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Page 26 ï~~26 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS MINNESOTA Lonicera caerulea L. subsp. edulis (Turcz. ex Herder) Hult6n. (Caprifoliaceae). Sweetberry honeysuckle. Previous knowledge. Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis is a deciduous shrub native to northeast Asia (Ohba 1993). In portions of its native range Hult6n (1930) and Ohba (1993) described it as common in meadows and moderately shady forests. This subspecies is cultivated for its glaucous, blue, edible "berries," which are actually two fleshy ovaries that are so tightly enclosed by a fleshy cupule of bractlets that they appear to be connate over their full length (Rehder 1903); these are suitable for jam and jelly (Whealy and Demuth 1993). Also treated by some authors as a variety of L. caerulea or as a 0, species, sweetberry honeysuckle has apparently not been reported as a non-cultivated member of the flora in North America or elsewhere beyond its native range (Ran~ dall 2002). Bailey (1949) asserted that L. caerulea was naturalized in North America, but there do not appear to be specimen collections to support this. USDA NRCS (2010) indicated an Ontario record of L. emphyllocalyx, recognized by some (e.g., Ohwi 1965) as an old-world variety of L. caerulea, but that record seems to be based on material in cultivation (L. Brouillet, personal communication, 6 April 2010). Significance of the report. About 25 shrubs of L. caerulea subsp. edulis were observed in a woodland on the rural outskirts of Duluth, FIGURE 1. Vigorous first-year stem of Lonicera caerulea Minnesota, distributed irregusubsp. edulis, showing connate stipules and superposed lat- larly within a polygon of eral buds as they appear during the growing season. Photograph courtesy of Raymond G. Barnes. ~125 m2. The sweetberry
Page 27 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 27 2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 27 FIGURE 2. Vigorous first-year stem of Lonicera caerulea subsp. edulis, showing connate stipules and superposed lateral buds as they appear during the leafless season. The divisions on the scale at the bottom are each 1 mm long. Photograph by David J. Schimpf. honeysuckles were up to 2 m tall, associated with Alnus incana subsp. rugosa under about 50% canopy cover from Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Acer rubrum and Sorbus decora. Almost all of the remaining woody vegetation was native, except for a few of the vertebrate-dispersed alien shrubs Frangula alnus and Lonicera tatarica. The collection site, with mesic to wet-mesic loamy soil, was about 200 m from the nearest residence, and much farther from any other homesteads. Sweetberry honeysuckle's abundant fruiting at the collection site indicates a potential to be further dispersed from it, into forested or open habitats. Sweetberry honeysuckle seems to be a relative newcomer in the North American nursery trade, as it has seldom appeared in catalogs; some commercial offerings name it "honeyberry." Bailey (1949) did not list any Lonicera being cultivated for edible fruit. This seems to be the first report of this taxon's occurrence outside of cultivation in North America. Diagnostic characters. On its most vigorous twigs L. caerulea subsp. edulis grows multiple superposed accessory lateral buds that are firm, sharp and up to 5 mm long; these nodes also bear large connate stipules (Figure 1) that persist through the winter (Figure 2). These character states were described by Rehder (1903), who later (Rehder 1960) mentioned the stipules but not the extra buds. Certain other North American native and introduced species of Lonicera sometimes have superposed buds (Trelease 1967; Petrides 1972), but we have not
Page 28 ï~~28 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 found mention of persistent stipules in treatments of North American Lonicera. There are a few other Asian Lonicera species with similar stipules and buds, but not the same form and color of fruit (Rehder 1903). Ohba (1993) contrasted the European L. caerulea subsp. caerulea as having larger, narrower leaves and bitter fruit, and Hult6n (1930) distinguished that subspecies by its less elongate, bitter fruit. The North American native L. caerulea var. villosa (Michx.) T. & G. has similar edible blue fruits (Fernald 1950), which are ovoid to ellipsoid (Smith 2008); it differs by lacking large stipules and by having branches with axillary angles less than 450 (Rehder 1903). In addition, the native variety is typically no more than about 1 m tall (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). The leafless twigs of L. caerulea subsp. edulis are deep reddish brown, with the vigorous twigs glabrous and lustrous and the other twigs hairy and dull. A high fraction of the spring twigs of some sweetberry honeysuckles were seen to have been browsed (presumably by white-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus) during the winter, more so than for the other woody species growing near them. These heavily browsed stems, reduced to less than ~1 m tall, did not flower. The collection date for the specimens cited as being in flower occurred during an exceptionally warm early spring; we expect that mid-May might be a more typical time for anthesis at this site. