The elder Mr. Wadsworth was one of the most prominent of the early settlers in the Grand Traverse country, and his writings relating to this region were considered standard authority, having been largely instrumental in making the region known abroad. Elk Rapids river and lake were so named by Mr. Wadsworth because of a pair of elk horns which he found in the sand at the mouth of the river. He named Round lake from its shape and Clam lake from the vast number of clams found in the river. Torch lake was so named by the Indians because of the fishing lights they saw used on the lake when the white settlers first came to the country. Waswagonink, the Indian name, signifies a lake of torches. JAMES MCLAUGHLIN In 1850 Mr. Wadsworth began to make preparations for building a sawmill. In the winter of 1850-1 James McLaughlin put up the frame of the first sawmill on the east side of the bay. It was designed for a picket and lath-mill. In the spring of 1851 Wadsworth sold out to a man by the name of Norris, but for some cause the property came back into Wadsworth's hands, and November, 1851, McLaughlin moved his family to Elk river. During the fall the families of Amos Wood, Alexander McVicar and a Mormon family named Barnes arrived. The Mormons remained but a short time. Wood and McVicar became settlers of the county. Up to 1852 there were no cattle in the vicinity of Elk Rapids, except a yoke of oxen at the lumber camp on Round lake. In July Mr. McLaughlin went out to the south part of the state and drove in from Allegan a pair of oxen and a cow. Of this trip James McLaughlin says: "At Grand Rapids I was joined by William Slawson and Perry Stocking, each with a cow. From Grand Rapids they struck north and from the Muskegon river to Traverse City their route lay through Vol. 1-21

Page  322 322 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN unbroken wilderness, with only a section line to follow. The first day out from the Rapids, Slawson's cow broke away and they lost herit being the only serious mishap they had, and after traveling thirteen days they arrived at Elk Rapids. Our town was thrown into quite an excitement at the sound of a cow bell, these being the first that had ever been heard in this region. Soon after this Alexander McVicar came up from Canada, bringing with him his father's family and also two cows, which made in all four cows and two yoke of oxen on our side of the bay. It was a little amusing and at the same time it was touching to see the little children when they were offered milk; they would not touch it and didn't know what it was. The summer passed away pleasantly, bringing now and then a new recruit to our village and we soon had quite a settlement." FIRST BURIAL IN THE COUNTY About the first of November, 1852, a cloud settled over the community, caused by the death of Charles, youngest son of Mr. McLaughlin, a bright boy of thirteen. His death was caused by his swallowing a pin which he had bent for a fish hook. He had it in his mouth and was running along when he stubbed his toe and as he pitched forward the pin flew down his windpipe and lodged in his lungs. He lingered along for about two weeks and was in great distress until he died. He was the first white person ever buried in Antrim county. There was no clergyman on the east side of the bay, but appropriate funeral services were conducted by a layman, Mr. John McDonald. The grave was made in a grove of pines, in a beautiful spot on the first terrace above the bay. For several years afterward the place was used as a burying ground by the inhabitants. The remains of the first occupant were removed at a later date to Maple Grove Cemetery. ELK RAPIDS A FACT In the spring of 1852 Mr. Wadsworth laid out the village of Elk Rapids, lots being sold for twenty-five dollars each. The employment furnished by the mill was an inducement for new comers to settle in the vicinity. The first two lots sold were where the town hall now stands, which were purchased by James McLaughlin and in payment therefor he gave a blacksmith's bellows. Among those who came that season were Michael Gay, John Lake, Jared Stocking and John B. Spencer, with their families. Gay and Lake being sawyers, they were employed in the mill. During this season the schooner "Telegraph" made monthly trips to the head of the west bay for Hannah, Lay & Company, so that there was regular communication with the outside world; and for two or three seasons she was the only regular boat trading between the bay and Chicago. The year of 1853 brought many changes. Large additions of immigrants were made to the population. Among those who became residents of the village or settled in the vicinity were John Denahy, E. L.

Page  323 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 323 Sprague, J. W. Arnold, David F. Parks, Alexander Campbell and Hiram Robinson. The clearings of farners began to dot the shores of Elk lake. Early this year Mr. Wadsworth sold his mill to James Rankin & Sons, who built a store and brought in a stock of goods. Jared Stocking opened a hotel. In the fall and following winter Mr. Wadsworth built another sawmill on the site of the mill since owned by Dexter & Noble, Mr. Northan having charge of the business. The mill was scarcely completed, when he sold it to M. Craw & Company, of which firm Wirt Dexter was the principal partner. Communication with the outside world was now more regular, two vessels trading between Elk Rapids, Chicago and Milwaukee; besides the propeller "Stockman" made regular trips to Mackinaw. The fame of the country was spreading and people were coming in to seek homes and employment, there being a good demand for labor of all kinds. A notable event of the year 1853 was the opening of the first school at Elk Rapids. The house in which it was kept stood for many years a few rods from the large brick school building that has since been built. The district was organized in May, 1853, and the school was taught by George W. Ladd, a young man from the peninsula. He has long since gone to his rest, having been cut down in early manhood by consumption. Another event of 1853 was the establishment of a postoffice. It was first called Stevens and afterward changed to Elk Rapids, and the first postmaster was Theron Bostwick. Elk Rapids received its first decided impetus as a business place when Henry H. Noble located there in September, 1855, as an employee of M. Craw & Company. He came from Washtenaw county, and in the fall of 1856 when his employers dissolved partnership he associated himself with Wirt Dexter in the establishment of the firm of Dexter & Noble. For several years after 1861 their lumbering and mercantile operations monopolized the business of Elk Rapids, and placed it in line as the only available location for the county seat. EARLY COUNTY AFFAIRS Until 1863 Antrim county was attached to Grand Traverse. Its earliest records while so joined are found in an old book in the county clerk's office and relate to various township elections in 1853. It appears that John B. Spencer, John S. Barker and William H. Case, three electors of the town of Antrim, called the first town election on April 25th of that year at the house of A. S. Wadsworth, and that the following officers were chosen: John S. Barker, supervisor; Samuel Northam, treasurer; William H. Case, town clerk; John S. Barker, William H. Case, Samuel Northam and Orselas Evans, justices of the peace; William Slawson, James McLaughlin and William Wells, commissioners of highways; William Slawson and John B. Spencer, school inspectors; Enoch Wood, Jerome B. Stocking and Charles Walker, constables; Enoch Wood and John B. Spencer, directors of the poor; John B. Spencer, overseer of highways; Amos Wood, poundmaster.

