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REVIEWS OF STEVE W. CHADDE’S GUIDES TO THE WETLAND AND AQUATIC PLANTS IN THE GREAT LAKES REGION

Neil A. Harriman Biology Department University of Wisconsin-Oshkosh Oshkosh, Wisconsin 54901 harriman@uwosh.edu

Steve W. Chadde. 2011. Wetland Plants of Illinois: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the Prairie State. 614 pp. ISBN 978- 1463589264. Paperback. $30.95.

The publisher and author (same guy) tells us on Cover 4 that “Steve Chadde is a plant ecologist and former resident of Michigan’s Upper Peninsula. After many years of field studies in the wetlands of the Midwest and Rocky Mountains, he is now retired and lives in the Philippines.” And yes, he is the author of “Maayong Buntag!: An Introduction to the Visayan Language of the Philippines.”

One precursor to this book, though unmentioned in the introductory matter, is Winterringer & Lopinot, “Aquatic Plants of Illinois,” 1966. That book is a slen- der 142 pages, and took a narrower view of what’s truly aquatic; for example, there are no species of Carex treated, whereas Chadde’s work treats about 90.

Another precursor to this book is Mohlenbrock, “Aquatic and Standing Water Plants of the Central Midwest,” in four volumes, 2005-2010, covering Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Indiana, etc. This is likewise not mentioned in Chadde’s book. The Mohlenbrock work includes 35 species of Crataegus, about two dozen of which occur in Illinois. They are included if they meet his criterion of “in stand- ing water at least 3 months in a year.” By contrast, Chadde has but one species of hawthorn. Obviously, these are very different approaches, not really compara- ble at all. Both works allude to the National Wetland Plant List, but clearly that was taken only as a starting point.

For each species treated in Chadde’s work, there is a useful illustration (line drawing or photograph), a full description, and an Illinois range map. The county-by-county range is taken from ILPIN, the Illinois Plant Information Net- work, maintained by the Forest Service of the USDA. Their work is entirely in the public domain (“your tax dollars at work”), and is acknowledged in a seg- ment called “References and Illustration Credits,” pp. 589–590.

In terms of species nomenclature, Chadde takes a conservative view. For ex- ample, the segregates of Polygonum (Fallopia, Persicaria) are not accepted, The removal of many genera from traditional Scrophulariaceae into Plantaginaceae, Orobanchaceae, and Phrymaceae is not even mentioned. Scirpus is kept in its broad sense, but with synonyms in Bolboschoenus and Schoenoplectus also given.

The arrangement of the work is conventional: ferns, gymnosperms, dicots, monocots. Within those four segments, everything is alphabetical. A common

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feature of Chadde books is that the family name is repeated in the running head on both the verso and the recto pages, a great convenience; in the present work, there are no running heads at all, which makes the book less than ideal.

Once again, Mr. Chadde has done well by his intended audience—land man- agers, plant ecologists, and lovers of wetlands.

Steve W. Chadde. 2012. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the Midwest. Fourth Edition. vi + 683 pp. ISBN 978-1478194699. Paperback. $29.95.

“Midwest” is here taken to mean Illinois, Indiana, Ohio, Iowa, Michigan, Wiscon- sin, and Minnesota. Iowa is, of course, not at all within the Great Lakes drainage (nor are large portions of Minnesota, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, and Ohio). The subtitle, “A Complete Guide . . . .” is a more accurate label for this book.

The volume includes all species for the area included in the National Wetland Plant List, abbreviated as NWPL, maintained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engi- neers, plus a number of species that are only occasionally to be found in wet- lands. Hence, eleven species of Viola, which are sometimes to be found in flood- plain forests and suchlike habitats, are treated. This is the pattern the author has followed throughout.

The keys are very thorough. The reader needs to distinguish pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and angiosperms (dicots and monocots). Throughout, the keys are dichotomous; if you’ve been working with keys for over half a century, like me, it’s hard to judge whether a key is workable for the neophyte. But I think Chadde (two syllables) has done a good job. Every species has a range map, and a goodly fraction of the species are illustrated, either with photographs or with line drawings. The black-and-white photographs of various kinds of wetlands are very well chosen, and well reproduced.