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, SW Sec. 8, T50N R14W, approaching winter condition, 21 Oct 2008, Pomroy and R. Barnes 2652 (DUL); fruit ripening, 24 Jul 2009, Pomroy, R. Barnes, and Schimpf 2666, 2667 (DUL, MIN); in flower, 28 Apr 2010, Schimpf 585 (DUL, MIN). Lonicera xsalicifolia Dieck ex Zabel. (Caprifoliaceae). Willow-leaved honeysuckle. Previous knowledge. The deciduous shrub Lonicera xsalicifolia is a spontaneous hybrid between the northeast Asian native L. ruprechtiana and L. xxylosteoides, the latter being a hybrid between the Eurasian natives L. tatarica and L. xylosteum (Rehder 1960; Green 1966). These parent taxa have been brought close enough for interbreeding through cultivation or escape from cultivation. In North America, L. xsalicifolia has been reported growing outside of cultivation in apparently only one place, near Cleveland, Ohio (Wilder and McCombs 2002; USDA NRCS 2010). Its abundance and reproductive status there were not reported. Green (1966) asserted that L. xsalicifolia is seldom cultivated. Significance of the report. One individual of L. xsalicifolia was found on a large, steeply sloping exposure of gabbroic bedrock in Duluth, Minnesota, apparently the first report for the state and second for North America. The outcrop is surrounded by natural vegetation, is elevated -75 m (at the collection point) above a thinly settled area, and is heavily invaded by the non-native shrubs Cotoneaster acutifolius var. lucidus and Lonicera morrowii. The L. xsalicifolia shrub was about 1.5 m tall, and appeared to be vigorous. There is a very large area of similar habitat in the vicinity of the collection point, but little of it was searched for other individuals of L. xsalicifolia or its parent species because of
Page 29 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 29 hazardous rugged terrain. The habitat reported for the other North American occurrence of L. xsalicifolia was "high on ridge" (Wilder and McCombs 2002). Diagnostic characters. The Duluth L. xsalicifolia had leaf blades up to 4 cm long by 1.5 cm wide, with rounded base, acute to acuminate apex, and pale green hairy abaxial surface. Most leaves ascended the stem, but were not appressed. Petioles and new stems were reddish, darkest at the nodes. The pedicels well exceeded the petioles, bearing pairs of axillary flowers that were only 7 mm long. The bilaterally symmetrical corollas were yellow, the calyces reddish and spreading, the bractlets obtuse and nearly as long as the ovaries, and the bracts long and subulate. Long hairs were dense on the corollas and styles, but sparser on the calyces, bractlets, bracts and peduncles; the bracts and peduncles were also thinly glandular. The ovaries were glabrous. Green (1966) reported that most flowers of L. xsalicifolia abort without producing fruit. The Duluth plant lacked functional stamens in all 20 pairs of flowers that were examined, and fewer than ten ripe fruits were seen on the whole plant at the same time that neighboring L. morrowii shrubs of similar size held countless ripe fruits. This suggests that L. xsalicifolia set fruit through pollen received from other Eurasian Lonicera nearby; the fruits were irregularly clustered on L. xsalicifolia, consistent with rare, localized pollination. Fruits of L. xsalicifolia were depressed-globose, scarlet, glossy and -7 mm in diameter. Each fruit contained a few seeds -2.5 mm long, whereas those of the L. morrowii nearby were -3 mm long. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, Sec. 34, T49N R15W, in flower, 30 May 2010, Schimpf 590 (DUL, MIN); fruit ripe 29 July 2010, Schimpf 597 (DUL, MIN). Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreber. (Fabaceae). Four-seed vetch. Previous knowledge. Vicia tetrasperma is an annual climbing forb that is native to Eurasia and weedy in North America (Isely 1998), but not known from the central plains (USDA NRCS 2010). The species is apparently not one that is cultivated in the United States (Gunn 1971). The previous collection site nearest to Minnesota appears to be one near the Lake Michigan shore in Wisconsin (Wisflora 2010). Significance of the report. A non-cultivated population of V tetrasperma in Duluth, Minnesota appears to be the first one documented for the state. Plants of this species were very common over about 30 m2 between a residential street and a woodland, climbing on other herbaceous species. The site had fairly welldrained loamy soil and partial sun. Diagnostic characters. Vicia tetrasperma is distinctive within the genus in having inflorescences that each bear usually only one or two small flowers, producing pendant fruits with a broadly rounded apex (Isely 1998). The shoots are very slender in every respect, and almost completely glabrous. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, Sec. 15, T50N R14W, in flower and fruit, 7 Jul 2009, Schimpf 540 (DUL, MIN).
