Page  1 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST VASCULAR PLANT STUDY OF WARREN DUNES STATE PARK, BERRIEN COUNTY, MICHIGAN Pamela F. Smith1 and Dennis W. Woodland ( Andrews University Biology Department Berrien Springs, MI 49104 ABSTRACT A botanical survey was conducted to document the plant biodiversity of Warren Dunes State Park (WDSP), located in Lake Township, Berrien County, Michigan. The park consists of 4 km of shoreline and 789 hectares of forested dunes and wetland areas. This information was generated to provide baseline floristic data for WDSP, one of Michigan's most visited state parks, which has not been inventoried as a unit. A documented list of vascular plants was compiled based on over 1,200 samples collected between June 10, 2004 to November 06, 2005. Thirty-three taxa reported and/or documented by other researchers to be present at WDSP that were not collected during this survey were also included on the vascular plant list. The resulting vascular plant list contains 725 taxa (712 species, 8 hybrids, 4 varieties and 1 subspecies). Of these taxa 76% are native and include 8 statelisted threatened species, 2 state-listed special concern and 1 federally listed plant species. Based on comparisons with other Michigan public parks, these results indicate that WDSP is botanically diverse and a refuge for rare species. KEY WORDS Berrien County, Biodiversity, Michigan, Vascular Plant, Warren Dunes State Park INTRODUCTION Michigan State Parks serve as sanctuaries that protect significant biodiversity. Warren Dunes State Park (WDSP) is a prime example because it contains a high diversity of vascular plant species, including eight state-listed threatened species, two state-listed special concern species, and one federally listed threatened species (Kost et al. 2002). According to the Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI), rare animal species have been also documented in the park, including the state-listed endangered prairie warbler. Significant geographic features found at WDSP according to the MNFI include the mesic northern forest community, open dunes, interdunal wetlands, and unperched dunes (Kost et al. 2002). There were several studies conducted previously at WDSP. The northern quarter of the park, which is often referred to as the Mount Edward tract, was 1 Present address: 4824 Overhill Drive, Ft. Collins, CO 80525

Page  2 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 surveyed by Wagner (1979), and Wells and Thompson (1982). Kost et al. (2002) conducted an inventory for significant natural features of the park. Invasive plant species have been inventoried by the State of Michigan (Schneider & Mindell 2003) and control methods are presently being implemented (Palmgren 2004). Although these studies have been conducted and others are underway, the entire park had not been systematically inventoried botanically. The goal of this study, which is part of a more comprehensive study conducted by Smith (2006), was to provide baseline information to document the floristic biodiversity of WDSP. This information is important because an exotic species control plan has been initiated by the State of Michigan, which included mapping the invasive species but not the native plants or locations for the rare taxa. A floristic list, based on approximately 1201 dried herbarium specimens, 8 photographs collected during this study and reports of 33 species by MDNR and botanical researchers is provided in this report. Qualitative descriptions are included for the major plant communities at WDSP, in addition to brief discussions of the geology, soils, topography and human history. This information is valuable as a management tool given that WDSP, like so many of our natural areas, is facing a myriad of assaults on biodiversity. Many of these assaults are the result of anthropogenic forces, including pollution, overdevelopment, invasive species, fire suppression, erosion, and excessive deer populations (Kost et al. 2002). Land Administration A significant portion of this park is not owned directly by the State of Michigan, but is under a lease agreement that will lapse in 31 years (2037). The organization holding this property, the E. K. Warren Foundation, is in contact with the State of Michigan regarding the future ownership of this land. The original agreement states that the lands leased to WDSP are to be preserved in "perpetuity, in their primeval state for students and lovers of nature" according to Peg Kohring (personal communication, September 07, 2004). Ms. Kohring is the Midwest Director of the Conservation Fund, and represents the organization that is negotiating the E. K. Warren Foundation lease agreement. A large portion of the park is also designated as a state Natural Area and includes much of the land leased from the E. K. Warren Foundation. As this is being written, the northern section of the park is under consideration for designation as a new state Natural Area (Phyllis Higman, Michigan Natural Features Inventory, personal communication, November 30, 2005). Natural Areas are legal designations currently under the jurisdiction of the Michigan Department of Natural Resources under the Wilderness Act of 1972. Natural Area designations came about after it became clear that State Park designations did not protect areas from mining, logging and other consumptive uses. In the past, recommendations were made to State Parks by organizations including the Michigan Natural Areas Council, Michigan Natural Resources Commission, Natural Areas Advisory Board and Michigan Natural Features Inventory, as to which areas were worthy of designation. According to the most recent information provided by MDNR, no new Natural Area dedications have occurred since 1988 (Michigan Department of Natural Resources 2006a).

Page  3 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Bridgman 2006 TH eIHIGNr OTAIS MICHIGAN Warren Lake StreetN Dunes Park I-94 Browntown Road Sawyer 1k Lake Township Berrien County, Michigan FIGURE 1. Location map of Warren Dunes State Park in Lake Township, Berrien County, Michigan. Location WDSP is located on the shore of Lake Michigan in the west central portion of Berrien County, just south of the town of Bridgman and north of the town of Sawyer, Michigan, T6S; R.20W; Sec. 24-26, 35-36 (Figure 1). The park covers 789 hectares (1,950 acres) of forested dunes, open beach, and a variety of wetland habitats. The southern boundary is Browntown Road, and the northern boundary is located south of Lake Street. The park is bounded on the west by Lake Michigan and on the east largely by Red Arrow Highway. The location of WDSP, with the proximity to Lake Michigan, and deep valleys formed by ancient dunes, provides a range of habitats and microclimates that support a diverse assemblage of plants. Climate The location of WDSP on the shore of Lake Michigan has a significant effect on the vegetation. The moderating effect of the lake reduces fluctuations in atmospheric temperatures compared to inland areas. Frosts occur later in the fall, while the spring temperatures tend to be cooler than they are in more inland areas. Michigan State University Extension reports that the moderated temperatures are the reason Berrien County has more fruit farms and more cold sensitive crops than any other county in Michigan (Anonymous 2005a). The moderate climate near Lake Michigan, which allows for successful fruit crops in the vicinity of the park, may explain why plants and plant associations typical of the north

Page  4 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 ern part of the state (for example, the mesic northern forest community) can be found at WDSP, while they are not found in areas that are inland at the same latitude. In addition, plants typical of more southern areas can be found near the Lake Michigan shoreline in Berrien County, as a result of the moderate climate. Wells and Thompson (1982) provide a detailed discussion of the climatic conditions of this region. The most recent summary reported by the National Oceanic & Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather station at Benton Harbor showed an average minimum temperature in January of -80C (18 F) and an average maximum temperature in July of 280C (820 F). The growing season was 162 days for 2005. The average annual rainfall was reported as 94 cm (37 in), with an average annual snowfall of 178 cm (70 in) (NOAA Benton Harbor Climate Summary posted in 2005). Soils The soils of Warren Dunes State Park (WDSP) include a total of eleven soil types that occur within two major soil associations. The two soil associations are the Spinks-Oakville-Oshtemo, and the Morocco-Thetford-Granby Associations, according to the Soil Survey of Berrien County (Larson 1980). The SpinksOakville-Oshtemo Association includes level to very steep, well-drained sandy and loamy soils. This association characterizes the western portion of the park, and includes much of the forested dune area and actively shifting dunes. The Morocco-Thetford-Granby Association is found on level, poorly drained sandy soils (Larson 1980) that are common on the eastern edge of WDSP. These soils support lowland hardwood, wetland shrub and swamp habitats. The two most common soil types within WDSP are in the Spinks-OakvilleOshtemo Association and include the dune land soil and the Oakville fine sand soils with 18 to 45% slopes. The dune land soils are found in the blowouts, and include the actively shifting sands higher in elevation than the beach area. The dune land soils support beach grasses, as well as a characteristic set of shrubs and trees. The soil type characteristic of the forested dune area of the park is Oakville fine sand. Although a few small areas in this soil type have slopes from 0 to 18%, the majority of the soil slopes are steep to very steep with 18 to 45% slopes, and include slopes in excess of 45%. The Oakville fine sand soils also contain a small percentage (2 to 4%) of shallow depressions of poorly drained Morocco soils (Larson 1980). A number of different wetland soil types common in the Morocco-ThetfordGranby Association are found at WDSP. The large wetland area near Floral Lane is largely comprised of Houghton muck soil, which is a poorly drained soil, often with standing water. The wetland area near the eastern edge of Mount Randal is characterized by Gilford sandy loam. This soil is level, very poorly drained and typically has standing water, as the water table may vary from 15 cm above to 30 cm below the water table for this soil type (Larson 1980). The wetlands located in the northern section of the park, near the 1-94 interchange, are characterized by ponded aquents and histosols. According to Larson (1980), these level soils are found in depressed areas along tributaries of rivers that flow into Lake

Page  5 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Michigan, as well as wet areas along the shores of lakes. These soils are characterized by standing water that is typically present year round. The 1-94 wetland area is currently a shrub-dominated community, with marsh vegetation towards the center. However, the north wetland was a lake until quite recently. A map provided by Kost et al. (2002) of the vegetation of Michigan circa 1800, and the United States Geological Survey topographic map of the Bridgman quadrangle from 1971, show this area as a lake. The southernmost wetland near the 1-94 interchange consisted of aquents and histosols in addition to Granby loamy fine sand. These are level, poorly drained lowlands that are subject to frequent standing water and have a strongly acidic surface layer. This soil type can also be encountered on knolls and ridges according to Larson (1980). It is frequent along the eastern edge of the park. Geology The forces that shaped the landscape today at WDSP were associated with glaciation. The last advance of glacial ice into this area is known as the Wisconsinan stage. Approximately 11,000 years ago the most recent glacier retreated from the Michigan area (Dorr & Eschman 1970). The tremendous scouring caused by the movement of massive ice sheets, which may have reached greater than a mile in thickness during glacial stages, and the debris they brought with them, provided tremendous forces that created the Great Lakes and many topographic features. The meltwaters, the lowering of lake outlets, and the post glacial rebound of land resulted in fluctuations of lake water levels that were fantastic compared to today's standards. Lake levels over 60 m (200 feet) higher than those presently encountered (Dorr & Eschman 1970) occurred during postglacial pre-historic times. The lake level fluctuations that have been recorded in recent history only amount to changes in average lake levels of up to 2.4 m (8 feet), according to data from the Army Corps of Engineers Lake Michigan lake level data (Anonymous 2005b). The major events that formed the dunes at WDSP (and the east shore of Lake Michigan, in general) occurred when lake levels were about 7.6 m (25 ft) higher than at present. Lake Algonquin and Lake Nipissing are two stages of the ancestral Great Lakes that were associated with two major dune-building events, the first of which occurred 13,000 years ago while the northern part of the state was still glaciated. According to Tague (1946), Lake Algonquin was the greatest of all the ancestral Great Lakes, and combined the area where we find Lakes Michigan, Superior and Huron. The dunes that formed during the Algonquin stage include the oldest and most uncommon (and typically the furthest inland) dune type at WDSP. These are the easternmost dune ridges and formed when the lake level was approximately 7.6 m (25 feet) higher than the present level (Wells & Thompson 1982). The second major dune-building period during the Lake Nipissing stage also occurred when the lake level was approximately 4.6 to 7.6 m (15 to 25 feet) higher than the present time (Dorr & Eschman 1970). This period, during which the majority of the sand dunes at WDSP formed, occurred approximately 4,000 to 6,000 years ago (Albert 2000). The lake fluctuated to levels both higher and

Page  6 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 lower than those typical of present day, between the Lake Algonquin and Lake Nipissing stages. According to Albert (2000), dune growth is perpetuated by higher lake levels because erosion increases and more sand is available than when lake levels are lower. Tower Hill, located in the southern part of WDSP near the parking area, was given by Dorr and Eschman (1970) as an example of a large dune that formed during the Lake Nipissing stage. They noted the very steep windward face of Tower Hill was a blowout, which "has resulted from the reactivation of an ancient sand dune" (Dorr & Eschman 1970, p. 201). The Algoma stage was a recent lake level intermediate between the Nipissing level and the present day lake level. Algoma ridges reached 180 meters (590 feet) above sea level (Tague 1946). These include the forested dune ridges located closest to the shore of Lake Michigan. High dunes and low dunes represent two major types of coastal dunes at WDSP. The foredune ridges are low dunes and range from 9-15 m high, and are close to the beach. High dunes are over 30 m tall and are located behind the foredunes. These tall dunes are typically stabilized with forest growth and are much older (Dor & Eschman 1970). Forested dune areas make up the majority of the forested land at WDSP. When the high dunes become eroded they form blowouts, and these modify the original dune ridges into irregular serpentine shapes. Sand mining has been a prominent land use in southwest Michigan. Two areas have been mined in the past at WDSP. The sand found in the coastal dunes of southern Michigan is prized because of the high quartz content. One of the sand mined areas was located in the central area of the park and another was located in the northern section. Both of these areas appear to be much less biodiverse and have a greater number of non-native species than areas that were not subject to mining. Topography The older dune ridges that form the base for the forested dunes have resulted in a complex topography including valleys, flat lowlands, and mildly sloping to very steep slopes in excess of 45% (Larson 1980). Elevations at WDSP range from lake level, which averaged 176 m (577 feet) in September 2005 (Anonymous 2005b), to over 238 m (780 feet) above sea level at the summits of Mount Edward, Mount Randal, and Mount Fuller. The range of habitats formed by the steep topography, offering a variety of slopes and directional slope facings, mixed with a matrix of wetland and well-drained soils, found both in lowlands and on ridges and knolls, provide an amazing array of habitats that contribute to the biodiversity of WDSP. Human History The vegetation that exists today at WDSP is a result of a complex interaction between natural and human history. The earliest European explorers were known to have visited this area from 1673 to 1763, while the region was under French rule. Steamships began to appear on the Great Lakes in the early 1800s, and the

