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VASCULAR FLORA AND PLANT COMMUNITY TYPES OF THE OTT BIOLOGICAL PRESERVE, CALHOUN COUNTY, MICHIGAN

Anna K. M. Bowen Department of Biology, Miami University 700 E. High St. Oxford, OH 45056 mille773@miamioh.edu

J. Dan Skean, Jr. Department of Biology, Albion College 611 E. Porter St. Albion, MI 49224-1831 dskean@albion.edu ABSTRACT

The Harvey N. Ott Biological Preserve in Calhoun County, Michigan, comprises ca. 121 hectares (298 acres) of terrestrial plant communities that include oak-hickory forests, hardwood swamps, a prairie fen, and a highly disturbed remnant understory of former oak openings. This property, now owned by Calhoun County, was once owned by Albion College as its nature center. From September 2011 to November 2012, we conducted a floristic inventory of the area after having studied relevant herbarium specimens and an unpublished checklist of the area prepared by Dr. William Gilbert. Gilbert, who was a professor at Albion College, conducted an inventory of the vascular plants of the preserve from 1946 to 1954 and made 656 collections during this period. Based on current circum- scriptions and names, Gilbert documented 460 different species, 63 (13.7%) of which were intro- duced, including 36 (7.8%) that are now considered invasive. We hypothesized that the percentages of introduced and invasive species of all taxa have increased since Gilbert’s study. During our field- work, we documented 290 species that Gilbert collected that could easily be identified and made 292 collections of graminoids and other species that were either difficult to identify in the field or were not documented by Gilbert. Of these collections, 136 represent newly-recorded species for the pre- serve, which, when added to Gilbert’s total, makes a total of 596 species recorded for the preserve. Of this total, 124 (20.8%) are introduced and 73 (12.2%) are considered invasive, which supports our hypothesis. Of the three currently state-listed rare plants that were documented by Gilbert, only two were relocated in 2012: Geum virginianum L. and Amorpha canescens Pursh, both listed as special concern. The third species, Cypripedium candidum Muhl. ex Willd. (listed as threatened), was not observed. A route for a portion of the North Country Trail through the preserve was finalized during this study. We hope that our work will provide useful baseline data for preserve management and stimulate more botanical studies of the area.

KEYWORDS: Vascular flora, floristic inventory, southern Michigan, plant communities, invasive species

INTRODUCTION

Encroachment by invasive species and habitat loss are two factors that affect native plant communities (Bossdorf et al. 2005; McCauley et al. 2013). To un- derstand these effects, detailed inventories of biodiversity provide important

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baseline data for assessing changes in species composition. Not only does biodi- versity potentially relate to the stability of ecosystems (Tilman et al. 2006), nat- ural communities can be used as reference systems in order to aid in restoration efforts (van Andel and Aronson 2012). Floristic studies of small areas that have been investigated over time may provide insights into how biodiversity has changed over a given time period (Judziewicz 2004).

Consisting of approximately 121 hectares (298 acres) located in Calhoun County, Michigan, the Harvey N. Ott Biological Preserve (hereafter referred to as the Ott Preserve, the Ott, or the preserve) is a nature preserve owned by the County, operated by the Calhoun County Board of Commissioners, and under the direction of the Calhoun County Parks and Recreation Commission (CCPRC) (Calhoun County, Michigan 2016b). It is composed of parts of sec- tions 3, 4, 9, and 10 of Emmett Township (Gilbert 1954) in west central Calhoun County, north of East Michigan Avenue and west of North Wattles Road near Battle Creek (N42.31333°, W085.12173°).

The primary purpose of our study was to carry out a floristic inventory of the preserve and to compare it to an earlier inventory done by Dr. William J. Gilbert, who collected herbarium specimens during the years 1946–1954 and produced a vouchered checklist, which was never published. We hypothesized that the per- centages of introduced and invasive species of all taxa have increased since Gilbert’s inventory. Another purpose of our study was to identify and map the major terrestrial plant communities and the locations of any rare species. We hope that this study will provide baseline data that aid in preserve management and stimulate more botanical studies of the area.

Physical Description of the Area

The topography of the area in and around the Ott Preserve, including an esker than runs from the northeast to southwest corner of the preserve and three spring-fed kettle lakes—Hall Lake, Brigham Lake, and Dexter Lake, was likely shaped by glaciers (Gilbert 1954). The esker is transected by three drainage basins, leaving four segments that Gilbert (1954) named the Brigham, Central, Hall, and Blank eskers. Only a small portion of Dexter Lake, which was formerly known as Blanck Lake, lies within the Ott. The outlets of Dexter and Brigham Lakes feed into Hall Lake through small inlets, and there is also an outlet for Hall Lake (Gilbert 1954). Elevations range from ca. 242 m to 337 m (793 to 1,105 ft.) (USGS 1999).

The soils of the Ott Preserve are characterized as Houghton muck, Coloma loamy sand, or Boyer sandy loam (Tardy 1997; Soil Survey Staff n.d.). Swamp areas in the northwest, northeast, and central portions of the preserve near the lakes are classified as Houghton muck, which has a high level of organic con- tent. These areas are generally saturated with water and have poor drainage (Soil Survey Staff n.d.). The submerged soil between Hall and Dexter Lakes is visibly lighter in color and is most likely rich in calcium, unlike the dark Houghton muck. Coloma loamy sand and Boyer sandy loam, respectively, characterize the upland forests and the southern hardwood swamp on the eastern side of the pre- serve (Soil Survey Staff n.d.). Coloma loamy sand is a yellowish-brown soil that

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is excessively drained and has low organic soil content. Boyer sandy loam is a dark brown loam that is well drained and has moderately low organic matter con- tent (Soil Survey Staff n.d.). Annual precipitation for Calhoun County ranges from 885.9 to 959.8 mm, while 30-year average annual minimum and maximum temperatures range from –7.5 to –8.1°C and 15.6 to 16.7°C, respectively (based on 30-year data from 1981 to 2010) (PRISM 2004).

History of the Ott Preserve

Dr. William Gilbert, who was a biology professor at Albion College and a vital proponent of the care and research of the Ott, wrote a history of the pre- serve (Gilbert 1954) that spanned the years from 1911 to 1954. His account de- scribes how the property became a nature preserve and later Albion College’s na- ture center. It also characterizes the general geological and biological aspects of the preserve.

In 1911, when the first land purchases of what is currently known as the Ott Biological Preserve were made by Edward H. Brigham, founder and first direc- tor of the Kingman Museum of Natural History and teacher in Battle Creek, and Jay R. Snyder, the major forested areas of the Ott were primarily back woodlots of adjacent farms. After that time, Edward H. Brigham and other members of the then-active Nature Club of Battle Creek worked with Dr. John Harvey Kellogg, superintendent of the Battle Creek Sanitarium, to have the land set aside as a na- ture preserve. However, this was not realized until 1926, when Kellogg pur- chased the land for Battle Creek College, where it was named The Battle Creek College Biological Preserve (Gilbert 1954). During the period between 1926 and 1938, a number of studies were made by students and faculty, including a pre- liminary topographical and biological survey (Grant 1927) and a survey of the spring flora (Overholt 1929). In addition, Kellogg dedicated the preserve to the State of Michigan as a State Game Refuge and Bird Sanctuary in 1926, which spurred the planting of trees on the property for migratory birds (Grant 1927). Other proposed efforts, such as the development of an ethnobotanical garden and a guide manual for the preserve, were never executed due to the economic col- lapse in 1929 that eventually closed Battle Creek College in 1938 (Gilbert 1954).

Dr. Arthur M. Chickering, a biology professor at Albion College, recognized the opportunity to supplement studies in the biology department with a natural area. He worked with Dr. Harvey N. Ott, an alumnus of Albion who graduated in 1889, and members of the Board of Trustees of Albion College, who provided the funds to purchase the preserve from Battle Creek College. In October 1946, the land was dedicated as the Harvey N. Ott Biological Preserve (Gilbert 1954). Once the land was acquired by Albion College, the faculty, largely from the bi- ology department, led groups doing maintenance on trails, and both faculty and students began research projects. In addition to Dr. Gilbert’s work, Kenneth Bal- lou (1949) surveyed the protozoa of the preserve’s lakes while other students conducted limnology projects on Hall Lake. In addition, Maynard C. Bowers, Al- bion Class of 1956, who later became a biology professor at Northern Michigan University, mapped many of the preserve’s vascular plant species on aerial pho- tographs. Thus, by this time, the Ott had become an important field trip and re-

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search site for Albion College. However, because it was about 20 miles from Al- bion, it was difficult to control dumping, off-road vehicles, and the occasional theft of firewood or a valuable timber tree (E. A. Stowell, personal communica- tion).

Although early records are lacking, minutes in the Department of Biology document the first meeting of a newly-established advisory committee for the preserve in 1964 (Stowell 1964). With the advisory committee in place and Dr. Anthony Catana, the biology department’s ecologist, appointed as the director of the preserve, the College was able to create concrete plans for the maintenance of the property. These plans included the purchase of a Volkswagen bus for trans- porting students, monitoring the property, and making improvements at the en- trances, especially the east entrance from Wattles Road, which was graded and where a new parking lot was constructed (Catana 1964). Catana and the com- mittee also gained publicity for the preserve as a recreational and educational area through presentations and newspaper articles (Catana 1966). The committee also noted a positive change in the usage of the land: more hikers and photogra- phers were seen and fewer fires, less wood cutting, and soil removal were ob- served. In spring 1967, local scouts were scheduled to develop a small pine plan- tation near the west entrance at Brownlee Park (Catana 1966). There is a small conifer plantation today in this area among young hardwoods.

Catana authored what is perhaps the only scientific paper on the Ott published in an established journal (Catana 1967). His study sampled the forests quantita- tively and, based on an examination of the original land survey made in 1826, characterized the pre-settlement vegetation as predominantly an oak savanna having few trees per acre. Catana described the “prairie-forest transition” as suc- cession resulting from a cessation of fires in this region that led to the closed canopy oak-hickory forests at the preserve. Catana also noted that a decrease in the number of individuals of Larix laricina (tamarack) was likely still in process due to a dropping water table. In addition, forest fires were noted for a section of oak-hickory forest north of Hall Lake in 1963 and 1965, resulting in a lower shrub and herb frequency. Also noted was a sharp decrease in the density of Ulmus americana (American elm) in lowland areas due to Dutch elm disease and the rising importance of Lindera benzoin (spicebush) (Catana 1967). Around this time, Catana’s research student, Marjorie Jackson, wrote a thesis on the non- forest vegetation of the preserve. She took 100-foot transects in 14 representative non-forest areas on the preserve and calculated relative dominance (percent in- tercept on line) and (from quadrat data) relative density and relative frequency in order to determine importance values of species along the transects (Jackson 1968). Based upon her transects, she recognized three different types of non-for- est vegetation at the Ott Preserve: (1) upland communities dominated by Poa pratensis and Andropogon virginicus along the west boundary of the property in a more extensive area than the current non-forested area adjacent to today’s Con- sumers Energy right-of-way, and also in an area east of Hall Lake that is now forested, (2) shrub communities dominated by Spiraea alba and Urtica dioica, located in three more or less equally-spaced patches from an area just south of the current Jameson Street parking lot near the northwest edge of the property, extending northeast to the northeast edge of the property near the old Wattles

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Road access, and (3) poorly-drained communities dominated by Eleocharis ros- tellata and the species now known as Dasiphora fruticosa most extensively in the area between Hall and Dexter lakes and also on the east side of Hall Lake and the northeast and southeast edges of Brigham Lake. She concluded from previ- ous data that the well-drained (upland) and poorly drained communities had re- mained similar for the last 40 years previous to her study, but that the shrub com- munities had recently developed from swamp or marsh type vegetation in the past 20 years due primarily to change in drainage patterns (Jackson 1968). In 1969 and the years following, the relationship between Albion College and the Ott Preserve began to change when sixty acres along the Kalamazoo River adja- cent to campus were purchased by the College (McIntyre 1969). Dr. Gilbert rec- ognized that “the greatest value of [the sixty acres] is its availability as a teach- ing facility” and that “it would be a gross error not to utilize the land as an academic program of Albion College” (Gilbert 1970). Considerations such as these forced administrators to reconsider the role of the Ott as Albion College’s nature center. While it was universally recognized that the Ott was an excellent natural area, reaching out to other possible stakeholders, such as Battle Creek Community College, began to be more seriously considered (Gilbert 1970). Members of the academic community all agreed that Albion College had an obligation to see that the Ott Preserve stay a natural area, whatever its fate (Gilbert 1970).

The year 1970 saw a decrease in use of the Ott by Albion College and an in- crease in use at the sixty acres adjacent to campus. During that year only one di- rected study on birds and two research projects on nutrient cycling in Brigham Lake were conducted at the Ott (Catana 1971). Catana (1971) noted there was an average of only 48 hours of student activity per semester at the Ott, compared to 498 hours at the sixty acres, which would later become the core of Albion Col- lege’s Whitehouse Nature Center.

In 1971, Albion College and the Calhoun County Parks and Recreation Com- mission (CCPRC) began to plan a lease of the Ott Preserve (Bishop 1971). The proposed ten-year, one-dollar lease would place the property under county juris- diction and maintenance with strict development restrictions. The College and CCPRC would be considered co-tenants of the Ott, and the College reserved the right to designate research areas that would be closed to the public. In addition, the County would be granted the right of first refusal to purchase the property should the College decide to sell (Land Lease Agreement 1972). The CCPRC had intended to develop a park that included Dexter Lake as its major focal point and to lease the adjacent Ott property. The plan was to purchase the 15 acres that included Dexter Lake from its private landowner and to develop an access road from Michigan Avenue along the Consumers Power right-of-way. However, the asking price for the property ($50,000) and the cost of grading the road ($20,000) were deemed too expensive for Recreation Bond funding. The failure of the county to secure Dexter Lake, and the projected maintenance costs of the Ott, which would be added to the costs of developing Kimball Pines Park, re- sulted in the decision of the CCPRC not to sign the lease (Nagel 1972).

Looking to the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (DNR) for assis- tance in purchasing the property proved to be a worthwhile effort for the

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CCPRC; the DNR, which administered funds through the state assistance pro- gram of the federal Land and Water Conservation Fund Act of 1965, agreed to provide 50% of the funds necessary to purchase the property (Horvath 1977, Brewer 2003). In the summer of 1977, the Calhoun County Board of Commis- sioners approved the final purchase of the Ott Preserve for $56,000, $28,000 of which was provided by the DNR, $14,000 of which was donated by the Miller Foundation of Battle Creek, and $14,000 of which came from the county’s gen- eral fund. Albion College had wanted deed restrictions on the property to ensure that it was kept in its natural state, but none were included because they would have lowered the appraised value upon which the DNR grant was based. The ap- praised value grant considerations were pointed out by Dennis R. Adams from the DNR in a letter explaining that Section 6(f) of the Land and Water Conser- vation Fund Act required that the land would be used for public outdoor pur- poses in perpetuity (Adams 1976). The County approved the sale with a motion that gave the cost breakdown and stated that “the land [is] to remain in its natural state with the exception of paths” (Calhoun County Board of Commissioners 1977). Albion College was permitted to continue using the property for educa- tional purposes (Reilly 1977).

The lack of deed restrictions on the Ott property would cause consternation for those who wanted the preserve to remain in its natural state. As early as 1980, an article in the Albion Evening Recorder, which was published on April 30, sug- gested that the county was considering harvesting timber from its parks in order to fund them (Rompf 1980). The next day, Bernard Lomas, then President of Al- bion College, wrote the following in a letter to Gordon Martin, Chair of the Board of Commissioners (Lomas 1980):

When we sold the Ott Preserve to the Calhoun County Parks Association, we had a gentle- man’s agreement that the College would still be able to use the facility from time to time for educational purposes in the field of biology and that it would be maintained in a natural state. The article indicated that consideration might be given to harvesting the timber and this, of course, would destroy the natural state as we understood it would be maintained.

His letter was successful at the time. However, in 1993, the Calhoun County Commissioners agreed to sell the lumber from 305 trees and to cull “56 trees of no value” for $36,000, but to leave all tops and cull trees on site. Many large oaks and several cherries were taken from the mature forests near the end of Peck Street by Michigan Veneer & Hardwood Inc. (Parks 1993). Trees were marked for harvest in other areas of the Ott, but public outcry stopped further cutting (Basso 1994). Dr. Richard Brewer, a plant ecologist at Western Michigan University, visited the site with his ecology class after the logging, and they mea- sured and counted stumps. Several were over 40 inches in diameter and some trees were more than 200 years old, the oldest being a white oak at 278 years. Brewer (2003) described the logging at the Ott Preserve in some detail and uses it as a case study of what can happen to a natural area when it changes owner- ship and protection is not assured.