Page 30 ï~~30 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Lathyrus sylvestris L. (Fabaceae). Everlasting pea. Previous knowledge. Lathyrus sylvestris is a rhizomatous perennial forb that is native to Europe and climbs with tendrils (Isely 1998). Introduced for ornamental use, it now grows outside of cultivation in many parts of the United States and Canada, but not in the states and provinces of the Great Plains (USDA NRCS 2010). Occurrence of this species in Minnesota was reported by a personal communication (USDA NRCS 2010), but there does not appear to be a collection of it from Minnesota deposited at MIN or DUL. Significance of the report. A population of L. sylvestris was found outside of cultivation in rural southern St. Louis County, apparently the first location in Minnesota to be represented by herbarium specimens. The species was common across a strip approximately 200 m x 7 m on a south-facing road bank adjoining a horse pasture. Diagnostic characters. Lathyrus sylvestris is most similar to L. latifolius, with the former being best distinguished by its narrower (1-2 mm) stipules (Isely 1998). Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Lakewood Township, NE of NW Sec. 2, T51N R13W, in flower and fruit, 12 Aug 2010, Pomroy and R. Barnes 2735 (DUL, MIN). Filipendula rubra (Hill) B. L. Robinson. (Rosaceae). Queen of the prairie. Previous knowledge. Filipendula rubra is a tall perennial forb native to moist, often open, habitats in the east-central United States (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Although Gleason and Cronquist (1991) included Minnesota in the range of the species, no specimens documenting this are held at DUL or MIN. Cultivation of F rubra is undertaken for its large warm-pink inflorescence and large leaves with distinctive lobes (Bailey 1949; Snyder 1991), with subsequent escape beyond the native range. This species is known to be established outside of cultivation in several Wisconsin locations, including Douglas County in the northwest corner of the state (Wisflora 2010). Significance of the report. A colony of F rubra was found growing in moist ground at the foot of a railroad bank in Duluth, Minnesota, perhaps the first collection from outside of cultivation for the state. This species dominated the vegetation in an area of about 20 m2, but only one shoot bore flowers or fruits. We infer that this colony is an escape from cultivation. There were no shoots disjunct from the colony, evidence that any recent enlargement of the population may have been strictly asexual; this species is rhizomatous (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Specimen citation. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, Sec. 8, T50N R13W, in flower, 31 Jul 2009, Schimpf 563 (DUL). Campanula persicifolia L. (Campanulaceae). Willow bellflower. Previous knowledge. Campanula persicifolia is a perennial forb native to meadows and open woods in Europe (Fedorov 1976); it is cultivated for its flow
Page 31 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 31 ers (Bailey 1949) and sometimes escapes to the wild in the Northeastern and Pacific Northwest floristic regions of North America (USDA NRCS 2010). Populations outside of cultivation have been documented in several locations in northern Wisconsin (Wisflora 2010). This species has not been reported from outside of cultivation in Minnesota. Significance of the report. Two populations of C. persicifolia were found in woodland margins in Duluth, Minnesota, apparently the first occurrences outside of cultivation known for the state. Both populations were in settings that gave the impression of being escapes from cultivation rather than remnants of cultivation. Each population included individuals with blue corollas and others with white corollas; at each location there were 12 or more flowering shoots, plus a greater number of non-flowering shoots. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, Sec. 14, T50N R14W, in flower, 8 Jul 2009, Schimpf 542 (DUL, MIN); Duluth, Sec. 15, T50N R14W, in flower, 15 Jul 2009, Schimpf 554 (DUL, MIN). Cerastium arvense L. subsp. arvense. (Caryophyllaceae). Field chickweed. Previous knowledge. Cerastium arvense is a small perennial forb with a worldwide distribution (Morton 2005). Cerastium arvense subsp. arvense is native to western Europe and is introduced in North America, whereas C. arvense subsp. strictum is native to the Americas and the Alps (Morton 2005). The only known collection of C. arvense subsp. arvense from Minnesota was in 1938 in Duluth [Lakela 2406 (DUL, MIN)], at a site where we have failed to find the species recently. J. K. Morton annotated the sheet at MIN in 2003: "This appears to be C. arvense subsp. arvense-the European tetraploid which grows as an introduced weed in lawns etc. in North America. Its general appearance is typical for that subspecies but its pollen size is smaller than I would expect for subsp. arvense." Significance of the report. Collections from two populations in Duluth, Minnesota that fit the macroscopic description of C. arvense subsp. arvense give evidence that this subspecies is sparingly established in the state. Both populations grew in sand on Minnesota Point, a bay-mouth bar at the southwestern tip of Lake Superior. These locations, in a generally residential district, are some 4 km and 8 km away from Lakela's 1938 collection site. Shoots were numerous across at least 10 m2 in each location. Diagnostic characters. According to Morton (2005), C. arvense subsp. arvense can be distinguished from the more variable native subspecies by the former's mat-forming, strongly rhizomatous colonies, anthocyanic flowering stems > 20 cm tall, lack of glandular hairs below the inflorescence, anthers >_1 mm long and petals that change from white to brown after pollination. The last character state was not apparent in the new collections, but there were dark fungal growths on the withered petals of the fruiting stage. Morton (2005) asserted that the two subspecies are more reliably distinguished in the field than in the herbarium. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, thin mown turf of park
Page 32 ï~~32 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 way, Sec. 12, T49N R14W, in flower, 31 May 2009, Schimpf 505 (DUL, MIN), in fruit, 29 Jun 2009, Schimpf 530 (DUL, MIN); Duluth, tall grass with deciduous shrubs, Sec. 35, T50N R14W, in flower, 7 Jun 2009, Schimpf 508 (DUL, MIN), in fruit, 29 Jun 2009, Schimpf 529 (DUL, MIN). Daphne mezereum L. (Thymelaeaceae). February daphne. Previous knowledge. Daphne mezereum is a deciduous shrub native to western Eurasia, where it reaches heights of 1.5-2 m (Pobedimova 1949; Webb and Ferguson 1968). It is cultivated in North America (Bailey 1949) for its fragrant early flowers and colorful fleshy fruits, the latter being poisonous to humans (Pobedimova 1949). Escape from cultivation has been documented for eastern Canada, the northeastern United States, Ohio, Alaska and Montana (USDA NRCS 2010), and in Vilas Co., Wisconsin (Wisflora 2010). Significance of the report. Daphne mezereum was observed near a busy highway in rural Lake County, Minnesota, apparently the first report from outside of cultivation for this state. The flowering shrub was located mid-slope, on a steep southeast-facing exposure, approximately 0.2 km from Lake Superior. The shrub was about 0.5 m tall, located under the canopy of Populus tremuloides, Betula papyrifera, Picea glauca, and Alnus incana subsp. rugosa. There were also several shorter, non-flowering, D. mezereum stems all within a distance of 0.5 m of the flowering stems. At the time of collection, leaves were not yet on the surrounding trees and shrubs, although the area had an unusually early, but very dry spring. A few leaves were beginning to appear on the D. mezereum. The flowers were fragrant, with brilliant magenta calyces. The only other species that had showy flowers nearby on the collection date was Anemone quinquefolia. Specimen citations. Minnesota. Lake Co.: Little Marais, NE4 Sec. 20, T57N R6W, in flower, 24 April 2010, Pomroy and R. Barnes 2718 (DUL, MIN). Artemisia stelleriana Besser. (Asteraceae). Dusty miller. Previous knowledge. Artemisia stelleriana is a perennial forb that is native to sandy beaches of the northwestern Pacific Ocean (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Because of its dense silvery tomentose herbage it is used in ornamental horticulture (Bailey 1949), from which it has escaped to other sandy habitats, mostly beaches and dunes, in North America (Shultz 2006). The only known collections from Minnesota (Lakela 1965) have been made from sands at Minnesota Point, a large bay-mouth bar at the southwestern tip of Lake Superior. Elsewhere on Lake Superior this species was collected from the Keweenaw Peninsula of Michigan (Reznicek et al. 2010). From Wisconsin there is a single collection made about 100 years ago along Lake Michigan (Wisflora 2010). Significance of the report. Eight small patches of A. stelleriana were found in loamy soil in narrow strips of turf along a street in Duluth, Minnesota, an apparently unusual habitat for this species. Seven patches were found on one side of a busy four-lane street, with one patch on the opposite side. The directly neighboring turf ranged from sparse to dense for these colonies, which were beneath
