Page  41 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 41 ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE FLORA OF THE KALAMAZOO NATURE CENTER WITH NATURAL COMMUNITY DESCRIPTIONS Tyler Bassett 2436 Woodward Avenue Current Address: Kalamazoo, MI 49004 Kellogg Biological Station keepitsimple7 Michigan State University 3700 E. Gull Lake Dr. Hickory Corners, MI 49060 ABSTRACT The need to manage several hundred acres of contiguous upland and wetland habitats requires a comprehensive understanding of individual natural features found in those habitats and their relationships across the landscape. Although the 1,200-acre (500-hectare) Kalamazoo Nature Center (KNC), in Kalamazoo County, MI has a rich history of avian research, a systematic inventory of all the natural features on the property has never been conducted. This paper describes the results of a comprehensive floristic inventory conducted during 2003-2004 within the context of a broader biological inventory. The checklist includes 702 vascular plant species and varieties and subspecies in 114 families, including 153 species and infra-specific taxa newly documented at KNC, five statelisted species, and three Kalamazoo County records. Natural communities were delineated and are described in detail and analyzed with the Floristic Quality Assessment. KNC supports six natural communities, including 459 acres (186 hectares) of mesic southern forest, 124 acres (50 hectares) of southern floodplain forest along the Kalamazoo River, and several high-quality southern wet meadows. Opportunities and challenges for managing the biodiversity supported at KNC are discussed, such as invasive species and the impacts of human activities on the natural landscape. The results of the inventory are actively used to guide the management of natural communities at KNC. KEYWORDS: Kalamazoo Nature Center, beech-maple forest, landscape context, natural lands management INTRODUCTION The Kalamazoo Nature Center (KNC) occupies approximately 1,200 acres (500 hectares) in an area historically dominated by beech-maple forest (Hodler et al. 1981, Comer et al. 1995). It is located in sections 21, 22, 27, 28 and 34 of Cooper Township (T1S R11W) in Kalamazoo County (42.370N 85.580W). KNC was established in 1960 as an outdoor environmental education center and is known for its avian research (e.g., Brewer et al. 1991). Most other animal groups as well as the vegetation of the property have been surveyed at various intensities since that time. A systematic inventory of all natural features on the property, however, has never been done. This paper presents the results of a comprehensive floristic inventory of KNC that occurred as part of a broader biological inventory. The results are presented within the context of managing the land for all biota and interesting landscape features. A two-year biological inventory was initiated in April 2003. Vascular plants,

Page  42 ï~~42 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 birds, mammals, reptiles, amphibians, aquatic insects, dragonflies, butterflies, and mollusks were covered during the biological inventory. An inventory of KNC's bryophytes was also completed during that time (Ehrle 2005). While management activities such as invasive species control and prescribed fire have TABLE 1. Natural community or land cover type, acreage, number of species, and floristic quality index for survey compartments. FQIs above 35 are shown in bold. See Figure 1 for survey compartment locations. FQI = Floristic Quality Index (see text). Compartment Acres No. of species FQI Area Name or Habitat Description Al 4.19 42 9.6 hybrid poplar A2 24.14 29 9.3 hybrid poplar A3 15.07 55 10.5 hybrid poplar C1 122.42 212 54.7 Cooper's Glen (beech-maple forest) C2 76.62 138 43 Cooper's Glen (beech-maple forest) C3 128.38 155 47.3 South Property (beech-maple forest) C4 104.06 217 49.1 Pioneer Woods (beech-maple forest) C5 27.89 99 30.2 disturbed beech-maple forest El 11.89 63 37.4 Source Marsh (East) E2 20.21 95 47.1 Source Marsh (West) E3 1.53 30 17.5 sedge meadow (calcareous seep) E4 4.02 32 13.4 sedge meadow (calcareous seep) E5 3 48 21.1 sedge meadow (calcareous seep) F1 47.92 192 62.1 Kalamazoo River Floodplain (North) F2 70.49 172 57.4 Kalamazoo River Floodplain (South) F3 9.38 74 41.3 Trout Run Floodplain (through Cooper's Glen) F4 5.84 51 30.5 South Stream Floodplain G 37.98 64 20.1 Gravel Pit 11 2.31 46 25.1 inundated shrub swamp 12 0.83 46 24.9 inundated shrub swamp 13 1.91 40 24.7 inundated shrub swamp 14 0.3 22 18.8 inundated shrub swamp 01 2.49 25 5 old-field 03 6.94 56 23.5 old-field 04 14.16 61 9.5 old-field 05 13.97 40 7.6 old-field 06 4.8 28 9.8 old-field 07 13.82 56 11.1 old-field 09 8.04 9 3.3 old-field 010 4.81 34 4.1 old-field P1 0.44 26 5.3 conifer plantation P2 0.18 6 1.2 conifer plantation P3 1.43 5 4.9 conifer plantation P4 9.02 28 12.5 conifer plantation P5 2.29 24 10 conifer plantation RR n/a 47 19.5 railroad S1 2.95 115 41.7 East Fen S2 0.8 51 33.5 sedge meadow S3 3.21 79 35.3 West Fen U1 11.63 59 12.5 upland shrub U2 13.44 54 13.2 upland shrub (and Catalpa stand) U3 3.6 48 12 upland shrub U4 23.16 124 18.7 upland shrub (and sand mine) U5 4.3 32 8.7 upland shrub U7 5.86 84 17.5 upland shrub Z 5.79 7 14.7 Kalamazoo River Floodplain (Southeast Portion)

Page  43 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 43 Trails - Coopers Overlook Green Heron Habitat Haven Pioneer Woods Prairie Farm Prairie Pathway Ridge Run - River Vista Trout Run.Fern Valley z FIGURE 1. Survey compartments delineated by natural community boundaries. See Table 1 for description, acreage, number of species, and floristic quality indices. Ponds are numbered in blue. Map by Rob Klein, KNC (modified by Mark Miller and Jennifer Baldy, KNC).

Page  44 ï~~44 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 been ongoing at KNC, they have never been coordinated under a single vision. The biological inventory also culminated in an adaptable land management plan to guide activities on the grounds over the next 20 years. Particular attention was given to the following: 1) high quality natural communities, especially the beech-maple and floodplain forests and wetland complexes, 2) documenting rare and protected species and notable invasive species, and 3) the potential for managing the diversity of habitats at KNC within the context of the regional and local landscape. The property is divided into alpha-numeric habitat compartments that are referenced throughout this paper, and can be found on the inventory field map (Figure 1, Table 1). HISTORY According to a history of Cooper Township included in the Kalamazoo County Directory (Thomas 1869), the river valley averaged about one mile in width and, in the south part of the township (where KNC is located), it was "swampy and timbered." Areas bordering the river valley were hilly. Although most of the riverbed was covered with sand, pebbles and gravel, it consisted in some parts of calcareous tufa, described as a "soft porous carbonate of lime." The 1873 plat map notes a spring and marl bed just west of the present railway line along what is now known as Trout Run (at that time called Collier Brook) (Figure 2). The first record of settlement by Europeans on the land that is now KNC was in 1835 (United States Bureau of Land Management 2004). According to the records, farming was the primary activity on these sites. Apparently there were some difficulties with illness among Cooper Township's farming families. Durant (1880) states that "the clearing of the land and the upturning of the soil necessarily superinduced many cases of fever, most of them being of a bilious character." Cooper's Glen was a popular picnicking spot since at least the early 1900s and was well know for its flora (Hanes and Hanes 1947) and bird migrations by at least the late 1950s. It was then that a gravel operation was proposed within Cooper's Glen. A group of concerned community members, led by Kalamazoo College professor H. Lewis Batts, Jr., organized to purchase the land and form KNC. While the initial acquisition of Cooper's Glen was of 85 acres (Figure 3), the current KNC land-holdings in Cooper Township have been assembled gradually by acquisition of over 30 parcels, and now total almost 1,200 acres. A major goal of these land acquisitions was the protection of the whole Trout Run watershed (Figure 2). Historical and Current Land Cover and Land Use The pre-European settlement vegetation of the area now encompassed by KNC is described as beech-maple forest and, along the Kalamazoo River, hardwood swamp (Hodler et al. 1981; Comer et al. 1995). The 1826 and 1827 General Land Office (GLO) survey notes a diversity of trees, including beech, sugar maple, basswood, white and blue ash, elm, and ironwood (Mullett 1827). Current land cover includes significant acreages of both beech-maple (Cooper's

Page  45 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 45 iii '% U;. FIGURE 2. Notable natural features of the Kalamazoo Nature Center. Aerial photograph: Michigan DNR, 1998.

Page  46 ï~~46 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 46 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 3. Cooper's Glen (Cl), the original 85-acre tract obtained by the Kalamazoo Nature Center in 1961, showing Trout Run and narrow floodplain (F3). Glen, Pioneer Woods) and floodplain forest (most river frontage), as well as various wetland complexes containing wet meadow, emergent marsh, shrub-carr and other wetland types (Table 1). Many disturbed land cover types are present, supporting their own unique suites of species. They include old-field, hay field, gravel pit and urban land cover. Knowledge of the land-use history of a site is necessary to understand current plant community dynamics and future succession (Kettle et al. 2000). The majority of KNC has been disturbed through logging, tillage, grazing, and/or mineral extraction over the last 170 years. Numerous invasive plant species have proliferated on the grounds. Some, such as Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive) and Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose), were planted intentionally for soil conservation and wildlife benefits (R. Adams, pers. comm.). Others occupy a niche created in part by anthropogenic disturbance and have proliferated widely thereafter. Gravel and sand extraction (G and U4, respectively, in Figure 1) has occurred on the property and these areas are visibly the most disturbed. This has resulted in some microhabitats unique to the property, including some chalky gravel ponds. These areas are mostly devoid of topsoil and are filling in with trees and other vegetation very slowly; invasive and other exotic plants are dominant. The South Property (mainly C3 and parts of G) was used for many years by the previous owners as a range for running all-terrain vehicles. It is possible

Page  47 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 47 that an occasional ATV enthusiast still uses this portion of KNC property for that purpose, as tracks were evident crossing the South Stream during one visit in late summer 2003. The adjacent rail road cuts across a number of seeps and streams and divides important forested habitat, creating additional edge (Figure 2). Most forested tracts on the grounds (including some of the higher quality forest) contain old fences and piles of field stone that mark the margins of old agricultural fields. Some old fence lines on the property that may mark former property boundaries may also indicate old livestock enclosures and consequently historical pressures on vegetation. One fence line cuts across Source Marsh (E2), running from the forest on one side (C4) to the forest on the other (C5), suggesting both forest and wetland herbs in these areas have been impacted. It is reasonable to assume that some species have been extirpated. PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION Elevation Elevation at KNC varies from 225 meters where Trout Run drains into the Kalamazoo River (Figure 2), to nearly 300 meters (Passero et al. 1978). Climate Climatic patterns are influenced in winter primarily by the cold continental polar and mild Pacific air masses, both of which have low total water vapor content providing for dry winters (Eichenlaub et al. 1990). In summer, tropical air masses from the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, both humid, become more frequent. Lake Michigan has a major effect in moderating climate, even as far inland as Kalamazoo (Eichenlaub et al. 1990). The "lake effect" moderates temperature, increases precipitation in later summer and into winter, decreases precipitation in spring and early summer, and alters wind patterns. Typical climatic conditions in Kalamazoo County are as follows, as monitored at Michigan State University's Kellog Biological Station at Gull Lake, 1971-2000 (ca. 11 miles to the east-northeast of KNC): mean annual minimum/maximum temperature-4.00/15.67 oC, median growing season-159 days, mean precipitation-98.58 cm, mean snowfall-148.1 cm (Midwest Regional Climate Center 2009). Geology and Soils As with the entire Kalamazoo Interlobate subsection, KNC is completely underlain by Mississippian (Paleozoic) shale (Albert 1995, Kozlowski et al. 2005). Glacial drift thickness at KNC varies from about 50 to 100 meters (Passero et al. 1978). The land occupied by KNC was completely glaciated until ca. 12,000 years ago during the Wisconsinan glaciation, from which most of the surface material is derived (Dorr and Eschman 1970). KNC is located on the eastern edge of the Lake Michigan lobe of the Kalamazoo moraine, and on erosional terraces south of where the Kalamazoo River Valley cuts westward through the

Page  48 ï~~48 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Kalamazoo Moraine (Kozlowski et al. 2005). An esker runs northeast-southwest across the middle of the property (Figure 2). Soils in upland areas at KNC are primarily Oshtemo sandy loams (12-35% slopes) or Kalamazoo loams (0-12% slopes). Also included are Urban soil types (e.g., gravel mines) (Austin 1979). Lowland areas support soils of the Glendora series as along the Kalamazoo River and the Houghton-Sebewa series elsewhere, supporting sedge meadow and shrub-carr. Watersheds KNC occurs in the central portion of the Kalamazoo River Valley, which is more than 2 km wide and 50 meters deep (Kozlowski et al. 2005). The Kalamazoo River is 250 km long and drains more than 5,000 km2 and empties into Lake Michigan ~ 45 miles to the west-northwest (Kozlowski et al. 2005). The Kalamazoo moraine on which KNC is perched is oriented parallel to the Kalamazoo River valley. The five watersheds within KNC are Trout Run, South Stream, areas that drain directly to the Kalamazoo River, and two minor drainages in the north and northwest of the property (Figure 2). Trout Run, the major drainage, courses through an ice block valley formed during the Wisconsinan glaciation (Vandermeulen 1982). Wetland soils are largely alkaline, with isolated acid soils (peat moss) and beds of silt detritus. The streambed is deep muck for the first 2/3 of its length, supporting sedge meadow (up to East Fen [Figure 2]); thereafter it is either sandy or gravelly (Vandermeulen 1982). Haeusler (1972) studied various chemical parameters of Trout Run within Cooper's Glen (F3), including a feeder spring along the BeechMaple Trail. Vandermeulen (1982) analyzed water quality and other factors in Source Marsh (E2). Both found exceptional water quality. PREVIOUS DATA The bulk of the research done historically at KNC has been with birds, although mammals, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and reptiles and amphibians have all been the focus of research. Avian research includes over 30 years of annual bird-banding data from riparian forests, marshes, sedge meadows, and forest edge. During the years previous to and since the establishment of KNC in 1960, the flora of KNC has been surveyed (Hanes and Hanes 1947, Appendix 1). In addition to casual observations and plant collection, a three-year botanical survey of the property was conducted from 1981-1983 by plant ecologist, Louis Conde, of Cornell University. One result of this effort was to increase the collections of the on-site herbarium to at least one specimen of the majority of plant species found on the property at that time. Additional properties have been obtained since that time. Occasionally, herbarium labels included useful habitat and/or location data, however, this information is lacking for many specimens. Several ecological studies have also been conducted, mostly in Cooper's Glen (e.g., LaBatt 1961; Zager and Pippen 1977).

Page  49 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 49 METHODS During the 2003 and 2004 field seasons, surveys were conducted by the author and other KNC staff and trained volunteers for vascular plants. A species list previously compiled by KNC staff was used as a working list for compiling the annotated checklist. Only those plant species persisting outside of cultivation are included. Specimens at the KNC herbarium from various collectors (1959 -1991) were verified and checked against the working list. Western Michigan University herbarium (WMU) was also searched. Collections made during this study were mostly limited to species and infra-specific taxa not yet collected and plants that were hard to identify in the field. A total of 440 collections (including duplicates) were made by the author during 2003-2004 and 2007 and have been deposited at WMU. Recording abundances in species lists is important for the purposes of comparing two sites with similar species composition (Balmer 2002) and for tracking long term change in suites of species. Abundance of individual plant species was noted on the following scale: rare (scarce, small patch); uncommon (sparse); occasional (common but not dense, scattered); common (many patches or individuals); abundant (dense in most of area). In the annotated checklist and the accompanying text, taxonomy follows the Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993) for ferns and fern allies. Otherwise, taxonomy mostly follows Michigan Flora (Voss 1972; 1985; 1996). Compartment designations The property was delineated into compartments in ArcGIS 9.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA) using an unpublished hierarchical land cover classification [developed by Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR)] and then later refined by ground-truthing. Compartments are shown in Figure 1 and described in Table 1. A compartment does not necessarily indictate a discrete unit within which a given plant species may occur. However, placing species within deliberately defined areas of a reasonable size facilitates tracking their occurrence over time. Furthermore, the grouping of plant species on the basis of a state or regional land-cover classification (see Kost et al. 2007) adds credibility to measurements such as Floristic Quality Indices (FQIs) and the comparison of compartments based on those measures (Herman et al. 2001). In the checklist, plant species are reported within compartments only when restricted to specific locations (Appendix 2, Figure 1). Floristic Quality Assessment The floristic quality of each compartment of KNC was analyzed with the Floristic Quality Assessment (FQA) developed by the Natural Heritage Program of the MDNR (Herman et al. 2001). Given a list of plant species, it allows the user to calculate the mean coefficient of conservatism (C) and the floristic quality index (FQI) for the flora of the site. The coefficient of conservatism, a number between 0 and 10, "is applied to a plant based upon its fidelity to a presettlement landscape, not its rarity or legal status" (Herman et al. 2001), where a 10 indicates a plant found only in undisturbed habitats (e.g., old growth), and a 0 indicates a plant that could be found even in the most disturbed sites (e.g., recently tilled ground). The FQI is calculated as FQI= C * 1N where N= the number of species used to calculate C (Herman et al. 2001). An area with an FQI above 35 is considered floristically important, and most likely ecologically important in the state. An area with a FQI higher than 50 is highly valued and its preservation is of utmost priority. With a complete list of plants for an area, the FQA provides a means of assessing that area based on the fidelity of those plants to presettlement conditions. Therefore, the FQA is only relevant for compartments or plant communities where a conscientious effort was made to compile a complete list of plant species. Plot and Transect Studies Two quantitative vegetation surveys were conducted as a part of the biological inventory. While these were primarily intended to generate baseline data to guide management of habitats at KNC, they do provide useful data in broadly characterizing the plant communities. A set of three parallel 100 m transects was established 25 m apart in two sedge meadows (S1 and S3 on Figure 1). Percent cover of each species was recorded with a 1.0 x 0.5 m frame every ten meters along each transect. Sampling occurred between 5 September 2003 and 15 September 2003. Per

