Page  169 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 169 A GUIDE TO REFERENCES FOR CURATORS OF SMALL HERBARIA Dennis W. Woodland and Pamela F. Smith Biology Department, Andrews University Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0410 woody@andrews.edu pamelas4824@earthlink.net From time to time those of us who manage herbaria will get a letter or a telephone call from a former student or person working for a company or agency needing information on topics like making a collection of plant voucher specimens, or setting up a herbarium. Perhaps you are a teacher who has arrived at an institution and found bundles of student collections from previous years, and you want to set up a teaching herbarium to go along with courses being taught. Or perhaps, you work for an environmental consulting firm and need vouchers for comparison work. So, how does one go about setting up an herbarium for student and/or local use? "What references are most helpful sitting on the shelf for identification and curation of plant specimens?" We have compiled information that we feel would be helpful to an individual beginning a curatorial adventure centered in upper Mid-West North America, with emphasis on the Great Lakes region. The list of floras provided reflects this geographic area. Most information has been gleaned through experience and from some key references given below. Two books especially helpful were: Frodin, D. G. 2001. Guide to Standard Floras of the World, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1100 pp., and Woodland, D. W. 2000. Contemporary Plant Systematics, 3rd ed. Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI, 569 pp. The references we feel are a "must have" are indicated by an asterisk *. Comments explaining the use or value of a reference are given following many bibliographic entries. Herbarium Techniques *Bridson, D. & L. Forman (eds.). 1998. The Herbarium Handbook, 3rd ed. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 334 pp. This book is filled with all types of information from two senior British botanists. Croat, T. B. 1978. Survey of herbarium problems. Taxon 27: 203-218. Edwards, S. R., et al. (eds.). 1981. Pest Control in Museums: A Status Report. Association of Systematics Collections, Lawrence, KA. MacFarlane, R. B. A. 1985. Collecting and Preserving Plants for Science and Pleasure. Arco Publishing, New York, 184 pp. *Metsger, D. A. & S. C. Byers (eds.). 1999. Managing the Modern Herbarium. Society for the Preservation of Natural History Collections, Washington, DC. 384 pp. This is a must read for any person thinking of doing curatorial work.

Page  170 ï~~170 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Radford, A. E., et al. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, New York, 891 pp. This is a resource book, not a text. Zycherman, L. A. & J. R. Schrock (eds.). 1988. A Guide to Museum Pest Control. Association of Systematic Collections, Washington, DC, 205 pp. Indexes for Bibliographic, Illustrative, and Nomenclatural Literature *Brummitt, R. K. 1992. Vascular Plant Families and Genera. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 804 pp. This volume lists nearly 14,000 accepted generic names, and over 10,000 other names, with their authors as currently used at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK. The accepted names are also listed family by family for easy reference. Greuter, W. et al. (eds.). 2000. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature (Saint Louis Code). Regnum Vegetabile Vol. 138. Koeltz Scientific Books, Koningstein, Germany. 474 pp. This is the most recent code of rules that govern naming in botany as adopted by the Sixteenth International Botanical Congress in St. Louis, Missouri, in 1999. A more recent revision will be forthcoming based on the most recent congress during July 2005 in Vienna, Austria. Hyam, R. & R. Pankhurst. 1995. Plants and Their Names. A Concise Dictionary. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 545 pp. This work provides a complete reference source to over 16,000 of the more commonly occurring vernacular and Latin names of plants. *Mabberley, D. J. 1997. The Plant-Book. A Portable Dictionary of the Higher Plants, second edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge, UK. This work is an alphabetical listing of families and genera of vascular plants. It follows the Cronquist system of classification and has a layout much like Willis' A Dictionary of Flowering Plants. It includes information on family descriptions, distributions, number of species, economic uses, and examples, as well as less detailed information on synonymy and tribal and subfamily levels. Pertinent recent literature is also included. This is a very handy reference. Terminology and Dictionaries *Featherly, H. I. 1954. Taxonomic Terminology of the Higher Plants. Iowa State University Press, Ames (Reprinted 1965. Hafner, New York), 166 pp. A great find on the used book market. Harrington, H. D. & L. W. Durrell. 1985. How to Identify Plants. Swallow Press, Athens, OH, 207 pp. An inexpensive paperback. *Harris, J. G. & M. W. Harris. 1994. Plant Identification Terminology, and Illustration Glossary. Spring Lake Publishing, Payson, Utah, 198 pp. *Jackson, B. D. 1928. A Glossary of Botanic Terms, with the Derivation and Accent. Duckworth, London (Reprinted 1960. Hafner, New York), 481 pp. A great old reference dictionary that has many of the older botanical descriptive names. It is worth looking in used book outlets for a good copy. Redford, A. E., et al. 1974. Vascular Plant Systematics. Harper & Row, New York, 891 pp. *Stearn, W. T. 1992. Botanical Latin, 4th ed. David & Charles, London, 546 pp.

