Page  57 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 57 ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS OF NEITHERCUT WOODLAND, CLARE COUNTY, MICHIGAN Gretchen M. Williams, Gilbert D. Starks, and Daniel E. Wujek Department of Biology Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859 gilbert.d.starks@cmich.edu ABSRACT An analysis of the vascular vegetation of Neithercut Woodland, Clare County, Michigan, a 102.1 ha (252 acres) tract of land in central lower Michigan, was conducted during the growing season of 1997. The entire area was sampled using the Time Meander Procedure beginning on 3 May and ending 5 October. A list of the flora was compiled and compared to past studies. We found 257 species representing 68 plant families and 157 genera. Sixty-one species were new records for the county. A Floristic Quality Index value of 49.4 was calculated. Only one species of Special Concern was collected. An aerial photograph taken in 1994 was also used to compare the cover of the land from 1978 to the present. INTRODUCTION Neithercut Woodland is located in the central lower peninsula of Michigan in Surrey Township of Clare County and is owned by Central Michigan University (Fig. 1). The area comprises 102.1 ha (252.3 acres); 43.1 ha (106.5 acres) within Section 16, with the remaining 59 ha (145.8 acres) within Section 17. Historical Significance Clare County initially was the hunting grounds for the Chippewa Indians. Due to dense cedar swamps and giant white pines, the area was considered inhospitable, and hence there were no Indian villages. They did, however, give names to lakes and rivers, such as the Muskegon and Assemoqua. They also named the county Kay-kenee (pigeon-hawk), until it was changed by an Irish man to Clare for his own county in Ireland (Littlefield 1970). In 1796, what was to become the state of Michigan became part of the nation as a portion of the Northwest Territory. Twenty-one years earlier, in 1775, Congress had instituted a system for surveying land, known as the U.S. Public Land Survey System. This method was used in surveying the new state of Michigan. A line running north and south down the middle of the state was established, called the Michigan Meridian, and a numbered base line running east and west was placed in the southern portion of the state, also known as eight mile road. Therefore, the surveyors' starting point was the intersection of the principal meridian and the base line. Locations were then established along both coordinates at six mile increments, resulting in a 36 square mile area, called a town

Page  58 ï~~58 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 58 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 ''_;, " FIGURE 1. Location of Neithercut Woodland, Clare County, Michigan. ship. In each township, sections were numbered starting in the northeast corner, resulting in 36 sections that were intended to be one square mile in area. These sections were also labeled by range east or west of the meridian, and location north or south of the baseline. The original land surveyors who conducted this work were exceptionally trained in their field, and especially brave men. They traversed the uncharted wilderness with the essentials they needed, while carrying their surveyor's chain and compass. They accomplished all this while fighting mosquitoes in the summer and merciless snow in the winter. Their home base was originally a land office in Steubenville, Ohio, but once Michigan became a state this office was moved to Lansing. The land office was where a homesteader could pay one dollar per acre and make a claim for a piece of land (Littlefield 1970).

Page  59 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 59 Originally, the majority of Michigan had been covered with primeval forest, with sixty percent of that being white pine (Pinus strobus). The trees were as tall as 200 feet, with 3-6 foot diameters. Astonishingly, the first branch of most of these trees was sixty to ninety feet off the ground. The white pine of Michigan was estimated to be worth billions of dollars more than the gold found in California (Littlefield 1970). Clare County remained an untouched piece of land until the building of the Flint to Pere Marquette (Ludington) railroad in 1870. At this time, the State Legislature had passed a law to lay out some main roads throughout the state. Edmund Hall, who owned a lumber camp on the Chippewa River, was given the job to build the lonia and Houghton Lake State Roads. The roadbeds which were constructed were 7.6 m (25') across. Considering that untamed wilderness lay before them, the construction of these roads was not an easy task. The roadbeds were built with