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Thomas G. Lammers Neil A. Harriman Herbarium Department of Biology University of Wisconsin Oshkosh Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901-8640


Dinebra panicoides (J. Presl) P. M. Peterson & N. Snow Poaceae Amazon Spangle-top.

Significance of the Report. Northernmost population in the Mississippi val- ley of an invasive neotropical species.

Previous Knowledge. This annual C4 grass was formerly assigned to the genus Leptochloa P. Beauv. (Snow 2003, Gleason and Cronquist 2004, Mohlen- brock 2014). Native to the neotropics and warm temperate areas from Brazil northward to the southern United States, Amazon spangle-top commonly grows on seasonally exposed mudflats as well as in other mesic sites (Snow 2003, Pe- terson et al. 2012). Although it is native to the lower Mississippi valley, its pres- ence upriver has been noted only in recent decades (Yatskievych 1999, Buthod and Hoagland 2011). It was not found in Missouri until 1955 (Steyermark 1963, as Diplachne halei Nash) nor in Illinois until 1963 (Mohlenbrock 2001, 2014). It has spread extensively in the former state since then but in the latter has been documented from only Calhoun and Pike Counties in the west and Alexander, Massac, and Pulaski Counties in the south (Mohlenbrock 2001, 2014; BONAP 2015; ILPIN 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015).

Discussion. The population reported here is in north-central Illinois, more than 150 miles upstream from the nearest known population. Elsewhere, the species extends no farther north than southeastern Oklahoma, central Missouri, southern Indiana, and southern Virginia (BONAP 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015), making this the northernmost extent of the species’ distribution. This is the first report within USDA Plant Hardiness Zone 5 (USDA, ARS 2012), which sug- gests a capacity for further migration northward. At this locality, Dinebra pani- coides was associated with other species characteristic of riverine mudflats, in- cluding Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq.) Sauer, Ammannia robusta Heer & Regel, Bidens cernua L., B. tripartita L., Cyperus erythrorhizos Muhl., C. odor-


atus L., Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) P. Beauv., Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) Brit- ton, Sterns & Poggenb., E. pectinacea (Michx.) Nees, Ipomoea lacunosa L., Lin- dernia dubia (L.) Pennell var. dubia, Persicaria pensylvanica (L.) M. Gómez, Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess., Sagittaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht. subsp. calycina (Engelm.) Bogin, Spermacoce glabra Michx., and Xanthium strumarium L. Additional populations should be sought downstream along the Illinois River between this locality and the river’s mouth.

This species is similar to mucronate sprangle-top, Dinebra panicea (Retz.) P.

M. Peterson & N. Snow, which occurs in similar habitats in the southern part of the state; both are annuals with racemose panicle branches. The two may be dis- tinguished by the moderately to densely papillose-pubescent sheaths of D. pan- icea (vs. glabrous sheaths in D. panicoides). The spikelets of the former are also a bit shorter than those of the latter: 2–4 vs. 4–5 mm. It too might be expected to spread farther north in the future. Specimen Citation. Illinois. Marshall Co.: Lacon Twp., on the left bank of the Illinois River in Weber Park, at the State Hwy 17 bridge in Lacon, common on wet mudflats, October 6, 2011, T. G. Lammers & D. L. Lammers 13540 (ILLS, ISC, OSH).

Koelreuteria paniculata Laxm. Sapindaceae Golden Rain-tree.

Significance of the Report. Second collection from Illinois of a cultivated ornamental tree but rarely naturalized in the Midwest.

Previous Knowledge. This deciduous tree, a native of eastern Asia, was in- troduced to Western horticulture circa 1750 via the Imperial Academy of Sci- ences and Arts in St. Petersburg, Russia, and the Jardin du Roi in Paris, France; from Europe it was introduced to North America by Thomas Jefferson in 1809 (Meyer 1976). Golden rain-tree is highly ornamental, with its pinnate leaves and large terminal panicles of four-petaled yellow flowers that develop into large in- flated capsules. It has spread from plantings only sporadically on this continent, primarily in the southeastern and western United States; in Illinois, it has been reported from only Jackson County (BONAP 2015; ILPIN 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015).

Discussion. Golden rain-tree is thoroughly naturalized at this locality, which extends along the river bluffs for over two miles. Plants of all age classes were abundant, from seedlings to flowering specimens 10 m tall.

Specimen Citation. Illinois: Madison Co.: along State Hwy 100 (Great River Road) beginning 1 mile northwest of Alton and continuing almost to the Piasa Creek bridge, common among deciduous trees at base of steep mesic slopes and vertical limestone escarpments lining the Mississippi River, June 11, 2012, T. G. Lammers & D. L. Lammers 13693 (ILLS, NA, NY, OSH).



