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Page 29 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 29 THE VASCULAR FLORA OF HOG ISLAND, CHARLEVOIX COUNTY, MICHIGAN Cathryn Elizabeth Whately Department of Biology Central Michigan University Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 48859 Current address: Department of Biological Sciences Western Michigan University Kalamazoo, Michigan 49008 email@example.com Daniel E. Wujek Edwin E. Leuck II Department of Biology Department of Biology Central Michigan University Centenary College of Louisiana Mt. Pleasant, Michigan 48859 Shreveport, Louisiana 71104 firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com ABSTRACT The vascular flora of Hog Island, the fourth largest island of the Beaver Island Archipelago, was inventoried. Up to now, some vascular plants have been collected on Beaver Island, but few specimens have been collected from the surrounding islands of the Beaver Island Archipelago. A Floristic Quality Index (FQI) value of 92.7 was calculated, indicating that the island is representative of Michigan's pre-settlement flora. Three hundred and forty species, representing 77 families and 213 genera were collected over three field seasons (2000-2002) with collecting trips made in the spring, summer, and fall. These data were compared to data previously published for the Beaver Island Archipelago. Seventy-three percent of the plant families, 60.5% of the genera, and 43.4% of the species found on the Beaver Island Archipelago as a whole were also found on Hog Island. Among the collections were the threatened species Cirsium pitcheri, Iris lacustris, and Tanacetum huronense; Cypripedium arientinum, a plant of special concern; and the endangered Amerorchis rotundifolia. Seventeen species not previously recorded for the Beaver Island group were documented. INTRODUCTION Michigan has a diverse flora (Voss 1972; 1985; 1996). Much of that diversity is found on the islands of Lake Michigan (Penskar et al. 1999). This diversity is reflected in the floras of the Fox Islands (Hazlett et al. 1986; Hazlett 1993), the Manitous (Hazlett & Vande Kopple 1983), and the Grand Traverse Islands (Forzley et al. 1993; Judziewicz 2001). In addition to the inventories, one of the goals of each of the above studies was to identify plants considered to be of special concern, threatened, or endangered either at the state or federal level. Another island group located in Lake Michigan that has been studied is the Beaver Island Archipelago. The Beaver Island group consists of nine islands: Beaver, Garden, High, Hog, Gull, Trout, Whiskey, Squaw, and Hat. This island group is approximately 30 kilometers west of Emmet County in northern Lake
Page 30 ï~~30 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Michigan, but all of the islands are attached administratively to Charlevoix County. Conifers and flowering plants have been collected from Beaver, Garden, and High Islands. Some of the results of these collections have been published (Voss 1972; 1985; 1996; Hohn 1977; 1980; Penskar et al. 1999) while others have not. Pteridophytes and their allies have also been observed and inventoried on Beaver Island (Veldman & Wujek 1971). There are published reports of state endangered, threatened, or special concern plant species on Beaver and Garden Islands. These plants include Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle, threatened), Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris, threatened) (Van Kley & Wujek 1993; Wujek 1998), Mimulus michiganensis (Michigan monkey-flower, endangered), Tanacetum huronense (Lake Huron tansy, threatened), Pinguicula vulgaris (butterwort, special concern) and Littorella uniflora (American shore-grass, special concern) (Wujek 1998; Penskar et al. 1999). Also found on Beaver Island are Castanea dentata (American chestnut, endangered), Solidago houghtonii (Houghton's goldenrod, threatened), Calypso bulbosa (calypso, threatened), Drosera xanglica (sundew, special concern), Cypripedium arietinum (ram's head lady-slipper, special concern), Listera auriculata (auricled twayblade, special concern) and Carex pallescens (pale sedge, special concern) (Wujek 1998). Natural community surveys were conducted on parts of Beaver and Garden Islands in 1998. Four natural community types were identified and recorded: open dunes, boreal forest, mesic northern forest, and northern fen (Penskar et al. 1999). Hog Island is located approximately eight kilometers northeast of Beaver Island and is part of the Beaver Island Wildlife Research Area, managed by the Michigan Department of Natural Resources. Except for selective logging in the 1950s (P. Gregg, personal communication), Hog Island remains an undeveloped island that has remained relatively undisturbed by man since the arrival of Europeans, making it useful as a baseline for the ecology of the area (Michigan Natural Features Inventory [MNFI], unpublished). As a benchmark for the plant ecology of the area, it is important to have a comprehensive floristic inventory. Researchers from MNFI have made brief visits to the island and noted the occurrence of some threatened and special concern plants, specifically Solidago houghtonii, Iris lacustris, and Cirsium pitcheri, as well as identifying four natural community types, but no comprehensive work has been done (D. Albert, personal communication). In order to generate a comprehensive study of the flora of Hog Island it is important to know what plant species might be expected. The plant species that may be expected in a given area will depend on many factors including the geologic history, and topography of the area, the soil types and plant communities found in the area, and the use of the area by humans. The goal of this study was to complete a comprehensive floristic inventory of Hog Island. Special attention was paid to species that have State of Michigan special concern, threatened, or endangered status and to the variety of exotics found on the island. Using the floristic inventory, a Floristic Quality Index (FQI) value was calculated for Hog Island in order to determine how representative Hog Island is of Michigan's native biodiversity.
