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Page 361 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 361 A CHECKLIST OF THE VASCULAR FLORA OF WOODLAND DUNES NATURE CENTER, MANITOWOCTWO RIVERS, WISCONSIN. Charles R. Hart Department of Biological Sciences University of Wisconsin-Manitowoc Manitowoc, Wi 54220 firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT A floristic survey of the vascular plants of Woodland Dunes Nature Center was conducted over a period of approximately twenty years. I found 336 species, belonging to 300 genera and 70 families, in the area, which encompasses 1200 acres. INTRODUCTION A local flora is important to recognize and document for several reasons. It can serve as a baseline for comparisons to other local, regional and state floras today as well as into the future. It also provides information about various species presence and absence. In fact, in the course of this study, many new county records were established. Finally, these records will currently add to a major project underway to list the flora of Wisconsin (Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Wisconsin, 2001). This study was concentrated in an area that has changed in many respects over the years. The initial holdings associated with the area were quite minimal and over time have grown considerably; i.e., 40 acres in 1974 to 1200 acres in 2004 (Woodland Dunes Web site: History). Land areas that were initially purchased and that had been used for agrarian or residential purposes are undergoing succession. This study then is in no way complete, as floras are always in a constant state of flux. LOCATION AND LAND USE Woodland Dunes Nature Center is located in Manitowoc County between the cities of Manitowoc and Two Rivers (Fig. 1). The current acreage associated with the Center amounts to approximately 1200 acres. The map, Fig. 1, shows the boundaries and areas associated with the Center. The Center and its natural areas are in the West Two Rivers Township of Manitowoc County, T19-20N and R24E and R25E. The sections in the township where collections were made are numbers 35, 3, 2, and 10. Agriculture was the main contemporary land use in the area and subsequently residential as well as commercial development has taken place.
Page 362 ï~~362 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 362 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 FIGURE 1. Location of Woodland Dunes Nature Center
Page 363 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 363 The Center came into being in 1965 as an outgrowth of various avian and educational studies by local educators/naturalists. In 1974, a committee was established with the goal to preserve approximately 1,200 acres for habitat and educational purposes. Today the Center provides educational programs, a trail system, and outdoor opportunities for the public. GEOLOGICAL AND PHYSIOGRAPHICAL FEATURES Cambrian formations of Paleozoic age underlie the study area sampled (Ostrom, 1981). Above the Cambrian formations are five approximately parallel units of sedimentary rocks of Ordovician, Silurian, and Devonian age. From east to west the eroded edges of these rocks appear in the following order: St. Peter sandstone; Sinnipee dolomite, with some limestone and shale; Maquoketa shale and dolomite; dolomite; and dolomite as well as shale. Like most of Wisconsin, the Woodland Dunes area was affected by glaciations. Various glacial lake forces had a more significant impact on the area than did the inland glacial stages. The glacial lakes that influenced the area started with the glacial Lake Algonquin, followed by Lake Chippewa, and finally Lake Nippissing. The last had the most significant impact on the Woodland Dunes Area. During this last glacial lake episode, the lake level was approximately 596 feet above mean sea level which is referred