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2014 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 2
BURTON V. BARNES (1930–2014)
Daniel M. Kashian Department of Biological Sciences Wayne State University Detroit, MI 48202 email@example.com
Sharing tales of those we’ve lost is how we keep from really losing them.
Organisms per se are born out of Earth, are sustained by Earth, evolve in Earth’s skin, and in death and dissolution return to it for cycles of rebirth.
——J. Stan Rowe
Burton Verne Barnes, age 83, died at his home in Ann Arbor on July 3, 2014. He was Arthur F. Thurnau Professor Emeritus of Forestry at the University of Michigan’s School of Natural Resources and Environment after a long career as its Stephen H. Spurr Professor of Forest Ecology, and he also served as forest botanist for the Matthaei Botanical Gardens. In remembering Burt we celebrate not only an eminent forest ecologist, botanist, and geneticist, but also a mentor, teacher, colleague, and friend.
Burt was born in Bloomington, Illinois, and grew up in nearby Charleston, Illinois, a small college town about 100 miles west of Springfield. His initial ex- posure to natural history occurred when he was a boy at Camp Mishawaka in northern Minnesota, where his father worked during the summers. It was at Camp Mishawaka that Burt first began to collect and press samples of flowers, leaves, and twigs. He eventually enrolled at Eastern Illinois University in Charleston in 1948, and transferred to the University of Michigan the following year.
It was at the School of Natural Resources (SNR; later the School of Natural Resources and Environment, SNRE) at Michigan that Burt began to pursue his interests in forest ecology and genetics as an undergraduate in the early 1950s (Figure 1). During the summers he worked for the US Forest Service (USFS) in the western United States on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and western white pine (P. monticola). Burt’s job was to climb to the top of trees and collect pollen from male cones and whole female cones for their seeds. As a result of his impatience and in order to save time—something Burt apparently learned to do in his earliest days of field work and maintained throughout his life—Burt and his co-workers developed the habit of leaping from treetop to treetop in an effort to avoid having to climb up and down every tree. When Burt later returned to the USFS as a Research Forester in Idaho, he continued this practice—much to the chagrin of those working under his supervision, whom he asked to do the same. Burt completed his B.S.F. (Bachelor of Science in Forestry) degree at Michigan in 1952 and his M.F. (Master of Forestry) degree in forest ecology and silvicul-
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FIGURE 1. Burt Barnes as an undergraduate at the University of Michigan School of Natural Resources Camp Filibert Roth, 1950. Photo courtesy of the Burton V. Barnes estate.
ture just a year later in 1953, using his summer experiences out West to complete a thesis about thinning ponderosa pine in western Montana.
It would be easy and obvious to describe Burt’s career and adventures solely with reference to forest ecology, but to ignore music as one of his passions would not accurately represent his life. Those who know Burt well understood his pen- chant for music—and the trombone as his instrument of choice—and knew that his musical skill and interests were not superficial. He learned trombone in his youth, and he played it in the University of Michigan’s Marching Band and Sym- phony Band (Figure 2). Burt played in the Marching Band under its famous di- rector William D. Revelli. He also enjoyed telling people that he played with, and was a friend of, Dick Smith, who was the drum major leading a group of children across Ferry Field in Alfred Eisenstaedt’s famous 1950 photograph in Life Mag- azine, which has been called “The Happiest Photo Ever Made.” Burt used to re- mark that on football Saturdays, in full band uniform, he felt just like those kids. Incidentally, Burt played in the Snow Bowl vs. Ohio State in 1950 and was an ac- tive participant in pushing and pulling the band’s vehicles out of the snow on the ride back from Columbus. He also played in the 1951 Rose Bowl, in which Michigan defeated the University of California. Burt claimed to be too busy to be a college football fan, but he always seemed to know the state of the team in any given fall and could easily rattle off the names of players on the teams in the late 1940s and early 1950s.
Burt carried his musicianship with him throughout his teaching career at the University of Michigan, using it in classroom settings and potlucks and as part
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of “faculty jams” at SNRE holiday parties (the faculty ensemble was known as “The Ecotones,” Figure 3). Nothing moved him more than students incorporating music into his courses. Among the hundreds of students in his Woody Plants and Forest Ecology courses over the years were many accomplished or casual musicians and songwriters themselves. Burt encouraged his students to write songs about his courses, if only new lyrics set to old familiar tunes. His four-day fall field trips to the Great Smoky Mountains in Forest Ecology, for example, were fertile ground for musical compositions, most often about the things the students had seen and the adventures they had. More than once Burt was moved nearly to tears upon hearing these compositions, especially when an original melody was attached. He collected these through the years in what he called the “Woody Plants and Forest Ecology Songbook,” which he printed and distributed well after his retirement. Burt also had a dream he often talked about, in which he would form a traveling
two-piece act with his son Brooks—himself an accomplished professional trom- bonist.
Burt was soon drafted during the Korean War, and his keen musicianship and pacifism led him to play in the US Army Band between 1953 and 1955 at Ft. Knox in Kentucky. He also graduated from the US Naval School of Music in 1954. Though he was not an openly political man, Burt was a self-described “dove”; he was a very outspoken proponent of peaceful resolution to conflict and bristled at the discussion of war. Throughout his career, he referred to each of the conflicts in Korea, Vietnam, the Persian Gulf, Iraq, and Afghanistan as “This stu- pid war!” (or “That stupid war!” if speaking in retrospect). At the onset of sev- eral of these conflicts, he would display a cardboard sign reading “Peace” in the front window of his house. He was very outspoken about his view that students should remain in college rather than being drafted into military service that date to his own time in the Army. He wrote a well-articulated letter in the 1950s, now on file at the Library of Congress, that detailed his belief that college students were more useful in school than at war. During the Vietnam War, Burt was well-
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known for persuading students to at- tend graduate school in order to ob- tain deferments from the draft.