The logging brought public attention and renewed interest in the Ott Preserve. Alex Sutarek, a California resident who owned 42 acres adjacent to the south part of the preserve, donated his land (referred to as the Sutarek tract) to the

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County to be added to the preserve, a gift that put Hall Lake completely within the preserve. The County dedicated all funds obtained from the logging to the Ott and appointed an advisory committee, which became a non-profit group in 1995 called Friends of the Ott Preserve (FOTOP). FOTOP received grants from the Consumers Power Foundation (now called Consumers Energy Foundation) and The Albert L. and Louise B. Miller Foundation (now The Miller Foundation), which were used for signage and trail improvements, including a boardwalk that extended into the central swamp (Anonymous 1995; Friends of the Ott Preserve 1996, 1997). In 2000, the County received a major grant from the Michigan DNR for $231,962, which was used to construct an Arlington Street parking lot at the south end of the property, a Jameson Street parking lot at the north end of the property, better trails, and a handicapped-accessible boardwalk completely traversing the central swamp. It also paid for an historic bridge spanning the Brigham Lake outlet, new signs, a boundary survey, fencing, clean-ups, brochures, and bird houses (Annette Chapman, personal communication).

In recent years, there has been an additional environmental controversy at the Ott Preserve about constructing a paved trail through the preserve and the place- ment of the trail. The Calhoun County Road Commission received a grant for $1,075,591.70 from the Michigan Department of Transportation for the develop- ment of a walking and bicycle trail through the Ott Preserve that is part of the North Country Trail (Garnett and Coury 2010). The proposed trail was to be ap- proximately ten feet wide, with two-foot shoulders on each side, and would have either a blacktop or a crushed lime surface. Heavy equipment would be used to do the grading, and in some cases deep cuts into banks would be made. There were discussions about routes and eventually a trail with a crushed lime surface was chosen. The first author presented the results of the current study to mem- bers of the Calhoun County Trailway Alliance (CCTA) on September 28, 2012 and, shortly thereafter, both authors walked the proposed route with members of the CCTA, who considered our suggestions. The chosen route connects the Jameson Street and Arlington Street parking areas, and its south portion skirts the east edge of the preserve. The trail was completed in October 2014 and a small ribbon-cutting ceremony, which was attended by the second author, was held on November 21, 2014. The Calhoun County Board of Commissioners ap- proved the 2015-2019 Calhoun County Parks and Recreation Master Plan, which included the Ott (Calhoun County Community Development 2015) on February 5, 2015 (Calhoun County Board of Commissioners 2015a). A grand opening and dedication for the county’s new segment of the North Country Trail was held at nearby Kimball Pines Park on June 6, 2015 (Calhoun County Board of Commissioners 2015b).

In 2015, the County established an Ott Biological Preserve Work Group, which drafted a maintenance and management plan. A public hearing on the draft plan was held on October 13, 2016 (Calhoun County, Michigan 2016a), and the final 81-page Ott Biological Preserve Management and Maintenance Plan (Calhoun County, Michigan 2016b) was presented to the Board of Commission- ers on March 16, 2017 (Calhoun County Board of Commissioners 2017). There is optimism that the Ott will become a more popular park that is actively man- aged to maintain biodiversity.

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METHODS AND MATERIALS

Gilbert’s manuscript list of 460 vascular plant taxa that he collected at the preserve was compiled and updated with current names from Michigan Flora Online (2011) and Voss and Reznicek (2012). Meander surveys in different representative areas of the preserve were conducted weekly from Sep- tember 2011 to October 2012 during the growing seasons. A few additional collections were made by the second author and students through September 2018. The survey primarily verified species oc- currences using Gilbert’s list and herbarium specimens at the Albion College Herbarium (ALBC). New specimens were collected for those species that were either difficult to identify in the field (e.g., graminoids) or those not present on Gilbert’s list. All species reported here are vouchered by herbar- ium specimens at ALBC. The Gilbert collections were annotated by Edward G. Voss in preparation for the Michigan Flora (Voss 1972, 1985, 1996). About 43 specimens of Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and some county records for which there were duplicates, are deposited at the University of Michigan Herbarium (MICH). The relative abundance of each documented taxon was noted qualitatively as follows: rare (few individuals in a small area), uncommon (few individuals in a few clusters), occa- sional (few individuals in many clusters), locally common (many individuals in few clusters), and common (many individuals throughout the community in many clusters). GPS coordinates were recorded for all recent collections. The majority of the surveys were done near trails, although each community was transected in different representative areas in order to maximize encounters with dif- ferent species. The classification systems for natural communities by Kost et al. (2007) and Cohen et al. (2014) were used to identify and classify the terrestrial natural communities present at the Ott pre- serve. A map of the major natural community types was made using ArcGIS: ArcMap v. 10.6.1 (ESRI 2018).

Floristic Quality Assessments (FQAs) were conducted for the prairie fen and the oak opening natural communities to assess their floristic and natural significance (Herman et al. 2001) and to as- sess how the floristic quality of these areas has changed over time. Species are assigned a coefficient of conservatism (C), which indicate the tolerance to degradation and the degree to which a species is faithful to pre-European settlement conditions (Herman et al. 2001, Freyman et. al 2016). A species assigned a C value of “0,” therefore, may be found nearly everywhere, whereas species assigned a C value of “10” are almost always restricted to a pre-settlement remnant (a high-quality area). For ex- ample, Carex alata, the winged sedge, is restricted to bogs, sedge meadows, and fens and is assigned a C value of 10 (Reznicek et al. 2014). A high C value does not necessarily indicate rarity, although

many rare plants are assigned high C values. FQAs are created by calculating a mean coefficient of conservatism (C) and a Floristic Quality Index (FQI) from a list of plants at each site. The FQI is cal-

culated by multiplying C by the square root of the total number of native taxa (FQI = C ÷-n) (Herman et al. 2001, Freyman et al. 2016). In this case, an FQI was calculated for each community separately for species documented by Gilbert and for those recently documented by us. The C values were taken

from Michigan Flora Online (2011). For each FQI, we calculated Native richness, Total richness, Na- tive C, Total C, Native FQI, and Adjusted FQI, the latter of which includes the contribution of non- native species (Freyman et al. 2011).

The numbers and percentages of introduced and invasive species present for both Gilbert’s check- list and our updated checklist, which includes Gilbert’s documented species as well as our new addi- tions, were documented. Percentage values for Gilbert’s checklist were calculated by dividing the number of introduced or invasive species by the total number of species that he documented. For per- centage values for our updated checklist, we divided the species that were documented during this study by all species found at the Ott preserve, including those that Gilbert collected that we did not find. The designation of species as invasive follows the Midwest Invasive Species Information Net- work (Michigan State University 2018). None of the species collected or observed by us only on the Sutarek tract, which was added to the preserve after Gilbert’s study, was used in percentage calcula- tions of new invasives or additional species not collected by Gilbert.

GPS coordinates of populations of state-listed rare plants (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2009) were recorded and used to make maps in ArcGIS. For larger populations, the coordinates of only the peripheral individuals were recorded. Two species on our checklist (Brickellia eupatorioides and Conioselinum chinense) were designated as Special Concern after the conclusion of our study and were thus not mapped.

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RESULTS

A total of 292 specimens was collected at the preserve for this study. Of those specimens, 136 represented newly recorded species for the preserve that were not collected by Gilbert. Gilbert’s 460 species and the 136 new species collec- tions make a grand total of 596 vascular plant species, including varieties, forms and subspecies, that have been documented at the Ott Preserve (Tables 1 and 2). The five families with the largest number of species are Asteraceae (65), Poaceae (47), Fabaceae (37), Cyperaceae (34), and Rosaceae (34). Sixty-five of the species documented in this study are new records for Calhoun County, according to maps in Michigan Flora Online (2011). Two hundred and ninety of the species collected by Gilbert were observed and noted. 170 species collected by Gilbert were not collected or noted by the authors. A complete annotated checklist of the vascular plants now known to occur or to have occurred in the Ott Preserve is presented in Appendix 1. The major plant communities of the Ott are dry-mesic southern forest, southern hardwood swamp, oak openings understory, and prairie fen (Figure 1).

Native and Total species richness increased between Gilbert and our study

TABLE 1. Summary of Gilbert’s vascular plant collections from the Ott Preserve, 1946–54. The to- tals for species are summed for native and introduced species.

Species Taxonomic group Families Genera Native Introduced Invasive Total Lycophytes 2 2 2 0 0 2 Ferns 10 13 15 0 0 15 Conifers 2 3 4 0 0 4 Angiosperms 88 268 376 63 36 439 Total 102 286 397 63 36 460 Percentage of Total Species 86.3% 13.7% 7.8%

TABLE 2. Summary of all vascular plants collected from the Ott Preserve, 1946–2016. The total numbers of species are summed separately for native and for introduced species. The numbers for in- vasive species do not include those species found only on the Sutarek tract (these species are in- cluded, however, in Appendix 1 and in Table 3).

Species

Taxonomic group Families Genera Native Introduced Invasive Total Lycophytes 2 2 2 0 0 2 Ferns 11 14 17 0 0 17 Conifers 3 5 6 2 1 8 Angiosperms 98 312 447 122 72 569 Total 114 333 472 124 73 596 Percentage of Total Species 79.2% 20.8% 12.2%

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FIGURE 1. Major terrestrial plant communities and locations of state-listed rare plants at the Ott Preserve: Geum virginianum (pale avens) population in the southern hardwood swamp (grey dots near center of map) and Amorpha canescens population on the Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak opening understory (black dots on left side of map).

according to the Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) for the oak opening under- story (Table 4). Native mean C was 4 for both studies, while Total mean C de- creased from 2.8 to 2.3. Native FQI increased from 31.7 to 34.2, while Adjusted FQI decreased from 33.1 to 30.6.

For the prairie fen, Native richness declined from 76 to 73 while total richness increased from 80 to 81 between Gilbert’s and our study (Table 4). Native and Total mean C both declined over time, from 6 to 5.9 and 5.7 to 5.3, respectively. Similarly, Native FQI decreased between studies from 52.3 to 50.4 and Total FQI decreased from 58.5 to 56.0.

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Populations of the state-listed plants, Amorpha canescens (lead-plant) and Geum virginianum (pale avens), were found in 2012. The locations of these pop- ulations are shown in Figure 1. Cypripedium candidum (the white lady-slipper) was not found during this study, despite extensive searches around the Hall Lake prairie fen. This species was last seen on the prairie fen by the second author in ca. 2001. Brickellia eupatorioides and Conioselinum chinense, both designated as Special Concern after the conclusion of our study, were also documented in 2012. Brickellia eupatorioides was documented in the disturbed oak-hickory for- est, while C. chinense was documented near the outlet stream of Brigham Lake.

The proportions of both introduced species and of invasive species increased over time. Of the 460 species collected by Gilbert, 63 (13.7%) were introduced and 36 (7.8%) were invasive. Of the 596 species reported from the Ott Preserve following our study, the number of introduced species almost doubled, increas- ing to 124 species (20.8%). The number of invasive species increased to 73 (12.2%). A full checklist of invasive species, their locations, and their relative abundances is presented in Table 3.

TABLE 3. Invasive species (Midwest Invasive Species Network 2018) and their respective locations and abundances. DMSF = Dry-mesic southern forest. SHS = Southern hardwood swamp.

Species Common name Location Abundance Acer platanoides Norway maple Sutarek property Common Agrostis gigantea Redtop Prairie fen E of Hall Lake Occasional Ailanthus altissima Tree-of-heaven DMSF, Sutarek tract, Locally common logging deck area Alliaria petiolata Garlic mustard DMSF, Sutarek tract Common Ambrosia artemisiifolia Common ragweed Dry mesic prairie Occasional Barbarea vulgaris Yellow rocket Wet soil near eskers Occasional Berberis thunbergii Japanese barberry SHS Occasional to locally common Berteroa incana Hoary alyssum Oak opening understory Common Bromus inermis Smooth brome Oak opening understory Common and near Arlington entrance Bromus tectorum Downy chess Oak opening understory Common Centaurea diffusa Brown knapweed Border of E Hall Lake No recent observation Centaurea stoebe Spotted knapweed Oak opening understory Common Celastrus orbiculatus Oriental bittersweet Sutarek tract, DMSF Locally common Cirsium vulgare Bull thistle Along roadside on No recent sandy hillside observation Convolvulus arvensis Field bindweed SE arm of preserve No recent observation Conyza canadensis Horseweed Oak opening understory Common Dactylis glomerata Orchard grass Oak opening understory Common Daucus carota Queen-Anne’s-lace Oak opening understory Occasional Dianthus armeria Deptford pink Oak opening understory Common

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TABLE 3. Continued.

Species Common name Location Abundance Dipsacus fullonum Wild teasel Oak opening understory Uncommon Elaeagnus umbellata Autumn-olive Oak opening understory Occasional Epilobium hirsutum Great hairy Dried swamp on N side Occasional willow-herb of property Euonymus alatus Winged euonymus NW DMSF Locally common Euonymus fortunei Wintercreeper Sutarek property Occasional Euphorbia cyparissias Cypress spurge Near Jameson parking lot Locally common Hedera helix English ivy Northern DMSF Locally common Hemerocallis fulva Orange day-lily NW DMSF Locally common Hesperis matronalis Dame’s rocket Sutarek tract, S DMSF Common Hieracium aurantiacum Orange hawkweed Northern DMSF Occasional Hieracium caespitosum Yellow hawkweed Oak opening understory Occasional Hypericum perforatum Klamath weed Prairie fen Common Fallopia japonica Japanese knotweed Sutarek property Locally common Frangula alnus Glossy buckthorn Prairie fen and around Common Hall and Brigham Lakes Lathyrus latifolius Sweet pea DMSF near prarie Rare Leonurus cardiaca Motherwort NW DMSF Occasional Leucanthemum vulgare Ox-eye daisy Dry mesic prarie Occasional Lonicera / bella Hybrid honeysuckle Sutarek tract Occasional Lonicera morrowii Morrow honeysuckle Sutarek tract Occasional Lotus corniculatus Birdfoot trefoil Oak opening understory Locally common Lythrum salicaria Purple loosestrife SHS near Brigham Locally common boardwalk Melilotus albus White sweet-clover Oak opening understory Common Melilotus officinalis Yellow sweet-clover Oak opening understory Common Morus alba White mulberry Sutarek property Occasional Nasturtium officinale Watercress SW of Hall lake No recent observation Phalaris arundinacea Reed canary grass North swamp Occasional Phleum pratense Timothy Dry mesic prarie Occasional Phragmites australis Reed E edge of Brigham Lake, Locally common subsp. australis and at bridge Pinus sylvestris Scots pine Border of Dry mesic praiire Uncommon Poa compressa Canada bluegrass Along road of Brownlee No recent park entrace observation Poa nemoralis Bluegrass DMSF Occasional Poa pratensis Kentucky bluegrass Oak opening understory and Common sandy area E of Hall Lake Potentilla recta Rough-fruited Near Jameson parking lot Locally common cinquefoil Ranunculus acris Common buttercup NE entrance from No recent Wattles Rd. observation

(Continued on next page)

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TABLE 3. Continued.

Species Common name Location Abundance Rhamnus cathartica Common buckthorn DMSF, Sutarek tract, Locally common Brigham Lake area to common Robinia pseudoacacia Black locust Dry-mesic southern forest Occasional Rosa multiflora Multiflora rose SHS, Boggy area near bridge Locally common Rumex acetosella Red sorrel Oak opening understory Locally common Rumex crispus Sour dock Near Jameson entrance Locally common Rumex obtusifolius Bitter dock Near Hall Lake and SE No recent corner of preserve observation Saponaria officinalis Bouncing bet Oak opening understory Uncommon and near Arlington parking lot Securigera varia Crown-vetch Near Arlington parking lot Locally common Silene latifolia White cockle Oak opening understory Common Silene vulgaris Bladder campion Oak opening understory Occasional Solanum carolinense Horse-nettle Grassy pasture SE and W No recent border of preserve observation Solanum dulcamara European bittersweet Near Arlington entrance and Common edge of Brigham lake Stellaria media Common chickweed Near Arlington entrance Locally common Torilis japonica Hedge-parsley Oak opening understory Occasional Toxicodendron radicans Poison-ivy DMSF Common Trifolium arvense Rabbitfoot clover Dry mesic prarie Locally common Trifolium pratense Red clover Near Arlington and Common Jameson entrances Trifolium repens White clover Near Arlington and Common Jameson entrances Typha angustifolia Narrow-leaved cat-tail Margins of lakes Locally common Ulmus pumila Siberian elm Sutarek property Common Verbascum thapsus Flannel plant Near Arlington entrance Occasional and Oak opening understory Vincetoxicum nigrum Black swallow-wort Oak opening understory Occasional

TABLE 4. Floristic Quality Assessment results for the Oak openings understory and the Prairie fen communities. Assessments were performed separately for (i) those species collected by Gilbert only (the columns entitled “Gilbert”) and for (ii) all the species documented in the present study, includ- ing those collected by Gilbert as well as those later documented by Miller (Bowen) and Skean (the columns entitled “Miller”).