Page 31 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 31 205TEMIHGNBOAIT3 i~.Beaver ln ) Fisherman'.r= Bay. -~ Hog Island Tin Island ti FIGURE 1. Hog Island in relationship to the other islands of the Beaver Island Archipelago and to the state of Michigan. METHODS AND MATERIALS Study Site: Hog Island is the fourth largest island in the Beaver Island Archipelago (Fig. 1), having an area of approximately 10km2, depending on the lake levels. The elevation of the island ranges from 176-187 m above sea level, and it has an undulating topography. (The average high water level of Lake Michigan is 177.1 m.) The highest point on the island is in the central part of the southern half of the island. Hog Island was below lake levels during both the Lake Algonquin and Lake Nipissing stages of the Great Lakes glacial history (Schaetzl 2002). Therefore, Hog Island has only been exposed for plant colonization for a maximum of 3200 years. Hog Island's bedrock is part of the Bois Blanc formation, which is composed of cherty dolomite, dolomitic limestone, and limestone (Landes et al. 1945). The plant communities predicted to be on the island by MNFI were Great Lakes marsh, northern wet meadow, bog, conifer swamp, boreal forest, mesic and dry-mesic forests, and rocky beaches (MNFI, unpublished). Lake Michigan levels have been low the last few years, exposing new shoreline habitat (Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services 2003). This exposed habitat would be available for expansion by plant species populations already located on the shore, and for colonization by plant species adapted to disturbed habitats or to those species that had seeds present in the seed bank. Neither Native Americans nor Europeans ever permanently occupied Hog Island; however, Native Americans used the island to a limited extent for agriculture and both Native Americans and early Europeans used the island for fishing and maple syrup production (MNFI 1988). Before planes carried mail from the mainland to Beaver Island, Hog Island was used as a resting area for horse teams and their drivers on the winter mail run over the ice between Beaver Island and Cross Village. Hog Island was selectively logged approximately 50 years ago and bulldozed skid paths were made to move the logs (P. Gregg, personal communication). The island is still used for recreation and for research. As a matter of interest, there are two stories about the origin of Hog Island's name. The first
Page 32 ï~~32 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 states that hogs were put on the island to eat the overabundance of water snakes found on the island. The second story says instead that hogs were placed on the island to forage until butchering time. Evidence is lacking to support either story. Methods: Vascular plants were collected from Hog Island in the spring (7-10, 24-25 May 2000; 17 May 2001), summer (7, 16-18 July 2000; 25 June 2002), and fall (19 August 2000; 14 September 2001). In order to obtain as complete an inventory as possible, all plant community types predicted to be found on the island by MNFI were searched during spring, summer, and fall. Angiosperms, except for some trees, were collected in flower or with fruits. Gymnosperms were collected without cones, and pteridophytes and their allies were collected with sporangia when possible. Voucher specimens for all taxa listed below are housed in the Central Michigan University Herbarium (CMC). Nomenclature generally follows Michigan Flora vol. 1-3 (Voss 1972; 1985; 1996) for gymnosperms, monocots, and dicots and Flora of North America vol. 2 Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms (Flora of North America Editorial Committee 1993) for ferns and fern allies. A database of vascular plants reported for the islands of the Beaver Island Archipelago was created, based on data from Veldman and Wujek (1971) and Voss (1972; 1985; 1996). The numbers of taxa (families, genera, species) found on Hog Island were compared to the numbers of taxa found in the rest of the archipelago. The Floristic Quality Index (FQI) for Hog Island was calculated following the method described in "Floristic Quality Assessment with Wetland Categories and Computer Application Programs for the State of Michigan" (Herman et al. 1996). The above-mentioned procedure is a standardized, repeatable method of determining the floristic quality of an area based upon the native plants found at the site. Native plants have been assigned a coefficient of conservatism (C) value based on the plant's tolerance of disturbance and the fidelity it shows to presettlement-like habitats. The C values range from zero to ten, with zero being associated with the highest disturbance tolerance and least fidelity and ten being associated with the least disturbance tolerance and the greatest fidelity (Herman et al. 1996). RESULTS In all, 340 species were collected from Hog Island; included were 17 species not previously reported for the Beaver Island Archipelago (see annotated list). These species represented 77 families and 213 genera. The largest families were Asteraceae (37 species), Cyperaceae (34 species), Poaceae (20 species), Rosaceae (17 species), Orchidaceae (15 species), and Liliaceae (13 species). The largest genera were Carex (22 species), Juncus (eight species), and Equisetum and Salix (six species each). State threatened species Cirsium pitcheri (Pitcher's thistle), Tanacetum huronense (Lake Huron tansy), and Iris lacustris (dwarf lake iris) were collected, as was a species of special concern, Cypripedium arietinum (ram's head lady-slipper). Only one endangered species, Amerorchis rotundifolia (round-leaved orchis), was collected (Michigan Department Natural Resources 1987). A new population of Iris lacustris, in addition to the population previously noted (D. Albert, personal communication), was found (45046'37.4"N 85021'59.3"W). Forty-two of the 340 species collected on Hog Island were exotic species (12.4% of the Hog Island flora). The Asteraceae contained the greatest number of exotic species (11 species), with four each for the Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, and Poaceae. The FQI value, based on the 298 native species found on Hog Island, was 92.7.