Burt returned to Ann Arbor in 1955 to begin a doctoral program under the guidance of Stephen H. Spurr (Figure 4). It was during this period that Burt began to build his expertise in the growth, develop- ment, and ecology of North Ameri- can aspens (Populus spp.), particu- larly at the University of Michigan’s Biological Station (UMBS). Burt liked to tell the story that Spurr took him out onto the Pellston Plain, waved his arms at the scraggy aspen, and asked him to figure out how to tell the difference between the aspen clones. Burt replied “You’re the boss,” and proceeded to develop a seminal study on the clonal growth of aspen. He differentiated the clones based on minute differences in leaf and branch morphology, fun- gal infections, bark characteristics, and the timing of spring leaf flush. He also excavated and carefully mapped complete aspen root sys- tems as part of this work (Figure 5). Burt’s work at UMBS in the 1950s convinced silviculturalists and foresters at the time that aspen con- tained an enormous amount of ge-
FIGURE 3. Burt Barnes, in German holiday re- galia, plays trombone with the “Ecotones,” a fac- ulty ensemble that entertained at SNRE holiday parties, December 2005. Photo courtesy of Shaw Lacy via University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment Flickr page under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic li- cense; desaturated from original; original at www.flickr.com/photos/snre/14639936173/.
netic variation, evident at the clonal level, far more than was recognized at the time. He published much of this work in 1966 in the journal Ecology, in a paper that is still cited by many ecologists today. He completed his PhD in forest ecol- ogy and forest botany in 1959.
Burt worked as a Research Forester for the USFS in Moscow, Idaho, from 1959 to 1963, continuing to pursue his interests in forest genetics with a specific focus on western white pine (Figure 6). His work from this period dominated his early publication record and would help to direct his initial research at the Uni- versity of Michigan. During 1963 and 1964, Burt completed a Postdoctoral Fel- lowship at the Forest Experiment Station of Baden-Württemberg in Stuttgart- Weilimdorf, Germany. His work in Baden-Württemberg exposed him to a multifactor, multiscale ecological classification approach that focused on inter- actions, integrating ecological factors simultaneously in the field. The approach was to transform Burt’s research when he brought it to Michigan and refined it
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V.Barnesestate. beginning in the late 1970s and early
1980s. Burt was convinced that this
“landscape ecosystem approach”
provided an ecological framework
for management of all kinds, includ-
ing preservation, conservation, and
ecological diversity, as well as eco-
logical research. Burt and his stu-
dents were influential in having the
approach adopted by the USFS and
The Nature Conservancy in Michi-
gan and elsewhere (see Albert et al.
Burt was hired onto the faculty of SNR at Michigan in 1964 (Figure 7). Soon after his arrival, Burt worked with Warren H. (“Herb”) Wagner, Jr., an eminent botanist and former member of his dissertation commit- tee, and with his graduate students to develop the Woody Plants course (see Sharik this issue). Woody Plants was a novel, innovative version of a dendrology course whereby students would learn trees and shrubs in the field in their native ecosystems. Throughout his career, Burt valued the importance of his teaching, and he grew particularly infatuated with perfecting his technique (see Mac- Gregor and Gunn, this issue). Burt considered his relationship with Herb Wagner to be instrumental to his pedagogy, and their collaboration in Woody Plants is legendary at Michigan and elsewhere (see Dick et al. this issue). During this period,
FIGURE 5. Burt Barnes with an excavated aspen seedling at the University of Michigan Biological Station, 1957. Photo courtesy of the Burton V. Barnes estate.
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FIGURE 6. Burt Barnes sighting field plot lines in northern Idaho, 1962. Photo courtesy of the Bur- ton V. Barnes estate.
Burt also developed and perfected his Forest Ecology course, which included
weekly field labs and long field trips to the UMBS and the Great Smoky Moun-
tains (Figure 8). Many professors at SNR/SNRE modeled their teaching tech-
nique after Burt’s to the extent that they could (and tempered their frustrations when they failed to dupli- cate his success). Burt garnered many awards during his career, but those honoring his suc- cesses in teaching were among those he treasured the most. They included the University of Michi- gan Teaching Award, the
FIGURE 7. Drs. Fred Knight and Burt Barnes walking to the School of Natural Resources at the University of Michigan, April 1968. Drs. Knight and Barnes regularly carpooled to campus together. Photo by Bruce Dancik.
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FIGURE 8. Burt Barnes uses an aluminum pruning pole to access drinking water below Ramsey Cascades, Great Smoky Mountains National Park, October 1969. Photo by Bruce Dancik.
Arthur F. Thurnau Professorship for “outstanding contributions in undergraduate education,” Students for SNRE Outstanding Teaching Award, the Golden Apple Award, the Michigan Professor of the Year Award from the Council for Advance- ment and Support of Education, and the Carl Alwin Schenck Award from the So- ciety of American Foresters in recognition of demonstrated and outstanding per- formance in teaching and forestry education. In 2004 the Michigan Sierra Club established a new award named the Burton V. Barnes Award for Outstanding Academic Contributions in Support of Michigan’s Environment, with Burt as the initial recipient.