Oak openings understory Prairie fen Gilbert Miller Gilbert Miller Native richness 63 73 76 73 Total richness 92 125 80 81 – Native C 4 4 6 5.9 – Total C 2.8 2.3 5.7 5.3 Native FQI 31.7 34.2 52.3 50.4

Adjusted FQI 33.1 30.6 58.5 56.0

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DISCUSSION

Natural Community Types

For a property predominately surrounded by residential areas, the Ott Pre- serve hosts a wide variety of natural community types. The four terrestrial com- munity types present were surveyed extensively and together comprise nearly the entirety of the property.

Dry-mesic southern forest

Ranked as S3 (vulnerable at the state level), this community type is an oak- hickory forest found on sandy loam (Lee 2007) along the esker throughout the property, as well as on the northern side. In Michigan, dry-mesic southern forests are found south of the climatic tension zone in southern lower Michigan (Lee 2007). Historically, frequent, low-intensity surface fires allowed for tree regen- eration (Cohen et al. 2014) and perhaps kept pathogens at low levels (Lee 2007).

In this community at the Ott, common trees include Acer rubrum (red maple), Fagus grandifolia (American beech), Prunus serotina (black cherry), Quercus velutina (black oak), Q. alba (white oak), Q. rubra (red oak), and Sassafras al- bidum (sassafras). Common understory species are Cornus alternifolia (alter- nate-leaved dogwood), C. florida (flowering dogwood), and Viburnum aceri- folium (maple-leaved viburnum).

Showy wildflowers are not abundant, but Anemone quinquefolia (wood anemone), Geranium maculatum (wild geranium), Geum canadense (white avens), Maianthemum canadense (wild lily-of-the-valley), Podophyllum pelta- tum (mayapple), and Solidago caesia (bluestem goldenrod) are frequently en- countered. Numerous species of Carex are occasional to common, including C. blanda, C. cephalophora, and C. gracillima. Some grasses are occasional, in- cluding Agrostis perennans (autumn bent), Bromus pubescens (Canada brome), Dichanthelium latifolium (broad-leaved panic grass), and Festuca subverticillata (nodding fescue). Asplenium platyneuron (ebony spleenwort) and Pteridium aquilinum (bracken fern) appear to be the most common ferns.

Introduced and invasive species have become established in this community, especially along trails in the Sutarek tract near the Arlington Street parking lot. This area was previously an apple orchard and at one time was platted for resi- dential development. It is likely that residential area activity, such as cultivation, construction, and dumping promoted the establishment of these introduced species. The overstory trees of the Sutarek tract include box-elder (Acer ne- gundo) and the invasives Ulmus pumila (Siberian elm), Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust) and Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven). Notable invasives in- clude Alliaria petiolata (garlic mustard) and Celastrus orbiculatus (oriental bit- tersweet), the latter a vine so well established at the southwest corner of the prop- erty, next to Dexter Lake, that it covers almost all the area from the trees to the ground. Another common invasive becoming established along trails in the Sutarek tract is Fallopia japonica (Japanese knotweed). Euonymus alatus (winged euonymus) is conspicuous on the northeast side of the preserve. The major deck area of the 1994 logging, which is near the Sutarek tract, includes an

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abundance of Ailanthus altissima (tree-of-heaven) and Robinia pseudoacacia (black locust). Other introduced and planted species include Hemerocallis fulva (orange day-lily) and Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). Celastrus orbiculatus (orien- tal bittersweet) is also a very problematic invasive in this community east of Dexter Lake and near the east entrance from Wattles Road, which is currently being used as a personal driveway. However, a species (Brickellia eupatorioides, False boneset) recently designated as Special Concern was documented in this disturbed community near the Arlington parking lot.

Southern hardwood swamp

On both sides of sloping eskers near the center of the property lie the south- ern hardwood swamp community. It is ranked as S3 (vulnerable at the state level) (Slaughter 2009). This community type occurs in southern Lower Michigan on mineral or organic soils in shallow, poorly drained depressions (Slaughter 2009). The microtopography, woody debris, and drainage provide a diversity of habitat establishment sites for plant species (Slaughter 2009).

Dominant trees in the hardwood swamp at the Ott include Betula al- leghaniensis (yellow birch), Carpinus caroliniana (hornbeam), Fraxinus nigra (black ash), F. pennsylvanica (green ash), and Tilia americana (basswood). Lin- dera benzoin (spicebush) is a common understory shrub. Common forbs include Arisaema triphyllum (Jack-in-the-pulpit), Aquilegia canadensis (wild columbine), Caltha palustris (marsh marigold), Circaea canadensis (en- chanter’s-nightshade), Gallium tinctorium (stiff bedstraw), Hackelia virginiana (beggar’s lice), and Impatiens capensis (spotted touch-me-not).

Ferns are quite common throughout this community; noteworthy species in- clude Athyrium filix-femina (lady fern), Dryopteris carthusiana (spinulose woodfern), Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (cinnamon fern), and Osmunda re- galis (royal fern). In addition, there are occasional patches of the lycophyte, Hu- perzia lucidula (shining clubmoss). Geum virginianum (the pale avens) is a state-listed species in Michigan with the status of special concern. We collected it in the swamp northeast of Hall Lake (Figure 1). In 1950, Gilbert collected this species “on sloping sides of Brigham esker.” Aside from Berberis thunbergii (Japanese barberry), only the invasives Lythrum salicaria (Purple loostrife) and Solanum dulcamara (European bittersweet) have become established in the swamp.

Oak openings (remnant understory)

One of the most noteworthy communities present, because of its local rarity and abundance of prairie species, occurs in the Consumers Energy power line right-of-way on the west side of the property to the south of the Jameson Street parking lot at the northeast corner of the preserve. This area is likely remnant un- derstory of oak openings (Cohen et al. 2014) and corresponds to mixed oak sa- vanna from ca. 1800 that Comer et al. (1995) described based on General Land Office survey notes. The area consists of a prairie-like community along the power line right-of-way that has remained open likely due to woody species management, and a neighboring oak forest of which a significant portion was described as open by Gilbert (1954). This community, therefore, does not fit the

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characteristic structure of an oak openings remnant with widely spaced trees (Cohen 2004). See Chapman and Brewer (2008) for a review and classification of prairies and savannas in southern lower Michigan. Oak openings are ranked as S1 (critically imperiled at the state level) due to widespread fire suppression and conversion to agriculture, pasture, and development (Curtis 1959; Chapman 1984; Cohen 2004). In Michigan there are only two currently known occurrences of oak openings, in Barry and Ionia counties, but Cohen (2004) notes that de- graded remnants may exist within the historical range south of the climatic ten- sion zone. General Land Office surveys note that a high concentration of this community type occurred in Calhoun County, with 20% of the state occupied by oak openings (Cohen 2004).

Historically, low-intensity fire played a critical role in maintaining the open canopy conditions of oak openings (Curtis 1959; Cohen 2004). In this commu- nity type, fire maintains forb and graminoid diversity and stimulates seed ger- mination and flowering while deterring woody vegetation (Tester 1989; Cohen 2004). In the absence of frequent fires, forb diversity declines and woody species encroach, which ultimately allows a closed canopy community to form (Curtis 1959, Cohen 2004)

Encroachment has already begun at the Ott Preserve, as woody vegetation such as Cornus foemina (gray dogwood), Corylus americana (hazelnut), Quer- cus velutina (black oak), Sambucus canadensis (elderberry), and as the invasive Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn-olive) are beginning to form thickets throughout the area. However, many oak openings/prairie plants continue to thrive in this dry, sandy habitat. Noteworthy and common plants present include Asclepias amplexicaulis (clasping milkweed), Asclepias tuberosa (butterfly weed), Carex pensylvanica (sedge), Desmodium spp. (tick-trefoil), Dichanthelium spp. (panic grass), Liatris aspera (rough blazing-star), Lithospermum caroliniense (hairy puccoon), Panicum virgatum (switch grass), Penstemon hirsutus (hairy beard- tongue), Rosa carolina (pasture rose), Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed susan), Schizachyrium scoparium (little bluestem), Tradescantia ohiensis (spiderwort), and Tridens flavus (purpletop). Amorpha canescens (lead-plant), a state-listed special concern shrub, was rare in this area.

In addition to encroachment by woody species, many introduced species— mostly grasses—have become established in the oak openings understory. Species such as Arrhenatherum elatius (tall oatgrass), Bromus inermis (smooth brome), B. japonicus (Japanese brome), B. tectorum (cheat grass), Dactylis glomerata (orchard grass), Festuca trachyphylla (sheep fescue), and Poa praten- sis (Kentucky bluegrass) are common. Invasive forbs, including Centaurea stoebe (spotted knapweed), Dianthus armeria (Deptford pink), Melilotus albus (white sweet-clover), and M. officinalis (yellow sweet-clover) are very common in this area of the preserve. The invasive, Vincetoxicum nigrum (black swallow- wort), is locally common and is a potential cause for concern in this community.

Prairie fen

Located in the areas adjacent to Hall and Dexter Lake on the SW side of the property, the prairie fen is an interesting community type indigenous to the Ott Preserve due to the presence of carnivorous plants and orchids. It is a wetland com-

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munity restricted in Michigan to the southern part of the lower Peninsula that is characterized by sedges, grasses, and calcareous soil on poorly drained outwash channels (Spieles et al. 1999; Cohen et al. 2014). The soil is composed of saturated organic deposits and marl, a calcium carbonate (CaCO3) precipitate. This commu- nity type is ranked as S3 (vulnerable at the state level) (Spieles et al. 1999).

Prairie fens are home to a range of species, including a large number of sedges. Common native species found in 2011 and 2012 by the authors include Bromus ciliatus (fringed brome), Eleocharis erythropoda and E. rostellata (spike rushes), Juncus dudleyi (dudley’s rush), Larix laricina (larch), Lobelia kalmii (Kalm’s lobelia), Lysimachia quadiflora (whorled loosestrife), Panicum flexile (panic grass), Sarracenia purpurea (pitcher-plant), Schoenoplectus acutus (hard- stem bulrush), S. tabernaemontani (softstem bulrush), Scutellaria galericulata (marsh skullcap), Selaginella eclipes (selaginella), numerous Solidago species (goldenrods), Toxicodendron vernix (poison sumac), Utricularia spp. (bladder- worts), and numerous Carex species, including C. alata, C. comosa, C. hysteric- ina, and C. stricta (sedges).

Some of the more uncommon and noteworthy species are Bidens trichos- perma (tickseed-sunflower), Campanula aparinoides (marsh bellflower), Gen- tianopsis virgata (small fringed gentian), Liatris spicata (marsh blazing-star), Scleria verticillata (nut-rush), Iris virginica (southern blue flag), and the orchids Calopogon tuberosus (grass-pink), and Pogonia ophioglossoides (rose pogonia). The introduced invasive Frangula alnus (glossy buckthorn) has become well es- tablished, making large thickets in all areas near the edge of the fen alongside the poison sumac. In addition, the introduced species Typha angustifolia (narrow- leaved cat-tail) and likely its hybrids with the native T. latifolia (common cat- tail), which is known as T.×glauca Godr., is becoming established on the south side of Hall Lake, as it is elsewhere in southern Michigan (Huisman et al. 2012).

Emergent marsh

The area surrounding Brigham Lake is a small emergent marsh that hosts a variety of vascular plants not common in other parts of the preserve. Notable species include Carex blanda, C. hytericina, C. leptalea, C. tribuloides, C. rosea (sedges), Cyperus strigosus (long scaled nut sedge), Eleocharis rostellata (spike- rush), Calamagrostis stricta subsp. inexpansa (narrow-leaved reedgrass), Gal- ium trifidum (small bedstraw), Mimulus ringens (monkey-flower), Persicaria amphibia var. emersa (water smartweed), Pogonia ophioglossoides (rose pogo- nia), Scirpus atrovirens (bulrush), Theylpteris palustris (marsh fern), and Co- nioselinum chinense (Hemlock-parsley) (Special Concern). A few invasive species have encroached in the area, such as Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass), Phragmites australis subsp. australis (reed), Frangula alnus (glossy buckthorn), Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose), Solanum dulcamara (European bittersweet), and Typha ×glauca (hybrid cat-tail), the latter established in a large stand on the southeast side of Brigham Lake.

Floristic Quality Assessment

Our Floristic Quality Assessments suggest that the oak openings understory and prairie fen communities have retained their floristic quality since the time of

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Gilbert’s floristic inventory. Native richness has either increased or stayed the same in both communities, while total richness has increased in both communi- ties. In addition, Native mean C values have remained essentially the same, while Total mean C values have decreased slightly over time. Native FQI values, which directly assess the floristic value of an area, indicate that these two communities have retained species conservative to these community types, as values for the oak openings understory actually increased over time while the prairie fen de- creased slightly. The presence of new non-native species, which are included in the Adjusted FQI, shows a slight decrease in floristic value over time.

The oak openings understory community had much lower Native and Total FQI values, indicating that this community is likely a lower quality community or one that does not contain a large number of species conservative to this com- munity type. Despite the low FQI values of the oak openings understory com- munity, it is interesting to note that these values did not decrease by a large mar- gin, thereby indicating the persistence of numerous species that may be restricted to this habitat type. The Native and Total FQI values for the prairie fen, on the other hand, were all above 50, which may indicate rare and significant land- scapes (Herman et al. 2001).

State-listed Species

Two of the three state-listed species collected by Gilbert were found during this study. A small population of 29 individuals of Amorpha canescens was found in the oak openings understory in 2012, roughly halfway down the power line right-of-way west of the path. The population was surrounded by young black oak saplings about 2 m tall. Two individuals of Geum virginianum were found in 2012 within the southern hardwood swamp west of the main esker and northeast of Hall Lake. Gilbert collected this species in 1950 “on sloping sides of Brigham esker.” Our collection, which we did not intend to make, closely matches the Gilbert specimen annotated by Voss. If our identification of this population was correct, it should be noted that the occurrence of this species in a swamp is counter to its more typical upland habitat (Voss and Reznicek 2012). See Figure 1 for a map indicating the locations of these two species. Cypri- pedium candidum was found by Gilbert in 1948, but not during the time period of this study. In 1990, Gilbert led the second author to a small population on the west side of the prairie fen between Hall and Dexter Lakes, where it was last ob- served by him in about 2001. Brickellia eupatorioides and Conioselinum chi- nense, both designated as Special Concern after the conclusion of our study, were also documented in 2012. Surprisingly, B. eupatorioides was documented in the disturbed oak-hickory forest near the Arlington parking lot, while C. chi- nense was documented near the outlet stream of Brigham Lake.

Comparison with Gilbert’s Study

A comparison of the results of this study with those of Gilbert reveals some key differences. The fact that Dr. Gilbert conducted a floristic inventory over ap- proximately nine growing seasons is not necessarily evidence of the comprehen- siveness of his checklist, which does not include some graminoids and Aster-

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aceae that were likely present. Likewise, the short time frame in which the main part of our study was done (1.5 growing seasons) probably limits the compre- hensiveness of our collections. The number of willow species documented pro- vides evidence of the differences in sampling intensities; only two of nine species of Salix that Gilbert collected were documented in our study. It should be noted that Gilbert’s collections of Salix were identified by Dr. Carleton Ball, a noted willow expert of the day.

In support of our hypothesis, we found that both the number and the percent- ages of introduced and invasive species have increased since Gilbert’s study. While Gilbert found 63 introduced species (13.7% of his total species count) and 37 invasive species (8.0%), the numbers of both have increased to 123 (20.5% of the total number of species found at the Ott preserve) and 67 (11.0%), respec- tively. Thus, there has likely been significant introduction of non-native species into the preserve since the 1950s. Furthermore, 171 species collected by Gilbert were not found in this study. This not to say necessarily that these species have been extirpated from the property; a continuation of this study would be neces- sary to make such a conclusion. Nonetheless, the addition of a substantial num- ber of non-native species suggests an overall decline in the natural value of the property, and possibly also in its ecosystem health. Alternatively, the presence of several high-quality vulnerable Michigan communities in the Ott Preserve may indicate that the natural value of this property is greater than it was historically when development and habitat loss were less widespread.