Page  50 ï~~50 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 cent cover was aggregated into the following physiographic categories: annual and perennial forbs, ferns, perennial grasses and sedges, trees, shrubs and woody vines with the Floristic Quality Assessment software (Wilhelm and Masters 1999). Eight 0.1-hectare nested Modified-Whittaker plots were surveyed in beech-maple and floodplain forests between 24 June 2003 and 4 August 2003 (Stohlgren et al. 1995). Nested sub-plots of 1 m2 (n=10), 10 m2 (n=2), and 100m2 (n=1) were set up within each 1000 m2 (=0.lha) plot. Diameter at breast height (DBH) for all woody plants 10 cm DBH or greater was recorded in the 1000 m2 plot; groundlayer and woody plants under 10 cm were recorded in small plots. Importance Values (relative density + relative frequency) were calculated for tree species greater than 10 cm DBH (McIntosh 1957). RESULTS A total of 702 species and infra-specific taxa of vascular plants were documented, representing 114 families (Appendix 2). Of these, 531 are considered native to Michigan, and 171 are exotics (Herman et al. 2001). Families represented by the greatest number of species are Asteraceae (84), Poaceae (69), and Cyperaceae (64). The list includes two state threatened and one state special concern species, and several that are regionally uncommon (see Discussion). There are 153 species and infra-specific taxa that are newly reported from KNC, 109 of which are represented by collections. Sixty-three species that were previously reported were excluded (and are not reported) based on lack of a specimen or they are assumed extirpated because habitat no longer exists where it was collected (due to disturbance or succession). Fifty-five species and infra-specific taxa have been included in the checklist based on herbarium specimens despite not having been observed during the study. The number of species per compartment varied greatly based on type of habitat, acreage, and survey effort in each compartment (Table 1). Excluding old-fields, hay fields, tilled ground and other disturbed land cover, and including only "natural" land cover types, species richness per compartment ranged from 22 (14) to 217 (C4) (Table 1). The most widespread invasive plants are Alliaria petiolata, Rosa multiflora, Rhamnus cathartica (common buckthorn), and Phalaris arundinacea (reed canary grass). Floristic Quality Assessment FQIs ranged from 1.8 (M) to 62.1 (Fl) (Table 1, Figure 1). Mature beechmaple forest tracts greater than 75 acres (C1-C4), sedge meadows greater than three acres (S1, S3; E1-E2), floodplain along the lower reaches ofTrout Run (F3; 10 acres) (Figure 3) and southern floodplain forest along the Kalamazoo River (F1-F2; ~ 120 acres) had FQIs above 35 (Table 1, Figure 1). The Kalamazoo River floodplain had the highest FQIs (62.1, Fl; 57.4, F2), followed by three beech-maple forest tracts (54.7, Cl; 49.1, C4; 47.3, C3) (Table 1). Plots and transects Plot and transect results are not reported here in full, but some results are presented in context within the Discussion section. Contact author for a full report of the data. In particular, transects sampled in two sedge meadows (S1 and S3) provided insight into the vegetative structure those meadows (Table 2). Also, 0.1-hectare nested plots (Modified-Whittaker) surveyed in beech-maple and

Page  51 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 51 TABLE 2. Percent cover of vascular plants by life form in two wetlands. See Figure 1 for compartment locations. Life Form East Fen (Si) West Fen (S3) Perennial sedge 43.24% 56.38% Perennial forb 15.61% 16.79% Perennial grass 2.76% 14.17% Shrub 29.24% 7.72% Fern 8.44% 4.67% Annual forb 0.02% 0.17% Woody vine 0.55% 0.11% Tree 0.15% 0.00% floodplain forests allowed for the calculation species sampled (Table 3). of importance values for tree DISCUSSION A floristic study provides land managers with a more complete view of a property's natural communities, thereby enabling better management of biodiversity as a whole. By illuminating the structure of habitats, it allows land managers to put a variety of land use goals into perspective, and informs other areas of research, such as watershed management, bird censuses and habitat restoration. The 1,200 acres of KNC supports a diversity of habitats and species, including some plants uncommon in southwest Michigan and statewide. Descriptions of the flora and natural communities at KNC provided below are often discussed in the context of making land management decisions. Land management Prescribed fire is used where appropriate. Fire frequency has historically been variable due to staffing and budget constraints, but will now occur more regularly (R. Colliton, pers. comm.). Two sedge meadows (S1 and S3) are burned ocTABLE 3. Importance value (out of 100) of tree species (over 10 cm DBH) from nine forested plots Species Name Importance Value Species Name Importance Value Acer saccharum 67 Acer rubrum 1 Fraxinus americana 54 Ailanthus altissima 1 Ulmus americana 23 Carpinus caroliniana 1 Prunus serotina 19 Carya cordiformis 1 Quercus rubra 16 Carya glabra 1 Fraxinus nigra 4 Fagus grandifolia 1 Liriodendron tulipifera 4 Malus pumila 1 Acer saccharinum 3 Platanus occidentalis 1 Crataegus sp. 3 Prunus avium 1 Fraxinus pensylvanica 3 Quercus macrocarpa 1 Juglans nigra 2 Sassafras albidum 1 Ostrya virginiana 2 Tilia americana 1 Quercus velutina 2 Ulmus thomasii 1

Page  52 ï~~52 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 52 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 4. East Fen (Si), with Trout Run in foreground, and adjacent slopes in background having recently been cleared to provide nesting habitat for eastern Massasauga rattlesnakes (Sisturus catenatus catenatus). casionally, and were also recently cleared of Cornus spp. (dogwood) and Salix spp. (willow). A small prairie reconstruction (Emma Pitcher Prairie) was established in the early 1970s by pioneering prairie enthusiast Robert Pleznac using locally collected seed (NI on Figure 1), and later KNC staff used seed from this prairie to plant an adjacent tract (N2). In 2005 and 2006, 144 acres was planted to prairie by a private contractor. These prairies are also managed with fire. Upland habitat has been cleared adjacent to sedge meadows (East and West Fen), with the goal of reducing woody encroachment. Habitat for the eastern massasauga rattlesnake (Sistrurus catenatus catenatus) is the primary focus of these efforts (Figure 4). Logging does not occur on the property. However, the impacts of historical forestry practices are apparent. Invasive species control occurs on a limited basis. Recent efforts have focused on controlling Alliaria petiolata in and near high quality patches of beech-maple forest. Other invasives controlled include Lythrum salicaria (purple loosestrife), Rhamnus frangula (glossy buckthorn), and Elaeagnus umbellata. Listed species Two vascular plant species occurring on KNC grounds are listed in Michigan as threatened (Berula erecta [cut-leaved water-parsnip] and Dryopteris celsa

Page  53 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 53 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 53 FIGURE 5. State-threatened Berula erecta (cut-leaved water-parsnip) on the left, Ludwigia palustris (water purslane) on the right. Growing along the edge of Trout Run in Source Marsh (E2). [log fern]) and one as a species of special concern (Aster praealtus [willow aster]) (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2009). Carex frankii (Frank's sedge) and Liparis liliifolia (lily-leaved twayblade) were listed as species of special concern at the time of the survey, and so are discussed here. While no longer listed species in Michigan, they are by no means common and are still of conservation concern. Species and habitat descriptions follow for the five species, including notes on habitat and protection of their occurrence at KNC. Berula erecta (Bassett 3200) was found discontinuously along a total of approximately 400 meters of Trout Run on both sides of Westnedge Avenue (Figure 2). It is locally common in sedge meadows. This semi-aquatic member of the carrot family (Apiaceae) is frequently found in remnant prairie fens and other non-forested wetlands, but is always found in cool, calcareous waters, especially spring channels (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007) (Figure 5). A frequent associate is the adventive herb, Nasturtium officinale (water cress). In Michigan, Berula erecta is mostly limited to the southwest corner of the State (Voss 1985) with Kalamazoo County a stronghold of 17 occurences (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007). It is well-distributed across the mid- and western United States (United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service 2004). Because the KNC grounds are generally managed to ensure water quality and much of the sedge meadow in which Berula erecta occurs is managed with fire, these populations are sufficiently secure from water quality declines and over-shading. Dryopteris celsa was not documented during this study, but it was reported by Harvey Ballard in the northern portion of the Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) in 1983 (no collection has been located) (Michigan State University 2005).

Page  54 ï~~54 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Searches were made in the northern floodplain, but none resulted in a rediscovery of this rare fern. Known from rich, acidic soils in hardwood swamps and floodplain forests, it may be sensitive to excessive timber cutting and dependent upon a cyclic flooding regime (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007). If extant, it is not in danger of timber cutting at KNC, but the Kalamazoo River's flooding regime has the potential to be impacted by upland land use throughout the watershed and has already been affected by numerous dams along its length. Aster praealtus (Bassett 3303) was collected by the author in the East Fen (S1) growing with other asters (Aster firmus, A. puniceus, A. borealis, A. lanceolatus). It was also collected in 1982 by Louis Conde. Hybridization is possible with any of these similar species, with which it can occasionally be confused (Voss 1996). This species status at KNC should be considered tentative until an authority on the genus Aster (=Symphiotrichum) can examine the specimens. Management of its habitat with fire will likely encourage its persistence (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007). At the northern edge of its range in southern Michigan, Carex frankii (typically grows in southern floodplain forests (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007) although Hanes and Hanes (1947) note it simply from "low woods" in Climax Township, Kalamazoo County. It was collected (Bassett 3293) in the South Property at the juncture of compartments C3, E5, and F4 (Figure 1) where one of the many small seep-originated wet meadows blends the distinction between the floodplain of South Stream and the woods that surround it. Unfortunately, this collection was not recorded specifically enough to facilitate exact relocation. However, its moist habitat is likely to persist, due to the influence of groundwater seeps and the hydrological fluctuations of South Stream itself. Liparis liliifolia was observed at three separate locations at KNC, one along the esker (03) south of East Fen (Si1), and two on wooded slopes of south DeLano woods (C5) directly above Source Marsh (E2). The site adjacent to Source Marsh, along the two-track adjacent to its southeastern edge, was made up of seven individual plants, the other two by only one plant. Liparis liliifolia typically occurs in mixed deciduous forest of maple and oak on damp, sandy soil (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 2007). It thrives after some disturbance or canopy removal, then diminishes and persists in low numbers in considerable shade (Case 1964, Voss 1972). It may benefit from a ground fire or selective thinning of trees in the locations where it occurs, but the effects of any management should be monitored and modified if necessary. Deer herbivory appears to be a threat (pers. obs.). The single fruiting plant observed along the esker on 14 July 2004 had altogether "disappeared" by the following day, presumably due to herbivory. Numerous subsequent attempts to relocate the plant were not successful. Excluded Species, New Records, and Old Records Not Found Sixty-three species previously listed as occurring at KNC have been excluded from the checklist. For example, two species of Penstemon that were collected along the railroad are believed extirpated, as are a number of other species of open, drier habitats (e.g., Hieracium longipilum [long-haired hawkweed] and Desmodium marilandicum [Maryland tick-trefoil]) that have since succeeded to

Page  55 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 55 closed-canopy conditions. Some weedy annuals were omitted if previously collected from ground that at the time was recently tilled. Some likely species were omitted due to the lack of a voucher specimen, e.g., Eleocharis intermedia (matted spike rush). Also excluded were plants not found out of cultivation, including planted conifers and those found only in a small prairie reconstruction in the northeast of the property (NI and N2 on Figure 1). While these prairie plant populations are persisting without being replaced by humans, they have not spread into adjacent areas. Fifty-five species and infra-specific taxa included in the checklist, but not found during the current study, were represented by voucher specimens in the KNC Herbarium or at WMU. Many of these are exotic weeds and were probably overlooked during this study in pursuit of more "desirable," conservative species. Species that may be considered waifs were included if multiple collections spanned more than a decade (e.g., Anthemis arvensis, 1959-1982) or if their persistence was otherwise deemed likely. A few conservative species were not observed during the study but are represented by a voucher specimen and are worthy of mention. The orchid Aplectrum hyemale (putty root) blooms in midspring, after which the basal leaves wither, only to return in late fall and overwinter (Case 1964). Krigia biflora (false dandelion), with its bright orange flowers atop a naked scape, would be hard to overlook unless restricted to a few isolated plants. Suitable habitat, however, still exists. Populations of the native bittersweet Celastrus scandens (American bittersweet) may be extirpated through hybridization with its exotic congener C. orbiculata (Oriental bittersweet) (Dryer 1994). The following sedges were collected by Hanes and Hanes (1947) and not during this study: C. leavenworthii and C. careyana. Carex plantaginea is abundant at KNC, with which C. careyana could be easily confused. Carex leavenworthii is considered adventive in Michigan and is represented in Michigan by only a handful of collections, all in southern counties (Voss 1972). A total of 153 species and infra-specific taxa previously undocumented in the flora of KNC were collected or observed during the study. Some are notable additions to the known flora of KNC, primarily due to their high level of conservatism or regional or local rarity. They include Acorus calamus (sweet flag), Bromus latiglumis (ear-leaved brome), Carex woodii (sedge), Sphenopholis intermedia (slender wedge grass), Arisaema dracontium (green dragon), Stachys tenuifolia (smooth hedge nettle), Lobelia cardinalis (cardinal flower), Poa alsodes (bluegrass), Samolus parviflorus (water-pimpernel) in the Kalamazoo River floodplain; Berula erecta, Potentilla fruticosa (shrubby cinquefoil), Eleocharis elliptica (golden-seeded spike rush), Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin (small yellow lady slipper), and the sedges Carex interioi C. leptalea, and C. prairea in sedge meadow; Tiarella cordifolia (heart-leaved foamflower), Dryopteris intermedia (evergreen woodfern), Liparis liliifolia, Lonicera dioica (red honeysuckle) and the sedge Carex pedunculata in beech-maple forest; Ranunculus pensylvanicus (bristly crowfoot), Glyceria septentrionalis (floating manna grass), Vaccinium corymbosum (highbush blueberry), Alisma plantagoaquatica (water plantain), and Carexfrankii in shrub swamps; and Platanthera lacera (ragged fringed orchid), Agropyron trachycaulum (slender wheat grass), and Asclepias verticillata (whorled milkweed) in disturbed habitats. The ex

Page  56 ï~~56 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 otics Acer platanoides (Norway maple), Celastrus orbiculata, and Epipactus helleborine (helleborine) are also examples of new additions. Most of these species have very limited distribution at KNC, but others are fairly well-distributed yet were overlooked in the past (e.g., Carexprairea). Others are likely more recent arrivals (e.g., Asclepias verticillata, Epipactus helleborine). Some new reports may represent differences in determination of species that were observed but misidentified in the past. Ludwigia palustris (water purslane) (Bassett 4361) (Figure 5), Samolus parviflorus (Bassett 4281), and Tiarella cordifolia are new reports for Kalamazoo County (Reznicek et al. 2009). Of particular note is T cordifolia, which was observed near Pond 12 along the Fern Valley Trail (Figure 1) on May 21, 2008 by Todd Barkman (Figure 6). Found mostly in the northern and southeastern Lower Peninsula to Jackson County, the only other southwest Michigan collection is from Berrien County (Reznicek et al. 2009). This species is occasionally planted, however, there are no records of it being planted at KNC. NATURAL COMMUNITIES Much of KNC supports high quality palustrine and terrestrial communities, as recognized by MNFI's natural community classification scheme (Kost et al. 2007). In the discussion that follows, each community is identified with a letter and number code indicating its rarity within the state (S#) and globally (G#). These designations are based on known occurrences, following Natural Heritage methodology developed by The Nature Conservancy (Kost et al. 2007). An S1 rank means "critically imperiled in the state because of extreme rarity (5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation in the state." A community is given an S2 ranking if it is "imperiled in state because of rarity (6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals or acres) or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extirpation from the state." Communities with a state ranking of S3 are defined as "rare or uncommon in state (on the order of 21 to 100 occurrences)." S4 communities are secure and S5 are extremely secure. SU indicates an unknown ranking. The global ranks are comparable in definition, but on a global scale. PALUSTRINE Estimates of wetland acreage in Michigan have decreased from 11 million in 1850 to 3 million today (Langworthy, Strader, LeBlanc and Associates, Inc. 2001). Wetland preservation is critical for wildlife habitat and water quality, but the preservation of uplands in a watershed is equally important. This provides necessary protection for wetlands, because properly managed uplands filter much of the contamination originating in a watershed, slow stormwater runoff, and act as recharge areas for groundwater-fed wetlands. Two watersheds, Trout

Page  57 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 57 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 57 FIGURE 6. Tiarella cordifolia (foamflower), a species common in northern cedar swamps, but uncommon in the south. In Cooper's Glen (Cl). Photo by Anne Royer. Run and South Stream, are mostly within the boundaries of KNC (Figure 2). This provides excellent opportunities for managing wetland buffers and controlling stormwater within these watersheds. Southern wet meadow (rank=S3G4) Southern wet meadow, or sedge meadow, occupies about 47 acres (19.5 hectares) at KNC. This groundwater-influenced community is found bordering

Page  58 ï~~58 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Trout Run, on the springy slopes above South Stream, in backswamps and old oxbows along the Kalamazoo River, and in a few isolated areas of groundwater discharge. Sedge meadow is indicated in Figure 1 as compartments S1-3 and E1-5. As is typical of sedge meadows, Carex stricta (tussock sedge) is the usual dominant at KNC, with Calamagrostis canadensis (bluejoint grass) a significant component (Kost 2001; Kost and DeSteven 2000) (Figure 7). Some portions of sedge meadow are dominated by Carex lacustris (sedge). Carex stricta can occupy a density of 1-4 hummocks/m2 and as much as 40% cover in a meadow (Kost 2001). The two sedge meadows studied at KNC showed a cover of 43.24% (Si) and 56.38% (S3) for all Cyperaceae (Table 2) (including bulrushes [Scirpus spp., Schoenoplectus spp.] and other Carex spp., inter alia). Shrub cover was 29.24% (S1) and 7.72% (S3) (Table 2). The shade-intolerant Carex stricta is sensitive to enroachment by shrub species with which it is associated, primarily Cornus spp., Salix spp. and Rhamnusfrangula. Rhamnusfrangula is not a major problem in most of KNC's wetlands, and Cornus spp. and Salix spp. are effectively managed with fire and cutting where desirable. Phalaris arundinacea is invasive in some sedge meadows, such as in the Kalamazoo River floodplain and especially in a four-acre meadow in the upper South Stream immediately east of Westnedge Avenue (E4) where it grows as a monoculture except in local seepage areas. A number of rare or uncommon plant species require open conditions in the \FIGURE 7. Calamagrostis canadensis ~M \ MM OW "\ \1"11\ FIGUE171CaamarostsMcnadnsi (blue-joint grass), a dominant in some S portions of sedge meadow.