Page 33 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 33 large deciduous trees. The shoots grew low enough to tolerate mowing, and a few of the plants produced inflorescences. These plants may have spread from an ornamental planting at a park to the north. Artemisia stelleriana is rhizomatous (Shultz 2006), and this local spread may have been through asexual reproduction. We have seen this species on a few other curbsides with loamy soils in Duluth, but these locations were in front of residences, where deliberate planting could not be ruled out as easily. Specimen citations. Minnesota. St. Louis Co.: Duluth, Woodland Ave., Sec. 11, T50N R14W, in flower, 30 Jun 2009, Schimpf 533 (DUL, MIN). Thymus pulegioides L. (Lamiaceae). Large creeping thyme. Thymus praecox Opiz subsp. arcticus (Durand) Jalas. (Lamiaceae). Creeping thyme. Previous knowledge. Thymus is a nomenclaturally complex genus of low shrubs and semi-shrubs native to Eurasia (Sell and Murrell 2009). A few taxa are cultivated for their aromatic leaves, with some used as culinary herbs (Bailey 1949). Escapes from cultivation in North America are documented for some taxa. USDA NRCS (2010) reported that Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus was widely distributed in the Great Lakes region outside of cultivation, T kosteletzkyanus has been collected on Isle Royale, Michigan, in Lake Superior, and T pulegioides has been reported from many points in Michigan, but not from Wisconsin or Minnesota. Significance of the report. Collections from three Minnesota sites held at MIN, labeled as T serpyllum and listed by USDA NRCS (2010) as T praecox subsp. arcticus, can be assigned to T pulegioides. Two collections in 2007, both from sunny, closely mown cemetery turf in northeastern Minnesota, are also of T pulegioides. These five collection sites are well dispersed geographically, suggesting that this species may be established at other sites in the state. One collection at DUL from the Lake Superior shore of Minnesota is of T praecox subsp. arcticus, apparently the only one known from the state. Thus there is evidence of two species of Thymus in the wild in Minnesota. Diagnostic characters. Thymus pulegioides is morphologically separated from T praecox subsp. arcticus by the location of the pubescence on the lower, quadrangular, internodes of flowering stems; hairs are concentrated on the angles in the former, but are concentrated on two opposite faces in the latter (Jalas 1972; Voss 1996). The longest leaves (including petiole) of T praecox subsp. arcticus are 5-8 mm, whereas those of T pulegioides can reach 18 mm (Jalas 1972). Thymus kosteletzkyanus [T pannonicus in Jalas (1972) and Voss (1996)] has internodes that are terete or only weakly angular, with the hairs evenly distributed around the circumference. Specimen citations. Thymus pulegioides-Minnesota. Beltrami Co.: Waskish, T154N R3OW, leaves to 8 mm long, 22 Jul 1983, anonymous s. n. (MIN); Pine Co.: Willow River, sandy soil, Sec. 2, T44N R2OW, leaves to 9 mm long, 3 Sep 2007, Schimpf 447 (DUL, MIN); St. Louis Co.: Duluth, loamy soil, Sec. 2, T50N R14W, leaves to 10 mm long, 25 Aug 2007, Schimpf 442 (DUL); St. Louis Co.:
Page 34 ï~~34 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 Vermilion Dam, wooded slope, Sec.11, T63N R17W, leaves to 15 mm long, 7 Aug 1940, O. Lakela 3956 (MIN); Washington Co: Afton Township, T28N R20W, leaves to 8 mm long, 31 Jul 1986. J. Benders. n. (MIN). Thymus praecox subsp. arcticus - Minnesota. Lake Co.: Beaver Bay, among rocks, T55N R8W, leaves to 5 mm long, Jul 1980, G. Lowry s. n., determined as Thymus praecox Opiz by W. J. Dress and H. Flannery 16 Oct 1980 (DUL). WISCONSIN Briza media L. subsp. media. (Poaceae). Perennial quaking grass. Previous knowledge. Briza media is a perennial grass native to most of Europe and the Caucasus region (Tutin 1980; Snow 2007). It has also been recorded (apparently as a native) from Syria, Turkey, Kashmir, Myanmar, Nepal and Tibet, and is introduced in South Africa, Australia and New Zealand (Dixon 2002). In North America it is widely established in New England, and