Burt was very proud of his work with his mentors throughout his University career. He joined Stephen Spurr as the junior author on the second edition of Forest Ecology, a well-known textbook in the field, which was published in 1973. Burt revised the text for a third edition with Spurr in 1980, and included him posthumously as a co-author on the fourth edition, published in 1998. Burt worked with Herb Wagner to publish the enormously popular Michigan Trees in 1981, a trees and shrub identification guide treasured by students, naturalists, ecologists, and outdoor enthusiasts. He revised Michigan Trees in 2004 and maintained Wagner as a posthumous co-author. Burt was completing a new book, Michigan Shrubs & Vines, with coauthors Chris Dick (who replaced Burt
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FIGURE 9. Burt Barnes measures height growth of aspen hybrids at the southern Michigan nursery in Brighton, Michigan, 1965. Photo by Bruce Dancik.
as an instructor for Woody Plants upon his retirement) and Melanie Gunn (a for- mer student and co-instructor), at the time of his death.
Upon his appointment to the faculty at Michigan, Burt continued his investi- gations of North American aspen; some of this work led to Burt’s work with Herb Wagner on hybridization and introgression in aspen throughout the 1960s and 70s (Figure 9). Barnes and Wagner once thought they had discovered a new hybrid species that had arisen between the two native Michigan aspens, trem- bling aspen (P. tremuloides) and bigtooth aspen (P. grandidentata). Wagner named it the Barnes aspen (Populus . barnesii), only to discover that the species had already been named (Populus . smithii). With no offense taken and a good story to tell to students for decades, Burt continued to study and document the species and its intermediates throughout his career. Burt’s early career at Michi- gan also focused on the natural variation, hybridization, and genecology of birches (Betula spp.) and ashes (Fraxinus spp.) with his early graduate students. In addition to a suite of publications, this work eventually contributed to the naming of a new birch species, the Murray birch (Betula murrayana B.V. Barnes & Dancik), identified at Saginaw Forest in 1985 (see Dancik, this issue). The Murray birch is recognized as a rare birch species resulting from a cross between a native hybrid species (Betula . purpusii) and yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis).
As a part of his aspen work in the West, Burt began to examine an extremely large trembling aspen clone southwest of Fish Lake, Utah, in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Using aerial photography and the same morphological differentia- tion techniques he developed for aspen at UMBS for his dissertation, Burt con-
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cluded that the aspen forest that covered about 106 acres was a single aspen clone, quite possibly the “world’s largest organism.” Other than a single publica- tion about aspen clone size and another great story to tell his students, Burt’s studies on the Fish Lake clone were relatively obscure. The clone was revisited by several researchers in the early 1990s who confirmed Burt’s original findings using modern molecular techniques. Those researchers pursued and garnered substantial national media coverage and even named the clone “Pando”. In the meantime, Burt continued to avoid media attention, even when comments were requested directly from him. He even quietly attended public tours of the clone unrecognized in the 1990s and 2000s, happily keeping his identity and expertise unknown to the researchers leading the tour (some of whom, when they were told after his death of his possible presence, nervously tried to recollect whether he might have been there!). Instead, Burt chose to poke fun at his overlooked fame with his students in Woody Plants and Forest Ecology with lectures about “the WLO” and rallying cries like “Aspen über alles!”
Burt’s research also took him to China, where he was interested in comparing woody plant species and ecosystems between eastern Asia and eastern North America (see Makino et al., this issue). Burt began his research in China during the height of the Cold War in the early 1980s and was one of the first western sci- entists to visit China during that period. Despite this significant hurdle, he ac- complished significant collections of “sister species” and was able to conduct extensive field research across remote areas in eastern China, including the rugged Yellow Mountains. Burt returned to China as a Visiting Scientist in the mid-1980s, where he was hosted by the Nanjing Institute of Forestry. He studied forest ecosystems and Chinese aspen species in the Changbaishan Preserve in northeast China and made visits to Shenyang and Liaoning Provinces, as well as to Beijing. He returned to China again in 1992. Burt served as the adviser for several Chinese graduate students at SNR/SNRE as a result of the connections he made from these trips.
Burt’s research beginning in the 1980s saw a proliferation of the landscape ecosystem approach he first encountered in Baden-Württemberg and later re- fined and applied to the study and management of forest ecosystems in Michi- gan (see Albert et al., this issue). Burt and his students first applied the landscape ecosystem approach—an integration of climate, landforms, and soil, and biota— at local scales to wilderness tracts in Michigan’s Upper Peninsula, but his focus quickly turned towards a regional classification of Michigan’s ecosystems, which he completed with his students in the mid-1980s. The usefulness of the approach culminated in a 10,000 acre classification and mapping of UMBS at multiple scales in the 1990s, including broad glacial landforms, specific types of land- forms, and local landscape ecosystems. The classification, with a level of detail that is unique to the United States, still forms the basis for many of the field re- search projects at UMBS. Burt and his students began to apply the approach to many types of ecological systems in northern and southeastern Lower Michigan and continued to do so until he retired in 2006.
Burt’s development and use of his landscape ecosystem approach led to a long-standing friendship and collaboration with Canadian plant ecologist J. Stan Rowe. Burt developed an ecocentric world view from these influences, believing
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that biota cannot live on their own but are conferred life from the Earth, such that Earth itself is Life. In terms of his research, this meant that ecological science should focus on the study of whole, volumetric, air-biota-land systems (ecosys- tems) rather than simply the species they contain. Burt became steadfast in this philosophy, and it began to permeate every new bit of research he undertook; what once would have been studies on aspen or red maple (Acer rubrum) became work on aspen or red maple ecosystems. His perspective created some tension with some of his colleagues and mentors, including Herb Wagner himself, who considered the lack of a focus on species to be a potential threat to the conserva- tion of biodiversity.