Page  59 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 59 sedge meadows, including Berula erecta, Rudbeckia fulgida (brown-eyed Susan), Aster praealtus, Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin, and C. reginae (showy lady's slipper). Populations of Rudbeckia fulgida occur in seepage areas at either end of East Fen. It generally grows in calcareous fens and sedge meadows and depends on the groundwater infusion and unshaded conditions of the sedge meadow (Legge et al. 1995). Another attractive wetland wildflower, Cypripedium reginae, occurs in Source Marsh near its narrowest point (El, near the boundary with E2). It requires open conditions and prefers calcareous soils (Case 1964). A total of three stems were observed both in 2003 and 2004; flowering occurred only in 2003. Fruiting plants were observed in 2007. Less than ten sterile stems of Cypripedium parviflorum var. makasin were observed in the Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) in fall of 2008, in areas dominated by either Carex lacustris or Carpinus caroliniana (blue-beech). Typical species at KNC sedge meadows include Lysimachia thyrsiflora (tufted loosestrife), Campanula aparinoides (marsh bellflower), Eupatorium maculatum (Joe pye weed), Eupatorium perfoliatum (boneset), Gentiana andrewsii (bottle gentian), Solidago riddellii (Riddell's goldenrod), Rudbeckia hirta (black-eyed Susan), Aster lanceolatus (eastern lined aster), Angelica atropurpurea (angelica), and Lilium michiganense (Michigan lily) (Figure 8). Seeps are common within the sedge meadows at KNC and along the Kalamazoo River floodplain. When seeps occur in areas of strongly calcareous substrate, marl flats may occur (Figure 9). These are either small isolated pockets or large, wide areas; dominant plant species are all those tolerant of high alkalinity. Some examples are Lobelia kalmii (Kalm's lobelia), Lysimachia quadriflora (whorled loosestrife), Agalinis purpurea (purple gerardia) and Rhynchospora capillacea (beak-rush). The best example of a seep is found on the far west end of Source Marsh (E2). Spring flooding is common and historically, beaver may have maintained the open character of sedge meadows by flooding; fire has also been historically important (Kost 2001). Because flooding is logistically difficult or impractical, fire is absolutely necessary to maintain openness and reduce woody cover. Many sedge meadows have been used for marsh hay, or tiled, ditched, or drained and converted to pasture, row crops, or mined for peat. At the constriction of Source Marsh, near the border between El and E2 (Figure 1), a livestock fence bisects the wetland, suggesting historical pasturing in this apparently undrained wetland complex. Most sedge meadow at KNC is managed with manual shrub removal and prescribed fire to maintain an open condition. A diversity of plant and animal species at KNC, including some rare species, depend upon this condition. The eastern massassauga rattlesnake is a candidate for listing under the Federal Endangered Species Act and has been seen using the property for at least the last 45 years, although reports have been declining in recent years (R. Adams, pers. comm.). Other rare animals in the sedge meadow habitats on the property are the eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) (Figure 9), spotted turtle (Clemmys guttata) and Blanding's turtle (Emydoidea blandingii). Sedge meadows typically support few bird species (R. Brewer, pers. comm.). The rare species observed near East Fen, hooded warbler (Wilsonia citrina) and cerulean warbler

Page  60 ï~~60 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 60 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 8. Lilium michiganense (Michigan lily), in East Fen (Si). (Dendroica cerulea), are forest interior and edge species and were observed on its shrubby border. Southern wet meadow is often interspersed with southern shrub-carr (see below), and shares borders with swamp forest and emergent marsh in large wetland complexes, usually in depressions in glacial outwash along the margin of a stream as in the meadow along Trout Run west of Westnedge Ave. (El, E2). Southern shrub-carr (rank=S5GU) In the absence of fire or flooding, sedge meadow will typically succeed into shrub-carr, which occurs as patches within KNC sedge meadows. Shrub-carr is often a successional community between open wetland (e.g., sedge meadow) and swamp forest; it also frequently occurs as a component in a larger wetland complex (Kost et al. 2007). This is certainly the case in wetlands at KNC. Dominant shrubs include Cornus spp. and Salix spp.; Ilex verticillata (winterberry) and Sambucus canadensis (elderberry) are often important components. Shrubcarr supports Scutellaria lateriflora (mad-dog skullcap), Apios americana

Page  61 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 61 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 61 FIGURE 9. Eastern box turtle (Terrapene carolina carolina) cooling itself in the marl flat near the source of the Source Marsh (E2). (groundnut), Lycopus uniflorus (northern bugleweed), Cuscuta gronovii (common dodder), Galium spp. (bedstraw) and a number of species typical of sedge meadow. Inundated shrub swamp (rank=S3G4) Inundated shrub swamp is common in kettle/kame (ice-contact) ice-disintegration topography such as is found at KNC, and is usually situated in small kettleholes (Kost et al. 2007). These commonly hold 1-2 feet of water and are indicated by the prevalence of Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush). They are often associated with emergent marsh and/or bog. At KNC, shrub swamps occur as isolated forest depressions (e.g., 13-4) (Figure 10); in one instance a "lobe" or "arm" of Source Marsh (E2), a kettlehole feature, is isolated enough from the rest of the marsh to form a shrub swamp ("Lobe" on Figure 2). This is very boggy, dominated by Ilex verticillata rather than Cephalanthus occidentalis, and the only known location for sphagnum moss (Sphagnum russowii [Ehrle 2005]) and Alisma plantago-aquatica at KNC, and one of two for Chrysosplenium americanum (golden saxifrage) (Figure 11) and Vaccinium corymbosum. As with vernal pools, shrub swamps are extremely important breeding grounds for amphibians and reptiles.

Page  62 ï~~62 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 62 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 10. Isolated depression (14) in beech-maple forest with Cephalanthus occidentalis (buttonbush) thicket developing on the left. Emergent marsh (rank=S4GU) Emergent marsh occurs on the border of sedge meadow and is indicated by the presence or dominance of Typha latifolia (broad-leaved cattail), Sagittaria latifolia (common arrowhead), Sparganium spp. (bur-reeds) and other species which occur as emergent or floating-leaved plants (Kost et al. 2007). Small areas of emergent marsh are found in the backwaters of the Kalamazoo River floodplain and Trout Run, mostly adjacent to sedge meadow and groundwater seepage streams. They often occur as "cattail marshes," because of the dominant species. Typha spp. (T latifolia, T angustifolia and their vigorous hybrid T x glauca) which appear to be expanding their range eastward as well as becoming more invasive and causing habitat degradation (Shih and Finkelstein 2008). They respond positively to siltation, salinization, and other anthropogenic disturbances. Cattail marshes at KNC are generally small patches within sedge meadows and co-dominate with sedges (e.g., Carex hystericina, C. lurida, C. comosa, C. lacustris) and a few forbs such as Lysimachia thyrsiflora, Pilea pumila (clearweed), and Lycopus americanus (common water horehound). This limited dominance at KNC and their tendency to gradually grade into sedge-dominated areas suggests watershed and community stability. Southern floodplain forest (rank=S3G3) Southern floodplain forests occupy approximately 124 acres (50 ha) of mostly high quality habitat at KNC. Canopy dominants in KNC's southern floodplain forest include Acer saccharinum (silver maple), Fraxinus pennsylvanica (red ash), and F americana (white ash) while F nigra (black ash), Platanus occidentalis (sycamore), Quercus bicolor (swamp white oak), and Q. macrocarpa (bur oak) are locally common in wetter or drier microhabitats such

Page  63 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 63 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 63 FIGURE 11. Chrysosplenium americanum (golden saxifrage) along shaded seepage stream in shrub swamp (12). as "bottoms" and levees. Dentaria diphylla (two-leaved toothwort), D. laciniata (cut-leaved toothwort), Brachyelytrum erectum (long-awned wood grass), Bromus pubescens (Canada brome), Poa alsodes, Trillium grandiflorum (common trillium), Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (great waterleaf), and Viola pubescens (yellow violet) are locally common in different microhabitats of this heterogenous community. Disturbance is the norm in these forests, marked by periodic floods, erosion, silt deposition, and light gaps created by fallen trees (Figure 12) (Tepley et al. 2004). Frequent deposition makes floodplain soils very fertile, and they were used extensively by Native Americans for growing maize (Curtis 1959). However, frequent disturbance and high nutrient input makes floodplain forests susceptible to invasions by exotic species. Dispersal through the riparian corridor and a pronounced negative "edge effect" are also factors (Murcia 1995). The frequency of Lysimachia nummularia (creeping Jenny) and Rhamnus cathartica are two striking examples of this effect. The invasive insect emerald ash borer, accidentally transported into the United States from eastern Asia in shipping cargo as recently as 2002 (Michigan Department of Agriculture [MDA] 2005) is devasting ash trees across southern Michigan, but has not been observed at KNC to date. Fraxinus americana and F pennsylvanica are common dominants and F nigra is locally dominant along the Kalamazoo River floodplain. A shift in canopy dominance away from Fraxinus spp. may have far-reaching effects on the ecology of this community. Many southern tree species occur in southern Michigan in floodplain forests, partly because lower temperatures typical of lower ground cause buds to break later, thus avoiding kills from late spring frost, and also because river systems provide corridors for the movement of propagules (Tepley et al 2004). Many

Page  64 ï~~64 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 64 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 12. Tree tip-up in floodplain forest (Fl). southern species are found at KNC, including Celtis occidentalis (hackberry), Cercis canadensis (redbud), Gleditsia triacanthos (honey locust), Platanus occidentalis, and others. Many salamanders, frogs, and toads utilize the vernal pools that are common in this and other communities. Southern floodplain forest also provides habitat for a few rare riparian bird species, such as the special concern prothonotary warbler (Protonotaria citrea) and Louisiana waterthrush (Seiurus motacilla) observed during the inventory. Other rare species observed in KNC's floodplain forest are the vascular plants Dryopteris celsa and Carex frankii; the mollusks elktoe (Alasmidonta marginata) and widespread column (Pupilla muscorum); the birds Cooper's hawk, hooded warbler, and bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus); and the spotted and eastern box turtle. Juglans cinerea (butternut) is of conservation concern throughout its range. Occurring throughout much of the eastern United States, it has seen as much as an 80% decrease in some areas, largely due to the fungus Sirococcus clavigignenti-juglandacearum (butternut canker) (United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service 2005). Butternut husks were observed at numerous locations throughout the grounds of KNC, mostly along streams. No trees or fresh fruits were discovered. The native range of Gleditsia triacanthos is predominantly south of Michigan, and within Michigan the species occurs only in the southern two or three tiers of counties (Burns and Honkala 1999). At KNC, its occurrence is local. Small populations of Gleditsia triacanthos occur at two locations along the southern Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2).

Page  65 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 65 The floodplain of the Kalamazoo River supports several locally rare herbs, including Physostegia virginiana (false dragonhead), Samolus parviflorus and Arisaema dracontium. Physostegia virginiana occurs in two partly shaded locations in damp soil but with little or no standing water, separated by more than one mile (Fl, F2). Arisaema dracontium was not observed in bloom, but its distinctive leaf shape was noticed in two locations within one-half mile (- 800 meters) of each other in the dense shade of the northern floodplain (Fl) under Acer saccharinum, Fraxinus pensylvanica, and Ulmus americana. Samolus parviflorus was collected in an exposed mud flat in a seep along the Kalamazoo River (F2), enduring little interspecific competition. Other species of interest supported by this community include Carex lupulina, C. woodii, Teucrium canadense (wood sage), Stachys palustris (woundwort), S. tenuifolia and Sisyrinchium angustifolium (blue-eyed grass). TERRESTRIAL The beech-maple forests at KNC represent some of the highest-quality remnants in southwest Michigan (Figure 13, see cover image). In fact, it is Cooper's Glen, with its impressive spring wildflower displays and neotropical bird migrations, that originally inspired the purchase and ultimate preservation of the lands now occupied by KNC. This forest still stands today as the centerpiece of KNC's interpretive experience, and is as diverse as it was when Clarence and Florence Hanes botanized here in the 1930s (Hanes and Hanes 1947, Appendix 1) and H. Lewis Batts, Jr. began bringing his students in the 1950s. Southwest Michigan's historical oak savannas and prairies, with the exclusion of fire, have grown into a considerable acreage of oak forest (Comer et al. 1995). What is largely missing from the landscape are the beech-maple forests and forest cover along the Kalamazoo and other rivers. Perhaps more than any other forest type in Michigan, they are fragmented and degraded and eliminated outright by the pressures of urbanization and agriculture. The forests of KNC play an important role in preserving the diversity inherent in these forests. Mesic southern (Beech-maple) forest (rank=S3G2/G3) Beech-maple forest occupies about 459 non-contiguous acres (186 ha) at KNC. Two tracts are of higher quality, Pioneer Woods (C4, 49.1 acres) and Cooper's Glen (Cl, 54.7 acres). Three other tracts (C2, C3, C5) are in various stages of succession. Areas along the Kalamazoo River on the terraces above the floodplain also contain high quality variants of this community that blend into the floristically similar southern floodplain forest community. Beech-maple forests at KNC occur along the edge of the Kalamazoo moraine on flat topography and up to 35% slopes on silt loam to sandy loam soils, which is typical of this community (Austin 1979; Cohen 2004). Statewide, beech-maple forests are largely confined to disturbed 40-acre farm woodlots (compared to a historical mean patch size of 9,000 acres) (Cohen 2004). At KNC, patches vary in size from 28 to 128 acres.

Page  66 ï~~66 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 66 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 13. Cooper's Glen (Cl) with dense carpet of Dicentra cucullaria (Dutchman's-breeches) and open understory. Mature conditions in beech-maple forest are indicated by multi-generational stands with large canopy dominants (Fagus grandifolia, Acer saccharum), significant amounts of coarse woody debris, and pit-and-mound micro-topography (Cohen 2004). All of these conditions are present in Cooper's Glen and Pioneer Woods, although generally to a lesser extent than would be expected in an oldgrowth stand. Fagus grandifolia (American beech) and Acer saccharum (sugar maple) are the typical community dominants. In Modified-Whittaker plots at KNC, Acer saccharum dominated with an Importance Value (IV) of 67 (out of 100) (Table 3). Other dominant trees include Fraxinus americana (54), Quercus rubra (red oak) (16), and in more disturbed tracts, Prunus serotina (wild black cherry) (19) and Ulmus americana (American elm) (22). Other typical canopy trees such as

Page  67 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 67 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 67 FIGURE 14. One of several large Fagus grandifolia (American beech) in Pioneer Woods (C4). Liriodendron tulipifera (tulip poplar), Tilia americana (basswood), and Carya cordiformis (bitternut hickory) occur only occasionally. Surprisingly, Fagus grandifolia was not well-represented in modified-Whittaker plots, occurring only once. This may be an artifact of the random placement of plots, because both Cooper's Glen and Pioneer Woods support many large, old Fagus grandifolia trees and would have been expected to be more frequent (Figure 14). Spring ephemerals are abundant in KNC's beech-maple forests. Erythronium americanum (yellow trout lily), Claytonia virginica (spring beauty), Viola pubescens, Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot), Floerkea proserpinacoides (false mermaid), Phlox divaricata (woodland phlox) and numerous other common forest wildflowers dominate the groundlayer in spring. Erigenia bulbosa (harbinger-of-spring) is more limited in distribution but occurs in both Pioneer Woods and Cooper's Glen. One of the most impressive features is a hillside carpeted with Collinsia verna (blue-eyed Mary), along the Beech-Maple Trail in Cooper's Glen (C1) (Figure 15). Collinsia verna appears to be limited to only large, high quality remnants of this forest community in southwest Michigan (e.g., Cooper's Glen, Dowagiac Woods, Warren Woods) (pers. obs.). As a winter annual, its persistence is dependent upon maintaining a robust seedbank (Kalisz and McPeek 1993). An advancing front of Alliara petiolata is cause for concern. Canopy gaps from windfall or diseased, stressed, and old trees comprise the natural disturbance regime in beech-maple forest, a process known as gap-phase dynamics (Watt 1947). Normally, many trees fall concurrently during isolated extreme weather events (Brewer and Merritt 1978). The frequency and size of

Page  68 ï~~68 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 68 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 15. Collinsia verna (blue-eyed Mary), in Cooper's Glen (Cl), where it forms a carpet every spring. these gaps dictates canopy composition, through the differential release of tree saplings from light, water, and nutrient competition (Poulson and Platt 1996). Donnelly (1986), studying gaps in old growth beech-maple forest in nearby Warren Woods (Berrien County, Michigan), found that these gaps close in about 34 years, although others have estimated as little as 11 years (Canham 1990). The majority of stems released from shade-suppression by these gaps are Acer saccharum and Fagus grandifolia not typical successional species like Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Ulmus americana, although these species are present in gaps (Brewer and Merritt 1978, Donnelly 1986). Successional species gain dominance in larger gaps or in younger forests, as in some tracts at KNC (Runkle 1984). Many researchers have found that almost all small gaps are replaced by the canopy dominants Fagus grandifolia and Acer saccharum, the seedlings of one species doing best under a canopy of the other (Brewer and Merritt 1978, Woods 1979, Runkle 1984). Fagus grandifolia appears to exhibit higher shade tolerance and greater survivorship and is favored by old growth, less disturbed and more shaded conditions, including long intervals between gap

Page  69 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 69 events, while Acer saccharum is favored by more frequent disturbances (Donnelly 1986, Canham 1990, Poulson and Platt 1996, and Runkle 1984). Furthermore, heavy-textured moraines such as at KNC may favor Acer saccharum, while Fagus grandifolia is more common in the acidic, poorly-drained lakeplain (Cohen 2004). Nonetheless, the apparent reduced regeneration of Fagus grandifolia in KNC's otherwise mature forests (especially Cooper's Glen) is puzzling (R. Adams, pers. obs.). Donnelly (1986) also points out that Acer saccharum may dominate in smaller and more disturbed forest patches typified by more frequent treefall caused by stand isolation and prolonged canopy opening as a result of historical thinning. Light gaps due to the presence of streams, wetlands, and trails within, as well as the small size of the two most mature beech-maple stands (C1, C4) may account for some the dominance of Acer saccharum (pers. obs.). The conditions at the outset of post-logging forest succession at Cooper's Glen may have favored Acer saccharum. Diversity in beech-maple forests is driven by gap-phase dynamics (or, some would suggest, infrequent catastrophic fires) which can not be easily simulated or substituted with prescribed fire. Maintaining the quality of KNC's beech-maple forests, will therefore require the control of invasive plant and animal species. The effects of overabundant deer on forest ecosystems are numerous, and especially apparent in forests with a diverse herbaceous component. The most recent aerial estimate of the KNC deer herd, done in February 2005, was 107 deer, or 57 deer per square mile (J. Wright, pers. comm.). Waller and Alverson (1997) found that herbaceous plants may constitute up to 87% of a deer's summer diet. The detrimental effects of deer browse on herbaceous plants are varied and include gender modification of hermaphroditic species (Ruhren and Handel 2000), reduced flowering (Webster et al. 2001), and reduced overall abundance of forest herbs (Fletcher et al. 2001). Perhaps no other species is more prone to deer predation than Trillium grandiflorum. It is becoming increasingly rare to find a flowering stem, especially in comparison to its historical abundance on the property (R. Adams, pers. comm.). Small wetlands are found within beech-maple forest, including seeps and vernal pools. Seeps within a forest create a unique wetland microhabitat within a drier ecosystem. These are especially apparent in the forest of the south property (C3), where much of the southeastern slope is saturated with seeps and the vegetation that accompanies them: Symplocarpus foetidus (skunk cabbage), Laportea canadensis (wood nettle), Hydrophyllum appendiculatum (great waterleaf), Collinsonia canadensis (richweed) and some impressive populations of Asarum canadense (wild ginger). These comprise a "sub-community" similar in many ways to a southern hardwood swamp (Kost et al. 2007). A hanging spring along the Beech Maple trail in Cooper's Glen (C1) is another fine example. The contrast of water bubbling out of the ground of an upland forest, supporting such obligate wetland species as Caltha palustris (marsh marigold), is striking. Rare species associated with beech-maple forest at KNC include the vascular plants, Liparis liliifolia and Carexfrankii; the mollusk, watercress snail (Fontigens nickliniana); the birds, cerulean warbler, hooded warbler, and Cooper's hawk; and the reptiles, Blanding's, spotted, and eastern box turtle.