Page  7 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST first white settlers would settle in the Chicago region in the 1820s (Greenberg 2002). These were significant events because Lake Michigan would provide an important transportation route connecting the previously established eastern cities on the Great Lakes. Wood harvested from the local forests was the fuel for these steam ships. The first commercial business in Lake Township was logging. Between 1840 and 1850, in the area that is currently WDSP, there were at least four logging piers constructed on Lake Michigan to deliver timber to the steamships (Smith 2006). The logging piers were connected to inland areas and sawmills by horsedrawn railroads (E. K. Warren Foundation 1939). Between 1850 and 1910, virtually all of Michigan's virgin forests were cut down or destroyed by wildfires (Dickmann, 2004). "By the 1920s and '30s, a vast area of Michigan... was a wasteland of charred stumps, second growth brushland and abandoned farms" (Dickmann 2004, p. 12). Edward K. Warren (referred to as E. K. Warren), a resident of the nearby town of Three Oaks, would start a very successful business in 1883 making products from turkey feathers. His most popular turkey feather products, which included horse whips and perhaps his most notable product known as "Featherbone," were both sold internationally. The successful "Featherbone" product involved the replacement of the expensive and brittle whale bone used in the manufacture of women's corsets with turkey feathers, which not only improved the corsets but were cheaper to manufacture than those made of bone. As Warren became increasingly wealthy, he also began buying dune land in the area that makes up a portion of what is currently WDSP (Whalen 1996). Warren established the E. K. Warren Foundation in 1917. His efforts resulted in a new state law (Act 59 of the 1917 session of the Michigan legislature) to create a foundation with the sole mission of protecting land for the public. It was at this time Warren placed 117 hectares (289 acres) of dune land, that included 2 km (1.25 miles) of Lake Michigan frontage, into the Foundation (E. K. Warren Foundation 1939). In 1921, the Michigan State Department of Conservation was established and approved a 99-year lease that would mark the beginning of Warren Dunes as a state park in 1938. People were permitted to use the land prior to 1938, as long as they did not destroy it. Warren was noted as one of the few people who took action to preserve lands for the sole purpose of creating a natural heritage (E. K. Warren Foundation 1939). The organization "Hope for the Dunes" was organized in 1977 to protect the Mount Edward area, which was being mined for sand according to the Michigan Environmental Council (MEC) (2002). According to the MEC in 1980, Dr. Warren H. Wagner Jr. and Dr. James R. Wells testified at a hearing to protect the Mount Edward area from continued mining activities. In 1981, the Natural Resource Committee (NRC) voted to allow continued mining in the Mount Edward area. The Attorney General of Michigan intervened on behalf of concerned citizens groups, and in 1983 Helen Milliken (wife of former Governor William Milliken) called for protection of the Mount Edward area. As a result of these efforts, a deal was made for purchase of the Mount Edward area by the State of Michigan (Michigan Environmental Council 2002). Currently, WDSP occupies 789 hectares of land, 4 km of shoreline, and

Page  8 ï~~THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 roughly 10 kilometers of hiking trails. There are 180 modern camping facilities, and 122 campsites with no access to electricity or showers. A group campground is located on Floral Lane. Three mini-cabins are also available for use, as is a sheltered picnic area that can be rented. A concession stand in the beach area is open from Memorial Day though Labor Day (Michigan Department of Natural Resources 2001). In 2005, the current park manager, Michael A. Terrell (personal communication, November, 2005) estimated that 1.2 million visitors came to WDSP making it one of the most popular parks in the state. MATERIALS AND METHODS A list of vascular plants was compiled by collecting 1,209 voucher specimens (1201 dried herbarium vouchers and 8 photograph vouchers) while surveying the park between June 2004 through November 2005, following methods described by Woodland (2000). Surveys were conducted so that the same areas were visited multiple times throughout the growing seasons. A map was created each field day to keep record of the areas surveyed as a means to include the entire park. Specimens were collected both in flower and fruit as much as possible throughout two growing seasons. Most of the specimens were collected in triplicate unless the removal of specimens would impact the local population. GPS coordinates, habitat notes and physical descriptions of the locations were also included with each sample collected. A dried herbarium specimen was made for one of the triplicate specimens collected. Photograph vouchers were used in instances when collecting the plants would severely affect the population. Most of these photographed vouchers were orchid species and state-listed threatened species. The photographs and information collected for these plants provide sufficient information to identify the specimens. The specimens collected for this study were deposited at Andrews University herbarium (AUB). The majority of the grasses and sedges collected during this survey were verified or identified by Dr. A. A. Reznicek and at least one of the unmounted triplicate samples was shipped to the University of Michigan Herbarium (MICH). A list of vascular plants for WDSP was prepared using the specimens collected and identified during this study, in addition to 33 taxa provided by other researchers at WDSP that reported or documented species that were not found or collected during this study. These taxa are noted and included in the vascular plant list with information on who reported or collected the species. The nomenclature follows Voss (1972, 1985, 1996) for the majority of the confers, monocots and dicots. This reference was selected because it is so widely used in Michigan. Pteridophytes follow Flora of North America (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993). Names of cultivated species follow Bailey (1949) or Swink and Wilhelm (1994), if they were not included by Voss. Species provided on the vascular plant list that are not followed by a collection number are either only known from reports or a voucher specimen that was not located by the authors. The vascular plant list also includes general location and habitat information codes that correspond to location and habitat maps (Figures 2 & 3, respectively) that were made based on the collection information for each sample collected. The list also includes information on each taxon regarding whether it is an introduced species, a federal or state-listed species and also includes a Coefficient of Conservatism or C- value as listed by Herman et al. (2001). The interpretation of the C-value is explained further in the results section. Descriptions of the characteristic plant communities are also included in this report based on the vascular plants collected and qualitative observations made within the different communities by the authors as well as other researchers who conducted studies at WDSP. RESULTS The vascular plant list (Appendix 1), which was prepared based primarily on collections made between June 10, 2004 and November 06, 2005 by the authors, consisted of 725 taxa. These taxa include 712 species, 8 hybrids, 4 varieties and

Page  9 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST NI Lake Michigan 16 SCALE h EET E. Red Arrow Property Park Entrance Browntown Road FIGURE 2. Location codes for vascular plant list of Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. Map Symbol: 1-Mount Edward Tract; 2-Floral Lane Road Area; 3-Great Warren Dune/Natural Area; 4-Mount Randal/Tower Hill Area; 5-Mount Fuller/Browntown Road Area; 6-East of Red Arrow.

Page  10 ï~~10 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 10 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 NT Lake Michigan FD LL SB WD SCALE Of FE~r An WwD DR DR WD FIGURE 3. Habitat codes for vascular plant list of Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. Map Symbol: \\\ B-Beach/Blowout; ----- Creek; DF-Disturbed Field; DR-Disturbed Roadside; EM-Emergent Marsh; FD-Forested Dune; 0 ID-Interdunal Wetland; LH-Lowland Hardwoods; SB-Stream Bank; * SW-Shrub Wetland; WD-Wet Ditch.

Page  11 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 11 TABLE 1. Taxonomic summary of the vascular plant list for Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. Group Families Genera Species* Total Taxa Pteridophytes 11 16 27 27 Conifers 3 6 13 13 Angiosperms: 685 Monocots 17 86 195 Dicots 96 274 490 TOTAL 127 380 725 725 *List includes 8 hybrids, 4 varieties and 1 subspecies. 1 subspecies. A summary of major taxonomic groups is provided in Table 1. The pteridophytes represented 4%, conifers represented 2%, and the angiosperms represented the majority with 94% of the taxa (Table 1). Of the angiosperms, 28% represented the monocots and 72% the dicots. The Poaceae with 74 species, and Asteraceae with 72 species, represent families with the largest numbers of taxa, each representing about 10% of the total vascular plant list. In addition, the Cyperaceae (56 species), Rosaceae (45 taxa), and Liliaceae (27 species), were well represented families. Non-native plant species accounted for 24% of the total vascular plants (177/725 taxa) at WDSP. Two species of plants not previously documented in Berrien County were collected during the 2004-2005 floristic survey. Juncus marginatus is a native species that has not been documented for the State of Michigan in Berrien County, according to A. A. Reznicek, who identified the specimen (personal communication, 2005). However, it should be noted that J. marginatus has been documented by Swink and Wilhelm (1994) in Berrien County for the Chicago region. Wisteria sinensis is a garden plant that has escaped from cultivation, and was not previously documented for Berrien County, Michigan. Two uncommon species for Berrien County, Carex virescens (a native sedge) and Bromus sterilis (a European grass), were collected during this study, and were noted as being scarce and not often collected in Michigan (Voss 1972). In addition, 38 species ranked 9 or higher for the Coefficient of Conservatism value (C-value). The C-value ranges from 0-10 and represents the probability that a plant is likely to occur in a landscape that is unaltered from its presettlement condition: a zero represents a species that is found in many different landscapes, whereas a 10 represents a plant almost always encountered in a particular type of environment (Herman et al. 2001). A high C- value does not necessarily designate a rare species, but a species that suggests pristine, or relatively intact or undisturbed habitats. However, many of these plants are uncommon or rare species. A list of these species is provided in Table 2. Threatened Plant Species A total of seven state-listed threatened species, one federally listed threatened species and two special concern species were previously reported by Kost et al. (2002) at WDSP (Table 3). During the 2004-2005 study, all but two of these species, Hieracium paniculatum and Utricularia subulata, were documented.

Page  12 ï~~12 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 TABLE 2. List of species with a Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) ranking of 9 or higher at Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. Pteridophytes Dicots Dicots (con't) Equisetum x nelsonii Asimina triloba Panax quinquefolius Equisetum palustre Cacalia atriplicifolia Pedicularis canadensis Woodwardia virginica Cirsium pitcheri Salix cordata Conopholis americana Salix myricoides Monocots Epifagus virginiana Saururus cernuus Ammophila breviligulata Euphorbia polygonifolia Solidago simplex Aplectrum hyemale Helianthus mollis Stylophorum diphyllum Calamovilfa longifolia Hieracium paniculatum Tiarella cordifolia Carex alata Hypericum kalmianum Triadenum virginicum Carex cryptolepis Linum striatum Utricularia subulata Cladium mariscoides Liriodendron tulipifera Medeola virginiana Lithospermum caroliniense Orchis spectabilis Lobelia kalmii Poa alsodes Morus rubra Wolffia papulifera Nyssa sylvatica An additional threatened species, Helianthus mollis, not previously noted by Kost et al. (2002) was collected in 1992 at WDSP and a voucher was deposited at AUB. The state champion dwarf chestnut oak (Quercus prinoides) was noted as being located at Warren Dunes State Park in 1960, with the location listed as "W @ Lake Price & stream" (Ehrle 2003). This specimen was not located during this survey, and neither was Lake Price. DISCUSSION Biodiversity can very simply be defined as the number and variety of different organisms in the natural habitats or communities where they occur. It is generally accepted that greater biodiversity is associated with greater stability of an TABLE 3. List of the state-listed threatened (T), federally listed threatened (FT) and state-listed special concern (SC) plants documented at Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. Latin Name Common Name Date Documented Status Adlumia fungosa Climbing Fumitory 2005 SC Cirsium pitcheri Pitcher's Thistle 2005 FT Helianthus mollis Downy Sunflower 1992 T Hieracium paniculatum Panicled Hawkweed 1985* SC Orchis spectabilis Showy Orchis 2005 T Morus rubra Red Mulberry 2005 T Panax quinquefolius Ginseng 2005 T Trillium recurvatum Prairie Trillium 2005 T Utricularia subulata Zigzag Bladderwort 1993 T Vitis vulpina Frost Grape 2005 T Wolffia papulifera Nippled Water-meal 2005 T *Reported by Kost et al. (2002).

Page  13 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 13 ecosystem and that anthropogenic disturbances often reduce biodiversity especially with regard to native species. This study reports a total of 725 different taxa (692 documented and 33 reported by other researchers) for WDSP which occupies 789 hectares of land. Compared to other areas in Michigan WDSP would be considered botanically biodiverse. For example, Grand Mere State Park located just to the north of WDSP, with approximately 550 taxa reported on 357 hectares, is considered to have a highly diverse flora (Palmgren 2000). A floristic study at Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, which included 28,329 hectares of land, yielded a vascular plant list of 915 different taxa (Hazlett 1991). The diversity of WDSP is likely linked to the large number of community types. Three different forest communities, lowland swamp forests, a variety of shrub wetlands, as well as the beach and dune communities, with their characteristic vegetation, contribute to the diversity of the park (Figure 4). Six of the eight state-listed threatened species, one federally listed threatened species, and one of the two state-listed special concern species previously reported for WDSP were documented during the 2004-2005 study period. The documentation of these taxa indicates that this area remains an important refuge for rare taxa. The natural community inventory conducted by Kost et al. (2002) determined that the forested dunes of WDSP included three forest types: mesic southern, mesic northern, and dry-mesic southern forests. Mesic southern forests are typi FIGURE 4. View looking west from the Mount Randal trail showing the forest and dune communities at Warren Dunes State Park.