Beyond his science, however, Burt began to consider the inherent and meta- physical value of whole ecosystems, and he believed that because humans were not the center of these systems they perhaps should not attempt to attain their control and management, even when their intentions were good. He believed that an understanding of whole ecosystems would provide guidelines for human be- havior, and, as a result, his ecological ethics became more conservation-minded than ever. In one of his last bits of public writing in 2013, Burt provided written testimony to the Michigan State Senate opposing Senate Bill 78, which would have prohibited the Michigan Department of Natural Resources from using bio- diversity in its management decisions. After a scathing review of why species de- pend on the ecosystems to which they belong, he concluded that the bill was “di- visive, counterproductive, mean-spirited; couldn’t be worse. As Mark Twain said of a book he reviewed—it is a cemetery.” It was a fitting summation of a piece of legislation that clearly offended his perspective of the world, and his testimony went viral on the Internet.
Burt officially retired in 2006, and decided to hold a “Burt’s Biostation Bash” at UMBS rather than a typical retirement party in Ann Arbor. Burt’s Bash was held to reaffirm Burt’s message about the importance of learning ecology in the field, and consisted of a full weekend of field trips and activities at UMBS. Hun- dreds of current and former students and colleagues from across North America attended to hear Burt teach in the field one last time (Figure 10.) The weekend culminated in a “rally” in the lecture hall, where the audience was loud with yelling and singing, skits and impressions about Burt were performed by his for- mer students, SNRE administrators were present, and Burt was asked to speak about his career. True to form, Burt declined to talk about himself and instead did his best to encourage the audience to speak to the administrators about the importance of retaining field courses at SNRE.
After retirement, Burt remained steadfast in both research (see Dick et al. this issue) and teaching, including numerous field courses at UMBS through 2010 (Figure 11). Burt had earned many awards and recognitions for his research by the time he retired, including the Michigan Society of American Foresters’ John
L. Arend Research Recognition Award, the Society of American Foresters’ Bar- rington Moore Memorial Award for outstanding research in forest ecology, The Great Seal of the State of Michigan, and a State of Michigan Special Tribute from the 93rd session of the Michigan Legislature and Governor Jennifer M. Granholm. He was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award by the Michigan Botanical Club in 2013. His long and illustrious career (Figure 12) resulted in six Page 12 12 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 54
FIGURE 10. Burt Barnes teaches from a soil pit to generations of current and former students and colleagues at his “Biostation Bash” retirement party at the University of Michigan Biological Station, July 2006. Photo from University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and Environment Flickr page under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license; desaturated from original; original at www.flickr.com/photos/snre/14420508600/.
FIGURE 11. Burt Barnes teaches students in a mini-course at the University of Michigan Bio- logical Station, 2006. Photo from University of Michigan School of Natural Resources and En- vironment Flickr page under a Creative Commons Attribution 2.0 Generic license; desaturated from original; original at www.flickr.com/photos/snre/14606564982/.
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FIGURE 12. Burt Barnes collecting increment cores in 1952 (left) and in 1993 (right). Left photo courtesy of the Burton V. Barnes estate; right photo by Dan Kashian.
books, three book chapters, and 97 published papers to date, and several more are expected to be published posthumously, as well as an enormous sphere of in- fluence that has produced hundreds of works of research by his former students.
Books and Book Chapters
Spurr, S. H., and B. V. Barnes. (1973). Forest ecology, 2nd edition. The Ronald Press Company, New York, N.Y.
Barnes, B. V. (1977). Forest ecology. Pp. 486–489 in The McGraw-Hill encylopedia of science and technology, D.N. Lapedes, editor. McGraw Hill Book Company, New York, N.Y.
Spurr, S. H., and B. V. Barnes. (1980). Forest ecology, 3rd edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
Barnes, B. V., and W. H. Wagner, Jr. (1981). Michigan trees: A Guide to the trees of the Great Lakes region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Barnes, B. V. (1991). Deciduous forests of North America. Pp. 219–344 in Deciduous forests of the world. E. Röhrig and B. Ulrich, editors. Elsevier Publication Company, New York, N.Y.
Barnes, B. V., D. R. Zak, S. R. Denton, and S. H. Spurr. (1998). Forest ecology, 4th edition. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, N.Y.
Barnes, B. V., and W. H. Wagner, Jr. (2004). Michigan trees: A guide to the trees of the Great Lakes region, revised and updated. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Barnes, B. V. (2010). Vegetation history and change, 1840–2009. Pp. 36–49 in The changing envi- ronment of northern Michigan: A century of science and nature at the University of Michigan Bi- ological Station. K.J. Nadelhoffer, A.J. Hogg, Jr., and B.A. Hazlett editors. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
Barnes, B. V., C. Dick, and M. Gunn. (2016). Michigan shrubs & vines. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor.
1950s Spurr, S. H., L. J. Young, B. V. Barnes, and E. L. Hughes. (1957). Nine successive thinnings in a Michigan white pine plantation. Journal of Forestry 55: 7–13.
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Barnes, B. V. (1958). Erste Aufnahme eines sechsjährigen Bestandes von Aspenhybriden. Silvae Ge- netica 7: 98–102.
Barnes, B. V. (1961). Hybrid aspens in the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Rhodora 63: 311–324.
Barnes, B. V., R. T. Bingham, and J. A. Schenk. (1962). Insect-caused loss to western white pine cones. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note 102, Ogden, Utah.