to as the Algoma level (Steffen, 1979). The present area associated with the dunes was once more completely inundated. Later in time, the lake level dropped to its present level of 580 feet above mean sea level. Within this time frame, the lake forces along with the lake level recession formed the beach ridges and swales. These formations at Woodland Dunes differ from other nearby areas along the lake. In most nearby areas, remnant ridges and swales, reflecting the higher lake levels, run parallel to the current shoreline. By contrast, the Woodland Dunes ridges and swales are fan shaped. The base or pivot point of the fan shaped ridges begins in the southeast corner of West Two Rivers township section 10, and then fans out to the northeast into sections 3, 2, and 35 (see Fig. 1). These fan shaped ridges and swales are thought to have developed as a result of an embayment that covered the present day Woodland Dunes area (Steffen, 1979). As the water level receded, the southeastern end of the embayment served as a major deposition point for the ridge/dune forming beach sand; while at the same time, beach sand deposits to the northeast were laid down in much smaller amounts. Consequently, the ridges and swales were formed in an unequal manner, wider or farther apart at the north end, and shorter or closer together at the south end (see Fig. 2). SOILS Woodland Dunes Nature Center is in an area dominated by soils that are underlain by outwash deposits. The soils are referred to as the Granby-Oakville
Page 364 ï~~364 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 364 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 FIGURE 2. Fan-shaped ridges and swals associated with Woodland Dunes. Tedrow unit. This unit is further described as consisting of soils on outwash plains that are physically interrupted by drainage outlets, old remnants of beaches and glacial lake beds (Soil Survey of Calumet and Manitowoc Counties, 1975). The Granby is the dominant soil type in the area. It is described as follows: topsoil: ca. 10 inches of fine, black sandy loam; and subsoil: ca. 26 inches of an upper brown, loamy fine sand followed directly below by a light yellowish brown sand. In the western part of section 10 of W Two Rivers Township there are Keowns soils as well as Shiocton soil types which are both essentially sandy loams. Interspersed with the Granby throughout all sections, and as well to the east in section 35, are the Tedrow loamy fine sands. To the north in section 35 one encounters Houghton muck along the West Twin River boundary of the Center (Fig. 1). CLIMATE The climate associated with the Woodland Dunes Nature Center is described as a modified continental climate (Otter, 1975). The reason for the designation as a modified continental climate is its proximity to Lake Michigan. The lake's influence is felt most strongly in the spring, summer, and fall. The mean average temperature for the area (thirty year data for Manitowoc, WI from weather.com, November 2003) is approximately 43.30 F or 6.3' C. The monthly mean average temperatures run from 19Â~ F or -7Â~ C in January to 70Â~ F or 21Â~ C in July. The average date for the last spring freeze is 17 May and the first fall freeze is around 2 October. The growing season averages around 138 days. Mean annual precipitation, including snowfall, is 30.48 inches. The prevailing wind is from the west, northwest, and southwest with average speeds of 13 miles per hour in April and November.