Page  324 324 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN From the frequent repetition of names it is evident that the supply of official material was scarce in 1853. It was voted at the same election that twenty-five dollars be raised to defray town expenses and that "swine shall not be permitted to run at large from the first of Mlay until the twentieth of October, 1853-" in other words during the warm season. It also appears from the old records that the first list of grand and petit jurors, filed with the county clerk May 1, 1853, included John B. Spencer, James McLaughlin, William H. Case, Orselas Evans, William Slawson, John S. Barker, Jared Stocking, Samuel Northam, William Wells, Chauncey Hall, Amos Wood and Enoch M. Wood. Before Antrim county was organized the township by that name was changed to Megesee, as the original county was designated. ANTRIM COUNTY ORGANIZED On March 11, 1863, an act of legislature was approved providing for the organization of Antrim county. The act reads as follows: "The pople of the state of Michigan enact, That the county of Antrim, consisting of the territory embraced by the present county of Antrim, be, and the same is organized into a separate county by the name of Antrim, and the inhabitants thereof shall be entitled to all the privileges, powers and immunities to which, by law, the inhabitants of other organized counties in this state are entitled. "The unorganized counties of Kalkaska, Crawford, and Otsego shall be attached to the said county of Antrim for municipal and judicial purposes. "All that part of the said county of Antrim which lies north of the south line of township 31 north, shall be organized into a separate township by the name of Banks, and the first township meeting thereof shall be held at the house of Gurden Geer on the first Monday in April, next; and James Orr, Thomas Flanigan and Rock W. Geer shall be the inspectors of the election. "The dimensions of the township of Milton, in said county, shall be enlarged by adding thereto the following described territory, towit. fractional township 30 north, of range 9 west; also townships 28, 29 1, north, of range 8 west. "The name of the township of Megesee, in said county, is hereby changed to that of Elk Rapids and all of the county of Antrim and the counties attached thereto, not included within the limits of any other organized township thereof, is hereby attached for township purposes to the township of Elk Rapids. "The county seat of said county of Antrim shall be established by the board of supervisors at the village of Elk Rapids, to-wit in township 29 north, of range 9 west, and on sections 20 and 29. "At the township meeting of several townships in said county to be held on the first day of April next, there shall be an election of all the county officers to which the said county is entitled, whose term of office shall expire on the first day of January, A. D. 1865, and when

Page  325 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 325 their successors shall have been elected and qualified. Said election shall be conducted in the same way, by the same officers and the returns thereof made in the same manner, as near as may be, as is now required by law in elections of county officers in this state. "The county canvass of the votes for county officers shall be held on the second Tuesday succeeding the election at the house of Henry H. Noble at the village of Elk Rapids, and said canvass shall be conducted in the same way and by the same officers as the requirements of law now provide in organized counties, as nearly as may be, by the appointment by the board of canvassers of one of their own number to act as secretary to said board of county canvassers. "Said county shall be in the ninth judicial circuit and shall be entitled to one court therein in each year. "This act shall take immediate effect." The first county election was held on the sixth day of April, 1863. The highest number of votes polled was sixty-six and the following were the county officers elected: Sheriff, Jared W. Arnold; treasurer, Ienry H. Noble; clerk and register, James L. Gilbert; judge of probate, Solomon Case; prosecuting attorney, John B. Spencer; circuit court commissioner, John B. Spencer; surveyor, A. S. Wadsworth. FIRST COURT HOUSE AND JAIL At a special session of the board held July 19, 1865, it was resolved that the sum of one thousand dollars should be raised, in the tax roll of 1865, for the purpose of building a court house and jail for Antrim county, to be erected on the northeast quarter of the southeast fractional quarter of section 20, town 29 north, of range 9 west, known as lots 46 to 201 inclusive, in the village of Elk Rapids according to a plat made by A. S. Wadsworth of said village. On motion of Lemuel R. Smith it was resolved that, in addition to the one thousand dollars raised by tax, two thousand dollars should be appropriated from the contingent fund then on hand, belonging to the county, for the purpose of building a court house and jail. On motion of Lemuel R. Smith, Henry H. Noble was appointed a building committee of one to procure plans and specifications for the proposed county buildings and to let contracts for their erection. During the year 1866 a court house was completed at a cost of about $7,100. A jail was also erected. About this time a local paper, speaking of the jail, said: "While speaking of the court house and jail we are reminded that while this county has all the 'machinery' necessary to punish delinquents there seems to be but little use for it; there never having been a criminal suit in the county since its organization. Either the people are very moral or the rogues think the jail too substantially built for them to be caught in it, and so keep out of mischief. " Up to 1874 the county had not received a perfect title to the prop

Page  326 326 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN erty and in October, 1874, the supervisors reported having received satisfactory evidence of title by warranty deed from Dexter & Noble. COUNTY SEAT MOVED TO BELLAIRE As the country developed and the eastern part of the county became settled, the question of removing the county seat to a more central point than Elk Rapids was agitated. In October, 1878, there were thirteen organized townships in the county, and at the meeting of the board of supervisors held that month it was voted to remove the county seat to the "south fractional half of the southwest fractional quarter of section 19, in town 30 north, range 7 west." The question was voted upon at the spring election. The whole number of votes cast was 1,020, of which 574 were for removal and 446 against- removal. The vote of the several towns was a follows: Banks, 35 for, 75 against; Central Lake, 35 for, 35 against; Chestonia, 52 for; Custer, 71 for; Echo, 90 for; Elk Rapids, 6 for and 145 against; Forest Home, 43 for and 3 against; Helena, 66 for and 4 against; Jordan, 29 for and 34 against; Kearney, 60 for and 1 against; Mancelona, 74 for and 1 against; Milton, 12 for and 122 against; Torch Lake, 1 for and 28 against. The decision of the board having been affirmed by popular vote, the courthouse site was in the following June definitely located on the land above described. The owner of the land thus designated platted the same, and on the 24th day of June, 1879, the plat was recorded in the office of the register of deeds and the village of Bellaire became the new capital of the county. As indicated by the vote the removal involved a bitter contest. Efforts were made to prevent the payment of money for the erection of buildings at the new county seat, and a temporary building was erected by Ambrose E. Palmer, of Kalkaska, the owner of the site. In 1880, at the April term, the question was tried in the supreme court and at the decision affirmed the proceedings by which the removal had been made. Five acres of land were then set apart by Mr. Palmer for a courthouse square, and in 1883 a large building was erected by the town of Kearney for a town hall, which by an arrangement by the county was used for county purposes, the first floor for county offices and the hall above for a courtroom. A jail was built in 1883 at a cost of about $5,000. The buildings now occupied are modern and convenient, as will be seen by the illustration. BELLAIRE, PRESENT COUNTY SEAT Bellaire, the present official seat of Antrim county, is a neat thriving village of some sixteen hundred inhabitants lying within both in Kearney and Forest Home townships. It is also situated on both sides of the Intermediate river which connects Intermediate and Grass lakes, and has an improved water power of much value and promise.

Page  327 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 327 Bellaire is the center of a good farming, fruit and live stock country, has a number of growing industries and enjoys transportation and shipping facilities through the Pere Marquette and East Jordan & Southern railroads. Geographically, Bellaire is a little west of the center of the county. It lies in what is known as the Intermediate valley, which is about thirty miles in length and watered mainly by the Intermediate chain;:.O of water- are from a few rods to three or four miles in length and are the delight of the sportsman and fisherman who are really fond of outdoor life with comparative quiet. The history of Bellaire commences in 1878 with the location of the county seat at the south fractional half of the southwest fractional quarter of section 19, town 30 north and range 7 west. In June of that year the courthouse site was definitely located on the land described, the state supreme court having decided that the removal from Elk Rapids was legal during the previous month. Mr. Palmer, the owner of the land, recorded the plat, including the five acres set aside for the courthouse square, on June 24, 1879. The proprietor had been

Page  328 328 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN charmed by the purity of the air in this region, and so named the new village and county seat Bellaire. A postoffice was established at this location known as Keno, with Rufus Hall as postmaster; in July, 1881, Dempster H. Stebbins was appointed to succeed Mr. Hall and, through his influence, the name was changed to Bellaire, to correspond with the village plat. In January, 1880, with the growth of the village, Harvey T. Alcott platted the first addition to his tract lying to the south, and in the following year John Hasting made one to the north. In 1882 J. M. Wadsworth and John E. Cook. the latter proprietor of the pioneer BIRD'S EYE VIEW OF BELLAIRE hotel, purchased the original plat of the village. Cook & Wadsworth, as the firm was known, laid out Mound Park on the opposite side of the river from the business section of the village. The land rose in a series of terraces, or mounds, in which various prehistoric relics had been found, and became a favorite residence quarter as the village extended in that direction. The excellent water power at Bellaire soon attracted various manufacturing enterprises and by the early eighties Richardi & Bechtold had in operation a large sawmill and wooden ware factory and there were also two shingle mills, a planing mill and a rolling pin and desk factory. The firm of Richardi & Bechtold was composed of Robert Richardi, a practical and inventive German machinist who had served in the Civil war and settled at Bellaire in 1881; and Frederick W. Bechtold, a young Belgian and Union soldier, who had had experience as a salesman and has ever since been active in the industrial and financial en