Barnes, B. V. (1962). Selective fertilization in Pinus monticola Dougl. II: Results of additional tests. Silvae Genetica 11: 89–124.
Barnes, B. V., and R. T. Bingham. (1962). Juvenile performance of hybrids between western and east- ern white pine. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note 104, Ogden, Utah.
Barnes, B. V., and R. T. Bingham. (1963). Cultural treatments stimulate growth of western white pine seedlings. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note INT-3, Ogden, Utah.
Barnes, B. V., and R. T. Bingham. (1963). Flower induction and stimulation in western white pine. In- termountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-2, Ogden, Utah.
Hanover, J. W., and B. V. Barnes. (1963). Heritability of height growth in year-old western white pine. Pp. 71–76 in Proceedings of the Forest Genetics Workshop, SAF Committee on Forest Tree Im- provement and Southern Forest Tree Improvement Committee, Macon, Georgia.
Barnes, B. V. (1964). Self-and cross-pollination of western white pine: a comparison of height growth of progeny. Intermountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Note INT-22, Ogden, Utah.
Barnes, B. V. (1964). Synopsis of site science in Baden-Württemberg and summary of the paper: Sil- vicultural evaluation of site classification in Verngrund (North Württemberg). Mitteilungen des Vereins für Forstliche Sandortskunde und Forstpflanzenzuchtung 13: 89–90.
Barnes, B. V. (1964). The use of ecological species groups in site classification in Baden-Württem- berg and summary of the paper: Ecological species groups of the Upper Neckar growth district. Mitteilungen des Vereins für Forstliche Sandortskunde und Forstpflanzenzuchtung 14: 64.
Barnes, B. V. (1966). The clonal growth habit of American aspens. Ecology 47: 439–447.
Barnes, B. V. (1967). Indications of possible mid-Cenozoic hybridization in the aspens of the Co- lumbia Plateau. Rhodora 69: 70–81.
Barnes, B. V. (1967). Phenotypic variation associated with elevation in western white pine. Forest Science 13: 357–364.
Barnes, B.V. (1969). Effects of thinning and fertilizing on production of western white pine seed. In- termountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Research Paper INT-58, Ogden, Utah.
Barnes, B. V. (1969). Natural variation and delineation of clones of Populus tremuloides and P. gran- didentata in northern Lower Michigan. Silvae Genetica 18: 130–142.
Andrejak, G. E., and B. V. Barnes. (1969). A seedling population of aspens in southeastern Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 8: 189–202.
Hanover, J. W., and B. V. Barnes. (1969). Heritability of height growth in western white pine seedlings. Silvae Genetica 8: 80–82.
Mead, D. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1970). Performance of ponderosa pine in southeastern Michigan. Michigan Academician 3: 67–70.
Barnes, B. V. (1970). Forest genetics research at the University of Michigan. In Proceedings of the ninth Lake States Forest Tree Improvement Conference, USDA Forest Service Research Paper NC-47. North Central Forest Experiment Station, St. Paul, Minnesota.
Dancik, B. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1971). Variability in bark morphology of yellow birch in an even- aged stand. The Michigan Botanist 10: 34–38.
Sharik, T. L., and B. V. Barnes. (1971). Hybridization in Betula alleghaniensis Britt. and B. lenta L.: A comparative analysis of controlled crosses. Forest Science 17: 415–424.
Dancik, B. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1972). Natural variation and hybridization of yellow birch and bog birch in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica 21: 1–9.
Townsend, A. M., J. W. Hanover, and B. V. Barnes. (1972). Altitudinal variation in photosynthesis, growth, and monoterpene composition of western white pine (Pinus monticola Dougl.) seedlings.
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Silvae Genetica 21: 133–139.
Barnes, B. V. (1972). Urwald von Morgan, Bannwaldgebiete der Landesforstverwaltung Baden- Württemberg. Book review. Forest Science 18: 263.
Barnes, B. V., B. P. Dancik, and T. L. Sharik. (1974). Natural hybridization of yellow birch and paper birch. Forest Science 20: 215–221.
Dancik, B. P., B. V. Barnes, and W. H. Wagner, Jr. (1974). Aberrant pistillate catkins of Betula al- leghaniensis. The Michigan Botanist 13: 177–179.
Copony, J. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1974). Clonal variation in the incidence of Hypoxylon canker on trembling aspen. Canadian Journal of Botany 52: 1405–1414.
Dancik, B. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1974). Leaf diversity in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). Cana- dian Journal of Botany 52: 2407–2414.
Barnes, B. V. (1975). Phenotypic variation of trembling aspen in western North America. Forest Sci- ence 21: 319–328.
Dancik, B. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1975). Leaf variability in yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) in re- lation to environment. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 5: 149–159.
Dancik, B. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1975). Multivariate analyses of hybrid populations. Naturaliste Canadien 102: 835–843.
Barnes, B. V. (1976). Succession in deciduous swamp communities of southeastern Michigan for- merly dominated by American elm. Canadian Journal of Botany 54: 19–24.
Sharik, T. L., and B. V. Barnes. (1976). Phenology of shoot growth among diverse populations of yel- low birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britton) and sweet birch (B. lenta L.). Canadian Journal of Botany 54: 2122–2129.
Kemperman, J. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1976). Clone size in American aspens. Canadian Journal of Botany. 54: 2603–2607.
Wearstler, K. A., Jr., and B. V. Barnes. (1977). Genetic diversity of yellow birch seedlings in Michi- gan. Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 2778–2788.