Page  70 ï~~70 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Esker An esker is an ice-contact feature derived from glacial meltwater flowing underneath an existing glacier, thus depositing till in a long, sinuous formation. The KNC esker exhibits deposition of soils with a larger grain-size (sand and gravel) that is the outcome of the way in which an esker is formed. This is unique at KNC, where upland soils are typically loamy (Austin 1979). The esker supports plants and natural communities that contrast to those in the surrounding landscape, both in its forested portion west of Westnedge Ave. (C4) and the old-field portion to the east (03) (Figure 1). The esker cuts through primarily beechmaple forest and supports a red and black oak dominated forest, including herbaceous species such as Chimaphila maculata (spotted wintergreen), Danthonia spicata (poverty grass), Solidago nemoralis (old-field goldenrod), Leptoloma cognatum (fall witchgrass), Anemone virginiana (tall thimbleweed) and Pedicularis canadensis (wood betony) that would not be expected in beech-maple forest. Hanes and Hanes (1947) also collected Carex leavenworthii, a rare adventive sedge, "in gravelly sandy soil four miles north of Kalamazoo in Section 28, Cooper Twp," presumably along the esker. In late June 2008, Ryan Colliton of KNC photographed a few stems of Platanthera lacera along the esker in an area that was recently cleared of dense shrub cover (Figure 16). FIGURE 16. Platanthera lacera (ragged fringed orchid) along esker (03) adjacent to East Fen (Si), appearing after extensive thinning of woody vegetation. Photo by Ryan Colliton.

Page  71 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 71 DISTURBED Various disturbed or early-successional land cover types occur at KNC. They are generally dominated by exotic species and low in plant species richness, but frequently support significant animal populations, included both migrating and breeding birds, and a diversity of insects. Gravel and sand mines Gravel and sand mines cover approximately 61 acres (25.5 hectares) at KNC. A large gravel pit (38 acres), acquired by KNC in 1990, runs parallel to the Kalamazoo River in the eastern portion of the property (G). It is dominated by Centaurea maculosa (spotted knapweed), Arrhenatherum elatius (tall oatgrass), Bromus inermis (smooth brome), Melilotus alba (white sweet clover), and Catalpa speciosa (northern catalpa). Fraxinus americana, F pensylvanica, Ulmus americana, and Acer saccharum are invading from surrounding mesic and floodplain forests. Carex pedunculata, a species of mesic forests, is also found here (Figure 17), along with many of the typical beech-maple forest species along the margins of the gravel pit. Because droughty soils are uncommon on the property, the Nil~ FIGURE 17. Carex pedunculata (sedge), in beech-maple forest (C2) adjacent to gravel pit(G)

Page  72 ï~~72 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 72 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 FIGURE 18. Scirpus pendulus (pendulous bulrush), in seepy channel in old sand mine (U4). gravel pit provides the only station for Asclepias verticillata and one of the few for Asclepias tuberosa. The city of Kalamazoo held a lease on a sand mine at KNC until 2003, a 23 -acre inholding along the slopes north of Trout Run and west of Westnedge Avenue (U4). The apparent dominant is Centaurea maculosa, but Bromus inermis, Populus grandidentata (big-toothed aspen), Crataegus spp. (hawthorn), Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa (gray dogwood), Aster pilosus and many weedy species of dry, disturbed sites are also common. The droughtiness does provide for the only station at KNC for Monarda punctata (horsemint). A few chalky gravel ponds provide for some interesting microhabitats, supporting species such as Juncus canadensis (Canadian rush), J. brachycephalus (short-fruited rush), and Equisetum hyemale (scouring rush). A seepy slope also supports the only KNC station for Scirpus pendulus (pendulous bulrush) (Figure 18). Old-fields Old-fields occur at KNC over about 101 acres (42 hectares) in various stages of succession and site history (e.g., hayfield, logged forest). These range from domination by European cool-season grasses such as Bromus inermis, Poa pratensis (Kentucky bluegrass), Dactylis glomerata (orchardgrass), and Phleum pratense (timothy) to upland thicket habitat dominated by Rhus typhina (staghorn sumac), Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa, Populus spp. (hybrid poplar), or Catalpa speciosa. Invasion from surrounding beech-maple forest is similar to

Page  73 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 73 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 73 FIGURE 19. Song sparrow (Melospiza melodia), singing in bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare) in hayfield (H5). the gravel pit. Old-fields provide the only stations for a number of interesting colonizing species, including Oenothera laciniata (ragged evening primrose), Arabis glabra (tower mustard), and Lobelia inflata (Indian tobacco), as well as supporting a few somewhat conservative species such as Agropyron trachycaulum (slender wheatgrass), Monarda fistulosa (wild bergamot), Desmodium paniculatum (panicled tick-trefoil), Asclepias tuberosa, and the sedges Carex annectens, C. albursina, C. leptonervia, C. tribuloides, and C. radiata. Hay fields A few hay fields are maintained at KNC to provide forage for farm animals on site. While the floristic diversity is typically low, they provide habitat for breeding grassland birds such as horned lark (Eremophila alpestris), eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna), bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), sedge wren (Cistothorus platensis) and song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) (Figure 19). Railroad A railroad bisects the eastern side of the KNC property, between the gravel pit and the Kalamazoo River (Figures 1, 2). In addition to typical weeds of railbeds such as Chaenorhinum minus (dwarf snapdragon) and Euphorbia maculata (nodding spurge), margins of the railroad support plants typical of the communi

Page  74 ï~~74 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 ties through which it passes, including beech-maple forest and southern floodplain forest. There are also some interesting sedge-dominated seepage areas (e.g., Carex hystericina), and a few species less tolerant of shade occur here, including Monardafistulosa and Qenothera biennis (common evening primrose). FLORISTIC QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND HABITAT CORRIDORS The Floristic Quality Assessment is by no means a definitive determination of the quality of a site (Herman et al. 2001). However, it can be the first step toward deciding the course a land manager may wish to take. If the index is 35 or higher, this is an indication of a valuable community with species of high conservatism (Herman et al. 2001). Other factors can then be considered to determine the need for further study and the most appropriate management choices. Compartments with FQIs above 35 are clustered along the course of Trout Run (C1-4, E1-2, F3, Si, S3) and the Kalamazoo River (F1-2), forming an exceptional habitat corridor (see Figure 1, Table 1). Furthermore, the protection of these communities is both feasible and important, especially the wetlands along the course of Trout Run (e.g., S1, S3, E1-2) and the Kalamazoo River, all of which scored high in floristic quality. By extension, the protection of the surrounding forests (C 1-5), most of which are of high floristic quality, is important. Together, this corridor comprises an association of floristically and ecologically important upland and wetland communities. Such corridors and the large contiguous area of high quality habitat they provide offer an example of the benefits of landscape-scale preservation, opportunities for which are greatly diminished in southern Michigan. CONCLUSIONS A diversity of species and communities Given the abundance and variety of data collected on plants and natural communities during this study, three useful conclusions can be drawn: 1) a successional trajectory can be anticipated for the natural communities and management can be guided based on these assumptions; 2) a baseline for species composition, community structure and other factors exists so that, in the future, the effects of land management decisions can be analyzed based upon how these measurable factors change; and 3) an understanding of what species and communities are present on the property, matched with an understanding of the landscape context in which these communities occur, should provide a better idea of which communities to restore, what to reconstruct and what to leave alone. Implications for management, restoration and research Despite the extensive plant and animal migrations associated with the retreat of the Wisconsinan glaciation, the past 12,000 years have seen relatively slow changes in the natural land cover until the mechanization of the human race fa

Page  75 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 75 cilitated rapid change (Berkes 2004). In North America, the Native Americans impacted the landscape on a large scale before European settlement, such as through intentional wildfires (Chapman 1984; Curtis 1959), but rarely did they impact entire landscapes in ways as dramatic as we see today, with the wholesale removal of substrates and covering of surfaces with impermeable concrete. Many natural communities at KNC have maintained exceptional structure, processes, and native species diversity within the larger context of landscape alteration. They should be highly valued, protected, studied, and experienced as components of the natural heritage of southwest Michigan. Other communities show apparent and persistent signs of disturbance, both in the soil and the biota as a whole. Given limited available resources, these communities cannot and should not be given the same protection as the higher quality areas. This does not mean they are without value. For example, even if plant diversity is low and structure is minimal, many important bird species may still utilize these habitats (e.g., hay fields and old-fields), as birds and other animals require a diversity of intermediate and early successional land cover types. Also, some habitats may require only the restoration of a natural process like fire or flooding to be revitalized into a higher quality community. Other types of landcover (e.g., those under tillage [Ti and T2], the gravel pit [G]) are wholly disturbed and do not represent the historical landscape in any way. These provide ample opportunity for the reconstruction of communities not currently well-represented on the KNC landscape such as prairie or savanna. This may be a long-term process, beginning by restoring soil structure. It also provides an opportunity for research on restoration techniques and may provide clues to poorly understood ecological concepts. End Note During the spring following the conclusion of this study, a contractor was hired to plant a large prairie reconstruction in an agricultural field (TI) and surrounding hay field (H2) and old-fields (07, 05, U2). A total of 144 acres of prairie was established in 2005 and 2006. Grassland birds occupied the available habitat almost immediately. As of June 2007, the following grassland bird species have been observed nesting in the new prairie, with number of breeding pairs observed in parentheses: bobolink (8), vesper sparrow (11), savannah sparrow (14), horned lark (11), eastern meadowlark (8), State special-concern grasshopper sparrow (9) and dickcissel (18), and state-threatened Henslow's sparrow (6) (Kalamazoo Nature Center Research Dept., unpublished data). ANNOTATED CHECKLIST (Appendix 2) Abundance of each species and infra-specific taxon is indicated as rare, uncommon, occasional, common, locally common, abundant, or locally abundant (see Methods) within the range of stated habitats. Exotic species are indicated in bold. Previous records not observed during this study but likely extant are indicated by an asterisk. General habitat is indicated for each species and infra-specific taxon. If a taxon was found in only a single compartment, that compartment

Page  76 ï~~76 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 is indicated in parentheses. More information is included about where a species was observed when relevant and known. Most species and infra-specific taxa represented at the KNC herbarium are by historical collectors (1959-1991) and are indicated by name of the most recent collector; no collection numbers were given for these specimens. Each of these collectors was limited to a one- or two-year collecting period (Appendix 2). All collection numbers represent a collection made by the author. These have been submitted to the Western Michigan University Hanes Herbarium (WMU). ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Primary funding for this project came from the Kalamazoo Nature Center's 2001-2002 capital campaign, and I thank Bill Rose for that. This funding was augmented by a grant from the Hanes Memorial Fund to facilitate botanical studies, and a grant from the Potawatomi R,C & D Council intended to encourage environmental land management. I thank the late Woody Ehrle and Jim Coury, respectively, for their assistance with those grants. Many staff and volunteers contributed observations throughout the project, including 2004 participants in the Kalamazoo Nature Center Citizen Science Institute. I would also like to thank Connie Ferguson for extensive historical research, Mark Miller, Rob Klein, and Jennifer Baldy for assistance with GIS mapping, Patrick Hudson for watershed delineation, and Tony Reznicek for help with identification of a few specimens of Carex and Eleocharis. Richard Brewer, Ken Hiser, Dan Skean, and Brad Slaughter provided very useful comments and insights on early drafts of this manuscript. LITERATURE CITED Albert, D. A. (1995). Regional landscape ecosystems of Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin: a working map and classification. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-178. St. Paul, MN: U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, North Central Forest Experiment Station. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center Home Page. See: (Version 03JUN98). Austin, F. R. (1979). Soil Survey of Kalamazoo County, Michigan. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service and Michigan Agricultural Experimental Station. Balmer, O. (2002). Species lists in ecology and conservation: abundances matter. Conservation Biology 16(4): 1160-1161. Berkes, F. (2004). Rethinking community-based conservation. Conservation Biology 18(3): 621-630. Brewer, R., G. A. McPeek and R. J. Adams, Jr. (eds.). (1991). Atlas of breeding birds in Michigan. Mich. State Univ. Press, East Lansing, MI. 590 pp. Burns, R. M., and B. H. Honkala, tech. coords. (1990). Silvics of North America: 1. conifers; 2. hardwoods. Agriculture Handbook 654. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Washington, DC. vol.2, 877 p. Accessed online in Feb. 2005 at silvics manual/table of contents.htm Canham, C. D. (1990).Suppression and release during canopy recruitment in Fagus grandifolia. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 117(1): 1-7. Case, F. W. (1964). Orchids of the Western Great Lakes Region. Cranbook Institute of Science Bulletin No. 48. Chapman, K. A. (1984). An Ecological Investigation of Grassland in Southern Lower Michigan. Masters Thesis. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI. 235 pp. Cohen, J. G. (2004). Natural community abstract for mesic southern forest. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 12 pp. Comer, P. J., D. A. Albert, H. A. Wells, B. L. Hart, J. B. Raab, D. L. Price, D. M. Kashia, R. A. Corner and D. W. Schuen (map interpretation); T. R. Leibfreid, M. B. Austin, C. J. Delain, L. PrangeGregory, L. J. Scrimger and J. G. Spitzley (digital map production). (1995). Michigan's Presettlement Vegetation, as Interpreted from the General Land Office Surveys 1816-1856. Report to the

Page  77 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 77 U.S. E.P.A. Water Division and Michigan Department of Natural Resources. The Wildlife Division, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. digital map. Curtis, J. T. (1959). The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. The University of Wisconsin Press. Madison. Donnelly, G. T. (1986). Forest composition as determined by canopy gap dynamics: a beech-maple forest in Michigan. Doctor of Philosophy Dissertation. Michigan State University Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, East Lansing, MI. 114 pp. + xi. Dorf, J. A., and D. F. Eschman. (1970). Geology of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI 476 pp. Dryer, G. D. (1994). Element stewardship abstract for Celastrus orbiculata: Asiatic bittersweet. The Nature Conservancy, Arlington, VA. See: Durant, S. W. (1880). History of Kalamazoo County, Michigan: with illustrations and biographical sketches of its prominent men and pioneers. Everts & Abbott. Philadelphia. Ehrle, E. B. (2005). Mosses and liverworts of the Kalamazoo Nature Center. The Michigan Botanist, Vol 44 (3): 119-126. Eichenlaub, V. L., J. R. Harman, F. V. Nurnberger, and H. J. Stolle. (1990) The climatic atlas of Michigan. University of Notre Dame Press, South Bend, IN. 165 pp. Fletcher, J. D., W. J. McShea, L. A. Shipley and D. Shumway. (2001). Use of common forest forbs to measure browsing pressure by white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus Zimmerman) in Virginia, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21(2):172-176. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. (1993+). Flora of North America North of Mexico. 15+ vols. New York and Oxford. Gleason, H. A. and A. Cronquist. (1991). Manual of the vascular plants of Northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. (2nd ed.) The New York Botanical Garden. Bronx, New York. Hanes, C. R. and F. N. Hanes. (1947). Flora of Kalamazoo County, Michigan: Vascular Plants. The Anthoensen Press, Portland, ME. Herman, K. D., L. A. Masters, M. R. Penskar, A. A. Reznicek, G. S. Wilhelm, W. W. Brodovich, and K. P. Gardiner. (2001). Floristic quality assessment with wetland categories and examples of computer applications for the State of Michigan-revised, 2nd edition. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife, Natural Heritage Program. Lansing, MI. 19 pp. + appendices. Haeusler, R. J. (1972). Physiochemistry of trout run. Student paper, Western Michigan University Department of Geology. Hodler, T. W., R. Brewer, L. G. Brewer and H. A. Raup. (1981). Presettlement vegetation of Kalamazoo County (map). Department of Geography, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo MI. Kalisz, S. and M.A. McPeek. (1993). Extinction dynamics, population growth, and seed banks: an example using an age-structured annual. Oecologia 95: 314-320. Kettle, W. D., P. M. Rich, K. Kindscher, G. L. Pittman, and P. Fu. (2000). Land-use history in ecosystem restoration: a 40-year study in the prairie-forest ecotone. Restoration Ecology 8(3): 307-317. Kost, M. A. (2001). Natural community abstract for southern wet meadow. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 6pp. Kost, M. A. and D. De Steven. (2000). Plant community responses to prescribed burning in Wisconsin sedge meadows. Natural Areas Journal 20(1): 36-45. Kost, M. A., D. A. Albert, J. G. Cohen, B. S. Slaughter, R. K. Schillo, C. R. Weber, and K. A. Chapman. (2007). Natural Communities of Michigan: Classification and Description. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Report Number 2007-21, Lansing, MI. 314 pp. Kozlowski, A.L., A.E. Kehew, and B.C. Bird. (2005). Outburst flood origin of the Central Kalamazoo River Valley, Michigan, U.S.A. Quaternary Science Reviews 24: 2354-2374. LaBatt, D. F. (1961). The influence of slope on the development of a second-growth hardwood forest in southwestern Michigan. Master's thesis, Western Michigan University. 55 pp. Langworthy, Strader, LeBlanc and Associates, Inc. (2001). Watershed resource papers: Dowagiac River watershed project. Submitted to Cass County Conservation District, March 2001. Legge, J. T., P. J. Higman, P. J. Comer, M. R. Penskar, and M. L. Rabe. (1995). A floristic and natural features inventory of Fort Custer Training Center, Augusta, Michigan. Report to Michigan Dept. of Military Affairs and Michigan Dept. of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. Michigan Natural Features Inventory report number 1995-13. 151pp. + 8 appendices. McIntosh, R. P. (1957). The York woods, a case history of forest succession in southern Wisconsin. Ecology 38 (1): 29-37.