Page  329 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 329 terprises of the village. Before coming to Michigan Mr. Richardi had invented a wooden scoop and various machinery for manufacturing wooden trays. As the practical man of the enterprise he joined Mr. Bechtold, who was especially adapted to pushing the sales of their products. Their partnership resulted in the establishment of a manufactory for the making of trays, bowls and wooden ware in general, and the industry in a much extended form has been continued to this day. Henry Richardi, the son, has succeeded his father, the founder of the business, and Frederick W. Bechtold is still a partner. Mr. Bechtold has been continuously active in the industrial and financial interests of the village and is also associated with Henry Richardi in the ownership and management of the Bellaire Hydraulic Light and Power Company. The early operations of Richardi & Bechtold, with subsequent developments brought about by the firm whose presidency has passed to Henry Richardi have been of such concern to the well being of Bellaire that a reliable account is taken from a late publication: 'Robert Richardi continued to be actively identified with the industrial enterprises here until 1895. when he sold his interests to his son, having had charge of the mechanical and operative departments of the business and being a man of distinctive talents and skill in a mechanical way. Upon closing out his interests here, he established an electric light and power plant in the village of Plainwell, Allegan county, whence he eventually moved to the city of Richmond, Virginia, to operate a fine electric plant there. "Robert Richardi was associated with Mr. Bechtold in the development of the valuable water power at Bellaire, utilizing the same in the operation of the first wooden ware plant in which employment was given to about forty men. In 1900 a stock company was organized and incorporated, while the scope of operations has been greatly expanded under the present regime, that of the Bellaire Wooden Ware Company. " Since the above was written and mainly through the efforts, influence and capital of Henry Richardi and Mr. Bechtold the water power has been utilized as a generator of electricity for lighting and power purposes. In 1906 the fine plant at Bellaire was completed at a cost, with the conveying system, of about $75,000. Mr. Richardi is president and Mr. Bechtold secretary of the controlling company. Through this plant electric light and power are sent to Charlevoix and thence distributed from a central plant and the planing and grist mills at Bellaire are supplied with power. The village of Bellaire has its own municipal lighting plant for night service. It is located on the Cedar river about a mile from the village, having been established in 1901 and rebuilt in 1910. Bellaire was incorporated as a village in 1891, and its first officers consisted of Frederick W. Bechtold as president; Fred B. Zoon, clerk; Alfred A. Hickox, assessor, and J. C. Abbott, treasurer. It has a well organized Central Union school and a public library of some 1,500 volumes. The latter is a consolidation of the old Forest Home and Kearney township libraries, which occurred in 1905, and the

Page  330 330 HIISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN collection is housed in the Kearney town hall. The leading churches are the Methodist, Catholic and Congregational. The Bellaire State Bank, successor of a private institution, was established in 1906. It has a capital of $20,000; surplus and undivided profits amounting to $4,400, and the following officers: F. W. Bechtold, president; Charles Weiffenbach, vice-president, and W. H. Richards. cashier. ELK RAPIDS OF TODAY The pioneer times in the history of Elk Rapids have been traced in preceding pages of this chapter up to the period of the transfer of MIAIN STREET, ELK RAPIDS I he county seat to Bellaire. At that time the Dexter & Noble Lumber Company had branched out into many enterprises. It had built a furnace and was conducting it as the Elk Rapids Iron Company, and various stores were being conducted as the Elk Rapids Supply Company. while the Elk Rapids Light Company was to be a later evolution. A flour mill was started, which is still in operation, and the Elk Rapids Iron Company improved the water power so that it became the greatest asset in the prosperity of the place. In 1890 the Elk Rapids Cement & Lime Company was organized and built a large cement mill at the village. which was in operation until 1911. The Lake Superior Iron & Chemical Company was perhaps the latest outgrowth of the Dexter & Noble enterprises and the Elk Rapids Iron Company, in which were bound up so much of the industrial and business life of Elk Rapids. It was incorporated as a village in 1900.

Page  331 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 331 The village still supports various wooden manufactories, such as lumber and lath mills, has a good flour mill and one of the best natural water powers in its section of the state. It is located in a fine fruit and farming country, and is in the midst of the great potato-producing section of Northern Michigan. During one season of the past six years about 75,000 bushels were shipped from the township, the bulk from Elk Rapids. The shipping facilities of the place are excellent, as it is situated on the Pere Marquette road and has deep water communication with all the ports of the Great Lakes. The local trade and business are transacted through the Elk Rapids Savings Bank with a capital of $35,000. Elk Rapids has an excellent graded school housed in a $24,000 building, a public library, and churches organized by Methodists, Presbyterians, Catholics, and Episcopalians. There is also a strong German Reformed Society. It was here, at the mouth of Elk river, that the religious activities first began on the eastern shores of Grand Traverse bay, or to give the details in Dr. Leach's words: "Until 1857 there had been no stated religious service anywhere on the east side of the bay. On the second day of August in that year, Rev. D. R. Latham crossed from Old Mission and preached at Elk Rapids. He attempted to include that point in his round of regular appointments, but often found it difficult to cross the bay. When, in the fall of 1858, the Michigan Methodist Conference detached Elk Rapids from Old Mission and Traverse City and erected it, with the adjacent territory, into what was known as the Whitewater circuit, Mr. Latham was assigned to it as preacher in charge and moved from Old Mission to his new work. " In the fall of 1862 the Congregationalists sent Rev. Leroy Warren up into Northern Michigan to see what chance there was for a mission in that benighted part of the country, and he located at Elk Rapids as the first preacher of that denomination. A society was organized in February of the following year. The Church of the Covenant, Protestant Episcopal, was formed at the old courthouse in Elk Rapids, August 29, 1867. These were the earliest foundations of religious life laid in the village. MANCELONA Mancelona, thirteen miles southeast of Bellaire, is a flourishing village on the Grand Trunk & Indiana Railroad and is but a few years younger than the county seat. The first movements at this point having any connection with a village were in the spring of 1872 by Leander C. Handy and A. D. Carpenter, who opened a store and established the nucleus of a business center. Prior to that time section 20, upon a portion of which the village is located, had been occupied a short time. Perry Andress, after residing several years in Lapeer and St. Joseph counties, Benton Harbor and Allegan, came with his family in 1869 to where Mancelona now is, before the township was organized. He took the site of the Mancelona Hotel and vicinity as a homestead.