Page 33 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 33 TABLE 1. Relative number of the taxa in the entire Beaver Island Archipelago flora (data from Veldman & Wujek 1971; Voss 1972; 1985; 1996) compared to the Hog Island flora alone Beaver Island Archipelago Hog Island Percent of B.I.A. flora. Families 105 77 73.3 Genera 342 213 62.3 Species 745 340 45.6 DISCUSSION Floristic inventories have been conducted on many of the islands in Lake Michigan, allowing for a comparison of Hog Island's flora to some of the other islands in Lake Michigan. The comparison of vascular plant taxa found on Hog Island to the rest of the Beaver Island Archipelago indicated that the entire Archipelago contained 105 families, 342 genera, and 745 species (Veldman & Wujek 1971; Voss 1972, 1985, 1996). The numbers of families, genera, and species on Hog Island itself were 77 (73.3%), 213 (62.3)%, and 340 (45.6%), respectively, of the taxa found on the entire Beaver Island Archipelago (_ble 1). Two floristic inventory studies have been conducted specifically on Beaver Island. Wujek and Veldman (1971) found 11 families, 19 genera and 44 species of pteridophytes on Beaver Island. Seven families, 11 genera and 23 species of ferns and fern allies were found on Hog Island. Three of the pteridophyte species found on Hog Island were new species for the Beaver Island Archipelago (see annotated list). Jaworski (1979) collected 67 grass species on Beaver Island. The 20 grass species found on Hog Island were previously found on Beaver Island during Jaworski's study. Hog Island is most similar to Chambers and Summer Islands of the Grand Traverse Islands (GTI) in size and number of species (Table 2). North Fox Island, less than half the size of Hog Island, had approximately the same number of species; whereas South Fox Island, slightly larger than Hog Island, contained 27 more species (Table 2). The largest families on the Lake Michigan islands studied thus far are the families Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and Rosaceae. The largest families on Hog Island were Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, Orchidaceae, and Liliaceae. The three largest families on both Chambers Island and Summer Island were Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Cyperaceae, although the order of Cyperaceae and Poaceae was reversed between the two islands. As for the previous islands, the largest family on both North and South Fox Islands was Asteraceae. On North Fox Island Asteraceae were followed by Cyperaceae, Poaceae, and Rosaceae. On South Fox Island, Cyperaceae were the fourth largest family, preceded by Poaceae and Rosaceae. Overall, the largest genus on the Lake Michigan islands studied thus far is Carex, but other common genera varied by location. On Hog Island, Carex was followed by Juncus, Equisetum, and Salix. On Chambers Island, Polygonum and Aster were the second and third largest genera, respectively; while on Summer Island Carex was followed by Solidago, Aster, Poa, and Viola. The largest gen
Page 34 ï~~34 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 TABLE 2. A list of the Lake Michigan Islands for which floras have been published, as well as the size of each island and the number of families, number of genera and number of species found on each island. Superscripts denote the studies cited, 1: Judziewicz (2001); 2: Forzley et al. (1993); 3: Hazlett (1993). Island Size (ha) # of Families # of Genera # of Species Hog 1010 77 213 340 Chambers (GTI)1 1050 86 229 358 Summer (GTI)1,2 891 73 207 3761; 1652 North Fox3 339 69 194 342 South Fox3 1321 73 219 367 era on North Fox Island were Carex and Viola. The largest genera on South Fox Island after Carex were Botrychium, Juncus, Solidago, and Viola. Chambers Island is located between Michigan's Upper Peninsula and the Door County Peninsula, making it closer to its western mainland than Hog Island is to its eastern mainland. Chambers Island has a variety of habitat types including hemlock-hardwood forests, remnant Great Lakes pine-barrens, prairie remnants, wetlands, including inland lakes, and undisturbed Great Lakes beach flora. Like Hog Island, Chambers Island is a low-lying island. Hog Island has a variety of habitat types as well, but the types differ from those found on Chambers. For example, Hog Island has no inland lakes. Additionally, while Hog Island was selectively logged in the past, it is no longer logged, while Chambers is still selectively logged (Judziewicz 2001). Despite its smaller size, Summer Island had more species than Hog Island. Summer Island has potentially been colonized longer than Hog Island because Summer Island has a higher elevation and was above water during the Lake Nipissing stage (Forzley et al. 1993). Summer Island has two or three summer homes plus ATV trails, some of which are used by local people to reach deer hunting sites on State of Michigan land. We speculate that increased disturbance, presumed to be an effect of the activity associated with the homes and trails, may have resulted in more species being introduced onto the island. Hog Island is uninhabited and there are no deer on the island, so the man-made disturbance due to hunting is less. The increased number of species on Summer Island may also be the result of the alvar present on the island. The two forest types found on Summer Island (hardwood forest and a mixed white cedar, balsam fir, red maple, and white birch forest) were also found on Hog Island. Summer Island, like Chambers Island, was also repeatedly selectively logged (Judziewicz 2001). Portions of North Fox were above lake levels during the Lake Nipissing stage, indicating the island has been available for colonization longer than Hog Island. North Fox has been extensively logged, though it is thought that the island has not been logged for the last 75-85 years. The island was inhabited and an airstrip is still found on the island. The construction of the airstrip necessitated borrow pits, creating a habitat that otherwise would not have been there. North Fox contains many of the same habitat types (northern hardwoods, wet northern hardwoods, lowland conifer forest, dunes, and sandy beach) (Hazlett 1993) as Hog Island.