the use of oxen and horses. In return for this hard work, Mr. Hall received large tracts of land in Isabella County and in the western part of Clare County (Littlefield 1970). Mr. Hall's nephew, Josiah Littlefield, who was studying to be a civil engineer at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, Michigan, came to visit his uncle's lumber camps and seek out a direct route from the railroad to the location of a proposed town. This town was later to become known as Farwell (Littlefield 1970). This would just be the beginning of Josiah Littlefield's experience and influence on this particular area of the state. In fact, he returned to Clare Co. as a surveyor and civil engineer after finishing his degree in 1871. This job kept him busy for the next three years, as he was the only surveyor and civil engineer living in Clare at the time (Szok 1969). In 1875, Josiah built a planing and shingle mill in Farwell, giving up his surveying job. Six years later, in 1881, he built a saw mill with a daily capacity of about 35,000 board feet. About this time, he married his second wife, and had two children, Franklin and Hazel, joining an older sister from a first marriage. Josiah bought up very large parcels of land in and around Farwell. In Surrey Township, he owned almost all of Section 6, and all of 7, 8, 9, 16, 17 and 18, including most of the land in and around the village of Farwell (Szok 1969). Land Ownership History of Neithercut The part of Section 16 that is now Neithercut was originally bought by Ezra Rust and James Hay of Saginaw County on 14 August 1875. James Hay died in 1885, leaving the land to his children, who in turn deeded it all to Ezra Rust for other lands. One quarter of the land was given to Charles E. Wheeler in 1886. Then, on 2 October 1900, all of section 16 was sold to Josiah Littlefield. Upon ownership by Littlefield, lumbering began (Szok 1969). In March 1935, Josiah Littlefield died, leaving the land to his wife and three children. This same year, the Michigan Highway Department took a 45.7 m (150') strip at the north boundary, making the right-of-way for M-115. In October of 1936, Franklin Littlefield deeded his part of the land to his sisters. Ellen Littlefield gave 2/25 of her land to Hazel Littlefield in 1937, and then in December of 1944, she gave the remainder to Hazel (Szok 1969).

Page  60 ï~~60 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 The land then left the family hands, going to Lloyd and Pauline Stevens of Farwell, on 10 September 1953. Three years later, in 1956, the land was bought by Archibald W. Laughrin of Detroit. On 1 May 1961, about 122 acres lay in the hands of the Wayne County Board of Social Welfare. On 21 February 1962, it was transferred to Steve Paladin of Detroit. The final shift in ownership occurred on August 25, 1962 when the Michigan State Board of Education in Mt. Pleasant took ownership of the land. This deed excluded 2.5 acres in the northwest corner, where there is now a private residence (Szok 1969). The first transaction referring to Section 17, was a land grant from the State of Michigan, conveying the SY and NE Y as swamp land. No date was given with this transaction nor for the next. The Flint and Pere Marquette Railroad came into possession of the N Y of the NE Y. On 21 May 1870, Edmund Hall of Wayne County bought the S of the NE %. The railroad land was sold to Royal C. Remick and David Whitney, Jr. on 8 June 1874. The Hall portion was bought by Royal C. Remick on 6 March 1875. William F. Naldrett of Ithaca acquired all the land previously mentioned on 1 September 1893, with the reservation that the sellers could keep all timber removed before 1 September 1893. This reservation leads to the belief that this piece of land was first timbered in the later part of 1892 or the first two-thirds of 1893. David M. Estey of Owosso became the owner the following year with the same reservation for lumber pine timber, indicating that timber-size pine did occur on the property (Szok 1969). The land was foreclosed on 7 September 1897, due to Esty's failure to pay the mortgage. Josiah Littlefield bought the land on 29 August 1898. Upon Littlefield's death in March 1935, the family was bequeathed the land, and 45.7 m (150') at the Northern boundary was given to the Michigan Highway Department on 7 October 1935. In October, 1936, Hazel Littlefield received all her brother's property. On 15 October 1951, the N Y (except that north of M 115) of Section 16 owned by Hazel Littlefield Smith was conveyed to her son, Haldon Smith and his wife, Shirley Smith of Ann Arbor. All the land that was owned by the Smiths was then sold to the Michigan State Board of Education in Lansing, with Hazel