Page 365 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 365 VEGETATIONAL COMMUNITIES AND HABITAT TYPES The location of Woodland Dunes Nature Center with respect to Lake Michigan and the "tension zone" results in an interesting mix of plant communities as well as habitats. As indicated above and in general terms, the climate associated with Woodland Dunes is cooler, wetter, and results in a shorter growing season than points inland. The floristic tension zone as described by Curtis (1959) separates the flora of Wisconsin into two major plant associations, northern and southern. Part of this tension zone running directly north to south from Green Bay to Milwaukee passes to the west of Woodland Dunes. The proximity of the Center to the tension zone is revealed by a mixture of northern and southern species common to Wisconsin major plant associations, the northern hardwoods and the southern prairie-forest. The classification of the vegetation communities at Woodland Dunes according to Curtis (1959) is mesic northern hardwoods and the wet-mesic southern hardwoods. In a recent study by Kotar & Burger (1996), plant associations were developed for smaller geographic areas in Wisconsin that more closely approximate the plant composition of actual communities. Based on this study, one major plant community comprises the flora of the Woodland Dunes Nature center. It is termed the beech-sugar maple forest with yellow birch and elms, as well as some hemlock and white pine along the Lake Michigan shoreline. These trees represent the common forest canopy or cover types and may also include black cherry. One noticeable omission from the study is its failure to mention or account for the presence of white cedar or black and green ashes which are very common in the swales or wet areas at the Dunes. The understory associated with the Dunes does match to some degree the shrubs and small trees recognized as being part of this community by the above study, those in part being: elderberry, choke cherry, and gooseberries. Further, the wet areas of the dunes are occupied by alders which are not mentioned by the above authors. The ground flora is also similar and as noted reflects the transition between the northern and southern floras of the state. Several southern species of note that are present are enchanter's nightshade, wild geranium, and mayapple. Northern flora types such as partridgeberry, wild lily-of-the valley, and big-leaf aster are typical inhabitants of Woodland Dunes Taxonomy, Nomenclature and Organization of the Checklist. Taxonomically, as well as in regard to nomenclatural considerations, this checklist adopts and follows the procedures outlined by Wetter et al. (2001) in the Checklist of Vascular Plants of Wisconsin. The references, resources, manuals, and electronic sources used were mostly identical to those used by Wetter et al.; e.g., Gleason and Cronquist's Manual of Vascular Plants 2nd. ed., 1991; Holmgren's Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual, 1998; and Flora of North America, three volumes, (1973, 1997, 2000). A valuable electronic resource that provided considerable information was the UW Wisconsin Herbarium (http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora) site. The structure of the Woodland Dunes Nature Center checklist also mirrors or follows, with some ex
Page 366 ï~~366 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 ceptions, the treatment presented in the Wisconsin checklist. In cases where a particular taxon is, according to all resources, a new report for Manitowoc County, this is indicated. The collections for the flora are presently housed at the UW Manitowoc campus and duplicate specimens will be donated to the Woodland Dunes Nature Center. CHECKLIST FERNS AND FERN ALLIES: DENNSTAEDTIACEAE Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. ex A.Heller; bracken, bracken fern, eastern bracken fern DRYOPTERIDACEAE Athyrium filix-femina (L.) Roth ex Mert. var angustum (Willd.) G. Lawson; common lady fern, lady fern, northeastern lady fern, northern lady fern Cystopterisfragilis (L.) Bernh.; bladder fern, brittle bladder fern, northern fragile fern Cystopteris laurentiana (Weath.) Blasdell-new report; Laurentian bladder