Henry, R. M., and B. V. Barnes. (1977). Comparative reproductive ability of bigtooth and trembling aspen and their hybrid. Canadian Journal of Botany 55: 3093–3098.
Barnes, B. V. (1977). The international larch provenance test in southeastern Michigan, USA. Silvae Genetica 26: 145–148.
Farmer, M. M., and B. V. Barnes. (1978). Morphological variation of families of trembling aspen in southeastern Michigan. The Michigan Botanist 17: 141–153.
Barnes, B. V. (1978). Pollen abortion in Betula and Populus (Section Leuce). The Michigan Botanist
17: 167–172. Sharik, T. L., and B. V. Barnes. (1979). Natural variation in morphology among diverse populations of yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and sweet birch (B. lenta). Canadian Journal of Botany 57: 1932–1939.
Barnes, B. V. (1980). Woody plants ahead. Pp. 195–206 in Proceedings: Dendrology in the Eastern Forest Biome. P. P. Feret and T. L. Sharik, editors. Publication number FWS-2-80, School of Forestry and Wildlife Resources, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg.
Pregitzer, K. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1980). Flowering phenology of Populus tremuloides and P. gran- didentata and the potential for hybridization. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 10: 218–223.
Spies, T. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1981). A morphological analysis of Populus alba, P. grandidentata and their natural hybrids in southeastern Michigan. Silvae Genetica 30: 102–106.
Barnes, B. V., K. S. Pregitzer, T. A. Spies, and V. H. Spooner. (1982). Ecological forest site classifi- cation. Journal of Forestry 80: 493–498.
Spies, T. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1982). Natural hybridization between Populus alba L. and the native aspens in southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 653–660.
Pregitzer, K. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1982). The use of ground flora to indicate edaphic factors in the McCormick Experimental Forest, Upper Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 12: 661–672.
Barnes, B. V. (1983). Ecosystem classification—Number 1 priority. Pp. 8–30 in Proceedings, Artifi- cial regeneration of conifers in the Upper Great Lakes region. Michigan Technological University, Houghton.
Hix, D. M., B. V. Barnes, and J. A. Witter. (1983). Site classification of selected spruce–fir-dominated
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ecosystems of the Ottawa National Forest, Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Michigan Cooperative Forest Pest Management Program. Technical Report 83–14.
Pregitzer, K. S., B. V. Barnes, and G. D. Lemme. (1983). Relationship of topography to soils and veg- etation in an Upper Michigan ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 47: 117–123.
Pregitzer, K. S., B. V. Barnes, T. A. Spies, and V. H. Spooner. (1983). Ecological forest site classifi- cation in the McCormick Experimental Forest, Upper Michigan. Pp. 22–28 in Proceedings of the IUFRO Conference on forest site and continuous productivity. USDA Forest Service General Technical report PNW-163.
Barnes, B. V. (1984). Forest ecosystem classification and mapping in Baden-Württemberg, West Ger- many. Pp. 49–65 in Proceedings of the symposium on forest land classification: experiences, prob- lems, perspectives. J. G. Bockheim, editor. NCR-102 North Central Forest Soils Committee, Soci- ety of American Foresters, USDA Forest Service and USDA Conservation Service, Madison, Wisconsin.
Barnes, B. V. (1984). The ecological approach to ecosystem classification. Pp. 69–89 in Proceedings of the symposium on site and productivity of fast growing plantations. D. C. Grey, A. P. G. Schonau, and C. J. Schultz, editors. IUFRO Symposium, Pretoria and Pietermaritzburg, South Africa.
Pregitzer, K. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1984). Classification and comparison of upland hardwood and conifer ecosystems of the Cyrus H. McCormick Experimental Forest, Upper Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 362–375.
Brissette, J. C., and B. V. Barnes. (1984). Comparisons of phenology and growth of Michigan and western North American sources of Populus tremuloides. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 14: 789–793.
Hix, D. M., and B. V. Barnes. (1984). Effects of clearcutting on the vegetation and soil of an eastern hemlock-dominated ecosystem, western Upper Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research
14: 914–923. Barnes, B. V. (1984). Present situation and perspectives in forest ecology. Lectures in Forest Ecology and Forest Genetics 13. Given May–July 1982 in the People’s Republic of China. Ministry of Forestry, Planning Division, Beijing, China. 112 pp.
Barnes, B. V., and K. S. Pregitzer. (1985). Occurrence of hybrids between bigtooth and trembling aspen in Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 1888–1890.
Spies, T. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1985). A multi-factor ecological classification of the northern hard- wood and conifer ecosystems of Sylvania Recreation Area, Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Cana- dian Journal of Forest Research 15: 949–960.
Spies, T. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1985). Ecological species groups of upland northern hardwood-hem- lock forest ecosystems of the Sylvania Recreation Area, Upper Peninsula of Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 15: 961–972.
Barnes, B. V., and B. P. Dancik. (1985). Characteristics and origin of a new birch species, Betula mur- rayana, from southeastern Michigan. Canadian Journal of Botany 63: 223–226.
Barnes, B. V. (1986). Varieties of experience in classification and mapping of forestland ecosystems. Pp. 5–23 in G. Wickware and W.C. Stevens (eds.). Proceedings of the symposium on site classifi- cation in relation to forest management. G. Wickware and W. C. Stevens, cochairs. COJFRC Sym- posium Proceedings 0-P-14. Government of Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario.
Albert, D. A., S. R. Denton, and B. V. Barnes. (1986). Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan. School of Natural Resources, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Albert, D. A., and B. V. Barnes. (1987). Effects of clearcutting on the vegetation and soil of a sugar maple-dominated ecosystem, western Upper Michigan. Forest Ecology and Management 18: 283–298.