Page 35 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 35 Portions of South Fox Island were above lake levels during the Lake Algonquin stage as well as the Lake Nipissing stage. South Fox Island does not have the wetlands found on North Fox. South Fox was also logged as well as settled for agriculture. This island also has an airfield. The majority of South Fox Island is a northern hardwood forest, a small portion of which is considered moist northern hardwoods. Overall, South Fox Island does not have the habitat heterogeneity of North Fox Island. South Fox Island does have an extensive dune system, however. Twenty percent of South Fox Island's flora is made up of exotic species while only 11% of North Fox Island's flora is composed of exotic species (Hazlett 1993). The slightly larger size and the longer history of South Fox Island may account for the greater number of species found on that island as compared to Hog Island despite the greater habitat diversity found on Hog Island. The majority of the collecting for the Beaver Island Archipelago was done on Beaver Island. Hog Island is one-fifteenth the size of Beaver Island but contains nearly half the number of species. This appears to be a large number of species for an island the size of Hog Island but this resembles the pattern noted for herpetofauna of the West Indies (Darlington 1957 as cited by MacArthur & Wilson 1967). Darlington found that "division of area by ten divides the fauna by two." In the case of the Beaver Island Archipelago, division of area by fifteen divides the vascular flora by approximately two if the assumption is made that all the plants collected for the Beaver Island Archipelago are found on Beaver Island because Beaver Island is the largest island in the archipelago. The relationship of area to number of species appears to hold a similar pattern of reduction by half of number of species to a reduction by fifteen of area in the GTI chain (Judziewicz 2001). Beaver and Hog Islands closely match the best-fit line of the species/area curve generated by Judziewicz (2001). South Fox Island also closely matches the best-fit line while North Fox Island has a similar relationship of area to species number as Detroit and Rock Islands of the Grand Traverse Islands (Hazlett 1993; Judziewicz 2001). The best-fit line generated by Judziewicz (2001) for the GTI showed that 70.64% of the variation in species number was due to island size. If Beaver, GTI, Hog, North Fox and South Fox Islands are treated as one group of islands, instead of adding islands to the line generated by Judziewicz (2001), 77.34% of the variation in the number of species is due to island size (Fig. 2). Many calciphiles were expected on Hog Island because of the limestonebased bedrock. Thirty-two of the 42 calciphiles listed by MNFI (unpublished list) were found on Hog Island (ITble 3). Several of these species, including Castilleja coccinea, Geranium robertianum, Pentaphylloides floribunda (Potentillafruticosa of some sources), and Primula mistassinica, were found in relative abundance. Some plants that are commonly found in northern Michigan were not found on Hog Island. Examples of native species that were not found were Fagus grandifolia (beech), Betula alleghaniensis (yellow birch) and Acer pensylvanicum (striped maple). The beech may not have arrived on the island because the seeds are too large for most birds to carry, and humans have not planted beech on the island. The fruits of both the yellow birch and striped maple are wind-dispersed,
Page 36 ï~~36 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 y = 0.2836x + 1.7077 R2 = 0.7734 Beaver Summer North Fox South Fox 0 2.5 Chambers "Hog 0 C 0i 1.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 Island Size (log(ha)) FIGURE 2. Species area curve of vascular plants calculated for the Grand Traverse Islands (Judziewicz 2001), North Fox and South Fox Islands (Hazlett 1993), Beaver Island (Veldman & Wujek 1971; Voss 1972; 1985; 1996), and Hog Island (this study). however. Therefore, it was surprising that these two species were not found, especially because other species of birch and maple and appropriate habitat for each were found on Hog Island. Houghton's goldenrod was not found on the island in the course of the present study. Researchers from MNFI had found this threatened plant on Hog Island earlier (D. Albert, personal communication). This species may not have been noted during this study because the population observed previously may have become extirpated, perhaps due to lower lake levels and plant succession. Another possibility is that the latest collecting date (14 September 2001) was too early for collecting Houghton's goldenrod because it is one of the last species to bloom in the autumn. Some common exotic species were also missing from the island: Daucus carota (Queen Anne's lace), Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse), Plantago lanceolata (narrow-leaved plantain), Plantago major (common plantain), Linaria vulgaris (common butter and eggs) and exotic Lonicera species (honeysuckles). All of these species are fairly common on Beaver Island and the mainland. Hog Island does have 42 exotic species, however. Exotic species comprise 12.4% of Hog Island's flora, which is on the lower end of the predicted values of 10-30% for the percentage of exotics found in any given flora (Mills et al. 1993). The exotics found on the island may be, in part, the result of human influence. Even though the island is uninhabited, it has been, and continues to be, used by humans. Seeds from exotic plants could have been inadvertently carried to the island on clothing or in supplies. Animals may have dispersed the seeds
Page 37 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 37 TABLE 3. List of calciphiles commonly found in Michigan based on an unpublished list generated by Michigan Natural Features Inventory. Bolded species are those found on Hog Island. Alnus rugosa Betula pumila Calamintha arkansana Carex buxbaumii Carex capillaris Carex eburnea Carex lasiocarpa Carex leptalea Carex limosa Castilleja coccinea Cladium mariscoides Cypripedium reginae Cystopteris bulbifera Drosera linearis Dulichium arundinaceum Eleocharis pauciflora Geranium robertianum Hypericum kalmianum Iris lacustris Juncus balticus Larix laricina Liparis loeselii Lobelia kalmii Menyanthes trifoliata Myrica gale Pentaphylloides floribunda Potentilla palustris Primula mistassinica Rhamnus alnifolia Rhynchospora alba Rhynchospora capillacea Salix pedicellaris Sarracenia purpurea Scirpus hudsoniana Selaginella selaginoides Shepherdia canadensis Solidago houghtonii Thuja occidentalis Tofieldia glutinosa Triglochin maritimum Utricularia cornuta Zigadenus glaucus from exotic plants either by carrying the seeds or by eating