Littlefield Smith selling her share on 24 February 1960 and her son and daughter-in-law, on 29 December 1959. A Central Michigan University alumnus, William Neithercut, donated the money that was used to purchase both tracts of land, hence the name of the natural area, Neithercut Woodland (Szok, 1969). History of Lumbering In 1900, it is known that lumber was removed from Section 16 by the Littlefields (Szok 1969). The exact date that is was removed from Section 17 itself varies according to the source. Deed transactions imply that lumber was removed late 1892 or early 1893. Franklin Littlefield in personal communication with Szok (1969), states that timber was first removed in 1898. However, in July, 1901, much of the southern portions of the forests in Section 17 and 18 were destroyed by a forest fire. The Littlefields also owned the part of Section 17, that now lies north of highway M-115. This area was referred to as the Beechwood Farm. Upon the

Page  61 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 61 commencement of lumbering, a camp called the "Littlefield Camp" or the "The Camps" was set up. There, a bunkhouse, blacksmith shop, a cookhouse and a barn for storing equipment and housing horses were built in 1901 to facilitate lumbering (Szok 1969). The Littlefields had two main bases of operation for lumbering. One was located in sections 16 and 17 (Neithercut Area), the other in sections 8 and 9. In 1901, these were connected to the sawmill on the Farwell Mill Pond by a narrow gauge railroad (Szok 1969). The trees were loaded onto the train at the loading dock, which was located on the present site of the Wakelin McNeal Nature Center. The first trees cut were the white pines. Hardwoods were removed in 1900, including, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), maple (Acer spp.), birch (Betula spp.) and hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Later, such trees as basswood (Tilia americana), cedar (Thuja occidentalis), ash (Fraxinus spp.) and bitternut hickory (Carya cordiformis) were also cut (Szok 1969). According to Szok (1969), in a personal communication with Franklin Littlefield in 1963, the last maple tree was felled in 1925 and the lumber was sent to Evart to make croquette balls. Upon visiting Neithercut, one notices open fields in the north end of Section 16, an area previously covered with hardwoods. Once the trees were cut, the stumps were removed and the area was converted to farmland (Littlefield 1964, personal communication to Szok). Despite the fact that Josiah Littlefield was a lumberman, he also believed in conserving parts of the wilderness. He believed that future generations should be able to see what Michigan looked like during the lumbering days (Littlefield 1972). With this in mind, he left all of the northeast corner of section 17 untouched as a forest preserve. This area mostly contained American beech and maples. Sadly, in January of 1922, an ice storm hit and ruined many of the trees. All of the damaged trees there had to be removed (Smith to Szok in 1964, personal communication). Josiah Littlefield donated thirteen acres of land to the Farewell Schools, establishing it as the first school forest in the state of Michigan. In the Detroit News for 12 October 1927, he was called the "Father of Conservation" in Clare County because of this activity and others on his property (Szok 1969). Description of the Study Area Neithercut Woodland is located in Clare County, in the central Lower Peninsula of Michigan. It is approximately forty-two km (twenty-six miles) northwest from the campus of Central Michigan University. The legal description for the woodland is: All that part of the east one-half of the northeast quarter of Section Seventeen, lying south of Highway M-115, Township Seventeen North, Range Five West, of the Michigan Meridian. MATERIALS AND METHODS Voucher plants were collected beginning 3 May 1997, and continued through 5 October on the following sampling dates: 3, 10, 17, 18, 24, and 31 May; 1, 14, 28, and 29 June; 12 and 13 July; 2,