fern, St. Lawrence bladder fern Cystopteris protrusa (Weath.) Blasdell-new report; creeping fragile fern, lowland bladder fern Deparia (Asplenium) acrostichoides (Sw.) M.Kato; silver false spleenwort, silvery glade fern, silvery spleenwort Dryopteris carthusiana (Vill.) H.P.Fuchs; spinulose wood fern, toothed wood fern Dryopteris clintoniana (D.C.Eaton) Dowell-new report; Clinton's shield fern, Clinton's wood fern Dryopteris cristata (L.) A.Gray; crested shield fern, crested wood fern Dryopteris goldiana (Hook. ex Goldie) A. Gray; giant wood fern, Goldie's fern, Goldie's wood fern Dryopteris intermedia (Muhl. ex Willd.) A. Gray; fancy wood fern, glandular wood fern, intermediate wood fern Dryopteris marginalis (L.) A. Gray; marginal shield fern, marginal wood fern Gymnocarpium dryopteris (L.) Newman; common oak fern, western oak fern Gymnocarpium robertianum (Hoffm.) Newman; limestone oak fern, scented oak fern Onoclea sensibilis L.; sensitive fern EQUISETACEAE Equisetum hyemale L. subsp. affine (Engelm.) Calder & Roy L. Taylor; common scouring rush, pipes, scouring rush horsetail Equisetum palustre L.-new report; marsh horsetail Equisetum scirpoides Michx.; dwarf scouring rush, sedge horsetail Equisetum sylvaticum L.; wood horsetail, woodland horsetail LYCOPODIACEAE Diphasiastrum complanatum (L.) Holub-new report; Christmas green, flat-branched clubmoss, northern running-pine Diphasiastrum digitatum (Dill. ex A.Braun) Holub; crowfoot club-moss, southern groundcedar, southern running-pine, trailing ground-pine Huperzia lucidula (Michx.) Trevis; shining club-moss, shining fir-moss Huperzia porophila (F. E. Lloyd & Underw.) Holub-new report; rock club-moss Lycopodium clavatum L; running club-moss, running ground-pine, running-pine, staghorn club-moss Lycopodium dendroideum Michx.-new report; northern tree club-moss, round-branched club-moss Lycopodium obscurum L; flat-branched ground-pine, princess'-pine, rare club-moss
Page 367 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 367 OPHIOGLOSSACEAE Botrychium lanceolatum (S. G.Gmel.) Angstr. subsp. angustisegmentum (Pease & A. H. Moore) R. T. Clausen-new report; lance-leaved grape fern, narrow triangle moonwort, triangle grape fern, triangle moonwort Botrychium matricariifolium (Dill) A. Braun ex W. D. J. Koch-new report; daisy-leaf grape fern, daisy-leaf moonwort, matricary grape fern Botrychium multifidum (S. G. Gmel.) Rupr; leathery grape fern, leather-leaved grape fern Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw.; rattlesnake fern Botrychium simplex E. Hitchc.-new report; least moonwort, little grape fern, small grape fern Ophioglossum pusillum Raf.-new report; adder's-tongue, northern adder's-tongue OSMUNDACEAE Osmunda cinnamomea L; cinnamon fern Osmunda claytoniana L; interrupted fern Osmunda regalis L. var spectabilis (Willd.) A. Gray; American royal fern, flowering fern, royal fern THELYPTERIDACEAE Phegopteris connectilis (Michx.) Watt; narrow beech fern, northern beech fern Thelypteris noveboracensis (L.) Nieuwl; New York fern Thelypteris palustris Schott var. pubescens (Lawson) Fernald; eastern marsh fern, marsh fern GYMNOSPERMS CUPRESSACEAE Juniperus communis L. var. depressa Pursh; common juniper Thuja occidentalis L; eastern arborvitae, northern white-cedar PINACEAE Abies balsamea (L.) Mill; balsam fir, Canada balsam Larix laricina (Du Roi) K. Koch; larch, tamarack Picea glauca (Moench) Voss; white spruce Pinus banksiana Lambert; jack pine Pinus resinosa Aiton; Canadian pine, Norway pine, red pine Pinus strobus L; eastern white pine Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carribre; eastern hemlock, hemlock, northern hemlock TAXACEAE Taxus canadensis Marshall; American yew, Canadian yew, ground-hemlock ANGIOSPERMS: DICOTYLEDONS ACERACEAE Acer rubrum L. var. rubrum; red maple Acer saccharum Marshall var. saccharum; hard maple, sugar maple Acer spicatum Lam.; mountain maple ANACARDIACEAE Toxicodendron radicans (L.) Kuntze subsp. negundo (Greene) Gillis; common eastern poison-ivy, poison-ivy Rhus hirta (L.) Sudworth; staghorn sumac, velvet sumac APIACEAE Carum carvi L.; caraway Cicuta maculata L.; common water-hemlock, spotted water-hemlock Cryptotaenia canadensis (L.) DC; Canadian honewort, white chervil Daucus carota L.; Queen Anne's-lace, wild carrot Osmorhiza claytonii (Michx.) C. B. Clarke; bland sweet cicely, Clayton's sweet-root, hairy sweet cicely
