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NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS

REPORTS OF FOUR RARE PLANTS IN MICHIGAN, INCLUDING TWO NON-NATIVE SPECIES

Bradford S. Slaughter Michigan Natural Features Inventory Michigan State University Extension P.O. Box 13036 Lansing, MI 48901-3036 slaugh14@msu.edu

Eurybia furcata (E. S. Burgess) G. L. Nesom Asteraceae Forked aster.

Significance of the Report. The first reports from Michigan since 1934. Previous knowledge. Eurybia furcata (previously known as Aster furcatus E.

S. Burgess) is a regional endemic aster of open forests, bluffs, riverbanks, and ledges in the midwestern United States, where it is known from Michigan, Wis- consin, Iowa, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, and Arkansas (Swink and Wilhelm 1994; Kartesz 2013; NatureServe 2014). The species is of conservation concern in all of these states, with fewer than 100 populations documented rangewide. Because of its apparent rarity and the apparently limited number of genotypes, the species is considered globally vulnerable (G3) by NatureServe (2014). Discussion. Three populations of Eurybia furcata were documented in sum- mer 2014 along the Tittabawassee and Chippewa Rivers in Midland County. The species was previously known in Michigan from two collections, one from the south bank of the River Raisin in Monroe Co. (S. Alexander s.n., September 28, 1906, MICH) and one from the vicinity of a Boy Scout cabin on the Chippewa River in Midland County (R.R. Dreisbach 8359, September 3, 1934, MICH). Prior to this report, the 1934 collection was the last record of Eurybia furcata in the state, and the species is listed as critically imperiled (S1) and state threatened (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007). These new records, complete with lists of associated plant species (given below in the Specimen Citations), should foster surveys for additional populations along the Tittabawassee, Chippewa, and Pine Rivers.

Diagnostic Characters. Eurybia furcata is a large, distinctive aster. It can easily be distinguished from E. macrophylla (L.) Cass, the only other species of Eurybia in Michigan, by its stems that have unreduced leaves all the way to the inflorescence and by the multicellular, pointed, non-glandular white hairs on its pedicels and inflorescence bracts (Figure 1). In contrast, E. macrophylla has leaves that are much reduced below the inflorescence and pedicels and the un-

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FIGURE 1. The leaves of Eurybia furcata are unreduced below the inflorescence. Photo by Bradford

S. Slaughter. dersides of inflorescence bracts that are densely pubescent with stalked glands (Voss and Reznicek 2012). Two other species of Eurybia that are distributed pri- marily east of Michigan, E. divaricata (L.) G. L. Nesom and E. schreberi (Nees) Nees, can be distinguished from E. furcata by the glabrous or sparsely hairy (vs. scabrous and spreading-hairy) leaves of E. divaricata and by the presence of tufts of basal leaves on separate short shoots in E. schreberi (Gleason and Cron- quist 1991). Eurybia furcata can be distinguished from asters in the genus Sym- phyotrichum by its corymbiform inflorescence, relatively long involucres, and relatively wide phyllaries (Voss and Reznicek 2012). The shallowly cordate or truncate petiolate leaves of E. furcata distinguish it from the other non-Symphy- otrichum asters in Michigan, namely Aster tataricus L. f., Canadanthus modes- tus (Lindl.) G. L. Nesom, Doellingeria umbellata (Mill.) Nees, and Oclemena nemoralis (Aiton) Greene (Voss and Reznicek 2012).

Specimen Citations. Michigan. Midland County: NW. Sec. 34, T15N R1E. Averill Preserve. Locally common in clearing on mesic terrace along Tittabawassee River at mouth of L & B Drain. Another small colony noted in floodplain forest along river ca. 200 m SW of this area. Rays light lavender- white. 43.663125°N 84.344164°W. Associates: Anemone canadensis, Carpinus caroliniana, Clematis virginiana, Cornus sericea, Daucus carota, Euthamia graminifolia, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Helianthus decapetalus, Lobelia

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siphilitica, Monarda fistulosa, Panicum virgatum, Physocarpus opulifolius, Populus deltoides, Rhamnus cathartica, Solidago gigantea, Teucrium canadense, Thalictrum dasycarpum, Tilia americana, Verbena urticifolia, Vitis riparia. August 11, 2014. Slaughter 1295 (MICH, MSC).