Finally, there is significant evidence that succession has been a key factor af- fecting the biodiversity of oak openings and savanna species. Gilbert collected numerous species from the Ott Preserve that he described as occurring in “open hillsides and sandy slopes,” many of which were from the west side of the prop- erty near the neighborhood of Brownlee Park. These habitats simply no longer exist in the same state. Numerous locations in what is now oak-hickory forest were once described as open, such as the areas on the then south side of the pre- serve. Succession, no doubt affected by fire suppression, is most likely the rea- son for the change in landscape. Perhaps due to this successional change, we noted several species common to prairies or open woodlands that Gilbert col- lected but were not documented in this study. Notable species that might have been extirpated from these areas are Asclepias viridiflora (Green milkweed), Crocanthemum bicknellii (Frostweed), Drymocallis arguta (Tall cinquefoil), Hi- eracium longipilum (Prairie hawkweed), Minuartia michauxii (Rock sandwort), Tephrosia virginiana (Goat’s-rue), and Viola pedata (Birdfoot violet).

Management Considerations

While the goal of a nature preserve is to keep the land in its natural state, there may be some courses of action that are needed to keep these component natural communities from becoming degraded. All of the communities present are listed as S3 at best, which means that they are vulnerable due to a restricted range with widespread declines in Michigan (Kost et al. 2007). Therefore, it is essential to preserve these potentially fragile communities before further degra- dation takes place. When looking to manage or restore any of these communities,

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managers should keep in mind any animals that might be affected by such ac- tions or that could benefit from them, such as the spotted turtles (Clemmys gut- tata) and box turtles (Terrapene carolina) found in the prairie fen or the box tur- tles in the dry-mesic southern forest.

The dry-mesic southern forest is much less open than it was historically, likely due to the result of succession. There are very few wildflowers growing among the young oak or hickory trees. According to the Michigan Natural Fea- tures Inventory (MNFI), fire is the single most significant factor in preserving oak ecosystems (Lee 2007), as it promotes oak regeneration and reduces en- croachment by invasive shrubs, both of which are necessary for the long-term vi- tality of this community. The MNFI also suggests orchestrating prescribed burns in this community, as well as with other fire-dependent communities, such as prairies and prairie fens (Lee 2007). Cutting, followed by the application of her- bicide to stumps, may be another way to combat invasive shrubs. Other inva- sives, including garlic mustard (Alliaria petiolata), are prevalent along trails and may have become established initially on the Sutarek tract, from which they are spreading in the absence of management. It is recommended that areas with pop- ulations of garlic mustard be targeted, rather than initiating wide but sparse ef- forts of control (Pardini et al. 2009). Hand pulling adult plants before flowering is one of the most common methods used for control (Pardini et al. 2009).

The health of southern hardwood swamps relies on the connection to adjacent upland habitats, as the hydrology of these areas greatly affects the plant and an- imal species therein Slaughter (2009). Disturbances in the swamp areas could lead to incursions by invasives, so it is essential to minimize any further devel- opment of trails in these habitats. Japanese barberry (Berberis thunbergii), a rel- atively common invasive species in the Ott’s swamps, and which was collected by Gilbert in 1950 “under second growth upland hardwood,” may very likely be- come more of a problem if left untreated. Propane torches have provided an ef- fective non-chemical treatment in the New England States, resulting in 75% re- duction in stands (Ward et al. 2009). Herbicide applications are also effective in reducing stands of barberry (Ward et al. 2009). In addition, this community type is currently experiencing change due to the presence of the emerald ash borer (Agrilus planippennis) (EAB). This invasive beetle has already caused the death of the majority of individuals of Fraxinus nigra (black ash) and F. pennsylvanica (green ash) individuals in the Ott’s swamps (Bowen and Stevens 2018). There is concern for the persistence of ash wetlands in the Great Lakes region as a result of EAB depredations. Ashes are common canopy trees in swamps, and even oc- casionally occur in pure stands (Erdmann et al. 1987; Palik et al. 2011; Slesak et al. 2014; Levin-Nielsen and Rieske 2015; Iverson et al. 2016). In addition to po- tential compositional and structural changes, the death of ash trees may cause hydrological changes in southern hardwood swamps, potentially leading to ecosystem alteration (Slesak et al. 2014). A study by Bowen and Stevens (2018) found that the percentage basal area of ash in the hardwood swamp at the Ott Preserve was relatively low (12.35%) and that the canopy of red maple (Acer rubrum), American basswood (Tilia americana), and yellow birch (Betula al- leghaniensis) would likely fill in tree gaps resulting from the death of ash trees.

The oak openings understory at the Ott Preserve is highly disturbed and re-

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stricted to the area adjacent to the Consumers Energy power line right-of-way on the west boundary of the preserve. Numerous introduced species, notably grasses, have become very common throughout the area and may be outcompet- ing native grass and forb species. Jackson (1968) made transects in this area and found Andropogon virginicus (broom-sedge) to be a dominant species of her up- land non-forested community type. Neither Gilbert nor we collected this species but it likely occurs there. We did make recent collections of Schizachyrium sco- parium (little bluestem), a superficially similar species.

Perhaps a larger problem for this area is the aggressive growth of shrubs such as the invasive Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive), and the natives Quercus ve- lutina (black oak) and Corylus americana (hazelnut). In addition, this open com- munity once extended much further east into an area that is now a closed canopy oak-hickory forest. Restoring and managing this oak opening will require the containment of the woody encroachment in both open areas and in neighboring forest, either by frequent fire, selective thinning, or both, leaving between 10 and 60% of the canopy (White 1986, Cohen 2004). The timing for any such burns, which admittedly are unlikely here, will produce differential effects, with spring burns favoring warm season grasses and late flowering species and fall burns fa- voring cool season grasses and early flowering species (Kline 1997). Such en- croachment has occurred directly adjacent to the small population of the special concern species Amorpha canescens (lead-plant). Conservation of this popula- tion will require the control of encroaching young trees, as lead-plant requires full or partial sunlight (Fryer 2011). Efforts should be made to ensure that Con- sumers Energy is aware of the rarity of this community type and avoids the ex- tensive use of broad-spectrum herbicides for tree control in this area.

The prairie fen is arguably the most interesting community type present at the Ott Preserve because of its orchid diversity and carnivorous plants. Many prairie fens in Michigan have been damaged by reduced water levels, which has en- couraged the establishment of shrubs and trees (Spieles et al. 1999). Tamarack trees (Larix laricina), on the other hand, seem to be declining as much as during Catana’s 1967 study as evidenced by the numerous dead individuals surrounding this area. Typha angustifolia, and Typha ×glauca (the hybrid and various back- crosses between introduced T. angustifolia and native T. latifolia) were not col- lected by Gilbert. They, along with Frangula alnus, are major invasive threats to this fen.

Ten orchid species were collected by Gilbert (see Appendix 1); of these, only Calopogon tuberosus (grass-pink) and Pogonia ophioglossoides (rose pink) were documented during this study. However, because of the relatively short time span of our study, no conclusions can be made as to whether the other eight species still occur at the Ott Preserve. Indeed, since some orchids do not emerge every year due to water level changes, it is possible that they were not seen because en- vironmental conditions were not optimal. The introduction of fire or manual re- moval of invasive, woody shrubs such as glossy buckthorn have been shown to be effective methods for controlling these woody exotics (Zimmerman 1983) Over the last several years, an added threat to the prairie fen is beaver activity that has blocked the main drains of both Brigham Hall Lakes. For example, most of the pitcher plants that occurred in the largest fen, which is between Hall Lake

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and Dexter Lake, are no longer visible; they were seen submerged under ca. 10 cm of water in 2015. The only pitcher plants seen in 2018 were at slightly ele- vated areas on hummocks near the margins of the lakes. The drains should be re- opened to maintain native biodiversity in this community.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We dedicate this study to Dr. William J. Gilbert (1916–1994), whose collections first documented the flora of the Ott Preserve. We thank Albion College’s Foundation for Undergraduate Research, Scholarship, and Creative Activity (FURSCA) and the James W. Hyde Endowed Student Research Fellowship for support during Summer 2012. The first author also thanks the Department of Biology of Albion College and acknowledges the support of the Marilyn Young Vitek Merit Scholarship. Dr. Kevin Metz, Assistant Professor of Chemistry, and Dr. Sheila Lyons-Sobaski, Associate Professor of Biology, made helpful comments on earlier drafts of this paper. The second author thanks Dr. Ewell

A. Stowell (1922–2009) for his records on the Ott Preserve and, who, with Dr. Gilbert, introduced him to the preserve. We thank Dr. Anton Reznicek of MICH, who was kind enough to examine some of our more difficult graminoid specimens. We thank Justin Seidler (Albion College Archives and Special Collections) and Jennifer Wood (Albion District Library, Local History Room), who made their collections available to us, and Annette Chapman, Dr. William Comai, and Doug Sophia for his- torical information and for their tireless efforts on behalf of the preserve. We also thank the Calhoun County Board of Commissioners, especially its former Chair, Arthur Kale, for permission to conduct this study. Former Calhoun County Corporation Counsel Richard Lindsey and GIS Coordinator Brent Thelan were especially helpful. Members of the Calhoun County Trailway Alliance have the first author’s thanks for allowing her to present material to them about plant communities and the im- pact of various trail placements. This paper is based on a thesis submitted by the first author in par- tial fulfillment of requirements for the Bachelor of Arts with Honors at Albion College. LITERATURE CITED

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APPENDIX 1. Annotated Checklist of the Vascular Plants of the Ott Biological Preserve

The following is a checklist of vascular plant species collected at the Harvey N. Ott Preserve pri- marily from 1946-1954 by Dr. William Gilbert, from September 2011 to October 2012 by the au- thors, and thereafter by the second author and his other students concluding in 2016. The list is arranged by major phylogenetic group. Within each such group, the families, genera, and species are listed alphabetically. Family circumscriptions for lycophytes and ferns follow PPG I (2016). An- giosperm family circumscriptions follow APG IV (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group 2016). Families that differ from these that are recognized by Michigan Flora Online (2011) are listed and referenced to APG IV family placements. Common names follow Voss and Reznicek (2012). A total of 461 species, including varieties, forms, and subspecies were vouchered by Gilbert, and an additional 138 species were vouchered by recent collections.

Many easy-to-identify species were noted in the field by us were not vouchered because a previ- ous collection by Gilbert exists. These taxa are indicated by the notation “Recent observation.” Those collected by Gilbert and not vouchered or noted by us are indicated by the notation “No recent ob- servation”. Species noted by Gilbert in his manuscript, but for which there is no specimen in ALBC, are excluded from this checklist. Indications of habitat and frequency of occurrence for species col- lected only by Gilbert and not observed by us are taken directly from specimen labels; for these the name change from Blanck Lake to Dexter Lake is the only correction. It should also be noted that de- scriptions such as “bog” or “boggy” were used extensively by Gilbert but do not necessarily coincide with current natural community designations. An asterisk (*) preceding a species name indicates a species not recorded for Calhoun County in Michigan Flora Online (2011) as of November 27, 2018, unless it is based on a collection from this study. Non-native species, as indicated in Michigan Flora Online (2011), are indicated in bold. Collection numbers are preceded by the collector’s surname (Miller indicates the first author Bowen).

LYCOPHYTES

LYCOPODIACEAE Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) R. Trevis, Shining clubmoss, hardwood swamp, Gilbert 482, 50102, 50121. Recent observation.

SELAGINELLACEAE Selaginella eclipes W.R. Buck, Selaginella, occasional on prairie fen, Gilbert 461, 4617, 4622. Recent observation.

MONILOPHYTES (FERNS)

EQUISETOPHYTES

EQUISETACEAE

Equisetum arvense L., Common horsetail, wet spring area around Hall Lake, Gilbert 4616,

54018. No recent observation.

*E. laevigatum A. Braun, Smooth scouring rush, locally common near end of Consumers En-

ergy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, on prairie fen, and occa-

sional in disturbed oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 4621, Miller 94, 126,

199. OPHIOGLOSSOPHYTES

OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrypus virginianus (L.) Michx., Rattlesnake fern, occasional in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49336, 4630. Recent observation. Sceptridium dissectum (Spreng.) Lyon, Cut-leaved grape-fern, occasional on wet margin of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49336, 54016. Recent observation.

LEPTOSPORANGIATES

ASPLENIACEAE *Asplenium platyneuron (L.) D. C. Eaton, Ebony spleenwort, occasional E of Jameson park- ing lot and on NW side of property in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 82, 135.

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ATHYRIACEAE Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth, Lady fern, locally common in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 50116, Miller 201.

BLECHNACEAE Woodwardia virginica (L.) Smith, Virginia chain-fern, in thick brush in W swamp, Gilbert 5065. No recent observation.

DENNSTAEDTIACEAE *Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn, Bracken fern, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 462. Recent observation.

DRYOPTERIDACEAE Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs, Spinulose woodfern, occasional in oak-hickory forest and hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4625, 4626, 4628, 50123, 54022, Miller 77, 170.

D. cristata (L.) A. Gray, Crested shield fern, uncommon in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 4627, 54019, Miller 202. *D. intermedia (Willd.) A. Gray, Evergreen woodfern, occasional in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Miller 203. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott., Christmas fern, occasional in oak-hickory for- est and hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4925. Recent observation.

ONOCLEACEAE Onoclea sensibilis L., Sensitive fern, locally common on wet margin of pond at end of power line right-of-way and common in swamps on N side of property, Gilbert 468, Miller 220.

OSMUNDACEAE *Osmundastrum cinnamomeum (L.) C. Presl, Cinnamon fern, common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 464. Recent observation. *Osmunda regalis L., Royal fern, common in swamps on N side of property, Gilbert 463. Re- cent observation.

THELYPTERIDACEAE *Thelypteris palustris Schott, Marsh fern, common in boggy area around Brigham Lake and locally common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49465, 5235. Recent observation.

PTERIDACEAE *Adiantum pedatum L., Maidenhair fern, occasional in oak-hickory forest on N side of prop- erty, Gilbert 54017. Recent observation.

CONIFERS

CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L., Common juniper, bordering Sphagnum mat at N end of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49190. No recent observation.

J. virginiana L., Red-cedar, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49505, Miller 97, 98. PINACEAE Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch, Larch, common in wet margin of prairie fen near Hall and Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49146. Recent observation. *Picea abies (L.) H. Karst., Norway spruce, occasional on NW side of property in oak-hick- ory forest, Miller 140.

P. mariana (Mill.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Black spruce, second-growth hardwood, N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 51001. No recent observation. Pinus strobus L., White pine, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 96. *P. sylvestris L., Scots pine, uncommon on border of remnant oak openings understory and oak-hickory forest, Miller 218.

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TAXACEAE *Taxus canadensis Marshall, Yew, rare (only one plant) on NW side of property in oak-hickory forest, Miller 152.

ANGIOSPERMS

ADOXACEAE Sambucus canadensis L., Elderberry, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49197. Recent observation. Viburnum acerifolium L., Maple-leaved viburnum, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 505, 50126. Recent observation. *V. dentatum L., Arrow-wood, occasional in hardwood swamp NE of Hall Lake, Miller 211.

V. lentago L., Nannyberry, Wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 49279, 49434, 49470, 5028. Re- cent observation. V. trilobum Marshall, American highbush-cranberry, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49193. Recent observation. V. rafinesquianum Schult., Downy arrow-wood, common on sandy ridges, Gilbert 49142. No recent observation. ALISMATACEAE

Sagittaria latifolia Willd., Wapato, Hall Lake submerged aquatic and locally common in boggy area on SW side of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49358, 49400, 50105, 49439, 50144, Miller 241.

ALLIACEAE – SEE AMARYLLIDACEAE

AMARANTHACEAE *Froelichia gracilis (Hook.) Moq., Cottonweed, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 249.

AMARYLLIDACEAE *Allium rotundum L., Onion, locally common on Consumers Energy trail in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 171.

A. tricoccum Aiton, Wild leek, locally common in oak-hickory forest on esker trail, Gilbert 4995, 49339. Recent observation. ANACARDIACEAE Rhus glabra L., Smooth sumac, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49210. Recent observation.