has also been reported from Newfoundland, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Alabama, Colorado and California (Snow 2007; USDA NRCS 2010). It has been known from the upper Great Lakes states only from six counties in lower Michigan (Reznicek et al. 2010). Scoggan (1978) described it as a "garden escape" or "casual waif" in Canada; in addition to the above provinces, he included two sites on Vancouver Island, British Columbia. In its native range B. media is typically a plant of well-drained, nutrient-poor calcareous soils (Dixon 2002). It tolerates a wide variety of edaphic conditions, though, having been recorded from sites ranging from poorly drained to dry, on soils with a wide variety of textures and with pH ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 (Dixon 2002). Briza media survives grazing, mowing, trampling, fire and light shade (Dixon 2002). It is a poor competitor with taller vegetation (Grime et al. 1988; McLellan et al. 1997), persisting but generally not flowering in 50% shade (Dixon 2002). Briza media forms only a transient seed bank (Grime et al. 1988). The seeds are readily transported on the wool of sheep (Fischer et al. 1996), and might be moved by other large animals. It is cultivated for its downward-arching, trembling, ornamental spikelets, which are used fresh or dried in flower arrangements (Everett 1981; Brickell and Zuk 1996). Scoggan (1978) used the name "doddering dillies" for this species. Significance of the report. In 2009 five flowering patches of B. media were found along a section of the former United States Navy Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) transmission corridor in northern Wisconsin. In 2010 seven more patches were found along this corridor, six to the east and one to the west of the 2009 patches. The known population is rather evenly scattered for -2.9 km along the corridor, from just west of Forest Road 173 eastward almost to County Road GG, entirely within the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest. The 25-m wide corridor traverses a gently undulating landscape of wetlands and low hills. Due to the sandy soil, the hills are well-drained and presumably somewhat droughty. All of the patches of B. media found were on these hills, where the vegetation tended to be relatively sparse. This habitat seems consistent with the typical
Page 35 ï~~2011 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 35 habitat of B. media in its native range. It seems likely that this species, otherwise unknown from Wisconsin, was introduced on logging or construction equipment, as there are no residences nearby that could have served as a local source from cultivation after the corridor was built. The section of ELF corridor where Briza media was found appears to be reverting to natural vegetation at varying rates: dense stands of Salix spp. and Alnus incana subsp. rugosa already dominate some wet areas, whereas upland areas often remain only sparsely colonized by woody vegetation, including Salix humilis and tree saplings. Unless this species spreads beyond this corridor, it may eventually be extirpated by the encroaching vegetation. Diagnostic characters. With its basally disposed leaves and panicles of broad, flattened, dangling spikelets, B. media is a distinctive-looking grass. It may be distinguished from B. maxima and B. minor, its two congeners introduced to North America, by its perennial habit and ligules less than 1 mm long (Snow 2007). Based on their shorter stature, narrower leaves, and wide-spreading panicle branches (Tutin 1980), the Wisconsin plants appear to be subspecies media. Specimen citations. Wisconsin. Ashland Co.: Shanagolden Township, NE of SE Sec. 30, T42N RO4W, ripening seed, 24 Jul 2009, Garske 758 (UWSP, WIS); Shanagolden Township, NW of SW Sec. 29, T42N, RO4W, ripe seed, 25 Aug 2009, Garske 765 (DUL, OSH); Shanagolden Township, SE of NE Sec. 29, T42N R04W, ripening seed, 8 July 2010, Garske 791 (UWSP, WIS). Campanula cervicaria L. (Campanulaceae). Bristly bellflower. Previous knowledge. Campanula cervicaria is a biennial or short-lived monocarpic perennial forb native to Eurasia, where it is rare over at least the northern part of its European range (Eisto et al. 2000). It was first collected outside of cultivation in North America in northeastern Minnesota by O. Lakela in the 1940s (Schimpf 2005). These and subsequent collections from surrounding lands were originally misidentified as Campanula glomerata (Schimpf 2005). Schimpf's (2005) examination of herbarium sheets labeled as C. glomerata from across North America revealed no C. cervicaria other than those from northeastern Minnesota. In parts of northeastern Minnesota, C. cervicaria can be locally common (Schimpf 2005). Often (1999) found that as C. cervicaria senesces in the fall, its capsule pores open and the ripe seeds fall out, with most seeds retained by bracts just below the capsule. The stems often remain standing for a year after death (Schimpf 2005), during which time strong winds liberate the seeds from the bracts (Often 1999). Often (1999) found that in Norway 60% of the seeds captured by the bracts had dispersed within three months, and only 5% remained on dead stems after one year. Based on germination experiments using soil samples from within dense stands of C. cervicaria, Often (1999) concluded that C. cervicaria forms only a sparse soil seed bank. Significance of the report. A single flowering C. cervicaria plant was collected in the former United States Navy Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) transmission corridor (described under Briza media above), apparently the first
Page 36 ï~~36 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 50 record for Wisconsin. This plant was 8 dm tall. One other, much smaller, flowering individual was noted and photographed earlier the same day, about 0.6 km east of the first plant along the same corridor. A subsequent visit to the area turned up no additional plants. Like B. media, C. cervicaria is a grassland species with little shade tolerance, and population size is decreased by encroaching vegetation (Eisto et al. 2000). At this point it is unclear whether C. cervicaria is truly established along this corridor, whether more C. cervicaria plants occur on unsearched portions of the corridor, or whether the existing population is on the verge of dying out. Populations with five plants or fewer, none that fruited during one year, have been observed to increase in subsequent years (Eisto et al. 2000). More field work will be necessary to determine whether C. cervicaria is a transient in the flora or is becoming naturalized in Wisconsin. Diagnostic characters. Of the Campanula species (native and introduced) found in eastern North America, C. cervicaria probably most closely resembles the introduced Eurasian polycarpic perennial C. glomerata. It differs from C. glomerata by having a thicker taproot that, in North American material, typically reaches 8 mm or more wide (pressed) at the time of flowering (Schimpf 2005). The calyx lobes of C. cervicaria are usually 2-4 mm long and wide, and obtuse or weakly angular, versus 2 mm wide at the base, 6-12 mm long, and acute to acuminate in C. glomerata (Schimpf 2005). The leaves of C. cervicaria typically taper to a winged petiole, whereas those of C. glomerata are truncate or cordate at the base, with wingless petioles (Fedorov 1976). Campanula cervicaria frequently reaches a height of 10-13 dm in northeastern Minnesota (Schimpf 2005), whereas C. glomerata may reach 3-7 dm tall (Gleason and Cronquist 1991). Specimen citation. Wisconsin. Ashland Co.: Shanagolden Township, NE of SE Sec. 30, T42N RO4W, in flower, 8 July 2010, Garske 792 (UWSP). Syringa reticulata (Blume) H. Hara subsp. reticulata. (Oleaceae). Japanese tree lilac. Previous knowledge. Syringa reticulata subsp. reticulata is a small deciduous tree native to Japan that was recently found spreading from ornamental cultivation into deciduous forest in Duluth, Minnesota (Schimpf et al. 2009). This species has not previously been reported outside of cultivation in Wisconsin or elsewhere in the western Great Lakes region, but is known from some northeastern states (USDA NRCS 2010). Significance of the report. Non-cultivated fruiting S. reticulata subsp. reticulata trees were found on the edge of a small wooded tract in a residential area just south of the city of Superior, Wisconsin, apparently the state's first record of spread from cultivation for this taxon. Two young trees bearing capsules were growing near a roadside ditch on clay soil. The putative parent, a much larger tree, was a few meters away, in the same moist habitat, but farther from the ditch. It was likely planted many years ago. The site also included non-reproducing saplings of S. reticulata subsp. reticulata, as well as several other non-native ornamental species that had evidently been abandoned from cultivation.
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