A twentieth century history of Cass County, Michigan
Glover, L. H. (Lowell H.), 1839-

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Page  I A Twentieth Century History OF CASS COUNTY, MICHIGAN L. H. GLOVER, Secretary Cass County Pioneers' Association, EDITOR. ILLUSTRATED. THE LEWIS PUBLISHING COMPANY CHICAGO:: NEW YORK 1906

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Page  III PREFACE. The History of Cass County has been completed after more than a year of unremitting effort on the part of the publishers and the editor and his staff. That the work will bear the critical inspection of the many persons into whose hands it will come, and that it measures up to the highest standards of modern book-making, the Publishers confidently believe. Also, through the diligent co-operation of Mr. Glover, the editor, the history has become a record of enduring value and dignity. It is not the purpose of the Publishers to delay the readers with a long preface. It is sufficient to acknowledge their indebtedness to many who, have contributed of personal knowledge, of time and patience in their cordial endeavors to preserve and extend the fund of historical knowledge concerning Cass County. It would be impossible to mention the names of all who have thus assisted in making this work. Yet we cannot omit mention of the assistance rendered by the county officials, especially County Clerk Rinehart, Judge Des Voignes, Register of Deeds Jones, County Treasurer Gard, County Commissioner of Schools Hale. Naturally the newspapers of the county have been drawn upon, and Mr. Allison of the National Demlocrat, Mr. Berkey of the Vigilant, Mr. Moon of the Herald, have never failed to supply us with exact information or further our quest in some helpful way. These and many others have helped to compile a trustworthy history of Cass County. THE PUBLISHERS.

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Page  V TABLE OF CONTENTS. CHAPTER. I. Description................................................ CHAPTER II. Original Inhabitants............................ 14 CHAPTER III. The County's Southern Boundary............................ 22 CHAPTER IV. Early Settlement.................................. 37 CHAPTER V. "Pioneers of Cass County".....................;..... 53 CHAPTER VI. Organization............................................. 9 CHAPTER VII. Growth and Development................................ IOI CHAPTER VIII. Centers of Population.1.......................... 19 CHAPTER IX. Cassopolis..i.......................1..................... I42 CHAPTER X. City of Dowagiac.............................,........... 54 CHAPTER XI. Communication and Transportation............................. 163 CHAPTER XII. Industries and Finance......................1................. i8o CHAPTER XIII. Agriculture....1.......................................... I98

Page  VI vi CONTENTS CHAPTER XIV. Court House and Other County Institutions...............0..... 207 CHAPTER XV. Education in State and County................................ 215 CHAPTER XVI. City and Village Schools...................................... 228 CHAPTER XVII. Libraries........................................... 244 CHAPTER XVIII. The Cass County Press....................................... 249 CHAPTER XIX. Medicine and Surgery............................... 257 CHAPTER XX. Cass County Bar..................................... 270 CHAPTER XXI. Cass County the Home of the Races........................... 284 CHAPTER XXII. Military Records................................................. 297 CHAPTER XXIII. Military Organizations........................................ 329 CHAPTER XXIV. Social Organization................................... 334 CHAPTER XXV. Cass County Pioneer Society.................................. 349 CHAPTER XXVI. Religion and the Churches.................................. 371 CHAPTER XXVII. Official Lists............................................ 389

Page  VII IINIDEIX. Abolitiolnists.-54, 112, 290. Adams, Sterling.-124. Adamsport.- (See Adamsville.) Adamsville.-io9, 124, I25, i65, i86, 258. Agnew, Hugh E.-253, 750. Agriculture.-8, i98-206. Agricultural Implements.-io, iii, i90 et seq.; 198 et seq. Agricultural Society, Cass County.-2o5, 206. Aikin, Charles C.-442. Air Line Rail Road.-I29, 131, I36, 175 et seq. Akin, Perry.-448. Aldrich, L~evi.-262. Allen, Green.-29I. Allen, Reuben.-io9. Allison, C. C.-250, 251, 255, 765. Amber Club.-339. Amsden, Charles T. —674. Anderson, T. W.-265. Andrus, Henry.-255, 503. Ann Arbor Convention.-35, 36. Anti-Horse Thief Society.-2o6. Aigus, The.-254, 255. Arnmstrong, A. N.-454. Arnold, William.-614. Atkinson, John. —655. Attorneys- (see Lawyers) prosecuting, 391. Atwell, F. J.-276. Atwood, Frank.-i97, 729. Atwood, James.-756. Atwood, W. H.-I59. Austin, Edwin N-94 Austin, Jesse H.-522. Bacon, Cyrus. —93. Bacon, Nathaniel.-17. Bailey, Arthur E.-565. Bair, John.-97, ii6. Baker, F. H.-I93. Baker, Nathan.-129. Bald Hill.-i. Baldwin, John.-5o, 126. Baldwin, William.-135. Baldwin's Prairie.-7, 125. Ball, C. P.-13I. Banks.-194-I97. Banks, Charles G.-772. Baptist Churches.-I46, 378, 379, 380. Bar Association.-283. Bar, Cass CountY.-270-~;83. Barney, John G. A.-372. Barnliart, Andrew.-66i. Barnhart, Peter.-337. Barnum, Edwiln.-I39. Barren Lake Station.-131. Beardsley, Elam.-ii6, 126; Darius, ii6. Beardsley, Ezra.-45, 49, 93, I09, 121. Beardsley, Othni.-95, 126, i86. Beardsley's Prairie.-7, 114, 115, 121, 374, 38i. Beckwith, E. W. —6o7. Beckwith Memorial Theatre.-247, 248. Beckwith, Philo D.-i6i, 190 et seq.; 245, 69o. Becraft, Julius 0-159, 191, 253, 745. Beebe, Bruce.-583. Beeman, Alonzo P.-I36, 476. Beeson, Jacob.-I55, I56, 162. Beeson, Jesse G.-io8, 197. Bennett, William P.-273. Benson, Henry C.-599. Berkey, W. H -252. Berrien County, Attached to Cass.-94. Bigelow, Hervey.-134. Big Four R. R.-177. Bilderback, John. —666. Birch Lake.-386. Bishop, George E.-746. Black Hawk War.-io2, 107, I66, 170, 297. Blackman, iDaniel.-I46, 148, 274. Blacksmiths.-i84 et passim. Blakeley, T1. L.-265. Blood, J. V.-4I5. Bly, Kenyon.-760 -Bogue, Stephen.-48, 49, 131, 289. Bogue, William E.-7o9 -Bonine, E. J.-259. Bonine, James E.-I95, 386. Bonine, Lot —51. Boundaries.-22 et seq.; of Cass county, 92; of townships, 93 et seq. Bowen, Henry H.-566. Boyd, James.-i84 -Brady.-14I. Brick.-13, 110. Bridge, Leander.-564. 28 Brown, David and William.-128 Brown, jonathan.-135. Brownsville. —8, 128, i8,7. Buell, B. G.-2o6. Bughee, Israel G.-262. Bulhand, Dr.-26i. Bunn, C. W.-291.

Page  VIII viii INDEX Burney, Thomas.-I37. Bushman, Alexander.-286. Business.- (See under village names.) Byrd, Turner.-29i. Byrnies, Daniel K., 464. Calvin Township.-5o, 96, 112, 113, 223, 287-296; 377, 396. Campbell, Malcom A.-722. Canals.-I2I, 172. Carey Mission.-ii, i6-I9, 40, 165, i85, 372. Carnegie Library.-246. Carr, J. R.-278. Carr, L. J.-332. Cass County Advocate.-249, 250. Cass County.-Formed, 92; boundaries, 92; named, 92; civil organization, 92. Cass, Gen. Lewis.-29, 92. Cassopolis.-99, 103, io8; 142-153; 177, 183, 184, i8g, 228-.23I;:244, 374, 375, 379, 382, 401, 402, 403. Cassopolis Milling Co.-i89. Cassopolis Woman's Club.-338, 339. Catholic Church.-285, 37I, 372, 373. Caul, Andr'ew F.-455. Cavanaugh, Lawrence.-47. Centers, of Population.-ii9 et seq.; in Volinia township, 138. Chain Lakes. — 8. Chapman, Franklin.-479. Chapman, H. Sylvester.-592. Chapman, J. B.-153.Charles, Jacob.-126, 138. Charleston.-I38, 337. "Charter Citizens," of CassoPolis.-15o. Cheesebrough, Nicholas.-155. Chicago Road. —8, I19, 120, 121, 124, 137, i164, i 66, i167. Chicago Trail.-i64. Chicago Treaty.-i9, i66. Chipman, John S.-272. Chipman, Joseph N.-272. Choate, N. F.-93, 196. Christiann Creek.-7, 124, 128, 1.31, 132, x86, 187. Cdristiann Drainage Basin. —8. ChurcheS.-123, 125. (See under names of villages), 37I-388. Circuit Court.-39I. Circuit Court Commissioners.-39i. Circuit J udges.-39o. Civil War.-297 et seq. Clark, Geo. Rogers.-22. Clark, Walter.-540. Clarke, J. B.-275. Clarke, W. E.-263. Clendenen, John. —692. Clerks, County.-39i. Clisbee, C. W.-275. Clothing, of Early Days.-i~i et seq. Clubs.-338 et seq. Clyborn, Archibald.-45. Coates, James R.-io8. Colby, H. F.-I54, i6i, 193; Colby Mills, I54, 193; G. A., 193. Collins, John R.-613. Commissioners, County Seat. —98, 99, 143, 144, 146, 147. Communication.-ioo, 120, 121; i63-179. Condon, John.-9q. Cone, C. E.-278, 554. Congregational Churches.-383. Conklin, Abram.-725. Conklin, E. S.-458& Coftklin, Gilbert.-68i. Conklin, Simeon.-719. Conkling, W. E.-233. Coolidge, H. H.-12I, 123, 273. Cooper, Alexander.-445. Cooper, Benj.-i6o. Corey, 136. Coulter, John F.-443. Coulter, William H.-636. Counties.' Erection of.-9i. County Normal.-223, 224, 232. County Offlcers.-390-393. County Seat, Location of.-98 et seq.; io8, 129, 132, 142, 143, 144, 145. Court House.-(See -County Seat.) 146, 147, 151, 187, 207-212. Court House Company.-I47, 207, 208. Courts, Established.-93; county, 93; Circuit, 93; 207, 271, 279. Craine, Orlando.-I54. Crawford, George.-45. Crego, H. A. —678. Criswell, M. H.-265, 509. Crosby, Nelson J. —646. Curry, Joseph Q.-460. Curtis, C. J.-263. Curtis, jotham.-96, I16.Curtis, Solomon.-707. Cushing Corners.-139. Cushing, Dexter.-I39, 687. Cushing, William.-I39. Customs, EarlY.-334 et seq. Dailey.-I28, 129. Dana, CharleS.-272. Davis, Alex.-134. Davis, C. A. —6. Davis, C. E.-267. Davis, H. C.-526. Davis, Job.-133, i86. Denike, G. H.-624. Denman, H. B.-195. Dennis, Cassius M.-439. DentiStS.-268. Des Voignes, L. B.-278, 294, 769. Dewey, Burgette L.-i6i, 332, 712. Diamond Lake.-2, 8, 39, 49, 98, 103, 129, 140. Diamond Lake Park.-14o. Disbrow, Henry. —99. Disciples Churches.-383, 384.

Page  IX INDEX ix Distillery.-i83, 184; et passim; 187. Doane, William H-u.I3. Donnell's Lake.-13. Dool, Robert.-5i6. Dowagiac.-97, 132, I5L; 154-i62; I77, I88, I89 et seq.; 231 et seq.: 245, 375, 400, 401, 404, 405, 406. Dowagiac Creek.-io, II, 132, 134, 154. Dowagiac Manufacturing Co.-i6i, i88, 192, I93. Dowagiac Swamnp.-io. Drainage.-2, 7, 8; 9-I0; commissioners, 9. Drift, Covering Cass Co.-3; distribution o f, 5. Driskel, Daniel..-iI7. Dunn, Frank.-136, 465. Eagle Lake.-I4I. East, Settlement.-iI12; family, I 12. Easton, Edd W.-669. Easton, W. W.-266. Eby, Daniel.-765. Eby, Gabriel.-I27, 620. Eby, Peter.-537. Eby, Ulysses S.-279, 536. Eby, William.-I27. Edtication.-(See Schools.) 120, 2I5-243, 295. Edwards, Alexander H.-I2I. Edwards, J. R.29 Edwards, Lewis.-44. Edwards, Thomas H.-46, 49, 121. Edwardsburg.-45, 120, 121, 122, 143, 151, i67, 169, 170, I72, 184, 196, 237, 258. 374, 378, 380, 381, 382. Electric Railroads.-I77. Elevation of Surface.-4. Emerson, J. Fred.-588. Emmons, George.-438. Emmons, James M.-56i. Engle, Frank.-573. Erie Canal.-54, 121. Evangelical Churches.-387. Factories.-I87 et seq. (See Mills, Manufacturing.) Fairs.-2o5, 206. Farmers' Mutual Fire Insurance Co.-I97. Farming. (See Agriculture.) Farr, Willis M.-i6i, I94, 332, 724. Fields, George M.-279, 629. Fiero, Byron.-577. Fiero, John P.-I87, 710. Finance.-i94-197. Fish, A. M.-758. Fish Lake.-14I. Flax.-i8x. Fletcher, Don A.-542. Follett, Henry.-258. Forest Hall Park.-i4o. Fosdick, John.-95; George, 131. Fowle, Charles.-193. Fowler, H. H.-9o8, 129, 130, 143, 257. Frakes, Joseph.-48. Fraternal Orders.-123', 348. French, D. L.-I53. Freuch, Explorers.-37. French, Henry J.-585. Friends, Settlement.-48; societies, 385, 386. Fr'iost of 1835-103. Frost, William M.-7i6. Fruit Cuilture.-203. Fulton, Alex. and David.-i38. Funk, C. H.-654. Gage, John S.-i9o. Gage, JUStulS.-205. Gard, Edgar J.-484. Gard, George W.-2o6, 210, 513. Gard, 1. N.-2o6. Gard, Jonathan.-5r, 206. Gard, Josephuts.-95. (Gard, M. J.-2o6. Gard's Prairie.-52. Gardner, A. B.-i9i. Gardner, S. C.-ii6. Garrett, H ugh P.-048. Garver.-46. Garvey, M. T.-I29, 159. Garwood, AlOnIzo.-26o. Garwood, Benjamin 1-535. Garwood, Levi.-I28, 137. Garwood, William K]-4-25. Gas.-13, I58. Geneva Village.-98, 129, 143, 184, 257. Gibson, J. E.-2io et seq. Gilbert, Eugene B.-738. Gilbert, Samuel H. —6or. Glaciers, Action of.-2 et seq. Glenwood.-139. Glover, L. H.-279, 781. Goble, Elijah.-51, 138, 337. Goff, Frederick.-i 17. Goodwin, Fairfield.-265. Goodwin Hotise.-I45. Graduates, from SchoolS.-224, 229, 230, 234, 240, 242. Graham, Sidney J. —6i8. Grain, Planting and Harvesting.-2oi, 202, 203. Grand Army PoStS.-329, 330, 331, 332. Grand Trunk R. R.-2; 7, I2-2, 130, 136, 137, I152, 176, 177. Grange, The.-204, 205. Griffin, Robert S5-262. Grindstone, First inl COutltY.-47. Grubb, Pleasant.-128. Hadden, George M.-587. Hadden, M. 0-751 -Hadden, Samuel B.-541. Haight, Joseph.-I17. Hale, William H. C.-2I5 et seq.; 642. Halligan, Raymond S-572. Hamilton, Patrick.-155, 156.

Page  X x INDEX Hampton, Thaddeus.-i39; stock f arm, '39. Hannan, Peter.-727. Hardy, Alonzo J. —685. Hardy, George W.-48i. Harmon, Charles 0.-280., 294, 515. John B.,:280. Harper, Joseph.-I48, 207, 562. Harrington, S. S.-153. Harris Line.-28. Harter,' Joseph.-'Ii13. Hartman, Kleckner W.-456. Hartsell, Frank L-744. Harvey, Dan M.-58i. Hatch, Junius H.-134. Hatch, Oliver W.-26i. Hayden, Asa K.-28i. Hayden, B. W.-435. Hayden, James G. —664. Hayden, W. B.-i53. Hawks, Samuel.-29i. Henderson, Ira B.-149. Hendricks, Line.-32. Hendryx, COY W.-774, 280. Herald, The.-254. Herkinmer, George R.-266. Hess, Joseph.-628. Hicks, Henry B.-517. Hicks, Orren V., 478. Higgins, Cornelius. —96. Higgins, Thomas T.-4o9. High Schools.-222, 229, 234. Highland Beach.-I4I. Hinkley, Rodney.-48. Hirons, Edward.-123. Hirsh, Jacob.-i6o. Hitchcox, jameS.-I26. Holland, Marion.-265. Hollister, Noel B.-i59, i6o, 273. Hopkins, David.-138, 207. Hopkins, W. D.-i89. Hotels. (See Taverns.) Household Utensils.-i&i et seq.; see Houses. Houses, Pioneer.-42, 43, 104, 105, 114, i8i et seq. Howard Township.-I2, 95, 113, II4, 223, 337, 399. Howard, William G.-276. Howardville.-I3I. Howell, David M.-I95, 25I; M. L., 195 280. Howser, S. M.-447. Hoyt, W. F.-i93. Huff, John.-486. Huff, Otis. —699. Hughes, G. A.-266. Hunter, George W.-7o3. Huntley, G. G.-9. Hutchings, Nelson A.-468. Hux, Chris A.-196, 66o. Ice and Water, Influence on Surface.-2. Immigration, Sources of.-53, 54; directionl Of, 94, 103. Indians.-14-2I; school, i8; in Silver Creek, 2o; 102, 103; 284-287; 372 Indian Trails.-8, 102, 163, 164, i65. Industries.-i8o-197. (See Manufacturing, iMVills.) Jail.-146, 147, 212, 213. James, Isaac P.-13o; Parker, 130. Jamestown.-7, 130, 177, i84. Jarvis, Frank P.-775. Jarvis, William.-7o5. J arvis, Zadok.-64o. Jefferson Township-2,4,95 1; early settlers, III; 223, 398. Jenkins, Baldwin —4i, 42, 43. Jewell, Elbridge. —6io. Jewell, Hiiram.-io8; family, i4:2, 144. Johnson, Joseph H.-534. Johnson, Olliver.-i42, 145. Jones, E. H.-I36. Jones, George D.-48, i6o, 694. Jones, George W.-137, 412. Jones, Gilman C.-i59, i6i. Jones, Henry.-2o7. Jones, Horace.-i6i. Jones, J. H.-266. Jones, Nathall-529. Jones, Village.-I36, 265. Jones, Warner D.-453. Judd, Mark.-i6i, 663. judges, Lists of.-39o. Kelsey, Abner.-I29. Kelsey, Win. J.-26i; J. H., 26i, 266. Kentucky Raid.-iii, I1212289. Kessington.-I25. Kester, Clinton L.-459. Ketcham, Clyde W.-280, 332, 7i8. Ketcham, W. J.-266. Kimmerle, Catherine.-io8. Kimmerle, Charles H.-2o8, 212, 432. Kimmerle, Henry.-778. Kingsbury, Allen M. —643. Kingsbury, Asa.-I31, 146, I47, 148, 194, 195, 207, 21I3, 644. Kingsbury, Charles.-i94. Kingsbury, David L.-I95, 452. Kingsbury, George M.-153, 209, 551. Kinnane, James H.-28i, 743. Kirby, W. R.-485. Kirk, William.-42, 113. Knapp, Amos. —I92, 702. Kyle, Joseph C.-422. L'Allegro 'Cluh.-343. La Grange Prairie.-i i, 12, 46. La Grange Township.-II, 46 et seq.; 94, 107, Io8, 175, i86, 223, 375, 397. La Grange Village.-13I, I32, I33, 134, '54. Lake -Alone.-131.

Page  XI INDEX xi Lake, J. M.-42I. Lake View Park.-141. Lakes.-5, 6; Lilly lake, 7; 136; Land Sales.-io6. Lawrence, Levi'.-I09, 138. Lawrence, L. L.-734. Lawson, William.-291; Cornelit Law yers.-270-283. Leach, James H., 418. Lee Brothers.-i96. Lee, Fred E.-i9i, i96. Lee, Joseph W.-io9. Letters.-I78. Lewis, El. F.-498. Lewis, Roland.-762. LibrarieS.-244-247. Lilley, Thomas J.-532. Lincoln, Samuel J.-544. Lindsley, John A.-i6i, 726. Link, Donald A.-267, 770. Little Prairie Ronde.-7, II, 19, office, 138. Little Rocky River.-io. Lo~ckwood, Henry.-258. Lofland, Joshua.-I59, 213. Longsduff, George.-488. Longsduiff, John.-632. Loupce, John. —.6o3. Loux, Abraham.-47. Loveridge, Henry L.-463. Lumber.-I2, i6i. (See under Mv ufacturing.) Lutheran Church.-387. Lybrookjohn.-47; Isaac, 47; '59. Lybrook, Joseph.-428. Lyle, C. M.-28I. Lyle, Daniel.-133, 195, i96. Lyle, F. W.-193, i96; C. E., i9, Madrey, J. W.-291. Magician Beach.-141. Magician Lake.-i4o, 14I. Manufacturing.-( See Mills.) 134, i6i, i8o-T94. Maple Island Resort.-I41. Marcellus Township.-io, 97, 223, 394. Marcellus Village.-137, 138, 239 406, 407. Marckle, John..-492. Markham, Israel.-41, 184. MVarl Beds.-13; lime, 13. Marsh, A. C.-I2I. Mason, Governor.-33, 100. Mason Township.-96, 115, 223, Masons.-348. Mater, John.-683. Matthew Artis Post.-293. May, Russel D.-440. McAllister, James.-418. Al\cCleary, Fphraim l-I42, 145 McCleary, Williari -48. 139. McCoy, C. Delivan.-426. McCoy, Isaac.-i6, 17. McCoy, Richard-431. iMcCoy, William H -43i. LUS, 293. Mctutcheon, Williaill C.-266, 268, 647. McDaniel, Jnimes.-96, I15, i i6. M\cGill, William i.6i2. M~clIntosh, Daniel.-187. McvIcntosh, Jacoh.-548. McIntyre, Fred.-45I. McKenney, '1l-homas.-47. XI\'cKessick. MoseS.-125. McKinney's Prairie.-i i. McMaster, Hamilton S.-266, 713. McNeil, Mlarion.-6I7. McOmher, Jay W.-156. 1\'eacham, George.-45, 110; Sylvester, 45. Mechanicsbnrg.-I34. Mechling, John W.-591. 51; post- Medical Society, Cass CoUlnty.-268. Medicine and Surgery.-257-269. Merchants.-46, 155; in Edwardshurg, 123; of Marcellus, I38; Cassopolis, I48 et seq. (See under village names); 159. Merritt, Win. R.-127; J. Fred., 128. Methodism.-'i14, 132; churches, 373-378. Michigan Central R. R.-122, 132, 138, 139, [ills, Man- Michigan Southern R. R.-174, et passim. Michigan Territory.-27; history to admission to Union, 22-36. Henley C., Military Annals.-I03. Military Organizatiois.-329-333. Military Reco-rds.-297-328. Miller, Ezra.-io9. Miller, George.-276. 13. Miller, 0. P.-645. Mills.-At Carey Mission, i8; 105, iio; 113, 115, 122, I24, 128, I29, 130, 133, 134, 135, 137, 154, I83 et seq. Milton Township.-12, 97, I114, 223, 376, 121, 133, 400. Minnich, James J.-568. Mint Cuilture.-203 -17 I7,Model City.-139. '' Monday Evening Club.-346. 2025,Monroe L-and Office.-io6. I, 20, 54, Moon, Abner M.-154, 159, 253, 254, 695. Moraines.-4; Lake Michigan moraine, 4, II. Moreland. Jacob.-138. Morgan, C. A.-267. Morse, C. W.-263. Mosher, Francis J.-16o; Ira D., i6o. 397. Mo-sher, H. L.-i91. Motley, Edward T.-576. Myers, C. M.-267. National Demnocrat.-251. Negro, Colony.-287-296.

Page  XII x(ii INDEX Nelson.' C. Carroll.-294, 6o8. Newberg Township.-io, 97, 107, ii6, 117, 223, 394. Newberg Village.-136. New Buffalo.-174. New Century Club.-345. Newell House.-io6, 146, I49. News, The.-:254, Newspapers.-249-256. Newton, James..-i09; George, l09. Nichols, Jonathan.-i38. Nicholson, Spencer.-I36. Nicholsville.-139. Niles.-42; see Carey Mission; 103, I22, 174, 249. Nineteenth Century Club.-340. Northwest Territory.-23 et seq. Norton, Levi D.-1l2. Norton, Nathan.-49. Norton, Pleasant.-ill, 213. Oak Beach.-141. Odd Fellows.-348. O'Dell, James.-1-85, 393. O'Dell, John. —6o4. Official Lists, County, Township, Village Officers.-389-4o9. O'Keefe, George -A. —99. "Old Fort."'-146, 208 Olds, May A.-466. Olmsted, J. C.'27 380, 381, 38:2. Ontwa TownshiP.-45 et seq.; 94, 107, io8, 223, 398. Ordinance Line.-24, 27. Ordinance of I787-:23 et seq. Organic Act. —92. Organization, History of. —g et seq. O'Rourke, Jerry.-766. Osborn, Family.-iI2; Charles, 112; JOsiah, 112, 289. Osborr', Leander.-264. Ouderkirk, Charles. —623. Pardee, Elias.-737. Parker, John.-149. Parker, W. E.-267. Parsons, William E.-495. Pattison, Laurence -B.-733. Peninsula R. R.-I75. (See Grand Trunk.) Penn Township.-48 et seq.; 94, 97, 1o8,:223, 38 —, 396. Penn Village. (See Jamestown.) Petticrew, John.-I34. Pettigrew, John.-i86. Phillips, H. H.-259, 266. Phillips, John H.-56o. PhysicianS.-257-269. Pioneer Society.-212. Pioneer Society, Cass CountY.-349-370; officers, 349, 350; annual speakers, 350, 351; members record, 351-370. Pioneers.-Alphabetical record Of, 53-90; see Settlement; Homes of, 104 et seq.; of Penn, io8; of Howard, 1 14; of Silver Creek, 115; rnanufacturing, i8o et seq.; farming, 198 et seq.; social customs, 334 et seq. a tragedy, ii6; of Newb~erg, I17; Of Marcellus, I117. Planck, E. A.-265, 268, 622. Plank Roads.-i69. Pleasant Lake.-45. Poe, Charles W.-474. Pokagon, Chief.-i6, 19, 20, 4:2, 285, 372. Pokagon Creek.-ii, 134. Pokagon Prairie.-ii, 40, 44~, 184, 375. Pokagon Township.-( See Pokagon Prairie.) 93, 107, 223, 399. Pokagon Village.-I34, 135, 264. Poor Farm, Cass County.-213, 214. Population.-107, io8 et seq.; 122, I27, 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 151, 157, 288; Porter Township.-'50, 51, 95, 97, 107, 110, i86, 223, 395. Post Roads.-i65, i66. Postal Service.-I78, 179. Postoffices.-119, 120, (See Rural Free Delivery); 126; 129, 130, 136, I37, Pottawottomies.-14 et seq.; 42, 102, 115, 372. Pound, Isaac S. —652. Prairies.-5, 6, 7, II. Presbyterian Churches.-38o-383. Press, Cass County.-249-256. Price, John.-48. Prindle, C. P.-263. Probate Judges.-390. Products, Nattiral.-12. Prosecuting Attorineys.-391. Protestant Episcopal Church.-388. Public Square.-129, 143, 145 et seq. Putnam, Uzziel. Sr.-40 et seq.; 202; Ira, 44; IUzziel, Jr., 44. Puterbaugh, William F.-630. Quakers. —48.; 112, 287,,385, 386.. Railroads.-122, 132, T35, 151, 155, 167, 171 et seq.; electric lines, i77~; underground, 287. Railroad Era.-1i7 et seq. Read, S. T.-I76, I95. Reames, Moses and William.-49; Moses, 95. Redfield, Alex. H.-T43, 144 et seq.; 148, 149, 207, 212, 270, 271T. Redfield. George H.-5o5. Redfield's MillS.-T29. Reed, John..-48, 49, 96. Registers of Deeds.-392. Religion.-37i et seq. (See Churches.) Renniston, William.-io8. 154, 186, 193. Representatives, State.-389.

Page  XIII INDEX xiii Republican, Tihe.-253. Reshore, Frank.-281. Re Shore, Grace.-24, 247. Resorts. (See Suimmer Resorts.) Reuich, Jonathan H.-639. Reynolds, Levi J.-546. Richardson, Norris.-731. Rickert, Charles C.-420. Rinehart, Carleton W.-590. Rinehart, John.1-48. Rinehart, S. M.-126, 127. Ritter, Charles A.-i95, 625. Ritter, John J.-I97, 735. Roads.- (See uender Communication, Railroads.) 163. 164 et seq. Robbins, George W.-472. Robertson., Alexander.-426. Robertson, George W.-472. Rohertson, John.-264. Robinson, C. S. —207 Rockwell, John D.-597. Rodgers, Alexander.-45. Roebeck, John L.-491. Root, Eber.-146. Rosewarne, Henry G.-720. Ross, F. H.-673. Ross, jasper J.-5158. Round Oak Stove Works.-(See P. D. Beckwith.)-i88, 190-192. Rouse, Daniel G.-97. Rowland, Thomas.-99. Rudd, Barak L. —i4o, 633. Rudd, Orson.-137. Rural Free Delivery.-120, 125, 128, 132. 179, 204. Russey, E. J.-650. Sage. Chester.-45, 126. Sage, Family.-124, 196; Moses, 124, 125, i86: Martin G., Norman, 124. Sailor.-(See Ke-ssington.) Salisbury, William.-519. Sandy Beach.-i4o. School Funds.-222. School1s -120, 132. (See uender names of villages, 215-243.) Cassopolis, 228 -231; Dowagiac, 231-237; Edwardsburg, 237-239; Vandalia, 24I-243, Marcelluis, 239-241. School Officers.-393; 224-227. Senators.-389. Settlement. Affected by Natural Conditions.-i; early, 37 et seq.; date of first, 42; 102, i06; 107 et seq. Shaffer, Daniel.-48. Shaffer. David.-TI; Peter, 111; 187; George T., TILI Shakespeare.-T35. Shanahan, Clifford.-273. Shannon, Albert J.-482. Sharp. Craigie.-139. Shavehead.-Tg; trail, 164, i65. Shaw, Darius.-148, 207. 'Shawv, james.-i14. Slhaw,, John.-io0, 138. Shiaw, Richiard.-io9. Shepard, James, M.-252, 556. SheriffS.-392. Sherman, Elias B-135, I38, 143, 144 et Slewseq.; I95, 271, 336. ShrwOd. C. L.-159, i6o, 679. Shields, i\Iartin.-48. Shockley, Alfred.-5o7. Shoeniakers, Pioneer.-182. Shiore Acres.-13o. Shugart, Zacliariahi.-289. Shurte, Isaac.-47, 103. Sibley, Col. E. 5.-98, 29q. Silo PlantS.-203. Silver Creek Township-II, 20, 96, 115. 223, 285, 377, 399. Silver, Jacob and Abiel.-121; George F., 123; Orrin, 124, 149; Jacob, 207, 336. Skinner, Samutel F.-574. Smith, Amos.-522. Smith, A. J.-123, T31, 274. Smith, Cannon.-iI4, 376. Smith, Daniel.-704. Smith, Ezekiel C.-I 14. Smith, Ezekiel 5-159, 255, 272; Joel I-T., '59. Smith, George W.-494. Smrith, Harsen D.-195, 282, 657. Smith, Hiram.-538. Smith, Joseph.-T87, 208, 251. Snyder, Robert.-436. Social OrganizatiIOnls.-334-348. Soil.-T2. Soldiers' and Sailors' Mvonument Associationl-332, 333. Soldiers of Cass County in Civil War.298-328. Spaldinig, Erastus H.-T33, 154, 156, i6o, 193; Lynman, 154. Spencer, James M.-275. Spinning Wheel.-i8i. Squatters' Unions.-107. Stage Coaches.-121, 123, 126, 169, 170. Standerline George.-470. Standerline, William.-47T. Stapleton. James 5.-261. Stark, Myron.-T6T, T194, 741. Starrett, Charles.-700. State Officials, from Cass CouintY.-390. Stebbins, E. 5.-264. Stewart, H-art L.-g)8, 129, 143; A. C., 129.. St. Joseph Township.-91. Stone LaIke.-99, T42,1 T45, 149, T52. S~tretch. William H-. —626. Suibscriptions, to RailroadS.-T75. Suillivan. Tames-.-272. Sumner, Tsaac.-T34. Summer Resorts.-T39, 140, 141.

Page  XIV xiv INDEX Sumi-nerville.-43, 134. Supervisors, Towvnship.-393-401. Surveyors.-392. Sweet, Charles E.-282, 753. Sweetland, John B.-255, 262. Swisher, John F.-659. Talbot, John A.-276. Talladay, Alamandel J.-524. Taverns.-43, 46, 50, 115, ii6, I21, 123, 1261, 138, 146, 149, 156, 159, 337. Travlor, Albon C.-682. 'laylor, Alexander.-4I4. T'aylor, Clifford L.-430. Traylor, James D.-264. Teachcrs.-2i6; certificates, 219, 220, 223. Telephones.-127, 179. Territorial Road (see Chicago Road).i67. Th'larp, Abner.-49, 50. Thatcher, Nelson E.-528. T'hickstun, David C.-638. Thomnas, S. B.-152. Thomas, Silas H.-578. Thompson, Allison D.-502. Thompson, Mlerritt A.-277. Thompson., Squire.-44. Thomson, Samuel C.-450. TYhorp, A. L.-264. Tibbits, Nathan and Williami.-126. Tietsort, Abram.-b03, 142, 145, 150, 183. I'lietsort's Sidetrack.-T39. Times, The.-253, 254. Tolbert, George H.-596. Toledo War.-22, 33, 34, 35. Tlompkins, U. D.-26o. Toiiey, james.-ST. TFopography.-i et seq.; striking features of, 5. Tlourists' ClUb.-34l. TownV~senid, Abram.-41, 46, 202, 255; Ephraim, 41; Gamnaliel. 44, 103. T'Nlonship Officers.-393-401. 'Lownships, Fornlationl of.-93 et seq. Zirades. (See Mlanutfactturing, Induistries, etc. ) Transportation. (See uender Com-munication, Railroads.), Treasuirers, COuty.-392. Tribuine, The.-252. iruitt, James ML-771. Tlruiltt, Pcter.-97, 114. Trtiitt Stationl.-177. 'Turner. George B.-39, 205, 251, 273. Turner. Virgil.-777. Tuittle, Wiliam.-192. Undergrouind Railro~ad.-287 et seq. Union.-125, 126, i65, 376. Union Ho~tel.-I46. United Brethren Churches.-387. Universalist Church.-387. Vail, Levi M.-i29. Van Antwerp, Lewis C.-497. Van Buren County, Attached to Cass.-94. Vandalia.-8, 49, 130, 131, I8', 241, 242, 408, 409. Vail Riper, Abram, and SonS.-I33. Van Riper, J. J.-276. Venice.-i54. Vigilant, The.-251, 252. Volinia Farmers' Club.-205, 206. 'Volinia Township.-u, 19, 51, 52, 95, 103, 109, 223, 395. Volinia Village.-138. Volinia anid Wayne Anti-Horsethief Society.-2o,6. Voorhis, C. E.-i-2, 434. Wakelee.-T36, 137. Walker, Henry C. —635. War, Toledo.-22; Sac or Black HawNk, 102; Civil, 297-328; Spani-sh, 297. W~arner, J. P.-13. Washington, Booker 1.-292. Water Works.-i_52, 189. Watsoni, Jol1n H -779. Wayne CO.-24. 25, 26. 91. Wayne.1Town ship.-g6, 223, 397. \Weesaw -19. 'Wells, C. P.-264:Wells, Henry B.-671. Wells, Isaac, Sr.-696. Wells, Leslie C.-423. Wells, Willard.-748. WVheeler. J. H.-264. Whilte, Gilhert.-5,31. White,, Miltonl P.-233, 267. 767. X~lltC Pigeon Land Office.-io6. Whitman, AMartin C.-98, 133. Whit nianvi lv]le. —I33. (See La Grange Village.) Wilber, Theodore F.-676. Wiley, Rohert H.-763. Williams, Josiah.-127. Willianlsville.-I27, 128. Witherell, Dutane.-,416. Womeills ClUbS.-338-348. Wooden, Zaccheus.-38. Wooster, Jolin.-282. Wright, Elijall W. —96. \Vright, Job.-38-4o, 140, 334. Wrigllt, William R.-47. Young. John H.-496. ~'ounig's Prairie.-7, 374. 376.

Page  [unnumbered] 16

Page  [unnumbered] T[ MAP of CHpS cOUnTY MICIIGANScalc: 4 Miles to I Inch I I. 1 -1 I I Now I —

Page  1 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY. CHAPTER I. DESCRIPTION. Cass county, topographically considered, is nmuch the same now as before the first settlement. The three generations of white men have cleared the forest coverings, have drained the swamps, have chanoged some of the water courses; have overwhelmed the wilderness and converted the soil to areas productive of useful fruitage; have net-wo-rked the country with higlhways and roads of steel; have qutarried beneath the surface and clustered structures of brick and stone and w\ood into hamlets and villages, and from the other results of human activity have quite transformed the superficial aspects of our county. But the greater and more basal configurations of nature endure through all the assaults of human energy. The eternal hills still stand as the symbol of permanence and strength; the lake basins, though their water area is becoming gradually reduced, still (lot the expanse of the county to form the same charming contrast of sparkling waters and green forest and prairie which the original settlers looked upon. The slopes of drainage, the varieties of soil, the general geology of Cass county continue with little change. To describe the county as nature made it seems a fit introduction to the history of man's occupation which forms the bulk of this volume. The development of a people depends on environment in the first stages at least, until the powers of civilization assert their sway over the inertia of nature. Succeeding pages prove this fact over and over and indicate how natural conditions affected the settlement and growth of the county. The conspicuous natural features of the county, both as related to the pioneer settlement and as they can be noted now, deserve description. Nature is not only useful but beautiful, and both attributes are known and valued in any proper history of a county and its people. It is not an impertinent query why the surface configuration of the county is as it is. Why the county is traversed, roughly in the di

Page  2 2 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY rection of the Grand Trunk R. R. line, by the well defined range of hills constituting the axis of drainage for all the surface water of the county, so that the overflow from Diamond lake passes south, while the waters collected two miles west of the county seat flow west into Dowagiac creek? Also, what is the origin of the many lakes on the surface of the county? Why were the hills piled up in such irregular confusion in some places, and in others the surface becomes almost a level plain? Whence come the rounded boulders of granite which are found everywhere, yet quite detached from any original matrix rock, as though strewn about in some Titan conflict of ages past? These and many other questions come to the mind of one who travels over the county, endeavoring, with the help of modern science, to "Find tongues in trees, books in running brooks, Sermons in stones, and good in everything." The key to the understanding of Cass county's topography is found in the action of ice an(l water during the glacial age. The surface of all the region about the Great Lakes is radically different from what it was when this part of the continent first rose from the sea and became a habitable portion of the earth's crust. Perhaps thousands of years passed after the sea separated from the land and many forms of vegetable and animal life flourished on the soil. Then came the ice age. A period of intense cold, with the intermittent warm seasons so brief that the rigors of winter were never entirely relaxed, covered all the north temperate zone with an ocean of ice and snow, which, radiating from a probable center near Hudson's bay, extended its glacial flow southward as far as the Ohio and Missouri rivers, which spread like embracing arms around the southern borders of the ice area. Geologists have estimated the thickness of these ice fields to vary from a few hundred to thousands of feet, in some places a mass of glaciated material over a mile high. Had these great ice areas been stationary, they would have had little effect in reconstructing the earth's surface. But the mass was characterized 'by a ponderouis, irresistible motion, sometimes but a few feet in a yeari and now advancipng a again retreating; tbut prolonged over an era of years such as human minds can hardly conceive, its effect.-? ~. *..... was more tremendous in the aggregate than those of any natural phenOmena observable in historic times, strpassiig. even the earthquake and volcano.

Page  3 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 3 As tie ice sheet passed over the surface, clown the mountain valleys and over the plains, individual glaciers uniting with others or frolm elevation or depression being cast upon or under a larger sheet, everywhere the motion of the mass being marked by terrific rending, ploughing and friction, it was inevitable that the earth's surface would lbe greatly changed. The ice mass acted in some places as a mighty broom. sweeping the loose material down to the bare rock and carrying tlhe mingled soil and broken rock buried in the ice. Again it plowed up and moved away entire hills. And the friction of such a mass through the ages of its movement wore off even the hardest rock and bore the resulting sand and boulders to remote distances. Thus it came about that the ice sheet had not moved far from its source before it becanle a carrier of a vast weight of rock and soil material transported on tile surface. embedded in the center.and rolled and lpshed along underneath. As mentioned, the motion of the ice fields was not constant. Eventually its southern extremes reached as far south as indicate(l, bult tlhere were many stages of advance and retreat, and it seems that at one pleriod the ice was driven far back to the north and then came south again, so that for a portion of the United States there were two periods of glaciation, separated by an interval wihen the ice siege was raised. While the ice field was advancing it was continually receiving new accessions of solid material in the manners described above. But when the cold relaxed to the point where melting was greater than freezing, the edge of the field, decaying under the heat, began to retire. As soon as the ice relaxed its grasp, the imbedded and surface load of solid material was dropped and deposited in irregular heaps, according as the mass carried was great or small. This material gathered by the glacier in its progress and dleposited in its retreat is the "drift" which throughout Cass county covers the original surface to varying depths,, and from which the "soil' of the county has been formed. The.composition of this drift is readily recognized by any observer. Varying in thickness throughout the southern half of the state from a few feet to several hundred feet, in the case of a well bored at Dowagiac a few years,ago the drill having to penetrate 202 feet of drift before reaching the, regular strata. of slate and shale, this mass of,sand, gravel, clay, with large. bqulders of granite, is the material from which all the superficial area and.surfape 9gfiguration of -the county have been. derived.Ii?tJcNrt,,.tqds,,-t;I f-.$ an villages..of. Cass county rest atopRa acg.;t{..,a "NSA,?Yhic h.M4)en

Page  4 4 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ground and pulverized and heaped together by the action of ice and water ages before Columbus discovered America. Whenever the edge of the ice field remained stationary, because the advance of the glacier was offset by the melting away of the forward end, there resulted a deposit of glacial material heaped together along the entire border of the ice and much greater in bulk and height than the drift left behind when the field was steadily withdrawing. These ridges of drift, brought about by a pause in the retreat of the ice mass, are called "moraines." Cass county is crossed by one of the longest and best defined of these moraines. The ice fields which covered the lower peninsula of Michigan had three distinct divisions, considered with respect to the source and direction of the movement. The Lake Michigan glacier, whose north and south axis centered in Lake Michigan, was the western of these fields or glacial "lobes." On the east was the "Maumee glacier," advancing from the northeast across Lakes Huron and Erie, the western edge of which has been traced in Hillsdale county. Between these two the "Saginaw glacier" protruded itself from Saginaw bay, and its southern advance is marked by a "frontal moraine" extending east from Cassopolis through south St. Joseph and Branch counties to a junction in Hillsdale county with the Maumee glacier. The moraine of the Lake Michigan glacier, marking the final pause of the ice before it withdrew from this region, is a clearly defined ridge circling around Lake Michigan, at varying distances from the present shore of the lake, being from 15 to 20 miles distant on the south, with Valparaiso, Ind., lying upon it. It passes into Michigan in the southeast corner of Berrien county, being observable from the railroad train west of Niles as far as Dayton. Thence it passes obliquely across Cass countyCassopolis lying upn' it-and crosses northwestern Kalamazoo county. Valparaiso is 1oo feet above the level of Lake Michigan; La Porte, 234 feet; and as the moraine enters Michigan it rises somewhat and correspondingly develops strength. Passing over the low swell in southwest Michigan, it is depressed somewhat in crossing the low belt of country which stretches from Saginaw bay to Lake Michigan, its base being less than Ioo feet above these bodies o!f water. From the south line of Michigan the moraine is more sandy than the corresponding arm on the opposite side of the lake, is less sharply and characteristically developed, more indefinitely graduated into the adjacent drift, and more extensively flanked by drifts of assorted material.

Page  5 HISTORY OF CASS COUNT 1Y 5 The superficial aspect of the formation, as olservable in Cass county, is that of an irregular, intricate series of drift ridges and hills of rapidly but often very gracefully undulating contour, collsisting of roundedl domes, conical peaks, wiinding ridges, short, sharp spurs, mounll(ls, lknolls and hulmmocks, promiscuously arranged. The elevations ar-e acclompanied by corresponding (lepressions. These are variously know\n as "lxtash kettles," "pot holes," "pots and kettles," an( "silnks." Tllose tlhat have most arrested popular attention are circular in outline and sylmmlcetrical in form, not unlike the homely utensils that have given thein niames. It is not to be undlerstood that the deposits from the glaciers remained where or in the form in which they were left 1b the wxithdrawing ice. From the margin of the ice flowed great vollumes of water, in broad, rapid rivers rushing from beneath the glacier, and( in dasling. powerful cataracts plunging from lthe surface to the drift lelow. Tlie power of this flowing water in redistributing the loose drift may he comprehended by comparing its action with a spring freshet in the rivers of today, although the forest and vegetati(m that now cover the soil serve as a protection against the floods, so that the glacial waters were many times more effective in their violence. The glacial streamls. lilerated from their confined channels under the ice, tosse(l and scattered and re-collected the deposited drift with the same effect tlat a stream from a garden hose will dissipate the dry dust in the road. The water's power was sufficient to gutter out deep valleys and surround them with high hills of dislodged material. In other places, flowing witll broader current, it leveled the drift into plains and wrought out the so-called "prairies" which are so conspicuous a feature of the county's topography. Not alone while the ice fields were here, but for a long period afterwarl, the surface of the county was wrought upon by the inundation and flow of water. In fact, the numerous lakes are but the (listant echoes, as it were, of the glacial age, indicating in whispers the time when the dominion of water was complete over all this country. When the ice departed and the water gradually passed off by drainage and evaporation, the drift ridges, the Ararats of this region, naturally appeared first, and the subsidence of water then brought the rest of the surface successively to view. But the depressions and basins, hollowed out by the ice and water, remained as lakes even into our times, although these bodies of water are but insignificant in comparison with their former size, and most of them are slowly decreasing in depth and area, even without the efforts of artificial drainage. Since the settlement

Page  6 6 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY of white men in the county many of the small lakes have "dried up," and their bottoms are now plowed over and their rich "muck" soil produces the heaviest of crops. Describing the lakes of the Lower Peninsula, Prof. C. A. Davis says: "The small lakes, particularly those of the Lower Peninsula, are commonly depressions in the drift, shallow and not of large extent, frequently partially filled in around the margin with the remains of former generations of plants, so that many of the typical features of the lakes of hilly or mountainous regions are partly suppressed or entirely wanting. These lakes belong to recent geological time, and this undoubtedly accounts for some of their peculiarities. By far the larger number of them exhibit the following features: A small sheet of water, roughly elliptical in shape, bordered by marshy areas of varying width, or on two or more sides by low, abruptly sloping, sandy or gravelly hills. The marshy tract is frequently wider on the south than on the north side, and its character varies from a quaking bog at the inner margin, through a sphagnous zone into a marsh. In the larger lakes the marshy border may not extend entirely around the margin, but it is usually noticeable along the south shore, where it may be of considerable extent while the rest of the shore is entirely without it." This description may be verified in an examination of any of the lakes of this county. The hills and morainal ridges approach most nearly the composition and form in which the drift was deposited from the retreating glaciers. Here we see the least sorting of materials, the boulders being indiscriminately nrixed with the finer sand and gravel. Hence the soil of the hills is generally lighter and less varied in its productiveness than the lower areas. Those portions of the surface which were long inundated by the post-glacial waters naturally were subjected to many changes. The rough contour was worn off by the action of the water, and the bottoms of former vast lake areas became smoothed down so that when the water finally drained off they appeared as the "prairies" of today. Furthermore, the water performed a sifting process, the constant wash causing the larger rocks to settle on the lowest level'and the sand and clay, as lighter material, to remain on the surface." In some cases, where the water remained sufficiently long, decomposition of vegetable and or-i ganic matter resulted in the formation of mtck- as seen in the lakes today-which mingled with the other niaterials to form the rich loam soil that can be found in some of the prairies

Page  7 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 7 Thus, all the prairies-Beardsley's prairie, Young's prairie, Baldwin's prairie, Little Prairie Ronde, and the numerous others that became the favorite sites for settlement in this county-were at one time covered with water, the action of which effected many of the features which characterize these level or gently undulating areas. From the prairie levels the waters, in their retreat, were collected in the yet lower depressions which are now the lakes of Cass county. Sometimes the glacial ridges were piled up so as to completely surround these depressions, resulting in the ponds and sinks above described, and which could not be drained by artificial outlet except at such expense as to be impractical. Drainage, both natural and artificial, has been a matter of foremost importance from early settlement to the present time. The )presence of so many lakes on the surface of the county indicates tlat natural drainage is defective. The glacial waters were drained off so gradually that they did not cut deep channels for their outlet, but must have flo\vwed off in broad, shallow courses, which gradually narrowed down to a stream little larger than a brook. Jus t east of the village of Jamestown, to mention a case in point, the road crosses two little water courses that later contribute their waters to the Christiann. The actual channels are mere brooks, but each is at the center of a uniform depression. some rods in breadth, which was clearly the bed of a once large but sluggish river. The writer has observed but one of these old water courses vwhich indicate that the current was swift enough to "cut" the banks. At the north end of Lilly lake in Newberg township is a "narrows," through which the waters of the once larger lake extended north into what is now a recently drained and swampy flat. On the west side of this "narrows" the bank juts sharply down to the former lake bottom, indicating that the subsidence of the water caused a current through the neck sufficient to cut the bank at a sharp angle. As already mentioned, the glacial ridge, roughly paralleled by the Grand Trunk Railroad, is the watershed separating the county into two drainage divisions. Eventually all the surface waters of the county find their way into the St. Joseph river. But, recognizing the line of division just mentioned, the drainage of the south and eastern half is effected by two general outlets, and of the north and( west half by one. Christiann creek, which reaches the St. Joseph at Elkhart, receives the drainage, in whole or part, of Ontwa, Mason, Jefferson, Calvin, Penn and Newberg townships. Its extreme sources may be traced to Mud and

Page  8 8 HISTORY OF ('-ASS COUNTY W\ildcat lakes in north Penn. Several of the lakes in southwest Newberg drain into this creek, and the surplus waters from the Diamond lake basin pass into the little branch that extends from the lake's southern extremity, through Brownsville, to a junction with the Christiann. \ little further south Christiann creek receives accessions to its placid current from the "chain lakes' of Calvin, and fromn various small tributaries in east Jefferson, and from the lakes of north Ontwa. From the earliest perio(l of white settlement Christiann creek has furnished sites for mills, one of the first in the county being at Vandalia, where the water is still utilized for similar purposes, though its volume at this point is small. 'o the student of nature, especially with reference to the physical geography of this county, some of the facts derived from observations of familiar scenes become as impressive as the grandeur and surpassing wonders that lie a thousand miles away. Surely there is cause for contemplation and admiration in the knowledge that at one time the great area roughly defined by the Christiann and its tributaries was under the dominion of confused and dashing waters, under whose influence the land surface was moulded and shaped anew, and that when it finally emerged, water-worn, to the light of the sun its surface was the more fit for the uses of man. From total inundation the waters w ithdrew by stages until they are now confined to the diminishing lakes and the narrow streams. The entire Christiann basin is, in turn, tributary to the St. Joseph valley, whose irregular shore line is clearly and sometimes abruptly defined along the southern border of Cass county. The old Indian trail and Chicago road often follows close on the edge of this river bluff, inow descending to the old stream level and now winding along on the heights. We have described with some particularity the Christiann drainage area, because its features are quite typical of the other similar areas in the county. And before speaking of these other drainage divisions, it is necessary to state the part played by artificial drainage in the county. The pioneers found many portions of the county unfit for cultivation and agricultural improvement. Marsh hay was the only product of value furnished by these areas, and to offset this the flats and marshes were the breeding grounds of chills and fevers and for many years a source of disease to all who lived here. Now these same places are the sites of some of the most productive, valuable and healthful farmsteads

Page  9 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY!f in the county. Not alone the system of ditching, under individual and county enterprise, has been responlsil)le for this. The clearing of the timber tracts and undergrowth and the loosening and upturning of the soil by the plow increased surface evaporation and sub-drainage, and1 these were the first inmportant agencies in removing the excess miisture and making the land more habitalle as well as arable. The first acts of the legislature with reference to drainage w\ere passed in 1846. For ten years all the public drainage undertaken was under the direction of township authorities. In I857 the board of supervisors were given power to appoint three commissioners to construct and maintain drains. This act was amended at different times. In 188I it was provided that one drain commissioner might be appointed in each county, to hold office two years, and in 1897 the office of dlrain commissioner was formally established in each county, to be filled by appointment of the board of supervisors for a term of two years, the first full term dating from January, 1898. In consideration of the vast benefit conferred upon the counties of Michigan by drainage works, it is noteworthy that the laws and court decisions expressly affirm that such construction and maintenance of drains can be undertaken only on the ground that they are "conducive td the public health, convenience and welfare." In other words, the increased value of lands and the benefits to private individuals are only incidental. The present incumbent of the office is G. Gordon Huntley, and his predecessor in the office was John Condon. Public drains may now be found in all parts of the county. In some places the digging of a ditch through a natural barrier and the maintenance of a straight channel in place of a former tortuous and sluggish outlet, has effected the complete drainage of a lake basin, thus ending another dominion of the picturesque tamarack and marsh grass and making room for waving grain fields. As a result of drainage many of the lakes which the pioneers knew and which are designated on the county maps in use today, are now quite dry and cultivable, and in the course of another generation many more of these sheets of crystal water, reminiscent of geologic age and picturesque features of the landscape, will disappear because inconsistent with practical utility and the welfare of mankind. Another important phase of the drainage work is the deepening and straightening, by dredging, of the existing water courses. Perhaps the most notable instance is in Silver Creek and Pokagon town

Page  10 10 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ships, where the sinuous Dowagiac creek, for considerable portions of its course, has been removed, as it were, bodily from its former bed and placed in a new straight channel, where its current hastens along at a rate never attained by the old stream in times of freshet. By this means, the water being confined to a narrow channel and not allowed to wander at its sluggish will over the ancient bed, as though unwilling to forget its former greatness, a large area of timber and swamp land has been rendered available for productive purposes. By clearing of the forests and by improvement of surface drainage, the "Dowagiac Swamp," so fearful to the early settlers as the haunt of pestilence and long deemed impossible of reclamation, has lost its evil reputation and is now not only traversed by solid highways as successors to the old corduroy or primitive "rail road," but is cut up into fertile and valuable farms. Resuming the description of the remaining topographical divisions of the county, we find that besides the Christiann basin a large portion of Newberg and Marcellus townships sheds the surface water through the outlets afforded by Little Rocky river and its branches, which pass east to a junction with the St. Joseph in the county of the latter name. That portion of the county that forms the barrier of separation between the Christiann and the Little Rocky presents the most diverse and rugged surface to be found in the county. The south part of Newberg township was at one time quite submerged, this conclusion being based on the numerous lake basins and plains to be found there. But north from Newberg town hall, which is situated on a delightfully level plain, where the loamy soil itself indicates a different origin from that found in the rougher areas, the level is abruptly broken and the road ascends to a series of morainal hills and ridges, forming a fairly well defined group spreading over sections 8, 9,, 5, 6 and 17. Among these is "Bald Hill," between sections 9 and I6, conceded to be the highest elevation not only of this group, but perhaps of the entire county. From these hills of heaped up gravel, sand and clay, with corresponding deep and irregular sinks and valleys,. prospects are afforded on all sides. To the south the country appears to extend in level perspective until the horizon line is made by the hills in north Porter township. The view on the east is not interrupted short of the east line of the county, though all the intervening surface is extremely hilly and some of the most tortuous roads in the county' are, in east: Newberg; 'Northward from Bald Hill the descent into the:.valley of: the Little Rocky is such that here is seen, the most' impressive panorama in Cass county.: On a clear day,

Page  11 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 11 when the timbered areas have lost their foliage, the houses of Marcellus village, at the center of the next township, are visible. Between are the succession of woodland and cultivated fields, dotted with farmhouses and all the evidences of prosperous agriculture. Some of the landscape vistas that stretch away in every direction from the hills of Newberg, not to mention the hills themselves, are worthy the labors of a most critical painter. As soon as the Lake Michigan moraine north and west of Cassopolis is crossed an entirely different drainage area is reached. Here Dowagaic creek reaches out its numerous branches and increases its current from the drainage of practically half the county. Fish lake, in the northeast corner of the county, is the extreme source within the county. Thence the course lies westward through the Little Prairie Ronde, which attracted the Gards and Huffs and other well known early settlers to Volinia township. Further along, as the stream increased, it afforded power for mills, which all along its course have been important factors in the industries of the county from the pioneer period. WNandering on ill its course through Volinia and LaGrange, its drainage area has been marked by alternate forest, flat marsh-land, and beautiful, fertile prairies. Reaching northeast LaGrange, its valley expands into the broad LaGrange prairie, which the succeeding pages will describe as the site of one of the three earliest and largest Cass county settlements. The valley again contracting as it winds through the hills east of Dowagiac, the stream passes into the series of marsh flats which characterize the country surrounding Cass county's only city. As already mentioned, the country between the two forks of the Dowagaic, comprising a large part of Silver Creek, as also of the adjoining townships, has been redeemed from the reign of swamp and water by man's enterprise. The north branch of the Dowagiac, with its source in VanBuren county, is bordered by the flats of Wayne and Silver Creek, which ditching and clearing are making some of the most productive land in the county. Between the south branch of the Dowagiac and Pokagon creek, comprising much of the area of Pokagon and LaGrange townships, are located several of the gently undulating, thinly timbered areas to which the pioneers gave the name "prairies." Of these, Pokagon prairie, by its native fertility and beauty, first attracted the homeseekers from the rendezvous at Catey Mission (Niles). Also, McKinney's prairie is a geographical name often repeated in these pages, designating a' tract

Page  12 12 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY about and including Sections 20 and 21 of LaGrange. LaGrange prairie belongs to the same general description. All the area, included between the central noraim:.al ridge and Dowagiac creek, was at one time, it must be remembered, the bottom of the immense water basin which contained the floods poured from tle edge of the retreating glacier as it withdrew from the moraine, and the inundation which continued for a long time effected lmany changes in the surface and the arrangement of (Irift material. The southw\est part of the county, much of it ridged and overspread with the moraine, presents a topography similar to. Newberg, though not so rugged. The numerous lakes and absence of any important streams, indicate the work of the ice fields in sculpturing the surface of Howard, Jefferson and Milton townships. Here are some extensive flats which a complete system of drainage will in time make very valuable from an agricultural point of view. Howard especially was noted for its "oak openings," and the loose sandy soil and presence of many gravel and boulder ridges militated against a very early occupation by settlers, although the same land has long since been found well adapted to practical agriculture. Generally speaking, the soil throughout the county, in consequence of its origin in the composite glacial drift, is very deep and contains all the chemical constituent elements of good soil. The character of the soil depends upon the assortment of the drift material into clay, sand or gravel beds, as one or the other of these layers happens to occupy the surface position, or as they are mingled without regard to kind. A few words may be said, in conclusion, relative to what may be termed the "natural products" of Cass county. At the time of settlement the greater part of the area was covered with forest growth in all its primeval magnificence and wildness. The clearing of these timber areas — for they are meager in comparison with their former area and mostly of second growth trees —effected the greatest changes in the landscape, as it has been modified under the influences of seventy-five years of civilization. Pioneers recall the heavy forest growths among which their first habitations were constructed. In those days no value was attached to timber that would now be bought at almost fabulous prices for lumber. Black walnut, measuring four or five feet in diameter, white, black and red oak, hickory, elm and beech, were all ruthlessly cut down and given prey to fire in order that space might be had for tillage. The timber tracts now to be found in the county, though in some cases mag

Page  13 hIISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 13 nificent features of the landscape, are restricted and hardly adequate as a means by which the imagination can reconstruct the gloomy, intricate forest depths through which the pioneer forced his way to his wilderness home. Of coal and mineral deposits, Cass county has none. Borings for gas have not resulted successfully, although about twenty years ago a company at Dowagiac sunk a drill over nineteen hundred feet below the surface. From an early day the manufacture of brick has been carried on, but brick kilns have been numerous everywhere and furnish no special point of distinction. The most important of nature's deposits are the marl beds. This peculiar form of carbonate of lime, now the basis of Michigan's great Portland cement industry, the total of the state's output being second only to that of New Jersey, was known and used in this county from an early day. The plaster used in the old court house was made of marl lime. Many a cabin was chinked with this material, and there were several kilns in an early day for the burning of marl. A state geological report states the existence of a large bed of marl at Donnell's lake east of Vandalia, Sections 31 and 32 of Newberg, the marl in places being over twenty-five feet in depth. Just north of Dowagiac, in the lowlands of the old glacial valley is said to be a deposit of bog lime over six hundred acres in extent and from eighteen to twenty-eight feet deep. Harwood lake, on the St. Joseph county line, is, it is claimed, surrounded by bog lime. About the lakes east of Edwardsburg are marl deposits which were utilized for plaster from an early day. But as yet these deposits have not been developed by the establishment of cement plants, and that branch of manufacture is a matter to be described by a future historian.

Page  14 14 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER II. ORIGINAL INHABITANTS. It is asserted that whhen the first white men settled in Cass county, they had as neighbors some four or five hundred Indians. So that, although we make the advent of the white man the starting point of our history, yet for hundreds and perhaps thousands of years there has been no break in the period when the region we now call Cass county has served as the abode of human beings. The lands which we now till, the country dotted over with our comfortable dwellings, the localities now occupied by our populous towns and villages, were once the home of a people of a different genius, with different dwellings, different arts, different burial customs, and different ideas; but they were human beings, and the manner in which our interest goes out to them, and the peculiar inexpressible feelings which come to our hearts as we look back over the vista of ages and study the few relics they have left, are proof of the universal brotherhood of man and the universal fatherhood of God. Almost all of the Indians living here at the coming of the white settlers were lmembers of the Pottawottomie tribe. And they were the successors of the powerful Miamis, who had occupied the tountry when the French missionaries and explorers first made record of its inhabitants. This shifting 'of population had probably gone on for ages, and many tribes, of varying degrees of barbarism, have in their time occupied the soil of Cass county. The Pottawottomies were destined to be the last actors on the scene, and with the entrance of the white man they soon passed out forever. But during the first three decades of the nineteenth century they were the possessors of this region. The ascending smoke from the wigwam fires, the human voices by wood and stream, were theirs. They were the children of nature. The men were hunters, fishers, trappers and warriors. Their braves were trained to the chase and to the battle. The women cultivated the corn, tended the papooses and prepared the food. And yet these people had attained to a degree of approximate civilization. Though they wrote no history, and published no poems, there

Page  15 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 15 certainly were traditions among them, especially concerning the creation of the world. Though they erected no monuments, they had their dwellings, wigwams though they were. Their civilization was not complicated, and yet they lived in villages, graphic accounts of which have been given. In place of roads they had trails, some of them noted ones, which will be described later. They communicated with each other in writing by means of rude hieroglyphics. They had no schools, but their young were thorouighly trained and hardened to perform the tduties expected of them. The Indians had not carried agriculture to a high degree of perfection, but they turned up the sod and planted garden vegetables and corn, of which latter they raised more than is generally supposed, though the Women did most of the farm work. They were not given to commerce, but they bartered goods with settlers and took their furs to the trading posts where they exchanged thein for the white man's products. They made their own clothes, their canoes, their paddles, their bows and( arrows, and other weapons of war, and wove bark baskets of sufficient fineness to hold shelled corn. And another interesting fact concerning them, they also understood how to make maple sugar. The sugar groves of the county have given of their sweetness for more generations than we know of. Much of a specific nature has been written of the Indians of this part of the country. much more than could be compressed within the space of this volume. We can only characterize them briefly. That they were in the main peacable is the testimony of all records. On the other hand they were by-no means the "noble red men" which the idealism of Cooper and Iongfellow has painted them. Historical facts and the witness of those who have had the benefit of personal association with these unfortunate people lead one to believe that the Indian, as compared with our own ideals of life and conduct, was essentially and usually a sordid, shiftless, unimaginative, vulgar and brutish creature, living from lland to mouth, and with no progressive standards of morality and character. The Indians in this vicinity frequently came and camped around the settlers, begging corn and squashes and giviig venison in return. They supplemented this begging propensity by thieving-usually in a petty degree-and it -is. said that they wotld steal any article they could put.their hands;on and. escape observation.' A sharp watch' was 'kept on their movements whenthey were known to be'in the neighborhood:' The Indians with whonm the settlers of Cass county had'to deal had

Page  16 16 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY been influenced more or less by coming in contact with Christianity. At different times for a century French missionaries had penetrated this region. Father Marest is one of the first known as having worked in this field. The Pottawottomies yielded more readily than other tribes to the teachings of the missionaries. They were deeply impressed by the ritual of the Catholic church. The tenacity with which many of the converts clung to the faith is a remarkable tribute to the power of that church over a barbarous people. Old chief Pokagon, whose record lias come down to us singularly free from the usual stains of Indian weakness, was a lifelong adherent of the Catholic church, and he and his people formed the nucleus and chief support of a church in Silver Creek township. The natives had been subject not only to the influences of Catholicism but to those of Protestantism. This brings us to the consideration of one of the most remarkable institutions of a missionary character that the middle west ever knew. Not only the work of religion but many secular events and undertakings that concern the early history of northern Indiana and southwestern Michigan centered around the Baptist mission among the Pottawottomies, which was founded near the site of Niles in the year 1822. Here gathered the red men to receive religious and secular instruction. The councils between the government authorities and the chief men of the tribe took place at the mission house. This was the destination to which the settler from the east would direct his course. After resting and refitting at this point and counseling with those who knew the country, the homeseekers would depart in different directions to locate their pioneer abode. Thus the Carey Mission, as it was called, played a very conspicuous part in the history of this region. It served to connect the old with the new. It was founded primarily for the benefit of the Indians, it served their spiritual and often their physical needs, and its existence was no longer warranted after the Indians had departed. But the Mission was also a buffer to soften the impact of civilization upon the Indian regime. Its work in behalf of the Indians and settlers alike pushed forward the process of civilization and development. in this region some years before it otherwise would have been attempted. The name of Rev. Isaac McCoy has become fixed in history as that of one of the most remarkable religious pioneers of the middle west. His influence and fame, while centering around the Carey Mission which he established, also spread to many parts of the west Born in Pennsyl

Page  17 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 17 vania in I784, he was taken by his parents to the wilderness of Kentucky when six years old. There he met and married the gentle Christiana, a daughter of Captain Polk, and as faithful co-workers they devoted their efforts to a common cause. The people of Cass county have special' reason to remember this pioneer missionary's wife, for her name is borne by the stream that runs south from the center of the county to a junction with the St. Joseph near Elkhart. For a number of years Rev. McCoy was pastor of a church in Indiana, and in 1817 was appointed a missionary and undertook his labors among the Indians of the western states and territories. The founding of the Carey Mission was, in the language of Judge Nathaniel Bacon in an address delivered at Niles in I869, "the pioneer step in the way of settlement. It was barely ten years since the massacre at Chicago, and about the same time after the memorable battle at Tippecanoe, and the disastrous defeat of our army at Brownstown, when this mission was established. Emigration had in a great measure stopped. Very few dared to venture beyond the older settlements, until McCoy boldly entered into the heart of the Indian country, and began his mission school among the Pottawottomies who dwelt on the river St. Joseph. The fact was soon made known throughout Indiana and Ohio, and at once adventurers began to prepare to follow the example of the missionary, who had led the way." In the same address Judge Bacon quoted a report of mission made by Major Long of the United States army in I823. It contained the following description of the mission establishment: "The Carey Mission house is situated about one mile fron the river St. Joseph. The establishment was erected by the Baptist Missionary Society in Washington, and is under the superintendence of the Rev. Mr. McCoy, a man whom, from the reports we have heard of him, we should consider as eminently qualified for the important trust committed to him. "The spot was covered with a very dense forest seven months before the time we visited it, but by the great activity of the superintendent he has succeeded in the course of this short time in building six good log houses, four of which afford comfortable residences for the inmates of the establishment; the fifth is used as a school room, and the sixth forms a commodious blacksmith shop. In addition to this they have cleared about fifty acres of land, which is nearly all enclosed by a substantial fence. Forty acres have already been plowed and planted with

Page  18 18 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY maize, and every step has been taken to place the establishment on an independent footing. "The school consists of from forty to sixty children,and it is contemplated that it will soon be increased to one hundred. The plan adopted appears to be a very judicious one; it is to unite a practical and intellectual education. The boys are instructed in the English languagereading, writing and arithmetic. They are made to attend to the usual occupations of a farm, and perform every operation connected with it, such as plowing, planting, harrowing, etc. In these pursuits they appear to take great delight. The system being well regulated, they find time for everything. "The girls receive the same instruction as the boys, and in addition are taught spinning, knitting, weaving and sewing, both plain and ornamental. They are also made to attend to the pursuits of the dairy, such as milking cows, making butter, etc. All appear to be very happy, and to make as rapid progress as white children of the same age would make. Their principal excellence rests in works of imitation. They write astonishingly well, and many display great natural taste for drawing. "The institution receives the countenance of the most respectable among the Indians. There are in the school two of the great-grandchildren of To-pen-ne-bee, the great hereditary chief of the Pottawottomies. The Indians visit the establishment occasionally and appear well pleased with. it. They have a flock of one hundred sheep, and are daily expecting two hundred head of cattle." From a later official report, made in I826, it appears that the mission "has become a familiar resort of the natives, and from the benefits derived from it in various shapes they begin to feel a dependence on and resource in it at all times, and especially in difficult and trying occasions. There are at present seventy scholars, in various stages of improvement. Two hundred and three acres are now enclosed by fences, of which fifteen are in wheat, fifty in Indian corn, eight in potatoes and other vegetable products; the residue is appropriated to pasture. "There have been added to the buildings since my last visit a house and a most excellent grist mill, worked by horse power. The usefulness of this mill can scarcely be appreciated, as there is no other of any kind within one hundred miles at least of this establishment, and here as benevolence is the preponderating principle, all the surrounding population is benefited." In fact, there were few, if any, of the' first

Page  19 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 19 white settlers of the surrounding country who did not resort to the Mission mill to get their grist ground. Thus the Indian occupants of the territory of Cass county had been taught many of the arts of civilized life before the record of the first white settlement in the county is recorded. This dependence on the assistance of the white man, while it tended to ameliorate the naturally hostile feelings between the races, at the same time subjected the settlers to the burden of their improvident neighbors as long as they remained in the county. The Indians found in Cass county at the advent of the white settlers were in three bands. The chiefs of two of these-Pokagon and Weesaw-were prominent characters, reputable and representative men of their tribe, and the annals of the time contain frequent mention of their names. According to the History of I882, Pokagon's band, numbering over two hundred, occupied originally the prairie in the western part of the county which retains the chief's name. As the settlers came in and appropriated the land, the Indians moved from place to place in the county, the majority of them finally settling in Silver Creek township. Weesaw and his followers had their home in the northeast portion of the county, on Little Prairie Ronde, in Volinia township. The third band of Cass county Indians had as their chief the notorious Shavehead-named so because he kept his hair closely cropped except a small spot on top of his head and behind. He was a morose, troublesome and renegade Indian, never became a party to any of the treaties between the whites and Indians and viewed with sullen hostility every advance of settlement. But long before this time the Indians had formally relinquished their claims to the region now occupied by Cass county. The Chicago treaty of I82I provided for the cession to the United States of all the territory lying west and north of the St. Joseph river claimed by the Pottawottomie Indians. By the later treaty of 1828 all the possessions of the tribe within. the territory of Michigan were transferred to the government, with the exception of a reservation of forty-nine square miles in Berrien county,.west of the St. Joseph and bordered by it. In 1833, at Chicago, a treaty was drawn up by the three commissioners of the United States and the chiefs of the Pottawottomies, among whom were Pokagon and Weesaw, by which it was provided that "All the Indians residing on the said reservations (that in Berrien county being the principal one) shall remove-therefrom within three years from

Page  20 20 HISTORY OF CASS COIUNTY this date, during which time they shall not be disturbed in their possession, nor in hunting upon the lands as heretofore. In the meantime no interruption shall be offered to the survey and sale of the same by the United States government." Pokagon and his followers would not sign this treaty until they were guaranteed exemption from the clause which concerned their removal. It was the cherished desire of Pokagon that his people should remain in "the land of their fathers," and in accordance with this intention he began to enter land in Silver Creek township in I836, and in a year or so, had about nine hundred acres entered in his name, although others of the band had contributed money for its purchase. This was the origin of the Indian settlement in Silver Creek township, which, as it still continues, will be described elsewhere. According to the treaty, the date of removal of the Indians from their reservation was set for I836. When the time came the Indians protested. There were many delays in executing the plan of the government. Agents were busy for some time in collecting a census of the tribes. It was difficult to assemble the scattered bands preparatory to their exile. Many escaped from the surveillance of the officers and took to hiding until the exodus was accomplished. Some were assisted in secreting themselves by the white settlers, who felt sympathy for them. Such an emigration, imposed from without, must always excite commiseration. History is full of similar instances, as witness the exile of the Acadians made famous in Longfellow's "Evangeline." Upon the day appointed for the exodus the Pottawottomies rendezvoused at Niles, and under the escort of two companies of United States troops moved out on the Chicago road toward their future home in distant Kansas. It was a sad and mournful spectacle to witness these children of the forest slowly retiring from the homes of their childhood, that contained not only the graves of their revered ancestors, but also many endearing scenes to which their memories would ever recur along their pathway through the wilderness. They felt that they were bidding farewell to the hills, valleys and streams of their infancy; to the more exciting hunting grounds of their advanced youth, as well as the stern and bloody battlefields they had contended for in their manhood. All these they were leaving behind them to be desecrated by the plowshare of the white man. As they cast mournful glances back toward these loved scenes that were fading in the distance, tears fell upon the cheek of the downcast warrior, old men trembled, matrons wept, and sighs

Page  21 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 21 and half-suppressed sobs escaped from the motley groups as they passed along. Ever and again one of the party would break out of the train and flee to their old encampments on the St. Joseph. In the following year these and many of those who had avoided removal by hiding, were collected and taken to their brethren in Kansas. 'Thus departed, with few exceptions, all of the original inhabitants of Cass county. From the standpoint of humanity, their mode of existence, their ascent in the scale of human development, and their pitiful decadence and defeat in the contest against a superior race, will always claim a full share of interest. But in the history which tells of progress, of building of great cities and empires, of a constantly broadening scope of human acivity, the story of the Indian has little place. He has left nothing that we have thought worthy of imitation, nothing of a fundamental character on which we might continue to build. On the contrary, in the history of America, the Indian seems almost without exception to have been an adverse factor. He must be removed just as it has been deemed necessary to remove the forests in order that agriculture might proceed. And fortunate were the settlers of such a region as Cass county that this removal was accomplished without a bitter and relentless warfare, such as was the inevitable accompaniment of every advance of white men in the far west.

Page  22 22 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER III. THE COUNTY'S SOUTHERN BOUNDARY. Being one of the southernmost tier of Michigan counties, any question that affected the southern boundary of the state is of direct interest to Cass county. The county was not organized till I829 and its settlers were comparatively few at that date. But the pioneers of that period as well as those who settled here later from other parts of the state were well acquainted with the boundary dispute that continued through the existence of Michigan as a territory and which culminated in what has gone down in history and is still remembered by the oldest inhabitants by the name of "the Toledo war." Perhaps no one still alive in Cass county can recall from personal knowledge any of the events of this very interesting dispute. But in the early thirties the settlement of the southern boundary very nearly precipitated a civil war and attracted national attention. Had government policies taken a little different turn, the southern line of Cass county might now embrace the great bend of the St. Joseph river that now sweeps through the northern half of Elkhart and St. Joseph counties of Indiana, and the boundary line between the two states of Michigan and Indiana would be ten miles south of its present direction. If any one will take a map covering the area of Indiana, Ohio and Michigan, he will see that the northern boundary of Ohio is not on a line with the northern boundary of Indiana. The northwest corner of Ohio does not join the corner of Indiana, but is further down and runs a little upward, or north of due east, and terminates at the most northern cape of Maumee bay, leaving that. bay within the bounds of Ohio. The question is, What has made this difference in the boundary lines? and the answer involves the history of three different boundary lines which have to do intimately with the area of Cass county, or more properly speaking, that part of Michigan territory from which Cass county was made. In I778-9 George Rogers Clark, a young Virginian of extraordinary character, who has well been called the Hannibal of the west, captured Kaskaskia and. Vincennes, thus cutting off the supplies of the Indians.

Page  23 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 23 He had been sent out by the government of Virginia, and that state therefore laid claim to all the territory northwest of the Ohio river, which was the same territory ceded to Great Britain by France in the treaty of 1763. On March I, I784, through her authorized delegates in Congress, Virginia ceded this territory to the United States. She stipulated that it be divided into states but specified no boundaries. By virtue of ancient royal charters, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut also claimed large territories north of the Ohio river, but these claims were all transferred to the United States, Connecticut alone reserving a tract which was called the Western Reserve until May 30, I8oo, when she surrendered her jurisdictional claim over this tract to the United States. Thus the general government obtained the jurisdiction over the Northwest Territory, and of the lands, subject however to the proprietary rights of the Indians. When Congress assumed the jurisdiction there was no established government anywhere in the territory. The French commandants of the posts had administered the laws dictated by France, the British succeeded them and proclaimed the common law of England to be in force, Virginia also had extended her laws, but there were no courts to enforce any of them. The question of forming some kind of government for the newly acquired territory at once attracted the attention of Congress. At first a report was made providing for the formation of the territory into ten states with fanciful names, but no action was taken upon it. This was Thomas Jefferson's scheme. From the time of its acquirement by the government until 1787, there was no organized control over the Northwest Territory. The people who were settling in it were left to struggle along as best they could. But on April 23, 1787, a committee consisting of Mr. Johnson of Connecticut, Mr. Pinckney of South Carolina, Mr. Smith of New York, Mr. Dane of Massachusetts, and Mr. Henry of Maryland, reported an ordinance for the government of the new territory. It was discussed from time to time and very greatly amended, and finally, on the I3th of July, it passed Congress. This is the celebrated Ordinance of 1787, a document which, next to the Constitution of the United States, perhaps has occasioned more discussion than any other, on account of its sound principles, statesmanlike qualities and wise provisions. It is Article 5 of this ordinance which has most intimately to do with our present subject. That article provided for the formation in the territory of not less than three nor more than five states, it fixed the

Page  24 24 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY western, the southern, and the eastern boundaries of what became Illinois, Indiana and Ohio, and then the ordinance said, "If Congress shall find it hereafter expedient, they shall have authority to form one or two states in that part of the said territory which lies north of an east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan." WMe call special attention to this line, for it is the first boundary line with which we have to do, and has been of exceeding great importance in the so-called boundary line dispute. But for a strange combination of circumstances and long continued strife, it would have been the southern boundary of Michigan. It is called the "ordinance line" because it was specified in the great Ordinance of I787 for the government of the Northwest Territory. On May 7, I8oo, Congress divided the Northwest Territory by a line running from the mouth of the Kentucky river to Fort Recovery, and thence due north to the Canadian line. It will be seen that this line is not the same as that prescribed in the ordinance, which was a line from the mouth of the Miami river to Fort Recovery and thence due north, making the boundary line due north and south all the way, from Canada to the Ohio river where the Miami! empties into it. The mouth of the Kentucky river is several miles west of the mouth of the Miami, and a line from the mouth of the Kentucky to Fort Recovery runs east of north. This threw a three-cornered piece of territory, shaped like a church spire with its base resting on the Ohio river, into Ohio, which, when the states were organized, was included in Indiana according to the ordinance, and afterwards Ohio from time to time set up claims to this tract. All the region east of this line was still to. be Northwest Territory, and that on the west was erected into the Indiana Territory. It will be seen that this division, threw about one-half of the Michigan country into Indiana and left the other half in the Northwest Territory. And now for the first time the ordinance line, the east and west line drawn through the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan, comes into prominence; for all that portion of the east Michigan country which lay north of this line was organized as Wayne County of the Northwest Territory, and its settlers supposed that their fortunes were thenceforth identified with those of Ohio. The Ordinance of 1787 had provided for the admission into the Union of the prospective states of the Northwest Territory as follows: "Whenever any of the said states shall have sixty thousand free inhab

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Page  25 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 25 itants therein, such states shall be admitted by its delegates into the Congress of the United States on an equal footing with the original states in all respects whatever, and shall be at liberty to form a permanent constitution and state government, provided the constitution and government so to be formed shall be republican and in conformity to the principles contained in these articles; and so, far as can be consistent with the general interests of the confederacy, such admission shall be allowed at an earlier period, and when there shall be a less number of free inhabitants in the state than sixty thousand" (Article 5). The Northwest Territory was rapidly filling with settlers, and in accordance with the above provision the whole population, including Wayne county, were agitating the question of statehood. On April 30, I802, Congress passed an enabling act, the first of its kind, according to which Ohio might frame a constitution and establish a state government, if it was deemed expedient. In that act the old ordinance line running east and west "through to the southerly extreme of Lake Michigan" was specified as her northern boundary. The Ordinance of 1787 seemed to prescribe this as the dividing line between the three states south of it and the two which might be formed north of it, and so it seems to have been regarded and accepted at the time. In harmony with the enabling act, a convention met at Chillicothe, Ohio, on November Ist, to frame a constitution for the new state. It is related in the "Historical Transactions of Ohio" that while the convention was thus engaged an old hunter whose curiosity led him thither appeared on the scene, and, learning of the prescribed boundaries, informed the delegates that the southern extreme of Lake Michigan lay much farther south than they supposed, or than the maps in use indicated. This statement at once awakened great interest and was the subject of careful deliberation. The map used by Congress in prescribing the ordinance line of I787, was the one made by Mitchell in 1755. This map had been accepted as accurate by the Ohio statemakers, until the statement of the old hunter caused them to pause and consider. According to this map a line due east from the southern bend of Lake Michigan would strike the Detroit river a little south of Detroit; if, however, the old hunter's statement was true and the line was farther south, Ohio would be deprived of much of her territory. Accordingly, after much deliberation, the convention embodied in the constitution the boundaries prescribed in the enabling act, but with the following proviso: "lf the southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan should extend so

Page  26 26 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY far south that a line drawn due east from it should not intersect Lake Erie east of the Miami (now the Maumee) river of the lakes, then * i * with the assent of Congress of the United States, the northern boundary of this state shall be established by, and extend to a line running from the southerly extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northerly cape of the Miami (now the Maumee) bay, thence northeast, etc.," or straight on through Lake Erie and Ohio to Pennsylvania. With this proviso the constitution was adopted on November 29th. The congressional committee on the admission of Ohio refused to consider this proviso, because, first, it depended on a fact not yet ascertained, and, second, it was not submitted as were other propositions of the constitutional convention. Congress, therefore, ignoring the proviso, received Ohio into the Union. The inhabitants of Wayne county were very indignant.that Congress should specify the ordinance line as the northern boundary of the new state. More indignant still were they when Congress received Ohio into the Union and left Wayne county out in the cold. They contended that it was illegal to treat them thus, that the ordinance of I787 forbade the further division of the Northwest Territory, until the northern part of it could be made a state, that to exclude the county from, Ohio would ruin it. But all their protests wer-' in vain. The reason was a political one. The Democrats, or, as they were then called, the Republicans, had just secured the presidency in the election of Thomas Jefferson. Ohio, as admitted into the Union, was on their side; but if Wayne county were a part of the state it might be thrown into the ranks of their opponents, the Federalists. Governor St. Clair declared that to win a Democratic state the people of Wayne county had been "bartered away like sheep in a market." The act enabling the people of Ohio to form a state provided that Wayne county might be attached to the new state if Congress saw fit. Congress did not see fit, but on the contrary attached it to Indiana Territory, and in I803 Governor Harrison formed a new Wayne county which comprised almost all of what is now Michigan. North and east it was bounded by Canada, but on the other sides it was bounded by a "north and south line through the western extreme of Lake Michigan" and "an east and west line through the southern extreme of the same." Here the same old ordinance line appears again, as the southern boundary of what is now Michigan. But the Michigan country thus united was too strong to remain

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Page  27 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 27 long a part of a territory, and hence, on January i, I805, Michigan Territory was formed by act of Congress. It was bounded on the west by a line extending through the center of Lake Michigan, and on the south by a line running east from the southern extreme of the same. It will be seen that even at this time Michigan was deprived of a strip of land on the west shore of Lake Michigan, which as Wayne county Congress, had given her. Had.she contended for that as persistently as she did for the strip in Ohio, she would have sought something more valuable, for Chicago is situated in that very strip. That spot was comparatively worthless then, and the future- is hidden from states as from individuals. It is interesting, however, to think what would have been the result if Michigan had retained the boundary lines which she had as Wayne county. But the fact which concerns us. here is, that the ordinance line appears again. After January II, I805, and until I816, Michigan Territory's southern boundary was a line running due east and west from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan; and though it had not yet been ascertained accurately just where that line would come out in Ohio, enough was known about it to make not only Ohio but the people of Indiana object very strongly to the southern boundary of Michigan Territory, as public documents abundantly show. The. boundary dispute was now transferred to Ohio. No sooner had.the. Ohio congressmen taken their seats after her admission into the Union, than they began working to secure formal congressional assent to their proviso about the boundary line. Senator Worthington secured the chairmanlship of a committee to consider the question, but to, no purpose; both houses of Congress were unmoved. The boundary of so distant a state was an unimportant matter. When the territory of Michigan was organized, effort to have the neglected proviso confirmed was again made, but in vain; and the southern line of the territory was described precisely as Ohio, did not wish. The Ohio, in session after session of her legislature, instructed her congressmen to endeavor to secure the passage of a law defining the northern boundary line of their state. It was certainly quite necessary that this be done. The lands near the rapids of the Miami (now the Maumee) had recently been ceded to the governmentby the Indians and were rapidly filling with settlers. Michigan magistrates exercised authority over the district, while the president had appointed a collector to reside at the Rapids, describing the place as in Ohio.

Page  28 28 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY The appeals of Ohiol became so urgent that Congress was willing to consider the matter. Representative Morrow of Ohio proposed a bill confirming the northern boundary as specified in the constitution of his state, and was made chairman of a committee to consider the question. But the bill which passed provided for surveying the boundary as established by the enabling act of I802, the ordinance line. Congress had not sufficient knowledge of the country to venture to change the line, and it is probable that the line prescribed in the ordinance of 1787 was regarded as inviolable. The bill to survey the boundary was passed in 18I2, when the government was engaged with hostile Indians and with the war against England, and hence nothing was done for three years, or until 1815, and even then but little was accomplished. Had the survey been made at once, before the disputed strip became more populous, the question might have been settled; but during the delay the tide of immigration was pouring into the Miami region, and the question of jurisdiction was becoming more and more important. Again the Ohio authorities urged the survey of the state line, and the president complied with the request and ordered it to be done according to the act of 18I2. The survey was made in I8I6. The surveyor general of Ohio employed a Mr. Harris to run the line; not, however, according to the president's direction but according to the proviso of the Ohio state constitution, from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to the northernmost cape of Maumee bay. The Harris line is the second of the boundary lines that pertain to our present discussion. The third soon appeared. On April I9, I8I6, Congress passed the enabling act for the admission of Indiana as a state, fixing the northern boundary by a line drawn due east and west "ten miles north of the southern extreme of Lake Michigan." Indiana was required to ratify this boundary, which she did by a duly elected convention which sat at Corydon, June IO to 19, I8,I6, and framed a constitution, and she was formally admitted into the Union on December IIth. Moving the boundary to the north cut off from Michigan a strip ten miles wide and one hundred miles long, which she claimed had been guaranteed her by the ordinance of 1787, and by several other acts of Congress; but she allowed the act to pass unchallenged at the time, probably because she was engaged in her contention with Ohio, and because the strip thus taken away from her was sparsely settled and little known. To justify depriving Michigan of her territory in this manner it was argued that the ordinance of 1787 expressly stipulated that the

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Page  29 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 29 boundaries it laid down would be subject to changes which Congress afterwards might make, and Michigan was only a territory-that Indiana needed not only river communication with the south but lake communication with the north-that this would facilitate and encourage the building of connecting canals and the influx of settlers by way of the lakes-that the ordinance line of I787 would deprive Indiana of all this and give all the lake frontage to Michigan; and, moreover, that if shut out from northern waters, then, in case of national disruption, the interests of Indiana would be to join a western or southern confederacy. This ten-mile strip thus given to Indiana in no way affected the interests of Cass county, except from the standpoint of speculative history. When this boundary was decided on, there were no settlers in the region now called Cass county, and few, if any, in all the strip in question. But had Ohio's victory in the contention that the Harris line should form the inter-state boundary also prevailed to, establish the northern line of Indiana, it is possible that Cass county might have embraced a quite different area of country from what it does to-day. As soon as General Cass, governor Michigan Territory, heard that Ohio had surveyed the Harris line, he wrote to the surveyor general of that state, asking why the line was not run due east from the southern extreme of Lake Michigan, and saying that a disputed jurisdiction was one of the greatest of evils, and that the sooner the business was investigated the better. To this General Tiffin of Ohio replied that Harris had found the southern extreme of Lake Michigan to be more than seven miles south of the northernmost cape of Miami (or Maumee) bay, and that he had run the line between the two points. He sent General Cass a map illustrating the two lines, saying that the proper authority should decide which should govern, but for his part he believed that the Harris line was the true one, because it was according to Ohio's proviso, and the state had been received into the Union with that proviso in her constitution. Hearing of this correspondence, the governor of Ohio sent to his next legislature a message urging that the matter be settled at once, and that body settled it as well as they could by passing a resolution to the effect that Congress liad accepted the proviso in accepting the constitution of Ohio, and therefore that the northern boundary of the state was the Harris line. Hearing of this, acting Governor Woodbridge, in the absence of Governor Cass, wrote to the governor of Ohio, assuring him! that the act was unconstitutional. He also wrote to John

Page  30 :30 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Quincy Adams, then secretary of state, and there was some very strong correspondence on the subject, too extensive to include here. Illinois Territory had been formed in I8091. It included all the country north to the Canadian line; that is, what is now Wisconsin and a part of Minnesota. In I818 the legislature of Illinois passed a resolution requiring Nathaniel Pope, the delegate in Congress, to present the petition for admission into the Union. The committee to which that petition was referred instructed Pope to prepare a bill for the admission of the new state. On April i8th of the same year, Congress passed an enabling act and provided that Illinois might elect delegates to a convention to frame a state constitution. Illinois elected her delegates in July and they were authorized to meet in convention in August following "and if deemed expedient to form a constitution and state government, the same to be republican in form and not repugnant to the ordinance of I787, excepting so much thereof as related to the boundaries of the states therein formed." This exception was very important. It seems that the bill for the admission of Illinois had specified the ordinance line as the northern boundary, but this exception permitted Delegate Pope to amend the bill for admission, so that the northern boundary was moved up to where it is now. Thus was the ordinance line ignored against the contention of Michigan, and the northern boundary of Illinois moved about sixty miles to the north. This helped to keep the boundary dispute before the people. Michigan's constant contention had been that the ordinance line was the true one, that Congress had no right to change it, and that it should be the lower boundary of the northern tier of states west of Lake Michigan as well as east. In I818 the governor and judges of Michigan Territory protested against Ohio's claims to the disputed strip, and also against the right of Congress to give to Indiana a strip lying further west. They knew it was too late to alter the northern boundary of the new state, but they said, "We take this away to preserve the just rights of the people of this territory * * that it may not hereafter be supposed that they have acquiesced in the changes which have been made." They left the final decision to the future, as they said, "when the people of this country can be heard by their own representatives." The dispute with Ohio was another matter. There the contested strip lay in the most fertile region, near the center of population of Michigan, and the question of possession must continually arise. In 1818 the authorities of Michigan Territory'sent to Congress a memorial

Page  31 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 31 stating that the line run by Harris was not the one which Congress had ordered marked, but another running several miles further north. They also sent a committee to Washington to press the claims of the territory. In response, President Monroe, under the advice of a house committee, directed that the northern boundary of Ohio be marked according to the provisions of the act of May 20, I812. Mr. Harris declined to do the work; and so, in I820, one Fulton was commissioned, who ran the line due east and west from the most southerly bend or extreme of Lake Michigan. The Fulton line was not a new one, but the old ordinance line correctly surveyed. Two years later the president notified Congress that the northern loundary of Ohio had been marked according to the law of 1812. The Ohio members complained that the Fulton line had been run not by order of Congress but at the request of General Cass, and asked to have it re-marked according to the Harris survey. The house refused, but neglected to declare the line marked by Fulton to be the true boundary. Thus the matter apparently was as far from being settled as ever. In 1821 the Ottawa, Chippewa and Pottawottomie Indians ceded to the United States their lands east of the south bend of the St. Joseph river and north of the ordinance or Fulton line, and in I826 the Pottawottomies ceded their lands west of the river and north of the same line. This use by the government of the ordinance line as a boundary encouraged Michigan to hope in its stability. In I826 there was much excitement over the matter. The Ohio delegation to, Congress secured the appointment of a committee to consider the expediency of marking the line dividing Ohio from Michigan Territory, this time not claiming that it be done according to their constitutional proviso. Probably they were becoming wary. The proposal was not considered, but Michigan was on the alert. In her next council she voted to instruct her delegate in Congress to prevent any change in the territorial boundary, and announced that she had "acquired absolute vested rights" by the Ordinance of I787 and the Act of I805. A little later, in 1827, Michigan organized the township of Port Lawrence in the very heart of the disputed tract without causing any protest from Ohio. The battle for the present was to be fought in Congress. In 1827 a bill was passed without difficulty providing for the marking of the northern boundary of Indiana. This was the first time it had been surveyed. The line was run by E. P. Hendricks, under the

Page  32 32 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY authority of the surveyor general of the United States, and the work was begun in October, I827. By 183I the boundary question began to assume a serious aspect. The Ohio legislature petitioned Congress for a, speedy and permanent establishment of the dividing line between that state and the territory of Michigan. Governor Cass was anxious. He sent to the council of the territory a very serious message referring briefly to the attempt of certain counties to separate from the territory, and to the possession by Indiana of a portion of the territory. He advised against urging any claim to the latter, as Indiana was already in possession, and it was better to leave the tract unclaimed until Michigan too should be a member of the tribunal which must decide the question. But with regard to Ohio he urged sending to Congress a memorial which would state the rights and sentiments o4f the people of the territory. Before referring the matter to Congress, the legislative council authorized Governor Cass to negotiate with the governor of Ohio with a view to a compromise, which he did; but as this was in vain, a memorial was sent to Congress. About the same time the legislature of Ohio memorialized Congress, and for the first time outlined their claims. The result was the passage of an act to provide for the determining of the latitude of the southern end of Lake Michigan and other points, preparatory to an adjustment of the Ohio and Michigan boundary. The year I833 marked the beginning of the end, the contest was orn and waxed warmer until the people of the two states faced each other in battle array, and both defied the central government as only the seceding states have ever dared to do. Both parties were active, there was a sharp and continued contest in Congress; there were memorials and counter memorials. On the IIth of December, 1833, Michigan made her first formal petition for admission into the Union, which was; refused. In 1835 she tried again with the same result. She had more than the requisite number of inhabitants, no one doubted that she should be admitted, but many doubted the right of admission with the boundaries which she so uncompromisingly claimed. Failing in the second attempt to obtain permission to form themselves into a state, the people of Michigan determined to go on without permission. In January, 1835, the legislative council called a convention to meet the following May, to "form for themselves a constitution and, state government," which they did. Meantime Congress was consider

Page  33 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 33 ing the matter of the disputed line. The senate passed a bill according to the desire of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois, which was killed in the house by John Quincy Adams. Indiana and Illinois had turned against Michigan, because her insistence that Congress had no right to disregard the fundamental provisions of the Ordinance of 1787 made them fear that their own northern lines might be in danger; since both had been run regardless of the ordinance. When the people of Michigan heard that the senate had passed a bill according to the views of Ohio, there were rumors of war. Michigan declared to Congress that she would submit the question to the supreme court, but until a decision was reached she would resist, "let the attempt be made by whom it may, all efforts to rob her of her soil and trample on her rights." She offered to negotiate with Ohio and Indiana regarding their conflicting claims. Indiana ignored it, and Ohio declined it; but instead the governor of Ohio advised that the counties of the state be extended to a line running from the southern extremity of Lake Michigan to the most northern cape of Maumee bay. The advice was promptly accepted, the legislature passed an act to that effect, and directed the governor to appoint three commissioners to survey and remark the Harris line. The people of the disputed tract desired it. They wished to come under the jurisdiction of Ohio. The Miami canal was in process of construction, from the mouth of the Maumee to Cincinnati, and the settlers desired to secure the full benefit of it. Two weeks before this, the council of Michigan had passed an act to prevent the exercise of foreign jurisdiction within the limits of the territory of Michigan. Governor Lucas now sent to acting Governor Mason of Michigan a copy of his message to the Ohio legislature, and the latter issued orders to Brigadier General Joseph W. Brown, of the Michigan militia, and prepared to resist Ohio by force. The blood of each party was up, each claimed to be a sovereign state and each resented interference by the national government, though Michigan was willing to await a decision of the supreme court. On the first of April General Brown and a force of volunteers had already encamped at Monroe, just north of the contested strip, and he was now joined by Governor Mason. On April second Governor Lucas and staff, and the commission to re-mark the Harris line, accompanied by General Bell and his troops, arrived at- Perrysburg, just south of the contested strip. The election of officers in the disputed strip, under the auspices of Ohio, passed off quietly; the tue of war would come when th'nr" officers at

Page  34 34 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY tempted to exercise their functions; then Michigan would begin civil processes against them, and back it up if necessary by force of arms. The rival governors had received notice from President Jackson that he had sent peace commissioners who were on the way. Governor Mason now wrote to Governor Lucas asking him to desist from enforcing the Ohio law until the president's mediators appeared. Lucas did not deign to reply by writing, but sent an oral message saying he had already written to the president a letter which would prevent interference, and that Ohio did not desire the service of mediators. At this juncture the mediators appeared. Richard Rush, of Philadelphia, and Benjamin C. Howard, of Baltimore, had traveled night and day, which meant much in those days, and on April third they arrived in Toledo. They sought by diplomacy to appease the wrath of each governor, but failed. The men elected under the Ohio act were beginning to assume office, civil processes were issued against them under the Michigan act, and General Brown, with his forces, was ready to execute them. The people of the disputed strip were between two fires, and yet their fortunes were bound up with the government of Ohio. They begged the Ohio authorities to protect them. The commission to survey the boundary line began to run the Harris line, and had proceeded as far west as Tecumseh, where Ohio people say they were attacked, Michigan people that they were arrested. Governor Lucas called an extra session of his legislature to increase his army. The peace commissioners proposed that Ohio run her line, and that there be concurrent jurisdiction until settlement by the federal judiciary. Lucas consented to both. Mason was willing to let the line be run, but spurned the idea of concurrent jurisdiction. At length the Ohio legislature voted to abide by the proposals of the peace commissioners if the United States would compel Michigan to do so; but as a safeguard Ohio passed an act against kidnappers, and appropriated $300,000 to carry out her plans. During the same time the Michigan constitutional convention was in session at Detroit, and declared that Ohio might run the line, but no authority on earth save that of the United States should be exercised in the disputed strip. Ohio began to carry out the proposal of concurrent jurisdiction, resulting in renewed preparations for war. On the seventh of September, I835, the Ohio judges went to hold court at Toledo. Again troops were mustered on both sides. But the court was held at midnight, and adjourned

Page  35 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 35 just as the Michigan forces came up. The troops were therefore dispersed; the people on either side, from many considerations, were as willing to follow their leaders to peace as to war, the Toledo war, or the Governor Lucas war, was over, and the dispute was destined to be settled by politicians at Washington. President Jackson had submitted the boundary dispute to Attorney General Butler, who had decided that the disputed strip belonged to Michigan. John Quincy Adams also, then secretary of state, said, "Never in the course of my life have I known a controversy of which all the right was so clearly on one side and all the power so overwhelmingly on the other, where the temptation was so intense to take the strongest side, and the duty of taking the weakest was so thankless." But the president was in a difficulty. The following year a presidential election would occur, and he desired that Martin Van Buren be the successful candidate. Indiana and Illinois, each of which states of course preferred its more northern boundary, naturally sympathized with Ohio. These three states had a large number of votes. On the other hand Michigan, though having a state government, was only a territory. Again, Arkansas as well as Michigan aspired to statehood, and the administration was anxious to have both admitted in time to vote at the next presidential election, as both were supposed to he Democratic. Moreover, one was a slave state and the other a free state, and if only one were admitted the other would take offense. Clearly the only way to remove all difficulties was to settle the boundary dispute. The decision of the attorney general, though seeking to be just to Michigan, pointed out to, the president that he might remove Governor Mason, and appoint for Michigan a governor who would not violate the law and yet who would not push matters to violence, until the question could be settled by Congress, an expedient to which the president finally resorted. This occasioned John Quincy Adams to say that the attorney general's decision "was perfumed with the thirty-five electoral votes of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois." Acts for the admission of both states, were approved June 15, 1836. Arkansas was admitted unconditionally, but Michigan on condition that she give the disputed strip to Ohio, and receive as compensation the upper peninsula. In a convention at Ann Arbor on the fourth Monday in September, Michigan rejected these conditions by a strong majority. But her senators and representatives were anxious to take their seats in the national Congress, men at Washington feared losing money on lands

Page  36 36 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY sold in Michigan, the'administration was anxious to have the state ratify the act for her admission, and all these interested parties brought pressure to bear. Arguments in favor of the state's yielding were put in circulation and after much shrewd management a popular convention was held at Ann Arbor on December I4th, which assented to the terms of the act of admission. This convention was not duly called, and it acted wholly without the proper authority; but strange to say, both houses of Congress by large majorities passed an act approved January 26, 1837, accepting this convention as meeting the requirements of the case, and so Michigan was admitted into the Union. But for some years Michigan did not relinquish her claims to her lost tracts of land. In 1838 and again in 1842, the question was brought up in the Michigan legislature, and eminent lawyers were consulted as to her right to the disputed tracts. And it is probable that she would have made a legal test of the question long ago but for the development of the immense wealth of her mines in the upper peninsula, which had been given her as a compensation for what she lost to Ohio. This development began about the year I845, and soon convinced her that her lost strips bore no comparison in value to the rich mining region which she had acquired. Such are the three boundary lines; first, the ordinance line, the Fulton line, or, as it is also called, the old Indian boundary; second, the Harris line; and third, the Hendricks' line, which is the present state line between Michigan and Indiana. From the foregoing we may see that the location of the line which now forms the south boundary of Cass county and of the state has been of exceeding great importance in the history of the Northwest, being the occasion of a dispute which lasted for forty-nine years, through twelve administrations, extending over the periods of seven presidents, and which occasioned great contention, employing much of the best talent of the country, engaging many of our strongest characters, and very nearly resulting in a bloody war.