Page  171 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 171 and Timber Press, Portland, Oregon, 2004, paperback. Still the classic when a wee bit of Latin is needed. Specific and Comprehensive Guides Brummitt, R. K. & C. E. Powell (eds.). 1992. Authors of Plant Names. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, UK, 732 pp. This book lists nearly 30,000 authors of plant Latin names and gives a recommended standardized abbreviation for each of these authors' names. Some biographic information is also given. *Cronquist, A. 1981. An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York, 1262 pp. This is a most comprehensive study of flowering plant families, with detailed descriptions, examples, illustrations, keys to the families, and fossil record information, all of which are based around Cronquist's classification scheme, a scheme that has been largely replaced by a more recent one by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group. This classification system can be accessed on the website of the Missouri Botanical Garden: <http://www.mobot.org/> and continue on to: <http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/Research/APweb/welcome.html>. *Holmgren, P. K. et al. 1991. Index Herbariorum. Part I. The Herbaria of the World. 8th ed. New York Botanic Gardens, Bronx, New York, 693 pp. This is the most valuable guide to the world's herbaria arranged by cities and with pertinent general information about each herbarium, including a standard acronym. It is now accessed via the website of the New York Botanic garden at: <http://www.nybg.org/>, and continue on to: <http://sciweb.nybg.org/ science2/IndexHerbariorum.asp>. Lawrence, G. H. M., et al. (eds.) 1968. B-P-H. Botanico-Periodicum-Huntianum. Hunt Botanical Library. Pittsburgh, PA (Supplementum 1991, written by G. D. R. Bridson & E. R. Smith.). This reference provides standardized abbreviations to over 20,000 botanical journals and is especially helpful in identifying older reference citations. This guide is used by many current botanical journals as a guide for abbreviating journal literature citations. Basic Systematic texts Benson, L. 1979. Plant Classification, 2nd ed. D. C. Heath, Lexington, MA, 901 pp. *Heywood, V. H. (ed.). 1993. Flowering Plants of the World. B. T. Batford, London, 335 pp. It is said that a new edition of this lovely book is being prepared with family descriptions matching the new APG classification system. We hope the families will still have the lovely watercolor illustrations of the older edition. *Judd, W. S., et al. 2002. Plant Systematics. A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd ed. Sinauer Assoc., Inc., Sunderland, MA, 576 pp. This book has a color image CD to over 2,200 plant images. Classifies families according to the latest APG classification. Porter, C. L. 1967. Taxonomy of Flowering Plants, 2nd ed. W. H. Freeman, San Francisco, 472 pp. Stuessy, T. F. 1990. Plant Taxonomy. Columbia Univ. Press, New York, 514 pp. *Woodland, D. W. 2000. Contemporary Plant Systematics, 3rd ed. Andrews Uni

Page  172 ï~~172 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 versity Press, Berrien Springs, MI, 569 pp. This text has the broadest geographical coverage of the books listed here. It gives a more global view and discusses the greatest number of vascular plant families. It includes a CD with more than 4,700 color images. *Zomlefer, W. B. 1994. Guide to Flowering Plant Families. University of North Carolina Press, 430 pp. The textbook with the best and most varied sketches of family characters. Floras and Manuals A flora is a taxonomic treatment of all plants occurring in a geographical area. It can also refer to the plants living in a region. This area can be small, such as a nature preserve of a few hectares (or acres), or more extensive such as a regional, state, or country flora. Each written flora is developed following predetermined guidelines on the type of coverage to be included. These guidelines might involve all plants or only vascular plants; only a listing of names; descriptions, keys, and distributions; ecological, geological, or soil information; how the flora will be used; etc. The book with all or part of this information is called a manual; in practice, the two words are used interchangeably. Bibliographies Frodin, D. G. 2001. Guide to Standard Floras of the World, 2nd ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1100 pp. This is a very expensive reference book and costs almost $300.00 and is normally out of reach of most herbaria. It may be purchased by some libraries and be available in the reference section of an academic library. It is the most extensive reference on this subject worldwide and makes it handy to know what books are available before a person travels to a foreign country. An abridged list is found in Appendix II of: Woodland, D. W. 2000. Contemporary Plant Systematics, 3rd ed. Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI, 569 pp. Cultivated Plant Manuals *Bailey, L. H. 1949. Manual of Cultivated Plants, Revised ed. Macmillan Publ. Co., 1116 pp. Out of print. This is still the only manual to general cultivated plant species. *Brickell, C. & H. M. Cathey (eds.). 2004. The American Horticultural Society A - Z Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, 2nd ed. DK Publishing, Inc., NY, 1099 pp. Here is the American edition of a Royal Horticultural Society publication. It is still the definitive recent guide to cultivated plants with 6,000 colored photographs and over 15,000 cultivated plants arranged alphabetically by Latin name. *Rehder, A. 1986. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America. (Reprint of 2nd ed. of 1940) Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR, 996 pp. General Keys The two references listed here are most helpful when you have plant material where the family is not recognized, when the specimen is a cultivated plant, or the origin is unknown.

Page  173 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 173 *Cullen, J. 1997. The Identification of Flowering Plant Families: Including a Key to Those Native and Cultivated in North Temperate Regions, 4th ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 192 pp. Hutchinson, J. 1967. Key to the Families of Flowering Plants of the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 117 pp. Regional Floras that Include the Greats Lakes Region Chadde, S. W. 2002. A Great Lakes Wetland Flora, 2nd. ed. Pocketflora Press, Calumet, MI, 648 pp. *Crow, G. E. & C. B. Hellquist. 2000. Aquatic and Wetland Plants of Northeastern North America. 2 vols. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 600+ pp (revision of: Fassett, N. C. 1957. A Manual of Aquatic Plants. University Wisconsin Press, Madison, 405 pp.) The sketches are very large and very well done. Expensive. *Elias, T. S. 1987. The Complete Trees of America. Gramercy Publishing, New York, 948 pp. Fernald, M. L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. 8th ed. American Book Co., New York, 1632 pp. *Flora North America Editorial Committee. 1993-. Flora of North America. Vol. 1-. Oxford University Press, New York (a new, multi-volume series). This will ultimately be a 30 volume series to the over 20,000 species of vascular plants in North America. Approximately one-fourth of the volumes have been published with other volumes in various stages of preparation. Every herbarium curator should have access to a set if at all possible. *Gleason, H. A. & A. C. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of the Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, 7th printing [2004], xlvi + 993 pp. Hosie, R. C. 1979. Native Trees of Canada, 8th ed. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Don Mills, Ontario, 380 pp. Isely, D. 1960. Weed Identification and Control, 2nd ed. Iowa State University Press, Ames, 400 pp. Ladd, D. 1995. Tallgrass Prairie Wild Flowers. Falcon Publishing Co., 264 pp. *Lellinger, D. B. 1985. A Manual of the Ferns & Fern Allies of the United States. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, 446 pp. Looman, J. & K. F. Best. 1987. Budd's Flora of the Canadian Prairie Provinces. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, No. 1662. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Hull, Qu6bec, 863 pp. Mickel, J. 1979. How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies. W. C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 229 pp. *Newcomb, L. 1989. Newcomb's Wildflower Guide: An Ingenious New Key System for Quick, Positive Field Identification of the Wildflowers, Flowering Shrubs and Vines of North America. (Reprint ed.), Little Brown & Co., 490 pp. Peterson, R. T. & M. McKenny. 1998. Field Guide to Wild Flowers of Northeastern and North Central North America, revised ed. Houghton-Mifflin, Boston, 420 pp.