Page 368 ï~~368 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 Pastinaca sativa L.; wild parsnip Sanicula marilandica L.; black snakeroot, Maryland sanicle Sium suave Walter; hemlock water-parsnip, water-parsnip APOCYNACEAE Apocynum androsaemifolium L.; spreading dogbane Apocynum sibiricum Jacq.-new report; clasping dogbane, Indian hemp AQUIFOLIACEAE Ilex verticillata (L.) A. Gray; common winterberry ARALIACEAE Aralia nudicaulis L.; wild sarsaparilla Aralia racemosa L.; American spikenard, life-of-man ASCLEPIADACEAE Asclepias syriaca L.; common milkweed, silkweed Asclepias incarnata L. subsp. incarnata; swamp milkweed ASTERACEAE Achillea millefolium L.; common yarrow, milfoil Ambrosia psilostachya DC.-new report; perennial ragweed, western ragweed Antennaria neglecta Greene; cat's-foot, field pussy-toes Arctium lappa L..-new report; great burdock Artemisia campestris L. subsp. caudata (Michx.) H. M. Hall & Clem; field sage-wort, field wormwood Aster cordifolius L.; common blue heart-leaved aster, common blue wood aster Aster lanceolatus Willd. var. interior (Wiegand) A. G. Jones-new report; inland panicled aster, panicled aster, white panicle aster Aster lateriflorus (L.) Britton; calico aster, goblet aster, side-flowering aster Aster macrophyllus L.; big-leaved aster, large-leaved aster Aster novae-angliae L.; New England aster Aster pilosus Willd. var. pilosus-new report; awl aster, frost aster, hairy aster, white oldfield aster Aster praealtus Poir.-new report; veiny lined aster, willow aster, willow-leaved aster Aster puniceus L.; bristly aster, purple-stem aster, swamp aster Bidensfrondosus L.; common beggar-ticks, devil's beggar-ticks Centaurea biebersteinii DC; spotted knapweed Cichorium intybus L.; blue-sailors, chicory Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.; Canada thistle, creeping thistle, field thistle Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten.; bull thistle Coreopsis lanceolata L.; lance-leaf tickseed, long-stalk tickseed, sand coreopsis, sand tickseed Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. var. tinctoria-new report; golden tickseed, plains tickseed Erigeron annuus (L.) Pers; annual fleabane, eastern daisy fleabane Erigeron philadelphicus L.; common fleabane, marsh fleabane, Philadelphia daisy Erigeron pulchellus Michx. var. pulchellus-new report; Robin's-plantain Erigeron strigosus Muhl. ex Willd. var. strigosus; daisy fleabane, prairie fleabane, rough fleabane Eupatorium perfoliatum L. var. perfoliatum; boneset, common boneset, thoroughwort Eupatorium maculatum L. subsp. maculatum; spotted Joe-Pye-weed Euthamia graminifolia (L.) Nutt. var. graminifolia; common flat-topped goldenrod, grassleaved goldenrod Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. var. obtusifolium; cat's-foot, fragrant cudweed, old-field-balsam, old-field cudweed, rabbit-tobacco Hieracium aurantiacum L.; devil's-paintbrush, grim-the-collier, orange hawkweed, red daisy Lactuca biennis (Moench) Fernald; tall blue lettuce, woodland lettuce Lactuca canadensis L.; Canada lettuce, tall lettuce, tall wild lettuce, wild lettuce Leucanthemum vulgare Lam.; common daisy, field daisy, marguerite, ox-eye daisy