Page  78 ï~~78 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Michigan Department of Agriculture. (2005). Emerald ash borer. Accessed online at:,1607,7-125-1568_2390_18298--,00.html in Feb. 2005. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. (2007). Rare Species Explorer (Web Application). Available online at [Accessed July, 2007] Michigan State University (MSU). Michigan Natural Features Inventory. (2009). Michigan's special plants: endangered, threatened, special concern, and probably extirpated. April, 2009 (Revised December, 2009). Michigan State University Extension, East Lansing, MI. Midwest Regional Climate Center. (2009). Historical Climate Summaries. Accessed online, 20 September 2009 at: Michigan State University. (2005). Michigan Natural Features Inventory Natural Heritage Database. Accessed online at in September, 2005. Mullett, J. (1827). Surveyor's original field notes, Kalamazoo County. Dates of original notes: 1826, 1827. Later hand copied. F. Hodgman, ed. Bound photocopy. Murcia, C. (1995). Edge effects in fragmented forests: implications for conservation. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10: 58-62. Passero, R. N., K. M. Chase, R. B. Chase, L. J. Chase, and W. T. Straw, eds. (1978). Kalamazoo: geology and the environment. Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI. Poulson, T. L., and W. J. Platt. (1996). Replacement patterns of beech and sugar maple in Warren Woods, Michigan. Ecology 77(4): 1234-1253. Reznicek, A. A., E. G. Voss, and R. A. Simpson. (2009). Online Atlas of Michigan Plants. Edition 1. April 2004. University of Michigan. Accessed 20 September, 2009 at: Ruhren, S. and S. N. Handel. (2000). Considering herbivory, reproduction, and gender when monitoring plants: a case study of Jack-in-the-pulpit (Arisaema triphyllum [L.] Schott). Natural Areas Journal 20: 261-266. Runkle, J. R. (1984). Development of woody vegetation in treefall gaps in a beech-sugar maple forest. Holarctic Ecology 7: 157-164. Shih, J. G. and S. A. Finkelstein. (2008). Range dynamics and invasive tendencies in Typha latifolia and Typha angustifolia in eastern North America derived from herbarium and pollen records. Wetlands 28 (1): 1-16. Stohlgren, T. J., M. B. Flakner and L. D. Schell. (1995). A Modified-Whittaker nested vegetation sampling method. Vegetatio 117:113-121. Tepley, A. J., J. G. Cohen, and L. Huberty. (2004). Natural community abstract for southern floodplain forest. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 14 pp. Thomas, J. M. (compiler and publisher). (1869). Kalamazoo County directory with a history of the County from its earliest settlement. Stone Brothers, Book and Job Printers. Kalamazoo. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. (2005). How to identify butternut canker and manage butternut trees. Accessed online at ht but.htm in Feb. 2005. United States Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service. (2004). The PLANTS Database, Version 3.5 ( National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA 70874-4490 USA. United States Bureau of Land Management. (2004). Land patent records: Accessed December 2004. Vandermeulen, J. (1982). Hydrogeologic investigation of the Source Wetland. Research paper submitted to Department of Geology, Western Michigan University and Kalamazoo Nature Center (September 1982). Voss, E. G. (1972). Michigan Flora Part 1 Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute Science Bulletin 55 and The University of Michigan Herbarium. Voss, E. G. (1985). Michigan Flora Part 2 Dicots. Cranbrook Institute Science Bulletin 59 and The University of Michigan Herbarium. Voss, E. G. (1996). Michigan Flora Part 3 Dicots cont'd. Cranbrook Institute Science Bulletin 61 and The University of Michigan Herbarium. Waller, D. M. and W. S. Alverson. (1997). The white-tailed deer: a keystone herbivore. Wildlife Society Bulletin 25(2): 217-226.

Page  79 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 79 Watt, A. (1947). Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35(1/2): 1-22. Webster, C. R., M. A. Jenkins, and G. R. Parker. (2001). A field test of herbaceous plant indicators of deer browsing intensity in mesic hardwood forests of Indiana, USA. Natural Areas Journal 21:149-158. Wilhelm, G. and L. Masters. (1999). Floristic Quality Assessment Computer Programs. Version 1.0, December 1999. Conservation Research Institute, Elmhurst, IL. Woods, K. D. (1979). Reciprocal replacement and the maintenance of codominance in a beech-maple forest. Oikos 33: 31-39. Zager, P. E. and R. W. Pippen. (1977). Fifteen years of change in a southwest Michigan hardwood forest. The Michigan Botanist 16(4): 201-211. APPENDIX 1. NOTES TAKEN BY THE HANES' ON COOPER'S GLEN Hanes and Hanes (1947) recorded detailed information about exceptional collecting sites in Kalamazoo County in a large bound tome that is currently housed in the Hanes Herbarium at WMU. The herbarium was established in part to house the many collections made by the Hanes' in the first half of the 20th century; this large notebook was intended as a companion. One page contains a list of plants found at Cooper's Glen. A total of 57 names are given below as written in the Hanes' notebook (synonyms are given in parentheses). N.B.- the columns do not correspond to one another. List of Plants Found at Cooper's Glen Apr. 30 '36 Spring Beauty Dutchman's Breeches Squirrel Corn Pepper and Salt Yellow Adder's Tongue Blue Eyed Mary Golden Saxifrage Marsh Marigold Skunk Cabbage Acute and Round-leaved Hepatica Blue Ash Butternut Early Meadow Rue Solomon Seal (Smaller) Christmas Fern Marginal Shield Fern Spice Bush Red Berried Elder Other] Fragile Bladder Fern Ostrich Fern Luzula saltuensis (L. acuminata) Quercus muehlenbergii Polygonum cuspidatum Hypericum ascyron Agrimonia mollis (A. pubescens) Botrychium obliquum (B. dissectum) Carex leavenworthii Aster junceus (A. borealis) Ranunculus septentrionalis (R. hispidus) Ranunculus abortivus Isopyrum biternatum Floerkea proserpinacoides Anemone quinquefolia Trillium grandiflorum Phlox divaricata Allium tricoccum Dentaria diphylla Dentaria laciniata Cardamine douglassii Carex pensylvanica Carex plantaginea Carex careyana Viola canadensis Viola papilionacea (V sororia) Viola compressa (V conspersa?) Hydrophyllum canadense Mitella diphylla Geranium maculatum Plants Found at Cooper's Glen Carduus crispus (Cirsium sp.?) Sisyrinchium gramineum (S.angustifolium) Carex grisea (C. amphibola) Carex hitchcockiana Carex laxiflora Saururus cernuus Carex rostrata Centaurea maculosa

Page  80 ï~~APPENDIX 2. ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF THE KALAMAZOO NATURE CENTER. Collection numbers are all Tyler Bassett, except for Kenoyer (= Leslie A Kenoyer) and Hanes = (Clarence and Florence Hanes). "*" indicates species collected prior to but not observed during the current study. Non-native species in bold. List of collectors for specimens housed at Kalamaoo Nature Center herbarium (no collection numbers): Ray Adams, Jr. (1971), Jahanguir Assadi, (1978), M.R. Betz (1990-91), D. Broersma (1959), F. E. Chape (1959), Louis F. Conde (1981-83), Susan Gibson (1963), Richard D. Kelley (1959), Marian Kummer (1971), Dee LaBatt (1959), Mary K. Lewis (1959), Mary Meininger (1968), Susan Norris (1968), Judy Prentice (1968), Jon Shoemaker (1959), Arlene Shub (1978), Ellsworth Starring (1959), E.B. Walter (1963), Laurie Weston (1971). 0o0 Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors PTERIDOPHYTES FERNS Aspleniaceae (Spleenwort Family) Asplenium platyneuron (L.) B.S.P. Dennstaedtiaceae (Bracken Family) Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn Dryopteridaceae (Wood Fern Family) Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth Cystopterisfragilis (L.) Bernh. Deparia acrostichoides (Swartz) M. Kato Diplazium pycnocarpon (Sprengel) M. Broun Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P. Fuchs *Dryopteris celsa (Wm. Palmer) Knowlt., Palmer & Pollard ex Small (T) Dryopteris clintoniana (D.C. Eat.) Dowell Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gray Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) Gray Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) Gray Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray Onoclea sensibilis L. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott Ophioglossaceae (Grape-fern Family) Botrychium dissectum Spreng. Osmundaceae (Flowering-fern Family) Osmunda cinnamomea L. Osmunda regalis L. Ebony spleenwort Bracken fern Lady fern Fragile fern Silvery spleenwort Narrow-leaved spleenwort Spinulose woodfern Log Fern Clinton's woodfern Crested shield fern Goldie's woodfern Evergreen woodfern Marginal woodfern Sensitive fern Christmas fern Cut-leaved grape-fern old-fields, disturbed areas, thickets, young forests roadside on gravelly hilltop near South Property (C3) beech-maple and floodplain forests, edges of swamps Cooper's Glen (Cl), floodplain forest (F1/2) swale in beech-maple forest (C3), floodplain forest (F2) swale in beech-maple forest (C3) forested habitat of all kinds floodplain forest (Fl) floodplain forest (Fl), thicket (Ut) swampy thickets (F3, Il) swale in beech-maple forest (C3), floodplain forest (F2) edge of shrub swamp (E2) edge of small wet depression in beech-maple forest (13) wet and moist areas throughout beech-maple and floodplain forests, edges of swamps common Conde uncommon Adams occasional uncommon uncommon uncommon common rare uncommon uncommon uncommon uncommon rare abundant occasional Conde Conde Conde Conde Conde no collection Conde Conde Conde 4173 Conde Gibson Adams Conde n z 0 z H 01 disturbed beech-maple forests rare Cinnamon fern swampy thickets Royal fern swampy thickets occasional Adams occasional Adams

Page  81 ï~~Pteridaceae (Maidenhair Fern Family) Adiantum pedatum L. Thelypteridaceae (Marsh Fern Family) Thelypteris palustris Schott FERN ALLIES Equisetaceae (Horsetail Family) Equisetum arvense L. *Equisetumfluviatile L. Equisetum hyemale L. Lycopodiaceae (Clubmoss Family) Diphasiastrum complanatum L. Huperzia lucidula (Michaux) Trevisan Lycopodium clavatum L. Lycopodium obscurum L. Selaginellaceae (Spikemoss Family) Selaginella eclipes Buck GYMNOSPERMS Cupressaceae (Cypress Family) Juniperus virginiana L. Pinaceae (Pine Family) Larix laricina (Du Roi) K Koch ANGIOSPERMS Aceraceae (Maple Family) Acer negundo L. Acer nigrum Michx. f Acer platanoides L. Acer rubrum L. Acer saccharinum L. Acer saccharum Marsh. Acoraceae (Sweet-flag Family) Acorus calamus L. Alismataceae (Water-plantain Family) Alisma plantago-aquatica L. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Amaranthaceae (Amaranth Family) *Amaranthus albus L. *Amaranthus blitoides S. Watson Maidenhair fern Marsh fern Common horsetail Water horsetail Scouring rush Ground-cedar Shining clubmoss Running ground-pine Ground-pine Selaginella Red-cedar Tamarack Box elder Black maple Norway maple Red maple Silver maple Sugar maple Sweet-flag Water-plantain Common arrowhead beech-maple and floodplain forests sedge meadows throughout uncommon Adams common Adams moist forest borders and sedge meadows occasional floodplain forest (Fl) rare disturbed, moist gravelly soil throughout, as along railroad occasional Conde Conde Betz Walter Conde Conde Conde disturbed beech-maple forest (C5) dry knoll in Source Marsh (E2) dry knoll in Source Marsh (E2) dry knoll in Source Marsh (E2) edge of hummocks in sedge meadow old-fields and shrub thickets edges of sedge meadow uncommon rare rare rare occasional Conde occasional Conde uncommon Conde H z 0 z H/ disturbed and successional forest common in moister soil near streams and disturbed areas in occasional beech-maple forest Cooper's Glen adjacent to gravel pit (C2) uncommon beech-maple and successional forest, various wetlands occasional wide bottoms of Kalamazoo River, shrub swamps common Conde 3192 no collection Conde 7123 Conde throughout in uplands abundant wetter sedge meadows along Kalamazoo River shrub swamp in a "lobe" of Source Marsh (E2) emergent marsh along streams uncommon 7135 rare 7034 common Gibson rare Conde rare LaBatt Tumbleweed disturbed areas Amaranth disturbed areas 0o0

Page  82 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors *Amaranthus retroflexus L Anacardiaceae (Sumac Family) Rhus glabra L. Rhus typhina L. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Toxicodendron vernix (L.) Kuntze Annonaceae (Custard-apple Family) Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal Apiaceae (Carrot Family) Angelica atropurpurea L. Berula erecta (Huds.) Coville (T) Cicuta bulbifera L. Cicuta maculata L. Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. Daucus carota L. Erigenia bulbosa (Michx.) Nutt. Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C.B. Clarke Osmorhiza longistylis (Torr) DC. Oxypolis rigidior (L.) Raf Sanicula canadensis L. Sanicula gregaria Bickn. Sanicula trifoliata Bickn. Sium suave Walt. Apocynaceae (Dogbane Family) Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Apocynum cannabinum L. Vinca minor L Aquifoliaceae (Holly Family) Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray Araceae (Arum Family) Arisaema dracontium (L.) Schott Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex Nutt. Pigweed Smooth sumac Staghorn sumac Poison-ivy Poison sumac Pawpaw Angelica Water-parsnip Water hemlock Water hemlock Honewort Queen-Anne's-lace Harbinger-of-spring Hairy sweet-cicely Smooth sweet cicely Cowbane Black snakeroot Black snakeroot Black snakeroot Water-parsnip Spreading dogbane Indian hemp Periwinkle Michigan holly Green dragon Jack-in-the-pulpit Arrow-arum Skunk-cabbage disturbed areas rare Conde gravel pit (G) throughout in successional uplands throughout sedge meadows rare Conde common Walter abundant Conde occasional Conde canopy openings in beech-maple and floodplain forest: locally abundant Conde Cooper's Glen (Cl) and Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) sedge meadow and openings in shrub-carr mucky edges of Trout Run in sedge meadow sedge meadow and shrub-carr sedge meadow, shrub-carr, and swamp forest mostly wetter forests old-fields and other disturbed areas beech-maple forest in Cooper's Glen (Cl) and floodplain forest (F2) beech-maple forest beech-maple forest sedge meadows throughout beech-maple forest in Cooper's Glen (Cl) beech-maple forest in Pioneer Woods (C4) and floodplain forest high-quality beech-maple and floodplain forest ponded area in floodplain forest (F2) open sites on sandy soil as near gravel pit and railroad open wetlands and disturbed sites on mesic soil roadsides and near old homesites shrub swamp in a "lobe" of Source Marsh (E2) Kalamazoo River floodplain forested habitat of all kinds emergent marsh along Kalamazoo River saturated soil occasional Assadi/Shub locally common 3200 occasional Conde uncommon LaBatt occasional Assadi/Shub common Assadi/Shub uncommon Prentice uncommon Assadi/Shub uncommon Assadi/Shub occasional Adams uncommon Gibson occasional Assadi/Shub occasional Conde rare no collection uncommon Assadi/Shub common Conde uncommon no collection 00 z 0 z H1 rare Conde uncommon Photo abundant Betz uncommon Conde abundant Kelley

Page  83 ï~~Araliaceae (Ginseng Family) Aralia nudicaulis L. Hedera helix L Panax trifolius L. Aristolochiaceae (Birthwort Family) Asarum canadense L. Asclepiadaceae (Milkweed Family) Asclepias incarnata L. Asclepias syriaca L. Asclepias tuberosa L. Asclepias verticillata L. Asteraceae (Aster Family) Achillea millefolium L. Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. Ambrosia trifida L. *Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Benth. *Antennaria neglecta Greene Antennaria parlinii Fern. Anthemis arvensis L. Arctium minus Bernh. Artemisia vulgaris L. Aster borealis (Tore & Gray) Prov. Aster cordifolius L. Aster firmus Nees Aster lanceolatus Willd. Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britt. Aster macrophyllus L. Aster novae-angliae L. Aster ontarionis Wieg. Aster pilosus Willd. Aster praealtus Poir (SC) Aster puniceus L. Aster shortii Lindl. Bidens cernua L. Bidens comosus Bidens connatus Muhl. ex Willd. *Bidens frondosa L. Wild sarsaparilla English ivy Dwarf ginseng Wild-ginger Swamp milkweed Common milkweed Butterfly-weed Whorled milkweed Yarrow Common ragweed Giant ragweed Pearly everlasting Cat's foot Smooth pussytoes Field chamomile Common burdock Mugwort Northern bog-aster Arrow-leaved aster Swamp aster Eastern lined aster Side-flowering aster Big-leaved aster New England aster Ontario aster Hairy aster Willow aster Hairy swamp aster Short's aster Nodding bur-marigold Swamp tickseed Purple-stemmed tickseed Beggar's tick gravelly bank along Kalamazoo River (F2) disturbed area near Kalamazoo River (F2) alluvial soil along Trout Run (F3) Moist beech-maple forest and floodplain forest sedge meadows throughout Throughout in open habitats old-fields and gravel pit (G) gravel pit (G) rare rare rare 7122 no collection Meininger occasional Assadi/Shub common Walter abundant Gibson uncommon Betz rare 7126 primarily in old-fields and upland shrub thickets occasional Assadi/Shub hayfields and disturbed margins of old-fields occasional Conde poplar planting (Al) and upland shrub thickets uncommon Adams upland shrub thicket (Ut) uncommon Conde uncommon Betz successional openings in sandy soil in beech-maple forest. uncommon Assadi/Shub hayfield (H4) and trails uncommon Conde disturbed areas and trails throughout abundant LaBatt disturbed areas, especially near trails locally common 7029 sedge meadows occasional 3328 beech-maple forest and old-fields common Conde sedge meadows locally abundant 3301 sedge meadows throughout occasional Conde throughout in all habitats abundant Conde beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional Conde sedge meadow: Source Marsh (El) uncommon Conde beech-maple forest occasional 3331, 3348 old-fields and hayfields, especially in sandy soils common Conde sedge meadow (S1, S2) uncommon 3303 sedge meadows throughout locally abundant Conde beech-maple forest, floodplain forest near Kalamazoo occasional Conde River, and adjacent habitats shallow water in sedge meadow and shrub swamp occasional Conde West Fen (S3) uncommon 4378 H z 0 z H/ S2 locally common no collection uncommon Walter 0o0

Page  84 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors ioc Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors 00 Centaurea maculosa auct. non Lam. Chondrilla juncea L. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Cichorium intybus L. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Cirsium muticum Michx. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronq. Crepis capillaris (L.) Wallr. Erechtites hieracifolia (L.) Raf ex DC. Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Erigeron philadelphicus L. Erigeron pulchellus Michx. Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. Eupatorium maculatum L. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Eupatorium purpureum L. Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. Gnaphalium macounii Greene Helianthus decapetalus L. Helianthus giganteus L. *Helianthus strumosus L. Helianthus tuberosus Hieracium aurantiacum L Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. Hieracium pilosella L. Hieracium piloselloides Vill. Hypochaeris radicata L. *Krigia biflora (Walt.) Blake Lactuca canadensis L. Lactuca serriola L. *Prenanthes alba L. Prenanthes altissima L. Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. Rudbeckia hirta L. Spotted bluet Skeleton-weed Ox-eye daisy Chicory Canadian-thistle Swamp-thistle Bull-thistle Horseweed Hawk's beard Fireweed Annual fleabane Marsh fleabane Robin's plantain Daisy fleabane Joe-pye-weed Common boneset Purple joe-pye-weed White snakeroot Grass-leaved goldenrod Clammy cudweed Pale sunflower Tall sunflower Pale-leaved sunflower Jerusalem artichoke Orange hawkweed King-devil Mouse-ear hawkweed Glaucous king-devil Spotted cat's-ear Cynthia Tall lettuce Prickly lettuce White lettuce Tall white lettuce Brown-eyed Susan Black-eyed Susan old-fields and other disturbed areas common Gibson old-field (07) rare Conde old-fields and other disturbed areas common Betz field margins and roadsides occasional no collection old-fields and a sedge meadow (E5) occasional Conde sedge meadows throughout occasional Adams old-fields and disturbed forest edges occasional Conde recently disturbed soil common LaBatt old-fields and trail edges occasional Conde recently disturbed soil uncommon Conde old-fields, disturbed areas, thickets, young forests common Betz sedge meadows uncommon Conde sedge meadows uncommon Gibson disturbed areas occasional Assadi/Shub primarly in sedge meadows abundant Conde sedge meadows and shrub-carr abundant Walter gravel banks above Kalamazoo River (G) and margin uncommon Gibson of shrub swamp (12) beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional Conde open areas; old-fields and sedge meadows common Conde open sandy slopes occasional Conde moist beech-maple forest occasional Adams sedge meadows throughout common Conde north floodplain of Kalamazoo River (Fl) occasional Conde roadsides and near old homesites occasional no collection old-fields and other disturbed areas occasional Assadi/Shub old-fields and other disturbed areas occasional Assadi/Shub upland shrub thicket (U4) uncommon Gibson U4 uncommon no collection U4 uncommon no collection beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) rare Assadi/Shub openings in beech-maple forest and disturbed areas occasional Gibson disturbed areas uncommon Conde beech-maple forest rare Conde beech-maple forests occasional Conde sedge meadow: East Fen (Si) rare Gibson old-fields, shrub thickets, and sedge meadows occasional Betz n z 0 z H 01