Page  62 ï~~62 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 3, and 31 August; 1 September; and 5 October; all specimens are housed in the Central Michigan Herbarium (CMC). In order to obtain as complete an inventory as possible, each vegetational area of Neithercut was searched using the Time Meander Procedure (Goff et al. 1982). Vascular plants were identified using appropriate field guides and reference books (Flora of North America 1993; Gleason 1952; Mickel 1979; Newcomb 1977; Voss 1972, 1985, 1996). The distribution of each plant throughout the state as well as its presence or absence in Clare County was noted using the three volumes of Voss which cover Michigan angiosperms (flowering plants) and gymnosperms. The ferns and fern allies which were collected, were not included in the distributional part of this survey, due to the lack of current Michigan distributional data. The Floristic Quality Index (FQI) for the Neithercut Woodland was calculated following the method described in "A Floristic Quality Assessment with Wetland Categories and Computer Application Programs for the State of Michigan" (Herman et al. 1996). The above-mentioned procedure is a standardized, repeatable method of determining the floristic quality of an area of interest based upon the native plants found in that given area. Native plants have been assigned a coefficient of conservatism (C) value based on the plant's tolerance of disturbance and the fidelity it shows to presettlement-like habitats. The C values range from zero to ten, with zero being associated with the highest disturbance tolerance and least fidelity and ten being associated with the least disturbance tolerance and the greatest fidelity (Herman et al. 1996). The property line of Neithercut was placed on a GIS computer program, Intergraph MGE, using the written description of the land and a land survey that was conducted in 1967. The GIS program used data from MIRIS (Michigan Resource Information System). In 1978, the state of Michigan began mapping the land-use and cover for the whole state, thus the name MIRIS. This was the initial information used in this study. These 1978 data were then compared to an aerial photograph of Sections 16 and 17 taken in 1994, to discern any differences or for comparisons between the two dates. The entirety of Neithercut Woodland is 102.1 ha (252.3 acres), of which 43.1 ha (106.5 acres) lie within Section 16, with the remaining 59 ha (145.8 acres) in Section 17. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY A vegetational analysis was conducted on Neithercut Woodland during the growing season of 1997. A survey had been conducted in 1978 by Peter Gorton on the flora that existed 3 m (10 feet) on either side of the three trails in the Woodland; therefore, this survey intended to update that list. Our further aims were to compare aerial photographs to determine any differences between the vegetational boundaries of twenty years ago and boundaries of today; to compare the published records for Clare County plants with those observed at Neithercut; and last, because Clare County lies in the lower northern zone of the state, to compare its flora with other geographic areas of the state and especially to see if there is a difference in the vegetation at Neithercut when compared to the southern zone of the state. RESULTS We identified 257 species, representing 68 different plant families. Of the 68 plant families, 29 had only one representative genus. Of the 257 species, 224 were angiosperms, or flowering plants, ten were gymnosperms, and 13 pteridophytes (nine ferns, four fern allies). There were a 159 different genera. Within the angiosperms, there were 58 monocot taxa, from 10 families; there were 166 dicot taxa, from 49 families.

Page  63 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 63 The largest family was the Asteraceae with 41 species. The single largest genus from the aster family was Solidago (Goldenrod), with six species. Symphyotrichum (traditional Aster) was also a large contributor with 5 species. Other large families included the Cyperaceae with 23 species, Poaceae (Gramineae) with 20, Rosaceae with 16, and Fabaceae (Leguminosae) and Pinaceae with nine each. The largest genus overall was Carex, Cyperaceae, with 20 species. The next largest genera were Solidago and Viola with six species each, and five species each from Pinus and Symphyotrichum (traditional Aster). The overall FQI value was 49.4. No state-listed endangered or threatened species were encountered in this study; one species of special concern, Kuhnia eupatorioides (false boneset), was observed. DISCUSSION Upon comparing the angiosperms and gymnosperms with their respective distributional maps in the three volumes of Voss' Michigan Flora, it was found that 46 of the Neithercut specimens were new records for the county (see annotated list, where the new records are bolded). The total number of species recorded for Clare County until this study, stood at 487 species of plants. Therefore, our additions have increased the flora of Clare County 9.4%. Most significant was the most northern occurrence of Kuhnia eupatorioides L. (false boneset) observed to date. The first Neithercut floristic study was by Szok (1969); he identified 157 species from 51 plant families. These plants included angiosperms, gymnosperms, and