Hix, D. M., and B. V. Barnes. (1987). Relationships between spruce budworm damage and site fac- tors in spruce-fir-dominated ecosystems of western Upper Michigan. Forest Ecology and Man- agement 21: 129–140.
Denton, S. R., and B. V. Barnes. (1987). Spatial distribution of ecologically applicable climatic sta- tistics in Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 598–612. Denton, S. R., and B. V. Barnes. (1987). Application of the sucrose inversion method to delineate re- gion-wide temperature patterns. Canadian Journal of Botany 65: 779–786.
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Denton, S. R., and B. V. Barnes. (1987). Tree species distributions related to climatic patterns in Michigan. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 17: 613–629.
Albert, D. A., S. R. Denton, and B. V. Barnes. (1988). Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan: New research in landscape ecology. Natural Resources News, University of Michigan School of Natural Resources, Ann Arbor.
Denton, S. R., and B. V. Barnes. (1988). An ecological climatic classification of Michigan:A quanti- tative approach. Forest Science 34: 119–138.
Barnes, B. V. (1989). Old-growth forests of the northern Lake States: A landscape ecosystem per- spective. Natural Areas Journal 9: 45–57.
Hammitt, W. E., and B. V. Barnes. (1989). Composition and structure of an old-growth oak-hickory forest in southern Michigan over 20 years. Pp. 247–253 in Proceedings of the 7th Central Hard- woods Conference, USDA Forest Service North Central Forest Experiment Station General Tech- nical Report NC-132.
Archambault, L., B. V. Barnes, and J. A. Witter. (1989). Ecological species groups of oak ecosystems of southeastern Michigan. Forest Science 35: 1058–1074.
Barnes, B. V. (1989). Newly discovered birch ranks among rarest of rare. The Center for Plant Con- servation 4:1–8.
Archambault, L., B. V. Barnes, and J. A. Witter. (1990). Landscape ecosystems of disturbed oak forests of southeastern Michigan, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 20: 1570–1582.
Simpson, T. A., P. E. Stuart, and B. V. Barnes. (1990). Landscape ecosystem and cover types of the Reserve Area and adjoining lands of the Huron Mountain Club, Marquette County, MI. Huron Mountain Wildlife Foundation Occasional Paper Number 4.
Barnes, B. V., C. Theiss, and X. Zou. (1990). Landscape ecosystems of the Mack Lake burn and their occupancy by the Kirtland’s warbler. Pp. 52–53 in At the crossroads—extinction or survival. Pro- ceedings, Kirtland’s warbler Symposium, Lansing, Michigan.
Barnes, B. V., Z. Xü, and S. Zhao. (1992). Forest ecosystems in an old-growth pine–mixed hardwood forest of the Changbai Shan Preserve in northeastern China. Canadian Journal of Forest Research
22: 144–160. Zou, X., C. Theiss, and B. V. Barnes. (1992). Pattern of Kirtland’s warbler occurrence in relation to the landscape structure of its summer habitat in northern Lower Michigan. Landscape Ecology 64: 221–231.
Barnes, B. V., and F. Han. (1993). Phenotypic variation of Chinese aspens and their relationships to similar taxa in Europe and North America. Canadian Journal of Botany 71: 799–815. Barnes, B. V. (1993). The landscape ecosystem approach and conservation of endangered spaces. En- dangered Species Update 10: 13–19. Rowe, J. S., and B. V. Barnes. (1994). Geo-ecosystems and bio-ecosystems. Bulletin of the Ecologi- cal Society of America 75: 40–41. Lapin, M., and B. V. Barnes. (1995). Using the landscape ecosystem approach to assess species and ecosystem diversity. Conservation Biology 9: 1148–1158. Zogg, G. P., and B. V. Barnes. (1995). Ecological classification and analysis of wetland ecosystems, northern Lower Michigan, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 25: 1865–1875. Barnes, B. V. (1996). Silviculture, landscape ecosystems, and the iron law of the site. Forstarchiv 67: 226–235. Baker, M. E., and B. V. Barnes. (1998). Landscape ecosystem diversity of river floodplains in north- western Lower Michigan, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 28: 1405–1418.
Crow, T., M. E. Baker, and B. V. Barnes. (2000). Diversity in riparian landscapes. Pp. 43–66 in Ri- parian management in forests. E. S. Verry, J. W. Hornbeck, and C. A. Doloff, editors. Lewis Pub- lishers, New York, N.Y.
Kashian, D. M., and B. V. Barnes. (2000). Landscape influence on the spatial and temporal distribu- tion of the Kirtland’s warbler at the Bald Hill burn, northern Lower Michigan, USA. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 30: 1895–1904.
Walker, W. S., B. V. Barnes, and D. M. Kashian. (2003). Landscape ecosystems of the Mack Lake
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burn, northern Lower Michigan, and the occurrence of the Kirtland’s warbler. Forest Science 49: 119–139.
Kashian, D. M., B. V. Barnes, and W. S. Walker. (2003). Landscape ecosystems of northern Lower Michigan and the occurrence and management of the Kirtland’s warbler. Forest Science 49: 140–159.
Kashian, D. M., B. V. Barnes, and W. S. Walker. (2003). Ecological species groups of landform-level ecosystems dominated by jack pine in northern Lower Michigan, USA. Plant Ecology 166: 75–91.