Midland County: NW. Sec. 24, T14N R1E. Chippewa Nature Center. Uncommon in very small colonies at several locations along southern bank of Chippewa River N of River Point Trail. Most plants on eroded low banks below densely vegetated openings. Rays light lavender-white. 43.604937°N 84.305790°W. Associates: Acer negundo, Clematis virginiana, Elymus riparius, Maianthemum stellatum, Matteuccia struthiopteris, Menispermum canadense, Rhamnus cathartica, Rubus occidentalis, Solidago gigantea, Teucrium canadense, Urtica dioica. August 12, 2014. Slaughter 1304 (MICH).

Midland County: SW. Sec. 2, T14N R1E. Riverview Natural Area. Locally common on eroded, slumping riverbank adjacent to isolated patch of floodplain forest along Tittabawassee River in E portion of preserve. Rays whitish. 43.644569°N 84.323746°W. Associates: Amphicarpaea bracteata, Anemone canadensis, Celastrus scandens, Clematis virginiana, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, Lonicera morrowii, Maianthemum racemosum, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Quercus rubra, Rubus occidentalis, Solidago altissima, Symphyotrichum cordi- folium, Tilia americana, Vitis riparia. September 8, 2014. Slaughter 1365 (MICH, MSC).

Scleria pauciflora Willd. Cyperaceae Few-flowered nut-rush.

Significance of the Report. One of very few contemporary records from Michigan and likely the northernmost documented population rangewide.

Previous Knowledge. Scleria pauciflora is a widespread species of princi- pally the southern United States, where it is concentrated primarily in the At- lantic and Gulf coastal plains (Kartesz 2013). The species occurs in a variety of open habitats, including barrens, pine flatwoods, pond margins, and prairies (Reznicek et al. 2002; NatureServe 2014). Although S. pauciflora is considered globally secure (G5), it is rare and local in the northeastern portion of its range, where it is listed as critically imperiled (S1) in Ontario, Michigan, Massachu- setts, and West Virginia; imperiled (S2) in Illinois, Ohio, and Pennsylvania; and vulnerable (S3) in Indiana (NatureServe 2014).

Discussion. A small population of Scleria pauciflora was documented from a coastal plain marsh in northern Lake County in summer 2014. Previously, the species was known from seven counties in Michigan (Reznicek et al. 2011), and there have been only four known collections from three counties (Kalamazoo, Wayne, Muskegon) since 1920. This report documents the northernmost collec- tion from Michigan (ca. 75 km N of the previous northernmost site) and likely the northernmost documented population of the species in its North American range (Kartesz 2013). The population is also notable for its association with two coastal plain disjunct species that are here at or near their northern range limits:

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FIGURE 2. Scleria pauciflora is distinguished from other species of Scleria in Michigan by the com- bination of its papillose-roughened achenes and pubescent culms and leaves. Photo by Bradford S. Slaughter.

Eleocharis melanocarpa Torr. and Rhynchospora macrostachya A. Gray (Reznicek 1994; Reznicek et al. 2011; Kartesz 2013).

Diagnostic Characters. Scleria pauciflora is easily distinguished from the three other species of Scleria in Michigan by its combination of papillose-rough- ened achenes and pubescent culms and leaves (Figure 2). Although S. reticularis Michx. and S. verticillata Willd. have similarly papillose-roughened achenes, they are essentially glabrous. Scleria triglomerata Michx. is a coarser, larger plant with smooth achenes (Reznicek et al. 2011).

