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Page 423 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 423 THE BIG TREES AND SHRUBS OF MICHIGAN 42. Quercus bicolor Willd. Swamp White Oak Elwood B. Ehrle, Michigan Big Tree Coordinator Department of Biological Sciences Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008 email@example.com Michigan's largest known Swamp White Oak is located near Fenwick in Montcalm County of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. This tree replaces the Grosse Ile tree described in Fordyce, Ehrle, and Thompson (1993), which was destroyed during a storm. The Grosse Ile tree was originally #3 in this series. Description of the species: Oaks are members of the Beech Family, Fagaceae. The American Beech (Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.) and the American Chestnut (Castanea dentata (Marshall) Borkh.) comprise the members of the other genera of Fagaceae found in Michigan (Voss 1985). Quercus is distinct from the other genera by having an acorn, a one-seeded dry indehiscent fruit. Leaves of oaks range from entire to deeply lobed. Voss (1985) listed seventeen species of Quercus in his Michigan Flora. The Swamp White Oak is in the white oak group, distinguished by leaves with lobes being rounded or blunt without a bristle tip. Acorns in the white oak group are among the leaves at the branch tip where they ripen in their first year. Swamp White Oak is distinguished from the other oaks of Michigan by having acorns in pairs usually on a long peduncle (Fig. 1). The leaves are often irregularly lobed, dark green and shiny above, white and densely pubescent below. Swamp White Oaks are characteristic of damp lowland forests (Curtis 1959). Location of Michigan's Big Tree: The largest Swamp White Oak in Michigan is located near Fenwick in Montcalm County in the south-central part of Michigan's Lower Peninsula. To reach the tree, take Michigan Route 66 (M66) north 9.2 miles from the center of lonia to County Line Road (Bricker Rd.). Turn right onto unpaved Bricker Road. Continue for 0.9 mi. past #1075 Bricker Rd. Turn right onto Stedman Rd. and go 0.1 mi. to a farm field. The tree can be seen from the road at the back of the field. Its GPS location is N 43Â~7.075' by W 85Â~2.367'. Thanks to Robert Franke for help in locating this tree. Description of Michigan's Big Tree: The tree has a single solid, healthy trunk. The circumference of the trunk at 4%' above the ground was measured on 5 June 2003 by Elwood B. Ehrle, Robert Franke and Ronald Jewell. The girth was 214" (544 cm [diameter = 68" (173 cm)]. The tree is 70' (21.3 m) tall and has a crown spread of 96' (29.3 m).
Page 424 ï~~424 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 424 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 FIGURE 1. Documented distribution in Michigan and characteristics of the swamp white oak. Map is from Voss (1985). The star indicates the location of Michigan's Big Tree. Drawings are from Barnes & Wagner (1981). 1. Winter twig, x2. 2. Leaf, x2. 3. Flowering shoot, x2. 4. Male flower, enlarged. 5. Female flower, enlarged. 6. Fruit, acorn, xl. INVITATION TO PARTICIPATE If you would like to join in extending this series of articles by visiting and describing one or more of Michigan's Big Trees please contact Elwood B. Ehrle for help with locations, specifications for taking measurements, and assistance with the manuscript. The Michigan Botanical club encourages your involvement in this activity. Please remember to ask permission before entering private property. For the most recent list of Michigan's Big Trees see Ehrle (2003). LITERATURE CITED Barnes, B. V. & W. H.Wagner, Jr. 1981. Michigan Trees. A Guide to the Trees of Michigan and the Great Lakes Region. University of Michigan Press, Ann Arbor. viii +383 pp. Curtis, J. T. 1959. The Vegetation of Wisconsin: An Ordination of Plant Communities. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison. xi + 655 pp. Ehrle, E. B. 2003. The champion trees and shrubs of Michigan. Michigan Botanist 42(1): 3-46. Fordyce, J. A., E. B. Ehrle, & P. W. Thompson. 1993. The Big Trees of Michigan. 3. Quercus bicolor Willd. Michigan Botanist 32(1): 281-283. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora. Part II. Dicots (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Bulletin of the Cranbrook Institute of Science No. 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 724 pp.