White, L. L., D. R. Zak, and B. V. Barnes. (2004). Biomass accumulation and soil nitrogen availabil- ity in an 87-year-old Populus grandidentata chronosequence. Forest Ecology and Management
191: 121–127. Barnes, B. V., I. Saeki, and A. Kitazawa. (2004). Occurrence and landscape ecology of a rare disjunct maple species, Acer pycnanthum, and comparison with Acer rubrum. Environmental Reviews 12: 163–196.
Gannon, B., S. B. Bertman, and B. V. Barnes. (2007). Succession of biogenic VOC emissions in northern Michigan. Abstracts of Papers of the American Chemical Society 233: 494.
Barnes, B. V. (2009). Tree response to ecosystem change at the landscape level in eastern North America. Forstarchiv 80: 76–89.
Saeki, I., C. W. Dick, B. V. Barnes, and N. Murakami. (2011). Comparative phylogeography of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.): impacts of habitat specialization, hybridization and glacial history. Journal of Biogeography 38: 992–1005.
GRADUATE STUDENTS SUPERVISED OR CO-SUPERVISED BY BURTON V. BARNES
M.S. 1965. James L. Bertenshaw M.S. 1966. Thomas R. Crow M.S. 1966. Ronald O. Gibson M.S. 1966. Douglas A. Mead M.S. 1967. Henry L. Caulkins M.S. 1967. Bruce P. Dancik M.S. 1968. Gary E. Andrejak M.S. 1968. Karl W. Johnson M.S. 1969. Richard H. Barnes M.S. 1969. James A. Capony M.S. 1969. William E. Hammitt 1970s
Ph.D. 1970. Terry L. Sharik Ph.D. 1970. Robert K. Shepard M.S. 1970. Paul W. Johnson M.S. 1970. Jerry A. Kemperman M.S. 1971. Thomas O. Baily Ph.D. 1972. Bruce P. Dancik Ph.D. 1972. Gustav A. Steneker Ph.D. 1972. Sylvia M.O. Taylor Ph.D. 1973. Stephan S. Clark M.S. 1973. Ellen S. Post M.S. 1974. John L. Hart M.S. 1974. Ann Shorger M.S. 1975. Richard R. Braham M.S. 1975. Carolyn T. Cohen M.S. 1975. Kenneth A. Wearstler, Jr. M.S. 1976. Urias D. George M.S. 1976. Robert M. Henry M.S. 1976. Ross A. Melick
M.S. 1976. Raymond Nichols (non-thesis) M.S. 1977. John C. Brissette M.S. 1977. Michelle M. Farmer Ph.D. 1978. William E. Hammitt M.S. 1978. Kurt S. Pregitzer M.S. 1978. Thomas A. Spies M.S. 1979. Kathleen M. Landauer 1980s
Ph.D. 1981. Kurt S. Pregitzer M.S. 1981. Richard W. Seelig M.S. 1982. Shirley R. Denton Ph.D. 1983. Thomas A. Spies M.S. 1983. Dennis A. Albert M.S. 1983. Robert J. Ayotte M.S. 1983. David M. Hix M.S. 1983. Wendy O’Neil M.S. 1983. Constance H. Ruth M.S. 1983. Deborah L. Skoller M.S. 1983. Steven P. Voice Ph.D. 1984. Lloyd Simpson M.S. 1984. Evan D. Mercer M.S. 1984. Vera H. Spooner M.S. 1984. X. Yin Ph.D. 1985. Shirley R. Denton M.S. 1986. Glen A. Chown (M.S. project) M.S. 1986. Steven D. Kvarnberg (M.S. project) M.S. 1986. Robert A. Plotzer (M.S. project) M.S. 1986. Stephen J. Shipe (M.S. project) M.S. 1986. James F. Welsh (M.S. project) M.S. 1986. Charles G. Wertheim (M.S. project) Ph.D. 1987. Louis Archambault
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M.S. 1987. Patrick J. Comer M.S. 1988. Xiaoming Zou M.S. 1989. John W. Fody 1990s
Ph.D. 1990. Dennis A. Albert Ph.D. 1990. Thomas Simpson M.S. 1990. Marc Lapin M.S. 1993. Andrew Johnson M.S. 1993. Gregory P. Zogg Ph.D. 1995. Douglas R. Pearsall M.S. 1995. Matthew E. Baker M.S. 1996. Melanie E. Gunn M.S. 1997. Edward H. Trager M.S. 1998. Daniel M. Kashian M.S. 1998. Richard M. Ring M.S. 1998. Ikuyo Saeki M.S. 1998. Joel Brammeier (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Yvette Capps (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. James L. Ellis (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Andrew P. Galvin (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Jennifer Santi Hall (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Michelle J. Huffman (M.S. project)
M.S. 1998. Thomas Hulleberg (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Julie C. Rodriguez (M.S. project) M.S. 1998. Jeffrey Baranyi (M.S. project) M.S. 1999. Glenn R. Palmgren M.S. 1999. Wayne S. Walker 2000s
M.S. 2000. John V. Syring M.S. 2000. Laura L. White M.S. 2001. Alan J. Tepley M.S. 2002. Kara A. Moore M.S. 2002. Ryan O’Connor M.S. 2003. Catherine A. Yanca M.S. 2003. Ephraim Zimmerman M.S. 2005. Jeffrey G.-P. Lee Ph.D. 2006. Wayne S. Walker M.S. 2006. Martha R. Yocum M.S. 2006. Rebecca Schillo (M.S. project) M.S. 2006. Jennifer Stover (M.S. project) M.S. 2006. Stephanie Pendergrass (M.S. project) Ph.D. 2009. Yuka Makino