R. typhina L., Staghorn sumac, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49204. Recent observation. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze, Poison-ivy, common in oak-hickory forest, Skean 5075.

T. vernix (L.) Kuntze, Poison sumac, common in wet margin of prairie fen surrounding Hall Lake and occasional in boggy areas around Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49445. Recent obser- vation. APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE) Angelica atropurpurea L., Purplestem angelica, hardwood swamp E of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49185, 5051. No recent observation. Cicuta bulbifera L., Water hemlock, W side of N swamp, Gilbert 49366, 49476. No recent observation.

C. maculata L., Water hemlock, wet lowland SE corner of preserve, Gilbert 49334. No recent observation. Conioselinum chinense (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb., Hemlock-parsley, along outlet stream of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49441. Recent observation. Daucus carota L., Queen-Anne’s-lace, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49299. Recent observation. Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B. Clarke, Hairy sweet-cicely, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4996. Recent observation.

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Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf., Cowbane, low moist ground near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49415, 49502. No recent observation. Sanicula marilandica L., Black snakeroot, oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49141, 49195. Recent observation. Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude, Yellow-pimpernel, on hillside near Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4994. No recent observation. Torilis japonica (Houtt.) DC., Hedge-parsley, occasional along Consumers Energy right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 173. Zizia aurea (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Golden alexanders, occasional in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49103. Recent observation.

APOCYNACEAE Apocynum androsaemifolium L., Spreading dogbane, occasional along Consumers Energy right-of-way, Gilbert 49169, Miller 95.

A. cannabinum L., Indian-hemp, Consumers Energy right-of-way, Gilbert 49231. Recent ob- servation. Asclepias amplexicaulis Sm., Clasping milkweed, uncommon on Consumers Energy right-of way, Gilbert 49332, 50158. Recent observation.

A. exaltata L., Poke milkweed, uncommon in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49218, 49431. Recent observation. A. incarnata L., Swamp milkweed, occasional on prairie fen and around Hall Lake, Gilbert 49268. Recent observation. A. syriaca L., Common milkweed, occasional on Consumers Energy right-of-way, Gilbert 49235, 49307. Recent observation. A. tuberosa L., Butterfly-weed, common on Consumers Energy right-of-way, Gilbert 49288. Recent observation. A. viridiflora Raf., Green milkweed, sandy soil hill W of north swamp, Gilbert 49395, 5035. No recent observation. *Vincetoxicum nigrum (L.) Pers., Black swallow-wort, occasional to locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 71,

119. AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex mucronata (L.) M. Powell, V. Savolainen & S. Andrews, Mountain holly, west swamp, Gilbert 5069. No recent observation.

I. verticillata (L.) A. Gray, Michigan holly, common in swamps on N side of property, Gilbert 49490, 5087. Recent observation. ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott, Jack-in-the-pulpit, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4943. Recent observation. Lemna minor L., Common duckweed, common in Brigham Lake, Gilbert 52103, Miller 233a. Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt., Skunk-cabbage, common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4924. Recent observation. *Wolffia borealis (Engelm.) Landolt & Wildi, Dotted water meal, Brigham Lake, Miller 233c.

W. columbiana H. Karst, Common water meal, Brigham Lake, Miller 233b. ARALIACEAE Aralia nudicaulis L., Wild sarsaparilla, locally common in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49102, 49124b, 5024. Recent observation. *Hedera helix L., English ivy, locally common in oak-hickory forest on NW boundary, near trailer park. Walczyk 1.

ASPARAGACEAE Asparagus officinalis L., Garden asparagus, uncommon on Consumers Energy right-of-way, Gilbert 49199. Recent observation. Maianthemum canadense Desf., Wild lily-of-the-valley, locally common in oak-hickory for- est on N side of property, Gilbert 4999. Recent observation.

Page  129 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 129

M. racemosum (L.) Link, False spikenard, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4993. Re- cent observation. M. stellatum (L.) Link, Starry false solomon-seal, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49104. Recent observation. Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Elliot, Solomon-seal, S side of hill on main esker N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49114, 49115, 54026, 54027. No recent observation.

P. pubescens (Willd.) Pursh, Downy solomon seal, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4980, 49114. Recent observation. Uvularia grandiflora Sm., Bellwort, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4834. Recent observation.

ASPHODELACEAE Hemerocallis fulva (L.) L., Orange day-lily, locally common in disturbed oak-hickory forest near power line right-of-way, Gilbert 5230. Recent observation.

ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE) Achillea millefolium L., Yarrow, common on Consumers Energy right-of-way remnant prairie, Gilbert 49160. Recent observation. Ageratina altissima (L.) R. M. King & H. Rob, White snakeroot, border of small E swamp, Gilbert 49430. No recent observation. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L., Common ragweed, occasional on Consumers Energy right-of-way remnant oak openings understory e, Gilbert 49464. Recent observation. Antennaria parlinii Fernald, Smooth pussytoes, common on sandy hills, Gilbert 4942. No re- cent observation. Arctium minus Bernh., Common burdock, disturbed oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49354. Re- cent observation.

Arnoglossum atriplicifolium (L.) H. Rob., occasional on Consumers Energy right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Pale Indian Plantain, Gilbert 49343. Recent observation. Bidens cernua L., Nodding beggar-ticks, occasional on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of

prairie fen and in dried up swamp on N side of property, Miller 142, 179, Skean 5025.

B. trichosperma (Michx.) Britt., Tickseed-sunflower, occasional in prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 50170, Miller 271, 275. Brickellia eupatorioides (L.) Shinners, False boneset, disturbed oak-hickory forest near Ar- lington entrance, Gilbert 50148, Miller 266. Centaurea diffusa Lam., Brown knapweed, border of E Hall Lake, Gilbert 54068. No recent observation.

C. stoebe L., Spotted knapweed, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 523. Recent observation. Cichorium intybus L., Chicory, Locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 5041. Recent observation. Cirsium muticum Michx., Swamp thistle, common in hardwood swamp lake edges, Gilbert 49414. Recent observation.

C. vulgare (Savi) Ten., Bull thistle, along roadside on sandy hillside, Gilbert 52111. No re- cent observation. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq., Horseweed, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 50131. Recent observation. Coreopsis tripteris L., Tall tickseed, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49405. Recent observation. Erigeron pulchellus Michx., Robin’s-plantain, common in disturbed and open sandy areas, Gilbert 49109, 509. Recent observation.

E. strigosus Muhl., Daisy fleabane, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49203. Recent observation. Eupatorium perfoliatum L., Boneset, wet soil bordering springs E of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49437. No recent observation. Eurybia macrophylla (L.) Cass., Large-leaved aster, upland hardwood, Gilbert 50118. Recent observation. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt., Grass-leaved goldenrod, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 219.

Page  130 130 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

Eutrochium maculatum (L.) E. E. Lamont, Joe-pye-weed, wet margins of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49386, 49404. Recent observation.

Helianthus divaricatus L., Woodland sunflower, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49301, Miller 256,

257. H. giganteus L., Tall sunflower, uncommon on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen and in oak-hickory forest near Arlington entrance, Gilbert 49398, Miller 230, 264. H. occidentalis Riddell, Western sunflower, S end of Hall esker, Gilbert 49402. No recent ob- servation. Hieracium aurantiacum L., Orange hawkweed, occasional in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49155. Recent observation.

H. caespitosum Dumort., Yellow hawkweed, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Miller 92. H. gronovii L., Hairy hawkweed, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way trail remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49290, 49337, Miller 91. H. longipilum Torr., Prairie hawkweed, disturbed oak-hickory forest near old Wattles Rd. en- trance, Gilbert 49291. No recent observation. *Hypochaeris radicata L., Cat’s-ear, Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 93, 122. Krigia biflora (Walter) S. F. Blake, False dandelion, locally common in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49108, Miller 180.

K. virginica (L.) Willd., Dwarf dandelion, NW entrance sandy field, Gilbert 49207. No recent observation. Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald, Tall blue lettuce, low woodlands W of central esker, Gilbert 49495, 50159. No recent observation.

L. canadensis L., Wild lettuce, occasional in oak-hickory forest on esker, Gilbert 49322. Re- cent observation. L. serriola L., Prickly lettuce, hillsides and low ground extreme SW portion of preserve, Gilbert 5093, 50166. No recent observation. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam., Ox-eye daisy, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49217. Recent observation. Liatris aspera Michx., Rough blazing-star, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 50130, Miller 251.

L. aspera Michx. f. benkei, Rough blazing-star, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 255. L. cylindracea Michx., Cylindrical blazing-star, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 50168. Recent observation. L. spicata (L.) Willd., Marsh blazing-star, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49394, 50108. Recent observation. Packera aurea (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Golden ragwort, common in damp, low forest swamps, Gilbert 49107. Recent observation. *P. paupercula (Michx.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Northern ragwort, uncommon on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 143. Prenanthes alba L., White lettuce, wooded slopes of Brigham esker, Gilbert 49433, 49450. No recent observation. Ratibida pinnata (Vent.) Barnhart, Yellow coneflower, hill just above the bog N side of north swamp, Gilbert 49397, 50147. No recent observation. Rudbeckia hirta L., Black-eyed Susan, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49202. Recent observation.

R. fulgida Aiton, Showy coneflower, moist ground on N side of outlet to Hall Lake, Gilbert 49403. No recent observation. *R. triloba L., Three-lobed coneflower, locally common in disturbed oak-hickory forest near Arlington entrance, Miller 265. Solidago canadensis L., Canada goldenrod, east edge of Hall Lake in sandy disturbed area, Gilbert 49468, Miller 6, Skean 5029.

S. caesia L., Bluestem goldenrod, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49472. Recent ob- servation. Page  131 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 131

S. juncea Aiton, Early goldenrod, margin of remnant oak openings understory and oak-hick- ory forest, Gilbert 49353. Recent observation. S. nemoralis Aiton, Gray goldenrod, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 252. *S. ohioensis Riddell, Ohio goldenrod, occasional in prairie fen near Hall Lake, Miller 267. *S. patula Muhl., Rough-leaved goldenrod, east edge of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie

fen, Miller 4, 274. *S. riddellii Frank, Riddell’s goldenrod, east edge of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 5.

S. speciosa Nutt., Showy goldenrod, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49355. Recent observation. *S. uliginosa Nutt., Bog goldenrod, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Miller 273. Symphyotrichum cordifolium (L.) G. L. Nesom, Heart-leaved aster, uncommon in disturbed oak-hickory forest near remnant praire, Miller 278.

S. lanceolatum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom, Panicled aster, east edge of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen and occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 3, 254. S. lanceolatum x lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, border of swamp at Hall Lake, Gilbert 50171. No recent observation. S. lateriflorum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Calico aster, east edge of Hall Lake in sandy dis- turbed area, Miller 2, 268. S. pilosum (Willd.) G. L. Nesom, Frost aster, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 253, 276. *S. puniceum (L.) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Swamp aster, uncommon in boggy area on N side of Brigham Lake and locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 184, 259.

Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg., Common dandelion, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 4633. Recent observa- tion.

Tragopogon dubius Scop., Goat’s beard, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49156. Recent observation. Vernonia missurica Raf., Missouri ironweed, border of pond at end of power line right-of- way, Gilbert 49408, 49487, 50162. Recent observation.

BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb., Spotted touch-me-not, common in southern hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49364, 49423. Recent observation.

BERBERIDACEAE Berberis thunbergii DC., Japanese barberry, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 50115, Miller 12. Podophyllum peltatum L., May-apple, locally common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49183. Recent observation.

BETULACEAE Betula alleghaniensis Britton, Yellow birch, common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49447, 5050. Recent observation.

B. pumila L., Bog birch, Common in prairie fen, Gilbert 54028. Recent observation. Carpinus caroliniana Walter, Hornbeam, common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49179, 50109. Recent observation. Corylus americana Walter, Hazelnut, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way, Gilbert 49236. Recent observation.

BIGNONIACEAE Catalpa speciosa Warder, Northern catalpa, occasional near Arlington entrance in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 105.

BORAGINACEAE Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnst., Beggar’s lice, common in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 50128, Miller 205.

Page  132 132 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

Lithospermum canescens (Michx.) Lehm., Hoary puccoon, occasional on eskers in oak-hick- ory forest, Gilbert 49132, 49171, 4969. No recent observation.

L. caroliniense (Walter) MacMill subsp. croceum (Fernald) Cusick., Hairy puccoon, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings under- story, Gilbert 5029, 49171. Recent observation. BRASSICACEAE *Alliaria petiolata (M. Bieb.) Cavara & Grande, Garlic mustard, common in oak-hickory forest throughout property near trails, Miller 21, 107, Skean 5008. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br., Yellow rocket, in low wet soil between Brigham and central eskers, Gilbert 4990. Recent observation. Berteroa incana (L.) DC., Hoary alyssum, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 52. Boechera canadensis (L.) Al-Shehbaz, Sickle-pod, under oaks on Brigham esker, Gilbert 5212. Recent observation. Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik., Shepherd’s purse, common on ridges, Gilbert 49120. No recent observation. Cardamine bulbosa (Muhl.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Spring cress, around margin of Hall Lake and frequent in low, wet land, Gilbert 4983, 4984, 5022. Recent observation.

C. pratensis L., Cuckoo-flower, boggy margin of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4939, 4982. No re- cent observation. *Hesperis matronalis L., Dame’s rocket, common in disturbed oak-hickory forest near Ar- lington entrance, Skean 5007. *Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br., Field cress, common near Arlington parking lot in dis- turbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 46.

L. virginicum L., Common peppergrass, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49121, 49162, Miller 101. *Nasturtium officinale R. Br., Watercress, edge of outlet to Hall Lake near SW corner of pre- serve, Gilbert 49318. No recent observation. Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser subsp. hispida (Desv.) Jonsell, Yellow cress, occasional in boggy area around Brigham Lake, Miller 131, Skean 5009. Sisymbrium altissimum L., Tumble mustard, sandy hill W side of preserve, Gilbert 5232. No recent observation.

BUXACEAE *Pachysandra terminalis Siebold & Zucc., Japanese spurge, isolated patch in oak-hickory woods near E boundary, near Peck Street, Anderson 001.

CAMPANULACEAE Campanula aparinoides Pursh, Marsh bellflower, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49294. Recent observation.

C. rotundifolia L., Bluebell, Brigham esker on sandy soil in open second growth hardwood forest, Gilbert 49253, 49286. No recent observation. Lobelia kalmii L., Kalm’s lobelia, occasional in prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49295. Re- cent observation.

L. siphilitica L., Great blue lobelia, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49406. Recent obser- vation. L. spicata Lam., Pale spiked lobelia, grass and sedge bog surrounding Hall Lake, Gilbert 49289a. No recent observation. CANNABACEAE Celtis occidentalis L., Hackberry, Locally common in hardwood swamp near Brigham board- walk, Gilbert 49188, 5095. Recent observation.

CAPRIFOLIACEAE *Dipsacus fullonum L., Wild teasel, uncommon on Consumers Energy trail on remnant oak openings understory, Miller 212. Lonicera × bella Zabel, Hybrid honeysuckle, uncommon near Arlington parking lot in oak- hickory forest, Miller 23.

Page  133 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 133

L. dioica L., Glaucous honeysuckle, upland hardwood, extreme SE forested area, Gilbert 49280, 5057. No recent observation. L. morrowii L., Morrow honeysuckle, uncommon near Arlington parking lot in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4975, Miller 25. *Symphoricarpos orbiculatus Moench, Coralberry, occasional on NW side of property in oak-hickory forest, Miller 141. Triosteum aurantiacum E. P. Bicknell, Horse-gentian, open upland hardwood SE arm, Gilbert 49345. No recent observation. Valeriana uliginosa (Torr. & A. Gray) Rydb., Swamp valerian, common in swamp around tamarack, Gilbert 4844, 49133. Recent observation.

CARYOPHYLLACEAE Arenaria serpyllifolia L., Thyme-leaved sandwort, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant prairie, Gilbert 49124. Recent observation. Cerastium fontanum Baumg., Mouse-ear chickweed, disturbed area near Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49125, 5012. No recent observation. Dianthus armeria L., Deptford pink, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 90. Minuartia michauxii (Fenzl) Farw., Rock sandwort, common on sandy ridges, Gilbert 49126, 49216. No recent observation. Paronychia canadensis (L.) Alph. Wood, Tall forked chickweed, open upland hardwood on central esker, Gilbert 49340. No recent observation.

Saponaria officinalis L., Bouncing bet, uncommon near Arlington parking lot and common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49308. Recent observation.