the fruit and defecating the seeds on the island. The successional stage of the island may also play a role in the number of exotic species found on the island. The island has been left relatively undisturbed since it was logged in the 1950s. Most of that disturbed area is now once again northern hardwood forest. Most of the present day disturbed area is limited to habitat found only along the lakeshore. Therefore, preferred habitat for exotic species is limited. The majority of Hog Island's flora is composed of native species, reflected by the high Floristic Quality Index (FQI) value for the island (92.7). An FQI value of over 50 indicates a rare community that represents a substantial component of Michigan's native biodiversity (Herman et al. 1996). The high FQI value for Hog Island is due to the fact that 33 of Hog Island's 298 native plants had a C-value of 10 and over half of the species (187) had a C-value of five or greater. The species with high C-values are likely found on Hog Island because it has experienced little disturbance relative to other islands in Lake Michigan and to the mainland. Additionally, the habitats found on Hog Island are intact and grade into one another. The habitats are not separated from each other by man-made disturbance and little, if any, natural disturbance. Therefore, there are zones of overlap between habitats. These zones of overlap may be appropriate habitat for specific species. Hog Island contains a large number of pre-settlement plant species and is very representative of Michigan native biodiversity. As mentioned previously, there appear to be no deer on the island, as evidenced by the presence of tall Taxus canadensis (yew) and the absence of a browse line. The island could, therefore, be a useful study site for researchers interested in questions related to pre
Page 38 ï~~38 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 settlement Michigan's plant ecology. One hopes that deer will not be introduced onto the island, even though appropriate habitat is found on Hog Island, and that the island will continue to be protected. ANNOTATED LIST OF VASCULAR PLANTS The following is a species list for Hog Island, a member of the Beaver Island Archipelago, Charlevoix County, Michigan. Nomenclature, in general, follows Voss (1972; 1985; 1996) and FNA (1993). Coefficient of Conservatism values (C) are listed to the right of each species. An asterisk indicates an exotic species (Herman et al. 1996). Species printed in bold are reported for the first time for the Beaver Island Archipelago. State of Michigan status (E = endangered, T = threatened, SC = special concern) is noted to the left of relevant species. PTERIDOPHYTES C LYCOPODIACEAE Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trevisan (shining fir-moss) 5 Lycopodium annotinum L. (bristly club-moss) 5 Lycopodium clavatum L. (common club-moss) 4 Lycopodium obscurum L. (flat-branched tree club-moss) 5 SELAGINELLACEAE Selaginella apoda (L.) Spring (meadow spike-moss) 5 Selaginella eclipes Buck (Buck's spike-moss) 5 Selaginella selaginoides (L.) de Beauvois (northern spike-moss) 10 EQUISETACEAE Equisetum arvense L. (field horsetail) 0 Equisetum fluviatile L. (river horsetail) 7 Equisetum hyemale L. (common scouring-rush) 2 Equisetum xnelsonii (A. A. Eaton) Schaffner (Nelson's horsetail) 8 Equisetum palustre L. (marsh horsetail) 10 Equisetum variegatum Schleich. (variegated scouring-rush) 8 DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desvaux) L. Underwood (bracken) 0 DRYOPTERIDACEAE Dryopteris clintoniana (D.C. Eaton) Dowell (Clinton's wood fern) 8 Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gray (crested wood fern) 6 Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl.) Gray (evergreen wood fern) 5 Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray (marginal wood fern) 5 Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman (common oak fern) 5 Matteucia struthiopteris (L.) Todaro var. pensylvanica (Willd.) C.V. Morton (ostrich fern) 3 Onoclea sensibilis L. (sensitive fern) 2 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium virginianum (L.) Swartz (rattlesnake fern) 5
Page 39 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 39 THELYPTERIDACEAE Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson) Fernald (marsh fern) 2 GYMNOSPERMS CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. (ground juniper) 4 Juniperus horizontalis Moench (creeping juniper) 10 Thuja occidentalis L. (northern white cedar) 4 PINACEAE Abies balsamea (L.) Miller (balsam fir) 3 Larix laricina (DuRoi) K. Koch (tamarack) 5 Picea glauca (Moench) A. Voss (white spruce) 3 Picea mariana (Miller) BSP (black spruce) 6 Pinus strobus L. (white pine) 3 TAXACEAE Taxus canadensis Marsh. (yew) 5 MONOCOTS ALISMATACEAE Sagittaria latifolia Willd. (wapato) 1 ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott (Jack-in-the-pulpit) 5 CYPERACEAE Carex aquatilis Wahl. (water sedge) 7 Carex atlantica Bailey (Atlantic sedge) 7 Carex aurea Nutt. (golden sedge) 3 Carex bebbii (Bailey) Fern. (Bebb's sedge) 4 Carex buxbaumii Wahl. (Buxbaum's sedge) 10 Carex capillaris L. (hairlike sedge) 9 Carex deweyana Schw. (Dewey's sedge) 3 Carex diandra Schrank (bog panicled sedge) 8 Carex disperma Dewey (two-seeded bog sedge) 10 Carex eburnea Boott (ebony sedge) 7 Carexflava L. (yellow sedge) 4 Carex garberi Fern. (elk sedge) 8 Carex hystericina Willd. (bottlebrush sedge) 2 Carex lasiocarpa Ehrh. (narrow-leaved wooly sedge) 8 Carex leptalea Wahl. (bristle-stalked sedge) 5 Carex limosa L. (muck sedge) 10 Carex peckii Howe (Peck's sedge) 3 Carex pedunculata Willd. (long-stalked sedge) 5 Carex pseudo-cyperus L. (cypresslike sedge) 5 Carex retrorsa Schw. (retrorse sedge) 3 Carex trisperma Dewey (three-fruited sedge) 9 Carex viridula Michx. (little green sedge) 4 Cladium mariscoides (Muhl.) Torrey (twig-rush) 10 Eleocharis acicularis (L.) R. & S. (needle spikerush) 7 Eleocharis elliptica Kunth (elliptic spikerush) 6 Eleocharis pauciflora (Lightf.) Link (small-flowered spikerush) 10 Eleocharis smallii Britton (Small's spikerush) 5 Eriophorum viridi-carinatum (Engelm.) Fern. (dark-scale cotton-grass) 8