ferns. A second study was completed in 1978 by Peter Gorton. This work included the installation of three trails through the woodland and his vegetational analysis consisted of studying the flora three meters (10') on either side of these trails. In total, he found 191 species in 57 plant families. His study also only included angiosperms, gymnosperms, and ferns as well (Gorton 1978). Therefore, the known Neithercut flora was increased by 29.3% after this new study. There were also 21 species identified by Gorton but not observed in this survey. Gorton did not make voucher specimens for his study. When comparing the 257 species we observed with their distribution within Michigan, the majority, 229 species, can be found throughout the state. There were, however, six species that are found just in the lower peninsula of Michigan. Five species are distributed only in the southern half of the lower peninsula. Eight taxa occur only in the upper peninsula and northern half of the lower peninsula. No Endangered or Threatened species and only one species of Special Concern, Kuhnia eupatorioides (false boneset), was observed. The occurrence of this taxon in Clare County represents its most northern occurrence in Michigan. The majority of Neithercut's flora is composed of native species, although it has a marginal Floristic Quality Index (FQI) value of 49.4. A FQI value of over 50 indicates a rare community that represents a substantial component of Michi

Page  64 ï~~64 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 gan's native biodiversity (Herman et al. 1996). The low FQI value for Neithercut is due to the fact that only two species (false boneset, beechdrops) of the woodlot's 202 native plants had a C-value of 10 and less than half of the species (84) had a C-value of five or greater. The species with high C-values are less likely to be found because the tract has experienced disturbance (lumbering). Additionally, the habitats found on the Neithercut property are highly fragmented. The natural habitats are separated from each other by man-made disturbance and little, if any, by natural disturbance. ANNOTATED LIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS The list is arranged by major taxonomic group, then alphabetically by family, genus, and species. Nomenclature, in general, follows Voss (1972, 1985, 1996), FNA (1993), and Semple et al. (2002) for species traditionally named Aster but now segregated into other genera. Coefficient of Conservatism values (C) are listed to the right of each species. As asterisk indicates an adventive species (Herman et al. 1996). Species printed in bold are first reports for Clare County. State of Michigan status (SC = special concern) is noted to the left of the one relevant species. PTERIDOPHYTES LYCOPODIACEAE Diphasiastrum digitatum Holub (running cedar) 3 Lycopodium clavatum L. (common clubmoss) 5 Lycopodium obscurum L. (flat-branched tree clubmoss) 5 EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense L. (field horsetail) 0 DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desvaux) Underwood (bracken) 0 DRYOPTERIDACEAE Cystopteris bulbifera (L.) Bernhardi (bulblet bladder fern) 5 Dryopteris clintoniana (DC.) Dowell (Clinton's wood fern) 8 Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) A. Gray (evergreen wood fern) 8 Onoclea sensibilis L. (sensitive (fern) 2 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium virginianum (L.) Swartz (rattlesnake fern) 5 OSMUNDACEAE Osmunda cinnamomea L. (cinnamon fern) 5 PTERIDACEAE Adiantum pedatum L. (northern maidenhair fern) 6 THELYPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson) Fernald (marsh fern) 2

Page  65 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 65 GYMNOSPERMS CUPRESSACEAE Thuja occidentalis L. (eastern white-cedar) 6 PINACEAE Abies balsamea (L.) Miller (balsam fir) 3 Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch (tamarack) 5 Picea glauca (Moench) A. Voss (white spruce) 3 Pinus banksiana Lamb. (jack pine) 5 Pinus nigra Arnott (austrian pine) * Pinus resinosa Aiton (red pine) 6 Pinus sylvestris L. (scotch pine) * Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (eastern hemlock) 5 MONOCOTS ALISMATACEAE Sagittaria latifolia Willd. (Duck-potato) 1 ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott (jack-in-the-pulpit) 5 Symplocarpusfoetidus (L.) Nutt. (skunk cabbage) 6 CYPERACEAE Carexfoenea Willd. (sedge) 3 Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern. (Bebb's sedge) 4 Carex brunnescens (Pers.) Poiret (sedge) 5 Carex comosa Boott (sedge) 5 Carex crinita Lam. (sedge) 4 Carex cristatella Britton (sedge) 3 Carex gracillima Schw. (sedge) 4 Carex hystericina Willd. (bottle sedge) 2 Carex