Page  332 332 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Mr. Andress erected the hotel building and opened a place of public entertainment when the railroad was just being surveyed, and also gave some attention to lumbering. In 1880 he removed to Petoskey, purchased the Occidental Hotel and retained it until his death, March 11, 1881. The town and village of Mancelona were named from Mr. Andress' youngest daughter, Mancelona Andress, afterward well known in Petoskey society. Leander C. Handy and A. D. Carpenter opened the first store at Mancelona in 1872. Mr. Handy bought the first village lot, erected the first frame building, sold the first merchandise, bought the first load of wheat and the first load of apples, shipped the first carload of wheat and assisted in securing the location of the blast furnace operated by J. Otis & Company, the Mancelona handle factory and the butter dish and sash, door and blind factories. He may be put down in local history as the real founder of the village. The second store was started by Marshall Emery, and soon after the arrival of Perry Andress, the proprietor of the village plat, a postoffice was established with Mr. Andress as postmaster. He kept the office in his hotel for about a year, when Mr. Handy succeeded him and continued in office for many years. A Congregational church was organized at Mancelona in 1874. The Methodists supplied the villagers with occasional preaching in 1873-5, and the Mancelona and Kalkaska circuit was organized in 1877. In 1875 a schoolhouse was built which answered the needs of the district for several years, but in 1882 a Union building was erected, the pupils being regularly graded during that year. In 1877 Mr. Andress, the original proprietor of Mancelona, platted about fifteen acres on the north half of section 20, thus adding to the area of the village. Furnaceville, or Antrim, which adjoins Mancelona on the south, is practically a part of the village. It was founded by John Otis, a New York man who located there in 1882 and, with R. M. Cherrie, erected and started a blast furnace for the manufacture of charcoal pig iron. In May, 1883, the furnace and all the main buildings of the plant were consumed by fire at a loss of about $40,000, but in September Mr. Otis resumed the enterprise alone and developed it finally into a large iron manufactory employing about one hundred and fifty men. He also started a broom factory, built large kilns for the manufacture of charcoal and made Furnaceville a busy industrial town. It is still an important manufacturing center with a large plant for the making of wood alcohol and chemicals, an extensive charcoal pig iron furnace, and saw and planing mills. Mancelona and Furnaceville combined present a picture of varied industrial life, for, besides the manufactories mentioned, they turn out flour, veneer, cheese box material, broom handles, butter and gasoline launch engines-certainly a conglomeration. Mancelona township contains about twelve thousand acres of cutover hardwood timber lands, the soil of which is of a heavy sandy loam and particularly favorable to heavy potato crops. Abundant

Page  333 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 333 crops have, in fact, been raised, as may be verified by the shipments of over one hundred and seventy-five carloads of potatoes in one of the recent seasons. Most of this trade gravitates to the village. A village incorporation was secured in 1889; so that Mancelona is now a regular civil bddy with wide paved streets, electric light and power plant, an excellent system of water works, a good bank (Antrim County State Savings), two weekly newspapers, an up-to-date public school system and a fine county normal school, a township library, an opera house and a number of churches. The last named include Methodist, Catholic, Congregational, Episcopal and German Reformed organizations. CENTRAL LAKE Central Lake, which was incorporated as a village in 1895, is eight miles north of Bellaire on the Pere Marquette road. It is a substantial community of between eight and nine hundred people and is the center of a productive farming country of the Intermediate lake region. Swveet corn, beans, squash and all kinds of fruit are plentifully raised in the adjacent sections, and Central Lake has one of the largest canning factories in the Grand Traverse region, besides being a leading shipping station for these varieties of farm produce. Its industries also include flour, lumber, stave and shingle mills and the building of boats. The trade and industries of the village require the facilities of two banks-a private institution and the First State Bank, the latter capitalized at $20,000. The good points of Central Lake are spread abroad by a weekly newspaper and four religious organizations minister to its spiritual needsthe Congregational, Methodist, Free Methodist and Episcopalian. STATIONS AND POSTOFFICES Outside of its incorporated villages, there are several stations and postoffices which may now be mentioned. Eastport, at the head of Torch lake and about six miles northwest of the village of Central Lake, is a small settlement which was first known as Wilson. About 1869 a man named Phillips built a hotel here, but the place did not seem to prosper, although a survey was made for a village plat in 1873 and given the name of Wilson. A postoffice was established and several stores opened and the name was soon changed to Eastport. But this more imposing name did not greatly stimulate the village. It is still but a small collection of buildings depending upon Central Lake for its banking and shipping accommodations. A daily stage runs to that station and, in the open season, it is connected by steamer with Elk Rapids. The village of Torch Lake is on the western shore of the body of water by that name, or, more strictly speaking, on a narrow strip of land between Torch lake and Grand Traverse bay. It is nine miles from Central Lake, which is also its nearest shipping and banking point.

Page  334 334 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN The settlement has stage communication with both Central Lake and Elk Rapids. But Torch Lake carries one back to as early as 1858, for in that year, Captain John W. Brown built a large log house and barn where Torch Village now is. He also built some shanties on the beach of Torch lake and cleared some thirty acres of land. The place was named Brownstown. Captain Brown was commander of the "Paine" and is said to have been a better sailor than farmer. He spent considerable time and money without reaping any benefit. In 1864 he sold to Wilcox & Newell, who moved on and erected a sawmill, which they had hardly gotten in running order before it was burned down. In the summer of 1866 a postoffice called Torch Lake was established with Major Cicero Newell postmaster, and from that time the name of Brownstown was dropped. Alden is a pretty summer resort on the southeastern shores of Torch lake near its extremity, and was formerly known as Spencer Creek, as it is also at the mouth of that stream. The stream received its name from John B. Spencer, a lumberman who operated in that vicinity. In 1870 F. J. Lewis built a store there, naming the settlement which clustered around it, Noble; but the village was afterwards called successively Spencer Creek and Alden, receiving its present name as a station of the Pere Marquette Railroad. Alba is at the junction of the Grand Rapids & Indiana and Detroit & Charlevoix railroads, in the eastern part of the county, lying both in Chestonia and Star townships. The original plat of the village was made by William J. Barker in 1878, and two additions were platted in 1882 and 1883. It has a good graded school, a private bank, two churches, several stores, a flour mill, machine shop and saw planing and feed mill, and is altogether quite a brisk little place. ORGANIZATION OF THE TOWNSHIPS The town of Milton was organized by the board of supervisors of Grand Traverse county at a meeting held March 3, 1857. In 1865, two years after the organization of Antrim county, the town of Milton was changed to Helena and a new township was created under the original name. The legislative act of 1863 organizing the county created the townships of Banks and Elk Rapids-the latter being previously known as Megesee township. The town of Torch Lake was organized by the county board in 1866; Forest Home and Mancelona in 1871, the former by the board of supervisors and the latter by the state legislature; Central Lake by the legislature in 1873; Chestonia by the county board in 1874; Kearney, Echo, Custer and Jordan by the board of supervisors in 1875; Star by the county board in 1881, and the town of Warner by the legislature of the state in 1883.

Page  335 CHAPTER XIII LEELANAU COUNTY NATURAL CHARACTERISTICS-THE CARP LAKE REGION-THE GLEN LAKE REGION-POPULATION AND PROPERTY-FIRST SETTLERS-FIRST YEARS OF GROWTH-COUNTY ORGANIZED-NORTHPORT, FIRST COUNTY SEAT — LELAND, PRESENT COUNTY SEAT-EMPIRE-SUTTON'S BAYPROVEMONT-OMENA AND PESHABATOWN-GLEN ARBOR AND BURDICKVILLE. Leelanau county with its 227,200 acres of area constitutes that sharply defined peninsula which juts out from the northwestern shoulder of Northern Michigan between the deep waters of Lake Michigan on the west and those of Grand Traverse bay on the east. The great bodies of water which embrace the county on three sides affect the climate to the great comfort and advantage of the people and the region of their residence; for the summers are not as warm in Leenanau or the winters as cold as in most places in the state of the same latitude. Eighty-three per cent of this county was once covered with maple, beech, elm, birch, oak and other hardwoods, and ten per cent was swamp land, but most of the heavy timber has been cut away, and one-third of the county is now in cultivated farms and orchards. More than 138,000 acres have been set aside for agricultural purposes, and the rolling uplands of the northern sections are ideal for the raising of fruit. Apples and peaches flourish, as well as alfalfa and all forage crops, and the abundance of lakes and streams throughout the county, with the equable climate, make dairying a growing industry. LEELANAU CHARACTERISTICS Leelanau county is an aggregation of hills, valleys, plains, forests, lakes, headlands, inlets and islands, one of the most picturesque regions of Northern Michigan and warmly favored by- the sportsman and summer resorter. The county is an irregular triangle in shape, its greatest length being thirty-nine miles and its greatest width, along its southern boundary, twenty-two miles. It has a shore line of more than one hundred miles. The most striking interior features of the county center in the valleys of Carp and Glen Lakes. The late Professor Winchell thus speaks of the topography of Leelanau county: "Some parts of the county present hills of somewhat formidable magnitude. Most 335