The arrangement throughout is alphabetical. Difficulties arise with the ques- tion of how to delimit the families. In this work, it appears that the families are strictly the long-familiar ones of Engler & Prantl, or Gleason & Cronquist. Hence, the Plantaginaceae comprise only Plantago and Littorella, and the tradi- tional Scrophulariaceae are left intact. Liliaceae are likewise maintained in the “classical” sense. For old-timers, there’s no problem; for newcomers to the field, it’s a different matter, if they’ve taken a modern course in Plant Taxonomy. It may be troublesome to readers, but there’s no solution. The molecular evidence for familial and generic delimitation can be ignored, but it makes the book seem oddly dated and “old fashioned.”

As with the families, the traditional genera are also maintained. Hence, we have Aster, with only a very restricted synonymy to indicate that the old genus is now divided up into numerous segregate genera, three of which appear in this work. In fairness to the author, he decided at the outset to correlate his work with the NWPL; therefore, he cannot serve two masters at once. I spot-checked a few families and genera to see if the NWPL is really that conservative, and it is. There is a very thorough index at the end of the book, which has to be used: if you are looking for Acer in the Sapindaceae (in a modern classification) by going through the book alphabetically, you’re out of luck.

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Steve W. Chadde. 2011. Wetland Plants of Indiana: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the Hoosier State. vi + 602 pp. ISBN 978- 1466374164. Paperback. $30.95.

From the Indiana DNR website: “When Indiana was originally surveyed (1799 to 1834), the surveyors found and described broad areas of poorly drained wet- lands. The wetlands of northwestern Indiana were chiefly wet prairie, while those of the northeastern section were more often swamps or bogs, dominated by woody vegetation. In 1816, about half of the surface area of northwestern Indi- ana was ponded during 6 months of the year. Benton County was more than half wetland. In 1834, Beaver Lake, in Newton County, occupied 28,500 acres.”

And it goes on to say, “But the majority of these wetlands were not to last. More and more land was converted to agriculture, through dredging, draining, ditching, and damming. 1884 saw the start of major changes to the Kankakee River and its marshes by dredging, straightening the river, tiling and ditching the emergent lands. By 1917 Beaver Lake had shrunk from its 28,500 acres to 10,000 acres, and today exists in name only.” The website also lists eleven wet- land nature preserves in the state.

We can hope that Mr. Chadde’s effort will further stimulate appreciation for Indiana’s remaining wetlands. His book has excellent keys to families. The reader has first to distinguish ferns and their allies, gymnosperms, then an- giosperms (monocots and dicots). He avoids technical terminology to the extent possible (and there is an extensive glossary, pp. 563–569). There is a separate “Woody Plant Key,” again with every effort to use plain English.

All the species are illustrated, with photographs or line drawings, and distrib- ution maps are given for each species, these generated from the USDA PLANTS database. This is a very different approach from that of Ed Voss, in his Michigan Flora, where a dot on a county meant that he himself had seen an actual pre- served herbarium specimen. However, Chadde’s intent is to aid the worker in putting a name to a thing, rather than “certifying” the known distribution of a species in Indiana. Flora of Indiana by Charles Deam, 1940, and now beauti- fully reprinted (BlackburnPress.com, full text also available online at http://archive.org/stream/floraofindiana00indi/floraofindiana00indi_djvu.txt), is still to be consulted, though Chadde’s maps do include counties beyond those known to Deam.

Family delineation is traditional, and does not adhere to the usage of the An- giosperm Phylogeny Group. Hence, Aceraceae are not subsumed into Sapin- daceae, Chenopodiaceae are not combined with Amaranthaceae, Scrophulariaceae are not remodelled, Liliaceae are kept in the broad sense, etc. The point is impor- tant because some workers will search in vain for Asparagaceae, Melanthiaceae, and the like. Given the book’s alphabetical arrangement, the point is important.

Traditional Scirpus is maintained, with the segregate names (Schoenoplectus and Bolboschoenus) given in the synonymy. Again, this is a book about putting a name to a thing; it is not intended to be a critical taxonomic revision.

The omission of running heads with the family names is to be regretted. Imagine a dictionary (likewise alphabetical) without headers to orient the user.