interior Bailey (sedge) 3 Carex intumescens Rudge (sedge) 3 Carex leptonervia Fern. (sedge) 3 Carex lupulina Willd. (sedge) 4 Carex pedunculata Willd. (long-stalked sedge) 5 Carex pseudo-cyperus L. (cypress-like sedge) 5 Carex scabrata Schw. (sedge) 4 Carex scoparia Willd. (sedge) 4 Carex stipata Willd. (sedge) 1 Carex tribuloides Wahl. (sedge) 3 Carex utriculata Boott (sedge) 5 Carex vulpinoidea Michx. (sedge) 1 Schoenoplectus validus (Vahl) Live & Live (softstem bulrush) [Scirpus validus Vahl] 4 Scirpus atrovirens Willd. (bulrush) 3 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth (wool-grass) 5 IRIDACEAE Iris versicolor L. (large blue flag) 5 JUNCACEAE Juncus effusus L. (rush) 3 Juncus tenuis Willd. (path rush) 1 LEMNACEAE Lemna minor L. (duckweed) 5 Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) Schleiden (greater duckweed) 6 Wolffia columbiana Karsten (water-meal) 5

Page  66 ï~~66 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 LILIACEAE Maianthemum canadense Desf. (Canada mayflower) 4 Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh. (Solomon-seal) 5 Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. (false solomon-seal) 5 Smilax hispida Raf. (bristly greenbriar) 5 ORCHIDACEAE Goodyera pubescens (Willd.) R. Br. (rattlesnake plantain) 7 POACEAE Agrostis gigantea Roth (redtop) * Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) BSP. (ticklegrass) 4 Agrostis perennans (Walter) Tuckerman (upland bent) 5 Andropogon gerardii Vitman (big bluestem) 5 Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. (blue-joint) 3 Calamagrostis inexpansa Gray (reed grass) 8 Cinna arundinacea L. (wood reedgrass) 7 Danthonia spicata (L.) R. & S. (poverty grass) 4 Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitche. (fowl manna grass) 4 Hystrix patula Moench (bottlebrush grass) 5 Leersia oryzoides (L.) Sw. (cut grass) 3 Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. (rice-grass) 6 Panicum linearifolium Britton (panic grass) 4 Phalaris arundinacea L. (reed canary grass) 0 Phleum pratense L. (timothy) * Poa annua L. (annual bluegrass) * Poa palustris L. (fowl meadow grass) 3 Poa pratensis L. (Kentucky bluegrass) * Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash (little bluestem) 5 Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. (yellow foxtail) * TYPHACEAE Typha latifolia L. (common cat-tail) 1 DICOTS ACERACEAE Acer rubrum L. (red maple) 1 Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) 5 ANACARDIACEAE Rhus hirta Sudworth (staghorn sumac) (Rhus typhina L. of some manuals) 2 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison-ivy) 2 APIACEAE Cicuta bulbifera L. (bulblet water-hemlock) 5 Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC. (honewort) 2 Daucus carota L. (Queen Anne's lace) * Hydrocotyle americana L. (water-pennywort) 6 Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B. Clarke (hairy sweet-cicely) 4 AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray (Michigan holly) 5 ARALIACEAE Aralia racemosa L. (spikenard) 8 ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias incarnata L. (swamp milkweed) 6 Asclepias syriaca L. (common milkweed) 1

Page  67 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 67 ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) 1 Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (common ragweed) 0 Antennaria neglecta Greene (pussy-toes) 2 Bidens cernuus L. (nodding beggar-ticks) 3 Centaurea maculosa Lam. (spotted knapweed) * Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. (ox-eye daisy) * Cirsium muticum Michx. (swamp thistle) 6 Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore (bull thistle) * Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers. (daisy fleabane) 0 Erigeron pulchellus Michx. (daisy fleabane) 5 Erigeron strigosus Willd. (daisy fleabane) 4 Eupatorium maculatum L. (Joe-Pye-weed) 4 Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (boneset) 4 Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. (grass-leaved goldenrod) 3 Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. (fragrant cudweed) 2 Hieracium aurantiacum L. (orange hawkweed) * Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. (yellow hawkweed) * Hieracium scabrum Michx. (hawkweed)) 3 SC Kuhnia eupatorioides L. (false boneset) 10 Liatris aspera Michx. (blazing star) 4 Liatris scariosa (L.) Willd. var. novae-angliae Lunell (northern blazing star) 5 Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter (pineapple-weed) * Rudbeckia hirta L. (black-eyed susan) 1 Solidago altissima L. (tall goldenrod) 1 Solidago gigantea Aiton (late goldenrod) 3 Solidago hispida Willd. (hairy goldenrod) 3 Solidago nemoralis Aiton (gray goldenrod) 2 Solidago rugosa Miller (rough-leaved goldenrod) 3 Symphyotrichum lateriflorum (L.) Live & Live (calico aster) [Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton] 2 Symphyotrichum novae-angliae (L). G. Nesom (New England aster) [Aster novae-angliae L.] Symphyotrichum ontarione (Wiegand) G. Nesom (Lake Ontario aster) [Aster ontarionis Wiegand] 6 Symphyotrichum puniceum (L.) Live & Live (purple-stemmed aster) [Aster puniceus L]. (purple-stemmed aster) 5 Symphyotrichum urophyllum (Lindl. in DC.) G. Nesom (arrow-leaved aster) [Aster sagittifolius Willd.] 