Page  37 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 37 CHAPTER IV. EARLY SETTLEMENT. In writing history the events and the personages of the past always fill more of the canvas than is given to the affairs and actors of the period within our ready remembrance. "No one has written a true history of his own generation." Events that are near deceive us because of their very proximity. To obtain their true relation to each other, all objects, historical as well as. material, must be viewed "in perspective." We may chronicle events of a recent date, or place in some sort of statistical order the various activities and their representatives; but to do more is to incur the risk of having all such historical judgments set aside in the future. There is another reason, not based on the historical difficulty just stated, why "first things" should receive a seemingly disproportionate share of our attention. It is to the pioneer generation of every locality that its present inhabitants owe most of the advantages they enjoy. The American youth of to-day enters into the full use of a magnificent heritage that has been won only through the toil and struggle of others. He begins life among luxuries that hardly existed in the wildest dreams of his ancestors. All the superstructure of civilization, its home and institutional life, rests upon a foundation laid at the cost of tremendous selfsacrifice and effort by generations that have passed or are now passing. It is with this in mind that we should view the actors and events of the pioneer past. With them the history of Cass county began. The work they began and the. influences they set in motion have not ceased to be operative.to the present time. Character is pervasive and continuous, and the character of our pioneers has not yet spent its force in Cass county. Of transient residents within the borders of the present Cass county there were many, Perhaps some of the followers of 'La Salle got this far in the closing years of the eighteenth century. French trappers and explorers and missionaries certainly were birds of passage during the following century. Then, after the country passed from French to English control in I763, there must have been some under the protection of the

Page  38 38 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Union Jack who ventured far from the strongholds of settlement into this then untamed wilderness. Adventurers of all nationalities explored the region. But the only person who would have penetrated this country for business reasons was the trapper and fur-gatherer. Several are named who pursued this vocation within the limits of Cass county. One Zaccheus Wooden, who penetrated the lake region of southern Michigan and set his traps among the lakes of Cass county as early as I814, was in the employ of John Jacob Astor, who at that time, in rivalry with the British fur companies on the north, was spreading his fur-gathering activity throughout the western territory of the United States. There were doubtless many engaged in similar pursuits with Wooden who likewise at different times had their headquarters in Cass county. But this class can hardly be called settlers, and it is only necessary to call attention to the fact that there were such men. One other type of early resident may be mentioned before we proceed to consider the "permanent settlers." There come down to us in the history of every community several instances of "relapses" from civilization-men who, because of natural aversion to their fellow men, by reason of some sorrow or the commission of crime, turned their backs to the life in which they had been reared and severing all connection with social usages thenceforth chose to live apart from the world and bury their existence and their deeds in the depths of the wilderness. Of these restless wanderers, haunting the midshores between civilization and barbarism, and making common cause with the Indians and other creatures of the wild, one example may be given. The story of the eccentric, misanthropic Job Wright is well told in the Cass county history of I882. Born in North Carolina, he was the first settler of Greenfield, Ohio, in I799,. He built a log cabin there, and, like the literary Thoreau, satisfied his slender needs by making hair sieves.' The wire sieve not yet having been introduced, he found a good market for his products in the households of the neighborhood. But it was contrary to his nature to follow this or any other pursuit on a permanent business basis, and with enough ahead for his wants in the immediate future he turned to the more philosophic, if less profitable, occupation of fishing. According to the account, he "followed it with a perseverance and patience worthy of his biblical protonym and with a degree of success of which even Isaak Walton might be proud." Job soon found that his happy environment was being taken away

Page  39 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 39 from him. The woods and meadows that had existed without change throughout the centuries were being occupied by an energetic people. Even the streams were being obstructed to furnish power to grind the settler's corn, and the fish felt their imprisonment and were leaving. The country was getting crowded. It was no place for a lover of nature in its first dress. The Indians had gone, the deer were leaving, and it was not long before civilization crowded Job farther west. Various corners of the world knew him after that, but the virgin wilderness was always his best loved home. Only the promptings of patriotism brought him forth to serve his country in the war of I812. Then he returned to his wanderings. He is said to have made his appearance in Cass county in I829, very naturally selecting as his location the island in Diamond Lake. He built a small log cabin near the north end of the island, and for some time lived there as a "squatter," but finally entered the land, when there appeared to be danger that it might pass into, the hands of some one else. At his island home Job led, the greater part of the time, a hermit's life. During a portion of the time he spent upon his little domain, however, his mother, son and son's wife, whom he brought from Ohio, lived with him. Job Wright wasi tall and gaunt, but powerful. His hair was red and he wore a long beard. On one hand he had two thumbs, and claimed that this peculiar formation was the badge and token of the gift of prophecy and other endowments of occult power. By many persons he was said to have a knowledge of witchcraft, and they related, with impressive confidence, how he could stop the flowing of blood by simply learning the name and age of the person whose life was endangered, and pronouncing a brief incantation. Most of his time was spent in hunting and fishing, but he cultivated a small part of the island, raising a little corn and a few vegetables for his own use. Despite his isolation in the center of the lake, he was very much disturbed by the rapid settlement of the surrounding country. He again set out on his wanderings. But the years had now laid their weight upon him and denied him, the strength of middle age. He returned to his island refuge, where, amid the trees and in sight of the sparkling water, he soon passed away. The rest of the account reads as follows: "A few friends and acquaintances among the settlers of the neighborhood, not more that a dozen in all, followed the remains of the old recluse to the Cassopolis burying ground. George B. Turner, passing, and happening to notice

Page  40 40 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the little knot of men gathered about an open grave, was led by curiosity to join them. There was no minister present. The preparations were all made, and the rude whitewood coffin was about to be lowered into the ground when one of the men, a rough-spoken but tender-hearted and humane old farmer, uttered a suggestion to the effect that some remarks ought to be made before the remains of a fellow mortal were laid away to rest. He called upon Mr. Turner, who, after a moment's hesitation, stepping upon the little mound of fresh earth at the side of the grave, delivered Job Wright's funeral sermon. "The secret of the cause which had driven the eccentric pioneer to this life of seclusion was buried with him." In discussing the first settlements of Cass county, the presence of the near-by Carey Mission must be constantly borne in mind. We have alluded to the importance of that establishment in rendering the surrounding country more available for settlement. The Mission was the radiating point for the streams of settlers. While prospecting for a suitable location, the homeseeker would make his headquarters at the Mission. It is due to this fact that the first settlements in Cass county were made on the western edge of the county. The pioneers entered the county from the west, not from the south or east, as might be supposed. The beautiful Pokagon prairie, in the township of the same name, was the spot selected by the first permanent settler of Cass county. The man who will always be honored as the first citizen of the county was Uzziel Putnam. Right worthy he was to bear this distinction. It would seem not to have been a futile chance that directed him toward this region. The quality of his character had nothing in common with the restless Job Wright. A purpose supplemented by all the rugged virtues of the true pioneer directed him in the choice of a home in this then wilderness. He came of a stock fit to furnish pathfinders and builders of a new country. Born in Wardsboro, Vermont, March 17, I793, inheriting the peculiar strength and courage of the Green Mountain New Englander, when fourteen years old he moved with his parents to western New York. After serving a full apprentice period with a clothier, he proved his fitness for the hardships of a new country by making a journey of five hundred miles, most of the way on foot, to the home of his parents, who had located near Sandusky, Ohio. He experienced in youth all the disadvantages of poverty, but there is little account to be made of

Page  41 HISTORY OF CASS COTUNTY 41 this, for in a new country a manly strength and the homely virtue of patient industry were the best capital. While in Ohio he was a. soldier in the war of I812. In 1822 he married Ann Chapman, with whom he lived more than a half century, 'and their pioneer experiences were endured together. As early as. 1821 the fame of the valley of the St. Joseph had been carried by Indians, trappers and traders to the frontier settlements in Ohio, and it excited in the minds of the many adventurous individuals a desire to explore the region and to substantiate the representations made of its beauty, fertility and natural resources. Among the number was Baldwin Jenkins, who, leaving Ohio in October, I824,. pursued his investigations in northern Indiana and about the St. Joseph in Cass and Berrien counties, after which he returned home. Another was Abram Townsend, who in the same- year as Jenkins visited the valley of the St. Joseph, and on his return to his home in Sandusky county, Ohio, gave a most flattering account of what he had seen; and announced his intention to remove with his family to Pokagon prairie. His praises of the region were echoed by an Indian trader natned Andrus Parker, who had also explored along the course of the St. Joseph. Among those who listened with interest to the narratives of Townsend and others was Uzziel Putnam, then thirty-two years old and in the prime of his strength. He was foremost among the many who became convinced that the fertile region about the Carey Mission held in waiting the opportunities that his ambition craved. And having made up his mind to emigrate to the Michigan country, he at once began to get ready for the long and difficult journey. He was not alone in this undertaking. When the eventful journey began on the I7th of May, 1825, the party consisted of Putnam with his wife and child, and Abram Townsend and son Ephraim, and Israel Markham. A most detailed description would not enable us to understand and appreciate the arduousness of such a journey. Their custommade wagon, strong though it was, was hardly equal to the strain put upon it by its great load of domestic goods and' by the roughness of the way. Three yoke of oxen furnished the traction, and between sunrise and sunset they had often advanced not more.than -seven or eight miles, Rains constantly hindered them, the wagon mired down in the unbeaten way that they chose in lieu' of anything like a modern highway, which, of course, did not exist. The bad roads and' the heavy pull caused the oxen to go lame, with consequent delays. -And in the end it was found

Page  42 42 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY necessary to improvise a bark canoe and transport most of the goods by water to Fort Wayne. Through the gloom of rainy days, the vexatious delays caused by mud and accident, and the constant fatigue and exposure inseparable from such a journey, the courage of the pioneers was all the more lustrous; their patient perseverance the more admirable; and the more inspiring is their success in overcoming all obstacles and finally making a home in the wilderness-not for themselves alone, but for all future generations. The journey of the Putnam party was typical. Thousands of pioneers, both before and after, had similar experiences, and we dwell somewhat at length on those of the first Cass county settler to illustrate some of the difficulties that were as a matter of course in the opening of a new country to civilization. But finally they reached the land. they sought. Crossing the St. Joseph at the mouth of the Elkhart, and following the track by way of Cobert's creek and Beardsley's prairie, they reached in safety the cabin of William Kirk, which then stood about sixty rods east of the present railroad depot at Niles. On the following day Baldwin Jenkins (who had already arrived on the scene) and Mr. Kirk piloted Putnam and Townsend through the woods to Pokagon prairie, a distance of six miles, where they examined the ground and selected places for farms. They found small bands of Pottawottomies living on the prairie, and when they explained to Chief Pokagon their wish to settle there and cultivate the land, tile old Indian objected, saying that the Indians' corn would be destroyed by the settlers' cattle and that his people would move off in the fall to, their hunting grounds, after which the whites could come and build their houses. Mr. Putnam, having selected his location, now returned to Fort Wayne and in the last days of October brought his family and the rest of his goods to the new settlement, reaching MIr. Kirk's after a week's travel. The 22nd day of November, 1825, is the date fixed for the first permanent settlement in Cass county. On that day Uzziel Putnam moved his family into his new home on Pokagon prairie, and from that time until his death on July 15, I88,I, this pioneer had his residence on the beautiful prairie which it was his privilege to see become the home of many prosperous and happy people. His first house was a shanty twelve feet square, covered with bark and without floor or chimney, which Mr. Markham had put up for his convenience while cutting hay there during

Page  43 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 43 the previous summer. Poor as this shelter was they remained in it until MIr. Putnam had completed a new and more comfortable one. Even the new one at first had neither floor, door nor windows. All the timbers had to be hewn into shape with an ax or cut with a hand saw, since there was no sawmill within a hundred miles. Six days after Mr. Putnam moved into this rough cabin on Pokagon prairie, Baldwin Jenkins located in the same neighborhood, a short distance north of Sumnerville, where he is said to have utilized an Indian wigwam as a place of abode during the winter. As already mentioned, he had arrived at the Mission some time before Mr. Putnam, and during the summer had succeeded in raising a small crop of corn near by. In the fall he returned to Ohio, and brought his family overland to Pokagon, arriving just a little too late to be regarded as the first settler. At this time it is said there were but nine families in Cass and Berrien counties, excepting those at the Mission-two in, Cass and seven in Berrien. Before going further in the settlement of this region, a few words might be said concerning the life of the second settler of Cass county, Baldwin Jenkins. His was an. unusual character, in an age and country that called for distinctive attributes of mind and body. Born in Greene county, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1783, he lived to be sixty-two years old. At the age of sixteen he accompanied the family to the timber region of middle Tennessee, where he had the training and environment of a frontiersman. To avoid slavery the family later moved to Ohio, and from there Baldwin made his various journeys of investigation to the west, and eventually moved out to Michigan. He was one of the largest land owners among the early settlers. Possessed of that broad spirit of hospitality which was the noblest characteristic of new countries, his home, situated on the direct line of emigration, became a noted stopping place for travelers and homeseekers, from, whom he would receive no compensation. He carried this hospitality to, such an extent that the products of his farm and labor were largely consumed by the public. He possessed great confidence in his fellow settlers, loaning them money, selling them stock and farm products on time, without requiring written obligations and charging no interest. He was a man of parts. In religion he was a devout member of the Baptist church. HIe had. a remarkably retentive memory, and his mind was an encyclopedia of local knowledge, so that he could not only tell the names but

Page  44 44 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY also the ages of nearly all his neighbors. He was one of the first justices of the peace in western Michigan, having been, appointed by Governor Cass for the township of St. Joseph,. which then comprised all the-territory west of Lenawee county. He was the first road commissioner in Cass county, was one of the first associate judges appointed under the territorial government, and one of the delegates to the first constitutional convention of the state. The settlement on Pokagon prairie soon began to grow. In the summer of I826 was added to the little community Squire Thompson. It is said that he and William Kirk were the first permanent settlers, under the influence of the Carey Mission, to cross the St. Joseph and make their homes on its north side in Berrien county. Mr. Thompson had visited the vicinity of the Mission in 1822, before the completion of the buildings, and in the spring of I823 returned and made choice of a location and built a cabin on the banks of. the river. He lived there without neighbors until the arrival of William. Kirk in the following spring. On moving to Pokagon, he settled on section 20, and lived there until his departure for California during the height of the gold excitement. Other arrivals were Abram Townsend, who, we have seen, accompanied Uzziel Putnam hither, and who now returned as a settler; and Gamnaliel Townsend and his family, together with the Markhams (Israel, Jr. and Sr., Samuel and Lane) and Ira Putnam. Gamaliel Townsend should be remembered as being the first postmaster in the township, receiving and distributing the scanty mail at his father Abram's house. Most important of all was the arrival, on August 12, 18,26, of Uzziel Putnam, Jr., who was born on that day, and as nearly as can be ascertained in such uncertain problems as priority of birth or residence, he was the first white child born within the present limits of Cass county. Through the leafless forests and over the prairies swept by the wintry blasts there came in the early months of I&27, from Warren county, Ohio, Lewis Edwards and his family. Their journey was replete with hardships, and it was with difficulty that Mrs. Edwards and her year-old baby -kept from freezing to death. Lewis Edwards became the first collector and first justice in the county, and was one of the prominent pioneers.' Olf Welsh descent, he was born in Burlington county, New Jersey, in I799, and at the age of twenty-one was adventuring in various enterprises in the Ohio valley. He had all the versatile genius

Page  45 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY of the typical frontiersman, and before moving out to Cass county had been employed several years in the carpenter's trade, so that he was probably the first regular carpenter to settle on Pokagon prairie. He brought along with him his set of tools, and while his family was sheltered under the roof of Uzziel Putnam he was engaged in constructing a model home for those days. His cabin contained well made windows and doors, and his skill also improvised practically all the household furniture. His interest in fruit culture is also noteworthy. He brought from his father's New Jersey orchard some fine apple grafts, and for some years he raised the best and greatest variety of apples in the county. As "Squire Edwards," he became one of the noted characters of the vicinity, and nunerous incidents connected with the transaction of official business are associated with his name. Beginning with I8128, the settlers came in tool great numbers to receive individual mention. Alexander Rodgers and family of wife and eight children located in the township. He was the first supervisor elected after the organization of the county, although he did not serve on account of illness. From Giles county, Virginia, came the Burk family and also Archibald Clyborn (the family name also spelled Clybourne and Clyburn), who was a member of that noted family who were prominent in many communities of the middle west, furnishing at least one of the historic characters of early Chicago,. ONTWA TOWNSHIP. From Pokagon we turn to historic Ontwa, which was settled almost contemporaneously with Pokagon. In the western part of the township, near the beautiful sheet of water rightly named Pleasant lake, and on the broad prairie where now stands the town of Edwardsburg, Ezra Beardsley, who had come from Butler county, Ohio, unloaded his household goods in the spring of 1826 and became the pioneer of the locality which has since borne the name of Beardsley's prairie. In the previous.year he had prospected this site, decided upon it as his permanent home, and erected a rude cabin to shelter his family when they should arrive. During the first year his household was the only one on the prairie. But in the following spring the nucleus of a settlement was formed by the arrival of George and Sylvester MeacHam, George Craw[ ford and Chester Sage. The latter two remained 'only a year or so, when they moved to Indiana and took a prominent: part in-the founding of the now city of Elkhart, Mr. Crawford surveying the first plat

Page  46 46 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY and Chester Sage's home serving as the first court house of Elkhart county. The Beardsley settlement became a favorite rendezvous for homeseekers passing through or preparing to locate in the vicinity, and to accommodate this stream of visitors Ezra Beardsley commenced keeping a tavern, which was the first in the county. When the Beardsley house was crowded to its limit, as was often the case, the overflow was sent to the Meacham cabin, otherwise known as "bachelor's hall." Sufficient plain food and a shelter between their bodies and the sky were all' that were asked by pioneer travelers, and this furnished they were content. The pioneer merchant of Ontwa. Thomas H. Edwards, was also selling goods from a pole shanty on the south bank of Pleasant lake, and thus the central settlement of the township was somewhat distinguished by its commercial character from the agricultural community which was growing on Pokagon prairie. According to the former Cass county history, Ontwa township at this time contained a resident whose peculiarities entitled him to a place with the hermit, Job Wright. This individual, whose name was Garver and who came from Virginia, is said to have lived in his log cabin for nearly a month without any roof, subject to the rain and inclemencies of the weather, waiting for the moon to be in the right position in the zodiac before shingling his cabin, so that the shakes would not warp up. A few years later he became so annoyed by the increasing number of his neighbors, and especially by the surveying of a road past his dwelling, that he sold out and moved to a thick wood in Indiana, miles from any habitation. One house within five miles, and that a tavern, where whiskey could be obtained, constituted his idea of Paradise. LA GRANGE TOWNSHIP. Next to Pokagon, and excepting the small settlement in Ontwa, La Grange prairie attracted a small rivulet of that great stream of emigration which at this time was flowing with increasing volume from east to west. The first settler in La Grange township was that pioneer with whom we are already familiar, Abram Townsend, whose first home in this county was in Pokagon. He had followed the receding frontier for many years. Born in New York in I77I, he had moved to Upper Canada when young, in I8I5 settled in Huron county, Ohio, thence to Sandusky county (where a township was named for him), and in I825

Page  47 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 47 began the series of explorations which ended in his becoming a settler of Cass county. Mr. Townsend soon had as neighbors Lawrence Cavanaugh and wife and son James; Abraham Loux, a son-in-law of Townsend; and Thomas McKenney and James Dickson, who located on section 17. In the autumn of this year, after a dreary drive from southwestern Ohio, the Wright family arrived. William R. Wright was one of the able pioneers of this vicinity, and the family connections and descendants have long been prominent in the county. Two other familiar names may be mentioned. Isaac Shurte, who came to the settlement in 1829, was born in New Jersey in I796; moved to Butler county, Ohio, where he married Mary Wright, and from there came in I828i to Niles and in the following year to his home in La Grange. It was in his house that the first election in the township was held, and his name often appears in the early accounts of the county. John Lvbrook, who came to the township in 1828, was a member of the Virginia family of that name that sent numerous of its scions to this portion of the middle west, and nlost of them came in for prominent mention in connection with the early and formative history of their respective communities. John Lybrook had come to Michigan as early as I823, assisting Squire Thompson to move his goods to Niles. Several years later he brought his parents and sisters to this locality, and lived there until his removal to La Grange. It is claimed that he sowed the first wheat in the St. Joseph country. He alsol imported the first grindstone seen in this region, carrying it on horseback from Detroit. So useful was this instrument that it became almost an institution, and inany settlers came twenty, thirty and even forty miles for the purpose of sharpening their implements. At the time of this writing (May, I906), there lives in Berrien township of Berrien county, some six or seven miles north of Niles, the venerable Isaac Lybrook, who is without doubt the oldest of Cass county's surviving pioneers. Born in I825, he was a member of this well known Lybrook family, his father being a brother of John Lybrook, and his mother a sister of A. L. Burk, also a pioneer of Cass. Isaac was brought to Pokagon township by his mother in October, 1828, and lived there until he was fifteen years old. He went to Berrien county in I840 and has followed farming through his active career. Many other names might be added if it were our purpose to make a complete catalogue of those identified with the occupation of this town

Page  48 48 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ship. Many of these persons will be mentioned in the later history of the township, and as this account must stop short of being encyclopedic, some familiar names may be entirely passed over. Our purpose here is to indicate the most prominent of the "first settlers" of the county, those upon whom devolved the labor of organizing and setting in motion the civil machinery of the county and its divisions. Of pioneer history and the interesting stories told of men and events of the time, volumes could be written. Even so we could but feebly re-illumine the features and spirit of those times; for, truly, "Round about their cabin door the glory that blushed and bloomed Is but a dim-remembered story of old time entombed." PENN TOWNSHIP. Another locality that received immigration before the civil organization of the county was Penn township. Here the matter of priority of settlement is uncertain. The first settlers appear to have been of transient residence. During the years I827 and I828 Joseph Frakes, Rodney Hinkley, Daniel Shaffer, John Reed and others took claims here, but all except Shaffer left the following year. In I8,29 came George Jones and sons, from Butler county, Ohio. He was the largest landholder in the township, according to the list of original entries. Other settlers of the same year were John Price, John Rinehart and sons, Stephen Bogue, William McCleary and Martin Shields. In the person of Martin Shields the township received a representative of the saddler's trade, although, like all followers of a trade in a new country, he based his occupation on land and agriculture. When the residents of the community met to cast their first ballots in the new county, they found his house the most convenient polling place, and perhaps for that reason he was also the first postmaster of.the town. He was evidently of a more visionary nature than most of the practical pioneers of this section, for at one time he felt called upon- to preach the gospel, although when he opened his mouth to speak no words followed his inspiration and his spiritual leadership wasshort-lived. This township bears a name suggestive of the character of its early inhabitants. The:'c6-religionists of William Penn settled in large numbers not only' in' the' Quaker colony of'Pennsylvania, but all along the Atlantic coast. But in the south, where slavery was the predominating feature of the economic system -their fundamental principles of faith set -the- Friends at variance with'the -majority of their fellow citizens.

Page  49 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 49 Northwest Territory, with its basic principle of prohibition of slavery, attracted to its broad, new lands a great immigration of these simple people, and consequently there is hardly a county in the middle west that has not had a Quaker settlement. Penn township was the locality to which most of the Quaker immigration to Cass county directed its settlement, where they had their meeting house and where their simplicity of creed and manner and dress were for many a year the most marked characteristics of the township's population. To refer at this point to one such settler, who was not the less prominent in the general history of the county than as a member of his sect. Stephen Bogue was born in North Carolina in I790; in I8II, owing to their abhorrence of slavery, the family moved to Preble county, Ohio. In I829 he came to the St. Joseph country and entered for his prospective home a tract of land in Penn township, whither his sister, the wife of Charles Jones, had arrived in the preceding year. Mr. Bogue returned in 1831 to a permanent residence in this towsnship until his death in I868. He comes down to us as one of the clearest figures of the pioneer times. His connection with the "underground railroad" and the "Kentucky raid" of ante-bellum days is elsewhere recorded. He took a foremost part in the organization of the Birch Lake Monthly Meeting of the Society of Friends. His name is also, mentioned in connection with the platting and establishment of the village of Vandalia. JEFFERSON TOWNSHIP. Pioneer settlers in the township of Jefferson were the four families whose heads were Nathan Norton, Abner Tharp, whose son Laban turned the first furrow in the township, and Moses and William Reames. These men had learned of the attractions of Cass county through John Reed (related by marriage to Tharp and Norton), who, we have seen, was one of the first settlers in Penn. In the fall of I828, the four families whose heads have been named left Logan county, Ohio, and after the usual hardships of primitive traveling arrived in Cass county. They passed through the site of Edwardsburg, where they were greeted by Mr. Beardsley and Thomas H. Edwards, and after spending a few days witll John Reed on Young's prairie, they proceeded to the southwest shore 'of Diamond lake, and on section I they erected the first houses of white man in what is now Jefferson township. In the latter part of 1829 John Reed joined these pioneers, and his date of settlement in the township is placed second to that of the Tharps, Nolrtons and Reameses.

Page  50 50 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CALVIN TOWNSHIP. From this nucleus of settlers in Jefferson in the spring of 1829 departed Abner Tharp to a suitable spot in Calvin township, where he erected a log cabin, plowed ten acres on the opening, and by reason of these improvements and the crop of corn and potatoes which he raised that year is entitled to the place of first actual settler in that township. It is said that he was the sole occupant of the township throughout the first summer. He was not a permanent settler, however, for in I830 he returned to Jefferson, and in subsequent years lived in various parts of the west, only returning to pass his last years in Calvin township at the village of Brownsville. PORTER TOWNSHIP. Only a few more names can be mentioned among those of the first comers to Cass county. In Porter township there located in 1828 a settler who varied considerably from the regular type of pioneer, both as to personal character and the events of his career. John Baldwin was a southerner; averse to hard labor; never made improvements on the tract which he took up as the first settler in Porter; but, for income, relied upon a tavern which he kept for the accommodation of the travelers through that section, and also, on his genius for traffic and dicker. Tie lad hardly nade settlement when his wife died, her death being the first in the township. It appears that Baldwin carried to extreme that unfortunate trade principle of giving the least possible for the largest value obtainable. In one such transaction with his neighbors the Indians, he bargained for the substantial possession of certain oxen by the offer of a definite volume of fire water. There were no internal revenue officers in those days to, determine the grade and quality of frontier liquor, and the strength of the potation was regulated by individual taste or the exigencies of supply and demand. Certainly in this case the customers of Mr. Baldwin were somewhat exacting. Having consuned an amount of their favorite beverage sufficient, as they judged from former experiments, to transport them temporarily to the happy hunting grounds, and waiting a reasonable time for the desired effect with no results, they at once waited upon Mr. Baldwin with. the laconic explanation that the liquor contained "heap too much bish" (water). Evidently this deputation of protest proved ineffectual, for a few nights later the aggrieved former owners of the oxen repaired to the Baldwin tavern, and, arming themselves with shakes pulled from the door, forced

Page  51 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY an entrance, and, pulling the unfortunate landlord out of bed, proceeded to beat him about the head and shoulders in a most merciless manner, not leaving off their fearful punishment until they thought life was extinct. Mr. Baldwin finally recovered, however, but not for a long time was he able to resume business. This event was the subject of much comment among the settlers for many years, and was one of the very few Indian atrocities to be found on the annals of the county. No arrests were made, but the Pottawottomie tribe paid dearly for the assault, for Mr. Baldwin filed a bill with the government, claiming and eventually receiving several thousand dollars in damages, which was retained from the Indians' annuities. A number of settlers arrived in Porter in 1829, among them William Tibbetts, Daniel Shellhammer, Caleb Calkins (who was a carpenter and joiner by trade), Nathan G. O'Dell, George P. Schultz. With Mr. Schultz came his step-son, Samuel King, then fourteen years old, but who, became one of the most successful men in Porter township and at one time its largest land owner. VOLINIA TOWNSHIP. The rather remarkable history of Volinia township had also begun previously to organization. During the twelvemonth of I829 many people located in this portion of northern Cass county, among those named as first settlers being Samuel Morris, Sr., J. Morelan, H. D. Swift and Dolphin Morris. One does not go far in the history of this township, either in pioneer times or the present, without meeting the name Gard. With some special mention of the family of this name we shall close this chapter on early settlement. Jonathan Gard was born in New Jersey in 1799, was taken to Ohio in I8OI, and spent his youth and early manhood in the vicinity of Cincinnati and in Union county, Indiana. He was well fitted by nature and training to be a pioneer, possessing the rugged qualities of mind and body that are needed to make a new civilization. While prospecting about southern Michigan in the fall of 1828, in search of a place for a new home, chance brought him together with a party who were bound on a like mission, consisting of Elijah Goble, Jesse and Nathaniel Winchell and James Toney. They stopped a few days at the home of their old friend, Squire Thompson, on Pokagon prairie, and then proceeded to the region that is now comprised in Volinia township. Little Prairie Ronde was the spot that most attracted them, and there Mr. Goble and

Page  52 52 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Mr. Gard selected farms, while Mr. Toney chose a tract on what later became known as Gard's prairie. In the following spring Mr. Gard, Mr. Goble and Samuel Rich came to take possesion of their new homes. Because of the fact that Mr. Toney had been unable to leave his former home, Mr. Gard took the claim: that had been chosen by Mr. Toney, and thus it came about that he was the original settler on Gard's prairie and gave it its name. Jonathan Gard spent the remainder of his life at this spot, until his death in I854. He was the founder of the family which has included so many well known men of Cass county, a grandson of this pioneer being the present treasurer of Cass county. It is very remarkable that this. beautiful region of country should remain absolutely unsettled until the late twenties, and that settlers from different parts of the United States, without any preconcerted action or communication with each other, should begin to pour in at just this time; but so it was. Here different families for the first time met each other, and here their lives were first united in the same community, and in many cases by marriage in the same home. None of those early settlers whom, we have named remain. On the long and weary march they have been dropping out one by one until of the pioneer warfare not a veteran is left. It would be impossible, in a work like this, to trace the life history and describe the end of each one of them, and for this there would not be sufficient space.

Page  53 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 53 CHAPTER V. "PIONEERS OF CASS COUNTY." "All members of the society who came into or resided in Cass county prior to I840 shall be deemed 'Pioneers of Cass County.'" This extract from the constitution of the Pioneer Society has suggested an appropriate record of the pioneers, in such a form as to supplement the preceding pages and to add many details of personal chronology such as the narrative could not present. Therefore it has been determined to bring together, in alphabetical order, a very brief and matter-of-fact mention of the deceased pioneers, considering under that designation only those who became identified by birth or settlement with the county not later than the year 1840. Completeness of the record is quite beyond the limits of possibility and has not been attempted. Yet it is believed that the pioneers of the county are well represented here, and in a form for easy reference. Moreover, a study of the following records is extremely instructive, as documents on the early history of the county. Records of dates and localities though they are, they suggest entire stories of immigration and settlement. The sources of the county's early citizenship, and the character of the stocks which determined in large measure the institutions and social conditions in the county, are indicated in these annals almost at a glance. The first deduction to be drawn is the overwhelming preponderance of New York's quota among the pioneers. Some few well known families, notably the Silvers from New Hampshire, were native to the strictly New England states. Delaware furnished several worthy families, Vermont is honorably represented, but either directly or as the original source New York state was the alma mater to moire pioneers than any other state. New York was the recruiting ground, as is well known, for the western expansion which began early in the nineteenth century. That was true, in large measure, when the practicable route of that immigration was through the gateway of the Alleghanies at Pittsburg and down the valley of the Ohio. But New York did not reach its full

Page  54 54 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY pre-eminence in the westward movement until the opening of the Erie canal in 1825, after which the full tide of homeseekers was rolled along that highway into the untried wilderness of the west. For a long time Ohio was an intermediate place of settlement between the east and the far west. Also, it was a focal ground upon which lines of migration from New England, from the middle Atlantic and from southern states converged. Ohio occupies a position only second to New York in furnishing pioneers to Cass county. And of Ohio's counties, Logan, Butler and Preble seem foremost in this respect. Here the uncompromising abolitionists from North Carolina first settled before Cass county became a goal for many. Carefully studied, these records tell many other things about the pioneer beginnings of Cass county. The stages by which many families gradually reached this point in their westward migration are marked by children's births at various intervening points. And sometimes the bonds of marriage united families from widely sundered localities, the community of residence which brought this about being now in Ohio, now in Indiana, and perhaps more often here in Cass county. These are but a few of the inferences and conclusions that may be found in the annals which follow, and besides the historical value they thus possess, this is a means of preserving permanently many individual records which have a personal interest to hundreds in Cass county. Ashley, Thompson-Born in Penn township in 1831; in I853 went to California, where he died June 8, I906. Abbott, Joseph H.-Born near Toronto, Canada, January 12, I8I2; came to Howard township in '834, where he died November i, 1878. Alexander, Ephraim-Born in Pennsylvania November 6, I819; came to Cass county in 1831; died in Dakota December 9, I885. Allen, Mrs. Demarias-Born in I799; came to Ontwa township in I835; died in Jefferson township August 5, I887. Arnold, Henry-Born in Sheffield, Massachusetts, July 25, I807; came to Cass county in 1835; died August 25, 1889. Andrus, Mrs. Fanny-Born in Cayuga county, New York, November 4, I8o8; came to Ontwa township in I835; died in Mason township January 29, I894. Andrus, Hazard-Born in New York in I789; came to Ontwa in 1834; died March 3, 1862. Anderson, Lemuel H.-Born in Warren county, Ohio, July 20, I929; came to Cass county in I833; died in South Bend August 5, 1895.

Page  55 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Anderson, Mrs. L. H.-Born in Erie county, New York, in 1831; came to Cassopolis in I833; died in South Bend May 23, 1883. Ayers, David-Born in Wood county, New York, in I829; came to Penn township in I839, where he died October 30, I895. Adams, Uriah M.-Born in Sandusky county, Ohio, November 2, 1832; came to Porter township in 1837; died July 5, 1900. Alexander, John-Born in Richmond, Indiana, December 22, I824; came to Young's prairie in I830; died at Michigan City, Indiana, November 27, I900. Alexander, Leah E.-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 23, 8818; came to Penn township in I832; died in South Dakota January i6, 1901, as Mrs. G. H. Jones. Aldrich, Henry-Born in Smithfield, Rhode Island, May 5, 1813; came to Milton township in I837, where he died February 8, 1901. Atwood, Lafayette-Born in Cattaraugus county, New York, March I8, 1824; came to Wayne township in 1836; died at Dowagiac March 18, I9O6. Aldrich, Dr. Levi-Born in Erie county, New York, January 27, I820; with his parents came to Milton in 1837; died at Edwardsburg December I6, I892; his wife, Evaline A. Sweetland, born in Tompkins county, New York, September I, 1822; killed in railroad collision at Battle Creek, Michigan, October 20, 1893. Aldrich, Nathan-Born in Rhode Island January 24, 18I6; came to Milton in 1837; died March 26, 1894; his wife, Harriet M. Dunning, born in New York July 21, I8I6; came to Ontwa in I834; died January 24, 18581. Alexander, John-Born in North Carolina in I79I; came to Penn in 1831; died in I850; Ruth, his wife, born in 1785; died in 1845. Anderson, Samuel F.-Born in Rutland county, Vermont, February I9, I803; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died April 14, 1877; Mahala Phipps, his wife, born in New York July Io, I807; died January 21, I877. Hannah Phelps, wife of John T. Adams, born in Norwich, Connecticut, April 30, I8o8; came to Edwardsburg in I835 and there died June 20, I838. Bement, David-Born at Hartford, Connecticut, October 17, I813; came to Mason township in 1836; died in Ontwa township December I8, 1879;. Barnard, Dr.-Came to Cass.county in 1828; died in Berrien Springs April 6, I88,I. Beckwith, Walter G.-Born in New York in i8io; came to this county ill 1836; died in Massachusetts May 18, I884.

Page  56 56 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Beckwith, Mrs. Eliza A.-Born in Ontario county, New York, December 2, I8II; came to Cassopolis in June, I838; died in Jefferson township June 27, I88o. Brady, David-Born in Sussex county, New Jersey, in I785; came to La Grange prairie in July, I828; died in La Grange township July 12, 18.78. Bates, John-Bom in Chautauqua county, New York, July 7, 182I; came to Summerville in I839,; died May I81, I879. Barnhart, Mrs. Casander S.-Born in Franklin county, Virginia; came to Cass county about I828; died October 12, 1878. Bonine, Mrs. Elizabeth G.-Born in Penn township in I833; daughter of Amos Green; died October 26, I875. Bement, Mrs. Jane-Born in Cayuga, New York, September 17, I824; came to Mason township in I836, where she died April 2, I887. Ball, Israel-Born in Butler county, Ohio, October 2, I814; came to Cass county in 1830; died in Wisconsin April 30, I887. Bosley, Hiram-Bom in Ohio in I829; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Iowa in I889. Beeson, Jesse G.-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, December I0, I807; came to La Grange township in 1830o, where he died February 18, 1888. Bacon, Cyrus-Born in Saratoga county, New York, October 26. I796; came to Ontwa township in 1834; died October 4, I873. Bacon, Mrs. Malinda-Born in Saratoga county, New York, March 15, I802; came to Ontwa township in I834, where she died April 3, I888. Bacon, David-Born in Saratoga county, New York, September 9, I827: came to Ontwa township in I834; died at Niles, Michigan, July 25, 1899. Bacon, James G.-Born in Saratoga county, New York, November 24, 1834; came to Ontwa township in 1834, where he died August 20, 1904. Barton, Martha A.-Born in Virginia September I6, 1822; came to Cassopolis in I830; died September 8, I8891. Baldwin, William-Born in Warren county, Ohio, April 5, I82I; came to Cass county in 1828; died in P'okagon township August 28, I904. His wife, who came to the county in 1835, died in Pokagon January I, 1892, aged 70. Bigelow, Harvey-Born in New York July 4, I8I6; came to La Grange township in 1837; died at Dowagiac November 3, I893. Blish, Daniel —Born in Gilsun, New Hampshire, June 17, I8I2* came to Silver Creek in I840; died November 5, I893. Breece, Jacob B.-Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, March

Page  57 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 26, I816; came to Ontwa township in 18,36; died in Jefferson January 29, I896,; Sarah M. Wilson, his wife, born January 19, 1822; died May 5, I885. Brady, James T.-Born in Ireland March I, I802; came to Ontwa township in I836; died at Elkhart December i9, i88I. Brady, Mary Ann Jones-Born in New Jersey June 13, I8o9, came to Ontwa in I836; died June 12, I895. Blair, William G.-Born in Middlefield, New York, May I, 1817; came to Edwardsburg in May, 1835, where he died July 17, 1895. Beeson, Benjamin F.-Born in Indiana in I832; came to La Grange township in 1832; died in Calvin township August 31, I896. Baker, Alfred-Born in 18I6; came to Geneva in I829; died in Iowa February 10, 1898. Bump, Eli-Born in Urbana, Ohio, March 13, I81I9; came to Jefferson township in 1837; died in Vandalia May 23, I899. His wife, Naomi Reames. born in Logan county, Ohio, September 22, 1822; came to Jefferson in 1834; died at Vandalia. March 2, I904. Bonine, James B.-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, July I8, I825; came to Penn township in 1831; died November 28, 19oo. Baldwin, Josephus-Born in New Jersey October 15, I812; came to Cass county in I828; died in Indiana May I6, I9oI. Brady, Noah S.-Born in Ontwa March 17, I839; died July 5, 1902. Byrnes, Rev. John-Born in Ireland in I815; came to Pokagon in 1837, where he died March 12, I903. Bishop, Joseph C.-Born in New York in I8120; came to Ontwa township in I832; died at E.dwardsburg December 26, I902. Beardsley, David-Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 31, 1824; came to Mason township in 1832; died December 28, I903. Benson, Catherine Weed-Born in Steuben county, New York, September I, I816; came to Porter township in I836; died September 3, I903. Beardsley, Hall-Born in New York in I830; came to Porter township in I838, where he died December 7, I905. Bogue, Elvira-Born in Penn township January 19, I836; died at Vandalia April 12, I9O6, as Mrs. Thomas. Bacon, William H.-Born in New York in 80o9; came to Ontwa in 1834; died October 6, 1856; his wife, Elizabeth Van Name; born in I820; died February 4, I897, as Mrs. Starr. Bugbee, Dr. Israel G.-Born in Vermont March ii, 1814; first came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died May I8, 1878; his wife, Elizabeth Head, born in England September 12, I8!17; died June 20, I903.

Page  58 58 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Bogue, Stephen-Born in North Carolina October 17, 1790; came to Penn township in I829,where he died October ii, I868. Bogue, Mrs. Hannah-Born in I7981; came to Penn township in I83I, where she died December 14, I89I, wife of Stephen Bogue. Bishop, Elijah-Born at Saratoga Springs, New York, in I8 1: came to Mason township in 1838; died — Barney, John-Born in Connecticut; came to Wayne in I836; died in I852. Barney, Henry, Sr.-Born in Connecticut, in 1 763; came to Silver Creek in I838; died in I850. Blackman, Wilson-Born in Connecticut in I792; came to Edwardsburg in I829; the county's first postmaster; died.. Bishop, Calvin-Born in New York in I7.80; came to Cass county in I833; died in Ontwa February 12, I867; his wife, Mary Ann, born in I79I; died February 26, I86I.. Boyd, James-Born in New York August 3, I8o6; came to Edwardsburg in 1831; died at Cassopolis September 9,. I89o; his wife, Mary, born in 1796; died I877. Beckwith, Sylvanus-Born in New York in I776; came to Cassopolis in I838; died February 24, 1859; Lydia, his wife, born in 1785; died September 15, I875. Bishop, Elijah-Born in New York in I8II; came to Mason in 1838; died in I85I. Blackmar, Nathaniel Bowdish-Born July 3, 1817, in New York; came with father, Willson Blackmar, to Edwardsburg,' July 3, I828, where he died May 24, 1878. His second wife, Sophronia Lee Quimby, born Strafford county, N. H., May 24, 1830, came to Edwardsburg July, 1836.. Colyar, Mrs. Catherine-Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 27, 1814; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died January 24, I88I. Curtis, Mrs. Deborah A.-Born in Madison, Ohio, July I3, 1822; came to Mason township in 1832; died in I880. Curry, Mrs. Elizabeth Gard-Born in Union county, Indiana, December I6, i8I, daughter of Josephus Gard; came to Volinia in I830; died in Van Buren county, June 22, I878. Cooper, Mrs. Nancy Brady-Born in New Jersey, May 5, 80o8; came to LaGrange Prairie in 1831; died in Dowagiac, July 30, 1878. Curtis, Jotham-Born in Genesee county, New York, February 24, I8o9; came to Mason township in 1842, where he died December 9, I879. Curtis, Mrs. Elizabeth-Born in Albany, New York, February 7, 1781; came to Mason township in I832, where she died October 5, 1878, wife of Jotham Curtis.

Page  59 HISTORY,OF CASS COUNTY 59, Condon, William-Born in, Ireland, OctoberI 7, I815; came to LaGrange township about 1839; died.:rrcl. I.5,,889; his wife, Rosanna Hain, born in Ohio, June 22, I827.; came to LaGrange township in 1830; (lied in Jefferson township, July 28, I882. Carmichael, Arthur C.-Born in Harrison county, Virginia, January 23, 8,25; came to Jefferson in I836; died near Benton Harbor, August 28, I885. Colyar, Jonathan-Born in North Carolina, September 13, I8Io; came to Jefferson township in 183I, where he died January 14, I887. Carpenter, Mrs. Eliza C.-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, October 14, I802; came to Cass county in I837; died in Milton, June 15, I887. Clendaniel, George-Born in Essex county, Delaware, January 15, I805; came to Milton township in I836; died in Indiana, July 3, I887. Cooper, Benjamin-Born in St. Lawrence county, New York, August, I794; came to Cass county in I833; died in Howard township, September 9, I887. Clisbee, Charles W.-Born in Ohio, July 24, 1833; came to Cassopolis in 1838. where he died August I8, I889; secretary and historian of the Pioneer Society. Copley, David B.-Born in Otsego county, New York, July 13, I817; came to Cass county in 1835; died August 25, 1889. Churchill, Rebecca Hebron-Born in Porter township, January 24, 1835, where she died February 4, I89I. Copley, Jane Helen-Born in 1827; came to Volinia township in 1838; died September 20, I890. Copley, Alexander B.-Born in Jefferson county, New York, March II, 18I2; came to Volinia in 1833; died; in Cuba, March 28, I899. Curtis, Delanson-Born in Otsego county, New York, May 28, i8,I; came to Pokagon in 1834, where he died June Io, I893. Cooper, Lovina Bosley-Born in Lake county, Ohio, April 29, 1834; came to Jefferson township in I839; died June 17, I894. Carpenter, Messick-Born in Delaware in 80oo; came. to Milton township in 1837; died at Edwardsburg, March I, I895. Colyar, William-Born in Ohio, I807; came to Jefferson township in 183I; died in Van Buren county, January 15, I898. Copley, Ebenezer-Born in Otsego county, New York, May 30, I820; came to Cass county in I834; died in Wayne township, September I6, I897. Cooper, Benjamin-Born in New York, September I9, 1820; came to Howard township in 1834; died in Dowagiac, June i, I899. Clark, John C.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, August 25, 1814; came to Wayne township in 1836; died in LaGrange township, July 5, I899.

Page  60 60 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Chapin, Henry A.-Born in Leyden, Massachusetts, October 15, I813; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died in Niles, December 17, I898; his wife, Ruby N., who came to Edwardsburg in 1836, died in Chicago, October 30, I902. Carpenter, James-Born in Delaware; came to Milton township in I837; died at Edwardsburg, February 28, I899. Carlisle, Orville D. ---Born at Ontario, New York, August 31, 1833; came to Edwardsburg in I839; died in Alabama, June 29, I9oo. Carpenter, Purnell W.-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, August 28, 1825; came to Milton township in 1837, where he died April 2, I9oI. Chapman, Emily S. Harper-Born in Cassopolis, March 30, I838, where she died January 7, I902. Coates, Jason B.-Born Ontario county, New York, November 11, 1817; came to LaGrange township in I83I, where he died February 23, 1902. Coats, Mrs. Jason B.-Born in Howard township, May 27, I836, daughter of William Young; died in LaGrange township, January 20, I880. Copley, Asel G.-Born in New York, July 23, I815; came to Volinia in 1835; (lied May 9, 1903. Cays, Abram H.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 30, I827; came to Cass county in 1839; died in LaGrange township, August 3I, 1904; his wife, Margaret Foster, born in Holmes county, Ohio, in I833; came to Jefferson in I839; died in Dowagiac, October 28, I9OI. Coates, Laura-Born in Ontario county, New York, May 13, I8I2; came to LaGrange in 183I; died at Cassopolis, March 17, 1902, as Mrs. William Arrison. Coulter, James-Born in Henrietta county, Ohio, May 17, I8o8; came to Howard in I834; died February I6, 1874; his wife, Ann Wilson, born in Clinton county, Ohio, in 1809; died May I8, I893. Crawford, Robert-Born in Ireland in I782; came to Jefferson in I836; died in I858; his wife, Elizabeth, born in 1786; died in I844. Coates, Jason R.-Born in New York in I7891; came to LaGrange in 1813I; died August 7, 1832; the first buried in Cassopolis cemetery; his wife, Jane, born in 1787; died October 26, I844; their daughter, Jane Ann, born February 29, 1823; died at Cassopolis January 24, 1904, as Mrs. Allen. Deal, Owen-Born at Amsterdam, New York, July 2, I816; came to Diamond Lake, December I8, I836; died at Constantine, Michigan, March 22, i880. Deal, Angeline Nash-Wife of Owen Deal; born in Chenango couty, New York, July 10, 1820; came to Geneva in I830; died at Constantine July 3, 1884.

Page  61 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 61 Denton, Cornelius W.-Born in Amenia, New York, June I, I80o; came to Porter township in I836, where he died November I, 1878. Davidson, Samuel-Born in Ohio in 1810; came to Porter township in I828; died at Cassopolis November 17, I882. Davis, Alien-Born July 12, 1817; came to Porter township in I833; died at Cassopolis April 29, I883. Davis, Reuben B.-Born in Hanover county, Virginia, January I, 18o4; came to Jefferson township in 1840, where he died in I884. Driskel, Daniel-Born in Pennsylvania in 1812; came to Newberg township in 1833, where he died September 29, 1885. Dcane, William H.-Born in Greene county, New York, in I809; came to Howard township in I835, where he died May 13, 1887. Dickson, Edwin T.-Born in I82I; came to McKinney's Prairie in 1828; died in Berrien county in I891. Dunning, Allen-Born in Albany, N. Y., July 27, I796; came to Milton in 1836; there died December IO, 1869; his wifeDunning, Minerva Reynolds-Born in Tompkins county, New York, January 12, 1824; came to Milton township in 1836, where she died March 31, I892. Dickson, Austin M.-Born in LaGrange in I832; died in Wisconsin, April 29, 1895. Dodge, Joseph-Born in Johnstown, New York, December 2, 1807; came to Cass county in I839; died in Vandalia, September 2, 1895. Decker, Barney-Born in Ontario county, New York, September 20, 1812; came to Cassopolis, in 1838; died in LaGrange township, January 20, 1900; his wife, Martha Wilson, born in Franklin county, Ohio, August 1O, 18I6, came to LaGrange Prairie in September, I829; died October I9, 190O5. Driskel, Dennis-Born in Tennessee; came to, Porter township in 1833, where he died June I6, I9OI; his wife, Mary Bair, born in Ohio, February 19, I828, came to Newberg in 1832; died in Idaho, June 24. 190'3. Draper, John-Born in Syracuse, New York, July 17, I836; came to Cass county in I840; died at Jones, Michigan, October 17, 1905. Dunning, Horace B. —Born in Cayuga county, New York, September I8,, 1802; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to, Cassopolis in 1841; died nMay 30, I868; his wife, Sarah A. Camp, born in I807; died September 30', I894. Davidson, Armstrong-Born in Virginia in I784; came to Porter in 1829; died in I8150. Dickson, James-Born in Pennsylvania in 1794; came to LaGrange in 1828i; died September I6, I866. Dennis, Nathaniel B.-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, March

Page  62 62 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 13, I813; came to Michigan in I833; died in Milton February 6, I899; his wife, Margaret McMichael, born in Pennsylvania July I9, I819; died April 27, I895. Drew, Albert L.-Born on Beardsley's prairie July 5, 1834; died in Berrien county; first white child born on the Prairie; Helen Sherrill, his wife; born in Jefferson February I, 1839; died December 28, I894. Dunning, Dr. Isaac-Born in New York in 1772; came to Edwardsburg in I834; died March I, I849. Edwards, Lewis, Sr.-Born in Lamberton, New York, May 29, 1799; came to Pokagon Prairie in 1826, where he died June 24, 1878. Edwards, Mrs. Ellen Collins-Born in Pokagon township January 18, I838; died January 28, I879. East, James W.-Born in I803; came to Calvin township November, 1833, where he died April I9, I887. East, Jacob Talbot-Came to Cass county in I834; died in Volinia October 8, 1887. East, Emeline O'Dell-Born in Hyland county, Ohio, November 6, I813; came to Porter township in 1832; died February 2, I899. East, John H.-Born in Indiana March 25, '1827; came to Calvin township in childhood; died at Cassopolis January I9, I89I. Everhart, Sarah-Born in Wayne county, Ohio; came to Porter township in I830, where she died January 14, 1891. Eby, Mrs. Gabriel-Born in Germany in 1826; came to Porter township in I837, where she died November 7, I89I; maiden name Caroline Wagner. Emmons, John —Born in Giles county, Virginia, August I8, I8o8; came to Pokagon township in 1834, where he died October I, I893. East, James M.-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, April 7, 1825; came to Cass county in I833; died in Vahdalia March 13, I895. Eby, Mary Traverse-Born in West Morland, Pennsylvania, April 5, I813; came to this county in I834; died June 26, I895. East, Anna Jones-Born in Tennessee April 5, 1805; came to Cass county in I833; died in Calvin township October 22, 1896. East, Emily J.-Born in Porter township July 26, I834, where she died June 10, I898, as Mrs. Hughes. East, Jesse S.-Born in Henry county, Indiana, June 2, 1829; came to Cass county in I832; died at Buchanan July 29, 'I904. East, Enos-Born in Calvin township October 24, I839, where he died March 19, I905. East, Thomas J.-Born in Calvin township May 24, 1833; died at South I-aven, Michigan, June 6, I905.

Page  63 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 63 East, Calvin K.-Born in Calvin 'township October 7, 1834; died at Vandalia April 17, I9o6. Emerson, Matthew H.-Born in Hopkinton December I, I8o8; came to Edwardsburg in I839, where he died March 17, I877. Follett, Mrs. Mary-Born in Canandaigua county, New York, February I6, 1798; came to Mason township in 1835; died November 30, i88o, widow of Dr. Henry Follett, who died in Mason in I849. Fredericks, Henry-Born in Pennsylvania; came to Porter township in 1840, where he died August 10, I885. Frakes, Mirs. Joseph-Born in Ohio in.I804; came to Cass county in I829; died March 15, 1887. Fox, Mrs. Sarah C.-Born in Kent county, Delaware, February 27, 1815; came to Howard township in 1839, where she died October 12, 1889. Fisher, Daniel-Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 80oI; came to Howard township in 1830, where he died February 14, I896. Foster, John McKinley-Born in Holmes county, Ohio, March 24, 1835; came to Jefferson township in 1839; died at Edwardsburg January 27, 1902. Foster, Andrew-Born in Pennsylvania in 1779; came to Beardsley's prairie in I833; died November 30, 1870; his wife, Rachel McMichael, born in I804; died April 26, I884; his daughter, Margaret, born in 1833; was drowned at Picture Rock, Lake Superior, October 29, I856. Foster, James-Born in Pennsylvania in 1792; came to Cass county in 1839; died in Jefferson 1872; his wife, Ann McKinley, born in I809; died in I84I. Green, Mrs. Mary-Born in Volinia township June 13, 1832, daughter of Jonathan Guard; died in Wexford county, Michigan, July 15, I879. Grubb, Fanny-Born in Logan county, Ohio, January 21, i8i6; came to Cass county with Father Andrew in I830; died January 27, i88i. Goddard, Anson A.-Born in Canton, Connecticut, March I I, I8o6; came to Mason township in I836, where he died December 5, I88o. Goodspeed, William L.-Bom in Wyoming county, New York, August 9, 1829; came to Volinia in I836, where he died February 26, i'879. Gawthrop, Mlinerva Jane-Born in LaGrange township May I2, I840; died in Dowagiac November 9, I878. Garwood, Rachel P. —Born in Richmond, Indiana,.in 18o7; came to Cass county in 1832; died in Pokagon December 27, '886.

Page  64 64 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Griffith, Matthew-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, March I0, 181I; came to Cass county in 1837; died in Milton township January 28, I879. Goodspeed, Mrs. Sarah D.-Born in the state of Massachusetts October 14, 1883; came to Volinia November, 1836, whu're she died November 12, 1878. Givens, John-Born in Virginia about I803; came to LaGrange township in I835, where he died January 4, I879; his wife, Elizabeth P., died October 15, I878, aged 66. Grennell, Jeremiah S.-Born in Onondaga county, New York, September 30, I824.; came to Cass county in I8,34; died in Newberg township August I6, I888. Gill, John-Born on the Isle of Man November 12, 1803; came to Cass county in I835; died at Jones August 6, i888. Gard, Mrs. Elizabeth Bishop-Born in Preble county, Ohio, December 5, I804; came to Volinia in 18291, where she died September 3, I887. Goble, James-Born in Pokagon in 1836; died December 3, I89I. Green, Selina Henshaw-Born in Randolph county, North Carolina, November 12, I819i; came to Cass county in I83I; died in Vandalia February I, I896. Green, Mary Huff-Born in Preble county, Ohio, July 29, 1815; came to Wayne township in 1833, where she died August 8, I896. Gardner, Julius M.-Born in Cuyahoga county, Ohio, in I823; came to Cass county in 1835; died in Mason township January 21, 1900. Gard, Milton J.-Born in Butler county, Indiana, March II, 1824; came to Volinia in I829; died July 19, 1900. Gard, Benjamin F.-Born in Butler county, Indiana, July 30, I829; came to Volinia in 1829, where he died September 23, I9Q0. Gard, Isaac N.-Born in Union county, Indiana, July 9, 1827; came to Volinia in I829, where he died July 25, I902. Gard, Reuben F.-Born in Union county, Indiana, August 6, I825; came to Volinia in 1829; died at Pokagon April 2, I905. Goodspeed, Marshall-Born in Cayuga county, New York, April I, I830; came to Volinia in 1830, where he died September 3, 1900. Goodenough, Edward B.-Born in Cayuga county, New York, in 1835; came to Volinia in I837; died October 15, 19oo. Graham, Arthur-Born in Scotland in I812; came to Wayne township in I839; died at Dowagiac, April 23, I901. Glenn, Thomas H.-Born in Milford, Delaware, in 1828; came to Milton township in 1834; died in Chicago July 21, I90I. Goodspeed, Edwin-Born in Cayuga county, New York, January I5, 1835; came to Volinia same year; died April 5, I903.

Page  65 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 65 Gardner, Rachel M. Roberts-Born in Erie county, New York, October 13, 1833; came to. Milton township in I839, where she died August 12, 190I. Green, Eli-Born in Wayne township in 18,35; died in Mapleton, North Dakota, September 7, I906; his wife, Esther Gard, born in Volinia in. 1838, died October 8, 1902. Goodrich, Robert-Born in Butler county, Ohio, December I8, 1831; came to Jefferson township in 1835; died March 30, 19o4. Gawthrop, David B.-Born in LaGrange township September 4, 1833, where he died January 25, 1905. Gifford, PI. Leroy-Born in Genesee county, New York, in I825; came to Cass county in 1840; died at Dowagiac August I8, I905. Garvey, Sarah Miller-Born in Franklin county, Ohio, July 21, 1829; came to Jefferson township in I832; died at Cassopolis July I, 1905. Gilbert. William-Born in Long Island, New York, September 6, 1822; came to Indian Lake in 1839; died October 22, 1905. Glover, Orville B.-Born in Upton, Massachusetts, April I, I804; came to Edwardsburg in I839, where he died March I9, 1852. Carr, Julia A.-Wife of O. B. Glover; born in Albion, N. Y., June 28, I818; came to Edwardsburg in I839; died at Buchanan, I893, as Mrs. Hall. Glover, Harrison-Born in Orleans county, New York, February 3, 1837; came to Edwardsburg in I839; died at Buchanan in April, 8, 1876. Glenn, James L.-Born in Pennsylvania; came to, Cass county about 1835; died January I, I876. Gage, John S.-Born in New York; came to Wayne township September, I839; died Gage, Justus —Born in Madison county, New York, March 13, I8o05 came to Wayne in 1837; died January 21, 1875. Green, Amos-Born in Georgia December 10. I794; came to Young's prairie in I831; died August 6, I854; his wife, Sarah, born in I796; died December 13, I863. Goodspeed, Joseph-Born in Massachusetts April I, I797; came to Volinia in 18.36; died April 30, I850. Gilbert, Wm. J.-Born on Long Island, New York, in I790; came to Silver Creek in 18'39; died February I8, I864. Goble, Elijah-Born in Ohio in I8o5; came to Volinia in I828; died Hain, John —Born in Lincoln county, North Carolina, August 15, I799; came to LaGrange township in I830, where he died July 8, I879.

Page  66 66 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Hardenbrook, Adolphus-Born in Baltimore county, Maryland, January I8, 1823; came to Cassopolis in I836; died in Wayne township December 30, I88o. Huff, Mrs. Margaret Case-Born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, March I, 80o4; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Volinia township in I881i. Hunt, Eleazur-Born in North Carolina, February 4, I792; came to Calvin in 1831, where he died August 4, I878. Hunt, Mrs. Martha-Born in Knox county, Tennessee, October 25, I795; came to Cass county in 1831; died August 27, I88o. Hull, John F.-Born in Calvin township June 14, I840; died in Iowa August 23, I88o. Hutchings, Hiram-Born in New York May 2, I82I; came to Newberg township in 1836, where he died January 8, i88i. Henshaw, Abijah-Born in Randolph county, North Carolina, January 3, I8I2; came to Young's Prairie in I830; died July IO, 1878. 'Hutchings, Samuel-Born in Ulster county, New York, September I4, I796; came to Newberg township in 1836, where he (lied August I, 1876. Hain, David-Born in Lincoln county, North Carolina, March 25, I805; came to LaGrange township in November, 1831, where he died October 26, I878. Hutchinson, Jesse-Born in Vermont in I8o9; came to Calvin township in I834; (lied in Iowa January I9, 1879. Harper, Wilson —Born in Pennsylvania in I809l; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died in Berrien county August 12, 1883. Houghtaling, John —Born in New York June 8, 1832; came to Cass county in 1835; died in Newlerg September 27, I885. Hain, Jacob-Born in Lincoln county North Carolina; came to LaGrange township in 1831; died in Iowa in I886. IHull, Isaac-Born in Pennsylvania July 3, I807; came to Calvin in.1837, vwhere he died December I9, I873. Hull, MrS. Maria Grubb-Born in Loudoun county, Virginia, October, 80o6; came to Cass county in I837; died November 15, 1887. Hebron, Nancy L.-Born in New York city February 17, I822; came to Porter township in T836; diedl in 'Penn township, November 28, I893. Harper, Caroline Guilford-Born in Northampton, Massachusetts, September 4, I8I6; came to Cassopolis in I835, where she died January 29, I902. Harper, Joseph-Born in Washington county, Pennsylvania, Decemni" 1.9, i8o'5; came to Cassopolis in February, I835, where he died AufT' l: 8, 1894.

Page  67 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 67 Huyck, Richard R.-Born in New York, February 21, I8iI; came to Little Prairie Ronde in 1832; died December 14, 1893. Hathaway, Benjamin-Born in New York in 1822; came to Cass in 1838; died in Volinia March 21, I896. Hebron, Gideon-Born in England in I8I6; came to Porter township in I833, where he died January 25, 1897. Harrison, Jesse-Born in Richmond, Indiana, August 17, 1822; came to Calvin township in 1833; died at Cassopolis February 13, I898. Hardenbrook, Adolphus T.-Born in Maryland in 1823; came to LaGrange township in 1832; died in Wayne in December, I880. Hardenbrook, Margaret Shurte-Born in Marion county, Ohio, March 29, I827; came to LaGrange about I830; died in Wayne township February 6, I902. Hathaway, Orrin-Born in Stuben county, New.York, May 20, 1823; came to Penn township same year; died March 12, 1903. Hitchcox, James H.-Born in Erie county, New York, January 5, 1826; came to Porter township in 183I, where he died March 26, I903. Haney, Charles-Born in Germany January 29, 1809,; came to Ontwa township in 1833; died January 8, 1892. Haney, Jane Smith-Born in Cumberland county, Pennsylvania, August 24, 18I7; came to Ontwa township in I829; died August 14, I903. Hunt, Eliza Worden-Born in Niagara county, New York, April 9, I832; came to Edwardsburg in I833; died at Brownsville August 26, 1903. Harwood, Nathan-Born in Bennington, Vermont, September 9, I821; came to Newberg in 1837; died September 29, I903. Harwood, Clarissa Easton-Born in Allegany county, New York, October I6, 1834; came to Newberg in 1834; died February 2, I904, wife of William N. Harwood. Hanson, James-Born in Fulton county, New York, May 7, 183I; came to Jefferson in 1835; died in Howard township May 7, I904. Hurd, Rev. John-Born in England November 27, I823; came to Newberg in I836; died at Paw Paw, Michigan, April 22, 1905. Hatch, Jerome B.-Born in Medina county, Ohio, March 9, I827; came to Mason township in I837; died in Illinois April 9, I905. Hitchcox, Thomas Addison-Born in Erie county, New York, June 22, I829; came to Porter township in I83I; died May 29, I905. Hanson, William-Born in Montgomery county, New York, November I4, 1824; came to Ontwa in I835; died at Edwardsburg March I6, I905; his first wife, Elizabeth Crawford, born in 1822; died September 7, I865.

Page  68 68 HISTORY OF CASSI COUNTY Howard, Leverett C.-Born in Jefferson county, New York, November 7, 1822; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Dowagiac October 3, 1903. Harwood, Silas-Born in New York October 13, I828; came to Newberg in 1836, where he died December 31, I905. Harmon, Eliza Grubb-Born in Calvin August 13, I837; died at Cassopolis March 15, i906. Hicks, Edward P.-Born in England February 15, I82I; came to Ontwa in 18,35; died in Milton township June I, I9o6. Hicks, Richard V.-Born in England November 17, I819; came to Ontwa in 1835; died in Milton township March I, I906. Hathaway, Sarah E. —Born in Cayuga county, New York, June 16, 1830; came to Volinia in 1837, where she died in Copemish, Michigan, April 24, 1906, as Mrs. H. S. Rogers. Huff, Amos-Born in New Jersey January 30, I799; came to Volinia township in I834, where he died July 4, 1881. Huyck, John-Born in New York September 27, I783; came to Nicholsville in 1836; died at Marcellus September 15, I88I. Huyck, Abijah-Born in Delaware county, New York, October 18, 1818; came to Volinia township in 1836; died Hanson, Ephraim, Sr.-Born in New York in 1784; came to Cass county in I835; (lied September 4, I837; his wife, Alida, born in 1791; died September 5, I882. Huntley, Ephraim —Born in Saratoga county September Io0, I798; came to Howard in I833; died at Niles October I, i88i; his wife, Eliza Ross, born 80oo; died in Howard in I856. Howell, David M.-Born in Champaign county, Ohio, May 27, 1817; came to Berrien c in cot 18.34 and to Howard in 1840; (lied in Penn December 12, I88,3 his wife, Martha Anderson, born on March 29, 1827; died January I Ii 869. Harper, Calista-Wife of Wilson Harper; born in New York April II, I819; died at Cassopolis November 24, 1843; Nancy Graves, second wife, born May 27, I822; died in Berrien county April 25, 1904. Hopkins, David-Born in Washington county, New York, in I794; came to Volinia in 1836: died April 7, I88o0. Hitchcox, James-Born in Ontario county, New York, in I795; came to Porter in I830; died April 14, 185o. Hirous, Joseph H.-Born in Delaware in 18o5; came to Milton in 1833; died May 25, 1873; his wife, Eleanor Shanahan, born January 12, i8o8; died October I6, I891. Jones, Albert-Born in Seneca county, New York, February 27, I828; came to this county in I836; died in Penn township December 26, I88o.

Page  69 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 69 Jarvis, Benjamin-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, May 4, I824; came to Cass county in I834; died at Pokagon December 29, I879. Jewell, Elias-Born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, in I81I; came to McKinney's Prairie in I830; died at Dowagiac January 2I, I887. Jewell, Hiram-Born in Monmouth county, New Jersey, in I805; came to LaGrange township in I830, where he died September 28, I887. Jones, Mrs. Rebecca-Born in I8Io; came to Cass county in 1837; died January 28, I890. Jones, Stephen-Born in Ohio in I82I; came to Cass county in 1829; died January 12, I891. Jones, Daniel S.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 2, I818; came to LaGrange township in 1833; died at Cassopolis July 28, 1893. Salina Miller-Wife of David S. Jones; born in New York May 5, 1824; died at Cassopolis August Io, I898. Jones, William — Born in Preble county, Ohio, March 8, I813; came to Penn township in I829, where he died March 29, I894. Jones, William G.-Born in Penn township July I6, I836; died in California May I, I895. Jones, George W.-Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 3, 1824; came to Cass county in I830; died April 29, I896. Emma Sherman-Wife of George W. Jones; born in Cassopolis in 1836; died November 20, 1870. Jones, Jesse G.-Born in Penn township December 13, I832, where he died March I6, I884. Jones, Joseph —Born in Preble county, Ohio, in I825: came to Cass county in I829; died in Iowa February I6, I897. Jones, Asa-Born in Erie county, New York, July 10, 1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died in Edwardsburg February 20, I897; his wife, Nelly Massey, born in Sussex county, Delaware, October 15, I823, came to Cass county in 1833; died in Edwardsburg April 30, I899. Jones, George F.-Born in Seneca county, New York, August II, I819, came to Newberg in I837; died in Indiana August 22, 1898. Jones, Cordelia-Born in Newberg township in I836; died at Vandalia, November 14, I9oo, as Mrs. Miller. Jones, Keziah-Born in Young's Prairie February 4, I83I; died in Penn township July 27, 1905, as Mrs. Brody. Jones, Nathan-Born in Preble county, Ohio, April 26, I824; came to Young's Prairie in I829i, where he died December 8i, I905. Jarvis, Norman-Born in Rowan, North Carolina, April 14, I820; came to LaGrange in I834, where he died April 14, 1903.

Page  70 70 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Jones, Finney H.-Born in Penn in December, I830; died March 5, 1903. Jones, Amos-Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 13, I820; came to Cass county in I830; died in LaGrange township April 20, 1905. Jarvis, Burton-Born in Rowan county, North Carolina, September 6, 816G; came to LaGrange township in I834; (lied in Berrien county, January 2, I902. Jewell, Jonathan M.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 8, 1835; came to LaGrange in I839,; died in Wayne township December 20, I905. Jenkilns, William Baldwin-Bom in Green county, Pennsylvania, October 4, 1783; came to Pokagon in 1825; died June I6, 1845. Jones, Henry-Born in Randolph county, North Carolina, in I790; came to Penn township in 183o0, where he died in I85. Jacks, Joseph L. —Born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, May I8, 1804; arrived at Edwardsburg July 4, 1829; died January 7, 1885; Alvira Pennell, his wife, born October 17, 1824; died January 23, 1872. Jewell, James-Born in Ohio January 7, I803; came to LaGrange in 1832; died April 23, 1877; his wife, Mary, born in I8o6; died November 26, 1883. Keene, Leonard-Born in North Carolina January 13, i8Io; came to Cass county in 1831, where he died May 24, 1879. Keene, Mrs. Alcy-Born in Clark county, Ohio, in I814; came to Calvin township in 1832; died in Jefferson township October 23, i888. Kingsbury, Asa-Born in Massachusetts May 28, I8o6; came to Cassopolis in I836; died March 10, I883. Keeler, Lucius-Born in Onondaga county, New York, April 23, 1816; came to Porter township in I837, where he died September 26, i883. Kelsey, James-Born in Haddam, Connecticut, November 3, I8Io; came to Wayne township in I839; died in LaGrange township October 5, 1883. Kelsey, Mary Compton-Born in Ontario county, New York, in ]817; came to the county with her husband; died February 22, 1900. Kirkwood, Andrew-Born in Scotland July 17, 80o8; came to Wayne township in I836; died in California March 13, I89I. Kirkwood, Iieutenant Alexander-Born in Ohio September 27, I834; came to Wayne in I8636; died in Chicago March 27, I89I. Kirkwood, James-Born in Scotland April 12, I81 i; came to Wayne township in 1836, where he died April 20, I892. King, Samuel-Born in Somerset county, Pennsylvania, in I8I8; came to Porter township in I828, where he died April 24, 1896.

Page  71 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 71 King, George-Born in Fairfield, Ohio; came to Porter township in I1828, where lie died April 26, 1896. Kingsley, Charles R.-Born in Franklin, Massachusetts, May 21, 1831; came to Ontwa township in 18391; died January 2, I902. Kinimerle, Henry-Born in Butler county, Ohio, June 17, 1830; came to Cassopolis in I834; died in LaGrange township March i6, I905. Kingsbury, Charles-Born in Massachusetts May 4, I812; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died December 23, I876. Kelsey, Dr. William J.-Born in New York August 20, 1839; came to LaGrange in. I839; died at Cassopolis November 29, I893. Kingsley, Elijah-Born in Franklin county, Massachusetts, October 5, I796; came to Mason in I839; died in Ontwa October 291, I890. Lincoln, Bela-Born in Clinton county, New York, June 9,, 1822; came to Young's Prairie in I834; died February i, I88I, in Penn township. Lee, Ishmael-Born in Blount county, Tennessee, May 22, I815; came to Jefferson township in 1834; died in Iowa April 22, I879. Long, Mrs. Elizabeth-Born in Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, in I788; came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died January I2, I879. Lybrook, Henley C.-Born in Giles county, Virginia, November 28, I802; came to Pokagon May I5, I830; died in Dowagiac July 6, 1882. Lybrook, Baltzer-Born in Giles county, Virginia, in 1824; came to Pokagon in 1828; died in Silver Creek, January i, i886. La Porte, George-Born in Ohio in I8o5; came to Cass county in 1833; died in Wayne township June 1, I886. La Porte, Mrs. Ann-Bomr in Virginia August 25, i8II; came to LaGrange township in I834: died in LaGrange township July 2, 1887. Leach, Joshua-Born in Orleans county, Vermont, March 12, I8I2; came to Young's Prairie in 1833, where he died April 4, I890. Lilly, David-Born in Zanesville, Ohio, in I814; came to LaGrange township in 1835, where he died March 18, I894; his wife, Sarah Simpson, born in 1823, came to LaGrange township in I830, where she died April 3, 1902. Loomis, Nancy J. Peck-Born in Champaign county, Ohio, Decembet I4, 1828; came to Jefferson township in 1836, where she died January 31, I895. Lybrook, Mrs. Mary Hurd-Born in England February 9, 1821; came to Newberg in 1836; died in LaGrange January 26, I903. Lindsley, Elizabeth-Born in Rutland county, Vermont, November 5, I830; came to Young's Prairie in I839; died in Jefferson March 19, I905.

Page  72 72 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Lawrence, Levi B.-Born in Chautauqua county, New York, June 12, I819,; came to Volinia in September, I832, where he died August 13, I895; his wife, Esther Copley, born in Jefferson county, New York, March 26, 18.24, came to Volinia in 1833; died April 28, I904. La Porte, Catherine Tietsort-Born in Ohio in 1830; came to Wayne township in I834; died at Dowagiac January 21, 1902. Lee, Samuel H.-Born in Stafford county, New Hampshire, August 14, I830; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died September 17, I904. Lofland, Joshua-Born in Milford, Delaware, September 8, I8i8; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died February 27, 1862; his wife, Lucetta Silver, born in New Hampshire February Io, 1823; died at Hammond, Indiana, February 2, I905. Lybrook, John-Born in Giles county, Virginia, in October, I7981; came to LaGrange prairie in I828; died May 25, I88I. Lockwood, Dr. Henry-Born in New York February 26, I8oo; came to Edwardsburg in I837; died at Dowagiac November 17, I863; his wife, Sophia Peck, born in Connecticut October 9, I809; died at Edwardsburg November 24, I853. Lee, Mason-Born in Massachusetts in 1779'; came to Jefferson in 1833; died September 8, I858; his wife, Clarinda, born in I796; died May 12, i866. Lee, Joseph W.-Born in New Hampshire January Io, I807; came to Ontwa in 1836; died August 24, 1874; his wife, Maria Hastings, born June 20. i8oo; died February 2, 1875; his son, Abiel S., born in Ontwa April 4, I8381; died July I3, I87I; his mother, Elizabeth Lee, born in New Hampshire August II, 1772; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; (lied March 12, I852. Lowery, William-Born in Delaware in 1822; came to Edwardsburg in I836; died January 2I, I860; his wife, Elizabeth Shanahan, born in I8iI7; died at Cassopolis February 21, I874. Mead, Mrs. Clarissa Brown-Born in Otsego county, New York, December II, I805; came to Edwardsburg in I834; died in Cassopolis July 28, I8,79. IMcCleary, Ephraim-Born in Tuscarawas county, Ohio, March 31, I808; came to Cass county in 1829; died in Warsaw, Indiana, May I6, 188o. McPherson, Joseph-Born in Ohio August I6, I8oo; came to LaGrange township in I8291; died in LaPorte county, Indiana, July 4, 1879. Mosher, Ira D.-Born October 26, I802; came to Cass county February, I838; died in Dowagiac November 27, I88o. Mowry, Mrs. Jane-Born in Hamburg, New York, in I792; came to Howard township in I836; died in Dowagiac February 25, I879.

Page  73 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 73 Miller, George S.-Born in Essex county, New Jersey, June I8, 1817; came to Cass county in 1835; died Mason township January 24, 1881. Merritt, Mrs. Adelia T.-Born in Onondaga county, New York, September 2, I813; came to Baldwin's Prairie in I836; died in Bristol, Indiana, January io, I88i. McPherson, Sarah-Born in Virginia May 5, I8oo; came to Cass county in I829; died Decembler 21, 1878. Marsh, Austin C.-Born in Litchfield county, Connecticut, July 15, I793; came to Edwardsburg in 1836, where he died June 3, I886. Marsh, Mrs. Sarah Lofland-Born in Kent county, Delaware, February 6, I812; came to Cass county in 1836; died January 6, 1879. McIlvain, Moses-Born in Lexington, Kentucky, February I, I802; came to Jefferson township in 1836; died at Cassopolis October I8, 1883. Charity, Carmichael, wife of Moses Mcllvain; came to Jefferson in I8361; died at Cassopolis May 12, 1871. Meacham, VMrs. Eliza-Born in Delaware June 22, 1812; died at Union September 21, I885. Merritt, Martin-Born in 1814; came to Cass county in I833; died in Sumnerville May 20, i886. Messenger, Mrs. Angeline Youngs-Born in Rising Sun, Indiana, August I6, I82I; came to Cass county in I83I; died in LaGrange township March I8, I887. McNeil, William B.-Born in Cayuga county, New York, December 3, 1817; came to Mason township in I835; died at Brownsville May ii, 1887. McIntosh, Duncan-Born in Baltimore, Maryland, May I, 1817; came to Penn township in 1829; died near Cassopolis May 29, 1887. Moore, James-Born in 1812; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Pokagon township January 28, 1892. Moore, Mrs. James-Came to Pokagon township in I838, where she died April 21, I889. McMullen, Eleanor-Born in Ohio September 15, I820; came to Cass county in I8,37; died in Jefferson township October I, I888. Meacham, Hiram-Born in Ontwa township May 26, I834; died in Porter township August 31, 1898. Mosher, Harry C.-Born in Saratoga c:ounty, New York, June 17, 1833; came to Cass county in I838; died in Iowa February 27, I900. Mowry, L. C.-Born in Erie county, New York, February 22, I826; came to Cass county in 8i36; died in Iowa June 30, I900. McCoy, Henry-Born in Ohio July 27, I833; came to, Cass county in 1836; died at Marcellus February Io, I90I.

Page  74 74 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Mead, Hiram B.-Bcrn in Dutchess county, New York, February 7, 1824; came to Edwardsburg in I834, where he died January 11, 1901. Merritt, Samuel K.-Born in Bertrand, Michigan, June 24, 1836; came to Porter township in same year, where he died February I6, 1902. Marshall, Joseph N.-Born in Stark county, Ohio, March 29, I825; came to Jefferson township in 1836; died at Cassopolis August 17, I904. Marshall, Mrs. Lovina-Born in Jefferson township in 1831; died July 5, i889. McIntosh, Mary-Born in Penn township in I834; died at Cassopolis October 20, I904, as Mrs. Mathews. Meacham, George-Born in Oneida county, New York, June i8, I799; came to Beardsley's Prairie in April, 18;27; died at Baldwin's Prairie January 2, I888. McIntosh, Daniel-Born March 13, I805, in Alleghany county, Maryland; came to Cass county in 1831, where he died March 13, 1890. Morris, Samuel-Born in Ohio in 1824; came to Cass county in 1828; died in Volinia April I9, I895. Messenger, Carroll-Born in Litchfield, Connecticut, February 7, I8o9; came to Cass county in 1833; died in LaGrange June 21, I896. McCallister, Mrs. Marian-Born in Scotland in 1807; came to Pokagon in 1836, where she died September 21, I896. McOmber, Daniel-Born in New York in I828; came to Wayne township in 1837; died in Dowagiac May 2, I897. Manning, John-Born in New York; came to Marcellus township in 1836, where he died March i, I898. McNeil, George B.-Born in Cayuga county, New York, May 12, 1832; came to Mason township in 1835; died at Cassopolis May 8, I905. Miller, Jacob E.-Born in Ohio, January I, 1824; came to Cass county in 1830; died in Buchanan, Michigan, March 14, 1905. Masten, John M. —Born in Kent county, Delaware, in 1829,; came to Cass county in 183I; died in Howard township April 27, I906. McOmber, James-Born in Berkley, Massachusetts, February 28, I8oI; came to Wayne township in I835; died in I848. McIntosh, Daniel, Sr.-Born in Scotland in I765; came to Penn in 1829; died July 2, I851. McKenney, Thomas-Born in Washington county, New York, in 1781; came to McKenney's prairie in I827; died in Iowa in I852. Mead, Barak-Born in Dutchess county, New York, in 1802; came to Edwardsburg in I834; died at Cassopolis in I874.

Page  75 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 75 Mansfield, William-Born in New York in I8II; came to Cassopolis in, 1838; died in I869; Margaret Bell, his wife, born in Ireland 1817; died April 18, I896. Miller, Ezra-Born in Erie county, New York, July 6, i8o8; came to Edwardsburg in 1835; died January 26, 1884; his wife, Maria Best, born in I8I6; came to Edwardsburg in 1838; died January 2, I883. Morelan, Joseph-Born in Virginia September II, I797; came to Volinia in 1829; died February I6, I854; his wife, Sarah Poe, born in Ohio August 15, I805; died May, Russell G.-Born in New York in 1804; came to Cass county in I837; died in; Ontwa October 8, I886; his wife, Hannah, horn in 1805; died March 20, I871. Mead, Henry-Born in New York in I797; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died July 17, 1842; his wife, Mary, died at Niles - his daughter, Mary, born in 1827; died July 24, I850, as Mrs. P. A. Lee. Morris, Dolphin-Born in Ross county, Ohio, in I798; came to Pokagon in 1828 and to Volinia in I829, and here died January 7, I870. Morris, Henry-And his wife, Esther Jones, son and daughter of pioneer parents, were murdered during the night of September 28, 1879, at their farm home in VanBuren county, adjoining Volinia. Miller, John P.-Born in Pennsylvania February I8, I8o9; came to Jefferson in 183o; died September 28, 1889. Nash, Ira-Born in Danbury, Connecticut, August 12, I8o6; came to Diamond Lake in 18128; died January 26, i88i. Norton, Levi D.-Born in Ohio; came to Jefferson township in 18128; died in Calvin township November 7, I872. Norton, Martha McIlvain-Born in Ohio November 26, i8io; came to Calvin township in 1832, where she died January o1, I883. Newton, George-Born in Preble county, Ohio, August IO, I8Io; came to Penn township in I8.3I, to Volinia in I832, where he died January 23, 1883. Nixon, Hannah-Born in Penn township August 6, 1835, where she died June I8, I885. Norton, Pleasant-Born in Grayson county, Virginia, in I8o6; came to Jefferson township in T832, where he died in I877. Norton, Mrs. Rachel Fukery-Born in Highland county, Ohio, May 28, I8o8; came to Jefferson township in 1832, where she died March 17, I887. Norton, Sampson-Born in I8,2I; came to Cass county in 1829; died in Calvin township May 3, I892.

Page  76 76 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Newton, Hester Green-Born March 25, I8I9; came to Cass county in I831; died in Volinia township April 21, I89.2. Nixon, Esther Jones-Born in Preble county, Ohio, January 27, I814; came to Penn township in I830; died November Io, 1894. Nicholson, John W.-Born in Champaign county, Ohio, in I83I; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Iowa about I895. Nothrup, Asahel D.-Born in Rutland county, Vermont, February 13, 1822; came to Cass county in I836; died in Calvin March 15, 1898. Norton, Jane-Born in Logan county, Ohio, December 5, I807; came to Jefferson township in I829; died June I, I898. Northrop, Spafford B.-Born in Vermont in 1828; came to Calvin township in 18!36; died in Wexford county, Michigan, September 26, 1898. Nicholson, Ambrose-Born in Batavia, New York, July 3, 1834; came to Cass county in 1837; died at Kalamazoo July I, I904. Neave, John-Born in England in I780; came to Ontwa in I836; died January 23, 1864; his wife, Mary Ann, born in I805; died May I I, 862. Nixon, John-Born in North Carolina September Io, 1798; came to Penn in 1830; died June io, 1882. O'Dell, Nathan-Born in Highland county, Ohio, September 8, I819; came to Cass county with his father, James O'Dell, in 1832; died in Penn township February 22, i88o. O'Dell, John-Born in Montgomery county, New York, February 17, I806; came to Mason township in 1835, where he died November 15, 1878. Oxenford, Mrs. Sally Grennell-Born at Onondaga county, New York, July 17, I830; came to Cass county in 1834; died at Vandalia July 12, 1888. Oren, James-Born in Clinton county, Ohio, January 29, I823; came to Calvin in I838; died at Cassopolis February 22, 1891. O'Dell, Thomas-Born in Porter township in 1831; died January 30, I882. Osborn, Ellison —Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in 1823; came to Calvin township in 1835; died in Arkansas March Io, 1897. Osborn, Ellen-Born in Wavne county, Indiana, in I8134; came to Calvin township in I835; died in Elkhart, Indiana, as Mrs. Jackson, May 19, I897. Olmstead, William-Born in Ohio, March 15, I835; came to Howard township in 1837, where he died March Io, I898. Oshorn, Leander-Born in Economy, Indiana, December 27, I825; came to Calvin township in 1835; died at Vandalia June 13, 1901.

Page  77 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 77 Osborn, Susannah East-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, October Io, 829:; came to Calvin township in 1833; died September 21, I902. O'Dell, James S.-Born in Porter township January Io, 1830; (ied December I8, 1903. O'Dell, James-Born in Virginia July 20, I799; came to Penn in 1832; died -- Osborn, Jefferson-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, January 2, 1824; came to Calvin in 1835; (lied April 4, 1901. Olmstead, Sylvester —Born in Connecticut in I780; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died February 3, I86i; his wife, Polly, born in 1775; died August 3, I837. Olmsted, Samuel C.-Born in Connecticut July Io, I8oI; came to Ontwa in 1836; died ---Putnam, Mrs. Anna Chapman-Born in Kent, Connecticut, January 19, I792; came to Pokagon in November, I825; died in Pokagon Prairie, October 15, I88o,; mother of first white child born in Cass county. Putnam, Uzziel, Jr.-Born in Pokagon Prairie August 12, 1826: (ied at Pokagon February Io, I879. Peck, Rachel-Born in Harrison county, Virginia, October 29, 1798; came to Jefferson township in I836, where she died April 15, 1884; wife of Marcus Peck. Peck, W;Villiam W.-Born in Shelby county, Ohio, September 22, I830; came to Cass county with his father, Marcus Peck, in I836; died in Cassopolis April 5, 1879. Putnam, James M.-Born in Jefferson township in I838i; died in Kansas February 15, 1879. Palmer, Joseph-Born in Saratoga county, New York, March 5, I817; came to Whitmanville in 1832; died at Dowagiac November 9, 1878. Palmer. Jared-Born in Saratoga county, New York, in I809; came to Whitmanville in 18,32; died at Paw Paw January 18, I879. Philbrick, Mrs. Eleanor Goodrich-Born in Meadowbrook, Connecticut, in I817; came to Cassopolis in I838; died at Grand Rapids November 9, I885. Poe. Charles R.-Born in Crawford county, Ohio, April 27, I819; came to Poe's Corners in I835, where he died May 19, i888. Parker, John-Born in Ohio in I8II; came to Calvin township in 1831; died in Nebraska March 8, I897. Pemberton, Reason S.-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, March 23, 1822; came to Penn township in 1836; died in Marcellus April 27, I896.

Page  78 78 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Pollock, William-Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 6, 1820; came to Cass county in 1830; died at Cassopolis June 3, I894; his wife, Harriet C. Shanahan, born in Delaware June 25, I833, came to Edwardsburg in I834; died at Cassopolis June I8, I902. Putnam, Orlean-Born in Jefferson county, New York, May 7, I8o9; came to Cass county in 18127; died in LaGrange township January I9, i886. Pitcher, Silas A.-Born in Logan county, Ohio; came to Wayne township in 18,39; died September 7, 1897. Pollock, James-Born in Preble county, Ohio, February I9, 1822; came to LaGrange township in I836; died in Penn October 16, I898. Putnam, Ziltha-Born in Ohio in 18.23; came to Pokagon in IS25, where she died January 22, 1900, as Mrs. Jones. Pemberton, Eliphalet-Bom in Virginia in 18,22; came to Penn township in I836; died in Emmet county, Michigan, May 17, I906. Palmer, William K. —Born in Livingston county, New York, in I825; came to Wayne township in 1837; died at Dowagiac March 2I, I902. Price, Rev. Jacob-Born in South Wales March 28, I799; came to LaGrange in 1833; died August 8, 1871; Ann Price, an English lady, his wife, came with him and died October 9, 1833; his second wife, Sarah Bennett, born in Vermont I8IO; died at Cassopolis in i886. Rudd, Barker F.-Born in Vermont in I8oo; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Newberg township February 22, I880. Rinehart, Mrs. Annie-Born in Ohio in I812; died near Union June 7, I889; wife of Lewis Rinehart. Rinehart, Lewis-Born in Virginia December 5, I807; came to Cass county February 28, 1829; died at Baldwin's Prairie December 6, I879. Richmond, Mrs. Nancy-Born in Ohio February I, I815; came to Porter township about 1835; died July i, I879. Rinehart, John-Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, June 5, I814; came to Young's Prairie in February, I829; died in Porter township February 20, I88i. Runkle, Margaret Wilson-Born in Columbia county, Pennsylvania, December 9, I8I8; came to Beardsley's Prairie in 1838; died May 24, I88i. Reames, Moses-Bom in Northampton county, North Carolina, May 27, I797; came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died December 6, 1878. Rinehart, Abram —Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, January 5, I817; came to Porter township in 1829, where he died September 2, I895.

Page  79 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 79 Reneston, William-Born in Mifflin county, Pennsylvania. March I3, I796; came to LaGrange township in I830; died August 5, I882. Rosbrough, John-Born in Ohio in 1812; came to Jefferson township in I833, where he died August 23, I882. Reames, Mary Colyar-Born in North Carolina, November 15, I8I2; came to Cass county in I83I; died in Jefferson township April I, 1884. Root Mrs. Jane-Born in Erie county Pennsylvania, July 2, ISII; came to Cass county in I83I; died at Dowagiac March 5, I887. Redfield, George-Born in Connecticut October 6, I796; came to Ontwa township in I835, where he died October 29, I887. Reames, W. D.-Born in I820; came to Cass county in 1828; died in Cassopolis January 12, I892; his wife, Rhoda Pearson, born in Logan county, Ohio, in I822, came to Jefferson in I83I; died at Cassopolis August 26, I902. Rudd, Harry L.-Born in Rutland county, Vermont, in January, 1821; came to Penn township in 1835; died in Oregon August 7, I892. Reames, Levi-Born in Logan county, Ohio, November 13, I824; came to Jefferson township in I828, where he died April 2, I894. Rinehart, John W.-Born in Porter township January 21, I834; died in Penn July 17, I893. Rodgers, John-Born in Preble county, Ohio, August 13, I815; came to Cass county in I828; died in Pokagon May 8, I895. Rudd, Orson-Born in Vermont September I, I827; came to Cass county in I837; died in North Dakota September 2, I896. Rinehart, Jacob-Born in Rockingham, Virginia, in June, I804; came to Porter in 1829,, where he died May 2, I897. Read, Sylvador T.-Born in Tompkins county, New York, January 12, 1822; came to the county in 1831; died in Cassopolis January 15, I898. Reames, Nancy A.-Born in Logan county, Ohio, in I826; came to Jefferson township in 1834; died in LaGrange township July I, I898, as Mrs. Neff. Robbins, David H.-Born in Geauga county, Ohio, in 1828; came to Ontwa township in I836, where he died April 29, 18991; his wife, Marien Grant, born in Indiana in —; died June io, I86I. Rogers, Hiram-Born in Morris county, New Jersey, January I6, I802; came to Milton township in 1831, where he died April 17, I889. Lory, his wife, born in I81o; died April 29, i868. Reames, Huldah Colyar-Born in Logan county, Ohio, April 25, I815; came to Cass county in I830; died September 23, I90o. Ross, Richard C.-Born in Stark county, Ohio, March 20, 1814; came to Mason township in I832, where he died April 22, I90I.

Page  80 80 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Reames, Melissa-Born in Logan county, Ohio, May 24, 18.27; came to Jefferson township in I828, where she died March 13, I900, as Mrs. J. L. Stephenson. Read, Lafayette R.-Born in Tompkins county, New York, August 5, 1804; came to Calvin township in I833; died in Cassopolis June 24, 1900. Rinehart, Christina-Born in Rockingham county, Virginia, July 4, I819; came to Young's Prairie in 829g; died in Porter township July I8, I900, as Mrs. W. H. Stevens. Row, Mahitable Bogart-Born in Genesee county, New York, April I, I815; came to Edwardsburg in August, 1829; died in Mason township January I, I90I. Reece, Rebecca A.-Born in Chenango county, New York, February 22, 1828; came to Cass county in 1836; died in Newberg December 17, I90o. Reames, Jeremiah B.-Bor in Logan county, Ohio, in 1825; came to Jefferson township in I83I, where he died December 17, I901. Reese, J. Raymond-Born in Tioga county, New York, March 29, I833; came to Ontwa township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg February 22, 1902. Rogers, William A.-Born in Preble county, Ohio, October 27, I827; came to Pokagon in 1828; died October 6, 1902. Roberson, Lewis B.-Born in Cass county February 13, T837; died in LaGrange November I7, 1902; his wife, Adaline Tarbos, born at McKinney's Prairie November 22, I837, died May 21, I905. Root, Fber-Born in 1799; came to Cassopolis in I832; died June 19, 1862; his wife, Eliza Wills, born in Green county, Ohio, October 19, I8I6, came to Edwardsburg in 1831; died April 25, I904. Richardson, Evaline Meacham-Born in Porter township October 6, I1830; died March 3, I905. Rodgers, Alexander-Born in Rockbridge county, Virginia; came to Pokagon township in I828, where he died in I866. Reynolds, John-Born in Ohio in I816; came to Cassopolis in I838; died September 24, 1874; his wife, Lucinda Fletcher, born in I8I8; died in I8,73. Robbins, Harry J.-Born in New York, August 17, 1815; came to Cass cofunty in 1832; died M1ay 26, i888; his wife, Rebecca, born in 1818; died March 7, i866. Rodgers, Alexander-Born in Virginia in I788; came to Pokagon in 1828; died in I867. Reading, Augustine-Born in New York September I, 1802; came to Ontwa in I83I; died in VanBuren county May 9, 1882; his wife, Catherine, born July 26, 1813; died December 2, I885.

Page  81 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 81 Rich, Samuel-Born in North Carolina in I802; came to Volinia in 1829,; died February 20, I873. Rich, John H.-Born in Volinia October 2I, I829; first white child born in Volinia township. Robinson, Nathan-Born in New York November I5, I820; came to Jefferson in I840; died September 3, I879; his wife, Margaret Hanson, born in New York; died June.6, I89I. Robbins, Milton B.-Born in Ohio in I806; came to Cass county in I836; died in Ontwa March 26, I88I; his wife, Sarah VanTuyle, born in 80o4; died May 5, I870. Ritter, John-Born in Virginia March 31, 1793; came to, LaGrange prairie in 1829; killed by lightning August 31, I829; his wife, Sarah Lybrook, born December 30, I796; died January 23, 1834; his daughter, Miss Hannah, born May 24, 8i8; (lied June 25, 1882, at Cassopolis. Smith, George-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, September 22, I8io; came to Edwardsburg in October, 1828; died in Milton township January 25, I88o. Smith, Major Joseph-Born in Botetourt county, Virginia, April II, I809;; came to Calvin township in 1831; (lied in Cassopolis April i8, I880. Silver, Rev. Abiel-Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, April 30, I797; came to Edwardsburg in 1831; died at Boston March 27, i88i. Sears, Mrs. Margaret-Born in Springfield, Pennsylvania, February 8, I816; came to LaGrange township in I840; died in LaGrange township March 30, I88I. Spencer, Joseph-Born in Madison county, New York, in August, 1813; came to Wayne township in 1835, where he died February 27, i88. Scott, Greenlee-Born in Logan county, Ohio, in I8o6; came to Cass county in 1830; he and wife, Mary Grubb Scott, died in April, 188I, in Iowa. Shaffer, Peter-Born in Rockingham, Virginia, January io, I791; came to Young's Prairie in I828; died in Calvin July 13, I88o. Story, Mrs. Sophia Boots-Born in England August 20, 18II; came to Porter township in I836, with husband, Ozail; died November 21, I88o. Springsteen, John-Born in Rockland county, New York, February i6, 1802; came to LaGrange township in 1837, where he died October 31, I88o. Springsteen, Romelia-Bom in New York August 27, 1814; came to LaGrange in 1837, where she died May 8, I89I.

Page  82 82 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Sullivan, James-Born in Exeter, New Hampshire, December 6. 18 I; came to Cassopolis in I839,; died in Dowagiac August I9, I878. Smith, Ezekiel S.-Born in Oneida county, New York, in September. I8II; came to Cassopolis in I839; died in Chicago February 22, I879. Squiers, Samuel-Born in Greene county, New York, June 4, I8oI; came to Volinia township in I836, where he died December 9, I882. Squiers, Elza-Born in Pennsylvania January 14, I802; came to Cassopolis in 1831; died in Volinia township March 6, 1883. Smith, Mrs. Hannah Hayden-Born in Ohio in January, I826; came to Cass county in I834; died in Calvin December 14, I885; wife of Joseph G. Hayden. Stephenson, Ira-Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 24, I827; came to Cass county in June, 1834; died in Jefferson township December 26, I886. Shanahan, Peter-Born in Delaware, 1797; came to Milton township in 1834; died at Niles March 7, 1887. Shellhammer, Aaron-Born in I817; came to Cass county in I839; died at Union June 8, I889. Shaw, Mrs. Eliza J. Smith-Born in Jefferson township in 1834; died Marclh 8, I888. Sherman, Elias B.-Born in Oneida county, New York; came to Cassopolis in 1829, where he died November 14, I890. Stretch, John-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, December 25, I825; came to Cass county in I833; died April 30, 1892. Stevens, ANndrew-Born in Ohio October 28, 1822; came to LaGrange in 1833, where he (lied August 23, I892. Smith, Ezekiel C.-Born in Erie county, New York, June 6, i8II; came to HIoward township in 1835, where he died July 30, I894. Stephenson, Samuel-Born in Logan county, Ohio, in I819; came to Cass county in 1834.; died in Jefferson township April Io, I895. Sammons, Andrew J.-Born in New York, December 26, 1834; came to Pokagon in 1837; died in Illinois August 21, I894. Shaffer, General George T.-Born in Ohio October 9, I821; came to Calvin township in I832, where he (lied July 24, 1895. Smith, Williami-Born in England November Io, 1814; came to Silver Creek in I840, where he died January 22, I896. Smith, Cannon-Born in Sussex county, Delaware; came to Milton township in 1828, where he died February I, I896. His wife, Sarah Dunning, born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, September 13, 1824; came to Milton township in 1836'; died in Ontwa November 17, I904. Sherwood, George-Born in Dutchess county, New York, in I819; came to Edwardsburg in the '3os; died in Chicago April I8, 1896.

Page  83 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 83 Stevens, David R. —Born in Oneida county, New York, August I6, 1822; came to Mason township in 1835, where he died June 4, 1896. Strickland, Mrs. Jane-Born in Butler county, Ohio, March 17, I826; came to LaGrange in 1831; died May 3, I896. Shanafelt, Nehemiah-Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, in 1823; came to Cass county in 1835; died in LaGrange township February 2, I897. Smith, Jemmima Lippincott-Born in Clark county, Ohio, in I8II; came to Cass county in 1832; died in Cassopolis May 30, I897. Stephenson, Eri-Born in Logan county, Ohio, in 1832; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Penn township September 20, I896. Sheldon, William R.-Born in Connecticut in I813; came to Ontwa township in 1835; died at Edwardsburg January II, I897. Sherman, Sarah Silver-Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, April I, I807; came to Cassopolis in I832; died in February, I897. Smith, Andrew J.-Born in Ross county, Ohio, September 2, I8i8; came to Edwardsburg in I840; died at Cassopolis May 2, I897. Shanahan, Mary Lowery-Born in Milford, Delaware, May 27, I809; came to Cass county in 1834; died at Cassopolis February 23, 1898. Silver, Benjamin F.-Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, in I8o8; came to Cass county in 183I; died in Pokagon December 9, I897. Sutton, Levi and Lucv-Born, respectively, in i8i8 and 1822, in Ohio; came to Porter township in 1840 (lied in July and June, I898. Shaffer, Abraham-Born in Clark county, Ohio. in I828; came to Calvin township in I832; died in California November 30, I897. Sturr, Joseph W.-Born in Burgen county, New Jersey, November 28, i8I6; came to Wayne township in 1839, where he died February 12, I899. Smith, Wesley-Born in Sussex, Delaware, in 1821; came to Edwardsburg in 18,28; died in Milton township February I8, 1899; his wife,:Alnmeda, born in lErie county, Pennsylvania, in 1826; died in Milton township) Jun.e 18. I892. Shaw, James-Born in Berlin, New York, February 28, I813; came to Howard township in 1840, where he died December i, I898. Stretch, William-Born in Ohio in 1827; came to Cass county in 1831; died in Pokagon February 6, I903. Smith, Henry W.-Born in Stark county, Ohio, April I2, I8I8; came to, Cass county in 1832; died in Indiana April 4, I904. Stephenson, Celia-Born in Logan county, Ohio, March 20, 1817, -came to Jefferson township about 1831, where she died March 14, 1902, as Mrs. Williams.'

Page  84 84 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Silver, Orrin-Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, December 12, 1812; came to Edwardsburg in 1835, where he died March 27, I899; his wife, Abigail Fifield, born in New Hampshire in 1815; died at Edwardsburg December I2, 1898. Shanafelt, William H.-Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, December 24, I824; came to Cassopolis in I835; died May 22, 1900. Silver, Mary-Born in Hopkinton, New Hampshire, September 20, 18I6; came to Ontwa in I837; died at Cassopolis February 14, I192. Sherwood, Charles-Born in Dutchess county, New York; came to Edwardsburg in I8,31 died- in Mishawaka, Indiana, January Io, 1900. Shurte, William-Born in Cassopolis April 29, I836; died in LaGrange Novemner I2, 1903. Stephenson, John H.-Born in Logan county, Ohio, in I821; came to Jefferson township in 1832; died December 31, 1904. Springsteen, Levi-Born in Ontario county, New York, March Io, 1815; came to LaGrange township in 8,36; died June 9, I905. Shaw, James S.-Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, in I827; came to Penn township in I83I; died in Volinia township January 18, 1905. Shanafelt, Rachael-Born in Pickaway county, Ohio, October 13. 18,24; came to Cassopolis in I835; died in LaGrange November Io, 1904, as Mrs. Umberfield. Simpson, Moses W.-Born in Pembroke, New Hampshire, May i6, I8c8; came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died June I6, I849. Squier, Daniel C.-Born in Allegheny county, Pennsylvania, March 23, I8oo; came to Cassopolis in I83I; died in Volinia township July 28, I1873. Savage, John-Born at Salem, Massachusetts, June i, I788; came to Marcellus township in T84o, where he died November, I878. Shanahan, Judge Clifford-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, February 4, I8o5; came to Edwardsburg in 1834 and to Cassopolis in 1841; died August I, 1865; his wife, Mary Lowery, born in Delaware on May 27, I809; died at Cassopolis February 23, 1898. Seares, Richard-Born in Pennsylvania in 1771; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died September 26, 1838. Seares, Isaac-Born in Connecticut in I795; came to LaGrange in I836; dlied October I5, 1839; Mary, his wife, born in I796; died April 24, 1870. Shanafelt, William-Born in Sandusky, Ohio, in 1794; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died March 28. I864; his wife, Elizabeth Ernest, born in I802; died December 24, I862. Shellhammer, Daniel-Born in Germany in 1785; came to Porter in 1827; died in 1873.

Page  85 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 85 Shurte, Isaac-Born in New Jersey July I, 1778; came to Cassopolis in I830; died in LaGrange March 2, I886; his wife, Mary Wright, born in New Jersey June II, I8oi; died January'5, I892. Suits, Jacob-Born in New York in I798; came to Silver Creek in 1836; died Shellhammer, John-Born in Pennsylvania September I, 1811; came to Porter in I828; died -- Silver, John-Born in New Hampshire in I763; came to Edwardsburg in I830; died in Indiana in I843. Silver, Jacob-Born in New Hampshire in 1786; came to Edwardsburg in I830 and to Cassopolis in 1832; (lied November 5, I872; Abigail Piper, his wife, died in New Hampshire; second wife, Maria Goodrich, born in I796; died at Cassopolis December I4, 1876. Silver, Jeremiah-Born in New Hampshire in 1790; came to Edwardsburg in 1836; died in Pokagon April I9, I876; he built the county's first poor house. Silver, Margaret-Born in New Hampshire in I799; came to Edwardsburg in 1837; died in Indiana as Mrs. Seth Straw. Silver, Joan-Born in New Hampshire in I802; came to Edwardsburg in 1837; died as Mrs. Timothy Straw. Silver, Jo'siah-Born in New Hampshire 1794; came to Edwardsburg in 1837; died in I870. Shanahan, Edward-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, in I806; came to Jefferson in I832; died at Kilburn, Wisconsin, October 21, 189I; his wife, Rebecca Kimmey, born July 30, I8io; died at Edwardsburg October 24, 1889. Seares, William-Born in Erie county, Pennsylvania, June Io, 1817; came to Cassopolis in 1836; died March I8, I894. Smith, Jacob-Born in Germany in I778; came to Ontwa in 1830: died August 25, I849; his wife, Elizabeth, born in 1790; died May 24, 1864. Timrnons, John B.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, June 13, i8i6; came to Cass county in 1834; died in Howard township August 30, 1878. Thomas, J. Hubbard-Born in Salisbury, Vermont, September 8, I807; came to Mason township in May, 1839; died in Jefferson township May 3, I884. Tharp, Mrs. Rebecca Hatfield-Born in Hardin county, Ohio, in I835; came to Cass county in 1838; died at Jamestown December II, I885. Tinkler, Thomas M.-Born in Erie county, New York, May 6, 18Ix; came to Wayne township in April, 1839, where he died April 25, I887.

Page  86 86 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Tharp, Lucinda Jane-Born in Kentucky in I799; came to Calvin in 1839, where she died February 15, 1884. Tharp, Laban-Born in Logan county, Ohio, March I6., I8i6; came to Jefferson township in 1828, where he died October 21, I88o. Townsend, Charlotte Hunter-Born in Champaign county, Ohio, July 12, I82I; came to Cass county in I833I; died in LaGrange November 2, 1898. Thompson, Mrs. Harriet-Born in I814; came to Cass county in 1837; died near Vandalia May 3, 1889. Townsend, Gamaliel-Born in York, Canada, January 20, I802; came to LaGrange township in 1826, where he died August 23, 1889. Townlsend, Charlotte Hunter-Born in Champaign county, Ohio, July 12, I82I: came to Cass county in 183I; died in LaGrange November 2, 1898. Tharp, Lydia 0.-Born in Logan county, Ohio, January Io, 1817; came to Cass county in 1827; died September 15, I893. Tharp, Christena Maxson-Born in Logan county, Ohio, September 17, 1827; came to Jefferson township in 1840, where she died September i, I890. Tietsort, Alamanza-Born in LaGrange township March 28, I834; died in Jefferson township December 8, I890. Trattles, William-Born in England in 1814; came to Porter township in I83,7, where he died February 21, I891. Tomlinson, Dorcas L.-Bom in Delaware May 9, I8IO; came to Cass county in 1835; died in LaGrange township December 23, I891. Tietsort, John-Born in Butler county, Ohio, November 22, I826; came to Cassopolis in I830, where he died April 29, 1893. Ellen S. Sherman, wife of John Tietsort, born in Cassopolis October 21, 1833; died August 26, I862. Tietsort, Peter-Born 'in Butler county, Ohio, January 28, I8o8; came to Cass county in I830; died in Illinois February Io, I895; his wife, Nancy Wood, born in Virginia in I8o6, came to the county in I835; died in Illinois August 31, I898. Thompson, Henry-Born in Vermont in I818; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Mason township March 26, I895. Thorpe, Dr. A. L.-Born in Ohio November 9, 18,26; came to Cass county in 1832; died in Mishawaka, Indiana, February 27, 1895. Thomas, Eunice Townsend-Born in Brandon, Vermont, April 24, I812; came to Mason township in I839, where she died; July 29, I896. Traverse, Aseneth E. Shivel-Born in Montgomery county, Ohio, October Io, 1827; came to Porter township in 1833; died at Cassopolis July 6, I90I.

Page  87 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 87 Tietsort, Elizabeth Waldron-Born in Butler county, Ohio, in 1813; came to LaGrange township in 1830; died April I7, I897. Thompson, James-Born in Ohio in 1819; came to Penn township in I829; died in Dowagiac June 9, I898. Truitt, John M.-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, in 1820; came to Milton township in 1831; (lied at Edwardsburg January 26. I899,. Tharp, William Z.-Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 7, 1827; came to Jefferson township in I830; died November 17, I898. Tietsort, Sarah A.-Born in Darke county, Ohio, February 25, 1832; came to Volinia in 1832; died June 2, 90oI, as Mrs. Ferrell. Truitt, Henry P.-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, April 25, 1824; came to Milton township in 183I; died April 23, 1902. Tharp, John L.-Born in Logan county, Ohio, February 28, 1828; came to Cass county in I840; died at Brownsville April 25, I902. Tietsort, Julia Fisher-Born in Richland county, Ohio, January 21, 1831; came to LaGrange in I835; died July 29, I902. Tietsort, Henry-Bom in Butler county, Ohio, January 26, I817; came to Cassopolis in 1829; died September 26, 1903. Turner, George B.-Born in Franklin county, New York, March I, 1822; came to Cassopolis in I836.; died April 15, I903. Harriet Monroe, wife of George B. Turner; born in 1827; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died November 5, 1858; Charlotte Tytherleigh, second wife, born in England in I819; died November 25, 1893. Tietsort, Ira-Born in Cassopolis September i6, I835; died in Detroit November 12, I903. Townsend, Eliza-Born in Canada July 6, 181I4; came to McKinney's Prairie in 1827; died in Iowa March 22, I906; wife of Michael McKinnev. Thomas, Harley-Born in Hartford, Connecticut, in I818; came to Cass county in 1838; died in Dowagiac in 1876. Truitt. Peter-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, February 7, I8oI; came to Milton township in 1831, where he died December 29, I88I. Turner, Sterling A.-Born in North Carolina in 1790; came to Cassopolis in 1835; died May 10, I86I; his wife, Mary, born in 1798; died September 12, 1847. Townsend, John-Born in Wayne county, Indiana, in I804; came toYoung's prairie in 1829; there died November 20, I835. Tarbos, William-.Born in Ohio in I8oI.; came to LaGrange in 18,33; died March 24, 1874; his wife, Mary Waldron, born in 1812; died April IO, I864.. Tietsort, Abram H.-Born in New Jersey, February 6, I777; came to Cassopolis in I830; died..,'eruary. I, 1847; his wife, Mar

Page  88 88 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY garet Banta, born in Ohio January 6, 1785; died at Cassopolis September 8, I854. Tietsort, Abram, Jr. —Born in Butler county, Ohio, July I6, 80o5; came to Cassopolis in 1828; died May 31, 1842; his wife, Rachel TIhonmpso0n, born July 17, I807; died March 9, 1893. Tietsort, Levi-Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 12, 8I I; came to Cassopolis in I830; died in LaGrange August 17, I864; his wife, Elizabeth Waldron, born April 22, 1813; died Tietsort, Cornelius B.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, January 24, 1820; came to Cassopolis in I829; died April 26, 1870; his wife, Elizabeth Mclnterfer, born April 23, 1823; died April 2I, I890. Tietsort, Squire V.-Born il Butler county, Ohio, April 2, 1822; came to Cassopolis in I829; died June 7, 1852; his wife, Catherine Custard, born February I9, 1826; died —. Thompson, Squire-Born in Virginia in 1784; came to, Pokagon in 1826; died in California in I85o. Truitt, Peter-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, February 7, T80I; came to Milton in 1831; died December 29, I88I. Townsend, Abram-Born in New York in I771; came to, Townsend's prairie in I826; died Umberfield, Ebenezer-Born in Ohio in I828; came to, LaGrange in I839; died; his wife, Rachel Shanafelt, born in I828; came to LaGrange in 1835; died November IO, I904. Van Tuyl, Daniel-Born in New Jersey, March 13, I796; came to Jefferson township in I835; died January 20, I88o. Van Vlier, George-Born in Virginia in 80o6; came to Pokagort in I830, where he died August 28, I886. Van Tuyl, John-Born in Jefferson township October I, 1838; died at Edwardsbuirg May 25, 1899. Vanderhoof, Dorcas Howard-Born in Canada November ii, 1826; came to Whitmanville in I837; died in Iowa in July, 1902. Van Tuyl, Joseph M.-Born in Ohio October I9, 1833; came to Jefferson township in 1835, where he died June 20, 1905. Wilsey, Mrs. Nancy-Born in Galway, New York, December 13, I773; came to Cass county in 1835; died in Howard township January 7, i88i. Witherell, Gilman-Born in Concord, New Hampshire, in I809; came to Pokagon in 1836, where he died November 24, 1878. Walters, David-Born in New York about I8I8; came to Silver Creek township in I839, where he died December 6, 1878. Williams, Mrs. Sarah-Born in I806; came to Cass county in I830; died in Calvin township December 14, 1885.

Page  89 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 89 Williams, Mrs. Ann Parmer-Born in Kent county, Delaware, May 4, 18oI; came to Milton township in 18,37; died in Howard township October 24, I88o. Warner, Hubbell-Born in New York in I8oi; came to Volinia in 1837, where he died January 22, I888. Wood, Mrs. Sarah Hunter-Born in Otsego, county, New York, July 4, I818; came to Cass county in 1836; died August 31, 1887. Walton, Mrs. Jane B.-Born in Massachusetts February I9, I809; came to Jefferson in I838; died in Cassopolis August 26, I89o. Wright, James M.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, May 12, I82I; came to Volinia in I83I, where he died April 23, 1896. Warner, Eliza A. Fox-Born in Northumberland county, Pennsylvania, June I6, 1817; came to Volinia township in I830; died February 7, I896. White, Joel-Born in Pennsylvania in I809.; came to this county in I830;- died in Porter township March 21, I897. Wright, Stephen D.-Born in Butler county, Ohio, April 4, I8I6; came to LaGrange Prairie in 1828, where he died April 25, I898. White, John-Bom in Ohio about 1822; came to Cass county in 1830; died in Iowa February, I898. Wilson, Daniel-Born in Franklin county, Ohio, in October, 1814; came to LaGrange township in 8I29,; died in Oregon January 15, I898. Waterman, William-Born in Norwalk, Ohio, May 20, 1812; came to site of Dowagiac in I835, where he died March 12, 1902. Warner, Loomis H.-Born in Herkimer county, New York, February 6, 1828, came to Volinia in 18135; died at Cassopolis April 14, I904. White, Eli S.-Born in LaGrange April 29, I8136; died in Penn township December 7, I903. Wells, Col. Samuel-Born in Little Prairie Ronde June 4, 1833; died in Indiana January 12, I906. Warner, J. Harvey-Born in Herkimer county, New York, March 23, 1832; came to Volinia in I837; died March 24, I906. Worthington, Rev. Henry-Born in Springfield, Massachusetts, March 12. I81I5; came to Cass county in; died at Dowagiac August 9, 1875. Wilkinson, Harvey-Born in Chautauqua county, New York, in I795; came to Ontwa in 1834; died January 23, 1870; his wife, Catherine M., born in 1804; died at Edwardsburg September I, I846. Wright, William R.-Born in New Jersey in I779; came to LaGrange in I828; died -. Williams, Spencer-Born in Sussex county, Delaware, May 2, I807; came to Ontwa in 183I; died in Milton May 2, I877.