Page  337 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 337 of the northern part of the triangle is decidedly rough. The ridge of land separating Carp lake from Sutton's bay attains an elevation of nearly four hundred feet above the bay. Carp lake is a beautiful sheet of pure water, resting in the bosom of hills, which with their rounded forest-covered forms furnish it a setting of surpassing loveliness. Except for a short space on the east side south of the narrows the shores of the lake are occupied by dry and arable land. The region between Glen Arbor and Traverse City is substantially an undulating plateau, lying at an elevation of about three hundred feet above the lake. Glen lake is surrounded by hills, which attain an elevation of two hundred and fifty to four hundred feet. "North Unity is a bold bluff of clay and sand, formed by the wasting of the lakeward side of a prominent hill by the action of the waves. "Sleeping Bear Point is an enormous pile of gravel, sand and clay, which has been worn away on its exposed borders till the lakeward face presents a precipitous slope rising from the waters to an elevation of five hundred feet, and forming with the horizon an angle of fifty degrees. Back from the face of the bluff is an undulating plateau of clay, pebbles and sand covering an area of six or eight square miles, over which the only signs of vegetation are a few tufts of brown, coarse grass with scattered clumps of dwarfed and gnarly specimens of the blam of Gilead, a miniature desert lying three hundred and eighty feet above the lake. Across this waste of sand and clay the wind sweeps almost incessantly,-sometimes with relentless fury-driving pebbles and sand into the shelter of the neighboring forest, and causing the stunted poplars to shrink away in terror at its violence. The pelting sand has polished the exposed surface of the larger fragments of rocks to such an extent that they reflect the sunlight like a mirror. Their surfaces are sometimes worked into furrows, pits and grotesque inequalities in consequence of the unequal hardness of different portions of the stone. The 'Bear' proper is an isolated mound rising a hundred feet above this desolate plateau and singularly covered with evergreens and other trees, presenting from the lake the dark appearance which suggested to the early navigators the idea of a bear in repose. " THE CARP LAKE REGION Carp or Leelanau lake, a fine body of water twenty-five miles long and from a few rods to three miles wide, cuts longitudinally through the two eastern tiers of townships to Lake Michigan by way of the Leelanau river. The entire shore on both sides is indented with bays into which empty some fine trout streams. Cedar river, a cold spring brook, empties into Carp lake near Cedar and is one of the best of the trout streams. Carp lake itself supplies to the sportsman virtually every fish known to the waters of Northern Michigan-Mackinaw trout, black, green and speckled bass, white fish, pickerel, muskalonge, perch, sunfish and speckled trout. A special feature of the fishing on Carp lake is the deep water trolling for Mackinaw trout. Vol. 1-22

Page  338 338 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Around Carp lake, or Lake Leelanau as it is becoming known, are springing up summer camps and cottages and its future as an attractive and popular resort country is assured. The entire region well upholds the translation from the Indian name Leelanau, "Delight of Life." Leland, the county seat, is located between the head of Carp lake and Lake Michigan. THE GLEN LAKE REGION This includes the southwestern townships of the county, and some of the most picturesque, romantic, fertile and progressive sections of D. H. DAY HOMESTEAD, GLEN LAKE its territory. An interested enthusiast speaks thus in 1911: "Glen lake, from one to three miles wide. seven miles long-is abundantly stocked with fish, bass, lake-trout, pickerel and perch. Yearly, since 1893, the spawn from the state fish hatcheries is planted in the lake and the brook-trout stream that empties into it after passing through Atkinson's pond at DeGrawville. For beauty scenery Glen lake is classed as the equal of Lake George and by some even of Lake Como. Tt is fast becoming a great resort lake. Many hotels and cottages are beginning to line its shores and it is destined to soon be one of the most popular resorts in MIichigan. accessible by railroad to Empire and by the Northern Mlichigan Transportation Company's steamers to Glen Haven. The roads throughout the region surrounding the lake are good, thus making automobiling a delightful pastime.

Page  339 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 339 "On the north shore of the western end of the lake is one of the finest private forestry propositions in the state of Michigan. Fourteen hundred acres are covered with second growth birches, elms, maples, basswoods, oak and pines. These trees are now forty years old and beneath their shade-giving branches are beautiful walks and drives. The forest is the property of D. H. Day. To the south of the lake are several pieces of virgin timber that are being preserved and that prove a fairy world to all lovers of the woodland. Elsewhere there is already all too little of the 'forest primeval.' " Overtowering the inland lake on the west is the celebrated 'Sleeping Bear.' This is one of the points of greatest interest in the state. The stretch of sand dunes, reaching from Sleeping Bear Point to Empire, eight miles to the southward, with its wide expanse of ever changing hills and ravines and with a sandy surface that is so hard that it can be driven upon, is a glorious place for resorters and picnic parties to while away dreamy summer days. From the top of the Bear a beautiful view of Lake Michigan is to be had. At the northern extremity of the Bear is a United States life saving station, which furnishes much of interest to visitors. The north and south Manitou islands are places for the excursionist and explorer. They are admirably located for days' outings as they can be reached from Glen Haven by launches. "The Glen Lake Valley reaching from Burdickville to Maple City contains some of the best lands in Leelanau county. This valley lies entirely in Kasson township, within the limits of which have been found some of the finest stands of hardwood timber in the country. This fact is a testimonial to the richness of the soil. Down the valley is a good road to Burdickville where is located a large warehouse at which all kinds of produce is received for shipment and is bought. Freight is here loaded on cars, ferried across Glen lake to the railroad at Day's mill, hauled to his dock on Lake Michigan and forwarded by the Northern Michigan Transportation Company steamers to Chicago and other lake points." It may be added that lands in Empire, Kasson and Glen Arbor township are especially well suited to the raising of fruits; that fine orchards are being planted and the proprietors locating. Neither is the Glen lake region a new country. It is well settled, has good roads, telephone service, rural delivery and well established schools and churches; in a word, it is a good region for those looking for homes. POPULATION AND PROPERTY Besides Empire. in the Glen Lake region, the only other incorporated villages are Northport and Sutton's Bay on Grand Traverse bay, places of about four and five hundred people respectively. North -Manitou island is civilly attached to Leland township and South Manitou to Glen Arbor. The status of these communities, as well as the several townships of the county, is fairly indicated by the census figures for 1890, 1900 and 1910.