Silene dichotoma Ehrh., Forked catchfly, field bordering the second growth hardwood, Gilbert 49228, 49229, 5060. No recent observation.

S. latifolia Poir., White cockle, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49230, 49426, 5059, Miller 89. S. vulgaris (Moench) Garcke, Bladder campion, Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Skean 5016. Stellaria graminea L., Starwort, locally common near Jameson parking lot in disturbed oak- hickory forest, Miller 48.

S. longifolia Willd., Long-leaved chickweed, north swamp near north esker N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49113. No recent observation. S. media (L.) Vill., Common chickweed, locally common near Arlington entrance in oak- hickory forest, Miller 17. CELASTRACEAE *Celastrus orbiculatus Thunb., Oriental bittersweet, common in disturbed oak-hickory forest and along edges of disturbed remnant oak openings understory, Miller 14.

C. scandens L., Climbing bittersweet, Hill above Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49170. No recent ob- servation. Euonymus alatus (Thunb.) Siebold, Winged euonymus, common in oak-hickory forest on E side of property, Skean 5011.

E. fortunei (Turcz.) Hand.-Mazz., Wintercreeper, occasional near Arlington entrance in dis- turbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 7. E. obovatus Nutt., Running strawberry-bush, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 501. Recent observation. Parnassia glauca Raf., Grass-of-parnassus, common in bogs surrounding Hall Lake, Gilbert 49407. No recent observation.

CERATOPHYLLACEAE Ceratophyllum demersum L., Coontail, slow stream draining Hall Lake, Gilbert 5256. No re- cent observation.

CISTACEAE Crocanthemum bicknellii (Fernald) Janch., Frostweed, common on dry sandy field on Dexter esker, Gilbert 50153. No recent observation.

Page  134 134 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

C. canadense (L.) Britton, Common frostweed, W side of hill above Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49157. No recent observation. Lechea mucronata Raf., Hairy pinweed, dry open sandy soil on hill W of north swamp, Gilbert 49393. No recent observation.

COMMELINACEAE Tradescantia ohiensis Raf., Common spiderwort, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49166. Recent observation.

CONVALLARIACEAE – SEE ASPARAGACEAE

CONVOLVULACEAE Convolvulus arvensis L., Field bindweed, weedy grassy pasture just E of SE arm of preserve, Gilbert 4935. No recent observation.

CORNACEAE Cornus alternifolia L., Alternate-leaved dogwood, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49140. Recent observation.

C. amomum Mill. subsp. obliqua (Raf.) J. S. Wilson, Pale dogwood, In W swamp, Gilbert 5089. No recent observation. C. florida L., Flowering dogwood, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4962. Recent ob- servation. C. foemina Mill. subsp. racemosa (Lam.) J.S. Wilson, Gray dogwood, occasional near Jame- son parking lot in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49106, 49168, Miller 47. C. sericea L., Red-osier, locally common near swamp adjacent to oak openings understory, Gilbert 49105. Recent observation. CYPERACEAE *Carex alata T. & G., Winged sedge, near pond at beginning of power line right-of-way and locally common along border of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 66, 110,

231. *C. bebbii (L. H. Bailey) Fernald, Sedge, locally common in boggy area surrounding Brigham Lake, Miller 130, 223.C. blanda Dewey, Sedge, along esker trail in oak-hickory forest and wet margin of Brigham Lake, Miller 30, 42.

C. comosa Boott, Sedge, common along border of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 49262. Recent observation. C. cephalophora Willd., Sedge, along esker trail in oak-hickory forest, Miller 32, 34. C. gracillima Schwein., Sedge, along esker trail in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49144, Miller 28. C. grayi J. Carey, Sedge, Rare in hardwood swamp S of Brigham Lake, Miller 280. C. hystericina Willd., Sedge, Locally common in boggy area surrounding Brigham Lake and on N side of Hall Lake in wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 49145, Miller 38, 147. *C. interior L. H. Bailey, Sedge, boggy area around Brigham Lake, Miller 41.

C. lasiocarpa Ehrh., Sedge, Occasional along border of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 109. *C. leptalea Wahlenb., Sedge, boggy area around Brigham Lake, Miller 43.

C. pensylvanica Lam., Sedge, Along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 4950, Miller 72. C. prairea Dewey, Sedge, occasional on N side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 149. C. rosea Willd., Curly-styled wood sedge, along esker trail in oak-hickory forest, Miller 29, 35. C. scoparia Willd., Sedge, border of N swamp, Gilbert 49266. No recent observation. C. stipata Willd., Sedge, locally common in southern hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49143, Miller 37. C. stricta Lam., Sedge, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 164. C. swanii (Fernald) Mack., Sedge, locally common near ponds near power line right-of-way, Miller 67, 221, 228. Page  135 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 135

C. viridula Michx., Sedge, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 49174, Miller 162. C. vulpinoidea Michx., Sedge, locally common at beginning of Consumers Energy trail on remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49215, Miller 121. Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torr., Sedge, locally common on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 156. Cyperus lupulinus (Spreng.) Marcks, Slender sand sedge, locally common on NW side of property in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49309, Miller 139.

C. strigosus L., Long scaled nut sedge, Brigham Lake aquatic, Gilbert 49499, Miller 238, 239. Eleocharis erythropoda Steud., Spike-rush, common in wet margin of prairie fen surrounding Hall Lake and on NE side of Brigham Lake in boggy area, Miller 40, 148, 186, 194.

E. palustris (L.) Roem. & Schult., Spike-rush, common in boggy area around Brigham Lake and prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49263. No recent observation. E. rostellata (Torr.) Torr, Spike-rush, common in prairie fen and on NE side of Brigham Lake in boggy area, Miller 158, 198. Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fernald, Green-keeled cotton grass, bog areas around Hall and Brigham Lake, Gilbert 54003. No recent observation. Schoenoplectus acutus (Bigelow) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Hardstem bulrush, common in wet margin of prairie fen around Hall Lake, Gilbert 4928. Recent observation.

S. pungens (Vahl) Palla, Threesquare, locally common on border of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 5040, 54057. Miller 108. S. subterminalis (Torr.) Soják, Bulrush, near outlet of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 52101. No re- cent observation. S. tabernaemontani (C. C. Gmel.) Palla, Softstem bulrush, common along border of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 113, 114, 146. Scirpus atrovirens Willd., Bulrush, locally common in boggy area on N side of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49234, Miller 128, 183.

S. cyperinus (L.) Kunth, Wool-grass, locally common on wet margin of pond at end of power line right-of-way, Miller 217. *Scleria verticillata Willd., Nut-rush, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Miller 270.

DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea villosa L., Wild yam, oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49320. Recent observation.

DIPSACACEAE – SEE CAPRIFOLIACEAE

DROSERACEAE Drosera rotundifolia L., Round-leaved sundew, occasional in prairie fen, Gilbert 49419. Re- cent observation.

ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb., Autumn-olive, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Skean 5013.

ERICACEAE Chamaedaphne calyculata (L.) Moench, Leatherleaf, rare in west swamp, Gilbert 5063. No recent observation. Gaultheria procumbens L., Teaberry, on highland surrounded by swamp on W side of pre- serve, Gilbert 481, 49494. No recent observation.

Monotropa uniflora L., Indian-pipe, occasional in upland oak forests and uncommon along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49471. Recent observation.

Pyrola asarifolia Michx., Pink pyrola, under Tamarack in bog surrounding Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5033. No recent observation.

P. elliptica Nutt., Large-leaved shinleaf, uncommon in boggy area near swamp on N side of property, Gilbert 49194, 5048. Recent observation. Vaccinium corymbosum L., Highbush blueberry, Sphagnum area about Brigham Lake and N edge of W swamp, Gilbert 4966, 4973, 4973b, 49281, Skean 5032.

Page  136 136 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

V. myrtilloides Michx., Velvetleaf blueberry, in sandy oak-hickory forest just N of W swamp, Gilbert 4963, 5067, Skean 5033, 5033. V. pallidum Aiton, Dryland blueberry, common in sandy soil along roadway near Brownlee Park, Gilbert 5066. No recent observation. EUPHORBIACEAE Euphorbia corollata L., Flowering spurge, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49201, Miller 175. *E. cyparissias L., Cypress spurge, locally common near Jameson parking lot in disturbed oak openings understory, Miller 50, 115.

E. maculata L., Spotted spurge, common along Dexter esker, Gilbert 50154. No recent ob- servation. FABACEAE Amorpha canescens Pursh, Lead-plant, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49233, 5047. Recent observation. Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fernald, Hog-peanut, common in low areas and woodlands, Gilbert 49501. No recent observation. Apios americana Medik., Indian-potato, at base of Dexter Lake esker near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49324. Recent observation. Desmodium canadense (L.) DC., Showy tick-trefoil, locally common in remnant oak open- ings understory along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49333, 50110, Skean 5023. *D. ciliare (Willd.) DC., Hairy tick-trefoil, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 5022, Miller 216. *D. cuspidatum (Willd.) Loud., Smooth-bracted tick-trefoil, common along Consumers En- ergy power line right-of way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49198, 49255, Miller 226.

D. illinoense A. Gray, Prairie tick-trefoil, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 4931. Recent observation. D. marilandicum (L.) DC., Small-leaved tick-trefoil, sandy field adjacent to the lane leading in from Wattles Rd., Gilbert 50139. No recent observation. D. paniculatum (L.) DC., Panicled tick-trefoil, second growth hardwood on second slope of Brigham esker, Gilbert 49438. No recent observation. *D. perplexum B. G. Schub., Tick-trefoil, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Skean 5014.

D. sessilifolium (Torr.) Torr. & A. Gray, sessile-leaved tick-trefoil, locally common on Con- sumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 50138, Skean 5015, 5024. Hylodesmum glutinosum (Willd.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill , Clustered-leaved tick-trefoil, lo- cally common on NW side of property in oak-hickory forest, Miller 138.

H. nudiflorum (L.) H. Ohashi & R. R. Mill, Naked tick-trefoil, sandy esker beneath second growth hardwood, Gilbert 49302. No recent observation. Lathyrus ochroleucus Hook., Pale vetchling, fairly frequent along eskers, Gilbert 5021. No recent observation. *L. latifolius L., Sweet pea, rare in oak-hickory forest on NW side of property near oak open- ings understory border, Miller 134.

L. palustris L., Marsh pea, infrequent in bog around Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49187, 49239. No recent observation. L. venosus Willd., Veiny pea, infrequent on eskers, Gilbert 49117, 5030. No recent observa- tion. Lespedeza capitata Michx., Round-headed bush-clover, locally common on Consumers En- ergy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49452, 49453. Recent observation.

L. hirta (L.) Hornem., Hairy bush-clover, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49409, 49453, 49462. Recent observation. Page  137 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 137

L. × nuttallii Darl., bushclover, sandy soil along road leading in from Brownlee Park en- trance, Gilbert 49461. No recent observation. *Lotus corniculatus L., Birdfoot trefoil, locally common near Jameson parking lot in dis- turbed oak openings understory, Miller 51, 116. Lupinus perennis L., Wild lupine, near top of main esker above Hall Lake, Gilbert 4987. No recent observation. Medicago lupulina L., Black medick, locally common near Jameson parking lot near rem- nant oak openings understory, Gilbert 51002. Recent observation. Melilotus albus Medik., White sweet-clover, locally common near Jameson entrance in rem- nant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49276. Recent observation.

M. officinalis (L.) Pall., Yellow sweet-clover, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49196. Recent observation. Robinia pseudoacacia L., Black locust, occasional in oak-hickory forest on NW side of property, Gilbert 54015. Recent observation. Securigera varia (L.) Lassen, Crown-vetch, locally common near Arlington parking lot, Miller 103. Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers., Goat’s-rue, along entrance road from Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49205, 49247. No recent observation. *Trifolium arvense L., Rabbitfoot clover, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 87, 133.

T. aureum Pollich, Hop clover, along road leading in from Brownlee Park, Gilbert 5042. No recent observation. T. campestre Schreb., Low hop clover, common along Consumers Energy power line right- of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 58. T. pratense L., Red clover, common near Arlington and Jameson disturbed forest entrance, Gilbert 5043. Recent observation. T. repens L., White clover, common near Arlington and Jameson disturbed forest entrances, Gilbert 5032. Recent observation. Vicia americana Willd., American vetch, base of W side of hill above Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49167. No recent observation.

V. caroliniana Walter, Pale vetch, common on eskers, Gilbert 4968. No recent observation. *V. sativa L., Common vetch, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Miller 85.

V. villosa Roth, Hairy vetch, sandy field along road from Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49153, 49209. No recent observation. FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., American beech, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49444. Re- cent observation. Quercus alba L., White oak, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 5018, 5010. Recent ob- servation. *Q. ellipsoidalis E. J. Hill, Hill’s oak, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way trail remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 50150, Miller 174.

Q. imbricaria Michx., Shingle oak, along road leading in from entrance to Brownlee Park, Gilbert 508. No recent observation. Q. rubra L., Red oak, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 50151. Recent observation. Q. velutina Lam., Black oak, common in oak-hickory forest and on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49489, 50149. Recent observation. GENTIANACEAE Bartonia virginica (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb., Screw-stem, dry woods on W side of pre- serve, Gilbert 52114. No recent observation. Gentianopsis virgata (Raf.) Holub, Small fringed gentian, occasional in prairie fen on E side of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49508. Recent observation.

GERANIACEAE Geranium maculatum L., Wild geranium, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49111. Re- cent observation.

Page  138 138 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes americanum Mill., Wild black currant, swamp W of Hall and central esker, Gilbert 4946, 50107. No recent observation.

R. cynosbati L., Wild gooseberry, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 5058. Recent ob- servation. HALORAGACEAE Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx., Various-leaved water-milfoil, Brigham Lake sub- merged aquatic, Miller 235.

M. sibiricum Komarov, Spiked water-milfoil, Brigham Lake submerged aquatic, Gilbert 5291, Miller 236A. M. verticillatum L., Water-milfoil, Brigham Lake submerged aquatic, Miller 234, 236B. HEMEROCALLIDACEAE – SEE ASPHODELACEAE

HYDRANGEACEAE *Philadelphus coronarius L., Sweet mock-orange, uncommon near Arlington parking lot in oak-hickory forest, Miller 24. *P. inodorus L., Mock-orange, uncommon along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 88.

HYDROCHARITACEAE Elodea canadensis Michx., Common waterweed, locally common in prairie fen and in Hall Lake, Miller 166, 243. Najas flexilis (Willd.) Rostk. & Schmidt, Slender naiad, submerged in Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5295. No recent observation. *N. marina L., Spiny naiad, locally common in Hall Lake fen, Miller 193, 245.

HYPERICACEAE Hypericum boreale (Britt.) E.P. Bicknell, Northern St. John’s-wort, uncommon on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 229.

H. perforatum L., Klamath weed, common in prairie fen, Gilbert 49200. Recent observation. H. prolificum L., Shrubby St. John’s-wort, central esker near its N end, Gilbert 49341, 49371. No recent observation. H. punctatum Lam., Spotted St. John’s-wort, east swamp, Gilbert 49359, 50124. No recent observation. Triadenum fraseri (Spach) Gleason, Marsh St. John’s-wort, west swamp, Gilbert 5081. No re- cent observation.

HYPOXIDACEAE Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville, Star-grass, wetlands around lakes, Gilbert 49131. Recent obser- vation.

IRIDACEAE Iris virginica L., Southern blue flag, uncommon on wet margin of Hall Lake in boggy area, Gilbert 49175, 54014. Recent observation. Sisyrinchium albidum Raf., Common blue-eyed-grass, dry sandy soil of esker under second growth hardwood, Gilbert 49100, 5020. No recent observation.

JUGLANDACEAE Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet, Pignut hickory, common in oak-hickory forest and on Con- sumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49483, 49338. Recent observation.

C. ovata (Mill.) K. Koch, Shagbark hickory, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4989. Recent observation. Juglans nigra L., Black walnut, base of hill W of outlet to Hall Lake, Gilbert 49319. Recent observation.

JUNCACEAE *Juncus dudleyi Wiegand, Dudley’s rush, occasional on N side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 151.

J. effusus L., Soft-stemmed rush, locally common near ponds along power line right-of-way, Miller 64, 224. Page  139 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 139

J. tenuis Willd., Path rush, locally common on Consumers Energy trail on remnant oak open- ings understory, Gilbert 49214, Miller 120. Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej., Common wood rush, locally common in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 51005, Miller 75, 123.

JUNCAGINACEAE Triglochin palustris L., Slender bog arrow-grass, occasional E of Hall Lake on prairie fen, Gilbert 5034, Miller 195.