Page  90 90 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Williams, Isaac-Born in Virginia in I8oo; came to Pokagon in I835; died November 22,.1874. Walton, Charles-Born in Delaware in I8oo; came to Jefferson in I836; died July 30, I870; his wife, Sarah Primrose, born in I8oo; died May 2, i886. Walton, Henry-Born in New York in I804; came to Jefferson in 183I; died at Cassopolis April 25, i865; his wife, Jane B., born in Massachusetts in 1838; died at Cassopolis August 26, I890. Young, William-Born in Rutland, Vermont, April 17, 1798; came to the county in!83I; murdered December I6, I879. Youngblood, Peter-Born in Preble county, Ohio, in June, 1813; came to Pokagon in 183I; died in LaGrange township December 20, i886. Zimmermnan, Jacob H.-Born in Georgia in February, I8oo; came to Young's Prairie in 1832; died Zane, Isaac-Born in March, I766; came to Jefferson township in 1833; where he died February I9, 1839. I I.; I!f ( i I~ -

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] t -i 6L,, CASS COUNTY COURT HOUSE.

Page  91 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 91 CHAPTER VI. ORGANIZATION. Referring to the conditions in the large civil division of which Cass county was a part until the year 1829, the History of I882 makes the following interesting statement: "It does not appear that government had any other than a: merely nominal existence in St. Joseph township, and it is probable. that no legal acts were performed in or by it." Although thus far we have mentioned the county townships of Cass as if they already existed at that early day, they did not; and as the quoted words indicate, there was no, government machinery in operation during the period to which we have devoted the.chapter on "Early Settlement." During the years 1825 to I829 many settlers had come, but they were a law unto themselves. And well was it that they possessed the Anglo-Saxon genius for law and, order and "the enjoyment of mine without injury to thine;" otherwise there would have been anarchy. But though the early settlers in a sense were without law, they were not against law, and at the proper time steps were taken toward county organization. We have already mentioned the county of. Wayne and other mutations of Michigan territorial boundaries during its early history. The various counties erected within the territory up to the time of our present discussion were:' Monroe, in I817; Mackinac, in I818; Oakland, in I820; Washtenaw, in 1826; Chippewa, in I826; Lenawee, from Monroe, in 1826. To Lenawee county was attached all the territory (comprising the greater part of southern Michigan) to which the Indian title had been extinguished by the Chicago treaty of 1821. In September, I828, this already vast. domain was further increased by the addition of all the lands to which the Indian title had been extinguished by the Carey Mission treaty of I828. This entire area, comprising about ten thousand square miles, was constituted and organized as the township of St. Joseph, being attached to Lenawee county. By an act approved October 29, I8,29, twelve counties were carved from this immense township. Among other, sections of the act, one provided that: "So' much of the country as lies west of the line be

Page  92 92 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY tween ranges 12 and 13 west of the meridian and east of the line between ranges i6 and 17 west, and south of the line between townships 4 and 5 south of the base line, and north of the boundary line between this Territory and the State of Indiana, be, and the same is hereby set off into a separate county and the name thereof shall be Cass." It was a fitting tribute to an American statesman and soldier that his name should be perepetuated in this beautiful county of southern Michigan. Lewis Cass was born in Exeter, New Hampshire, October 9, 1782, and died at Detroit, Michigan, June 17, I866. His career, while of national prominence, was peculiarly identified with Michigan. After a period of service in the second war with Great Britain, he was sent to the west as governor of the territory of Michigan, and held that office during the greater part of Michigan's territorial existence, from 18I3 to 1831, being the incumbent of the office at the time Cass county was created. Thereafter he served as secretary of war, I831-36; minister to France, I836-42; United States senator, I845-48; Democratic candidate for president, 1848; United States senator, I849-57, and secretary of state, I857-60. By the provisions of the section above quoted, Cass county was constituted entirely rectangular in outline, twenty-four miles from east to west, and from north to south twenty-one miles and a fraction. It is evident that the erection of the counties at this time was planned according to the lines of survey, without regard to geographical conveniences; for no account was taken of the only irregular feature in the outside limits of the county, namely, the small corner cut off by the St. Joseph river. Until March 3, 183I, the legal boundaries construed the small triangle of land (containing one whole section and fractions of four others) lying east of that river to belong to Cass county. But an act of that date changed the lines to conform with the natural boundary, giving the small portion thus detached to St. Joseph county. For seventy-five years Cass county has been bounded as at present, and, as we know, this is also practically the historical lifetime of the county. The next step was the establishment of civil government within the territory thus described, and this was provided by an act approved November 4, 1829, entitled "An act to organize the counties of Cass and St. Joseph, and for establishing courts therein." The pertinent portions of this organic act are as follows: "Be it enacted by the legislative council of the Territory of Michigan, That the counties of Cass and St. Joseph shall be organized from

Page  93 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 93 and after the taking effect of this act, and the inhabitants thereof entitled to all the rights and privileges to which by law the inhabitants of the other counties of this territory are entitled. "Sec. 2. That there shall be a county court established in each of said counties; and the county court of the county of Cass shall be held on the last Tuesday of May and on the last Tuesday of November in each year. * * * "Sec. 4. That the counties of Van Buren and Berrien, and all the country lying north of the same to Lake Michigan, shall be attached to and compose a part of the county of Cass. "Sec.. 8. That there shall be circuit courts, to be held. in the counties of Cass and St. Joseph, and that the several acts concerning the supreme, circuit and county courts of the Territory of Michigan, defining their jurisdiction and powers, and directing the pleadings and practice therein in certain cases, be, and the same are hereby made applicable to the circuit courts in said counties. "Sec. 9. That the said circuit courts shall be held at the respective county seats in said counties, at the respective court houses or other usual places of holding courts therein; provided, that the first term of said court in the county of Cass shall be holden at the school house near the house of Ezra Beardslev, in said county.' * * * "Sec. Io. That the county of Cass shall be one circuit, and the court for the same shall be held hereafter on the second Tuesday of August in each year." It will be noticed that this act provided for a "county court," a judicial institution of which few citizens of the county at this date have any direct knowledge. The county court was established in M\ichigan by a territorial act of 1815, and the first session of the Cass county court was held also at the house o'f Ezra Beardsley, in November, I83I. In April, I833, the county court was abolished in the organized counties of the territory. The institution was revived in I846, and continued until its final abolition in the constitution of the state adopted in I850. The last term of county court held in Cass county commenced A.ugust 5, 1851, with Judge Cyrus Bacon on the bench. DIVISION INTO TOWNSHIPS. Following the act of organization of civil government came an act dividing the new county for political purposes. The original townships as defined by this act were four in number. Technically they were: Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7, in range 16 west, to be a township by name of Pokagon. Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7 south, in range 15 west, to be a township by 'The first term of circuit court in Cass county was opened at the house of Ezra Beardsley (instead of the school house), at Edwardsburg, and its business was completed in two days.

Page  94 94 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY name of La Grange.' Townships 5 and 6 and north half of township 7 south, in ranges 13 and 14 west, to be a township by name olf P'enn. All that part of Cass county known as south half of township 7 and fractional township 8 south, in ranges 13, 14, I5 and I6 west, to be a township by the name of Ontwa. This division was no doubt influenced, in part, by the density of population in the various parts of the county. We have already stated that the county was settled by a wave of immigration directed from the west and south rather than from the east. There is proof of this in this formation of townships. On the west was the rectangular township, Pokagon, six miles wide by fifteen long, and including the present Silver Creek, Pokagon and the north half of Howard. This was the oldest settled portion of the county, and at the date of organization Pokagon prairie contained a large per cent of the entire population of the county. To the east of Pokagon was the township olf La Grange, exactly parallel in extent and of the same width, comprising what are now Wayne, La Grange and the north half of Jefferson. This was also a comparatively well settled portion of the county. Each of these townships contained an area of ninety square miles. Alongside of La Grange on the east, and comprising a double width of townships, was Penn, embracing in its one hundred and eighty square miles of area the present townships of Penn, Volinia, Marcellus and Newberg, besides the north half of Calvin and north Porter. This left a strip across the entire southern side of the county, and in width a little more than six miles, to comprise the township of Ontwa. Such were the four original political divisions of Cass county. It will be interesting to trace the process by which fifteen townships were carved from these four, that process illustrating very graphically the growth of the county from. a sparsely settled region to a poulousness that made smaller political divisions bbth practicable and necessary. Before this, however, let us call attention to the fact that Cass county comprised at one time, as respects political and judicial functions, the two adjoining counties of Van Buren and Berrien, as provided for in the organic act quoted above. So that at the period now under consideration, Berrien county was a part of Cass and was organized as one township under the name of Niles. Van Buren county and the territory north to Lake Michigan remained a part of Cass county until 1835, and was originally a part of Penn township.

Page  95 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 95 Naturally, the rapid filling up of the county with settlers in a short time called for a subdivision by the legislature of the original townships. The first act for this purpose was dated March 29, 1833, and provided for three new townships, Porter, Jefferson and Volinia. "All that part of the township of Ontwa, in Cass county, situated in ranges 13 and 14, west of the principal meridian, shall comprise a township by the name of Porter; and the first township meeting shall be held at the house of Othni Beardsley." This is not the Porter township as we know it today. It was, as technically defined, the east half of the original Ontwa. It contained all of the present Mason, a part of Calvin and all the present area of Porter except the three north tiers of sections. For the act which gave it its present area, see forward, in connection with the township of Newberg. In creating the township of Jefferson, the same act further deprived Ontwa of considerable territory. "That all that part of the county of Cass known and distinguished as township 7 south of the base line, and in range 15 west of the principal meridian, compose a township by the name of Jefferson; and that the first township meeting be held at the house of Moses Reames in said township." Thus was constituted Jefferson township as we know it today. The north half was subtracted from original La Grange, and the south half from Ontwa. The third township created by the act of March, 1833, was Volinia. This name was given by Josephus Gard, the pioneer, after a Polish province named Volhynia, which was the original spelling. The act reads: "That all that part of the county of Cass known and distinguished as township 5 south. in ranges 13 and 14, west of the principal meridian, compose a township by the name of Volinia: and that the first township meeting be held at the house of Josephus Gard in said township." Volinia, as thus formed, also contained the present Marcellus. No further changes occurred until March 7, 1834, when original Pokagon suffered its first diminishment of territory. "All that part of the county of Cass comprised in surveyed township 7 south, in range I6 west, shall be a township by the name of Howard; and the first township meeting shall be held at the house of John Fosdick in said township." This also took more territory from Ontwa, which was reduced to the two fractional townships in the southwest comer of the county. Before the passing of the territorial form of government, three

Page  96 96 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY other townships were created. The act of March 17, 1835, provides that "all that part of the county of Cass comprised in surveyed township 7 south, range 14 west, be a township by the name of Calvin; and the first township meeting shall be held at the dwelling house of John Reed in said-township." Thus we see that all the new townships were being erected with the lines of the townships and ranges of the government survey, and at present these lines govern entirely with the one exception of Porter. By the provisions of an act also dated March 17, I835, Wayne township came into existence. This, as we know, was a part of the original La Grange. But the settlers had come in fast in the last few years, the north half of the township had filled up with people who were soon demanding a separate organization. This demand was granted. and the name of the famous Revolutionary leader and Indian fighter was applied to the new township at the suggestion, it is said, of Cornelius Higgins. The technical definition of the boundaries of the township is "that part of Cass county comprised in township 5 south, range 15 west." The first township meeting was held at the house of Elijah W. Wright, April 6, 1835. An act approved March 23, 1836, constituted the first of the three fractional townships of Cass county. "All that portion of Cass county designated by the United States survey as township 8 south, of range 14 west, be. and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Mason; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the dwelling house of Jotham Curtis in said township." Before the passage of this act, this fractional government township was a part of Porter township. With the admission of Michigan to, statehood, the following townships of Cass county were constituted with boundaries as at present: Wayne, La Grange, Howard, Jefferson, Mason and Calvin. The remaining townships, which have since been divided, were Pokagon, Volinia, Penn, Porter and Ontwa. The state legislature, by an act approved March 20, I837, provided "That all that part of the county of Cass, designated by the United States survey as township 5 south, range I6 west, be set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Silver Creek; and the first town meeting therein shall be held at the house of James McDaniel in said township." Thus Pokagon was reduced to its present size, and the extreme northwest township acquired civil government.

Page  97 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY (97 On March 6, I838, the township of Newberg was erected, according to the provisions of the following: "All that part of the county of Cass designated in the United States survey as township 6 south, of range 13 west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Newberg; and the first township meeting therein shall he held at the house of John Bair in said township." Newberg was carved from Penn township, which on this date wsas limited to its present boundaries. Also, at the session of I838 an act was approved whereby all that part of the "township of Penn in the county of Cass comprised in township 7 south, range 13 west, shall be attached to and become part of the township of Porter." Nine days after the establishment of Newberg the legislative act constituting Milton township was approved. "All that portion of Cass county designated in the United State survey as township 8 south, of range 16 west, be, and the same is hereby set off and organized into a separate township by the name of Milton; and the first township meeting therein shall be held at the house of Peter Truitt, Jr." This division brought Ontwa township down to its present area. It was five years before the final political division was established in Cass county. The fifteenth township was Marcellus, which. the last to be organized, waas also the last to be settled. The government township known as township 5 south, of range 13 west, had hitherto been a part of Volinia to.wnship, but in 1843 the people living within the area, feeling competent to manage their own affairs, petitioned the state legislature for a separate jurisdiction. The act organizing the township thus defined "by the name of Marcellus" was ap-proved March 9, I843. The first township meeting, it was directed, should be held at the house of Daniel G. Rouse, who had framed and circulated the petition for organization. Such is a brief account of the evolution of Cass county from an unorganized region into its present shape and its present order and arrangement of townships. So far as is known, the divisions into the various townships were never animated by any serious disputes and discussions such as have sometimes occurred in the adjusting of such matters. As stated, the townships conform to the government surveys, and in making the political subdivisions according to this plan no considerable inconvenience or confusion has resulted. The city of Dowagiac, it happens, is located on the corners of four township jurisdictions,

Page  98 98 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY but division of political interests that are naturally concentrated is obviated by the incorporation of Dowagiac with a city government, with its own political representation on the same plane with the townships. LOCATION OF THE COUNTY SEAT. One very important part of the organization of the county was the locating of the county seat. This.is always a matter of supreme interest to the early inhabitants of a county, and a history of the "county seat wars" which have been waged in many states of the Union would fill volumes. These contests have been characterized by an infinite variety of details, ranging from pitched battle and effusion of blood to the harmless encounters of wordy protagonists. Cass county had her contest over three-quarters of a century ago, in the time of beginnings, so that no living witness can tell aught of its details. But as the records have been handed down, the location of the seat of government was attended with some features of more than common interest. By the provisions of an act of the territorial council July 3I, 1830, the governor was authorized to appoint commissioners to locate the seats of justice in the several counties where they had not already been located; having located the seat of justice of any county, the commissioners should report their proceedings to the governor, who, if he approved of the same, should issue a proclamation causing the establishment of a seat of justice agreeable to the report. Such were the directions. We will now see how they were carried out. Martin C. Whitman, Hart L. Stewart and Colonel Sibley were the commissioners appointed to locate the seat of justice in Cass county. These men, if the charges later preferred against them be true, evidently understood the importance of their decision as affecting the value of the site they should select. In fact, it appears that the practice, now so much condemned, of private individuals opening their hands for the profits of a public trust, is not of modern origin. The enterprising commissioners, having looked over the county and exalined the eligibility of the various sites, chose to recommend the plat of the village of Geneva, laid out on the north bank of Diamond lake by Dr. H. H. Fowler, as the proper location. Before announcing their decision, however, two of the commissioners, -with remarkalle foresight, hastened to the land office at White Pigeon and entered in their own names sundry tracts of land adjoining

Page  99 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Geneva. Their deliberations completed and made the subject of report, the governor announced the location of the seat of justice at Geneva in accordance with the instructions of the commissioners. Iimmediately there arose a storm of indignant protest over the decision. The intentions of the commissioners to turn their official acts into a source of private gain were set forth at length, among the many other causes of dissatisfaction with the chosen site, in petitions that were sent to the legislature with the signatures of a large number of the voters of the county. The response to the petitioners came in an act of the legislative council, passed March 4, I83I, to amend the previous act under which the seat of justice was located at Geneva. By this act the decisions of the former commissioners were set aside. The governor was to appoint, with the consent of the council, three commissioners to re-examine the proceedings by which the seat of justice had first been established, and were empowered either to confirm the same or to make new locations, as the public interest might, in their opinion, require. They were authorized to accept any donations of land, money, labor or material that might be tendered them for the use of the county, thus permitting the usual opportunities for legitimate persuasion in such matters. But the precaution was taken to insert a proviso that in case it was made to appear to the satisfaction of the governor that the commissioners were guilty of any improper conduct, tending to impair the fairness of their decision, it should be his duty to suspend any further proceedings. Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. O'Keefe were the commissioners appointed under this act to relocate the county seat, and in pursuance of instructions they were to meet in the county on the third M\ionday in May, I83I. As told in the history of Cassopolis on other pages, the advocates of the new site beside Stone lake entered into the contest with all the zeal and enthusiasm of those embarked on an enterprise in which they would never accept defeat. Besides the donation of one-half of all the lands on the village plat to the county, the subtler arts of diplomacy were also invoked in procuring a favorable decision. The proprietors of the village of Cassopolis, with frank confidence in the ultimate selection of that village as the county seat, announced with effective ostentation the naming of three plincipal streets after the commissioners then engaged in the work of location. Whether the prospect of their name and fame being perpetuated in the thorough

Page  100 100 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY fares of the seat of justice was especially inviting, and whether it was that the justice of Cassopolis' contention and the advantages offered by its citizens were the prevailing factor in their decision, it is not of any moment to this discussion to inquire. It is enough that the commissioners, waving aside the claims of Geneva, as well as those of several other proposed sites, fixed upon Cassopolis as the seat for the governnent machinery of the county, and there it has ever since remained.* Strictly speaking, the settlers of Cass county were not pioneers. The majority of them were people of more or less education and culture, trained and accustomed to the usages of civilization. In the settling of the country there was no interim between savagery and civilization. The pioneers did not come and build their cabins, and defend them with their rifles for some years until the civil officers, courts, schools and churches made their appearance. This was necessary in some settlements, but not here. In Cass county civil government sprang into being almost at once. The settlers brought civilization with them. They brought the common law with them, and, in harmony with the legislative statutes, they saw to it at once that the community should be governed thereby. They provided for courts, for public buildings, for roads, and( for every possible institution necessary to a civilized community. And the result was that Cass county soon became a populous link in the great chain of similar political communities stretching from the Atlantic beyond the Mississippi, maintaining without a break the institutions of civilization at the standards of older communities. *NOTE.-The following is the proclamation of Acting Governor Mason, issued December I9, I831: WHEREAS, In pursuance of an act of the legislative council entitled "An act to amend an act entitled 'An act to provide for establishing seats of justice,'" Thomas Rowland, Henry Disbrow and George A. O'Keefe were appointed commissioners to re-examine the proceedings which had taken place in relation to the establishment of seats of justice of the counties of Branch, St. Joseph and Cass, and to confirm the same, and to make new locations, as the public's interest might, in their opinion, require; AND WHEREAS, The said commissioners have proceeded to perform the said duty, and by a report signed by them, have located the seat of justice of the said county of Cass at a point on the southeast quarter of section 26, town 6, range 15 west, forty rods from the southeast corner of said section, on the line running west between sections 26 and 35; Now, therefore, By virtue of the authority in me vested by said act, and in conformity with said report, I do issue this 'proclamation, establishing the seat of justice of the said county of Cass at the said point described as aforesaid.

Page  101 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 101 CHAPTER VII. GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT. In the preceding chapters we have endeavored to give an account of Cass county beginning with its state of nature, mentioning its original inhabitants, and continuing through the years of first settlement up to the completion of the organization of the county as a distinct political division of the state. The establishment of civil government in a community is as necessary to its growth and welfare as the foundation of a building is needed to support the structure that will be reared upon it. Hence, having described the institution of organized government in Cass county, we may now continue the account of settlement and development until the various parts of the county assumed something of the condition in which we find them at the present day. This country about us is not what it was in a state of nature; great improvement has been made. It is still beautiful, but its beauty is of a different kind. Then its voices sang of solitude, now they sing of usefulness. Then it had a wild beauty, and its atmosphere was laden with the poetry of an imagined past, when it teemed with the civilization of the mound-builders, or when the red man roamed through its forests and over its prairies. But its beauty has been chastened by human touch, and now it tells us of happy homes, and of the triumphs of human life; saddened, of course, by the thought of the hardships and sorrows and final partings which its inhabitants have experienced. To enumerate all the factors which produced this transformation would be impossible in any work. For every individual whose life has been cast within the county has contributed either a forwarding or adverse influence to the development of the county. Manifestly, we can at best merely describe some of the general conditions and select from the great host of names of those whose lives have been identified with this county some few for special mention. In this age when the sources for obtaining information and the means of communication are almost illimitable, it is difficult to realize the primitive conditions in that respect as they affected the early settlers of such a region as Cass county. In this day of the telegraph and

Page  102 102 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the laily newspaper a false report may reach us concerning some distant situation, but the equally effective and rapid means of authentication will enable us to' quickly disprove the first news, and no serious harm is done. Not so seventy-five years ago. The report o4f unfavorable conditions in the new Michigan country. of a serious failure of crops, of an Indian scare, would be a long time in reaching the east, its serious aspects would increase with the circulation, and once told its vicious and retarding influence would continue a long time before informnation of perhaps an opposite character would reach the intendling emigrants. It is not surprising, therefore, that the settlement of Cass county (lid not proceed uniformly or unbrokenlV. The first of the adverse influences which checked the current of immigration was the Sac or Black Hawk war of 1832. The Sac Indians had never been friendly with the United States. In the war of I812 they joined sides with the British. As a recompense they were receiving an annuity in Canada, whither they went every y-ear, and returned la(len with arms and ammunition. They crossed the border at Detroit. and probably passed through Cass county by way of the Indian trail along the southern border. Black Hawk, the powerful chief of the Sacs and Foxes, had conceived the idea that the several Indian tribes by comlbining might be powerful enough to resist the whites; thoughl after being captured and taken east to, see the white man's populous towns and cities, he returned and told his braves that resistance was useless. Years before this the Sacs by treaty had ceded their lands east of the Mississippi to the United States, but had still remained upon them. \Vhen required to conform to their treaty they resisted. Early in 1832, in ugly mood, a large number of their braves went to Canada. This was their last annual expedition. When, returning, they reached Illinois, the fiends began their work of slaughter by murdering an old man, which was the first bloodshed in the memorable Sac and Fox war. When the news came that the Indians had commenced hostilities in Illinois, the settlers of southern Michigan feared that they wNould retreat into Canada instead of going to their own lands beyond the Mississippi. There 'was no telegraph to convey the news, and it came in the form of vague rumors, and imagination pictured a hundred horrors for every one related. Besides the fear of an invasion by Black Hawk's warriors, there was anxiety lest the Pottawottomies still in the country would rise and join in the revolt.

Page  103 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 103 Although, as was afterwards found out, there was not a hostile Indian within a hundred miles of southern Michigan, for some time the danger was felt to be very close and real, and the "Black Hawk war" was an epoch in the pioneer memory. At the first information of hostilities the authorities at Chicago sent an appeal for militia to Michigan. General Joseph W. Brown commanded his brigade to take the field, appointing Niles as the rendezvous. Cass county furnished as many men as her small population would alloxw. The news was brought to Cassopolis by Colonel A. Houston and communicated to Abram Tietsort, Jr., whose duty it was, as sergeant of the local company, to notify the members of the order issued by their commander. Isaac Shurte was captain, and Gamaliel Townsend one of the lieutenants. There was great agitation in the scattered prairie settlements of the county as the order to turn out was carried from house to house, and still greater when the men started away froml their homes for what their wives and children supposed to be mortal combat with the ferocious Sacs and Foxes. An Indian scare has not been known in Cass county within the memory of but few if any now living. But toi some extent we may imlagine the trepidation and alarm of those composing the settlements at lhat time. No doubt some of the more timid packed their nmovables into a wagon and made post lhaste to leave the danger-ridden country. D)uring the short time the scare lasted hundreds of families from this part of the west stampeded as far east as Cincinnati, many of them never to return to their forest homes. But the majority were of sterner stuff. They had endured the rigors of cold and fatigue, of hunger and bodily privations, in establishing their homes on the frontier; they would not easily be frightened away. Those settlers living in the central part of the county advised with one another as to the practicability of taking refuge on tle island in Diamond lake and fortifying it against attack. This no doubt would have been done, had the alarm not subsided. It. is said tiat the vwomen of the Volinia settlement had begun the erection of a fort when the message reached them that the war was over. Short as the Black Hawk war was, imimigration to this portion of the west was almost completely checked. Not a few returned to the east, while those who were preparing to emigrate hither either abandoned their plans altogether or delayed their execution for a year or so. While we are considering some of the retarding influences in the settlement of Cass county, it will be proper to mention the frost of June, 1835. That event lived long in the memory of old settlers. Cli

Page  104 104 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY mate, as we know, has much to do in lending a country the charms which attract immigration. The beauties of the landscape, the fertility of the soil, the gentle warmth of summer, and the not too severe winter, were favorite themes of praise witl those who described their Michigan home to eastern friends. But in climate as in human affairs, an abnormal event gains widest current in general knowledge. This unusual phenomenon of a heavy frost at the mi(ddle of June, causing an almost total ruin of the growing crops, although such a thing had never happened before, and so far as known has not been paralleled in subsequent history, at once counterbalanced all the goo-d that had ever been said of Michigan's climate. The seasons were never dependable, according to the report that passed through the eastern states; the latitude was unfavorable for the production of the crops suited to the temperate zone; the climate was comparable to that of Labrador, and so on. This occurrence had an adverse effect on immigration perhaps only second to the Black Hawk war. It must not be supposed that nature yielded her empire at once and without a struggle. Indian scares and June frosts were the uncommonest of events. But the daily, usual life was a constant exertion against the forces of wildness. requiring fortitude and strength of a kind that the modern life knows little. Improvement was in many respects very gradual. It was a toilsome and slow process to transplant civilization to the wilderness of Cass county. The contrasts between the present and the past of seventy-five years ago are striking and even wonderful; none the less, we dare not suppose for that reason that the transformation was of fairy-like swiftness and ease of accomplishment. The first thing, of course, after the newly arrived settler had made his family as comfortable as possible temporarily, was to build the traditional log cabin. To the younger generation in Cass county, the "creature comforts" of that time seem primitive and meager indeed. In obtaining material for his house, the builder must select trees which were not too, large, or they could not be handled conveniently; not too small, or the cabin would be a house of saplings. The process of felling the trees, splitting the logs, hewing them so as to have flat walls inside, notching them at the ends so as to let them down on each other, slanting the gables, riving out lapboards or shingles, putting on roof poles, binding the shingles to them, sawing out doors and windows, making the fireplace, and many other things necessary in building a log cabin-this process is yet familiar to many old settlers.

Page  105 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 105 After the settlers had housed their families they made a shelter for their stock, which was often done by setting poles in the ground, with crotches at the upper end; poles were laid from crotch to crotch, other poles laid across, and the roof covered with marsh hay until it was thick enough to shed water. Poles were slanted against the sides, and hay piled on them in the same manner. The door could be left open or closed by any means convenient. This made an exceedingly vwarm shelter, though it was so dark that the animal's eyes sometimes suffered from it. Swine and other stock could be left to shelter themselves, and they usually found some sheltered nook in the groves and forests, or among the thick grass, where they made themselves comfortable, though some of them ran wild. Of course, in a country like Cass, where it was possible, though difficult, to obtain from the centers of civilization the necessary articles, these primitive methods were greatly modified and improved upon from the very first. Shingle nails were often used instead of weight poles, window panes soon took the place of oiled paper or cloth, and so on. The first settlers brought with them the few tools necessary for their pioneer life, such as axes, adzes, iron wedges, hammers, saws, augers, gimlets, frows for shaving shingles, planes, chisels, etc., and the women brought needles, scissors, thimbles, pins, thread, yarn, spinning wheels, and some brought looms. And in the early settlement of the county, as we have seen, there came a few trained mechanics, a carpenter, saddler, and so on. After the primitive log cabin came the frame building. It was the sawmill which marked the first move away from pioneer life. For as soon as a sawmill was accessible to any community, frame buildings were practicable. The county was well wooded, and all that was necessary was to cut the logs, haul them to mill, pay the toll, in whatever form, and haul the lumber home again. And this was an economy of time very precious in those (lays of subduing the virgin soil and making a settled home. It was no easy matter to hew timber, and split out boards with wedges, and then smooth them: by hand. Hence it was that sawmills were, along with grist mills, the first institutions' for manufacturing in this section of country. And at once frame buildingsmills, and shops of different kinds, stores, hotels, churches, schoolhouses and dwelling houses began to multiply, and the country put on the appearance of advancing civilization. Some of those buildings are standing to-day, though most of them have long since vanished, or given

Page  106 106 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY place to others. In various parts of the county may be found an occasional frame idwelling which was built in the thirties or forties, and many of those built at that time have since been remodeled and modernized so that few traces of their original form remain. The front portion of the Newell house, just west of the public square at Cassopolis, was constructed in 1832 or '33, so that it has survived the stress of weather and time longer than any native resident of the town. Slowly, as the years went by, improvements were made. Gradually new, nore beautiful and commodious buildings were put til) for both families and (dumb animals, and more and more conveniences were introduced into the forml.er ones, until to-day, as one rides through any part of the county, he sees not only highly improved and well stocked. farms, but large, commodious and in many cases even artistic buildings, which bespeak the thrift of the owners, and the vast progress which has been made since the first log buildings were made in Pokagon and Onttwa townships in I826 and '27. In the meantime, the first small groups of settlers which we have seen planted in certain favored parts of the county have been rapidly growing and advancing out into the yet virgin regions until in a few years there was hardly a section in any township that was available for entry. Of all the transactions with which the early settlers were concerned none were more important than the government land sales. The first public lands in M\ichigan disposed of under government regulations were sold at Detroit in I 88. In I823 the Detroit land office was divided, an(l a land office established at iMonroe, at which all entries of lands west of the principal meridian were made up to 183T. It was at the land sale at Monroe in 1829 tlat the first settlers of the county made formal entry of their lands. The United States law required that every piece of land should be put up at auction, after which, if not bid off, it was subject to private entry, at one dollar and a quarter per acre. It was an unwritten law among the settlers that each pre-emptor should have the privilege of making the only bid on his land. This right was universally respected among the settlers, no one bidding on another's claim. It occasionally happened, however, that an eastern man, unaccustomed to the ways of the west, essayed to bid on the home of a settler. but was soon convinced, in frontier fashion, that such action was a distinct contravention of western custom. Such was the case with one young man at the sales at White Pigeon, where the land office for this district was

Page  107 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY located from 183I to 1834. This individual insisted on the right to bid on any land offered for sale, but made only one bid when he was suddenly felled to the floor, which instantly inspired him with respect for settlers' claims and usages of western society. The land speculator was pcrsona non grata with the settlers, and in some parts of the country associations known as "squatters' unions" were formed to protect the settler in his claims and when necessary to use force in compelling the speculator to desist from his sharp practices. It was owing to the fact that the public auction of land enabled the speculator to bid in as virgin soil and at the usual price of a dollar and a quarter an acre lands that had been settled and improved by an industrious pioneer, that the system of public sales was finally abolished. After 18134 the Cass county settlers entered their lands at Kalamazoo, where the land office for this part of the state was continued until 1858. The process of settlement is graphically illustrated by the figures from several of the early censuses. These figures of course are quite likely to lbe inaccurate as exact units, but they convey in a general way the successive increases of population. From these statistical tables we see that in I830 the county had something less than a thousand inhabitants, meaning lby that white persons. This was the number with which the county began its organized existence. Despite the Black Hawk war that occurred in the meanwhile, by 183.4 the enumeration shO'ws 3,28o, an increase of over three hundred per cent in four years; and three years later this number had nearly doubledl. By 1840 Cass county was a comparatively well settled com-munlity of nearly six thousand people, while in 1845, at which (late the townslhips had been formed as at present, the population was over eight thousand. Considering the population according to townships, we find that in 1840,o when all the townships had been formed except Marcellus, the most populous township was LaGrange, with 769 people. Then followed Porter, with 556; Ontwa, 543; Pokagon, 516; and thence on down to Newberg, with 175 persons. Of the older townships, whose early settlement has already been adverted to, the population soon became settled on a substantial basis. Practically all the lands of Pokagon township had been entered as early as I837, and the assessment roll of resident taxpayers in that township for 1834 shows the names of fifty persons, indicating at least an approximate number of families.

Page  108 108 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY LA GRANGE. In LaGrange township, as shown in the above quoted figures, population increased more rapidly than elsewhere, owing doubtless to the establishment of the seat of justice at Cassopolis. At the first township election, April, I830, there were but eighteen voters, according to the history of I882, whereas there were elected nineteen officials for the various civil positions, making it necessary in one or two cases that one man should hold several offices. But beginning with that year the settlement of the township increased rapidly. Among the early settlers not already mentioned were the McKenney and Dickson families; the Jewell family, whose first representative, Hiram Jewell, arrived in September, I830, and William Renniston, who came the same year; Henry Hass and sons; the Petticrew and Hain families; James R. Coates, whose death, in August, 183I, as a result of his horse dashing him against the limb of a tree, furnished the first interment in the Cassopolis burying ground; Catherine Kimmerle, the first of that well known family, who brought her family of children here in I832; and arbitrarily to end the list, Jesse G. Beeson, who came to settle here permanently in I833. Many facts concerning the history of this township are detailed in the chapter on Cassopolis. In this township, too, the list of original land entries seldom shows a date later than I837. PENN. In Penn township, the seat of the Quaker settlement, the first land entries were made in June, I829, and the date of the last was May, 1853. The assessment roll of I837 of the township as then organized gives a good idea of the citizenship of the township at that date. It contains the following names:. Amos Green, John Price, John Donnel, Jacob T. East, Elizabeth Cox, John A. Ferguson, Hiram Cox, William Lindsley, Marvick Rudd, Ezra Hinshaw, Reuben Hinshaw, Abijah Hinshaw, Mary Jones, Lydia Jones, Jesse Beeson, Joshua Leach, Nathan Jones, John Lamb, John Cays, John Nixon, Moses McLeary, Henry Jones, Ishmael Lee, Christopher Brodie, Alpheus Ireland, Drury Jones, Samuel Thompson. ONTWA. Ontwa township, in which the second settlement was made. from the first received a good share of the immigration. The settlement was especially rapid from 1833 to 1838,, and by the latter year there was little or no land left for entry. This township has produced an unusual

Page  109 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 109 number of prominent citizens, several of whom are mentioned under other appropriate headings. Edwardsburg was the natural center for the county, and. around the history of that village much of the interest that belongs to the township gathers. Among the settlers lduring the thirties were, Ezra Miller, who turned away from Cassopolis to locate in Ontwa because the landlord of the hotel in the former place charged him six pence for a drink of water; Reuben Allen, who, brought his family from Vermont and located on the site of Adamsville, using for his temporary home a frame building in which had been a "corncracker" mill; Joseph W. Lee, a New Hampshire Yankee, who for a dwelling moved to his claim the block house built by Ezra Beardsley and which had: been used as a hotel and as the first court house in Cass county. These and many others were the builders whose industry was responsible for the subsequent prosperity of Ontwa. VOLINIA. Volinia township from the earliest times has been a very interesting community. Many notable enterprises have originated and been fostered there, and in the character of the early settlers there was an inlividuality that removes their history far from the monotony of mediocrity. To mention only a few besides the names already given, there was Col. James Newton, an Englishman by birth, who came to this country in youth, served under the American flag during the war of I812, and came to Cass county about 1831. He was prominent politically, was a member of the convention that framed the state constitution, and also represented Cass and Van Buren counties in one of the first sessions of the state legislature. His son, George Newton, was also prominent in the township, served as supervisor and in the state legislature of I858r59, just twenty years after his father's term. Another early character was John Shaw, from Pickaway county, Ohio, who gained celebrity in the township as a justice of the peace as well as a man of affairs generally. His motto was, "Equity first and legal technicalities afterward," and in forwarding the cause of justice he was wont to employ some very unusual methods. In later years he became a victim of drink, lost all his possessions, and his sadly checkered career came to its end in the county infirmary. Early in the thirties Volinia received two settlers who were skilled in a trade. Richard Shaw, a shoemaker, although he engaged in agriculture mainly. Levi Lawrence, a genius as a blacksmith, and the scythes which he made were the most effective implements of

Page  110 11o HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the kind until they were superseded by miowing machines. He did not remain long in the township. PORTER. Settlement in Porter township progressed rapidly after county organization. One of its early residents, whose career is historical, was George Meacham, whom we have already met as one of the coterie of pioneers in Ontwa. He moved into Porter township in I836 and was a resident there nearly half a century. He constructed for his own use what was claimed to be the first threshing machine used in this section of the country, it being in fact but one of the component parts of the modern grain separator, namely, the cylinder for beating out the grain. He was the first sheriff in the county, serving from 1830 to I836. His jurisdiction was all the country west of St. Joseph county to the lake, and in empanelling a jury he summoned all but five of those qualified for tlis service in this great scope of territory. To serve on a jury at that time it was necessary that one had paid a minimum tax of fifty cents: this excluded the majority of the residents in this circuit. Mr. Meacham was also in the lower house of the legislature in 1839, and twenty years later occupied a seat in the state senate. Then there was the remarkable family of Rinehart brothers, Lewis, Samuel, Jacob, John and Abram, whose interests and connections in Cass county might fill many pages were we to describe them in detail. John Rinehart, their father, born in I779, came to Cass county in the spring of 1829, settling first in Penn and later in Porter township. The sons were farmers, mechanics, and Lewis, Samuel and Jacob owned and operated the first sawmill in Porter township. Among the arrivals during this decade was James Hitchcock, a stone and brick mason, who constructed the first brick house in Mason township. Brick early became a favorite building material in this part of the country, and it was not many years after the county was settled before the primitive log house was used only during the short period while the settler was getting started in his work of improvement. JEFFERSON. In point of population, Jefferson township,soon grew to about her present standard. From less than five hundred in I840, to nine hundred in 1850, her enumeration in I86o was -I,07I, with no marked change since that date. Besides the pioneers who made the first settlement in the northeastern corner, there are named among the early.:.!

Page  111 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 111 land entries Stephen and Peter Marmon, Aaron Brown, David T. Nicholson, Daniel Burnham, F. Smith, Richmond Marmon, John Pettigrew, Samuel Colyar, William Barton, William Mendenhall, Obediah Sawtell, Isaac Hultz, several olf whom became closely identified with the affairs of the county and township. Richmond Marmon was an orthodox Quaker. In 1834 came Ishmael Lee, who in later years became, according to the record, "one of the most faithful and successful conductors on the underground railroad, and many a wagonload of fugitive slaves have been piloted by him through the woods of Michigan on their way to Canada and freedom. He was a prominent actor in the well known Kentucky slave cases of I84.8, and was one of those sued by the Kentuckians for the value of the escaped fugitives, and he paid a large sum of money to compromise the litigation." Other arrivals were Daniel Vantuyl, John Stephenson, Robert Painter, a justice of the peace, merchant and manufacturer, Horace Hunt, who was a wagonmaker and made some of the wooden plows used by the early settlers. Many citizens of this township remember Pleasant Norton, who lived here from 1832 to his death in 1877. He was a stanch Democrat politically, and his name is among those occurring most frequently in the early civil lists of the county. He was twice in the legislature, was supervisor of Jefferson nine times, was townshlip treasurer four terms. At his death he left a large property. He was a man of native ability, of rugged personality, and unusual force of character, an([ it was these qualities for which his fellow citizens honored and respected him. CALVIN. Calvin township was estimated as having two hundred inhabitants by 1837. Among the earliest olf these was the family of William Grubb, lwho came from Logan county, Ohio, in I830. The same year came David Shaffer, a skilful hunter whose annual record gained in the wilderness of this county was said to include as many as two hundred deer. In the southwestern portion of the township Peter Shaffer located in 1832 and resided there until his death in I880. His son, George T. Shaffer, was prominent locally, and as a military man his record is unique. He was a member of a militia company during the war of 1812, and half a century later entered the service of his country in the rebellion. He became successively first lieutenant, captain, major, lieutenant-colonel, and in March, 1865, was brevetted colonel and brigadiergeneral of volunteers.

Page  112 112 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Another Calvin settler was Levi D. Norton, who located here from Jefferson. His name is found frequently in connection with the civil affairs of his township. It is also noteworthy that he was among those who turned the first furrows in Jefferson township and assisted in the production of the first crops. In I833 the East settlement was established in the northeastern portion of this township. The family of this name and its numerous connections have left a distinct impress on the history of the county. William East and his wife Rachel, who were members of the Society of Friends, thus giving another touch of distinction to the-settlement, were the parents of the large family which formed the nucleus of this settlement. To mention the names of their sons will recall some of the early and prominent settlers of this township. They were, James M., Calvin K., Armstrong, John H., Jesse, Alfred J. and Joel. Another well known family of early date in Calvin, and also strict Quakers in faith, were the Osborns. Charles Osborn, the progenitor of ihe family and himself at one time a resident of Cass county, was a famous Quaker preacher and abolitionist, having traveled in the interests of his church pretty much over the civilized world. His later years were devoted almost entirely to anti-slavery agitation, and his position on this question was among the extreme radicals. William Lloyd Garrison called him "the father of all us abolitionists." His work gave him an international reputation among the advocates of emancipation. The first paper ever published which advocated the doctrine of immediate and unconditional emancipation was issued by Mr. Osborn at Mount Pleasant, Ohio, in I816, entitled the Philanthropist. In order to attain to complete consistency with his views, he held that none of the products of slave labor should be used. He himself refused to wear any garments made of cotton, nor would he eat cane sugar, on the ground that slave labor was used in its manufacture. Singularly appropriate it is that the history of this opponent of slavery should be connected with the township which sheltered one of the first colonies of freedmen. Josiah Osborn, a son of the abolitionist, settled on Section 24 of Calvin township in I835. His connection with the township is notable because he planted one of the first fruit orchards and nurseries in the county, clearing away the virgin forest to make place for his fruit trees. He also was one of those concerned in the Kentucky raid of 1848, and suffered such severe losses thereby that he is said to have been obliged to work ten years to pay off all the obligations incurred.

Page  113 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 113 The history of the colored settlement in Calvin, which has played such an important part in the annals of the township, will be considered on later pages. HOWARD. Turning now to some of the townships which were settled and organized after the pioneer period, a few facts and names may be recalled that will complete this outline of early growth and development in the county. Howard township, although in the direct line of settlement, was passed by at first because of the prejudice against its numerous oak openings, or barrens, whose fertility and value had not yet been tested. But it was not long before the productiveness of its soils was established, and by the late thirties its population was up to the average of the newer townships. Long before the substantial settlement of this portion of the county had begun, there lived on Section I8, close to the western line of the county, one of the famous pioneer characters of the St. Joseph country. William Kirk, whom we have mentioned as an associate of Squire Thompson, and whose first home was in Berrien county, while hunting one day discovered a fine spring in Section I8 and at once moved his family and built his log cabin beside the bubbling water, although he thus became situated far from neighbors. In his entertainment of immigrants and land lookers he united pioneer hospitality with his inherent southern lavishness, and thus dissipated the greater part of his possessions. He was fond of the solitudes, not because of any ascetic nature, but because hunting and fishing and the life of the wild woods attracted him more than the occupations and society of an advanced civilization. It is not surprising, therefore, after the advent of the railroad and the progress of settlement had practically destroyed his hunting grounds, to find him bidding farewell to Cass county scenes and moving to the far west. He died in Oregon, in I88I, at the age of eighty-nine years. We have mentioned how necessary to development was the sawmill. It is stated that the first water-power sawmill in Howard township was built about T834 by Joseph Harter, who had located in the township in T830. In I836 a carpenter and joiner arrived in the township in the person of William H. Doane, and he became well known in township affairs. He brought a stove into the township in 18,37, and it was the attraction of the neighborhood for some time, being known as "Doane's Nigger."

Page  114 114 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY A man of mark in the township was Ezekiel C. Smith, who located here in I835. Almost at once he was elected justice of the peace, and during thirty-six years in that office he is said to have married four hundred couples. He also served as supervisor, and was sent to the state legislature in 1850. Another figure in the affairs of early Howard township was James Shaw, who located here in I840, and served several times as supervisor, two terms in the legislature, and afterward was Democratic candidate for the senate. Other names that belong among the first settlers are found in the election polling list of 1837, which comprises: Ira Perkins, John \V. Abbott, Jonathan Wells, 0. D. S. Gallup, Zenos Smith, Henry Heath, J. V. R. Perkins, Amasa Smith, Ephraim Huntley, Joseph C. Teats, Ebner Emmons, Arthur C. Blue, Charles Stephenson, Zina Rhodes, Nathan Dumboltom, Eli Rice, Jr., Daniel Partridge, Gurdon B. Fitch, Sylvenon Dumboltom, Calvin Kinney, Nathan McCoy, Henry L. Gould, Jonathan E. Wells. MILTON. Milton township, which till 1838 was the west half of Ontwa, had similarly attractive features with its neighbor and developed from the pioneer stage about the same time. This township also contains a portion of the famous Beardsley's prairie, where the pioneers were enabled to reap plenteous crops by the first year's effort and which consequently first attracted the attention of the settlers. The first names are those of John Hudson and J. Melville, neither of whom remained long. Cannon Smith and family, who made Edwardsburg their home from the fall of 1828 till the spring of 1831, settled on section 14. Mr. Smith's house was a model pioneer dwelling such as the typical one described in the first part of this chapter. He did all the work himself, his only tools being an ax, draw-shave, hammer and auger. After the trees had been felled and split, and hewn out into siding as nearly as possible, the draw-shave was used for the finishing. The studding and braces were split out like fence rails, and then laboriously smoothed on one side to an even surface. The frame was fastened together with wooden pins, and the roof consisted of "shakes" held down with poles. Mr. Smith was a good Methodist, and this humble house often sheltered his neighbors while listening to the words of the circuit rider of those days. Peter Truitt was the merchant and business man of early Milton. In

Page  115 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 115 his double log cabin, luilt in 1831. be opened the first stock of goods in the township, and as his merchandlise dlid not monopolize all the space in his house nor its (lisposal require all his time and attention, he also transformed his place into the "White Oak Tree Tavern," at which for many years he welcomed the tarrying traveler through this region. SILVER CREEK. Silver Creek, famed as the last retreat of the Pottawottomies who remained behind after the great exodus, had only about one hundred white inhabitants in I837. If there is any connection between the voting population and those who build the first homes, first plow the soil and fell the virgin forest, the burden of pioneer development in Silver Creek must largely have fallen on those who participated in the first election in the fall of I838, whose names are recorded as follows: E. Shaw. W. r. Barney, Joseph Spencer, John McDaniel, Henry Dewey, John Barney, John Woolman, A. Barney, Samuel Stockwell, Jacob Suits, P. B. Dunning, William Brooks, James Allen, Timothy Treat, James Hall. The first entry of land in this town was made in section 12. by James McDaniel, December I6, I834.. When he located there in the following spring he erected the first house and plowed the first furrow. the initial events of development. He also began the construction of the sawmill which subsequently was purchased and completed by John Barney, wnho arrived in I836, and whose connection with the early manufacturing interests gives him a place in another chapter of this work. Jacob A. Suits came in September, 1836, and built the fifth house in the township. The next year there came Timothy Treat and family; James Allen, Joseph and William Van Horn, Benj. B. Dunning, Eli V. Veach, Patrick Hamilton, Harwood Sellick, James McOmber, Jabes Cady, Israel Sallee, George McCreary, James Hall, William Brooks, and others. In the same year the township was cut off from Pokagon and organized. MASON. Once more directing our attention to the south side of the county. we will mention briefly some of those concerned in the development of the small township of Mason. The attractiveness of Breadsley's prairie caused the first tide of immigration to, pass over Mason's fertile soil, and, as we know, it was not until 1836 that a sufficient population had come to justify organization into a separate township.

Page  116 116 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY The first settler was Elam Beardsley, who moved on his claim in section 12 in the early months of I830. He erected the first cabin and set out the first apple trees. He was a member of the noted pioneer family of that name, and another was Darius Beardsley, who put up his cabin in 1832. The fate of Darius Beardsley illustrates another sad feature of life in) a frontier country. One day in the winter of 1833 he started on foot for Edwardsburg, the nearest trading point, where he bought his household supplies. The snow was two feet deep and the entire distance was a trackless waste of white. He was detained in the village until well towards evening, and then set out alone in the gathering twilight toward his home. It was intensely cold, and as darkness came on he was unable to make out the road he had traveled in the morning. He was soon wandering about in the shelterless forest, and at last exhausted by the cold and the fatigue of struggling through the snow, he sat down under a tree to rest. Here, within half a mile of home and family, his neighbors found him frozen to death and carried him home to his grief-stricken wife, who, unable to leave her small children, had been compelled to await the results of the search which after several days gave her the lifeless body of her husband. Such was a not uncommon tragedy enacted in many a frontier community. One of the well known personages during the early years of Mason was S. C. Gardner, who, in I835, found a home in Section 13. Not long after, his house being located on the "territorial road," an important artery of early immigration, he became a landlord and his house was filled almost nightly with the tired travelers who in those days asked nothing better than the simplest victuals to eat and a roof to shelter them while they pillowed their heads on the hard floor. Others who were identified with the early development of this township Were Jotham Curtis, at whose house the first township election was held; the Miller family, numbering all told twenty persons, who formed what was known as the Miller settlement; Henry Thompson; J. Hubbard Thomas; Elijah and Daniel Bishop, who came about I838. NEWBERG. The first land selected for settlement from the now well peopled Newberg township was in Section 34, where John Bair chose his home in October, 1832. Here he made the first improvements effected in the township, built a cabin in which he dispensed hospitality to all who came, whether they were ministers of the gospel, land viewers, hunters

Page  117 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 117 and trappers, white men or Indians; and he himself divided his time between the cultivation of a pioneer farm and the avocation of hunting and fishing, which he loved with a frontiersman's devotion. He soon had a neighbor in the person of Daniel Driskel, who located on Section 36 in the fall of I834. In 1835 land was entered by George Poe, Marvick Rudd, Thomas Armstrong, Samuel Hutchings, Felix Girton, John Grennell, William D. Jones. These and such men as Barker F. Rudd, William D. Easton, Alexander Allen, Spencer Nicholson, Samuel Eberhard, Hiram Harwood, formed the nucleus around which larger settlements grew up, resulting in the separate organization of the township in 1838. MARCELLUS. And finally the course of development also included the extreme northeast corner of the county, where the dense forests and heavy timber, the marshes and malaria, had seemed uninviting to the early settlers. But by the middle thirties the tide of settlement was at the flood, and there was no considerable area of the county that was not overflowed by eager homeseekers. All the prairie lands had been occupied, and now the forests must also yield before the ax and be replaced with the waving corn. Joseph Haight, from Orleans county, New York, was the first settler, arriving in the summer of I836. In the following year he was joined by Frederick Goff and Joseph Bair. Goff was a carpenter, and as it was possible by this time to get lumber at convenient distance, he built for himself, instead of the ordinary log cabin, a small frame house, which was the first in the township. Among other early settlers of Marcellus were G. R. Beebe, who came in I838, Moses P. Blanchard, Daniel G. Rouse, who has already been mentioned as taking a leading part in township organization. These and others are named among those who voted at the first township meeting in 1843 and in the general election of the same year, that list being as follows: John Huyck, Daniel G. Rouse, Abijah Huyck, William Wolfe, Joseph Bair, Cyrus Goff, Nathan Udell, Andrew Scott, G. R. Beebe, Joseph Haight, Moses Blanchard, Philo McOmber, John Savage, E. Hyatt, Alfred Paine, Joseph P. Gilson, Lewis Thomas, Samuel Cory. In describing the period while civilization was getting a foothold in this county, while the wilderness was being deposed from its long reign and men's habitations and social institutions were springing up on

Page  118 118 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY nearly every section of land, a complete sketch would include the opening of roads, the building of sclhools, the establishment of postal facilities, and the many other matters that necessarily belong to an advancing community. But with the limits of this chapter already exceeded, several of these subjects wxill be reserved for later treatment under separate titles. In the following chapter we will consiler that inevitable centralization of society that results in the formation of village centers.

Page  119 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 119 CHAPTER VIII. CENTERS OF1 POPULTL 'TION. The organization of the townships, which has h)een lpreviouslv (lescribed, was an artificial process, following the geometrical liles of government survey. But the grouping of population and the fo-rmation of village centers are the result of natural growth. In the following pages it is our purpose to continue the story of settlement and growt'h with special reference to the grouping of people into comniunities andl -villages. It is easv to indicate in a general way the beginning of suchl a commnunitv. \ fertile and arable region receives a large proportionl of the inlmigration. A-ssuming that they are pioneers, it will h!e.alniost a necessity that lnost of them] till the soil, even though comliningi that \ith another occupation. But if the settlement was on a much-traveledl thloroughfare, such as the Chicago road on the south side of the countlt. one or perhaps more of the pioneer houses would he opleled f(or the elntertainment of the transient nliblic. On the )banks of a streamn some olne constructs a saw or grist nuil!. At some convenient and central point a settler i ith the commercial instincts opens a stock of goods such as will supply the needs of tile other settlers an(l of the iminiglants. A postoffice conmes 1next, the postnmaster very likely being either tile merchant or thle tavern-keeper. A\ phllysicill, looking for a location, is pleased with the conditions and occupies a calhin near the store or inn. A carpenter or other mechanic is more accessible to his patronage if he lives near the postoffice or other common gathering point. If the schoolhouse of the district has not alreadv been built, it is prolbable that it will tbe placed at the increasingly central site, and the first church is a natural addition. Already this nucleus of settlement is a village in embryo, and in the natural course of development a variety of enterprises will center there, the mechanical, the manufacturing, the connmmercial and professional departments of human lalor will be grouped together for the purpose of efficiency and convenience. By such accretions of population, by diversification of industry, by natural advantages of location and the improvement of means of transportation, this. community in

Page  120 120 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY time becomes organized as a village and with continued prosperity, as a city. Sometimes the development is arrested at a particular stage. The village remains a village, the ham.let ceases to grow, and we have a center of population without special business, industrial or civic development. Then there are instances in this county of retrogression. A locality that could once be dignified with the name of village has dis integrated under stress of rivalry from other centers or other causes, and is now little more than a place and a name. Specific illustrations of all these processes are to be found in the history of the centers in Cass county. But in general it may be stated that during the early years, when communication was primitive and isolation quite complete even between localities separated by a few miles, the tendency was toward centralization in numerous small hamlets and villages. But in keeping with the economic development for which the past century was noted and especially because of the improvement of all forms of transportation, the barriers against easy communication with all parts of the county were thrown down and the best situated centers grew and flourished at the expense of the smaller centers, which gradually dwindled into comparative insignificance. Nothing has done more to accelerate movement than the establishment of rural free delivery. The postoffice was the central point of community life and remoteness from its privileges was a severe drawback. Rural delivery has made every house a postoffice, puts each home in daily contact with the world, and while it is destroying provincialism and isolation, it is effecting a wholesome distribution of population rather than crowding into small villages. And the very recent introduction into Michigan of the system of public transportation of school children to and from school will remove another powerful incentive to village life. When weak districts may be consolidated and a large, well graded and modern union school be provided convenient and accessible to every child in the enlarged school area, families will no longer find it necessary "to move to town in order to educate their children." These are the principal considerations that should be understood before we enter on the description of the.various centers which Cass county has produced in more than three quarters of a century of growth. EDWARDSBURG. Nowhere can the processes above described be better illustrated than along the meandering Chicago road that passes across the lowest tier

Page  121 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 121 of townships on the south. In the chapter on early settlement the beginning of community life on Beardsley's Prairie has already been sketched. It will be remembered that Ezra Beardsley, in order to accommodate the increasing host of immigrants, converted his home into a tavern, the nearby Meacham cabin being used as an annex. On the south side of the lake Thomas H. Edwards in I828 began selling goods to the settlers, and thus early the community of Beardsley's Prairie had a center. With the Chicago road as the main axis of village life, a plat of a village site, named "Edwardsburgh," was filed on record, August I2, 183I, by Alexander H. Edwards, who appeared before Justice of the Peace Ezra Beardsley and "acknowledged the within plat to be his free act and deed." The original site of the village comprised 44 lots, but Abiel Silver on June 2, 1834, laid out an addition of 86 lots and on March 25, I836, a second addition. Jacob and Abiel Silver figure prominently in the early life of the village. They purchased in I83I the store of Thomas H. Edwards. Other early merchants were Henry Vanderhoof and successors Clifford Shaahan and Jesse Smith; the late H. H. Coolidge, who came here in 1835 to! take charge of a stock of goods opened here by a Niles merchant, and who later was engaged in business in partnership with P. P. Willard. In 1839 A. C. Marsh established a foundry for the manufacture of plow castings and other iron work, and this was one of the industries which gave Edwardsburg importance as a business center. During the thirties and early forties Edwardsburg bid fair to become the business metropolis of Cass county. It is easy to understand why its citizens had inplicit faith in such a future. The Detroit-Chicago road, on which it was situated, was at the time the most traveled route between the east and the west. The hosts who were participating in the westward expansion movement of the period, traveling up the popular Erie Canal and thence to the west by way of Lake Erie and the Chicago road, all passed through Edwardsburg. The mail coaches, which primitively represented the mail trains of to-day, carried the mail bags through the village and lent the cluster of houses the prestige that comes from being a station on the transcontinental mail. Furthermore, the agitation for canals.which then disputed honors with railroads seemed to indicate Edwardsburg as a probable station on the canal from St. Joseph river to the lake. All conditions seemed favorable for the growth of a city on the

Page  122 122 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY south side of the county. But at the middle of the century the mighty rearranger of civilization, the railroad, pushed its way through Michigan and northern Indiana. The villages touched by the railroad in its course flourished as though by magic. Those left to one side languished as if the stream of life, diverted, ceased to nourish their activities. The Chicago road was no longer the artery of commerce it ilad been. The stage coaches ceased their daily visits. A few miles to the south the Michigan Southern, having left the route of original survey at White Pigeon, coursed through the villages. and cities of northern Indiana, giving new life to Bristol, Elkhart and South Bend, and depriving Edwardsburg of its equal chance in the struggle of existence. To the west Niles became a station on the Michigan Central and prospered accordingly, while Edwardsburg, thus placed between the two great routes, suffered the barrenness of almost utter isolation. It is said that just before the period of decline began EdwIardsburg had a population of three hundred, with churches, school and business houses. The permanent institutions of course remained although with little vitality, but the business decreased until but one store remained in i85I. For twenty years Edwardsburg had practically no business activity, and was little more than a community center which was maintained by custom and because of the existence of its institutions of church, education and society. The same power that took away gave back again. The Grand Trunk Railroad was completed through Edwardsburg in I87I, and with the establishment of communication with the world and with facilities at hand for transportation there followed a revival of village life. Ten years later the population had increased fromn 297 to 500. There were about twenty stores and shops and a list of professional and business men. Since then Edwardsburg has held her own. There is good reason in the assertion that the village is the best grain market that the farmers of the south half of the county can find. The large grain elevator alongside the tracks is of the most modern type, replacing the one burnt down a few years ago, and a steam grist mill is a very popular institution among the farmers of this section. Edwardsburg has never organized as a village, and hence is still, from a civic point of view, a part of the township of Ontwa. The village improvements have been made in only a small degree. The bucket brigade still protects from fire, and the con

Page  123 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 123 veniences and utilities which are only possible in an organized community are still absent. A review of the present status of the village would include mention of the \alter Brothers' store, the principal commercial enterprise of the village; half a dozen other stores and shops 1and two physicians. The Methodist, Presbyterian and Baptist churches all have buildings, and the Methodists have a strong organization. It is a center of fraternal activity, the following orders being represented here: MIasons, Odd Fellows, Knights of the Maccabees, Modern Woodmen of America, the Royal Neighbors, the Ancient Order of Gleaners, a farmers' organization, and the Patricians. It is always of interest to record the names of those who have been identified with a locality in the past or who are still living there but at the close of active service. One of the first old-timers to be mentioned is Eli Benjamin, who is eighty-two years old and one of the oldest residents of Edwardsbur-g. Edward Hirons, from whom many of these notes were obtained, was born in Milton township seventy years ago and has been in Edwardsburg thirty-seven years. John C. Carmichael and Cassius M. Dennis are other old-timers. Dr. Griffin, who died recently, was a physician practicing here for many years, and another doctor, John B. Sweetlandl, died only a few years ago. The Griffinl HIouse, on the north side of Main street, west of the alley, in which the postoffice was for so many years and at different times locatel, is said to be the oldest building in the village. \Vhen E(ldwardslurg was a flourishing station on the stage lines it supported two hotels, one situated on the south side of Main street on the site of R. J. Hicks' store, the other on the north side of Main street on the site of Dr. Criswell's residence. The vacant lot at the north end of Walter Brothers' store was the site of a hotel erected by John Earl, its first landlord, in 1856. Immediately preceding the building of the Grand Trunk the village was in communication with the world by a daily stage between Elkhart and Dowagiac. Edwardsburg has been the home of many prominent men in the county's life. Dr. Israel G. Bugbee is well entitled to a place among the leaders in county affairs. Judge A. J. Smith was an early resident of this place and taught school here, and Judge H. H. Coolidge, also teacher and lawyer, and his son, the present Judge Coolidge of Niles, was a boy among Edwardsburg boys before he ever dreamed of judicial honors. George F. Silver, who has lived here seventy years, is a son of

Page  124 124 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Orrin Silver, a pioneer. Other names that readily occur are those of Dr. Henry Lockwood, Dr. Edgar Reading, Dr. Levi Aldrich, Dr. Daniel Thomas, J. L. Jacks, J. W. Lee, W. K. Hopkins, who served as supervisor several times, "Squire" Dethic Hewitt, and his two sons, Daniel A. and John P., blacksmiths, H. B. Mead, J. W. Bean, J. H. Williams, J. D. Bean, postmaster, Jacob R. Reese, one of the biggest merchants of the village. William and Isaiah Walter have been longest in the mercantile business among the present merchants. ADAMSVILLE. Traveling east along the Chicago road, about five miles east of Edwardsburg one crosses the Christiann creek at the site of a once ambitious village. A cluster of houses on either side of the road, most of them weatherbeaten and old, are almost the sole indication of village life. However, there are two grocery stores, and the last census gave the number of inhabitants on the village site as 207. Adamsville, or Adamsport, originated in the water power of Christiann creek. A mill very often is the nucleus for population to concentrate. "The Sages made the town," was the statement of one who knew the past history of the place. The Sage family, of which Moses Sage was the first and principal member, with his sons, Martin G. and Norman, has for three-quarters of a century been prominent in manufacturing, financial and business affairs of this part of the country, their interests being now centered in Elkhart, where Norman and other members of the family reside. The water power at Adamsville is now owned by Mr. H. E. Bucklen, formerly of Flkhart, now of Chicago, who bought it from the Sage estate and who owns all the water power on the Christiann from Elkhart up. The grist mill is the only manufacturing concern now at Adamsville, though formerly there were a stave factory and a sawmill. The first plat of Adamsport was filed for record March 21, 1833. "Appeared before Ezra Beardsley, justice of the peace, Sterling Adams, who acknowledged that he had laid out the within town of Adams Port and also acknowledged that the lots and streets are laid out as described." The platted ground was on the east side of the creek and was bisected by the Chicago road, the other streets being laid out at right angles to this main thoroughfare. On May 5, I835, the plat was received for record of the village of Christiann, laid out by Moses Sage on the opposite side of the creek. Within a year plats of "Stevens' addition"

Page  125 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 125 and "Johnson's addition" were filed. It was evidently the purpose and the hope of the founders to make Adamsville, with manufacturing as a basis, the foremost center of south Cass county, rivaling Edwardsburg. Moses Sage built the first grist mill in 1835, and with the mill running night and day for several years, it is not surprising that a considerable community soon grew up at this point. But as soon as the railroads were built and established new relations between centers, Adamsville began to decline, although its manufacturing enterprise has always been valuable. A postoffice was established here in an early day and continued until rural free delivery made it no longer necessary. There is a United Brethren church in the village. In describing the centers of population in this chapter we make especial mention of the groups of population which take the forms of hamlets or villages. It is necessary to say that the institutions of education and religion are centralizing influences of great power, and a church or a schoolhouse is often the heart of the social community. But the consideration of churches and schools must be left to a later chapter, where it is our purpose to give an adequate account of these institutions in their relation to the county. KESSINGTON (SAILOR). Mason township has many churches and its proportionate share of schools, but of other centers it is practically destitute. In the register's office will be found a plat, recorded July 23, 1872, by Moses McKissick, of a village site in the northeast quarter of Section 14. To this he gave the name Kessington or Sailor. The plat comprised nineteen lots. Although one might drive over this site and notice nothing more remarkable at this country crossroads than a church and a school, at one time Mr. McKessick kept a general store and there was also a blacksmith shop. UNION. One other center along the old Chicago road remains to be described. On the west side of south Porter township is beautiful Baldwin's prairie, one of the most delightful landscapes in Cass county and its citizenship among the most prosperous. Baldwin's prairie, ages before the earliest fact of history recorded in this book, was the bed of some large lake, similar to many in this county. The processes of nature finally drained the waters off into the St. Joseph river; the swamp in time gave place to prairie, and as the Indians and the first settlers knew the

Page  126 HISTORY OF CA:SS COUNTY locality tile grass and wild flowers spread their carpet over its level area. A plain so. beautiful, with fertility so deep and so prodigal of products, did not escape the eye of the practical pioneer, and settlement and development were naturally followed by a concentration of population. Sections 7 and 8 of south Porter were among the first entered in this portion of the county, and such well known pioneers as Elam Beardsley, James Hitclcox, Otlni Beardsley, John Baldwin, Chester Sage, Jacob Charles, Nathan and William Tibbits had taken up land on this prairie, none later than I831. John Baldwin kept tavern in his home for the accommodation of the travelers along the Chicago road, and Othni Beardsley was another pioneer inn-keeper. In 183I Jacob Charles became the first postmaster for this vicinity, distributing the mail at his house. The Beardsley tavern, erected in 1833, was one of the regular stations on the stage line and hence an important point. This house was burned in 1836, and Jarius Hitclcox then opened up his house as a tavern and stage station. The Hitchcox house was on the north side of the road on the east side of Union village. The brick house now standing there, and the present residence of Mrs. Montgomery, was built over sixty years ago and was the tavern until the traffic of the road ceased with the beginning of the railroad era. This house is accordingly one of the most historic places in Cass county, having sheltered hundreds of emigrants during the pioneer period. When the stage station was located here extensive sheds in the rear accommodated the vehicles and horses of the stage company. Mr. S. M. Rinehart, whose pleasant home is just across the road, lived here while the stages were yet running and many a time heard with boyish eagerness the blast of the horn which announced the arrival of the stage. The postoffice and stage station were the beginning of the village of Union. Union has never been incorporated, and its commercial importance is quite overshadowed by Bristol and Elkhart, and yet it has continued from pioneer days as a focus for the interests of a large and prosperous surrounding country. Situated on the northwestern edge of Baldwin's prairie, with its houses at the foot of the hills which encircle the plain on the west and north and from which one overlooks the village and beyond to the blue haze of the range on the south side of the St. Joseph river, Union makes no claims to metropolitan features, yet is a supply center for a consid

Page  127 HISTORY OF1 CASS COUNTY 127 erable area. Two stores, a blacksmith and repair shop and implement lhouse comprise the business enterprise. The rural mail wagons bring the mail for the villagers, but, contrary to what we have seen happen in many! such centers, the postoffice is still maintained in the village. Tle p)ostmaster is \\William Eby, son of (abriel LEbv, who at the age of eightyseven is the oldest man in Union and by reason of fifty years' residence one of the oldest citizens. Nelson Cleveland, of this neighlborhoold is also about eighty-seven years old. Mr. S. M. Rinehart, whoo contributed mtuch of the information con-, cerning Union, was lb;rn near the James E,. Bonine place in Penn township, near Vandalia, seventy-five years ago and has lived on the east side of Union village since he was twelve years old, so that he is the longest resident. He is at this time president of the Cass County Pioneer Society. Union now has a population of about 50. Whether the future holds growth and development in store for this community, must be left to a later historian to record. But tlle citizens are sanguine over the prospects which the promised early completion of the South Bend-Kalamazoo electric road through the village unfolds. WILLIAMSVILLE. July 5, I849, Josiah Wlilliams, as proprietor, filed a plat of a village to be known as Williamsville, the site being in the southeast quarter of Section 7 in North Porter township. An addition was recorded to this plat September I4, I85o. \Mr. W\illiams was also proprietor of the first store. The "\Williamsville neighborhood" has been a distinctive name for many years, and as the centertof this locality Williamsville is worthy of a lhrief history. Its pnl)ulation has never reached much beyond the hundred mark. Twenty-five years ago it had two stores, two blacksmith shops, a grist mill and a sawmill, and one physician. At the present time its general activity consists of the following: A telephone exchange of an independent company. It may be remarked that there are more telephones in use on the south side of the county than on the north side. Here in 1854 the late William R. Merritt engaged in the mercantile business and for twenty years kept one of the best stocked country stores to be found anywhere, equaling, if not excelling, many general stocks kept by village merchants. His store was the trading place for miles around and many of his customers were found among those who bought on their promise to pay, not having any visible property to make

Page  128 128 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the promise good. Few indeed were the people who could not obtain credit with him. After removing to Bristol, Indiana, the business was continued for a number of years by his son, J. Fred Merritt. It was in this little hamlet that Dr. Greenberry Cousins, on the I6th day of August, I870, came to his death at the hands. of Andrew J. Burns, who, after being tried twice on the charge of murder, the jury each time failing to agree upon a verdict, was discharged and given his liberty after being confined in the county jail for about one year awaiting these trials. BROWNSVILLE. Calvin township has had numerous centers, such as churches, schools, mills, at different times and different situations. The hamlet of Brownsville alone may be considered in this part of the history, since Calvin center will be mentioned in connection with the negro settlement. Christiann creek, flowing for a considerable part of its length across this township, early afforded the best mill sites in the south part of Cass county. A sawmill was built in section 19 about I832 and in the following year a distillery at that point began the manufacture of pure whiskey which was sold at twenty-five cents a gallon. But before this, in 183I, Pleasant Grubb had constructed a grist mill in section 9. This was one of the first flour mills in the county and its product was eagerly sought. David and William Brown, brothers who had come from Scotland, soon purchased this mill, and the little community which grew up around the mill honored them by giving the name Brownsville to the place. No plat was ever made, but enough village activity has prevailed to distinguish the locality from the general rural district. When the former history of the county was published, twenty-five years ago, its enterprise consisted in a flour mill, a general store, two blacksmith shops, a cooper and a shoe shop, a millinery store, pump factory, harness shop, two carpenters and two physicians. At the present time there are the grist mill, run by water power, a steam sawmill, a blacksmith shop, and the postoffice has been discontinued since rural free delivery was established. The population has remained at about one hundred. Levi Garwood, Williams Adamson and James Hybert (colored) are named as the oldest residents of this community. DAILEY, Jefferson township, midway between the county seat and Edwardsburg, although traversed by two railroads, has never developed any

Page  129 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 129 important center. Redfield's mills on Christiann creek on the eastern edge of the township at one time had a store and postoffice, a sawmill and grist mill, the latter run now for grinding buckwheat and feed only. It still has a general store. The only other place that can be dignified by distinct reference in this chapter is Dailey, in section 6. The citizens of this locality, among whom was Israel A. Shingledecker, who proposed the name of Itasca, desired a station when the Air Line railroad passed through that part of the township, and by donating three acres of land to the company secured a freight and passenger house. There being opposition to Itasca, the station was given the name of Dailey, in honor of A. H. Dailey, roadmaster of the railroad. A postoffice was established in I872, with M. T. Garvey as first postmaster, and two stores with a blacksmith shop soon supplemented the business activity of the place. In March, I88o, Levi M. Vail filed a plat of lots laid out on land just west of the depot site. A cornet band was at one time an institution of the place. The population at the last census was about a hundred. The progress of our narrative brings us now to the center of the county, but instead of describing the growth and present status of Cassopolis it seems best to reserve the county seat village for a separate chapter, as also will be done in the case of the city of Dowagiac. GENEVA. In the story of the county seat contest the founding of the now extinct village of Geneva has been described. Some additional facts are of interest in preserving to memory of future generations the site of what might have become the central city of the county. The plat of Geneva, which was recorded May I, I832, shows that the village was laid out on the north side of Diamond lake. The owners of the site, whose signatures are affixed to, the plat, were Colonel E. S. Sibley, H. L. and A. C. Stewart, H. H. Fowler and Abner Kelsey. With the proviso that Geneva be constituted the county seat, "the public square is given to the county on which to erect county offices," besides certain other lots. The traveled road going east from Cassopolis passes along the main street of Geneva about where it reaches the north bank of Diamond lake. Geneva never had the institutions of school and church, but the business enterprise was considerable until Cassopolis absorbed it all. A store was established in 1830. Nathan Baker about the same time established a blacksmith shop, and several years later a furnace

Page  130 130 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY for the manufacture of plow castings, this being the first industry of the kind in the county, and the "Baker plow" gaining a reputation far beyond the limits of the county. H. H. Fowler, the principal promoter of the village, did not relax his efforts for building up the village even after the county seat had become permanent, as is evident from the fact that in October, 1836, he recordled the plat of an addition to the original site. Nothing now remains of Geneva, and only those who delve into matters of the past would know, as they passed over the site, how much enthusiasm and effort were once expended toward making a village rise on the high shores of Diamond lake. The village site and vicinity are now known as "Shore Acres." PENN (JAMESTOWN). In the register's office is a plat of the village of Jamestown, which was recorded by Isaac P. James, Novembler 12, I869. This site was located on the east side of section i6 in Penn township. On November 25, 1884, Jesse Wright recorded an addition, taken from land that adjoined in section 15. Jamnestown is an unfamiliar name, and many persons would not recognize in it the name of the center of Penn township. The founder of the village bestowed upon it the name of Jamestown for himself, the same as he (lid on the village plat. The postoffice department refused to adopt that name for the proposed postoffice there, as there was at that time a Jamestown postoffice in Ottawa county, and established the office under the name of Penn, and gradually that name became the common designation for the hamlet. There were hopes in the minds of the founders that, with the completion of the line of the Grand Trunk railroad through the site, a considerable village might rise at this point. Parker James, a son of Isaac P. James, established a store, and later a sawmill was built and one or two other shops opened. It now has a resident physician, two churches, a school house with two departments. Its principal enterprises are a sawmill, two general stores and a blacksmith shop. One of the stores, in addition to the stock usually kept in country stores, keeps on hand agricultural implements, coal, lime, etc. Penn had, according to the last census, a population of two hundred. VANDALIA. A grist mill built on the banks of Christiann creek along the state road in section 27 of Penn township was the enterprise wihich served as the nucleus for the village of Vandalia. This mill was built in I849

Page  131 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 131 by Stephen Bogue and C. P. Ball, both valiant Quakers and notalle pioneers in Penn township. FebruaryI 21, 185, a plat of the village of Vandalia was filed hy these two men, the land which they chose for the proposed village being on the east side of Christiann creek, an(l coml)rising a portion of the southeast quarter of section 27. The original site has been expandedl 1y eight additions, and the incorporated limits of the village now extend across the creek on the gwest side and the larger part of the plat lies in section 26. In the days of beginnings Abrahan Sigerfoos was the village blacksmith, Asa Kingsbury of Cassopolis the first merchant, he having established a branch store there with the late Judge A. J. Smith as manager, and T. J. Wilcox the first postmaster. The principal impetus to growth was, of course, the Air Line railroad, which placed the village in connection with the outside world in I871. This was followed by incorporation in 1875, and Vandalia is now one of the three incorporated villages in Cass county. HOWARDVILLE. Few names are more completely lost to memory than the above. The proximity of Howard township to Niles, not to mention other causes, has never fostered the growth of villages in the township. But in the pioneer years, when immigration was setting in at full tide, George Fosdick, an enterprising settler, endeavored to found a village, to which he gave the name Howardville. The plat was recorded October 8, I835, the site being in section 21, on "the north bank of Lake Alone," the plat being two blocks wide and running north from the lake shore four blocks. To the present generation it is necessary to explain that Lake Alone is the familiar Barren lake. Its remoteness from any other body of water, and the absence of surface outlets, gave this lake its first name. Fosdick's village did not prosper, and in a short time the plow furrows passed without distinction over the platted as the unplatted land, and Howardville was forgotten. In more recent years. since the Air Line railroad was built, a station was established, called Barren Lake station. The town hall is near by, also a school. This is as far as the township of Howard has gone in the formation of a central community. LA GRANGE VILLAGE. The road leading north and west from Cassopolis toward Dowagiac passes for the first few miles over some of the most rugged land

Page  132 132 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY scape in Cass county. This is the highest point of the watershed which interposes a barrier-like group of hills between the courses of the Dowagiac creek and Christiann creek. But on arriving at the crest of the last hill the broad valley of the Dowagiac creek seems, by reason of the contrast, as level as a chessboard and a scene of quiet and gentle beauty. One is not surprised that this fertile and reposeful plain was early sought as a habitation and place of activity by the pioneers. The beauty of the natural surroundings., the rich and productive soil, and the advantageous sites for mills and industries were recognized by the first settlers, anl were the chief prerequisites for the development of a flourishing city. And yet the present aspect of LaGrange brings up the picture of the "Deserted Village." The main street leading north to the millpond is lined with weatherbeaten houses which bear every indication of identity with the past. Some of these buildings have long been unoccupied, and, uncared for, have become prey to the wind and rain. "Arrested development" seems to characterize the entire place. The last store building, from which the stock of goods was removed several years ago, is almost the only reminder of commercial activity. Rural free delivery caused the disestablishment of the postoffice in February, I90I. The Methodist church is the only active religious organization. The two-story, brick district school, on the south edge of the village, shows that the decline of commercial prosperity has not affected the progress of education. The water power, on the opposite side of the village. which once turned grist mills and factories, now turns a turbine wheel of the plant that partly supplies Dowagiac with electric lights. This diversion of the only remaining permanent resource of LaGrange to the benefit and use of Dowagiac is the final fact of a series of similar events by which LaGrange has been reduced to its present status among the centers of the county. With all the natural advantages which gave promise of a thriving city, the course of events took other directions. First, LaGrange, though an active competitor for the honor, failed to gain the county seat. Its business enterprise was at the time superior to that of Cassopolis or Geneva, but its location was not central enough to secure the decision of the commissioners. The loss of the county seat might not have prevented LaGrange becoming what its promoters ardently desired. But with the building of the Michigan Central railroad four miles to the northwest, a powerful and resourceful rival came into action. With the railroad furnishing transportation as a basis for unlimited production and industry, Dowagiac rapidly became a center

Page  133 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 133 of business and manufacturing. LaGrange could not compete on equal terms, its manufactures dwindled and were moved to the rival town, and with the diverting of the water power to supply Dowagiac with electric lighting, the last chapter has been written in the decadence of a village that has played a large part in early Cass county history. LaGrange might now well be considered a suburb of the city of Dowagiac. Such is a general outline of the rise and fall of this village. The details may be briefly recorded. The millsite had first been developed by Job Davis, who built a sawmill there in I829. This nill was bought by Martin C. Whitman in I83I. In the following year he erected a grist mill at the same place, this being one of the first mills in the county for supplying the pioneers with flour. August 4, I834, Mr. Whitman, as "proprietor and owner," filed the first plat of the village of Whitmanville. The site was on the north side, about the center, of section 15. Erastus H. Spalding, who owned land adjoining, in the southwest quarter of section o0, platted an addition April I6, I836, to which he gave the name LaGrange. On July I, 1836, Mr. Whitman platted a part of his land on the southeast quarter of section lo as an addition to LaGrange, and in September following platted some land in section 15 as an addition to Whitmanville. It seems, therefore, that the site that lay in section io was originally designated as LaGrange, and that in section 15 as Whitmanville. The latter name was commonly used until the legislature, by an act approved February I2, 1838, formally changed the name Whitmanville to LaGrange. In the meantime E. H. Spalding had become proprietor of the grist mill, and the business activity of the place became considerable. There were four large stores in the place besides the mills. The large, shallow millpond, however, caused much malarial sickness, and this, with the loss of county seat prospects and the destruction of the grist mill by fire, caused a setback to the prosperity of the village. In I856 there was a revival. Abram Van Riper and sons Charles and Garry bought the millsite, constructed a flour mill and also a woolen mill. The latter was an institution of great importance to the community. It furnished labor to many persons, both women and men, and also children, and thus attracted a considerable population to settle in the vicinity. Besides the Van Ripers, the late Daniel Lyle of Dowagiac was interested in the woolen mill. In I878 a stock company, known as the LaGrange Knitting Mills Company, purchased the mill property

Page  134 134 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY an(l converted it into a knitting factory, principally for the manufacture of underwear. There were other manufactures. Hervey Bigelow had begun the manufacture of furniture here in 1836 and continued it until I85I, when Dowagiac offered him better opportunities and he moved to that village. William Van Riper established a basket factory in I868. There was a small foundry twenty-five years ago. All these industries have gone out of existence or been moved away. MECI ANICSBURG. Oni the north side of the public road that passes along the south side of section 30 in IaGrange township, about where the school house stands and near the Pokagon creek, was once platted a village called Mechanicsburg. The plat of this village was filed March 29, I837, by John Petticrew, the proprietor of the site. Several years later he built a tannery there, but aside from that and a blacksmith shop, the village had nothing to justify its platting. SUMNERVILLE AND POKAGON. These two little villages, a mile and a half apart, belong, the one to the pioneer period, the other to the railroad era. We have taken pains to show the various influences at work in the development of the county, how localities favored by nature have received the first impulse of settlement; and how roads, streams, railroads, acts of the legislature, and personal enterprise have all been pivotal factors in the history of communities. The history of Sumnervile and Pokagon is an excellent study in these shifting processes. Sumnerville is located at the junction of the Pokagon creek with Dowagiac creek. The heavy timber growth in this locality favored the improvement of the water power at this point, and in 1835 Isaac Sumner built a sawmill here, and two, years later a grist mill. These two industries were all-important at that time, and were a substantial basis for a village. Mr. Sumner and Junius H. Hatch accordingly platted a village here in August, 1836, giving it the name of Sumnerville. About the same time Alexander Davis became first merchant and Peabody Cook the proprietor of the first hotel. From this time forward the village increased slowly in population and business. Its population by the last census was about one hundred and fifty. In I880, according to a gazetteer of that year, it had a population of 184, and its industries were a flouring mill and a woolen mill.

Page  135 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 135 Pokagon, on the other hand, although located on the prairie where the first settlement was made in Cass county, and where the first postoffice was established, was, as respects its business importance, the product of the railroad which was constructed through in 1846. WXilliam Baldwin, the noted pioneer whiose death was chronicled in lAugust, I904, laid out this village June 15, I858. The original site, to quote the record, was "situated on the west side of the railroad, in the southwest quarter of section 28.." Three additions have since been made, expanding the village into section 33 and to both sides of the railroad. A grist mill had been built in I856, and several stores and shops soon gave the business activity to the place which it has retained ever since. The population has been at about two hundred for thirty years. SIIAKESPEARE. Of all the forgotten village sites in Cass county that of Shakespeare has had most reason to be remembered. ~ Situated "at the Long rapids of the Dowvagiac river," as the record reads, Shakespeare was platted June 17, 1836, by Jonathan Brown and Elias B. Sherman, the latter the well known pioneer of Cass county, the former somewhat of an adventurer, to judge from this transaction. The site of the village was on the Dowagiac, incluling land in sections 8, 9 an(l 17 of Pokagon township. Sherman owned forty acres at this point and Brown a similar tract. They decided to plat and promote a village. The water power could be utilized to develop splendid industries, and the eyes of the promoters could see nothing blut roseate prospects for a city at this location. A lithographed prospectus of the proposed village was got out illustrating in most attractive style all these and other advantages, and was circulated in distant cities. The prospectus and personal representations of Mr. Brown sold a number of village lots. Mr. Sherman withdrew from the partnership as soon as he saw that the representations were overdrawn, and the principal promoter soon left the country without ever having done anything to develop the enterprise. Dtring the next few years-more than one sanguine investor in Shakespeare lots, after toiling through the woods and brush to the wilderness that covered the "city," was brought to realize the folly of speculation in unknown quantities. But now, outside of the office of register of deeds, where "Shakespeare" still presents tangles in the records, few know that such a village ever existed.

Page  136 136 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY NEWBERG. Another village that was platted without substantial reason for an existence and which belongs in history because of the plat on file at the register's office, was Newberg. Spencer Nicholson, an early settler of Newberg township, was the proprietor, and the village plat was filed May 15, 1837. The site was on the south shore of Lilly lake, its exact location being the north end of the east half of the northwest quarter of section 32. JONES AND COREY. Born of the Air Line railroad were the two villages above named. Jones, the main street of which is the section line between sections 34 and 35 of Newberg township, at the present time has four general stores, one grocery, shoe store, two hardware stores, one saloon, harness and blacksmith shop, and a population approximating three hundred. The plat of the village was recorded October 19, 1897, by Alonzo P. Beeman, but the first business structure at this point of the newly built Air Line railroad was a store put up in IS7I by H. Micksel. The postoffice for this immediate vicinity had been established at the house of Mr. E. H. Jones, on section 34, in I87o. The first postoffice in the township was located at Lilly lake as early as 1838, and an office at different points in the townvship had existed and been kept in farmers' houses from that time, with different postmasters, until the founding of the village of Jones. Other early business men were David Fairfield, hotelkeeper and merchant; H. B. Doust, and A. L. Dunn. Mr. Frank Dunn, present supervisor from Newberg, has been in business at Jones since I879. Ed H. Jones, founder of the village of Jones, is still living, and other old-timers of this vicinity are William Young, perhaps the oldest man in the town; William Harwood, Myron F. Burney, Alonzo P. Beeman, ex-supervisor and ex-county treasurer, and Nelson Hutchins. Corey, which is situated on the county line, in section 36 of Newberg township, was surveyed into a village site in April, 1872. Hazen WV. Brown and C. R. Crawford were the first merchants. Its population is still less than a hundred, and its business interests necessarily small. WAKELEE. In the south part of the county the building of the Grand Trunk railroad revived the decadent village of Edwardsburg and partly re

Page  137 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 137 stored the commercial prestige which it had known in the days when the Chicago road was the great trunk line of communication. In-the northeast corner of the county the same railroad caused the founding of two villages. Wakelee. which is situated, like Dowagiac, on the corner of four townships, Marcellus, Volinia, Newberg and Penn, and being unincorporated, divides its civic functions with the four townships, was named in honor of C. Wakelee, the first treasurer of the Peninsular or Grand Trunk railroad. The first plat of the village, which was recorded December 12, 187I, was made by Levi Garwood, on land in section 36 of Volinia township. April Io, I873, George W. Jones and Orson Rudd platted an addition which extended the site into the other townships. A steam sawmill at this point converted much of the lumber woods of this part of the county into merchantable lumber and the station became noted as a lumber-shipping point. MARCELLUS. While the Grand Trunk railroad no doubt had most to do with the founding of the village of Marcellus, now one of the three incorporated villages of the county, one or two other influences working to that end should be noticed. Marcellus township, as will be remembered, was the last to be set off and last to be settled. Its inhabitants were long without communication, and did not have a postoffice until 1857, when Harrison Dykeman began carrying the mail, at irregular intervals, from Lawton, on the main line of the Michigan railroad in Van Buren county, to his home on section 14. On the establishment of a regular mail route in I86o, the postoffice was located in a residence on section I6, and was transferred from place to place until Thomas Burnev built and opened the first store on the site of Marcellus village, the mail then being distributed in his store. The first permanent postoffice of the township was, therefore, one of the institutions that served as a basis for the village of Marcellus. To the private enterprise of George W. Jones is due in large measure the honor of founding the village. In I868i, knowing that the railroad would be completed through this point in a short time, and confident of the prospects presented for village growth at this place, he bought over two hundred acres andl prepared to lay out a village. The site in sections T5 and 22 was surveyed and the plat recorded by Mr. Jones April 23, 1870, he adopting the plan of Cassopolis as to blocks and

Page  138 138 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ranges, getting the idea, no doubt, from his father-in-law, E. B. Sherman, one of the founders of that village. Since that date the area of the village has been increased by six additions. The original name of the village was Marcellus Center. Regular trains began running about the same time with the platting of the village, and the business beginnings of the village were most auspicious. Some of the first merchants were Thomas Burney, already mentioned, John Manning, Daniel Morrison, Herman Chapman and Lewis Arnold. Within less than ten years from the founding of the village it was incorporated in 1879, and the citizens who first took control of the village affairs were the following: David Snyder, president; Leander Bridge, Kenyon Bly, WV. O. Matthews, Byron Beebe, Alexander Beebe, trustees; L. B. Des Voignes, clerk, now judge of the circuit court; Dr. E. C. Davis, treasurer; and WV. R. Snyder, assesor. The list of subsequent officials will be found in the proper place on other pages. CENTERS IN VOLINIA TOWNSHIP. Volinia township has been as prolific of inland village sites as any other township. Charleston, an insignificant little place on the cross roads between sections 3 and io, was laid out and the plat recorded June 25, 1836, the proprietors whose names are signed to the plat being Jacob Moreland, Jacob Charles, Elijah Goble, Alexander Fulton and David Fulton, all pioneers of the township. The principal encouragement to the founding of this village was the stage road from Niles to Kalamazoo that passed through this place, and Elijah Goble kept a tavern for the accommodation of passing travelers. After the building of the Michigan Central in the forties the business enterprise of the village soon failed. Charleston is now the name of a community rather than of such organization as the word village implies. Perhaps time will entirely obliterate the name, except as a historical record. Only two miles from Charleston, and also in the year 1836, Levi Lawrence, David Hopkins, Obed Bunker and John Shaw platted the village of Volinia on sections II and I2. The plat was recorded September 20, 1836. Such is the record as it appears in the register's office. But this locality has had a variety of names. The name of the postoffice as it appeared in the Postal Guide is Little Prairie Ronde, and under that title it was described in a gazetteer of I88o. Jonathan Nichols conducted the first hotel in this place, and from him the name Nich

Page  139 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 1.'39 olsville was given to the village. But the only plat recorded of a village at this site was the above, and under the name given. GLENWOOD. Gleinwood, in section io of \Vavne township, was platted and recorded in December, I874, by Craigie Sharp, Jr., Thaddeus Hampton and Edwin Barnum. Glenwood's importance originated as a shipping point, and that is its sole claim to prestige at the present time. The Hampton stock farm and the barrel-hoop industry are the principal industries of the place. Several years after the building of the Michigan Central the railroad company constructed a sidetrack which was long knownr as Tietsort's Sidetrack. A steam sawmill was built there in I855, and to the postoffice that was soon after established in the hamlet was given the name Model City postoffice. Thus it remained until a village plat was made and the name changed to Glenwood. CUSHING CORNERS. The Cushing family, among whom is Dexter Cushing (see sketch), cameq to Silver Creek township in the early fifties, and for many years have lived an(l been extensive land owners on the west side of the town, especially in sections ~19 and 20. At the intersection of the east and west road through the center of these sections with the north and south highwray there has grown up a focus of a community known as Cushing Corners. There is a store, kept by William Cushing, son of Dexter Cushing. The school house is located at that point. A postoffice was estallished there, but beyond these elemental institutions there is little to justify the place with the name of village. SU MMER. RESORTS. The many beautiful lakes of Cass county are each year attracting an increasing number of summer visitors. Cottages are built around the shore, a hotel is perhaps the central structure, the social community peculiar to the summer resort is formed, and we have one form of centralization, the mnore permanent and substantial examples of which have already been described. The summer resort is a development of the modern age, as characteristic of it as the log house was of the pioneer epoch. It marks the reaction from the extreme concentration of society which has produced the crowded cities; it is made possible by better facilities of transportation. Thus the same influence which in earlier

Page  140 140 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY years tended to concentrate population, now, in its higher development, diffuses society and enables it to enjoy the benefits of organization without the close crowding made necessary in the cities. Several of the lake resorts in Cass county are well known to the inhabitants of the cities, Magician lake and Diamond lake, to mention no others, being familiar names to thousand of persons who have never been permanent residents of the county. Most of the resorts have been platted into regular village lots, and without noting any of the particular features of each place it will be proper in this historical volume to give the record of these plats as they are found in the register's books. The oldest and largest of these resorts is Diamond Lake Park, on the west side of Diamond lake, and half a mile from each railroad station in Cassopolis. The plat was filed May 8, I891, the signers being C. S. Jones, Henly Lamb, LeRoy Osborn, proprietors. Many cottages have been built on this plat, the northwest shore of the lake for the distance of about lialf a mile presenting the appearance in summer of a well populated village. A number of the cottages are owned by local people, but the resorters from the cities and distant points are increasing every year, and during the summer season the presence of a large number of strangers gives the county seat village an air of gayety and stir that is not found in the quieter months of the year. Forest Hall Park, situated along the shore of the lake a little to the east of Diamond Lake Park, but still in section 36 of LaGrange township, was platted in June, I898, by Barak L. Rudd, proprietor. The inception of this resort was due to H. E. Sargent, superintendent of the Michigan Central railroad; Nathan Corwith and J. P. Smith, business men of Chicago, who in I872 erected a large club house on the high north shore of the lake and laid out the grounds with a design of making a resort for club purposes. This was the beginning of the now popular resorts on the shores of the lake. The most recent addition to Diamond lake platted summer villages is Sandy Beach, on the north shore of the lake. The plat was recorded by Mary Shillaber January 30, I906. These plats by no means define the limits of occupation. for resort purposes. The island in the center of the lake, where the eccentric Job Wright made his home and grudgingly watched the encroachment of the settlers on his wild abode, iis now well filled with cottages. Other parts of the shore line are being taken, and the extension of this sort of settlement finds its bestexample about Diamond lake.

Page  141 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 141 Eagle lake, in Ontwa township a few miles east of Edwardsburg, has also become popular among sportsmen and summer residents. Lake View Park, on the northwest shore of the lake, has been frequented for a number of years. A plat of the site was filed February 24, 1899, by Cora M. Stryker. Oak Beach, in section 3 and near Lake View, was platted by Henry J. French April 7, I906. On the south side of Eagle lake is "Brady," located in section 2 of Ontwa, the plat being filed by John M. Brady August 7, I895. Magician lake, up in the northwest corner of the county, in Silver Creek township, though remote from railroad facilities, presents some of the best pleasure grounds to be found in the county. The first plat to be laid out was that made by the Maple Island Resort Association, the president of which was W. F. Hoyt, and the plat filed January I4, I896. Maple Island Resort is located on an island in Magician lake. Magician Beach, on the north side of the lake and in section 3, though used for resort purposes a good many years previous, was platted on November 5, 1901I, the proprietors being Albert E. Gregory an(d wife. Highland Beach is a resort on the north end of Indian lake in Silver Creek township. It was platted into lots and the plat recorded May 29, I905, Talmadge Tice, proprietor. Fish lake in Marcellus township and Barren lake in Howard township are becoming popular resort places and are being utilized by city as well as by local residents.

Page  142 142 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER IX. CASSOPOLIS. The genesis of every village should be an interesting story. How one section of an erstwhile wilderness is chosen, almost by natural laws, from all those adjoining and becomes the seat of population and industry and social institutions is a theme lacking none of the interest that attaches to the development of a great human character. A village is an achievement which the combination, of circumstances and human purpose has evolved, and to find out and state the principal steps of such accomplishment is a labor worthy of any historian. The description on the foregoing pages of the many village sites of the county is proof of how easy a matter it was in pioneer times to found a village on paper, yet quite beyond the bounds of human foresight to know what the course of events would bring as destiny; Some village plats never had inhabitants and long since reverted to the sectional system of land demarcation. Others experienced early growth and later, through the shifts of events already described, stopped growing and often began to decline. The fates of the various villages remind us of the parable of the seed that fell on different soils, some to be destroyed before germination had begun, others to wither after a brief time of growth, and a few! to live and flourish and produce abundantly. The early fortunes of Cassopolis undoubtedly hinged on the location o'f the county seat. The series of endeavors which were necessary to gain that point found some strong and enterprising men ready to carry them forward to success. On the east shore of Stone lake Abram Tietsort had built his cabin in 1829, and among the original land entrants his name appears in the records of section 35 and several adjoining ones. A little east of Tietsort's house, in section 36, was the home of the Jewell family, so conspicuous in the history of this part of the county from pioneer times to the present. Two others whose names deserve mention for their part in the founding of Cassopolis were Oliver Johnson in section 25 and Ephraim McCleary in section: 26. The most conspicuous workers in this little drama, however, were Elias B.

Page  143 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 143 Sherman, a lawyer settler of 1830, and Alexander H. Redfield, whose name belongs in the forefront of lawyers and public men of Cass county. It must be relembered that at the time of the events now narrated the county seat had already been located at Dr. Fowler's village site of Geneva. By fraud, so said many people, and the dissatisfaction with the commissioners' choice of location was strongly expressed. It seems necessary to refer to the exact chronology of the events comprising this initial episode of Cassopolis' history. The data not being complete to verify and classify every detail, it is possible that the location' of the county seat and the founding of Cassopolis may have been brought about with some slight variation from the usually accepted account. Cass county was organized in November, 1829, but the act authorizing the location of a county seat was not passed until July, I830. The citizens did not proceed immediately after organization to administer their civil functions, since the first courts were not held until the summer of I831 and the first board of supervisors did not meet until October, 183I, and the place of both official gatherings was at Edwardsburg, in acordance with legislative enactment. The first set of commissioners probably located the court house site (uring the summer of I830. As already related, it was located on the land of Dr. H. H. Fowler, on section 31 of Penn township, this land having been entered in May, 1830. It cannot be stated with certainty that Dr. Fo!wler had already platted a village at this point which the commissioners chose. The plat of Geneva was filed May i, I832, several months after the county seat question had been permanently decided, and the further fact that the description states that "the public square is given to the county on which to erect a courthouse" provided the county seat was located there, makes it reasonably certain that the plat was made while the decision as to the county seat was still in the balance. Yet the plat must have been made after January, 1831, since Hart L. Stewart was one of the proprietors whose name is signed to the plat and who did not enter his land until Tanuary, I83I. From these facts and figures it is deducible that Dr. Fowler's land had no special improvements or advantages to recommend it as the location of the courthouse site in preference to the similar tracts of land owned by a dozen other settlers in that immediate locality. And each settler was an active claimant for the honor of having the county seat located on his land, and no doubt in proportion with the degree of his previous desire was the strength of his disappoint

Page  144 144 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ment and dissatisfaction after the decision had been announced in favor of Dr. Fowler. The story of fraud in connection with the act of location is aside from, our purpose here except as it added strength to the arguments for change of the site. The essential fact is that each settler was on practically an equal basis with his neighbors in his contest for the site of the county seat, and that in due course of time a village would have been platted and would have sprung up wherever the commissioners had "stuck the stake" for the county buildings. It is not known how the settlers individually stood with reference to the first location of the county seat. But, as elsewhere related, the legislature, in response to the request of what must have been an influential proportion of the citizens, passed an act, approved March 4, 1831, for the relocation of the county seat. This restored the contest to its original status, and every group of settlers in the central part of the county urged the advantages of their favored locality upon the three commissioners. The act provided that the commissioners should assemble in Cassopolis the third Monday in May, I831, to consider the respective claims, but as Governor Mason did not issue his proclamation declaring Cassopolis to have received the choice until December 19, I83I, the matter must have been debated and undecided until the late fall of that year. This conclusion is forced upon us if we are to accept the usual account of the manner in which Cassopolis was brought into active competition for the honor. In the list of original land entries of section 26, LaGrange township. are found the names of E. B. Sherman and A. H. Redfield with the date September 22, 1831. The story of how these young lawyers came into possession of this land has often been told. Shermain, having arrived in the midst of the excitement: over the county seat affair, had decided that he too might enter the contest and in pursuance of his plans fixed upon the southeast corner of section 26 as the location which he would urge upon the attention of the commissioners. Before starting to the land office at White Pigeon he learned that the Jewells also were preparing to enter that particular land, and in consequence he made all haste to, anticipate his rivals. Arriving in Edwardsburg he admitted another young lawyer, A. H. Redfield, to a knowledge and cooperation in his plans, and by pooling their utmost cash resources and borrowing ten dollars they had enough to make the entry and purchase the desired land a few hours in advance of the Jewells, who arrived

Page  145 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 145 in White Pigeon just as Sherman was leaving with the receipt for the land safely in his pocket. Sherman and Redfield, on their return to the banks of Stone lake, began an aggressive campaign. They knew the value of organization and harmony, and associated with themselves several of their neighbors, namely: Abram Tietsort, who gave to the village site faoty acres on the banks of Stone lake in section 35: Oliver Johnson, wNho contributed twenty acres from section 25: and Ephraim McClearv, twenty acres from section 36. These five men -were the l)roplrietors whose names are signed to the village plat, which was recorlded November I9., 831. The village must have been platted and all the circumstances just related must have taken place between September 22, the (late of Sherman's entry of the land, and November T9. In this interinl the associates had prosecuted their case before the commissioners. naming three streets in their honor and presenting the other advantages of the site, an( it was probably in the nonth of Novelmber that the decision was reachedl by the commissioners, for, as will be recalled from a previous chapter, the proclamation of the governor was made December I9th, by which Cassopolis was affirmed the county seat. Cassopolis was now secure in the possession of tlhe seat of justice, and any further details with reference to this central institution mullst be found on other pages, while here we proceed with the tracing of the (levelopment of the village as such. And here it may be mentioned in passing that the original spelling of the villag'e name, as found on old letters and the first plat, was "Cassapolis," and that the change from a to o, which was clearly dictated by euphony, took place gradually in custom, and was finally affirmed by the postoffice department. The history of the public square of Cassopolis is none the less important because few people of this generation know that the village ever possessed such a locality. To picture early Cassopolis it is necessary to reconstruct mentally a public square, neasuring twenty-six rods north and south and twenty rods east and west, around which were grouped the early stores and taverns, and each side bisected by the wide streets of State and Broadway. -To comprehend the appearance of the village as it would be had the original plans been carried out, we must clear away, in imagination, all the business buildings which front Broadway on the west, from the Goodwin House on the north edge of the square, to the alley ten rods south of State street, and also all the buildings on the east side of Broadway north of the same alley. In other

Page  146 146 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY words, a person standing at the intersection of State and Broadway would be at the center of the old square, with a clear space on the east to the jail and Baptist church, on the west to the Newell House and the Moon supply house, both buildings that belong to an earlier period. All the buildings on the area of the old square are of comparatively recent date. With the exception of the old court house and jail on the northeast quarter of the square and the "Old Fort," containing county offices, on the northwest quarter, the square was unoccupied by permna:nent buildings up to forty years ago, and around its four sides stood some of the structures which were landmarks at that time and which have now nearly all disappeared from sight and memory. Among such buildings of that time we recall on the east side the old Cassopolis H-ouse, a wooden )uilding on the site of the present Baptist church, south of which was a blacksmith shop, and across. State street, where the jail now stands, was a two-story frame building, the upper story being the Odd Fellows' hall. On the north side stood the brick store building, now the Shaw hotel, and on the west side of Broadway was the Union hotel, built by Eber Root. On the west side stood the first frame building built on the plat, elsewhere mentioned, and on, the south side of the street the old building above mentioned and then used as a tin shop; and south of this stood a frame building occupied by Daniel Blackman as a law office and by Asa Kingsbury as a banking house. The south side of the square was bordered by a frame building still standing, then used as a store, and on the east side of Broadway by the Eagle hotel. While these buildings at that time occupied the most eligible and conspicuous sites of the village, subsequent developments have placed many of them on alleyways, and rows of brick business blocks have shut them from the main routes of business traffic. With this understanding of the situation forty years ago, we may properly introduce the story of how the public square became absorbed for business purposes and was lost to, the county. The history was given in detail in the decision of the supreme court in I88o, which permanently confirmed the defendants in the ownership of all the public square expect that portion covered by the court house. The decision is interesting as the most authoritative resume of the circumstances and events which pertain to the public square question. The history of the case as outlined in the opinion delivered by Judge Cooley is as follows: When the three commissioners located the county seat at Cassopolis, the laying out of a village plat colntain

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Page  147 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 1.7 ing a block of land marked "Cassopolis public square," "designed for buildings for public uses,' was a distinct offer on the part of the proprietors to dledicate the whole of the public square for public buildings. "The inference is very strong, if not conclusive, that if the county had proceeded to appropriate the whole square to its needs for county bluildings this would have been a good acceptance o-f the offer and would have perfected the dedication." But the supervisors did not see fit to employ the square as the site of the first public buildings, the first jail, used till 1852, as also the first court house, use(l till 1841, being situated on lots not the public square. Furthermore, when the county commissioners, in 1839, planned the erection of a new court house, they conveved to Asa Kingsbury and associates of the "Court House Company" a deed to the public square and grounds, reserving only the privilege to erect a court house on the northeast quarter. This last reservation is the first and only distinct act of acceptance on the part of the county of the grounds originally dedicated for public purposes, and though the conveyance was made "with the privileges and appurtenances for the uses and purposes for which said square and grounds were conveyed to said county," the court held that. as the conveyance was made by a deed which also conveyed a large number of village lots to the grantees for their own use and benefit, "it seemis scarcely open to doubt that the intent was that all right of control on the part of the county was meant to be conveyed to the grantees." The proprietors of the village plat having made the broad offer to donate the square for public buildings generally and the county having accepted for its purposes a site for a court house and at the same time transferred to trustees any power of control in respect to the remainder. the dedication to the county "must be deemed to have been restricted to the actual acceptance of a court house site, as being adequate to the county wants, and the county could not, therefore, claim as of right any further land for its uses." After the erection of the court house in 1841, for the construction of which the Court House Company had accepted as part payment a deed to certain parcels of land, including presumptively all the public square not covered by the court house, the question of ownership of the vacant square rested until the county built a jail, in 1852, on the same corner with the court house. Kingsbury disputed the right to do this and the county subsequently purchased the land of him. Then, in I86o, the

Page  148 148 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY county office building was erected on the northwest quarter, and this also was put up against the protest of Kingsbury and associates. The other two quarters of the square were not occupied by the county in any manner, and this land was claimed individually on the basis of the deed given by the county commissioners to, the parties who had erected the court house. The history of the appropriation of this land for commercial purposes is thus given in the decision: In 1836 Kingsbury commenced business as a merchant in a store situated immediately south of the southwest quarter of the square and used in connection therewith a part of that quarter for the storage of lumber, shingles, barrels and boxes, and with a hitching rack for horses. In I856 he built a new store, seventy-two feet in length, with stone foundation, one foot olf which for the entire length was upon the square. The cellarways for the store were on the square. From I858 to I869 a tenant had hay scales on the square, set over a walled pit, near the center of the quarter; he moved them in the year last mentioned to another part of the same quarter, where he continued to use thelm. In 1865 Joseph Harper and Darius Shaw deeded their interest in the public square to, Daniel Blackman. Redfield also deeded to Blackman in 1869. In I870 Blackman deeded to Kingsbury; the heirs of Tietsort gave him a deed in the same year and Silvers another in I873. Blackman, it seems, had set up some claims of title to the southeast quarter of the square in I863; a building had been moved upon it, which was occupied for a law office and millinery shop until 1878, when it was moved away and a brick store erectedl in its place. The southeast quarter is now (I880) built up and claimed by the applicants. In I868 Kingsbury platted the southwest quarter of the square into six lots and sold five of themn to persons who erected two-story brick stores thereon, which they now occupy and claim as owners. Kingsbury also erected a similar building for a banking house. The buildings were completed in 1869 and 1870; they have been taxed to the occupants and the taxes paid ever since I868. Such was the situation when, in March, I879, the board of supervisors brought suit in the circuit court to eject the occupants from the public square, which they claimed to the county on the ground that the land had been dedicated by the original proprietors in I83I. Judge John B. Shipman of the St. Joseph circuit decided that the dedication had not been perfected, and the state supreme court, in October, 188o,

Page  149 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 149 affirmed this decision in an opinion the substance of which has been given above. This was the conclusion of a rather remarkable case, involving many facts of history that have become quite obscured in later years. The original plat of Cassopolis, copies of which are still extant, is a very interesting document, from which the subsequent history of tle village may be computed. The platted land measure(l one hundlred and nineteen and one-half by one hundred and ninety-one rods, the rectangle being broken on. the southwest corner by the lake. The north and south streets named on the plat were: "West," which has never been opened; "Disbrolw," "Broadway," "Rowland," "O'Keefe," "Timber" and "East." On the north side of the plat no street was designated and none has since been opened. The first east and west thoroughfare was "York" street, and then came "State," "Jefferson," "Water" and "South" streets, from which familiar boundaries the limits of the original village may be easily recalled. Subsequent additions have expanded the village mainly to the south and east, toward the railroads, encircling the entire east side of Stone lake. The lake occupied the principal natural position in influencing the location of residence and business enterprises at the early period. But the keystone of the village was the public square, designedly the site of the county's business institutions, around which the first business houses were grouped. Around the public square the first business and residence houses of Cassopolis began building. On a lot facing east on the southwest corner of the square Ira B. Henderson erected a double log cabin, which became the first hotel or tavern, and near the southwest corner of the old square John Parker had his log house. As stated elsewhere, the oldest building that has been left from pioneer times is the east front portion of the Newell House, on the north side of State street, one hundred and fifteen feet west of Broadway. The original part of this building was put up in I832 by Sherman and Redfield, the promoters of the village, and its first lawyers. This was the first frame dwelling house erected on the plat, and after several additions were made to it, became a village tavern. The "old red store," kept by the Silvers, was the principal mercantile institution of the pioneer village. It stood the first lot south of the southwest quarter of the square and now stands west on Disbrow street and is used as a dwelling house. In this store A. H. Redfield kept the postoffice. The postoffice was established in I83I, about coincident

Page  150 150 - HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY with the creation of the county seat. The office was first kept in a small building that stood where the Goodwin House kitchen now stands, at the tor'thwest corner of the square. The distillery of the Silvers. was on the shore of the lake, just west of Disbrow street, and Abram Tietsort's house was on the lake shore outside the old village plat. These business and private houses were the principal ones that formed the nucleus of Cassopolis village in its beginnings. A brief retrospective sketch will describe the important improvements and events which have developed the village from that time to the present. The county buildings, the schools and churches belong to other chapters, but the main points, the "high lights," can be detailed here. As a civil organization Cassopolis progressed slowly during the first forty years. The village was first incorporated by the board of supervisors October 14, I863. The census taken at that time showed four hundred and seventy-five persons residing on the area of a mile square comprising the four cornering quarter sections of sections 25, 26, 35 and 36. The heads of the families represented by the census and whose signatures appear on the petition to the board of supervisors may be called "the charter citizens" of the village of Cassopolis, and deserve naming in this chapter. They are: Joseph Smith, 0. S. Custard, M. Graham, David Histed, A. Smith, L. H. Glover, Isaac Brown, Ira Brownell, H. K. McManus. Charles Hartfelter, Byron Bradley, Charles W. Brown, Charles W. Clisbee, Peter Sturr, A. Garwood, G. A. Ely, L. R. Read, James Norton, L. D. Tompkins, J. B. Chapman, Jacob Silver, Isaiah Inman, Ethan Kelly, J. P. Os1)orn, Thomas Stapleton, D. L. French. Lewis Clisbee Barak Meadl, I. V. Sherman, M. J. Baldwin, A. E. Cleveland, E. B. Sherwood Jefferson Brown, J. K. Riter, W. K. Palmer, Geo. W. VanAntwerp, S. Playford, Henry Shaffer, Charles A. Hill, J. Tietsort, John McManus, M. B. Custard, Joseph Harper, John H. Powers, Bartholomew Weaver, C. C. Allison, Henry Walton. M. Baldwin, H. L. King, S. S. Chapman, Hiram Brown, Sanford Ashcroft, D. Blackman, S. T. Read. Daniel B. Smith, R. M. Wilson, D. S. Jones, Joseph Graham, James Boyd.