Page  85 ï~~Rudbeckia laciniata L. Rudbeckia triloba L. Senecio aureus L. Solidago altissima L. Solidago caesia L. Solidago canadensis L. Solidago flexicaulis L. Solidago gigantea Ait. Solidago juncea Ait. Solidago nemoralis Ait. Solidago ohioensis Frank ex Riddell Solidago patula Muhl. ex Willd. Solidago riddellii Frank ex Riddell Solidago rigida L. Solidago rugosa P. Mill. Solidago speciosa Nutt. Solidago uliginosa Nutt. Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Taraxacum officinale G.H. Weber ex Wiggers Tragopogon dubius Scop. Tragopogon pratensis L. Vernonia missurica Raf Xanthium strumarium L Balsaminaceae (Jewelweed Family) Impatiens capensis Meerb. Impatiens pallida Nutt. Berberidaceae (Barberry Family) Berberis thunbergii DC. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. Podophyllum peltatum L. Betulaceae (Birch Family) Alnus rugosa (Du Roi) Spreng. Carpinus caroliniana Walt. Corylus americana Walt. Cut-leaved coneflower Three-lobed coneflower Golden ragwort Tall goldenrod Blue-stemmed goldenrod Canada goldenrod Broad-leaved goldenrod Late goldenrod Early goldenrod Old-field goldenrod Ohio goldenrod Swamp goldenrod Riddell's goldenrod Stiff goldenrod Rough goldenrod Showy goldenrod Bog goldenrod Perennial sow thistle Common dandelion Goat's beard Common goat's beard Missouri ironweed Common cocklebur Spotted touch-me-not Pale touch-me-not Japanese barberry Blue cohosh May apple Tag alder Blue-beech Hazelnut forested floodplains and shrub-carr gravelly ridge above Kalamazoo River floodplain shrubby wet areas in general open habitats of all kinds forested habitat of all kinds old-fields, shrub thickets, and sedge meadows moist beech-maple and floodplain forests Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) and edges of sedge meadow sandy old-fields and shrub thickets sandy old-fields and shrub thickets near seepages in sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) shrub-carr and wet forests sedge meadows throughout dry ridge above East Fen (Ut) forested habitat of all kinds dry ridge above East Fen (Ut) sedge meadow: East Fen (S1) shrub thicket (U7) everywhere disturbed areas disturbed areas old-fields, forest openings, and sedge meadows edges of farm fields and other disturbed areas wet ground generally and adjacent uplands beech-maple forest, especially on edges disturbed beech-maple forests higher quality beech-maple and floodplain forests forests and forest edges shrub-carr in Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) shrub-carr, beech-maple and wet forests edges of beech-maple forest, including transitions to sedge meadow beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Adams rare Photo locally abundant Conde abundant Adams occasional Conde occasional Adams occasional Adams occasional Adams occasional LaBatt occasional Adams uncommon 7030, 7080 common Adams occasional Adams rare Conde occasional Adams rare Conde uncommon Conde uncommon Conde abundant Assadi/Shub uncommon Betz occasional Assadi/Shub common Conde uncommon 4283 common Betz occasional Conde locally common Betz occasional Assadi/Shub abundant Betz occasional Conde locally abundant Conde occasional Conde H z 0 z H/ Ostrya virginiana (P. Mill.) K. Koch Ironwood occasional Conde ioc

Page  86 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Bignoniaceae (Catalpa Family) Campsis radicans (L) Seem. ex Bureau Catalpa speciosa (Warder) Warder ex Engelm. Boraginaceae (Borage Family) *Cynoglossum officinale L Hackelia virginiana (L.) LM. Johnston *Lithospermum arvense L *Myosotis arvensis (L) Hill Myosotis scorpioides L. Symphytum officinale L Brassicaceae (Mustard Family) Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande Alyssum alyssoides (L) L. Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Arabis glabra (L.) Berhnh. Arabis laevigata (Muhl. ex Willd.) Poir Barbarea vulgaris Ait. f. Berteroa incana (L) DC. Camelina microcarpa DC. *Capsella bursa-pastoris (L) Medik. Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) B.S.P. Cardamine douglassii Britt. Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. ex Willd. Dentaria diphylla Michx. Dentaria laciniata Muhl. ex Willd. *Eriophila verna (L.) Besser Hesperis matronalis L. Lepidium campestre (L) Ait. f. *Lepidium virginicum L. Nasturtium officinale Ait. f. *Raphanus raphanistrum L. *Sisymbrium officinale (L.) Scop. *Thlaspi arvense L Campanulaceae (Bellflower Family) Campanula americana L. Trumpet vine Northern catalpa Common hound's-tongue Beggar's lice Redroot Field scorpion-grass Forget-me-not Common comfrey Garlic mustard Pale alyssum Mouse-ear cress Tower mustard Smooth bank cress Yellow rocket Hoary alyssum Small-fruited false flax Shepherd's purse Spring cress Pink spring cress Hoary bitter cress Pennsylvania bitter cress Two-leaved toothwort Cut-leaved toothwort Whitlow-grass Dame's rocket Field cress Pepper-grass Watercress Wild radish Hedge mustard Penny cress disturbed beech-maple forest (C2) disturbed beech-maple forest, old-fields; including a large monoculture (U2) disturbed areas beech-maple and floodplain forests edges of farm fields and other disturbed areas mudflats along Kalamazoo River upland shrub thicket (U4) everywhere disturbed sandy and gravelly soil disturbed areas edge of hayfield (H4) margin of railroad right-of-way disturbed areas old-fields and hayfields, especially in sandy soils gravel pit (G) edges of farm fields and other disturbed areas sedge meadows and shrub-carr sedge meadows and shrub-carr disturbed sandy and gravelly soil edge of sedge meadows in shrub-carr higher quality beech-maple and floodplain forests higher quality beech-maple and floodplain forests disturbed areas in sandy soil disturbed forest and edges disturbed areas disturbed areas cool springs and mucky margins of spring-fed streams edge of hayfield (H4) edge of hayfield (H4) edge of hayfield (HI) disturbed beech-maple forest (C2) and Kalamazoo River floodplain rare no collection locally abundant Conde rare Broersma occasional 7083 Assadi/Shub Prentice uncommon Assadi/Shub uncommon Conde locally abundant no collection uncommon Betz uncommon Betz rare Betz rare Betz occasional Betz occasional Betz rare no collection Assadi/Shub common Prentice common Conde occasional 4019 uncommon Norris common Betz common Betz rare Conde occasional Betz uncommon Betz uncommon Betz common Shub uncommon Prentice uncommon LaBatt uncommon Betz 00 z 0 z Tall bellflower occasional Kelley

Page  87 ï~~Campanula aparinoides Pursh Marsh bellflower sedge meadows throu Lobelia cardinalis L. Cardinal flower wet ditch in Kalamaz Lobelia inflata L. Indian tobacco thickets and trails Lobelia kalmii L. Bog lobelia marly seep in Source Lobelia siphilitica L. Great blue lobelia wet ground throughou Capparaceae (Caper Family) *Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. ssp. dodecandra Redwhisker clammyweed railroad right-of-way Caprifoliaceae (Honeysuckle Family) Lonicera dioica L. Red honeysuckle gravelly esker through Lonicera maackii (Rupr.) Herder Amur honeysuckle disturbed edge of bee Lonicera morrowii Gray Morrow honeysuckle upland forests, thicket ghout oo River floodplain (Fl) Marsh (E2) at h beech-maple forest (C4) ch-maple forests ts and fields; occasionally in ts and fields; occasionally in common 7079 rare Photo uncommon Conde uncommon Conde common Walter Betz rare Photo uncommon 7125 occasional 7039 common Betz Tartarian honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L. wetlands upland forests, thicket wetlands Sambucus canadensis L. Sambucus racemosa L. Triosteum aurantiacum Bickn. Viburnum acerifolium L. Viburnum dentatum L. Viburnum lentago L. Viburnum opulus L var. opulus Viburnum opulus L. var americanum Ait. Caryophyllaceae (Pink Family) Arenaria serpyilifolia L Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Dianthus armeria L. Saponaria officinalis L Silene pratensis (Rafn) Godr. & Gren. Stellaria graminea L Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd. Stellaria media (L) Vill. Celastraceae (Bittersweet Family) Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. *Celastrus scandens L. Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Sieb. Euonymus obovata Nutt. Elderberry sedge meadow and wet edges of beech-maple common Gibson and floodplain forests Red-berried elder beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Shoemaker Horse-gentian gravelly ridge above Kalamazoo River rare Assadi/Shub Maple-leaved arrow-wood higher quality beech-maple forests occasional Norris Smooth arrow-wood beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional no collection Nannyberry sedge meadow and shrub-carr locally abundant Betz European highbush cranberry disturbed areas, spreading somewhat into moist ground occasional Conde Highbush cranberry sedge meadow and shrub-carr occasional 7028, 7086 Thyme-leaved sandwort Mouse-eared chickweed Deptford pink Bouncing Bet White catchfly Starwort Long-leaved chickweed Common chickweed Oriental bittersweet American bittersweet Winged wahoo Running strawberry bush upland shrub thicket (U4) disturbed areas, especially near trails old-fields disturbed areas; especially old-fields disturbed areas disturbed areas sedge meadows disturbed areas, primarily in beech-maple forest, as along trails rare Betz uncommon Betz uncommon Betz occasional Shub occasional Betz rare Gibson occasional 4055 occasional Assadi/Shub z 0 z 00 upland shrub thickets, edge of sedge meadows occasional 7085 gravelly beech-maple forest (C2) above Cooper's Glen rare Conde beech-maple forest uncommon no collection beech-maple forest and moist thickets locally common Assadi

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Page  89 ï~~Cyperaceae (Sedge Family) Carex albursina Sheldon Carex alopecoidea Tuckerman Carex amphibola Steud. Carex annectens (Bickn.) Bickn. Carex arctata Boott ex Hook. Carex bebbii Olney ex Fern. Carex blanda Dewey Carex bromoides Schkuhr ex Willd. *Carex careyana Torr ex Dewey Carex cephaloidea (Dewey) Dewey Carex cephalophora Muhl. ex Willd. Carex communis Bailey Carex comosa Boott Carex crinita Lam. Carex cristatella Britt. Carexfrankii Kunth Carex gracillima Schwein. Carex granularis Muhl. ex Willd. Carex grayi Carey Carex hirtifolia Mackenzie Carex hitchcockiana Dewey Carex hystericina Muhl. ex Willd. Carex interior Bailey Carex intumescens Rudge Carexjamesii Schwein. Carex lacustris Willd. Carex laevivaginata (Kuikenth.) Mackenzie Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. var americana Fern. Carex laxiflora Lam. *Carex leavenworthii Dewey Carex leptalea Wahlenb. Carex leptonervia (Fern.) Fern. Carex lupulina Muhl. ex Willd. Carex lurida Wahlenb. Carex muhlenbergii Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Carey's sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Frank's sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge James' sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Leavenworth's sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Conde shrub swamp (I1) uncommon 3038 beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Conde border of esker (03) and East Fen rare 3204 beech-maple forest and shrub swamp (I1) occasional Conde sedge meadows throughout common Conde beech-maple forest occasional 4119 floodplain forest, shrub swamp and borders of locally abundant Conde beech-maple forest Coopers Glen (Cl) uncommon no collection beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional 3044 beech-maple forests, especially in sandy and rocky soils occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests common Conde sedge meadow occasional no collection Kalamazoo River floodplain and shrub swamp (13) occasional Conde sedge meadow (E4) uncommon Conde wet woods (F4) near juncture of calcareous spring runs rare 3293 and South Stream beech-maple and floodplain forests, upland shrub thickets common Conde sedge meadows and beech-maple forest (C3) occasional Conde Moist beech-maple forest and floodplain forest occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests common Conde beech-maple forest occasional 4106 sedge meadows occasional Conde sedge meadows uncommon 3075 beech-maple forest and shrub swamp (13) uncommon Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests common Conde sedge meadows and shrub-carr locally abundant Conde seep in Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2), sedge occasional Conde z 0 z 00 meadow (E2) sedge meadows beech-maple and floodplain forests esker through beech-maple forest (C4) sedge meadows beech-maple forest and old-fields wet depression in Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) sedge meadows dry bank near Interpretive Center (C1) uncommon 3036 common Conde rare Hanes 3957 uncommon 3054 common Conde rare Conde occasional Conde rare 4032

Page  90 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Carex pedunculata Muhl. ex Willd. Carex pellita Willd. Carex pensylvanica Lam. Carex plantaginea Lam. Carex prairea Dewey ex Wood Carex radiata (Wahlenb.) Small Carex rosea Schkuhr ex Willd. Carex scabrata Schwein. Carex sparganioides Muhl. ex Willd. Carex stipata Muhl. ex Willd. Carex stricta Lam. Carex swanii (Fern.) Mackenzie Carex tenera Dewey Carex tetanica Schkuhr Carex tribuloides Wahlenb. Carex utriculata Boott Carex vulpinoidea Michx. Carex woodii Dewey *Cyperus filiculmis Vahl Cyperus rivularis Kunth Cyperus strigosus L. Eleocharis elliptica Kunth Eleocharis erythropoda Steud. Rhynchospora capillacea Torr Schoenoplectus acutus (Muhl. ex Bigelow) A. & D. Live Schoenoplectus tabernaemontani (K. C. Gmel.) Palla Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Scirpus pendulus Muhl. Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Straight-styled wood sedge Curly-styled wood sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Slender cyperus Shining cyperus Long scaled nut sedge Golden-seeded spike rush Spike-rush Beak-rush Hardstem bulrush Softstem bulrush Bulrush Wool-grass Pendulous bulrush beech-maple forests sedge meadows beech-maple forest and old-fields beech-maple forest and old-fields sedge meadows higher elevation in Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) and in Catalpa stand (U2) forests, old-fields, and upland shrub thickets beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Cl) beech-maple forest and Catalpa stand (U2) mostly wetter sedge meadows and shrub-carr sedge meadows forests, old-fields, and upland shrub thickets sedge meadow (E5) marly seep in Source Marsh (E2) and Trout Run through Cooper's Glen (F3) ecotones of beech-maple forest, sedge meadow, and old-fields; shrub swamp (13) and gravel pond (Pond 08) wetter portions of sedge meadow moist edge of beech-maple forest, sedge meadow, shrub swamp Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) and edges of sedge meadow sandy hillside (Ut) sandy edge of pond (Pond03) marly pond edge (Pond 07) and sedge meadow: West Fen (S3) sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) sedge meadows marly seep in Source Marsh (E2) sedge meadow sedge meadow sedge meadow sedge meadow and shrub swamp (13) calcareous sand in upland shrub thicket (U4) occasional 3016 occasional 3050, 4060 common Conde locally common Conde occasional 3034 uncommon 3042 common Conde uncommon 4111 uncommon 3047, Kenoyer 173 common Conde abundant Conde occasional Conde rare 4114 rare 3079 locally common Conde uncommon 3080 common Conde occasional 3004 rare Conde rare Conde uncommon Conde uncommon 4068 occasional Conde uncommon Conde locally abundant Conde n z 0 z H 01 locally abundant common occasional rare Adams Gibson Conde 3126

Page  91 ï~~Dioscoreaceae (Wild Yam Family) Dioscorea villosa L. Dipsacaceae (Teasel Family) Dipsacus fullonum L Elaeagnaceae (Oleaster Family) Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Ericaceae (Heath Family) Vaccinium corymbosum L. Euphorbiaceae (Spurge Family) Acalypha rhomboidea Raf. Euphorbia maculata L. Euphorbia nutans Lag. Euphorbia dentata Michx. Fabaceae (Bean Family) Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Apios americana Medik. Cercis canadensis L. Coronilla varia L Desmodium canadense (L.) DC. Desmodium glutinosum (Muhl. ex Willd.) Wood Desmodium paniculatum (L.) DC. Gleditsia triacanthos L. Lathyrus palustris L. Lotus corniculatus L Medicago lupulina L. Medicago sativa L. Melilotus alba Medikus Melilotus officinalis (L) Lam. Robinia pseudoacacia L Trifolium arvense L. Trifolium dubium Sibthorp Trifolium hybridum L Trifolium pratense L Trifolium repens L Vicia villosa Roth Fagaceae (Beech Family) Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. Wild yam Common teasel Autumn olive Smooth highbush blueberry Three-seeded mercury Nodding spurge Thyme-leaved spurge Toothed spurge beech-maple and floodplain forests disturbed forest and railroad margins occasional Conde occasional Conde throughout in disturbed open areas and succesional forest common Conde shrub swamp in a "lobe" of Source Marsh (E2) and edge of dry knoll in Source Marsh disturbed sandy and gravelly soil disturbed sandy and gravelly soil margins of railroad gravel pit (G) uncommon 3077 uncommon Conde uncommon LaBatt uncommon 3297 uncommon 4282 Hog-peanut beech-maple forest, shrub-carr, edges of sedge meadow locally abundant Conde Groundnut sedge meadow, shrub-carr, and swamp forest occasional 7032, 7094 Redbud Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) uncommon Betz Crown-vetch disturbed areas; especially roadsides uncommon no collection Showy tick-trefoil open habitats; old-fields and sedge meadow occasional Conde Clustered-leaved tick-trefoil beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional Conde Panicled tick-trefoil openings in beech-maple forest and old-fields occasional Conde Honey locust Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) uncommon Conde Marsh pea sedge meadows occasional Conde Birdfoot trefoil old-field (09) locally abundant 7027 Black medick old-fields and other disturbed areas; especially along trails uncommon Assadi/Shub Alfalfa old-fields and other disturbed areas; especially along trails occasional Conde White sweet-clover disturbed areas, especially in rocky soil locally abundant Betz Yellow sweet-clover disturbed areas, especially in rocky soil common Assadi/Shub Black locust old-fields and other disturbed areas; especially in sandy locally common Conde H z 0 z H/ Rabbitfoot clover Little hop clover Alsike clover Red clover White clover Hariry vetch and rocky soil old-fields rare Betz old-fields and margins and hayfields uncommon Betz old-fields and margins and hayfields uncommon Assadi/Shub old-fields and other disturbed areas common Assadi/Shub old-fields and other disturbed areas; especially along trails uncommon Assadi/Shub old-fields uncommon Conde American beech beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Walter