2 Taraxacum officinale Wiggers (common dandelion) * Tragopogon dubius Scop. (goat's-beard) * Xanthium strumarium L. (cocklebur) * BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb. (spotted touch-me-not) 2 BERBERIDACEAE Berberis thunbergii DC. (Japanese barberry) * BETULACEAE Alnus rugosa (Duroi) Sprengel (speckled alder) 5 Betula alleghaniensis Britton (yellow birch) 7 Betula papyrifera Marsh. (paper birch) 2 Carpinus caroliniana Walter (hornbeam) 6 Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch (ironwood) 5 BRASSICACEAE Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (yellow rocket) * Berteroa incana (L.) DC. (hoary alyssum) * Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser (yellow cress) 1

Page  68 ï~~68 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 CAPRIFOLIACEAE Sambucus canadensis L. (common elder) 3 Sambucus racemosa L. (red-berried elderberry) 3 Viburnum acerifolium L. (maple-leaved viburnum) 6 Viburnum lentago L. var. americanum Aiton (nannyberry) 5 Viburnum opulus L. (highbush-cranberry) * CARYOPHYLLACEAE Cerastiumfontanum Baumg. (mouse-ear chickweed) * Dianthus armeria L. (deptford pink) * Stellaria longifolia Willd. (stitchwort) 5 CLUSIACEAE Hypericum perforatum L. (common St. John's-wort)* CORNACEAE Cornus alternifolia L. (alternate-leaved dogwood) 5 Cornus canadensis L. (bunchberry) 6 Cornus racemosa Lam. (gray dogwood) (Cornus foemina of some manuals) 1 Cornus sericea L. (red-osier dogwood) (Cornus stolonifera Michx. of some manuals) 2 ELAEAGNACEAE Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb. (autumn-olive)* ERICACEAE Gaultheria procumbens L. (wintergreen) 5 Vaccinium angustifolium Aiton (low sweet blueberry) 4 FABACEAE Lotus corniculata L. (birdfoot trefoil) * Medicago lupulina L. (black medick) * Melilotus alba Medicus (white sweet-clover) * Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pallas (yellow sweet-clover) * Trifolium aureum Poll. (hop clover) * Trifolium hybridum L. (alsike clover) * Trifolium repens L. (white clover) * Vicia villosa Roth (hairy vetch) * FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) 6 Quercus rubra L. (red oak) 5 GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes americanum Miller (wild black currant) 6 HAMAMELIDACEAE Hamamelis virginiana L. (witch-hazel) 5 JUGLANDACEAE Carya cordiformis (Wang.) K. Koch (bitternut hickory) 5 LAMIACEAE Clinopodium vulgare L. (wild-basil) 3 Lycopus americanus W. P. C. Barton (water horehound) 2 Lycopus uniflorus Michx. (northern bugleweed) 2 Mentha arvensis L. (wild mint) 3 Monardafistulosa L. (wild-bergamot) 2 Prunella vulgaris L. (self-heal) * MONOTROPACEAE Monotropa uniflora L. (Indian pipe) 5

Page  69 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 69 MYRICACEAE Comptonia peregrina (L.) Coulter (sweet-fern) 6 OLEACEAE Fraxinus americana L. (white ash) 5 Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) 6 Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (green ash) 2 ONAGRACEAE Circaea lutetiana L. (enchanter's-nightshade) 2 Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (willow-herb) 3 Oenothera biennis L. (evening primrose) 2 OROBANCHACEAE Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. P. C. Barton (beechdrops) 10 OXALIDACEAE Oxalis fontana Bunge (yellow wood-sorrel) 0 Oxalis stricta L. (yellow wood-sorrel) 0 PAPAVERACEAE Sanguinaria canadensis L. (bloodroot) 5 PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago lanceolata L. (English plantain) * Plantago major L. (common plantain) * POLYGALACEAE Polygala paucifolia Willd. (fringed polygala) 7 POLYGONACEAE Polygonum aviculare L. (knotweed) * Polygonum persicaria L. (heart's-ease) * Polygonum punctatum Ell. (smartweed) 5 Rumex acetosella L. (sheep sorrel) * Rumex crispus L. (curly dock) * PORTULACACEAE Claytonia caroliniana Michx. (spring-beauty) 6 Claytonia virginica L. (spring-beauty) 4 PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. (tufted loosestrife) 6 Trientalis borealis Raf. (star-flower) 5 RANUNCULACEAE Actaea pachypoda Ell. (doll's-eyes) 7 Anemone canadensis L (Canada anemone) 4 Anemone virginiana L. (thimbleweed) 3 Ranunculus abortivus L. (small-flowered buttercup) 0 Ranunculus recurvatus Poiret (hooked crowfoot) 5 Thalictrum dioicum L. (early meadow-rue) 6 ROSACEAE Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr. (agrimony) 2 Amelanchier arborea (Michx.) Fern. (serviceberry) 4 Crataegus sp. (hawthorn) Fragaria virginiana Miller (wild strawberry) 2 Geum canadense Jacq. (avens) 1 Malus pumila Miller (apple) * Potentilla argentea L. (silvery cinquefoil) * Potentilla recta L. (rough-fruited cinquefoil) * Potentilla simplex Michx. (common cinquefoil) 2 Prunus pumila L. (sand cherry) 8