Page  151 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 151 Of this list of men, many of whom were identified in a prominent way with the history of the village, only a few are still living in the year of this writing. Those living and still residents of the village are: L. H. Glover, Charles Hartfelter, J. B. Chapman, D. L. French, Henry Shaffer, C. C. Allison, Daniel B. Smith; others residing elsewliere, Byron Bradley, Charles W. Brown, Isaiah Inman, I. V. Sherman. From a population of less than five hundred Cassopolis has increased to one thousand five hundred. Cassopolis was in a peculiarly adverse position during the early years of its history. It was the county seat, the official center of the county. But without that institution it is reasonable to believe that the village would have experienced mutations of fortune like Edwardsburg and other centers of the county. Before the railroad era, Edwardsburg on the south held the commercial supremacy because of its position on the Chicago road. Then in the forties the Michigan Central established the main transportation route in the northwest corner of the county and gave origin tol Dowagiac, which at once became the shipping point for Cassopolis, together with the northwestern parts of the county. Between the establishment of the county seat in 183I and the building of the railroad in 1871, the years are marked by no event of pregnant meaning for the (levelopment of the village: the community grew slowly, the various institutions were added in regular course, a few factories were established. civil organization followed when population had reache(l tile necessary limit, and at the close of the period just mentioned the county seat was tile conspicuous pillar in the corporate existence of Cassopolis. In I870-71 two railroads came to Cassopolis. Theretofore the merchants llad hauled their goods from Dowagiac. The mail had come from Dowagiac. The telegraph was at Dowagiac. All the surplus production and market commodities that would naturally have been disposed of at Cassopolis were transported to the railroad for shipment. But with the building of these railroads the world was opened, as it were, to Cassopolis. The court house on the public square for the first time had a rival institution in the depot on the south line of the village. Since the railroad was built the principal growth of the village has taken place. In 1863 the population was less than five hundred. In 1870 it was

Page  152 152 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 728 and in I88o it was 912; in I89o, 1,369; at the census of 900o it was 1,320, and according to the state census of 1904 it was 1,477. The first additions to the village site began to be platted abcut the same time as the railroads were built. An iron foundry, a national bank, various business enterlprises, one of the newspapers and other undertaki1ngs, whose inception (dates from the first years of the railroad period, indicate the advance along all lines made by Cassopolis at that time. In I875, when the special charter was granted by the legislature, the limits of the village were extended north a quarter of a mile and the same distance south to the railroad. The village was governed by this charter for twenty years, and in 1895 the blanket charter provided for all the villages of Michigan became effective. In recent years Cassopolis has made commendable progress in municipal improvements. The old method of fighting fire with buckets has been superseded by a volunteer fire department, consisting of a chief and twenty members. The equipment of hose cart and hose, hook and ladder truck and other apparatus are kept ready for immediate use at the city hall building, a brick two-story structure on North Broadway, a short distance from the square and north of the Goodwin House. The upper story of the house is used for council rooms. The city hall was erected in I895. But as a precedent to this efficient fire protection and the most important of all the village improvements is the water-works system, which was established in 189I at a cost of $Io,ooo. The village was bonded for this debt, the first of the ten annual installments being paid in I896. The water is punlped into the mains from the depths of Stone lake, where the water is crystal pure and ice cold, and free from lime, or "soft." The village has arrangements with the Cassopolis Milling & Power Company for pumping the water through the mains, and the same company furnishes the Grand Trunk Railroad with water. The power company also light the village with electricity. Those who have been most prominently identified with the commercial activity of the village should receive mention. The dean of them all is Charles E. Voorhis, who began in the grocery business in 1865, and has been in this exclusive line of trade for forty years. He was the first to embark in one line of trade as distinct from the "general store." The grocery firm of S. B. Thomas & Son stands second in point of time to Mr. Voorhis. S. B. Thomas began here in I876.

Page  153 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 153 D. L. French, who went out of business in the late nineties, was the first to engage in the hardware business exclusively, beginning in March, I862. W. B. Hayden has been in the hardware business since 1884. The late George M. Kingsbury was closely interested in the business life of the community for a quarter of a century. Others whose names should be recorded are: S. S. Harrington and G. L. Smith, who engaged in the mercantile business thirty years ago as partners and are now individually engaged in the same business; J. B. Chapman, who with Henry Shaffer began the manufacturing and sale of boots and shoes in 1858. After seven years with Mr. Shaffer, Mr. Chapman acquired his interest and continued the business with different partners until I885, when he again became sole proprietor and continued the business for eleven years.

Page  154 154 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER X. CITY OF DOWAGIAC. During the decade of the thirties the few settlers who! lived in the vicinity oif which the city of Dowagiac is now the center had to go to LaGrange or Cassopolis or Sumnerville for their mail and supplies. As related on a previous page, LaGrange was the manufacturing metropolis of the county during that decade and for some years afterward. The water power of Dowagiac creek in the neighborhood of the township corners where the city is now located early presented itself as an attractive site for industrial and village purposes, it is true. In the register's office is found a plat of the village of Venice, filed for record August 6, I836, by Orlando Craine. This site was laid out on the north side of Dowagiac creek, and in the southwest quarter of section 31 of Wayne township. Nothing came of this attempt to booml the location; not a lot was sold, and Venice is in the same class of villages as Shakespeare and Mechanicsburg and some others described on previous pages. But it is of interest to know that all that part of the city of Dowagiac bounded on the south and west respectively by Division street and North Front street was'the site of Orlando Craine's Venice. Among the original land entries of LaGrange township is that of Renniston and Hunt in section 6, dated in May, 1830. William Renniston in the same year built a carding mill on the creek just east of the Colby Milling Company's mill, where the road from Cassopolis crosses the stream. At the same site he built, a few years later, a grist mill. Successive owners of this property were Lyman Spalding, Jonathan Thorne and Erastus H. Spaldipg, froml whom it passed into the hands of H. F. Colby in I868 and a part of the splendid manufacturing interests now controlled under the Colby name. The Venice enterprise and the manufacturing interests show that this locality had some advantages as a village site even in the pioneer period. LaGrange, however, distant only a few miles, was still in the ascendant. The few citizens on the present site of Dowagiac could have had no prevision of what the future would do, for the locality. On the authority of Mr. A. M. Moon of Dowlagiac, the sole inhabitant of

Page  155 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 155 the site of Dowagiac in I835 was Patrick Hamilton, and of course some settlers were grouped about the mills. Certainly the prospects of this spot becoming the home of trade and industry had not appeared at that date. LaGrange, Edwardsburg, Cassopolis, Adamsville, or any of several other incipient villages would have been thought at that time to possess better outlook for the future than the wilderness on the north side of Dowagiac creek where Orlando Craine had, with the fatuity of visionary enterprise, platted a village that, except as a prophecy of the city of today, hardly deserves remembrance. But the railroad came, the new fulcrum of civilization, and changed and rearranged all former bases of industry and society. The seats of manufacturing at LaGrange were transferred to the mill sites, which had formerly been in the wilderness, but because of the presence of the iron road soon became the center of Cass county's manufacturing enterprise. In 1847 Nicholas Cheesebrough was engaged in buying the right of way through Cass county for the Michigan Central railroad, the construction of which is described on other pages. The inception of the village of Dowagiac was due to him and Jacob Beeson of Niles. They bought of Patrick Hamilton eighty acres in the northeast corner of Pokagon township, and on this land was laid out the original plat of Dowagiac, x'which was recorded in the register's office February I6. 1848. Thus tle original area of Dowagiac was all in Pokagon township, diagonally across from the: plat olf Venice, which had been laid in WayTne toiwnship. And all of the plat was located on the north side of the railroad. At the time the plat was made, the railroad had not been completed for operation, but no doubt the grading was well under way, for trains began running into Niles the follow-ing October. 'The original village was in the area that lies south of West Division street, and bounded oin the east by the railroad to the point where the townslhip line intersects the same, extending west to the intersection of Main with Division street, and south to Dowagiac creek. The railroad was responsible for the diagonal directions of the streets in tle business portion of the city. In the words of the plat, "Front street runs parallel to the track of the Michigan Central railroad." The railroad runs at an angle of thirty-six degrees with the north and south, line. Hence, to get north bearings when standing on Front street it is necessary to face about tvwo-fifths of a right angle. The calculation and sense of direction needed to perfornm this feat properly are greater than most citizens will practice, and only the oldest residents

Page  156 156 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY can figure out the time of day by the position of the sun and reduce the bizarre directions to the four fundamentals of the sign post. At right angles with Front street the founders laid out Main street, one hundred and eight feet wide, wider than any other street on the plat, and designed as the business thoroughfare. But a village is not made according to plat, and when Dowagiac began to grow conmmercially the business men preferred to locate along Front street rather than on Main street, which today, without business houses except at the lower end, on account of its exceptional width seems incongruous and like a big hiatus separating the town. The other streets, as first laid out, were Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, New York and Pennsylvania, parallel with Front street, and Pine, Commercial, High and Chestnut streets parallel with Main street. In all there were one hundred and eightyfour lots and fractional lots in the original plat. Since the original plat was recorded the register of deeds at Cassopolis has received plats of forty additions, showing how the limits of the city have extended in all directions from the nucleus. Except along the line of railroad the rectangular system of platting has been followed in nearly all subsequent additions. The first addition to the village was made in April, I849, by Patrick Hamilton, who laid out some of his land in the southeast corner of Silver Creek township, the area comprising all the lots bounded by North Front, Spruce, Main and Division streets. The second addition was made by Jacob Beeson from land in Pokagon in March, I850. In 1851 Jay W. McOmber platted into lots a portion of land in the southwest corner of Wayne township, and in the same year Erastus H. Spalding added some land fromi northwest LaGrange, so that in three years' time Dowagiac had expanded its area into four townships, and the many additions since that time have merely increased this civic area, although LaGrange township has given less land to the city than any of the others, owing to the creek and mill sites presenting obstructions to growth in this direction. The municipal growth and improvement of Dowagiac have kept pace with the increase in its area and population. By I860, twelve years after the founding, the number of inhabitants was 1,181. Two years previously the village had been incorporated by the board of supervisors. The petition for incorporation was granted February I, 1858, and the first village election was held at Nicholas Bock's American House, now the Commercial House, on Division and Front streets. The

Page  157 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 157 officers chosen at this election and for the subsequent years will be found in the official lists. In I870 population had increased to 1,932. During the next decade, which witnessed the construction of two other railroads through the county, the rate of increase was slower, the census for I88o showing 2,102 inhabitants. In the meantime Dowagiac had lbecome a citv. The last village election was held in March, 1877, and in the following April the first election of city officers took place. From I877 to I892 the city was represented in the county board by one supervisor, and beginning with 1893 one supervisor has been chosen from each of the three wards. Thus in the civic organization of the county Dowagiac stands on a plane with the townships. The population has more than doubled since incorporation as a city. In I890 the enumeration was 2,806, and in 900o it was 4,I5I. The state census of 1904 gave 4,404. Dowagiac is progressive as regards municipal improvements and conveniences. Streets and sidewalks, lighting and fire protection are the first matters to receive the attention of a village community. As regards the first, Dowagiac was very deficient in the first years of its history, and hence the more to be proud of at this time. Being built on the banks of the creek, the village was in places marshy, and it is said that in the months of high water the farmers of Silver Creek had to hitch their teams on the other side of Dowagiac swamp and come across as best they could on foot to do their trading. Furthermore, to quote the language of an early settler, "there was not grass enough in the whole town to bleach a sheet on." Grace Greenwood, the well known writer and sister of Dr. W. E. Clarke, while visiting the latter in 1858, wrote a descriptive article to an eastern paper, in which she complained that the people did not plant shade trees in their door yards or in the streets, and that the burning sun shone down pitilessly on the grassless ground and unprotected dweliings. Of course these deficiencies have long since been relieved, not by organized effort so much as by the individual action of many citizens moved by the desire to beautify and adorn their own property. The paving of streets and laying olf substantial sidewalks has been going on for years. Board walks are becoming more and more rare, brick and cement being the popular materials. A number of streets are improved with gravel roadways, and in I894 Front street through the business section was paved with brick, that being one of the best investments the city has made, since a paved street is at

Page  158 15I HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the very basis of a metropolitan appearance, which prepossesses the favor of strangers and visitors. The majority of the citizens have personal recollections of the time when all the streets were dully illuminated with kerosene lamps. In 1887 the Round Oak Gas & Fuel company drilled two thousand feet beloxw the surface in search for gas, but found none. The Dowagiac Gas & Fuel Company was established in 1892 and supplies light and fuel to a large nunber of patrons. Nearly every village and city has had its disastrous fires. The first one in Dowagiac occurred in January, I864, when the business houses on Front street north of Commercial were burned. In January, r866, a $5o,ooo fire destroyed Front street south of Commercial, and in June, 1882, the block south of Beeson street was destroyed. In 1854, six years after the founding of the village, a meeting of the citizens was held to provide for fire protection, but it was not until I858 that any important action was taken. A hand fire engine was purchased and other apparatus procured; the engine continued in use for a quarter of a century. Hamilton Hose Co. No. I was also formed and is still in existence. having been reorganized in I88o. With the installation of water-works in 1887 the efficiency of the fire department was increased several fold. The pressure in the mains rendered the old hand engine unnecessary, and the placing of electric signal apparatus and other improvements afford a fire protection which is equal to' that of any other city of the size in southern Michigan. The volunteer hose company and hook and ladder company of the city are reinforced in their work by the independent companies of the Round Oak Stove and the Dowagiac Manufacturing companies' plants. Dowagiac's schools and churches and library, which are the cornerstones of its institutional life, its clubs and social and professional interests, and much other information bearing on the history of the city will be treated in other chapters, for which the reader is referred to the index. In a resume of the main features of Dolwagiac's growth, the railroad must, of course, be given first place as the originating cause. As soon as the trains began carrying the mail through this point instead of the stage coach or horseback carrier, a postoffice was established, in November, I848. Arad C. Balch, who became the first postmaster, at the time sold goods in the Cataract House, the name that had been given to a boarding house for the railroad workmen, which stood on the bluff east of the track. In naming the successive postmasters

Page  159 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 159 many of Dowagiac's prominent citizens are mentioned, for the successor of Mr. Balch was M. T. Garvey, whose long career in public affairs made him one of the best known men in Cass county; following him have been Noel B. Hollister, James A. Lee, William H. Campbell, William M. Heazlitt, Henry B. Wells, David W. Clemmer, Clarence L. Sherwood, A.M.. Moon, H. A. Burch and Julius 0. Becraft. Mr. Becraft is serving his third, though not successive, term. In I899 free city delivery was established, and this event is another milestone in Dowagiac's career. Dowagiac's business area is now quite solidly concentrated along Front street from Park Place to Division and for some distance up several of the intersecting streets. Going back half a century in our endeavor to picture the commercial status, of the young village, it is evident that the business center at that time, while comparatively large and showing excellent growth since the founding of the village, was only a nucleus of what it is now. There is at hand a business directory of Dowagiac as it appears in the Cass Counzty Advocate of January II, I85I, that being the first paper established in Dowagiac, its founder being Ezekiel S. Smith, a brother of Captain Joel H. Smith. a longtime resident of Dowagiac. The Dowagiac House is first named in this directory. It stood on the corner of Main and Front streets, and is said to have been the first hotel built. A. J. Wares was the builder and was landlord at the date above given. The house received various additions, and was later known as the Continental. Bock's hotel, at Division and Front streets, has already been mentioned. The next advertiser is Livingston & Fargo's American Express, names very suggestive in express company history. William Bannard was local agent of the company. Under the head of "dry goods, groceries, etc.," are named follr firms. The first is Lofland, Lybrook & Jones, whose large brick store was on the northwest side of Front street facing the depot. The firm consisted of Joshua Lofland, Henley C. Lybrook and Gilman C. Jones. G. W. Clark, also in business at that time, had a store on the corner of Front and Commercial streets. W. H. Atwood was then in business in succession to the first important mercantile enterprise of Dowagiac. Before the founding of Dowagiac Joel H. Smith and brother, Ezekiel S., had been in business at Cassopolis, but at the beginning of I848 they moved a stock of goods by team from Cassopolis, passing through LaGrange, then a thriving

Page  160 160 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY village and which to many seemed at the time a more favorable location for business than Dowagiac. The Smith brothers built their onestory frame store on the corner of Main and Front streets, it being the first building specially erected for mercantile purposes. It was a landmark in Dowagiac, having stood at the corner for half a century, until it was moved out to Indian lake to be converted into a barn. The Smiths sold their business in about a year to Mr. Atwood, who, as we see, was proprietor in January, I85I. E. H. and B. F. Spalding were also proprietors of a general store at that time. Turner & Rogers dealt in groceries, drugs and medicines, S. Sheridan in groceries and provisions, S. Bowling in boots, leather, etc., J. C. and G. W. Andrews, who advertise stoves and tinware, were the pioneer hardware firm, G. W. Andrews continuing in business until I877. Their first store was in the basement of Bock's hotel. Others who advertised in the Advocate were Parker B. Holmes. iron worker and general jobber; George Walker, draper and tailor; Henry Arnold, carpenter and joiner; J. H. Sharp, carriage and wagon maker; Thomas Brayton, physician and surgeon, and J. T. Keable, physician and surgeon. There were several other business concerns in the village besides those named in the advertising directory, but the only one calling for mention is the clothing house of Jacob Hirsh, who began business here in I850, being the founder of the business which is still carried on by Hirsh & Phillipson. Other business men whose long connection with commercial life makes them deserving of mention were Benjamin Cooper and Francis J. Mosher, the first exclusive grocery nerchants. Mr. Mosher's father, Ira D., was a resident on the site of Dowagiac when the railroad came. C. L. Sherwood, who has been in the drug business longer than any of his competitors, came to Dowagiac in I868 and purchased the stocks of Asa Huntington and N. B. Hollister, pioneers in the business. and also the store of Howard & Halleck. In the line of groceries George D. Jones, who has lived in the county since 1829 and in Dowagiac since 1864, has conducted his store on Commercial street for more than twenty-five years. F. H. Ross, who was in the hardware business from I86o to I886 and then a real estate dealer until his retirement in I9OI, is another who contributed to the commercial enterprise of early Dowagiac. The proprietor of the Daylight Store on Front street is one of the

Page  161 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 161 oldest merchants still in active business. Burget L. Dewey came to Dowagiac in I865 and began as a clerk, and since 1873 has been in the drygoods business, building up one of the leading mercantile concerns of the city. The manufacturing enterprises of Dowagiac have been at the core of her prosperity and the source of its wealth and reputation among the cities of Michigan. An account of these interests is reserved for the chapter on trades and manufacturing, but it is proper to mention the dates of the estallislment of the different enterprises, eacl one of which marks another step in the city's progress, an(l also the men who have been foremost in this department of activity. The first of a long list of subsequent industrial enterprises was the basket factory established in 1857 by Horace and Gilman C. Jones. In a very small way, such as could hardly be dignified with the name of factory, P. D. Beckwith was already casting plows and doing general repair work, having come' to the village in 1854, and soon laid the basis for the mammoth enterprise with which his name will always be associated. In I859 Mark Judd helped to establish the planing mill which was the nucleus for the Judd lumber and planing mill business, which is not least among Donagiac's large enterprises. It was in I868 that H. F. Colby became identified with the mill interests of Dowagiac, and although. as we know, milling was one of the first industries at this locality, the energy and executive ability displayed by Mr. Colby in expanding and organizing the industry are reasons for considering the date of his coming' to Dowxagiac as marking an epoch of industry. And in the sixties also were ma(le the beginnings of the manufacture which has since developed into, the large D()owaoiac Malnufacturing Companyvs plant. [ '?vIron Stark, the veteran manufacturer and inventor, patented his sand band in 1876 and soon after made Dowagiac his permanent home. Willis M. Farr, the present manufacturer of the Common Sense sand bands, identified himself with tle manufacturing interests of the city in the seventies, at first as one of the partners in the drill works, and then joined with Myron Stark in perfecting and putting on the market the latter's excellent invention. The Hedrick sawmill (lates back to its foundation in I86o, and the extensive lumber yard an(l planing mill of John A. Lindsley was established in I885. This sumnmary indicates the principal events in Dowagiac's industrial career. With the splendid transportation facilities afforded by the Michigan Central Railroad, with some of the most important manufacturing

Page  162 162 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY enterprises of Michigan, with good mercantile houses, with municipal improvements in keeping with the size of the city, with excellent schools and churches and library, Dowagiac occupies a position of increasing influence among the cities of southwestern Michigan, and her development fully justifies the faith which Jacob Beeson evinced in this wilderness locality in I848.

Page  163 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 163 CHAPTER XI. COMMUNICATION AND TRANSPORTATION. Man cannot live alone; he must communicate with others. We are parts of a great organism. So it is with communities. The time came when the railroad and telegraph brought them in closer relations with each other. But even from the first there was communication with the outside world, for absolute isolation is impossible. At first there were no railroads leading out from the eastern cities across the great valley of the Mississippi. The mountain ranges and dense forests were great barriers between the east and Michigan territory. There was a canal from Troy to Buffalo, there were a few steamers on the great lakes, and there was a short horse-car railroad running out of Toledo. There were no wagon roads, but in place of them were Indian trails. In all lands, however primitive and barbarous, even in the dense forest fastnesses of Africa or South America, there are passages from one locality to another. The word best descriptive of such courses of early communication is "trail." Before civilization introduced scientific road-making, wild animals were doubtless the markers and surveyors of roads. The narrow, deep-worn, and wavering path through the woods, indicating the route of the deer or bear between its lair and the spring where it quenched its thirst or the thicket where it sought its quarry, was the course which the Indian, and later the white man, took in going through the woods or across the prairie. Trails are easily made, as anyone may know who observes how quickly the turf of a park or meadow is worn down by the regular passage of human feet. And as the wild animal pushed its way through the brush and trees, pursuing the easiest and therefore a winding course to its goal, it left evidence of its progress in the broken twigs and bent bushes and trampled grass, so that the next creature bound in the same direction would pursue the same way and better define it, until a new trail was marked out. Thus the animals were the first road makers, and blazed the way for their immediate successors, the roving Indian. The latter would naturally extend and connect the trails of animals into certain long avenues of

Page  164 164 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY travel across the country, which they would follow in mnaking their pilgrimages from one hunting ground to another or for their war expeditions. Thus it happened that when the white man first came to southern Michigan, as was also true of any other part of our country, he found certain courses of communication already marked out. These were used by the pioneers until better, broader, straighter and more direct roads could be made. Oftentimes these old trails formed the most practicable and convenient route of travel, and were consequently the basis of a highway ordered and constructed by the state or county. A description of these primitive roads in Cass county, showing how useful they were to the early settlers, was furnished by Mr. Amos Smith, the county surveyor at the time, for the History of 1882, and being authoritative information, is quoted as follows: "I find that every township, in the olden time, had its highways and its byways. Some of these seem to have been of great importance, connecting localities widely separated from each other, while others of less note served only neighboring settlements. "It is noticeable that the principal Indian trails, like our own main thoroughfares, ran east and west, while others tributary to these came in from the north and south. The Chicago trail, more important because more used than anlv of the others, coming from the east, entered the county near the half-mile post on the east side of section I in South Porter, and ran thence westerly, crossing sections I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 7, an(d 18 in South Porter; sections 13, 14, 15, I6, 21, 20, 17, I8, and 7 in Mason; sections 12, 1, I, 4, 5, 6, and 7, in Ontwa; and sections I2, I1, io I, I, I6, I7, I8 in Milton. The Chicago road, as it is now traveled, varies lut little from tle trail as above descril)el. "Near the corner of sections 4, 5, 8, 9, in South Porter, the Chicago trail was intersected by the Shavehead trail, a branch from the north. This trail or rather system of trails, as more than a dozen different ones united to form it, had two main branches which came together on section 29, in North Porter, near the lower end of Sllavehead lake. The west branch, which commenced near the north line of Penn township, led southerly across Young's prairie, dividing on section 28 in Penn. One trail continued south and east to the west. and south of Mud lake in Calvin, the other running between Donell and Mud lakes, the two uniting near Birch lake in Porter. The last mentioned trail was of great service to the early white settlers in procuring supplies from the old distillery situated on the East Branch of Christiann creek, a little soeuth of Donell lake. The east branch, comling from the direction of Pig Prairie Ronde, crossed the county line at the east line of section 12 in Newberg, just north of Long lake, and ran south

Page  165 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 165 westerly across sections I2, 13, 23, 26, 27, 34, and 33, in Newberg, and sections 4, 9, 8, 17, and 20 in North Porter, and united with the west branch on section 29, as before stated. Another branch of the Shavehead trail, of less extent than either of those just described, commenced at the Indian sugar works, near the half-mile post on tlle line between sections IO and I, in North Porter, and ran thence southwesterly, crossing Shavehead prairie in its course, and uniting with the main branch on section 32. "Besides the three principal branches of the Shavehead trail above mentioned, there were many others. In fact, the whole township of Porter was a perfect network of trails - a regular "stamping ground" of the Indians, so to speak, as the numerous sugar works. In(lian fiells and villages abundantly attest. "The second branch of the Chicago trail commenced on section o3, in Calvin, running thence southeasterly, crossing sections 2 and 12, in Mason, very nearly where the wagon road now\ runs, intersecting the Chicago trail at an Indian village a few rods west of the present village of Union. "The third branch commenced on section 3, in Mason, and ran southwesterly, entering the Chicago trail near what is now Adamsville. "The fourth and last branch of the Chicago trail, coming from Fort Wayne, Indiana, intersected the county and state line near the southwest corner of section 20, in Ontwa, and running thence northwesterly, united with the main trail on section i6 in Milton. "The trail from the Carey M\ission to Grand River Mission, sometimes called the Grand River road, crossed the county line near the corner of sections 6 and 7. in Howard, and running thence angling across Howard, Pokagon, Silver Creek, Wayne and Volinia townships. left the county at the north line of section 2, in Volinia. It had no branches. The present angling road running through the greater part of Pokagon township, the northwest corner of Howard and a portion of Wayne, occupies very nearly the same position. In fact, we are indebted to the Indian, or it may be to his predecessor, for some of our best lines of communication, and as many of these old routes are traveled today, and probably will be for all time to come, where they were marked out hundreds and possibly thousands of years ago, it shows that remarkable skill must have been exercised in their location." Though the pioneers entered Cass county over the Indian trails, the settlement of the county had hardly progressed beyond the initial stages when there was agitation coupled with energetic effort on the part of the settlers and government alike to improve these trails into highways and to open new courses of travel. The establishment of post-roads is a power granted to the general government by the Constitution. In pursuance of the plan of internal

Page  166 166 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY improvements thus provided for, the government undertook the laying out of such postal highways across Michigan territory long before Cass county was settled. As incidentally referred to in a previous chapter, the Chicago treaty with the Indians in 1821 contained a clause especially stipulating that the United States should have the privilege of making and using a road through the Indian country from Detroit and Fort Wayne, respectively, to Chicago. The first of the congressional acts which led toward the construction of the Chicago road was passed in 1824. It authorized the president of the United States "to cause the necessary surveys, plans and estimates to be made of the routes of such roads and canals as he may deem of national importance in a commercial or military point of view, or necessary for the transportation of the public mail." The sum of thirty thousand dollars was appropriated for the surveys and the president was authorized to appoint two competent engineers. The route from Detroit to Chicago was one of those which the executive "deemed of national importance," and the sum of ten thousand dollars was set apart from the appropriation for the survey. In 18,25 work was conmenced at the eastern end of the road. The surveyor began on the plan of running on nearly straight lines, but had progressed only a few miles when he came to the conclusion that if he carried out his original intention, the money apportioned for the work would be exhausted long before he could reach the western terminus. He then resolved to follow the old path of the Sacs and Foxes, and the road thus marked was never straightened. The trees were blazed fifty feet on each side of the trails, the requirement being that the road should measure one hundred feet in width. The Chicago road was surveyed through Cass county in I832, by Daniel G. Garnsey. The road was not worked through St. Joseph, Cass and Berrien counties by the government until after the Black Hawk war. Inmigrants made such improvements as they found necessary, and the stage companies worked the road sufficiently to get their coaches througlh, and built some bridges. In I833 the government made thorough work of building the road through Branch county, and in I834 through St. Joseph and Cass counties. It was grubbed out and leveled for a width of thirty feet, and the timber was cut away on each side. The first bridge over the St. Joseph was built in 1834, at Mottville, which crossing was designated as "the Grand Traverse." The Chicago road, which follows approximately the Chicago Indian

Page  167 HISTQRY OF CASS COUNTY 167 trail already described, was the great thoroughfare from east to west until the advent of the railroad in the late forties. The present generation has difficulty in understanding the vital relation in which such a road stood to the people of sixty or seventy-five years ago. In making the journey from Cass county to Chicago hardly any one would think of going any way than by train, and to drive the distance, even over modern roadlbeds, would be considered almost foolhardy. Sixty years ago there was no other means of reaching any of the great centers, such as Chicago or Detroit, except by wagon road. It was a seven days' trip from Niles to Detroit, when now it can be made in as many hours. A traveler was fortunate if he could go from Edwardsburg to Chicago in two days. But slow and difficult though this route was, it was the only one the only certain means of communication and travel that an inland country possessed. Then came the railroad. It was the successor, or rather superseded this long inter-county, inter-state dirt road, and, as the trend of public thought is at last beginning to recognize, the railroad is the national highway, the public thoroughfare, of the present, just as the Chicago road was the national postal and commercial route of the past. The Chicago road was also known as the "Territorial road," and its course from east to west along the southern border of the county was as much of an impetus toward settlement and development of such centers as Edwardsburg during the early half of the century, as the Michigan Central proved a fostering cause in the founding and growth of Dowagiac in the latter half. The establishment of continuous and definite highways from place to place was also one of the most important functions of the early territorial and state government, and continued so until the railroad age changed all the methods and means of long-distance travel and transportation. In the early history of the state it was not to be expected that the various and often widely separated settlements could undertake any extensive and co-operative plan of road-making. The settlers, busied with the labor of clearing the forests, of making their first crops, and providing for immediate wants and creature comforts, had no time for road building except so far as to construct a temporary way to the common trading point. Certainly without some larger supervision most of the roads would have served only local purposes and would have been short and disconnected, and many years would have been suffered

Page  168 168 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY to elapse l)efore anything approaching a system of public highways would have een establlisledl. As we may infer from the foregoing, few of the early roads were laid out on the rectangular plan of section lines. And even the later introduction of this method di(l not cause the lisuse and abandonment of the favorite old-time winding an(l (liagonal routes that had been laid out accordling to the needs an(l conveniences of the pioneers. In the new prairie localities of the west, lwhere no settlements were made until after the land had been blocked out into regular quadrangles by governnient engineers, the checker-loard system of roads was adopted easily and naturally. But in such a country as Cass county, covered over at the time of settlement with forests and dotted with lakes and marshes, w\:ith all the conditions and appliances primitive and new, the settlers were very likely to disregard geometrical lines, even when made by government officials, and choose the "short cut" letween localities. During the thirties and forties the territorial council and the state legislature passed mnany acts "authorizing the establishment" of highways within or entering Cass county. Some of these became practicable thoroughfares, others never were constructed except officially. An act of July 30, I830, authorized the laying out of a road "commencing where the township road laid out l)y the commissioners of Ontwa township, Cass county, from Pleasant lake in a direction to Pulaski (Elkhart), in Indiana, intersects the southern boundary line between the territory of Michigan and the state of Indiana; thence on the road laid out as aforesaid until it intersects the Chicago road a few rods west of the postoffice, near the house of Ezra Beardsley, running thence on the most eligible andl practicablle route to the entrance of the St. Joseph river into Lake Micliigan." George Meacham, John Bogart and Squire Thompson were the commissioners appointed to lay out and establish this road. Simnilarly, another territorial road was authorized "commencing at the county seat of Branch county, running westerly on the most direct and eligible route through the seats of justice of St. Joseph and Cass counties to the mouth of the St. Joseph river. Another from White Pigeon by Prairie Ronde and Kalamazoo to Grand Rapids. "A road from Adamsville on the most direct and eligible route to the Paw Paw river at or near the center of Van Buren county," and many others. To open and improve these roads the territorial and later the state government nmade liberal appropriations from the reserve of internal im

Page  169 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 169 provement lands. For example, the legislature in I848 appropriated three thousand acres for the purpose of opening and improving a road (authorized in 18.40), "commencing at some point at or near the north bank of the river St. Joseph, in the vicinity of the village of St. Joseph, thence running in an easterly direction on the most eligible route to the village of La Grange, formerly called Whitmanville, in Cass county." In the late forties, at the beginning of the railroad era in this part of the west, the "plank road" had a brief reign of favor as a means of internal communication. Many companies were incorporated by the state to construct such roads with the privilege of operating them as toll roads. The only one constructed for any distance in Cass county was planned to connect Niles and Mottville via Edwardsburg. The company was incorporated in 1849, with capital stock authorized at $Ioo,ooo. Only five miles of the proposed road was built, between Niles and Edwar(dslburg. Such a road was a great improvement for the time. iMuch heavier loads could be hauled over the plank roads than over the soil roadls, and they helped greatly in the development of the country. Had not the railroads at about the same time begun to network the country, the plank road would have been no doubt adopted as a solution of the transportation problem. After the railroads came all was changed; old centers were abandoned, new centers were formed, the markets were brought nearer the farmer's home, distances were shortened, marketing made easier, and the development of the country was wonderfully accelerated. In a fair consideration of the means of communication which the county has employed, the stage coach must be included - the old "twicea-week" stage coach. It was a slow mode of travel, but the passengers had a good time. The rate of speed in pleasant weather and with good roads was perhaps seven or eight miles an hour, and the average cost was perhaps five cents a mile. These vehicles have been forgotten as completely as the days they represented. When the steam horse which at first plowed the water took to land in the east, the finest of the stages were taken west, and some of them as far as the Rockies, where the stage coach is even yet not unknown. But the coach and the type of life it represented are gone forever from this part of the country. Sixty years ago, however, the residents of Edwardsburg and other points along the old Chicago road, on hearing the blast of the driver's horn as the stage topped the hill to the east of town, hailed the event as a break in pioneer monotony and with one accord assembled about

Page  170 170 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the stage station to welcome the arrival. No one who ever witnessed such a scene would forget the excitement and the deep interest that attended every detail of this little drama. The stage brought the latest news from the outside world, brought the newspapers, brought the mails. The stage put the people in connection with the great world, and when, the horses having been changed and the passengers again embarked, it disappeared on the prairie and then in the woods to the west, the isolation of the community was again complete until the coach came again. All this gives us an idea of the life of those days, which hardly seems real to us now when we are in direct and constant communication with all parts of the world. This is the description of one of the old "Concord" stage coaches as described by a writer in the former history of Cass county: "You can fancy this ancient vehicle —a black painted and deck-roofed hulk - starting out from Detroit, with its load of passengers, swinging on its thorough-braces attached to the fore and hind axles, and crowded to its fullest capacity. There was a boot projecting three or four feet behind for luggage; an iron railing ran around the top of the coach where extra baggage or passengers were stowed as occasion required. The driver occupied a high seat in front; under his feet was a place for his traps and the mail; on each side of his seat was a lamp, firmly fixed, to light his way by night; inside of the coach were three seats which would accommodate nine passengers. You can imagine the stage coach, thus loaded, starting out at the 'get ape' of the driver, as he cracks his whip over the heads of the leaders, when all four horses spring to their work, and away goes the lumbering vehicle, soon lost to sight in the woods, struggling along the road, lurching from side to side into deep ruts and often into deeper mud holes.". Edwardsburg was a junction point on the Chicago: road at which a branch line of stages went toward Niles. The first stage coaches in Cass county are said to have passed through in 1830 upon the Chicago road and this branch. At first two stages went over the road each week, but trips were being made tri-weekly before the Black Hawk war suspended operations entirely in 1832. In 1833 a new line of stages was established between Detroit and Chicago. The route was fromn Detroit via Ypsilanti, Jonesville, Coldwater river, White Pigeon, Edwardsburg and Niles. Teams were.changed about every twelve miles. By subsequent changes in ownership this line became the "Western Stage Company."

Page  171 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 171 In 1835, on account of the great increase in immigration and general travel, it was found necessary to put on daily stages. These were almost invariably crowded, and the company was compelled to put on a double line before the season was over. Even then the agents were sometimes obliged to hire extra teams and common wagons in which to convey passengers. The most desirable seats in the stages were frequently sold at a heavy premium by speculators. The stage companies upon this direct through line to Chicago were very liberally patronized and grew rich. They flourished until the railroad superseded the "Concord." RAILROAD ERA. But the chief developer and re-arranger of civilization is the railroad. At a time when the relations of the railroads to the individual citizen, the civic community and the country at large bulk so large in public attention and discussion, it is needless to describe the importance of the railroad as an institution of modern life. The coming of the railroad to this part of the west marked the end of the period of pioneer development and the beginning of the era of material progress in which we are still living. When Cass county was first settled the pioneers had no intimation of the revolutionary changes in transportation and consequently all departmefints of industry and methods of living that would be effected by the railroad. It will be renlembered that the first railroad in the United States - several miles in length only - was constructed in 1826, almost coincidentally with the first settlement in Cass county. In I830, after the tide of immigration had resulted in the organization of the county, there were only twenty-three miles of railroad in operation in the United States. Hence, at that time the people of Cass county could hardly have looked forward to any time in the near future when they could anticipate using railroad transportation as a common facility. But by the year 1835 the railroad age in the United States had been fairly inaugurated, with over a thousand miles in operation, and the lines increasing at a phenomenal rate. By this time the fever of railroad building had penetrated the middle west, and the subject was thenceforth one of increasing importance among all classes. It was a long while, however, before the railroad actually came this far west. In the meantime the demands of the people for improved transportation resulted in the agitation of canal construction and the

Page  172 172 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY opening of the waterways of commerce. Canal building in the middle west reached its fullest extent during the late thirties and the forties, and for a time the canal and the railroad competed on even terms. The only convenient water way ever utilized by the people of Cass county for transportation was the St. Joseph river. The early settlers were compelled to haul in wagons their surplus wheat and corn and other products to some point on this stream, such as Niles, and thence "ark" them to Lake Michigan, for carriage by lake vessels to the markets of the world. Several years before the advent of the railroad, the first steamboat began plying on the St. Joseph, as the forerunner of the considerable fleet which up to the present day has navigated on the lower courses of that stream. The only serious plan for bringing this waterway into more useful relation to Cass county was that discussed at a meeting held in Edwardsburg, February, 1836, to consider the project of constructing a canal from Constantine to Niles. Such a canal would have crossed south central Cass county, and would have been a short cut across the great arc made by the river in its bend into Indiana. Had the railroad era not been so near, this canal wotuld doubtless have been constructed at some tinie, an( would hlave been of inestimable advantage to the development of Cass county. But a majority of those present at the Edwardsburg meeting favored, even then, the idea of a railroad rather than a canal. The result was that the friends of the enterprise secured the passage of an act 1Vb the legislature, March 26, 8.36, incorporating the Constantine and Niles Canal or Railroad Company, with a capital stock fixed at $250,000. The company was empowered to construct either a canal or railroad between the termini mentioned in its name and charter. The first directors were William Meek, George W. Hoffman, Wells T. House, Watson Sumner, John G. Cathcart, Edward N. Bridge, J. C. Lanman, Jacob Beeson and Vincent L. Bradford. This enterprise ended in the storm of financial disaster that overtook the country in 1837, and it is not certain that even a survey of the route of the proposed canal or railroad was made. Such was the only canal building ever attempted in this county. Already the attention of the people was directed to the advance of the railroads from the east. In 1832 the territorial council of Michigan had incorporated the Detroit and St. Joseph Railroad Company. The company was authorized to build a single or double track railroad from

Page  173 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 173 Detroit to St. Joseph, by way of the village of Ypsilanti and( the county seats of \Washtenaw, Jackson, Calhoun and Kalanmazoo, counties, and to run cars on the same "by the force of steam, of animals, of any mechanical or other force, or of any combination of these forces"; was bound to begin work within two years from the passage of the act, to build thirty miles of track within six years, to complete half of the road within fifteen years, and to finish the whole of it within thirty years, under penalty of the forfeiture of its franchises. The route was surveyed, work was begun at the eastern end, but before the set period of six years had expired Michigan had become a state. With its new dignity of statehood. Michigan was most zealous in fostering enterprises of internal improxvement, not merely opening the way for the exertion of private or corporate effort, but even going to the extent olf constructing under state auspices and appropriations from. the public treasury the railroad and other highways and public utilities. March 20, I837, an act of the legislature was approved that provided for the construction of three railroads across the whole breadth of its territory, to be called the Northern, Central and Southern railroads. The Central was to run from Detroit to the mouth of the St. Joseph. The act also provided for the purchase of the rights and property of companies already established, and especially those of the Detroit and St. Joseph Company. The sum of $55o.ooo was appropriated for the survey and making of the three roads, $400,0o0 of which was set apart for the Central. The legislature also authorized a loan of five million dollars for railroad construction. The commissioners of Internal Improvements were thus. provi(led with funds for the carryingo out of this stupen(lous un(lertaking. But the buildinog began in a period of industrial depression, unlooked for obstacles hindered the progress of the work, and when the year 1846 came the Central had been completed only to Kalamazoo, while the Southern's western operating terminal still tarried at Hillsdale. Public opinion as to the feasibility of railroad construction by the state seems to have changed in the meanwhile, and by an act of the legislature in the early part of 1846 an entire change of policy was effected. By this act of 1846 the Michigan Central Railroad Company, composed of private individuals, was incorporated. At the same time a transfer of all the state's equity and control of the Central Railroad was made to the new corporation for the consideration of two miillion

Page  174 1 74 HISTORY 01F CASS COUNTY dollars. The charter required the new company to follow substantially the route originally decided upon, but instead of specifying that the mouth of the St. Joseph should be the western terminus, allowed the company to build from Kalamazoo "to some point in the state of Michigan on or near Lake Michigan which shall be accessible to steamboats on said lake, and thence to some point on the southern boundary line of Michigan"; the men who composed the company insisting on the latter provision in order that they might have a choice of destination. The object of the company wAas to project their line across the northern portion of Indiana and plant its western terminus at Chicago. The story of the intense rivalry between the Michigan Central and the Michigan Southern in their struggle to be the first to accomplish this end is not pertinent here. But the change of the objective point from St. Joseph to Chicago resulted in diverting the course of the line direct from Kalamazoo to New Buffalo (the terminus of the Michigan charter) and thus crossing the northwest corner of Cass county. Had the original plan been carried out, Cass county would have been without railroad connection, for a number of years longer. But now, in the haste to construct the line, the new company, as soon as the transfer had been effected, surveyed a route to New Buffalo and at once pushed the work of construction as far as the Michigan charter would carry it. The road was completed through this county as far as Niles by October 7, I848, and in the spring of the following year New Buffalo was reached. The conflicting interests of the two rival railroads and the legislatures of the states through which the lines were to pass delayed the completion of the Michigan Central across Indiana. But the line was opened to Michigan City in the winter of 185I-52, and in the following spring was completed to Chicago. Had the plans contemplated by the state been carried out, the Michigan Southern would have been constructed along the southern border of the state'and hence through Cass county. But it was seen fit to turn this line south from White Pigeon, and thence was constructed across Northern Indiana. The first constitution of Michigan had expressly affirmed the propriety of internal improvements being undertaken by the state and paid for out of the public funds or public lands. The unhappy results that followed the projection and partial construction of the Central and Southern railroads under state auspices worked a complete reversal of public opinion on this policy. Accordingly the constitution off I85o

Page  175 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 1. 5 contained a provision prohibiting the state from contributing to or otherwise engaging in any such forms of internal improvements. Though the people as a state were thus forbidden to construct railroads, it was understood that smaller corporate units of towns and cities were not affected by the constitutional provisions. After the Civil war for several years, there passed over the country a wave of popular activity and participation in railroad construction. Towns, villages and counties, not to mention hundreds olf private citizens, not only in this state but in many states of the middle west, voted generous subscriptions or "bonuses" to railroad enterprises, many of which began and ended their existence in the fertile brains of the promoters. This movement had a vital connection with Cass county's welfare, and its ultimate results may be said to have given the county two of its railroad lines. By the beginning of the seventies the towns and cities of the state had voted to various railroad companies subscriptions aggregating several millions of dollars. Individuals had given perhaps as much more. Now followed a decision of the state supreme court declaring that the act under which the voting had taken place was unconstitutional; hence these minor civil corporations could not obligate themselves by contributions to railroad construction any more than the state itself could. This was the final phase of internal improvements under public direction or support. So much history of the matter is necessary to a proper understanding of the manner in which the "Air Line" and the Peninsular, now Grand Trunk, railroads were constructed through Cass county. LaGrange township alone, with the prospective benefits of two railroads before it, had voted thirty thousand dollars of bonds to the two projected roads. But fortunately these bonds, as was true of the bonds of other townships in the county, were still in the keeping of the state treasurer at the time the decision of the supreme court was given. Soon after the decision was made known a majority of the citizens of the various townships voted to recall the bonds and prevent their being surrendered to the railroad companies and hence to individual purchasers. The state treasurer, however, refused to return the bonds until the supreme court, in behalf of LaGrange township, issued a mandamus compelling the state treasurer to restore the bonds. In the case of some townships of the state, the bonds had already passed into the financial markets, and in such instances the townships were obliged to pay their subscriptions.

Page  176 176 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY The Air Line branch of the Michigan Central which now crosses Cass county nearly centrally from west to east was projected almost entirely by local capital and enterprise, the corporate name being the Michigan Air Line Railroad Company. The people of the counties of Cass. St. Joseph, Calhoun and Jackson were the ones most vitally interested. Jackson county subscribed nearly two hundred thousand (lollars to the undertaking and the principal officers of the original organization were citizens of Jackson. The line was opened to travel from Jackson to Homer in the summer of I870, to Three Rivers in the autumn of the same year, and was completed to Niles in February, 187I. Almost coincident with the completion of the road it was leased to the Michigan Central Railroad Company, and soon became the property of that company. The first regular passenger train over this road was run through Cass county on January I6, I87I. The late Mr. S. T. Read, of Cassopolis, has been given the credit for suggesting to the president of the Canadian Railroad the scheme for extending that line from its western Canadian terminus at Port H-uron across the peninsula of Michigan to a terminal in the commercial metropolis of Chicago. The Grand Trunk Railroad was built, and due to the public-spirited and persistent efforts of Mr. Read the line passed through central Cass county and the county seat. The people of the county liberally supported the enterprise, contributing in cash subscriptions and donations of rights of way to the amount of one hundtred thousand dollars. The track was completed to Cassopolis from the east on February 9 I1871, and in the course of the same year the line was extended to Valparaiso, Indiana, and subsequently to Chicago. The Grand Trunk Railroad in the United States is a patchwork of smaller lines and extensions of various date. The first line was constructedl under a charter given to the Port tHuron and Lake Michigan Railroad Comn1pany in 1847. In 1855 the Port Huron and Milwaukee Railroad Company was chartered, and not long afterward was amalgamated with the first-named organization. October 3, I865, the Peninsular Railroad Company was chartered to construct a railroad between Lansing and Battle Creek. January 3, I868, the Peninsular Railroad Extension Company was chartered for the extension of a line from Battle Creek to the Indiana state line. These two companies were consolidated as the Peninsular Railway Company. Numerous other con

Page  177 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 177 solidations and changes preceded the final organization, in April, I880, of the Chicago and Grand Trunk Railway Company. In the early eighties the Cincinnati, Cleveland, Chicago & St. Louis, popularly known as the "Big Four," was constructed between Niles and Elkhart. This route passed through the southwestern corner of Cass county, in Milton township, but as only a signal station called Truitt has been established on that section of the line, the "Big Four" is not a Cass county road in the same relation as the Michigan Central, with the Air Line branch and the Grand Trunk. Although at the date of this compilation Cass county's means of communication do not include electric lines, the course of development will soon reach this stage, and it is appropriate to describe the present status of this subject. About I9o0 the "Eastern and Northwestern Railroad C(ompany" was formed by a group of capitalists with headquarters in Chicago. They proposed a railroad from Benton Harbor to Toledo, entering Cass county at the northwest andi leaving it about the middle of Newberg towniship on the east, cutting tlle existing lines about at right angles. The line of original survey was run three miles to the north of Cassopolis. The citizens of that village, alive to the possible loss of another railroad, at once made efforts to bring the road through tle county seat. The terms asked by the promoters were a right of way for the distance of two and a half miles and land for depot site. The Cassopolis citizens complied, and the road was to be in operation as far as Dowagiac by May, 1902, and the entire line conmpleted by July, 1903. A large part of the grading was done, indeed in this respect the line is practically complete to Jamestown in Penn township, Cass county, but the financial backing failed before the rest of the construction was finished, and the grades and cuts are all that Cass county so far has to show for the enterprise. But tentative negotiations are in progress, according to a plan to utilize this route for an electric road. The network of interurban electric lines is certain to inclose Cass county within a few years. To the south there is a line of electric communication almost continuous between Michigan City and Toledo. On the west a branch of the same system touches Niles, Berrien Springs and Benton Harbor, Berrien county. Kalamazoo is another center for the radiation of these roads. As this form of intercommunication in the middle west is the product

Page  178 178 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY of little more than a decade, it is not unreasonable to expect an equally phenomenal increase with the succeeding ten years. POSTAL SERVICE. No phase of the general subject of communication is of more vital interest to the people than postal facilities. The desire to know what is going oil in the world outside the circle of immediate acquaintance is as deep-seated as it is wholesome, and the isolation from friends and relatives and the settled parts of the country was one of the severest privations connected with settlement on the frontier. In truth there was a time in most such communities when news-if such it could be called when it often was very old when it reached the hearers-had no regular lines of dissemination and was carried only by the chance traveler. All pioneer communities have experienced such a situation in some degree, and the early settlers of Cass county had little definite connection with the outside world, although living in a comparatively modern age and only a few years before the invention of the telegraph. Accordingly one of the first improvements sought after actual home and shelter and means of subsistence were provided was a postal service, such as all the settlers had been familiar with in their former homes in the more settled regions. We have seen how the government early made provision for the establishment of a great post road from the east to the west. But the actual transportation and distribution of mail was a very uncertain matter for many years, and depended largely on the provision that each community could make for that purpose. In the early days a mail route was established between Fort Wayne and Niles. The mail was at first carried once in four weeks, then once every two weeks. This mail was carried by a character known as "Old Hall," who bestrode one horse while the mail bags were carried on a horse that he led. At Niles the mail for all the surrounding country was distributed, the various communities in Cass county each receiving it by special carriers. Some convenient settler's cabin was selected as the postoffice, and there the neighbors would gather to receive a chance letter or hear the reading of a newspaper brought in by the last mail. The history of many of these early postoffices is told in the chapter on the centers of population. Letters were a luxury in pioneer times. They were written on foolscap paper and so folded that one side was left blank, so as to form its own envelope, it being sealed with wax or a wafer. This latter cus

Page  179 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 1'79 tom was followed for many years, and some of these sheets folded according to the usual manner and with some of the wax of the seal still adhering to them, are still to be found in the county. It was perhaps well that the pioneer could not foresee the conveniences that his twentieth century descendant enjoys in the way of postal facilities; he might have felt his deprivations more severely had he known that in I906 the rural mail routes, radiating in every direction and approaching within convenient distance of every home in the county, would be delivering packages, letters and metropolitan dailies once each day and with greater regularity and punctuality than was the case in the large eastern towns of his time. TELEPHONES. To understand the development that has taken place in the means of communication it is not necessary to go back beyond the memory of the present generation. As the result of successful experiments Mr. Alex. Graham Bell exhibited at the Centennial exposition in Philadelphia in I876 an invention which was described by a standard encyclopedia published in 1877 as an instrument for the "telegraphic transmission of articulate sounds." The article further goes on to state as the climax of the wonderful discovery that "we may confidently expect that Mr. Bell will give us the means of making voice and spoken words audible through the electric wire to an ear hundreds of miles distant." And-in I906 there is probably not a person in Cass county who does not at least know of the telephone, and in hundreds of rural homes and in nearly every city and village residence and business house will be found one of these instruments, so necessary to modern life. Various telephone and telegraph companies are now operating their lines in and through this county, and the news of the Russian crisis comes to every village as soon after the occurrence as in former days a report concerning a trial at Cassopolis would reach the outlying districts of the county. From the foregoing it appears that the world is coming to be all of a piece. Once every little community could live by itself, make its own clothes, wagons, tools, and all the articles necessary for its existence. But this view of self-dependence and isolation either in man or in the community is now thoroughly discredited. With the coming of railroad, telegraph, telephone, etc., closer relations were established, and individuals, communities and states have become dependent on each other.

Page  180 180 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XII. INDUSTRIES AND, FINANCE. That familiar hero of juvenile fiction, Robinson Crusoe, after being cast upon his desert island, was compelled to build his own shelter, to make his own clothes, to fashion many of his implements and his household utensils, to cultivate the soil and raise 'and prepare all things needful for his bodily sustenance, to enact for his own guidance all his laws and rules of conduct, and to be his own army for protection against the cannibals. Such a type of all-around man, jack-of-all-trades, self-sufficient and prepared for all the uses and adversities of the world, was at one time considered the proper ideal by which each person should fashion his life. But such individualism is now seen to be exceedingly primitive, and instead of making man more independent really puts him more abjectly in dependence on all the humnbler wants and necessities whicl are at the base of the higher life. Society as now organized, and in its general tendencies toward the working out of the problems of human destiny, divides into numerous occupations the work of the world, specializing it for each class of workers, anl therely leaves each of us the greater liberty to work out our individuality to its highest possibilities. The men and women who settled Cass county in the twenties and thirties of the last century were in a measure Crusoes, in that most of the necessities of life, whether for eating, wearing or for performingi the work of the field and household, were home products. Planted in the depth of a great wilderness, remote from mills and often unattended by craftsmen. the men and wromen who laid here the foundations of civilized society were, of necessity, their own artisans to a very large extent, and every home was a factory. Many a farmer or farmer's son, becojming skilled in some particular trade, was enabled thereby to add stubstantially to the family income. The conversion of raw material into forms suitable for the uses of mankind was undertaken immediately upon the arrival of the first

Page  181 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 181 permanent white settlers, who, with few tools but an ax, hastily constructel a rude cabin of logs and fashioned a few primitive articles for domestic use, such as tables, benches, beds, and other furnishings of inlnmediate necessity. Next to shelter an(l foodstuffs clothing was the issue of paramount importance to the hardy pioneers, and in the division of labor this indulstry was left to the women. Every cabin was flanked by its patch of flax, and the planter who did not possess a few sheep had to trade with his neighbor for wiool. From these rawr materials the old-fashioned housewife was expected to produce clothing for the family and linen for the bed and table. The full grown flax was pulled up and spread out on the ground to rot in the rain and dew, after which it was thorouglhlv broken, bv the older bovs, if there were any. with the vi.gorous use of the flax-brake, then put through a softening process called "scutclhing." and a separating process called "hackling," which left ready for the spinstress two fabrics, tow and thread fiber. By the use of the little spinning wheel, proficiency in the handling of -which was for the girls a test of advancing womaunhood, the fiber, or lint, was made into a fine, strong thread called warp, and the tow into a coarser thread used as filling. These were woven together on a hand loom, and from the tow-linen produced was made the summer wear for the family, the females usually preferring to color theirs with home-made (lyestuff to suit their taste, while the less pretentious men folks were satisfied to take it as it came from the loom. Whlen the wool was brought in, the good mother and her daughters, after thoroughly cleansing or scouring it by washing, shaped it into convenient rolls by the aid of a pair of hand-cards provided for that purpose and spun on the lig wheel into varn filling (sometimes used for knitting stockings, mittens and comforters), which, when woven with linen warp, made the "linsey-woolsey" of the good old days, or, if woven with cotton warp. resulted in the fabric known as "jeans." The former, suitably dyed, was in general use as a strong, warm and handsome texture for feminine apparel, and the latter, colored with butternut juice, was tailored by the women for the men's wear. As commerce with other parts of the United States increased, cotton became a more generally used material. But during the height of the abolition movement, which, as we know, had some very strong advocates in Cass county, a prejudice arose against the use of any material made by slave labor, although only two or three instances are

Page  182 182 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY recorded of persons who absolutely refused to wear garments that contained any part cotton. For footwear the wandering cobbler, who traveled from house to house, was relied upon to fashion boots and shoes from the hometanned hides, or moccasins were procured from the Indians. Occasionally the shoemakers would not get around until after snowfall, and many a venerable grandsire can tell of going barefooted to his chores with snow on the ground. A well prepared coonskin made a very warm and equally unsightly cap. Coonskins also formed a kind of currency of the woods, the pelt being considered as good as gold and accepted in exchange for all commodities. Properly selected rye straws were woven by the women into bonnets for themselves and hats for their masters. The women also fashioned for themselves curiously wrought sunbonnets of brightly-colored goods shaped over pasteboard strips with fluted and ruffled capes falling behind over the shoulders. The manufacture of quilts gave opportunitv for social gatherings when there were neighbors close enough to get back home before chore time, and the quilting ranked along with the huskings, log-rollings and house-raisings among the primitive society functions of the early days. The industries of the homestead did not include the preservation of fruits and vegetables, save to a small extent by drying, but meats were preserved in various ways: lye hominy or hulled corn was a regular institution, and some other food articles were occasionally laid by for winter, thus forming the beginnings of the packing and canning industries of later times. Prior to the advent of cabinet makers the settlers, perforce, included that trade among their accomplishments, and made their own bedsteads, tables, cupboards and chairs. For bedsteads an oak butt, about eight feet long and of sufficient diameter, was split into rails and posts, a shorter log was split up for slats, and the pieces selected were dressed down with the drawknife and fitted together with the axe. Two rails were used for each side and three for each end, the rounded ends of the slats being driven into auger holes in the rails, and the four high corner-posts were tied together at the tops with strong cords, from which curtains might be suspended if desired. Even less pretentious forms have been described, and, of course, each article of furniture would be likely to- vary according to the ingenuity and skill. of the maker. In the more fortunate homes were bedsteads with turned posts, square rails and cords in place of slats, a feather bed surmounted the

Page  183 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 183 "straw tick," and with plenty of "kiver," such a lodgment was comfortable on the coldest winter night. There was also the trundle bed, a low bed that could be pushed under the large bed, where it remained during the day, and was pulled out for the smaller children's use at night. With equal skill a table was constructed by pinning two thin oak clapboards, smoothed with a sharp ax on the upper side, to cross-pieces set on four strong legs, the surface of the table being about four feet by six. This type also varied. Three-legged stools were made in a similar simple manner. Pegs driven in auger holes in the logs of the wall supported shelves, and on others was hung the limited wardrobe of the family. A few other pegs, or, perhaps, a pair of deer horns formed a rack on which were suspended the rifle and powder horn, always found in every pioneer cabin. Fortunately, among the early settlers there was here and there a craftsman who could be called upon by his neighbors to perform the special form of labor for which his skill fitted him. A number of such persons have been mentioned in former chapters. It was not usual during the first years of the county's history for an artisan to depend entirely on his trade. There was not sufficient demand for his services. He had his claim and cultivated the ground just as the other settlers, and during the winter season or the interims of farm labor, lie was ready to ply his trade. As we have seen, certain forms of manufacturing, such as those represented in the sawmill and the grist mill, were introduced very soon after the settlement of the county began. These two particular institutions supplied the immediate necessities of life, and no community could progress very far without them. Other forms of manufacturing soon came in. and at an early date manufacturing interests formed a distinct part of the industrial affairs of the county. At Cassopolis, the name of Abram Tietsort, Jr., is first and most prominently associated with a trade. The log building in which he did cabinet making for the villagers was located on the banks of Stone lake, just out of the village site. He made various articles of furniture for the pioneer homes, and now and then was called upon to furnish a plain and simple coffin; for death was not an unknown visitor to the early community. An institution, of which there were several examples in early Cass county, was the distillery for the manufacture of the whiskey

Page  184 184 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY which, according to general knowledge, was a more universal beverage and consutmed ill more copious quantities in those days than at the present. In I833 Jacob, Abiel and Benjamin F. Silvers put up a distillery on the banks of Stone lake, the first manufacturing institution of Cassopolis. The frame was so large and made of such massive tiimher that it required the efforts of a great force of men to raise it. Nearly all the male population of the central portion of the county assisted in the work. which took three (las' time. 'The distillery was run to its utmost capacity for a number of years, and the farmers in the surrounding country received a great deal of money from its proprietors for their surplus corn. Each settler learned to be skilled in sharpening his own tools, and even fashionedl out by homemade process some of the iron implements nee(lel. But as soon as possible he resorted for the more important work to a regular blacksmith, it often being necessary to go for that purpose many miles. For instance, it is related that a settler on Beardsley's prairie had to take his plowshare to be sharpened bv Israel Markham, who conducted the first blacksmith shop in the county on Pokagon prairie. Over near the present Jamestown, in Penn township, a man by the name of Peck established a blacksmith shop about 1828, but did not remain long. The early advent of carpenters and joiners to the county has been spoken of in an earlier chapter. As soon as the people advanced beyond the log cabin stage it became quite necessary to procure the services of a skilled builder in tile construction of the houses. With the art of clothies-making delegated so completely to the pioneer housewife, early Cass county would hardly seem a profitable location for a tailor. But there is record of one who located at Geneva about I834, when that was still a village of some proportions. He was also employed in the same line for a time at Whitmanville. The business activity of Edwardsburg was increased, in I837, by the arrival of a hat maker named James Boyd, who later moved to Cassopolis, where he (lied. The business of hat-making was a common pursuit in the east during that time, but few found their way to the sparsely settled west. Mr. Boyd, however, made hats in this county tor six years, as the only representative the county ever had in that industry, and he sold his hats in all parts of the county. No one could forget the old-time sugar box. It was a necessary

Page  185 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 185 article in every household, and, besides holding sugar, it often served other no less useful purposes. There are instances on record where the sugar box became the receptacle for the pioneer mail, where it was kept until the neighbors had time to call for it. Did the housewife need a sugar box, it was quite likely that she sent her husband to Edwardsburg. About 1837, a Mr. Keeler located in that village, and besides making these indispensable sugar boxes, he split out and softened and wove long strips of wood into baskets for the settlers' use. He was a character in the neighborhood, made verses as well as baskets, and in peddling his wares about the county he drove to his cart, in lieu of a horse, a patient ox named "Bright." Perhaps not a nmonth passed that some one who claimed special skill in a particular craft oCr to be a jack-of-all-trades-a wandering tinker, a cobliler, a tinsmith, etc.-did not pass through or locate more or less permanently in early Cass county. Though no historical record is kept of such mechanics, they are worthy of our attention so far as showing how mucl of the work now done by a regular mechanic was atten\lel to at that time )v the well known "tinker" character. In pioneer davs the same spreading tree that sheltered the village smithy usually cast its shade also upon the local wagon shop. The t-wo industries were born twins an (lid not drift apart until the era of great factories set in and made the manufacture of vehicles at the crossroads shop an economic impossibility. In the early years a wheelwright came to the county in the person of Benjamin Sweeney, who was located at Edwardsburg a number of years. He was also a civil engineer, and laid out many roads through the county. WVe have alluded to the existence at the Carey Mission of a grist mill as early as 1826. At that time there was not another within a hundred miles. Hither the first settlers brought their meager grist, if they did not pound or grind it with some rude contrivance at home. It is hardly possible to assign an exact date for the location of the first mill in Cass county. But the Carpenter mill, on Christiann creek, near the site of Vandalia, was probably built about 1828. All the burrs and otler iron parts of the mill were brought from Ohio. A few years later this mill became the property of James O'Dell, a miller, who located in Penn township in 1832. Mr. O'Dell was prominent in public affairs as well, serving as supervisor, and in other township offices, in the state legislature, and was a member of the first constitutional convention in I835.

Page  186 1 6 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY As population increased other grist mills were established. Moses Sage built one in Adamsville in I835, and such was the demand for flour that he ran it night and day for several years. Grist mills, as well as saw mills, were at first necessarily located by convenient water power. After the introduction of steam power the flour mills, as a rule, were centered in the villages, and where the best transportation facilities were offered. Of sawmills there were a great number throughout the county. Job Davis had one in La Grange township in I829, the first mechanical industry in the township. At the outlet of Jones lake, in the northeastern part of the township, Henry Jones and Hardy Langston built a mill in I830. Carding machinery was afterwards installed, this being one of the early attempts at the woolen industry in this county. On Dowagiac creek, on the north border of La Grange township, and near the site oi present Dowagiac, William Renneston built, in 1830, a woolen mill, bringing the machinery from southern Indiana. Three years later he built a grist mill at the same place. This was the beginning of the milling industry which has been carried on at that location to the present time. The first sawmill in Porter was commenced on section 32, by Othni Beardsley, and was completed in 1831 by Lewis, Samuel and Jacob Rinehart, who ran the mill fifteen years. The lumber which was not bought and hauled from the mill by local purchasers was hauled to the St. Joseph river and thence rafted down to Mishawaka and South Bend, and much of it to St. Joseph. Another early mill, erected in the early thirties, was built on the south branch of Pokagon creek, in section 6 of Jefferson township, by John Pettigrew, Jr. This contained an old-fashioned upright saw. All the machinery had been brought by wagon from Ohio. Primitive as it was, this mill supplied material for building many of the houses of the surrounding country, and some of its product was sold in Niles, South Bend and Elkhart. Various sites along Christiann creek have contained mills at different periods of history. The Shaffer-Beardsley mill was an institution known for a number of years, having been built in I836. Near by was the grist mill of Robert Painter, built in I840, close to Painter's lake. Here he later installed a sawmill and machinery for woolen manufacture, but the vicissitudes of manufacture finally overtook the enterprise with failure.

Page  187 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 187 On that part of Christiann creek which lies in section I9, of Calvin, Daniel McIntosh and Samuel Crossen built the first sawmill in that township in I832. It soon passed into the hands of Joseph Smith, who, in 1833, erected a distillery and manufactured and sold pure whiskey at 25 cents a gallon. In the fifties J. C. Fiero, a merchant at Edwardsburg, erected and operated a steam grist mill in that place, near the site of the present creamery. The mill was destroyed hy fire in the spring of I86I. In Peter Shaffer's mill, near this location, was sawed the lumber for the first court house at Cassopolis. The year I83I is the date of the building of a grist mill near the present site of Brownsville. Several tanneries did business in the county during the early years. One of them was located at Brownsville. It is, thus seen that at various periods in her history Cass county has had a great many forms of manufacturing. As a country develops, certain forms of industry become profitable in certain stages of that development. A tannery could supply a very evident need of the settlers, and might be operated profitably as a local institution for some years. But as soon as railroad transportation become general and the centralization of manufacturing began, it would be necessary either that the tannery should enlarge to! more than a local concern or go out of business entirely. The latter was more often the case. This process of industrial growth and decay is found everywhere, and in itself illustrates the historical development of communities. The twenty-third annual report of the Michigan Bureau of Labor, giving the results of factory inspection made in Cass county in April, 9go5, names the following industries, with the year of establishment: At Cassopolis: C. W. Bunn, lumber, i885. City Steam Laundry, 90oo. Cassopolis Steam Laundry, 1902. Cassopolis Manufacturing Company, 9oo0. Cassopolis Creamery, I9012. Cassopolis Vigilant, I872. Milling Power Company, I89I. National De.mocrat, I85o. R. F. Peck, cigars, 1904. Rinehart & McCoy, cigars, I897. At Dozwagiac: City Steam Laundry, I903.

Page  188 188 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Colby Milling Company, I857. Creamery Package Mfg. Company, I903. Dowagiac Gas & Fuel Company, I892. Dowagiac City Water \orks, I887. Daily Nezs, 188I. Dowagiac Manufacturing Company, I88I. Geesey Brothers & Cable, hoops and staves, I903. Wm. Hislop, lumber. Herald, 1892. J. A. Lindsley, lumber, I885. Byron C. Lee, cigars, 1904. Round Oak Stove Works, 1873. Republican Printing Company, I857. Standard Cabinet Company, 899;. S. F. Snell, cigars, 90oI. A4t iarccl!us:. Simon Brady, cigars, 1894. H. S. Chapman, gasoline engines, I888. H. J. Hoover, lumber, 1895. Willard McDonald, butter tuls, 900oo. Marcellus Milling Company, I89I. MNarcellus Steam Laundry, 1903. Municipal Lighting Station, 1902. Morceulls Nwcs, 1872. Reliance Cigar Company, 1905. At Glci'zood, the Hampton Stock Farm Company, staves and headings, establishedl 902, and at Pokagon, J. H. Phillips, lumber, established I888. As will be seen, the inspection did not include the villages of Edwardsburg, Vandalia and Union, where factories of equal importance with some of those mentioned are to be found. But from the figures given some interesting summaries are drawn relative to the importance of manufacturing industries in the county. At Dowagiac sixteen factories and workshops were inspected, eleven kinds of goods were made or handled. The whole number of employes found at the time of inspection was 880, indicating that in a city of less than five thousand population, one person out of five depends on these industries for means of livelihood. Of course the Round Oak Stove Works, employing, at the date of inspection, 59o, and the Dowagiac Manufacturing Company, with I65 employes, are the major industries. Taking the thirtyseven industries named in tle report, it is seen that the aggregate number of employes is 994. This approximates five per cent of the popula

Page  189 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 189 tion of Cass county dlepending on what are officially designate(l as "factory" indutstries. Were the data at hand for all the handicrafts an(l mantufactories of the county, the proportion of those engaged in in(lustrial pursuits would be much larger, perhaps at least ten per cent of the entire population. \With this general survey of the trades and factories of the pioneer times and the present, this chapter mnay appropriately be closed with some sketches of the largest and oldest of Cass county's manufactures. MIany of the productive enterprises vwhich have proved the industrial core of several commnunities in the county have been mentioned in connection with the history of such localities. Cassopolis has never beein a center for manufactures. In I9oo0 a large plant was built near the Grand Trunk depot for the manufacture of grain drills, the concern being known as the Cassopolis Manufacturing Company. At this writing the works have been bought by the Kellogg Switchboard & Supply Company, who propose the inauguration of an extensive industry, the village having lent its support to the prol)osition by voting a subsidy of $7,ooo, providing the company expends $I50,000 in wrages witlhin a certain time. The most substantial Cassopolis enterprise is the Power & Mlilling Company, which, as elsewhere state(l, furnishes electricity and ptltn1ps water for the village and also conv-erts large quantities of grain into flour and food products, thus making the village a good orain m1arket. The plant of the Cassopolis Milling Company -\: as built 1y J. Hopkins & Sons in 1882, and for a number of years the stone process of mnilling was used. WV. D. Hopkins & Company and W. ID. Hopkins were successively proprietors, and( inll I889., the plant having come into the hands of W. D. Hopkins and A\. 1H. Van Riper, it was changed to the full roller system and incorporated b1v the namle Cassopolis Milling Company. The plant Awas enlarged when the city \w-ater works were established in I89I, and( again enlarged and readlapted when the electric light plant was installed in I895. The present proprietors are W. D. Hopkins, C. WV. Daniels, Irving Paul. Dowagiac is pre-emineltly the industrial center of the county, and because of their importance;in the history of both city and county some special account shoul( be mlade of the Round Oak Stove Works, the drill works, the Colby mills and several other factories.

Page  190 190 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ROUND OAK STOVE WORKS. The late P. D. Beckwith came to Dowagiac in 1854 and built a small foundry and machine shop, 25x60 feet, on the east side of Front street near Park Place. The machinery was run by horse power, and he and one workman were then sufficient to do all the work. At first he made plow castings and did general repair work. The demand for plows was still light, despite the great improvement in agricultural methods since the pioneer period. In 1858 Mr. Beckwith bought a new site for his plant at the foot of Front street on the south side of the creek, where the drill works are now located. He improved the water power, and continued the manufacture of plows until the production was greater than the demand. In the meantime John S. Gage, of Wayne township, had designed and patented a rude form of the roller grain drill and succeeded in getting Mr. Beckwith to buy an interest in the patent and to begin the manufacture of a type of machine which has been developed into one of the most useful agricultural implements that the farmers of the country have adopted. In 1867 Mr. Beckwith made his first stove, fashioned on the principles of the present Round Oak, but crude in workmanship and style. One of these stoves was placed in the Michigan Central depot, and because of its excellent heating qualities and durability the company had Mr. Beckwith make several others for their use. With the stove and the grain drill as articles for manufacture, Mr. Beckwith in I868 transferred his location to a plot of two acres just across the section line in La Grange township and near the depot grounds. The works have remained here ever since, although the grounds have been extended to the bank of the creek. Here he erected a brick factory and installed machinery for the manufacture of stoves and drills. He patented his Round Oak stove in I870. During the seventies the business passed through its most critical period. During the general financial stagnation over the entire country he was compelled to resort to personal solicitation to dispose of his product and in meeting his obligations his ability as a financier was tested to the utmost. But in a few years the business was established on a substantial basis, and the Round Oak stove works is not only the largest industrial enterprise of Dowagiac, but has made the name of its founder and the name of the city household words from one end of the country to the other. The name "Round Oak"

Page  191 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 191 can be found on stoves and ranges in the most remote localities, and the "Round Oak" furnace has gained an enviable reputation, and Dowagiac is associated with no other fact in thousands of minds that know nothing of the city or its history. From the first stages of the manufacture Mr. Beckwith built up his enterprise to splendid proportions, and since his death in I889 the "Beckwith Estate" has controlled and managed the business with increasing success and growth. The present officers of the Round Oak Company are: Fred E. Lee, general manager; A. B. Gardner, assistant general manager; J. O. Becraft, secretary; J. A. Howard, manager of sales; A. E. Rudolphi, assistant manager of sales; H. L. Mosher, manager of furnace and advertising departments; A. K. Beckwith, superintendent; and 0. G. Beach, chairman. As already mentioned, Mr. Beckwith began his Dowagiac career in manufacturing in a shop 25x60 feet. At the present time the floor space of the plant is 250,000 square feet and a new addition being constructed at this writing will bring that up to 300,000 square feet, or about fifteen acres of floor space. Mr. Beckwith began with one helper. At the time of his death about one hundred employes were needed to produce and sell the stoves, which by that time had become the sole line of manufacture. At this writing the force of employes is not far from eight hundred. And the managers are proud of the fact that the works are in operation practically all the time, the only shut-downs being at holidays for repairs. As is evident, such a force of employes in a city of five thousand forms the largest part of the population that could be classified in one group. Perhaps not far from half the population of Dowagiac depend on the Round Oak works for livelihood. Strikes and labor troubles have been unknown. It is estimated that sixty-five per cent of the employes have their own homes, and their character as citizens is much above that of the "factory average." A few other items as to the manufacture may prove pertinent to historical inquiry. Every day the process of manufacture requires sixty-five tons of pig-iron melted in two cupolas. The incoming shipments of pig-iron, coal and coke for this one plant are as large as the freight shipments for the entire city twenty-five years ago. About twenty years ago the firm decided to bring out a furnace to supplement their line of stoves and ranges. It took ten years to bring this type of furnace to the degree of perfection which satisfied the Round Oak people. Every item of criticism or advice from the purchasers of these furnaces was care

Page  192 192 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY fully considered and often became the ground for an improvement. W\hen the furnace was first put on the market there was much to criticise; after ten years customers entirely ceased to suggest improvements or to find defects, and therefore the company knew they had at last made a perfect furnace. The two, points of superiority first produced by Mr. Beckwith in his original Round Oak, namely, economy in consumption of fuel and durability through all the tests of usage, have been maintained throughout the existence of the business. The latest product of this plant is the Round Oak Chief steel range, which was brought out three years ago, and the present addition to the plant is a building for the manufacture of ranges. The steel range was a success from the start, has never once proved a failure, and remarkable sales indicate its popularity. At first only fiVe or six were made each day; now the number is eighty-five and soon it will be a hundred. In the conduct of the business the one-price principle has always been maintained; no jockeying in prices has been indulged in, all customers have been treated alike, and a solid and substantial basis underlies the Round Oak works in factory and counting rooms. In conclusion, a word should be said of the artistic catalogues and literature with which the company brings their goods to the attention of the worl(l. The best in the art of clromatic engraving and printing has been employed to produce the various booklets. The advertising, of lwhich Mr. I-.. Mosher has charge, is in keeping with the class of goods which are sold. DOWAGIAC MANUFACTURING COMPANY. According to the statement made on the first page of this company's catalogue for I906, Dowagiac grain drills were first made in I866 and have since been continuously made on part of the present site-"the largest in the world devoted exclusively to the manufacture of grain-. seeding machinery." T'le plant has grown from an eight-horse waterwheel plant to its present immense proportions. The prototype of the famous Dowagiac drill was a shoe drill first brought into practical fornl by William Tuttle, a farmer of this section of Michigan. The first one made, in 1866, as stated, had wooden shoes covered with tin, and Philo D. Beckwith cast the first iron shoes. The mode of covering the grain by a chain, the second part of the invention, was the idea of Shepard H. Wheeler, a pioneer of Dowagiac. The first drill was put up and made ready for work in the wood-working and repair shop of John Crawford and Amos Knapp, and in February, I867,

Page  193 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 193 the two inventors secured the first patent on the machine. A part of the present site of the plant-just south of Dowagiac creek on the west side of Front street-was purchased of Mr. Beckwith in I868. The factory was burned down in 1872, but was soon rebuilt, and the plant has been increasing in size and amount of output ever since. The business was in the hands of various parties during the first few years. J. P. Warner, who invented the spring-tooth harrow in I88o, was the principal partner (luring the seventies and for a long time the plant was known as the Warner Drill Works. In November, I88I, a stock company was formed under the name Dowagiac Manufacturing Company. In I890 the stock was bought up by N. F. Choate, F. W. Lyle, C. E. Lyle, W. F. Hoyt and Charles Fowle. From the crude beginnings of forty years ago the business has grown to what its owners claim it to be-the largest plant for the manufacture of seeding machinery in the world. At the date of the factory inspection of April, I905, the number of employes given was I65, but the full force is between 300 and 350, the output naturally varying in different seasons of the year. COLBY MILLING COMPANY. As elsewhere stated, the milling interests are the oldest institutions of Dowagiac, William Renniston having built a carding mill in 1830, and a few years later a grist mill on the creek near the Colby Conlpany's present mill, on the northeast corner of section six in LaGrange township, where the Cassopolis and Dowagiac road crosses a branch of the Dowagiac creek on the mill dam. After being owned by several parties, this property was sold by Erastus H. Spalding in i868 to Mr. H. F. Colby and became the nucleus of the present mills. In I857 G. A. Colby, a brother of H. F., had built a merchant mill at the head of Spalding street, and this was known as "the lower mill," to (istinguish it from "the upper mill," whhich was the original Renniston mill, though rebuilt by H. F. Colby in I868. H. F. Colby soon bought the lower mill, and the milling interests of Dowagiac have since then been largely identified with the Colby family. The Colby Milling Company was organized in I89I, its first members being H. F. Colby, F. L. Colby and F. H. Baker. It is a copartnership, and in 1900 Mr. F. L. Colby sold his interest in the business to F. W. Richey. The firm is now made up of H. F. Colby, F. H. Baker and F. W. Richey. The upper mill is known as the Crown Roller Mills and the lower mill as the State Roller Mills.

Page  194 194 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY SAND BANDS. The credit for producing this useful invention is due to Myron Stark, of Dowagiac, and William M. Farr has been associated in its manufacture for thirty years and is now the sole proprietor of the plant. Sketches of both these men will be found elsewhere in this volume and it is sufficient to say here that the factory has grown to be one of those that increase the reputation of Dowagiac as a substantial manufacturing center and bring outside wealth to this point. OTHER MANUFACTURES. Among the plants enumerated in the inspector's report, mention should also be made of the Standard Cabinet Company, which was established in 1899 and employs thirty or forty men. Its output is sold throughout the middle west. BANKING AND FINANCE. Cass county had none of the unfortunate experiences with "wildcat" finance which are part of the record of some Southern Michigan counties. Of course the financial panics and business depression of the thirties extended their baneful influence to the people of this county, but the frenzy of speculation and inflated currency were never localized here in a banking institution of the wild-cat type. Cassopolis has the honor of possessing the first banking institution. Asa and Charles Kingsbury, two names most prominent in the banking history of.the county seat, began a private banking house in I855. This was a quarter of a century after the settlement of the county and when we consider how important and necessary the bank is as an institution in this age the question might naturally be asked, Where did the people put their money and transact their financial affairs during those years? In the first place, the amount of money in circulation was very small and the wealth of the people was quite fully represented in labor and tangible property. A place to keep the cash surplus was little needed. Then, the financial transactions of the time were not of every-day occurrence, and the machinery of checks and drafts and organized finance was not so essential. So we see that banks were not so much needed in the early days as grocery stores and schools and churches, and were not established until the country reached a fair degree of development.

Page  195 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 195 FIRST NATIONAL BANK OF CASSOPOLIS. The Kingsburys dissolved partnership in 1857, and thereafter Asa Kingsbury conducted the business until the organization of the First National Bank. This well known institution has had an existence of thirty-five years. The personnel of its officials and stockholders has always been mnaintained at a high standard, and the organizers, in November, I87C, were representative of the best business interests of the village and county at that time, as those now concerned in the management are representative of the business ideals of this epoch. The incorporators and stockholders were: Asa Kingsbury, S. T. Read, Joseph K. Ritter, Isaac Z. Edwards, David M. Howell, Charles W. Clisbee, Charles H. Kingsbury, Joel Cowgill, E. B. Sherman, Amanda F. Ritter, Daniel Wilscn, all of Cassopolis; also David Lilly, of LaGrange township; James E. Bonine, of Penn township, and N. Boardman, E. M. Irvin, D. C. Read and Henry F. Kellogg, from outside the county. The first directors were: Asa Kingsbury, Joseph K. Ritter, David M. Howell, David Lilly, James E. Bonine and E. B. Sherman. The present directors are: M. L. Howell, C. A. Ritter, J. H. Johnson, H. D. Smith, A. M. Kingsbury, Ellen R. Funk, W. G. Bonine, all of Cassopolis excepting J. H. Johnson, a resident of Penn township. Asa Kingsbury was president from the date of the first charter until his death in 1883, when he was succeeded by David M. Howell, who first held the office of vice-president, and served until his death the same year. His successors have been Joseph K. Ritter, 1884-91; Sylvador T. Read, I893-98; Marshal L. Howell, since I898. The first cashier was Charles H. Kingsbury, who was succeeded by Charles A. Ritter, the present incumbent, in I891,, who then was assistant cashier and was succeeded by David L. Kingsbury, assistant at this time. The bank has a capital of $50o,oo; surplus and profits, $50,000. DOWAGIAC BANKS. H. B. Denman was the first banker of Dowagiac, establishing a private bank in I856, and was the leading spirit in organizing the First National Bank in 1865. This for six years was the only national bank in the county. Also in i865 the late Daniel Lyle and Joseph Rogers established a private banking office. In 1869, Mr. Denman having relinquished the controlling interest in First National stock and Mr. Lyle becoming the chief stockholder, the two institutions merged their inter

Page  196 196 HlSTORY OF CASS COULNTY ests, with Mr. Lyle as president of the First National, while in the same year Nelson F. Choate became cashier. When the charter of the First National expired in 1883 it was not renewed, but the bank was reorganized as a private bank under the firm name of D. Lyle & Company, Bankers. On the death of Daniel Iyle-one of the foremost citizens, a man whose memory deserves permanant record not only in financial affairs of his city, but in publicspirited citizenship-another reorganization was effected, this time a state charter being taken out, and at that date the City Bank of Dowagiac was born. Then again, in 1904, the state bank organization was dissolved and since then the bank has been conducted by the firm of Lyle, Gage & Company, Bankers, under the old name. The first officers of the bank under the state organization in I887 were: John Lyle, president; N. F. Choate, vice president; F. W. Lyle, cashier; I. B. Gage, assistant cashier. At the next change, in I904, the officers became: F. W. Lyle, president; N. F. Choate, vice president; I. B. Gage, cashier; Leon R. Lyle, assistant cashier. In February, I906, occurred the death of Nelson F. Choate, who had been identified with banking interests in the city nearly forty years. The official directorate then' became: F. WV. Lyle, president; I. B. Gage, vice president; L. R. Lyle, cashier; F. J. Phillips, assistant cashier. The flourishing condition of the City Bank is shown in the statement of nearly $350,ooo deposits and surplus, indicating the creditable management since I865 and also the financial status of the city and country. LEE BROTHERS COMPANY, BANKERS. This institution, whose offices are in the Beckwith Theatre block, had its origin in the brokerage business begun by C. T. Lee in I867 and the exchange bank established by him in I875. The present firm was established in 1887, its personnel being C. T. Lee, Henry M. Lee and Fred F. Lee. C. A. Hux has held the office of cashier since I896. This bank has deposits of over $300,00o. The Sage brothers, Martin G. and Norman, while engaged in the mercantile and milling business at Adamsville, received money and issued certificates of deposit and sold exchange on New York. About ten years ago a private banking concern, backed by Chicago capital, was started at Edwardsburg. A failure of the Chicago enterprise resulted in closing the Edwardsburg branch. The citizens there

Page  197 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 197 upon organized a "Citizens' Bank," which did business for one year, when it also closed. FARMERS' MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY. This company has had a longer continuous career than any other of the financial concerns of the county. It was organized May 8, I863, its object being the insurance of farm buildings at a minimum cost and on the mutual plan. In the list of its officials during more than forty years' successful business have been numbered some of the most influential and substantial agriculturists of the county. Its first officers and directors were: Jesse G. Beeson, one of the founders of Dowagiac city, president; A. Jewell, of Wayne township, treasurer; A. D. Stocking, of Dowagiac, secretary; and WV. G. Beckwith, of Jefferson, Israel Ball, of Wayne, William R. Fletcher, of Wayne, Frank Brown, of Pokagon, Daniel Blish, of Silver Creek, directors. The present officers are as follows: Samuel Johnson, president: Frank Atwood, secretary; J. J. Ritter, treasurer; James H. Graham, C. H. Scott, Clint Elsey, Edson Woodman, Walter N. Sommers, director.

Page  198 198 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XIII. AGRICULTURE. The pioneer farmers of Cass county were probably as progressive as those of any other part of the country at that time. They brought with them from their homes in the older states the methods which prevailed there. And, as many of them came from the east, which was considered the most progressive section of the country, they must have known the hest methods of farming which were practiced in their lay. But the first farmers of this county were confronted with a task such as has been unknown in the settlement of the more western prairie states. The obstacles to be overcome were great, the implements and means were primitive. The steel plow was not invented until after Cass county had been substantially settled and improved. Whereas the western prairie sod is turned over for the first time by immense gang plows, drawn by four or five horses, or even by a traction engine, the farmer of the twenties or thirties had to depend on; a wooden moldboard shod with an iron share roughly made at a local blacksmith shop. With this hint at pioneer conditions it is evident that agriculture has tindergorne development in as wonderful degree as any other phase of the county's history. It will be the purpose of this chapter to describe as far as possible the methods and circumstances of early agriculture, and from the point of view of the past indicate the great changes that have preceded modern agriculture. The pioneer farmer's first work, after a rude temporary shelter had been provided, was to prepare a little spot of ground for the first crop. Those who located on Pokagon, Beardsley's and other well known prairies-and, as we know. those were the favorite selections of the first settlers —were very fortunate in this respect. Relieved of the necessity to clear off the trees, they had only to turn over the prairie so(l. But even so, the undertaking involved labor that one man alone could hardly accomplish. The turf on the prairies was very tough, and the ground in most places was filled with a net-work of the wire-like red root. If the location was in the oak woods, it was necessary to girdle the trees, clearing away the underbrush and sweeping the surface with

Page  199 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 199'3'3 fire. The dead trunks of the trees were sometimes left standing the first season, and the corn grew up among the aisles of the blasted forests. Although the surface of the ground had been cleared, just beneath there remained the roots of the former growth, and these, formed into massive "stools," were for several years insuperable obstacles to easy farming. Anl ordinary plow team would have been useless among the stools and grubs, and a common plow would have been quickly demolished. The plow used was a massive construction of wood and iron, and was known as the "bull plow." The share and coulter were of iron, and made very heavy and strong. The beam was long and of huge proportions, to resist the enormous strain brought upon it. Usually the weight of one of these ponderous bull plows was about three hundred pounds, and occasionally one was found weighing five hundred pounds. Six or seven yoke of oxen, and sometimes more, were required to pull this implement through the ground. \iith such an equipment, the or(linary roots were torn from the ground like straws and subsequent cultivation was nmade easy. It usually took two. persons to (lo the plowing, a man to hold the plow and either a man or a boy to drive the team. This process of "breaking" new land was made a regular business by some of the pioneers, just as threshing is at the present time. In a few years plows with iron moldboards were introduced, but as they Nould not scour well in all kinds of soil, they were not considered a success at first. Besides, as the ground was full of roots, of new stumps and standing trees, the wooden moldboard was less liable to break than one of iron. so it was better adapted to the conditions than the iron one. The cultivation was (lone with the hoe at first, then came the "fluke," a V-shaped woToden frame with five iron flukes, (rawn by one horse, then the single shovel plow, then the loublle shovel plow, which was in use for a number of years. Among the trees, stumps and roots both the plowing aand cultivation were tedious, laborious and disagreeable work. This condition continued for a number of years, until the stumps had decayed sufficiently to make it possible to remove them. The planting was likewise prinitive. As the sod was turned over, a man followed about every third furrow, dlug into the top of the furrow with his foot or with a hoe and planted corn, covering it in the same wav. In some instances the corn was dropped in the furrow very near the outside, so that the edge of the next furrow when turned over would be directly over the grain. The corn would then come througl between the two furrows. Wheat was sown among the stumps and trees.

Page  200 200 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY The grain was harrowed in with a wooden-toothed harrow. The farmer who did not have even one of those rude implements would cut a small tree, trim off part of the limbs so as to leave a bushy end, weight it with a log, and, hitching his team to it, would get about the-same results as from a tooth harrow. in harvesting the corn the stalk "was not utilized, as is done at the present cay. The prevailing practice was to pull the ear from the stalk, husk and all, haul the corn to a pile and then husk it. The husk was utilized for feed, and as much of the grain as was not needed for home consumption was hauled asway to market. As soon as large crops of corn were grown husking bees became the fashion. The corn was pulled from- the stalk and put in a pile, as when the farmer himself, or he and his family (lid the husking. Then a number of neighbors assembled and everybody husked. This was repeated at the home of each farmer until all had their crops husked. Wheat was harvested with the cradle, such an implement as a reaper or harvesting machine of any kind not then being dreamed of. Besides the cradle. the sickle also was in use at that time. But that was used only in wheat that had blown down or grew among stumps and trees. making it difficult and sometimes impossible to cradle. And for the first few years that was a large portion of the crop. It was well that only a limited area could be sown, because had there been a greater acreage it doubtless would not have been harvested. The work of harvesting with those old-time implements was extremely slow in comparison with the way it can be tlone with our improved harvesting machinery. The threshing was done either with a flail or the grain was tramped out by horses. Both processes were very slow, the former being about as slow as harvesting with the sickle. When horses were used a threshing foor was made out-of-doors by smoothing the ground or beating it until it was as solid as could be made. The horses were ridden by boys, while two men worked the grain toward the center of the floor and threw out the straw. In the early forties a machine came into use which threshed out the grain and dispensed both with the use of the flail and the tramping of horses. This machine consisted only of a cylinder, and was operated by horse power. When the threshing was done by any of these methods the grain had to be separated from the chaff by fanning with a sheet, the wind blowing the chaff away. There were no fanning mills then, but they were introduced a few years later. These mills were in the

Page  201 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 201 crudest form, but were considered a great improvement over the winnowing sheet. All of this labor had to be done in order that the farmer might produce a supply of wheat sufficient to provide bread for his family and, if possible, a small surplus to sell. Wheat regularly sold for fifty cents a bushel for many years, whicl seems a small remuneration for the labor bestowed upon the raising. During the early thirties, however, when immigration was greater than the settled population, the newcomers took all the surplus wheat at extravagant prices. This stimulated the farners to unusual efforts and the following year everybody had wheat to sell, and prices were too low to pay for the labor of raising. George Meacham, in his capacity as sheriff of the county, called the farmers together at Cassopolis to take concerted action for disposing of the grain. It was suggested that a warehouse should be built at the mouth of the St. Joseph. Abiel Silver, one of the proprietors of the distillery at Cassopolis, came to the rescue by agreeing to purchase all the surplus. It was not long after that the tide of immigration increased so that the demand once more took all the supply. Corn and wheat were the two leading crops grown then, as they are now. Other crops that were grown were oats, rye, potatoes, buckwheat and flax. Oats were usually fed in the straw, only enough being threshed out for the next year's seed. A patch of potatoes was planted on every farm for home use, but there were very few, if any, grown for market. The crop being a bulky one and the market so distant made the growing of potatoes as a market crop impracticable. Flax was raised for home use, the product being manufactured into linen for a part of the family's wearing apparel. No attention was paid to the rotation of crops. Corn was planted after coin, and wheat after wheat, and that was continued year after year. Sometimes these crops were alternated, but only as a matter of convenience and not to prevent exhaustion of the soil. It was not necessary at that time to give any attention to this matter, which has come to be one of the most important questions the farmer of the present day has to consider. When the timber was first cleared away the land was full of fertility, and the possibility of the soil losing its substance had not yet been thought of. Had the same care been exercised in conserving fertility then as the farmers are compelled to exercise now, the soils would never have become impoverished, as so many of them have. It has already been told how some of the first settlers, immediately

Page  202 202 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY on arriving in the county, especially if they came in the fall of the year, busied themselves with cutting and stacking a sufficient amount of the native hay to feed their stock for the winter. Uzziel Putnam and Abram Townsend cut their first winter's supply of forage on the prairie about the present site of Edwardsburg. For many years the hay crop consisted of the native grasses. When the settlers were yet few in number the prairie and marsh land grasses furnished an abundant supply of hay for their live stock. When the prairie lands were all taken up each farmer on those lands set off a portion of his farm for a meadow, but this was sufficient only for the owner, and those who had settled in the timber had to look elsewhere for a supply. There was an abundant growth of grass on what were then known as wet prairies, or mowing marshes, which after being cut and cured in the sun, was called "massauga" hay because of the numerous snakes by that name on the marshes. At first every settler could find a sufficient supply of this marsh grass near his home if he had none on his farm. This hay had to be mowed by hand, then thrown together and hauled from the marsh on a small sled drawn by a yoke of oxen. The ground was so soft that a team of horses and a wvagon could not be driven over it. Only a small bit could be hauled out at a time in this way, and it took a number of these sled loads to make a w\agon load. The same method of making hay had to be employed on all of the wet prairies of those days. With this view of the status of agriculture sixty years ago, it is not 'difficult to realize the broad developments that have taken place since then. Farming has become easier with every year. Its conditions and surroundings are no longer those of the common laborer. Several things have contributed to this change. Some claim that the invention of labor-saving machinery and its general use has done more to elevate agriculture than any other factor. It certainly is not wide of the mark to measure the progress of agriculture by the distance that separates the self-binder from the cradle. Yet there are other factors. The working and hiring of help has been quite reformed from the methods of fifty years ago. The progressive farmer no longer depends on transient labor. Not so many years ago, when harvest time or other extra press of work arrived, the farmer would start out into the surrounding country and hire by the day such men as were available. This is neither practicable nor possible now. Improved machinery has done much to relieve the farmer of the necessity of hiring day laborers.

Page  203 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 203 His policy now is to hire a man by the year, and often a man of family, who will live on the farm and give it his entire attention. Transportation has also effected many changes in farming methods. In place of marketing by the bushel, the farmer now markets "on the hoof," that is, feeds his grain products to stock. And of recent years the farmers do not hesitate to import stock cattle from distant ranges of the Dakotas or the Southwest and feed them for market on grain raised in Cass county. This in itself is one of the most important developments of Cass county agriculture. In the general upward trend of property values land is the last thing to appreciate. At a distance of ten years from the beginning of the present remarkable era of prosperity, the farm lands of the county show only a slight increase in value. But now more than ever the worth of Cass county lands is being understood. Instead of passing on to the western lands, where climate and soil are uncertain, the farmers of Ohio and other states in the east and middle west, after selling their farms at from $60 to $ioo an acre, are choosing to locate on moderately priced lands in Cass county rather than investing in property which not for many years will have the environment of comfort and culture found here. Much of Cass county is situated in the famous Michigan fruit belt. The northern part of the county shares with Van Buren county a reputation as a grape growing center. The shipping points of Mattawan, Lawton and Decatur draw upon northern Cass county for large quantities of grapes, as w-ell as other fruits. There is a large acreage in the county better adapted to fruit culture than any other crop, and fruitgrowing is increasing at the expense of other crops. Mention should be made of the mint culture which has become a feature of Cass county agriculture during the past few years. The muck land of Volinia and \avyne and other townships is well adapted to mint growing. Mint is cultivated in rows like corn, and is cut just before it blooms, and from the harvest is distilled the mint oil. A still plant can be built for about $300'. As an example of the crop's value, it is claimed that eight acres in Volinia township last season produced mint oil to the value of $1,050. One of the conspicuous methods of caring for crops should be mentioned. 'Within recent years progressive farmers have built silo plants for the purpose of preserving the essential qualities of "roughening" or fodder throughout the winter. One of the first things to catch

Page  204 204 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the attention on many farms in the county is the silo plant, and often there are several of them. In these huge cylindrical, air-tight tanks, built of "silo lumber," and some of the recent ones of cement, the green corn, stalk and all, after being cut up by a special machine, is stored very much as vegetables are canned. While in the reservoir it undergoes a slight fermentation process, but with the exception of a small portion on the top, which rots and molds just as the top of a can of fruit often does, and which is thrown out before the rest is used, the entire contents of the tank are preserved with original sweetness and wholesomeness for feeding to stock (luring the severe winter season. WhNat an improvement this method is over the old one of stacking the dry fodder in the late fall, when most of its essential qualities have dried out, even one unfamiliar with agriculture can readily realize. THE GRANGE. The Grange, whose basic purposes are educational, fraternal and the general improvement of the farmer and his family and the conditions under which he works, has not been the factor in agriculture in this county which it has proved in other counties of Michigan, and yet its influence as a state and national organization for the uplift and improvement of agriculture has been so great and so widely distributed that it deserves some mention in this chapter. The National Grange organization was commenced in I867; but it was during the middle seventies that the movement reached its height in southern Michigan. The general name applicable to the organization as a whole is "Patrons of Husbandry," the "granges" being the subordinate branches, but the name Grange is the one generally used in referring to all departments of the organization. The Grange was the first fraternal organization to admit the wives and daughters on an equal basis in every way. A few words should be said about the work of the Grange in general. The Grange was one of the most active forces behind pure food legislation in Michigan, and to its efforts-to give only one example-is due the fact that oleomargarine must be labeled with its true name, and not as butter. The Grange has more or less actively entered the field of commerce. In some counties "Grange Stores" have been established and successfully conducted. In Cass county they have not been so successful. The Grange claims to be the father of rural free delivery. Cer

Page  205 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 205 tainly it has used its influence nowhere to better advantage, for free delivery in the country is now conceded to be the greatest boon that has come to the farmer. It has brought him in touch with the world and more than anything else has made obsolete the term "countrified" as applied to the tiller of the soil. And this is in direct line with the purposes of the Grange. CASS COUNTY AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. With the celebration of the Cass county fair in September of this year (I906) will he rounded out a period of fifty-five years since the first fair in the county and the above organization came into existence. The society was organized in the spring of I85I, and the first fair held in the following fall. Justus Gage was president and George B. Turner secretary during the first year. The society held annual fairs from its organization up to I884. Since that time no fairs have been held by the society. One year ago a new organization was effected and held a successful fair. The Agricultural Society has been unfortunate in its choice of location, which three times has been changed owing to the exercise of "the right of eminent domain." Until 1857 the fairs were held on Samuel Graham's land at Cassopolis. Then fair grounds were bought and laid out near where the Air Line depot is. The Peninsular (Grand Trunk) railroad had the right of way, ran through the grounds and the society was compelled to move. but at once got in the road of the Air Line, having purchased the grounds on which is Forest Hall on the shore of Diamond lake, and had to abandon its second location. In I871 the society bought twenty acres of land of Samuel Graham in the north part of the village at a cost of $3,000. This location was also interfered with a few years ago when the railroad was surveyed and graded in a northwesterly direction across the county. During the years the society held its fairs it succeeded in paying off all its indebtedness, but to do so life memberships were sold to many of the patrons. This cut down the receipts at the 1884 fair, so, that there was not money enough to pay the premiums. Money was borrowed for that purpose, and a mortgage given on the grounds to secure the loan. In time foreclosure proceedings were begun and the village of Cassopolis bought the land and now owns it. VOLINIA FARMERS' CLUB. Most notable, in many respects, of all the farmers' organizations

Page  206 206 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY was the Volinia Farmers' Club, which was organized in I865 for the purpose of increasing "the knowledge of agriculture and horticulture" among its members and which held annual fairs in Volinia that were occasions of widespread interest and yearly anticipation, and of inestimable value in raising the agricultural and stock standards of the locality. The first officers of the club were B. G. Buell, president; A. B. Copley and John Struble, vice presidents; F. E. Warner, treasurer; H. S. Rogers, secretary. Of the older and original members John Huff and William Erskin are probably the only ones now living. Prominent among the members now deceased were H. S. Rogers, secretary for many years; M. J. Gard, father of the present county treasurer; B. G. Buell, Levi Lawrence, Benjamin Hathaway, I. N. Gard, M. B. Goodenough, Dr. Thomas, J. W. Eaton and James S. Shaw. The club met once a month, and the annual fair was held in the fall on the I. N. Gard farm, and once on the Buell farm. The fair was an agricultural and stock display, at which no premiums except ribbons were offered, and everyone had a right to exhibit. The expenses were met largely by a small individual fee upon the members and by rental of booths. There were running races, but the horse racing feature wTas not developed to the exclusion of all other interests. A big tent was used to shelter some of the displays and to provide quarters for other indoor features. The fair lasted two days and drew its attendance from all the country round. VOLINIA AND WAYNE ANTI-HORSE THIEF SOCIETY. This organization, begun in I852, and still maintained among the farmers of the two townships named, provides the effective restraint upon horse thieves with which nearly every agricultural community has at some time been troubled. There are about one hundred members of the society, although the maintenance of the organization is the only business of importance transacted. The society has always succeeded in recovering captured animals, and its record is the best justification of its existence. The meetings of the society are held at Crane's schoolhouse in Volinia. At organization the charter membership included eleven men, and was then confined to Volinia township, but membership was later extended to Wayne township. The first officers were Isaac ~Waldron, chairman; George Newton, secretary; Jonathan Gard, treasurer.

Page  [unnumbered]

Page  [unnumbered] J I _L~ OLD COURT HOUSE, CASSOPOLIS.

Page  207 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 2)07 CHAPTER XIV. THE COURT HOUSE AND OTHER COUNTY INSTITUTIONS. The contest between Cassopolis and other villages for the location of the county seat has been elsewhere described. For five or six years after the organization of the county there was no fixed home for the transaction of official business. The first courts and the first meetings of the boards of supervisors were held at Edwardsburg, and later in private houses in Cassopolis. A jail was the first consideration with the supervisors. This having been completed, the board, in the fall of I835, provided for the erection, on the west side of Broadway, north of York street, of a wooden building, 34 by 24 feet in dimensions, costing not to exceed four hundred and fifty dollars, the same to be used for a court house and "to contain desks for judges and bar.'' The late Joseph Harper took the contract for the erection of this court house, and it was ready for occupancy May I, I835. This first court house. it is seen, was not on the public square and stood well to the north end of the original village. However, the court house with which most of the old inhabitants of Cass county are familiar is the building which now stands on the south side of State street, west, and is used as a storage house. Its classic lines, its solid columns, combining the effects of the Greek temple with Colonial residences, indicate that in its better days it was a more pretentious structure and sheltered affairs of larger importance than it now does. For more than half a century this building, which is pictured on another page, stood on the northeast quarter of the public square, and within its walls transpired the official actions which accompanied Cass county's progress from pioneer times to the close of the last century. The "Court House Company" constructed this court house. The members of that company were the well known citizens, Darius Shaw, Joseph Harper, Jacob Silver, Asa Kingsbury and A. H. Redfield. In August, 1839, they entered into a contract with the county commissioners, David Hopkins, Henry Jones and James W. Griffin to erect a court house 54 feet in length and 46 feet in width and 24 feet high

Page  208 208 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY from sills to eaves, the material to be of wood, except the large brick vault; the first story to be fitted for office rooms and the second story to form the court and jury rooms. Six thousand dollars was the price agreed upon for putting up such a building, one-third of this sum to be paid in cash and the remainder in village lots, which the original owners had given to the county in consideration of the locating of the county seat at Cassopolis. The Court House Company discharged their duties in strict conformance with specifications, and the building was ready for use in I84I, according to contract. Nearly sixty years elapsed from this date until the stone building now in use was completed and accepted for court house purposes. The old building early became inadequate for the accommodation of all the county officers, and in I86o the offices of clerk, judge of probate, register of deeds and treasurer were transferred to a brick building specially erected by the board of supervisors on the northwest quarter of the square, where they remained until the completion of the court house six years ago. The building, commonly called the "Fort," is now used for a laundry. It was built by Maj. Joseph Smith. THE PRESENT COURT HOUSE. The building of the court house which now adorns the public square in Cassopolis has a history such as few buildings of the kind in Michigan possess, and in a permanent record of the county it is proper to prepare an adequate and accurate account of the events and circumstances connected with the erection of this building. October 19, 1897, at the regular session of the board of supervisors, Mr. C. HI. Kimmerle introduced a preamble and resolutions which was the first effective move toward the construction of a suitable county building. After reciting the facts that the old court house was "inadequate for the accommodation of business and was becoming old and dilapidated," and that the records of the county were "crowded into small and inconvenient rooms in a separate building unprotected from fire and theft" (referring to the office quarters that had been built in I86o), it was resolved to construct a court house costing not to exceed forty thousand dollars, "such building to be fireproof and of sufficient capacity to accommodate all the county officers, the board of supervisors and the circuit court." The board deferred the consideration of the original resolution

Page  209 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 209 until the January session, and on January 6, I898, the board adopted, by a vote of 14 to 4, an amended motion whose salient provisions were the following: The sum of forty thousand dollars, which was to cover the entire cost of the building, including furniture, plumbing, heating apparatus, was to be raised bly loan secured and evidenced by four hundred bonds of the county of one hundred dollars each, bearing interest at the rate of four per cent per annum and payable as followsthe first eighty on January 15, I899; and eighty on the i5th of January each year thereafter until all were paid. The resolution also provided that the proposition should be referred to the people at the township elections, and it will be of interest to record the vote as cast for and against this proposition by the various townships of the county. The total vote was 501I, and a majority of 229 was cast in favor of the new court house. The tabulated vote is as follows: Yes. No. Marcellus....................... 174 335 Volinia............................ 59 222 W ayne............................ 44 I53 Silver Creek......................... 81 145 Pokagon...........................112 I 7 La Grange........................ 507 38 Penn......................... 189 153 Newberg....................... 142 I92 Porter............................ 130 15I Calvin.........1...................177 104 Jefferson........................... 135 39 Howard...........................83 125 Milton............................. 52 54 Ontwa.............................I o 77 M ason............................. 92 74 Dowagiac, ist ward.................99 I41 Dowagiac, 2nd ward................ 172 Io8 Dowagiac, 3rd ward................. 164 123 2620 239I The old court house was soon sold to the highest bidder, George M. Kingsbury being awarded the sale at $25, conditioned on his removing the building from the court house site and giving the use of the building for county purposes until the new structure was finished. The committee on specifications, consisting of six supervisors and

Page  210 210 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY one outsider, was first made up of the following: Supervisors* Huntley, White, Breece, Phillips, Beeman, Lindsley and Mr. David L. Kingsbury. The building committee consisted of Supervisors Kimmerle, Huntley, Lindsley, Motley and Mr. Kingsbury. The finance committee, as first made up, were Supervisors White, Atwood and Gard. D. B. Smith was elected local superintendent of construction, and on October 5, I898, the corner stone of the building was laid by the local lodge of Masons. Tn the meantime the committees had been called upon to consider the bids of the various contractors-and there were at least half a dozen applying for the contract-and on July 15, 1898, the contract was awarded to J. E. Gibson of Logansport, Ind., on the basis of the following letter: "I, the undersigned, propose and agree to furnish all the material and labor necessary to erect and build your proposed new court house according to revised plans for and in consideration of the sum of $31,500.-J. E. Gibson." The contract was let to Gibson by a vote of II to 5. The work then proceeded. The superstructure was only partly completed in the rough when certain differences between Gibson and the committee came to a crisis. The contractor claimed remuneration for extra work, while the committee charged failure to follow the plans and the use of improper naterial. According to the minutes of November io, "Contractor Gibson announced he would do no further work until an estimate was made and not then unless the estimate was a liberal one, he to be the judge." Because of this alleged "unreasonable neglect and suspension of work and failure to follow drawings and specifications" and various other items enumerated, including unauthorized departures from the original plans, a meeting of the board of supervisors was called, November I7th. at which it was resolved that the contract between Gibson and the county was terminated. In February, 1899, the work already done on the court house was estimated at the value of ten thousand dollars, and it was calculated that $25,000 was needed to complete the building according to plans and specifications. February 23, I899. the board made a contract with the firm of James Rowson and August Mohnke, of Grand Rapids. A quotation *For full names of supervisors, see official lists for the year.