Page  14 ï~~14 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 cally dominated by Acer saccharum, Carya cordiformis, Fagus grandifolia, Liriodendron tulipifera, Quercus muhlenbergii, Q. rubra, and Tilia americana. This forest type covers the majority of the forested dunes at the park. The mesic northern forest is characterized with similar dominants as the mesic southern forest but also includes Pinus strobus and Tsuga canadensis. Interestingly, Berrien County represents the southernmost range in Michigan for this community type which covers the northern part of the state to the transition zone. On the west side of the state south of the transition zone, only the three counties that border Lake Michigan (Allegan, Van Buren and Berrien Counties) contain this northern community type (Cohen, no date). The dry-mesic southern forest community is less common at WDSP. It is characterized by Q. velutina, Q. alba, Q. rubra and Sassafras albidum as canopy dominants. The study by Kost et al. (2002) noted that the oaks growing on the ridgetops in this community type seem to have growth forms of trees that were grown in open areas, suggesting that an oak barrens or savanna community previously existed. Both the mesic northern and mesic southern forest community types at WDSP are considered by Michigan Natural Features Inventory to be a natural community occurrence because they are in excellent condition and cover a relatively large area of land (Kost et al. 2002). Fagus grandifolia and A. saccharum were noted by Wagner (1979) as being confined to the richest portions or valleys of the dune areas while Q. muhlenbergii and Q. rubra were more common in the higher areas of the dune forest. Spring blooming herbaceous plants contributed to the diversity of the forested dune habitats. During this survey, as many as 40 different herbaceous species were observed in a single day in a 20 x 20 m area. The common spring blooming plants included Aralia nudicaulis, Dentaria laciniata, Dicentra cucullaria, Podophyllum peltatum, Trillium grandiflorum, and Uvularia grandiflora. Less common spring bloomers included Arabis canadensis, Arabidopsis thaliana, Allium tricoccum, Dicentra canadensis, Gautheria procumbens, Geranium maculatum, Hydrophyllum appendiculatum, Lobelia siphilitica, Mitchella repens, Mitella diphylla, Panax trifolius, Pedicularis canadensis, Polygonatum biflorum, Smilax herbacea, S. illinoensis, and Tiarella cordifolia. Some rare plants included Adlumia fungosa (Figure 5), Asclepias exaltata, Chimphila maculata, Habenaria viridis, and Panax quinquefolius (a state-listed threatened species). Panax quinquefolius has been heavily harvested at Warren Dunes State Park despite attempts to discourage the illegal removal of this plant (Goetz 2003). Another threatened species found in the forested dunes was Morus rubra, an understory tree species. Fern species common in the dune forest included Asplenium platyneuron, Botrychium virgininum and Dryopteris marginalis. Wagner (1979) commented that marginal woodfern, Dryopteris marginalis, is an example of a number of plants that reach their south limit at WDSP because of the proximity of Lake Michigan and its moderating effects on climate. He states: "[In] no place in southern Michigan is the species well represented, and we have very few localities; it would be treated as at least rare or even threatened as a plant in southern Michigan, but in the rich dunes forest, especially on the steep slopes, it is abundant and one of the dominant forest floor plants." Clubmosses included Diphasiastrum digitatum, Huperzia lucidula, and Ly

Page  15 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 15 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 15 FIGURE 5. Adlumiafungosa (climbing fumitory) photographed in late summer of 2004 in the Mount Edward area of Warren Dunes State Park. copodium clavatum. Some of the sedges collected in the dune forest included Carex albursina, C. eburnea, C. muhlenbergii, C. plantaginea, and C. virescens. Common woodland grass species collected were Bromus pubescens, Muhlenbergia tenuiflora, Oryzopsis asperifolia, and O. racemosa. Wagner (1979), surveyed the Mount Edward area and wrote the "Report on the Bridgman Dunes Forest Area (Berrien County, Michigan)." At that time, Martin Marietta Aggregates had cleared a large forested area as part of its sand mining operation in the Mount Edward area. Wagner stated approximately 8.1 hectares (20 acres) of dune forest were already destroyed, and weeds were moving into the forested edges (Figure 6). Wagner's concern was heightened because the forested dunes that comprise the eastern section of the park are considered ancient dunes. The forests that developed on the Algonquin-age dunes were estimated to be about 9,000 years old by Tague (1946), and were considered to be the rarest dune ridge type. The forests that survive on these ridges are thousands of years old and were different from the younger dunes on the western edge of the lakeshore (Wells & Thompson 1982). In this report Wagner (1979, p. 5) stated: "Our present evidence indicates that the mature dune forest in the area north of the north boundaries of the Park, especially in the vicinity of Mount Edward, is the richest in the entirety of Lake Michigan's shores, not only in terms of species diversity but community complexity as well." Wagner noted Vitis aestivalis, a plant that barely missed being included on the state threatened species

Page  16 ï~~16 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 16 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 FIGURE 6. Reclaimed sand mine area in the Mount Edward area of Warren Dunes State Park photographed in 2005. list at the time of his survey, as uncommon in the rest of the state but very common at WDSP. Wagner (1979) estimated the total number of plant taxa in the Mount Edward area to be between 200 and 300. Wells and Thompson (1979) noted 311 taxa on their vascular plant list. Based on our observations and these reports it is likely the Mount Edward area may contain a higher number of taxa. The species recorded in 2005 that were not reported in 1979 included Agastache nepetoides, Calamagrostis inexpansa, Carex muhlenbergii, C. virescens, Juncus torreyi, Lemna trisulca, Lobelia siphilitica, Prosperpinaca palustris, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Sparganium americanum, S. androcladum, Tiarella cordifolia, and Utricularia vulgaris. Some species that are generally considered to be weeds that were not reported by Wells and Thompson (1979) but that were documented in 2005 include: Alliaria petiolata, Lonicera morrowi, L. tatarica, L. japonica, Morus alba, Phragmites australis, and Ulmus pumila. Wagner (1979) noted some taxa not mentioned by Wells and Thompson (1979). These taxa included Hepatica americana x H. acutiloba, Dryopteris intermedia, D. intermedia x D. marginalis (not located in 2005) and Stylophorum diphyllum (found in 2005). Another species noted by Wagner (1979) was Toxicodendron rydbergii which is a northern species of poison ivy (not currently recognized by all taxonomists), common on the foredune areas at WDSP.

Page  17 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 17 Twenty-six of the 311 species reported by Wells and Thompson were not found during the 2005 survey. Attempts were made to locate all of these species. It is likely some taxa were missed during the survey or that some of these species may no longer be present, perhaps related to the much larger deer population that now exists or the much drier conditions. Some of the species noted by Wells and Thompson that were not located during this survey (2005) included Aralia hispida, Blephilia hirsuta, Chimaphila umbellata, Coptis trifolia, Corydalis sempervirens, Goodyera pubescens, Monotropa hypopithys, Pyrola rotundifolia, Silene antirrhina, Sorbus americana, and Verbena bracteata. These are species that should continue to be looked for at WDSP. Wells and Thompson also reported Comandra richardsiana and Aronia melanocarpa from WDSP; however, these names may be synonymous with C. umbellata and A. prunifolia (Voss 1985). Unfortunately we were not able to study their collections of these species to verify their identities. The biodiversity of the forested dune area at WDSP is currently threatened by non-native plants, as well as native and non-native animals. The Emerald Ash Borer is a non-native beetle recently reported at WDSP (Kreiger 2005). This insect poses an immediate threat. It is thought to be responsible for killing nearly all the ash trees in southeastern Michigan. White-tailed deer are native animals that have reached extreme population densities in southwest Michigan, and pose an immediate destructive threat to the biodiversity of the forests. Throughout this forest and the entirety of WDSP heavily browsed foliage and numerous deer trails were evident. The reason some of the species encountered by Wells and Thompson were not found in 2005 may be due to the high deer population. Kost et al. (2002) noted that Tsuga canadensis and Taxus canadensis are likely to be extirpated in the future at WDSP due to heavy deer browsing. Orchids and other woodland flowers will likely be additional casualties of the high deer density at WDSP. The deer population has exploded since Wells and Thompson, and Wagner conducted their studies in 1979. According to the Michigan Natural Resources Council (2005), the estimated deer population for the state in 1970 was 500,000 while it was just 50,000 at the turn of the century; in 2004, the number of deer killed by hunting alone in Michigan was 500,000. The estimated population for the State of Michigan in 2004 was 1.75 million deer. The population was higher than the goal established by the State to prevent damage to crops and forests (Michigan Department of Natural Resources 2006b). According to a study conducted by Riley et al. (2003), not only are the current deer populations too high for sustaining forests, but the number of hunters is decreasing as the deer population continues to climb. This does not bode well for protecting the diversity of any of Michigan's natural areas and as Riley states: "Abundant white-tailed deer populations represent one of the greatest challenges in natural resource management early in the 21st century" (Riley et al. 2003, p. 455). The Lowland Hardwoods Satellite imaging was used by the Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI) to develop a vegetation cover map for WDSP. The two main forest

Page  18 ï~~18 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 cover types were noted as the central hardwoods, which comprise the forested dune areas (previously discussed) and the lowland hardwoods, which are found primarily in the east and southern portions of the park (Kost et al. 2002). Much of the lowland hardwoods have been developed with campgrounds, residences, park headquarters, picnic areas, dump stations, and other facilities. In addition, much of the lowland forested areas have been invaded by non-native species, which may represent a significant portion of the vegetation cover in many of these areas. Alliaria petiolata, which is very common in the lowland forest areas, forms a dense cover near Painterville Creek in the central and eastern portions of the park. Alliaria petiolata is a dominant herbaceous species almost to the exclusion of all other species in many areas. In the south portion of the park, several species of landscaping shrubs have escaped cultivation and have invaded the lowland hardwoods often forming a dense understory. Berberis thunbergii and Ligustrum vulgare form dense stands in a number of areas within the park. Rosa multiflora and Vinca minor are examples of other garden plants that have escaped to the wild and now dominate portions of the shrub and herb layer in the lowland hardwoods. Many of the areas in the lowland hardwoods that have high densities of exotic species also correlate with areas where former residences and campgrounds previously existed. The lowland hardwood areas were highly disturbed and efforts are underway by the State of Michigan to control many of the invasive species. It was in one of these severely disturbed habitats, that a threatened species, Trillium recurvaturn, was documented during this survey. Although some of these lowland forested areas were severely disturbed, some areas still retain a high degree of native plant biodiversity. The forested areas in the lowland hardwoods included Acer saccharinum, A. negundo, A. nigrum, A. rubrum (Figure 7), Carya ovata, Fraxinus nigra, F pennsylvanica, Platanus occidentalis, Populus deltoides, Quercus bicolor, Salix nigra, Ulmus americana, and U. rubra. Herbaceous plants included a wide variety of sedges such as Carex crinita, C. grayi, C. intumescens, C. lupulina, C. rosea, and C. vulpinoidea. Grass species included Bromus pubescens, Glyceria striata, Hystrix patula, Leersia oryzoides, L. virginica, and Tridens flavus. Herbaceous plants included Allium canadense, Asarum canadense, Caltha palustris, Cardamine bulbosa, Cryptotaenia canadensis, Floerkea proserpinacoides, Laportea canadensis, Lilium michiganense, Lobelia cardinalis, Lonicera dioica, Impatiens capensis, Pilea pumila, Prenanthes alba, Pyrola elliptica, Rubus flagellaris, R. hispidus, Viola cucullata, and V rostrata. Uncommon herbs included Gentiana andrewsii, Peltandra virginica, Ribes americanum, and Sanicula trifoliata. Two state-listed threatened species were documented in this survey from this habitat type; Orchis spectabilis and Wolffia papulifera. Shrub Wetlands Shrub-dominated wetlands were found on the eastern edge and the southern part of WDSP. Water levels fluctuated seasonally and from year to year. Spring water levels were visibly higher than during the middle and late summer, when no standing water was observed. These fluctuations likely promote biodiversity

Page  19 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 19 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 19 FIGURE 7. Acer rubrum (red maple) photographed in one of the lowland hardwood areas at Warren Dunes State Park is an example of the large old growth trees common throughout the park (with field assistant Lynda Pelkey for scale). by providing an array of habitats for plants and animals. Many of these areas were dominated by native species. Three large areas of shrub wetlands were found in the park and included an area located north of Floral Lane, wetlands near the 1-94 interchange (exit 16), and in the vicinity of Browntown Road. These wetlands are described in detail in the following sections. In addition, a small wetland north of the Floral Lane area (Green Heron Pond), is described because this area provides an interesting example of a woodland pond and the diversity among the wetlands that exist at WDSP. Floral Lane Wetland The Floral Lane wetland area is best known as a local "hot-spot" for bird watching. The proximity to Lake Michigan and the shrubby habitat are ideal for attracting an exceptional variety of birds. A hiking trail encircles the entire wetland area. This wetland is densely covered by shrubs on the south end and by a swamp forest on the northern end. Characteristic shrubs species include: Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus stolonifera, Hypericum prolificum, Ilex verticillata, Physocarpus opulifolius, Rosa palustris, R. setigera, and various willows (Salix sp.). A large population of Ligustrum vulgare has invaded the south end near the Floral Lane roadway. A variety of wetland sedges, bulrushes and grasses col

Page  20 ï~~20 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 20 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 FIGURE 8. Habenaria lacera (ragged fringed orchid) photographed in the Floral Lane wetland area of Warren Dunes State Park. lected included: Carex hitchcockiana, C. gracillima, C. radiata, Panicum rigidulum, Poa alsodes, Leersia virginica, Scirpus acutus, and S. atrovirens. Some of the herbs included Asclepias incarnata, Chelone glabra, Chimaphila maculata, Habenaria lacera (Figure 8), Lysimachia terrestris, L. thyrsiflora, Pyrola elliptica, Saururus cernuus, and Sisyrinchium angustifolium. The trees in the swamp area on the north end of the wetland included Acer rubrum, Betula alleghaniensis, Carya glabra, Fraxinus nigra, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Tsuga canadensis. Fern species in the area included Dryopteris carthusiana, D. cristata, Onoclea sensibilis, Osmunda cinnamomea, and O. regalis. Green Heron Pond A small woodland pond (20 m diameter) was located northeast of the Floral Lane wetland. This pond appeared to have no inlet nor outlet, yet was full of fish, some over 10 cm in length. This area will hereafter be referred to as Green Heron Pond, because of the green herons frequenting this area to catch fish. A thick green covering of Lemna minor and the surrounding shrubs and trees which included Acer rubrum, Alnus rugosa, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cornus amomum, Fraxinus nigra, F pennsylvanica, Ilex verticillata, and Populus deltoides, gave this area a unique character compared to the other wooded wetlands in the park.