Page  92 ï~~Latin Name Quercus alba L. Quercus bicolor Willd. Quercus macrocarpa Michx. Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. Quercus rubra L. Quercus velutina Lam. Fumariaceae (Fumitory Family) Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh. Gentianaceae (Gentian Family) Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Geraniaceae (Geranium Family) Geranium maculatum L. Geranium robertianum L. Grossulariaceae (Gooseberry Family) Ribes americanum P. Mill. Ribes cynosbati L. Ribes hirtellum Michx. Hamamelidaceae (Witch-hazel Family) Hamamelis virginiana L. Hydrocharitaceae (Frog's-bit Family) Elodea canadensis Michx. Hydrophyllaceae (Waterleaf Family) Hydrophyllum appendiculatum Michx Hydrophyllum canadense L. Iridaceae (Iris Family) *Iris pseudacorus L. Iris virginica L. Sisyrinchium angustifolium P. Mill. Juglandaceae (Walnut Family) Carya cordiformis (Wangenh.) K Koch Common Name White oak Swamp white oak Bur oak Chinquapin oak Red oak Black oak Squirrel corn Dutchman's breeches Bottle gentian Wild geranium Herb robert Wild black currant Prickly Gooseberry Swamp gooseberry Witch-hazel Common waterweed Great waterleaf Canada waterleaf Water flag Southern blue flag Stout blue-eyed-grass Bitternut hickory Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors poplar planting (Al) and dry knoll in Source Marsh (E2) occasional Conde floodplain forest, shrub swamp and borders of occasional Conde beech-maple forest beech-maple forest, especially on gravelly ridge above occasional Conde Kalamazoo River beech-maple forest and adjacent old-fields, especially in uncommon 7036 sandier soils beech-maple and floodplain forests common Walter sandy, successional beech-maple forest occasional 7038 beech-maple forest locally common Assadi/Shub beech-maple forest locally common Betz sedge meadows and adjacent moist old-field occasional Walter beech-maple and floodplain forests common Betz beech-maple forests and upland shrub thickets occasional Assadi/Shub sedge meadows, shrub-carr, and shrub swamps occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests, adjacent common Conde disturbed ground shrub swamp (I1) uncommon Lewis beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Conde Kalamazoo River uncommon Conde H z 0 z H 01 beech-maple and floodplain forests Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) sedge meadows and floodplains Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) and edges of sedge meadow (S) beech-maple and floodplain forests and edges of shrub swamps locally common Assadi/Shub uncommon Shub Assadi/Shub common Assadi/Shub uncommon Meininger common Conde

Page  93 ï~~Carya ovata (P. Mill.) K Koch Shagbark hickory beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional 7139 Juglans cinerea L. Butternut beech-maple and floodplain forests rare Starring Juglans nigra L. Black walnut throughout in all habitats common Walter Juncaceae (Rush Family) Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. Short-fruited rush sedge meadows, marly gravel pond (Pond06) occasional Conde Juncus canadensis J. Gay ex Laharpe Canadian rush marly gravel pond (Pond06) uncommon Conde Juncus dudleyi Wieg. Dudley's rush sedge meadow, old-fields, sandy pond edge: Source occasional Conde Pond (Pond09) Juncus effusus L. Soft-stemmed rush sedge meadows, gravel pond (Pond08) occasional Conde Juncus tenuis Willd. Path rush beech-maple forest, old-fields, upland shrub thickets locally common Conde Luzula acuminata Raf. Hairy wood rush beech-maple forest occasional Conde Luzula multiflora (Ehrh.) Lej. Common wood rush beech-maple forest occasional Conde Lamiaceae (Mint Family) Blephilia hirsuta (Pursh) Benth. Wood mint beech-maple and floodplain forests, especially on rocky soil uncommon Betz Clinopodium vulgare L. Wild basil forest margins and old-fields occasional Assadi/Shub Collinsonia canadensis L. Richweed springy ground in wet forests uncommon 7141 Glechoma hederacea L Ground ivy hayfield (H3) uncommon no collection *Lamium maculatum L. Spotted dead nettle disturbed areas Assadi/Shub Lamium purpureum L Purple dead-nettle disturbed areas occasional Assadi/Shub Leonurus cardiaca L. Motherwort disturbed areas occasional Betz Lycopus americanus Muhl. ex W Bart. Common water horehound sedge meadows and shrub-carr common Conde Lycopus uniflorus Michx. Northern bugle weed sedge meadows and shrub swamps occasional Conde Mentha x piperita L (pro sp.) [aquatica x spicata] Peppermint near springs in sedge meadows locally common 7088 Mentha arvensis L. Wild mint sedge meadows and shrub-carr occasional Conde Mentha spicata L Spearmint moist ground near streams and sedge meadows uncommon Conde Monardafistulosa L. Wild bergamot sedge meadows, forest openings, old-fields, upland common Assadi/Shub shrub thickets Monarda punctata L. Horsemint disturbed sandy soil (U4) rare Photo Nepeta cataria L. Catnip disturbed areas uncommon Assadi/Shub Origanum vulgare L. Wild marjoram disturbed areas, especially along trails and roadsides uncommon 7090 Physostegia virginiana (L.) Benth. False dragonhead Kalamazoo River floodplain, in a moist depression and uncommon 7119 shaded edge of sedge meadow Prunella vulgaris L. Lawn prunella throughout in all habitats occasional Assadi/Shub Scutellaria galericulata L. Common skullcap shrub-carr uncommon no collection Scutellaria lateriflora L. Mad-dog skullcap sedge meadow, shrub-carr, and swamp forest occasional Conde Stachys palustris L. Woundwort shrub-carr and sedge meadow along Kalamazoo River uncommon 3180 Stachys tenuifolia Willd. Smooth hedge nettle shrub-carr and sedge meadow along Kalamazoo River rare 4264, 4279 Teucrium canadense L. Wood sage Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) rare 3235

Page  94 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Lauraceae (Laurel Family) Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Lemnaceae (Duckweed Family) Lemna minor L. Wolffia columbiana Karst. Liliaceae (Lily Family) Allium canadense L. Allium tricoccum Ait. Allium vineale L Convallaria majalis L Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl. Hemerocallis fulva (L) L. Lilium michiganense Farw. Maianthemum canadense Desf Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf Smilax lasioneura Hook. Smilax tamnoides L. *Trillium cernuum L. Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. Uvularia grandiflora Sm. Limnanthaceae (False Mermaid Family) Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. Lythraceae (Loosestrife Family) Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. Lythrum salicaria L. Magnoliaceae (Magnolia Family) Liriodendron tulipifera L. Malvaceae (Mallow Family) Abutilon theophrasti Medik. Menispermaceae (Moonseed Family) Menispermum canadense L. Spicebush Sassafras Small duckweed Common water meal Wild garlic Wild leek Field garlic Lily-of-the-valley Yellow trout lily Orange day-lily Michigan lily Canada mayflower Daffodil Downy Solomon seal False spikenard Starry false Solomon-seal Carrion-flower Bristly green-brier Nodding trillium Common trillium Bellwort False mermaid Swamp loosestrife Purple loosestrife Tulip tree Velvetleaf beech-maple and floodplain forests, shrub swamps beech-maple and floodplain forests, old-fields ponds ponds abundant Chape occasional Chape locally common no collection uncommon no collection moist beech-maple forest, floodplain forests occasional Assadi/Shub beech-maple and floodplain forests common Conde disturbed ground, especially old-fields and near trails occasional Gibson disturbed successional forest (U7) uncommon no collection beech-maple and floodplain forests and adjacent old-fields common Norris disturbed ground, especially near roads and old homesites occasional Assadi/Shub sedge meadows occasional Assadi/Shub beech-maple and floodplain forests, shrub swamps common Assadi/Shub Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) rare no collection beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Norris beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Betz beech-maple forests and sedge meadows uncommon Betz beech-maple forests and upland shrub thickets occasional Assadi/Shub beech-maple and floodplain forests, old-fields occasional Conde beech-maple forest rare Weston/ Kummer beech-maple and floodplain forests locally common Betz beech-maple forests occasional Betz beech-maple and floodplain forests locally abundant Conde wetter portions of sedge meadow occasional no collection sedge meadows occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests occasional Walter old-fields and farm field margins uncommon Assadi/Shub H z 0 z H/ io occasional Broersma Moonseed beech-maple and floodplain forests, shrub-carr

Page  95 ï~~Molluginaceae (Carpet Weed Family) *Mollugo verticillata L. Monotropaceae (Indian-pipe Family) Monotropa uniflora L. Moraceae (Mulberry Family) Maclura pomifera (Raf.) Schneid. Morus alba L. Nyctaginaceae (Four-o'clock Family) *Mirabilis nyctaginea (Michx.) MacM. Nyssaceae (Tupelo Family) Nyssa sylvatica Marsh. Oleaceae (Olive Family) Fraxinus americana L. Fraxinus nigra Marsh. Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. Fraxinus quadrangulata Michx. Ligustrum vulgare L Syringa vulgaris L Onagraceae (Evening-primrose Family) Circaea lutetiana L. Epilobium coloratum Biehler Epilobium hirsutum L Epilobium leptophyllum Raf Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. Qenothera biennis L. Qenothera laciniata Hill Orchidaceae (Orchid Family) *Aplectrum hyemale (Muhl. ex Willd.) Torr Cypripedium parviflorum Salisbury var makasin (Farwell) Sheviak Cypripedium reginae Walt. Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Liparis liliifolia (L.) L.C. Rich. ex Ker-Gawl. Platanthera lacera (Michaux) G. Don Spiranthes cernua (L.) L.C. Rich. Carpet weed Indian pipe Osage orange White mulberry Four-o'clock Black gum White ash Black ash Red ash Blue ash rare LaBatt Common privet Common lilac Enchanter's-nightshade Cinnamon willow-herb Great hairy willow-herb Fen willow-herb Water purslane Common evening-primrose Ragged evening-primrose Adam and Eve Yellow lady-slipper Showy lady-slipper Helleborine Lily-leaved twayblade Ragged fringed orchid Nodding ladies'-tresses beech-maple forests: Pioneer Woods (C4) roadside (old farm lane) along hayfield (H1) throughout in all habitats railroad right-of-way edge of shrub swamp (13) beech-maple and floodplain forests, adjacent old-fields floodplain forests and border of sedge meadow beech-maple and floodplain forests, adjacent old-fields gravel ridges above Cooper's Glen (C2) and Kalamazoo River disturbed margins of beech-maple forest, gravel pit (G), levy in floodplain of Kalamazoo River (F2) margin of beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) forested habitat of all kinds moist and wet ground generally along Trout Run in sedge meadow: West Fen (S3) sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) inundated muck in springy sedge meadow old-fields and forest margins old-field (04) beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) sedge meadow along Kalamazoo River (Fl) one small population in narrow sedge meadow gravel ridges above Cooper's Glen (C2) and Kalamazoo River sandy, successional beech-maple forest edges on esker (03) adjacent to East Fen; after clearing in 2008 sedge meadows throughout rare 4076 common locally common occasional uncommon occasional uncommon common occasional locally common uncommon locally common occasional rare rare rare Conde 7035 7041 Lewis 7120 no collection Betz Conde Conde 7093 4361 Assadi/Shub no collection Conde 7136 H z 0 z H/ uncommon Broersma uncommon Conde common Conde uncommon Assadi/Shub rare Photo uncommon Photo rare Photo rare Photo occasional Conde

Page  96 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Orobanchaceae (Broom-rape Family) Conopholis americana (L.) Walir f Squawroot Epifagus virginiana (L.) W Bart. Beech drops Oxalidaceae (Wood-sorrel Family) Oxalis stricta L. Common yellow woo Papaveraceae (Poppy Family) Chelidonium majus L. Celandine Sanguinaria canadensis L. Bloodroot Stylophorum diphyllum (Michx.) Nutt. Wood poppy Phytolaccaceae (Pokeweed Family) Phytolacca americana L. Pokeweed Plantaginaceae (Plantain Family) *Plantago aristata Michx. Bracted plantain Plantago lanceolata L. English plantain Plantago rugelii Dcne. Red-stalked plantain Platanaceae (Sycamore Family) Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore Poaceae (Grass Family) Agropyron repens (L) Beauv. Quack grass Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte ex H.E Lewis Slender wheat grass floodplain forest (F2) beech-maple forests throughout uncommon Assadi/Shub occasional Adams occasional Assadi/Shub d-sorrel along trails and other disturbed areas disturbed margins of beech-maple forest near railroad uncommon no collection beech-maple forest throughout occasional Assadi/Shub In beech-maple forest near Cooper's Glen (Cl) locally common Betz disturbed areas throughout disturbed areas throughout throughout in all upland habitats occasional LaBatt LaBatt occasional Assadi/Shub occasional Shub Agrostis gigantea Roth. Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) B.S.P. Redtop Ticklegrass Creeping bent Agrostis stolonifera L. Andropogon virginicus L. Broom-sedge Aristida purpurascens Poir Three-awned grass Arrhenatherum elatius (L) Beauv. ex J. & K Presl Tall oatgrass Brachyelytrum erectum (Schreb. ex Spreng.) Beauv. Long-awned wood grass Bromus ciliatus L. Fringed brome Bromus commutatus Schrad. Hairy chess Bromus inermis Leyss. Smooth brome Bromus latiglumis (Shear) A.S. Hitchc. Ear-leaved brome Kalamazoo River floodplain and adjacent beech-maple forest occasional Conde hayfields and old-fields occasional Conde old poplar plantation (A3), and sedge meadow: uncommon 4135 Source Marsh (E2) local seepage in gravel pit (G) and sedge meadow (S2) occasional Conde beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) and border of occasional 3336 shrub swamp (13) large mat in loose muck along Trout Run through common Conde Cooper's Glen (F3) on esker along East Fen (03) common Conde old sand mine (U4) occasional 3343 gravel pit (G) and old-fields occasional Conde Kalamazoo River floodplain and shrub swamp (12) occasional Conde sedge meadow throughout occasional Conde hayfields and old-fields uncommon 4074 disturbed areas, especially ofld hayfields and old-fields common Broersma beech-maple forest: South Property (C3) and floodplain uncommon 3197 forest (F2) gravel pit (G) occasional 3045 beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional Conde z 0 z H 01 Bromus mollis auct. non L Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. Soft chess Canada brome

Page  97 ï~~Bromus racemosus L. *Bromus squarrosus L. Bromus tectorum L Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. *Cenchrus longispinus (Hack.) Fern. Cinna arundinacea L. Dactylis glomerata L. Danthonia spicata (L.) Beauv. ex Roemer & J.A. Schultes Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. *Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. Echinochloa muricata (Beauv.) Fern. Elymus riparius Wieg. Elymus villosus Muhl. ex Willd. Elymus virginicus L. Eragrostis cilianensis (All.) Vign. ex Janchen Eragrostis hypnoides (Lam.) B.S.P. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michx.) Nees ex Steud. Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steud. Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Festuca rubra L Festuca subverticillata (Pers.) Alexeev Glyceria septentrionalis A.S. Hitchc. Glyceria striata (Lam.) A.S. Hitchc. Hystrix patula Moench Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw Leersia virginica Willd. Leptoloma cognatum (J.A. Schultes) Chase Milium effusum L. Muhlenbergia frondosa (Poir) Fern. Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin. Muhlenbergia mexicana (L.) Trin. Muhlenbergia schreberi J.E Gmel. Muhlenbergia sylvatica Torr ex Gray *Panicum capillare L. Panicum clandestinum L. Smooth chess Brome Cheat grass Blue-joint grass Long-spined sandbur Wood reedgrass Orchard grass Poverty grass Hairy crab grass Barnyard grass Barnyard grass Riverbank wild-rye Silky wild-rye Virginia wild-rye Stink grass Creeping love grass Love grass Purple love grass Tall fescue Red fescue Nodding fescue Floating manna grass Fowl manna grass Bottlebrush grass Cut grass White grass Fall witch grass Wood millet Common satin grass Marsh wild-timothy Leafy satin grass Nimblewill Woodland satin grass Old witch grass Panic grass old sand mine (U4) uncommon LaBatt uncommon Betz old sand mine (U4) uncommon Conde sedge meadow throughout occasional Conde disturbed ground uncommon LaBatt beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamp occasional Conde disturbed areas, especially ofld hayfields and old-fields occasional LaBatt beech-maple forest and old-fields occasional Conde edge of tilled field (Ti) occasional LaBatt old-field (04) Conde old-field (04) uncommon Conde floodplain forest and sedge meadow occasional Conde Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) occasional Conde floodplain forest and sedge meadow occasional 3236 old-fields uncommon Conde shallow water in gravel pond (Pond 05) locally abundant 3281 edge of tilled field (Ti) occasional Conde openings in sandy beech-maple forest and old-fields common Conde along trails and other disturbed areas occasional Conde along trails and other disturbed areas occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamp occasional Conde edge of gravel pond (Pond 08) locally common 4359 moist beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamps occasional Conde and sedge meadow forested habitat of all kinds occasional Betz wet ground of all kinds locally abundant Conde moist beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional Conde on esker along East Fen (03), and sandy old-field above occasional Conde gravel pit (06) beech-maple and floodplain forest uncommon Conde disturbed ground as along trails; also in sedge meadow (E3) occasional 3298 sedge meadow throughout occasional Conde sedge meadow throughout occasional Conde disturbed ground as along trails and edges of hayfields uncommon Conde beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Ci) occasional 3291 upland shrub thicket (Ut) uncommon LaBatt Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) and adjacent railroad margin occasional Conde H z 0 z H/

Page  98 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Panicum dichotomiflorum Michx. Panicum implicatum Scribn. Panicum miliaceum L Panicum oligosanthes J.A. Schultes Panicum praecocius A.S. Hitchc. & Chase Panicum rigidulum Bosc ex Nees Phalaris arundinacea L. Phleum pratense L Poa alsodes Gray Poa annua L. Poa compressa L. Poa pratensis L Poa sylvestris Gray Poa trivialis L Setaria faberi Herrm. *Setaria glauca (L) Beauv. Setaria viridis (L) Beauv. Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. Tridens flavus (L.) A.S. Hitchc. Polemoniaceae (Phlox Family) Phlox divaricata L. Polygonaceae (Smartweed Family) Polygonum amphibium L. Polygonum arifolium L. Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonum convolvulus L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. *Polygonum pensylvanicum L. Polygonum persicaria L. Polygonum punctatum Ell. Polygonum sagittatum L. Polygonum virginianum L. Rumex acetosella L Rumex crispus L Panic grass Panic grass Broomcorn millet Panic grass Early-branching panic-grass Panic grass Reed canary grass Timothy Bluegrass Annual bluegrass Canada bluegrass Kentucky bluegrass Woodland bluegrass Bluegrass Giant foxtail Yellow foxtail Green foxtail Slender wedgegrass Purpletop Woodland phlox Water smartweed Tear-thumb Knot-grass False buckwheat Japanese knotweed Pennsylvania smartweed Lady's thumb Smartweed Arrow-leaved tear-thumb Jumpseed Sheep sorrel Curly dock old-fields uncommon Conde gravelly soil in beech-maple forest, as along esker common 4351 (C4, 03); also in sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) old-field (04) occasional 4215 old sand mine (U4) and sandy opening in beech-maple uncommon 3083, 4300 forest (C5) old-fields, and sandy opening in beech-maple forest, uncommon Conde including dry knoll in Source Marsh (E2) margin of hayfield (H2) uncommon no collection disturbed open wetlands and adjacent uplands occasional Conde hayfields and old-fields common Broersma moist bottom in Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) occasional 4098 along trails and other disturbed areas uncommon Conde sandy and gravelly ground in thin beech-maple forest occasional Conde disturbed uplands and sedge meadow occasional Assadi/Shub beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Cl) uncommon 4104 beech-maple forest: South Property (C3) uncommon Conde edge of tilled field (Ti) occasional Conde old-field (09) occasional Conde old-fields and edge of hayfields occasional Conde moist bottom in Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) occasional 4099 disturbed ground on edge of forested areas occasional Conde 00 z 0 z H1 beech-maple and floodplain forest shallow water in sedge meadows shrub-carr (E2) and shrub swamp (13) disturbed upland shrub thicket old-field (04) margin of farm field (Ti) moist, disturbed areas sedge meadows sedge meadow and shrub swamp sedge meadow and shrub swamp Forested habitat of all kinds old-fields and other disturbed areas Disturbed areas occasional Betz occasional 4286 locally common Conde uncommon Conde common LaBatt uncommon Walter uncommon Conde occasional Betz occasional Conde occasional Conde occasional Conde occasional Betz occasional Assadi/Shub