Page  211 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 211. from the contract will show the position of the board with reference to the matter. After reciting the original contract between the county and Gibson and the status of the work up to date, it continues —"Whereas said Jordan E. Gilson so disregarded his said contract and the plans, specifications and drawings both in the use of unfit material and in the manner of the performance of his work and so delayed and neglected the completion of said building that much of the work done by him has been injured and damaged by the frost, so that the said county through its board of supervisors acting under provisions of said contract declared his employment at an end and took possession of said building and premises and all and singular of said material, and to the end that said imperfect work and material might be removed, mended and replaced and said building constructed according to plans and specifications, this contract is entered into, etc." Under the new contract the work proceeded rapidly. January 8, 900o, the building committee reported that "the court house is now substantially completed. About that time the county offices were moved to their new home, and the court house was formally accepted at the October session of I9oo. The total cost of the building, including all extras, was as follows: Amount under contract, including that paid Gibson......$35,200.00 Furniture, including lighting fixtures..................... 3,575.09 Extra work on building.............................. I,922.79 Heating contract.................................... 3,100.00 T otal........................................$43,797.88 The excess of cost over the first contract was credited to the failure of Gibson to perform his contract. "Since the county was compelled to re-let the contract at an increased price and re-build a considerable part of the work constructed by Gibson, for which the county had actually paid him, the excess apparent from this report was created." The finance committee managed the negotiation of the bonds admirably. The first series of $8,ooo, payable January 15, I899, was not sold, hut levied upon the taxable property of the county for the year 1898, thus effecting a saving of nearly two hundred dollars in interest. The remaining thirty-two thousand were sold to the First National Bank of Cassopolis and delivered in sums of not less than five thousand dollars as the work on the court house required. In the meantime J. E. Gibson had sued the county for the value of

Page  212 212 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY the material which he claimed to be on the ground at the time the contract was terminated. In the fall of 1899 the United States circuit court, before which the case was heard, decided adversely to the county, and on March 9, 19oI, the judgment was affirmed in the United States court of appeals, to which the county had taken an appeal on a writ of error and hill of exception. As there were no available funds in the county treasury to meet the judgment, it was resolved by the board of supervisors to issue fifteen bonds of $I,ooo each, at four per cent, the first seven to mature on January 15, 1904, and the remaining eight on January I5, 1905. Supervisor Kimmerle, with the county treasurer, negotiated these bonds successfully to the banks of the county. In estimating the cost of the court house to Cass county, the amount of this judgment must be added to the other estimate, so that the aggregate cost of the court house was nearly sixty thousand dollars. JAILS. Cass county's first public building was a jail. The board of supervisors, in March, I832, voted a sum not to exceed $350 from the amount subscribed for the location of the county seat at Cassopolis to be expended on a "gaol." Alexander H. Redfield let the contract, which specified that the structure should be 15 by 30 feet in ground dimensions and one story high, of hewn logs one foot square. The building was not completed in contract time and was not ready for use till 1834. Shortly afterward the jail was floored and lined with plank, the logs being driven full of nails and covered with strap iron as additional protection. The lock, nearly as large as one of the windows, is now a relic in the Pioneer Society's collection. This first jail, which was torn down about I870, stood on the northeast corner of block I south, range 2 west, on the south side of State street and west of Disbrow. The jailer's residence, a frame building erected a number of years after the jail, is still standing, having been converted into, a paint shop. The first jail was replaced in I815I by a brick structure that stood on the court house square just north of the present court house. It was not a satisfactory building in point of its main purpose, the secure confinement of prisoners. In I878-79 was erected the present jail and sheriff's residence at a cost of $I7,770. W. H. Myers, of Fort Wayne, Ind., was the contractor, and Charles G. Banks, Charles L. Morton and Joseph Smith were the building committee, Daniel B. Smith being local superintendent

Page  213 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 213 of construction. The jail was completed in February, I879, the first plans for its erection having been made by the board of supervisors in I877. When the jail was built there was installed what was then a modern heating plant. It proved unsatisfactory, and when the new court house was built a brick addition to house the furnace plant was erected adjoining the jail, and a model steam heating plant installed for both buildings. CASS COUNTY POOR FARM. The Cass County Poor Farm. comprising 280 acres in sections 2, 3 and Io, of Jefferson township, with its equipment of buildings, is the principal public charity in the county. Though the poor and unfortunate are always with us, the provisions for their care change to greater efficiency only to keep pace with the development of the community, and the increase of comforts with society at large. Hence the first maintenance of the public poor was as crude as the need for such charity was limited. The county poor were first provided for at a farm near Edwardsburg, a visit of the county commissioners to the institution being recorded in the later thirties. The county officials next purchased of Asa Kingsbury the land in Jefferson township upon which the present institution is located, but a small log house was the only building designed for shelter, and small as was the number of inmates, the methods and means of caring for them was completely lacking in system. In view of this situation the board of supervisors, in October, 1853, appropriated the sum of $2,000 for the erection of a suitable building. Pleasant Norton was the agent appointed to manage the construction, and W. G. Beckwith and Joshua Lofland were the building committee. The contract for a brick building was given to, Lewis Clisbee and son, at $I,795, and the work completed and accepted in November, 18154. Fourteen years later, in I868, a committee from the board of supervisors reported that the poor house was "an utterly unfit habitation for the paupers of the county," consequently the board recommended the raising of $5,ooo for an addition to the building. This tax levy was approved by the people at the polls in April, I869. The money could not be used, however, for the erection of a new building, only for "additions," and the appropriations were made under that strict construction, although when the additions were completed early in I871, the institution was practically new throughout. P. W. Silver was the

Page  214 214 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY contractor, and was paid in all nearly $8,ooo for the construction work. D. M. Howell, James Boyd and Gideon Gibbs, superintendents of the poor at the time, were also the building committee to whom the credit of erecting the buildings belongs. In 1871 the asylum, a brick addition two stories high, was constructed, its cost being about the same as the outlay for the other buildings, so that the county invested about $I5,000 in this institution during the early '7s.

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Page  215 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 215 CHAPTER XV. EDUCATIO N IN THE STATE AND COUNTY. 13v WILLIAM H. C. HALE, County Commissioner of Schools. In giving a history of education in Cass county, it is necessary to speak briefly of education in the state of Michigan, as the educational affairs have always been nearly uniform throughout the state. Michigan was under the government of France from 1634 until 1760. Settlements were made at various places around the Great Lakes by the Jesuit missionaries, but the most important French settlement was the founding of Detroit by Cadillac in I70I. Under the French control centralization was the fundamental principle in all affairs. The military commandant was supreme in the state, and the priest or bishop in the church. Education was the function of the church. The initiative in everything was in the officials, not in the people. There were no semi-independent local organizations, like the New England towns, to provide for the management and support of schools. Two years after the founding of Detroit, Cadillac recommended the establishment of a seminary at that place for the instruction of children of the savages with those of the French. It is doubtful if this recommendation produced any immediate results, as it is stated that no indication of schools or teachers can be found until 1755, a half century later. Private schools of varying degrees of excellence are reported to have existed from 1755. Most of these were short-lived and of inferior character. Under the English control educational affairs remained the same as under the French. and after the United States occupied and formed a territorial government there was little change in educational affairs until 1827, when a law was enacted providing for the establishment of common schools throughout the territory. This act required every township containing fifty families to support a school in which "reading, writing, orthography, arithmetic and decent behavior" should be

Page  216 216 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY taught. This was the first legal course of study for the Michigan pupils. The period of centralization had now passed, and local democracy was to have its opportunity. Emigration from the eastern states had now reversed the old French ideas. The actual state of elementary education and of educational affairs as late as I836 is well pictured by Justice Thomas M. Cooley of the State Suprene Court. "The schools at the time state government was established were still very primitive affairs. There were as yet no professional teachers. Some farmer or mechanic, or perhaps a grown-up son or daughter who had had the advantages of the common schools of New York or New England, offered his or her services as a teacher during the dull season of regular employment, and consented to take as wages sucll sum as the district could afford to pay. A summer school taught by a woman, who would be paid six or eight dollars a month, and a winter school taught by a man whose compensation was twice as great was what was generally provided for. But in addition to the wages the teacher received her board 'boarding round' among the patrons of the school and remaining with each a number of days determined by the number of pupils sent to school. If we shall incline to visit one of these schools in the newer portion of the state we shall be likely to find it housed in a log structure covered with bark, imperfectly plastered between the logs to exclude the cold, and still more imperfectly warmed by an open fireplace or by a box stove, for which fuel is provided, as the board for the teacher is, by proportional contributors. The seats for the pupils may be slabs set on legs; the desks may he other slabs laid upon supports fixed to the logs which constitute the sides of the room. The school books are miscellaneous and consist largely of those brought by the parents when emigrating to the territory. Those who write must rule their paper with pencils of their own manufacture, and the master will make.pens for them from the goose quill. For the most part the ink is of home manufacture. There are no globes; no means of illustration; not even a blackboard. Such in many cases was the Michigan school. Better school buildings were now springing up, but as a rule nothing could seem more dreary or dispiriting than the average school district. Nevertheless, many an intellect received a quickening in those schools, which fitted it for a life of useful and honorable activity. The new settlers made such provision for the education of their children as was possible under the circumstances in which they were placed, and the fruits of their labors and

Page  217 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 217 sacrifices in this direction were in many cases surprising." Long after the formation of the state government in 1837 the schools of Cass county fitted very closely the descriptions given by Judge Cooley of the territorial schools. Michigan owes a large debt of gratitude to Isaac C. Crary and John D. Pierce. More than any other two men, they were instrumental in laying the foundations of her educational system, and in giving direction to its early development. Mr. Crary was a tmember of the constitutional convention of I835, and was appointed chairman of the committee on education. The committee reported an article on education which was adopted by the convention almost without debate. This article provided for a system of education very similar to what we now have. In the constitutional convention of 1850, Mr. Crary and Mr. Pierce were both members from Calhoun county. Mr. Pierce was a member of the committee on education. An article was.finally adopted providing for our present system of education, but not without some very extended and serious debates. The question of free schools was earnestly debated, and the debates revealed a wide diversity of views. The discussions upon this topic were long and earnest, and resulted in the compromise which provided for a free school in each district for three months each year. The limit of three months was unsatisfactory to the friends of free schools, but they accepted it on the principle that "half a loaf is better than no bread at all." It is impossible in this article to enter into a full discussion of every section of the constitution on education. Section one states that "the superintendent of public instruction shall have the general supervision of public instruction, and his duties shall be prescribed by law." John D. Pierce was appointed the first superintendent of public instruction by Governor Mason July 26, I836. At the session of the legislature held in January, 1837, he reported a system of common schools, and a plan for a university and its branches. The plan has undergone many changes since then, but the fundamental principles remain practically the same. Mr. Pierce gave a long and very complete report to the first legislature. As a basis for the recommendations which he proposed to make, he began by calling attention to the vital importance of knowledge and virtue as the "broad and permanent foundations of a free state."

Page  218 218 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY In regard to the importance of education he said: "In an educated and virtuous community there is safety; the rights of individuals are regarded and property is respected and secure. It may be assumed as a fundamental principle in our form of government that knowledge is an element so essential to its existence and vigorous action that we can have no rational hope of its perpetuation unless it is generally diffused." He emphasized especially the value and importance of elementary education for the great mass of the people. "Universities may be highly important and academies of great utility, but primary schools are the main dependence. National liberty, sound morals and education must stand or fall together. Common schools are democratic in their nature and influence; they tend to unify society; in them the rich and the poor come together on terms of perfect equality. "Let free schools be established and maintained in perpetuity and there can be no such thing as a permanent aristocracy in our land; for the monopoly of' wealth is powerless where mind is allowed freely to come in contact with mind. We need wisdom, and prudence, and foresight in our councils; fixedness of purpose, integrity and uprightness of heart in our rulers; unwavering attachment to the rights of men among all people; but these high attributes of a noble patriotism, these essential elements of civilization and improvement will disappear when schools shall cease to exert an all-pervading influence through the length and breadth of our land." A primary school system w as soon organized. The unit of this system was, as it still is, the subdivision of the township known as the school district, and not to exceed nine sections or one-fourth of a township. This limit was not removed until I90o. The school district was made practically almost independent in the management of its educational affairs. As the law now stands, the officers are the moderator, treasurer and director, all elected for three years. In the upper peninsula an entire township may be organized into one district, with a board of education consisting of five members. In the township districts there may be any number of schools. The object of the township unit system was to bring all lands of a township under taxation for school purposes. School districts may now be consolidated into one district by the consent of a majority of the resident taxpayers o'f each district. School districts when consolidated, may levy taxes for the purpose of transporting pupils to and from school within the boundaries

Page  219 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 219 of the district and may use the funds arising from the one mill tax for the same purpose. The law for the consolidation of school districts was enacted in 1903. Since then there have been a few cases of consolidation. There have been nine cases of the consolidation of two districts and four cases where three or more districts have been consoliclated. The counties where consolidation has been tried are St. Clair, Wayne, Genesee, Kent, Isabella, Marquette, Emmet, Macomb, Kalamazoo and Charlevo'ix. The legislature of I901 enacted a law by which township high schools may be organized. Only pupils who have passed the eighth grade can be admitted to, those schools. There have been no such schools organized up to this time, but the matter has been under consideration in several counties. One of the provisions with which the early settlers became unwillingly familiar was the famous "rate bill" law, passed in 1843, which provided that the patrons of each school.might raise the funds necessary to continue the school through the term. The parents or guardians of the children were assessed a tax in proportion to the time such children attended school. This rate bill was made out by the teacher at the close of each term, and the amount distributed among the patrons. The law did not work well, for the poor parents or those indifferent to education would send to school as long as the public funds lasted, and \when the rate bill set in would take their children out. Primary education thus became a question of ability to pay for it, and the fundamental principle of popular education was threatened. Nevertheless, despite the inequality, the rate bill law was not repealed until I869. CERTIFICATES OF TEACHERS. Under the provisions of. the first school law of the state the township school inspectors were the examining and supervising board of the township. They were required to examine all persons proposing to teach in the public schools "in regard to moral character, learning and ability to teach school." At first the certificates were valid for one year. An amendment to the law in I859 allowed the inspectors, in their discretion, to grant certificates for a term of not less than six months nor more than two years. Until the passage of the act creating the office of county superintendent in 1867, all examinations of teachers of all grades, and all supervision of the common schools were made by the township boards of school inspectors. This system of certifica

Page  220 220 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY tion and supervision continued for thirty years. It had many weak points, and was pronounced a failure by the state superintendent in his report for I866. In I867 the legislature passed an act creating the office of county superintendent of schools. The law provided for the election of the superintendents, for a term of two years, by vote of the people at the April election. The county superintendents held examinations in each township at least once a year, and granted three grades of certificates. The first grade was valid for two years; the second for one year; and the third for six months. The extent of the examination was left to the discretion of the superintendent, with only the proviso that it must include orthography, reading, writing, grammar, geography and arithmetic. In 1875 the legislature repealed the county superintendency act and submitted a system of township superintendents, differing only a little from the discarded and worthless plan of township inspectors. The township superintendent's duties were very similar to those of the county superintendent, in the holding of examinations, and granting certificates. A new law, enacted in i88I, attempted to combine county examinations with township supervision. The law provided for a county hoard of three examiners elected by the chairman of the boards of school inspectors, for a term of three years. This board examined the teachers of the county and gave three grades of certificates, the first grade valid for three years; the second for two, years; the third for one year, throughout the county. The chairman of the board of school inspectors was made supervisor of the schools of his township with the ordinary duties and powers pertaining to that position. In 1887 this law was revised and amended. Under this new law two county examiners were chosen for a term of two years, by the chairman of the township boards of inspectors. These two with the judge of probate, appointed and employed a secretary for the term of one year. The secretary examined candidates for positions as teachers, and the other members of the board acted with him in granting certificates. The examination questions were to be furnished by the superintendent of public instruction. In I88I theory and art of teaching, history of the United States, and civil government had been added to the studies in which examinations must be made. In 1887 physiology and hygiene were also included.

Page  221 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 221 The secretary was required to visit each school in the county at least once in the year, and to perform all the usual duties of a supervising officer. In I89I an act was passed providing for county commissioners of schools and two county examiners. Until I903 commissioners were elected on the first Monday of April for a term of two years; since then they are elected for four years. The commissioner is a county superintendent with a different title, and is charged with the duty of supervising the schools of the county. Two school examiners are elected by the county board of supervisors for a term of two years. The examiners assist the commissioner in conducting examinations. Three grades of certificates are granted. The first grade is valid for four years, the second grade for three years, and the third grade for one year. All questions for examination are prepared and furnished by the state superintendent. Certificates may be renewed without examination under certain circumstances, and the examiners in one county may accept examination papers written in another county and treat them as if written before themselves. The State Board of Education conducts examinations every year and grants teachers' certificates valid for life, or until revoked by the board. The Normal College at Ypsilanti, and the normal schools at Mt. Pleasant, Marquette and Kalamazoo, grant limited and life certificates to their respective graduates. The State Board of Education also grants limited and life certificates, without examination, to graduates of such colleges of the state as comply with certain prescribed conditions in respect to courses of study and instruction. In 1891 authority was granted by the legislature to the faculty of the department of literature, science and the arts of the University, to give a legal certificate of qualification to teach in any of the schools of the state. In incorporated cities the superintendent and board of education are empowered to examine their teachers and grant certificates. Graduates of county normal training classes are-granted certificates, which are valid for three years.

Page  222 222 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY SCHOOL FUNDS. The moneys used for the support of the common schools are, the interest from the primary interest fund, the one-mill tax, the unappropriated dog tax, library moneys which are appropriated by the township board for school purposes, the tuition of non-resident pupils and the voted tax in the district. The primary money can be used for no other purpose than the payment of the wages of legally qualified teachers and only by districts in which five months of school were maintained during the last preceding year. The supervisor assesses upon the taxable property of his township one mill upon each dollar of valuation. This tax is paid over to the treasurers of the several school districts. The qualified voters may levy a tax for general school purposes. When a tax is voted, it is reported to the supervisor who assesses it on the taxable property of the district. Whenever the unappropriated dog tax in any township is over and above the sum of one hundred dollars, it is apportioned among the several school districts of such township or city in proportion to the number of children of school age. The primary money in I845 was twenty-eight cents a scholar. There was a slow increase per capita until I88O, when it was forty-seven cents a scholar. After I88o a portion of all specific state taxes, except those received from the mining companies of the upper peninsula, were applied in paying the interest upon the primary school fund. Since then there has been a steady increase. In I88I it was $.o06; I890, $1.33; I900, $2. 5; I905, $3.30. On account of the back taxes on railroads paid during the year 19o6 the primary money for the October semi-annual apportionment is estimated at $Io per capita. SECONDARY EDUCATION-HIGH SCHOOLS. In the first school law no provision was made for the union of districts or for the grading of schools, and no law was made authorizing the consolidation of districts to form union schools until I846. The first graded school was established at Flint in I846. From I846 to I86o there were twenty-seven graded schools established in the state. Cassopolis and Dowagiac established graded schools in I857. In i86o Detroit reported a high school with a single teacher and an average attendance of thirty-seven pupils. The first constitution of the state provided for the establishment

Page  223 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 223 of branches of the university. These branches were to serve a threefold purpose, provide for local needs, fit students for the university, and prepare teachers for the primary schools. Branches were established at Pontiac, Monroe, Niles, Tecumseh, Detroit, Kalamazoo, Romeo and White Pigeon. These branches wvere supported by appropriations made by the regents of the university. After graded schools began to be established in I846, the University branches went into disfavor, and they ceased to exist after I849. High schools then became the connecting link between the university and the ordinary common schools. Cass county has five graded schools, three of which are on the university list. Dowagiac, Cassopolis and Marcellus high school graduates may enter the state university without entrance examinations. The Dowagiac schools employ thirty teachers, Cassopolis nine, Marcellus seven, Vandalia four, Edwardsburg four. CASS COUNTY SCHOO'LS. Schools were soon established in Cass county by the early settlers. Whenever a settlement was formed, arrangements were soon made for the education of the children. The first school in the county was taught in 1828 in the western part of what is now Pokagon township. The first school in the limits of La Grange township was taught in 1830, Penn I830, Ontwa 1829 or I830, Volinia I832 or I833, Porter 1838 or I839, Wayne 1835, Howard 1833, Milton I831 or 1832, Jefferson 1833, Calvin 1834, Marcellus I840, Mason 1836. The date of the building of the first school house in Silver Creek was 1838 or I839, and Newberg 1837. Schools may have been taught before the school houses were built, but if so the fact is unobtainable at this time. There are at the present time one hundred and fourteen organized school districts in the county, in which are employed one hundred and fifty-seven teachers. The total wages paid to teachers in I905 was $48,901.86, of which men teachers received $I4,003.9I and women teachers received $34,897.95. The average monthly wages paid men teachers was $46.83, and women teachers received an average wage of $33.43 a month. The legislature of I903 enacted a law permitting the establishment of county normal training classes for teachers of rural schools. In accordance with that law a class was organized and conducted in connection with the Dowagiac city schools during the year I905-1906.

Page  224 224 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY A class of fourteen was graduated June I8, I906. The graduates were: Fred J. H. Fricke, F. Ethel Wooster, N. Beryl Van Antwerp, Lillie Elaine Pray, Mary F. Sweetland, Bernice E. Williams, Ethel Eugenia Woodin, Agnes Straub, Jennie M.ay Easton, Claribel Morton, Ray Murphy, Grace Aseneth East, John Alfred Norton, Mabel Cook. Graduates of county normal training classes are granted threeyear certificates which may be renewed in the county where received, or they may be transferred to other counties. The pupils of the eighth grade in the rural schools are examined each year upon questions which are furnished by the state superintenlent. Those who pass are granted diplomas by the county commissioner. These diplomas will admit those who hold them to'high schools and the Agricultural College without examination. SUPERVISION OF SCHOOLS. From I837 to 1867 the common schools were under the. supervision and nanagement of the township boards of school inspectors. Then the legislature created the office of county superintendent of schools. The first county superintendent of schools for Cass county was Chauncy L. Whitney, who was elected April I, I867. The term of office was two years. M'r. Whitney resigned the position in the fall of the same year. and Rev. Albert H. Gaston was appointed to fill the vacancy. In I869 Irving Clendenen was elected, and in 1871 Lewis P. Rinehart. Samuel Johnson was chosen in I873 and filled the office until it was abolished in 1875. From 1875 to 188I the schools were under the supervision of township superintendents. In I88I the legislature enacted a law which provided for a county board of school examiners, This board consisted of three members and were elected for three years by the chairman of the township board of school inspectors. The county hoard of school examiners on organization elected one of their number chairman and one secretary. The secretary was the executive officer of the board. The following are the boards of examiners under this act: 188I-1882: E. M. Stephenson, secretary, I year; Michael Pemberton, chairman, 2 years; Daniel B. Ferris, 3 years. 1882-18893: Michael Pemberton, secretary, I year; Daniel B. Ferris, chairman, 2 years; Charles A. Mosher, 3 years. I883-1884: Daniel B. Ferris, secretary, I year; Charles A. Mosher, chairman, 2 years; Michael Pemberton, 3 years.

Page  225 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 225 1884-1885: Charles A. Miosher, secretary, i year; Michael Penmberton, chairman, 2 years; Ralph W. Hain, 3 years. I88;5-886: Michael Pemberton, secretary, I year; Ralph W. Hain, chairman, 2 years; Charles A. Mosher, 3 years. 1886-1887: Ralph W. lain, secretary, I year; Charles A. Mosher, chairman, 2 years; Michael Pemberton, 3 years. In I887 the law was revised and amended. Two county examiners were chosen for a term of two years, by the chairmen of the township boards of school inspectors. These two examiners with the judge of probate, appointed and employed a secretary for the term of one year, who became ex-officio a member of the county board and its executive officer. The secretary visited all the schools in the county and received a salary of $8oo per annum. The following are the boards of county examiners under this act: 1887-I888: Frank S. Hall, secretary, I year; Charles A. Mosher, chairman, i year; Michael Pemberton, 2 years. I888-i889: Daniel B. Ferris, secretary, i year; Michael Pemberton, chairman, I year; William W. Chalmers, 2 years. March I, I889, Daniel B. Ferris resigned and George W. Gard was appointed to fill the vacancy. 1889-I890:, George W. Gard, secretary, i year; William W. Chalmers, chairman, i year: Edmund Schoetzow, 2 years. 18901o891: AMichael Pemberton, secretary, I year: Edmund Schoetzow, chairman, I year; Miss Hattie Graham, 2 years. In the year I891 an act was passed providing for county commissioners of schools and two county examiners, the three to constitute a county board for the examination of teachers. The county commissioner was to be chosen by the people at the election on the first Monday in April, for the term of two years. In 1903 the act was amended and thereafter the commissioner was to be elected for a term of four years. To be eligible to the office of commissioner a person must have had an experience of twelve months as a teacher in the public schools of the state, must be a graduate of the literary department of some replltable college, university or state normal school having a course of at least three years, or hold a state teacher's certificate, or be the holder o'f a first grade county certificate; but this last certificate qualifies the holder only in the county where it is granted. In counties having less than fifty districts a second grade certificate qualifies the holder. The two school examiners are elected by the county board of super

Page  226 226 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY visors for a term of two years. Any person is eligible to the office of examiner who has the qualifications required for a commissioner, or who has taught in the public schools nine months and holds, or has held within three years, a second grade certificate. The law of I891I provided that the county board of supervisors should elect a commissioner to serve from June 23, I891, until July, I893. In accordance with this act the Cass county board of supervisors elected Michael Pemberton commissioner. At the election held on the first Monday in April, 1893, Chester E. Cone was chosen commissioner for two years. Mr. Cone was reelected three times, thus serving eight years. In I901 WVilliam H. C. Hale was elected county commissioner for the term of two years, and in 1903, the law having been changed, he was re-elected for a term of four years. The following are the county boards o'f school examiners under the act of I89: I891-1892: Michael Pemberton, commissioner, 2 years; Hattie Graham. examiner, 2 years; Edmund Schoetzow, examiner, I year. 18-89-1893: Michael Pemberton, commissioner, I year; George A. Shetterley, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, I year. 1893-I894: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, 2 years; George A. Shetterley, examiner, I year. 1894-1895: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, i year; Simon E. Writwer, examiner, 2 years; Hattie Graham, examiner, I year. 1895-I896: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, 2 years; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, I year. 1896-1897: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, I year; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, I year. I897-I898: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, 2 years; Simon E. Witwer, examiner, I year. I898-I899: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, I year; Frank E. Faulkner. examiner, 2 years; Lemuel L. Coates, examiner, I year. 1899-1900: Chester E. Cone, commissioner, 2 years; John Finley, examiner, 2 years: Simon E. Witwer, examiner, I year. 1900-19I0: Chester E. Cone, commissioner. I year; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, 2 years: John Finley, examiner, I year. 1901-1902: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 2 years; John Finlev, examiner, 2 years; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, I year. 1902-1903: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, I year; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, 2 years: John Finley. examiner, I year. 1903-1904: W\illiam H. C. Hale, commissioner, 4 years; Clifford N. Brady, examiner, I year; John Finley, examiner, 2 years.

Page  227 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 227 1904-I905: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 3 years; Herman S. East, examiner, 2 years; John Finley, examiner, I year. I905-19o6: William H. C. Hale, commissioner, 2 years; Herman S. East, examiner, T year; John Finley, examiner, 2 years. Mr. Hale's term expires July I, 1907. Mr. East's term expires October, I906. Mr. Finley's term expires October, 1907. The commissioner's salary was $I,ooo per annum until October, I905, when it was increasedl to $1,200. The examiners receive four dollars a day for the time spent upon examination work. In closing it may be said that Cass county has always kept pace with the progress of the times and all the schools, city, village and rural, compare most favorably with those of the other counties in the state. There is a growing sentiment among the pupils of the rural schools to enter high schools and high school graduates are becoming more and more inclined to take college courses. The people of Cass county, as compared with other counties, have always been very liberal in the support of their schools, and no fears need be entertained in regard to our future educational progress.

Page  228 228 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XVI. CITY AND VILLAGE SCHOOLS. CASSOPOLIS SCHOOLS. The first schoolhouse in this village was a log cabin, which stood on lot 5, block I south, range I west, just south of where Fisk's drug store now stands. The first building to be used exclusively as a schoolhouse and erected for that purpose was a frame building, put up in 1843, on land donated by Joseph Harper, on the east side of Rowland street on lot 8, block I north, range 2 east. The building is now occupied by John D. Williams as a dwelling house. The "union school" movement, described on previous pages, was made effective in Cassopolis in I857 by the erection of a "Union" schoolhouse on the site of the present school building at a cost of $1,500, Daniel S. Jones being the builder. April 29, I878, this, a wood building, as it then stood with certain additions an(l modifications fromn the original, was burned. School work for the rest of the term and for several months in the fall was carried on in the most suitable temporary quarters that could be found. The sum. of ten thousand dollars was voted for the new brick building, and the completion of the building for occupancy in January, 1879, gave Cassopolis the central school which has.now been in use over a quarter of a century, and in many cases has sheltered two generations of school children. The building committee appointed to supervise the construction of this building were W. P. Bennett, A. Garwood, J. K. Ritter, S. C. Van Matre, J. R. Carr, W. W. Peck, the six school trustees. As originally constructed the Cassopolis school was the most modern and perfect school structure in the county, and its long period of use shows that the money of the village was well spent in its construction. The dimensions of the original building were 72 by 62 feet, two stories, the upper being used for high school purposes, and the first for the grades. In I879 a two-story addition was built on the north side of the building and connected throughout with the old building. This building was necessary to accommodate the increased school population and the extension of educational work that has taken place since

Page  229 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 229 the old building was constructed. The cost of the addition was $3,000. Of the citizens who have done most for educational interests in Cassopolis, special mention should be made of John R. Carr, who for many years served as a member of the board, was a member of the building committee in I878, and in numberless ways has shown a lively and helpful interest in the growth of the village's educational institutions. In I876 the school was graded by H. C. Rankin, then superintendent, and the first class was graduated three years later. Since Mr. Rankin, who remained at the head of the school four years, the following superintendents have been his successors: I881-82, G. A. Osinga. 1891-92, George M. Fisk. 1883, C. W. Mickens. I893-98, Joseph Biscomb. I884-86, W. C. Hewitt. 1899-I901, R. H. Struble. I887-90, W. W. Chalmers. 1902-05, J. M. Geiser. At this writing the board of education consists of: C. C. Allison, president; C. E. Cone, secretary; C. H. Funk, treasurer; U. S. Eby, rV. L. Jones. The faculty for 1906-07 are: Superintendent-Paul P. Mason. Principal of High School-Carrie L. Ranney. Sciences and Mathematics H. S.-Geo. W. Hess. Latin in H. S. and 8th Grade-Elisabeth Steere. 7th and part of 6th Grade-Lee Wolford. 5th and part of 6th Grade-Daisy Billings. 4th and part of 3d Grades-Ella Gardner. 2d and part of 3d Grade-Grace Decker. Ist and Kindergarten-Matud Eppley. In 1902 the high school was accredited with the University of Michigan. This means that the course of study and the grade of instruction are such that the Cassopolis high school is on a par with the high schools of Michigan. The high school is noted for the number of its graduates who have gone to the various universities and colleges, and at this writing a number of former students are studying within the walls of higher institutions throughout the country. CASSOPOLIS GRADUATES. I879 —May Smith, Lottie G. Rankin. I88 —Ellen D. Giffin, Addie M. Kingsbury, Charles L. Smith, Kirk Reynolds, Mary Barnette, Carrietta Chapman, Lois Amsden, Min

Page  230 230 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY nie B. Smith, Blanche E. Peck, Ellen N. Tietsort, Ellen A. Ritter, Albert H. Graham, Nellie M. French. I88I-Addie Martin, William G. Loomis, Anna Graham, Melissa Beverley. I882-Bertha Lowella Chapman, Fanny Eugenia Glover, W. James Champion. I883-EIlla M: Rogers, Eva M. Colby, Mabel Patch, Lemuel L. Coates. I884-Carrie Goodwin, Laura Beverley, Carrie Woodruff. I885-Georgiana Kingsbury, Myrta Norton, George Shaffer, Bertha Anderson, Cora M. Banks, Katie Kingsbury. I886-Perlia B. Ferris, Glencora Graham, James S. Stapleton, Lora M. Curtis, Rolfe F. Patrick, Frank H. Green. I887-Susan R. Webb, Frances Graham, Rosa Early, David L. Kingsbury, Carrie Higbee, Mary C. Bosworth, Belle Norton. 8888-Eva C. Ditzell, Bertha Kingsbury, Lora Kingsbury, Addie (raham, Ada Thomas. 1889 —Charles L. Beckwith, Fred Patterson, Carl Bogue, Emma Anderson, Clara Darling, Harlan P. Bosworth, William T. C. Shaffer, Fanchon Stockdale, Jean Powell, E. Mae Carr. I890-Otis Beeson, Wilber G. Bonine, Walter C. Bogue, Paul A. Cowgill, Belle Bogue, Nettie Savage, Maude Mcllvain, Ethel Shurte, Charles A. Weblb, Edward Reighard, Paul Savage, William Mansfield, Ella Johnson. Nellie W\etmore, Blanche Giffin, Dora Norton. 189I1-Belle Goodwin, Jessie Cure, Melville J. Shepard, Della WiIson, Edna Stockdale, Raymond R. Phelps, J. Paul Hopkins, Jay C. Northrop, Helen French, Jessie Jones, Mildred Sherman. I89E2-Grace S. Hall, Ruby C. Abbott, Charles L. Goodwin, George F. Bosworth, Bernice Merwin, Eva L. Trowbridge, Halford E. Reynolds, Mortimer F. Stapleton. I893-Roy Bond, Walter George, Stanley A. Farnum, Lura Phelps, Winifred Smith, Flora Wright. Harry Eggleston, Stanford J. Farnum, True Savage, Winifred Marr, Ruth Myers. I894-Glenn S. Harrington, Edith Youngblood, Frank B. French, May Kingsbury, Belle Donough, Blanche Clark, Carrie Daniels, Ona Kline, Blanche McIntosh, Blanche Fulton. I895-Gideon W. Tallerday, Florence Higgins, Bert Hayden, Robert Pangborn, Ward Shaw, Mary Miller, Clare Fletcher, Lora McCully, Adella Hartsell, Lena Deal. Joseph Churchill, Glenn Dunning. I896-May Alexander, Blanche Fisher, Lutie Longfellow, Mary L. Stamp, Blanche Shepard, Bert A. Dool, Ernest Morse. Jesse L. Tallerday, Stephen Tallerday, Phillip Savage, Grace A. Dixon, Leona Fulton, Lottie L. North, Cora Skinner. George Dlonough, Glenn Leach, John P. Norton, LaMoine A. Tharp. Fred L. Woods. I897-Herbert A. Anderson, Zora Emmons, Flora Lawrence, Mary Shurte, Mary Townsend, Lottie M. Turner, Bessie S. Carr, Glennie A.

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Page  231 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 231 Kingsbury, Allan W. Reynolds, George Townsend, Jessie Bonine, James H. Kelsey, Carroll N. Pollock, Glennie Tietsort, Jessie M. Turner, Bartlett Bonine, Jessie Howell, Justin Mechling, Percy F. Thomas, Grace Van Riper. I89 —Lynn B. Boyd, Frank Mansfield, Howard D. Shaw, Jasper Otis Haithcox, Jessie E. Kingsbury, Dora L. Mlessenger, Ellen S. Rickert, Asa K. Hayden, Frederick G. Walter, Herbert Leroy Smith, Donald S. Miorse, Josie Kline, Claudia B. McDonald, Crete Connelly. I899 —Florence Ashcraft, Bertha Dacy, Edna Graham, Nellie Jones, Bertha Myers, Grace Stearns, Grace L. Voorhis, Ray K. Holland, Leon Beall, Lilly Brown, Alma Emmons, Belle Hayden, Henrietta Lawson, Marie Pollock, Elnora Thickstun, Joseph F. Hayden, Cyrus Myers. g190-Hattie Wright, Chloa McDonald, Mabel F. Moon, Edith Ryon, Vivian Jerome, Frances Glennette Willsey, Kate Ditzell, S. Edna Cook, Una Jones, Vera Hayden. I90I-Helen Anderson, Alberta Kingsbury, Howard K. Holland, Fred Wright, Nellie Dunning, Hiram Jewell, J. Howard MicIntosh, Joseph K. Ritter. I902-Charles Condon, Frank Kelly, Mayme Dunbar, Jay Hayden, Charles Jones, Fanchon Mason, Nellie Stevens. 1903-Jules Verne Des Voignes, Eugene Eby, Vera Ditzell, Mary Sincleir, Helen Donough, Newton G. VanNess, Elizabeth Jerome, Maude Tharp. Mahala Reynolds, Vesta Pollock. 1904-Crystal Thompson, Stella Hayden, Ruth Jones. Leora Johnston, Georgia Van Matre, Arietta Van Ness, Edna Pollock, Hazel Hayden. 1905-siMary Kimmerle, Read Chambers, Carl Morse, Fred J. Miller, Clarence Timm, Winfield Leach. 90o6-Mabel Peck, Robert \Wood, Rebecca Tones. DOWAGIAC SCHIOOLS. The citizens of Dowagiac take great pride in their fine schools, which, with a history of (levelopment covering half a century, are now in the front rank of schools in southern Michigan. To describe first the material equipment and school property, the eleven hundred pupils who' now attend school in the city are accommodated in three. buildings, any one of which is as far in advance of the pioneer shelter afforded by the log schoolhouse of the forties as is possible to conceive. The splendid high school building, which was completed in I903 at a cost of forty thousand dollars, presents the. most modern features of school architecture. It was built on the site of what was known as "the ward school," on James and Oak streets, and the old building, erected in I864, forms the rear wing of the structure as a whole. The high school

Page  232 232 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY occupies the second floor of the new building, while the first contains eight grade rooms. The primary and kindergarten grades retain the first floor of the old building, wlhich while adjoining the high school with possibility of direct communication, is nevertheless entirely separate so far as movemlent of pupils and administration are concerned. On the second floor of the ward building are located the rooms set apart for the use of the Normal Training class, a new educational institution to be described in a later paragraph. To mention only a few of the features that mark the new high school building as a. model, a brief description must include its chaste yet simple architecture, devoid of the tedious ornamentation of earlier periods, the wide and ample and commodious effects gained without introduction of bare and factory-like exterior and interior; the large study room on the second floor; the well equipped laboratories; the grouping of rooms and halls for the purpose of effective discipline; the fan system of ventilation; the automatic regulation of fuinace heating; an(l many other conveniences which a brief inspection discloses. Besides the high school building, which is the general name for the entire structure at James and Oak streets, there is the Central building or Union school building. on Main and Parsonage streets, the central portion of which, built in I86T, is the oldest school building in the city. Until the erection of the new high school building, the high school was accommodated there, but now it is the home of the Seventh and Eighth grades departmental work, and also the lower grades for that section of the city. The McKinley building, a four-room brick building in the First ward on the South side. erected in I903, accommodates six grades with four teachers. The institutions of education above described have developed from the district school, supported at first by private contributions. The settlers of this vicinity had built a log schoolhouse and employed Miss Hannah Compton (afterward Mrs. Elias Jewell) as teacher in 1840. This schoolhouse stood on the old cemetery grounds, near West and Green streets, and was attended by the children of the Hamilton, McOmber and other pioneer families. A school in Wayne township, near the present city limits, next afforded educational facilities, as also a select school kept by Mrs. Henry Hills out on the State road, in section 25 of Silver Creek. Several select schools were taught. In I850, after the founding of the village, a schoolhouse was built on the site of the

Page  233 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 233 present Methodist church. The church society, in the latter 5os, bought and removed this building. Such was the situation when A. D. P. Van Buren came to Dowagiac and organized the schools on the basis of permanent growth. To quote his own words: "Miss H. Marie Metcalf, of Battle Creek, had started the Young Ladies' school at Dowagiac, but soon found it so large that she sought help, consequently I was requested to, take charge as principal, which I did, October 4, I8'56, she becoming assistant. The village of Dowagiac was then some seven years old, had some I,200 inhabitants, had two churches, four taverns, and stores enough to accommodate the surrounding country. "The school was composed of girls from the age of twenty down to the child of seven or eight years. These, with some ten or twelve boys, to favor certain parents, constituted our charge. After we had taught a quarter of the term the directors of the school district made arrangements with us to take charge of the Union school, which the people of Dowagiac were about to organize. Hence our program was changed, and I was to be the one to call the school clans together here, as I had done six years before in Battle Creek, and form them into a union school." So Dowagiac became equipped with a union school, so far as the preliminary organization and a year's trial of the school was concerned, but the town yet lacked a suitable school building. It was not till I86I that this was provided, in the erection of a portion of the Central school building mentioned above. The instruction and care of the eleven hundred pupils in attendance at these schools is the work of Superintendent W. E. Conkling, with a corps of instructors consisting of one principal for each of the three buildings and twenty-seven departmental and grade teachers. This large teaching force in itself represents the progress from a time when one teacher could care for the school children of the village. Mr. Conkling, the superintendent of the schools since 1896, and himself a gradtrate of the high school with the class of I88I, is an enthusiastic and able educator and merits much of the credit for the present satisfactory conditions of education in Dowagiac. The building committee who supervised the construction of the high school building, which, perhaps, for many years will be the best example of public architecture in the city, were Dr. F. H. Essig and Dr. M. P. White, who are still members of the school board. The other members of the board at this writing are:

Page  234 234 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY E. Phillipson, president; Dr. J. H. Jones, treasurer; and Dr. F. H. Codding, secretary. Dowagiac high school is naturally the scholastic pride of the city. Its rank as an institution of learning of secondary grade is indicated by its being accredited for the fourth time with the University of Michigan, so that high school graduates enter without examination the university or any of the colleges and normal schools of the state. And the high school is also accredited with the North Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools, which includes the leading colleges and universities of the north central states. The high school course of study adopted at the middle of the year 1906 is that reported by the state superintendent of plublic instruction in accordance with the report of the Michigan commission on high school curricula. At the present writing there are one hundred and forty pupils in the high school. Since the first class was graduated in I864 the graduates up to April, I906, numbered 334. The graduating class in 19o6 contained seventeen members, eleven of whom had signified their intention to go to college. The average age of graduates is now about I8 years and 6 months. Many successful men and women found their early inspiration and training in the Dowagiac H-igh school. In this sketch of the school we may mention specifically some of the graduates in the various years. Of the class of 1870 was Charles WV. Foster, now a lieutenant in the U. S. army. Arthur K. Beckwith, superintendent of the Round Oak shops, graduated in 1878, and a classmate was Harry B. Tuthill, judge of Superior Court at Michigan City, Ind. The class of I879 gave Dowagiac three of its well known men, Dr. F. H. Codding, W. F. White, manager of the drill works, and Frank W. Lyle. Fred L. Colby, the mill man, now of Detroit, was in the class of i88o, and Victor M. Tuthill, of Grand Rapids, came out in I882. Another graduate is Dr. Alice I. Conklin, of Chicago. Clyde W. Ketcham, the lawyer, graduated in I894, and Fred E. Phillipson, also of Dowagiac, in 1893. Miss Louie Colby, of the Prang Educational Company, W. C. Edwards, of the Edwards Manufacturing Company, and A. B. Gardner, of the Round Oak works, all graduated in I888. The class of '94 also graduated John F. Murphy, a surgeon in the U. S. navy; Robert L. Hampton, the Glenwood stockman; Earl B. Hawks, a lawyer in the state of Washington, and Bert H. Fleming, a Methodist minister. A. P. Oppenheim. the merchant, graduated in I895; J. Bernard Onen, the Battle Creek law

Page  235 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 235 yer, in I896; Fred L. Dewey, the merchant, in I897. Classmates of Mr. Dewey, were Nels N. Stenberg, dentist at Three Rivers; J. Whitfield Scattergood, local editor of the Daily News; and F. B. Wedow, with the American Express Co. at Manistee. Clifford C. Robinson, a physician at Indiana Harbor; F. E. Phillipson, the merchant in Dowagiac, and Hall H. King, assistant secretary of state at Lansing, were members of the class of I898. From the class of '991 should be mentioned I. J. Phillipson, lieutenant in the army; Bessie M. Vroomain, teacher at Big Rapids, Mich.; E. J. Blackmore, dentist at Hartford, Mich.; B. S. Gardner, dentist at Dowagiac, and S. P. Savage, principal of the Central school at Dowagiac. C. J. Brosan, principal of the high school at Ovid, Mich., belonged to the class of 90oI; T. J. Brosan, now practicing law in Detroit, came out in I902, and Roy Marshall, who has made rapid strides in newspaper work and is now connected with the Detroit Frec Press, was also a member of the class of 1902. GRADUATES OF DOWAGIAC HIGH SCHOOL. 1864-Isaac R. Dunning, Lottie Iills, Hattie Smead. I866-Jesse P. Borton, J. B. Crawford, Josie Harris, Lydia Hebron, John Rosevelt, Daniel E. Thomas. I867 —Annis Gage, Fannie Hebron, Una Hebron, Frank A. Larzalere. I868-Delia Beckwith, Maggie Cullom. 1869 —Minnie Arens, Marcia Buck. Nellie Cady. I870 —C. Wilber Bailey, Charles W. Foster, Frank H. Reshore, A. N. Woodruff. I872-Florence Cushman, Carrie Harwood, Frank IMcAlpine. I873-Sarah Andrus, W. H-. Hannan, Etta Henderson. Nellie Hull, Byron McAlpine. I875-Ella Reshore. I876-Hattie Foster, Augusta Dopp, Ida Mosher, Anna Tuthill. 1877-Ed(ward Brownell, Lola Keatley, Fannie Starratt. 1r878-Melva Arnold, Arthur Beckwith, Eva Coney, Harry Tuthill. 1879-Ida Arens, Dora Blachlev, Lillian Brownell, Alice Barney, F. H. Codding, Allie Clark. W. F. Hoyt, F. W. Lyle, Belle Mason, Susie Rouse, Ed. Snyder, Nellie Stebbins, Cora Wheelock. I88o-Addie Brasier, F. L. Colby. Grace Gustine, Homer D. Nash, Kittie E. Starks. I881iLottie Andrews, Stella Coney, W. E. Conkling, Ina Dopp, Stella Powell, May Spencer, Matilda Stark, Asa P. Wheelock. T882-Kate Bassett, Emma Brownell, Ida Howard, Belle Huff. Carleton S. Roe, Nora Shepard, Victor M. Tuthill.

Page  236 236 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY I883-Addie S. Adams, Cameron C. Clawson, Ruth E. Coney, Lou Keatley, Maude Martin, Mabel Rouse, Rose Snyder. I884-Horace G. Conkling. I885-Eva Barker, Eva Barney, Dixon Churchill, Will Jessup. I886-Grace Bilderback, Stella Bond, Mary E. Conkling, Lyle Fletcher, Ella Gray, Grace Mater, Lena Taylor, May Van Riper. I887-Harry Bigelow, Lula Griswold, Jessie How:ser, Georgia Watson. I888-Louie Colby, XT. C. Edwards, Lura Defendorf, Flora Bronner, A: B. Gardner, Grace Hardy, Addie Henderson, Florence Jones, Edith Jones, Ruth Smith, Mary Taylor. 1889-Sylvia Day, Cora Ferris, Nellie Flanders, Lena Judd, Minnie Rice, Lena Starrett, Hattie Wiley. 1890-Nellie Boyd(, Alice I. Conklin, Clara Griswold, Mabel C. Lee, Hannah G. Stenberg, Minta M. Wenner. I89I-Estella Ackerman, Edwlard P. Cook, Arthur W. Griswold, Frank C. Hardy, Lizzie Hartsell, Frances M. Merwin, Maleta Rudolphi. I892-Jennie Larkin, Minnie Steele, Russell Van Antwerp. 1893-W. E. Becker, Jay Boyd, Eva McNab, Mabel C. Miller, Anna E. Rudolphi, Kate L. Bigelow, Harriet F. Dewey, Fred E. Phillipson. 1894-LaVerne C. Bilderback, Blanche A. Flanders, Bert H. Flemmling, Earl B. Hawks, John A. Jarvis. Glennie E. Reames, Grace E. Watson, Robert L. Hampton. Mabel E. Allen, Ina C. Gage, C. W. Ketcham, Parker McMlaster, John F. Murphy, Bessie Stenberg. I895 —Hannah L. Ackerman, 'Letha B. Elkerton, Guy B. Flemming, Peter M. Halfert, Amy E. Pegg, Homer S. Reames, LaVerne E. Searls, Genevieve Howser, Gertrude Dewey, Bertha Van Riper, Robert F. Munger, Leslie C. Sammons, A. P. Oppenheim. T896-Leon I. Barney, Phebe Hunter, Ralph Wanamaker, Myron Copley, William N. Beach, Maude E. Becker, J. Bernard Onen. I897-Eva L. Park, Louise J. Reshore, Margaret Shigley, Herbert P. Curtis, Fred L. Dewey, Mabel Smith, Glenn E. True, Martha E. Luedtke, Clarice Bushnell, Myrta Mae Clarke, Bertha Sprague, Frank M. Broadhurst, Alice I. Frost, Ethel Goble, Nels L. Stenberg, J. W. Scattergood, Ethel Tice, Mae Williams, Walter Lang, Thomas P. Leary, Verna E. Myers, Frank B. Wedow. I898-Eva Holloway, Clara Lyle, Gertrude Rix, Eva Copley, Maude Miller, Jere Mosher, Clifford C. Robinson, Herbert E. Phillipson, Edith Bishop, Fred Woods, Bae Lake, Belle Stewart Cushing, Mabel Shotwell, Olive Marsh, Mabel Carr, Mary A. Murphy, Maude Smith, Ray Fiero, Edith Oppenheim, Addie Sisson, Minnie M. Parmeter, Paul H. King. I899-Irving J. Phillipson, Bessie Vrooman, Zora Denyes, Lucile Gregory, Harry WV. Palmer, Katie Maier, Frank E. McMichael, Earl J.

Page  237 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 237 Blackmore, Anna Elliott, Boyd S. Gardner, Mlabelle Flewelling, Milton Holloway, James Murphy, Edna Norton, Laura Nicol, May Reighard, Sarah Parmeter, Sanuel P. Savage, Verna B. True, Irene White. 9gooC-Mary E. Morse, Earle M. Parker, R. N. Cary, Jessie Gardner, Lena Swisher, Frank Edwards, Ezra Rutherford, Henry Savage, Guy Zelner, Olive Knapp, Edward O'Brien, Ethel Wooster, Frank Stahl, Eugene Colgan, Jessie Smith. 19-oICornelius J. Brosnan, Emma Burk, Jennie Fisher, Olive Gard, Grace Hampton, Alice Hawks, Hazel Hoyt, Hilda Hoover, Mattie Jenkins, Alice Julian, Burt Patch, Pearl Rice, Ina Sommer, Bernice Spencer, Harry Straub, Beryl Van Antwerp. 1902-Frank Benedict, Robert Bielby, Frank Born, Thomas J. Brosman, Eva E. Brown, Lilian Byers, Lloyd Conkling, Nellie Curtis, Birdie Fraser, Verna Hackett, Myrle Hopkins, Lora Leeder, Roy Marshall, Iva Michael, Ona Michael, Mary Norton, Ethel Pitcher, Maude Swisher. 1903-Pearl Anderson, DeZera Araue, Mabel Atlee, Earle Brown, Eva Burk, Hazel Caster, Ida Lee, Verge Lybrook, Viola Merwin, Joseph R. Mitchema, Irene Morton, Maud Preston, Donald B. Reshore, Louise Stebbins. 1904-Amy Acton, W. T. Alliger, Lavina Bryant, Virginia Chapman, Beulah Connine, Winifred Fiero, Genevieve Hopkins, W. H. Lake, Anna Lewis, Edna Mann, Teresa O'Brien, Irene Sprague, Anita Walker, Charles Wilber, Marion Wilson, Lyell J. Wooster, Fred D. Wooster. 19o5 —Walter Andrews. Vivian Blackmore, Ethel Conklin, LaVina Defendorf, Grace East, Minnie Egmer, Mable E. Engle, Carrel Flewelling, Olive Kinsey, Ray Murphy, Guy Neff, Edith Ryder, Edna Ryder, Otis G. Shanafelt, Charles Stahl. J9o6-Laverne Argabright, Carmeleta Barton, Lee Benner, Mamie Burk, Orris Gardner, Cora Green, Ruth Hendryx, Thomas Hackett, William Hamilton. Helen Hoy, Max Ireland. Nita Kibler, Marguerite Lewis, Lois Powell, Fanny Springsteen, Elsie Stahl, Volney Wells. EDWARDSBURG SCHOOLS. Being the earliest important center in Cass county, it is natural that we find in Edwardsburg a school record going back to the pioneer days. The private subscription schools, such as taught in those days, and described on previous pages, were instituted here in the winter of I829-30, in a part of a double log house, Ann Wood being the first teacher. J. C. Olmsted, who, in the spring of 1836, when eleven years old, reached his present home east of Edwardsburg, says that his first teacher during the summer of 1836 was Angeline Bird, who taught in a private house. Then, in the summer of I837, the. villagers built a

Page  238 238 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY frame schoolhouse on lot II12, west of the present school building, the lot being donated by Abiel Silver. This structure served until the "old brick" schoolhouse was erected on lot 132, adjoining the M. E. church lot on the east, in 1847, and which many years afterward served as a private residence. Its dimensions were 24 by 30 feet, with a partition across the north end, leaving the room 24 by 24., and as many as II5 scholars attended the school each day (luring the winter o'f I856-57, an assistant teacher being employed. The next building was constructed in I86I at a cost of $3,000. In I886 District No. 3, comprising Edwardsburg, was made a graded school by Prof. G. W. Loomis, who was the first principal. Since that time the school has had the following principals: I887-8-William Jessup. I889-90o John B. Boyd and Michael Pemberton. I890-I-Edmund Schoetzow. I8QI-2-Miss Clare Pemberton. 1892-4-H. R. Foster. 1894-5-F. A. Preston. 1895 ---Lemuel L. Coates. I899-I9oI-V. D. Hawkins. 1901-2-Luther Ettinger and J. G. McMacken. I902-4-J. G. McMacken. 1904-6-Clifford N. Brady. I906-7-Claude L. Pemberton. The course of study through the regular twelve grades compares favorably with village schools of similar size and from time to time has been revised and adjusted to local needs and educational progress throughout the county and state. The board of education at this writing is: Henry Andrus, director; William K. Hopkins, moderator; J. D. Bean, treasurer; Marcus S. Olmsted, trustee; Edwin Harris, trustee. The faculty for I906-07: Claude L. Pemberton, principal; Miss Charlotte Preble, grammar; Miss Anna Hafelt, intermediate; Miss Nellie Williams, primary. Informal commencement exercises were held in I887, the year the school was fully graded, and Lillian Krome was then graduated. Following is the list of graduates, dating from I888. I888-Laura Snyder, Merta Miller, Ida Harwood, Genevieve Hanson, Bertha Thompson. I893-Henrietta Hadden, Dora Silver.

Page  239 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 239 1894-Lisle Shanahan, Hugh Beauchamp, Blanche Williams, Florence Holdeman, Letta Lukenbach. I896-Clifford Brady, Jessie Thornton, Mabel Parsons, Carrie Hadden, Anna Beauchamp, Alice Brady, Grace Hogmire, Matie Cobb, Mamie Graham. I897-Inez Smith, Andrew Hadden, Fred Harwood. I898-Claude Reed, Robert Hadden, Verna Paul, Constance Brady, Jessie Rickert. i899-Walter Thompson, Maxa Cook, William Parish. g190 —Harley J. Carlisle, Ida Perkins, Florence Parsons, Harry Kitchen, Warren Quimby, Margaret Hadden, Marion Brady, Ida Runkle, Lizzie Runkle. I90o-Winnifred Smith, Arthur Runkle, John Kitchen. I902-George Andrus, Arthur Bradv, Carl Manchow, Lloyd Dunning, Harry Meredith, Eleanor Bacon, Martha Hadden, Ella Truitt, Minnie Rogers. 1903-Maude E. Kelsey, Lewis H. Runkle, Adah B. Curtis, Genevieve Light, George L. Hadden, Winifred Hanson. 1904-Zendella Truitt, Lottie M. Rose, David Bacon, Charles A. Bement, Flora E. Martin. I905-Leona Bean, Mary Snyder. Bessie Oliver, Lydia Thornton, Belle Harwood, Blenn Van Antwerp. 90o6-Elizabeth Hadden, Thomas Head, Leidy Olmsted, Harry George. MARCELLUS SCHOOLS. The founding of a village at Marcellus Center soon made necessary the formation of a school of higher grade than the ordinary district school, the children of the villagers at first attending the school east of town. In I874 district Nol. 9 was organized within the village, the first meeting being in August. The first school board were: Levi Bridge, W. O. Matthews, David Snyder. Under the supervision of George W. Jones, Leander Bridge and David Hain, as building committee, $I,OOO was expended in the erection of a one-story brick schoolhouse, 24 by 36 feet in dimensions. Joel Booth was the first teacher. In I876 a second story was added at a cost of $8,44. and thereafter two teachers employed, Miss Kellogg being the extra teacher. The number of scholars increased so that rooms had to be rented in Centennial hall. The last teacher in the old building was Eugene Bradt, assisted by Estella Hoisington and Mrs. John Baent. It was not until I88I that the Marcellus schools attained to the full possibilities of usefulness and classified efficiency. At the regular school meeting in I88o it was voted to raise $7,ooo by issue of bonds for new

Page  240 240 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY buildings. Twelve lots were purchased of G. W. Jones, located in the east part of the block bounded by Arbor, Center, Woodland and Burney streets. In the fall of that year was completed the two-story, four-room brick building on the south side of the village, at an expense of $8,ooo, and in the following spring was occupied. The building committee who had charge of this construction were George W. Jones, David Snyder, John Manning, Alex. Taylor, Manning Taylor, Dr. A. Carbine. At the regular school meeting of I882 it was voted to grade the school. The board of trustees at that date were: Dr. Horace Carbine, H. M. Nottingham, Levi Burney, W. 0. George, Dr. C. E. Davis, L. B. Des Voignes. The principals, or superintendents, of the Marcellus graded school have been, R. T. Edwards, who published the first catalogue in 1882; George DeLong, Mr. Montgomery, J. W. Hazard, C. H. Knapp, Edmund Schoetzow, W. L. Taylor, Edmund Schoetzow, who,, with the exception of two years, has served since the fall of I89I. C. H. Knapp, in I887, got out a catalogue for a ten-grade course of study. When Mr. Schoetzow took charge, in I891, he organized the full twelve grades and completed the regular high school curriculum. The school was so crowded that in June, 1892, it was voted to bond the district for $2,500 to; build a two-story addition, which was completed about January, 1893. For I906-7 the Board of Education are: Dr. C. E. Davis, president; E. M. Ketcham, treasurer; F. S. Hall, secretary; I. S. Smith, G. W. Kroll, trustees. Faculty: Edmund Schoetzolw, superintendent; Grace Templeton, principal; Leone B. Dennis, assistant principal; Eva C. Ditzell, second grammar; Frances Volkmer, first grammar; Katherine Brennan, second primary; Inez Willard, first primary. Inez Willard is teaching her seventeenth year in the first primary room, having taught nine years the first time. The total number of graduates is I 19. Of these IoO were under Edmund Schoetzow's administration. M1ARCELLUS GRADUATES. T889-Edwin Drury, Maude Bogert, Guy Keene. 189o —Julius Stern, Charles Giddings, Homer Kidney, Pearle Anderson. 1891-Grace Arnold. Bertha M. Hartman, Margaret R. Hutchinson. 893-Guy Snyder.

Page  241 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 241 I894-Earle R. Clemens, Mae Manning, Belle Taylor, Enoch G. Bogert, John M. Alexander. 1895-Harriet L. Vincent, BeDlee M. Poorman, Helen B. Munger, Grace E. Taylor, Jessie I. Mayhard. I896-William C. Hartman, Edith L. Hall, Mabel A. Vincent, Parthenia M. Stillwell, Ola M. Nicholson, Charles R. Welcher, Maude M. Palmer, Mabel C. Easterbrook, Pearle E. Swift, *Barton C. Nottingham, Bert J. Vought. I89i7-Roy E. Goodspeed, Mamie V. Sherman, Willard J. Gunter, Annis M. Mikel, Willard C. Davis, Eliza A. Reynolds. i898-A. Florence Taylor, Tacie R. Udell, V. Maude Marr. I8991-Clyde Clemens, Vera M. Jones, Carolyne L. Stern, Margery I. Kern, Florence McManigal, Burt L. Loveridge. 9go —Bertha Harris, Elma lMohney, Mary Remington, Susie Lutes, Georgia H. Hartman, L. Clare Poorman, Leroy S. Long, Nellie Batchelor, Earle J. Gould. 1901-Carl G. Fulton, Leona Kent, Irene Cropsey, Harry A. Bradford, Louella Apted, Clella E. Davis, Genevieve Mumnford, Gay A. Webb. Merle Mack, Edna R. DeCou. 1902-Clair Smith, Sarah M. Hall, Frances C. Streeter, Mabel S. Long, Sarah E. Lutes, Lura Rosewarne, Jennie Lowry, Anna Bachelor, Mabel S. Fletcher, Lulu M. Franklin, Jennie Cleckner, Abby R. Munger, John H. Maxam. 1903-Neva F. Kent, Birdie W\alker, Hattie R. Potter, Harry P. Jones, Albert J. Carpenter, Helen H. Stern, Ethel Apted, Hollister H. Savage, Deane E. Herbert, Daisy E. Lewis, Jennie M. Thompson. 1904-Rosa Hartshorn, Esther George, Mary Long. Alice Streeter, Beulah Potter, Clark Whitenight, Bessie Thurkow. 905o-Henriette George. Mary DeForest, Neva T. Arnold, Ethel M. Holliday, Emar Hice. Florence Stern, Vera Thurkow. Jessie M. East. 19o6-Vaughn R. LaBarre, Jennie M. Spitler, Leona Mae Moxlev (colored), Fanny M. Saulpaugh, Mildred I. Krise, Cleta Beatrice Kern, Sarah Orril Mack, Clarence A. Bradford, C. Blanche WValdron, Rena Hoisington, Grace M. Lewis, Kathryn B. Colburn, V. Kathryn Taylor, Verna B. Siegel. VANDALIA PUBLIC SCIOOL. The Vandalia Ptublic School was graded by Jesse Borton, the principal, in 1873. Mr. Borton had been at the head of the school some time before and remained there until 1876. His successors have been: 1877-8: J. Handschue. 1879-89 Michael Pemberton. * Killed in the Spanish-American war.

Page  242 242 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY I890 Thomas Chalmers. I89I-3 Chester E. Cone. 1894-5 A. F. Probst. 1896-8 C. L. Pemberton. 1899 C. L. Catherman. 1900 S. J. Bole. 1901-3 L. O. DeCamp. 1905 H. S. East. 1906 *R. T. Baldwin, John Myron. The school has graduated one hundred and nine students notwithstanding there were no graduating classes in 1884, I886, I896, I899 and 1904, and the first class in I883. GRADUATES. I883-Rose Bonine, Minnetta Thurston, Robert Coats, Florence Thomas, William Shillings, George D. Smith, Ella Carrier, Elroy Alexander. 1885-Ida Tinker, Fred Jefferson, Herman S. East, *Mattie Cross, Henry Lane, *Dena O'Dell. 1887-C. H. Bonine, Erma Faulkner, Eva O'Dell, William Oxenford. I888-Samuel Stephens, Clare Pemberton, Leroy E. Deal, G. E. Campbell, Bertha Bonine. 1889-Edna Fellows, Charles Wetherbee, Frank Lewis, J'Net O'Dell, John Setzler, *Edith Roys, Loren Miller. I89 —Pearl Bump, J. C. Faulkner, M. Lena Lynch, Carrie Kirk, M/innie Lambert, *Cora Thomas. r891-Frank E. Faulkener, *Charity Mulrine, Earl Merritt, Ralph Bogue. 1892-*Eva Jefferson, Bertha Arnold, Mary Seager. J893-Frank Blood, Nellie Royer, Cora Arnold, Blanche Simpson, Lola Thurston, Iva Cussans, Clara Whited. I894-Ella Symons, Nellie Kirk, Ada Phillips, Guy Van Antwerp. Charles Setzler, Bernice McKinney, Myrta Shillings, Mary Smith, Albert Roys, Ethel Orr, Margaret Pemberton, Cora Royer, Odessa Seager, William Setzler. 1895-Belle Lvnch, Meda Weikle, Etta Train, Mary Skinner, Hannah Bogue. I897-Leona Hollister, Ethel Deal. Blanche McCabe, John Simpson, Verna Royer. T898-Minnie Wilson, Vesta Lewis, H-attie Mealoy, Clarence Faulkner, Edna Barnum. * Resigned.

Page  243 HISTORY O!F CASS COUNTY 243 i900-Glennie ileslet, Flora Hollister, Ruby M. Johnston, Anna Setzler, Vera Lynch, M\arie Denison, Mabel Honeyman. i90i-Blanche Wiltse, Arlie. B-onine, Blanche Denison, LuVada Copely. 1902-Leon Alexander, Ward A. Bump, Florence Doan, Wayne Beardsley, Mabel A. Bonine. I90;3-Clara Seidi, Fancheon Lewis, *P:. Jay Freer, Carl Jo~hnson, G. Belle Freer. i905-Sadie Bonine, Clara Bonine, Mabel Curtis, Deva Brickell, Floyd Keller. i896-Georgiana Longsduff, Onear Fisher, Reta Van Antwerp, Btirt Pullin. The faculty for 1906 and '07: John Myron, principal; Mrs. Mae D~unning and Miss Rub-y M. Johnston, assistants; Miss Minnie Wilson, intermediate; Miss Mabel Bonine, primary. *Deceased.

Page  244 244 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XVII. LIBRARIES. LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION OF CASSOPOLIS. In October, 1870, an organization under the name of "Cassopolis Reading Room and Library Association" was effected, and the following February incorporated with the following named incorporators: W. WV. Peck, W. P. Bennett, C. S. Wheaton, J. T. Stevens, A. Garwood, A. B. Morley, A. Maginnis, H. Norton, O. Rudd, M. L. Howell, John Tietsort, J. M. Shepard, L. H. Glover, J. B. Boyd. The declared objects of the organization were, "the establishment and maintenance of a library and reading room; the procuring and furnishing of lectures on literary and scientific subjects; and the affording of such other means of literary, scientific and intellectual improvement as the association by its by-laws may provide." The public reading room feature of the organization was kept up less than a year, but the library has been maintained to the present time, and contains about fifteen hundred volumes of choice fiction, history and travels, sheltered in the Pioneer Room of the Court House. A few of the ladies of Cassopolis have managed the library since the discontinuance of the reading room. and September 5th, I905, new articles of incorporation were executed by the follow'ing women, who were made directors under the new organization-Ladies' Library Association of Cassopolis: May S. Armstrong, Lucy E. Smith, Allie M. DesVoignes, Addie S. Tietsort, I-Tattie J. Holland, Maryette H. Glover, Sarah B. Price. Its officers are: Sarah B. Price, President; Maryette H. Glover, Secretary; Addie S. Tietsort, Treasurer. Article VII of the articles of association is as -follows: The officers shall be women twenty-one years of age and residents of Cassopolis, and members of the association. Any person paying the membership fee provided for in the by-laws may become a member. The membership fee is one dollar, and the further fee of seventyfive cents each vear after the first year. This payment authorizes the

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Page  245 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 245 member to draw books from the library, which is open to its members Saturday afternoons, and in charge of the ladies. *THE LADIES' LIBRARY ASSOCIATION. The library movement in Dowagiac was begun by the ladies of the city in I872. April 9th a meeting was called and a constitution and by-laws were presented and adopted. The city was then canvasse(l for subscribers to the capital stock, the amount of which was fixed at $I,OOO, divided into 500 shares at $2.00 each. About 200 shares were sold. With this money books were purchased and the enterprise was fairly started. Books were loaned under proper regulations. The signers of the constitution, or charter mnembers, were: Mesdames Maria Palmer, Amanda W. Jones, Mary E. Lyle, May E. Bowling, Emma E. Van Riper, Jerusha E. Bailey, Lorraine Dickson, Caroline J. IMulvane, Lillie A. Curtis and Miss Gertrude ReShore. A room was rented for the library until I888, when P. D. Beckwith became interested in the cause and knowing the need of a permanent home for the library, built for it a small frame building and fitted it up with cases for the books and all necessary furniture and, with the lot on which the building stood, deeded it to the Association. Until his death Mr. Beckwith was ever a good and generous friend to the library cause. By the will of Win. K. Palmer, an old and respected citizen, the Association received $I,200, the only gift of money ever received. In 1902 the charter of the Association was renewed for thirty years. To the ladies of the Association who vworked so long and earnestly the people of Dowagiac are indebted for the splendid Public Library they now possess. Feeling the need of a wider influence than a subscription library could have, they interested their friends in an effort to secure a Carnegie Library for the city, and on receipt of the offer, went before the city council and pledged their books and income to the support of a public library. The money from the Palmer estate furnished the foundation of a permanent book fund for the library, and the income from the rent of the former library building is expended quarterly for books for the Public Library. The Ladies' Association, while co-operating with the Public Library board and having its only purpose in advancing the interests of the library, is still maintained as an independent organization. The * NOTE-This article was contributed to the history by Grace ReShore.

Page  246 246 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY officers for the current year are: Mrs. Mable Lee Jones, President; Miss Frances M. Ross, Vice President; Mrs. J. O. Becraft, Treasurer; Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Secretary. DOWAGIAC PUBI,IC LIBRARY. The building is the gift of Andrew Carnegie, the grounds the gift of the Beckwith Estate. The Public Library and Reading Room were established by a resolution adopted March, i6th, 903, at a meeting of the common council of the city, and at the same meeting the mayor appointed as the first board of trustees, Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Mrs. F. J. Atwell, Mrs. A. B. Gardner, Miss N. A. Atwell, Miss Grace ReShore, Messrs. NWm. F. Hoyt, C. W. Hendryx, Rev. L. M. Grant, F. L. Becraft. The board organized and elected officers, C. W. Hendryx, president; Mrs. A. B. Gardner, vice president; Miss Grace ReShore, secretary. Building committee: W. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Gardner, F. L. Becraft The architect selected was Berkeley Brandt of Chicago. The material used for the building is vitrified brick in two colors-with columns and trimmings in Bedford stone. The interior finish is in weathered oak, walls tinted terra cotta with light buff ceilings. At the right of the entrance is the children's room, with low shelves on three sides of the room for books. The delivery desk is in the center, with the steel book-stacks at the back; the general reading room at the left of the entrance. At the right from the stack room is the librarian's room, and at the left is the reference and trustees' room. The lighting is a combination of electricity and gas. The furniture is oak in Mission style. In the basement is an assembly room seating about 250, which will be used for the children's league and other small gatherings. The Library received from Mr. Elias Pardee, an old resident of the city, a valuable museum consisting of stuffed birds and small animals and some very fine deer and elk heads; birds' nests and eggs, shells, etc., which add greatly to the attractiveness of the rooms and interest and instruct the young people. In November, 1903, the cornerstone of the building was laid with appropriate ceremonies by the Michigan Grand Lodge of Masons. November loth, I904, the library was opened with an informal reception in the evening, and the next day began issuing books. At the time of opening the library contained 3,535 volumes-2,752 of which Were from the Ladies' Library Association, 783 from the public school library,

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Page  247 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 247 1,026 volumes have been added since. The circulation for the past year was 2I,I98 volumes. Readers' cards have been issued to 1,703 persons. The officers of the library board for the current year (1906) are: Wm. F. Hoyt, President; Frances M. Ross, Vice President; Grace ReShore, Secretary and Librarian. BECKWITH MEMORIAL THEATRE. The Beckwith Memorial Theatre, dedicated by Colonel Robert G. Ingersoll in January, I893, is constructed of Lake Superior red sandstone with backwalls of brick. The building is 8.5xII5 feet in dimensions, and is three stories in height. The front has a genuinely monumental effect, the first story being a magnificent arcade of four great arches, with twenty feet to each span, and showing the depth of the walls. On each pier is the portrait of a noted woman in bold relief, such famous women as George Eliot, George Sands, Mary Anderson, Sarah Bernhardt, Rachael and Susan B. Anthony being represented. Above this space smoothly chiseled stone reduces the effect again, and the top story front consists of semi-circular headed arches which form another arcade. Upon the bay directly over the main entrance is a large medalion portrait of Philo D. Beckwith, beneath which a magnificently carved panel bears the name "Beckwith." In the other fro(nt bays are portraits in medalion of Beethoven. Chopin, Rossini, Wagner, Verdi, Liszt, Voltaire. Ingersoll, Payne, Hugo, Emerson, WVhitman. Goethe and the immortal Shakespeare. The main entrance to the building is in the middle (livision of the ground floor front and is eighteen feet in width. This also furnishes the entrance to the corner ground floor room, which is occupied by Lee Brothers & Company's bank, than which there is no finer banking room in the country. On the opposite side is the entrance to the postoffice, which is fitted up with the latest appliances for the expeditious handling of the mails. From off the arcade a magnificent flight of stairs leads to the second floor, the front portion of which is occupied by the offices of the Beckwith estate. The stage is fifty feet wide and thirty-eight feet deep, with beautifully ornamented boxes on either side. Everything has been done with a lavish hand. There are fifteen elegantly furnished dressing rooms, in which are all the conveniences for the comfort of the disciples of Thespis who visit this house. The drop curtain is a composite work of art. The general design is an original figure composition in classic Greek,

Page  248 248 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY and is monumental and decorative in contradistinction to the realistic school and apparently inspired by the artist's study of the theatre itself. 'The figulres are superbly (drawn and painted, and the landscape )ortion is magnificent. The whole presents a fitting picture by the greatest artists of the time. Each has done well his part. No one mind could have conceived it; nor could any one lhalnd have executed it. It will live as a classic work olf art when its makers shall have passed away. The scenery is designed for the cyclorama effect which has been found so effective, and which was first used in the Auditorium in Chicago. By this arrangement a scene can be set as a street or a garden by simply moving the scenes, which are profiled on both sides and top, anywhere desired. Every set of mnachinery is a finished piece of art. It is, after the latest fashion, lashed together with ropes, and is capable olf being made into seventy-five (listinct stage dressings. All the ornamental work in the house is after the fashion of the Grecian school, and everything possible has been done to make this, the first memorial theatre erected in the country, the most beautiful playhouse in the lan(l. There are 499 over-stuffed mohair plush chairs, dedl in a light fawn and flesh colors, 329 of which are in the parquette and 170 gracing the balconv. The gallery seats 200 comfortably. The problem of electric lighting of theatres has been solved in this house by the use o'f a large switchboard, in which there are twentyfive levers and nine plowerful resistance coils. The lighting of the stage itself is exceptionally complete, four hundred electric lamps in three colors being utilized for this purpose. The heating and the ventilation have been well looked to, and there never was a theatre whose air was more pure and whose warmth was more regular and comfortable. There is a roomy foyer andl an abundance of fire escapes; in fact nothing has been left undone which could add to the attractiveness and completeness of this house. It is a new and splendid model which time will demonstrate to be almost, if not quite, the acme of human skill in architecture, design and decoration.

Page  249 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 249 CHAPTER XVIII. THE CASS COUNTY PRESS. In the year of this writing there are eight newspapers published regularly in Cass county. Of these there is one daily, and one published twice a week. Outside of the two large centers Edwardsburg and Marcellus support each a paper. In one respect, at least, the newspaper history of Cass county is noteworthy. All but one of the eight papers have had a continuous existence-though not all under continuous proprietorship-for at least a quarter of a century. The newspaper graveyard of Cass county is surprisingly small. The live ones are'not so. much troubled by the ghosts of defunct enterprises as in many other counties that might be named. Not that journalism has been without the usual reefs and shallows in this county. Not that there are no wrecks to record. Here, as elsewhere, some newspapers, delivered in hope, have died in blameless infancy; one or two, having served their ephemeral purpose, passed out without the sting of failure; the existence of one or two others was fitful and stressful from the first, and the end was the happiest part of their career. The early settlers of the county had no newspaper. Perhaps the most familiar paper that coulld be considered a "home paper" was the Niles Herald, which was published by A. E. Draper from 1833 to 1838, being suspended at the latter (late. In its columns, no doubt, were published the legal notices from Cass county. The only other paper in southwestern Michigan that wias regularly published at that time, so far as is known to the writer, was the Kalamazoo Gazette, which was established in I834, and is now in its 73rd volume. More than fifteen years elapsed after the organization of Cass county before the first newspaper enterprise ventured a permanent abode in the county. The Cass County Advocate issued its first number March Ii, 1845. The publishers got their equipment from the old Niles Express. It announced a regular weekly appearance, but, as is well known, the intentions of early editors-often, too, of those still with us-did not possess the breadth and height and irresistible force needed to over

Page  250 250 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY come the insuperable obstacles that beset pioneer publishing. Very often the person whose name conspicuously appeared as "editor and proprietor," also was incumbent of the long list of positions that rank below the supreme office down to the despised "devil." As business manager, as news gatherer, as typesetter, as foreman of the press room, and lpower man for the hand press, the old-time publisher had no sinecure. Too often his supply of paper ran out before the means of transportation by wagon could bring him his next invoice. These conditions, and many others that we cannot here describe in detail, might have interfered with the regular editing of the first Cass county newspaper. Certain it is, that its career was fitful. Mr. E. A. Graves was the editor and proprietor' a Democrat in politics and conducting his paper accordingly. Abram Townsend bought the enterprise in I8,46, but he, too, failed to make it prosperous. In I850 it fell into the hands of another well known citizen, Ezekiel S. Smith. He evidently believed that Cassopolis was not a good field for a newspaper, and that the new railroad-born village of Dowagiac offered a better location. The removal of the Cass County Advocate to Dowagiac in I8.o gave that village its first newspaper. Mr. L. P. Williams soon bought the plant of Mr. Smith, and by him. the name was changed to the Dowagiac Timcs and Cass Colluity Rcpublican. In 1854, while the proprietor was away on a business trip, the office and the entire plant was destroyed by fire. Thus perished the first newspaper, after having lived nearly ten years. Its history was closed, for no, successor, phoenixlike, ever rose from its ashes. The contents of the early newspaper call for brief comment. Apropos of this point, Mr. C. C. Allison says: "If you turn over the pages of the early paper expecting to find local news you will be disappointed. Now our papers exist and are patronized for the local information they contain; at that time this idea of journalism had not arrived, at least not in this part of the country. A letter from a foreign country, describing alien people and customs, was eagerly seized upon by the. editor, and its none too interesting facts spread over several columns of type. At the same time local improvements, county news, and the personal items which. now form the live features of the small newspaper. were usually omitted entirely or passed over with scant attention. Marriages and deaths and births formed the, bulk of the local news in the newspaper of fifty years ago.".

Page  251 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 251 After the departure of the Cass County Advocate the citizens of Cassopolis evidently felt the void caused by no local newspaper. A stock company was organized, George B. Turner was selected as editor, and on March 17, I85o, the first number of the National Democrat was given to the public. Fifty-six years have passed since that date, and the National Democrat still flourishes. H. C. Shurter was the publisher for the original company. The first few years of this paper's existence were not unmarked by vicissitudes, at least in ownership. In 1854, Mr. G. S. Boughton bought the paper, and within a few months sold it to W. W. Van Antwerp. During the latter's proprietorship the late Daniel Blackman was editor. When the original stock company resumed control of the enterprise in I858, Mr. Blackman continued as editor, with Mr. H. B. Shurter as publisher. But, however well the paper may have served its ostensible ends, its financial condition remained discouraging. In I86I the plant was sold at sheriff's sale. The purchasers were Pleasant Norton, D. M. Howell and Maj. Joseph Smith. It was transferred by them to L. D. Smith, who managed it two years-the first two, years of the war, when news was at a premium everywhere. In March, I863, the paper reverted to Messrs. Norton, Howell and Smith, Major Smith taking the editorial end of the business. In I862 the proprietors had employed as their publisher a young man, then twenty-tAwo years old, named C. C. Allison. Born in Illinois in 1840 and coming to, Cassopolis when eight years old, the (lean, as he now is, of the newspaper profession in Cass county began his career, and is likely to end it in the National Democrat office. He entered the office as an apprentice in I855. He set type, wrote news items, and in a few years was master of the business. On May 5, I863, he bought the paper, and from that date to this he has owned, managed and edited the oldest paper in Cass county. The Nationao LDemocrat is published weekly, is Democratic in politics, and it has been tle steadfast policy of its proprietor to keep it in the first rank, an impartial and comprehensive disseminator of news, and at the same time an advocate of progress and public spirit in the affairs to which newspaper influence may be legitimately directed. The Republican interests. of the county are represented at Cassopolis by the Vigilant,. which is also far more than a partisan journal; it is well edited, has live, clean news, and its standard of newspaper enterprise is the very highest. The' ig.ilant has witnessed an entire genera

Page  252 252 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY tion of human progress, and its columns have contained the history ill epitome of Cass county since the I6th of May, 1872, when its first copy was issued. D. B. Harrington and M. H. Barber were the founders of the paper. It wvent through several changes of ownership during the first years. C. L. Morton and W. H. Mansfield purchased it in February, I873, and in the following July Mr. Mansfield became sole proprietor. In I876 Mr. Mansfield associated with himself Mr. James M. Shepard, a dentist by profession, and having followed from I868 to that (late the practice of dentistry in Cassopolis. MIr. Shepard, whose subsequent career in public affairs is so well known, became the sole owner of the Vigilant in 1878, and has conducted the paper under his personal supervision except while engaged in his public duties. For seventeen vears Mr. W. -I. Berkey has been connected with the office, and for alout ten years has been managing editor of the Vigilanlt. He is a thorough and alert newspaper man and shares in the credit for the success of the Vigilant. Although the plant of the Timlles r and Cass Counlty Republican was destroyed by fire in 1854, Dowagiac did not long remain an unoccupied field for newspaper endeavor. In the same year Mr. James L. Gantt established the Dowagiac Tribulnec. The Tribune held undisputed possession of the field until 1858. In the meantime the policy of its editor was bringing upon him a storm of disapproval that ended in a small newspaper war. It should be remembered that the newspapers of that time were more of political "organs" than even the strongest of modern partisan journals. To advocate the success of its party and to give much the greater part of its news and editorial space to that cause was often the sole cause of a country newspaper's existence. And the change from that custom to the later "news" paper is recent enough to be remembered by all. Hence it came about that when the course of the Tribune had hecome distasteful beyond endurance to the Republicans of the county, the officials and leaders of Cass county Republicanism met to consider and take action concerning their newspaper "organ." As a result of this meeting, which was held in January, 18588, overtures were made to Mr. Gantt either to dispose of the paper or to allow a committee to select an editor. in which case the expense would be borne by the party organi

Page  253 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 253 zation. Mr. Gantt had no mind to surrender his prerogatives or policies, and his paper was issued as before. But there remained another method. The party leaders induced W\. H. Campbell and N. B. Jones to establish another paper in Dowagiac. This rival was called the Republican. Mr. Jones retired at the end of three months, but Mr. Campbell conducted the paper with such energy and was so well supported by his constituents that in I859 Mr. Gantt sold him the good will of the Tribune, and moved the plant of the latter away. Thus the Republican was left master of the situation, and continued for many years as the only Dowagiac paper. The names of the committee who were responsible for the establishment of the Reputblicaln were Justus Gage, Jesse G. Beeson, \V. G. Beckwith, Joshua Lofland and William Sprague. The Republican, like other Cass county papers, has passed through a series of ownerships. Mr. Campbell continued its publication until January, I865. At that date Mr. Charles A. Smith, a young man of only twenty-one years, but a practical printer and energetic newspaper man, took control and conducted the business successfully for two years. Mr. Jesse G. Roe was the next purchaser, but being unacquainted with the practical side of newspaper business, after three weeks he sold the plant to its founder, Mir. Camplell. In I868 Mr. H. C. Buffington was installed as proprietor and editor, and continued the publication until September, 1875, when the business passed to Richard Holmes and C. J. Greenleaf. These partners gave much space to purely local matters, and their management throughout was quite successful. In September, J88o, another transfer was made, when Mr. R. N. Kellogg bought the Republican, plant. Under Mr. Kellogg's ownership the name was changed from the Cass County Republican to the Dowagiac Republican. Successive owners of the Rcpublican were E. H. Spoor, Becraft & Amsden, Becraft alone, then a Mr. Rose, Becraft & Son, and J. 0. Becraft. Mr. Becraft was publisher of the Replublican until I904, when he sold it to Mr. H. E. Agnew, the present proprietor. In I88c Mr. W. M. Wooster entered the lists of Cass county journalism. He had been proprietor of the Van Buren County Repltblican, which lie sold to Mr. Buffington, the former Republican editor. Buying the equipment of the Lawrence Advertiser, he removed it to Dowagiac, and on September I, I88o, he issued the first number of the Dowagiac Times, as an independent in politics-an unusual course for a paper to take at that time. In I881 the Times was sold to Mr.

Page  254 254 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY A. M. Moon, who has been identified with Cass county journalism nearly thirty years, and who came to Dowagiac from Marcellus. Mr. Moon conducted the Tinzes until I885, when he sold it to its present proprietor, James Heddon. In 1897 Charles Heddon established the Daily News, which was issued from the same office as the Times, and the two papers are practically under one management. In this connection it is of interest that Ward Bros. established a paper called the Daily News in Dowagiac about I880, although its existence was short.. The third paper of Dowagiac is the Herald, which was established in 1892 by Mr. N. Klock as the Standard. R. E. Curtis bought this paper in I897, and it later became the property of J. A. Webster, who changed the name to the Herald. In April, I903, A. M. Moon became the proprietor of the Herald and has since issued it every week. Marcellus has a somewhat disconnected newspaper record, but the News has a record of nearly thirty years, and has been a good paper, ably edited and well patronized, since its start. The Messenger was the first paper in the village, established by S. D. Perry in I874. The Goodspeed brothers, Volinia farmers, soon came into possession of the plant and issued a paper known as the Standard under the management of Rufus Nash. The last issue appeared in August, I876, and in I877 Mr. A. M. Moon bought the plant and brought out the first number of the Marcellus News. When Mr. Moon moved to Dowagiac he took part of the equipment of the News, but left the intangible interests and subscription lists of the News to, his successors, C. C. Allison and J. J. A. Parker, who issued the first number under their management on December 24, I88I. Mr. Parker soon bought the interest of Mr. Allison, who had entered the newspaper field at Marcellus as a branch enterprise to his Cassopolis paper. Following Mr.' Parker, the proprietor of the News was Mr. White, then Dr. C. E. Davis, who sold to the present proprietor, A. E. Bailey. The Vandalia Journal was established by William A. DeGroot, and the first number was dated June 14, i88I. The paper later passed to Jos. L. Sturr. who, after a short time, discontinued its publication and moved the type and presses to Chicago. Several years ago Mr. F. M. Viall established a small news sheet at Vandalia, but after about six rmonths gave up the enterprise without having' won fame for himself and brought the paper to any dignity in fiewspaperdot. The tdwardsburg Argus, whose present proprietor is Henry Andrus

Page  255 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY: 255 (see sketch), was established in I875, its first issue appearing October 5th. William A. Shaw, H. B. Davis, F. M. Jerome and G. F. Bugbee were connected with the paper until 1879. In February of this year Dr. John B. Sweetland took charge of the paper, which he thereafter conducted in his vigorous and virile way, "neutral in nothing, independent in everything," and was the proprietor for twenty years, until his death in 1899. Dr. Sweetland, in conformity with his principles, kept his paper independent in politics, and if he favored any movement especially it was the Prohibition. Mr. Henry Andrus was local editor of the Argus a long time under Dr. Sweetland, and since the latter's death has conducted the paper, maintaining it at the high standard of former years. The Argus is issued regularly every Thursday. Illustrative of newspaper politics of half a century ago, is an incident related by C. C. Allison, the veteran editor of the Democrat. In I840 Ezekiel S. Smith had been appointed by Gov. Woodbridge to the position of attorney in Cass county. Smith was a Whig, of the same brand and stripe as his political chief. He made it a point to emphasize his beliefs and aggrandize his party whenever possible while in Cass county. At that time the Democratic party was dominant in this section, its official organ at the county seat being the Cass County Advocate, with its pioneer editor, Abram Townsend. Townsend was not succeeding in making his paper pay dividends, however successful it may have been as a political and news organ. One day, in this financial stress, he applied to Attorney Smith for a cash loan. "No more loans on that paper," replied Smith, who was already Townsend's creditor; "why don't you go to Asa Kingsbury?" Kingsbury was a leader in Democratic affairs at that time, and his financial support to the Advocate had also been drawn upon to the limit. On being informed of Kingsbury's unwillingness to extend further credit, Attorney Smith, acting upon a sudden idea, asked, "What will you take for that newspaper over there?" "'Do you really want to buy it. Mr. Smith?" "Yes, I will buy the equipment and you can continue as my editor," was the decisive manner in which the transaction was closed. "Now," continued Smith, after counting out the stipulated amount less what Townsend owed him, "let us go over and get out this week's paper." The make-up was about ready to go to press, and after looking it over the only change that the new proprietor requested was that the leading editorial be withdrawn and one written by himself substituted. This was done, and the Ad-vocate appeared on the regular

Page  256 256 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY day of issue without any delay consequent upon the change of ownership, which took place quite unheralded to the citizens o0f the county seat. But for that reason the consternation was all the greater among the stanch Democracy when, on the first page of their loyal paper, they read a pungent editorial lauding the principles of Whiggism to the skies and holding up the sacred tenets and leaders of the Van Buren party to scorn and ridicule.

Page  257 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XIX. MEDICINE AND SURGERY. The early followers of Aesculapius, in Cass county as elsewhere, were in the main honest, practical and sympathetic men. Such is the testimony of those whose personal knowledge connects the present with the past. WAithout the advantages of broad technical training, such as are within reach of the medical student now, without the vast heritage of accumulated experience, analyzed and classified for apDlication t', every morbid condition of mankind, the pioneer physician had to, compensate for his narrowness of professional vision and skill by a pervasive sympathy and inspiring cheerfulness. Much of the practice was done by doctors who followed their profession as an adjunct to the more necessary-to their own welfareoccupation of tilling the new soil or merchandising, or any other of the trades or activities by which the early settlers gained a living. There were, proportionately, fewer "town doctors." Some of the "farmer doctors" were college graduates and men of considerable attainments, though necessarily rough in exterior, and, although handicapped for want of appliances, were perhaps as fully competent to combat the diseases incident to those conditions as our more modern physicians are to combat our more modern diseases. For it is a well known scientific truth that many of the refinements and advantages of modern civilization are really violations of the natural laws, which bring about their own diseases as punishment. A very brief record is left of those physicians who came to Cass county during the pioneer period. There.was Dr. Henry H. Fowler, who seemed possessed of the pioneer spirit, for several new settlements in this part of the country knew him, as a citizen as much as a professional man. Hle was interested in the formation of the.village of Geneva, on Diamond lake, and was a factor in having that place designated as the seat of justice. He had first located at Edwardsburg.about I830. There seems to have been no physician during the thirties who left a permanent impress on the life and affairs. of the county. During that. decade Cassopolis and vicinity had, for varying lengths of time, doctors

Page  258 258 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY named Isaac Brown, Charles L. Clows, David E.. Brown, Benjamin F. Gould, who was a college graduate and practiced in Cassopolis till his death, in I844; David A. Clows, and James Bloodgood. The first physicians in the county seem to have located at Edwardsburg. Of those early practitioners the most prominent was Henry Lockwood. Born in New York in I803, a graduate of a medical college of that state, he located at Edwardsburg about I837, and was in active and prosperous practice there till 1802. He died in December of the following year. The old town of Adamsville, in the southern part of the county, had a notable doctor in the early days in the person of Henry Follett. Born in New York in 1789, he studied medicine under private direction, served in the war of I812 as assistant surgeon, and in I836, with his family, made the journey in pioneer fashion from the east to his new home at Adamsville. Two years later he moved to a farm near the village, and in a combination of the two pursuits passed the remainder of his life, his death occurring in I849. There were other physicians in the county during this period, but little record other than their names is preserved. Those earliest physicians-as well as their successors for many years-traveled about on horseback. There were no telephones by which medical assistance could be summoned to remote parts of the rural districts, and hence, up to recent years, the sight of a flying horseman hastening to town was a signal to the neighbors that some one was ill. An hour or so later back would come the physician, muffled up beyond recognition during the severe winter season, or bespattered with mud from hard riding over the niry roads. There were no carriages. If there had been they would have been useless because of the rough and muddy roads, which were scarcely more than trails cut through the woods. The distances traveled in reaching the sufferers were long, because the roads wound around so much, and often the patient was dead before the doctor could arrive. Sometimes after heavy rains the streams would be swollen so as to render the fords impassable, or the bridges would be carried away, necessitating a long detour in order to reach the destination. But numberless and arduous as were the difficulties which beset the pioneer practitioner-and only a few have been alluded to, so that the picture is quite inadequate to reveal the hard life of our first doctors-it is to the lasting honor of the rugged character and faithful devotion to duty of those men that no call for help, matter not where it was or what its answering meant in the way of personal hardship, was refused.

Page  259 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 259 But the times and conditions of practice changed rapidly. Dr. H. H. Phillips, of Cassopolis, whose professional recollections in this county go hack nearly forty years, states that when he began to practice the physicians no longer were traveling about the country on horseback, with their medicine, surgical instruments, etc., in a saddle-bag. Buggies had already come into general use among the country practitioners, and the hard lot of the early doctor was in many other respects relieved. The diseases of those times were principally malaria, caused by lack of drainage in the county; bronchitis and pneumonia, due to, exposure incident to their mode of life, and diarrhoea and dysentery induced by their coarse fare. Contagious diseases, on account of the isolation of the settlers, had little opportunity to spread. Heroic treatment was accorded their patients by old-time doctors. The tale is told of one such physician-not of Cass county, however-who gave a patient suffering from a "blocked bowel" one hundred grains of calomel at a single dose, and, strangest of all, there was complete recovery from both the ailment and the dosage. But malaria is no longer to be contended with. The marshes have been drained. Whereas the early settlers fought mosquitoes-now known as most active agents in the spreading of contagious diseasesby means of smudges, screen doors now shut out the pests from our homes. This use of wire screening is one of many improvements that provided wholesome sanitary conditions and guarded against disease. The decrease of malaria is graphically illustrated in the statement of Dr. Phillips that not one bottle of quinine is used now to thirty required when he began practice. Malaria was everywhere then, and quinine was the sovereign remedy in its treatment. Passing from the pioneer period of medical practice, we find a number of men of more than ordinary ability who adorned the profession during the last half of the century. Dr. E. J. Bonine, who practiced in Cassopolis from 1844 to the outbreak of the Civil war, was a soldier and politician as well as doctor. Born in Indiana in I82I, he prepared for his profession, as was then the custom more than now, tinder a private preceptor instead of within college walls. He was elected to represent the county in the legislature in 1852. He was, in turn, a Whig, a Free-soiler, and then helped to organize the Republican party. He enlisted for service in the rebellion, and was. advanced from the ranks to, surgeon in chief of the Third Division of the Ninth Army

Page  260 260 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Corps. He located at Niles after returning from the war, and was prominent professionally and in public life- until his death. In the death of Dr. L. D. Tompkins on October I, I902, there passed away the oldest medical practitioner in the county. Arriving in the county in 1848, he saw and experienced the conditions of pioneer practice. Still alive a half century later, his retrospect covered the most important period in the development of medical and surgical practice, and he could appreciate as none others could the changes that a lifetime had wrought. "But perhaps it still is better that his busy life is done; He has seen old views and patients disappearing one by one." A former account of his life says: "During the first eight or ten years of his residence in the county he almost invariably traveled on horseback. The roads were not then as numerous as now, and most of those which had been cleared and improved were in a condition inferior to those of the present. Large bodies of land were unfenced, and it was the universal custom among those persons familiar with the country when traveling in the saddle to save time by 'going cross lots' by way of the numerous paths leading through the 'openings' and heavy timber. Dr. Tompkins rode very frequently upon these paths and often in the darkness of night was obliged to lean forward upon his horse's neck to avoid being brushed from the saddle by overhanging limbs of the trees. Sometimes, wearied with travel and loss of rest, he would fall asleep in the saddle, but the trusty horse, plodding on through the darkness along the winding narrow path, would bring him, safely home." At the time of his death Dr. Tompkins was more than eighty-five years old, a remarkable age for one whose earlier experiences had been so rugged. Born in Oneida county, New York, in I8I7, he moved to Ohio at the age of fifteen, and there prepared for his profession and practiced until he came to Cassopolis in May, 1848. In I852 he graduated from the well known Rush Medical College of Chicago. More than one physician now or formerly of Cass county ascribes the inspiration of his work to, this aged doctor. In the history of Cass county medicine he will always be a venerable figure. Only five years younger in years at the time of his death was the late Dr. Alonzo Garwood, whose professional connection with Cass county was only a little less than that of Dr. Tompkins. Coming to Cass county in 1850, the close of a long life came July I, I903. He

Page  261 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 261 was born October 1, 1824, in Logan county, Ohio, pursued his studies under the direction of a physician in his native county, later attended, under the preceptor system, the well known Starling Medical College, and on his graduation came directly to Cassopolis. Dr. Garwood gave considerable attention to public affairs, especially local school interests, and was of such political prominence that he was sent to the state senate in 1857. He was surgeon of the 28th regiment, Michigan infantry, during the Civil war. The list of Cassopolis physicians, past and present, is a long one. There was Richard M/. Wilson, an early representative of the Eclectic school, who was here in the fifties. Alonzo B. Treadwell, well remenmbered by many in the county, began practice in the year that Dr. Wilson left, and continued for ten years, until his death in I874. He had a varied career, was largely self-educated, served in the army, and died in the prime of years. For awhile he was partner with Drs. Tompkins and Kelsey. The latter, William J. Kelsey, father of the present Dr. J. H. Kelsey, had high professional connection in this county, and was a man of acknowledged ability. He was born in this county in 1839, and was a graduate of Rush Medical College in I865. Other names 'that occur are those of Drs. Robert Patterson, Frederick F. Sovereign, F. P. Hoy, J. D. Mater, each of whom remained but a short time. Dr. James S. Stapleton, born in Cassopolis in I867, graduated from Hahnemann Medical College, in Chicago, and located in his native town, where he remained until his removal to Jones, where he died August 13, 1898. Oliver W. Hatch, born in Medina county, Ohio, July 28, 1825, came to Mason township, Cass county, with his parents, in I837, attendled the early district schools and also a select school taught by the late Judge H. H. Coolidge at Edwardsburg, and received his medical education by private study, at the LaPorte Medical College and at Rush Medical College in Chicago, where he spent his last term in I848. He practiced at Georgetown, Ill., three years, then at Mishawaka, Ind., six months, after which he located in Mason township and was a practicing physician there until 1903, when he retired and moved to Cassopolis, where he still resides, being the oldest physician in the county. Dr. Bulhand, who died at Union September II, I905, was noted for his sympathy and strength of character, as well as his ability as a practitioner. He was absolutely frank, and never used his profession

Page  262 262 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY except according to its own ethics and the standards of personal integrity. He retired before his death, having practiced about twenty years, and lived on his farm in Calvin. ])own at Edwardsburg Dr. Israel G. Bugbee for many years combined his professional duties with business and official affairs. He was born in Vermont in 1814, studied medicine in Cass county and in a New York medical college, and practiced in Edwardsburg from 1840 to 1869. He died in 1878. Among the contemporaries of Dr. Bugbee were Dr. Alvord, Dr. John Treat, Dr. Enos Penwxell, and several others. Within the last four years there (lied in Edwardshurg Dr. John B. Sweetland, whose connection with that village lasted forty years. A graduate, of the University of Buffalo and a first-class physician, he was just as much a man of affairs. He served as a private and a surgeon (luring the war, was politically active and represented this county in the legislature, and his versatile character also led him into journalism, becoming editor and publisher of the Edwardlsburgo Arguts. Dr. Sweetland was born in New York in 1834. Another Edwardsburg physician, now deceased, was Levi Aldrich. He was born in Erie county. New York, January 27, 1820, and gradtuated in medicine in 1849. He located in Edwardsburg in the early sixties, and remained there till his death. Dr. Robert S. Griffin, born in Erie county, New York, September 25, 1828, came to the village, and at the age of nineteen years began the study of medicine with Dr. Lockwood, and afterwards attended the Medical college at LaPorte, Ind., and at different times practiced a number of years in Edwardsburg. He died there December 27, I905. The Cass County History of I882 states that fifty physicians had practiced in Dowagiac from the time of its establishment as a village. Many have located there since that (late. Manifestly no complete record of these could he here compiled. The majority remained a more or less brief time, and of these only the names are preserved. The first Dlowagiac doctor seems to have been somewhat of an original character. It is related that, in a case of fever where the patient was not expected to live, he summoned Fred Werz, the village fiddler, to the bedside and commanded him to remain there day and night and fiddle his most inspiriting tunes when the patient had sinking spells. The doubly afflicted one recovered. This story notwithstanding, Dr. Thomas Brayton was a much loved physician. He began

Page  263 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 263 practice in the village about the middlle of the last century and continued until his death in a railroad accident during the sixties. Another eccentric practitioner was a Dr. Jarvis, whose ability as a drayman was as conspicuous as his skill in setting bones. It is said that for some time he drove a bull or steer to his vehicle instead of a horse. Dr. C. \V. Morse, now deceased, was for a number of years in practice at Dowagiac, and part of the time was in the drug business. Few of the old-time doctors were better known than Dr. C. P. Prindle, who died at Dowagiac August 2, 1876, at the age of fifty-one years. He obtained his education and professional training in his native state of New York. and came to Michigan to find his field of labor about I85o. Finally, in 1855, he located at Dowagiac and practiced there until his death. He was a rugged and forceful character, both in his profession and as a citizen. Like Dr. Tompkins, he spent much of his time in the saddle, and wherever and whenever duty called him lie went without thought of his personal convenience. He had a deep dislike for ostentation and superficial learning, and in practice, as in his personal relations, was direct, earnest, and withal sympathetic. The esteem in which he was held is shown by the fact that during his funeral the stores and business houses of Dowagiac were closed. A physician who attained high rank in his profession was W\illiam E. Clarke, now deceased, who spent some of the younger years of his career in Dowagiac. He went to the army from this town, had an eventful record as a surgeon, and after the war moved to Chicago. The first representative of the eclectic school of medicine in Dowagiac and Cass county was Cyrus J. Curtis. Born in New York state in I819, he died at Dowagiac April 2I, I875. He studied medicine and was a graduate of the Worthington Medical College of Ohio, and practiced in various parts of the country until December, 1864, when he located at Dowagiac. Here he restricted his practice to the treatment of chronic diseases. The names of those who. were associated with him in practice for varying lengths of time indicate several other well known Dowagiac physicians; these were S. T. McCandless, D. B. Sturgis, William Flora, Linus Daniels, TH. S. McMaster, and his son, E. A. Curtis. The medical profession of the early days had few regulations, either imposed by the state or inherent in the fraternity. The strict code of professional ethics which now governs with greater power than

Page  264 264 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY any system of law had been scarcely formulated at that time. There were no requirements as to length and extent of preparation. Anyone Awho had enough faith in his own knowledge and skill could set himself up in practice. Herbs and roots supplied the materia medica which, according to certain formulas, were decocted by certain persons for the healing of man or beast, and several of these so-called "herb doctors" achieved some distinction in the county. One of these was Dr. A. J. Boughton, whose practice extended over a large territory. "Dr." Whitehead. an Indian "medicine man," who located at Dowagiac in the sixties, practiced the "herb art" among such persons as relied on that form of healing. James D. Taylor was a homeopathic practitioner in Dowagiac from 1858 until his death in I871. Dr. J. H. Wheeler, who practiced in Dowagiac from 1867 to I877, the year of his death, was an early settler of the county, having come here in 1835. He was a surveyor, and began the study of medicine during his leisure hours. Other Dowagiac physicians whose work here has been closed by death or removal, were L. V. Rouse. deceased; E. C. Prindle, son of Dr. C. P. Prindle, who has located elsewhere; E. A. Curtis, now of Chicago, besides those whose connection with the city was transient. Dr. Edward S. Stebbins, now deceased, located here in i868, and devoted much of his time to specialties, particularly the then new science of electro-therapeutics. Each of the smaller villages has had its medical representatives. In Vandalia the first physician was Dr. A. L. Thorp, who settled there in I849, and whose death occurred in Mishawaka, Indiana, only a few years ago. The doctor who was longest in practice in Vandalia was Leander Osborn. who was born in 1825 and who died in June, I9OI. He taught school in early life, received his impulse to study medicine from Dr. E. J. Bonine, and completing his studies in Rush Medical College, he began practice in the village in 1853. He was also interested in politics, being in several local offices, and in I866 was elected to the legislature. In P'okagon the principal former representatives were John Robertson and Charles P. Wells. The former was born in New York in I8!25, and, coming to the county in I848, practiced at Sumnerville and Pokagon until failing health compelled him to abandon active work. Dr. Wells was born in New York in 1834, and his father was one of the irst settlers of Howard township in this county. He was a graduate of a Cincinnati medical college, and in I865 located at Pokagon, where he had

Page  265 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 265 the first drug store in the village and carried on his practice for many years. At Jones there was Dr. Thomas L. Blakeley, who, after three years service in the war of the rebellion, took up the study of medicine, and in I872 located at Jones, being the first physician of that place. He also conducted a drug store. Otis Moor, deceased, a graduate of the Rush Medical College in I872, was for some years located at Williamsville. The personnel of the medical profession of Cass county at this writing is as follows: Cassopolis-T. W. Anderson, M. H. Criswell, Fairfield Goodwin, Marion Holland, G. A. Hughes, J. H. Kelsey, W. C. McCutcheon, H. H. Phillips, and Dr. R. H. von Kotsch. Dowagiac-WVilliamn W. Easton, George W. Green, George R. Herkimer, J. H. Jones, W. J. Ketcham, S. H. McMaster, C. M. Myers, William E. Parker, Clarence S. Robinson, M. P. White. Marcellus-C. E. Davis and Ernest Shellito. Vandalia-S. L. Loupee, E. C. Dunning, Otis E. Newsom. Edwardsburg-E. W. Tonkin and E. B. Criswell. Pokagon-Charles A. Morgan and William A. Skeler. Jones-C. C. Fenstermacher, J. V. Blood. Union-Edgar A. Planck. Penn-J. C. Huntsinger. Wakelee-Edward Wilson. Calvin-John Harris, U. S. Kirk. Adamsville-William F. Lockwood. In Cassopolis Dr. Anderson is probably the ranking physician in point of seniority. Dr. Criswell (see sketch) has been located here since I900, although he has practiced in the county much longer. Dr. Goodwin, now retired from active practice, was captain of a company of Michigan cavalry in the rebellion and did not complete his medical education until after the war. He began his practice in Cassopolis in 1874, and has been active in business, especially in real estate, as well as in his profession. He built Hotel Goodwin and is its landlord. Dr. Holland, who came to Cassopolis from Edwardsburg in I895, was a graduate of the medical department of the State University in 1875, and from the dental department in I877. He located in Edwardsburg in I88o and conducted a drug store in connection with a general practice.