Page  21 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 21 A relatively large specimen of Alnus rugosa (16 cm DBH) was found on the shore of the pond. Acalypha rhomboidea, Carex crinita, Lobelia cardinalis, Senecio vulgaris, Solidago rugosa and Thelypteris palustris were also observed growing on the shore of the pond. A threatened species, Wolffia papulifera (Wolffia brasiliensis), was documented in Green Heron Pond during this study. This species was first documented at WDSP in the shrub wetlands near 1-94 in 1985, where it was noted by Michigan Natural Features Inventory as the only known occurrence for this species in the state (Kost et al. 2002). Wolffia papulifera was not found in the 1-94 wetlands in 2005. This may be due to the fact this plant is an aquatic species and there was no standing water by mid-summer. 1-94 Wetlands These shrub-dominated wetlands lie adjacent to interstate 94 west of exit 16, the Bridgman exit. The wetlands were noted by Wells and Thompson (1979), Wagner (1979) and Kost et al. (2002) as being significant areas of biodiversity. Water level changes have had a large impact on this wetland over the last decade. Since this study was initiated in June 2004, the water level had dropped significantly by November 2005, to the point that only the wetland vegetation and a culvert were evidence that standing water was in these ponds. In 1992, the second author of this study was able to use a canoe to navigate these now much drier wetlands. A presettlement vegetation cover map shows this area as a lake (Kost et al. 2002). During this study, an interesting specimen of Proserpinaca palustris was collected in which the leaf form typical of submersed leaves was growing above the leaf form typically noted as the stranded, or aerial form, attesting to the seasonal fluctuations of the water levels of this habitat. Wetland soils are evident on the western edge, where a variety of plants that tolerate flooding were observed: Bidens cernuus (every plant showed evidence of animal browsing), Boehmeria cylindrica, Cephalanthus occidentalis, Cuscuta gronovii, Decodon verticillata, Lycopus americanus, Lycopus uniflorus, Saururus cernuus, and Sparganium androcladum. Woodwardia virginica, a large fern species, forms a dense stand in some areas. Geum laciniatum, Juncus torreyi, Scirpus cyperinus, Sisyrinchium angustifolium, Sparganium americanum, Triadenum virginicum, Typha latifolia, and Utricularia vulgaris were other herbaceous plants in this wetland. Some potential threats to these wetlands include the high deer population that was evidenced by numerous deer trails which were observed throughout the 1-94 wetland area. An additional threat could be a non-native genotype of Phragmites australis. Although a native genotype is thought to exist, a large very dense population that seems typical of the non-native genotype is growing near the roadside of the 1-94 interchange. A small population of Phragmites australis was noted during this survey in the center of one of the wetlands. These ponds were also likely disturbed during the interstate construction, as evidenced by a large hose that runs from the southeast edge of the wetland to the road. Further disturbance was noted during the summer of 2005 when the culverts located on the east side of these wetlands were dredged.

Page  22 ï~~22 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 Browntown Wetlands The Browntown Road wetlands are located north of Browntown Road near the southern boundary of the park. Though these wetlands were highly disturbed compared to the wetlands discussed previously, an array of native plants was documented. A creek that runs under Browntown Road bridge was clogged with the aquatic plant, Elodea canadensis. Bulrushes and a variety of wetland trees and shrubs were observed growing along this stream. Willow species included: Salix eriocephala, S. myricoides, S. nigra, S. serissima and a non-native willow Salixpurpurea. Juglans nigra and Viburnum opulus were collected on the stream bank. Eupatorium maculatum, E. perfoliatum, and several species of goldenrods including Solidago rugosa dominated the low areas. A dense population of an introduced species, Epilobium hirsutum, also dominated a significant portion of this wetland. As with all the wetlands observed over the last two growing seasons, this area seemed drier than what has likely been typical in the recent past. A small stand of river bulrush Scirpus (Bolboschoenus)fluviatilis and associated herbs that were also indicative of very wet conditions including Elymus virginicus, Lysimachia nummularia, and Mentha spicata were found. The forested areas located upland from this wet habitat included populations of two fern species: Thelypteris noveboracensis and T palustris. Celtis occidentalis, Populus deltoides, and Tilia americana were common tree species. Several specimens of Catalpa speciosa and Picea glauca found in the woods were likely escapes from neighboring homes. Some invasive species that dominated areas of this wetland included Celastrus orbiculata, Hesperis matronalis, and Ligustrum vulgare. This area was shown as a campground in a 1946 map of the park (Smith 2006), and it is likely many of the non-native species that are found in this area today are a result of past land use. These woodlands included two of the seven threatened species that were documented during this study, Orchis spectabilis and Trillium recurvatum. Conium maculatum, an invasive species, was collected in a ditch just south of Browntown Road, across the street from WDSP. This plant will likely be found at WDSP in the near future. It is an introduced species that moves into roadsides and other clearings (Voss 1985). Open Beach The showpiece and major attraction of WDSP is the undeveloped beach frontage on Lake Michigan (Figure 9). Five parking lots situated on the beach near the south end of the park handle the majority of the visitors to the park. These parking lots were designed to provide access for 15,000 visitors by accommodating 3,200 vehicles at one time (Neitzke 1955). The WDSP beach habitat was classified as open dunes by Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI) (Kost et al. 2002). In addition to the beach, this habitat includes coastal dunes and interdunal wetlands that occur within the dune complexes. The vegetation of the open dunes is as distinctive as the habitat. Many of the plant and animal species that characterize the open beach are found only in this habitat (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 1999). The sand beach and dunes experience high winds and extremes in heat from the sun. The sand

Page  23 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 23 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 23 FIGURE 9. Warren Dunes State Park beach on Lake Michigan attracts over a million visitors each year. temperatures frequently reach temperatures of 500C (1200 F) and can reach 800C (1800F) in areas on a hot summer day (Albert 2000). Some of the characteristic plants inhabiting some of the harshest areas of the beach include Ammophila breviligulata, Artemisia campestris, Cakile edentula, Calamovilfa longifolia, Ptelea trifoliata and Salix cordata. A federally listed threatened plant species, Cirsium pitcheri, also inhabits the edges of the foredunes and blowouts and is a Great Lakes endemic species (Michigan Natural Features Inventory 1999). Andropogon scoparius, Lithospermum caroliniense, and Prunus pumila, were found further inland from the beach. According to MNFI (1999), there are 111,291 hectares (275,000 acres) of sand dunes along the Michigan shoreline. However, many of these areas have suffered from residential developments, road building, sand mining, and a variety of recreational uses. At WDSP, the beach is a high traffic area for off road vehicles (ORVs) despite the fact they are not permitted in the park. Weko Beach, which is owned by the City of Bridgman, is a public beach that borders the park in the north. This area allows a large number of visitors and ORVs entrance to the northern beach of WDSP. Interdunal Wetlands and Emergent Marshes Two different types of wetlands were located inland on the beach areas. Two small emergent marshes are located at the mouths of both Tanner and Painter

Page  24 ï~~24 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 ville Creek mouths and seven interdunal wetlands are located behind dunes, near the beaches. Both of these types of wetlands include a unique array of plant species and accentuate the diversity of the park. The emergent marshes included Eleocharis erythropoda, E. olivacea, J. nodosus, Juncus torreyi, Mimulus ringens, Populus balsamifera, Salix exigua, and S. myricoides. Two invasive plant species, Lythrum salicaria and Phragmites australis, were also collected in these wetlands in 2005. The interdunal wetlands (also referred to as wetpannes by some researchers) are characterized as areas where the water table is at the sand surface. Therefore, the water levels in these wetlands are directly associated with the lake levels (Palmgren 2000). These areas are particularly interesting botanically, because they contain some plant species that are disjuncts from the Atlantic coast (Palmgren 2000). Species characteristic of these interdunal wetlands found at WDSP included numerous rushes (Juncus balticus, J. brachycephalus, J. canadensis, J. effusus, J. torreyi) and sedges (Carex cryptolepis, C. viridula, and Cyperus diandrus). Characteristic bulrushes included Scirpus acutus and S. validus. Panicum implicatum was a common grass species of the interdunal wetlands. Characteristic herbaceous species included Hypericum kalmianum, Linum striatum, Lobelia kalmii, Potentilla anserina, and the orchid, Spiranthes cernua. Many interdunal wetlands support a diversity of tree and shrub species in addition to herbaceous species. A state-listed threatened species, Utricularia subulata, was reported in one of the interdunal wetlands in 1987 by Kost et al (2002), and it was documented in 1993 by Marlin Bowles at WDSP. Attempts by MNFI personnel to locate this species in 2000 (Kost et al. 2002) were unsuccessful and Utricularia subulata was also not located during this survey. According to Kost et al. (2002) Utricularia subulata is an annual species that is likely to return when the conditions permit because it maintains a seed bank. Marlin Bowles listed Fimbrystylis autumnalis as an associate on the voucher specimen for U. subulata in the interdunal wetland at WDSP. Although this plant was not documented during this survey (nor did it appear to be collected by Bowles), it could likely be found at WDSP if the conditions permit in the future. The reason Utricularia subulata has been absent from the interdunal wetlands (and other species as well), is likely related to the water level of Lake Michigan. According to Penskar and Higman (1999) these areas are vulnerable to fluctuations in the water level of Lake Michigan. The average lake level is lower than levels recorded in past years, when this taxon was last reported/documented. Photographs taken by the second author of the large interdunal wetland near the Great Warren Dune at WDSP where this species has been previously reported, shows standing water in 1997. The same area in 2005 is barely damp with no standing water (Figure 10). This species has been observed on the edges of interdunal wetlands and is noted to be impacted by hydrological and mechanical disturbances (Kost et al. 2002). During this survey mechanical disturbances (e.g. ORV tracks) were photographed in the interdunal wetland areas (Smith 2006). Salsola kali, a non-native plant species, was dominant in some of these wetlands in 2005, and was noticeably denser than observed in 2004. Mechanical disturbance and lake level fluctuations are apparently influencing the diversity of these areas at WDSP.

Page  25 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 25 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 25 FIGURE 10. Interdunal wetland located in the Great Warren Dune area of Warren Dunes State Park photographed in 2005. Interdunal wetlands are considered to be imperiled habitats both in Michigan and on a world wide scale (Palmgren 2000). The beach area of WDSP is also designated by the State of Michigan as critical dune habitat (Michigan Department of Environmental Quality 2006). Critical dune areas found along the Great Lakes are protected because they were found to be unique, irreplaceable, and fragile resources that provide significant value to the people of Michigan. These areas are under significant pressure to be developed. CONCLUSIONS This study was undertaken to document and provide baseline data for this park which had not previously been inventoried as a unit. This study demonstrated that WDSP is a sanctuary for a diverse array of vascular plants with over 700 different taxa including 11 rare species. The foresight of E.K. Warren in the early part of the 1900s to protect natural areas for the benefit of the public is the reason this park exists today. Serious threats including overuse of the resources, illegal harvesting of plants, and invasive plants and animals pose real threats to the diversity and stability of this resource. But perhaps the largest threat of all is the lack of understanding of the value of this resource. The people who visit or

Page  26 ï~~26 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 manage these resources need to realize the benefits and values of the biodiversity offered by this park. It is important to recognize that natural areas like those found at WDSP offer so much more than a sanctuary for rare plants and animals. Natural areas offer resource protection that benefit humans by providing cleaner air and water in addition to the many other benefits afforded by our vanishing natural areas. The Mount Edward tract in the north section of the park has been recognized for decades as a place worthy of protection and designation as a state Natural Area. Based on our findings during the course of this study we would strongly support such a designation. LITERATURE CITED Albert, D. 2000. Borne of the Wind: An Introduction to the Ecology of Michigan Sand Dunes. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 63 pp. Anonymous. 2005a. Michigan State University Extension website. vanburen/berfruit.htm. Accessed December, 2005. Anonymous. 2005b. Army Corps of Engineers Lake Michigan Lake Level. Accessed December, 2005. Bailey, L. H. 1949. Manual of Cultivated Plants Most Commonly Grown in the Continental United States and Canada (Rev. ed.1968). Macmillan, NY. 1116 pp. Cohen, J.G. (NA) Natural community abstract for mesic northern forest. Natural Features Inventory, MI. 7 pp. Dickmann, D. 2004. Michigan Forest Communities: A Field Guide and Reference. Michigan State University Extension. 158 pp. Dorr, J. A. & D. F. Eschman. 1970. Geology of Michigan. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, MI. 476 pp. Ehrle, E. B. 2003. The champion trees and shrubs of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 42(1): 3-46. E. K. Warren Foundation. 1939. The Region of Three Oaks. Plimpton Press, Norwood, MA. 234 pp. Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico, Volume 2, Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press, New York. 475 pp. Greenberg, J. R. 2002. A Natural History of the Chicago Region. University of Chicago Press, Chicago. 593 pp. Goetz, K. 2003. Ginseng thieves strike the Midwest. Great Lakes Radio Consortium (transcript). September 10, 2003. Hazlett, B. T. 1991. The flora of Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore, Benzie and Leelanau counties, Michigan. Michigan Botanist: 30 (4) 139-207. Herman, K. D., L. A. Masters, M. R. Penskar, A. A. Reznicek, G. S. Wilhelm, & W. W. Brodwicz. 2001. Floristic quality assessment with wetland categories and computer application programs for the State of Michigan. (Rev. ed) Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division, Natural Heritage Program. Lansing, MI. 21 pp. + Appendices. Kost, M.A., D.L. Cuthrell, P. J. Higman, H. D. Enander, R. R. Goforth, and Y. Lee. 2002. An inventory of Warren Dunes State Park to identify significant natural features. Report Number 2002-16. Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, Michigan. 14 pp. + appendices. Krieger, J. 2005. From ashes to dust. The Herald-Palladium, December 14, 2005. p. 1A. Larson, J. D. 1980. Soil Survey of Berrien County, Michigan. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service. 192 pp + 90 maps. Michigan Department of Environmental Quality 2006. Political Townships Containing Designated Critical Dune Areas. pdf. Accessed May 2006. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 2001. Warren Dunes State Park, Sawyer, Michigan [Brochure]. Parks and Recreation. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 2006a. Brief History & Timeline http://www.michigan. gov/dnr/0,1607,715330301_31154_3126054441,00.htm Accessed May, 2006.