Page  99 ï~~Rumex obtusifolius L. Rumex orbiculatus Gray Rumex verticillatus L. Portulaceae (Purslane Family) Claytonia virginica L. Potamogetonaceae (Pondweed Family) *Potamogeton crispus L. Primulaceae (Primrose Family) Lysimachia ciliata L. Lysimachia nummularia L. Lysimachia quadriflora Sims Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Samolus parviflorus Raf Pyrolaceae (Shinleaf Family) Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Ranunculaceae (Buttercup Family) Actaea pachypoda Ell. Anemone quinquefolia L. Anemone virginiana L. Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach Aquilegia canadensis L. Caltha palustris L. Cimicifuga racemosa (L) Nutt. Clematis virginiana L. Hepatica acutiloba DC. Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker-Gawl. Isopyrum biternatum (Raf) Torr & Gray Ranunculus abortivus L. Ranunculus hispidus Michx. Bitter dock Great water dock Water dock Spring-beauty Pondweed Fringed loosestrife Creeping Jenny) Whorled Loosestrife Tufted loosestrife Water-pimpernel Spotted wintergreen Large-leaved shinleaf Doll's-eyes Wood anemone Thimbleweed Rue anemone Wild columbine Marsh-marigold Black snakeroot Virgin's bower Sharp-lobed hapatica Round-lobed hepatica False rue anemone Small-flowered buttercup Swamp buttercup Disturbed areas, especially along trails through moist occasional beech-maple forest and mucky soil Assadi/Shub sedge meadows sedge meadows uncommon Broersma uncommon LaBatt beech-maple and floodplain forest; occasional adjacent abundant old-field or shrub thicket Betz artificial pond in Trout Run (Pond 02) locally common Conde moist bottom in Kalamazoo River floodplain, shrub-carr occasional throughout Kalamazoo River floodplain common calcareous seep in sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) uncommon sedge meadows throughout occasional exposed mudflat in Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) uncommon sandy/gravelly soil on esker uncommon ecotone between beech-maple forest and sedge meadow uncommon beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional beech-maple and floodplain forest; occasional wet common depression contained within young forests and old-fields occasional beech-maple and floodplain forest; especially in sandier occasional Conde Conde 7082 Assadi/Shub 4281 7037 Gibson Betz Betz Kelley 7033 Assadi/Shub Betz no collection Conde Assadi/Shub Conde Assadi/Shub Assadi/Shub H z 0 z H/ soil of esker low terraces in Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) C1/3, E2-3, F1-2/4, II, S1-2 disturbed beech-maple forest: South Property (C3) shrub-carr and shrub swamp (I1) beech-maple and floodplain forest beech-maple (C4) and floodplain forest (Fl) beech-maple and floodplain forest beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamp and moist old-fields floodplain forest and shrub swamp; moist margins of beech-maple forest marly gravel pond (Pond06) uncommon common rare occasional occasional uncommon common uncommon common Betz uncommon 4288 Ranunculus pensylvanicus L. f Bristly crowfoot

Page  100 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. Ranunculus sceleratus L. Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-Lall. Thalictrum dioicum L. Rhamnaceae (Buckthorn Family) Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her Rhamnus cathartica L. Rhamnus frangula L Rosaceae (Rose Family) Agrimonia gryposepala Walr Agrimonia pubescens Wallr Amelanchier laevis Wieg. Aronia prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehd. *Crataegus chrysocarpa Ashe *Crataegus flabellata (Spach) Kirchn. *Crataegus mollis Scheele Crataegus punctata Jacq. Fragaria virginiana Duchesne Geum aleppicum Jacq. Geum canadense Jacq. Geum rivale L. *Malus baccata (L.) Borkh. Malus coronaria (L.) P. Mill. Malus prunifolia (Willd.) Borkh. Malus pumila P Mill. *Potentilla argentea L. Potentillafruticosa auct. non L. Potentilla recta L Hooked crowfoot Cursed crowfoot Purple meadow-rue Early meadow-rue Alder-leaved buckthorn Common buckthorn Glossy buckthorn Tall agrimony Soft agrimony Smooth shadbush Black chokeberry Golden fruited thorn Variable thorn Red fruited thorn Dotted hawthorn Wild strawberry Yellow avens White avens Purple avens Siberian crabapple American crab Chinese apple Apple Silvery cinquefoil Shrubby cinquefoil Rough-fruited cinquefoil throughout in both disturbed and mature forested habitats; some adjacent old-fields shallow water in shrub swamp (14) and sedge meadow (S2); also in ponds (Pond 08 and 09) sedge meadow and thickets in the Kalamazoo River floodplain floodplain forest and adjacent railroad margin occasional Conde uncommon 4110 occasional Assadi/Shub uncommon Betz sedge meadows: Source Marsh (E1-2) and locally common Betz Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) beech-maple and floodplain forest, pine and aspen locally common Conde plantations, some old-fields and upland shrub thickets sedge meadow and other wet areas; adjacent uplands locally common Conde beech-maple and floodplain forest, edge of shrub-carr common Adams somewhat sandier beech-maple and floodplain forest uncommon 7121 beech-maple forest, pioneering in gravel pit (G) uncommon 3006 sedge meadow and shrub-carr: Source Marsh (E1,2) uncommon 7031 shrub thicket (Ut) uncommon Conde beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) uncommon Conde Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) uncommon Conde beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Cl) and shrub thicket uncommon Conde on old sand mine (U4) open habitats of all kinds, old-fields, poplar stands; also common Betz edges of forest and along trails beech-maple and floodplain forest, adjacent moist old-fields occasional Gibson forested habitat of all kinds and adjacent old-fields and common Betz shrub thickets sedge meadows uncommon Conde beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Cl) uncommon Conde poplar stand (A3) and edge of beech-maple forest: uncommon Assadi/Shub H z 0 z H 01 Cooper's Glen (Cl) early-successional forest old-fields, poplar stands, early-successional forests old-fields and other disturbed places sedge meadow: West Fen (S3) old-fields and other disturbed places uncommon Conde uncommon 7142 uncommon Assadi/Shub rare 3317 occasional Betz

Page  101 ï~~Potentilla simplex Michx. Prunus avium (L.) L. *Prunus mahaleb L Prunus serotina Ehrh. Prunus virginiana L. Pyrus communis L. Rosa cinnamomea L Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murr. Rosa palustris Marsh. Rubus allegheniensis Porter Rubus flagellaris Willd. Rubus hispidus L. Rubus occidentalis L. Rubus pensilvanicus Poir Rubus pubescens Raf Rubus setosus Bigelow Rubus strigosus Michx. Sorbus decora (Sarg.) Schneid. Spiraea alba Du Roi Rubiaceae (Bedstraw Family) Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium asprellum Michx. Galium circaezans Michx. Galium concinnum Torr & Gray *Galium lanceolatum Torr Galium mollugo L Galium obtusum Bigelow Galium trifidum L. Common cinquefoil Sweet cherry Mahaleb cherry Wild black cherry Choke cherry Pear Cinnamon rose Multiflora rose Swamp rose Common blackberry Northern dewberry Swamp dewberry Black raspberry Dewberry Dwarf raspberry Bristly blackberry Wild red raspberry Mountain-ash Meadowsweet Buttonbush Annual bedstraw Rough bedstraw White wild licorice Shining bedstraw Wild licorice White bedstraw Wild madder Small bedstraw old-fields and other disturbed places uncommon early-successional forest and edges, shrub thickets, occasional gravel pit (G) uncommon throughout in both disturbed and mature forested habitats; abundant some adjacent old-fields beech-maple and floodplain forest and some adjacent occasional old-fields; also in shrub swamp (12) poplar stand (Al) uncommon shrub thicket (U5) and along edge of gravel pit and rare South Property throughout in both disturbed and mature forested habitats, abundant adjacent old-fields, sedge meadows and shrub-carr wet ground of all kinds, especially shrub-carr common old-fields, hayfields, and shrub thickets; margins of common forest, shrub swamps sandy/gravelly soil on esker occasional shrub-carr and shrub swamp uncommon throughout in most disturbed or successional habitats occasional old-fields and opening in beech-maple forest: uncommon Cooper's Glen (Cl) beech-maple and floodplain florest uncommon beech-maple and floodplain florest, adjacent old-field occasional edge of beech-maple forest and sedge meadow, occasional moist old-fields gravelly beech-maple forest (C4) along esker rare shrub swamp (13) uncommon shrub swamp and wetter depressions in sedge meadow uncommon beech-maple and floodplain forest (especially in areas common of bare soil), shrub thickets and shrub -carr sedge meadow occasional beech-maple and floodplain forest occasional first bottom along Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) uncommon beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) uncommon hayfield (H3) uncommon sedge meadow (S2) uncommon sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E1,2) uncommon Betz Conde 7124 Conde Conde Betz 7084 no collection Broersma Broersma 4024 4051 7087 Conde no collection Conde Betz Conde Broersma 3099 Conde no collection 4143 4137 Assadi/Shub Conde Betz Conde H z 0 z H/

Page  102 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Galium triflorum Michx. Mitchella repens L. Rutaceae (Citrus Family) *Ptelea trifoliata L. Zanthoxylum americanum P. Mill. Salicaceae (Willow Family) Populus deltoides Bartr ex Marsh. Populus grandidentata Michx. Populus tremuloides Michx. Salix amygdaloides Anderss. *Salix bebbiana Sarg. Salix candida Fluegge ex Willd. Salix discolor Muhl. Salix eriocephala Michx. Salix exigua Nutt. *Salixfragilis L Salix myricoides Muhl. Salix nigra Marsh. Salix sericea Marsh. Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. Saururaceae (Lizard's-tail Family) Saururus cernuus L. Saxifragaceae (Saxifrage Family) Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. ex Hook. Mitella diphylla L. Parnassia glauca Raf Saxifraga pensylvanica L. Tiarella cordifolia L. Fragrant bedstraw Partridge berry Common hoptree Prickly-ash Cottonwood Big-toothed aspen Quaking aspen Peach-leaved willow Bebb's willow Hoary willow Pussy willow Willow Sandbar willow Crack willow Blueleaf willow Black willow Silky willow Autumn willow Lizard's-tail Golden saxifrage Bishop's cap Grass-of-Parnassus Swamp saxifrage Heart-leaved foamflower beech-maple and floodplain forest sandy border of esker with Cooper's Glen (03) and adjacent rise in Trout Run floodplain (F3); oak knoll in Source Marsh (E2) Coopers Glen (Cl) borders of beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub thickets and shrub swamp, hill above gravel pit (G) various habitats: Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2), gravel pit (G), old-field (05), sedge meadow: West Fen (S3), shrub thicket (U4) sandier ground on edge of forests (C3, F2) and shrub thickets (U2,4) beech-maple forest, edge of sedge meadow, and some adjacent old-fields shrub swamp (14) presumably East Fen (S1) sedge meadow (S1, F2) shrub swamp (I1) and sedge meadow: East Fen (S1) sedge meadow: West Fen (S3) calcareous seep in gravel pit (G) disturbed ground in old sand mine (U4) sedge meadow: East Fen (Si) edges of ponds and sedge meadow/shrub-carr sedge meadows sedge meadow: East Fen (Si) occasional Prentice uncommon Conde rare Conde occasional Walter occasional Walter locally common Conde uncommon Betz uncommon uncommon occasional occasional occasional uncommon uncommon uncommon occasional occasional uncommon Conde Betz Conde Conde Conde Broersma Conde 4023 Betz Kelley 4220 n z 0 z H 01 seasonally-inundated bottoms of Kalamazoo River floodplain locally common Conde seepy shrub swamp near lobe in Source Marsh (E2) and locally abundant Conde along Kalamazoo River floodplain beech-maple and floodplain forest, especially on wetter, uncommon Assadi/Shub seepy edges and in adjacent shrub swamp sedge meadow: West Fen (S3) occasional Conde sedge meadows occasional Conde beech-maple forest: Pioneer Woods (C4) rare Photo

Page  103 ï~~Scrophulariaceae (Figwort Family) Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell Chaenorhinum minus (L) Lange Chelone glabra L. Collinsia verna Nutt. Linaria vulgaris P Mill. Mimulus ringens L. Pedicularis canadensis L. Pedicularis lanceolata Michx. Scrophularia lanceolata Pursh Scrophularia marilandica L. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum thapsus L. *Veronica arvensis L. *Veronica filiformis Sm. Veronica officinalis L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. Simaroubaceae (Quassia Family) Ailanthus altissima (P Mill.) Swingle Solanaceae (Nightshade Family) Physalis heterophylla Nees Physalis longifolia Nutt. Solanum carolinense L. Solanum dulcamara L Solanum ptychanthum Dunal Sparganiaceae (Bur-reed Family) Sparganium americanum Nutt. Sparganium chlorocarpum Rydb. Staphyleaceae (Bladdernut Family) Staphylea trifolia L. Tiliaceae (Linden Family) Tilia americana L. Typhaceae (Cat-tail Family) Typha latifolia L. Purple gerardia Dwarf snapdragon Turtlehead Blue-eyed Mary Butter-and-eggs Monkey-flower Wood-betony Swamp-betony Early figwort Late figwort Moth mullein Common mullein Corn speedwell Birds-eye Common speedwell Thyme-leaved speedwell Tree-of-heaven calcareous seep in sedge meadow: Source Marsh (E2) uncommon 7081 along railroad (RR) occasional 4121 sedge meadows, shrub swamp and swamp forest occasional Adams in floodplains hillside in beech-maple forest: Cooper's Glen (Cl) locally abundant Assadi/Shub Kalamazoo River floodplain (Fl) and hayfield (H4) uncommon Conde sedge meadows and pond margins occasional Gibson sandy/gravelly soil on esker occasional Assadi/Shub sedge meadows occasional Conde border of shrub swamp (I1) uncommon LaBatt beech-maple forest occasional Conde disturbed areas throughout uncommon Assadi/Shub disturbed areas throughout occasional Gibson disturbed areas uncommon Conde disturbed areas uncommon Conde old-fields, shrub thickets, and conifer plantings uncommon 3091 young forests and old-fields uncommon Assadi/Shub poplar planting (A3), young beech-maple forest, well-established in gravel pit (G) locally common Conde H z 0 z H/ Clammy ground-cherry shrub thicket (U7) and gravel pit (G) uncommon 7127 Long-leaved ground-cherry shrub thickets uncommon Conde Horse nettle disturbed areas: hayfields, old-fields, shrub thickets occasional LaBatt Bittersweet nightshade wet ground of all kinds, especially shrub-carr; also in occasional Assadi/Shub moist shrub thickets and old-fields Black nightshade Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) and pond margin (Pond 06) occasional Walter American bur-reed Bur-reed Bladdernut Basswood sedge meadows and emergent marsh sedge meadows and emergent marsh Kalamazoo River floodplain forest locally common 4293 locally common Lewis locally common Conde beech-maple and floodplain forests, sedge meadows and occasional Walter shrub swamps, pioneering in some old-fields Broad-leaved cat-tail sedge meadows and emergent marsh locally common Conde

Page  104 ï~~Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Latin Name Common Name Habitat (Compartments) Abundance Collectors Ulmaceae (Elm Family) Celtis occidentalis L. Ulmus americana L. Hackberry American elm Siberian elm Slippery elm Ulmus pumila L. Ulmus rubra Muhl. Ulmus thomasii Sarg. Urticaceae (Nettle Family) Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. Laportea canadensis (L.) Weddell Pilea fontana (Lunell) Rydb Pilea pumila (L.) Gray Urtica dioica L. Verbenaceae (Vervain Family) Phryma leptostachya L. Verbena hastata L. Verbena urticifolia L. Violaceae (Violet Family) *Viola blanda Willd. var palustriformis Gray Viola canadensis L. Viola conspersa Reichenb. Viola cucullata Ait. Viola pubescens Ait. Viola rostrata Pursh Viola sororia Willd. *Viola striata Ait. Vitaceae (Grape Family) Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch. Vitis aestivalis Michx. Vitis riparia Michx. Rock elm False nettle Wood nettle Bog clearweed Clearweed Nettle Lopseed Blue vervain White vervain Hairy white violet Canada violet Dog violet Marsh violet Yellow violet Long-spurred violet Common blue violet Pale violet Virginia creeper Summer grape Riverbank grape beech-maple and floodplain forest and some uncommon Conde adjacent old-fields beech-maple and floodplain forest and some adjacent occasional Norris old-fields and other disturbed areas disturbed areas: poplar planting (Al) and shrub thickets uncommon 7091 beech-maple and floodplain forest, sedge meadows and occasional Conde some adjacent old-fields and other disturbed areas successional beech-maple forest and terrace in rare 7140 Kalamazoo River floodplain (F2) sedge meadows, emergent marsh, mucky floodplains, occasional Adams shrub swamps and pond margins moist beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamps common Conde sedge meadow, shrub-carr, and swamp forest common 7138 beech-maple and floodplain forest, shrub swamp common Conde moist old-fields and forest margins, swamp forest occasional Conde beech-maple and floodplain forest uncommon Conde sedge meadow, pond margins, moist old-fields occasional Gibson disturbed areas, margins of forests and sedge meadows uncommon Conde beech-maple forest edge along railroad beech-maple and floodplain forests beech-maple and floodplain forests sedge meadows, shrub-carr, and shrub swamps beech-maple and floodplain forests beech-maple and floodplain forests beech-maple and floodplain forests young beech-maple forest uncommon Assadi/Shub occasional Assadi/Shub uncommon Conde common Assadi/Shub common Betz uncommon Meininger occasional Betz uncommon Assadi/Shub H z 0 z H 01 forested habitat of all kinds, and adjacent old-fields common Prentice poplar plantings, dry/gravelly beech-maple forest, margin of floodplain forest and railroad, sandy shrub thicket occasional 7137 beech-maple and floodplain forests, sedge meadows, and common Assadi/Shub adjacent disturbed areas and old-fields