Specimen Citation. Michigan. Lake County: SE. Sec. 20, T20N R14W. Manistee National Forest. Duck Marsh. Very local on slightly elevated sandy shore of marsh ca. 250 m N of W 8 Mile Rd. 44.107811°N 86.009339°W. Asso- ciates: Agrostis scabra, Chamaedaphne calyculata, Dichanthelium implicatum, Hypericum boreale, Lechea intermedia, Pinus strobus, Pteridium aquilinum,

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Rubus hispidus, Spartina pectinata, Viola lanceolata. August 21 2014. Slaughter & Victory 1312 (MICH).

Carex bushii Mack. Cyperaceae Bush’s sedge.

Significance of the Report. The second documented Michigan population of this sporadically distributed species of Carex not native to the region.

Previous Knowledge. Carex bushii is a widespread sedge of prairies and other primarily open habitats across much of the southern and eastern United States, with a center of distribution in the Central Plains and Ozark regions of Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Missouri, and Arkansas (Ball and Reznicek 2002; Smith and Waterway 2008; Kartesz 2013). The species also occurs sporadically as introduced populations in scattered counties of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illi- nois, Michigan, and South Carolina (Swink and Wilhelm 1994; Smith and Wa- terway 2008; Voss and Reznicek 2012; Kartesz 2013; Wisconsin State Herbar- ium, University of Wisconsin-Madison 2015).

Discussion. Carex bushii was collected from a two-track through an old field in the Osceola-Missaukee Grasslands State Game Area in Osceola County in summer 2014. Previously, the species was known in Michigan from only one site in dry sandy soil at the margins of Egg Lake Bog on Beaver Island, Charlevoix County (July 11, 1985, Menapace 16, MICH). and the population in Osceola County occurs in a similarly disturbed habitat. Collectors are alerted to the po- tential presence of this species on disturbed soils elsewhere in the state, includ- ing in counties outside the documented range of the similar native C. hirsutella Mack.

Diagnostic Characters. Carex bushii is one of five species of Carex sect. Porocystis Dumort. known from Michigan, and one of three species of those five that have glabrous perigynia (Voss and Reznicek 2012), the others being C. pallescens L. and C. hirsutella Mack. Carex bushii is differentiated from C. pallescens by the pistillate apices of its terminal spikes and strongly nerved, obovoid-orbicular, compressed perigynia, and from the otherwise similar C. hir- sutella by its relatively long pistillate scales (surpassing the perigynia) with awns 0.5–2 mm long, versus the short, awnless or short-awned scales of C. hirsutella (Voss and Reznicek 2012). Two other species in sect. Porocystis, C. caroliniana Schweinitz and C. complanata Torrey & Hooker, occur in adjacent or nearby states, and they can also be differentiated from C. bushii by their awnless or short-awned pistillate scales (Ball and Reznicek 2002; Kartesz 2013).

Specimen Citation. Michigan. Osceola County: NW. Sec. 2, T20N R7W. Osceola-Missaukee Grasslands State Game Area, Unit 1. Local; several clumps on two-track in low moist spot through old field ca. 320 m E of 20th Ave. Asso- ciates: Carex gracillima, Juncus tenuis, Potentilla simplex, Rubus flagellaris, Scirpus atrovirens, Trifolium pratense, T. repens. June 20, 2014. Slaughter & Victory 1173 (MICH).

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Acer campestre L. Sapindaceae Hedge maple.

Significance of the Report. The second report of this non-native species growing wild in Michigan and the first documenting its spread into a high-qual- ity natural area.

Previous Knowledge. Acer campestre is a medium-sized maple with a native range concentrated in western Europe, extending east to southwestern Asia and south very locally to northern Africa (Utorova et al. 2014). The species is grown in North America as an ornamental tree, and it has escaped from cultivation and is considered naturalized at scattered locations primarily in the northeastern and midwestern United States (Sorrie 2005; Kartesz 2013).