Page 40 ï~~40 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Rhynchospora alba (L.) Vahl (white beakrush) 6 Rhynchospora capillacea Torrey (hairlike beakrush) 10 Schoenoplectus acutus (Bigelow) A. & D. Live (hardstem bulrush) 5 Schoenoplectus pungens (Vahl.) Palla (common three-square bulrush) 5 Scirpus cyperinus (L.) Kunth (wool-grass) 5 Trichophorum hudsonianus (Michx.) Fern. (Hudson's bulrush) 1 IRIDACEAE T Iris lacustris Nutt. (dwarf lake iris) 9 Iris versicolor L. (wild blue flag) 5 Sisyrinchium montanum Greene (mountain blue-eyed grass) 4 JUNCACEAE Juncus alpinus Vill. (alpine rush) 5 Juncus articulatus L. (jointed rush) 3 Juncus balticus Willd. (Baltic rush) 4 Juncus brevicaudatus (Engelm.) Fern. (narrow-panicled rush) 8 Juncus canadensis La Harpe (Canadian rush) 6 Juncus dudleyi Wieg. (Dudley's rush) 1 Juncus nodosus L. (joint rush) 5 Juncus pelocarpus Meyer (brown-fruited rush) 8 JUNCAGINACEAE Triglochin maritimum L. (common bog-arrow grass) 8 Triglochin palustre L. (marsh bog-arrow grass) 8 LILIACEAE Allium tricoccum Aiton (wild leek) 5 Clintonia borealis (Aiton) Raf. (bluebead lily) 5 Erythronium americanum Ker (yellow trout lily) 5 Lilium philadelphicum L. (wood lily) 10 Maianthemum canadense Desf. (Canada mayflower) 4 Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh (Solomon's-seal) 5 Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. (false spikenard) 5 Smilacina stellata (L.) Desf. (starry false Solomon's-seal) 5 Streptopus roseus Michx. (rosy twisted stalk) 5 Tofieldia glutinosa (Michx.) Pers. (false asphodel) 10 Trillium cernuum L. (nodding trillium) 5 Trillium grandiflorum (Michx.) Salisb. (common trillium) 5 Zigadenus elegans Pursh subsp glaucus (Nutt.) Hulten (white camas) 10 ORCHIDACEAE E Amerorchis rotundifolia (Banks ex Pursh) Hulten (round-leaved orchis) 10 Calopogon tuberosus (L.) BSP (grass-pink) 9 Corollorhiza maculata Raf. (spotted coralroot) 5 Corollorhiza striata Lindley (striped coralroot) 6 Corollorhiza trifida Chat. (early coralroot) 6 SC Cypripedium arietinum R. Br. (ram's head lady-slipper) 10 Cypripedium calceolus L. var. pubescens (Willd.) Correll 5 (yellow lady-slipper) Cypripedium reginae Walter (showy lady-slipper) 9 Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz (helleborine orchid) * Goodyera oblongifolia Raf. (green-leaved rattlesnake-plantain) 6 Goodyera tesselata Lodd. (checkered rattlesnake-plantain) 6 Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindley (tall northern bog orchid) 5 Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindley (purple fringed orchid) 7 Pogonia ophioglossoides (L.) Ker (rose pogonia) 10 Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich. (nodding ladies-tresses) 4
Page 41 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 41 POACEAE Agropyron trachycaulum (Link) Malte (wheatgrass) 8 Agrostis gigantea Roth (redtop) * Agrostis hyemalis (Walter) BSP (ticklegrass) 4 Ammophila breviligulata Fern. (beach grass) 10 Calamagrostis canadensis (Michx.) Beauv. (blue-joint) 3 Calamovilfa longifolia (Hooker) Scribner (sand-reed) 10 Danthonia spicata (L.) R. & S. (poverty grass) 4 Elymus canadensis L. (Canada wild-rye) 7 Festuca obtusa Biehler (nodding fescue) 5 Glyceria striata (Lam.) Hitchc. (fowl manna grass) 4 Muhlenbergia glomerata (Willd.) Trin. (marsh wild-timothy) 10 Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx. (rice-grass) 6 Panicum capillare L. (witch grass) 1 Panicum implicatum Britton (wooly panic grass) 3 Phalaris arundinacea L. (reed canary grass) 0 Phragmites australis (Cay.) Steudel (reed) 1 Poa annua L. (annual bluegrass) * Poa compressa L. (Canada bluegrass) * Poa pratensis L. (Kentucky bluegrass) * Schizachyrium scoparium (Michx.) Nash (little bluestem) 5 POTAMOGETONACEAE Potamogeton filiformis Pers. (thread-leaved pondweed) 7 TYPHACEAE Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaved cat-tail) * Typha latifolia L. (common cat-tail) 1 XYRIDACEAE Xyris montana Ries (yellow-eyed grass) 10 DICOTS ACERACEAE Acer rubrum L. (red maple) 1 Acer saccharum Marsh. (sugar maple) 5 Acer spicatum Lam. (mountain maple) 5 ANACARDIACEAE Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac) 2 Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze (poison ivy) 2 APIACEAE Cicuta bulbifera L. (bulblet water-parsnip) 5 Heracleum maximum Bartram (cow-parsnip) 3 Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B. Clarke (hairy sweet-cicely) 4 Pastinaca sativa L. (wild parsnip) * Sanicula marilandica L. (black snakeroot) 4 Taenidia integerrima (L.) Drude (yellow-pimpernel) 8 AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray (Michigan holly) 5 Nemopanthus mucronatus (L.) Loes. (mountain holly) 7 ARALIACEAE Aralia nudicaulis L. (wild sarsaparilla) 5
Page 42 ï~~42 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Aralia racemosa L. (spikenard) 8 ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias incarnata L. (swamp milkweed) 6 Asclepias syriaca L. (common milkweed) 1 ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium L. (yarrow) 1 Anaphalis margaritacea (L.) Bentham (pearly everlasting) 3 Arctium minus Bernh. (common burdock) * Artemisia absinthium L. (common wormwood) * Aster borealis (T. & G.) Prov. (rush aster) 9 Aster lanceolatus Willd. (panicled aster) 2 Aster macrophyllus L. (large-leaved aster) 4 Aster pilosus Willd. (frost aster) 1 Bidens connatus Willd. (purple-stemmed beggar-ticks) 5 Centaurea maculosa Lam. (spotted knapweed) * Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. (field thistle) * Cirsium palustre (L.) Scop. (marsh thistle) * T Cirsium pitcheri (Eaton) T. & G. (Pitcher's thistle) 10 Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore (bull thistle) * Coreopsis lanceolata L. (lance-leaved tickseed) 8 Erigeron philadelphicus L. (Philadelphia fleabane) 2 Erigeron strigosus Willd. (daisy fleabane) 4 Eupatorium maculatum L. (Joe-pye-weed) 4 Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (boneset) 4 Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. (grass-leaved goldenrod) 3 Hieracium aurantiacum L. (orange hawkweed) * Hieracium kalmii L. (Canada hawkweed) 3 Hieracium piloselloides Vill. (yellow hawkweed) * Krigia virginica (L.) Willd. (dwarf-dandelion) 4 Lactuca canadensis L. (wild lettuce) 2 Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. (ox-eye daisy) * Prenanthes racemosa Michx. (colt's foot) 8 Senecio pauperculus Michx. (northern ragwort) 3 Solidago altissima L. (tall goldenrod) 1 Solidago canadensis L. (Canada goldenrod) 1 Solidago gigantea Aiton (late goldenrod) 3 Solidago ohioensis Riddell (Ohio goldenrod) 8 Solidago simplex Kunth (Gillman's goldenrod) 10 Sonchus arvensis L. (field sow-thistle) * T Tanacetum huronense Nutt. (Lake Huron tansy) 10 Taraxacum officinale Wiggers (common dandelion) * Tragopogon dubius Scop. (goat's-beard) * BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb. (spotted touch-me-not) 2 BERBERIDACEAE Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. (blue cohosh) 5 BETULACEAE Betula papyrifera Marsh. (paper birch) 2 Corylus cornuta Marsh. (beaked hazelnut) 5 Ostrya virginiana (Miller) K. Koch (ironwood) 5