Page  174 ï~~174 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 *Pohl, R. W. 1968. How to Know the Grasses, 2nd ed. W. C. Brown, Dubuque, Iowa, 244 pp. *Preston, R. J. 1989. North American Trees, 4th ed. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, 407 pp. Rehder, A. 1986. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America. (Reprint of 2nd ed. of 1940) Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon, 996 pp. Scoggan, H. J. 1978-79. Flora of Canada. Parts 1-4. National Museum of Natural Sciences, National Museums of Canada, No. 7. Ottawa, 1711 pp. *Stidd, B. M. & R. D. Henry. 1995. Key to Common Woody Landscape Plants in the Midwest. Stipes Publishing Co., Champaign, Illinois, 130 pp. *Swink, F. 1990. The Key to the Vascular Flora of the Northeastern United States and Southeastern Canada. Plantsman's Publications, Flossmoor, Illinois, 514 pp. *Swink, F., & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, 921 pp. Uva, R. H. et al. 1997. Weeds of the Northeast. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 416 pp. Keys for provinces and states bordering the Great Lakes. Dore, W. G. & J. McNeill. 1980. Grasses of Ontario. Research Branch, Agriculture Canada, Monograph No. 26. Canadian Government Publishing Centre, Hull, Qu6bec, 566 pp. *Lauriault, J. 1989. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada. Fitzhenry & Whiteside, Markham, Ontario, 479 pp. Morton, J. K. & J. M. Venn. 1984. The Flora of Manitoulin Island, 2nd ed. Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, 106 pp. Morton, J. K. & J. M. Venn. 1990. A Checklist of the Flora of Ontario Vascular Plants. Department of Biology, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, 218 pp. *Soper, J. H. & M. L. Heimburger. 1982. Shrubs of Ontario. Royal Ontario Museum, Life Sciences Miscellaneous Publication, Toronto, 495 pp. Illinois Dobbs, R. J. 1963. Flora of Henry County, Illinois Natural Land Institute, Rockford, 350 pp. Fell, E. W. 1955. Flora of Winnebago County, Illinois. The Nature Conservancy, Washington, DC, 207 pp. Fuller, G. D. 1955. Forest Trees of Illinois. Department of Conservation, Division of Forestry, Springfield, 71 pp. Gambill, W. G. 1953. The Leguminosae of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, Illinois Biological Monographs Volume 22, No. 4, 117 pp. Glassman, S. F. 1964. Grass flora of the Chicago region. American Midland Naturalist 72: 1-49. *Jones, G. N. 1963. Flora of Illinois, 3rd ed. American Midland Naturalist Monograph No. 7. University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana, 401 pp. Jones, G. N. & G. D. Fuller. 1955. Vascular Plants of Illinois. University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 593 pp. *Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1970-1982. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois. (Ongoing se

Page  175 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 175 ries, 10 vols. published thus far.) Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville. Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1975. Guide to the Flora of Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, 494 pp. Mohlenbrock, R. H. & J. W. Voight. 1959. A Flora of Southern Illinois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale, 390 pp. *Swink, F., & G. Wilhelm. 1994. Plants of the Chicago Region, 4th ed. Indiana Academy of Science, Indianapolis, 921 pp. Winterringer, G. S. 1967. Wild Orchids of Illinois. Illinois State Museum Popular Science Series. Volume 6., Springfield. Winterringer, G. S., & A. C. Lopinot. 1966. Aquatic Plants of Illinois. Illinois State Museum Popular Science Series, Volume 6., Springfield. Indiana Crovello, T. J., et al. 1983. The Vascular Plants of Indiana: A Computer Based Checklist. University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, 136 pp. *Deam, C. C. 1940. Flora of Indiana. Indiana Department of Conservation, Indianapolis, 1236 pp. Peattie, D. C. 1930. Flora of the Indiana Dunes: A Handbook of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the Lake Michigan Coast of Indiana and of the Calumet District. Field Museum of Natural History, Chicago, 432 pp. Michigan *Barnes, B. V. & W. H. Wagner, Jr. 2004. Michigan Trees, Revised ed.. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, 447 pp. Billington, C. 1949. Shrubs of Michigan, 2nd ed. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 339 pp. *Billington, C. 1952. Ferns of Michigan. Cranbrook Institute of Science, Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 240 pp. Lund, H. C. 1988. Michigan Wildflowers, 2nd ed. Thunder Bay Press, Holt, Michigan, 144 pp. *Rabeler, R. K. 1998. Gleason's Plants of Michigan. Oakleaf Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 398 pp. Smith, H. V. 1966. Michigan Wild Flowers. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin No. 42 (Revised). Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 468 pp. Smith, N. F. 1995. Trees of Michigan and the Upper Great Lakes, 6th ed. Thunder Bay Press, Lansing, Michigan, 178 pp. *Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora, Part I: Gymnosperms and Monocots. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin No. 55. Bloomfield Hills, Michigan, 488 pp. *Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora, Part II: Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute Science Bulletin No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 724 pp. *Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora, Part III. Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin No. 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 622 pp.