Page  266 266 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Dr. G. A. Hughes, who has practiced here for the past thirty years, was reared in St. Joseph county, this state. He is a specialist in eye, nose and throat diseases, besides a general practice. J. H. Kelsey, the successor in practice of his father, Dr. Wi. J., was born in Cassopolis October 3, 1878, graduated from the medical department of the State University and has since practiced in Cassopolis. \V. C. McCutcheon, whose sketch will be found elsewhere, has been practicing in Cassopolis since 1894. He was prepared at the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons at Kingston, Ontario, and graduated from Queen's University. On coming to Cassopolis he was a partner of Dr. Goodwin for a time, and has also served two, years as county physician. Dr. IT. IH. Phillips, who is one of the oldest practicing physicians in the county, was born and reared in New York, served in the Civil war from Minnesota, and from that state came to Cass county in March, i866. He has been engaged in general practice since the spring of I868, and until ten years ago was located at Vandalia. Dr. P. H. von Kotsch is a recent addition to the ranks of the profession in Cass county. Dr. WV. W. Easton, who has been a resident of Cass county nearly all his life, and in Do'wagiac since I88o, was born in Silver Creek township in 1853, attended Notre Dame University and graduated from Bennett Medical College in 1877. Dr. George R. Herkimer, homeopath at Dowagiac, was born at Niles in 1866, attended Albion College and the University of Michigan. and since graduation from the Hahnemann College at Chicago, in I890 has been located in Dowagiac. Dr. J. -I. Jones, who was horn in New York in I86I and came to this state at twenty-one, taught school and graduated from the University of Michigan in 1893, and since 1894 has been practicing in Dowagiac. Dr. W. J. Ketcham, born in New York City in I85o, came to this county in I860, read medicine with C. P. Prindle, graduated from the medical department of the University of Michigan in I875, and after several years' practice in Volinia located permanently at Dowagiac. Dr. H. S. McMaster was born in New York in 1842. Served in the war, studied at Albion College, prepared for his profession in several schools, finally graduating from Bennett Medical College of Chicago, and located at Dowagiac in I87I, being the first city physician there.

Page  267 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 267 Dr. C. M[. Myers, who was born in Pokagon township in 1864, studied at Valparaiso, taught school in country and town, and followed a year's private study with three years in the Chicago Hahnemann Medical College. Dr. Clarence S. Robinson is another Cass county alumnus of the Bennett Medical College, from which he was graduated in 1880. He then located at Volinia and in I894 in Dowagiac. Dr. Robinson was born in Wakarusa, Indiana. Dr. M. P. White, who has practiced at Dowagiac since I886, was horn near Wlakelee, this county, was a student at the Valparaiso Normal, and graduated at the medical department of Northwestern University. He began practice at W\akelee. Dr. W. E. Parker has been practicing in Dowagiac for nearly twenty years. Born in Jefferson township in this county in I1854, he studied with Tompkins and Kelsey, and in I879 graduated from Rush Medical College. He practiced in Cassopolis four years and in Three Rivers five years, and since then has been in Dowagiac except one year. In I89I he graduated from the Post-Graduate Medical School of Chicago, where he specialized in the diseases of the eye, ear, nose and throat, and gives attention to this branch besides his general practice. At Marcellus Dr. C. E. Davis is the senior physician. He was born in Ohio in i846. came to Cass county in I86r, served in the Civil war, an(l in 1869, began practice, which was interrupted by two years of study in tle medical (lepartment of the University of Pennsylvania, from which he was graduated in 1873. He has been located in Marcellus since I874. Dr. Charles A. Morgan of Pokagon has been established in that vicinity since his gradnation from the medical department of the State University in 1871. He is a native of Wales, came to Cass county when seven years old, and took part in the wvar of the rebellion. Dr. Donald A. Link, whose death occurred by drowning in Ontario August 15, I906, was born in that province of Canada October 22, 1865, studied medicine at McGill University and graduated from Detroit College of Medicine in 1895, after which he came to, Cassopolis. He spent two years in the Klondike, and on his return in I9oo, located in Volinia, where he practiced till his death. The majority of the physicians in the smaller centers are young men who have recently located in practice, although this statement in no, way reflects upon their ability and standing in the profession. As indicated

Page  268 '268 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY in the list above given, all portions of the county are represented by medical men. Calvin township, with its large colored population, is served by two colored physicians. The practice of dentistry is no longer a subordinate branch of a regular physician's practice, but has attained the rank of a separate profession. Its requirements in the way of natural ability and technical preparation are constantly being raised, so that the dentistry of today compares with that of twenty years ago about as the delicate work of the watchmaker compares with that of the blacksmith. Cass county's representatives in this profession are the following named: Cyrus H. Funk, Farnum Brothers (S. A. and S. J.), C. W. Martin, of Cassopolis. Physicians of this day acknowledge and appreciate the value of professional association. The bonds of common interest and mutual helpfulness are being drawn more closely in the numerous organizations whose membership is drawn exclusively from the ranks of the profession. The Cass County Medical Society was established some years ago as an independent body, but has in recent times been affiliated with the State Medical Society and, thereby, also with the American Medical Association. Thus it has the same constitution and by-laws as all similar socities in the counties of the state. Dr. E. A. Planck of Union is the president of the Cass County Medical Society for I906; the secretary is Dr. McCutcheon of Cassopolis. The society meets once each three months, their time of meeting being technically defined as the last Thursday following the full moon in December, March, June and September. It is the general practice to have papers on two medical subjects read at each meeting, followed by discussions. Important cases are often brought up for clinical discussion. The membership of the society includes a majority of the active practitioners in the county. Though the present system of co-ordination of county medical socities and their affiliation with the state and national central bodies is of comparatively recent date, the history of medical organization in Cass county goes back more than half a century. The first medical society in the county was organized in August, I851. Of course, similar objects have been proposed as the practical purposes of such societies, whatever their date, namely, the advancement of the professional standard, social intercourse and the establishment of a schedule of charges for services. The -officers of the first Cass County Medical Society were: Pres

Page  269 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 269 ident, Dr. D. E. Brown; vice president, Dr. Henry Lockwood; secretary, Dr. Alonzo Garwood; treasurer, Dr. E. Penwell; standing committee, Drs. I. G. Bugbee, J. Allen and B. Wells. This first organization in time ceased its functional activity. More than twenty-five years from the date of its founding another society was formed. The first officers elected, for the year I877-78, were: President, Dr. W. C. Morse; vice presidents, Drs. A. Garwood,. L. Osborn, R. Patterson; secretary, Dr. W. J. Kelsey; treasurer, J. B. Sweetland. The charter members of this society, besides those just named, were: Drs. L. D. Tompkins, F. Goodwin, J. Robertson, Edward Prindle, H. H. Phillips, Otis Moor, W. J. Ketcham, O. W. Hatch.

Page  270 270 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XX. TIE CASS COUNTY BAR. The bar of Cass county has never lacked men of distinction by reason of sound ability, depth of learning, forensic skill, and active, virile character. Such men have honored the profession, have upheld the dignity of law and its institutions, and have been the strongest guarantee of healthful progress in all the lines of human activity. So broad is the field of modern jurisprudence, so peculiar and vital its expression and practice, that its ablest representatives are by no means confined to one locality, nor any one locality necessarily without several leaders in counsel and court practice. It is not our purpose here to state the distinctive merits of the various representatives of the county bar, both past and present, but rather to mention briefly those who, have represented their profession, if not always in an eminent degree, at least with that share of success and honor which has made their names worthy of record in the history of the county. While the pioneers of the Cass county bar have, of course, passed away, there are those of the present members to do them honor because of personal and professional association during the intermediate generation while the first lawyers were going to their decline and the younger legal aspirants were attaining seasoned and successful activity. Two names are mentioned as the "first lawyers" of Cass county, designating men who were not less useful in civic and business life than in the law. The first of these, Alexander H. Redfield, was born in Ontario county, New York, October 24, I805. A college-bred man, having spent three years in Hamilton College and graduating from Union College in 1829, he studied law and was admitted to practice in the supreme court of New York in July, 1831, and in the following month arrived in Cass county. As elsewhere related, he was one of the original proprietors of the site of Cassopolis, helped lay out the village and secure the location of the county seat, and was the first postmaster. He took part in the Black Hawk war as a colonel in the Michigan militia. He was a business man as much as a lawyer, and his operations in real estate took an increasing amount of his time and attention. He was also, drawn

Page  271 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 271 into the swirl of politics. In I847, after sixteen years of residence in Cass county, he was elected to represent the fourteenth district in the Michigan senate, and his subsequent removal to Detroit deprived Cass county of its first lawyer and one of its ablest pioneer men of affairs. Thereafter, until his death in 1869, he was almost continuously devoted to public and political activity. MAr. Redfield was noted for his methodical business and professional habits, and his ability to pursue a rigid routine of details was given as a chief cause of his success. Associated with A. H. Redfield in the formative events of Cassopolis' early history was another native of New York state, but a somewhat earlier settler of Cass county. Born in Oneida county in I803, Elias B. Sherman came to the territory of Michigan in 1825, was admitted to the bar in \Ann Arbor in 1829, and in September of the same year made his first acquaintance with Cass county. He and Mr. Redfield were attorneys in the first court of the county. He was the only prosecuting attorney the county had during the territorial period of Michigan. He was appointed to the office in November, 1829, and at the first popular election after the granting of statehood in 1836 was chosen to the office by general suffrage. He was the leading county official during the first years. He held the office o'f district surveyor six years, from, I830, and, dating from his appointment in March, 183I, was Cass county's probate judge until I84o. He was more of a trusted and honored public official than a lawyer, and in later years directed much of his attention to farming. His death occurred November 14, 1890. In those years of historical beginnings the judicial circuit of which Cass county was a part embraced a varying number of counties, at one time practically all of southwestern Michigan. The first court of any kind held in Cass county was the two days' session of the circuit court held in August, 1831, at the house of Ezra Beardsley in Edwardsburg. Those were the days when the lawyers used to ride on horseback from one county to another on the circuit, put up at the hotel and attend the session of court. They used to tell stories and have jolly times. These peregrinations of the court were accompanied by a large force of lawyers, and it thus happened that many lawyers from adjoining counties were almost as well known professionally in Cass county as the few who, had their residence in the county. Naturally the Cass county bar was numerically very small during the decade or so following the organization of the county and the establishment of the first courts. Among the lawyers resident of outside counties but whose practice

Page  272 272 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY made them familiar figures in this county might be mentioned Joseph N. Chipman, who spent a short time in Cass county, later going to Niles, where he died in 1870. He was. known by his confreres as "White Chip," to distinguish him from another well known Berrien county lawyer of that time, John S. Chipman, whose sobriquet was "Black Chip." Charles Dana, also a resident of Berrien, was, to, quote the words of one who described him from personal knowledge, "a thin, dried-up, little man, with a remarkable feminine voice, but by all odds the best special pleader at the bar. Everybody liked Dana both for his goodness of heart and his unquestioned ability as a lawyer." The Cass county session of the circuit court was often attended in the early days by two noted Kalamazoo lawyers, Charles E. Stuart and Samuel Clark. The former was a successful jury lawyer, but is specially remembered for his later prominence in politics, having represented his district in Congress as a member of the house and afterwards becoming one of the United States senators from Michigan. Mr. Clark had also moved in the larger sphere of politics, and as a lawyer had the solid ability and the worth of personal character which made his position secure among friends and professional associates. Although it is hardly proper to class his name among those of the legal pioneers, the career of James Sullivan, whose forty years of practice in this county began in.1838, was of first importance in the history of the old-time lawyers. Born in New Hampshire December 6, I8 II, member of a distinguished New England family of Irish origin, he graduated from Dartmouth College at the age of eighteen, studied law and was admitted to the bar, and.after a brief period of practice came to Niles in I837. He soon moved to Edwardsburg, in this county, and from there to Cassopolis, and from 1853 till his death in I878 lived in Dowagiac. For a long time he.was prosecuting attorney of the county, became a state.senator, and was a member of the constitutional convention in 1850 which forhled the instrument which is yet the basis of Michigan government. It is said that Mr.. Sullivan's success as a lawyer depended more upon his powers.as a logician and close reasoner than as an. orator. His high legal ability gave him distinction and influence in spite of serious defects of personal character and manner. He has been described as "eccentric, erratic, nervous and intense, and yet no man of gentler nature or kinder heart has been known to the old residents of Cass. county." Ezekiel S. Smith, another early practitioner, came to the county in. I140, bearing a commission from Gov. Woodbridge as prosecuting

Page  273 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 273 attorney. After serving his term he practiced in the county, was also a merchant and one of the early editors. In 1852 he moved to Chicago, where he died in I880. Judge Henry H. Coolidge, well remembered for his connection with the profession at Niles, where he (lied some years ago, was a resident lawyer of Cass county for about fifteen years. He settled at Edwardsburg in I836, when twenty-five years old, was admitted to, the bar in I844, was elected prosecuting attorney in 1850, and moved from the county to Niles in 1859. He was at one time circuit julge of the district comprising Cass and Berrien counties. The Cass county bar of today is strong and able, and no disparaging word is intended when we say, in view of an earlier time, "There were giants on the earth in those days." The early lawyers left their impress on the jurisprudence of the state, and were largely influential for good in different phases of the early growth andl levelopment of Michigan. Another lawyer who belongs to the past in life and active career but whose influence is a force with the yet living, was George Brunt Turner, who was born in Franklin county, New York, March I, 1822. He came to Michigan when thirteen years old and already entering upon serious work, and from I836 till his death was a resident of Cass county. He was one of those who got his legal knowledge largely under the direction of Alexander H. Redfield. He was self-educated, and won promotion through the first grades by dint of ambitious and sustained effort. He was successful as a lawyer, but is also remembered for his activity in other fields. He was for several years editor of the first paper published in Cass county, the Cass County Advocate, now the National Demtocrat. His party affiliation alone prevented him from acquiring distinction in state and perhaps national political affairs. In I848 he was elected a member of the state legislature and re-elected in 1849, and was Democratic candidate for other offices. His death occurred April 15, I903. Clifford Shanahan, who was born in Delaware in I8oI and died in Cass county in I865, after a residence in the county of thirty-one years, was admitted to the bar in Cassopolis about 1845. He was best known, however, thfough his retention of the office of probate judge for the long period of twenty-four years, from I840 to I864, a record that has been equaled since that time only by William, P. Bennett, whose term began January I, 1I869, and continued to his death, June I6, I896. Dowagiac's first resident lawyer was Noel B. Hollister, who came

Page  274 274 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY to the county in 185o. He remained only a few years, and in connection with his law practice conducted a drug store. He served as circuit court commissioner. A lawyer of unusual ability and experience, at one time circuit judge, and a man of affairs in the best sense, the late Daniel Blackman was a member of.the Cass county bar twenty-one years and his influence still remains. He was born in Newtown, Connecticut, December 31, I82I. At the age of twenty-four he was admitted to the bar of his native state and after five years' practice in Danbury located in Cassopolis in July, I851. He was elected in I869, on a, non-partisan ticket, to the position of'circuit judge. Resigning in November, I872, he moved to Chicago and became a member of the bar of that city. He was behind several movements that resulted in material and civic improvement in his village, and should be remembered in particular as one of the men who did much to make Cassopolis a station on the Peninsular Railroad (now the Grand Trunk). He died in Chicago in I896. The late Judge Andrew J. Smith became a licensed member of the Cass county bar in the early fifties, and from that time to his death was active not only in the law but in official and political life, the horizon of his influence being extended beyond the bounds of the county into the state at large. Through youth and early manhood he had to, struggle to reach the vantage ground on which he would pursue his chosen career. Born in Ohio September 2, 8i8,, at eight years of age he went with the family to the pioneer district of Indiana, where circumstances would not permit him to attend the full measures of the meager winter terms of the district school. He had to work his way. His election to the office of constable of Valparaiso at the age of twenty shows that he early gained the confidence and esteem of his fellow citizens, and from that time on he was much in public life. He was a teacher and pupil alternately for a number of years, and while reading law he supported himself by teaching or clerking in a store. He located at Edwardsburg in 1840, seven years later moved to Cassopolis, where in 1853 he was admitted to the bar and in, the following year elected prosecuting attorney. He served altogether twelve years in this office. In I874 he was elected attorney general of the state. In the fall of 1878, on the resignation of Judge Henry H. Coolidge from the judgeship of the second judicial district, Mr. Smith was elected circuit judge, and re-elected for the full term in the spring of i88I. His private life was in harmony with his public career, and there are many testimonies to

Page  275 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 275 his public-spirited and wholesome activity to be found among the records and his personal associates in the county. During the twelve years from 1853 to I865 James M. Spencer was an attorney in the county. He was admitted to the bar in Cassopolis in the former year, being at the time only twenty-one years old. He held the office of justice of the peace at Dowagiac in Pokagon township, was circuit court commissioner two years and was United States assessor of internal revenue in the district comprising Cass county. From this county Mr. Spencer moved to Topeka, Kansas. Prominent among the lawyers who may be classed as the intermediate generation of the Cass county bar was the late Charles V. Clisbee. His connection with the Cass county bar began in the late fifties, and he was a contemporary of a group some of whom are still active in their profession. Mr. Clisbee was born in Cleveland, Ohio, July 24, I833, and came to Cassopolis with the family five years later. He prepared for college at Oberlin, Ohio, entered Oberlin College, but spent the greater part of his collegiate career in Williams College, Massachusetts. He graduated from Hamilton College (New Yoirk), where he studied in the law school, in 1856, and two years later was admitted to the bar. By election in I862 he became prosecuting attorney of Cass county. He was a delegate to the convention which renominated Lincoln in i864. In i866 Cass county sent him to the state senate. Mr. Clisbee had a remarkably powerful voice, and much of his public career pivoted on this God-given talent. In I869 he was appointed reading clerk of the national house of representatives, held the office without interruption until I875, and in December, I88I, was again appointed to that position. He was also reading secretary of the Republican national convention in Chicago in I880. Upon the resignation of Judge Coolidge he was appointed to, the vacancy and served until Judge Smith, his successor, was elected. During the interims of his service at Washington he practiced his profession in Cassopolis, giving special attention to the prosecution of pension claims, until his death, August 18, I889. One of the versatile and scholarly men who have represented the Cass county bar in the past was Joseph B. Clarke, now deceased. He was born in Connecticut. Graduating from the Rensselaer Scientific School at Troy, New York, he prepared for his legal career at Rochester, N. Y. The capacity of his intellectual powers may be judged from the fact that he was at various times editor of daily newspapers

Page  276 276 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY in Rochester and Buffalo, was professor o'f chemistry and other sciences in the Vermont Medical College and elsewhere, as well as incumbent of various civil positions under the general government. From Coldwater, Michigan, he moved to Dowagiac in I859. He was a circuit court commissioner in this county, as well as in Branch county, was prosecuting attorney, and for many years United States commissioner for the western district of Michigan. For a number of years between I859 and I88I George Miller was a member of the county bar, with residence at Dowagiac. He served as circuit court commissioner, and in 1868 was elected prosecuting attorney. He moved from the county in 187I, returned in I875, and( in I88I again left. His death occurred in Benton Harbor. During the sixties the county bar was honored by the membership of Jacob J. Van Riper, who afterward became attorney general of the state. He was admitted to the Cass county bar in January, I863, and remained in active practice, with residence at Dowagiac, until 1872, when he movNed. to Buchanan in -Berrien county, where he was elected judge of probate and served for eight years. He is now practicing law at Niles in that county. Freeman J. Atwell, deceased, who was born in Orleans county, New York, in 1831, read law there, and during the course of the Civil war, in which he took a soldier's part, admitted to the bar, located in Dowagiac in i869, and by a successful practice made his career a part of the legal history of the county. For four years he was the county's prosecuting attorney, and diel March I8, 19014. He is well remembered among the former lawyers of the county. Among Cass county's native sons who aspired to legal prominence was John A. Talbot, who was born in Penn township in I847. He had an army career, and was a graduate of the law department of the University of Michigan. His career was one of promise, but was ended, after ten years' practice, by death in December, 1878. A noteworthy effort was the compilation of "Talbot's Tables of Cases." Another former member of the county bar and a native of Cass county was William G. Howard, who was born in Milton township in I846. He was a college graduate, and was admitted to the bar at Kalamazoo in I8691. In the following year he began practice at Dowagiac in partnership with James Sullivan. In. the same year he was elected prosecuting attorney. He transferred his professional connec

Page  277 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 277 tions to Kalamazoo in 1873, where he continued the practice until his death, August 8, 1906. George Ketcham, whose death occurred in Minnesota, was born in Mason township in 185o, graduated from Hillsdale College in I873, studied law at Niles with the late Judge Coolidge, and was admitted at Cassopolis in. I874. He held the office of circuit court commissioner. Merritt A. Thompson, who practiced here during the eighties, was a product of Cass county, born in Penn township in I847. He graduated from the law department of the State University in 1872, and had his office at Vandalia from I874 to I88I, when he removed from the county, but later returned and died at the infirmary from mental affliction November 21, I90I. Warner J. Sampson, who died at Coldwater a few years ago, was admitted to practice in Cass county in I88o and for some time was located at Marcellus, when he went to. Hillsdale, where he died. Jason Newton was admitted to the bar at Cassopolis and practiced there for a time. So much for those whose active connection with the bar of Cass county has ceased. Tt is an impressive list. They were men of widely divergent characters and intellectual powers, but together they were worthy representatives of a noble profession. Comparisons between the past and the present personnel of the profession cannot be drawn here. Methods have doubtless changed in seventy years, the old-time lawyer might feel much out of place among the present members of the profession. The lawyer nowadays is often a business man and does not feel the professional cleavage which was quite pronounced forty or fifty years ago, when he was perhaps a member of a rather distinct professional class. But now, as then, the lawyers "comprise a large part of the finest intellect of the nation," an assertion made by a high authority which is, of course, as applicable to the smaller political divisions as to the nation at large. The present bar of Cass county is to be described separately from those already mentioned only because they are still living; not that there is a special set of characteristics to be assigned to each of the two groups thus made. As already stated, some of those yet in active practice were contemporaries or, at any rate, juniors in service along with those who have passed away. The associations and traditions, as well as the power of professional and personal influence, of the past, are still potent with the living members of the Cass county bar.

Page  278 278 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY In the spring of I905 there was elected to the office of circuit judge of the thirty-sixth judicial district a Cass county lawyer of over twenty-five years' experience in the courts and legal affairs of the county. L. Burget Des Voignes (see sketch elsewhere), a native of Ohio and now in the prime of life, was admitted to the bar in St. Joseph county, this state, soon after he had arrived at his majority, and a short time after graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan. He practiced in Marcellus from October, 1878, until the death of the Cass county probate judge, William B. Bennett, when he was appointed by the governor to the place and at the same time took up his residence in Cassopolis. He was re-elected to that office three times, and passed from that position to the circuit judgeship. He has also served as circuit court commissioner and as county prosecuting attorney. The office of judge of probate is filled by one of the younger members of the Cass county bar. Chester E. Cone came here from Indiana about ten years ago, became principal of the Vandalia high school, was then elected commissioner of schools, serving until succeeded by Mr. Hale, the present commissioner. While in the office of commissioner he was industriously reading law, and after a successful examination before the state examining board opened his office in Cassopolis, where he practiced until the resignation of Judge Des Voignes from the office of probate judge. He has also served as circuit court commissioner and is a member of the school board and the board of village trustees. The composition of the circuit court for the September term, 90o6, was as follows: L. Burget Des Voignes, circuit judge; George M. Fields, prosecuting attorney; Carlton W. Rinehart, clerk; Edward J. Russey, sheriff; Jacob McIntosh, undersheriff; H. A. Sherman, reporter; Chester E. Cone, commissioner; Joseph R. Edwards, commissioner; William H. Hannon, deputy sheriff; Marcus S. Olmstead, deputy sheriff; George I. Nash, deputy sheriff. An active attorney for twenty-eight years and from I899, until recently judge of the Cass-Van Buren circuit court, John R. Carr is in many ways prominent in the affairs of his county. Born on Prince Edward's Island, British North America, May i8, 1841, about the close of our Civil war he came to relatives in Van Buren county, Michigan, where he made his start by teaching district schools. In 1868 he entered the law department of the University of Michigan, where two

Page  279 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 279 years later he was graduated and admitted to the bar. Mr. Carr then formed' a partnership, which was to continue with success and profit for twenty-eight years, with Mr. M. IL. Howell. In 1899, as is well known, the judicial districts of southwestern Michigan were reconstructed, and whereas theretofore Cass had been linked with Berrien, and Van Buren with Kalamazoo, at the date mentioned each of the more populous counties was made into a separate district, and Cass and Van Buren were made to form the thirty-sixth judicial district. An election for circuit judge was then in order, and, contrary to the general trend of political matters in this section of the state and to the surprise, perhaps, of both parties, a Democrat was the successful candidate in the new thirty-sixth. Mr. Carr was the fortunate gentleman to! bring success to his party, and his service on the circuit bench showed that the confidence of the electors was not misplaced. On his election he dissolved his partnership with Mr. Howell, and since retiring from office he has re-engaged in active practice. Mr. Carr served as prosecuting attorney of the county four years, also two years as circuit court commissioner. Hte is a ruling elder and trustee and active worker in the Presbyterian church of Cassopolis, his home town. Joseph R. Edwards, circuit court commissioner, and who served as county clerk two years, is one of Dowagiac's young lawyers and a justice of the peace in that city. A Cassopolis attorney who has also been in the official life of the county is Ulysses S. Eby. He was born in Porter township of this county August 7, I864. An alumnus of the famous Valparaiso Normal, after finishing his studies there he began teaching school in Cass county and continued that until elected county clerk in I896. He held the office two years. Returning to Valparaiso, he graduated from the law school and was admitted before the Michigan supreme court. He was elected prosecuting attorney of the county, and was associated in practice with Clarence M. Lyle. At present he practices alone. He is a member of the Cassopolis school board. George M. Fields, prosecuting attorney of Cass county, who is a resident lawyer of Dowagiac, has been atn active member of the county bar for over ten years, and has held his present office since I902. A more complete sketch of Mr. Fields will be found on other pages. The oldest practicing lawyer, both in point of age and of years since admission to the bar, is Lowell H. Glover of Cassopolis. He began his studies privately at Edwardsburg, later with Daniel Black

Page  280 280 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY man in Cassopolis, and since admission to the bar in October, 1862, has been in continuous practice. He has held the office of circuit court commissioner; was ten years deputy county clerk; elected justice of the peace in April, 1862, he has held the office to the present date, less one year; has held various village offices, and was postmaster during Cleveland's first term. Under the only Democratic administration that Michigan has had in the last forty years he was deputy commissioner of the state land office. Coy W. Hendryx of Dowagiac (see sketch elsewhere) studied law with his uncle, the late Spafford Tryon, one of the able men of the past, and was admitted to the bar in 1882. Appointed in I886, for twelve years he held the office of United States commissioner of the western district of Michigan. He has also been a circuit court commissioner and city attorney of Dowagiac. Marshall L. Howell of Cassopolis is an example of "the successful lawyer in business," a conmbination which has been noted as one of the tendencies of the modern American bar. Besides caring for a large practice in the local, state and United States courts, he is president of the First National Bank of Cassopolis. He was born in Cassopolis January 25, 1847, had the best educational opportunities, graduating from Kalamazoo College at the age of twenty and from the law department of the University of Michigan in I87o, and since that date has been in continuous practice. He served as prosecuting attorney one term, beginning in 1874, and in I876 was candidate for presidential elector on the Democratic ticket. Charles O. Harmon is one of the younger Cassopolis lawyers. Born in Porter township, he has a long record of public service. After serving four years in the office of register of deeds, he took a place in the office of the secretary of state at Lansing. During his three years in the state capital he studied law, was admitted to, the bar, and on returning to this county opened his office in Dowagiac and soon after at Marcellus. He then bought a set of abstract books and located at Cassopolis. His father, the late John B. Harmon, having died a few days after entering upon his second term as county clerk, the son, Charles 0., was elected to the vacancy and completed his father's term with credit. Another new member of the Cass county bar is Clyde W. Ketcham of Dowagiac, who, is rapidly coming into prominence in his practice. Born in this county thirty years ago, he attended the local schools,

Page  281 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 281 was in newspaper work awhile, and began studying law with Mr. C. E. Sweet. In I897 he was elected justice of the peace in Dowagiac, serving one term. He completed his law studies in the University of Michigan, and after admission formed a partnership with Charles E. Sweet, but is now practicing alone. James HI. Kinnane, the only president the Cass County Bar Association has ever had, was born in Kalamazoo, county in 1859, was admitted to the bar some twenty years ago, and has practiced in. Dowagiac since I898. He has held several'positions under the federal and state as well as local authority, and is at present city attorney of Dowagiac. (See more extended sketch elsewhere.) Asa Kingsbury Hayden, son of the postmaster of Cassopolis, a native of the county and a graduate of the Cassopolis high school, is an active member of the bar and representative of various insurance companies. An interesting fact about Mr. Hayden's career is that he graduated from the law department of the University of Michigan before attaining his majority. Consequently he was'unable to obtain his diploma-equivalent to admission to the bar-and had to, wait till time could confer upon him the full prerogatives for legal practice in the state of Michigan. Clarence M. Lyle, in practice at Cassopolis since 190o, first in partnership with U. S. Eby and since December, 1905, with H. D. Smith, was born in Van Buren county in 1874, was educated in this state and in South Dakota, where he lived from the age of eight years, being a student at Dakota University. Returning east, he studied in the literary and law departments at Valparaiso, 'about I898 was admitted to the South Dakota bar, but in the same year came to Cassopolis, where he studied in the office of Howell & Carr and in 900o was graduated from the law department at Ann Arbor. Frank Reshore, at one time connected with the legal profession in this county, gave up the law for other vocations, which he still pursues in Dowagiac. Born in Ohio in I853 and brought to this county a year later, he graduated from the Dowagiac schools in 1870, and while clerking in his father's store, read law, completing his studies by graduation from the law department of the State University in I875. It 'is a fact worthy of 'mentioln that a. group of half a. dozen lawyers whose professional careeis identified them with Cass county were all born in Orleans 'county, New 'York. From 'that portion of the Empire state, by various routes 'and influenced by different causes

Page  282 282 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY and circumstances, they foregathered in Cass county. One of these is Harsen D. Smith, the well known attorney of Cassopolis. Born in the county mentioned March 17, 1842, he was a teacher in early life, and in I867 was admitted to the bar in Coldwater, this state. After several years' practice in Jackson he came to, Cassopolis in I870 and formed a partnership with the late Charles W. Clisbee; was with the late A. J. Smith until the election of the latter as circuit judge. He is now senior member of the firm of Smith & Lyle. When the thirtysixth judicial district was created he was appointed circuit judge to serve till the regular election. He was prosecuting attorney four years and a number of years a member of the state board of pardons. (See sketch.) Charles E. Sweet of Dowagiac, of whom more extended mention is made elsewhere, has been engaged in successful practice in the county for twenty years. He is another Cass county lawyer who came under the influence and tutelage of the late Spafford Tryon. Mr. Sweet served one term as justice of the peace, twice as circuit court commissioner and twice as prosecuting attorney. John Wooster of Dowagiac was born in Hillsdale county, Michigan, in 1847, taught school as a means to an end, graduated from H-illsdale College in 1873, and after reading law two years in Kalamazoo was admitted to the bar. His first office was at Constantine, but the same year he located in Dowagiac. He has served as city attorney four times. Other attorneys whose names appear as active members of the Cass county bar are two young lawyers at Marcellus, Walter C. Jones and Otis Huff, and Fred Phillipson of Dowagiac. From the preceding it will be seen that many changes have taken place in the personnel of the county bar in these years. Many new names have come into prominence, of men fitted to maiainin and advance yet higher the standard of the past, whose talents, whose industry, whose devotion to the best ideals of the profession are not less worthy of admiration and honor than those same qualities in their predecessors. Perhaps the most conspicuous fact for comparison is that a larger proportion of the present members seem to have received collegiate training, and an increasingly fewer number are being introduced to the profession by the old-time method of rough and tumble experience and diligent thumbing the pages of Blackstone under the inspiration of individual ambition. No doubt those whose experience covers both the old

Page  283 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 283 and the new would assert that the period of preparation has been relieved of many difficulties that characterized it in their time; but on the other hand, the novitiate-while the aspirant waits for his clientswould seem to be as trying and as uncertain now as ever. A few years ago a movement was made to organize the Cass County Bar Association. The preliminary meetings were held, constitution and by-laws were adopted, officers elected, and the first dues were paid in by some of the members, but since the first flush of organization the association has lapsed from activity, and now exists more by grace of its origin than by any manifestations of active energy. Its officers, who continue in office because their successors have never been elected, are: J. H. Kinnane, president; H. D. Smith, vice president; A. K. Hayden, secretary, and L. H. Glover, treasurer.

Page  284 284 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XXI. CASS COUNTY THE HOME OF THE RACES. Cass county presents a peculiar field for the study of American ability. to assimilate races. Of the salient American stock the population of the county is typical in a high degree. The county is still rural. The distracting features of metropolitan life have not been introduced and with them the European racial elements which we find in manufacturing centers. Its settlers, as we know, were drawn largely from the best stocks of the east, many from the New England states. Cass county citizens may truly be called representative American stock, a commingling of the best social elements and traditions. So much as regards the white Americans, and the ethnic varia tions presented by the Teuton and Slav, the Gaul and Saxon, who in varying proportions constitute the bulk of the population, are not to be discriminated in this article. But among this dominant race in Cass county are to be found two other races, and to what extent these are integrated with the bodies politic, industrial and social of the county it is the purpose of this article to inquire, at the same time recording the historical connection of these two peoples with Cass county. Cass county's history becomes unique because of the presence of these three heterogeneous racial groups within its borders, and a chapter may properly be devoted to this phase of its history. It is a remarkable fact that the epochs of American domestic history have turned upon the two races whose representatives are now living side by side with the white citizens of this county. The annals of settlement and expansion in America from the landing of the Mayflower immigrants to the final winning of the great west from the wilderness were marked with conflict with the red men, who, were the aboriginal possessors of the land. And the introduction of the black race from Africa at about the same time with the landing of the Pilgrims sowed the seed which more than two centuries later bore fruit in the Civil war, the crisis of the nation's existence. And now, in the peace and prosperity of the twentieth century, the destinies of the three racially distinct people are being wrought to the infinite purpose while

Page  285 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 285 dwelling side by side in Cass county. It is from this higher historical viewpoint that the history of the Indian remnant and the negro colony of Cass county should be considered. At an earlier point in this narrative we have related how Pokagon and his followers would not sign the Chicago treaty until they had been exempted from the clause providing that they leave their ancestral home. Old Chief Pokagon was an Indian above the average in character and intelligence, understood the advantages to his race of civilization and was devoted to the Catholic religion, which the missionaries had taught him. It was his purpose to settle his people in their old home and as far as necessary conform to the institutions and laws of the white people. In effecting this he first directed his efforts to securing title to sufficient land for his tribe, and used his influence to invest the cash apportionment of his followers in a tract of land in Silver Creek township, which, though entered in the name of Pokagon, was really' owned in severalty. In the original' land entries Pbkagon's entries, which were nearly all made in the winter of I836-37, consisted of the following tracts in Silver Creek: Section I, 296 acres; section 14, 258 acres; section 2I, I6o acres; section 22, I60 acres-in all 874 acres in his name, all located in adjacent sections of the township and in the vicinity where the present Indian community lives. On this land Pokagon's people lived, maintaining in part their tribal organization and in part the relations of American citizens. The church which they built and which became the center of Catholic influence in the county is elsewhere described. While Pokagon lived all went well. After his death in 1841 his son Pete' became chief anld dlissensions arose that did much to disintegrate the tribe. The last census shows only eight or nine Indian families in Silver Creek. The last government annuity was given them in I865 and with the cessation of this allowance all reasonf for the tribal organization passed. And yet the Indians clung to this form of social organization, and when Simon Pokagon died about six years ago, being the last of the Pokagon line and thus ending the chiefhood in the family inheritance, the remaining number, following the custom of generations, came together and proceeded to elect Lexis, one of their number, as chief, thus tenaciously holding on to old forms and customs. Further, a petition was made to the Indian commissioner that Tom Topash be appointed interpreter between the government and the Indians. But the reply came that an interpreter was no longer needed, that the relations between the gov

Page  286 286 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ernment at Washington and this remnant of Pottawottomies had ceased, and that with the discharging of the last debt a few years ago the descendants of Pokagon's band were placed upon the same individual basis with all other American citizens. For these Indians in northwest Cass county are citizens. They attend the town meeting and vote, are safeguarded and restrained by the same laws, churches and schools are open to them, and the Indian community of Cass county has nothing in common with the picture that usually rises in the mind at the mention of America's aboriginal race, dwelling in wigwams, the men lying at indolent ease on the ground and the women scratching the soil with a stick, and such other illusions as will always be associated with the Indian race. In general reputation for thriftiness and substantial character, the Boziel family, residing northeast of Silver Creek church, are the leaders of the settlement. They own about a hundred acres and are well liked in the country. Thomas Topash is chairman of the business committee of the Catholic church, and his uncle, Steve Topash, near the town hall, is another well known Indian. The veteran of the community is Alexander Bushman, a halfbreed Shawnee, whose maternal grandfather was a white man, made a prisoner by the Shawnees in the Revolutionary war, continued to live with them and act as interpreter when this tribe was removed to the Osage river west of St. Louis, and became a well-to-do farmer and fruit grower. The latter's daughter moved with the Shawnees to Kansas and married a white man named Bushman, one of their children being Alexander, who is now seventy-eight years old and has lived with the Pottawottomies since he was ten years old. He is a shrewd and intelligent old man, and having been placed in positions of responsibility in acting for his people in their relation with the government at various times, he has had opportunities to observe and compare and judge his people from a larger point of view. He speaks of his family with pride evidently born of his white blood as "working people." He himself was trained in a manual labor school and learned how to work. He married in Kansas, and after the war he came to Michigan on account of relatives of his wife who lived here. Bushman was pleased with this country, and, having money, he bought land near the town hall in Silver Creek and there has lived to the present time. "The Indian is spoiled by giving him too, much money" is one of the facts of Indian character that he states from his observation and

Page  287 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 287 experience. "The Indians are good workers, but are without steadiness and continuity of purpose; they take little interest in their homes and farms as compared with the white people, and seem, as it were, stranded on the shores of civilization, alike unable to revert to their former condition or to possess and become a part of the life in which they live. The love of personal display is strong among our people. They will, when money comes to them, buy top buggies and other luxuries to the neglect of home comforts and personal necessities. Their social diversions are refined from the old customs. They have dances for which the music is often furnished by Indian fiddlers, and big dinners follow these routs, which are often the aftermath to woodd-cutting bees. But the bane of my people, as it has been for generations, is drink, and the Indian character seems powerless against this temptation." Such was his estimate of his ovwn people, and in the main it seems just. The judgment of a white citizen who has had close relations with these people was much more severe, but it was directed mainly against the Indian lack of thrift and inability to perform the duties and responsibilities which are the lot of white citizens. To measure the Indian strictly by the commonest standards of white people seems unfair. In point of intelligence the comparisons result more favorably. The Indian children who attend the district schools are not rated inferior in this respect to their white mates, and the teachers who have had such children under their direction find little cause of disparagement. THE CALVIN NEGRO COLONY. In I836 a fugitive slave named Lawson came to Calvin township with a Quaker preacher named Way. Lawson was the first negro settler of Calvin township and Cass county, so far as known, and was the pioneer of the movement which in a few years made Cass county a refuge and secure retreat for the black race. But the first comers of this race were accidental settlers, and nothing in the nature of a definite movement of the unfortunate people began until the later forties. It was the Quaker settlement, elsewhere described, which undoubtedly was the first cause of Cass county's colored settlement.. Due to the uncompromising anti-slavery attitude of the Friends, it was among the settlements and following their general line of direction that the institution of the "underground railroad" flourished. The "underground railroad" for the transportation of fugitive slaves from the

Page  288 288 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY south to free Canada is so closely identified with the slavery period and hence so familiar a topic of American history that no description is needed here. But it should be stated that Cass county was on the direct route of this "railroad," and according to some writers was the junction point for the lines from Illinois and from Indiana, which con.verged here. As the slaves were hurried along this route it happened that some of them stopped in Cass county, finding homes and protection among the abolitionists and their own people. For already a colony of freed negroes had located in the county. The majority of these were originally from North Carolina, having first taken up their homes in the north in Logan county, Ohio, and about I845 or I846, owing to the cheapness of land in this county, as well as to the settlement of their white friends and sympathizers from the same part of Ohio, came in considerable numbers to Cass county. Many of these freed negroes purchased small farms and became, as it were, the backbone of the colored settlement. Among these early settlers were Harvey Wade, Neusom Tann, Nathaniel Boon, Turner and Crawford Byrd, Kitchen Artis and Harrison Ash. A little later the colony was augmented through the provisions of the will of a Cable county, Virginia, planter named Sampson Saunders, who left $I5,000 with his administrators for the purchase of land and the settlement of his liberated slaves in a free state. Calvin township, with its cheap lands and friendly abolitionists, was selected as the site of this colony, and the Saunders colony, consisting of four brothers and their families and others, was a very ia.m portant addition to the negro population of the county. The extent of the migration and the distribution of the colored people can be very well understood from the census of I85o. At that date there were o1,518 white persons of the county and 389. negroes. Equally distributed, the colored people would have been a mere sprinkling in the county. But two townships contained two-thirds of the entire number, so that they were already a very noticeable element among the population. Calvin township had the largest number then as today, there being I58 negroes to 466 whites. In Porter township there were 105 colored to,I54 whites, and the oth.er townships represented by this race were Howard with 72 colored persons, Penn with 3I, LaGrange and Cassopolis with 15, Jefferson with 5, and Silver Creek with 3. With such a considerable colored population, among whom was a number of fugitive slaves, it was inevitable that Cass county should

Page  289 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 289 attract considerable attention in the south, not only among the slaves, but from the whites whose blacks had escaped them. The planters of Bourbon county, Kentucky, had suffered especial loss from escaping slaves, many of whom had taken refuge in Cass and Calhoun counties. The presence of the slaves in this county led to a concerted mnovement on the part of Kentuckians for their recapture, an event which has come down through history under the familiar name of the "Kentucky Raid." It is not to he understood that the raid was made against a single locality and by one party of slave hunters. The Kentuckians directed their efforts to a broad field and carried on their operations for a considerable period of time, involving many separate expeditions, each with its own account. Hence the many versions of the raid are not contradictory, but describe the movement of different parties. A\lso, these raids extended over a period of several years, beginning with I847. One of the chief parties of raiders from Kentucky came to this county in August, I847. Although they maintained secrecy in their intentions and directed their movements in the same manner that would characterize a gang of horse thieves, it is noteworthy that they clearly had the laws of the United States to support them in recovering their fugitive slaves and were compelled to act covertly only because of the hostility of the citizens to the institution of slavery. It was humane anarchy set against legalized oppression. The Kentuckians first had their headquarters at Battle Creek, but opposition to their plans was so determined that they moved south to Bristol, Ind., whence they directed their movements. into Cass county. Setting out at night, in several detached parties, they endeavored to round up all the slaves that belonged to them and of \which they had been furnished information. In the course of the night they paid visits to Josiah Osborn, the East settlement, in Calvin township, Zachariah Shugart near Vandalia and Stephen Bogue, names of the most influential Ouakers and abolitionists in the county. At each of these houses one or more negroes were captured and carried away by their former owners. But before the southerners could collect the slaves and get away from the county the alarm had been spread by Bogue and Shugart, and a large party of citizens armed with guns and clubs stopped the progress of the Kentuckians and compelled them to go to Cassopolis, where they might prove their ownership of the blacks before a regular justice court. Excitement ran high that morning, and as the crowd of slave

Page  290 290 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY owners, negroes and citizens pressed on from near Vandalia to the county seat the news spread to all parts of the county, and when the strange procession arrived an immense throng had gathered about the court house. The legal proceedings turned upon a writ of habeas corpus, requiring the Kentuckians to show cause why the negroes should not be released from custody. George B. Turner was retained as attorney for the Kentuckians and James Sullivan and Ezekiel S. Smith acted in behalf of the fugitives. The case was tried before Circuit Court Commissioner McIlvain from Berrien county, who, illegally, so it was later decided, had come from that county to hear the case in the absence of A. H. Redfield, of Cass county. The commissioner decided adversely to the Kentuckians, and at once the nine slaves were liberated and the same night were hurried out of the county by way of the underground railroad. The slave owners-whose names, so far as preserved, were Rev. A. Stevens, Hubbard Buckner, C. B. Rust, John L. Graves (sheriff of Bourbon county), James Scott, G. \I. Brazier, Thornton Timberlake, and Messrs. Bristow and Lemon-wvere thus deprived of any recourse so far as local courts were concerned, and in February, I8i48, brought suit to recover the value of their lost slaves in the United States Circuit Court for the District of Michigan. Thornton Timberlake was the plaintiff named, and the defendants were Josiah Osborn, Jefferson Osborn, Ellison Osborn, David T. Nicholson, Ishmael Lee, William Jones and Elenezer Mcllvain-all prominent men of this county except Mr. Mcllvain, who, acting as circuit court commissioner, had liberated the slaves. The case was not heard until January, I85 I, when the jury stood eight to four in favor of the plaintiff. The case was, then compromised by the defendants paying a thousand dollars and costs, which amounted to about $3,000. Thus nominally the Kentuckians got justice, but their slaves were gone and it is said that their attorneys took as fees all the money paid over by the defendants, so that virtually the Cass county abolitionists had triumphed in their sturdy opposition to slavery whether sanctioned by law or not. The history of the Kentucky raid has been briefly sketched since the two previous histories of the county have described the circumstances with considerable detail at a time when some of the principal actors were yet living and nothing could be added to their accounts. The incidents are notable in themselves and form a very im

Page  291 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 2!91 portant chapter in the history of the county and nation, while the movement against slavery was gaining strength. Of its effects on the negro colony in the county, it is probable that it increased rather than retarded the flight of fugitives to this vicinity. It advertised the county more broadly as a safe retreat for slaves and also caused the slave owners to hesitate before taking forcible means of recovering their chattels. Thus the negro population of the county continued on the increase during the fifties. The free negroes continued to come here from Ohio and other northern states, and during that decade some of the men settled who became the leaders of their race. Isaac P. Stewart came from Ohio in I854, and beginning with eighty acres in Calvin township became a man of substance as years passed on until he owned between two and three hundred acres. Samuel Hawks, now one of the wealthiest and most influential men of Calvin township, settled here before the war and by industry and good management found the key to success. Green Alien, now deceased, at one time paid the largest tax of any man in Calvin. Eaton Newsom, grandfather of Dr. Newsom, of Calvin Center, and James A. Mitchell, all from, Ohio, were good reliable citizens and respected throughout the community. Turner Byrd, who came from North Carolina by way of Logan county, Ohio, and who was an early settler about Chain lakes and founder and pastor of the Baptist church there, was a successful man and though uneducated was thoroughly respected by both white and black. Harrison Ash was another whose promises were relied upon with the surety that indicates strength of character. William Lawson came into the county in 1853 and was the first merchant among his race, and also a good farmer. Some of the older citizens still living, besides Mr. Hawks, already mentioned, are William Allen, a son of Joseph Allen and nephew of Green Allen, who is admittedly one of the ablest business farmers in Cass county, and who made his money by hard work and economy; Jesse W. Madrey, of Cassopolis, who came to the county in 1852 as a boy, and has won a home and substantial place in the regard of his fellow citizens; and C. W. Bunn, who years ago began a sawmill business in Calvin after the timber had supposedly been used up, later establishing himself in the lumber business at Cassopolis, and owns property both here and at South Bend. What estimate shall be placed upon this unique colored settlement, which at the present time in Calvin township possesses the ma

Page  292 292 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY jority (60 per cent) of the population and a large proportion of the land and wealth, besides exercising a controlling influence in politics, religion and education? Let the foremost representative of the colored rance answer this question in his own words. In I903 Booker T. Washington contributed to the Outlook an article entitled "Two Generations Under Freedom," in which he described at length this interesting colony in Cass county. The article is one of the documents of Cass county history, and this chapter may be concluded with the quotation of its salient points together with a very few comments on the part of the present writer: "When I visited Calvin township recently," says Mr. Washington, "I found that it contained a population of 759 negroes and 512 whites. In addition to these a large negro population had overflowed into the adjoining township of Porter, and to some extent into all but two of the towns in the county. As I drove from Cassopolis in the direction o!f CalVin township, we soon began going through well cultivated farms and past comfortable-looking farm houses. The farms for the most part in their general appearance compared favorably with the average farms we saw in Michigan. Many of the houses were large, attractive and well built. The yards were made beautiful with grass, shrubbery and flowers. The barns, stock, poultry and other farm attachments were in keeping with everything else we saw. In our drive of nearly ten hours, in which we covered nearly thirty miles of territory, through Calvin township and a part of Porter, we saw little to indicate that we were in a negro townl except the color of the faces of the people. They were up to the average of their white neighbors. "In a few cases it was interesting to see standing on the same premises the small cabin in which the people began life years ago, and then to see near it a modern frame cottage containing six or seven rooms. To me it was interesting and encouraging to note to what extent these people 'lived at home,' that is, produced what they consumed. My visit took me through the community during the harvesting season, and at that time most of the farmers were engaged in threshing wheat and oats. On one farm we saw a large modern steam thresher at work, operated wholly by negroes and owned by a negro, Mr. Henry L. Archer. Mr. Archer not only threshed grain for the negro farmers in the township, but for the white farmers as well." Mr. WAashington spoke highly, but in terms which all citizens would approve, of the successful colored men above mentioned, namely,

Page  293 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 293 William Allen, Samuel Hawks, Cornelius Lawson, Jesse W. Madrey, and C. W. Bunn. Continuing his description, he states that "a considerable number of the colored people of Calvin township own their homes, and many of those who are renting are doing so from negro landowners. In a few cases white people in the county are renting property owned by negroes.' With respect to political relations and civic performance Mr. Washington could find no evidence that "there was any friction between the two races. The county officials informed me that there were no reports of cheating at the ballot boxes, and that the affairs of the township were conducted as well politically as any in the county. For some years it had been the boast of the negro tax collector of Calvin county that he was one of the first collectors to secure and pay into the county treasury all of the township taxes. * * * Each township in the county is entitled to one representative on the county board of supervisors wlich has the control of'the affairs of the entire county. The representative of Calvin is a black man, and I was told by several white people of the county that the negro supervisor voted intelligently and conservatively. * * I was informed by several reliable white men of the county that there had never been any trouble worth mentioning growing out of political differences. When the war between the states broke out, as soon as colored soldiers were permitted to enlist, practically every negro man in the township who, was eligible enlisted and went to the front. As a result there is a Grand Army post in Calvin named Matthew Artis Post, in honor of one of the old settlers and soldiers. * * * In my inspection of their church houses there were two things that specially pleased me. One was the fine and neat appearing parsonage which stood near the Chain Lake Baptist church; the other was the appearance of the graveyard near the same building. The church house, the parsonage and the graveyard gave one a picture which made him feel he was in a Massachusetts village. The graveyard was laid out in family plots, and most of the graves had marble slabs or headstones. There were evidences that the burial place received systematic care." Since the enfranchisement of the negro no distinction is made between the white and colored men for jury service in the courts of the county, and among the jurors on the regular panel at each term of the circuit court are found colored men, both members from Calvin at the September (I9o6) term belonging to that race. Reuben Bever

Page  294 294 HISTORY OF CASSI COUNTY ley, now deceased, then of Cassopolis, was the first colored man to be summoned and accepted as a juror in Cass county. His son later served four years as register of deeds of the county. While on his visit to the county Mr. Washington took opportunity to gain the opinion of some of the white men whose positions made their judgment concerning the race valuable. Judge L. B. Des Voignes spoke with convicition of the improvement of the material condition of the negroes during the preceding twenty years, and of the decrease of crime among them. "I do not recall any instance where white residents of the township have objected to colored people buying land there. I do not think there is any depreciation in the price of land. To a stranger buying land the colored residents might be an objection; but I do not think it would be to those who know the colored people of Calvin. The colored residents have helped to contribute to the prosperity of the county, considering the opportunities they have had. There is a prosperous colored community in Volinia, of not more than a hundred persons, and there are colored residents in several of the townships of Cass county." Mr. C. O. Harmon, then county clerk, corroborated the testimony of Judge Des Voignes, adding that the colored people were "quick to take advantage of impro.vements, such as the telephone and improved machinery. The merchants of Cassopolis find these people extra good customers. That may be one criticism to make-that they buy too freely for their own good." Mr. C. C. Nelson gave as his opinion that whereas the people of Calvin were once haphazard and lawless, the township at one time furnishing two-thirds of the court business of the county, that condition was now past and the colored people had improved more, proportionately, than the whites. The editor of this history was quoted by Mr. Washington as saying that "the first generation of negro settlers were fine men-none better. The second generation was bad. The third shows a marked improvement But through it all the best men have supported the law unfailingly. There is no social mingling, but otherwise the relations of the races are entirely friendly. I do not know of more than a dozen marriages between the whites and the blacks in the entire county." The observations and inferences of Mr. Washington, though the result of a brief visit to his people, must stand in the main as correct and judicious. The settlement will long deserve serious consideration

Page  295 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 295 and study as one of the notable experiments in the development of a racial community in mastering and adapting the principles of American democracy. Evidences of clannishness among the colored people are to be considered in a favorable light, since it seems that a wholesome integration of the race, independent, yet harmonious, is the true solution of the "negro problem.' The ideas of these people certainly tend to good citizenship and a desire for homes, schools and morality. Yet the struggles of the settlement in this direction have some pathetic shadows. It is confessed that the disturbing element in this colony comes from the injection of a lower type from communities which have not had the advantages of that in Cass county. As long, then, as the older settlers remain predominant, with the training in self-control and civic strength which "two generations of freedom" give them, the welfare of the community seems to be assured. But what if the stock be weakened by the withdrawal to the cities-which is certainly taking place among the younger people-and.the infusion of inferior classes among those that remain? Can this small colony, enterprising and high-minded though it is, become the leaven for the -whole lun1p and succeed in communicating its inheritance to all those who come? These questions need cause no immediate alarm, since all conditions point to progress rather than retrogression. Education and schools received little mention by Mr. Washington because his visit to the county was during the summer vacation. The school at Calvin Center is entirely attended by negro children and taught by a colored man, and several other schools have negro teachers and colored children in the majority. Comparing these writh other schools for the race, especially those to, be found in the south, there is afforded ground for the highest satisfaction with the progress these people are making in education. A comparison with one of the schools in the same county supported and attended by the whites results to the advantage of the latter, as should be natural. The colored people believe thoroughly in schools and send their children to them as a matter of course, but it is confessed that they are not so strict in keeping them in school as their white neighbors, although the recent compulsory attendance law will leave little latitude in that direction for either race. There is a difference of opinion regarding the power of the churches, some maintaining that their hold on the people is not so strong as formerly and that the ministers are not broadening as rapidly

Page  296 296 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY as the people in their conceptions of moral duties and the relations ot the church to society. The modern era has certainly brought many new interests which the older and less educated negroes (lid not have. Reading is more general and it is probable that not a family with a settled home goes without a weekly perusal of the local paper, and many metropolitan papers go out daily over the rural routes to these homes in Calvin and Porter. Literary societies, fraternities and bands and other musical interests are not uncommon and indicate the widening scope of the people's training and progress. To the general observer it seems that there is a tendency to segregation of the race. This is encouraging rather than to be considered with delicate tact in conversation. As the colored people are becoming more independent and better adapted to American ideals, it seems that the bonds of race will bring them closer in their own social relations and at the same time strengthen those relations in business, education, politics and activity for the general welfare which do not recognize racial lines. By all means the planting of a negro colony in Cass county two generations ago has redounded to the credit of the world and advanced society one step further toward the goal of aspiration and striving on the part of this age. And for Cass county it is no small distinction that it has been the arena on which some of the most interesting and pressing problems of race assimilation and adaptation have been advanced to solution.

Page  297 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 297 CHAPTER XXII. MILITARY RECORDS. The military history of Cass county has already been written in detail in the work of I882. Fortunately the crises which demand almost unanimous outpouring of life and property in defense of country occur but rarely. The Sauk and Black Hawk war was the first martial event that concerned this county and, as we know, was too distant to cause more than an alarm and militia muster. The war with Mexico made comparatively small demand on the volunteer forces of the country, and no organization and perhaps no individuals from Cass county participated in that war. But the Civil war called for the county's best and bravest, and the call was not made in vain. The manhood of the state was drained off to fight in the south, and Cass county may never cease to be proud of the record her soldiers made in the rebellion. As stated, the history of our soldiers in that war has been fully written, not only in the Cass county history but forms a part of the annals of the state and nation. The detailed description of the movements of the regiments and divisions to which Cass county soldiers belonged does not, therefore, seem to require repetition on these pages. But the names of those who enlisted from this county to fight on the battlefields of the south deserve space in every history of the county, and for this reason the individual records of Cass county soldiers in the Civil war are appended in full to this chapter. No regular organization was formed in this county for service in the Spanish-American war. Some individuals enlisted in the regiments formed in the state to fill out Michigan's quota, but so far as known none of these reached the field of action, most of the volunteers for that war getting their military experience in camp on American shores. Cass county has several representatives in the regular army and navy. In the list of Dowagiac high school alumni will be found brief mention of several who have attained rank in the army. Cassopolis is also proud of three young men now in the regular service of their country each with the rank of lieutenant, they being Frank M. Bennett and Steven V. Graham, in the navy, and Jay Paul Hopkins in the army.

Page  298 298. HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CASS COUNTY SOLDIERS IN THE CIVIL WAR. The following records represent the enlistments and service of Cass county men in the various regiments of the northern armies. In a few cases an entire company of a regiment would be composed of Cass county boys, but as a rule the roster of the regiments show those from this county distributed through the companies, occasionally only one Cass county soldier being found in a company. But the compilation is thought to contain the names of all those who went from this county. The individual record consists generally of the dates of enlistment and of the muster out or discharge, or of the sadder chronicle of death on the field or in hospital. The abbreviations used to convey these and other facts are self-explanatory. FORTY-SECOND ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY E. Capt. Daniel McOmber, Dowagiac. Capt. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek; corn. April I, 1865; m. o. Dec. I6, 1865; Ist Lieut. May 17, 1864; Sergt. vet. Jan. I, I864; Corp., July 26, I86I. First Lieut. William H. Clark, Dowagiac, May 17, 1864; declined com. Second Lieut. Nathan H. DeFoe, Dowagiac, Jan. 22, I86I; res. May II, 1862. First Sergt. William T. Codding, Dowagiac, July 22, I86I; m. o. Sept. I6, I864. Sergt. Jehiel Hall, Dowagiac, July 23, i86i; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 1862. Sergt. Cyrus Phillips, Dowagiat, July 22, i86i; vet. Jan. I, I864; prom. Ist Lieut. Co. F.;i?:l Sergt. Leonard H. Norton, La. Grange, Aug. Io, I86I; vet. Jan. i, 1864; died of wounds March 5, 1864. Corp. William H. Colburn, Silver Creek, July 26, i86i; vet. Janl. I, 1864; prom. 1st Lieut. from Sergt. Corp. Asher Huff, Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; dis. for disability March' I2, 1863. Corp. Comfort P. Estes, Dowagiac, July 26, i86I; vet. Jan. i, I864; killed at Kenesaw June I8, I864. Corp. Christopher Harmon,: Dowagiac, July 26, I86I; vet. Jan. I, I864; m. o. Sergt. Dec. i6, I865. Corp. Theo. De Camp, Silver Creek, July 26, i86i; dis. for disability March II, 1863. Corp. William H. Clark, Dowagiac, July' 26, I86I; vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o.r1t: Sergt. May 28, I865., Corp. Victor Wallace, Dowagiac, July 26, I86i; vet. Jan. I, I864; m. o. as Sergt. Dec. I6, I865. Arnold, Desire, Silver Creek, July 26, i86i; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 1862. Brownell, Lorenzo D., Dowagiac. July 26, I86I; dis. for disability Nov. I8, I862. Barrack, Jonathan A.. Calvin, Aug. i, I86I; dis. for disability Aug. 17. i862. Burling, Robert G., Pokagon, July 26, I86i; dis. for disability Oct. 24, I862. Bragg, Gustavus, Pokagon, Aug. 7, i86i; died of wounds at Trenton, Ga., Sept. Io, 1863. Caston, Hiram,, Jefferson, July 26, I86I; m. o., wounded, Sept. I6, 1864. Cone, Hulett, Dowagiac, Aug. 3T, i861; died at Park Barracks, Ky., Nov. 5, I862. Calhoun, Albert, Aug. 30, I86i; died in rebel hosp., Wilmington, N. C., March 5, i865. Day, Lucius C., Dowagiac, July 26, i86I; vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o. July 15, I865. Finehart, Daniel P., Pokagon, July 26, i86i; died Feb. 8, I862. Fleming, James H., Volinia, Aug.i86I; died of wounds at Atlanta, Ga., Dec. 25, 1863. Heath, Edward C., Pokagon, July 26, I86i; Corp.; died Aug. 23, I862. HIill, James, Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan;. I, 1864; m. o. Dec. 1.6, I865. 'Hanna, Nathaniel L., Dowagiac, Aug. 10, i86r; dis. for disability March 27, 1863. Hover, John B., Calvin, Aug. 21, I861; v et: Jan. I, 1864; prom. Prin. Mus. Higgins, George W., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; dis. for disability March 27, I862.

Page  299 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 2919 Henderson. George H., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; m. a. July 15, i865. Hitsmaii, Sidney, D-owagiac, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. i6, i865. Higgins, Daniel, Dowagiac, Aug. i, i86i; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. Krisher, John, Jr., Calvin, Sept. 9, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. i6, i865. Leonard, William, Cassopolis, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan.. i, 1864; m. o. Dec. i6, i 865. L'icas, Henry, Newberg, July 31, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; detached at m. o. Lewis, Edwin H., Cassopolis, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; dis. for disability April i8, i862. Miller, William H. H., Calvin, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; killed at Franklin, Tenn., Nov. 30. 1864. Munger, Charles A., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; vet. Jan. i, 1864; prom. ist Lieut. from Sergt. Mo~many, Oliver F., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; wounded; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. i6, 1864. McDonald, Alva, Pokagon, Aug. i, 1864; m. o. Oct. 3, 1864. Northrup, Adoniram, Calvin, Aug. i, 1864; killed at Stone River Dec. 31, 1862. Nevill, John G., Dowvagiac, Aug. i, 1864; wounded; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps April i6, 1864. Orange, Andrew, Dowagiac, Aug. To, i86i; dis. Dec. 5, 1862. Peters, John, Calvin, Atig. i, i86i; dis. for disabilityMy 26, 1862. Pierson, Bartley, -Calvin, Aug. I, 186i; dis. for disability May 3, 1862. Corp. Peter Rummels, Silver Creek, July 26, 1861; vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o. Dec. i 6, I 865. Rea, Albert W., Calvin, Aug. I, i86i; vet. Jan. I, 1864; died of wounds Dec. 15, 1864. Spicer, George G., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i;vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o. Dec. i6, i865. Shanafelt, Albert A., Dowagiac, July 26, i86i; m. o. Sept. 28, 1864. Shanafelt, Herbert R.,9 DowNagiac, July 26, 1861; died of wounds Columbia, S. C. Shearer, James H., Dowagiac, Aug. I, T86i; died at Smithton, -Mo., Jan. 29, i862. Stevens, Joseph H., Doxvagiac, Aug. I, i86i; died of wounds July 7, 1864. Stevenson, Zimri, Calvin, Aug. I, i86i; vet. Jan. 1, 1864; m. o. Dec. i6, i865. Sturr, Joseph L., Calvin, Aug. I, i86i; m. o. Sept. i8, 1864. Tillotson, John D., Calvin, Aug. I, i86i; m. o. Dec.-i6, i865. IT. renholm, Benjamin, Calvin, Sept. 9, i6;m. o. Sept. i6, 1864. Worden, Amasa P. R., Dowagiac.' July 26, i86i; died of wounds April 7, i864,. RECRUITS. iAIorse, Abel S., Silver Creek, dis. for disability Aug. i.5, i86i. Row, Fred. P.. Silver Creek:; dis. for (lisability Sept. io, i861. Stage. William, transferred to Sappers and 'Miners Sept..5, 186i. SIXTH MICHIGAN INFANTRY. FIELD AND STAFF. Col. Chas. E. Clarke, Dowagiac, com. October i6, 1864; ml. 0. as Lieut. Col. Sept. 7, 1865; comn. Lient. Col. Feb. I, 1864; Maj. June 21, 1862; Capt. U. S. Army July 28, i866; Brevet Major March 7, 1867, for gallant and meritoriouis services in the siege of Port Huron, La.; retired June 28, 1878. NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. Sergt. Maj. Henry W. Ellis, Pokagon, com. May 13, i865; M. o. Aug. 20, i865. Principal Musician Geo.. L. Hazen, Calvin, e. Jan. I, 1862; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. 0. Aug. 20, T865. Musician John R. Lee, e. Aug. 20, i86i1 dis. by order Sept. 20, 1862. COMPANY A. Briggs, George, Porter, e. Aug. 30, i862; dis. by order July 22, i865. Woodard, Alvab., Porter. e. u. 30, 18962; died of disease at Ft. Morgan. Ala., Sept. 24, 1864. COMPANY C. First Lieuit. Jas. A. Ellis, Dowagiac. camn. Dec. 1, 1862; trans. ist Lieut. to Co. D, July 20, 1863. Anderson, Andrew J., Calvin, e. Jan. IT, 1864; trans. to 7th U. S. Heavy Artillery June I, 1864. Freeman, Henry W., Porter, e. Jan. 20, 1864; trans. to Veteran Reserve Corps. Gilbert, Anson, Wayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863; died of disease at New Orleans, La.. Oct. 12, 1864. Hawks, Henry. Mason, e. Jan. TT. 1864; trans. to 7th U. S. Heavy Artillery June T, T864. Turnley, Hiram M., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability March 28, 1864.

Page  300 300 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY COMPANY D. Capt. Charles E. Clarke, Dowagiac, corn. Aug. 20, I86I; prom. Major. Capt. James A. Ellis, Dowagiac, corn. Sept. I, 1863; resigned July I9, 1864; trans. ISt Lieut. from Co. C, July 20, 1863; 2d Lieut. Co. D, Aug. 20, i86i. First Lieut. Frederick J. Clarke, Dowagiac, cor. Aug. I9, 186i; killed in battle at Port Hudson, La., May 27, I862. First Lieut. William W. Mcllvaine, Cassopolis, corn. Sept. I, I863; com. 2d Lieut, Dec. I, 1862; Sergt. Aug. 20, I86I; resigned as Ist Lieut. July 20, 1864. First Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowagiac. corn. March 7, I865; m. o. Jlly 20, I865; 2d Lieut. Co. F; Sergt. Co. D; vet. Feb. I, 1864. Second Lieut. John G. Allison, Porter, e. Sergt. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. as Sergt. July 20, 1865. Sergt. Hiram Meacham, e. Aug. 20, I86I; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. Sergt. William 0. Kellam, e. Aug. 20, 86i; dis. for disability April 30, I864. Sergt. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, i86i; prom. 2d Lieut. U. S. C. T. Corp. Charles K. Well, e. Aug. 20, I86I; prom. 1st Lieut. Ist La. Battery, Nov. 29, I862. Corp. Ira Coe, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Corp. Thomas M. Sears, La Grange, e. Nov. 21, 1862; vet. March 2, I864; dis. by order Aug. 20, I865. Corp. James K. Train, e. Dec. I6, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. Corp. Theodore Perarie, Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, I865. PRIVATES. Aikins, Alexander, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. Baker, Ferdinand, m. o. Aug. 20, I865. Bell, James M., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, i86r; vet. Feb. I, 1864; dis. for disability Aug. I, I865. Brown, Francis D., e. Aug. 20, I86I; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Carter, Elijah H., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862; died at Port Hudson, La., of wounds May 27, 1863. Carter, John M., Calvin, e. Aug. 12, 1862; died of disease at Port Hudson, Sept. 2, I863. Christie, Willard, e. Aug. 20, I86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Curtis, Edward, e. Aug. 20, I86I; died of disease at New Orleans, La., Nov. 30, 1862. Cushing, James H., Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864; dis. by order Sept. 5, I865. Dorr, Peter, Penn, e. Aug. 20, I86i; vet. Feb. I, I864; m. o. Aug. 20, I865. Estabrook, Aaron L., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Estabrook, George R., e. Aug. 20, I86I; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. Fraker, Oliver P., Porter, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; dis. for disability May I8, I865. Gannett, Lewis, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Grennell, Oliver C., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 14, I862. Gates, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Baltimore Oct. 8, I86I. Gilbert, Allison J., Wayne, e. Dec. 21, I863; dis. for disability June 2, I865. Goodrich, Noah, e. Aug. 20, I86i; dis. for disability Oct. 12, 1864. Gregg, James H., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Greenman, James J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. o. July 21, I865. Hall, George M., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 6, 1863. Hall, Philander W., e. Aug. 20, I86I; vet. Feb. I, I864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. Harmon, Benjamin H., died at Port Hudson, La., of wounds May 27, I863. Harmon, James, e. Aug. 20, i86I; dis. by order March 28, 1864. Harmon, Sylvester, e. Aug. 20, I86I; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., Aug. I3, 1863. Herrod, Francis M., Porter, e. Jan. 2, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. Horr, Calvin L., Calvin, e. Aug. 14, 1862; m. o. July 21. I865. Hover, Evart, Silver Creek, e. March 31, I864; m. o. Aug. 20, I865. Jackson, J. J., Porter, e. Aug. 27, I862; dis. for disability March 10, I863. Johnston, Albert, e. Aug. 20, I86i; dis. by order Feb. Io, I863. King, Edward, e. Aug. 20, 186I; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. King, John. e. Jan. I, 1862; vet. Feb. I, 1864. Kidder, Norman C., e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. o. July 21, I865. Kirk, George W., e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Camp Williams Nov. 21, I862. Lake, William H., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Lewis, Peter, e. Aug. 20, I86i; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 12, I863. Mcintosh, Jacob M., e. Aug. 20, i86I; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Mecham, Cyrus, e. Aug. 20, I86i; dis. for disability Oct. 14, I862.

Page  301 HISTORY OF CASS, COUNTY 301 Meacham, William J., e. Jan. i, i862; dis. for disability Oct. 14, i862. Miller, James M.; dis. for disability Sept. i 8, 1 863. Montgomery, M\ilton, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., Aug. 3, 1862. Montgomery, Samuel, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., July i8, i863. M\yers, George R., e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at New Orleans, La., Aug. 12, 1 862. Nesbitt, William, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. Neville, Jerry, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 1863; m. o. Aug. 20, 1865. Osborn, Allen S., Calvin, e. Aug. ii, 1862; M. o. July 2i, 1865. Osborn, Arthur, e. Nov. io, 1862; m-. 0. Aug. 20, 1865. Osborn, Job E., Calvin, e. Aug. I4, i862; (lied of disease at Port Hudson, La., Oct. 4, 1863. O'Neil, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Nov 21, 1863; m. o. Au~g. 20, i865. Overmeyer, Thomas J., e. Aug. 20, i86i; (lis. at enid of service Aug. 23, 1864. Owen, Andrew J., e. Aug. 20. i86r; dis. at endl of service Aug. 23, 1864. Patrick, Levi- W., died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., July 3, 1862. Ranidall, Lorenzo D., e. Aug. 20, i86i; clis. at enid of service Aulg. 23, 1864. Reyniolds, George, e. Au1g. 20, i86i; dis. at ciud of service Aug. 23, 1864. Reynolds, Patul S., e. Au~g. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1 864. Rinehart, Henry, e. Aug. i8, 1862; m. 0. July 211, T865. Ring. Johni, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. Robb, John, e. Au~g. 20, i86i; dis. for disaIbility Jall. 20, 18962. Rogers, Leroy, e. Auig. 20, i86i; dis. at endl of service Aug. 23, 18-64. S-ickles, George W., e. Au~g. 20, i86i; died in action at Port Hudson, La., June 30, 1863. Starks, William, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864; m-. o. Aug. 20, i,865. Shawl., Merrin, Silver Creek, e. April 12, 1864; ni. o. Auig. 20, i865. Stockwell, Johni, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 14, 1862. Stone, Edmuntnd, e. Aug. 20, 186i; died of disease at New Orleans, La., Aug. 12, i862. St. John, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb.. i, 1864; dis. for prom. 2d Lieut., this regt., Co. J, Nov. i, i864. Swinehart, Lewis, Porter, e. Aug. i8, i862; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., Aug. 29, 1863. Tracy, Spencer, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., Sept. 22, 1863. Wallace, William, e. Dec. 19, 1863; m. O. July 2I, 1865. Wheeler, Thomas, Penn, e. Aug. 25, 1864; m. O. Aug. 20, i865. Wieting, John, Silver Creek, e. March 31, 1864; dis. for disability Dec. 15, 1864. Wilsey, William H., e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Carrolton, La., 'March '6, 1 863. COMPANY E. Second Lieut. Charles St. John, Dowvagiac, prom. from Serg. Co. D, July i8, 1864; prm ist Lient., Co. D, M\arch 7, i865. COMPANY F. PRIVATE. Corselm~an, Levi, Marcellus, e. March I, i862; dis. hy order Sept. 14, i865. COMPANY G. PRIVATES. Clark., George H., Wayne, e. Dec. 19, 1863; ni. O. Aug. 20, 1865. Dewey. Enoch, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 2I, 1863; mU. O. Aug. 20, i865. Stevens, Isaac R., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 20, 1864; ml. O. Aug. 20, i86,. COMPANY K. First Lient. John Jacks, Edwardshurg, comi. Sept. I. 1862; dis. for disability Oct. 27, 1863.' First. Lient. Edward C. Beardsley, Dowagiac, comn. NOV. 25, 1864. Second Lieut. John Jacks, Ontwa, comn. Aug. 20, 1863; prom. First Lieut. Second Lient. Edward C. Beardsley, Dowaga. com. June 3, i864; prom. Fis Lient. Sergt. Charles Morgan, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis at end of service Aug. 23,184 Sergt. E. C. Beardsley, e. Aug. 20, 186i1 prom. Second Lieut. Sergt. John P. Carr, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 26, i865. Corp. John R. Lee, e. Aug. 20, i86i; trans. to regimental band. Corp. Alonzo Benedict, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 26, 1862. Corp. Leonard Sweet. e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 26, i862. Corp. David Ogden:, e. Aug. 20, i86j; vet. Feb. I, i864; m. O. Aug. 20, i865. Corp. James H. Smith, e. Aug. 20, 1861; dis. for disability Jan. 20, 1862. Corp. John 'Chatterdon, Howa'rd, e. Aug.

Page  302 302 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. i I, i865. PRIVATES. Barrett, Ransom, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., June 25, i862. Bramhall, Nathan W., e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Port Hudson, La., Feb. 6, 1864. Brunson, Perry, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. to enter Regular Army Dec. 23, i862. Bump, Adoiphus, Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, i865. Coder, Willett G., e. Aug. 20, i861; dis. for disability Oct. 26, i86i. Cole, Johnson B., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 29, i862. Eby, George W. N., e. Aug. 20, i861; dis. for disability Jan. 5, 1863. Hanson, Benjamin, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Ship Island, La., March i 8. 1862. Haskins, Calvin, Jeff erson, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. I, 1864; m. o. Aug. 20, i865. Heyde, Henry, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Joy, Elias W., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, 186i; vet. Feb. i, i864; m. o. Aug. 20, i865. Kieffer, Jacob, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Lamson, Horace, dis. at end of service Aug. 23, 1864. Lockwood, Henry P., e. Aug. 20, i86i; died of disease at Baton Rouge, La., July 24, 1863. McKinstry, Albert, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. by order March 9, 1864. Mott, Sylvester, e. AU g. 20, i86i; died of disease at Camp Williams Oct. 8, i862. Putnam, Uzziel, Pokagon, e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. for disability Jan. 26, 1 864. Niles, vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. A ug. 20, i865. Rourke. Patrick, e. Aulg. 20, i896i; vet. Feb. i, 1864; m. o. AU g. 20, i865. Shiry. William, Baton Rogue, e. Au~g. 20, i86i; died of disease New Orleans, La., Sept. i i, 1862. Smith, Mathewv, e. Au g. 20, 1862; died of disease at New Orleans Aug. 20, 1 863. Sweet, Leonard, re-e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. 0. Aug. 20, i86. Thayer, Ezra, Jefferson, e. Au g. 20, i86I; vet. Feb. r, 1864; ni. o. Aug. 20, i865. Westfall, Marvin F., Jefferson, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Feb. i, 1864; dis. for disability June 4, 1865. Williams, George W., e. Aug. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service AU g. 23, 1 864. THE TWELFTH MTCHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Capt. Joseph Harper, Cassopolis, com. Sept. 26, i86i; resigned May 7, 1862. First Lient. Charles A. Van Riper, La Grange. com. Oct. 4, i86i; resigned Feb. 28, I1863. First Lieut. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, com. Feb. 23, 1863; resigned July 3, i864. Second Lieut. David M. McLelland, Dowagiac, com. Oct. 14, i86i; resigned Nov. i 6, 1 862. Second Lieut. Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, com. April 8, 1864; prom. ist Lieut. Co. G. Sergt. Austin L. Abbott, Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, i86i; prom. ist Lieut. Co. A. Sergt. George B. Crane,. Pokagon, e. Oct. 4, i86i; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., July 23, i864. Sergt. Benjamin F. Dunham, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 4, i86i; prom. Coin. Sergt. April T, i862; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo.. May 24, 1862. Se-rgt. James Hill, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, i861; dis. for disability May 31, 1864. Sergt. Joseph R:- Edwards, Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 9, i865. Sergt. Robert S. M. Fox, Howard, e. Oct. 2, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, i863; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. A. Sergt. Isaac D. Harrison, Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, i863; mn. o. Feb. 1 5, I 866. Corp. Isaac D. Harrison. Corp. William E. Stevens, Mason, e. Oct. 22, i86i; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. K. Corp. Lewis Van Riper, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, i86i; dis. for disability Jan. 21, 1862. Corp. William Lingual. Pokagon, e. Sept. 30, i86i; dis. at end of service Feb. 14, 1865. Corp. Almon W. Eck, Wayne, e. May i8, 1863; vet. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, I 866. Musician Wellman Blanchard, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, i86r; dis. for disability Aug. i6, 1862. PRIVATES. Allen, Alonzo W., Pokagon, e. Sept. 28, i86I; died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 25, 1863

Page  303 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 303 Allen, Nelson K., Porter, e. Jan. 30, 1864; nm. o. Feb. 15, i866. Barker, George F., e. Dec. 15, i86i; vet. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. I5e, i866. Bilderback, Peter, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 31, i86i; died of wounds at Pittsburg Landing, June 5, i862. Bilderback, Wesley B., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 3I, i86i; dis. for (lisability Nov. 14, i863. Bronner, David, Penn, e. Oct. i8, i86i; die'd of disease April -, i862. Brown, Albert E., Ontwa, e. March 2, 1 865; m. 0. Feb. i 5, i 866. Brown, Charles G., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 5, 1862; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i85 Buckley, Peter, Pokagon, e. March i8, 1863; mn. o. Feb. I5, i866. Bucklin. George S., Wayne, e. Nov. 12, i861; dis. for disability Sept. 9, i862. Bush, Asa L., Dowagiac, e. Feb. i8, 1862; died of disease at Memphis, Tenn., Oct. 20, 1 863. Byers, Charles F., La Grange, e. Aug. 19, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i85 Carr, Allen M., Ontwa, e. Feb. 25. 1864; dis. for disability May 22, i865. Caves, Samuel, died of disease at Niles, Mich., March 23, 1862. Clasby, James, La Grange, e. Feb. i8, i862; dis. at end of service Feb. 17, i865. Campbell, Daniel, Pokagon, e. March i8, 1863; died of wounds at Camden, Ark., Oct. 6, i865. Cleveland, Charles E., e. Jan. 27, 1862; dis. at end of service Jan. 27, i865. Colby, James F., e. Oct. 14, 1861; died in action at Shiloh April 6, i862. Colvin, James M., e. Oct. 29, 1861; vet. Dec. 25, i863; accidentally killed Sept. 5, i 864. Curtis, Franklin P., Mason, e. Feb. 14, 1864; m. 0. Feb. 15, i866. Davis, Edson, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 5, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; mn. o. Feb. 15, i866. Delaney. Thomas, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis. by order Aug. I4, i865. Denison, Franklin, Cassopolis, e. Oct. 9, T86T1; vet. Dec. 28, 1863; dis. for disability May i, i865. Eggleston. William J., Mason, e. Feb. i6, i865; dis. by order May 22, i865. Emmons, Darius, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 22, 1864; dis. by order May 22, i865. Emmons, Jonathan, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 22, i864; im. 0. Feb. 15, i866. - E'mmons, Willi-am A., Dow'giac, e.Feb. 22, 1864; M. o. Feb. 15, 186 Foster, Francis M., Penn., e: Feb'. 23, i1864 mo.Feb. i 5, i 866. Gallagher, James, Jeff erson, e. Dec. 8, 1863; mn. o. Feb. 15, ~1866. Gilbert, Samuel, Mason, e. Oct. 25, 186i;.dis. by order Sept. 7, i862. Gillespie, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 28, i86i; dis. by order April 25, 1863. Goodrich, Jamnes, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Goff, Hiramn, Wayne, e. Nov. 9, i86i; died at home. Graham, Edward R., Cassopolis, e. Feb. 21, 1862; dis. at end of serv-ice Feb. 21, i865. Graham, Henry C., LaGrange, e. Sept. 7, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. Haas, Jacob, Howard, e. Sept. 23, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Haines, Thomas L., Ontwa, e. March 2, m85;n. o. Feb. I5, i866. Hartsel, Edward, Dowagiac. e. Oct. -, 1861; died of disease at Columbus, Ohio. Hatfield, Andrew V., dis. by order Jan 24, i866. Haniser, Michael B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, i86i;dis. for disability Aug. 28, 1862. Heaton, Abi'am, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; in. o. Feb. 15, i866. Heaton. L-ester M., Porter, e. Dec. 29, i863; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Higgins, Benjamin F., Newberg, e. Oct. 12, i86i; dis. by order April 21, 1863. Higgins. James P., e. Dec. 1o, T86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis. for disability July 8, 1864. H-ig-gins, John, Newberg, e. Dec. ii, i86i; veTt. Dec. 25, 1863; mn. o. Feb. I5, i866. Higley, Solomon G., Ontwa, e. Dec. 29, 1863; in. o. Feb. 15, i866. Higley, William., Ontwa, e. March 2, 1865; M. o. Feb. I5, i866. Hill, Henry T., Cassopolis, e. Feb. i8, 1862; dis. at end of service Feb. 17, i865. Hibray, Jacob P., Newberg, e. Oct. 3, i86T; died of disease at Montgomery, Ala., May i, 1862. Hitchcock, Lucius P., Porter, e. Feb. 5, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Holmes, Henry, Pokagon, e. March i8, 1863; died of disease at Dowagiac Oct.:20, 1 863. Holmes, William, Silver Creek, e. Nov. 19, i86i; died of disease at Dowagiac June 10, 1863. Horner, jam-es, LaGra~nge, e. Oct. i8, i86i; vet. Dec. 28, 1863; m. o. Feb. I5, I86. Hudson. James, lefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863; M. o. F7eb. 15, T866. Huff. Charle's H.,.LaQrange, e'. Jan. 17, 1'865; dis.'byo-r-dtr Jan. 24, i866. Hunt, John H.-, Jeifferson, e. Nov.- Ti,

Page  304 304 HISTORY OF CASS, COUNTY i86i; vet. Dec. 25, i863; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Ireland, Elon M., ib. o. Feb. 15, i866. Jackson, Erastus M., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Jackson, George, Mason, e. Feb. 14, i865; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Jackson, John S., Porter, e. Feb. 7, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Jennings, Abrami, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 15, i86i; dis. by order July 23, 1862. Johns, Aaron, Mason, e. Oct. i8, i86i; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Kugan, Edward, Jefferson, e. Feb. 28, i862; captured at Little Rock, Ark., Sept. 3, 1864; exchanged May 27, i865; dis. at end of service July 8, i865. Kelley, John H., Calvin, e. Feb. 7, i865; died of disease at Washington, Ark., July 2, 1865. Kelley. Joseph, Calvin, e. Feb. 26, 1864; dis. by order May 22, 1865. Keyes, John, Wayne. e. Nov. 9, i861; dis. by order July i6, 1862. Landon. Edward, Mason, e. Feb. i6, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Langley, Zachariah B., Pokagon, e. Oct. 13, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, i865. Lillie. John, LaGrange, e. Dec. 28, i86i; dis. at en-d of service Jan. 7, i865. Liphart, George M., LaGrange, e. Oct. 31, 1861; (lied at Indianapolis, Ind., April I17, 1865. Lewman, Simon, LaGrange, e. Feb. 22, 18964; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Dec. i6, 1864. Maloney, Lawrence, Pokagon, e. Feb. 3, 1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., Dec. 9, i865. Marsh, Benjamin, LaGrange, e. Dec. 7, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Marsh,, Nathan, LaGrange, e. March i6, i(6;m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Miner, William A., LaGrange, e. Oct. 5, T86i; vet. Dec. 25, i863; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Munson, Allen C., Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. Myers, George, Volinia, e. Feb. i8, 1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., Dec. 9, i865. Neff, Aaron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 22, rI564; m. o. Feb. i5, i866. Niblett, James, Mason, e. Feb. 8, i864; dis. by order May 22, i865. Nichols, Arthur, Penn, e. Dec. ii, i86i; dis. for disability July 17, i862. Norton, Bela A., LaGrange, e. Jan. 27, i862; dis. at end of service- Jan. 27, i865. Odell, Victor M., e. Feb. i, 1862; missing in battle at Shiloh April 7, i862. Pratt, Henry D., Pokagon, e. Nov. 17, i86i; died of disease at St. Louis, M\'o., Juin e 5, i 862. Pratt, James E., La Grange, e. Oct. 21, i86i; vet. Jan. 2, 1864; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Philips, William J., Mason, e. Jan. T8, 1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., NOV. 26, 1864. Post, John H., Pokagon, e. O~ct. 8, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 27, i865. Reams, Peter, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, i864; dis. for disability May 26, 1865. Roberts. James Hl., Mason, e. Feb. 1u, i865; m. o. Feb.. I5, i866. Robinson, Levi, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; dis. by order March I, 1 864. Rogers, Jesse, Porter, e. Dec. 5, 1863; m. o. Feb. i 5, i866. Root, Charles, La Grange, e. Feb. 22, i864; (lied of disease at Little Rock, Ark., Auig. 8, 1864. Root. Josiah C., La Grange, e. Oct. 31, i86i'; dis. for disability July 17, 1862. Rosbnrgh, Enos, Jefferson, e. Feb. 26., 1862; dis. by order Nov. i6, 1862. Rost, John A., La Grange, e. Feb. i8, 1862; dis. for disability June 4, 1862. Rtissey, John M1., La Grange, e. Feb. 21. i862; vet. Feb. 29, 1864; m. O. Feb. i5, i866. Sergt. James M. Savage, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, 1861; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m'. 0. Feb. 15, i866. Scotten, William, Ontwa, e. MVarch 2, 1865; ni. O. Feb. 15, i866. Secor. Isaac, La Grange, e. Oct. 28, i86i; dlied at Jackson, Tenn. (railroad accidenlt), Sept. 24, 1862. Secor. Joseph W., La Grange, e. Oct. 24, 1861; dis. by order Sept. T, 1862. Shanafelt, William H., e. Oct. 31, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15, T866. Shepard, Charles, Calvin, e. Feb. 25, 1864; (lied of disease at Niles, Mich. Shu~ste, Thomas P., LaGrange, e. Nov. IT, 1861; dis. for disability Sept.:20, 1 862. Sinipson, Thomas, La Grange, e. Oct. 20, 1861; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Sotiles, Peter, Pokagon, e. Oct. 15, T861; vet. Dec. 28, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Stanage, Benton, La Grange. e. Feb. 20, 1864; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Stephenson, James B., Jefferson, e. Feb. 22. 1864; died of disease at Little Rock, ArkL, June 28, 1864. Steere, William. H., Wayne, e. Nov. 19, i86i; dis. for disability Aug. 2, 1862.

Page  305 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 305 Stevens, Samuel, Mason, e. Feb.. 15, 1865; m. o. Feb. i5, i866. Smith, Nelson A., Porter, e. Oct. I3, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. Temple, Franklin, Ontwa, e. March 2, 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Thomas. Noble 0., La Grange, e. Oct. 31, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, i865. Thomas, Sherwood, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, i865. Thompson, Smith, Marcellus, e. Oct. 20, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. Townsend, William, La Grange, e. Oct. 31, i86i; died of (lisease at St. Louis, Mo., Nov. ii, 1863. Tubbs, Lester, Porter, e. Dec.,5, i863; in. o. Eel). 15, i866. Upham. George, La Grange, e. Feb. 23, 1864; m. o. Feb. I,5, i866. Vanl 'Tiyl, Richard, I.\Iason, e. Feb. 27, 1864; m. o. Feb. T,, T866. White, Seth, Wayne, e. Nov. 12, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; m. o. Feb. i5), i866. Wilcox, Henry, Pennsylvania, e. Feb. 4, 1862; killed in railroad accident at Jack501), Tenn., Sept. 24, 1862. Willard, John, e. March 3, 1864; died of disease at St. Louis, M\o., Oct. 20, i863. Williams,, Samutel, Jefferson, e. Feb. 23, 1864/; m. o. Feb. T5, i866. Y~Vinfrey, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 15. 1861; dis. by order Juily 24. 1862. Wing, Orlando, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1862; 1ni. o. Feb. 15, T866. Wolfe, Franklin, e. Eel). 26, 1862; vet. Feb. 29, 1864; n'. o. Eel). i,5, i866. Woolsey. Lewis, La Grange, e. Oct. 4, T86i; (lied of disease at Camp Logan, Tetin., M,\ay 21, 1862. COMPANy 13. Baldwin, Edwin K., La Grange, e. Dec. 1, T863~; m. 0. Eel). 15, i8966. Bell, Richard H., Howard, e. i\arch 29, 1862; vet. March 22, 1864; mn. o. Feb. i,5, T866. Bryant, Thomas G., Mason, e. M,,"arch i, 1865; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, T86,. Dennis, John, Milton, e. March i. i865; nm. o. Feb. i 5, T866. Driscoll, Noah, Porter, e. Feb. I3, 1864; m. o. Feb. I5, T866. Dunn, Ambrose, Cassopolis, e. Feb. 15, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Haas, George, La Grange, e. Dec. T, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Haas, John, La Grange, e. Dec. i, 1863; m.- o. Feb. i 5, i 866. Haas, John A., La Grange, e. Dec. i, 163; mn. o. Feb. I 5, i 866. High -y, Calvin J., Newberg, e. Sept. 5, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Huyck, William D., dis. for disability Nov. 9, i 865. Mosher., Isaac, Pokagon, c. Feb. i6, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, i865. Palm-er, Charles H., vet. Jan. 2, 1864. Parkerton, William, 1)owagiac. e. Feb. 19. 1862; vet. Feb. 27, 1864; m. O. Feb. I 5, i 866. Pettus, Luther. La Grange, e. Dec. i, 1863; died of disease at Camden, Ark., Sept. i, i865. Rose, John, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Wheeler, Edwin, Marcellus, e. Feb. 29, 1864; m. 0. Eel). i5, i866. COMPANy C. Ashley, Horace, e. Dcc. 31, i86i; dis. for (lisability July 19, i862. Barmore, John E., e. Dec., i86i; vet. Dec. 29, 1863. Cobb, Albert T., Dowvagiac. e. Dec. 25, i86i; dis. for (lisability Feb. 25, 1862. Doty. James H-., Porter, e. Eel). 22, 1864; vet. Dec. 24, 1863. Doty, William J., e. IIec. 7, i86i; vret. Dec. 24. 1863; w. o. Feb. 15, i 866. Griffith, Samuel, 'Milton, e. Oct. 25. i86i. vet.- Dec. 24. 1863; mn. o. Feb. 15, i866. Corp. Charles Hungerford, 1)owagiac, e. Oct. 25, i86i; dis. by ord~er June 30. 1862. Kappelmaii, John. Pokagon. e. 'Alarch i, i(6;m. o. Feb. 15, i866. King. Samuel P., Porter, e. Feb. 22, 1864; mi. o. Feb. i5, i866. Kirk, William H-., Porter, e. Eel). 22, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Marks, Isaac, Dowagiac, e. Feb. 15, 1862; vet. Eel). 25. 1864. M\cGee, Lemutel S., Dowagiac, e. Jan. 4. 18,62; vet. Jan. 2, 1864; in. O. Feb. i15, T866. Olmstead, John, e. Feb. 8, 1862; dis. by order March i8, 1862. Serg-t. John H. Patterson, e. NOV. 25. i86i; vet. Dec. 24, i863; m. 0. Feb. 1 5, i 866. Sanders. Daniel, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, m85;r. O. Feb. 15, 1866. Stillwell, Edwin C., D'owagiac, e. Jan. 5,, 1862; vet. Dec. 31, 1863. Thompson, Reason, Porter, e. Feb. 23, 1864; died of disease at Camden, Ark., Sept. 8, 1.865. Welch.' John C., Dowagiac, e. Dec. 25, T86i; vet. Dec.. 31, 1863; prom. 2d. Lieuit. Co. I Ju~ly 3, 1864.

Page  306 306 HISTORY. OF CASS. COUNTY COMPANY D. Simmons, Peter W., Mason, e. Aug. 31, i864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. Sirrine, Henry F., Volinia, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Springsteen, John WV., Volinia, e. Sept. 6, i864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. COMPANY E. Barton, Reuben, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. by order Sept. 14, i865. Beebe, William H., died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., June I, i862. Leach, Jamies M\., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. Odell, Joseph, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. by order Sept. 14, i865. Perkins, Harvey WV., Howard, e. Oct. i8, 18S64; dis. by order Oct. 24, i865. Walz, John, Silver Creek. e. Feb. 29, 1864; died of disease at Grand Rap-ids, 1\'iich. COMPANY F. Second Lieut. William Horton, Jr., Dowagiac (Sergt. Co. I), resigned June I2, i865. Sergt. Philo H. Simmions, dis. for disability March i6, 1862. Sergt. Robert. A. Walton, Howard, e. Oct. 12, i86i; vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. O. Feb. 5, i866. PRIVATES. Albrecht, Jacob G., Porter, e. Feb.:22, 1864; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Bellows, Job. S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Brown, Luman, Jefferson, e. Nov. 25, i86i; died May I, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh April 6, 1862. Butler, Henry M., m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Dean, Thomas, Ontwa, e. Nov. 8, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, i865. Durstern. Michael,' e. March i6, i862; discharged by order July I5, 1862. Hawkins, Charles, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Hawkins, Benjamin, vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15. i866. Hawkins, Charles, discharged by order June 17, 1865. Inman, Isaiah, La Grange, e. Aug. 31, 1864; m. 0. Feb. I r, 1866. Leich, Elias., Milton, e. Dec. 5, i86i; trans. to Veteran Reserve Corps Jan. 15, 1864. Lewis, George XV., Jefferson, e. NOV. 22, i86i; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Lynch, William J., Milton, e. Oct. 15, i86T; died on' hospital boat May, 1862. Markle, John, Milton, e. Feb. 22, 1862; vet. Feb. 24. 1864; m. O. Feb. I5, i866. McNitt, Charles XV., Porter, e. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o.- Feb. 15, i866. Mitchell. Robert, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21, 1865; 'M. O. Feb. I5, i866. Moran, James, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, i86i; vet. Dec. 30, 1863; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Morgan. Charles A., Mil1ton, e. Oct. i5,, i86i; vet. Jan. I, 1864; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Noble, James M.. Mlilton, e. Dec. 3, '86i; dis. by order June 25, 1862; re-e. March 8, 1864; mn. o. Feb. I5, i866. O'Keefe, Eugene, Silver Creek, e. Oct. 30, 1861; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. Parks, Almenon, e. March 7, 1862; vet. March 8, 1864; m. O. Feb. I5, i866. Reigle.. George W., Porter, e. Feb. 22, i864; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Reynolds, Henry C., La Grange, e. Sept. 23, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 29, I 865. Rogers, Charles F., Pokagon, e. Nov. 19, i86i; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15, 1864. Rogers, Hiram, Ontwa, e. Nov. 21, i86i; dis. for disability M~arch i6, i862. Rogers, Hiram L., Pokagon, e. Oct. 14, 1861; died of disease at Keokuk, Iowa, May 6, 1862. Simmons, Joseph, Jefferson, e. Dec. 2 i86i; dis. for disability March i6, 1862. Snow. William H., Jefferson, e. NOV. 22, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, i865. Tuttle, Jacob, Milton, e. Oct. I5, i86i; dis. for disability March i6, 1862. Whitmore, George A., La Grange, e. March 15. i865; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. WAilson. James, Ontwa, e. Dec. 13, i86i; vet. Dec. 3, 1863; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. Wilson, Joseph S., Ontwa, e. Dec. 14, i86i; vet. Dec. 3, 1863; mn. O. Feb. I5, i866. Warden, George R., Jefferson, e. Dec. 5, i86i; dis. by order July 25, 1862. Wyant, James, Ontwa, e. NOV. 21, i86i; dis. by order July 8, 1862. Zeek, William F.. Ontwa, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. by order Oct. 31, i865. COMPANY G. First Lieut. Robert S. M. Fox. Howard, corn. Oct. 19, 1864; resigned Sept. i8, i865. PRIVATES. Lawrence, Joseph. Silver Creek, e. Dec. 1O, 1863; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Nichols. Warren XV., Marcellus, e. Sept. 27, 1864: dis. by order Sept. 30, i865. Schnih, Nicholas. La Grange, e. Dec. 3, i863; m. O. Feb. 15, i86.

Page  307 H[STORY OF CASS COUNTY:307T Shawl, Alexander, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Shiver, Walter, QOtwa, e. Dec. 24, 1863; m. O. Feb. 1 5, i866. Stamp, David, Porter, e. Dec. 5, i863; M. o. Feb. iS, i866. Ties, Anton, La Grange, e. Dec. 3, 1863; m.. O. Feb. I15, i 866. COMPANY H. Bailey, James E., Silver Creek, e. Feb. I4, 1864; dis. by order May 22, 1865. Born, Henry, Mason, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Conrad, Jacob, Volinia, e. Feb. 20, 1864; m. O. Feb. 15, i866. Eggleston, Harvey, Porter, e. Aug. ii, 1862; vet. Dec. 26, 1863; dis. by order Sept. 30, 1865. Franklin. Samuel W., Mason, e. Jan. 29, 18964; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark.., Oct. 21, 1864. Salyer, James, Mason, e; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Sept. 24, 1864. COMPANY I. Second Lient. John C. Welch, Dowagiac, corn. July 3. 1864; prom. ist Lieut. Co. A. Jan. 7, i865. Allen. Israel M., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, 1865. Auimack, Jacob, Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Cole, William L., La Grange, e. Jan. 17, 1864; m. o. Feb. i,5, i866. Corin, Robert, Ontwa. e. Sept. 2, 1864; trans. to 5th U. S. Colored Infantry April i. i865. Curtis, Thomas J., Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Nov. i, 1864. Fisher, John, Pokagon, e. Feb. 21., 1865; m. o. Feb. 15, T866. Hayden, Edward W., e. Dec. 25, 186i; dis. for disability July 26, 1862. Hoyt, Henry, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Johnson. U-riab, died of disease at Decatur, Mich., June i, 1862. Johnson, Egbert, Mason, e. Aug. 31, 1864; died of disease at Washington, Ark., July T, i865. Leader, Nathan H., Pokagon, e. Sept. 2, 1864; dis. by order May 6, i865. Horton. William, Jr., Dow-agiac. e. Dec. ii,- i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1863; Sergeant, prom. 2d Lieut. Co. I. Knaipp, Bruce, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 24,~ 1864; dis. for' disability Aug. 23, i864. Tuttle, Royal J., Silver Creek, e. Feb., 1864; died of disease at Duvall's Bluff, Ark., Aug. 12, 1864. Mc';i1chael, Albert, Ontwa, e. Feb. 24, 1862; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Nye, Isaac, Jefferson, e. Sept. i, 1864; dis. at endl of service Sept. 9, i865. Ort, Adam, M\,ason, e. Aug. 20, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Searles, Henry M., Mason, e. Feb. 24, 1861; vet. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, i866. Smith., Hiram, La Grange, e. Aug. 29, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Stephenson, Harvey, Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 1864 ' dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. St. John, John, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Tibbits, Nathan, Porter, e. Dec. 15, 1863; died of disease at Huntersville, Ark., July 2, 1864. Treat, Horace J., Silver Creek, e. Oct. 10, i86i; died in action at Pittsburg Landing April 6, i862. Yawkey, Amos, Howard, e. March 7, 1864; m. o. Feb. m5 i866. Vetter, Joshua T., vet. Dec. 29, 1863. Willard, 'William, Jefferson. e. Dec. 3, 1863; died of disease at Duvall's Bluiff, Ark., Jan. 6, i865. COMPANY K. Second Lieut. William E. Stevens, Mason, e. Oct. 22, i86i; vet. Dec. 25, 1 863; Sergeant Co. A. com. April 2, 1865; M. o. Feb. is. i866. Bidlack, Charles E.. Porter, e. Oct. 14, 1864; dis. by order Oct. 27, 1 865. Crandall. Lewis, Wayne, e. Feb. 22, 1864; mi. O. Feb. i5, i866. Drake, Lorenzo, dis. by order Aug. 12, 1865. 9 8i;ds Farnham, Erastus S.., e. Dec.9,86;ds at end of service Sept. 7, i865. French, Noah, Sergeant, e. Oct. io, 1861; dis. by order July 19, 1862. Hardy, Robert, Milton, e.. Oct. 21, i86i; dis. by order Oct. 17, i1862. Nostrand, John J., Silver Creek, e. Nov. i i, i86i; dis. at end of service Jan. 7, 1865. Rawson. Charles W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1864; dis. at end of service Sept. 9, i865. Sayers. James, Pokagon, e. Feb. 24, 1863; dis. by order June 1, T865. Shepard, Caleb, Howard, e. Dec. 28, 1861;

Page  308 308 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY vet. Dec. 29, I863; dis. by order Aug. 12, I865. Tappan, Harlow, Marcellus, e. Feb. 25, 1864; m. o. Feb. 15, I866. Weatherwax, John G., Porter, e. Feb. 13, 1864; died of disease at Little Rock, Ark., June 13, 1864. Webber, Geo. W., Ontwa, e. Feb. 29, I864; m. o. Feb. I5, i866. THE NINETEENTH MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. FIELD AND STAFF. Surgeon William E. Clarke, Dowagiac, Surgeon 4th Mich. Infantry, trans. Surgeon to I9th Infantry Aug. 12, 1862; resigned July I8, I863. Asst. Surgeon Leander D. Tompkins, Cassopolis, com. Aug. 12, 1862; resigned for disability Sept. 7, 1863. NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. Quartermaster Sergt. John M. Myers, Cassopolis, e. Aug. 9; 1862; appointed ist Lieut. and Quartermaster; m. o. June IO, I865. Commissary Sergt. George S. Larzelere, Silver Creek, corn. Jan. 14, 1863; m. o. June 15, 1865. Principal Musician Ezekiel Owen, La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. COMPANY A. Capt. Joel H. Smith, Dowagiac, corn. July 22, 1862; resigned July II, 1864. Capt. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, cor. May 15, 1864; promoted Maj. 28th Mich. Inf.; wounded in action June 22. I864. First Lieut. George T. Shaffer, Calvin, com. August 2, 1861; promoted Capt. First Lieut. Henry J. Ohls, Marcellus, corn. May 8, 1865; Sergt. Aug. 8, 1862; m. o. June o1, I865. Second Lieut. Reuben B. Larzelere, Dowagiac, corn. July 28, 1862; resigned Aug. 7, 1863. Sergt. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, e. Aug. 6, I862; promoted 2d. Lieut. Co. E. Sergt. Norman B. Farnsworth, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2, I864; dis. for disability Sept. 2, 1863. Sergt. John S. Griffis, Wayne, e. Aug. II, 1862; killed at Resaca, Ga., May 5, I864. Sergt. Barker F. Rudd, Newberg. e. Aug. 8, 1862; dis. for wound Oct. 23, 1863. Sergt. George S. Larzelere, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 1862; appointed Commissary Sergt. Corp. George H. Batten, Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of disease at Murfreesboro, Tenn., Aug. 29, I863. Corp. Zach Aldrich, Newberg, e. Aug. 9, 1862; prom. sergt.; dis. for loss of an eye Feb. 9, 1864. Corp. John Manning, Marcellus, e. Aug. 13, 1862; dis. for wound, lost hand, May 9, I863. Corp. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862; prom. ISt Lieut. Co. I. Corp. Amos D. Stocking, Pokagon, e. Aug. 2, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. I, 1863. Corp. Albert T. Cobb, Wayne, e. Aug. 5, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. Corp. William Slipper, Penn, e. Aug. 2, I862; m. o. Sergt. June IO, I865. Corp. James S. Crego, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 1862; m. o. Sergt. June. Musician Ezekiel Owen, La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; prom. Principal Musician Sept. I, I863. Musician Franklin R. Sherman, Pokagon, e. July 31, 1862; m. o. June 22, 1865. Wagoner, Isaac Hamlin, Pokagon, e. July 20, 1862; died of disease at Washington, D. C., Feb. 17, I863. PRIVATES. Allen, Loren A.. Pokagon, e. Aug. 16, I862; m1. o. June 10, 1865. Allison, George W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, I862; m. o. June Io, I865. Allison, Henry C., La Grange, e. Aug. 3, I864; m. o. Mlay 19, 1865. Anderson, Jacob M., Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1863; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Baker, Albert, Mlason, e. Aug. 5, I862; died of disease at Nicholasville, Ky., Dec. 5, 1862. Bell, Samuel D., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 8, 1862; in. o. June IO, 1865. Benton, Elic, Pokagon, e. -; m. o. June Io. I865. Bend, Thomas F., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862; dis. for wound April 28, T865. Bowerman, Addison, Newlberg, e. Aug. 27, I863; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Sept. 25, I864. Bridge, Daniel G., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, I862; m. o. June IO, I865. Corbit, James, Penn, e. Aug. 8, I862; killed on picket before Atlanta, Ga., July 23, 1864. Corwin. Anmos B., Penn, e. Aug. 8, I862; m. o. June Io, 1865. Cooper, Harley R., Jefferson, e. Dec. I5, 1863; m. o. May 26. I865. Crawford. George, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, T862; Sergt.; m. o. tfune o1, 1865. Crocker. Milford, Silver Creek, e. Dec. I6, 1864; m. o. June o1, 1865. Fosdick. Franklin H.. Penn, e. Feb. 27, 1864; dis. for disability June 27, I865.

Page  309 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 309 Danahy, Timothy, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds at -Resaca, Ga., May 25, 1864. Davis, Norman, Pokagon, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. 8, 1863. Davis, Reason, Newberg, e. Aug. 13, i862; m. o. Junie io, i865. Davis, William, Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; mn. 0. Jun-e 10, 1865. Edwards, Henry, Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, i862; m. o. Junie 10, i865. Evans, John, Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 1862; mi. o. Junie. io, i865. Freeman, Adin, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 2, 1862; killed in action at Thompson's Statioii, Tenn., March.5, i863. Fuller, Oren A., Penn, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. for wounds May 20, 1863. Fuller, William R., Wayne, e. Aug. 6, 1862; m. o. June 10, 1865. Garwood, Levi. Volinia, e. Aug. 8, 1862; dis. for disability Aug. ~i, 1863. George, Stephen L., Sil1ver Creek, e. Aug. Q, 1862; di1S. for disability Jan. I4, 1864. Gilbert, Jeremiah 13., Penn, e. Feb. 27, i864; m. 0. June i0, 1865. Gillon, Patrick I., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m-. o. June 10, i865. Gleason, Charles H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 9, 1862; ni. o. Junie 10, i865. Grinnell, Sylvester M\., Penn, e. Feb. 27, 1864; in. o. June io, i865. ilagerman, Noah D., Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; m1. o. June i0, i865. Hamilton, John P., Wayne, e. Aug. ii, i862; died in action at Thompson's Station, Tenn., March 5, i863. Hannah, James A., La Grange, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died in action at Tlhompson's Station, T1enn., March 3, 1863. Hawes, Jerome B., Pokagon, e. Aug. ii, 1862; m. o. Junie io, i865. Hoover.' Calvin, La Grange, e. Aug. 8. 1862; iii. o. Junie 10, 1865. Hungerford, Homer M., Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862; missing in action near Dalton, G a., 1 864. Laylin, Oren, W~ayne, e. Aug. 6. 1862; m. o. June io, i865. Lilly, Aaron, Wayne, e. Aug. 8, 1862; M. o. June 10. 1865. Lundy, Ira C., Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; M. o. June i0, i865. Lundy, Robert, Penn. e. Aug. TI, 1862; dis. for (lisability Feb. 8, 1863. Lundy, Thomas, Penn, e. Aug. 8, 1862; died of disease at Annapolis, Md., April 13, 1863. Lytle, William M. Marcellus, e. Jan. T, 1863; dis. for wo-und Nov. 12, 1864. Mead., Smith, Silver Creek. e. Aug. 2, 1 862; mn. o. June 10, i865. Means, Andrew, Pokagon, e. Aug. 8, i862; dis. for disability Aug. i8, 1863. 1\1iuncy, Nimrod, Wayne, e. Aug. 2, 1862; mn. o. Junie 10, 1863. Nicholas, Ezra W., Marcellus, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of wvounds at Vining's Station, Ga., Sept. 4, 1,864. Nichols, William H., TMarcellus, e. Jan. i, 1863; died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tlein., Junie 20, 1864. Parker, Hlaynes G., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 1862; died of disease at Nashville., rlenn., July 13, 1864. Parker, Romaine, Pokagon, e. Aug. 4, 1862; m'l. o. Junie 1o, i86,~. Parker, Thl-om-as S., Calvin, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m-. o. Junie 10, i865. Peters, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 1863; died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tlenil., Julie 20, 18S64. Potter., Thonlas, Jefferson, e. Aug. 7, 1862; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., Nov. I13, 1 862. Reamis, Caleb M., Penn, e. Aug. 26, 1862; m-. o. July 19, 1865. Reams, Isaiah G., Penn, e. Sept. 12, 1862; i-n.. o. July 19, 1865. Reams, Silas G., Penn, e. Aug. 31, 1863; mn. o. M aI 2, i865. Savage, Henry B., Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 1 862; died in action at Thompson's Station. Tenn., March 5, 1863. Schideler, John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 1862; died in rebel prison at Richmond, Va.. March -, 1863. Schideler, Robert, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. for disability. Shawl. M.\adison, Silver Creek, e. July 25, 18S62; mi. 0. Junie 10, i865. Shepard, Purley. Silver Creek. e. Aug. 2, 18962; died of disease at Lookout Mountainl, TeunI., Oct. 26, 1864. Shermian, C. C., Pokagon, e. Jtily 23, 18962; ml. o. Junie i6, i865. Spaulding. Joel, Newberg, e. Auig. 9, 1862; mi. o. May TO0, i865. Spencer, Edward, Wayne, e. Aug. 9, 1862; mi. o. June 10, i865. Stedman, Livingston, Pokagon. e. Aug. 8, 1862; mi. 0. June 10, I865. Stuart. Salmon, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, 1862; 1-n. o. Junie 1o, i865. Suits. Jacob., Wayne, e. Aug. 9. 1862.; m-. o. Junie T0. i865. Suits,, Solomon A., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 9, i862; mi. o. June io, i865. Sullivan, Solomon A., Wayne. e. Aug. 4, 1862; mn. o. Junie 1o, 1865. Taylor, John.. PokagTon, e. Aug.-I 4, 1862; iii. o. Junie 10, i8965. 1Thompson, Francis MT.. Wayne, e. Aug. TI, 1862; mi. o. June 10, i865.