Page 43 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 43 BRASSICACEAE Arabis divaricarpa A. Nelson (spreading-pod rock-cress) 6 Arabis lyrata L. (sand cress) 7 Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. (yellow rocket) * Brassica juncea (L.) Czern. (Indian mustard) * Cakile edentula (Bigelow) Hooker (sea-rocket) 5 Descurainia pinnata (Walter) Britton (tansy mustard) * Lepidium campestre (L.) R. Br. (fieldcress) * Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser (yellow cress) 1 CAMPANULACEAE Campanula aparinoides Pursh (marsh bellflower) 7 Campanula rotundifolia L. (bluebell) 6 Lobelia kalmii L. (Kalm's lobelia) 10 CAPRIFOLIACEAE Diervilla lonicera Miller (bush honeysuckle) 4 Linnaea borealis L. (twinflower) 6 Lonicera canadensis Marshall (fly honeysuckle) 5 Lonicera dioica L. (glaucous honeysuckle) 5 Sambucus racemosa L. (red-berried elder) 3 Viburnum acerifolium L. (maple-leaved viburnum) 6 Viburnum opulus L. var. americanum Aiton (highbush-cranberry) 5 CARYOPHYLLACEAE Arenaria stricta Michx. (rock sandwort) 10 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke (bladder campion) * CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium album L. (lamb's-quarters)* CLUSIACEAE Hypericum perforatum L. (common St. John's-wort)* CONVOLVULACEAE Calystegia sepium (L.) R. Br. (hedge bindweed) 2 CORNACEAE Cornus amomum Miller (pale dogwood) 2 Cornus canadensis L. (bunchberry) 6 Cornus rugosa Lam. (round-leaved dogwood) 6 Cornus stolonifera Michx. (red-osier) 2 CRASSULACEAE Sedum acre L. (mossy stonecrop)* DROSERACEAE Drosera linearis Goldie (narrow-leaved sundew) 10 Drosera rotundifolia L. (round-leaved sundew) 6 ELAEAGNACEAE Shepherdia canadensis (L.) Nutt. (soapberry) 7 ERICACEAE Andromeda glaucophylla Link (bog-rosemary) 10 Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Sprengel (bearberry) 8 Vaccinium oxycoccos L. (small cranberry) 8
Page 44 ï~~44 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 FABACEAE Lathyrus japonicus Willd. (beach pea) 10 Lotus corniculata L. (birdfoot trefoil) * Medicago lupulina L. (black medic) * Melilotus alba Medicus (white sweet-clover) * Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) * FAGACEAE Quercus rubra L. (red oak) 5 GENTIANACEAE Gentiana rubricaulis Schwein. (red-stemmed gentian) 7 Gentianopsis procera (Holm) Ma (lesser fringed gentian) 8 GERANIACEAE Geranium robertianum L. (herb Robert) 3 GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes americanum Miller (wild black currant) 6 Ribes lacustre (Pers.) Poiret (swamp black currant) 6 HALORAGACEAE Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx. (milfoil) 6 Proserpinaca palustris L. (mermaid-weed) 6 LAMIACEAE Calamintha arkansana (Nutt.) Shinners (calamint) 10 Clinopodium vulgare L. (wild basil) 3 Leonurus cardiaca L. (motherwort) * Lycopus americanus W. P. C. Barton (common water-horehound) 2 Lycopus uniflorus Michx. (northern bugleweed) 2 Mentha arvensis L. (wild mint) 3 Mentha xpiperita L. (peppermint) * Prunella vulgaris L. (self-heal) * Scutellaria galericulata L. (marsh skullcap) 5 LENTIBULARIACEAE Utricularia cornuta Michx. (horned bladderwort) 10 MALVACEAE Malva neglecta Wallr. (common mallow)* MENYANTHACEAE Menyanthes trifoliata L. (buckbean) 8 MONOTROPACEAE Monotropa uniflora L. (Indian pipe) 5 OLEACEAE Fraxinus nigra Marsh. (black ash) 6 Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh. (green ash) 2 ONAGRACEAE Circaea alpina L. (small enchanter's-nightshade) 4 Epilobium angustifolium L. (fireweed) 3 Epilobium ciliatum Raf. (willow-herb) 3 Epilobium hirsutum L. (great hairy willow-herb) *
Page 45 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 45 Epilobium leptophyllum Raf. (marsh willow-herb) 6 Epilobium parviflorum Schreber (willow-herb) * Oenothera oakesiana (A. Gray) Watson & 8 Coulter (Oakes' evening-primrose) POLYGALACEAE Polygala paucifolia Willd. (fringed polygala) 7 POLYGONACEAE Polygonum amphibium L. (water smartweed) 6 Polygonum lapathifolium L. (willow-weed) 0 Polygonum persicaria L. (lady's-thumb) * Polygonum ramosissimum Michx. (bushy knotweed) 7 Rumex crispus L. (curly dock) * PORTULACACEAE Claytonia caroliniana Michx. (spring-beauty) 6 PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia terrestris (L.) BSP (swamp candles) 6 Primula mistassinica Michx. (bird's-eye primrose) 10 Trientalis borealis Raf. (star-flower) 5 PYROLACEAE Pyrola asarifolia Michx. (pink shinleaf) 8 Pyrola chlorantha Sw. (green-flowered wintergreen) 8 Pyrola rotundifolia L. (shinleaf) 7 RANUNCULACEAE Actaea pachypoda Ell. (white baneberry) 7 Anemone canadensis L. (Canada anemone) 4 Anemone multifida Poiret (red anemone) 10 Aquilegia canadensis L. (wild columbine) 5 Caltha palustris L. (marsh marigold) 6 Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb. (goldthread) 5 Hepatica acutiloba DC (sharp-lobed hepatica) 8 Ranunculus abortivus L. (small-flowered buttercup) 0 Ranunculus acris L. (tall crowfoot) * Ranunculus sceleratus L. (cursed crowfoot) 1 Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Ave-Lall. (purple meadow-rue) 3 Thalictrum dioicum L. (early meadow-rue) 6 RHAMNACEAE Rhamnus alnifolia L'Her. (alder-leaved buckthorn) 8 ROSACEAE Amelanchier arborea (F. Michx.) Fern. (downy juneberry) 4 Amelanchier laevis Wieg. (smooth serviceberry) 4 Argentina (Potentilla) anserina (L.) Rydb. (silverweed) 5 Aronia prunifolia (Marsh.) Rehder (chokeberry) 5 Fragaria virginiana Miller (wild strawberry) 2 Geum canadense Jacq. (white avens) 1 Pentaphylloidesfloribunda (Pursh) A. Love (shrubby cinquefoil) 10 Physocarpus opulifolius (L.) Maxim. (ninebark) 4 Potentilla norvegica L. (rough cinquefoil) 0 Potentilla palustris (L.) Scop. (marsh cinquefoil) 7 Prunus pumila L. (sand cherry) 8