Page  27 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 27 Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 2006b. Michigan Deer Hunting Prospects, Statewide Forecast. Accessed May, 2006. Michigan Environmental Council. 2002. The Battle for Bridgman South: How Citizens Rallied to Hold Back the Dune Miners. Accessed December, 2005. Michigan Natural Features Inventory. 1999. Natural community abstract for open dunes. Lansing, MI. 5 pp. Michigan Natural Resources Council. 2005. Deer Policy. ttp:// InsideDNR/NRC/NRC_Policies/2007.htm. Accessed May, 2006. Neitzke, E. J. 1955. A Study of Warren Dunes State Park as an Economic Resource. Unpublished paper submitted to Michigan Department of Natural Resources Parks Division, Lansing, Michigan. Palmgren, G. 2000. Sand Mine Restoration Plan Grand Mere State Park Revised. State Park Stewardship Program Michigan Department of Natural Resources Project # GL985669-01, Lansing, Michigan, and Great Lakes National Program Office U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, IL. Palmgren, G. 2004. Invasive Species Control: Warren Dunes, Grand Mere, and Warren Woods State Parks. Great Lakes Coastal Restoration Grant Project #02CR04.01. Final Report. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, MI. Penskar, M. R. & P. J. Higman. 1999. Special plant abstract for Utricularia subulata (zigzag bladderwort). Michigan Natural Features Inventory, Lansing, MI. 2 pp. Riley, S.W., D.J. Decker, J.W. Enck, P.D. Curtis, T.B. Lauber & T. L. Brown. 2003. Deer populations up, hunter populations down: Implications of interdependence of deer and hunter population dynamics on management. Ecoscience 10(4): 455-461. Schneider, B. & D. Mindell. 2003. Invasive Species Control Plans: Grand Mere, Warren Dunes, & Warren Woods State Parks. Report to Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Bid #07113000152. Wildtype Design Native Plants & Seed, Ltd. and Plant Wise Native Landscapes. Smith, P. F. 2006. Plant Biodiversity Study of Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan. M.S. Thesis. Andrews University, Biology Department, Berrien Springs, MI 155 pp. Swink F. & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region. 4th ed. Indianapolis: Indiana Academy of Science. 921 pp. Tague, G. C. 1946. The post-glacial geology of the Grand Marais embayment in Berrien County, Michigan. Michigan Geological Survey Division, Publication 45, (38) I. 82 pp. Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora: Part I. Gymnosperms and Moncots. Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xv + 488 pp. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora: Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 724 pp. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora: Part III. Dicots (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 622 pp. Wagner, W. H. 1979. Report on the Bridgman Dunes Forest Area (Berrien County, Michigan). University of Michigan Botany Department, Ann Arbor, MI. 23 pp. Wells, J. R. and P. W. Thompson. 1979. Vegetation analysis of the Martin Marietta Aggregates Site, Berrien County, Michigan. Report prepared for the Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Lansing, Michigan. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, MI. 68 pp. Wells, J. R. & P. W. Thompson. 1982. Plant Communities of the Sand Dunes Region of Berrien County, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 21:3-38. Whalen, C. E. 1996. The Featherbone Principle, a Declaration of Interdependence. Matthews Printing Company, Gainsville, GA. 154 pp. Woodland, D. W. 2000. Contemporary Plant Systematics, 3rd ed., Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI. 569 pp.

Page  28 ï~~28 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 APPENDIX 1. VASCULAR PLANT LIST FOR WARREN DUNES STATE PARK The list is arranged in alphabetical order by family within basic taxonomic groups. The species recorded on the list were collected by the authors unless otherwise indicated. Each entry gives the common name, Latin name, collection number, status (special concern, threatened etc.), and a Coefficient of Conservatism (C-value) listed in Herman et al. (2001). In addition, habitat and location codes are provided that correlate to the location and habitat maps provided with the vascular plant list (Figures 2 and 3). Non-native taxa or introduced species are indicated by an I on the list.

Page  29 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Vascular Plants of Warren Dunes State Park, Berrien County, Michigan C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ PTERIDOPHYTES N tO O3 ASPLENIACEAE Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Britt., Sterns & Pogg. BLECHNACEAE Woodwardia virginica (L.) Smith DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (L.) Kuhn (Desvaux) DRYOPTERIDACEAE Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Mertens Dryopteris carthusiana (Villars) H.P. Fuchs Dryopteris cristata (L.) A. Gray Dryopteris intermedia Muhlenberg ex Willdenow Dryopteris intermedia x D. marginalis Dryopteris marginalis L. Onoclea sensibilis L. Polystichum acrostichoides (Michaux) Schott EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense L. Equisetum hyemale L. Equisetum laevigatum A. Braun Equisetum palustre L. Equisetum x ferrissii Clute Equisetum x nelsonii (A. A. Eaton) J. H. Schaffner LYCOPODIACEAE Diphasiastrum digitatum (Dillenius ex. A. Braun) Huperzia lucidula (Michaux) Trevisan Ebony Spleenwort 2 1,2 FD 803, 942 Virginia Chain Fern Bracken Fern Lady Fern Spinulose Wood Fern Crested Wood Fern Intermediate Wood Fern Hybrid wood fern Marginal Wood Fern Sensitive Fern Christmas Fern 10 4 5 6 5 NA 5 2 6 2 2,3,6 2 1 1 2 2 6 SW DF LH FD LH FD FD FD LH LH 340 189 297 569, 940, 1039 1195 ^Wagner ^Wagner 120, 168 291 386 462 219, 269 701, 955 427 812,1037,1118 714 n z 0 z Hq Field Horsetail Scouring Rush Smooth Horsetail Marsh Horsetail Horsetail Horsetail 0 2 2 10 2 10 3 5 2 6 1,4 3 DF SB ID LH,D B FD Southern Running Pine Shining Fir-moss 1 FD 1 FD 858 1203 (Continued)

Page  30 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.A Lycopodium clavatum L. Clubmoss 4 1 FD 353 OSMUNDACEAE Osmunda cinnamomea L. Osmunda regalis L. OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium virginianum (L.) Swartz POLYPODIACEAE Polypodium virginianum L. PTERIDACEAE Adiantum pedatum L. THELYPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris palustris Schott Theylypteris noveboracensis L. Cinnamon Fern Royal Fern Rattlesnake Fern Common Polypody Maidenhair Fern 2 SW 2 SW 305 965 1 FD PHOTO -1209 5 FD 2 FD 1170 118 n z 0 z H Marsh Fern New York Fern 2,3,5 5 LH LH 570, 1003, 1181 247 CONIFERS CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. Juniperus virginiana L. Thuja occidentalis L. PINACEAE Picea abies (L.) Karsten Picea glauca (Moench) A. Voss Picea pungens Engel. Pinus banksiana Lamb. Pinus resinosa Aiton Common Juniper Red Cedar White Cedar Norway Spruce White Spruce Blue Spruce Jack Pine Red Pine B LH FD FD LH DF LH DF 387 440 384 0 (I) 3 0 (I) 5 6 2 4,5 1 5 2 371 439, 471 222 475 706 0

Page  31 ï~~Pinus strobus L. Pinus sylvestris L. Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. TAXACEAE Taxus canadensis Marsh. Taxus cuspidata Sieb. & Zucc. AGAVACEAE Yucca filamentosa L. ALISMATACEAE Alisma plantago-aquatica L. AMARYLLIDACEAE Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. Narcissus x medioluteus Mill. White Pine Scotch Pine Hemlock Canada Yew Japanese Yew 3 0 (I) 5 5 o (I) o (I) FD, LH B LH 250, 279 385 309 386 477, 915 ON 1 FD 3,5 FD, DF MONOCOTS Yucca 230 1028 Water-plantain 4 WD Daffodil Double form Daffodil White Daffodil Jack-in-the-pulpit Arrow-arum 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) LH LH LH 393 395 443 415 373 H z 0 z H ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endl. 4 LH 2 LH 4 DF COMMELINACEAE Tradescantia ohiensis Raf. Spiderwort 5 14 CYPERACEAE Carex alata Torrey Carex albursina Sheldon Carex amphibola Steudel Carex arctata Boott Carex blanda Dewey Carex bromoides Willd. Carex canescens L. Winged Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge 10 5 8 3 1 6 8 1 1,2,3 3 1,2,3 2,4,5 4 1 SW FD FD FD LH,SB LH FD 850 578, 834, 1054 908 521, 568, 705 450, 548,606,607,649 778 679 (Continued)

Page  32 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.A Carex cephalophora Willd. Carex communis Bailey Carex comosa Boott Carex crinita Lam. Carex cristatella Britton Carex cryptolepis Mack Carex eburnea Boott Carex gracilescens Steudel Carex gracillima Schw. Carex granularis Willd. Carex grayi Carey Carex grisea Wahl. Carex hitchcockiana Dewey Carex intumescens Rudge Carex lacustris Willd. Carex languinosa Michaux Carex laxiflora Lam. Carex lupulina Willd. Carex lurida Wahl. Carex muhlenbergii Willd. Carex pedunculata Willd. Carex pensylvanica Lam. Carex plantaginea Lam. Carex (convoluta) radiata (Wahlenb.) Small Carex retrorsa Schw. Carex rosea Willd. Carex scoparia Willd. Carex stipata Willd. Carex swanii (Fern.) Mack. Carex tenera Dewey Carex tribuloides Wahl. Carex utriculata Boott Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Yellow Sedge Sedge Sedge Purple-sheathed Sedge Sedge Gray's Sedge Sedge Hairy Gray Sedge Sedge Lake Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Pennsylvania sedge Plantain-leaved sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge 3 2 5 4 3 10 7 5 4 2 6 3 5 3 6 8 8 4 3 7 5 4 8 2 1 5 1 4 1,5 2,4 1,2,4 5 1,2 4 4 3 1,2,3,4,5 2 2 5 1 2,3 2,4,5 1,3 4 1,2,3,4 1,3 2 FD FD SW LH SW ID FD SB FD LH LH LH FD SW,LH SW SB,WD FD LH SW FD FD FD FD LH FD,LH SW LH LH LH SW,LH SW 682 490, 614, 620 1022 652, 664 837, 997, 1136 698, 699, 702, 1036 815,972 640, 644, 645, 647, 648 546, 671, 941 22, 876, 887 643, 870 767 563, 759, 761, 772 544, 722, 853 935 580, 621 524, 629, 1050 762947 691,692, 833, 873,960 862, 865, 866, 1045 793 405, 409,742, 796, 859 403, 630 1009 see C. utriculata 454, 628, 693, 923 689, 850, 1061 474, 543, 668, 892 937 733 670,763, 782, 856, 959 662, 851 n z 0 z H 01 1,2,4 1,2 1,2,4,5 2 3 1,2,3,4 1,5

Page  33 ï~~Carex virescens Willd. Carex vulpinoidea Michaux Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torrey Cyperus diandrus Torrey Cyperus filiculmis Vahl. Cyperus odoratus L. Cyperus schweinitzii Torrey Cyperus strigosus L. Eleocharis erythropoda L. Eleocharis olivacea Torrey Eleocharis smallii Britton Rhynchospora capitellata (Michaux) Vahl. Scirpus acutus Bigelow Scirpus americanus Pers. Scirpus atrovirens Willd. Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth Scirpus fluviatilis (Torrey) Gray Scirpus validus Vahl. Sedge Fox Sedge Twig Rush Sedge Nut Sedge Sedge Sedge Sedge Spikerush Spikerush Spikerush Rhynchospora Hard-stem Bulrush Three-square Green Bulrush Wool-grass River Bulrush Softstem Bulrush 8 1 10 5 2 3 5 3 4 7 5 6 5 5 3 5 6 4 1 3 2 2 2 5 1 6 5 4 3 2 2 4 4 1 5 4,5 FD LH ID ID SW EM DF WD EM EM LH SW ID WD WD SW LH SB,D 857 766 975, 989 137 1060 1109 986 1166 1016 589, 1124 678 1044 1032 895 872 335 998, 1088, 1154 637, 777 ON H z 0 z H HYDROCHARITACEAE Elodea canadensis Michaux Elodea 5 stream 636 IRIDACEAE Iris virginica L. Sisyrinchium angustifolium Miller JUNCACEAE Juncus balticus Willd. Juncus brachycephalus (Engelm.) Buch. Juncus compressus Jacq. Juncus dudleyi Wieg. Juncus effusus L. Juncus marginatus Rostk. Juncus nodosus L. Southern Blue Flag Blue-Eyed Grass 2 1,2,4 SW 736, 737 SW 683, 847, 888 Baltic Rush Rush Rush Rush Soft Rush Rush Rush 4 7 0 (I) 1 3 8 5 2,5 2 2 4 1 2 4,5 SB,ID SW SW LH SW, LH SW,LH EM, LH 588, 697, 976 974 824 801, 891 684, 1206 985 897, 1015 (Continued) I

Page  34 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ Juncus tenuis Willd. Juncus torreyi Cov. Path Rush Torrey's Rush 4 2 FD EM 792, 875, 917 1013, 1014 LEMNACEAE Lemna minor L. Lemna trisulca L. Wolffia columbiana Karsten Wolffia papulifera C. H. Thomps. LILIACEAE Allium canadense L. Allium cepa L. Allium sativum L. Allium tricoccum Aiton Allium vineale L. Asparagus officinalis L. Erythronium americanum L. Hemerocalisfulva (L.) L. Lilium lancifolium Thunb. Lilium michiganense Farw. Maianthemum canadense Desf. Medeola virginana L. Muscari atlanticum Boiss. & Reuter Ornithogalum umbellatum L. Polygonatum biflorum (Walter) Ell. Polygonatum pubescens (Wild.) Pursh Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. Smilax ecirrata (Kunth) S. Watson Smilax illinoensis Mangaly Smilax lasioneura Hooker Smilax rotundifolia L. Lesser Duckweed Star Duckweed Watermeal Nippled Watermeal Wild Garlic Onion Garlic Wild Leek Field Garlic Asparagus Trout Lily Orange Day Lily Tiger Lily Michigan Lily Canada mayflower Indian Cucumber-root Grape-Hyacinth Star-of-Bethleham Solomon's-seal Solomon's-seal False Solomon's Seal Starry Solomon's Seal Carrion Flower Carrion Flower Greenbriar Common Greenbriar 5 6 5 10 (T) 4 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 4 10 0 (I) 0 (I) 4 5 5 5 6 4 5 6 4 4 4 4 1 2 6 1 5 3 1 1 4 5 1 4 2 4 1 3 3,4 1,2,4 SW SW LH LH DF DR DR FD DR DR LH DR LH LH FD LH LH DR FD FD FD FD FD FD FD FD 23 15 900 747 852, 924 577 429 823 1053 909 523 672 482 619 500 418 119 513 559 561 770, 874 667, 680, 735,741 389 504 1183 1182 n z 0 z O 0