Page 369 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 369 Packera pseudaurea (Rydb.) W. A. Weber & A. Live var. semicordata (Mack. & Bush) D. K. Trock & T. M. Barkley-new report;false-gold groundsel, heart-leaved groundsel, western golden ragwort Prenanthes alba L.; lion's-foot, rattlesnake-root, white-lettuce Rudbeckia hirta L. var pulcherrima Farw.; black-eyed Susan Solidago canadensis L. var. canadensis-new report; Canadian goldenrod, common goldenrod Solidago juncea Aiton; early goldenrod Solidago nemoralis Aiton subsp. nemoralis; dyer's-weed goldenrod, field goldenrod, gray goldenrod, old-field goldenrod Solidago patula Muhl. ex Willd. var. patula-new report; rough-leaved goldenrod, roundleaved goldenrod, swamp goldenrod Sonchus arvensis L. var. arvensis-new report; field sow-thistle, perennial sow-thistle Sonchus arvensis L. var. glabrescens Gunther, Grab. & Wimm.; marsh sow-thistle Tragopogon dubius Scop.; fistulous goat's-beard, greater sand goat's-beard, yellow salsify BALSAMINACEAE Impatiens capensis Meerb; orange jewelweed, orange touch-me-not, spotted touch-me-not BERBERIDACEAE Podophyllum peltatum L.; May-apple, wild mandrake Berberis thunbergii DC; Japanese barberry BETULACEAE Alnus incana (L.) Moench subsp. rugosa (Du Roi) R. T. Clausen; mountain alder, speckled alder, swamp alder Betula alleghaniensis Britton; yellow birch Betula papyrifera Marshall; canoe birch, paper birch, white birch BORAGINACEAE Echium vulgare L.; blueweed, common viper's-bugloss, viper's-bugloss Myosotis scorpioides L.; common forget-me-not, forget-me-not, true forget-me-not, water scorpion-grass BRASSICACEAE Armoracia rusticana P. Gaertn., B. Mey. & Scherb; horseradish Barbarea vulgaris R. Br; garden yellow-rocket, winter-cress, yellow-rocket Berteroa incana (L.) DC; hoary false madwort, hoary-alyssum Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medik.; shepherd's-purse Cardamine bulbosa (Schreb. ex Muhl.) Britton, Sterns & Poggenb.; spring-cress Cardamine diphylla (Michx.) A. W. Wood; broad-leaved toothwort, crinkle-root Cardamine pratensis L. var. palustris Wimm. & Grab; cuckoo-flower Erysimum cheiranthoides L.; worm-seed mustard, worm-seed wallflower Lepidium densiflorum Schrad. var. densiflorum-new report; prairie pepper-weed, small peppergrass Rorippa palustris (L.) Besser; bog yellow-cress, common yellow-cress Thlaspi arvense L.; field pennycress CAMPANULACEAE Campanula aparinoides Pursh var. aparinoides-new report; marsh bellflower Campanula rapunculoides L.; creeping bellflower, European bellflower, rampion bellflower, rover bellflower CAPRIFOLIACEAE Diervilla lonicera Mill; northern bush-honeysuckle Lonicera dioica L. var. dioica; limber honeysuckle, mountain honeysuckle, red honeysuckle Lonicera morrowii A. Gray; Asian fly honeysuckle, Morrow's honeysuckle Lonicera reticulata Raf.-new report; grape honeysuckle, yellow honeysuckle Lonicera tatarica L.; Tartarian honeysuckle Sambucus canadensis L. var. canadensis; American elder, elderberry
Page 370 ï~~370 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 Sambucus racemosa L. subsp. pubens (Michx.) House; red elderberry, red-berried elder, scarlet elderberry Viburnum acerifolium L.; dockmackie, maple-leaved arrow-wood, maple-leaved viburnum CARYOPHYLLACEAE Cerastium fontanum Baumg. emend Jalas subsp. vulgare (Hartm.) Greuter & Burdet; big mouse-ear chickweed, common chickweed, common mouse-ear, mouse-ear chickweed Silene latifolia Poir. subsp. alba (Mill.) Greuter & Burdet; bladder campion, white campion, white cockle Spergula arvensis L.