Page  207 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 207 FAIRY SPARKLERS (XYLARIA TENTACULATA, XYLARIACEAE), A RARELY SEEN FUNGUS IN OHIO Michael A. Vincent Kevin Metcalf W.S. Turrell Herbarium North Chagrin Nature Center Department of Botany Willoughby Hills, OH 44094 Miami University Oxford, OH 45056 ABSTRACT Fairy Sparklers (Xylaria tentaculata, Xylariaceae) is reported and illustrated from Ohio, from 2006 collections in Cuyahoga and Pike Counties, and an historical collection from Hamilton County. Populations ranged in size from 75-100 individuals. The species is rarely collected, perhaps due to its unobtrusive habit and small size, and may be sought in similar habitats in late summer. Keywords: Xylaria tentaculata, Ascomycetes, fungi, Ohio Xylaria tentaculata (Fairy Sparklers, Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes; Figure 1) was first described by Berkeley and Curtis (1869) from material collected in South Carolina by Ravenel, and based on a manuscript written by Ravenel. In the New World, the species has been reported from the United States (Bessette et al. 1997), Cuba (Berkeley and Curtis 1869), and Mexico (San Martin and Rogers 1995); it has also been reported from Sri Lanka (formerly Ceylon; Lloyd 1924; Saccardo 1882). In the United States, it is known mostly from the southeastern states (Bessette et al. 1997), with specimens known from Delaware (Farr et al. 2006), Maryland (Farr et al. 2006), North Carolina (Lloyd 1911a, 1920), South Carolina (Berkeley and Curtis 1869), Tennessee (Callan and Rogers 1990), and West Virginia (B. Roody, pers. comm. 26 Sep 2006). It has also been documented from Indiana (Bloomington, Monroe County; J.D. Rogers, pers. comm. 1 Sep 2006) and New York (swamp north of Geneva, Ontario County, Brown 1913). Cincinnati mycologist Curtis Gates Lloyd discussed the species in several publications (Lloyd 1911a, 1911b, 1920, 1924), though he did not include it in his "Xylaria Notes" (Lloyd 1918 a, b), and cited no Ohio specimens. Cooke (1883) classified X. tentaculata in his group Xyloglossa, with smooth stems and the body of the fungus fertile throughout. Rogers (1985) placed the species in the Xylaria comosa group of his Section II, since its conidia are produced on thin hair-like appendages attached to the teleomorphic body. The only mention of Xylaria tentaculata as part of the fungal flora of Ohio is that by Wm. Bridge Cooke in his unpublished manuscript on the Ohio mycological flora in the archives of the W.S. Turrell Herbarium, Department of Botany, Miami University. In his manuscript, Cooke lists "Xylaria tentacula" as present in Ohio based on a specimen in the Iowa University herbarium (IA), now housed at Iowa State University (ISC). A request for the specimen on loan turned up a

Page  208 ï~~208 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 208 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 FIGURE 1. Xylaria tentaculata specimens from Ohio. Right: Pike County material. Left: Cuyahoga County material. Note: pin is 27mm in length. specimen from Preston, Hamilton County, Ohio, dated 1891. Queries to Ohio herbaria (BHO, CINC, KE, OS) turned up no material of the species. National mycological herbaria (BPI, F, FH, NY) were also searched for Ohio specimens of the fungus, but none were located. The development of X. tentaculata was described in detail by Brown (1913). The fungus begins as an upright club-shaped structure that branches at the tip when it reaches 15-20 mm in height; each branch divides again, lengthening to up to 16 mm. After branches form, conidiophores form on them laterally, on which hyaline conidia are produced. Rogers (1985) states that the conidia are produced holoblastically and sympodially on stroma or coremia on the branches, and secede passively. Brown (1913) stated that the sexual structures form in the upper portion of the club-shaped body, the latter expanding into a swollen region from which perithecia project as papillae. Callan and Rogers (1990) illustrated the asci, containing 8 ascospores with an evident germ slit, found in this swollen region. Callan and Rogers (1993) report that X. tentaculata produces sclerotia in culture. Xylaria tentaculata occurs in wooded habitats on leaf litter or on decaying wood, and is often found from July to October (Bessette et al. 1997; Callan and Rogers 1990). The new Ohio sites are in Cuyahoga and Pike counties, in similar wooded habitats. Fruiting bodies were found in large numbers (75-100) at each of these sites, and were in evidence over a period of several weeks (early August to early Spetember), after which they disappeared. It is quite likely that the fungus may be found at other Ohio sites, and has merely been overlooked, due to its small size and unobtrusive form. SPECIMENS EXAMINED: OHIO: Cuyahoga County, North Chagrin Reservation, Cleveland Metroparks, 2 Sep 2006, K. Metcalf s.n. (MU); Hamilton County, Preston, 1891, A.P. Morgan 94 (ISC); Pike County, Pike Lake State Park, on decaying log, 15 Aug 2006, M.A.