Page  35 ï~~Smilax taminoides L. Trillium grandiflorum (Michaux) Salisb. Trillium recurvatum Beck Uvularia grandiflora Sm. ORCHIDACEAE Aplectrum hyemale Willd. Corallorhiza maculata Raf. Cypripedium calceolus L. Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. Habenaria lacera (Michaux) Lodd. Habenaria viridis var. bracteata (Willd.) Gray Orchis spectabilis L. Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich. POACEAE (GRAMINAE) Agropyron repens (L.) Beauv. Agrostis gigantea Roth Ammophila breviligulata Fern. Andropogon gerardii Vitman Andropogon scoparius Michaux Andropogon virginicus L. Anthoxanthum odoratum Brachyelytrum erectum (Roth) Beauv. Bromus inermis Leysser Bromus mollis L. Bromus pubescens Willd. Bromus sterilis L. Calamagrostis canadensis (Michaux) Beauv. Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray Calamovilfa longifolia (Hooker) Scribner Cenchrus longispinus (Hackel) Fern. Cinna arundinacea L. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. Bristly Greenbriar Common Trillium Prairie Trillium Bellwort Putty-root Spotted Coral Root Yellow Lady's Slipper Helleborine Rattlesnake Plantain Ragged Fringed Orchid Long-bracted Orchid Showy Orchis Ladies Tresses Quack Grass Redtop Marram Grass Big Bluestem Little Bluestem Broom Sedge Sweet Vernal Grass Long-awned Wood Grass Smooth Brome Grass Soft Chess Canada Brome Poverty Brome Blue-Joint Grass Bog Reed Grass Sand Reed Grass Sand Bur Grass Wood Reedgrass Bermuda Grass 5 5 8 (T) 5 10 5 7 0 (I) 7 8 8 10 (T) 4 0 (I) 0 (I) 10 5 5 4 0 (I) 7 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 3 8 10 0 7 0 (I) LH FD LH FD 1156 410 470 492 ON bO O3 2,3 1 3 1 1 2 1 5 2 3,4 2,4 2 4 2 2 2 4 1,3 2 1,3 5 2 1 1,4 4 1 1 FD FD FD FD FD LH FD LH ID DR D,SW B DR B DF DF FD DF DR FD DR SW SW B B 712, 1185 PHOTO -1169 PHOTO -720 167 W&T 936 PHOTO -525, 566 PHOTO -600 1157 798, 906, 1101 918, 919, 967 66 1146 142, 202 1194 723, 969 953 1046 1101 821, 914 605, 618 961 1030 1078, 1120 1130 174 AW&T (Continued) H z 0 z H O

Page  36 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued Latin Name Dactylis glomerata L. Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertner Elymus arenarius L. Elymus canadensis L. Elymus virginicus L. Eragrostis pectinacea (Michaux) Nees Eragrostis spectabilis (Pursh) Steudel Festuca arundinacea Schreber Festuca obtusa Biehler Festuca rubra L. Glyceria canadensis (Michaux) Trin. Glyceria septentrionalis Hitch. Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. Hystrix patula Moench Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. Leersia virginica Willd. Leptoloma cognatum (Schultes) Chase Lolium perenne L. Muhlenbergia schreberi J. F. Gmelin Muhlenbergia tenuiflora (Willd.) BSP Oryzopsis asperifolia Michaux Oryzopsis racemosa (Sm.) Htich. Panicum capillare L. Panicum clandestinum L. Panicum columbianum Scribner Panicum commonsianum Ashe Panicum dichotomiflorum Michaux Panicum implicatum Britton Panicum latifolium L. Panicum oligosanthes Schultes APPENDIX 1. Continued Common Name Orchard Grass Crabgrass Barnyard Grass Goose Grass Lime Grass Canada Wild Rye Wild Rye Love Grass Tumble Grass Tall Fescue Nodding Fescue Red Fescue Rattlesnake Grass Floating Manna Grass Fowl Manna Grass Bottlebrush Grass Rice Cut Grass White Grass Fall Witch Grass Ryegrass Nimblewill Slender Satin Grass Mountain Rice Grass Rice Grass Fall Witch Grass Deer Tongue Panic Grass Panic Grass Panic Grass Panic Grass Broad Panic Grass Panic Grass C Value* (Status**) 0 (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) 7 4 0 3 o (I) 5 o (I) 8 7 4 5 3 5 4 o (I) o (I) 8 6 8 1 3 7 6 0 3 5 5 Loc.*** 2 1,4 4 1 1 2 4 4 1 1,2,3 2,4 3 1 1 2,3,5 4 6 2 1,4 4 1 1 1 4,6 1 1,2,5 1 1 1 2,4 4 1,4 Habitat**** DR LH WD, LH LH B B B DF FD SW FD,LH DF SW SW SW LH WD SW DF FD DF FD FD LH,FD FD SB, SW FD FD SB,B ID, LH FD DR Collection No.^ 1035 1116, 1142 1026, 1037 1133 818 71 1123 1128 1134 756, 780, 966 33, 952, 1007 755 1082 1071 734, 764, 966 17 1165 1058 1100, 1168 791, 838 1205 1138 496 951, 1054 1163 814, 832 863 673 1197 1038, 1057 954 12, 864 H z 0 z H 0

Page  37 ï~~Panicum rigidulum Nees Panicum virgatum L. Phalaris arundinacea L. Phleum pratense L. Phragmites australis (Cay.) Steudel Poa alsodes Gray Poa annua L. Poa compressa L. Poa languida Hitchc. Poa palustris L. Poa pratensis L. Poa sylvestris Gray Poa trivialis L. Puccinellia pallida (Torrey) Clauson Schizachne purpurascens (Torrey) Swallen Secale cereale L. Setaria farberi Herrm. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Sorghastrum nutans (L.) Nash Sphenopholis intermedia (Rydb.) Rydb. Sporobolis cryptandrus (Torrey) Gray Tridens flavus (L.) Hitchc Triticum aestivum L. Munro Grass Switch Grass Reed Canary Grass Timothy Reed Bluegrass Annual Bluegrass Canada Bluegrass Bluegrass Fowl Meadow Grass Kentucky Bluegrass Woodland Bluegrass Bluegrass Puccinellia False Melic Rye Giant Foxtail Yellow Foxtail Foxtail Grass Indian Grass Wedgegrass Dropseed Purpletop Wheat Pickerel-weed Curley Pondweed 7 4 0 0 (I) 0 9 o (I) o (I) 6 3 o (I) 8 o (I) 7 5 o (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) 6 4 3 3 o (I) 2 2,5 1,4,5 3 4 2 3,4 1,3,4 4 1 4,5 1 4 1 1 1 2 2 4 4 3,5 4 5 1 LH B, DR SW DR D, EM,B SW DR DF DF SW LH FD LH SW DR DR DR DF DR SW FD LH DR 96 68, 215 854, 894,730 929 624, 1108 549 421, 466 800, 1040, 1066 740 855 615, 783 681 775, 841 1021 ^W&T 711 326 328 1126 1149 765, 994 1092 1089 665 ON H z 0 z H PONTEDERIACEAE Pontederia cordata L. POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton crispus L. ^Graff-511 0 (I) SPARGANIACEAE Sparganium americanum Nutt. Sparganium androcladum (Engelm.) Buch. 5 Creek 1 SW 1 SW 638 1017 1189 Bur-reed Bur-reed (Continued)

Page  38 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued W 00 C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ TYPHACEAE Typha angustifolia L. Typha latifolia L. Narrow-leaved Cattail Cat-tail DICOTS ACERACEAE Acer negundo L. Acer nigrum L. Acer platanoides Acer platanoides var. schwedleri L. Acer rubrum L. Acer saccharinum L. Acer saccharum Marsh. Box Elder Black Maple Norway Maple Crimson Maple Red Maple Silver Maple Sugar Maple 0 (I) 1 0 4 o (I) o (I) 1 2 5 o (I) 4 4 5 3 2 2 2,4 D SW LH LH SB DF LH SB FD 890 1023 435 748 836 464 316, 367 536 48, 201 AMARANTHACEAE Amaranthus retroflexus L. n z 0 z H/ Pigweed 1 DR 1114 ANACARDIACEAE Rhus aromatica Aiton Rhus copallina L. Rhus glabra L. Rhus typhina L. Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze Toxicodendron rydbergii (Ryde.) Greene Fragrant Sumac Winged Sumac Smooth Sumac Staghorn Sumac Poison Ivy Poison Ivy FD DF FD DF LH 594 1024 218 241 827 ^Wagner ANNONACEAE Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal Pawpaw 9 1 FD 528 APIACEAE (UMBELLIFERAE) Cicuta maculata L. Conium maculatum L. Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. Water Hemlock Poison hemlock Honewort 4 0 (I) 2 LH WD LH 898, 978 751 36 0

Page  39 ï~~Daucus carota L. Osmorhiza claytonii (Michaux) C. B. Clarke Osmorhiza longistylis (Torrey) DC. Sanicula gregaria Bickn. Sanicula marilandica L. Sanicula trifoliata Bickn. APOCYNACEAE Apocynum androsaemifolium L. Apocynum cannabinum L. Vinca minor L. Queen Anne's Lace Sweet Cicely Sweet-Cicely Black Snakeroot Black Snakeroot Snakeroot Spreading Dogbane Indian Hemp Periwinkle Holly Michigan Holly Bristly Sarsaparilla Wild Sarsaparilla Ginseng Dwarf Ginseng 0 (I) 4 3 2 4 6 3 3 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 1 4,1 5 5 1 1 3 4 2, 5 FD LH, FD LH LH LH LH WD WD LH 164 35, 520 608 34 805 150 912 879 293, 724 390 290, 315 ON AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex aquilifolium L. Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray ARALIACEAE Aralia hispida Vent. Aralia nudicaulis L. Panax quinquefolius L. Panax trifolius L. ARISTOLOCHIACEAE Asarum canadense ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias exaltata L. Asclepias incarnata L. Asclepias syriaca L. Asclepias tuberosa L. Asclepias verticillata L. Asclepias viridiflora Raf. ASTERACEAE (COMPOSITAE) Achillea millefolium L. 2 LH 2 SW 3 5 10 (T) 8 LH FD LH, FD ^W&T 867 PHOTO -166, 494 411, 431,495 H z 0 z H Wild Ginger 2 LH 333 Poke Milkweed Swamp Milkweed Milkweed Butterfly-weed Whorled Milkweed Green Milkweed 6 6 1 5 1 8 1 2 4 5 2, 3 4 FD SB DF DF DF, ID B 804, 819 1005 39 931 973, 1093 49 Yarrow 2 DR 687 (Continued)

Page  40 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued Latin Name Common Name C ( Ambrosia artemesiifolia L. Ambrosia trifida L. Antennaria neglecta Greene Arctium minus Bernh. Artemesia campestris L. Artemesia vulgaris L. Aster cordifolius L. Aster dumosis L. Aster lanceolatus Willd. Aster macrophyllus L. Aster novae-angliae L. Aster ontarionis Wiegand Aster pilosus Willd. Bidens comosus (A. Gray) Wiegand Cacalia atriplicifolia L. Centaurea maculosa Lam. Centaurea maculosa Lam. Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. Cichorium intybus L. Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. Cirsium muticum Michaux Cirsium pitcheri (Eaton) T. &. G. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist Coreopsis grandiflora Sweet Coreopsis lanceolata L. Erechtites hieraciifolia (L.) DC. Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. Erigeron philadelphicus L. Erigeron strigosus Willd. Eupatorium maculatum L. Eupatorium perfoliatum L. Ragweed Giant Ragweed Pussy Toes Common Burdock Wormwood Mugwort Blue Wood Aster Bushy Aster Lance-leaved Aster Large-leaved Aster New England Aster Ontario Aster Frost Aster Beggar-ticks Pale Indian-Plantain Spotted Knapweed Spotted Knapweed-white form Ox-eye Daisy Chickory Canada Thistle Swamp Thistle Pitcher's Thistle Bull-thistle Horseweed Garden Coreopsis Tickseed Fireweed Daisy Fleabane Fleabane Daisy Fleabane Joe-pye Weed Boneset Value* Status**) 0 0 3 0 (I) 5 o (I) 4 7 2 4 3 6 1 5 10 o (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) 6 10 (FT) o (I) 0 o (I) 8 2 0 2 4 4 4 Loc.*** 4 1 5 5 2 1 1 2 2,5 2 1,2 2 3 1 4 2 1 5 2 3 3 5 4 2 3 4 2 5 4 1,2 4, 5 2 Habitat**** DR DR DF SB B DF FD ID SW FD SB LH DF SW SD DF DF DR DR DR LF B DR DR DR DR HL LH WD DF SB SW Collection No.^ 1096 1135 476 993 143 1140 221, 382 227 1175, 1191 122 1171 330, 1177 1176, 1199 337 1117 70 180 726 327 884 910 PHOTO -725 1027 134 752 880 1161 611052 662 161, 1008 1104, 1129 94 n z 0 z O 0