Rumex stenophyllus Ledeb. Polygonaceae Narrow-leaf Dock.

Significance of the Report. First report from the southeastern quarter of Iowa of an invasive species rarely collected east of the Great Plains.

Previous Knowledge. This perennial is native to Eurasia and is widely natu- ralized in western North America (Mosyakin 2005). In Iowa, narrow-leaf dock has been documented only from Boone County by Thompson et al. (2009) and Thompson (2010), although BONAP (2015) maps it in Bremer, Harrison, and Story Counties as well.

Discussion. Narrow-leaf dock is very similar in appearance to the ubiquitous curly dock, Rumex crispus L.; both are tall weedy perennials with crisped or un- dulate leaf-margins. The two differ in the margins of their inner tepals: denticu- late with 4-10 acute teeth in R. stenophyllus, entire or nearly so in R. crispus. One would expect narrow-leaf dock to become more common in the state in coming years.

Specimen Citation. Iowa. Van Buren Co.: Van Buren Twp., T69N R10W S36 SE., left bank of the Des Moines River along Front St. in Keosauqua, scarce among brushy rip-rap on riverbank, August 21, 2014, T. G. Lammers & D. L. Lammers 14942 (ISC, OSH).

MICHIGAN Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) Ma Gentianaceae Greater Fringed Gentian.

Significance of the Report. First collections of a native annual from Michi- gan’s Upper Peninsula.

Previous Knowledge. Gentianopsis crinita is indigenous to northeastern North America as far west as central North Dakota, northwestern Iowa, central Indiana, and southern Ohio, south in the Appalachians to northeastern Georgia (Iltis 1965; BONAP 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015). Though widespread in Wiscon- sin and in Michigan’s Lower Peninsula, greater fringed gentian has not been re- ported from the Upper Peninsula prior to these collections (Iltis 1965; Voss 1996; BONAP 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015).

Discussion. At the site west of Carney, Gentianopsis crinita grew with species typical of fens, including Bromus ciliatus L., Campanula aparinoides Pursh, Carex flava L., Chelone glabra L., Cicuta bulbifera L., Doellingeria um- bellata (Mill.) Nees subsp. pubens (A. Gray) Á. Löve & D. Löve, Epilobium lep- tophyllum Raf., Equisetum variegatum Schleich. ex F. Weber & D. Mohr, Geum aleppicum Jacq., Hypericum ascyron L., Juncus alpinoarticulatus Chaix, Liparis loeselii (L.) L. C. Rich., Lobelia kalmii L., Muhlenbergia glomerata (Muhl.) Trin., Rhynchospora capillacea Torr., Scirpus atrovirens Willd., S. pendulus


Muhl., Scutellaria galericulata L., Spiranthes cernua (L.) L. C. Rich., Symphy- otrichum firmum (Nees) G. L. Nesom, Thelypteris palustris Schott, and Viola cucullata Ait.

At the site north of Menominee, however, greater fringed gentian grew in a far drier prairie habitat, with Pycnanthemum tenuifolium Schrad., Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Silphium terebinthinaceum Jacq., Solidago nemoralis Ait., and Symphyotrichum oolentangiense (Riddell) G. L. Nesom. The only species common to both sites besides the gentian were Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. and Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl. ex DC.) G. L. Nesom.

Greater fringed gentian is very similar in appearance and ecology to the lesser fringed gentian, Gentianopsis virgata (Raf.) Holub. The two are best distin- guished by the narrower leaves of the latter: less than 1 cm wide and 6–21 times as long as wide vs. more than 1 cm wide and/or less than 4 times as long as wide in G. crinita. See Voss (1996) for additional comments on distinguishing these two species in Michigan.

Specimen Citations. Michigan. Menominee Co.: along County Hwy G18,

2.2 miles west of its jct. at Carney with US Hwy 41, frequent in small open fen on west side of road, September 5, 2010, T. G. Lammers & D. L. Lammers 13100 (MICH, OSH); along railroad tracks paralleling US Hwy 41, 8. miles north of the bridge over the Menominee River between the cities of Menominee and Marinette, scattered in dry prairie, August 31, 2011, T. G. Lammers 13510 (MICH, MU, OSH). WISCONSIN Lycopodium lagopus (Laest. ex C. Hartm.) G. Zinserl. ex Kuzen. Lycopodiaceae One-cone Club-moss.

Significance of the Report. First collection from the southern half of Wis- consin, and the second most southerly population west of the Great Lakes.