Page  209 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 209 Vincent & M.W. Vincent 13023 (MU); ibid, on leaf litter, 18 Aug 2006, M.A. Vincent & M. W Vincent 13189 (MU). ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We wish to thank Bill Kurpiewski for the initial identification of the Cuyahoga Co. material. Dr. Jack D. Rogers, Washington State University, provided information on the distribution of the species in North America. We thank Deb Q. Lewis (ISC) for locating and providing access to the Morgan specimen, and to the curators/collections managers of herbaria BHO, BPI, CINC, F, FH, KE, NY, and OS for looking for material at their institutions. LITERATURE CITED Berkeley, M. J. and M. A. Curtis. (1869). Fungi cubenses (Hymenomycetes). Journal of the Linnean Society 10(46): 280-392. Bessette, A. E., A. R. Bessette, and D. W. Fischer. (1997). Mushrooms of Northeastern North America. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY. 584pp. Brown, H. B. (1913). Studies in the development of Xylaria. Annales Mycologici 11: 1-13, pl. 1, 2. Callan, B. E. and J. D. Rogers. (1990). Teleomorph-anamorph connections and correlations in some Xylaria species. Mycotaxon 43: 343-369. Callan, B. E. and J. D. Rogers. (1993). A synoptic key to Xylaria species from continental United States and Canada based on cultural and anamorphic features. Mycotaxon 46: 141-154. Cooke, M. C. (1883). On Xylaria and its allies. Grevillea 11: 81-94, pl. 162-171. Cooke, W. B. [unpublished]. Mycobiota of Ohio. Manuscript in archives of W.S. Turrell Herbarium, Department of Botany, Miami University, Oxford, OH. Farr, D. F., A. Y. Rossman, M. E. Palm, and E. B. McCray. (2006). Fungal Databases, Systematic Botany and Mycology Laboratory, ARS, USDA. Retrieved 27 Sep 2006 from Lloyd, C. G. (1911a). Note 10. Xylaria tentaculata. Mycological Letter 30: 5. Lloyd, C. G. (1911b). Fitzgerald, Miss Mary, North Carolina: Xylaria tentaculata. Mycological Letter 32: 4. Lloyd, C. G. (1918a). Xylaria Notes 1: 1-16. Lloyd, C. G. (1918b). Xylaria Notes 2: 17-32. Lloyd, C. G. (1920). Xylaria tentaculata. Mycological Notes 64, 6: 996. Lloyd, C. G. (1924). Xylaria tentaculata. Mycological Notes 71, 7: 1253. Rogers, J. D. (1985). Anamorphs of Xylaria: taxonomic considerations. Sydowia 38: 255-262. Saccardo, P.A. 1882. Sylloge fungorum omnium hucusque cognitorum. Sumptibus P.A. Saccardo, Patavii, Italy. Vol. 1. 768pp. San Martin, F. and J. D. Rogers. (1995). Notas sobre la historia, relaciones y hospedante y distribucion del genero Xylaria (Pyrenomycetes, Sphaeriales) en Mexico. Acta Botinica Mexicana 30: 21-40.