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The index is thoroughly done, and includes all the Latin names (including synonyms, rendered in italics) as well as common names.

Steve W. Chadde. 2012. Wetland Plants of Michigan: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the Great Lakes State. Second Edition. vi + 684 pp. ISBN 978-1481194945. Paperback. $24.48.

Michigan is known as the “Great Lake State,” as formerly emblazoned on auto- mobile license plates. Mr. Chadde’s title offers a variant on that theme.

The book features workable keys, range maps, concise descriptions, and pho- tographs or line drawings of a great many of the species. It includes the ferns and fern allies.

The classification of the National Wetland Plant List is not followed here, even though its ratings (obligate wetland plants, facultative wetland plants, etc.) are. Some of the nomenclature of modern floristic work is adopted; for example, Aster now disappears, replaced by its segregates Symphyotrichum, Oclemena, and Doellingeria; the other segregates of classical Aster do not occur in Michi- gan wetlands. The segregates of traditional Scirpus (i.e., Bulboschoenus, Schoenoplectus, etc.) are recognized, There is enough synonymy given that one can easily coordinate with the List, if need be.

The adopted generic names are consonant with those given in Voss & Reznicek, Field Manual of Michigan Flora, 2012 (a work that does not include ferns and fern allies). However, the family delimitations are somewhat at odds: Voss and Reznicek have adopted the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group delimita- tions of families, such that Aceraceae are subsumed into Sapindaceae, Liliaceae are splintered into a number of satellite familes, and Scrophulariaceae now have most of their traditional genera distributed elsewhere (Plantaginaceae, Phry- maceae, Orobanchaceae, etc.). Because Chadde’s book is alphabetical (though still split into pteridophytes, gymnosperms, and dicots plus monocots), the prob- lem of working from one to the other may be frustrating to some. It’s always been true, that a plant ecologist (as Mr. Chadde labels himself) has first to be a plant taxonomist. With the current “molecular” aspects of plant classification coming to the fore, both the ecologist and the taxonomist have to be on their toes. Perhaps it is time for writers of floristic works to have a grand congress and arrive at a modus vivendi.

The intended audience for this book is plant ecologists, land managers, con- sultants, and the general public who enjoy the aesthetic beauty of wetlands. They have all been well served by Mr. Chadde.

Steve W. Chadde. 2012. Wetland Plants of Minnesota: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the North Star State. Second Edition (Re- vised). vi + 664 pp. ISBN 978-1477645178. Paperback. $24.95.

The North Star State has long been known, though informally, as “The Land of 10,000 Lakes.” That legend still appears on some Minnesota license plates.

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But Google will tell you in big, bold letters that the state actually has 11,842 lakes over ten acres in size. Chadde’s book will find a ready audience.

Best I can tell, there is no other current identification manual on the wetland plants of Minnesota. There exists Eggers & Reed, 1987, Wetland Plants and Plant Communities of Minnesota & Wisconsin. But this covers just over 100 species, and there are no keys; it is much more concerned with community ecol- ogy than taxonomy. By contrast, Mr. Chadde’s book covers over 800 vascular plant species. His keys work. The accompanying line drawings and photographs for nearly every species are generally quite useful. The distribution maps are helpful; they are generated from bonap.org.

Chadde’s book is not, and is not meant to be, a modern taxonomic treatise. For example, he treats two species of Cacalia, despite the fact that the generic name is a nomen utique rejiciendum, a name always to be rejected, and has had that status in the Code since 2000. If one searches for Cacalia in the National Wetland Plant List, version 3.2 of 2014, one is dropped into Arnoglossum. It may well be, however, that it was a different matter when Chadde compiled this book. A major source which Chadde cites is Anita Cholewa’s Comprehensively Anno- tated Checklist of the Flora of Minnesota, version 2011.2. For Cacalia suave- olens, she adopts Hasteola suaveolens, as does Flora North America; Chadde merely cites that combination in synonymy.