Previous Knowledge. This prostrate-stemmed lycopod is circumboreal in its distribution, in the Western Hemisphere extending south to southeastern Wash- ington, northwestern Montana, southern Michigan, and northern West Virginia (Wagner and Beitel 1993; BONAP 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015). In Wisconsin, it is reported only from the northwestern portion of the state, in Bayfield, Burnett, Douglas, and Taylor Counties (Wisconsin State Herbarium 2015). The popula- tion reported here lies 75 miles or more to the south of the nearest of these. It is the southernmost locality west of Lake Michigan with the exception of a popu- lation some 230 miles farther south in Will County, Illinois (Mohlenbrock 1983, ILPIN 2015).

Discussion. Other species noted on the dry open sand were Artemisia caudata Michx., Euphorbia corollata L., Hieracium longipilum Torr. ex Hook., Liatris aspera Michx., and Solidago speciosa Nutt. var. rigidiuscula Torr. & A. Gray.

One-cone clubmoss is very similar to running clubmoss, Lycopodium clava- tum L., and has sometimes been treated as L. clavatum var. megastachyon Fern. & Bissell. Both have surficial horizontal shoots, pedunculate strobili, and hairs


1–4 mm long at the tips of their leaves. Running club-moss differs in having 2–5 strobili per peduncle (vs. 1), leaves spreading to slightly ascending (vs. ascend- ing to appressed), and 4–6 oblique branches (vs. 2–3 erect branches).

Specimen Citation. Wisconsin. Juneau Co.: Town of Armenia, T19N R4E S2 NW., sand plains west of the Wisconsin River along 8th St., 0.4 mi E of its jct. with 20th Ave., 12 mi (by air) south-southwest of Nekoosa, infrequent in large moss mat on margin of pine-oak forest and dry open sand, July 26, 2012, T. G. Lammers 13884 (MU, OSH).

Senecio viscosus L. Asteraceae Sticky Ragwort.

Significance of the Report. Non-native species known from only four other counties in the Midwest.

Previous Knowledge. This viscid malodorous annual, native of Eurasia, has been only sparingly naturalized in the United States. It is most common in the Northeast with a few reports from the Pacific Northwest. In the Midwest, it is re- ported from only Douglas County, Wisconsin, and adjacent St. Louis County, Minnesota, and from Cook and Jackson Counties, Illinois (BONAP 2015; ILPIN 2015; USDA, NRCS 2015; Wisconsin State Herbarium 2015).

Discussion. The population consists of several dozen plants in an urban alley. The only associated species were Chenopodium album L., Lactuca serriola L., and Parietaria pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. Several surrounding blocks of the downtown were searched and the only other plants of Senecio viscosus found were one block west on Algoma Blvd. among planted shrubs at the edge of a parking lot at the corner of Brown Street.

Sticky Ragwort might be mistaken for the common groundsel, Senecio vul- garis L., another annual with dissected leaves, which is more common in the state. However, that species lacks the glandular-viscid indument and resulting fetid scent of S. viscosus.

Specimen Citation. Wisconsin. Winnebago Co.: City of Oshkosh, dead-end alley between 110 Algoma Blvd. and 415–423 North Main St., common in cracks in pavement along building foundations, August 12, 2015, T. G. Lammers & D. L. Lammers 15261 (KSC, MICH, MO, MU, NY, OSH).


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Phytoneuron 2011-55: 1–2. Gleason, H. A., and A. Cronquist. (2004). Manual of the vascular plants of northeastern United States

and adjacent Canada, 2nd edition, seventh printing. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y. ILPIN. (2015). Illinois Plant Information Network. Available at

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ments. Sida 2: 129–154.


Meyer, F. G. (1976). A revision of the genus Koelreuteria (Sapindaceae). Journal of the Arnold Ar- boretum 57: 129–166.

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Mohlenbrock, R. H. (2001). The illustrated flora of Illinois, grasses, Panicum to Danthonia, 2nd edi- tion. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.

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USDA, ARS. (2012). USDA plant hardiness zone map. Available at http://planthardiness. (Accessed April 9, 2015).

USDA, NRCS. (2015). The PLANTS database. Available at (Accessed Sep- tember 15, 2015).

Voss, E. G. (1996). Michigan flora, part III: Dicots (Pyrolaceae–Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor.

Wagner, W. H., Jr., and J. M. Beitel. (1993). Lycopodiaceae. Pp. 18–37 in Flora of North America, volume 2, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms, Flora of North America Editorial Committee, editors. Oxford University Press, New York.

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Yatskievych, G. (1999). Steyermark’s flora of Missouri, volume 1, revised edition. Missouri Botani- cal Garden Press, St. Louis.