Page  310 310 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Underwood, Enos, Newberg, e. Aug. 9, i862; m. 0. June i0, i865. Underwood. Stephen W., Penn, e. Aug. 9, i862; M. 0. July II1, 1865. Wickham, William C., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 13, 1862; died of disease at Danville, Ky., Dec. -, 1862. Wiggins, George E., Wayne, e. Aug. ii, i862; died of wounds at Richmond, Va., March -, i863. Wiggins, Loreuzo R., Wayne, e. Aug. 7, 1862; died in rebel prison, Richmond, Va., March -, i863. Winchell, Seneca W., Pokagon, e. Aug. 2, 1862; mn. o. June 10, 1865. COMPANY C. Phillips, Johu H., Newberg, e. Jan. 17, 1864; M. o. July I9, i865. COMPANY D. Second Lieut. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, trans. from Co. E. July 27, 1863; prom. ist Lieut. June i, 1864; resigned as 2d Lieut. Aug. 6, 1864. Harrigan, William, Marcellus, e. Sept. 15, 1864; mi. 0. June 23 i865. Wright, Giles, Newxberg, e. Sept. 5, 1863; ml. o. July i9, i865. COMPANY E. Second Lient. Isaac Z. Edwards, Pokagon, corn-. May i, 1863; trans. 2d. Lieut. to Co. D. Ashley, William H., e. Aug. -, i862; confined in Libby Prison; died at Annapolis, Md., April ii, 1863. Basley, Hiram E., Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863, in ioth Infantry. Hollister, Albert E., Penn, e. Sept. 29, 1864, in iotb Infantry. Mlabey, Martin, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 22, 1863, in ioth Infantry; tranls. to ioth Mfich. Infantry. Martin, George H., m. O. Aug. 3, 1865. Miller, Charles Z., e. Aug. -, 1862; died at Nicbolasville, Ky.. Dec. 13, i862. Quay, William H-.. Newberg, e. Jan. 23, 1864; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., March 21, 1864. Quay, Edward L., Newberg, e. Dec. 21, T863; m. o. July 19, 1i865. Welch, Thomnas C., Jeff erson, e. Dec. 15, 1863; m. o. July 19, i865. White, Enos H., Pokagon, e. Nov. i8, i864; m. O. July ig, i865. COMPANY G. Beaman, Alonzo P., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. July I9, i865. Boghart, Peter C., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 1864, In 10th Infantry; died of disease March 3, 1864. Madden, Michael, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 1863; mn. o. July i9, i865. M\cCoy, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 1863; m. o. July 19, 1865. Reanms, Erastus, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 12, 1862; m. o. June 10, i865. Reed, H~-nry S., Newberg, e. Jan. 5, 1864; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., June 30, 1864. Reed, William T.. Newberg, e. Jan..5, 1864; died of disease at Chattanooga, Tenn., Aug. 7, 1864. Trattles, Daniel, Newberg, e. A ug. I I, 18q62; mn. O. June 10, 1865. COMPANY H. Bair, Myron i\I., Newberg, e. Jan. 20, 18(64; m. O. June 10, i865. Hawkins, Isaac, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 13, i862; in. o. June 10, 1865. Musician George N. Rosebrock, Oitwva, e. Auig. 13, 1862; died of disease at Coyington. Ky., Oct. 21, 1862. T1eageni, Samuel. Porter, e. Aug. 13, 1862; dis. for disability July 6, 1863. COMPANY I. First Lieut. Alexander Kirkwood, Wayne, corn. Nov. II, 1864; m. O. June 10, i865. Buttrick, William, Wayne, e. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. June 24, 1865. Carroll, Thomas, Wayne, e. Dec. 17, 1863; m. O. July i9, i865. Cooper. A~sbury, Jefferson, e. Dec. 15, 1863 inith Infantry; trans. to i0th Michigan Infantry. Havens. Adam, Wayne, e. Jan. 4, 1864, in iotb infantry; trans. to ioth Michigan Infantry. White, William L., Wayne, e. Dec. 4, 1863; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. THE FIRST REGIMENT MICHIGAN CAVALRY. NON-COMMISSIONED STAFF. Sergt. Maj. James S. McElheny, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 15, i86i; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. G. Hosp. Steward James R. Leader, Pokagon; m. 0. Oct., 1862. COMPANY A. First Lieuit.- Sidney G. Morse, Cassopolis, com.. June, 1862; ist Sergt. Co. M, May i2, 1862; killed in battle at Second Bull Run, Au~g. 30, 1862.

Page  311 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 311 First Lieut. John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, corn. March 7, 1865; m. O. Nov. 7, i865. Private Richard L. Crawford, Penn, e. Feb. 4, i864; m. 0. Jan. 23, i866. COMPANY B. Capt. Rollin C. Denison, Dowagiac, trans. from Co. M, Oct., i86i; trans. to Co. M, Nov., i8i Capt. William Heazelit, Dowagiac, trans. from Co. K, July i8, 1862; M. 0. Oct. 30, 1 864. Second Lient. John Simmons, Dowagiac, promi. ist Lieut. Co. A, March 7, 1865. COMPANy C. Randall, Wesley C., Jefferson, e. March 13, 1865; M. o. May 19, i866. COMPANY E. Bugler George Krupp, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; m. O. March 25, I866. Shanafels, George, Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 1865; m. O. Dec..5, 1865. COMPANY D. First Lient. John Mi~inson, Volinia, com. March 7, 1865; 2d Lieut. Dec. 4, 1864; m. O. trans. to Co. G, March 10, i865. COMNPAINY G. First Lieuit. James S. MlcElheny, Doxvagiac, corn. May i8, 1863; 2d Lieut. Nov. 12, 1862; killed in action at Mlonterey, Md., Jul1y 4, 1863. First Lieut. John Mutnson, Volinia, trans. from Co. D, ist Lient. Mlarch io, 1865; m. O. March 10, i866. Private Warren Simpson, Jefferson, e. Feb. 8, i86s; m-. O. Dec. 5. i85 COMPANY K. Capt. Williamn ML Hazelet, Dowagiac, corn. Nov. 12, T862; 2d Lieut. Co. T\I; wvounded in action at Gettysburg Jul1y 3, 1863; and at Cold 1Harbor June I, 1864; trans. Capt. to Co. B; m. O. Oct. 30, 1864. PRIVATES. Apted, William, Volinia, e. Feb. 15, i865; m. O. Dec. 5, i865. Conner, Isaac B., Volinia, e. Feb. 17, 1865; trans. to Co. G. Fonger, William, La Grange, e. NOV. 30, i863. Hanna, Hezekiab. Volinia, e. NOV. 26, 1863; died at Washington, D. C., July I i, 1864. Herbert, William, P., Corp., Volinia, e. Dec. 15, 1863; m. O. March 10, i85 James, Lewis, Volinia. e. Dec. i6, 1863; m. o. March I0, i866. Kenny, James, blacksmith, Volinia, e. Nov. 30, 1863; m. O. Jan. 10, i865. Munl-son, John, saddler, Volinia, e. Nov. 30, 1863; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. D, Dec..4, 1 864. Myers, James W., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, i865; m. o. Dec. 8, 1865. Sweet, George W., Volinia, e. Dec. i6, 1863; m. O. July i6, i865. Welcher, Nelson, Volinia, e. Nov. 30. 1863; died at Detroit, M.iCh., Oct. 27, 1864. WVinegarden, Abram S., Volinia, e. Nov. 30, 1863; dis. by order July 7, 1,,5 COMPANY L. Corp. Albert Vincent, Volinia, e. Aug. 20, i86i; died in rebel prison. PRIVATES. Koonse, Herbert, M-\asoni, e. Jan. 26, 1864; m. O. Sept. 25. T865. Redman, J. WV., Mason, e. Feb. 26, i86,; m. O. Dec. 5, i85 COMPANY M. Capt. Rollin C. Denison. Do\wagiac. comi. Aug. 12, -i86i; resigned April 23, 1863. Capt. David XV. Clemmer, Dowagiac, comn. May 2, 1863; wounded ii-i action at Gettysburg. Penn., July 3, 1863; m'. o. Dec. 14. 1864. First Lieuit. Charles H1. Sprague, Dowagiac, corn. Aug. 12. 1861; prom. Capt. Co. A. First Lieuit. David WV. Clcmimer, DowNagiac. com. Auig. 12, i86i; prom. Capt. May 2, 1 863. Second Lieut. David WV. Clemmier, Dowvagiac, corn. May 12, 1862; prom. ist Licuit. NOV. 12, 1862. Second Lietut. William i\I. Hceazlit, Dowagiac, corn. Aug. 12, i86i;prom. Capt. Co. K. NOV. 12. 1(862. First Scrgt. David WV. Clemimer, Dowagiac, e. Aug,. 12, i86i; prom. 2d Lieuit. May 12. T862. Set-gt. Sidney G. 'Morse. Cassopolis; ist Sergt. Mlay 12. 1862; Commissary Sergt. Aug. i6. 1,86i; prom. ist Lietit. Co. A. Sergt. Williami Dickson, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 12, 186i; prom. 2d ILieuit. May 12, 18S62;, dis. for disability January, 1864. Sergt. Joseph L. Tice, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 22. T86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis.. by order Aug. I, T865. Sergt. John H. Simmons, Dowagiac; prom. 2d Lieut. Co. B. Sergt. Matthew B. Dopp. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19, T86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. M,\arch 25, i866. Sergt. Gilbert Vincent.' Volinia, e. Aug. 20. i86i; dis. for disability Nov. 1, i862. Sergt. John XV. Robinson, Dowagiac, e.

Page  312 312 HISTORY OF CASS, COUNTY Aug. 22, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 25, i866. Corp. James S. M\cElheny, Dowagiac, e. Aug. j5. 186T; prom. Sergt. January, 1862; Sergeant Mkaj. October, i862. Corp. Charles Allen, Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, i86i; prom. Sergt. October, i862; (lied in rebel prison at Florence, Ala. MAusician John H. Simmons, Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, i,86i; vet. Dec. 2I, i863; promot ed. Musician George W. Pierson, Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, 1801; vIet. Dec. 29, 1863; m. 0. Jtly 29, i865. Farrier Abram R. Sigerfoos, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; ml. o. July 31, i865. Wagoner Daniel Rummell, Dow,,agiac. e. Aug. i6, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. 0. Aug. 8, 1865. PRIVATES. James R. Leader, Pokagon, e. Aug. 20, i86'; pronioted Hospital Steward. Henry WN. Ellis, Dowagiac. e. Aug. i6, i86i; dis. for disability Nov. I, i862. Charles C. Wilcox, Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, 1861; prom. Sergt.; dis. at end of serv~ice. John H. Simmon-s. Dowx~agiac. e. Aug. i6, 1861; prom. Sergt. Albert H. Lewis, Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 25. i866. COMPANY MV. Angle, Philip, Wayne. e. Aug. iq, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. M,\arch 2.5, I 866. Barnaby, Alvin P., Volinia, e. Jan. 23. 1864; dis. by order May 3. T865. Barney, William WV., la Granpe, e. Feb. 15, 1864; died of disease April 5, i864. Becraft, W~illil-m F.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 20, Ti86T; vet. lDec. 21, 1863; dis. by order M\'ay 31, i865. Bentley. Pardon F., Pokagon, e. Aug. 13. T861; vet. Dcc. 2i, 1863; died at Alexandria, Va., Nov. 22, 1864. Bilderback, John, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 20, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; prom. Sergt.; trans. to Co. D. Btulhand, Joseph L., Edwardsburg, e. Aug. 22, i86T; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. O. March 2 5, I 866. Cables. Jerome I., Volinia, e. Aug. I7, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; im. O. Aug. 7, i865. Chatterson, Joseph,, Silver Creek, e. Aug. T6, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; in. O. Nov. 24, i865. Clock, Miles A.. Porter, e.;M. o. Aug. 7, 1865. Colby, Frank, Penn, e. Feb. 2, 1864; vet. Dec. 21, 'i863; mn. o. July io, i865. Cook, Albert H., Dowagiac, e. Auig. 21, i861; dis. at end of service Sept. 24, 1864. CrawNford, Charles C., Penn, e. Feb. i6, 1864; died in action Wilderness, Va., MAay 6, 1864. Day, James E.., Porter, e. Feb. 9. 1(864; mn. o. M.1arch 25. i866. Dewitt, Isaac A.. Dowvagiac, e. Auig. 19, i86i; v\et. Dec. 21, 1863; il.. 0. M\arch 25, i866. Drummond, Alcitis, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22. i86i; dis. for disability April 10, 1863. Ellswxorth, Andrew J.; m. o. March 25, i 866. Ensign, Leroy, Pokagon, e. Aug. 13, i86i; died in battle at Winchester, Va., May 24, 18_62. Gates, 'Henry C., Dowvagiac. e. Sept. 5, i86i; died of disease at Alexandria, Va.. Sept. 24, i862. Grush, John, Volinia, e. Au~g. T6, i86i; v.et. Dec. 2T, 1863; m. o. MTVarch 25, i8966. Hutson, Edward R., Dowagiac., e. Auig. 12. T86T; dis. for disability. Huff, Franklin. Dowagiac, e. Auig. 22. i(86i vet. Dec. 21, 1863; dis. at end of service Aug. 22, 1864. King, John R., e. Oct. i0, 1862; died in rebel prison. Richmond, Va.. Feb. 3, i864. Labadie, A. C., Dowa'giac, e. Auig. i6, i86i; dis. for disability April 3. 1863. Lamphere, Elias, Dowagiac, e. Auig. 12, i86i: dis. for disability April, 1862, wvounlded. Lillie, George, Dowagiac, e. Auig. 17, i86i; dis. for disability Jan. 13. 1863, wounded. Lyons, John, Dowagiac, e. Auig. i6, i861; dis. for (lisability September, 1862. McCreevy, Hiram, Dowvagiac, e. Auig. 17, i86T; vet. Dec. 211, 1863; dis. by order Jul1y 31, 1865. Meacham, Charles. Dowagiac, e. Auig. i6, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. March 2 5, i 866. Morland. Joseph, Volinia, e. Jan. i6, i864; m. o. March 25. i866. Norton. Cassiuis M.. Dowagiac. e. Oct. 2T, 1862: dis. by order June 19. 1865. Niver, William C., Ontwa, e. Aug. 22, 1861; died of11 disease at Annapolis, Md., Oct..3, T862. Ornt, Eli, Dowagiac, e. Auig. 22, i861; dis. at end of service. Olney, Darwin, Dowagiac, e. Auig. 19, 1861; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; killed in battle at Gettysburg, Penn., Ju~ly 3, i863.

Page  313 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 313 Gyler, John, Dow-agiac, e. Au~g. 22, i86i; dis. for disability July, i862. Peck, Coleman C., Cassopo-lis, e. Aug. i9, i86i; dis. at end of service. Pettigrew, William M.1, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 22, i86i; vet. Dec. 2I, i863; m. o. May i i, i866. Pierce. Thomas P., Dowagiac, e. Auig. i6, i86i; died of disease at Richmond, Va. Reimer, Henry, D~owagiac, e. Aug. i6, 1861; dis. for disability Nov. 29, 1862. Robinson, Richard M., Dowagiac, e. Auig. 22, i861; vet. Dcc. 21, 1863; m. o. Aug.:22. i1864. Roberts, Lumian C., Dowagiac, e. Auig. 12, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Nov. 24, i 865. Rose, Alexander, La Grange, e. Dec. 21, 1863; m. o. Auig. 8, i865. Rutter. Beujaniin H.. Dow~agiac, e. Auig. 20, i6i; dis. at end of service Sept. 6. 1864. Ruitter, Henry C.. Do~vagiac, e. Aug. 17, i86i;died of disease April, 1862. Serrine, Ezra. Dow\agiac. e. Auig. i6, i86i; dis. for disability Miay, 1862. Stults, Seth S., Dowagiac, e. Au~g. 26, i86i; vet. Dec. 21, 1863; Sergt.; trans. to Co. F. Shrackengast. George W., Dowagiac, e. Au~g. 22, i86i: vet. Dec. 21, 1863. Shaw, Jobn N., Corp., Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, i86i; dis. at end of service. Simons, Joseph R. C., Do-wagiac, e. Aug. 22, i86i; vet. Dec. 21T, 18963; died at Ft. Bridger. Utah, Nov. i8, 1865. Smlyth, Daniel, Dowagiac, e. Au~g. 22, 1861; dis. for disability Jan. 14, 1863. Spillm-an, jacob, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 26, s86i; dis. byv order. Stonie, George, Corp., Jefferson, e. Feb. 7, 1865; mi. o. March 25, i 866. Snydam, William H., Silver Creek, e. Dec. 26, 1863; dis. by order Aug. 3, 1865. Taylor, Halbert R., Wayne, e. Dec. 28, 1863; mi. o. March 25. W86. Thomnas, Cassiuis, Porter, e. Feb. 19, 1864; died of yellow fever May 6., 1864. Tinkler, George WV., Dowagiac, e. Aug. i6, i86i; dis. at end of service. Tice. Myron C., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 19, i86i; Mi. o. July 13, i865. WXatsoin. Joseph H., DowNagiac, e. Aulg. 2 1, i86i; taken prisoner in action at Robb'sTavern, Va. Wilber, Oscar, Dowvagiac, e. Aug. 22, 1861; dlied of disease Auig. 29, 1862. Wiley, James P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 17, i86i vet. Dec. 21, 18963; M~. 0. March 25, i866. SECOND REGI MIENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVrALRY. COMPANY D. Fellows, Austin P.,, Milton, 'Nov. 8, 186,3; nm. o. Aug. 17, i86,. COMPANY I. Farrier John H. Ashley, Mason, e. Aug. 24, 1864; dis. by order June 20, i865. Rix. Alfred', Mason. e. AU g. 24, 1864; taken prisoner at Shoal Creek, Ala., NOV.,5, 1864. Stephens, George. Mason, e. Aug. 24, T86i; dis. by order June 20., i865. COMPANY L. OFFICERS. First Lieiit. Andrew J. Foster, co-m. Aug. 24, T86T1; resigned Aug. 31, 1862. First Lieut. John HF. Hutton, com. Sept. 9. I 862; 2d Lient. Au g. 24. 1861; resigned for disability April 9, 1864. Quartermaster Sergt. William P. Thomas, e. Sept. 12, i86r; died of disease at Corinth, Miss., Juine 25. 1862. Sergt. Jay Blodgett, e. Sept. i6, i86r; dis. for disability Sept. 9. i862. Corp. John K. Stark, e. Sept. 17, '86'; dis. for disability Aug. 14, i862. Corp. Harvey L. Drew, e. Sept. i6, i86i; trans. to 3d Cay. NOV. 2, i86i. Corp. Albert P. Anderson. e. Sept. 14, i86T; died of wouinds near Boonville, Miss., July 3. 1862. Corp. William H. Todd, e. Sept. i6, 1861; dis. for disability Dec. 9. 1862. Corp. Saninel M1\axham., e. Sept. i8, i86i; dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1862. Corp. Ahner P. Stiroipson, e. Sept. 14. i86T; vet. Jan. 5, T864; 1-n. 0. Aug. 30, i865. Wagoner Robert Lingrell, e. Sept. 8, i86T; vet. Jan..s. 1864; prom. Sergt.; mn. o. Aug. 17, i865. Quartermaster Sergt. S. J. WV. Thomas. e. 1862; 'killed at battle of Bear River, Feb. 29, 1863. PRIVATES. Andrews, James Hi.. Mason. e. Aug. 27, 1864; dis. by order June 3, i8,65. Barker, John C., e. Oct. 1, T86i; vet. Jan. 5. i864; 01. 0. Aug. 17. T865. Burns, Lawrence. e. Sept. 14. i86i; vet. Jan. 5,. 1864; died in action in Alabama Oct. 7, 1864.

Page  314 314 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Burns, Roger, e. Sept. 14, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; 'm. o. Aug. I7, 1865. Carlisle, William, e. Sept. 14, i86i; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Dailey, Hiram, e. Nov. 14, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, i865. Eisele, Felix, e. Sept. 24, 1861; died in action at M\,ossy Creek, Dec. 27, 1863. Eisele, Martin, e. Sept. 24, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, 1865. Goodrich, J T., e. Nov. i, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. I7, 1865. Griffith, John W., e. Sept. 7, i86i; vet. Jan..5, 1864; m. o. Aug. I7, 1865. Hanson, John, e. Sept. i6, i86i; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 1864. Hewitt, Henry W., e. Sept. i6, i86i; dis. for disability May 30, i863. Ketcham, Alonzo, e. Sept. 14, i86i; vet; J a n. 5, 1 864; m-. o. A ug. I 7, i 865. Layton, James L., Newberg,- m. o. Aug. 17, i865. Loveland, Andrew J., e. Sept. 21, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864. Lowry, William S., e.,Sept. 13, i86i; vet. Jan.. 5, 1864; dis. hy order June 4, i865. Lybacher, Porter, Mason, e. Aug. 14, i 6;m. o. Julyv., 1865. Mallory, Marquis D., e. Oct. i, i86i; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 1864. Manco, Theo., e. Sept. 13, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, i865. Mann, George H., Mason. e. Aug. 14, i862; M. o. Aug. I7, i865. Mannering, W. H., e. Oct. 10, i86i; dis. for disability Aug. i6, i862. Marshall, James M., Mason, e. Aug. 19, 1862; dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1862. Moo-re, Lorenzo D., e. Sept. 24, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; died of wounds at Shoal Creek, Ala., Dec. i, 1864. Nelson, Edgar, e. Sept. i6, i86i; vet. Jan. 5,1i864; dis. by order May 19, i865. Parker, Chandler, e. Nov. i, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. o. Aug. 17, i865. Shockley, Alfred, e. Sept. 14, i86i; vet. Jan. 5, 1864; m. a. Aug. 17, i865. Smith, Henry, e. Sept. i6, i86i; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 1864. Smith, Walter, e. Sept. 17, i86i; dis. at end of service Oct. 22, 1864. Stark, Edward, e. Sept. 24, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 20, 1862. Stilsoni, Hiramn, MXason, e. Aug. 14, 1862; tranls. to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, i865. Stilson, John, Mason, e. Sept. i, 1864; m. o. Aug. I7, i865. Stilson, William C., MAlason, e. Au~g. 24, 1864; mn. o. Aug. 17, i86,. Weiting, Jacobl, dis. for disability March 25, 1 863. Williams, Richard J., e. Sept. 14, i86i; vet. Jan. 5,i864; dis. for prom-otion Sept. 20, 1864. Williams, Theodore, e. Sept. i8, 1861; killed by guerrillas at Mladisonville, TeunI. MVarch 7, i864. Wooden, Timothy, e. Sept. i6, 1861; died of disease at St. Louis, 1\o., Jan. 31, i862. THIRD REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. COMPANY A. Smith, George W., Penn, e. Feb. 15, 1864; m. O. Feb. I2, i866. COMPANY F. Second Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, e. Sept. 30, i86i, Corp.; vet. Jan. 19, 1864; Sergt.; prom;. 2d Lieut. Co. F; prom.. ist Lieut. Co. I, Nov. 17, 1864; m. O. Feb. 12, i866. Second Lient. Robert H. Carr, Dowagiac, e. Sept. 26, i86i; Corp., Sergt., 2d Lieut. July 4, 1864; m. O. as Sergt., Feb. 12, i866. PRIVATES. Beebe, Benjamin F., Volinia, e. Feb. 24, 1864; died of disease Duvall's Bluff, Ark., July 29, 1864. Vance, William J., Volinia, e. Jan. 19, 1864; m. O. Feb. 12, T866. Wallace, John I., Dowagiac, e. Sept. 30, i86i; dis. for prom. June 20. 1863. COMPANY I. First Lieut. Morrel Wells, La Grange, comn. Nov. 17, 1864; m. O. Feb. 12, i866. COMPANY M. Foster, David, Pokagon, e. Dec. 29, 1863; m. o. Feb. 12, i866.,EOURTH. REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. COMPANY A. McManus, John, La Grange, e. Nov. 3, i863; m. a. Aug. 15, i865. COMPANY C. McCoy, William, D. P. R., Auig. i, 1862; m. o. July i, i865.

Page  315 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 315 Partridge, Edwin D., Pokagon, e. Dec. 5, 1863; in. o. Aug. 15, i865. Riggs, Rensselaer, Porter, e. Aug. i8; i864; m. o. July I, i865. Shoemaker, John H., M\arcellus, e. July 15, i862; nin. o. July I, i865. COMPANY G. Cowles, David B., Howard, e. Nov. 3, 1863; trans. to Veteran Reserve Corps Aug. 17, 1864. COMPANYLI Bedwell, George W., Dowagiac, e. Aug. II, 1862; M. o. July I, 1 865. Corp. Brown, Preston W., Dowagiac, e. Jtily 29, i862: m;r. o. July I, i865. Driskel, Noah. Porter, e. Aug. I I, i862; dis. for disability April 2, 1863. Eaton, Frank P., Dowagiac, e. Aug. II, 1862; dis. for disability March 3, 1863. Fetterly, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 2, i862; M. o. July 1, i865. Joy, Fraklin D., Penn, e. Aug. II, i862; ni. o. May 3, 1865. Kennedy, David A., Penn, e. Aug. II, 1862; M. o. July I, i865. Powers. Samuel H-., Dowagiac, e. Aug. IT, 1862; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn., Jan. 12, 1863. Roberson, Jonathan S., Corp., e. Aug. 2, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Sept. I, 1863. MatthewNs, W~illiami, Penn, e. Aug. II, 1862; sick at Nashville at mr. o. Morton.' Charles L., Porter, e. Aug. II, 1862; dis. for disability Feb. 27, 1863. Sigerfoos. Albertuis, Porter, e. Aug. II, 1862; sick at Nashville at m-. o. Sergt. Witherell. Henry A., Pokagon, e. Auig. T 1, T862; died of (lisease at NashvilIle, Tenn., April 9, 1864. Lewis, James. NeNNberg. e. Aug. II, 1862; killed in action at Stone River. Lewis, Franklin B.. e. Aug. II, 1862; died of disease at Nashville. COMPANY M. OFFICERS. First Lieuit. Hiram F. Beals, Dowvagiac, com. Aug. 13, 1862. Quartermaster Sergt. William H4. Davis, Dowagiac, e. July 26, i862; dis. by order May ig, 1865. Commissary Sergt. James W. Argo, e. July 24, 1862; M. O. July I, i865. S~ergt. James D. Dawson, e. Aug. II, 1862; dis. for disability July 8, 1863. Sergt. Edward Pearce, Wayne, e. Aug. 15, i862; M. o. July I, i865. Corp. Truman Pond, Wayne, e. Aug. 2, T862; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 27, i862. Corp. George Scott, Volinia, e. Aug. 5, 1862; dis. for disability Jan. I, 1863. Corp. John Fox, Milton, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. by order 1\ay i9, i865. Corp. Elias Ingling, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, i862; m. O. July I, i865. Corp. John W. Bowles, Volinia, e. Aug. 7, i862; absent sick at m. O. Farrier Henry Cooper, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 13. 1862; M. o. July 1, T865. Teamster Charles D. Northrup, Dowagiac. e. Aug. 5, 1862; m. O. July I, i865. Wagoner Josiah Ipes, e. Aug. 2, 1862; in. O. July I., i865. PRIVATES. Abbott., Hiram, Milton, e. Aug. i6, 1862, iii. O. July i, i865. Aldrich. James M., e. Aug. 12, 1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., Nov. i8, 1862. Arnold, Alvin, Newberg, e. Aug. 13, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps. Arnold, Robert, Volinia, e. Aug. II, 1862; i-n. O. July i, 1865. BaldwNin, Thomas, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 5. 1862; M. o. July I, i865. Dunbar, George W., Milton, e. Aug. 13, 18962: m. o. July1 T. i865. Finich, Mathew, 'Voliniia, e. Aug. IO, 1862; dis. for (lisability May I, 1863. Ferris, Albert P. Volinia, e. Aug. ii, i862; dis. by order May 3, i865. Garwood. Levi J., Voliniia, e. Aug. 2, 1862; dis. by order June1 29. 1865. Higginis. George WV., Doxv-agiac, e. July 26, 1862; in. o. July 1, i865. Haight. Horatio. M~arcellus, e. Aug. 7, 1 862: m1. O. Jul Iy ', 1 865 H-oyt, Henry. Dowagiac, e. Auig. 2, 1862; dicd of disease at Nashville, Dec. 26, T862. Hutff, Simoni. Voliinia, e. Aug. 15, i862; in. o. July T, i865. Humiston, Perry, e. Aug. 8, 1862; m. O. July I, i86~5.Jaquays. William, Volinia, e. Aug.. 15, 1862; transferred to Vet. Res. Corps Jan. 15. 1864. Little. John H-.. Volinia, e. Auig. 6. i862; dis. fon' disability Feb. II, 1863. Northirup, Freeman G., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died of disease at Mitchellville, Tenn., NOV. 22, T862. Parks, James. Dowagiac. e. Aug. 6, i862; dis. by order April 28, i865. Pond, Wesley D., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 1862; in. O. July T, i865. Quick., Robert T.. Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, i862; dis. for disability Feb. 4, 1863. Rankin, John F., Dowagiac, e. AuLg. 12, i862; in. o. July 1, i865.

Page  316 316 HIS-TORY OF CASS COUNTY Shanahan, Henry, e. Aug. 12, i862; M. o. July i, 1865. SouthNNorth, George M., Volinia, e. Aug. i i, 1862; M. O. July I, i86,. Sweetland, James -M., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 7, i862; dis. for disability Jan. 7, 1863. Sweetland, John B., Edwvardsburg, e. Aug. 12, 1862; dis. by order to appointment as UniteId States M\'edical Cadet Sept. 20, i863. Taylor, Nelson, m. o. July i, 1865. Thompson, Benjamin F.,, Milton, e. Aug. 15, 1862; prom. to Corp. 1863, after the battle of Stone River; dis. for disability Nov. i i, 1864. Tharp, John L., Penn, e. Aug. 9, 1862; dis. for disability March 25, 1864. Van Tuyl. John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 8,.1862; M. O. July i, i865. Vaughn.' Dewitt C., Calvin, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died of disease in Indiana Marcb i 8, i1863. Welch, Michael, La Grange, e. Aug..5, 1862; died in rebel prison Richmond, Va., Dec. i8, 1862. Welcher, Sherman B., Volinia, e. Aug. 6, 1 862; died of disease at Woodsonville, Ky., Dec. -, i862. W~ilsoii Samliel, Dowagiac, e. Aug. 6, 1862; mn. o. July I, i865. RECRUITS-UNASSIGNED. Brown, Simeon, Wayne, e. Nov. i8, 1863. fDay, Robert B., W~ayne, e. Dec. 21, 1863. Rigin, Thlomias, M.asoni, e. Nov. 3. 1863. Ross, William, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 23, 1863. Randall, Charles, Silver Creek, e. Aug. 30, 1864. Sboemaker, Franklin C., Penn, e. Dec. 23, 1 863. Williams,, Leonard W., Penn, e. Nov. 3. i863. FIFTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY FIEL.D AND STAFF. Surg. Sylvester L. Morris, Dowagiac, Oct. 23, 1863; Assistant Surgeon Sept. 3, 18963; resigned July 28, 1864. COMPANY D. Dean, Edward, La Grange, e. Jan. 23, 1865; transferred to ist Michigan Cavalry. Randall, Wesley C., Jefferson, e. Marcb 13. 1865; m. O. May ig, i866. Shilling, Lemuel C., Volinia, e. March 15, T865; m. o. Jan. 9, i866. COMPANY H. King, Franklin T., La Grange. e. Jan. 6, 1865; transferred to ist 1\ichigan Cav~alry. COMPANY K. Huyck, Alva H., Volinia, e. 1M'arch 15, 18S65; transferred to 7th Michigan Cavalry. COMPANY M\. Harrington, Silas, Silver Creek, e. Feb. I7, 1865; transferred to 7th Michigan Cavalry. SIXTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. COMPANY E. Savage, Frank, Marcellus, e. March 3I, i8965; m. O. Feb. i6, i866. COMPANY G. Branch, Arthur R., Silver Creek, e. March 7, I865; m. o. Feb. i6, i 866. Nearpass, Ira N., Newberg, e. March 31, i865; m. o. May i6, i866. COMPANY K. Potts, James H., Silver Creek, e. March io, i865; m. o. March 31, i866. COMPANY L. Bliss, Edwin S., Newberg, e. Jan.:26. J864; m. o. May 30, i865. Dewey, Orlando, MNarcellus; mi. O. March 25, i866. Kilnier, George F., Penn, e. Feb. ii, 18964;' m. 0. June 24, i865. Mathers, William, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 17. 1865; m. o. March iol, i866. COMPANY M. Cole, Hiram G., Jefferson, e. Feb. 6, 1865; m. o. Feb. 8, i866. Deline, Frank H., Calvin, e. Feb. 6, 1865; died of disease at St. Louis, Mo., June 24, I865. SEVENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. COMPANY A. Alexander, Samuel, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, 1862; missing in action. Crocker, William A., Jeff erson. e. Sept. 9, 1862; trans. to Invalid Corps Sept. 10, 1863.

Page  317 HISTORY OF CASS. COUNTY 317 Collins, Joseph E., Pokagon, e. Sept. 12, 1862; died in battle at Gettysburg, Pa., 1862; died at Alexandria, Va., Jan. I2, July 3, 1863. i864. Peck, George P., Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, Foster, Zach.; trans. to ist Mich. Cay. 1862; dis. for disability NOV. 25, 1862. Harrison, Jesse, Jefferson, e. Sept. 9, Richardson, Varnum, Pokagon, e. Sept. 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps April i,5, 1862; dis. for disability 1\arch 28, i10, 1 864. i863. Henderson, William, Milton, e. Dec. 29, Smith, Thomas J., TI\Jiton, e. Dec. 25, 1862; mn. o. June 7, i865. 1862; m. O. July 6, i86,. I-Iulyck, John. Stout, John, Milton; m. o. Dec. I,5, 1865. Maloy, Thomas, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, Wortler, George A., Milton, e. Dec. 27, 1862; mn. o. Dec. i,5, i865. i1862. Milliman, Samuel, Pokagon, e. Sept. i8, COMPANYL~ i862. Nelson, Walter, Pokagon, e. Sept. 29, Irwin, Andrew; mn. o. Dec. 15, i865. NINTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. FIELD AND STAFF. Chaplain John Fletcher, Edwardsburg, Aug. 23, 1864; M. o. July 21, i865. COMPANY L. Capt. George Miller, Pokagon, Nov. 3, 1862; resigned March 12, 1864. Conimissary Sergt. James F. Prater, Wayne, e.. Dec. I2, i862; prom. Regimental Commissary Sergt. May I, 1864; m1. o. Jul1y 21, i865. Sergt. Henry L. Barney, Wayne, e. Dec. I, i862; prom. inl U. S. Cav. Troops. Sergt. Clagon Dunham, Volinia, e. Dec. 28, 1862;im. O. Junie 30, 1863. Corp. Martin Quinlan, Volinia, e. Jan. IO, 1863; m1. o. July 21, i86,. TIeamister John Qyler, Pokagon, e. Nov. 12, 1 862; m. o. Dec. 5, 1865. Barrett, George, Wayne. e. Dec. 28, 1862; ml. o. June 13, 1865. Blackmanl, Jerome, Dowagiac, e. March 24, 18963;1 ml. o. July 21, i865. Brownell. Williamn, Wayne, e. Dec. 27, 1862; ml. o. May 27, i865. Ellsworth, Daniel. Howard, e. Jan. 1, 18S63; dis. for disability June 9, i865. Elliott, Franklin, Jefferson, e. Jan. i, 1863; (lied in rebel prison at Richmond, Va., Feb. 17, 1864. Garrigan, Johnt, Volinia., e. Dec. i8, 1862; died in rebel prison pen, Andersonville, Ga.., June 19, 1864. Kelly, Edgar D., W~ayne, e. Dec. 13, i862; m. o. Jtily 21, i865. Rose. John H., Dowagiac. e. April 23, 1863; dis. for disability June 9, i865. Smith,, Judson. Wayne, e. Jan. 12, 1863; Mi. o. Jul1y 21, i865. Smith, Henry, Silver Creek, e. Jan. 12, 1863; died of dliscase in Tennessee, Dec. 27, 1 863. Travis. Ezekiel, Wayne, e. Nov. ii, 18-62; m. o. Dec. 5, i8965. Overbeck, Augustus, Volinia, e. Jan. 8, 1863; dicd at Dandridge, Tennessee, Dec. 15, 1863. Williams, Jamles A., Corp.. Penn, c. Dec. 29. 1862; m1. o. July 21, i865. Davis, M. Barney. Willis Barney. ELEVENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER CAVALRY. COM1PANY G. Canning, George, MVarcellus, e. Nov. 5, 1863; ni. 0. Nov. 2, i865. COMPANY I. Allen, William H., Penn, e. Sept. i9, 1863; m. O. May 17, i865. Canning, Thomas, Marcellus, e. Sept. 19, 1863; m. O. Au~g. 24, T865. Lettick, Williamj, La Grange, e. Dec. 7, 1863; mn. o. Sept. 22, i865. COMPANY K. Sergt. Horace R. Brown, Ontwa, e. Sept. 22,1i863; died of disease at Lexington, Ky., July 8, 1864. Blackburn, Thomas, Ontwva, e. NOV. 2, 18963; M. o. Sept. 22, i865. B3lue, Erwin, Ontwa, e. NOV. 2, 1863; killed by accident at Shelbyville, Ky., Ju~ly 17, 1864. Brown, Carlton, Ontwa, e. Sept. 30, 1863; m. O. Jtuly i8, i865. Lofand, Joshuta. Ontwa, e. Sept. i, 1863; M. o. Sept. 22, 1865. Farrier William W. Marr, Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 1863; m. o. Sept. 22, i865. Saddler Albert R. Raymond, Ontwa, e. Oct. 9, 1863; m. O. Sept. 22, i865. Shideler, George, Ontwa, e. Oct. 26, 1863; M. o. Sept. 22, i865. Shiar, Alonzo S., Ontwa, e. Sept. 22, 1863;

Page  318 318 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY died of disease at Ashland, Ky., July i i, 1864. Stark, Edward, Silver Creek, e. Sept. io, 1863; M. a. Oct. 9, 1865. Steele, John S., Ontwa, e. Oct. I4, 1863; m. O. Sept. 22, 1865. Farrier Wieling, Jacob H., Silver Creek, e. Sept. T0, 1863; in. o. Sept. 22, 1865. FIRST MICHIGAN LIGHT ARTILLERY. BATTERY A. Second Lieut. George J. Nash, Volinia, e. March 6, 1865; M. o. July 28, 1865. Hanning, Samuel; M. o. July 28, i865. Hickox, William H., La Grange, e. Dec. 30, 1863; M. o. July 28, i865. Mesler, William, La Grange, e. Dec. 25, 1863; M. o. July 28, i85 Williams. Levi P., Porter, e. Feb. 9, 1863; m. o. July 28, i865. BATTERY E. Ahhott, Seneca W., GOtwa, e. Sept. 5, 18964; m. o. Aug. 30, i865. BATTERy F. Norris, Webb; m. o. May 6, i865. BATTERy G. Smith, Horace, Sergt., Adamnsville. e. Nov. 23, i86i; dis. for disability Au'g. 25, 1863. Wickerly, David, e. Dec. I5. i86i; dis. for disability July 28, 1862. FOURTEENTH BATTERY. PRIVATES. Armstrong, Benjamin F., Pokagon, e. Sept. 17, i863; dis. for disability May I15, I 65 Arnold, Edward R., Corp., Volinia, e. Oct. 9, 1863; m. o. July I, i865. Barney, Myron F., Newberg, e. Sept. 7, i863; m. o. July I, i85 Blanchard, George L., Pokagon, e. Sept. 5, i864; m. o. July I, i 865. Burnham,, Charles M., Jeff erson, e. Dec. 31, 1863; mn. o. July I, I 865. Canfield, Washington B., Marcellus, e. Sept. I7, 1863; dis. for disability Jan. I12,1I865. Crane, Judson J., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. o. July I, i865. Day, Alexander P., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. 0. July I, i865. Davis, Charles J., Newberg, e. Sept. 7, 1863; m. o. July I, i85 Drake, George S., Newberg, e. Oct. 3, 1863; m. o. July I, I 65 Goff, William H., Penn, e. Sept. 4, 1863; m. o. J ulIy I, 1 865. Goff, Stephen C., Penn, e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. o. July I, 1865.. Goff, Sylvester J., Volinia, e. Sept. 3, i864; m. o. July I, 1 865. Goodrich, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. 5, 1864; m. o. July 1, i865. Harwood, William M., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 1864; m. o. July I, 1 865. Holloway, Charles, Newberg, e. Sept. 12, i863; M. o. July I, i865. Holloway, William. Penn, e. Aug. 25, 1864; mi. o. July i, 185 Hutchings, William W., Newberg, e. Sept. 26, 1863; died of disease at Washington, D. C., March 21, 1864. Lemon, John F., Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; m. o. July I, i865. Martin, Robert N., Penn, e. Sept. 5, 1863; dis. for disability Nov. 23. 1864. Murphy, William, Jefferson, e. Jan. 2, 1864; m. o. July i, 1865. Patrick, Christopher, Corp., M~arcellus, e. Sept. 7, 1863; m. o. July i, i85 Pemberton, Eliphalet, Marcellus, e. Oct. 3, 1863; m. 0.. July i, i85 Pound, Isaac S., Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 1864; m. o. July i, i85 Rudd, Baruk L., Newberg, e. Sept. 9, 1863; m. o. July I, i 65 Shoemaker, Frank C., Pokagon, e. Aug. 30, 1864; m. o. July i, i85 Skinner, James R., Marcellus, e. Oct. 2, 1 863; m. o. J ulIy i, i 65 Skinner. Harrison H., Marcellus, dis. for disability Dec. 6, 1864. Tompkins, Melvin R., Newberg, e. Sept. 26, 1863; m. o. July I, i85 Turengo, Andrew, Jefferson, e. Jan. 4, i864; m. o. July I, i85 Vincent, Henry, Volinia, e. Oct. 2, 1863; m. o. July i, i865. Wetherell, Smith D., Corp., Volinia, e. Nov. 5, 1863; m. o. July T, i865. Wilsey, Erasmus, Marcellus, e. Sept. 10, i864; M. o. Jul-y I, i85 FIRST REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY F.. i86i; died in action at Gaines' Mills Sergt. Frank Ujpson, Howard, e, July I7,1. June 27, i862.

Page  319 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY SECOND REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. 319 COMPANY E. Corp. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. May 25, i86i; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps July i, 1863. Sergt. John S. Gliddon, e. May 21, i86i; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; dis. by order Sept. I15, i864. Private William Jackson, Jefferson, e. Mfay 25, 1861; vet. Dec. 31, 1863; mn. 0. July 28, i865. Sergt. Benjamin F. Lee, Ontwa, e. May 25, i86i; died May i8, 1862, of wounds received at Williamsburg. Corp. Heiiry Meacham, Ontwa, e. May 25S, i86i; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. is, 1 864. COMPANY I. Coleman, Francis A., Wayne, e. Feb. 21, 1865; dis. by order June i,, i865. FIFTH REGI-MENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. COMPANY D. Haigh, William, e. AUg. 28, i86i; vet. Stamp, E. M., Porter, e. Sept. i8, 1862; Dec. I15, i1863. m. o. June 3, i86~-. SEVENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. Assistant Surgeon Cyrus Bacon, Ontwa, enrolled June 19, i86i, at Fort Wayne (near Detroit), Mich.; mustered in Aug. 22, i86i; resigned May 6, 1862; appointed Ass't Surgeon of Regular Army July 3, 1862; died Sept. i, i86. EIGHTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Grant, William, Pokagon, e. Dec. 21, 1863; died ini action near Petersburg, Va.. June 27, 1864. Lane. Thomas, Milton, e. Dec. 22, i863; m. o. July 30, i865. NINTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Ayres, Sylvester B., Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; dis. by order June 20, i865. COMPANY B. Dougherty, Thomas, Howard, e. Sept. 29, 1864; dis. by order June 20, 1865. Hedger, Charles W., Pokagon, e. Feb. 9, 1865; m. o. Sept. 15, i865. Kelly, Ethan, La Grange, e. March 17, 1865; dis. by order Aug. 10, 1865. Mater, John, e. i86i; dis. i862; re-e. in. same company, and finally dis. Sept. 26, 1863. COMPANY C. Fisher, Francis, Porter, e. Oct. i, i864; m. o. June 20, I865. COMPANY D. Bender, Joseph D., Newberg, e. April 5, i865; m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. Hendricks, Clark, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, T864; mi. o. June 20, i865. Higgins, Charles J., Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864.; ni. o. June 20, i865. COMPANY G. Cole, Brayton M.. La Grange, e. March 25,j 1865; M. o. Sept. 15, i865. Myers, William, Silver Creek, e. October 4, 1864; absent sick at mn. o. COMPANY H. S~altsgiver, Henry, Porter, e. Oct. 3, 1864; m. o. Sept. 15, 1865. COMPANY I. Thompson, John B., Howard, e. -Sept. 30. 1864; m. O. June 20, i865. TENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY C. Ayers, Thomas B., Porter, e. Oct. 27, Barker, Peter, Marcellus, e. Oct. 31, 1864; m. O. July 19, i865. Brown, William A.,- Calvin,: e. NOV. 2, i864; m. O. July i9, i865. COMPANY E. Baer, Westell. Marcellus, e. Oct. 20, 1864; m. O. Jul 19, 1865.COMPANY K. Philips, John, -Newberg, e. Jan'. 17, 1864; M. O. July 19, i865.

Page  320 320 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ELEVENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY (OLD). COMPANY C. Angle, John A., Wayne, e. Aug. 24, 1861; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., March 20, 1862. Beardsley, Elisha L., e. Nov. 22, I861; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., June 31, 1862. Birdgett, John, e. Aug. 24, i86I; dis. for disability Sept. I5, i862. Farnham, John B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 24, I86I; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 6, i862. COMPANY D. Hathaway, Henry C., e. Aug. 24, 1861; absent sick at m. o. Lucas, William H., e. Aug. 24, 1861; killed at Stone River. O'Connor. Cyrus W., e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Philips, William J., e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. COMPANY E. Corp. David Klase. PRIVATES. Baldwin. Daniel, e. Aug. 24, 1861; died of wounds near Atlanta, Ga., Aug. 7, I864. Blakely, Thomas L., e. Aug. 24, i86I; dis. for disability Aug. 4, i862. Booth, Zeivala, e. Aug. 24, I86I; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Chamberlain, William L., e. Aug. 24, I86I; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 7864. Haines, James L., dis. at end of service. Latham, Kneeland, e. Aug. 24, I86I; dis. by order July I, 1863. Milliman, Bryant. dis. at end of service. Mullen, Sidney S., e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Nottingham, Judson, dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Poorman, John, e. Aug. 24, i86I; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Quay, George W., e. Aug. 24, I86I; died near Atlanta, Ga., of wounds Aug 7, I864. Ryan, James N. C., e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Schug, Emanuel. e. Aug. 24, I861; dis. at. end of service Sept. 30, I864. Schug, \Villiam F., e. Aug. 24, I861; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Nov. 15, I863. Shoemaker, Samuel S.. dis. for disability. Smith, Cyrus, e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Tayler, George, e. Aug. 24, I86I; died of disease at Bardstown, Ky., Feb. 5, I862. Thompson, Smith. e. Aug. 24, I86I; dis. for disability Sept., I861. Vanordstrand, John, e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Van Valkenburg, Benjamin, e. Aug. 24, I86I; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Vanordstrand, Jerome P.. Sergt., e. Aug. 24, 1861; dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. COMPANY G. Bryan, James, dis. at end of service Sept. 30, I864. Bryan, Moses, died of wounds at Chattanooga, Tenn., Sept. 15, 1863. Granger, Chauncey, dis. for disability June 8, 1864. Haines. James L., dis. at end of service Sept. 26, i864. Higgins, Thomas W., died of disease March I8, 1862. Nichols, Charles N., dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Nichols, James 0., died at Chickamauga, Tenn., Sept. 20, I863. Scott, Lorenzo H., dis. at end of service Sept. 30, 1864. Skinner, Harrison H., Corp., dis. for disability Feb. 15, I862. ELEVENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY (NEW.) COMPANY E. Sergt. Joel Cowgill, Calvin, e. March 9, 1865; m. o. Sept. I6, 1865. Musician Charles E. Deal, La Grange, Co. F., e. March --, --; m. o. Sept. I6, 1865. Musician Elam Dacy, La Grange; Co. F., e. -; m. o. Sept. I6, 1865. THIRTEENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Beaman, Marvin D., Penn, e. Feb. 29, 1864; m. o. July 25, I865. Woliver, Philander J., Marcellus, e. Dec. 3, 1863; Corp.; m. o. July 25, 1865. COMPANY C. Blood, Charles H., Volinia, e. Feb. 26, 1864; m. o. July 25, I865. Blood, George A., Volinia, e. Jan. 2, I862; vet. Jan. I8, 1864; m;. o. July 25, I865.

Page  321 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 321 Dailey, William S., Porter, e. Dec. 13, i86i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; mn. o. July 25, i865. Haefner, Christian G., Volinia, e. Feb. 27, i864; mn. o. July 25, i865. Jacquays, Smith C., Volinia, e. Feb. 26, 1864; died of disease at Philadelphia May 20, i865. Johnson, Henry M., Porter, e. Dec. 13, i86i; died of disease at Danville, Ky., Nov. 20o, 1862-. COMPANY E. Brown, William H., P-okagon, e. Feb. 29, 1 864; m. O. Caldwell, Williamn W., Pokagon, e. Oct. 22, i86i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; m. O. July 25, i865. Crego, Hilance J., Pokagon, e. Oct. 22, 1861; dis. by order April i6, 1863. Fluallen, Simon E., Corp. Sergt., e. Oct. 22, 186i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; m. O. July 25, i865. Hazen, Charles, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 27, i86i; dis. for disability Sept. 20, 1862. Hungerford, Calvin A., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22. i86T; vet. Jan. i8S, 1864; mn. O. July 25, i865. Hungerford, Mason, Do-wagiac, e. Oct. 22, i86T; M. o. at end of service Jan. i6, i85 Hutson, Edward R., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 186i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; mn. o. July 25, i865. Kegley, William, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, i86i;vet. Jan. i8, 1864; M. o. July 25, i865. Lewvis, Ephiraim, Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, 186i; v et. J an. i 8, 1 864; m. o. July 25, i85 Moody, Loren, Diowagiac, e. Oct. 22, i86i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; m. o. July 25, i865. COMPANy G. Cleudenning, James, e. Dec. 13, i86i; dis. for disability Oct. 29, 1863. Roy, William G., Peuu, e. Dec. 12, i86i; vet. Jan. i8, 1864; Sergt.; m.. o. July 25, 1865.' Salter, James. e. Dec. 12, i86i; vet. Feb. 13, 1864; dis. by order June 20', 1865. Salter, Silas. e. Dec. 12, 1861; dis. for disability Sept. 12, 1862. Weist, William F., Dowagiac, e. Oct. 22, i86i; dis. for disability Nov. 23; 1863. COMPANy H. Campbell, Seth R., Silver Creek, e. Feb. 27, 1865; m. 'O. july 25. i865. Wright. Gilbert, Silver Creek, e. Feb. 27, I865; M. o. July 25, i865. COMPANY K. Wait, Byron, Jefferson, e. Feb. 3, 1865; died of disease at Louisville., Ky., July i, i1865. FOURTEENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN -VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY B. Austin, Harvey H., e. Nov. 25, i86i; vet. Jan. 4, 1864. Cope, Jacob, e. Oct. 5, 1861; dis. at end of service. Eaton, Abner, e. Dec. i8, i86i; dis. for disability Jan. io, 1863. Garner, Henry, Porter, e. NOV. 28, i86i; vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. Ju~ly 18, i865. Moore, Jared C., m. o. July i8, i865. Morse. Albert J., e. Jan. 2, 1862; vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. o. July i8, i865. Stewart, James A., vet. Jan. 4, 1864; m. 0. July i8, i865. COMPANY E. Calkins, Thomas J., Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; m. o. Ju'ly i8, i865. COaMPANY F. Wilson, John, m. o. Ju~ly i8, i865. Zimmerman, Michael. Porter, e. Sept. 27, i865; mn. o. July i8, 1865. COMPANY T. Rogers, George, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; m. o. July i8, i865. FIFTEENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Fields, Alonzo, Porter, e. Sept. 27, 1864; dis. by order May 30, i865. COMPANY B. Bovet, Leon, Volinia, e. May 27, 1865; m. o,. Aug. 13, i865. Leitz. Joel B., Marcellus, e. Oct. 2:2, i864; died of disease at Alexandria, Va.,' June 3, i 865. Mowry, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Oct.:22, 1864; dis. by order Sept. ii, i865. COMPANY C. Hice. John, Volinia, e..March i8, i865; m. o. Aug. 13, i865. Park, John, Calvin, e. Nov. 30, 1864; dis. by order Aug. 2, i865. Parsons, Ezra. Calvin, e. Oct. 222, 1864; m. O. Aug. 13, i865.

Page  322 322 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Racey, Robert. Milton, e. Oct. 22, 1864; dis. by.order June 25, 1865. Sampson, John, Calvin, e. OICt. 21, i864; mn. O. Aug. 13, i865. COMPANY D. Adamns, John, Porter, e. Oct. 22, 1864; M. o. Aug. 13, i865. Daniels, John, Volinia, e. March i8, i865; mi. o. Aug. I3, i865. Dunn, Anison L., Newberg, e. Nov. 4, 1864; m. O. Aug. I3, 1865. Wagner, John, Calvin, e. Dec. 5, 1864; mI. o. Aug. 13, i865. COMPANY E. Descartes, Peter, dis. at end of service Jan. 28, i865. De Witt, James, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 23, i86f; dis. for disability M\ay 19, 1862. Doherty, Charles, dis. at end of service Jan. 28, i865. Ducat, Duffy, dis. by order July 21, i865. Gee, Alexander, m. o. Aug. 9, 1865. Girardin, Richard, dis. by order Sept. 9, 1865. Greenwood, Anthony, dis. for disability July 9, 1862. Johnson, Fred, Dowagiac, e. Dec. 21, i86i; vet. Jan. 25, 1864; dis. by order Aug. 5, i865. Kelly, John, m. o. Avug. 13, 1865. Littlejohn. William, dis. for disability Aug. 3, 1862. Logan, John, dis. for disability Aug. 3, i862. McTaggart, Archibald, dis. for disability Aug. 3, i862. Nephew, Anthony, dis. for disability Aug. i i, i862. Nye, Theo., dis. at end of service Jan. 28, i 865. Walustrand, Julius, N~larcellus, e. Oct. 22, 1864; m. O. Aug. 13, i865. COMPANY G. East, Alv~a, Porter, e. Oct. 10, 1864; died of disease at Baltimore, M~d., Feb. 21, i865. COMPANY H. Harder, Janles E., Howard, e. March i8, 1865; m. O. Aug. 13, i865. Honeywell, Newell, Howard, e. Oct. 6, 1864; m. O. Aug. 13, i865. Howard, John F.. Howard, e. April i, 1865; m. O. Aug. 13~, i865. Hudson, William, Howard, e. April i, 1865; m. O. Aug. 13, i 865. J ohn s on, J oh-n S., in. O. 'A ug. I13, i 865. Root, John W., Volinia, e. March i8, 1865; dis. by order Sept. 20, i865. COMPANY I. Bell, Edward B., e. Feb. 5, 1862; died of disease at Griffith's Landing, Miss., Oct. 3.~ 1863. Joslin, Hiram, Newberg, e. Feb. i6, i862; dis. for disability Aug. 25, i862. COMPANY K. Hogeboom, Cornelius P., mn. O. Aug. 13, i865. SIXTE-ENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY C. COMPANY K. Rapp, George, Volinia, e. Jan., i865; m. o. Prebamsky, Frank, Volinia, e. March 30, July 8, i865. 18(5; mn. o. July 8, 1865. SEVENTEENTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY B. Dick, William M., Howard, e. July 2, i862; m. o. June 3, i865. Doan, Thomas R., Howard, e. Aug. 3, i862, killed on Mississippi River by explosion April 28, i865. Earl, Levi F., Howard, e. Aug. 2, i862. Foote, John M., Howard, e. Aug. 5, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Dec. I5, 1863. Harder, Tunis J., Howard, e. Aug. 5, 1862; m. 0. June 3, 1865. Kenyon, Varnum, Howard, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died of disease at Fredericksburg, Va., Feb. 5, 1863. Kenyon, Jesse A., Howard, e. Aug. 6, 1862; died of wounds at Washington Dec. i6, i862. Schell, George D., Howard, e. Aug. i, i862; dis. by order June i6, i865. Taylor. Fred, Howard, e. Aug. 7, 1862; dis. for disability Dec. 8, 1862. TWENTY-FOURTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPA.NY A. Hunt, Henry 1-., Porter, e. March 9, Bowen, Henry H., Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865; in. o. June 30, 1865. i865; m. o. June 30,i6.Lbo, William, Porter, e. March 7. Goldsmith, Henry, Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865g m. o. June 30, i865. i865; m. o. June 30, i865.

Page  323 HIS-TORY OF CASS, COUNTY Powers, William, Porter, e. March i, 1865; mi. o. J une 30, 1865. Preston, Winfield S., Porter, e. March 5, 1865; in. o. J une 30, i865. Rinehart, Nathan, Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865; in. o. June 30, i865. Stearns, Warren S., Porter, e. Feb..27, 1865; ini. o. Junie 30, 1865. Story, Milton, Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865; mi. 0. Junie 30, i865. Story, William A., Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865; rn. o. Junie 30, i865. Stout, Stephen S., Porter, e. March 9, i6;m. o. Junie 30, 1865. Sutton, John W., Porter, e. Feb. 28, 1865; InI. 0. Junie 30, i865. Sutton, Joshua L., Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1865; in. o. Junie 30, i865. Weaver, William H., Milton, e. March 15, 1865; in. 0. June 30, 1865. Williams, Charles HI., Porter, e. Feb. 27, i6;ini. o. Junie 30, i865. COMPANY B. Bell, John P., Milton, e. Aug. 25, 1864; ill. 0. Junie 30, i865. COMPANY C. Avery, Charles, Porter, e. March 5, i865; in. 0. Junie 30, i865. Calkins, Henry H-., Porter, e. Feb. 21, i865; m. o. June 30, i865. Hilton, Hiram, Porter, e. Feb. 27, 1865; in. 0. June 30, i865. Jessup, A. H., Porter, in. o. June 30, i865. Kyle, J. C., Porter, nm. o. June 30, 185 Kyle, A. R., Porter, m. o. June 30, 1865. COMPANY E. Averill, Pliny T., Penn, e. March 16, i865; m. 0. June 30, 1865. Blanchard, Bradford, Pokagon, e. TMarch 7, 1605; in. o. J une 30, 165. Curtis, George, untxa, e. S)ept. 5, 1864; died of disease at Chicago, Ill., M~arch 15, 1.665. Kenyon, ttfirain, Pokagon, e. March lo, i605; ill. 0. Juiie 30, i865. McKinstry, Charles, Pokagon, e. March 7, 1005; in. 0. J tine 30, 1805. Parker, Augu,,tus IN., Pokagon, e. March 13, 16005; nm. o. Junie 30, 1665. Paricer, W~illianm H., t'okagon, e. INlarch 7, 180)5; in. o. June 30, 1805. Penrod, Nathan, Penn, e. March i6, i865; in. o. J une 30, 1865. Steinbeck, Miorgan, Milton, e. Aug. i6, 1864; Inl. o. J une 30, 1865. Vt itherell, Duane, Pokagon, e. ML-arch 7, 1665; in. o. June 30, i865. COMPANY F. Vail Tuyl, George, in. o. Junie 30, i865. COMPANY H. Hodges, Benj'amini, Penn, e. March 16, 1865; In. o. June 30, i865. Rea, John, Penn, e. iMarcil 16, i86s; in. o. Junie 30, 1865. Share, Edwin, Milton, e. Sept. i2, i864; m. o. J une 30, 1865. COMPANY K. Ames, Bela, m. o. June 30, i865. Meacham, Oliver G., Porter, e. Feb. 27, i865; In. 0. Juiie 30, 1865. Nickerson, Evert B., MNason, e. Feb. 23, i865; in. o. Junie 30, 1865. R~eed, Otis, nin. o. June 30, 1865. Reese, John M~., Milton, e. Aug. 24, 1864; in. 0. June 30, i865. TWENTY-FIFTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY D. Sergt. Amos WV. Poorman, Marcellus, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of disease at NashvIlle, 'Fenn., June 13,184 Corp. Roswell Beebe, Marcellus, e. Aug. ~I, 1862; killed at Tebbs' Bend, Ky., July 4, 1863. PRIVATES. Babe, Bruce, Marcellus, e. Aug. II, 1862; m. o. June 24, i865. Musician Joseph Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. 15, 1862; m. O. June:24, i865. Musician Samuel P. Beck, Newberg, e. Aug. I5, i862; dis. for disability Jan. 6, 1 863. Beebe, Gideon, Marcellus, e. Aug. II1, 1862; dis. for disability March 4, i865. Butler, Ransom L., Marcellus, e. Aug. I I, 1862; dis. by order July 26, 1863. Kent, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 1862; dis. by order March i9, 1863. McKibby, Daniel, Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 1862; in. o. June 24, i865. Messenger, Edward, Marcellus, e. Aug. II,9 1864; dis. for disability Feb. 5, 1863. Nottingham, Horace M., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, 1862; M. 0. Nottingham, Oscar H., Marcellus, e. Aug. 8, i862; died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., March 14, 1863. Poorman, Johii A., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 1862; ni. o. June:24, i865. Root, Jacob, Marcellus, e. Aug. 12, 1862; mi. o. June 24, i865. Shears, Martin: V., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 186:2; m. o. June 24, i865. Shoemaker, Samuel, Marcellus, e. *Aug. iiy 1862; m. o. June 28, i865.

Page  324 324 HIS-TORY OF CASS COUNTY Taylor, Charles A., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, i862; m. o. June 24, 1865. Taylor, Timothy A., Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 1862; M. o. May 13, 1865. Young, Simon, Marcellus, e. Aug. ii, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Fed. 15, i864. COMPANY E. Bristol, Luther, Milton, e. Sept. 6, 1864; m. o. June 24, i865. COMPANY IF. Bement, George, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. June 24, i865. Bradbury, Benjamin F., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 13, 1862; died of di-sease at Bedford, Ky., June 7, 1863. Colby, Ira 0., Ontwa, e. Aug. I3, 1862; died of disease at Mumfordsville, Ky., Jan. i, 1 863. Day, Perry U., Dowagiac, e. Aug. 9, 1862; died of wounds at Tunnel Hill, Ga., May 12, i864. Goodrich, Levi C., Dowagiac, m. o. June 24, i 865. Hastings, Justus H., Ontwa, e. Aug. ii, i862; M. o. June 24, i865. Louix, Edwin G., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. June, 24, 1865. Mears, John, Dowagiac, e. Aug. ii, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps Feb. 15, 1864. Meredith, Nathaniel, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, i862; m. o. June 14, i865. McFaren, Henry, Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; mi. o. June 24, i865. Nihlett, William F., Ontwa, e. Aug. ig, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. Rozelle, Joshua C., Ontwa, e. Aug. 13, 1862; died of disease at Bowling Green, Ky., Feb.:25, 1863. COMPANY G. Bows, William, Newherg, e. Aug. 21, 1862; trans. to Vet. Res. Corps June 9, i865. Benman, Williami H., Newherg, e. Aug. 22, 1862; mn. o. June 24, i865. Bennett, John J., Porter, e. Aug. 12, 1862; m. O. June 24, i865. Bird, William, Newherg, e. Aug. 21~, i862; m. o. June 24, i865. Cook, Orlan P., Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1862; dis. for disability Sept. 23,' 1863. Crump, William, Marcellus, e. Aug. 22, 1862; died of disease at Lebanon, Ky., April 24, 1 863. Kenney, Fernando, Newberg, e. Aug. 22, 1862; M. o. June 24, i865. Neumann, Louis, Newherg, e. Aug. 13, 1862; m. o. June 24, 1865. Stickney, Sidney M..' Marcellus. e. Aug. 22, 1862; died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Oct. 30, 1862. TWENTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. FIELD AND STAFF. Lieuit. Col. George T. Shaffer-, Calvin, com. Dec. i0, 1864; Maj. corn. Aug. 15, 1864; Brevet Col. and Brevet Brig. Gen. U. S. Volunteers, 1\arch 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services at battles before Atlanta. Ga., and at Wise Fork, N. C.; m. O. June 5, i866. Snurg. Alonzo Garwood~, Cassopolis, com. Aug. I5, 1864; m. o. June,5, i866. COMPANY A. Sergt. Thom-as J. Baunder, Volinia, e. Sept. I, 1864; m. o. June 7, i865. Schooley, Henry, Volinia, e. Sept. 8, 1864; m. o. June 5, i866. COMPANY E. Avery, David C., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1864; m. o. M ay 4, I 865. Baird, John, Howard, e. Oct. I8, 1864; m. o. June 5, i866. Baird, William S., Howard, e. Oct. 17, 1 864; m. O. J un e 5, I 866. Davis, Lowell, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, 1864; m. O. June 7, i865. Emery, Robert, Volinia, e. Sept. 12, 1864; dis. for wounds June 30, 1865. Pope, Lyman, A., mn. O. Aug. i6, i865. Randall, William, Milton, e. Sept. 3, 1864; mn. O. May 22, i865. COMPANY G. Blackman, David R., Volinia, e. Sept. IS, 1864; mn. O. June 5, i866. Delong. Henry, Pokagon, e. Sept. 3, i864; mn. o. June 5, i866. Hill, Charles A., Jefferson, e. Sept. 29, 1864; mn. o.- May 31, i865. Nichols, Tyler, Volinia, e. Sept. 5, 1864; mn. O. June 19, 1865. COMPANY H. Bates, Buel H., Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; ini. O. May 29, i865. Bogvert, Cornelius, Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1864;dis. by order May 27, i865. Clendenning. H. M. T., Penn, e. Aug. TO, 1864; m. o. June 8, 1865. Deacon. Isaac, Volinia. e. Sept. 20, 1864;1 mn. o. June 5, i866. Kinney, Nelson, Corp., Penn, e. Aug. 20, 1864; mn. O. June 5, T866. North, Nathaniel. La GranOge, e. Aug. 30, 1864; died of disease at Charlotte, N. C:! June 7, i865.

Page  325 HISTO-RY OF CASS COUNTY 325 North, Norman, La Grange, e. Aug. 30, i864; m. o. June 5, i866. Patterson, James, 2d Lieut., Penn, e. Aug. 23, 1864; died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 2, II 865. Pemberton, Nathan, Penn, e. Aug. 28, i864; M. o. June 5, i866. Robinson, Edmund, died of disease at Davids Island, N. Y., April i6, 1865. Tappan, William E., Penn, e. Aug. 29, 1864; died of disease at Alexandr~ia, Va., Feb. 4, i865. Trill, George, Pokagon, e. Sept. i, 1864; died of disease at Alexandria, Va., Feb. 12, i865. COMPANY I. Bryant, James, Mfilton, e. Sept. i6, 1864; m. o. June 5, i866. Freeman, Miles, Howard, e. Oct. ig, 1864; m. 0. May 30, i865. Mitchell, Alonzo J., Milton, e. Sept. 14, 1864; mn. o. Jan. 9, i866. COMPANY K. Harris, Benjamin S., Pokagon, e. Feb. i6, i865; m'. o. May 30, i865. Smith. Carlton, Pokagon, e. Feb. i6, 1865; m. o. Feb. Tq, i866. THIRTIETH REGIMENT MICHIGAN VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY H. HarwNood, Henry WV.', Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 18S64; n-i. o. June 30, i865. Harwood, Jacob W., Jefferson, e. Dec. 6, 1864; m. o. June 30, i865. 1-irons., Oliver C., Jefferson, e. Dec. 2, 1864; m1. o. June 30, i865. M/assey, Robert D., S~ergt., Ontwa, e. Nov. 28, 1864; mn. 0. June 30, 1865. Mlassey, Peter, Corp., Ontwa, e. Nov. 28, 1864; m. o. June 30, i865. Shawl, Edwin 0., Corp., Ontwa, e. Nov. 30, 1864; m.o. June 30, i865. Smith. Frank A., Corp., Ontwa, e. Dec. 2, 1864; ni. o. June 30, i865 - FIRST REGIMENT MICHIGAN SHARPSHOOTERS. COMPANY B. Allen, Nathan S., Penn, e. Auig. i9, 1864; M. o. July 28, i865. COMPANY E. Second Licuit. Winfield S. Shanahan, Cassopolis, e. March 7, i865; Corp. March 6, 1863; m. o. Ju~ly 28, i865. PRIVATES. Bibbins, Charles, Ontwa. e. April 13, 1863; missing in. action at Cold Harbor June 1 2, 1 864. Nichols, Alexander, Ontwa, e. April 12, 1863; mn. o. July 25, i865. Wyant, George, Ontwa, e. March 6, 1863; m. o. Au~g. 7, i865. COMPANY F. Reigar, Daniel H., Sergt., Ontwa, e. May 4, 1863; M. o. July 28, i865. COMPANY G. Jackson, Henry H., Pokagon, e. Aug. 12, 1863; died of disease at Chicago, Ill., Oct. 3, i863. McNeil, William B., Ontwa, e. Aug. 12, 1863; dis. for disability March 22, 1864. Smith, Wight D., D~owagiac, e. July 4, 1863; M. o. July 28, i865. COMPANY H. Northrop, William B.. Calvin, e. Feb. 26, 1864; died of wounds in General Hospital. Northrop. Marion A., Penn, e. Feb. 26, 1864; died of disease at Chicago, Ill., April 17, 1864. COMPANY I. Beach. Myron W., Volinia, e. Sept. 7, 1863; dis. for disability. Bedford, William, Pokagon, e. Aug. 3, 1863; i-n. o. July 28, T865. Fessenden. Clement, Volinia. e. Sept. 21, 1863; dis. for disability April 7. i8S65. George. David L., Silver Creek, e. Aug. 25. 1863; died of wounds received at Wilderness May 6, 1864. Huff, Asher. Silver Creek, e. Aug. 24. 1863; dis. by order Dec. 28, 1864. Huff. Isaac, Volinia, e. Sept. 7, i863; missing in action before Petersburg, Va., June 17, 1864. Nash. Charles. Volinia, e. Sept. 21, 1863; m. o. July 28, i865. Nash, Theodore, Volinia, e. Sept. 2T, 1863; died near Petersburg, Va., June 20, 1 864. Waterman, Charles. Silver Creek, e. July 28. i863; died near Petersburg, Va., June 28, 1864. COMPANY K. Johns, David. La Grange, e. Jan. 27. 1865; mn. o. July 28, 1865.

Page  326 326 HISTORY OF CASS, COUNTY FIRST MICHIGAN (102 U. S.) COLORED INFANTRY. COMPANY A. Hlood, Philander, Pokagon, e. Aug. 17, i864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. COMPANY B. Alexander, Jacob, Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; rn. O. Sept. 30, 1865. Brown, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 20o, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Broxvn, Stuart, Calvin, e. Oct. 20o, 1863-; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Butcher, David, Calvin, e. Oct. 2i, 1863; in. O. Se p t. 30, 1865. Callaway, Giles, Porter, e. Oct. 21, 1863; ni. o. Sept. 30, i865. Coker, James, Calvin, e. Oct. i6, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Coker, Michael, Calvin, e. Oct. i8, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Curtis, George H., Calvin, e. Dec. 4, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Dungie, John, Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Gilbbins, WViliam, Jefferson, e. Aug. 24, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Harris, Charles W., Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Hawley, William, Calvin, e. Oct. 22, 1863; dis. for disability iT\Iay 26, 1864. Howard, Williamn, Calvin, e. Oct..5, 1864; Inl. o. Sept. 30, i865. Limus, John, Pokagon, e. Oct. io, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Little, Stewart, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; mn. o. Sept. 30, i865. Mathews, Allison L., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; died of disease at Orangeburg, S. C., Auig. 6, i865. Newman, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Seton. Joseph, La Grange, e. Oct. i8, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Stewart. George W., Calvin, e. Nov. 20, 1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C., July 27, 1864. Stewart, James M., Calvin, e. Oct. i8, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Stewart, John T., Calvin, e. Oct. 21, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Wade, Berry, Corp., Calvin, e. Oct. 7, 1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C., Aug. 22, 1864. Williams, George W., Calvin, e. Oct. 2i, 1863; died of disease at Columhia, S. C., Auig. 12, i865. Wood, John W., Calvin, e. Oct. ig, 1863; in. O. Sept. 30, i865. COMPANY C. Ford, William. La Grange, e. Feb. 17, 1865; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Hill, Dennis R., Howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; in. O. Sept. 30, 1865. Rectman, \'villis, howard, e. Oct. i, 1864; in. O. Sept. 30, i865. Wallace, James h., OUtwa, e. Sept. 5, 1864; in. o. 5-ept. 30, 1865. Wilson, Nathainiel, Calvin, e. Oct. i8, 1863; inl. o. Sept. 30, i865. COMPANY D. Artis, George, Calvin, e. Nov..5, 1863; i-n. O. Sept. 30, i865. Barrister, Gtistavtis, Howard, e. Oct. 1, 1864; ni. O. Sept. 30, i865. Calloway, Creed, Porter, e. Nov. i8, 1863; in. O. Sept. 30, t865. Hunt, Jordan P., Calvin, e. Oct. 23, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. i\lattock, Henry, Pokagon, e. Fe b. i6, i865; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Siinons, William H., Calvin, e. Nov. 17, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Vauighn, James, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; i-n. O. Sept. 30, 1865. COMPANY F. Brown, John.' Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863; died of disease Jan. 17, 1864. Bowden, John, La Grange, e. NOV. 28, 1863; died o-f disease at Beaufort, S. C., Nov. 14, 1864. Boyd, Anderson, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 1863; mi. O. Sept. 30, 1865. Conner, William F., Serg-t., Penn, e. Dec. ii, 1863; inl. o. Sept. 30, i865. Dungil, Wright, Penn, e. Aug. 22, 1864; in. O. Sept. 30, 1865. Ford, Edward, Milton, e.; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C., Jan. 14, i865. Harrison, Milford, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 1863; in. O. Sept. 30, i865. Hays, Arick, Penn, e. Aug. 24, 1864; Mi. 0. Sept. 30, i865. Hays, William H., Calvin, e. Oct. 4, 1864; absent sick at mn. O. Henry, Martin V., Penn, e. Dec. 2, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. 1-jill, Anthony, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; i-n. o. Sept. 30. 1,i865. Howard, Ezekiel, Porter, e. Oct. 3, 1864; i-n. O. Sept. 30, I865. Lett, Zach., Corp., Penn, e. Dec. 14, 1863; ni. O. Sept. 30, i865. Mathews, Heiiry A., La Grange, e. Sept. 5, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Plowden, William P., Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863; mn. o. Sept. 30, i865. Ram-say, Joseph, Penn, e. Dec. ii, 1863; in. O. Sept. 30, i865.

Page  327 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 327 Roberts, John, Penn, e. Aug. i8, i864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Van Dyke, Lewis, Sergt., Penn, e. Dec. i i, 1863; in. 0. Sept. 30, 1865. COMPANY G. Ashe, Joseph C., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, i864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Bricey, George, Howard, e. Dec. 19, 1863; dis. for disability Allay 26, 1864. Boyd, Lawson. Calvin, e. Dec. 29, 1863; in. O. Sept. 30, 1865. Bird, James AlI., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; in. O. Sept. 30, i865. Bird, Turner, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; mn. o. Sept. 30, i865. Farrar, Alfred, Corp., e. Dec. 21, 1863; absent sick at mn. o. Heathcock, Bartlett, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 1863; died of disease in Micbigan April 5, 1 864. Heatbcock, Berry, Porter, e. Dec. 29, 1863; dis. for disability May 28, i86". Hill, Jackson, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Huston, John, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 26, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Jefferson, Thomas. Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 18963; nm. o. Sept. 30, i86". Lawrence, Alfred, Howard, e. Dec. 12, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Russell, Henderson, Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30. 1865. Russell, Jacob. Pokagon. e. Dec. 30, 1 863; dis. for disability June 8, 1.865. Russell. John. Pokagon, e. Dec. 30, 1 863; dis. for wounds June 8. i865. Stewart, John E., Calvin, e. Feb. 28, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30. i865. Stewart, Sylvester, Ontwa, e. Dec. 28, T863; dis. for disability MAay 30. i865. Tbornton, Henry. Calvin, e. Sept. 29, 1 864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Windburn, George, Howvard, e. Sept. 23, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Winies, Ebenezer, H-oward, e. Sept. 23, 1864; 'In. o. Sept. 30. i865. COMPANY H. Corp. Aquilla R. Corey, Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. PRIVATES. Cousins, Ely, Porter, e. Dec. 26, i863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Cousins, David, Penn, e. Dec. 4, 1863; absent sick. Dorsey, James W., Howard, e. Dec. 24, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Gibson'. Marquis, Penn, e. Aug. 19, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, 1865. Griffin, Solomon, Penn, e. Dec. 2i, i863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Hill, Allen, Penn, e. Sept. i, 1864; in. 0. Sept. 30, i865. Sanders, Peter, Porter, e. Dec. 9, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. White, Henry, Calvin, e. Dec. 13, 1863; died of disease at Beaufort, S. C., Aug. 7, 1 864. White., Wright, La Grange, e. Feb. 17, i865; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Washington, George, Dowagiac, e. Dec. i8, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Sergt. James Wheeler, Wayne, e. Dec. 29, 1863; in. o. Sept. 30. i865. COMPANY1I. Anderson, Amos, Porter, e. Sept. 17, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Anderson, Jefferson B., Porter, e. Jan. TI, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Gillan, Andrew, La Grange, e. Dec. 31, 1863; inI. o. Sept. 30. i865. Morton. Henry, Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; ni. o. Sept. 30, i865. Sharpe. Joseph. Silver Creek. e. MNarch 15, i86s; (lis. by order Oct. 28, 1865. Wilsonl Joel. Howard, e. Dec. 24. 1863; in. o. Sept. 30. 1865. COMPANY K. Sergt. Abnier R. Bird. Calvin, e. Jan. i6, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30. i,86~. Harris, W~illiamn, Calvin, e. Sept. 23. 1864; in. o.. Sept. 30, 1865. Murphy, Percival. Calvin, e. Jan. 15, 1864; dis. by order Nov. 13, 1865. Stafford. James K., Porter. e. Aug. 24, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Tlalbot, Wiiliarn H., Porter, e. Oct. 5, T864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. Wilson, Giles, 3., Calvin, e. Sept. 23, 1864; in. o. Sept. 30, i865. FIRST REGIMENT ENGINEERS AND MECHAiNICS. COMPANY C. Dickerson, Albert, died of disease at Louisville, Ky., Feb. 24, 1864. Peachey, Aaron. Mlarcellus, e. Au1g. 23, 1864; died of disease at Nashville, Tenn.., NOV. 21, 1864. COMPANY D. Gaines, lFranklin, Pokagon, e. Dec. 29, 1863; in. o. Sept. 22, i865. Little, John H-., Marcellus, e. Aug. 23, 1864; dis. by order June 6, 1865.

Page  328 328 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY COMPANY F. Stanley, James S., Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, 1864; Williams, Isaac N., Penn, e. Aug. 21, m. o. Sept. 22, 1865. I864; dis. by order June 6, I865. Van Tassell, David, Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, COMPANY G. I864; died of disease Feb. I6, I864. Crampton, Abel, Pokagon, e. Dec. 15, COMPANY K. I863; m. o. Sept. 22, I865. Isham, William, Silver Creek, e. Dec. 2I, Galt, Freeman H., Pokagon, e. Dec. I5 I863; m. o. Sept. 22, i865. I863; died of disease at Ringgold, Ga, White, William H., Silver Creek; m. o. Aug. 5, i864. Rogers, Lucius, Ontwa, e. Jan. 4, I864; Sept 22, I865. dis. by order June 6, I865. MICHIGAN PROVOST GUARD. Mershon, Andrew, dis. by order July 2, I863. FIRST UNITED STATES SHARPSHOOTERS. COMPANY K. McClelland, William. First Lieut. Charles W. Thorp, Nicholas- Thoop, Sylvester A. ville, Nov. 27, 1863; Second Lieut. Oct. COMPANY I II, I862; Corp. Aug. 12, I861; dis. for disability May 24, I864. Lieut. William Stewart, Sept. I, 1862; m. Christie. Walter T., Marcellus; died of o. at end of service at end of war, Jan. wounds at Washington, D. C., May 12, I, i865. I863. Corp. Samuel Inling, Newberg, e. Sept. Goodspeed, Edwin C. I, I862; trans. to 5th Mich. Inft.; m. o. Beebe, George S. SIXTY-SIXTH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY D. Beckwith, Henry L., e. Feb. 22, 1864,; vet. recruit; m. o. July 7, I865. TWENTY-FIRST REGIMENT OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY H. Graham, S. J., Mason, e. April, i86I; dis. for disability I86I. FORTY-NINTH REGIMENT OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY E. 1865; wounded in left arm at Rocky Graham, Sidney J., Mason, re-enl. Sept., Ridge, May 9, 1865. I86I; vet. Feb. 1864; m. o. May 20, FORTY-EIGHTH REGIMENT INDIANA VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. COMPANY F. Willians, Henry, Mason. OHIO INFANTRY. Tompkins, Newberg. TWENTY-FIRST OHIO VOLUNTEER INFANTRY. Graham, Sidney J., e. April 17, I86I, in Co. H.; re-e. in Co. E, 49th Ohio Vol. Inft. (See above.)

Page  329 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 329 CHAPTER XXIII. MILITARY ORGANIZATIONS. W. J. MAY POST, G. A. R. W. J. May Post, No. 65, G. A. R., was organized at Jones July 24th, 1882, with the following charter members: *Thomas L. Blakely, I th Mich. Infantry; Isaac S. Pound, I4th Mich. Battery; *Jabez S. Tompkins; Alonzo1 B. Congden, 88th Indiana Infantry; James L. Haine, I th Mich. Infantry; *Anson L. Dunn, I4th Mich. Infantry; *Hugh Ferguson, I th Mich. Infantry; *Cyrus W. O'Conner, I th Mich. Infantry; Samuel P. King, I2th Mich. Infantry; Daniel Trattles, i9th Mich. Infantry; *Stephen A. Gardner, I24th Ohio Infanttry; Joseph H. Dunworth; *Horton M. Squires, Sharp Shooters: *Henry Seigle; William Alexander, I2th Mich. Infantry. THOMAS MANNING POST, G. A. R. Thomas Manning Post, No. 57, G. A. R., at Marcellus, was chartered May I9, 1882. The Post's charter members were the following: H. J. Kellogg, Wm. Bedford, H. J. Ohls, Frank Shonhower, H. M. Nottingham, Wm. Schugg, G. I. Nash, Oren Holden, H. E. Giddings, R. Harvell, C. E. Davis, B. F. Groner, W. R. Snider, Samuel Kidney, John Littell, George Heckleman, Jas. Boner, H. H. Hartman, J. B. Fortner, George Eggleston, W. H. Vincent, E. Schugg, George Savage. Chas. Guich, William Casselman, J. T. Van Sickle, Robt. McDonald, Clarence Lomison, Asa Sheldon, E,. S. Weaver, Chas. Souls, Asa Sheldon, Wm. McKeehy, A. H. Lewis, Chauncey Drury, S. P. Hartshorn, Noah Kunes, Beneville Die Long, James Youngs, Isaac Snyder, L. P. Raymond, Joseph Gearhart, Carr Finch, Wm. Collier, H. Sheldon, James Wagner, W. H. Waugh, Sr., S. Eberhart, Zenas Kidney, B. F. Harrington, W. J. Herbert, M. F. Burney, Lewis Timm, George Reynolds, George Scott, Henry Whitney, J. G. Harper, J. J. Hinchey, Robt. Lundy. *Dead.

Page  330 330 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY The present membership of this Post is as follows: H. J. Kellogg, H. M. Nottingham, W. R. Snider, C. E. Davis, John Littell, J. B. Fortner, W. H. Waugh, Sr., W. J. Herbert, W. H. Vincent, Wm. Bradford, Clarence Lomison, Bemer Lewis, Richard Harvell, Noah Kunes, H. L. Cooper, Carr Finch, Chas. Tutton, G. I. Nash, V. W. Spigelmeyer, B. F. Adams, R. T. Streeter, W. H. Burch, Jos. Romig, John Crockett, F. C. Brown, R. D. Snyder, A. J. Maxan, Clark H. Beardslee, N. W. Holcomb, H. J. Ikes, E. W. La Barre, I. W. Steininger, John Smith, Julius Waterstradt, Robt. Smith, W. G. WXalters, E. S. Mack, Levi Dennis, George F. Bowersox, Isaac Long, Daniel Emery, S. M. Reigle, Franklin T. Wolf, B. H. Hodges, Isaac De Con, Wm. McIntyre, P. S. Youells, Pomeroy Castle, Peter Bowers, C. P. Bradford, H. C. Lambert, C. W. Graham, J. S. Brown, Win. Holloway. The office of Post Commander has been held in succession by the following named: H. J. Ohls, G. G. Woodmansee, George Munger, Ray T. Streeter, one term each; H. J. Kellogg, Peter Schall, Clarence Lomison, W. R. Snider, Levi Dennis, B. F. Groner, two terms each; George I. Nash, five terms; J. B. Fortner, three terms. T. B. SWEETLAND POST, G. A. R. J. B. Sweetland Post, No. 448, at Edwardsburg, was chartered July 21, 1899, with the following members: William WA. Sweetland, Edwxard Beach. John James, Enoch F. Newell. Jonas Sassaman, Charles R. Kingsley, George O. Bates, Theo(lore Manchow, John Jacks, Emanuel Rhinehart, James H. Andrus, Charles E. Gardner, George Bement, Covingtoln Way. The present members are: Benajmin F. Thompson, Jonas Sassaman, Aaron Dever, XWm. NV. Sweetland, John James, James H. Andrus, George Williams, Calvin Steuben, Covington Way, Theodore Manchow, William Funk, Roger Burns, John Jones. MATTHEW ARTIS POST, G. A. R. Matthew Artis Post. No. 34I, was organized at Day March 0I, I866, with twenty-one members, as follows: Commander, Bishop E. Curtis; Senior Vice Commander, Henry D. Stewart; Junior Vice Commander, James Monroe; Adjutant, Abner R. Byrd; Quartermaster, Solomon Griffin; Surgeon, Harrison Griffin; Chap

Page  331 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 331 lain, George Scott; Officer of Day, Zachariah Pompey; Officer of Guard, John Copley; Sergeant Major, James M. Stewart; Quartermaster Sergeant, James H. Ford. Members: Peter Saunders, Caswell Oxendine, Berry Haithcock, John Curry, Samuel Wells, John Brown, Martin Harris, Andrew Gillum, George Broaidy, L. B. Stewart. The officers and members in August, 1906, are as follows: Commander, Abner R. Byrd; Senior Vice Commander. James Monroe; Junior Vice Commander, Caswell Oxendine; Adjutant, Bishop E. Curtis; Quartermaster, Geo. H. Curtis; Surgeon, John A. Harris; Chaplain, Zachariah Pompey; Officer of the Day, James M. Stewart; Officer of the Guard, John Copley; Quartermaster Sergeant, L. B. Stewart; Sergeant Major, Solomon Griffin. Comrades: Wm. S. Copley, Hiram Smith, A. B. Anderson, Bennett Allen. Matthew Artis V. R. C.. No. 164, auxiliary to Matthew Artis Post. No. 341, was organized November 7,.888, with the following ten members: Mary Copley. Cora Copley, Amelia Copley, Marinda Johnson, Anna Eliza Griffin, Eva Dungey, Eva O. Byrd, Sarah E. Curtis, Eliza Oxendine, Elizabeth Stewart. ALBERT ANDERSON POST, G. A. R. Albert Anderson Post, No. 157, was organized at Cassopolis July 7, I883, and the following rmembers mustered: Zacheus Aldrich, William G. \Vatts. Fairfield Goodwin. Thomas M. Seares, James Patterson, Samuel V. Pangborn, WVilliam T. Dilts. Jacob Mcintosh, Maro i\. Abbott, John Pangborn. John Jackson, Joel Cowgill, Isaiah Harris. James M. Roberts, Edmond Landon, William Wallace Marr, OwNen L. Allen, -Marvin F. \Westfall, Marcellus K. lWhetsell, Jos. T. Bangham. Since the first muster the following comrades have been added to the membership: July 21, I883-Fred A. Beckwith, John L. Tharp, John Glass. July 28. 1883-Francis Coon, Alonzo Garwood, George B. Crandell, Benjamin F. Hogue. August 4, 1883-Samuel Williams, James M. Cowin, Henry C. Walker, E. W. Cornell. Wm. G. Roberts. August IT. 1883-Henry James, John A. Bronner, Jonathan H. Breed, I. M. Harris.

Page  332 332 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY August I8, 1883-Vincent Reames, Lewis Crandall, E. G. Loux, Charles Hedger, Reuben Beverly. August 9, I884-James M. Shephard, Francis Squires, Levi J. Garwood, William Clark, George T. Shaffer, Leander D. Tompkins, James M. Noble, Jesse W. Madrey. August I6, 1884-Daniel L. Closson, John H. Keene, James H. Byrd, Edward P. Boyd. August 4, I886, and since that time-Norris Richardson, Robert Toas, Michael Grimm, Erastus Saunders, John Rodman, S. M. Grennell, William Matthews, Abram Heaton, William Berkey, Moses F. Paisley, Henry Morton, Marion Garrison, Henry C. Westfall, John D. Williams, Edgar F. Hays, Wlilliam H. Owen. SOLDIERS' AND SAILORS' MONUMENT ASSOCIATION. To commemorate the bravery and patriotism of the many soldiers who have gone from this county to the wars of the country, and to stimulate the interest and veneration of the present and future generations for the deeds of war which were necessary for the establishment of the republic, a movement has been set on foot to raise funds and erect a soldiers' monument to the soldiers and sailors of Cass county. The movement had its inception in the rooms of the H. C. Gilbert Post, No. 49, at Dowagiac, in April, I905, when it was first proposed to raise the modest sum of five hundred dollars and locate such a monument as that would provide on a soldiers' lot in Riverside cemetery. Willis M. Farr and Lewis J. Carr were appointed from the post to solicit funds, and these two later'appointed a third G. A. R. member, John Bilderback, and Burgette L. Dewey, the merchant, and Clyde W. Ketcham, the lawyer, were afterward added. On the motion of Mr. Farr the committee proceeded to raise a fund of five thousand dollars or more, instead of five hundred, and amplify the plans and objects accordingly. Individual donations have been mainly relied upon, a canvass was made among the citizens of Dowagiac and the county, and also outside, nearly one thousand dollars being contributed to the fund by what were considered outside parties. The pupils of the public schools were also given an opportunity to give small sums. A benefit was given by a baseball team, several clubs donated sums, the proceeds of a lecture and a legerdemain entertainment swelled the fund. The largest sum was given by the P. D. Beckwith Estate, five hundred dollars, and other large contributors have been Willis M. Farr, Bur

Page  333 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 333 gette L. Dewey, Hon. William Alden Smith, Hon. Edward L. Hamilton, Charles R. Hannan of Boston, Mrs. Ellen T. Atwell, E. H. Spoor of Redlands, Cal., Mrs. Jerome Wares of Chicago, C. L. Sherwood, Burlingame, H. R. Spencer, Otis Bigelow, the City Bank, J. 0. Becraft. The executive committee, on whom has fallen the chief burden in promoting this cause, consists of Willis M. Farr, Lewis J. Carr, John Bilderback, Burgette L. Dewey and Clyde W. Ketcham. By his enthusiasm and untiring efforts in behalf of the monument Mr. Farr has rendered most signal service, and that the large sum has been raised and the monument become a fact is due to the unselfish work on the part of its principal promoters. In addition to the above fund the city council of Dowagiac donated five hundred dollars, and the Board of Supervisors of Cass county one thousand dollars, making a sum total of $6,500.0o.

Page  334 334 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY CHAPTER XXIV. SOCIAL ORGANIZATION. The social tie was as strong, if not stronger, in the early days as in modern life. Job Wright, the hermit and recluse, whom we have elsewhere mentioned as seeking solitude on the island of Diamond lake, was an abnormal character. Such aversion to the society of fellow man is so uncommon as to mark its possessor with the interest of a phenomenon in human existence. His course was like a soldier trying to live by himself during the Civil war. As there were ties which drew the soldiers together, ties which exist even today, so there were ties which drew the early settlers together. They had common interests, had a common work to do, and were threatened by common dangers. Their very circumstances made it necessary that they stand together, minister to each other in sickness, and weep with those that wept; and this made them rejoice with those who, rejoiced. There are bonds in the Grand Army of the Republic which do not exist in any other society of men. And so it is with the early settlers of this county. We see this when they get together. They have no grips nor secret words, and yet one who is not an early settler is as effectually debarred from entering into their experiences as though he were on the outside of lodge-room doors. Of course, the pleasurable occasions of the early days were in the main quite different from those of the present. They were also less frequent, and for that reason enjoyed with more zest. Some of those pleasures accompanied the tasks that had to be performed-in fact, were a part of them. The work was of such a nature that neighbors often assisted one another. Without particularly intending it, each neighborhood was a co-operative society. The clearing of the land, getting rid of large timber, necessitated what were known as log rollings. No one individual could dispose of the great trees of those primeval forests. If he had undertaken it his progress would have been so slow and the work so difficult that he would have given up in, despair long before his task was completed. Necessity compelled co-operation in this work, and that principle was carried into much of the other labor that had to

Page  335 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 335 be performed. A man who was so selfish or so mean as to, refuse his assistance to a neighbor who needed help was regarded with disfavor by the other settlers. In fact, he became almost an outcast. In more ways than one he was a greater loser than the one whom he refused to, assist. After the settlers had been here for a number of years and were raising large crops of corn, husking bees began to take the place of the log rollings of the earliest clays. This does not mean that the log rollings ceased when the corn huskings began, for both were kept up at the same time throiughout a number of years. But after each farmer had a comparatively large acreage cleared the log rollings became less frequent and the corn huskings more frequent. The women, too, had their methods of co-operation as well as the men, and they also made opportunities by this means for social gatherings. \Vool pickings and quiltings were among their frolics, and those occasions were not less enjoyable to them than the log rollings, house raisings and corn huskings were to the men. Manv of the women knew as much ablout outdoor work as the men. Often they assisted their husbands in the fields in order that the farm work might be done at the proper time and the necessaries of life provided for the family. And their household duties were more ar(luous than those of the farmers' wives of the present (lay. Besides, on account of living so far apart, their isolation was more complete. The occasions on which the women of the neighborhood would get together to help one another with a portion of their work afforded a pleasant relief from the toilsome labor at home, whether it was the labor of the field or the household. Besides the diversions already mentioned there were evening apple-parings, in which both young men and young women took part, and taffy-pullings for the younger people in the season of maple-sugar making. These gatherings closed by guessing contests, "spatting out," and, frequently, by dancing. There was but little social diversion for that purpose alone, but it was associated with the usual labor in one form or another. This was not because the people of those days would not have enjoyed pleasure for pleasure's sake as well as the people of this generation, but rather because stern necessity decreed otherwise. Thus the social life of the pioneers became a part of their industrial life, and it is impossible to separate the two in description. A few years later, when the people did not have to devote to labor every hour not spent in sleep, they found other

Page  336 336 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY methods for employing the time when they could come together. Singing schools, spelling schools, debating clubs and literary societies began to take the place of corn huskings, apple-parings and taffy-pullings. But even these, like the other gatherings which preceded them, had their double purpose. The opportunity they afforded for mingling socially was not the only reason they came into existence. The cultivation of the musical talent, the mastery of the art of spelling or training for talking in public were the paramount objects. What event-except the contrastingly sad one of death-would stir pioneer sentiment more than a wedding? The union of families that had perhaps met here after leaving homes in widely diverse parts of the country was an occurrence worthy of social happiness and one to be celebrated with jubilation. Marriages and births were the events most in keeping with the spirit of hope and progress that animated every new community. Therefore, let us recall one of the early we(ldings, a celebration of great interest to, the county, eagerly looked forward to and long remembered among pioneer happenings. Though not the first wedding in the county, the marriage of Elias B. Sherman and Sarah, the daughter of Jacob Silver, on New Year's day of 1833, was the first in the county seat and perhaps the most notable of the early weddings. At that time Mr. Sherman, though a young man of about thirty, had attained the prominence befitting the incumbent of the offices of prosecuting attorney, probate judge and district surveyor of Cass county, and who was also one of the founders of the village of Cassopolis. There was no minister in Cassopolis at that time, and as the bride desired the ceremony to be performed according to the Episcopal rites, the matter of finding the proper minister threatened to be a serious obstacle. Happily, it was learned that Bishop Philander Chase had recently located at Gilead in Branch county, and thither Mr. Sherman went and made known to the bishop his need. Although no railroad afforded the bishop a quick and comfortable ride to the place of ceremony and it was necessary for him to, undergo a long drive over the frozen roads, such difficulties were made nothing of by pioneer ministers. On the appointed morning the bishop was on hand, and the people of the village and the surrounding country were all alive to the festive importance of the day. The guests assembled in the second story of the building in which Jacob Silver sold goods., where elaborate preparations had been made in anticipation, and in the presence of many whose names have been mentioned in connection with the early history

Page  337 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 337 of the county the marriage was performed, the first of the many that have occurred in the village during the subsequent three-quarters of a century. One other occasion may be described before proceeding with the special social and fraternal history. In I837 Elijah Goble built a tavern at the little center called Charleston, in Volinia township. Having completed the structure, he resolved to have a house warming, to which he invited all his fellow pioneers. This was, therefore, perhaps the first gathering specially designed to include early settlers. It is stated that from seventy-five to one hundred people, mostly from the north part of the county, assembled at the Goble tavern on the designated day. The features of the meeting which we would most like to reproduce were unfortunately lost with the passing of the day itself, for the experiences those old settlers exchanged can never be retold; the melody of the solngs they sang has gone with the breath that made it. At this meeting in Volinia, as on other social occasions, music and dancing were features of the entertainment. It must not be supposed that the muse of song and harmony was a stranger to, the pioneer settlements. Of instrumental music there was little, but the quietness and isolation of life in the wilderness was favorable to the expression of feeling by song. The earnest intoning of the old hymns in the first churches, the old-time melodies that were flung to the air at the social gatherings and the eager interest taken in the singing schools, all show that the love of harmony was as fundamental here as among older civilization. And although there were no pianos and organs, an occasional settler possessed a more portable instrument and with this he softened some of the asperities of frontier life. Among the settlers who came to Milton township in 1829, was a Mr. Morris, who delighted to play on a fife. Surely, as its shrill notes sounded through the forest aisles, the birds must have realized the presence of a new form of existence competing with them in their solitudes. Peter Barnhart, who settled in Howard in 1830, was a fiddler, and it was his presence that lent the spirit of rhythm to many a pioneer dance. Isaiah Carberry, an early settler in the same township, was also skillful with the bow and was in demand at the dances. These dances were usually held in the evening after logging, husking or quilting bees. The democratic character of pioneer society prevented their being exclusive, and the fact that they were held after a day of hard labor is evidence

Page  338 338 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY that there was little brilliance of costume or house decoration. The dyed homespun dresses of the girls and the home-tailored garments and rough, coarse boots of the men detracted nothing from the wholesome pleasure of the occasion. It would not be out of place in a history of this kind to describe all the events and institutions of social living which have been strong and enduring enough to give permanence to the organizations which men and women form in promoting their community life. But in reality this entire history is given to the description of the forms and institutions which have grown up in Cass county because of the introduction of civilization and the increasingly close contact between the social units. Civil government has been described. The organization of communities for civil, business and other purposes has taken many pages of this volume. Business and industry have been described mainly in their relation to the people at large. \Vhen civil war was raging it called for citizens in the most perfected form of disciplined organization. Schools, as elsewhere describe(l, have always been the center olf the social community, and churches are the very essence of the social life. These subjects finding exposition on other pages, it remains for this chapter to group together some of the social organizations which have positive influence and definite purpose and form a recognized part in the life of Cass county's people. WOMEN S CLUBS. The Cassopolis Woman's Club, now a member of the great federation of women's clubs, was organized in I898. Among those who assisted in the organization and became charter members may be mentioned Mesdames Coulter, Goodwin, Sate Smith, Funk, Biscomb, Lodor, McIntosh, Nell Smith, Armstrong, Cowgill (now deceased), Reynolds and Allison. The club was brought into the federation in 90oI. The Cassopolis Woman's Club holds weekly sessions from October to April inclusive. Its work is mainly literary, although it has taken a beneficial interest in certain matters of civic: improvement and in beautifying the village. In its regular sessions topics of current and general importance are taken up according to a program that is arranged before the beginning of each season's work. The following are the oficers of the club for the season of I905-o6 just closed: President, Mrs. Addie S. Coulter: first vice president, Mrs. Catherine Criswell: second vice president,.\Mrs. Helen Reynolds;

Page  339 IHISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 339 3393 record ing secretar y, Alrs. Clara Eby; correspondling secretary, Miirs. Emmnia Cobb:. treasurer. 1\lrs. Tennie Carman. Calenda r committee AI\is. Hattie Al. Tbickstu-m (chairman), Al rs. Rebecca 13. Woods, Airs. Allie Al. IDes Voignes. Mrs. May S. Armstrong. Aienml)ers:-A'[rs. A[a v S. A-rmstronoy Afiss Kiatherine Arnmstron TAirs. AtI.av F. Allison, AIrs. Tlmtrsv 7A. Bovd. Airs. 'Aaav Bowen, Mrs. Adclie S. Coulter, AiNrs. Emma Cobb), AIrs. Katherine Criswell, AMrs. Jane Crosby, Mrs. Jane Carman, AIrs. Allie Al. Des Voignes, AiNrs. Clara Eby, A\Irs. Maude WV. Epplev. A1rs. Ellen R. Futnk, Ars. Ina AL. Fisk, Mrs. Helen Francis. Avirs. Lida R. Goo,(lwNin, Airs. Lola Geiser. AMrs. Grace Hain, Airs. Myra Hughes. AMlrs. Ruth T. Hayden, Airs. Katherine Harmonl, Mrs. Hattie T. Holland, AMIrs. Helen Tohnston, Airs. Blanche link, Airs. Emily McIntosh, Airs. Helen Reynolds. Miss Nellie Rudd, MIrs. Grace Rinehart, Mrs. Nellie Stenimm', ATrs. Leni Al. Smith, Mrs. Sate R. Smith, Airs. Lucy E. Smith, Airs. Ocenia Sears, AMrs. Hattie Thickstun, AIMrs. Alice Voorhis. M4rs. Ida Warren. Mrs. Ella Waldo Gardner, Mrs. Rebecca B. XToods, Mrs. Clara Zeller. Honorary members:-AMrs. Jennie Lodor, Airs. Amelia Biscomlb. THE AMBE-R CLUB. The Amber Club is composed of some of the most intellectual women in Cassopolis. It is unique in its organization, or rather in its lack of organization, having neither governing rules nor officers, and keeping no records. It sprung into existence in December, 8g95, with the follow-ing members: Mrs. Henrietta Beni'ett, Airs. Maryette H. Glover, Mrs. Ocenia B. Harrington. AIrs. Atugusta E. Higbee. Airs. Stella Kingsbury, Mrs. Elma A. Patrick. Miss Sarah B. Price, Mrs. Addie S. Tietsort, Mrs. Ida M. Yost, all of wThom are living and retain their menmhership in the club, excepting the last named lady, who died December 5, 1899. Before the leath of Mrs. Yost the club had held annual banquets, and that year arrangements wvere completed for the banquet to be held at her home the (ay she died. Neither that nor subsequent banquets have been held. Since the beginning of the club three of the members have moved from Cassopolis, but are still recognized as members. The membership has been increased] to seventeen by the addition of the following ladies: Airs. Carrie L. Carr. Airs. Carrie WV. Fitzsimons, Mrs. Calista

Page  340 340 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Kelsey, Mrs. Grace M. O'Leary, Mrs. Cora L. Osmer, Mrs. May E. Ritter, Mrs. Elizabeth H. Sharpe, Mrs. Maria F. Thomas, Mrs. Lulu Yost. The meetings of the club are held weekly Monday afternoons in rotation at the homes of its members. It is purely a reading club. While their reading has been along general lines in history, books of travel and other literary works, they have made a study of Shakespeare a specialty. NINETEENTH CENTURY CLUB. The Nineteenth Century Club of Duwagiac was organized in I889, the first meeting being held September 5th of that year. It joined the state federation in I892, being a charter member of the federation. It joined the county federation in 1902. The club, whose membership is limited to fifty, meets on Thursday of each week from October to June. Wlith its motto, "A workman is made by working," the club has pursued at various times the study of history, literature and art of European countries and America and has contributed to civic betterment by planting trees and ivy about the public schools and library grounds; has donated paintings to the high school and books to the library, maintains a life membership in the Children's Home at St. Joseph, has contributed to the Stone Memorial Scholarship Fund at Ann Arbor; has sent magazines to the state prison at Jackson, the asylum at Kalamazoo, the hospital at Ann Arbor and the Old People's Home at South Haven; has sent Christmas boxes to the county poor-house and in many ways directed its efforts toward practical philanthropy. The club has secured literary and musical talent for home entertainments and once a year gives an open program of its own to the publlic. In local and state legislation the club has secured the passage by the city council of an ordinance preventing expectoration in streets and one prohibiting bicycle riders from cutting corners and riding across private property; has sent petitions to the legislature in regard to placing women on boards of control, concerning cigarette and juvenile court laws; and has sent petitions to the United States Congress asking the passage of the lately enacted Heyburn purefood bill, and also concerning the industrial condition of women, which was the first federal measure to which the women's clubs gave their attention. The following are the names of the charter members of the club: Mrs. H. W. Richards, Mrs. Susan Van Uxem, Mrs. E. L. Knapp, Mrs.