Page  41 ï~~Eupatorium rugosum Houtt. Eupatorium serotinum Michaux Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. Helianthus decapetalus L. Helianthus divaricatus L. Helianthus sp. Helianthus mollis Lam. Helianthus tuberosus L. Hieracium aurantiacum L. Hieracium flagellare Willd. Hieracium paniculatum L. Hieracium pilosella L. Hieracium piloseloides Vill. Krigia biflora (Walter) S. F. Blake Krigia virginica (Walter) S. F. Blake Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald Lactuca canadensis L. Polymnia canadensis L. Prenanthes alba L. Prenanthes altissima L. Rudbeckia hirta L. Rudbeckia laciniata L. Senecio aureus L. Senecio paupercaulus Michaux Senecio vulgaris L. Solidago altissima L. Solidago caesia L. Solidago canadensis L. Solidago gigantea Aiton Solidago hispida Willd. Solidago nemoralis Aiton Solidago rugosa Miller Solidago rugosa var. asperifolia Miller Solidago simplex Kunth White Snakeroot Late Boneset Grass-leaved Goldenrod Fragrant Cudweed Thin-leaved Sunflower Woodland Sunflower Sunflower Downy Sunflower Jerusalem Artichoke Orange Hawkweed Whip-lash Hawkweed Panicled Hawkweed Mouse Ear Hawkweed King Devil Two Flowered Cynthia Dwarf Dandelion Tall Blue Lettuce Wild Lettuce Leaf Cup Rattlesnake Root Tall White Lettuce Black-eyed Susan Cut-leaved Coneflower Golden Ragwort Balsam Ragwort Common Groundsel Late Goldenrod Blue-stem Goldenrod Canada Goldenrod Giant Goldenrod Hairy Goldenrod Old Field Goldenrod Rough Goldenrod Rough Goldenrod Gillman's Goldenrod 4 0 3 2 5 5 10 9 (T) 6 0 (I) 0 (I) 10 (SC) 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 4 2 2 6 5 5 1 6 5 3 0 (I) 1 7 1 3 3 2 3 3 10 1 5 1 2 4 1 1 2 1 3 1 1 3,4 2 5 5 4 5 4 5 2 4 4 2 2 1 1,2 1 1,2 2 2 1,2,5 2 2 FD SB DF,B ID LH DF FD DF FD DR FD DR ID DR DF DR FD LH LH LH DR DR LH ID LH FD FD,DF DF ID ID ID SW SW ID 154 1103 133, 160 190,228 82, 191 179 1087, 1115 AGraff-300 1139 721 1076 AMNFI 885, 899 703 727 261 1105 1102 869 274 1160 886, 913 1148 540 988 1200 163 152, 303 1188 125, 1141 141, 1178 205 207, 356 314 1179 (Continued) ON z 0 z L/

Page  42 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued Latin Name Sonchus asper (L.) Hill Sonchus oleraceus L. Taraxacum officinale Wiggers Tragopogon dubius Scop. BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb. Common Name Prickly Sow Thistle Sow Thistle Dandelion Goat's Beard C Value* (Status**) 0 (I) o (I) o (I) o (I) Loc.*** 1 3 2 5 Habitat**** DR DR B DR Collection No.^ 666 928 487 616 Touch-me-not BERBERIDACEAE Berberis thunbergii DC. Podophyllum peltatum L. BETULACEAE Alnus rugosa (Duroi) Sprengel Betula alleghaniensis Britton Betula papyrifera Marsh. Carpinus caroliniana Walter Corylus americana Walter Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch BIGNONIACEAE Campsis radicans (L.) Bureau Catalpa speciosa (Warder) Engelm. BORAGINACEAE Echium vulgare L. Hackelia virginiana (L.) I. M. Johnston Lithospermum caroliniense (J. F. Gmelin) MacMillan Myosotis laxa Lehm. BRASSICACEAE (CRUCIFERAE) Alliaria petiolata (Bieb.) Cavara & Grande 5 EM 3 LH 1 FD 1111 399 522 Japanese Barberry May-apple Speckled Alder Yellow Birch Paper Birch Blue Beech Hazelnut Ironwood Trumpet Vine Catalpa Blueweed Stickseed Yellow Pucoon Forget-me-not o (I) 3 2,5 2, 5 5 5 1 4 3 5 1 2 3 LH, SB LH, ID LH LH FD FD DR SB FD B WD 958, 1110 963, 1033 491, 1192 268 ^W&T 220 883, 979 239 ^W&T 183 18, 214 769 n z 0 z H 0 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 1 10 6 Garlic Mustard 0 (I) 2 LH 797, 825

Page  43 ï~~Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Arabis canadensis L. Arabis laevigata (Willd.) Poiret Arabis lyrata L. Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. Berteroa incana (L.) DC. Brassica rapa L. Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hooker Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medicus Cardamine bulbosa Muhl. Cardamine hirsuta L. Cardamine pensylvanica Willd. Dentaria laciniata Willd. Hesperis matronalis L. Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. Lepidium virginicum L. Nasturtium officinale R. Br. CAMPANULACEAE Campanula americana L. Lobelia cardinalis L. Lobelia kalmii L. Lobelia siphilitica L. CAPPARACEAE Polanisia dodecandra (L.) DC. CAPRIFOLIACEAE Diervilla lonicera Mill. Lonicera canadensis Marshall Lonicera dioica L. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Lonicera morrowii A. Gray Lonicera x bella Zabel Lonicera tatarica L. Mouse Ear Cress Arabis Smooth Bank Cress Lyre-leaved Sandcress Yellow Rocket Hoary Alyssum Turnip Sea-rocket Shepherd's-purse Spring Cress Cardamine Cardamine Cut-leaved Toothwort Dame's Rocket Pepper Grass Pepper Grass Watercress American Bellflower Cardinal Flower Kalm's Lobelia Great Blue Lobelia Clammy-weed Honeysuckle Fly Honeysuckle Red Honeysuckle Japanese Honeysuckle Honeysuckle Honeysuckle Tartarian Honeysuckle 0 (I) 7 5 7 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 4 0 (I) 1 5 o (I) o (I) 0 0 (I) 1,2 3 2,5 4 2 5, 2 5 4 1 2,4 1,3 1, 2,4 3 4 2,4 2,3,4 1 FD, SB FD LH,SW, FD B SB B, DF DR B SB, LH FD FD,DF,LH FD LH DF DF,FD SB 507, 538 744, 826 552, 641,957 27 535 585, 1006 603 29 ^W&T 460, 533 392, 412, 451, 508, 537, 655 396 1001 795, 799 907, 948, 1065, 817 -N n z 0 z H/1 8 7 10 4 LH LH ID FD 76 1059 132 170 ^W&T 0 (I) 4 5 5 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 1 2 2 4 1,2 1 2 FD LH LH DR WD FD LH 1187 488 541 6, 9 509,530, 547 529 97 (Continued)

Page  44 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ Sambucus canadensis L. Sambucus racemosa L. Symphoricarpos albus (L.) S. F. Blake Viburnum acerifolium L. Viburnum lentago L. Viburnum opulus L. CARYOPHYLLACEAE Arenaria serpyllifolia L. Cerastium fontanum Baumg. Cerastium semidecandrum L. Cerastium tomentosum L. Dianthus armeria L. Lychnis coronaria (L.) Desr. Petrorhagia saxifraga (L.) Link Saponaria officinalis L. Silene antirrhina L. Silene pratensis (Rafn) Godron & Gren Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke Stellaria graminea L. Stellaria media L. Vill. CELASTRACEAE Celastrus orbiculata Thunb. Celastrus scandens L. Euonymus europaea L. Euonymus obovata Nutt. Euonymus alata (Thunb.) Siebold Elderberry Red-berried Elder Snowberry Maple-leaved Viburnum Nannyberry Highbush Cranberry Sandwort Mouse-Ear Chickweed Small Mouse-Ear Chickweed Snow-in-Summer Deptford Pink Mullein Pink Saxafrage Pink Bouncing Bet Sleepy Catchfly White Campion Bladder Campion Starwort Common Chickweed Oriental Bittersweet Bittersweet Spindle Tree Running Strawberry-bush Burning Bush 2 1 1 2 4 5 LH FD FD WD SB 329 532 ^W&T 73 623 635 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 2 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 3 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 2, 5 4,5 2 2 2 4 2 2 1 2 1,5 5 2,3 2 5 2 DF DR DF DR DF DF DF B DR DF DF FD LH B,LH LH LH LH 598 612, 694 420, 602 556 60 830 11 72 ^W&T 685 806 677, 743 408, 574 235, 729 26,53,716 368 639 964 n z 0 z H/ CERATOPHYLACEAE Ceratophyllum demersum L. Coontail 1 1 SW 660 0 V1..

Page  45 ï~~CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium album L. Chenopodium hybridum L. Corispermum hyssopifolium L. Salsola kali L. CISTACEAE Lechea villosa Ell. CLUSIACEAE (GUTTIFERAE) Hypericum kalmianum L. Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericum prolificum L. Hypericum punctatum Lam. Triadenum virginicum (L.) Raf. CONVOLVULACEAE Convolvulus arvensis L. Ipomoea pandurata (L.) G. Meyer ON Lamb's Quarters Goosefoot Bugseed Russian Thistle Lechea Kalm's St. John's Wort St. John's Wort Shrubby St. John's Wort Spotted St. John's Wort Swamp St. John's Wort 0 (I) 1 3 o (I) DR B ID DF ID DF LH SW SW 1073 ^W&T 1159 1180 1043 50 807 939 1004 1084 10 0 (I) 5 4 10 0 (I) 0 (I) Field Bind Weed Wild Sweet Potato 3 DR 4 DR 882 1025 n z 0 z H CORNACEAE Cornus alternifolia L. f. Cornus amomum Miller Cornus florida L. Cornus foemina ssp. racemosa (Lam.) J. S. Wilson Cornus rugosa Lam Cornus stolonifera Michaux Pagoda Dogwood Silky Dogwood Flowering Dogwood Gray Dogwood Round Leaved Dogwood Red-osier Dogwood 2 5 5 1,2 4 1,2,5 LH LH FD DR,LH DR SB,LH 31, 298 242, 245 254 2,93 1097, 1107 542,599,813 CRASSULACEAE Sedum album L. White Sedum 0 (I) 2 DR 2 LH 829 369 CUCURBITACEAE Echinocystis lobata (Michaux) T. & G. Wild Cucumber (Continued)

Page  46 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ CUSCUTACEAE Cuscuta gronovii Shultes DIOSCOREACEAE Dioscorea villosa L. DIPSACEAE Dipsacus fullonum L. ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. Swamp Dodder 1 SW 1048, 1190 Wild Yam 1 FD 2 WD 977 984 Teasel 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) Russian Olive Autumn Olive 5 DR 732 2 DR 554, 557 ERICACEAE Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel Gaultheria procumbens L. Gaylussacia baccata (Wangenh.) K. Koch Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton Vaccinium corymbosum L. Vaccinium pallidum Aiton Bearberry Wintergreen Huckleberry Low Sweet Blueberry Highbush Blueberry Hillside Blueberry Three-Seeded Mercury Flowering Spurge Toothed Spurge Eyebane Nodding Eyebane Seaside Spurge 2,4 1 1 1 1 1 B LH FD LH FD, SW FD 226, 518 352 501 1196 351 663,669,860,1085 n z 0 z H/ EUPHORBIACEAE Acalyphya rhomboidea Raf. Euphorbia corollata L. Euphorbia dentata Michaux Euphorbia maculata L. Euphorbia nutans Lag. Euphorbia polygonifolia L. 0 4 0 (I) 0 0 10 SW B DR DR DR 1155 1119 1167 1095 1041 ^W&T FABACEAE (LEGUMINOSAE) Amphicarpaea bracteata (L.) Fern. Apios americana Medicus Hog Peanut Groundnut 1 FD 145 4 WD 774, 1143 0

Page  47 ï~~Coronilla varia L. Gleditsia triacanthos L. f. inermis Schneider Lathyrus latifolius L. Medicago lupulina L. Medicago sativa L. Melilotus alba Medicus Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas Robinia pseudoacacia L. Trifolium pratense L. Vicia sativa L. Vicia villosa Roth Wisteria sinensis (Sims) Sweet FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia Ehrn. Quercus muhlenbergii Engelm. Quercus x hawkinsiae Sudw. Quercus alba L. Quercus bicolor Willd. Quercus rubra L. Quercus velutina Lam. FUMARIACEAE Adlumiafungosa (Aiton) BSP. Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. Dicentra canadensis (Goldie) Walp. Dicentra cucullaria (L.) Bernh. Crown Vetch Honeylocust Everlasting Pea Black Medic Alfalfa White Sweet Clover Yellow Sweet Clover Black Locust Red Sweet Clover Spring Vetch Hairy Vetch Wisteria American Beech Chestnut Oak Hybrid Oak White Oak Swamp White Oak Northern Red Oak Black Oak Alleghany Vine Pale Corydalis Squirrel-corn Dutchman's Breeches 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) o (I) o (I) 5 4 4 1,2 2 1 1 5 2 2 2 3 DR DR DR DF DR DF DR B DF DF DR DR 790 902 881 63, 197 1010 198 844 265 331 708 709, 981 676, 771 ON O LH FD FD LH,FD LH FD FD 248 1127 1081 115, 302, 334, 357 1193 1079 1080 H z 0 z H 4 (SC) 5 7 7 FD FD FD 182 ^W&T 497 394 GENTIANACEAE Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. Gentianopsis crinita (Froel.) Ma Bottle Gentian Fringed Gentian 2 LH, WD 229 ^Graff-575 426, 434 GERANIACEAE Geranium maculatum L. Wild Geranium 4 4,6 LH (Continued)

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Page  49 ï~~Mentha spicata L. Mentha x piperita L. Monarda fistulosa L. Monarda punctata L. Nepeta cataria L. Physostegia virginiana (L.) Bentham Prunella vulgaris L. Scutellaria lateriflora L. Teucrium canadense L. LAURACEAE Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees Spearmint Peppermint Wild Bergamot Horsemint Catnip Obedient Plant Heal-all Skull Cap Wild Germander 0 (I) 0 (I) 2 4 o (I) 8 0 5 4 SW WD DF DR DR WD DR LH LH 1055 1164 162 80 846 1144 840 1064 78 400 442 N O O Spice Bush Sassafras 3 FD 4 FD 2 ID 2 SW LENTIBULARIACEAE Utricularia subulata L. Utricularia vulgaris L. LIMNANTHACEAE Floerkea proserpinacoides Willd. Zigzag Bladderwort Bladderwort False Mermaid Stiff Yellow Flax Swamp Loosestrife Purple Loosestrife 10 (T) 6 ^2766, MICH 739 H z 0 z H 7 3,5 SW LINACEAE Linum striatum Walter LYTHRACEAE Decodon verticillatus (L.) Ell. Lythrum salicaria L. MAGNOLIACEAE Liriodendron tulipifera L. MALVACEAE Malva neglecta Wallr. 10 7 0 (I) 2 ID 1 SW EM 1 FD 3 DF 401, 650 956, 987 336 835 Tulip Tree Cheeses 194 757 0 (I) (Continued)

Page  50 ï~~50 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 45 O z 0 O U U O U4 h h 00 QC0 00 N 00),Zt N - M S NM00 N 1~ -4 -4 - - M - N M * * z 0 0 U \0 00. h. 00 o ~ -~ ~ 0 0 ~ 0 o ~ 0 ~ U ~ -~ ~ H U i ja 0 U z z -4 0 U Z U o o. ' HA. <+ W- W W <W * o H6,0 W, Oo o o Oo o + -,

Page  51 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 51 2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 51 00 r 00 m 00 [M M - n c~c~h N 00 0 00. O x QQ 4x x N- M N - M N N M M E EN N O O 00o 00 E M~ Nri U U U UO0 0 ~0 0 O2, uu Q a z Ell Q. 4Â~ wo2 c 00 O WO 00 pC~c~n~n p.,c j4,y pj4 yc z.