Page  340 340 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Civil Divisions 1910 1900 1890 Bingham township........................... 744 Centerville township......................... 1,051 Cleveland township.......................... 586 Elmwood township.......................... 744 Empire township, including Empire village.. 1,212 Empire village........................... 578 Glen Arbor township......................... 550 Kasson township............................. 838 Leelanau township, including Northport village.. 1,668 Northport village......................... 524 Leland township............................. 1,248 Solon township.............................. 766 Sutton Bay township, including Sutton's Bay village................................. 1,201 Sutton's Bay village...................... 402 Totals................................... 10,608 811 1,285 506 824 1,155 609 593 685 1,620 946 888 927 927 552 734 596 353 558 1,397 708 367 1,243 1,033 398..... 10,556 7,944 The assessed valuation of property for 1910, as equalized, is as follows: Real estate, $2,597,207; personal property, $420,170; total, $3.017,377. FIRST SETTLERS It is claimed by some that the first white settler within the present limits of Leelanau county was a Frenchman named Nazaros Dona, who lived about two miles south of the present site of Leland, then called Shemacopink. It is not probable, however, that he lived there except while engaged in fishing, or that he could be considered a settler of the county. In 1847 John Lerue came from Chicago to the Manitou islands in search of health. At that time there was a pier, or wharf, on each of the two islands where passing steamers used to call for wood, the one on the north island being owned by Mr. Pickard, that on the south by Mr. Barton. On the north Manitou were two fishermen without families. The lighthouse was kept by a man named Clark. There were no white men at that time in Leelanau county. Farther south, at the mouth of the Betsey river, there was living a white man named Joseph Oliver, with an Indian wife, who supported his family by trapping and fishing. There were no Indians living on the Manitous, but they frequently came there to trade. Finding the climate favorable to his health, Mr. Lerue commenced trading with the Indians, and the next year moved his establishment over to the mainland, locating at what was then called Sleeping Bear bay, now Glen Arbor, and was probably the first permanent white settler.

Page  341 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 341 NORTHPORT FOUNDED The most prominent figure in the earliest history of Leelanau county is that of the late Rev. George N. Smith, a minister of the Congregational church who had spent ten years in missionary work among the Indians of Black river, Ottawa county. Visiting the bay in the summer of 1848, with some of the Mission Indians, he selected a location on the shore some distance north of the site of the present village of Northport. The arrival and the first experiences of the party are related by James J. McLaughlin, long a resident of Elk Rapids, and a son of James McLaughlin. "It was a beautiful morning," he says "in the early part of June, 1849, that the schooner 'Merrill' rounded Cat Head Point and stood up the bay. She had on board three families that were to make the first commencement where Northport now stands -those of James McLaughlin, the owner of the vessel, who was in the employ of the government; Rev. George N. Smith, missionary and teacher among the Ottawa Indians, and William H. Case, a brother-inlaw of the owner of the vessel. These parties had been ordered by the government to Grand Traverse, then almost unknown to white men, with an Indian mission from Allegan county in this state. It seemed to us, as we gazed upon the beautiful scenery that met our eyes at every turn, that we had found the 'Eldorado.' The forests were unbroken; the axe of the white man had not marred its beauty; the beach of the bay was not strewn with the refuse of the sawmill, but all lay in the state that Dame Nature had kept it, beautiful beyond description. "The place decided upon as the point to settle was near the creek where Northport is. The vessel was anchored off there the morning of the 11th of June. The men, armed with their axes, went ashore to prepare to build a house. The women and children enjoyed a walk on terra firma once more. Soon the sound of the axe broke the stillness of the forest, logs were cut, the ground cleared and everything made ready for the first raising on the west side of Grand Traverse bay. But right here arose a difficulty; the logs were cut for a house nineteen feet square, good sized logs too and there was no team to haul them with. We couldn't go to the neighbors and borrow one, for the nearest neighbors were fifteen miles away and they across the water. But the pioneer is generally equal to the emergency; at least he was in this case. The vessel was now resorted to and blocks and ropes were brought ashore and a purchase rigged, by which, with the help of every man, woman and child that could pull on a rope, the logs were hauled into their places, and the house began to rise, and in the course of two or three days it was ready for the roof. Right at this point we found there was no roof ready, but taking a few boards that were in the vessel we stuck one end in a crack, the other on a beam, thus obtaining a sort of a shelter for the beds. We learned that lumber could be obtained at the head of the bay, the schooner was started for some, and in a short time we had a very fair house.

Page  342 342 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN FIRST FOURTH IN TRAVERSE REGION "It seemed a very short time before what should come along but the Fourth of July; the glorious old Fourth, and that must be celebrated in good old style! But what were we to do? We had no cannon, no flag, nor any of the prerequisites necessary for celebration; but an old man-of-wars-man that had left the vessel to stay with us on shore, brought to light a red flannel shirt, and with a sheet for the white, he soon made a respectable flag. The morning of the Fourth was ushered in with a salute from all the guns we could muster, and our flag flying. The whole force of the settlement, numbering fifteen alltold. started for a picnic on the little island out in the bay. We ate our dinner, spent the day pleasantly and toward night returned home well pleased with ourselves and everybody else. Thus passed the first Fourth of July celebration in the Grand Traverse region, a small beginning, but as full of patriotism and love of country as any that has ever been held since. With early fall preparations were made for a long northern winter, supposing of course that in this high latitude, we would have at least six or eight months of winter; but we were agreeably suprised to see the fall months pass away, and no snow until the 12th of December, and instead of the cold dreary winter we had anticipated it was a mild, pleasant winter that would compare favorably with that of the south part of the state. There was but very little ice in the bay, and not enough at any time to obstruct navigation. The spring opened early, the first of April finding the snow and every vestige of ice removed, and the ground ready for the farmer.to go to work; but there were no farmers to go to work." About fifty families of Indians followed their missionary to the site of the present Northport. A log schoolhouse was built and an Indian village there established, named Wau-ka-zoo-ville in honor of one of their noted chiefs. During the first years of his residence, Mr. Smith devoted himself solely to mission work among the Indians, but afterward he organized a Congregational church among the whites of which he was pastor for many years. His death occurred on the 5th of April, 1881, after a brief illness caused by long-continued physical exposure, and his remains were buried near the home he had hewed out of the forest on the shore of Grand Tranverse bay. FIRST YEARS OF GROWTH The development of Leelanau county was very materially retarded by an extensive Indian reservation, lying in the midst of an active white population. This reservation was made a few months after the settlement of Northport. It extended from the village of Northport south to township 28, and embraced the entire county as far west as range 13 west. leaving only the small triangle north of Northport as the sustaining back country for that village. The term of reservation expired in 1866. In 1858 and 1859 farmers began to come in slowly, and from that