Page 46 ï~~46 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Prunus virginiana L. (choke cherry) 2 Rosa acicularis Lindley (prickly rose) 4 Rosa blanda Aiton (smooth rose) 3 Rubus pubescens Raf. (dwarf raspberry) 4 Rubus strigosus Michx. (wild red raspberry) 2 Sorbus decora (Sarg.) Schneider (showy mountain ash) 4 RUBIACEAE Galium aparine L. (goosegrass) 0 Galium brevipes Fernald & Wiegand (limestone swamp bedstraw) 6 Galium palustre L. (marsh bedstraw) 3 Galium triflorum Michx. (sweet-scented bedstraw) 4 Mitchella repens L. (partridgeberry) 5 SALICACEAE Populus balsamifera L. (balsam poplar) 2 Populus tremuloides Michx. (quaking aspen) 1 Salix candida Willd. (sage willow) 9 Salix discolor Muhl. (pussy willow) 1 Salix exigua Nutt. (sandbar willow) 1 Salix lucida Muhl. (shining willow) 3 Salix myricoides Muhl. (blueleaf willow) 9 Salix petiolaris J. E. Smith (slender willow) 1 SANTALACEAE Comandra umbellata (L.) Nutt. (bastard-toadflax) 5 Geocaulon lividum (Richardson) Fern. (northern comandra) 9 SARRACENIACEAE Sarracenia purpurea L (pitcher-plant) 10 SAXIFRAGACEAE Mitella nuda L. (naked miterwort) 8 Parnassia glauca Raf. (grass-of-parnassus) 8 SCROPHULARIACEAE Agalinis purpurea (L.) Pennell (purple false foxglove) 7 Castilleja coccinea (L.) Sprengel (Indian paintbrush) 8 Melampyrum lineare Desr. (cow-wheat) 6 Mimulus ringens L. (monkey-flower) 5 Verbascum thapsus L. (common mullein) * Veronica anagallis-aquatica L. (water-speedwell) 4 SOLANACEAE Solanum dulcamara L. (nightshade) * Solanum ptychanthum Dunal (black nightshade) 1 TILIACEAE Tilia americana L. (basswood) 5 URTICACEAE Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. (false nettle) 5 Urtica dioica L. (stinging nettle) 1 VERBENACEAE Verbena hastata L. (hoary vervain) 4
Page 47 ï~~2005 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 47 VIOLACEAE Viola canadensis L. (Canada violet) 5 Viola conspersa Reichenb. (dog violet) 3 Viola nephrophylla Greene (northern bog violet) 8 Viola pubescens Aiton (yellow violet) 4 Viola renifolia A. Gray (kidney-leaved violet) 6 VITACEAE Vitis riparia Michx. (river-bank grape) 3 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank Mike Whately and Timothy Lovell for accompanying us on a number of collecting trips, Edward Voss for his valued input on the identification of several species, James Gillingham for transportation to and from Hog Island, Roy Klopcic for creating Figure 1, and Michael Hamas for critically reviewing an earlier draft. This research was funded, in part, by the Raymond E. Hampton Scholarship, the Daniel E. and Mildred G. Wujek Graduate Scholarship, the Clarence R. and Florence N. Hanes Fund, and Central Michigan University College of Graduate Studies. LITERATURE CITED Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services. Retrieve Observed Water Levels and Associated Ancillary Data. May 30, 2003. [http://co-ops.nos.noaa.gov/ data_res.html]. Flora of North America Editorial Committee, eds. 1993. Flora of North America North of Mexico. New York and Oxford. Vol. 2, 475 pp. Forzley, K. C., T. A. Grudzien & J. R. Wells. 1993. Comparative floristics of seven islands in northwestern Lake Michigan. Michigan Botanist 32: 3-21. Hazlett, B. T. 1993. The vascular flora of North and South Fox Islands, northern Lake Michigan. Michigan Botanist 32: 239-264. Hazlett, B. T. & R. J. Vande Kopple. 1983. The terrestrial vegetation and flora of North and South Manitou Islands, Sleeping Bear Dunes National Lakeshore. University of Michigan Biological Station Technical Report. 11. 143 pp. Hazlett, B. T., S. P. Hendricks, G. P. Fons, P. W. Thompson & J. R. Wells. 1986. A botanical foray to the Fox Islands, northern Lake Michigan. Michigan Botanist 25: 3-10. Herman, K. D., L. A. Masters, M. R. Penskar, A. A. Reznicek, G. S. Wilhelm & W. W. Brodowicz. 1996. Floristic quality assessment with wetland categories and computer applications programs for the State of Michigan. Michigan Department of Natural Resources, Wildlife Division, Natural Heritage Program, Lansing. iii + 21 p.+ Appendices. Hohn, M. H. 1977. Guide to the Flora of Beaver Island Michigan Part I-The Bogs. Central Michigan University. 69 pp. Hohn, M. H. 1981. Guide to the Flora of Beaver Island Michigan Part II-Lake Michigan Beaches and Sand Dunes. Central Michigan University. 99 pp. Judziewicz, E. J. 2001. Flora and vegetation of the Grand Traverse Islands (Lake Michigan), Wisconsin and Michigan. Michigan Botanist 40: 81-208. Landes, K. K., G. M. Ehlers & G. M. Stanley. 1945. Geology of the Mackinac Straits Region and Subsurface Geology of the Northern southern Peninsula. Michigan Geological Survey 44. 204 pp. Michigan Department of Natural Resources. 1987. Michigan Endangered, Threatened and Special Concern Plant and Animal Species, 3rd revision. Wildlife Division, Lansing, MI. 23 pp. Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI). 1988. Proposal for Natural Area Designation for Hog Island. (unpublished). Michigan Natural Features Inventory (MNFI). 1989. Draft Descriptions of Michigan Natural Community Types. 34 pp. Mills, E. L., J. H. Leach, J. T. Carlton & C. L. Secor. 1993. Exotic species in the Great Lakes: A history of biotic crisis and anthropogenic introductions. Journal of Great Lakes Research 19: 1-54. Penskar, M. R., P. J. Higman, D. A. Hyde, D. D. Cuthrell, R. A. Corner, M. A. Kost & E. Judziewicz. 1999. Biological Inventory for Conservation of Great Lakes Islands: 1998 Progress Report. 38 pp.
Page 48 ï~~48 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 44 Schaetzl, J. L. GEO333: Geography of Michigan at MSU. Michigan State University. April 20, 2002. [http://www.geo.msu.edu/geo333]. United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service. 1974. Soil Survey of Charlevoix County. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. 122 pp + 66 sheet maps. Van Kley, J. E. & D. E. Wujek. 1993. Habitat and ecology of Iris lacustris (the dwarf lake iris). Michigan Botanist 32: 209-222. Veldman, L. C. & D. E. Wujek. 1971. Pteridophytes of Beaver Island, Charlevoix County, Michigan. Michigan Botanist 10: 194-196. Voss, E. G. 1972. Michigan Flora. Part I Gymnosperms and Monocots. Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 55 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xv + 488 pp. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 724 pp. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora. Part III. Dicots (Ericaceae-Compositae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 622 pp. Wujek, D. E. 1998. Endangered and Threatened Plants of Beaver Island. In The Journal of Beaver Island History, 4: 107-121. Beaver Island Historical Society. St. James, MI.