Page  176 ï~~176 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Minnesota Lakela, O. 1965. Flora of Northeastern Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 541 pp. Monserud, W. & G. B. Ownbey. 1971. Common Wildflowers of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 331 pp. Morley, T. 1969. Spring Flora of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 283 pp. *Moyle, J. B. 1964. Northern Non-woody Plants: A Field Key to the More Common Ferns and Flowering Plants of Minnesota and Adjacent Regions. Burgess, Minneapolis, 108 pp. *Ownbey, G. B. & T. Morley. 1991. Vascular Plants of Minnesota. A Checklist and Atlas. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 307 pp. Rosendahl, C. O. & F. K. Butters. 1928. Trees and Shrubs of Minnesota. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, 385 pp. Ohio Andreas, B. K. 1989. The Flora of the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau Region of Ohio. Ohio Biological Service Bulletin New Series, 191 pp. Anliot, S. E. 1973. The Vascular Flora of Glen Helen, Clifton Gorge, and Jon Bryan State Park. Ohio Biological Notes No. 5, 162 pp. Braun, E. L. 1961. The Woody Plants of Ohio. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Climbers Native, Naturalized and Escaped. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 362 pp. *Braun, E. L. 1967. The Vascular Flora of Ohio. The Monocotyledoneae. Vol. 1. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 464 pp. *Cooperrider, T. S. 1995. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 2. Linaceae through Campanulaceae. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 656 pp. Cusick, A. W. & G. M. Silberhorn. 1977. The Vascular Plants of Unglaciated Ohio. Ohio Biological Service Bulletin, New Series, 153 pp. *Fisher, T. R. 1988. The Dicotyledoneae of Ohio. Part 3. Asteraceae. Ohio State University Press, Columbus, 280 pp. Schaffner, J. H. 1928. Field Manual of the Flora of Ohio. R. G. Adams, Columbus, 638 pp. *Weishaupt, C. G. 1960 Vascular Plants of Ohio, 3rd ed. Kendall/Hunt, Dubuque, Iowa, 293 pp. Wisconsin Fassett, N. C. 1939. The Leguminous Plants of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 157 pp. Fasset, N. C. 1951. Grasses of Wisconsin. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 173 pp. *Fassett, N. C. 1976. Spring Flora of Wisconsin, 4th ed. (revised by O. S. Thomson). University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 413 pp. Freckmann, R. W. 1972. Grasses of Central Wisconsin. Reports on the Fauna and Flora of Wisconsin. Report No. 6. Museum of Natural History, University of Wisconsin-Stevens Point, 81 pp.

Page  177 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 177 Hartley, T. G. 1966. The Flora of the Driftless Area. University of Iowa Studies in Natural History 21(1), 174 pp. *Tryon, R. M., Jr., et al. 1953. The Ferns and Fern Allies of Wisconsin, 2nd ed. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, 158 pp. Virtual or Web-Herbaria http://sciweb.nybg.org/science2/VirtualHerbarium.asp http://www.vplants.org/ (Deals with the Chicago region and includes fungi) http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/botany/ncsc/type_links.htm http://scarab.science.oregonstate.edu/mailman/listinfo/herbaria CDs Clayton, M. 1998. Photo Atlas of the Vascular Plants, 2nd ed. Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison. This CD is also included with the text: Woodland, D. W. 2000. Contemporary Plant Systematics. Andrews University Press, Berrien Springs, MI, 569 pp. but can be purchased separately. Hapeman, J. R. 1999. The Orchids of Wisconsin. (Produced by M. Clayton). Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison. Kimbler, D. et al. 2000. Pictorial Guide to the Common Woody Plants of the Northeastern United States. Department of Botany, University of Wisconsin, Madison