Page  343 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 343 time development was steady. Leelanau county was mentioned in the winter of 1862 as follows: "The county of Leelanau embraces the entire peninsula formed by Lake Michigan and Grand Traverse bay and extends south seven miles below the mouth of Betsie river. It is bounded on the east by Grand Traverse bay, on the west and north by Lake Michigan, and on the south by Manistee. It has eighty-six miles of lake and forty miles of bay coast. There are five organized townships, viz: Leelanau, Centerville, Glen Arbor, Crystal Lake and Benzonia. Leelanau contains 720 whites and 319 Indians; Centerville 411 whites and 237 Indians; Glen Arbor 252 whites, no Indians; Crystal Lake 127 whites, no Indians. Total: 1,603 whites, 554 Indians; grand total, 2,157. As Benzonia was only organized last fall we have no means of knowing its number of inhabitants. It includes the Benzonia or Bailey colony, where it is in contemplation to build a college. Many of the best lands in the county are held by and reserved for the Indians, which has greatly retarded its settlement. "The village of Northport is in the township of Leelanau. It is pleasantly situated on a safe and capacious harbor of the bay. About ten miles from its mouth, and is the largest village on the bay, containing four hundred inhabitants. The old Indian village of Wau-ka-zoo-ville and Northport are now one and the same, the Indians having sold out and abandoned it. It is an important wooding point for the propellers trading between Chicago and the lower lakes, and has two extensive wharves, five stores, three hotels, several saloons, one sawmill and a number of mechanic shops. "The new Indian mission under the charge of Rev. Mr. Dougherty is also in this township. It is delightfully situated on a commanding eminence of the bay six miles south of Northport. "Centerville joins Leelanau on the south and extends nearly to the head of the bay, and westerly from the bay to Lake Michigan. It embraces Carp lake-some eighteen miles long, and from one to two miles wide-a beautiful sheet of water abounding in choice varieties of fish. "The principal business point is Leland, at the confluence of Carp river with Lake Michigan. Messrs. Cordes & Thiess have an extensive wharf here for wooding propellers, and they have also a saw and gristmill. John I. Miller has a beautiful farm in the immediate vicinity of the bay, among which are those of James, Robert and Thomas Lee, Messrs Bates, Sutton and Cumberworth. Further up the bay Mr. Norris has a tannery, a gristmill and an excellent water power. "'Glen Arbor lies north and west of Traverse City and is an excellent township of land. The settlement is mostly on the western side of the town in the vicinity of Lake Michigan. There are two villages, Glen Arbor and North Unity, the latter a German settlement. Glen Arbor is at the cone formed by Sleeping Bear Point and is a wooding point for propellers. " At the time the foregoing was written Leelanau county had just been born as a civil and political body.

Page  344 I.* "*t -: l, % > 1 i iSI [Courtesy Western Michigan Development Bureau] EIGIT YEARS FROM TIMBER LAND

Page  345 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 345"a COUNTY ORGANIZED In 1840 that portion of the state lying west of the county of Omeena and of Grand Traverse bay, including the Mlanitou islands, was laid off and designated as the county of Leelanau. It was attached to Grand Traverse county for judicial purposes. It was not regularly organized, however, until in the winter of 1862-3, when the legislature passed the enabling act. AN ACT To organize the county of Leelanau and define the county of Benzie: "Section 1. The people of the state of Michigan enact that all that part of the county of Leelanau which lies north of the south line of township 28 north shall be organized, and the inhabitants thereof shall be entitled to all the rights, privileges and powers to which, by law, the inhabitants of other organized counties in this state are entitled. " Section 2. At the township meeting to be held in the several townships in said county on the first Monday in April next there shall be an election of all the county officers to which, by law, the said county may be entitled, whose term of office shall expire on the first day of January, A. D., eighteen hundred and sixty-five, and when their successors shall have been elected and qualified. "Section 3. The board of county canvassers under the provisions of this act shall meet on the second Tuesday succeeding the day of election, as herein appointed, in the village of Northport in said county at the house of Joseph Dame or at such other place as may be agreed upon and provided by such board, and organize by appointing one of their number chairman and another secretary, and shall thereupon proceed to discharge all the duties of a board of county canvassers as in other cases of the election of county officers as prescribed by the general law. "Section 4. The location of the county seat of said county shall be determined by the vote of the electors of said county at a special election which is hereby appointed to be held by the several townships of said county on the first Monday in June next. There shall be written on the ballots then polled by the qualified electors of said county, one of the following names of places, to-wit: Glen Arbor, Leelanau or Northport, and that one which shall receive the greatest number of votes shall be the county seat of the county of Leelanau. "Section 5. It shall be the duty of the several boards of township inspectors in each of the townships of the said county to conduct the elections aut4rized by the provisions of this act and to make returns thereof in accordance with the general provisions of law for conducting elections in this state, so far as the same may be applicable thereto. "Section 6. The board of county canvassers for the special election for locating the county seat shall consist of the persons appointed on the day of such special election by the several boards of township inspectors, and said board of county canvassers shall meet on the second Tuesday succeeding the day of said special election at the house of Otto Thies, in the village of Leland, and having appointed one of their number chair

Page  346 346 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN man, and the county clerk of said county acting as secretary, shall proceed to canvass the votes and determine the location of the county seat in accordance therewith, and it shall be the duties of the clerk of said board to file a copy of the determination of said board as to the location of the county seat, signed and certified by him, and countersigned by the chairman, with the secretary of state and with the township clerks of the several townships in said county. "Section 7. All that part of the county of Leelanau which lies south of the south line of township 28 north, shall be and remain the county of Benzie, and the several townships thereof shall be attached for civil and municipal purposes to the county of Grand Traverse. "Section 8. The secretary of state is hereby directed to furnish the township clerk of the township of Leelanau with a certified copy of this act, and it shall be the duty of said clerk to give the same notice of the elections to be held under the provisions of this act that is required by law to be given by the sheriff of unorganized counties. "Section 9. That the said county of Leelanau when so organized shall be attached to the tenth judicial circuit, and the judge of said circuit shall hold courts in said county as be law in such cases made and provided. "Section 10. All acts and parts of acts contravening the provisions of this act are hereby repealed so far as any provisions therein may conflict with this act. "Section 11. This act shall take immediate effect. "CHARLES S. MAY, President of the Senate. "SULLIVAN M. CUTCHEON, Speaker of the House of Representatives. "Approved February 27, 1863. AUSTIN BLAIR, Governor." NORTHPORT, FIRST COUNTY SEAT The first business operations which led to the founding of the present village of Northport were inaugurated and advanced by Joseph Dame, a New England and New York lumberman who, in 1840, became a trader with headquarters at Mackinaw City. He carried on a trade in lumber, clocks and general goods and was employed by the government as a teacher of the Indians. From Mackinaw he finally moved to Old Mission, Grand Traverse bay, where he was employed in teaching farming to the Indians. Sir. Dame remained there until 1845 when he went to Wisconsin and bought a farm in Spring Prairie, Walworth county. He made his home there seven years and then returned to the Traverse region. and, leaving his family at Old Mission, bought a tract of land where now stands the village of Northport. He commenced the construction of a dock, engaged in trade and platted a village to which he gave the name it still bears. Writing at that time to the New York Tribune he gave such a description of the country that it speedily attracted attention, and from this and other causes the tide of immigration turned in his direction. His coming and labors eventuated in opening the neighboring country to settlement, and making Northport the distributing point of travel and supply. Mr. Dame built and conducted the Traverse

Page  347 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 347 Bay Hotel, the first house erected for the care and entertainment of the public. He also commenced the construction of a wharf in 1853, which was afterward completed by H. O. Rose. Northport received quite an access of population within the following few years. In 1856 a sawmill was running, and Mr. Rose, in partnership with Amos Fox, had established quite a business in supplying the steamers with wood for fuel. By 1858 they were handling from 13,000 to 15,000 cords of wood on their Northport docks, being under regular contract to supply the boats of the Northern Transportation Company plying between Ogdensburg and Chicago. They also VARMILL STREET, NORTHPORT shipped hemlock bark and cedar posts, and these lines of industry and trades were taken up by others who located in the village, or built docks for that purpose in the vicinity. The first settlement on the site of Northport is said to have been made June 11, 1849, but Mr. Dame was its first permanent and substantial citizen. In 1855 Northport was organized into a school district-the first in the county-and in the following year a small one-story frame building was erected to accommodate the few scholars in attendance. The postoffice was also established in 1855. Of course the first religious exercises conducted on the site of Northport were by Rev. Mr. Smith, the Congregational minister, as already stated. In 1858 Rev. Lewis Griffin organized the Methodists into a class, and in 1863 the Congregationalists formed a regular society. Thus were laid the foundations of the trade and industries, the educational and religious institutions, and the general community life