Discussion. Acer campestre was noted in and adjacent to the Sanford Natural Area on the campus of Michigan State University in Ingham County in the sum- mer of 2013. The species was first collected in Michigan in 2002 (Walters & Caderat 7855, MICH) from disturbed forests and forest edges in Monroe County, where it occurred as mature trees, saplings, and seedlings in association with several weedy native and non-native species. This is the second report in the state, and the first from a high-quality native habitat, a mature Fagus grandifo- lia–Acer saccharum mesic forest protected by Michigan State University as a natural area. At this location, individuals were scattered throughout the natural area, primarily at the forest margin adjacent to West Holmes Hall and McDonell Hall and occasionally along trails in the interior of the forest. Most individuals were small saplings, but at least one fruiting tree, from which the collection was made, was noted at the forest margin. The presence of individuals of A. campestre in several size classes at both Michigan sites and its presence in a high quality-natural habitat at Sanford Natural Area suggest that this species may have invasive potential in Michigan and likely warrants monitoring.

Diagnostic Characters. Acer campestre can be distinguished from other species of Acer in Michigan by a combination of its relatively small stature and simple leaves with entire sinuses between the principal leaf lobes, which are rounded-obtuse at their apices (Voss and Reznicek 2012).

Specimen Citation. Michigan. Ingham County: SE. Sec. 16, T4N R1W. Sanford Natural Area. Occasional escape along south margin of woodlot and scattered within forest, especially along trails. 42.727075°N 84.464694°W. As- sociates: Acer saccharum, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Quercus rubra. July 3, 2013. Slaughter 953 (MICH).

LITERATURE CITED

Ball, P. W., and A. A. Reznicek. (2002). Carex. Pp. 254–572 in Flora of North America, volume 23.

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and adjacent Canada. 2nd edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y. Kartesz, J. T. The biota of North America program (BONAP). (2013). North American plant atlas.

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America, Version 1.0. Biota of North America program (BONAP). (in press)]. Available at http://bonap.net/napa. (Accessed October 10, 2014).

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NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe explorer: An online encyclopedia of life. Version 7.1. Nature- Serve, Arlington, Virginia. Available at http://explorer.natureserve.org. (Accessed October 10, 2014).

Reznicek, A. A. (1994). The disjunct coastal plain flora in the Great Lakes region. Biological Con- servation 68: 203-215.

Reznicek, A. A., J. F. Fairey III, and A. T. Whittemore. (2002). Scleria. Pp. 242-251 in Flora of North America, volume 23. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part); Cyperaceae. Flora of North Amer- ica Editorial Committee, editors. Oxford University Press, New York.

Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, and B. S. Walters. (2011). Michigan flora online. University of Michi- gan, Ann Arbor, Michigan. Available at http://www.michiganflora.net/home.aspx. (Accessed Octo- ber 28, 2014).

Smith, T. W., and M. J. Waterway. (2008). Evaluating species limits and hybridization in the Carex complanata complex using morphology, amplified fragment length polymorphisms, and restric- tion fragment analysis. Botany 86: 809-826.

Sorrie, B. A. (2005). Alien vascular plants in Massachusetts. Rhodora 107: 284-329.

Swink, F., and G. Wilhelm. (1994). Plants of the Chicago region, 4th edition. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis.

Utorova, Y. N., A. A. Khapugin, and T. B. Silaeva. (2014). About ecology of Acer campestre L. (Ac- eraceae) on north-eastern limit of the range. Environment and Ecology Research 2: 8-13.

Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin – Madison. (2015). Online virtual flora of Wis- consin. Available at http://wisflora.herbarium.wisc.edu.

Voss, E. G., and A. A. Reznicek. (2012). Field manual of Michigan flora. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.

Wisconsin State Herbarium, University of Wisconsin – Madison. (2015). Flora of Wisconsin: Con- sortium of Wisconsin herbaria. Available at http://wisflora.herbarium.wisc.edu/index.php. (Ac- cessed August 7, 2015).