Page  70 ï~~70 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Prunus serotina Ehrh. (wild black cherry) 2 Rubus alleghaniensis Porter (common blackberry) 1 Rubus occidentalis L. (black raspberry) 1 Rubus pubescens Raf. (dwarf raspberry) 4 Rubus strigosus Michx. (wild red raspberry) 2 Spiraea alba DuRoi (meadowsweet) 4 RUBIACEAE Galium asprellum Michx. (rough bedstraw) 5 Galium tinctorium L. (bedstraw) 5 Galium triflorum Michx. (sweet-scented bedstraw) 4 RUTACAE Zanthoxylum americanum Miller (prickly-ash) 3 SALICACEAE Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar) 2 Populus deltoides Marsh. (cottonwood) 1 Populus grandidentata Michx. (largetooth aspen) 4 Populus tremuloides Michx. (quaking aspen) 1 Salix nigra Marsh. (black willow) 5 Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith (slender willow) 1 SAXIFRAGACEAE Chrysosplenium americanum Hooker (golden saxifrage) 6 Mitella diphylla L. (bishop's-cap) 8 SCROPHULARIACEAE Linaria vulgaris Miller (butter-and-eggs) * Verbascum thapsus L. (common mullein) * TILIACEAE Tilia americana L. (basswood) 5 ULMACEAE Ulmus americana L. (American elm) 1 Ulmus rubra Muhl. (slippery elm) 2 URTICACEAE Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. (false nettle) 5 Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) 1 VERBENACEAE Verbena hastata L. (blue vervain) 4 VIOLACEAE Viola blanda Willd. (sweet white violet) 5 Viola canadensis L. (Canada violet) 5 Viola conspersa Reichenb. (dog violet) 3 Viola cucullata Aiton (marsh blue violet) 5 Viola pubescens Aiton (yellow violet) 4 Viola rostrata Pursh (long-spurred violet) 6 VITACEAE Vitis riparia Michx. (river-bank grape) 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Dr. Edward Voss for his valued input on the identification of several species and Dr. Roy Klopcic and Brad Yocum for Fig. 1. This research was funded, in part, by the Central Michigan University College of Graduate Studies. This paper is based on a thesis submitted by the first author in partial fulfillment of requirements for a M.S. degree at Central Michigan University.

Page  71 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 71 LITERATURE CITED Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 1993. Flora of North America. Volume 2. Pteridophytes and gymnosperms. Oxford. University Press, New York. 475 pp. Gleason, H. A. 1952. The New Britton and Brown Illustrated Flora of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada. 3 Volumes. New York, New York Botanical Garden. Goff, G. F., G. A. Dawson, & J. J. Rochow. 1982. Site examination for threatened and endangered plant species. Environmental Management 6: 307-316. Gorton, P. B. 1978. Land Use and Interpretation at Neithercut Woodland. Unpublished Central Michigan University M.S. Thesis. Herman, K. D., L. A. Masters, M. R. Penskar, A. A. Reznicek, G. S. Wilhelm, & W. W. Brodowicz. 1996. Floristic quality assessment with wetland categories and computer applications programs for the State of Michigan. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division, Natural Heritage Program, Lansing. iii + 21 p.+ Appendices. Littlefield, H. G. 1970. Farwell Area Centennial. Farwell Publishing Co., MI. Littlefield, J. 1972. Josiah Littlefield: Lumberman-Conservationist: An Autobiography. Edited by Hazel Littlefield. University Microfilms. Mickel, J. T. 1979. How to Know the Ferns and Fern Allies. Wm. C. Brown Company Publishers. Dubuque, Iowa. 229 pp. Newcomb, L. 1977. Newcomb's Wildflower Guide. Little, Brown and Company. Boston. 490 pp. Semple, J. C., S. B. Heard, & L. Brouillet. 2002. Cultivated and native asters of Ontario (Compositae: Asteraceae). University of Waterloo Biology Series Number 41. 134 pp. Szok, A. J. 1969. Neithercut Woodland: A Basic Historical and Ecological Study. Unpublished Central Michigan University M.S. Thesis. Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I. Gymnosperms and Monocots. Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium. 488 pp. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. 724 pp. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Ericaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. 622 pp.