Page  348 348 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN of the village of Northport, the seat of justice from the organization of the county in 1863 to the year 1882 and which was incorporated by the board of supervisors of Leelanau county in October, 1903. Wilber E. Campbell being its first president. The village of Northport has one of the best harbors in Grand Traverse bay and has railroad facilities over the Grand Rapids & Indiana line. With active flour and lumber mills, still maintaining quite a fishing trade, and backed by a country which is productive of fruit, vegetables, seeds and grain, Northport is one of the most promising centers of population in Leelanau county. The village transacts its business through the Leelanau County Bank, enjoys electric lighting and shows its moral stamina by supporting six religious organizations -one Methodist, one Congregational, one Catholic, one Swedish Mission and two Norwegian Lutheran. LELAND, PRESENT COUNTY SEAT Leland has been the county seat of Leelanau county from 1882 to the present time. It lies at the mouth of the Leelanau river, about midway along the shore of Lake Michigan, and, although not an incorporated village, has a population of some four hundred. Its nearest railroad point is Provemont, four miles to the southeast on the Manistee & Northeastern railroad, with which it has stage connections. Aside from being the county seat, Leland has a canning factory and a shingle and sawmill, and still maintains quite a fishing trade; shipments include fish, hardwood lumber and railroad ties. It has a light and power plant, a township library, a good school and two churches. The story of the founding of Leland is the usual narrative of "ups and downs." In 1848 Antoine Manseau and John I. Miller, both lumbermen, prospected in the Grand Traverse region in search of a desirable location for a sawmill. Mr. MAanseau partially decided to locate at a point just above Traverse City, afterward called Norrisville, but the land being entered ahead of him he and Mr. Miller located at the mouth of the Carp river. At that time there was an Indian village on the hill near where Mr. Miller's house afterward stood, but the Indians soon left believing that the land had all been bought by white men and would soon be seized by them. But nothing was done at this point until June, 1853. when Mr. Manseau and his son Antoine arrived and built a sawmill on the river. A dam was also constructed and the mill put in operation. In the following September, John I. Miller arrived and settled on the land which was long his homestead. The elder Manseau died in 1856 and his widow in 1860, and Antoine, Jr., moved to a locality near Sutton's Bay. Mr. Miller was the first postmaster at Leland, and held the office until June 1861, when he was succeeded by Simeon Pickard. The first religious worship at Leland was conducted by Father Mrack, one of the early Catholic missionaries, who began to visit the place in 1855. After him came Fathers Young and Herbstrit. In 1870 the society. Holy Trinity. built a church edifice.

Page  349 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 349 Mr. Miller and the Manseaus were soon followed by John E. Fisher, John Porter, H. S. Buckman, John Bryant, Sr., Frederick Cook, Dr. W. H. Walker and George Ray. A pier was built, several stores erected, the water power was improved, and several mills put in operation. In March, 1867, the damn was carried which seriously interfered with business for some time. Great expectations centered in the iron furnace erected by Detroit capitalists in 1869, but early in the summer of 1872 the property was sold to Captain E. B. Ward, who interested others in the enterprise. Although the plant was twice burned and rebuilt, and employed quite a number of men it is said to have proved a detri EMPIRE AND SURROUNDING COUNTRY ment to the town, as the company controlled a large amount of village property which it kept out of the market and barred, in a way, from improvements. Leland became simply a creature of the iron company, whose furnace was finally abandoned. Her later history is chiefly connected with her position as the county seat since 1882. EMPIRE Empire in the southwestern corner of the county near Lake Michigan is the largest of the three incorporated villages of the county. It is on the line of the Empire & Southeastern railroad and is quite a lumlber, fruit and produce market. A large hardwood manufactory is also located here. A good bank (Empire Exchange), well organized school, two churches and a number of general stores also add to the life and standing of the village.

Page  350 350 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN Empire had its beginning in a mere opening in the forest made upon its site by John Larue who brought his family into the country in the fall of 1851, soon after John Dorsey located at Glen Arbor. With years it developed into a brisk lumber town, and still later into the trading and banking center of a fine fruit and farming region. Of late years the Empire Lumber Company, under its various managements, has been the strong stay of the village, particularly in its development of hardwood manufacturing. The basis of the industry, with its business auxiliaries, was laid in 1887 when the T. Wilce Company bought the mill formerly operated by Potter & Struthers. Extension of the plant and docks, building of the railroad and other improvements followed and made Empire a fine little town. The company has also invested in thousands of acres of timber lands in Empire and adjoining townships, and altogether has been a strong promoter of the best interests of the village and the entire Glen Lake region. Empire became a village by an act of the county board of supervisors passed in October, 1895, and the first election held December 2nd of that year resulted in the choice of E. R. Dailey, manager of the Empire Lumber Company, for president; Fritz Rohr, clerk; Dr. S. A. Gates, treasurer; William Sullivan, assessor, and I. Nurko, R. Sullivan, James Daly, A. E. Willard and George Taylor, trustees. Michael F. Horen was the first village marshal. SUTTON'S BAY This village, incorporated in 1898, is located on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad and is at the foot of the body of water from which it is named-Sutton's bay being at the head of the West arm of Grand Traverse bay where it joins the main body. It has a charming location, but its business is largely confined to lumber. Like Northport its earlier trade centered in cordwood and railroad ties, the former being supplied to the steamers of the Great Lakes. It has now a good sawmill and the usual minor industries of a small village and is the trade center of a considerable agricultural district, its transactions being conducted through the Leelanau County Savings Bank. The village has a thoroughly organized school system and three churches-the Catholic, Congregational and Lutheran. The Catholics also have a parochial school and a convent conducted by the Sisters of St. Dominic. Sutton's Bay dates from the middle sixties, the following mention of the place being made in January, 1866: "A new village has also sprung into existence near the head of Sutton's bay, which, in honor of Mr. H. C. Sutton, the former and early owner of the soil upon which it stands, has been christened Suttonsburg, and bids fair to become quite a boy within a few years; and if it does not then the fault will be itself, for nature had dealt nobly with it. The bay, at the head of which this village is built, is a body of water four or five miles in length, and about two miles in width; is tributary to Grand Traverse bay, intersecting it from the west about twenty-four miles from its junction with Lake Michigan; is deep enough to float any steamboat on the lake. Extend

Page  351 HISTORY OF NORTHERN MICHIGAN 351 ing in a southwestern course, as it does, there is but one direction from which the wind can approach and be at all violent; and then it is not sufficiently boisterous as to materially affect boats lying at its dock. The site of the village is a pleasant one, gradually rising from the bay and extending westward over an even, fertile piece of land, broad enough for a city of an untold number of inhabitants. Suttonsburg is situated about three and a half miles from the geographical center of the county, and therefore, if the county seat should ever be removed from Northport, will probably be the point fixed upon by a majority of the people for its permanent location." PROVEMONT Four miles west of Sutton's Bay, on the Manistee & Northeastern Railroad, is Provemont, which, although not an incorporated village, is a banking center for the county seat and also a shipping point for a considerable area of country. It has a saw and gristmill, a good school and is a neat little place. Provemont is also the seat of a Catholic convent and school conducted by the Sisters of St. Dominic. Along in 1867 Provemont was a place of considerable notoriety. A. De Belloy was an early settler there and in the year mentioned the Grand Traverse Bay Mineral Land Association sunk a well but failed to strike oil. Afterward an artesian well produced some mineral water, but neither oil nor water brought the expected development of the village and the region around. OMENA AND PESHABATOWN Omena is a pretty summer resort located on the West arm of Grand Traverse bay five miles south of Northport and the same distance north of Sutton's Bay. To be more specific, it is on the Grand Rapids & Indiana Railroad and also on the shore