The alphabetical sequence of this book makes it easy to find things, without resorting to the excellent index. The reader has only to keep in mind that the gen- era are those of hoary tradition, and for the most part so are the families: Aster, not Symphyotrichum; Scirpus, with its segregate names in synonymy; Asclepi- adaceae, Aceraceae, Liliaceae—all in the traditional sense. One may mention in passing that Cholewa adopts the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group family names in toto. Well, almost: Talinaceae and Montiaceae are not adopted in her list, be- cause she elected to be faithful to Flora North America, where those two fami- lies were not recognized as segregates from Portulaceae. Mr. Chadde, perhaps rightly, elected to stick with tradition.

The volume features very complete headers, so necessary when everything is alphabetical. As appropriate, the headers include the Latin name of the genus on that page, which is very helpful.

On page 5, Mr. Chadde explains a bit about binomial nomenclature, and points out that binomials are to be followed by an “authority.” In the current Code, the term “author” is used, not “authority.” As far back as the first Code, Lois de la Nomenclature Botanique, by Alphonse de Candolle, 1867, only the term “author” is used, as is true of all the subsequent Codes, from the Vienna Code of 1905 to the present. It would be the work of many years to discover when “authority” first came into use; but Liberty Hyde Bailey, 1949, Manual of Cultivated Plants, devotes sixteen pages to “Authorities for the Binomials,” which is the oldest place I’ve seen this [mis]usage. (Bailey also refused to use parenthetical authors, and insisted on inserting a comma between the Latin bi- nomial and the author, contrary to the Code then in force.) Neither Mr. Chadde nor I am going to look any further.

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Steve W. Chadde. 2013. Wetland Plants of Wisconsin: A Complete Guide to the Wetland and Aquatic Plants of the Badger State. Second Edition. vi + 658 pp. ISBN 978-1481982221. Paperback. $26.95.

Wisconsin has 3620 inland lakes larger than 20 acres. Wisconsin DNR esti- mates the state originally had about 10 million acres of wetlands, of which about

5.3 million acres still exist. Clearly, there is a need for Mr. Chadde’s book – he grew up in Wisconsin, in Kenosha, midway between Milwaukee and Chicago, and in some ways this is a “return to his roots,” I think. The keys, descriptions, illustrations, and range maps are useful and func- tional. I think his intended audience will have no difficulty putting a name to a thing, which is his stated intention. The keys are notable for their clarity and avoidance of technical jargon, to the extent possible.

The arrangement is alphabetical: ferns and their allies, gymnosperms, and an- giosperms (dicots and monocots). It is most helpful that Chadde has provided headers for every page, dictionary-like, to facilitate finding one’s family, genus, and species. Over 800 species are covered. There is no other work like this for the state.

The family circumscriptions are the traditional ones and do not conform to the scheme of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. In the Liliaceae as treated here, for example, the author simply gives the APG family assignment at the end of the treatment of each species. Some of these “micro-family” designations are them- selves out of date: Maianthemum, said to fall into Ruscaceae, is now accommo- dated in Asparagaceae. Chadde notes that “Some newer treatments of the Lily Family sometimes separate the various genera into new families; these are noted below.” The families are not new; Asparagaceae date from 1789, Ruscaceae from 1840. None of this has anything to do with wetland or aquatic plant studies, obvi- ously, but the reader risks being led astray when things are arranged alphabetically.

The “References” section of the book, pages 625–626, is a helpful com- pendium, especially because it includes websites. Vegetation of Wisconsin dates from 1959; the date given (1971) is that of a verbatim reprint. Michigan Trees is cited from 1981, but there is a 2004 update. The index to the whole book is quite thorough, including both scientific and common names; the accepted names are in plain type, the synonyms in italics, but family names mentioned only in pass- ing, like Ruscaceae, are omitted.

The Glossary, pages 613–619 is very thorough, even including some ordinary English words like “thicket” and “tree.” Here and there, when descriptive words keep their Latin plurals, like “sorus, sori” or “indusium, indusia,” these are so in- dicated. The characterization of a cone as “the dry fruit of conifers” will raise eyebrows, especially because on page 66 the author very nicely explains that conifers are gymnosperms, which is explained as “naked seed,” the seed not en- closed in an ovary. A nomenclatural variety is said to be a subdivision of a sub- species, which is logical but incorrect.