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2016 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 97 A COMMENTARY ON SCHOTT�S GENERA FILICUM Neil A. Harriman Department of Biology University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Oshkosh, WI 54901 Heinrich Wilhelm Schott (January 7, 1794�March 5, 1865) was an Austrian botanist well known for his extensive work on aroids (Araceae). His name is known to North American botanists as the author of combinations like Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott (Jack-in-the-pulpit) and Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott (Green Dragon), both of which are to be found in Schott and Endlicher, Meletemata Botanica, 1832, a work whose title may be translated as �Botanical Thoughts.� He also named Thelypteris palustris Schott, Marsh Fern, about which more below. According to Taxonomic Literature-2 (TL-2), Genera Filicum was published in four fascicles, from 1834 to 1836. Each fascicle was said to be of five plates, each with accompanying letterpress. There are no plate numbers, and the entire book is unpaginated. Therefore, it is critical, for nomenclatural purposes, to es- tablish the proper sequence of the twenty elements that comprise the book. TL-2 cites two contemporaneous reviews as the source for the publishing his- tory of the work. The reviews appeared in the journal Linnaea and are ascribed to one Gersdorf, although there is no internal evidence in the journal as to au- thorship of the reviews. Fortunately, whether the editor (Schlechtendal) or some- one else wrote the reviews is of no nomenclatural significance. The reviews ap- pear in what amounts to an appendix to the journal proper, a separately paginated section termed Litteratur-Bericht zur Linnaea f�r das Jahr 18xx. The reviews ap- peared in Linnaea 9(Litteratur-Bericht): 92�95. 1834 for fascicles 1 and 2, and Linnaea 10 (Litteratur-Bericht): 174�175, 1836, for fascicles 3 and 4. For the purposes of fern nomenclature, the plates and letterpress are assumed to have been published in the order cited in the reviews, as follows: Fascicle 1, plate 1, Anaxetum; plate 2, Aspidium; plate 3, Nephrolepis; plate 4, Sphaeropteris; and plate 5, Trichopteris. 1834. Fascicle 2, plate 6, Cystopteris; plate 7, Nephrodium; plate 8, Olfersia; plate 9, Polybotrya; and plate 10, Polystichum. 1834. Fascicle 3, plate 11, Lonchitis; plate 12, Meniscium; plate 13, Hemionitis; plate 14, Bolbitis; and plate 15, Marattia. 1835 Fascicle 4, plate 16, Egenolfia (as �Egenolphia�); plate 17, Cochlidium; plate 18, Monogramme; plate 19, Aglaomorpha; and plate 20, Taenitis. 1836. As one can imagine, subscribers and libraries had to wait for the arrival of all four fascicles before binding them as one book. Today, the on-line listing for Page  98 98 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 55 Schott�s Genera Filicum at the website for the Bayerische StaatsBibliothek Dig- ital has only the pages for the following genera, arranged in alphabetical order: Anaxetum, Aspidium, Hemionitis, Lonchitis, Marattia, Meniscium, Nephrolepis, Olfersia, Sphaeropteris. The complete work does not appear at the Digital site. The title is not available at Biodiversity Heritage Library, nor at Biblioteca Dig- ital de Real Jardin Botanico, nor at So far as I know, the only complete paper copy of the work generally available is for sale at any of the numerous stations of On Demand Books, at a price of $8- 10. This is a scanned-in version by Google; alternatively, one may download the Google pdf and print one�s own copy. The digitized version is from the Biblio- theca Regia Monacensis; that is to say, the Royal Munich Library, the predeces- sor of today�s Bayerische StaatsBibliothek, the Bavarian State Library. Its card catalog refers one to the Google version, or it can be read on-line. The arrange- ment is alphabetical, with the exception that Cystopteris is misplaced, probably because the letter �y� scarcely exists in modern German, and the librarian or bookbinder in the early 19th century undoubtedly treated it as an �i�. Apparently, librarians of the day did not read book reviews in Linnaea and quite understand- ably put the thing together alphabetically. The nomenclatural innovations in Schott�s Genera Filicum are as follows: the new genera are Anaxetum, Aglaomorpha, Bolbitis, Egenolfia, and Nephrolepis. There are two further �implied� genera, Elaphoglossum and Rhipidopteris. These two genera are added as a footnote to the treatment for Bolbitis, but they are defined only by the names of the species that Schott thought ought to be in- cluded; because there is no description or diagnosis of the two genera, they are not validly published (Melbourne Code, Article 38), even though they were ac- cepted in Index Filicum, 1903, published a few years before the first modern botanical code. Both genera were subsequently validly published by other au- thors. In Index Filicum, these five new genera are all cited correctly: Anaxetum, Plate 1; Aglaomorpha, Plate 19; Bolbitis, Plate 14; Egenolfia, Plate 16; and Nephrolepis Plate 3. It appears that the author (Carl Christensen) had a correctly- bound copy of the book, or that he had consulted the two reviews in Linnaea. As a kind of footnote to the treatment of Nephrolepis, Plate 3, (not Plate 10!), Schott creates the combination Thelypteris palustris Schott. Somehow, perhaps beginning with Christensen�s Index Filicum, this has consistently been ascribed to Plate 10, Polystichum, where it does not occur. Obviously, the ascriptions are at cross purposes, but continue to the present, as at International Plant Names Index (IPNI) and at Tropicos. The epithet is a substitute name; the nomenclatural source of Schott�s name is ultimately Acrostichum thelypteris L., Species Plantarum 2: 1071, 1753, but of course bringing the Linnaean epithet into Thelypteris would have created a tau- tonym, which most botanists have long eschewed, and today�s Code forbids� hence Schott�s substitute epithet. It is tempting to suppose that Schott in 1834 had in mind Aspidium palustre S. F. Gray, A Natural Arrangement of British Plants 2(1): 9, 1821. However, Gray�s epithet was superfluous when published and is therefore illegitimate. As a nomen illegitimum, it cannot serve as a ba- sionym. Fernald (Rhodora 31(362): 27�36. 1929) took up Theylpteris palustris (Salisbury) Schott. The basionym for this combination is Polypodium palustre Page  99 2016 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 99 Salisbury, Prodromus Stirpium in Horto . . . 403. 1790. The Salisbury binomial was an avowed substitute for Acrostichum thelypteris L.; it is therefore another nomen illegitimum and cannot serve as a basionym for any other combination. To sum up: Genera Filicum (Schott) with all 20 plates and text is now gener- ally available to the public; the scheme given above will allow one to go through by hand and properly label each plate and its accompanying letterpress. To cite the work unambiguously, it will be necessary to cite both the inferred plate num.ber and the name of the plate: e.g., Thelypteris palustris Schott, Gen. Fil. pl. 3, sub Nephrolepis. 1834. Page  100