LAMIACEAE Blephilia ciliata (L.) Benth., Ohio horse mint, open second growth hardwood on Brigham esker, Gilbert 49252. No recent observation. Clinopodium vulgare (L.) Fritsch, Wild-basil, sandy soil at beginning of driveway to NE en- trance from Wattles Rd., Gilbert 49275. No recent observation. Glechoma hederacea L., Ground-ivy, occasional near Arlington entrance in disturbed oak- hickory forest, Miller 16. Lamium purpureum L., Purple dead-nettle, occasional near Arlington entrance in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 15. Leonurus cardiaca L., Motherwort, occasional in oak-hickory forest on NW side of property, Gilbert 49346. Recent observation. Lycopus uniflorus Michx., Northern bugle weed, margin of Dexter Lake, Gilbert 50172, 54067. No recent observation. Mentha canadensis L., Wild mint, border of Dexter Lake, Gilbert 54059. No recent observa- tion. Monarda fistulosa L., Wild-bergamot, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49251, 49289. Recent observation.

M. punctata L., Dotted mint, along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49317. Recent observation. Nepeta cataria L., Catnip, locally common on Consumers Energy trail on remnant oak open- ings understory, Gilbert 49350, Miller 214. Prunella vulgaris L., Heal-all, oak-hickory forest on NW side of preserve, Gilbert 49206, 49250, 49327. Recent observation. Pycnanthemum virginianum (L.) Durand & Jackson, Common mountain mint, locally com- mon in boggy area on W side of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49323, 49360. Recent observation. Scutellaria galericulata L., Marsh skullcap, occasional E of Hall Lake on prairie fen, Gilbert 49245, 49246, 49367, 49270, 49271, 49368, 5072; Miller 196.

S. lateriflora L., Mad-dog skullcap, central esker on border of west swamp, Gilbert 5275. No recent observation. LAURACEAE Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume, Spicebush, common in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4926, 49189. Recent observation. Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees, Sassafras, common in oak-hickory forest on NW side of property, Gilbert 49180. Recent observation.

LENTIBULARIACEAE Utricularia cornuta Michx., Horned bladderwort, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49278, 5044, Miller 155.

U. intermedia Hayne, Flat-leaved bladderwort, shallow puddles on margin of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4992. No recent observation. U. vulgaris L., Common bladderwort, Hall Lake submerged aquatic, Gilbert 49260, 5290, Miller 242. LILIACEAE Lilium michiganense Farw., Michigan lily, base of eskers near outlet to Hall Lake, Gilbert 49330. No recent observation.

LYTHRACEAE Lythrum salicaria L., Purple loosestrife, locally common in hardwood swamp surrounding Brigham boardwalk, Miller 189.

Page  140 140 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

MALVACEAE Tilia americana L., Basswood, locally common in southern hardwood swamp. Gilbert 49181, Miller 36.

MELANTHIACEAE Anticlea elegans (Pursh) Rydb., White camas, common in bogs around lakes, Gilbert 49328, 50112. Recent observation. Triantha glutinosa (Michx.) Baker, False asphodel, grass and sedge bog surrounding Hall Lake, Gilbert 49420, 50113. No recent observation. Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb., Common trillium, uncommon in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Miller 208.

MENISPERMACEAE Menispermum canadense L., Moonseed, uncommon in oak-hickory forest N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49173, Miller 127.

MORACEAE Morus alba L., White mulberry, occasional near Arlington entrance in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 153.

MYRSINACEAE – SEE PRIMULACEAE

NYCTAGINACEAE *Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacMill., Wild four-o’clock, uncommon along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 118.

NYMPHAEACEAE Nuphar advena (Aiton) W. T. Aiton, Yellow pond-lily, common in and near Hall and Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49147, 54025. Recent observation. *N. variegata Durand, Yellow pond-lily, Brigham Lake, Gilbert 54024. No recent observation. Nymphaea odorata Aiton, Sweet-scented waterlily, common in and near Hall and Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49283. Recent observation.

OLEACEAE Fraxinus americana L., White ash, deep woods SE of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49446. No re- cent observation.

F. nigra Marshall, Black ash, common E of esker trail in hardwood swamp, Miller 169. *F. pennsylvanica Marshall, Green ash, common E of esker trail in hardwood swamp. 1m tall tree, Miller 168. *Ligustrum obtusifolium Siebold & Zucc., Border privet, occasional along Consumers En- ergy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Miller 99.

ONAGRACEAE Circaea alpina L., Small enchanter’s-nightshade, in low area W of middle esker, Gilbert 49244. No recent observation.

C. canadensis (L.) Hill, Enchanter’s-nightshade, common in hardwood swamp and occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49243. Recent observation. Epilobium coloratum Biehler, Cinnamon willow-herb, swampy area on E border of preserve, Gilbert 49428. No recent observation. *E. hirsutum L., Great hairy willow-herb, occasional in dried up swamp on N side of prop- erty, Miller 177.

E. leptophyllum Raf., Fen willow-herb, swampy bog adjacent to road leading in from Brown- lee Park entrance, Gilbert 49361. No recent observation. E. strictum Spreng., Downy willow-herb, swampy bog adjacent to road leading in from Brownlee Park entrance, Gilbert 49362, 54055. No recent observation. Oenothera biennis L., Common evening-primrose, Consumers Energy power line right-of- way, Gilbert 49311. Recent observation.

O. clelandii W. Dietr., P.H. Raven, & W.L.Wagner, Long-spiked evening-primrose, sandy weedy grassy pasture bordering W side of preserve, Gilbert 49313. No recent observation. O. villosa Thunb., Evening-primrose, Brigham esker just above Brigham Lake in relatively dry sandy soil, Gilbert 49344. No recent observation. Page  141 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 141

ORCHIDACEAE Calopogon tuberosus (L.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb., Grass-pink, occasional in prairie fen on NE side of Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49186. Recent observation. Corallorhiza maculata Raf., Spotted coral-root, oak woods on hill E of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 50163. No recent observation. Cypripedium acaule Aiton, Pink lady-slipper, near SE margin of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4843, 4991. No recent observation.

C. candidum Willd., White lady-slipper, uncommon in prairie fen on S side of Hall Lake, Gilbert 4842. No recent observation. Last seen by the second author in ca. 2001. C. parviflorum Salisb. var. pubescens (Willd.) O. W. Knight, Yellow lady-slipper, lowland deep forest E of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4841. No recent observation. C. reginae Walter, Showy lady-slipper, bog N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4615, 49184. No re- cent observation. Last seen by the second author in ca. 2003. Platanthera clavellata (Michx.) Luer, Club-spur orchid, rich low woodlands S of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 50103. No recent observation. *P. aquilonis Sheviak, Green orchid, bog surrounding Dexter Lake, Gilbert 5046. No recent observation. Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker Gawl., Rose pogonia, bog surrounding Dexter Lake and in marsh surrounding Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49277, 5045, 54103. Recent observation. Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham., Hooded ladies’-tresses, grass and sedge bog around Hall Lake, Gilbert 49421. No recent observation.

OROBANCHACEAE Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell, Purple false foxglove, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49442, Miller 272. Aureolaria flava (L.) Farw., Smooth false foxglove, sandy soil under second growth hard- wood near Brigham esker, Gilbert 49422. No recent observation. Pedicularis canadensis L., Wood-betony, on ridges particularly near their base, Gilbert 49134. No recent observation.

P. lanceolata Michx., Swamp-betony, wet lowland bordering outlet to Hall Lake, Gilbert 49411. No recent observation. OXALIDACEAE Oxalis dillenii Jacq., Common yellow wood-sorrel, locally common in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Miller 76.

O. stricta L., Yellow wood-sorrel, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way, Gilbert 49220. Recent observation. PAPAVERACEAE Sanguinaria canadensis L., Bloodroot, near base of main esker in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4927. Recent observation.

PARNASSIACEAE – SEE CELASTRACEAE

PENTHORACEAE Penthorum sedoides L., Ditch stonecrop, rare in north swamp, Gilbert 49477. No recent ob- servation.

PHRYMACEAE Mimulus ringens L., Monkey-flower, uncommon in boggy area on NE side of Brigham Lake, Miller 185. Phryma leptostachya L., Lopseed, locally common on NW side of property in oak-hickory for- est, Gilbert 49349, 5053, Miller 137.

PHYTOLACCACEAE Phytolacca americana L., Pokeweed, disturbed oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49347. Recent ob- servation.

PLANTAGINACEAE Chelone glabra L., Turtlehead, grass and sedge bog around Hall Lake, Gilbert 49506. No re- cent observation.

Page  142 142 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

Nuttallanthus canadensis (L.) D. A. Sutton, Blue toadflax, along roadside in reforested area on hill W of north swamp, Gilbert 5025. No recent observation.

Penstemon hirsutus (L.) Willd., Hairy beard-tongue, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49116, 49154, Miller 62.

Plantago aristata Michx., Bracted plantain, sandy soil bordering driveway into preserve from Wattles Rd., Gilbert 49425. No recent observation.

P. lanceolata L., Ribgrass, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail, Gilbert 49163. Recent observation. P. rugelii Decne. Rugel’s plantain, wet land between Brigham and central esker, Gilbert 49342, 49500. No recent observation.

Veronica arvensis L., Field speedwell, sandy ridges, Gilbert 49123. No recent observation.

Veronicastrum virginicum (L.) Farw., Culver’s-root, Dexter esker under open second growth

hardwoods, Gilbert 49303, 49326. No recent observation.

POACEAE Agrostis gigantea Roth, Redtop, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 161. *A. stolonifera L., Creeping bent, occasional E of Hall Lake in prairie fen, Miller 197. Alopecurus aequalis Sobol., Short-awned foxtail, along margin of north swamp, Gilbert 49265. No recent observation. Andropogon gerardii Vitman, Big bluestem, along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49417. Recent observation. Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) J. Presl & C. Presl, Tall oatgrass, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory and sandy area E of Hall Lake, Miller 45, 59. Brachyelytrum erectum (Roth) P. Beauv., Long-awned wood grass, forest floor in upland hardwood, Gilbert 50127. No recent observation. Bromus ciliatus L., Fringed brome, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 163.

B. inermis Leyss., Smooth brome, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory and common near Arlington parking lot, Miller 54, 104. B. japonicus Murray, Japanese brome, along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 54006, Miller 73. *B. pubescens Willd., Canada brome, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49192, Miller 124, 187.

B. tectorum L., Downy chess, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49150, 54006, Miller 63. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) P. Beauv., Blue-joint, Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49272, 49273. Recent observation. Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fernald, Sandbur, along roadside near Dexter esker, Gilbert 50156. No recent observation. Dactylis glomerata L., Orchard grass, common along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 56, 74, 117. Dichanthelium columbianum (Scribn.) Freckmann, Panic grass, along entrance from Brown- lee Rd., Gilbert 49211. No recent observation.

D. implicatum (Schribn.) Kerguelen, Panic grass, locally common at wet margin of pond at end of power line right-of-way, Miller 222. D. latifolium (L.) Harvill, Broad-leaved panic grass, locally common in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49222b, Miller 125. D. meridionale (Ashe) Freckmann, Mat panic grass, locally common along Consumers En- ergy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 68. D. oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould, Panic grass, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49161, Miller 53. Digitaria cognata (Schult.) Pilg., Fall witch grass, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 261.

D. sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Hairy crab grass, parking area near Brigham esker, Gilbert 49492. No recent observation. Page  143 2018 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST 143

Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv., Barnyard grass, margin of Brigham esker on extreme south end, Gilbert 49469. No recent observation. Elymus hystrix L., Bottlebrush grass, uncommon in oak-hickory forest on NW side of prop- erty, Gilbert 49285. Recent observation. *E. repens (L.) Gould, Quack grass, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of- way trail remnant oak openings understory, Miller 132.

Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud., Tumble grass, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49451, Miller 260. Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) E. B. Alexeev, nodding fescue, occasional in oak-hickory for-

est, Miller 33, 78. Glyceria canadensis (Michx.) Trin., Rattlesnake grass, locally common in dried up swamp on N side of property, Gilbert 49267, Miller 181.

G. striata (Lam.) Hitchc., Fowl manna grass, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet mar- gin of prairie fen, Gilbert 54001, Miller 160. Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw., Cut grass, locally common in dried up swamp on N side of prop- erty, Miller 178. *Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh., Tall fescue, occasional E of Jameson parking lot in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 81.

L. pratense (Huds.) Darbysh., Meadow fescue, on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 84. Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin., Marsh wild-timothy, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 54061, Miller 167. *Panicum flexile (Gatt.) Scribn., Panic grass, prairie fen near Hall Lake, Miller 269.

P. virgatum L., Switch grass, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 248. Phalaris arundinacea L., Reed canary grass, north swamp, locally common near pond at N end of Consumers Energy right-of-way along remnant oak openings understory and in emergent marsh on E side of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 54010, Miller 65, 86, 129.

Phleum pratense L., Timothy, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way rem- nant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49213, 5061, 5213. Recent observation. Phragmites australis L. subsp. australis , Reed, uncommon in bog area S of Brigham Lake near bridge, Skean 5064. Poa compressa L., Canada bluegrass, along road of Brownlee Park entrance, Gilbert 49212, 54011. No recent observation.

P. nemoralis L., Bluegrass, Oak-hickory forest, Miller 79. P. pratensis L., Kentucky bluegrass, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way and sandy area E of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49151, 54007, Miller 44, 55, 57. Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Little bluestem, locally common along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 215, 258. Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult., Yellow foxtail, locally common on Consumers En- ergy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49484, Miller 250. *S. verticillata (L.) P. Beauv., Bristly foxtail, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 246. Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash, Indian grass, locally common at edge of disturbed oak-hick- ory forest near Arlington entrance, Miller 263. Spartina pectinata Link, Cordgrass, north swamp, Gilbert 50145. No recent observation. Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc., Purpletop, common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-

way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 247.

POLEMONIACEAE Phlox pilosa L., Prairie phlox, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49136, 49137. Recent observation.

POLYGALACEAE Polygala senega L., Seneca snakeroot, along bridle path in bridle trail woods near corner of preserve, Gilbert 5016. No recent observation.

Page  144 144 THE GREAT LAKES BOTANIST Vol. 57

POLYGONACEAE Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á Löve, False buckwheat, near Brownlee Park entrance, Gilbert 5074, 5097. No recent observation.

*F. japonica (Houtt.) Ronse Decr., Japanese knotweed, occasional near Arlington entrance in disturbed oak-hickory forest and at end of Consumers Energy power line right-of-way rem- nant oak openings understory, Miller 10, 262.

F. scandens (L.) Holub, False buckwheat, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right- of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 213. Persicaria amphibia (L.) A. Gray var. emersa (Michx.) J. C. Hickman, Water smartweed, boggy area near Hall Lake, Gilbert 49478, 50142. Recent observation.

P. amphibia (L.) A. Gray var. stipulacea (N. Coleman) H. Hara, Water smartweed, wet marsh; some growing in water in north swamp, Gilbert 49269, 50143. No recent observation. P. pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez, Pinkweed, north swamp, Gilbert 49356, 49479. No recent observation. P. punctata (Elliott) Small, Smartweed, wet margin of prairie fen on W side of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49357, 49473, 49456, 49480. Recent observation. P. sagittata (L.) H. Gross, Arrow-leaved tear-thumb, open areas along stream between Brigham and Hall Lakes, Gilbert 49467, 49488, Skean 5026. P. virginiana (L.) Gaertn., Jumpseed, locally common in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 49432, Miller 207. Polygonum aviculare L., Knotweed, sandy roadway leading in from Brownlee Park entrance, Gilbert 5091. No recent observation. Rumex acetosella L., Red sorrel, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49130, Miller 60.

R. crispus L., Sour dock, locally common near Jameson entrance in disturbed oak openings understory, Gilbert 49224. Recent observation. R. obtusifolius L., Bitter dock, open upland hardwood SE extreme border of preserve and tamarack on bank of inlet stream to Hall Lake, Gilbert 49242, 5053. No recent observation. POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton berchtoldii Fieber, Pondweed, Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5296. No recent observa- tion.

P. foliosus Raf., Leafy pondweed, Hall Lake submerged aquatic, Gilbert 5296, Miller 240. P. illinoensis Morong, Illinois pondweed, Brigham and Hall Lake submerged aquatic, Gilbert 5294, Miller 237, 244. P. natans L., Pondweed, Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5293. No recent observation. Stuckenia pectinata (L.) Boerner, Sago pondweed, Hall Lake, Gilbert 5233. No recent obser- vation.

PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia lanceolata Walter, Lance-leaved loosestrife, under second growth hardwoods highland edge of preserve E of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5052. No recent observation.

L. quadriflora Sims, Whorled loosestrife, common on wet margin of prairie fen on E side of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49287, 49329. Recent observation. L. quadrifolia L., Whorled loosestrife, occasional on NW side of property in oak-hickory for- est, Gilbert 49493, Miller 136. L. terrestris (L.) Britton, Sterns, & Poggenb., Swamp-candles, swamp just below entrance to Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49304. No recent observation. L. thyrsiflora L., Tufted loosestrife, lowland N of middle central esker, Gilbert 49122. No re- cent observation. Trientalis borealis Raf., Star-flower, moist low woodlands between Brigham and Hall Lakes, Gilbert 4979. Recent observation.

RANUNCULACEAE Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd., Red baneberry, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4981. Recent observation. Anemone cylindrica A. Gray, Thimbleweed, bridle trail that leads to Brownlee Park entrance, Gilbert 49249, 49316. No recent observation.

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A. quinquefolia L., Wood anemone, locally common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4836, 4945. Recent observation. A. virginiana L., Thimbleweed, occasional in oak-hickory forest N of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49292, 49300, 49348, Miller 182. Aquilegia canadensis L., Wild columbine, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4978. Re- cent observation. Caltha palustris L., Marsh-marigold, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 4635, 4956. Recent observation. Clematis virginiana L., Virgin’s bower, low wet woodlands S of Brigham Lake and in west swamp, Gilbert 5088, 50122. No recent observation. Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb., Goldthread, lowland forest floor and locally common in swamps, Gilbert 4637, 4833. Recent observation. Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker Gawl., Round-lobed hepatica, common on eskers, Gilbert 4640. Recent observation. Ranunculus abortivus L., Small-flowered buttercup, low woodlands and on moist hillsides, Gilbert 4941. Recent observation.

R. acris L., Common buttercup, just inside NE entrance from Wattles Rd., Gilbert 49221. No recent observation. R. recurvatus Poir., Hooked crowfoot, common in low woodlands, Gilbert 4997. Recent ob- servation. R. sceleratus L., Cursed crowfoot, occasional in dried up swamp on N side of property, Miller 176. Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-Lall., Purple meadow-rue, low, rich moist woods & sphagnum bogs, Gilbert 49191. Recent observation.

T. dioicum L., Early meadow-rue, locally common in hardwood swamp and oak-hickory for- est, Gilbert 5026. Recent observation. T. thalictroides (L.) Eames & Boivin, Rue-anemone, occasional along esker in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4951, Miller 22. RHAMNACEAE Ceanothus americanus L., New Jersey tea, locally common on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49225, 49227. Recent observa- tion. Frangula alnus Mill., Glossy buckthorn, common in areas surrounding Brigham and Hall Lake, Gilbert 5073, Miller 13, 18. *Rhamnus alnifolia L’Her., Alder-leaved buckthorn, swampy area around Hall and Brigham Lake, Gilbert 4965, 49449. No recent observation. *R. cathartica L., Common buckthorn, common near Arlington entrance of oak-hickory dis- turbed forest and on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 9, 144.

ROSACEAE Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr., Tall agrimony, moist, sandy soil along lane leading down to Brigham Lake from esker, and under tamarack near inlet streams E border of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49241, 49298. Recent observation. Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fenald, Juneberry, bordering road that cuts off Brigham esker to north swamp, Gilbert 4959, 5036. Recent observation.

A. interior Nielsen, Serviceberry, bordering road that cuts off from Brigham Lake to N. swamp, Gilbert 49274, 5027. No recent observation. Aronia prunifolia (Marshall) Rehder, Chokeberry, common in and at margins of bogs and sphagnum mat at N end of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5064, 4972. No recent observation. Comarum palustre L., Marsh cinquefoil, common in swampy area W of Wattles esker, Gilbert 49149. No recent observation. Crataegus margaretta Ashe, Hawthorn, upland oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 4976. Recent ob- servation. Dasiphora fruticosa (L.) Rydb., Shrubby cinquefoil, common in prairie fen, Gilbert 49128. Recent observation. Drymocallis arguta (Pursh) Rydb., Tall cinquefoil, sandy grassy hillside W of temporary swamp, Gilbert 49248. No recent observation.

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Fragaria virginiana Mill., Wild strawberry, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 4940. Recent observation.

Geum aleppicum Jacq., Yellow avens, moist meadow bordering grass and sedge and sedge swamp near middle esker, Gilbert 49257, 49396. No recent observation.

G. canadense Jacq., White avens, common in oak-hickory forest and hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49256, 50102. Recent observation. G. virginianum L., Pale avens, uncommon in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 50101, Miller 204. Potentilla argentea L., Silvery cinquefoil, sandy dry ridges, Gilbert 49129. No recent obser- vation.

P. norvegica L., Rough cinquefoil, locally common near Arlington entrance in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49370, 54009, Miller 154. P. recta L., Rough-fruited cinquefoil, locally common near Jameson parking lot in disturbed oak openings understory, Gilbert 49164, 49219. Recent observation. P. simplex Michx., Common cinquefoil, locally common near Jameson parking lot in dis- turbed oak openings understory, Gilbert 49101, Miller 49. Prunus americana Marshall, American wild plum, second growth hardwood W side of hill from west swamp, Gilbert 50152. No recent observation.

P. avium (L.) L., Sweet cherry, second growth upland hardwood near E margin in SE corner of preserve, Gilbert 50125. No recent observation. *P. pensylvanica L.f., Pin cherry, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 277.

P. pumila L. var. susquehanae (Willd.) Jaeger, Sand cherry, common in sandy soil at S end of Hall esker in open area, Gilbert 4967. No recent observation. P. serotina Ehrh., Wild black cherry, common in oak-hickory forest throughout preserve, Gilbert 49391, 49454, 49390. Recent observation. P. virginiana L., Choke cherry, common on eskers, Gilbert 49293, 49325, 4977, 50100, 4970. No recent observation. Rosa carolina L., Pasture rose, uncommon on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49159, 49226, 50129. Recent observation.

R. multiflora Murray, Multiflora rose, locally common in boggy area near bridge, Miller 39. R. palustris Marshall, Swamp rose, common in open areas at edges of wetlands, Gilbert 49284, 49305, 49459, 49491. Recent observation. R. palustris Marshall f. inermis (Regel) W. H. Lewis, Swamp rose, boggy area near Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49457. Recent observation. Rubus allegheniensis Porter, Common blackberry, occasional in oak-hickory forest near hard- wood swamps, Gilbert 49389. Recent observation.

R. flagellaris Willd., Northern dewberry, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way trail remnant oak openings understory, Miller 61. R. hispidus L., Swamp dewberry, locally common in hardwood swamp NE of Hall Lake, Gilbert 5070, Miller 210. R. occidentalis L., Black raspberry, common in disturbed oak-hickory forest near Arlington entrance, Gilbert 49385. Recent observation. R. pubescens Raf., Dwarf raspberry, rare along E edge of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Gilbert 4949, Miller 111. R. setosus Bigelow, Bristly blackberry, near Arlington entrance of oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 5071, Miller 27. R. strigosus Michx., Wild red raspberry, occasional in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 5075. Re- cent observation. Spiraea alba Du Roi, Meadowsweet, occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of- way remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49258, 49321. Recent observation.

S. tomentosa L., Hardhack, swampy bog adjacent to road leading in from Brownlee Park en- trance, Gilbert 49365, 49458. No recent observation. RUBIACEAE Galium aparine L., Goosegrass, on wet, swampy, or low, moist forest floor, Gilbert 49112, 4985. Recent observation.

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G. asprellum Michx., Rough bedstraw, abundant in border of W swamp, Gilbert 5098, 54030. No recent observation. G. boreale L., Northern bedstraw, swamp area around Hall Lake near outlet and low swampy area at base of esker, Gilbert 49139, 49176, 5037. No recent observation. G. circaezans Michx., White wild licorice, locally common in oak-hickory forest near end of power line right-of-way, Gilbert 49254, 5055, Miller 225. G. concinnum Torr. & A. Gray, Shining bedstraw, under second growth hardwood laboratory hill, Gilbert 50114. No recent observation. G. labradoricum (Wiegand) Wiegand, Bog bedstraw, in bogs surrounding Hall Lake, Gilbert 5031. No recent observation. G. tinctorium L., Stiff bedstraw, common in hardwood swamp surrounding Brigham board- walk, Gilbert 5090, Miller 191. G. trifidum L., Small bedstraw, locally common in boggy area on N side of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49401, Miller 232. G. triflorum Michx., Fragrant bedstraw, locally common in hardwood swamp W of east esker, Gilbert 54031, Miller 206. Houstonia longifolia Gaertn., Long-leaved bluets, along road from Brownlee Park leading into NW entrance, Gilbert 49208, 5017. No recent observation. Mitchella repens L., Partridge-berry, common in swampy areas, Gilbert 485. Recent obser- vation.

SALICACEAE Populus deltoides Marshall, Cottonwood, uncommon along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way in remnant oak openings understory, Miller 83.

P. grandidentata Michx., Large-tooth aspen, common generally in low areas bordering streams and on border of remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49237. Recent obser- vation. P. tremuloides Michx., Quaking aspen, uncommon near Jameson entrance in remnant oak openings understory, Gilbert 49238. Recent observation. Salix bebbiana Sarg., Bebb’s willow, at margin of swamp parallel to road leading in road lead- ing to Brownlee Park and in middle of west swamp, Gilbert 5076, 5077. No recent obser- vation.

S. candida Willd., Sage willow, mat bordering Brigham Lake on S side, Gilbert 49448. No re- cent observation. S. discolor Muhl., Pussy willow, occasional on E side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen and on Consumers Energy power line right-of way remnant oak openings understory and locally common in hardwood swamp surrounding Brigham boardwalk, Gilbert 5083, 50104, Miller 159, 172, 190. S. eriocephala Michx., Willow, shrubby border of margin of west swamp, Gilbert 5082, Miller 157. S. exigua Nutt., Sandbar willow, near base of hill W of north swamp on W side of hill and border of swamp near outlet to Hall Lake, Gilbert 50106, 50160. No recent observation. *S. humilis Marshall, Upland willow, edge of swamp at end of road leading in from Brownlee Park and margin of swamp about 300’ N of road leading in from Brownlee Park (west swamp), Gilbert 5011, 5080. Recent observation.

S. lucida Muhl., Shining willow, common shrub in west swamp, Gilbert 5062. No recent ob- servation. S. petiolaris Sm., Slender willow, from middle of shrubby border of west swamp, Gilbert 5078, 5079. No recent observation. S. serissima (L.H. Bailey) Fernald, Autumn willow, shrubby border of bogs at Hall Lake and in grass and sedge bog parallel to road leading in from Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49240. No recent observation. SANTALACEAE Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt., Bastard-toadflax, occasional on sandy ridges, cinder pile at end of road leading in from Brownlee Park, Gilbert 49135, 5014. No recent observation.

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SAPINDACEAE Acer negundo L., Box-elder, common on Sutarek loop in disturbed oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49223. Recent observation.

A. platanoides L., Norway maple, common near Arlington entrance of disturbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 8. A. rubrum L., Red maple, common in oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49177. Recent observation. A. saccharinum L., Silver maple, Occasional on Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory, Miller 100. SARRACENIACEAE Sarracenia purpurea L., Pitcher-plant, common in prairie fen between Hall and Dexter Lake, Gilbert 4641. Recent observation.

SAURURACEAE *Saururus cernuus L., Lizard’s tail, occasional on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen, Miller 227.

SAXIFRAGACEAE Heuchera americana L., Alum root, uncommon in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49232. Recent observation. Mitella diphylla L., Bishop’s cap, common in rich lowlands, Gilbert 4835. Recent observa- tion. Micranthes pensylvanica (L.) Haw., Swamp saxifrage, common in wet, swampy areas, Gilbert 4998. Recent observation.

SCROPHULARIACEAE Scrophularia lanceolata Small, Early figwort, occasional in oak-hickory forest before Brigham boardwalk, Gilbert 49158, Miller 188. Verbascum blattaria L., Moth mullein, Consumers Energy power line right-of-way, Gilbert 54004. Recent observation.

V. thapsus L., Flannel plant, occasional along Consumers Energy power line right-of-way remnant oak openings understory and near Arlington entrance, Gilbert 49306. Recent ob- servation. SIMAROUBACEAE *Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle, Tree-of-heaven, locally common on Sutarek loop in dis- turbed oak-hickory forest, Miller 106.

SMILACACEAE Smilax hispida Raf., Bristly Greenbier, uncommon in swamp NE of Hall Lake, Gilbert 49119, 49178, 49399. Recent observation.

S. illinoensis Mangaly, Carrion-flower, Brigham esker and Wattles esker above temporary swamp, Gilbert 49152, 5023. No recent observation. S. lasioneura Hook., Carrion-flower, occasional in oak-hickory forest on N side of property, Gilbert 49172, Miller 80. SOLANACEAE Physalis heterophylla Nees, Clammy ground-cherry, sandy hillsides SW corner of preserve, Gilbert 49335, 50140. No recent observation. Solanum carolinense L., Horse-nettle, sandy weedy grassy pasture just E of SE arm of pre- serve and on W border of preserve, Gilbert 49315, 49352. No recent observation.

S. dulcamara L., European bittersweet, common near Arlington entrance of disturbed oak- hickory forest and edge of Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49148, Miller 11. S. dulcamara L. f. albiflorum Farw., European bittersweet, uncommon in boggy area around Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5038. Recent observation. TRILLIACEAE – SEE MELANTHIACEAE

TYPHACEAE *Typha angustifolia L., Narrow-leaved cat-tail, locally common on W side of Hall Lake on wet margin of prairie fen and E side of Brigham Lake in boggy area, Miller 145. Recent

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observations of apparent Typha ×glauca Godr., the hybrid between T. angustifolia and T. latifolia.

T. latifolia L., Common cat-tail, locally common in boggy area N of Hall Lake and around Brigham Lake, Gilbert 49264, 54056. Recent observation. ULMACEAE Ulmus americana L., American elm, Oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 49182. Recent observation.

U. pumila L., Siberian elm, common along trail near Arlington entrance in oak-hickory for- est. Miller 19, 20. U. rubra Muhl., Slippery elm, disturbed oak-hickory forest, Gilbert 5094. Recent observa- tion. UTRICACEAE Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw., False nettle, occasional in hardwood swamp, Gilbert 49387, 49297, 54023, Skean 5027. Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd., Wood nettle, on banks of inlet stream to Brigham Lake, Gilbert 5099. No recent observation. Pilea pumila (L.) A. Gray, Clearweed, in small east swamp, Gilbert 49440. Recent observa- tion Urtica dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Selander, Stinging nettle, border of small E swamp, Gilbert 49429. Recent observation.

VALERIANACEAE – SEE CAPRIFOLIACEAE

VERBENACEAE Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr., Creeping vervain, along roadsides on Dexter esker, Gilbert 50157. No recent observation.

V. hastata L., Blue vervain, in wet margin near Dexter Lake, Gilbert 49363. Recent observa- tion. V. stricta Vent., Hoary vervain, along roadside on extreme SW portion of preserve, Gilbert 50167, 5255. No recent observation. VIOLACEAE Viola blanda Willd., Sweet white violet, in hardwood swamp and in wet areas near lakes, Gilbert 4634, 4837, 4953. Recent observation.

V. labradorica Schrank, Dog violet, woodlands around Brigham Lake and in low moist woods, Gilbert 4632, 4636, 4838, 4948, 4954. No recent observation. V. nephrophylla Greene, Northern bog violet, wet margins of Hall and Brigham Lakes, Gilbert 4986. No recent observation. V. pedata L., Birdfoot violet, sandy soil adjacent to road leading in from Brownlee Park en- trance, Gilbert 504. No recent observation. V. pubescens Aiton, Yellow violet, oak-hickory forest on S side of preserve, Gilbert 502. Re- cent observation. V. sororia Willd., Common blue violet, common in disturbed oak-hickory forest near Arling- ton entrance, Gilbert 4839, 4947, 4955, Skean 5010. VITACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch., Virginia creeper, common in oak-hickory forest throughout preserve, Gilbert 49259, 4944. Recent observation. Vitis aestivalis Michx., Summer grape, uncommon in disturbed oak-hickory forest near rem- nant praire, Gilbert 50111, 49222. Recent observation.

V. riparia Michx., River-bank grape, common in low woods, Gilbert 49118. Recent observa- tion.