Page  52 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ Plantago rugelli Decne Rugel's Plantain 0 2 DR 944 PLATANACEAE Platanus occidentalis L. Sycamore POLEMONIACEAE Phlox divaricata L. Phlox paniculata L. POLYGONACEAE Polygonum amphibium L. Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonum cilinode Michaux Polygonum convolvulus L. Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc. Polygonum hydropiperoides Michaux Polygonum persicaria L. Polygonum sagittatum L. Polygonum virginianum L. Rumex acetosella Reichard Rumex obtusifolius L. Rumex verticillatus L. 3 LH 3 LH 3 LH 905 562 926 Wild Phlox Garden Phlox Water Smartweed Knotweed Fringed False Buckwheat False Buckwheat Japanese Knotweed Mild Water Pepper Lady's Thumb Tear-thumb Jumpseed Sheep Sorrel Bitter Dock Water Dock 5 0 (I) 6 0 (I) 3 0 (I) 0 (I) 5 0 (I) 5 4 0 (I) 0 (I) 7 1 4 1 1,4 1,4 6 5,6 1 2 1,2 4 SW DF DF FD DR SW WD WD,SW LH DF SB,SW SW 342 980 794 184 151, 480 1062, 1083 1151 1090, 1152 86 707 822, 990 920 n z 0 z H PORTULACACEAE Claytonia virginica L. Portulaca oleracea L. Spring Beauty Purselane 3 FD 4 DF PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia nummularia L. Lysimachia terrestris (L.) BSP Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. Lysimachia ciliata L. 398 1125 20 933 738 91 Moneywort Swamp-candles Tufted Loosestrife Fringed Loosestrife 0 (I) 6 6 4 LH SW SW LH 0

Page  53 ï~~Samolus parviflorus Raf. Trientalis borealis Raf. Water Pimpernel Starflower 4 WD 1 FD 896 1072 PYROLACEAE Chimaphila maculata (L.) Pursh. Chimaphila umbellata (L.) W. P. C. Barton Pyrola elliptica Nutt. Pyrola rotundifolia L. RANUNCULACEAE Actaea pachypoda Ell. Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd. Anemone cylindrica A. Anemone quinquefolia L. Anemone virginiana L. Anemonella thalictroides (L.) Spach Aquilegia canadensis L. Caltha palustris L. Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michaux Clematis virginiana L. Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. Hepatica acutiloba DC. Hepatica acutiloba x H. americana Hepatica americana (DC.) Ker. Ranunculus abortivus L. Ranunculus acris L. Ranunculus hispidus var. caricetorum (Green) T. Duncan Ranunculus recurvatus Poirot Ranunculus scleratus L. Thalictrum dioicum L. Spotted Wintergreen Pipsissewa Shinleaf Shinleaf White Baneberry Red Baneberry Gray Thimbleweed Wood Anemone Thimbleweed Rue-Anemone Wild Columbine Marsh Marigold Blue Cohosh Virgin's Bower Goldthread Sharp-lobed Hepatica Hybrid Round-lobed Hepatica Small-Flowered Buttercup Tall buttercup Swamp Buttercup Hooked Crowfoot Cursed Crowfoot Early Meadow-rue 8 8 6 7 7 7 6 5 3 8 5 6 5 4 5 8 6 0 0 (I) 5 5 1 6 0 (I) 0 (I) 2 1 3 1 4 2 1 6 5 1,2,4 4 6 4 1 1 3 1 1 5 4 4,5 1,2 1 1 LH LH LH LH LH LH LH FD FD LH, Creek LH SB FD FD FD FD LH DR SB LH SW 301 AW&T 927 AW&T 92 545 171 425 289 406, 419, 627 417 422 416 1086 W&T 404 AWagner 402 646 779 414, 438, 581 551, 626 659 AW&T ON O O n z 0 z L/ RHAMNACEAE Rhamnus cathartica L. Rhamnus frangula L. Buckthorn Buckthorn 4 WD 5 WD 893 256 (Continued) (Continued) w

Page  54 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued Latin Name ROSACEAE Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. Agrimonia pubescens Wallr. Amelanchier arborea (Michaux f.) Fern. Amelanchier interior Nielson Amelanchier laevis Wieg. Aronia prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehder Crataegus brainerdii Sarg. Crataegus macrosperma Ashe Crataegus sp. Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke Fragaria virginiana Miller Geum canadense Jacq. Geum laciniatum Murray Malus pumila Miller Malus sieboldii (Regel) Rehder Malus sp. Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. Potentilla anserina L. Potentilla recta L. Potentilla simplex Michaux Prunus avium (L.) L. Prunus padus L. Prunus pensylvanica L. f. Prunus persica (L.) Batsh Prunus pumila L. Prunus serotina Ehrh. Prunus virginiana L. Rosa multiflora Murray Rosa palustris Marsh. Rosa setigera Michaux Rosa sp. C Value* Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.^ Agrimony Soft Agrimony Service Berry Service Berry Service Berry Chokeberry Hawthorn Hawthorn Hawthorn Indian Strawberry Wild Strawberry Avens Avens Apple Japanese Crabapple Crab Apple Nine Bark Silverweed Rough-fruit Cinquefoil Cinquefoil Sweet Cherry Bird Cherry Pin Cherry Peach Sand Cherry Wild Black Cherry Choke Cherry Multiflora Rose Swamp Rose Prairie Rose White rose cultivar 2 5 4 4 4 5 4 5 0 (I) o (I) 2 1 2 o (I) o (I) o (I) 4 5 0 (I) 2 0 (I) 0 (I) 3 0 (I) 8 2 2 o (I) 5 5 o (I) 3 2 1 5 3,4 2 2 5 5 2,4 4 1,2 2,4 5 4 2 2 2 2 5 2 4 1 2,5 4 2 2 2 5 LH LH FD LH FD SB SB FD DR DF, ID LH SW LH LH DR SW ID DF SW B LH LH DF B LH FD LH SW SW LH 911 983 1047 251 446, 715 ^W&T 1173 539 595 617 432, 534, 700 781 849, 982, 1020 441, 575 932 444, 447, 448, 452, 453 65 696 62 686 591 632 445 1201 499 558 512 750, 789 945 946 469 n z 0 z O 0

Page  55 ï~~Rosa sp. Rubus allegheniensis Porter Rubus flagellaris Willd. Rubus hispidus L. Rubus occidentalis L. Rubus pensilvanicus Poiret Rubus pubescens Raf. Rubus strigosus Michaux Sorbus americana Marsh. Sorbus aucuparia L. Spiraea alba Duroi Spiraea tomentosa L. Spiraea x vanhouttei (Briot) Carr. RUBIACEAE Cephalanthus occidentalis L. Galium aparine L. Galium asprellum Michaux Galium circaezans Michaux Galium lanceolatum Torrey Galium palustre L. Galium pilosum Aiton Galium tinctorium L. Galium triflorum Michaux Mitchella repens L. Cultivated Rose Blackberry Northern Dewberry Swamp Dewberry Black Raspberry Yankee Blackberry Dwarf Raspberry Wild Red Raspberry Mountain Ash European Mountain Ash Meadowsweet Steeplebush Bridal-wreath 0 (I) 1 1 4 1 2 4 2 4 o (I) 4 5 o (I) 1 1 1,5 2 4 2 2 5 5 3 1 1 DF FD LH LH LH FD LH DF DR SW SW DF SW FD SB FD FD SW FD LH FD FD 808 374 592, 613, 625 938 901 688, 695 550 244 ^W&T 593 332, 753 361 633 108,126 564, 719 842 567, 786, 1067 746, 810 962 950, 1121,1131 311 971 811 ON O O Buttonbush Cleavers Rough Bedstraw Bedstraw Bedstraw Marsh Bedstraw Hairy Bedstraw Bedstraw Bedstraw Partridgeberry 2 3 5 1,3,4 1,4 2 4 2 1 1 n z 0 z H/ RUTACEAE Ptelea trifoliata L. Hoptree B 4,5 SALICACEAE Populus balsamifera L. Populus deltoides Marsh. Populus grandidentata Populus nigra var. Italica L. Populus tremuloides Michaux Balsam Poplar Cottonwood Big-tooth Aspen Lombardy Poplar Quaking Aspen 2 1 4 0 (I) 1 1,4 1 2 1 1 B,DF DF DF DF SW edge 51, 156 519 710, 749 177 506 (Continued)

Page  56 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.A Salix babylonica L. Salix bebbiana Sarg. Salix cordata Michaux Salix discolor Muhl. Salix eriocephala Michaux Salix exigua Nutt. Salix lucida Muhl. Salix myricoides Muhl. Salix nigra Marsh. Salixpetiolaris J. E. Smith Salix purpurea L. Salix serissima (Bailey) Fern. SANTALACEAE Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. Weeping Willow Bebb's Willow Dune Willow Pussy Willow Heart-leaved Willow Sandbar Willow Shining Willow Blueleaf Willow Black Willow Slender Willow Purple Willow Autumn Willow 0 (I) 1 10 1 2 1 3 9 5 1 o (I) 8 2 4 4 2,4 1,2,4,5 4,5 2 2,4,5 2,5 2,4 5 5 SB WD B SW SB,SW SB SW SW,B,D SW SW, WD SB 828 458 514 391, 456 459,474, 473, 483, 502 485, 486, 582 319 457, 515, 586, 596 587 484, 510, 576 584 259, 276 SAURURACEAE Saururus cernuus L. Bastard-toadflax Lizard's Tail Mitrewort Foam Flower SAXIFRAGACEAE Mitella diphylla L. Tiarella cordifolia L. SCROPHULARIACEAE Chelone glabra L. Melampyrum lineare Desr. Mimulus ringens L. Pedicularis canadensis L. Verbascum blattaria L. Verbascum thapsus L. Veronica arvensis L. Veronica serpyllifolia L. 2 SW 1 FD 1 FD AW&T 943 498, 526 1049 n z 0 z H Turtlehead Cow-wheat Monkey-Flower Wood Betany Moth Mullein Mullein Field Speedwell Thyme-leaved Speedwell 7 6 5 10 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 (I) 0 SW FD EM FD DR DF DF DF 1172 1029 1000 436 845 674 675 0

Page  57 ï~~2006 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 57 ~Cc~oO O 00 c c O O O 0 - N4 00 -4-4O - 0.> 00 II) lI) N c o - - O O Et U~ -0 q z! V1 < O V1 1LL nL 01 O 7"~ U I H~ti w U W x, a h <. w '

Page  58 ï~~APPENDIX 1. Continued C Value* Latin Name Common Name (Status**) Loc.*** Habitat**** Collection No.A Verbena urticifolia L. White Vervain 4 2 SB 991 Verbena x engelmannii Moldenke Verbena hybrid 4 4 WD 1147 VIOLACEAE Viola rostrata Pursh Long-spurred Violet 6 1 FD 493 Viola canadensis L. Canada White Violet 5 3 FD 565 Viola cucullata Aiton Marsh Violet 5 4 SB 461 Viola odorata Sweet Violet 0 (I) 4 LH 413 Viola pubescens Aiton Yellow Violet 4 6 LH 424 Viola rostrata Pursh Long-spurred Violet 6 4,6 LH 423, 433 Viola sororia Willd. Common Blue Violet 1 3 FD 572 VITACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planchon Virginia Creeper 5 5 WD 238 Vitis aestivalis Michaux Summer Grape 6 1 FD, DF 8, 185 Vitis labrusca L. Fox Grape 7 1,4 FD,LH 776, 809 Vitis riparia Michaux Riverbank Grape 3 2 B 52, 704 Vitis vulpina L. Frost Grape 8 (T) 4 SB,DR 1094, 1106 * Coefficient of Conservatism (described in Methods) ** Status: FT = Federally Threatened; T = State Threatened; SC = State Special Concern; I = Introduced species *** Location Codes refer to Figure 2 **** Habitat Codes refer to Figure 3 A All collection numbers deposited at AUB and collected by the author 2004-2005, unless otherwise indicated as follows: Graff collected by A. Graff 1993 -1994 (AUB); W&T= reported by Wells & Thompson, 1979; Wagner = reported by Wagner, 1979; MNFI = reported by Michigan Natural Features Inventory database. PHOTO -photo voucher only 00 tm z 0 z -1 HZ 0Z