Page  341 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 341 Henry Porter, Mrs. B. L. Dewey, Mrs. Theodore Wilbur, Mrs. Willis Farr, Mrs. H. F. Colby, Mirs. R. B. Marsh, Mrs. F. W. Lyle, Mrs. Augustius Jewell, Mrs. William M. Vrooman, Mrs. H. B. Burch, Mrs. John Gimper, Miss Frances M. Ross. The first officers were: President, Mrs. R. B. Marsh; vice president, Miss Ross (Frances); secretary and treasurer, Mrs. E. L. Knapp. The present officers are: President, Miss Frances M. Rose; vice president, Mrs. T. J. Edwards; recording secretary, Miss Edith Oppenheim; corresponding secretary, Miss Olive M. Marsh; treasurer, Mrs. A. E. Jewell; custodian, Mrs. J. H. Jones. The present members are: Mrs. C. E. Avery, Mrs. S. M. Baits, Mrs. Otis Bigelow, Mrs. Eugene Gilbert, Mrs. B. A. Cromie, Mrs. James Harley, Mrs. F. H. Essig, Mrs. C. B. Harris, Mrs. Thomas Harley, Mrs. C. W\. Ketcham, Mrs. Roy Jones, Mrs. E. P. McMaster, Miss Edith Oppenheim, Miss Frances M. Ross, Mrs. Grace Sweet, Mrs. W. M. Vrooman, Mrs. E. E. Alliger, Miss Irene Buskirk, Mrs. C. L. Fowle, Mrs. H. J. Bock, Mrs. A. E. Gregory, Mrs. W. C. Edwards, Mrs. WM. F. Hoyt, Mrs. Carrie Frost Herkimer, Miss Elma Kinzie, Mrs. A. E. Jewell, Miss Olive M. Marsh, Mrs. J. H. Kinnane, Mrs. H. Wi. Palmer, Mrs. Fannie Wares, Mrs. Ira Gage, Mrs. M. P. White, Miss Mary Andrew, Mrs. Roy Burlingame, Mrs. F. H. Baker, Mrs. A. B. Gardner, Mrs. F. H. Codding, Mrs. W. E. Conkling, Mrs. T. J. Edwards, Mrs. A. E. Rudolphi, Mrs. E. B. Jewell, Mrs. John Warren, Mrs. J. H. Jones, Mrs. J. L. Parker, Mrs. E. N. Rogers, Mrs. C. W. Southworth, Mrs. D. W. Van Antwerp. The Tourists' Club of Dowagiac was organized January 30, I896. There were, at first, nol dues. The only requirements for membership were a common knowledge of English and a genuine desire to learn by study. College and high school graduates, former teachers and those whose education depended mostly on reading, all met on an equal footing and enjoyed together what are called "tours." A country being selected for a visit and a wall map perhaps manufactured, its geography and then its history to the present time is given in topics, next its cities visited as realistically as possible, the motto and flag if a country, shield if a state, noted, and information and pleasure second only to a bona fide visit gained. Beginning at home, the United States was thoroughly explored, then England and France, the countries of southern Europe, this year Holland, Belgium and Switzerland, the next year Denmark, Nor

Page  342 342 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY way and Sweden, and after Europe is thoroughly "done," probably South America will be "visited." A supplementary exercise at each meeting is called "Current Events,' an(l consists of anything in the line of discovery, invention, research of any kind as found in the daily papers, "queer, quaint and curious," often amusing, always interesting. The program opens with quotations from some author of the country studied, or upon some given topic, as "love," "hope," "anger." Good local musical talent, vocal solos and piano. numbers by members or visitors (especially young players needing a ki(nly audience), a little original music and some mild poetry have brightened the programs. The educating influence of the study, the "travel," is plainly seen in many instances and no mother has neglected her children! Though the majority are grandmothers, all are not, and that harp-string of "neglected families" is evidently broken. If housekeeping and other woman's work will not allow two hours of recreation and miental uplifting in a week, it is sad indeed for woman! Lodges are beneficial and so are clubs. The Tourists' Club is pleased to note that while the city press at first accepted reports of their meetings on sufferance, they are now sought as an appreciated part of the news. Thus the assurance that the club has been nol drawback to, the city, but a source of interest and enjoyment to many is a matter for gratulation. The season begins with the first Thursday in October and closes with the last Thursday in May. Some years a reading club of those who had time to spare has met every Thursday during the vacation and has become acquainted with the iliad, the Odyssey, part of the Anabasis and other gems of the classics. The plan of "free-for-all" has been changed to dues of one dollar a year, as the club has joined the county federation and has also local expenses in the way of printed programs, flowers for funerals of members and often for the sick or "shut-in," and other dues. A committee. changed every year, arranges the program and material for the same is obtained from the city public library and from private libraries-often from illustrated leaflets from agents for railroad excursions in various directions and from Baedecker's guide books. Most of the presidents have served two successive years and there is probably not a member who would not make a good p)resident if other duties might allow. An average of four topics a year is prepared by each member and if one drops out volunteers take her work. "Work, not style" seems to be the motto of this club. The memlbership is limited to twenty-five,

Page  343 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 343 but a few more are equally welcome. There is a committee on music and a committee on program, the first appointed by the president, the second elected. The first program from January to June, I896, reads: President, Mrs. F. J. Atwell; vice president. Mrs. C. H. Bigelow; secretary, Mrs. E. R. Spencer. Members:-Mrs. \ Vill Andrews, Mrs. H. Arthur, Mrs. F. J. Atwell, Mrs. O. S. Beach, Mrs. J. O. Becraft, Mrs. M. Hungerford, Mrs. William Larzelere, Mrs. G. B. Moore, Mrs. M. E. Morse, Mrs. R. E. Morse, Mrs. A. Benedict, Mrs. C. H. Bigelow, Mrs. Otis Bigelow, Mrs. H. Defendorf, Mrs. T. J. Edwlards, Mrs. B. Elkerton, Mrs. M. llanders, Mrs. Will Henwood, Mrs. H. II. Porter, Miss Grace Reshore, Mrs. T. J. Rice, Mrs. John A. Root, Mrs. C. L. Sherwood, Mrs. E. R. Spencer, Mrs. Susan Thomas. Mrs. S. Tryon, Mrs. T. F. Wilbur. A few have resigned, a few removed from the city and a few passed on to the better country. In memoriam:-Mrs. M. E. Morse, Mrs. C. L. Sherwood, Mlrs. S. Thomas, Mrs. S. Tryon, Mrs. W. H. Palmer. Officers elected for I906-07 are: President, Mrs. J. O. Becraft: vice president, Mrs. A. Hardy; secretary, Miss Julia Michael; treasurer, Mrs. R. Van Antwerp. Present menmbers:-Mrs. Jennie Allen, Miss Julia A-lston, Mrs. C. Amsden. Mrs. F. J. Atwell, Mrs. C. H. Bigelow, IMrs. J. O. Becraft, Mrs. I. Buchanan, Mrs. M. Campbell, Mrs. L. J. Carr, Mrs. W. V. Easton, Mrs. A. Hardy, Miss Julia Michael, Mrs. G. B. Moore, Mrs. G. W. Moore, Mrs. R. E. Morse, Mrs. F. H. Reshore, Mrs. J. A. Root, Mrs. C. Schmitt, Miss Nettie Tryon, Mrs. R. Van Antwerp, Mrs. Will Wells. I, ALLEGRO CLUB OF MARCEILUS. The idea of a ladies' literary club in Mlarcellus originated with Mrs. Dora Scott and Mrs. Anna \Valters, who constlted with several others and as a result the following notice appeared in the Marcellns NeZws for September 30, I892: "All the ladies interested in a literary club will meet at the home of Mrs. A. Taylor Tuesday afternoon, October 4, at half-past two o'clock to organize." Fifteen ladies were present and an organization was formed under the temporary name of the "Ladies' Literary Club," with the following charter members: Mrs. Lydia Taylor, Mrs. Allie Des Voignes, Mrs. Lizzie Jones, Mrs. Susan Jones, Mrs. Cora White, Mrs. Lena White, Mrs. Effie

Page  344 344 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Grant, Mrs. Allie Hudson, Mrs. Della Hall, Mrs. Laura Hoffman, Mrs. Lena Flanders, Mrs. Anna Walter, Mrs. Dora Scott, Mrs. Fannie McManigal, Mrs. Anna Davis, Mrs. Pearl Arnold, Mrs. Laura Tanner, Mrs. Mary Cooley, Mrs. Mae Schoetzow. The first officers were: President, Mrs. Lydia Taylor; vice president, Mrs. Allie M. Des' Voignes; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Dora Scott; critic, Mrs. Mae R. Schoetzow. It was decided to read the play, "The Merchant of Venice;" to hold the meetings at the houses of the members and on the Monday evenings from October i to May I of each year. The time and manner of holding the meetings has never been changed. The first year several Shakespearean plays were read, as well as some of M\ilton's poems. The title of "L'Allegro," at the suggestion of Mrs. Cora \White, was adopted as the permanent name of the club. The first year's work was brought to a close with a banquet at the home of Mrs. Lizzie Jones, given in lionor of the "martyred husbands," and at which about thirty-six guests were present. The officers for 9o06-7 are: President, Lydia Taylor; vice president, Louise Sill; secretary, Eva Ditzell; treasurer, Amanda Harrington; corresponding secretary and librarian, Anna \Valter; critic, Luvia Lukenbach; par., Edlna Davis. Members October, 1906:-Mrs. Pearl Arnold, Mrs. Fanchon Bailey, Miss Alice Bailey, MIrs. Hester Bayley, Mrs. Josephine Beebe, Mrs. Merle Burlington, Miss Ethel Cowling, Mrs. Edna Davis, Miss Leone Dennis, Miss Eva Ditzell, Mrs. Nellie Goodes, Mrs. Amanda Harrington, Miss Pearl Hartman, AMrs. Allie Hudson, Mrs. Lizzie Jones, Mrs. Bessie Jones, Mrs. Georgia Jones, Mrs. Elida Kroll, MArs. Luvia Lukenhach, Mrs. Emma McMIanigal, Mrs. Fannie McManigal, Mrs. Edna Patch, Mrs. Mae R. Schoetzow, Mrs. Louise Sill, Mrs. Florence Sill, Mrs. Lydia Taylor, Miss.Frances Volknmer, Mrs. Anna Walter, Miss Inez Willard, Miss Lulu WNeaver, Mrs. Kate ~Worden, Mrs. Dora Scott (honorary member). The club work for the first few years was entirely of a literary nature and was confined for some time to a study of the leading English authors, especially Shakespeare, but the scope of the study gradually widened and other departments have been added, including charitable work. The various committees for the year (I906-07) are Sunshine, Philanthropic, Civic Improvement and Forestry, and Audobon. The first printed programs were arranged for the year beginning

Page  345 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY October 5, I896. The club joined the state federation in I9oo and has been regularly represented by delegates at all succeeding meetings. The organization of the County Federation of Women's Clubs was the direct result of the issuance of invitations by L'Allegro Club to those of Dowagiac and Cassopolis to join with it in the matter. Two, clubs in Dowagiac and one in Cassopolis, also the New Century of Marcellus responded by sending delegates and the federation was formed in I902. 'rHE NEW CENTURY CLUB OF MARCELLUS. By the persistent efforts and earnest endeavors of two, sagacious townswomen, Mrs. Parmelia Munger and Mrs. Inez Nottingham, who felt the need of mental improvement and foresaw the benefits to be derived by the mothers and housewives of Marcellus by special literary training and an interchange of ideas and experiences concerning the home and home-making, the rearing and education of children, the help that might be gained by an organized body to those around them; and having a deep desire to better know our own country, its history, laws, government and resources, its neighbors and its relation to them, the Isabella Club of Marcellus was organized October 23, I895, with the following officers and members: President, Mrs. Parmelia Munger; vice president, hIrs. Lovinia Ridgeley; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Almira Welcher. Charter members:-Mrs. Libbie Emery, Mrs. Frances Huber, Mrs. Kate Loveridge, Miss Florence Munger, Mrs. Theresa Poorman, Mrs. Eunice Lomison, Mrs. Jane Shannon. Miss Pearl Poorman, Mrs. Inez Nottingham, Mrs. Sabrina Groner, Mrs. Alice Walker, Miss Edna Welcher. After a lapse of eleven years the names of only six of the charter members remain upon the roll. Parmelia Munger and Lovinia Ridgley are deceased, while others have found new homes and moved from Marcellus. The club membership is limited to fifteen and the club is barred from joining the State Federation of Women's Clubs, twenty-one members being required. It is a member of the county federation. Early in the club year of I9oo the name Isabella was dropped and "New Centurv" adopted, which name the organization now bears. The meetings are held Wednesday, fortnightly, at 2 o'clock in the afternoon. The motto of the club, is, "We plan our work and work our plan." The programs are of a miscellaneous nature, the club maintaining the determination to! study such subjects as are practical and bene

Page  346 346 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ficial. For three years the club has had the benefit of the State Traveling Library. It has also taken a four years' Bay View reading course in connection with the program. It has a small library of its own. There is a social feature of the program appreciated by the members, an annual social (lay, to which the husbands and friends of the members are invited. In I904 the club held its first annual "Pioneer Day," and gave a reception to the pioneers of the town and surrounding country. This day of reminiscences was fully enjoyed by the gray-haired guests, and at their request the club determined to give them one day in each year, and set Wednesday nearest the middle of October as their day, which is to be known and observed as "Pioneer Day." In philanthropic work the New Century Club has kept apace with its sister clubs of larger membership. The club has made a ho'me amoing its members for a friendless child, wjhich has been provided with clothing and books; it has also providled needy children with necessaries, that they might attend church and school; it has cared for sick friends, and sent tokens and remembrances to the aged. It joined with the other clubs of the county in sending relief to the Children's Home of St. Joseph, Michigan. With the L'Allegro Club last year the school children of Marcellus wvere incited to the removing of old rubbish and rank weeds (letrimental to public health, from the back yards and alleys, and beautifying the grounds with summer flowers and( pretty vines. Thus many children were kept from the streets, and their minds from thoughts which lead to vice and crime. To keep the children's minds filled with healthful thoughts small prizes were offered, which made them zealous and anxious to repeat their efforts. The club. year of I906-7 opened September i9th, with the following officers: President, MErs. Frances Huber; vice president, Mrs. Almira Welcher; secretary and treasurer, Mrs. Ida A. Parker. The other members are: Mrs. Kate Loveridge, Mrs. A(la Bucklin. Mrs. Inez Nottingham, Mrs. Bertha Palmer, Mrs. Jane Shannon, Mrs. Georgia Jones, Mrs. Edna Davis. Mrs. Alice Streeter, Mrs. Jessie Hill, Mrs. Nellie Seigel, Mrs. Alice Mack, Mrs. Sadie Shillito. MONDAY EVENING CLUB OF EDWARDSBURG. A number of Edwardsburg's literary women met at Mrs. Mary Latson's November 19, 1894, for the purpose of organization for a systematic study of literature and current events, and for social improve

Page  347 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 347 ment. The organization was effected by the adoption of rules, among which was one limiting the membership of the club to, twenty members, and the election of officers, who were: President, Mrs. Mary Latson; secretary, MLrs. Frances E. Sweetland; critic, Mrs. Lucy Reed; assistant critic, Miss Lydia Blair. The following ladies became charter members: Mrs. Emma A.ikin, Mrs. Mary Carlisle, Miss Eva C. Ditzell, Mrs. Ella Haynes, Mrs. M. Amelia May, Mrs. Frances E. Sweetland. Mrs. Alice Shanahan. Miss Lydia Blair, Mrs. Kate Criswell, Mrs. Hattie J. Holland, Miss Minnie Jacks, Mrs. Lizzie Parsons, Miss Jennie Sweetland, Mrs. Addie Thompson, Miss Bell Blair, Mrs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Addie Harwood, Mrs. Mary Latson, Mrs. Lucy Reed, Mrs. Mary E. Schoch. The club meets every Monday evening from October ist to April 3oth. A different program is arranged at the beginning of the season for each of the meetings, that for October i, 19o6, being: Roll Call-Vacation Happenings. Our Beginnings. Appointing Program Committee for I907-8. Club Song. Social Hour, led by Miss Jacks. During the year, among other subjects, the following will be considered: Pilgrim Mothers, Musical Comlposers, The Indian, MAen Wlho Have Achieved Eminence, The New U. S. Navy, American Bridge Building, \Why Give Thanks, Women's Organizations, The Immigration Problem, The Salvation Army, The Cotton Industry, The Origin of the Stars and Stripes, The South, Old and New, Journalism, Early and Late, Inauguration Day, Why March 4th. Cuba, Opening Up of Oklahoma, The American Desert and Its Secrets, San Francisco, Old and New. At this writing the membership is as follows: Miss Alfreda Allen, Mrs. Frances Case, Mrs. Elizabeth M\. Gosling, Mrs. Mary L. Harmon, Mrs. Martha Parsons, Mrs. Helen Rinehart, Mrs. Addie Thompson, Mrs. Elizabeth Bean. Mrs. Irene Dunning, Mrs. Addie Harwood, Miss Minnie Jacks. Mrs. Julia Redfield, Mrs. Laura Snyder, Mrs. Bertha Van Antwerp, Miss Bell Blair, Mrs. Lenora Dennis, Mrs. Ella Haynes, Mrs. Mary Latson, Mrs. Myrta Reese, Mrs. Alice Shanahan. The present officers are: President, Mrs. Alice Shanahan; vice president, Mrs. Elizabeth M. Gosling; secretary, Mrs. Addie Harwxood; assistant secretary, Miss Minnie Jacks; treasurer, Mrs. Helen Rinehart.

Page  348 348 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Fraternities of various kinds and for various purposes have such vogue among the people that it would be difficult to name all the organizations of that nature which can be found in a single county, and anything like a history of each one would be quite impossible. Of the old orders, the Odd Fellows were the first to get a hold in this county. Cass County Lodge No. 21, I. 0. O. F., was organized February I8, 1847, and has been in continuous existence nearly sixty years. The village of Edwardsburg obtained a lodge of the same order in I85o by the institution of Ontwa Lodge No. 49 on July i8th. The Odd Fellows were also the first secret order to be established in Dowagiac. Dowagiac Lodge No. 57, I. O. 0. F., was instituted September 12, 1851. Following these three pioneer lodges the Odd Fellows have been organized in various other centers in the county, and both encampments and auxiliary Rebekah lodges have been formed. The Masons were not far behind the Odd Fellows. The first meeting of members of this fraternity was held at the old Union hotel in Cassopolis June 12, I852, and soon afterward Backus Lodge No. 55, F. & A. Ml., was organized. Dowagiac Lodge No. io was organized January ii, 1855, and at Edwardsburg, St. Peter's Lodge No. Io6, F. & A. M., was instituted January 14, I858. The Masons have also increased in power and number, and both Cassopolis and Dowagiac have chapters of the Royal Arch, while there are several lodges in other parts of the county, there being one in Calvin whose membership is of the colored men. These two orders are the oldest and perhaps the strongest in total membership in the county. The Ancient Order of United Workmen has been active in the county for thirty years or more. The Maccabees are probably as energetic in fraternal work as any other order, and their numbers are steadily increasing. There are both Knights and Lady Maccabees in the two principal towns of the county. Besides these there are the Knights of Pythias, the Modern Woodmen of America, the Independent Order of Foresters, the Tribe of Ben Hur, the Catholic Knights and Ladies of America, the Royal Arcanum, and various lesser known orders. Dowagiac is the home office of the International Congress, a purely fraternal beneficial order, which has several branches in other villages of the county.

Page  349 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 349 CHAPTER XXV. CASS COUNTY PIONEER SOCIETY. October 9, I873, about two hundred early settlers of the county met at the Court House in Cassopolis, for the purpose of organizing a society. Hon. George Newton was called to temporarily preside, and Hon. A. B. Copley was chosen as secretary. All the townships, excepting Howard, were represented. The chairman appointed a committee consisting of one from each township on organization. A recess was then taken until afternoon. Upon reassembling, Uzziel Putnam, Sr., the first white settler in the county, was elected permanent chairman, and C. C. Allison and W. H. Mansfield, editors of the local papers, appointed secretaries. A constitution was adopted and the following officers elected: Uzziel Putnam, Sr., President. George Meacham, Vice President. A. B. Copley, Secretary. John Tietsort, Assistant Secretary, and an executive committee of one from each township elected. Forty-one pioneers signed the constitution at this meeting. The executive committee met at Cassopolis January 21, 1874, and adopted the by-laws and adjourned to May 22nd, when Daniel S. Jones, G. B. Turner, John Nixon, George T. Shaffer and Joseph Smith were appointed a committee to make arrangements for the first annual reunion and picnic, to be held on the Fair grounds in Cassopolis, June 17. Since that time the society has held its annual reunion on the third Wednesday of June, with a single exception of one year. The last was the thirty-third reunion. These meetings have been largely attended, there being present from four to seven thousand people. Following is a list of principal officers: Year. President. Secretary. Treasurer. I873-Uzziel Putnam, Sr. A. B. Copley Joseph Smith I874-Uzziel Putnam, Sr. A. B. Copley Joseph Smith I875-Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Asa Kingsbury 1876-Uzziel Putnam, Jr. John T. Enos Jno. Tietsort 1877-Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort I878-Uzziel Putnam, Jr. L. H. Glover Jno. Tietsort

Page  350 3150 85() HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY i8~yCeo.I'). Turner i88o-Ceo. B. Turner i88i-Joseph Harper 1882-Jesse G. Beeson 1883-Gilliman C. Jones 1884-Gillman C. Jones i88~-M.T. Garvey i886-S. T. Read 1887-JO-s. N. Marshall i888-H-einry Kimmerle i8,89wi Ezekiel Smith 1890o-Ceo. T. Shaffer 1891-Chester Morton 1892-Abijah. Huyck I1893-Geo. Longsduff i894-M. J. Card i895~-David R. Stevens 186-Henrv Michael 1897-Elias Morris 1898-james M. Truitt i899-Levi J. Reynolds i1o00 ---J. Boyd Thomas i901-Isaac W'ells I902-Ton'n C. Olmsted I903-.john Huff I904-Geo. J. Townsend i905-Henry A. Crego i906 —S. M. Rinehart L. Hf. Clover L. H4. Clover L. H1. Clover L. H. Clover S. S. Harrington C. NV. Clisbee C. WV. Clishee C. W. Clisbee C. W. Clisbee C. W,. Clisbee C. WV. Clisbee L. H. Clover. A. M.-. MToon A. M. M, Ioont R. Sloan R. C. Sloan L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. Hf. Clover L. H. Clover L. H. Clover L. H.. Clover L. H. Clover J no. Tietsort J no. Tietsort J n. Tietsort C. Hi. Kingasbury C. H. Kingysbuirv Jas. H. Stamp Joel Co-wgill Joel Cowgill C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson C. C. Nelson The principal speakers hav-e been prominent men in the state. For the various years the speakers hav-e been as follows: 1874-Rev. James Ashley. i87")-Judge F. J. Littlejohn. 18 76-Covernor John J. Bagley. 8~-Ho. E. W. Keightlev. 1878-H-on. S. C. Coffinburv. 1879-Hon. Lev i Bishop. T 88o-Local Pioneers. f88T-Covernor David H. Jerome. 1882-Hon. Thomas WV. Palmer. 1883 —Governor Josiah WV. Begoole. 1884-Ex-Governo-r Austin Blair. T88,;-Em11orv A. Storrs. i8-86 —Rev. A.. J. Eldred. J 887-Governor Cyrus C. Luice. i888-General L. S. Trowhridge. i889~-Hon. Georgge L. Yaple. T890-Judge Thomas R. Sherwood.

Page  351 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ~ 3 3 a, I 1891 Local Pioneers. 1892 Governor Edwin D. WVinans. 183 vo\ernor Johln T'. Rich. 1894 lHOn. R. R. Pealer. 1i895-,1-ocal Pioneers. 1896-1l1on. Tlhonas Mtarrs.. 1 897-RevA. J. Elidred. 1 898 -Rev-. Reason Davis. 1899-Hlon. \Villiam AIlden Smith, M. C. 1900 - R ev. A. J. Eldred. 1901~-Hon. F-. L. Hamilton. 1902-HoII. Thomas O'Hara. I1903-Hon. Henry Chamberlin1. 190-4-Rev. Nimrod F. Jenkins. 1905 —Governor Fred M.,. areJudlge 0.. W. Coolidge. 1906-Hon. William Alden Smith, Mv. C. The membership of tile Pioneer Society, from date- of organization to tile present, wvith place of residence at time of jo~ining the Society, -andi date o~f settlement and place of birth, is giv~en in the following columns: Name. George Redfield Uzziel Putnam, Jr. George Meacham Peter Shaffer Henry Tietsort John Tietsort William Jones Elias B. Sherman John Nixon Reuben Hlenshaw Ahijah Henshaw Mrs. C. MAessenger George T. Shaffer E. Shanahan Joseph Smith L. D. Smith D. S. Jones G. B. Turner Julia Fisher (wife of Henry Tietsort) H. M~eacham J. R. Grenell Correl lMessenger A. J. Carmichael (wife of Geo. T. Shaffer Residence. Ontwa Pokagon Porter Calvin La Grange Cassopolis Penn Cas sopolis Penn Volinia Penn La Grange Calvin Jeff erson Cassopolis Cassopolis La Grange Jefferson La Grang~e Porter NewbergrZ La Grange Calvin Date of coming Birth Place. to county. Connecticut 1834 Pokagon 1826 New York 1826 Virginia I828 Ohio I828 Ohio 1828 Ohio 1829 New 'York 1829 North Carolina 1830 North Carolina 1830 North Carolina 1830 Indiana 1831 Ohio. 1832 Delawvare I832 Virginia 1832 Cass County I832 Ohi-o 1833 New York I836 Ohio Cass County New York Connecticut I1835 I834 1 834 I833 Ohio I836

Page  352 352 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Charlotte Turner Esther Nixon Miss Hannah Ritter James Boyd Lafayette Atwood Sarah Miller (wife of Chas. Kingsbury) Charles W. Clisbee R. V. Hicks Philo B. White A. D. Northrup Amos Northrup Moses H. Lee Henry L. Barney James E. Bonine Maria C. Jones Samuel Graham John Struble James H. Graham Silas Harwood A. B. Copley Joseph Harper D. MT. Howell Ichabod Pierson G. W. Jones Lucinda Atwood Abijah Huyck Sila Huyck T. M. Tinkler Robert Watson N. Bock Arthur Graham Silas A. Pitcher Adam Suite Justus Gage Jacob Hurtle J. A. Barney S. T. Read Orson Rudd William Sears James Oren Pleasant Norton Rachel Norton Richard B. Norton James Townsend Ezra B. Warner S. D. Wright Nathan Jones Isaac Bonine Lowell H. Glover Thos. J. Casterline Jefferson Penn La Grange La Grange Wayne Cassopolis Cassopolis Milton Wayne Calvin Calvin Ontwa Cassopolis Penn Penn Cassopolis Volinia Mason Newberg Volinia Cassopolis Penn Jefferson Marcellus Wayne Marcellus Marcellus Wayne Dowagiac Dowagiac Dowagiac Wayne Silver Creek Dowagiac Dowagiac Dowagiac Cassopolis Cassopolis Cassopolis Calvin Jefferson Jefferson Jefferson Penn La Grange La Grange Penn Penn Cassopolis Penn Taunton, Eng. Ohio Indiana New York New York Ohio Ohio England New York Vermont Vermont New Hampshire Ohio Indiana New York Pennsylvania Pennsylvania Ohio New York New York Pennsylvania Ohio Ohio Ohio Michigan New York Pennsylvania New York Ohio Belgium Scotland Ohio New York New York On the ocean Pennsylvania New York Vermont Pennsylvania Ohio Virginia Tennessee Ohio Ohio New York Ohio Ohio Indiana New York New York i843 I830 1828 I836 1836 1830 1838 I835 1837 1838 1838 1836 1838 1841 1841 I838 1846 1846 1837 1833 1835 1834 1840 1830 1832 1835 1845 1839 1838 1832 1830 1836 1836 1837 1833 1837 1832 1836 1836 1848 1832 1832 1830 1829 1846 I827 1829 1842 I839 1844

Page  353 HISTORY OF' CASS COUNTY33 353 Asa Kingysburv EIli Green Samuel Squires Leonard Haskins Mfaria MIN. White L. S. Henderson Theodore Stebbins X\Ir s. Theo. Stebbins John S. Gage M-rs. John S. Gage Mrs. Lucretia, Gage.Mrs. TAhomas Tinkler Chester C. MNorton Mrs. C. C. Morton E. C). Tay-lo~r I\'[rs. E. 0. Taylor Ebenezer Copley Georgye Whitbeck Mrs. Geo. Whitbeck.Mrs. Ehenezer Copley Williami G. B'lair Jonathan Olmsted Hlorace V~aughyln Chiauncev IKennedy Johni S. Jacks Horace Cooper David Bemielit Chiarles H1-anev B). F. Wilkinson Chiarles i.\IorganWNIilliam IR. Shieldon Ti1. I-I. Bidlwell R. D. M,\ay\ Sam-uel If-. Lee Johnii M. Brady Noah S. Brady Johni Gill Valenitinec Novcs, 1. 01-. Bughee E-,lizabethi Ii. Bugybee Aaron Shellh ammer Iohn Shiellhamnmer janxls H-. Hitchcox Horace Thompson Mrs. Horace Thompson Joshua Browvn Luciuis Keeler William Trattles M,,,rs. William Trattles Abel Beebe Mfrs. Abel Beebe La Grange Dowagiac \Vavui e Dowagiac Dowagiac Doxvagiac Do-wagiac Dowvagiac Wayne Wayn Wayne Wayne Wayne Wayne \Vavne Wavne Wayne Wyaylne Wayne Wayvne O ntxva. Ontwva Jeff erson Ontwa. On twa Onitwa On twa Onitwa On twa Outwa. Onitwa Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter P-orter AlIassachusetts Cass Co., M-ich. Kentuckv New York Ohio Newv York New York New York New York Newv York New Y-o rk New, York NTe wYork Ohlio New Yorkc New York New YorkNew York New York New York Newv York New York N ew York, \MIassachusetts Cass Co., M-,ichi. OhlioConin ecti cut B1adlcn. Germanv \"New York~ Ohlio Connlecticuti N~ew York New YorkNew IHampshire New York iNMichig-an Isle of Mlan.-New York Vermonit Dartmouith. Engo. Penn s vlvaniia Penn svlvania N \ew York MAassachutsetts New York 'Indliana Newv Yo-)rk Eng-land Canada East New York PennsNTlvamia 1835 1834 1836 1834 1837 1850 I835 1833 1839 1844 1848 1839 1844 1837 1844 1 845 1844 1845 1835 1844 183 6 1836 1844 18-40 1831I 18 35 1838 183 3) 1844 1842 8 35I" 1836 1837 1836 1 835"" 1839 1835 1835 1 83.5 1839 1828 1 828 1831 1831 1835 18315 1836 1838 1836 1 840 1840

Page  354 354 354 ~HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY James MXotley M~rs Jaimes M~otley Georoe Whitedl Mfrs. George Whited M~rs fletsev\ Whited Haill eardlslev i firs. 11 dal I ceardlsley Henry Longy Edwva rd( Lo ng ---7 Oscar Longy-. Mrs. Oscar Long A. H. Long Mrs. A. H. Long Jacob Rinehiart IAlrs~. JacobI Rinehart Alb~ert Thompson Samuel Rinehart Mfrs. Samuel Rinehiart Abram Riniehart Mirs. Alhram Rinehart T. A. H-itchicox Gideon Hebron i(ls. ideoni IHebron Mfarcus Mecl-l'uran Mfrs. Mfarcus, i[cHuran Johin Mf. Fellowvs Amos HuItff James Ml. Wright Mrs. J..Vrigxht Elizabeth Squires George Spicer Mfrs. George Spicer Georg.e Newton Esther Newvton 1\Jilton J. Gard Jay Rudd J. K. Ritter Henry, Shanafelt Mrs. H. Shanafelt 1\Irs. D. Ml. Warner C. Z. Terwilleger James M. Truitt Margyaret P. Truitt Charlotte Morris Hattie C. Buell G. J. Townsend F. H. Townsend John HT. Rich George Lyon Selina Green Tobias Riddle Porter Porter P~orter Porter Porter P-orter Porter P orter I ~orter I "orter IPorter P orter Porter Porter Porter Porter Po'rter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Porter Po,-)rter Porter Calvin Volin ia Volinia Volinia Voliniia Volinia Volinia Volinia \ToIi n ia Volinia Penn Cassopolis La Grange La Grange Cassopolis Volinia M~filto'n Mfilton Volinia Volinia. Penn Penn Volinia. Penn Penn Berrien Co. Engyland New York Mlichigyan Cass Co., MIch Cass. Co., Mlich. Cass Co., MAich. Ohio( i\ [assachusetts Cass Co., M~ich. i\ [assachusetts New York,: i\ assachusetts New YTorkV'iri ni a Germany Tndliana Virginia Ohio. Virginia New -York Newv York England England Cass Co.., MAich. Cass Co., M~ich. Pein svlvania New York. Ohio Ohio Pen nsvlvall ia England Ohio Ohio Ohio Ohio Vermont Berrien Coutnty Ohio Pennsylvania Ohio Cass Co., Mich. Berrien County Pennsvlvania Cass Co., Mich. Cass Co., Mich. Cass Co., Mich. CaqS's Co., Mich. Ohio North Carolina Virginia 1836 1836 1842 i 85o 1834 1838 1 840 1844 184 3 1844 1837 1838 1837 1829 1 842 1850 1 829 1 830 1831 1833 1 841 1829 1833 1831 1828 1831 1 847 1837 1831 1831 T1829 1836 1 829 1835 1 844 1852 1 837 1838 1836 1836 1831 T833 1 829 T8,33 1831 T832

Page  355 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 355 Asahel Z. Copley Leonard Goodrich John Squiers Joln Rinehart Daniel Vantuvl Tames East E. C. Smith M:r.s. E. C. Smith )DaNvid Histed Clarles Smith H1 arriet Smith James Shaw Peter Sturr WVillialm l.-il(lerl)cck Saralil I il(lerleclk lii ram Rogers S. MI. Gr innell Jane l. Grinnell J. FIred l Irritt Nary A\. I'erritt T fartha \ ttaren Nlsonl A\. H- utchings (Geor,- 17vals James \. D)er 'Phe1be C. I)ver Rel)ecca Jones \[arv 1)riskell D-)ennlis Driskell d(lwar(l II. Jones Samuel Everhart M[arv Everhart Thomas \V. ILu(lwick tulia A. t(ldwiclk lAmos Cowgill MIrs. E. E. Cowgill Mrs. M. A. Bucklin Laura L. HIenderson Lewis Rinehart Anna Rinehart Le Rov Curtis Hardy Langston Mary Langston Washburn Benedict Loann Curtis Albert Jones H. D. Shellenbarger Sarah Shellenbarger William Renesten C. C. Grant Margaret Davidson Sarah Hebron NVolinia Jefferson \Vo!inia Porter Jefferson Calvin Howard Howard Cassopolis MIason \ ason H oward Volinia Silver Creek Silver Creek Milton Calvin Newl erg I 'orter I'orter Newberg Newberg Newberg NewberlNewb)erg Newilerg Newberg Newberg Newberag La Grange La Grange La Grange WVavne Porter Porter Penn Berrien County Berrien County La Grange Penn Newberg Porter Porter La Grange Mason La Grange Penn New York New York Ohio V\;irginia New Jersey Virginia New York New York New York New York New York New York New Jersey New Jersev O)hio New Jersey New York New York Cass Co., Mich. Cass Co., MIich. New York Ohio........ Englalid New York New 'York New York Ohio ('hio New York Penn-sylvania New:Yorl Pennsylvania Ohio New York Ollio Vermont Virginia Ohio New York North Carolina V irginia Massachusetts New York New York Ohio Michigan Pennsylvania New York England Nc rth Carolina 1834 1835 1831 1829 i835 1833 I835 I835 1842 I845 1845 1840 1845 1845 I845 1831 I834 1835 1846 1845 1836 1836 1846 1834 1849 1837 1828 1829 1837 I836 1837 1845 I835 1830 1836 1836 1834 1829 1830 1837 1830 1830 1846 I837 I837 1845 I839 1830 1831 I832 I830

Page  356 356 356 ~HISTORY OF CASS. COUNTY Nathaniel IBlackmore J ohn Main, Jr. Jesse G. Beeson IMary Beeson Isaac A. Huff Isaac N. Gard David Hain Leander Osborne Harrison Strong Fidlelia A. Strong 'Margaret Stevenson Samuel Patrick Mloses N. Adams Elenora E. Stephens Wesley Hunt H-. A. Wiley S. C. Olmsted \V. H1. Main Elmira Gilbert K. Dickson Calesta Stratton Lucinda Davis David R. Stephens Eli,-s Jewvell I. A.V Shingledecker Barbara Shingledecker William Weaver Elizabeth Weaver S. H-. Gilbert John C. Clark James P'. Doty RZ. J. Dickson Hannah B. Dickson Elizabeth Card John I-lain Eliz-abeth Gilbert William Saulsbury Peter HuLff Co-ol Runkle Mfargaret Runkle Merritt A. Thompson J. B). Thomas M\rs. J. B. Thomas B. K. Jones Isaac Wells William J. Hall B. F. Rudd Loomis H. Warren Orley Ann Warren Susanah Davis Reuben B. Davis Ontwa, La Grange La Grange La Grange La Grange Volinia. La Grange Penn Mason Mason TMason Jeff erson Ontwa. i\Iason Calvin Ontva. Ontwa. La Grange Porter Dowagilac Doxvagiac Penn sylvania Mlason Wavne La G —range La Grange Jeff erson Jeff erson Porter La Grange La Grange Pokagyon Pokagon Volinia. La Grange Porter Jeff erson Wavne 1\ilton Milton Vandalia Ontxva Ontxva Niles La Grange Volinia, Newbergy Volinia Volinia. Jefferson Jeff erson Newv York 1'l'ichigan Indian a P'ennsylvania Kentucky Indiana North Carolina Indliana New York New York New York Ohlio Vermont New York Vermont Ohio Connecticut La Grange, Mich. Vermont New York Ohio, Ohio New York New Jersey Ohio Ohio, New York M~ichigan New York Ohio New York Maryland New York Ohio North Carolina Engylan (l Ohio Kentucky New York Pennsvlvania. Michigan Pennsylvania O'ntwa, Mich. Ohio Ohio Ohio Vermont New York Cass County Ohio Virginia 1 828 1833 1 830 1830 1830 1829 1 831 1835 1 844 1 844 1 849 184$ i1837 1841 1 836 1 836 1 836 1 840 1835 1 828 1832 1 829 1835 1837 1 846 1846 1841 1 835) 1835 1 838 T843 T1828 1 847 T1829 1829 1836 1833 1 831 1841 -184 1847 T843 1840 1833 1 832 T833 I1834 1837 I1833 1834 I1840

Page  357 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY35 357 John Barber Mrs. Kate E. Barber Leonard Keene Alsey Keene Ebenezer Anderson George Laporte Peter Youngblood John Rosebrough James WV. Robinson Alex. L. Tharp J. H. Tho-mas G. A. Meacham William Clark Ed`Nvin T. Dickson Laban Tharp Lydia Tharp Sanford Ashcraft Abig~ail Ashcraft R. Russell E. Russell B. Lincoln Acacha Lincoln William ID. B'rownell James IL. Glenn I-len rv Kimmerle 1\t f. Kimm-erle IT.)A. Squtier R.It. W\ilev H4. S. Rodgers M. A. Folmer Spenlcer Williams J. WVood A. C. Ellis H1. Mf. Osborn Stepheni Jones Elias Pardee C. C. Allison Josiah Kinnison H-enry Mlichael Hiram Lee David B). Coplev Mr.Abbey H-. Copley H. A. Chapin P. W. Sonthworth Mrs. J. A. Soutthworth Asa Huntington Zera A. Tyler XWilliani Allen Lyman B. Spalding Mrs. M. S. Robinson David Gawthrop Milton M\'ilton Calvin Calvin Penn Wayne La Grange Jeff erson Niles \;iandalia. iason Mason Calvin Berrien County Jeff erson Jeff erson i)enn Penni Pennl P7enin Penn Penin On twa Niles La Grange La Grange Decatur La Grangye Volinia, Mlilton V It'oilto H-owvard \Vavne Penn La,- GrangTe Pokagon La Grangre H-oward -'Silver Creek Calvin Pei-nn Penn Niles V'olinia Volinia, Wayne \Vavne Porter La Grange Niles La Grange Pennsylvania. 1\Iichigyan North Carolina Ohio New Jersey Virginia Virginia Ohio0 Ohio Ohio Vermont New York North Carolina Indiana Ohio Ohio New York Newv York% New York IVermont New York Ohio New York PeninsylvNania. Ohio MN-ichig-an M\,ichig-an Michig-an Ohio Pennsylvania Delaware New York New York Indliana Ohio Oh1io Illinois Mlaine Ohio Tennessee New York New York Massachnisetts Vermont Vermiont Vermont New York Ohio La. Grange Verniont Michigan i 86i 1840 1832 1832 1833 1833 1832 1832 1833 1837 1838 1854 1840 1828 1828 1830 1837 1837 i 863 i1863 I1834 1845 1854 1835 1833 i1837 1834 I 840 1833 18360 1831I 1836 1837 1847 1 829 1844 1848 T828 1830 1835 1835 1835 T836 T837 1836 1842 1846 T848 1839 1 835 I833

Page  358 358 358 ~HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Henry W. Smith M~rs. Nancy J. Smith Eli Benjamin Volinia Volinia Olntwa Ohlio Ohio1 iL'vlassaclhusetts 1832 1836 1854 John M\. Truitt Ann E. Truitt Z. TFinkham John T. Miller W. H. Smith Robert D. Merritt M~rs. Robert Merritt Nathan Skinner Mfrs. Nathan Skinner WV. G. B~eckwith J. '1\1. Jewell ElIias J ewell James S. Odell 1Mvrs. J. S. Odell M~rs. WV. Ii. Smith Jolm Williams Emmett Dunning B. A. Tharp Dver Dunning Emily Tyler C. Nt. Doane Emory Doane Green Allen Isaac Johnson Rnssell Cook Mr.Russell Cook iTV. Carpenter i'vrs. Eliza Carpenter Peter Trnitt J. S. Shaw W. NV. Smith H. C. Parker C. P. W~ells Tamnes P. Smith Snsan C. Smith J. E. Garwood Mrs. J. E. Garwood Joseph Kirkwood Harrison Adams Mrs. Harrison Adams Solomon Cnrtis M\rs. Louisa Curtis Ann Conlter Ann H. Hopkins M~rs. Norton Bucklin NAMES ADDED IN 1877. Mil1ton Delaware Milton Delaware iPokagon New York Jefferson Pennsylvania \"olinia Ohio Porter Michigan Porter Mlichigan P-orter Ohio, Porter Ohio. Jeff erson New Yo~rk NWayne Ohio N'Vavne New Jersey Porter M.Vichigan Porter Ohio. Volinia Ohio, Jeff erson M1ichigan H4oward Pennsylvania Calvin Ohio M,,ilton Pennsvlvania W'avne New York Howard Michigan Porter Michigan Calvin North Carolina La Grange Virg~inia Pokagron New York Pokagon New Hampshire Milton Delaware M\1ilIton Delaware M\ilton Delaware Volinia. Ohio La Grange Michigan Pokagon Ohio P-okagon New York Ontwa New York Ontwa New York Pokagon Michigan Pokagon Ohio Wayne Scotfland Jeff erson Maine Teff erson Mfichigyan ~Penn New York Penn New York Howard Ohio Ontwa Delaware Marcellus Pennsylvania 1 831 1835 1852 1830 1832 1838 1837 1845 1845 1836 1836 1837 i1837 1 842 1836 1835 1 83.5 1843 1834 1846 1847 i1845 1848 1837 1837 1837 i1837 1 837 1831 i1831 1837 i 851 1 835 1840 1840 1832 1839 i 836 1836 1836 1839 1833 1836 1842 1847

Page  359 HISTORY OF1 CASS COUNTY 3( 359 -Irs. J. J. Ritter William R. Merritt, Jr. William- Robbinis Aliatilda P.Griffith Lizzie F'. Tewvksbury W. I. Griffith iMrs. NV. I. Griffith Thiomas J. Foster Amilos Smlith William Condon M~rs. L. Goodlspeedl Daniel Bu1sh Mrs. Juilia Blish Catherine Roo-f Hugih C. McNeil J oseph Spencer Lauira Spenicer Samuel DeCou Isabella Batchelor A.- A. Goddard C. WV. 1\io~rse L. B3. Patterson Haninah -M. Patterson William Hlicks Jacob Tittle Henrv Fredricks Hienir Harmion Henclry Bloodtigood Asa B. Wetherbcee Albram F iero, I'lannah Henshaw Eli Bminp Tames Pollock Leander Bridge Harriet A. Bridge* Ira T. Puitnamn Johni F. Dodge Avril Earl Gamialiel Townsend Johnm Ham., Sr. P. P. Perkins E. P. Clisbee Orlean Putnam Amelia Putnam Jamies, A. Lee Patience Lee John Bedford La Grange Porter Porter MxIilIto n ()ntwa?\ ilIt on MI~ilton St. Joseph Co., Ind. NAMES ADDED IN 18,78.Pelnn Jefferson. Volinia D-owagiac Dowagiac Porter Al ason Wavne AV'ayne Penn M1ilIto n Mlason Dowagiac Po~kagon Pokagon Milton A 1 ilItonI 'Porter Porter Cassopolis Nlewberg La Grange NVolinia Penn Penn NJ arcellus, N ewNberg Pokagon Newberg La Grange L~a Grange La Grange H-oward Oberlin La Grange La Grange Dowagriac Dowagiac Dowagiac M~vichigan Ohlio, Mlichigan Delaware INew York I ndliana 1\Michigyan Nli ici gan Pennsvlvania, Irelandl N\ew York New H-ampshire New York Pennsvlvania Ne Y v ork New York-.,'eNew York T\'ew Jersey New York Connecticuti Vermont Mfichigyan. Cass County England Ohio. Pennsvlvania. Ohio N'ew York New York New York Tin~lian a Ohio: Ohio..New York New York Cass County New York NTe w York Canada West North Carolina New York Ohio NVe w York N,,,e w York N ew- York Ne w York Engyland 1849 1834 1837 1832 1 845 1846 i1842 1848 1838 1836 1839 1839 1836 1835 1837 1837 1849 183 5 183 1851 1838 1845 1836 1830 1836 1840 1838 1833 1853 1830 1836 i 8,o 1845 18355 1827 1835 1836 1826 1831 1834 i 838 182. 1828 1838 1 838 1852 * The first white child born in Newberg township.

Page  360 360 36U ~HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Nathan Phillips George Rogers Abrahiam Rinehart Hannah E. Rinehart John Lvbrook Joseph Lybrook Ellen P. Hlilrey Adelia T. 'Merritt Daniel M,\cintosh Hugh P. Garrett 3john MAcPherson 'William Youtng John A. Jones Zora F.Jones Roderick L. Van Ness Julia E. Van Ness Joseph L. Jacks Dr. A. J. Boughton Matthiew T. Garvey Sarah E. GarveyI Pokagon Ontwa Porter Porter La Grange La Grange Cassopolis Bristol, Ind. Pen n La Grange Jeff erson H-o-ward Cassopolis Cassopolis Cassopolis Cassopolis Edwvardsburg WAakelee Jeff erson feff erson New York New York ~Virgiuia New York 'Virginia Cass C'ounty Wales New York Maryland Ohio Ohlio Verm-ont Pennsylvania, Cass C~ounty Howard Volinia Pennsylvan ia Ohio NMassachusetts 1844 1849 1829 1836 1823 1 846 1835 i1830 1 829 1848 1829 1831 1846 1853 1 845 1852 1829 1836 1846 1 848 Amios Jones William Reames, Charles R. Poe Johin C. Carmichael Salmuel MAorris David -Bea-rdslev Mfrs. Mlarv' Dewvey Valentine Noves U..riel Enos Polkx- MA. Shellhanmi-er Jaivnes W. East Frank Savagye Archibald Dunn Henrv Aldrich Georgye Smifth Mfiltoni Hull XWilliam Law-son E'phraim Hanson Joniathan Colver Sarah Atwoodl Catherine Colyer Arthur Smith Mfary Jane Smith Salicia Emmons LUzziel Putnam James B3. Treat Elizabeth Grubb Martha Norton NAMES ADDED IN 1879. La Grange Jeff erson -NIewbergy Edwardisburg' Volinia, M ason Pok agcon Ed wardsbnirgr M\ilton Porter Calvin. Mfarcell us Newbergr M~ilton Milton Calvin Ontwa, Jeff erson Dowagiac Jeff erson Dowag-iac Dowagiac H-oward P-okag~on Silver Creek Calvin Calvin Ohio North Carolina Ohio Ohio Ohio Ohio Tndlian a Newv York Vermont Oh-io, Tndliana \Iarcellu s New York Rhode Island Delaware North Carolina New York North Carolina Penn sylvania Ohio Pennsvlvan ia New York New York New York New York Ohio Ohio 1 830 1828 1835 1836 1828 1832 1 829 1835 1834 1832 1846 1835 1834 1828 1853 1835 T831 1831 1832 i858 1837 1822 T825 1834 1830 1832

Page  361 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY John A. Reynolds Laura J. Reynolds Joshua Leach A. F. Northrup Charitv Rich N. B. Goodenough (;eorge Longysduff Mlargyaret Seares (George L. Stevens E-lias 1\Iorris C'harlotte Morris Elijah Goble Eliza Goble Levi Springsteen Braddock Carter Caroline Carter Anselnm Jessup Richard C. Ross Mlehitable Ross \Villiarn Hitchcox Elizabeth Hitchcox Georg-e Bement AIJrs. Bectsy Gardner David T. Trtlitt A. J. Gardner David B eardslev Mrs. flelinda Mfiller Anin C. Mliller Lewis 14. M-iller Virgil Turner Arietta Van Ness Elizab~eth D. Keeler Jo-shuia Richardson Eveline E.Richardson Thomas Stapleton Mrs. C. J. Grecnleaf Mfarvette H-. Glover Thomas Odell Henry J. Brown Sadie Hutvck Jacob B. Bireece Sarah MT. Breece Aaron J. Nash Margaret R. Nash William H. Olmstead Sarah A. Olnmstead Jacob Suits Mary Reames John E. Reames. J (ff-erson j eff erson P-enn Calvin Voliiiia, Voliinia Vaindalia La Grang-e I\ ason Volinia, 'Volinia Dow agiac Dowvagiac \Vavne IPorter P'orter Calvin AlIason A [ason Mtason M ason Ontxva \ [Jason Mlilton 7A~ason Masonl 1\ Jason 1\ ason A lason Otntwa Howvard Porter Porter IPorter Cassopolis Dowagilac Ca ssopolis P"orter Porter 1\IarcelluLs Jeff erson Jeff erson Ne cw York New York Vermont V'ermont Ohio0 iNew York Peninsylvania Pennsylvania MAlason VTan Buren Co. P~ennsylvania Ohlio Ohlio,.New York.Newv York \i ermiont Ilndianla New York M\ichigan I1n1liana Ikia soui NwYork 1)ela ware Newi York Ohio0 New~ York New York Ne\v York New York INe Y v'~ork I\Iichigan Ireland Dowvagiyac Cassopolis Porter Michig-an Michigran Pennsvlvania Pennsvlvan ia N ew Yo rk New York 1848 1849 1 833 1838 1829 1 846 i1847 1840 1847 1832 1832 1 828 1831I 1836 1844 1844 1833 1832 1 829 1835 1848 1 841 1 832 1831 1832 1 833 1835 1835 1835 18 5 4 1845 1835 1846 1830 1 851 1846 1831 1830 1839 1 838 1838 1854 1854 1846 1 835) 1835 I1828 i1833 NAMES ADDED IN I88o. Milton Milton Jeff erson Jeff erson New York Newv York New York Ohio Ohio

Page  362 362 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Lo vinia Reames Samuel Ingling Jane D. Ingling J os. H. Burns Ann E. Burns John Bilderback Cy-nthia Bilderback El-,eazer H-ammond Reason. S. Pemberton Margaret Pemberton Erastus Z. Mlorse Israel P. Hutton John H. Hutton Anne MXoorlag Sarah Ann MAoorlag William Louipe Mfary Loupe Jantha Wood William H. Doane Lois A. Doane Jeff erson Doxvagiac Dowagyiac Mlason Mfason Silver Creek Silver Creek M, Ilton, Vandalia Vandlalia Porter B1-)errien County P-orter Penn Penn Porter Porter Howard Howardl Howard Kentucky Kentucky New York New York New York Ohio Michigan New York Indiana Germ-any Vermont Pennsvlvania. Pennsvlvania. Holland. Indiana Pennsvlvania i\Iichigan New York N\,ew York New York 1833 1845 i1845 1847 1 854 1 84 5 1 843 1 844 1 836 1 842 1845 i1846 1 846 1 844 i1870 1833 1 843 1841 1835 i1837 NAMES ADDED IN I881. Gabriel Ebv Caroline Ebv Hiram N. Woodin Martha C. Woodin H. H. Poorman Hlenry F. Hamn William M. Hass Nancy Simpson J. M. H uff josephine B. Smith Perry Curtiss G. W. Sm-ith Al fred Shockley H. B. Shutrter Martin Stamip. A. D. Thomipson C'. MT. Odell Kimmey Shanahan Samuel W. Breece, Jacob Reese Marcus Sherrell H. D. Bowlingy Mfrs. MAary Childs A. 1. Ditz WVilliam W. Carpenter Georgae W. XWilliams Jasper K. Aldrich Mrs. Emily Curtis Porter Porter Mason MTVason Marcellus Edwardsburg La Grange Pokagyon Volinia M'ilton Silver Creek M~ilton Mlilton j eff erson Penn Milton Hoxvard Onitwa, Newberg Milton Jeff erson Pokagyon California TI ason MTilIto n Howard MTilIton Newberg Ohio Germany New York New York Penns5vlvania, Mlichigyan TIllinois Virginia Ohio, Delaware M"ichigyan Delaware Delaware New York Mfichigyan Delaware M\ichigan Michigan -M icIIi laan New York Jeff erson Ohio Indliania New York Delaware Delaware Mfichigyan 1837 1848 1 846 1847 1858 1836 1853 i1827 f 834 1 834 1838 1854 i 833 1 856 1845 1836 1837 1854 1842 1834 1840 1847 1847 1847 1830 1838 1849

Page  363 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ~ 6 363 Enos Rosebrough. George Tharp iPeter Fox John Hess Henry D. Goodrich John 0. Pollock William D-. F'ox Elias B. Lowman John A. Parsons Nathaniel B. Crawford Bvron H. Casterline Georgre S. Bassett David D. Brady Horace Warren' Harvey Depuy Geo~rce B3 Crawvford Asher J. Shaw Robert N. MNartin John R. Everhart Sarah Driscol Everhart John MianningRichard TVI. Williams Jefferson -l oward Jeff erson Jeff erson P.ein H oward Jeff erson Ai liltonl XWayne I'enn Dowvagiac. Penn N ewbergy'. IPenn La Grange Howard Penn Porter Porter Porter Co., Ind. La Grangre NAMES ADDED IN 1882. Dowagyiac Volinia Volinia i\Jas~on Pokagon Wavine Vandalia Dowvagciac Necwberg Newberg Cassopolis Calvin Jeff erson iAlilto'n \IM ichig-a n Michigican Delaware Ohio illinois 01hio Delaware Ohio MtichigTan Newv Jersey \ [ichigan Ohio. Ohio IAhichiga -New York Ohio, M ichigan Ohlio: Pennsvlvania, Oh1io Michigan Ohio 1839 1 842 1839 1 841 1843 1 830 1846 1 854 1848 1855 1847 1 842 1837 1851i 1855 1847 i 86i 1832 1829 1834 1851 Cyrtis Tuthill N'icholas Haller Catherine Haller Samuel Stevens John F..Bnirnett Mfarcnis L. Mlorton.,Nioses Cro-sby Sarah Stanard James AlI. Chapman Mary Chapman Simon B). Poor Henry B. Wilson Ira Stephenson J. H-. Beauchamp New York P —russia Ohio Newv York New Jersev Wavne New York New York Ohio New York N~ew York North Carolina Ohio M"ilton I855 1857 1851 1830 1853 185o 1837 1845 1844 1844 1827 1854 1834 1847 NAMES ADDED IN 1883. James G. Hayden Jacob Allen, MI. D. Henry Thompson Ed(mnnd D. Bement Sarah H-. Simpson Harriet Benedict William H. Smith Melissa J. Smith Hannah L. Hall Charles Ferrell La Grange Riverside, Calif. Mason Ontwa Pokagon La Grang-e Howard Howard Cass Co. Wayne * Calvin NL\ew York Vermont O-ntwa New Hampshire NTew York Howard Howard New York Ohio 1854 I1834 1838 1852 1836 1857 1837 1844 1841 1833

Page  364 364 864 ~HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY NAMES ADDE-D IN 1884 AND 1885. Lenguel Smith Hiram Jewell ANlonzo Garwood Sewvell Hull E~dward Chatterdon Benj. F. iBeeson Nancy Osborn Ellen Jackson Turner By)rd Jonathan Hill Jacobi Hill William J. Abbott Elias M. Ingyling Alice E. Shanahan Damnarius Allen Rufus WV. Landon Tarins Avers James A. Williams El.iza M. W~eatherbyv S~arahl Fox Milton Cassopolis C-assopolis Pipeston e Hoxvard Calvin Penn Calvin Calvin Flkhart, Tnd. F1-ayette Co., Ta. Miilton Dowagiac Ontwva Mfasonl Niles Penn Ed~wardsburg Newberg Howard Delaware New' Jersey Ohio,Vermon t New York Indiana New York Calvin North Caroliiia Cass Co. Pennsylvania, Delaware Ohio Ontwa Massachusetts Connecticuti New York Mfilton New York 1833 1832 1 850 1836 1836 1833 1837 1835 1847 1832 1839 1 843 1(848 1851I 1835 1832 1837 1845 1 845"" 1 844 NAMES ADDED IN T886. Pleasanit Arnick Abram HuTttchins Roxania Bement Janie Jenkins H-arriet Patterson M. ary A. HoughyltalingTlenrv S. Qulick Eliza'Smithi Chicago Newberg —1 Ont~wa Po'kagon. Newer Newberg La G3rangre M~ilton Diamiond Lake Newv York New York Ohlio Penn svlvaniia Ohlio New Tersev Dela ware 1 834 1835 1837 1 848 1858 1833 T1828 John Keegan Thomas Kirkwood Me\Tliss,-a Kirkwood Mlicajah P. Grennell TMargaret Pearson Anna MT. Shurter 1\NTrs. Ctirtis NAMES ADDED IN 1887. Jeff erson '"ayvn e Wayn e Var' (lalia Cassopoli s Jeff erson Cassopolis Ontwva Ohlio Ohio New JerseyI Ohlio 1 845"" 1836 1849 18.34 1 828 NAMES ADDED IN 1888. H-en~ry Stevenson H-enriette Stevenson.S. H. Mforse Tamies L. Simpson David Thomas Penn Penn Pokagonl Indiana T849 1842

Page  365 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY36 19 a rl 0 v ty James Griffis Parmelia, N. Griffis Eliza F. Hunit Phineas Nixon Grace S. Pound.\I'arv, A. Dunn Harriet A. Root Henry D. Arnold Mtary Dunn Arnold joseph W. Sturr Levisa Sturr Stephen A. Nichols -Mary A. Nichols Nelson I-edger Sanmuel McKee NAMES ADDED IN 1889. \\'`ayne Wkayne Calvin Penn Newberg Newberg La Grange Newberg Newberg 'vTayne Wayne Nebr Newberg Jefferson Newberg Pokzagcon Geneva Calvin Penn Volinia i\Iason Cassopolis MA-ason I-illsdale New JerseyI Ontario Ohlio Engl1and New York NewbergynI 1831 1 831 1833 1839 1839 1840 1841 1837 1840 1840 1 840 1835 1843 I1823 1848 NAMES ADDED FROM 1889. TO 1895. Jouidan P. Osborn Rhoda M. Huiey Simvra Spencer Abner Brown Betsey J. Stephienson Cassopolis Penn Cas s Co. Volinia M ason Tndliana New York New York M\ ason 1842 1844 1852 1837 184.4 Lovina Allen Hlaithcock BlienetAle II. i-\[arqutis Gibson Percilla, Casey Ford Richmond Lake Fredl A. Hadlsell Henry A. Creg-o Henry AN7. Hiarwo~od Joseph Foresman W~illiam H. Owen Robert C. Slo-an Byroni F iero Iva Wrighit Fiero W-illiaml R. Sheldon Mfilton W~ripght Elizabeth Mlver s Wright. NAME,-S ADDED IN 1 896. C'aIvinI Calivinl Calvin (7,alvi ii PennI Ic iferson V\olinia Ontwxa LT a Grange Calvin Cassopolis La Grange La Grange Edwvarclsbuirg La Grange La Grangce Ohio0 Ohlio North Carolina North Carolina Ne York TN [assaclitusetts Newherg-7 Milton Penin slvania Mlasonl New Yorkc La Grangre Volinia AMichigan Wayne Volinia 1848 1847 1854 1 850 1 844 i855 1 842 1846 1844 1 838 1842 1853 1 868 1 8I3 3 1833 1837 Ulyvss-es S. Eby \Villis H~aithcock George H-. Curtis M..ercy Wood Zelner WXVl agror NA'MES ADDED IN 1897. Porter Calvin Calvin Dowagiac Jo-nes Po~rter North Carolina Indliana Kent Co., Mich. New York i 865 I846 1856 1878 1844

Page  366 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Rachel Shanafelt Urnberfield Andrew C. Foster Rea-son Freer J. 1-I. W'arner James -Xd oreland~ \V'illiam Laporte ElImore F. Lewis,V-illiam I'eoog J. J. Cables Cynthia Allen Cables W'illiam IH. Beeson Nimr-od i\Muncy La Grange Volinia Cassopolis Vol inia Volinia La Grang(e N ewl7 ) crg( — Pennl Volinia \Volinia ILa (irange D owagiac Ohio Ohio New York Newv York Volinia La Grang-e New \.)ork New York Pelnn Indlialna La Grange 1838 1845 i 866 1837 1 840 1834 1847 1832 1850 1 849.1832 1833 I'darv A. I-lass Daniel -AI. Fisher James TI1. Abbott John B'edlfordl 1Phillip NVare NAMES ADDED IN I898. Al I iltonl lloward( '-lilli II n1(ialla I'1!oward D elaware Elngland Ohio0 i86o 1837 1844 i1862 i 866 NAMES ADDED IN 1899. H —iram Cobb Nellie TBeardlslev Cobb William Bntts L-everett FL. ~athier Nathian G. Stanard Lora Beardslev Stanard ITla Springsteen Benedict Timothvy B. Benddict Silas El. Thomas William J. Primr-ose David Judlie Johin D. Williams Henry\ L. Case Cy-nthia, Tyler Case Clara MT\ea~d Zeller ( )ntw-a ()ntwa N\ [Iltonl IIowva rd( Po(rter Porter L-a Grange La Grange Penni Jeff erson Volin ia Cassopolis N oi M.la son Cassopoli s Ohlio NI ichki(an V\I i ch ioan Con necticnt.F'orter Porter La Grangec La Grange Indlianla Delaware Penn svlvania Jeff erson Ohi-o Necw York Ontwa 1844 1891I 1 854 1 856 1 847 18,50 1 864 185 '842 1 844 1 867 1 837 1 856 1 848 i86o Thomas M. Seares Perry A. Cays Elwood East Mfortimer 0. Hadden Susan Foresman Harriet Stephens Emily Wheeler Geo-rge Scott Olive Parm-enter Scott Samuel Hawks NAMES AT)DE-D TN 1900. La Grange La Grange C-alvin Volinia. La Grange C-alvin Dowagiac Volinia Volinia Calvin La Grange La Grange Calvin Newv York New York New York Virgyinia New York Ohio Virginia 1840 1836 1 843 T1842 1847 i 866 Ti86o 1 837 1 86o I859

Page  367 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY NAMES ADDED IN 1901. AM argyaret Hedg-er Olimsted Je2fferson Roval Salisburv flowvard Ilnuiiid. Landlen J elt erson I atilina Allen Landen J eft erson AbMrai 1-1. I-laff \Iini ia NAV. C. (Griffith -AII Ilton \Vm. -1I. C. H ale Calvinl Thomas Ml. A,-reux Ilefferson Luicy Regnall A reux J eff erson E'lizabethi Itiise Stevens i\ I ason N (1 irmont iNxv Nork Nv?(1 olinia P111+di1n1 IN I ason 1 844 1852 1851 1835 1831 1 839 1 864 1 867 1867 1843 I.-tither J*. Pi r xJosepih Iarker (iceolmo)c Green Frianklin TI WAolfe A zron F. ltiriiiex.,\obcirt 1Patters~on Calhvin A. CollevI NAMES ADDED IN 1902. Dowagiac A Itarcellus La Grang-e NVand(alia \Vakelee Deccatur N\ewbmer Ail asoil fKalanmazo-o Co. Ohio0 leff erson Ohlio (Geriman v Voilina 'Ohio, Lenawe.-e Co. -A [alson 1852 I1848 18531 1833 1834 1 841 1 865 18415 NAMES ADDED IN I903. P hilo BrowN. n 1lerliert E. A loon Israel llartsell Charles 1B. Zeller Johin R. Carr it —lwin White George F. Holliway Edwin NV. Beckwith Warren W. Rey-nolds George B. Mi'cNiel George- A[f. Rivers H-arsen 1). Smith Charles Harlfelter Allen M. Kingsbury \Villiami Hartsell Franc A. Lamib John J. Fisher Eber Reynolds Edward Keegan Timothy B. Kingsbury Gertrudfe Ferris Kingsbury Chiarles Tietsort Charles A. Ritter Joseph Graham Charles E. Voorhis Erneline Crandall Voorhis Calvin Cassopolis G-as~sopol is Ca sso o1 is I "orter Cassopol is Jefferson Cassopol is Cassopolis (assopolis Casscopolis Ca ssopolis5 La Grange Penn Cassopolis Cassopolis Cassopolis Jeff erson La Grangre La Grange La Grange Cassopolis Cassopol is Cassopolis Cassopolis New- York IPokag-on Ohlio, Nova Scotia Porter Ohio. Cassopol is Jeff erson New York New York New York Ohio Casso-polis Ohio Indliana Pokago~n La Grange New Jersey Georgia Berrien Co. Cassopolis Cassopolis5 Pennsylvania Pennsylvania New Y~ork i86o 1852 1850 1 866' 1 865 1854 1850 1848 1851 1835 1 864 1870 i 86o 1856 1845 i 868 1870 I1841 1840 18~52 i'868 I1843 1844 1853 1853

Page  368 368 368 ~HIS-TORY OF CASS COUNTY Wilbur F. Pollock Cassopolis Julia Hice Pollock Cassopolis Marshall L. Howell Cassopolis David L. Kingsbury C'assopolis Samuel Anderson Cassopolis Alamandal J. Tallerday Jefferson Sterling! B. Turner C'assopolis Jacob, H. Osborn V'andalia Lewis Freer Vlandalia W,,,illiami Green Vandalia ()mear J. East Vandalia David Long Yzandlalia Frank NAT. Lambert \Tandlalia Alice Osbornie Lambert Vandlalia Fred G. Pollock Vandlalia \Villiam Heaton Vandalia \Vm. I-I. H-. Pemberton Vaniidalia Delancie Penmberton Vandalia Narcissus L-ewis Vandlalia Jeniinie Muftlrine IKeene Vandalia Harry T. Keene Vandalia H-erman S. East Vandlalia Fiora Jamies East Vanclalia Charles, W. East Vaidalia. Elfleni Curtis East VTandalia Chiarles WV. Chapman Vandalia Clarenice L. Sherwood iDowagyiac joseph R. Edwards Dowagyiac F rank] W. Lyle Dowagyiac Barak L. Rudd "F orest H-all' Bert Claskv Dowxagiac Ira Tietsort Detroit Orville W. Coolidge Niles Perrv A. Tietso~rt Detroit Charles C. Philhrick Grand Rapids An\idrew F. Catil MXarcelluis Robert HT. Wiley Dowag-iac Clituis W. MAartin Cassopolis Isabel Grimm MINartin Cassopolis Sarah Buinberrv Shaw Howardl A~sher J.ShawN I-Towardl M!varia Shawv Kennedv 1ioward Catherinie Cullen H-oward Ma,,rcaret Rtunkle Kingsley. Ontwa W~.ilII liam A. Wright Volinia Clara MA. Wright Volinia Charles 0. Haefner Vlinia Jolhn H. Root Volinia Simeon Htnff V olinia Benjamin F. Graham Volinia Linicoln P. Gard Volinia Cassopolis SIt. Joseph Co. Cassopolis La Grange Berrien Co. Elkhart Co. Cassopolis Cass County New York Ohio Calvin In dian a Rhode Island Cass Co. Pen n Ind(han a Iniaian Cass Co.. Cass Co. \Tanlal ia Kalamazoo Co. Cass Co. Calvinl Calvini Penni Ohio Pen n-sylvania New Jersey DowNagriac NewbeI~rg La Grang-e Cassopolis Tjlwardsburgy Cassopolis Cassopoli s Pennisvlvania Cassopoli s Brownsville Becrrien Co. H-owardl H~oward H-oward M1\ilton Voliniia Volinlia Volinia Vohiniia Pennsylvania, CI-a ss Co. Volinia 1854 i868 I1847 i1867 184I 1845 i85 I 1857 1867 1832 1 867 i1867 i 868 1853 i 868 i185 7 1 841 i851 i85o 1864 i868 i868 1842 1851' 1 850 1 868 185-6 i 86i 18('46 1878 1835 1839 1832 I1844 1856 1853 T857 1846 1869 1854 1849 T 86o 1 864 187T 1870 1849 i 868 i86T

Page  369 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 33 369 M. Blanche McIntosh Link Volinia, C'harles E. Osborn Cassopolis James H. Leach Penn Nathan Marsh Cassopolis Sarah Hunt Marsh Cassopo-lis Adaline Robinson Tietso rt Cassopolis Florence M.L Tietsort Cassop~olis Adaline M. Philbrick Grand Rapids C. Fred Ho-over Porter Hiram R. Schntt Jeff erson Ezra Pearson Calvin Lydia Langsdnff Garter Penn Joseph. H. Wetherbee 'Ne wb er g Nancy Honts Wetherbee Newberg Abel Hamilton Dowagyiac Adelbert M. Smith Ai\'ilton Justin A. Dunning M-NfilIto n John B edford Howard Keziah Ingling McOmibc r Dowagiac Sarah Ingling Parker Three Rivers Allison B. Thompson MVilton Charles C. Aikin Edwardsburg Emmia Spragnte Aikin Edwardsburg, \'ifarv E. Solomon Schoch Edwardsbnrg John C. Schoch Edwardsbnurg Daniel S. Strvker E~-dwardsbnirg Kate M.,illiman EdwardsbnrcRichard J. Hicks Edxvardsburg Mlarctis S. Olmstead Edwardsburg Marv Ketcham Olmstead Edwardsburg George A. Tuesley EdwardIsbnrgc Cass~ins N.Dennis FdAwardsbnirg Andrew J. Ttiesley EdwAardsbnirg George A. Shetterly Edwardsburg Jesse Title Edwardlsbnrg Henry- Andlrns Edwardsburg James H. Andrns E-d wardsburg Edward Hiro~ns Edwardsbnrg Jnlia Tietsort Gates Detroit C'harles W. Tietsort MVendora, Ills. Abraham L. Clendenen Vandalia Thomas J. Mealo~y Vand~alia Cynthia Fisher Mealoy Vandalia Alfred J. East Vandalia William T. Oxenford Vandlalia Demia B~rodv Oxenford Vandalia Tacob McIntosh Penn WV. WV. Hollister Vandalia Frank Swinehart Vandalia Silas H. Thomas Penn El1vira Bogne Thomas Penn Penn Cassopolis Penn Oh io Ohio Vermont Cassopolis Cassopolis Elkhart, Ind. New York Ohio0 New York Plennasvlvania, Penn svlvania, M~lilton INfilton Encgland New York New York Delaware Ohio Indliana Ontwa Pennsvlvania Penn svlvania, Penn sylvania. Mfilton Ontwa, Penn svlvania Howard St. Jos. Co., cIn. Jefferson Ontwa Van Buaren Co. 1Kan sas Ontwa 1\,Iilton Ca ssopoli 5 Cassopolis Nexvbergg Cass Co. Cass 'Co. Calvin Penn Penn Penn Penn. nd iana Tndiana Penn i875 i849 I847 1854 1854 1 86.4 1858s 1839 1877 1843 1 862 1876 1876 1836 1859 1847 1852 1 856 1836 18 3 6 1856 1856 1842 i 86i 1 863 18S6 3 1847 1857 1877 i 866 1847 1 862 i1865 1857 1 863 1 837 1836 1830 1837 i 86i 1838 1843 1836 i1867 1870 1840 I855 187-2 1842 1836

Page  370 370 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Emily A. Smith Owen James H. Beauchamp Sanmuel B. ITadden Davis W. -Ball Edwin G. Loux Mary E. Shanafelt-Wol Josephine Shanafelt-Me Adelbert Kram TBishop E. Curtis John -Tildebridle Sarah Lutz T-ildebridle NAMES ADDED IN 1904. (al vill \ [ilton \,o'ilina Vandalia cott La Grange r1win La Grange Ed (1 wa r(ldsb ro Calvin -Pe)llt 1len('1 Calvin I (dwarl sbu rg New York h11io Jefferson La C( range La Grange d,(ldar(lsl)brg I (liana I'ennsvlvania Pennsylvania 1840 1847 1867 1835 1842 I8-0 1857 1855 I865 i865 HTerbert Solomon Vincent Realies Fliza Grtbb H-{arllon Tolin C. T-arnion iPrell B,. Wells THa[iinah Crane D)ihhle NAMES ADDED IN I905. 'I ones Perlll Cas sopolis L.a Grange 'I Towa rd La Porte Co., Ind. Jefferson P-rown sville Porterl WrVavne New York 1850 1832 i837 1847 i86i 1854 C. H. Kimmerle Gorden G. Huntley C. E. Lyle Marquis D. Witherell Elmer W. Griffis Jerman S. Draper Henry Springsteen NAMES ADDED IN I906. Cassopolis Howard Dowagiac Volinia Volinia Volinia Wavne LaGrange Howard Dowagiac Volinia Wayne New York New York I859 I850 I855 I845 I86I 1837

Page  371 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY O;7 1 ClHAPTER XXVI. RELII X(,EI()X \i) T I!-!I-1' (_I-IU.lCtlhEIS. In tle preceding cllapters w\e hlavxe (lescril,e(l nllla!uv phases of Class coulttv's lliqtorv- an(l llave eludeax v r(l sc-) far as possilhle t( ogi -e ta compirehensive accounlt of its illstituitions and its lpeolle frill tIle first settlenient to thle i)resenit (late. ]:or thle last w\e hlave reservel al;Iccoullit cf relioi(los illlltiences and(l cllrl-chll -oraniza:tiolls anlld J)ellnalities. it co-ncluldes thle listorical narraitive w\ith a certain llhappy l1)r1p'iet\. 1lor religoion lhas w\ell -een calle(l the capstonlte of the (arcih of life, lbinding, toogethier an giving-ill stal'ilitv! to thle othelr l arts —thel culm natitnat of tile hopes an(l experiences of the human race. h11 ulhl, 1l last to lhe descrilbedl, religion \was 1!v no neau,~s last amllnllg the sta(,es (of dlevelolpment in the civilized life of Cass ccunty. rTle pioncers dicl nc1t leave tlheir reli,,ion helhindl xw!en they settled here, hut h1rough'lt it with thlem. In thle first settlemenlts that w\ere fore(ld thlere were pro)lalyl' not a sufficient nu1111ber of (any\ one sect to fo11rm a clhurch h1; thle:nselves, all so they worsliped togetiler. lThe pints of (loctrine or practice w-lich divide(l them \-ere h.eld in ableyance. persons of each sect yielded a little for thle go)(l of the lwhole. and in a spirit ofi unio1 and Christian toleration they ca me tog etiler and eachl one tried to derive all the goodl lhe coutld fro(ni the mneetings, exercises and discourses. For a time there were no church lbuildlins. lbut schoolhouses \-ere soon erected, or private hotuses served for the purpose, and there in the winter, or in the open air in summer-, the people assembled. The pioneer religionis meeting was spontaneous, necessarily had little formalism, and the first meetings, unrecorded in history, were of the kind told about in the Bible, where "tw-o or three met together" to give expression to the rich and sincere feeling within them. This kind of worship was largely individual, was inherent in the nature of the pioneer man and woman wherever he was, and was not necessarily dependent on the organized religion known as the church. CATHOLIC CHT-URCHES. Of the first representatives of organized religion in this county there is, unfortunately, no definite record. As we have made clear in an earlier chapter. the first Christian influence to penetrate the wilder

Page  372 372 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY ness of southern Michigan was that emanating from the devoted priests wvho, of their own initiative, or close in the train of those who conquered the land for the King of France, sought to win to their religion the souls of the heathen red men. The names of the early fathers who may have passed over this region are not accessible, and the only monument they have left is the zeal and self-sacrifice with which they undertook their cause. From the letters of the Jesuit Father, Joseph Marest, we get some of the earliest descriptions of the St. Joseph country and its Indian inhabitants. It is known that the Jesuits had a mission on the banks of the St. Joseph at the present site of Niles, established in the early years of the eighteenth century. But this disappeared years before the pernlanent settlement of this region. The work of the French Catholic missionaries left a permanent record for the historical times of Cass county. When McCoy and his associates founded the Carey Mission they found that many of the Pottawottomies still clung to the Catholic ritual and mode of worship. A knowledge of some of the religious holidays, such as Christmas, was found among them. After the removal of the Indians from this country, Pokagon and his band of Roman Catholics located, as we know, in Silver Creek, and there formed the first organized Catholic commtunity in the county. Forty acres of the lands purchased by them was deeded to the church, and on this tract, in 1838, was built the first church in the township. Pokagon, it is related, met with some difficulties in the construction of this edifice. His white neighlors were rather opposed to the religion espouseld 1b the Indians. The Indians were unequal to the task of raising and joining the building which they had planned, and( without the assistance of the white man's skill they could not have proceeded with the construction. John G. A. Barney, the well known pioneer of the township, was appealed to, and at once promised his assistance. When the timbers were in readiness he and his three hired men quickly raised and framed the building. The church, of hewn logs, was twenty by thirty feet, standing on the north shore of Long lake. It was destitute of any floor but the earth, and the seats were roughly cut benches. But services were held here by various priests for five or six years. This was the beginning of the Church of the Sacred Heart of Mary. which might well be considered the visible monument to the work begun by the Jesuit priests almost two centuries before. In 1844 the first regular priest was assigned to this congregation.

Page  373 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 373 About the same time a school was established and conducted by Father Marivault, and later by the Catholic sisters. This school was supported from the government annuities of the Indians. About 1847, when Father Baroux was stationed here, the church was remodeled and was. supplied with pews. This church, established by the indians. w\as the nucleus of the Catholic settlement in this cou-nty. One of the first white settlers to becoime a communicant of this church w\as Dennis Daly andl his brothers, Patrick and Cornelius. When Mir. )Daly soon afterward attend(ed the services he and one other person were the only white worshipl)ers, all the rest being Indians. This was the bleginning of white influence in the church, and with the sublsequent removal of many of the Indians and other causes of (lecline, the Chulrch of the Sacred Heart came in time to be the place of worship of whaie Roman Catholics almnost entirely. In I858 a new church edifice was erecte(l, Aiugustine J. Tolpash being foremost in the Nwork which lrouglht about its construction. Extensive addlitions wvere made to this l)uilding, and in Septembler. I86i, the building was completed 1practically as it standls today. Thlle church organization l)ecame almost inactive for some -ears, andl when Father C. J. Roeper blegan his l)astorate in 1875, it was necessary to unlertake many repairs an(l restorations. rThe church menllershil) has renlaine(l about the same through variouss periods. it being now al()out fifty families. The Dowaagiac Catholic church began its organize(l activity al1bout I858, although the first house of worship was not erected until I872. This, the first edifice of the Clthurch of the Holy AMaternity, was (le(licate(l \ugust 3o, I876. The same priest has always serve:l l,(tlh the Silver Creek and Dowagiac churches. the present pastor leing Rev. Jolmn G. WVall. In I892 the present beatutiful brick church, on North Front street, was erected. The first church had been located at the upper end of Orchard street, and for some time was the smallest church in the city. To Rev. Joseph Joos, who assumed the pastorate in 189T, was due much of the credit for constructing the new church, at a cost of $i;,ooo, and lbringing the nlembership from fifty to abosut one hundred and fifty families. METIIOiDISi' EPISCOPALI. ORGANIZATIONS. The Methodists have alvways been pioneers of evangelism. Throughout the middle west their circuit riders and missionaries-have algpeared

Page  374 374 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY usually first, and always amonog the first to dlevelol) the religious si!e of the scattered communities. Of the begTinnings of MAethodism in Cass comiuty a contributoir to the collections of the Michigan Pioneer Society hIls this to say: Rev. Flrastus IFelton, who was appointed September 29, I829, by the ()11hi colnference to the St. Joseph Alission, lal.ored( in Cass, Berrien an(l St. J' selph countties. anl( i1 tlhe follorwing ear returned to tile s't fiel(l w\ithl Leonard B. (;urlev!s assistaint. (.lasses wee lpr bl formle(l tllis year onl thie s(ull s'(c of' 1 ear(ls.lcv's prairie and on Yo"0gIllmw's prairie ( Pe lnn towlvnshiilp). 111 8.1 1 elt(ln. was alppointed to tle iKalamazo.t. mission, andl Rev. 1'. 1. Robe to the WAayne circuit, the latter bein pr llilnnlt 1111among tile \ tl(d(list ( \\wor-krs in tlhis scti()o. raling,,C fr-om ) K alalmazoo "(on lhorseback!and with the traditional saddlebags,'" kev. Ri,(1'e establislhed lpreaclingn at Little Prairie Ronde (Volinia), Youn() 's prairie, )i'' d l il e, ( sspolis, T. in ' l PlhOikal(,n and Beardslev's Xp' i: ''i.i ' e 1' l e e \C et. —e iu 'tio,-,s 1 all, arrai ] lc(l so lhe cm il! c (,. c.c i,ii e in:fur wee.:1 \ October 12,;1834. I'l tiie c ternoc in ~ i co utyi'', ' l ia, tlhe St. -1'seph cic: il 'a ririe-''i c c. i. R(-iiinson andi th-e (.a:. - polis circuit lv 1'. (\ ce. In t'e slc er lxev. T(olc for(llmed n. cla.,s in Silver Creek, Nrst1.lianil V\\ ciid leinu tlie class leadler. t thi e oranization(n f the lPo!ygk')- l 'iri c!11.11t '1, il 1lS32, d.ard! IPwerls wa.appliilnt:ed class le(all,. tlie, ' ', crst 1leetis were held in Powers' log houlse on Polkagon creelk. Thle aMichigan conflerence wvs ira' nize( in 1i83(., 1it it was 'nt until 1J] j that e t the s(utlet rt,f the state was attached t- its. jiisdictionl. At the first conference in Masal!l the (ldw-arlds!ur clhar-ge was represented b1 Revs. J. Byron il (l D. Knox. From this (lesclripti(n oi tlie eneoral status of MAethodism in the. county, we nmay proceedl to mention) tihe individual organizations. Edwardsturg evidentiv had the first, or certainly one of the first, classes. But the legal organization was not effected by election of trustees until February 13, 837, lwhen the corporate name was adopted and tlhe following memlbers elected as trustees: Hiram Rogers, Clifford Slhana'han, Henry A. Chapin, Leonard Hain, Asa V1. Smith. Tlie Eldw'rdl(sburg church has had two brick buildings during its history. 'l'The Methodists and Presbyterians in Edwardsblurg are now about on a par in point of strength and membership. At Cassopolis the Methodists were early active, as noticed in the

Page  375 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 375 precedingy paragraphs. But for a numlber of years the circuit riders held their meetings in the courthlouse and schoolhouses, and it was nnt until 1855 that Joshua Lofland and William Shanafelt gave to the denomination a house erected on Rowland street in 1846 hb Jacob Silver and Joshua Loflancd as a church edifice open to all lenominiations. This buildingo now forms the front lpart of F. MI. Fisk's (idr1 store. On the lot, on Rowlalnd street, from -whlich the old bhilding halal been remove~l. the society lbilt in 1874 the present Methodist church andl pnrsnna'e, at a cost of albout SSooo. The hitildingo committee were Vr. NV. Peck, William L, Jakwavs, D. B. Smith and John Boyd. Rev. E... Baldwin is the present pnstor of tle snciety, and the trustees are Tohn Atkinsinl. Wm. B.. HaVden, NV1m. H. Coulter, F. Tav BrownT. Willinm P,Berkev. Horace Cob(!l-b. Tolln Tilton. T-Tnlrvev Noccker. There are,!abont 13r names on tile churcl roll. The tMethodlists wvere active in the vicinity of Do\waianc bleftrc anV villln:'e lanrd b-een? platted. The "Cataract House" w.s the 1 il of earlv mcl'^i 's under th-le lirectinn of the circuit rider. R. C. cc!.. already Pe1Ctin;e1,. \Various lav prenchers directed the work licre f,.1' some yea.rs. Inl T8QJO the churcl h wls orlan1ized. anld was klnownl as th-ll N;invn-ae ciri-ril unlil T '2. -!when the lename Downo-iac first amninear'-. n Methodis't ni;inteok Tbl, t,1't!cs- appointed in that ve-r were Sl rawlhoiBowlint'...\. 'i '' TTctw'?:':l, Rnober t RNItson!,. Sanm1el Bell, BenT,jn1in Be11 Tohn T TT7uf.i P,l. ench,!-rhwitl w,lio wer e sonme of tle early leaders in! Metholdism il D-varinc. T'lhe churlch huil'linll, in whicl! tle MtetlIdists h1ave -worslhine(l for- hCen1rly half a centnlry,. wna ere(tct il Tr.c) while Rev. F. T-T. Dn wns rnstor. Tlhe earl-' et-:lilinenl - of n 'Tetqliodis1r class on Pr-okac' n nrnirie has been described. The M'etlhodist cu!-rclh t Sun111crville orio;inated in a very successful revival meeting' hleld on, t-le prairie in Til 1. The meetings were held in a sciholhonlse for nmore thlan ten vears. and in 1854 the first buildincr was completed. La CGranl"e ws also a field nf llabor for thle early MTetholdi-ts. T1ie church at La. Grano'e village wa-s nriganized Novenmber TO. T858. at tile holuse of Charles \Van Riper, w1ho wans one of the first trustees, the others being Tlnhn A. Van Riner, \ashllhurln Benedict, Ahram Van Riper, Jacob Zimmerman. John S. Secor, Toshlua Lofland, Joseph W. Sturr. The 1house of worship wras erected sooni afterward. The church, like the village, hls been on the decline for many years. and its memhership is reduced to twenty-seven. Rev. E. A. Baldwin, of Cassopolis,

Page  376 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY has charge of the society, and preaches for them each Sunday afteinoon. The present trustees are: Timothy B. Benedict, James \V. Springstein, James Curtis, Mrs. Ida Benedict, Mrs. Samantha Curtis, Fred B. Wells, Clarence F. Wells. The Methodist meeting held on Young's prairie in Penn township by Rev. Felton in 1831, had a regular house of worship, but for many years in the interim the meetings were held at private homes or schoolhouses. The first legal organization of the church took place June 17, 1858, its trustees being M. P. Grennell, David J. Whitney, Harrison Launburg, Joseph Jones and \William Russey. The church was reorganized in 1876, and in 1877 the church edifice at Vandalia village was erected. l'he trustees at the time were John Lutes, A. Bristol, William F. Bort, Isaac Reiff, L. Osborn. The North Porter Methodist Episcopal church was organized in 1846, with fourteen members, Hiugh Ferguson, G. W. Black and Nathan Skinner being the first trustees. Services were held in a schoolhouse until 1858, when a church was erected on section 12. The Methodist church building at Union village, now used principally by the Free Baptists, was. erected in its first form in I858. Owing to a revival of that year the Methodists of this vicinity were very strong and built the church without outside assistance. In 1877 the church was rebuilt at a cost of $I,300. Coulter's Chapel, the Methodist organization in Howard, was erected in I858 at a cost of $I,300, being located on section 13. The charter members were James and Ann Coulter, who gave the site and liberally toward the building; Dennis and Cynthia A. Parmelee, Eliza Smith and Elizabeth Young. Rev. Felton, above mentioned, held religious meetings in Milton township in 1830, and the first society of this denomination was instituted in 1832. Concerning the organization of the first society the following miscellaneous record dated July I, I839, tells: "In accordance to previous notice given according to statute providing for organization of religious societies, a meeting of members and hearers of the M. E. church convened at the schoolhouse near Cannon Smith's in the tolwnship of Milton for the purpose of organizing a society by name and title the First Society of the M. E. Church in the Township of Milton." The three trustees elected were James Lowery, Thomas, Powell and Nathaniel 0. Bowman. A church edifice was erected on land donated by Cannon Smith in section 14, and has been called Smith's Chapel

Page  377 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 377 because of the liberality of Mr. Smith. The church was repaired in 1856 and I877, and was rebuilt in I879. The town hall in Milton was originally built by a Protestant Methodist society. The Silver Creek M. E. church dates back to 1843, when Leroy L. Curtis, Erastus Stark and Delanson Curtis and wives formed the first society, the first named being leader of the class which was held at his home. The schoolhouse at Indian lake also was the meeting place for some years. In Calvin township are two M. E. churches supported by the colored people, the Bethel A. M. E. church being located at Calvin Center, and Mlount Zion in section 23. Mount Zion is the oldest and the parent African Methodist Church in the county, having been organized in I849 by \Matthew T. Newson. Meetings were first held in private houses, then in a log church on the present site, and then a neat frame building. The first trustees were Richard Woods, Benjamin Hawley, L. Alrcher, Lawson Howell, William Scott, Joseph Allen. The Bethel church congregation, which is an offshoot from that at Mount Zion, was organized in I856, and their church at Calvin Center was erected in 1870' at a cost of $800. The Volinia Chapel M. E. Church, colored, was another branch of the Mount Zion church, and their church on section 36, of Volinia, was built in I872. The first trustees were R. Jeffers, William Walden and Henry Lucas. Quinn Chapel, another Methodist Episcopal church composed of colored people, is located at Cassopolis on the east side of O'Keefe street west, near the Air Line depot. The society was organized in I898 by Rev. J. I. Hill, its first pastor, with J. R. Stewart, William T. Harper as trustees. The society's church edifice cost $I,ooo. It now has a membership of nineteen, and a Sunday school with an average attendance of twenty-five. Its present pastor is Rev. J. H. Alexander, and the trusteeship has been reduced to two acting members, J. R. Stewart and Abram Drenshav. The first Methodist service held in Marcellus township was conducted at the house of Joseph Bair in I838, and the first class was organized in 1842, and a second the next year. These soon became inactive, and no class was organized until 1862, when services began at Bly's schoolhouse. The brick church in Marcellus village was built

Page  378 378 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY in 1874, largely throughl the work of Rev. John Byrnes, the energetic pastor. The M/ethodist church at Jones originated at a meeting of the Methodists in the Baptist church at Poe's Corners, or the town center, ill 1872. The meetings were held in the Baptist church there, later at Davicd 1ailfield's store in J()nes, and later in the public hall at Jones. The charter!nemblers uf this society were: David Flairfiell, Louisa Fairfield, M. E. Tharp, IPhoebe Dyer, Ilizal)eth Pound, Sarah Rumnsey, J. E. V`an Buren, Estler IBrooks, Elsey Bomws, Mlrs. Alexandler, Jacob lRulnsev, Andrew- Correll, S. T'odd, M[targaruet Todd, Catherine Cook. There are also Mlethollist societies at Corev and at \Vakelee. 1A I'PTIS'T C I t Ic URH Es. On tle autlority iof tle Re\. Supply Chase, theic \-:t in 183( a Baptist association!l.now(11 \ aV Ia i(.range in thle sotthix-est par t of the state, which hadl een (organi:zed al()out 183 -35, g 'r, wig' (t of the inllnig'ati;n1l to that t opait f the sta te. N doublt refrc,:e is mte to) tlhe church at \\Wlitnl ille, to whiich the )oundller of -: ' \illa'e hla(l d1onate(l a lot w\lClen le ltted tlle village. \ church \'- 1 iil Oln this lot. lbut hlotll thle bluil{ldi It th' oro nizatio, cnl t l,r;''a i, time. At Edwai dsburgt thle B al)tisL clhurch must hlave bl ell e r.11i as soon as, and pei lal)s i)efotre, tlhat of La(,range. Ai r. J. C. ()llste' is authority for the statement that tlhe church w\as organized at the house of Dr. IDunning on the prairie about I835. This is affirmed by the legal record. wlhich is as follows: '"\t a public meeting of the male memibers of the Pleasant Lake Baptist Chuirch and Society, held at dx\\a clsbur, Mayt 14 1835.;:: Isaac l)nnino alnd \l-ro( Strong were chosen presiding officers, and IIt. B. Dunning-, clerk. Myron Strong, Luthier Chapin and Baralk Mead were chosen trustees. It was resolved that the society be known as tile Pleasant Lake Baltist Society." The Baptists were the most flourishing of all the church societies dluring the first ten (or fifteen years of Edwar(lsburg's hiistory, but for many years there lias been little or no activity among them. They have a frame house of worship, but no regular services. The Dowagiac Baptist church was organized in I85, the first trustees being I. S. Becraft, D. MA. Heazlett, Archibald Jew\ell, \. H. Reed, E. Ballenge, Jacob Allen, S. E. Dow, Isaac Cross, H. B. Miller. The present building was erected in 1852. Present membership is

Page  379 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY37 379 132. Pastors since 188o: E. R. Clark, N. R. Sanborn, H. A. Rose, G. M. H-udson, H. F'. Masales, Ross Matthews, A. M. Bailey and M. F. Sanborn, present pastor. In -igoo a $i,6oo parsonage wvas erected onl the chnrch property. In 1905 the. church building was remnodeled and enlarged at anl expense o f $2, 000. At present there is no indebtedness and the wvork seems to be advancing. The Baptist church at Cassopolis was organized M~arch 8. 18(02, wvith the following charter memibers: Elder Jacob, Price, Sarahl B. Price., Sarah B3. I b-icc, Jri., El ten Pi-ice, IAlary Price, Carrie P rice. JP* A.Lee, Barak I\Iead, Harriet A. ead, E'lizabeth A.Alagins N obert Hi. Tripp, jemimia Sm-ith. The present buildino' wvhich was the first owned b the sciety, was not bIl uni188 the dedication taking, place March i6, 1869. It was bulilt at a cost of about five thousand dollars. The membership is now about eighty-five and the presenlt trutee ar FrnkAl. Fisk, Chas. 0. Harmon, \Villiam H. Berkey and Rev. R\). L. Bobb-itt, pastor. 11lni aptist church, at the northwest corner of section 28, wa-s erectedaottweyversgo but the society had existed inl that to\\ nIIIt11 I, h Itv I moy 1CeIuf_- oro,,ed as a branc II1I theC )owmaya chureh. jamies (Chutrchill, Lev~i Churchill, Isaac Cross and Josiahl Bonid and~ thenr t tntlIies w etc tIN: conic-tituient members (91 the society, but inl a shor t t~in e the menrtbetrship li tel increaseIsd so that they wvere formed 1 ewt 1 1 C~d'Iteiil iijtieideLtischchtCalIso orpanlize(l the B. _aldwin It)rair ic B ptist church at Union, inl eb muary, 1857/, with six chlarter menmlcirs. The church edifice wa,,s built in the e-arly seveniiles, at a co.st. of 8> 5,uo, and a parsonage was erected later. Thie Baptist church of N'ori HPIoirtei wvas org-anized in Augoust. 187,5 that it is one of the oldest Baiptist societies inl the county. They erected a brick church ini 1857. The charter members of the society w~vere: Alanson Mc~luron and wife, IHenrv Aiarsh. and wife, Allila Sherrill, Almir11a ( iillert. (i'atherine iiiJehron. James Hadlow and wife. Rebecca Davison, Orson Virgil, Ozial Storey, Allr. Godfrey and Air. Hu-tbbard. The IFree Baptist society (if Porter township worship in the Methodist church building at Unio~n. This society was organized lin i866 with a membership of sixteen..A record inl the coutylt clerk's office states that the First Baptist

Page  380 380 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Church and Society of Jefferson Township was organized December 7, 1843, the meeting being held "at the Baptist Liberty meeting house in Jefferson township." The trustees elected were Joseph Smith, Pleasant Norton, David T. Nicholson, William Zane, Isaac Hull. This organization was preliminary to the building of the church on section 12, in the following year. The society had been in existence, however, for some years, their worship having been conducted in a log house, which was the "Liberty meeting house" mentioned. The first officers of the society had been Andrew Grubb, deacon; Adam Miller, moderator; Isaac Hulse, clerk and treasurer. The First Regular Baptist church of Newberg was organized June 8, 1841, and after worshiping in private houses and schoolhouses the society erected in 1858 a church on section 28 at Poe's Corners. The colored people of Calvin have the Chain Lake Baptist church on section 13. This society was organized January 4, I848, with eight charter members, Harrison Ash and Turner Byrd being the first officers. A log church was erected about I850o, and in I860o a frame edifice, costing $1,200. The Free Baptists support several churches in the county. The one at Union has been mentioned. They also have a building and services at Brownsville. Their ministers were among the first to preach the gospel in Wayne township and all along the Chicago road they held meetings. A church was constituted in Mason township in pioneer times, and in the fifties a house of worship was erected in Adamsville. This burned down and in the late sixties a church was built on section 5. There is also a congregation of Free Baptists in Pokagon, which was organized in 1854 with the following charter members: Z. Tinkham, J. H. Darling and wife, Melissa and Martha Tinkham, and Miss Potter. A church costing $I,o50 was dedicated in February, I86I. PRESBYTERIAN CHURCHES. The beginnings of Presbyterianism in Cass county have been well and accurately narrated by J. C. Olm,sted. At the seventy-fifth anniversary of the Edwardsburg Presbyterian church, which was celebrated March 6-7, I906, he prepared and read a sketch of the church which abounds in historical data not only with reference to the founding of this church and the work of its first missionaries, but concerning many other features of pioneer life in this county. The following pertinent quotations have been excerpted from his article:

Page  381 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 381 "The pioneer missionary and founder of the church was Rev. Luther Humphrey. I became acquainted with him in 1836, when I came with my parents to this place. He was still carrying on missionary work here and in the vicinity. Born in Connecticut, a descendant of Pilgrim ancestry, and a graduate of a Methodist Episcopal college, he was a typical New England clergyman, and always said grace both before and after each meal. In his sermons on sins of omission and commission, the rewards of the righteous and future punishment he gave no uncertain sound. He was a great friend of the Indians and roundly denounced the treatment they received at the hands of the Governor, saying that they were constantly driven from their homes further west. When Iowa opened for settlement I heard him remark that he hoped no white man, at least no Christian white man, would go there to disturb them in their rights. So radically opposed to liquor was he that he would not officiate at any communion service unless sure that the wine was the pure juice of the grape. An abolitionist and an anti-slavery man of radical type, he would use no products of slave labor, no cotton in his clothing and no sugar except that made from the maple tree, also no molasses but that made at home from the green stalks of corn. I often assisted him in the making of his molasses, helping to strip the blades from the stalk and driving the horse to turn the mill that crushed them. His molasses partook too much of corn stalk flavor to be entirely agreeable. The making of sugar from beets or molasses from sorghum was then unknown. "The records show that he was commissioned as missionary by the American Home Missionary Society September 30, and was given as his field Southwestern Michigan, then comparatively a wilderness. He arrived at the site of Edwardsburg October 2, and I have heard him describe it as consisting of a few log cabins built of poles or small logs standing among the bushes and hazel brush that covered the town site. So well pleased with Beardsley's prairie was he that he decided to make it the center of his missionary work here. He accordingly purchased a farm and erected about the first frame house on the prairie, and the fine tree now standing in front of B. F. Thompson's house was planted by his hands. His first sermon was preached two days after his arrival in the log house of Jacob Smith, and all his first sermons were preached in the log cabins of the settlers, not even log schoolhouses having then been built. "Some time later it was desired to form a church, and a meeting was called March 4, 183I, Rev. Humphrey and Rev. William Jones preaching the sermon, and a call was then made for all persons wishing to organize a church to come forward. Three came-Sylvester Meacham and wife Hannah, and Sarah Humphrey, wife of Rev. Humphrey. They adopted' this resolution: 'That we shall admit to, our communion as members only such persons as shall agree to abstain wholly from the use of ardent spirits as articles of drink, manufacture

Page  382 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY cr traflc. and that this h1e the standing rule ill this clhurch. should one be formed.' March 6, 1831, these three constituted a church of Christ, two infants were baptized and the Lord's supper administered. The records show three more members were received in I831, four in 1832. three in I833, six in I834, three in 1835, and nine in 1836, the year in which I came. In I843 a revised list shows sixty-eight members. "Rev. Humphrey did not confine his work to this church. When I came here in 1836 he was engaged in missionary work, preaching in scattered settlements both in this and Van Buren county. An Oberlin college student named Jeffreys preached several times during the summer of I836. Rev. Mr. Cook was stationed as supply in I836-39. He resided on Harris prairie, driving to this charge once in two weeks. "In 1837 the first public school l)uilding was erecte(l, and in the fall of the same year the frame of the Baptist church was raised, but a-Ias not completed and occupied until 1840. The Presbyterian meetings. from private houses, were hleld first in the schoolhouse and afterwards in the Baptist church in the afternoons, the Baptists occupying it in the morning. In the summer of 1840 Rev. Botlghton. of Niles, preached twice a month, and in 18.4i and a part of 1842 Rev. Noah Wells, of:Iiishawaka. preached once in, two weeks. In 1842 the lot where this church now stands was purchased and the building for church purposes commenced. It was a plain chapel building, 25x30 feet, and was raised and inclosed that summer, but no more was done at that time. In November, T842, Rev. A. S. Kedzie was employed as stated supply. He said that the church should have morning service every Sunday. and as no other place could be found it was held in the school building. This caused the work on the chapel to be resumed. The original plan being thought too small, fourteen feet was added, also the belfry, and all was completed during Kedzie's ministry, he being the first to occupy the pulpit. Rev. Alfred Bryant was the pastor after Kedzie, he moving to the village in 1844. Rev. L. C. Rouse came in the fall of 1847, and in I849 he was installed as pastor by the Presbytery, being' the first minister to be installed. "The old building was long and narrow, with low ceiling. Rev. Rouse urged the erection of a new building, and in I853 it was decided to rebuild. In the summer of I854 the present building was raised and inclosed. but was not completed until January, I856. Rev. E. B. Sherwood was the pastor in the fall of 1855, and dedicated the new church February 7, I856." The Cassopolis Presbyterian church was organized March I9, I842, with ten charter members, of whom Mrs. Joseph Harper was the last survivor. Harvey Bigelow and Samuel F. Anderson were elected deacons, and Rev. A. S. Kedzie was the first regular minister, beginning in November, I842. The building of a house of worship was com

Page  383 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 383 menced in 1845 and dedicated in November, I846. This building was occupied until the present handsome brick church on the corner of State and O'Keefe streets was completed December Io, I893, at a cost of about five thousand dollars. The church is now free from debt. There is an active membership of about 70, with thirty or forty on the retired list. Rev. E. C. Lucas just closed a two years' pastorate May i. I906. The trustees are J. R. Carr, D. L. French, L. H. Glover, \V. L. Jones. Frank Miller, J. H. Eppley, and the ruling elders Dr. T. Wi. Anderson, J. R. Carr, James McNab, L. H. Glover. A Sundayschool and a Christian Endeavor organizations are also maintained. CONGREGATIONAL CHURCHES. As is well known, the Congregationalists and Presbyterians for many years met on common ground and worshiped on the "plan of union," lwhich has influenced the relations of the denominations even to this time. The Edwardsburg Presbyterian church was formed on this plan. The only active Congregational body within the county at this time is at Dowagia;c. The movement to organize the Dowagiac Congregational church was started by a missionary from the Connecticut Domestic Missionary Society in 1849, and in the following year the organization was accomplished at the house of Patrick Hamilton on July 9. NnAmong those prominent in the church at that early time were H. C. Hills, Harvey Bigelow, L. R. Raymond, I. S. Becraft, Gilman C. Jones, Patrick Hamilton, Milton Hull, Asa Dow, N. B. Hollister, William K. Palmer. The first meetings were held at private homes or in the old schoolhouse which stood on the site of the present Methodist church. The society erected its present home. a frame building, in I856. CHURCHES OF CHRIST OR DISCIPLES. The Church of Christ at Dowagiac was organized in 1874, the charter members being: James Finley, Eunice Finley, Jasper P. Warner, Urilla Warner, 'Samuel Ingling, Jane D. Ingling, Uriah F. Ingling, Amelia G. Suits, Charles Smith, Frances Smith, Kate E. Brunner. Sarah Wixan, Thomas J. Casterline, Rachel M. Casterline, Theodore T. Winchell, Louisa M. Winchell, Elias M. Ingling, Rachel Ingling, Mary Stoff, Lambert B. Dewey, Amy Dewey, Eliza Clark, Jennie Buckley. Charles Gardner, Mary Miller, and Reason Williams. The present building, which is a very substantial frame structure

Page  384 384 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY with stone foundation and basement wall, was built in I876. It is 40 by 65 feet, with basement room of 34 by 36. The basement has been recently remodeled and contains beside the main room the furnace room, kitchen and dressing rooms. With main entrance at front, with a stairway leading from the baptistry, which is situated at the rear of the pulpit in the main audience roomi. The ladies' parlor is a room over the entrance to the main auditorium, I6x28 feet, so situated that it can be opened into the main room in the form of a gallery. The present membership of the church is 250. The simple plea of the disciples is No Creed but the Christ; No Guide but the Bible; No Name but the Divine. The present minister is G. G. Horne. Oak Grove Christian church, located two miles west of Cassopolis, inherits the history of the Oak Grove Baptist church, which was organized in 1843 under the full name of "The Old School Regular Prim.itive Baptist Church of LaGrange by the name of Concord." The first meeting was held at the house of Yorkely Griffin, and the Roberson, Griffin, Huff and Ball families were represented by the charter members. The society erected a building at Oak Grove about 1848, and was a flourishing church for some years, but died down in the early sixties. In July, I881, the property was turned over to, the Christian church. The Silver Creek Church of Christ was organized in I86I, and the church was built in T865. The charter members were: J. F. Swisher, Millie Swisher, David Dewey, Anna Dewey, Betsey Dewey, William Pray, Mrs. William Pray, Henry Moore and wife, Alva Tuttle and wife, Andrew Barnhart and wife, Elias B. Godfrey and wife, Avery Smith and wife, Henry Keeler and wife, Horace Grinnell and wife. The first society of the Church of Christ in the county was formed in Penn township in the early forties and for many years held services in homes and schoolhouses. The legal organization was effected March I5, I855, with Ephraim Alexander, John Hurd, Stephen Jones, John Hollister, Reason S. Pemberton, and John Alexander as trustees. In the preceding year the church edifice had been built in Vandalia and the church put on a substantial footing under the direction of Rev. David Miller. A society of the Church of Christ was organized by the people of Glenwood in Wayne township in 1874, the society being incorporated September 29, I874. with the following as trustees: Oscar F. Hall,

Page  385 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 385 Alfred H. Turner, Craigie Sharp, Josiah B. Laylin, John W. Burns and M. D. L. McKeyes. The house of worship was built about the same time. A Church of Christ society was first organized in Jefferson township in November, I847, the nine charter members being: Henry W. Smith, Sabrina Smith, Peter Smith, Sarah A. Smith, Edmond Thatcher, Phoebe Thatcher, Reuben B. Davis, Susannah Davis and Mary Cooper. Meetings were conducted in a schoolhouse until 1851, in which year a frame church 30 to 45 feet was erected. A Christian church society was formed at Dailey about I878, the meetings being held in a schoolhouse at first. "FRIENDS" SOCIETIES. With all pioneers, after comfortable homes comes the wish for schools and churches, and Cass county pioneers were no exception to this rule. When we speak of comfortable homes memory takes us back to the neat hewed log house and barn of the year I84o, when the "Friends" of Cass county began to consider the time ripe for the establishment of a church of their own faith. For some time they met and worshiped and then: by direction of a Northern Quarterly meeting held near Marion, Indiana, Birch Lake monthly meeting was established and the opening session held August 7, I84I. Francis Sheldon was appointed clerk and Joel East, treasurer. Other officers were Stephen Bogue, Richmond Marmon, Ishmael Lee, Joel East and Josiah Osborn and an apportionment was made at this time to raise five dollars to defray the expenses of the church. A branch meeting was granted the few Friends who resided at Door Prairie, near La Porte, Ind., later in the year I84I, and the Friends in Cass county thought it no hardship to drive across the country to mingle with these "brethren" and give counsel in the Lord's work. In those days it was no uncommon thing for members of Birch Lake meeting to ride on horseback to Marion, Ind., to attend the Quarterly meeting at that place. This was frequently done by Stephen Bogue, and sometimes his daughter, Mrs. James E. Bonine, accompanied him, riding the entire distance in the saddle and over corduroy roads much of the way. About this time a few of the members of Birch Lake meeting became so conscientious in regard to the use of goods produced by slave labor, that they withdrew and organized a society known as "Anti

Page  386 386 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY Slavery" Friends. They would not use cotton cloths, sugar or anything they knew to be made by slaves. There were a number of these societies in different parts of Indiana. The meeting in Cass county was held in a log building in the grove on the farm; of the late James E. Bonine in Penn township, and known as the Elk Park. The pastor was the Rev. Charles Osborn, a renowned minister among Friends, and hereinbefore mentioned in this chapter, and father of the late J. P. Osborn of Cassopolis. His only surviving child is Mrs. Ann East of Buchanan, Mich. In the same log building the Anti-Slavery Friends had a school for their children, James Osborn, son of Charles, being one of the first teachers. This little company of devoted Christians soon found they could not cope with such a monster as slavery and their self-denial did not prevent one stroke of the lash or cure one heartache of the black burden bearer, so they returned to the mother church after a few years of fruitless effort. In 1848 an "Alternate" meeting was established at "Prairie Grove," one mile south of Penn and continued until a church was built at that place about the year I880. Having plenty of money and more zeal with a strong desire for a better house of worship, James E. Bonine and others began the work of building the brick church at Vandalia in 1879. James E. Bonine, Stephen A. Bogue, Silas H. Thomas, W. E. Bogue and Henry Coate were the first trustees and the church was dedicated the 28th of December, I879. Robert W. Douglas of Wilmington, Ohio, preached the dedicatory sermon and Rev. Henry Coate became the first pastor and was probably the first minister in the Friends church to receive a salary, it being one of the tenets olf the church that the Gospel should be free to all. Now there are many salaried ministers in the society. There were branch meetings established, one at Long Lake, near Traverse City; one at Log Chapel. These branch meetings, with Penn and Birch Lake, constitute Vandalia Quarterly meeting and are loyal subjects of Indiana Yearly meeting, the largest body of "Friends" in the world. At Birch Lake a neat little house has taken the place of the primitive log of years ago, and though not one of the first members lives to tell its history, a goodly number of their descendants meet on the same

Page  387 HISTORY OF CASS COUNTY 387 spot to worship, living in the same faith, upholding the same principles. FIRST UNIVERSALIST SOCIETY OF DO\XNAGIAC. This society was organized December 18, I858. In the following year a building was erected and the regular departments of church wor