-new report; corn spurry Stellaria aquatica (L.) Scop.; giant chickweed, water chickweed Stellaria longifolia Muhl. ex Willd. var. longifolia; long-leaved stitchwort CHENOPODIACEAE Chenopodium album L.; common lamb's-quarters, lamb's-quarters, pigweed CORNACEAE Cornus amomum Mill. var. schuetzeana (C. A. Mey.) Rickett; blue-fruited dogwood, silky dogwood Cornus canadensis L.; bunchberry, bunchberry dogwood, dwarf cornel Cornus stolonifera Michx.; red osier dogwood Cornus rugosa Lam.; round-leaved dogwood CUCURBITACEAE Echinocystis lobata (Michx.) Toffrr. & A. Gray; balsam-apple, wild-cucumber FABACEAE Lathyrus palustris L.; marsh pea, marsh vetchling, slender-stem pea-vine Medicago lupulina L.; black medick Medicago sativa L.; alfalfa Melilotus alba Medik.; white sweet-clover Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.; yellow sweet-clover Trifolium aureum Pollich-new report; golden clover, palmate hop clover, yellow hop clover Trifolium hybridum L.; alsike clover Trifolium pratense L.; red clover Trifolium repens L.; white clover Vicia americana Muhl. ex Willd. subsp. americana; American vetch FAGACEAE Fagus grandifolia Ehrh.; American beech, beechnut GENTIANACEAE Centaurium pulchellum (Sw.) Druce; branching centaury, showy centaury Gentiana andrewsii Griseb. var. andrewsii; Andrews' gentian, bottle gentian, prairie closed gentian GERANIACEAE Geranium maculatum L.; Crane's-bill, spotted geranium, wild geranium GROSSULARIACEAE Ribes triste Pall.; swamp red currant Ribes americanum Miller; American black currant, eastern black currant, wild black currant HYDRANGEACEAE Philadelphus coronarius L.; European mock-orange, sweet mock-orange HYPERICACEAE Hypericum majus (A. Gray) Britton; larger Canadian St. John's-wort Hypericum perforatum L.; common St. John's-wort, Klamath-weed, St. John's-wort LAMIACEAE Galeopsis tetrahit L.; brittle-stem hemp-nettle, common hemp-nettle, hemp-nettle Glechoma hederacea L.; creeping-Charlie, gill-over-the-ground, ground-ivy
Page 371 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 371 L.ycopus americanus Muhl. ex W. P. C. Barton; American water-horehound, common waterhorehound Lycopus uniflorus Michx.; northern bugleweed, northern water-horehound Mentha arvensis L. var. canadensis (L.) Kuntze; field mint, wild mint Mentha xgracilis Sole (pro sp.)-new report; little-leaved mint, red mint Mentha longifolia (L.) Huds.-new report; horse mint, wavy mint Monardafistulosa L. subsp. fistulosa; bee balm, wild bergamot Nepeta cataria L.; catnip Prunella vulgaris L. subsp. lanceolata (W. P. C. Barton) Hult6n; lance self-heal Scutellaria galericulata L.; common skullcap, marsh skullcap Scutellaria lateriflora L.; blue skullcap, mad-dog skullcap Stachys palustris L. subsp. palustris-new report; hedge-nettle, marsh hedge-nettle, woundwort Stachys tenuifolia Willd. var. tenuifolia; narrow-leaved hedge-nettle, smooth hedge-nettle LOBELIACEAE Lobelia spicata Lam. var. spicata-new report; pale-spike lobelia, spiked lobelia Lobelia inflata L.;Indian-tobacco MONOTROPACEAE Monotropa uniflora L.; Indian-pipe OLEACEAE Fraxinus nigra Marshall; black ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall; green ash, red ash ONAGRACEAE Circaea alpina L. subsp. alpina; alpine enchanter's-nightshade, northern enchanter's-nightshade, small enchanter's-nightshade Circaea lutetiana L. subsp. canadensis (L.) Asch. & Magnus; broad-leaf enchanter's-nightshade Epilobium angustifolium L. subsp. circumvagum Mosquin; fireweed, great willow-herb Epilobium ciliatum Raf. subsp. ciliatum; American willow-herb, coast willow-weed, hairy willow-herb Epilobium leptophyllum Raf.; American marsh willow-herb, bog willow-herb, fen willowherb Oenothera biennis L.; bastard evening-primrose, common evening-primrose Oenothera parviflora L.; northern evening-primrose, small-flowered evening-primrose OROBANCHACEAE Epifagus virginiana (L.) W. P. C. Barton; beech-drops, cancer-root OXALIDACEAE Oxalis corniculata L.-new report; creeping yellow wood-sorrel Oxalis montana Raf.; mountain wood-sorrel Oxalis dillenii Jacq.-new report; Dillenius' oxalis, southern yellow wood-sorrel PLANTAGINACEAE Plantago major L.; broad-leaved plantain, common plantain, plantain Plantago rugelii Decne.; American plantain, black-seeded plantain, red-stalked plantain, Rugel's plantain POLYGALACEAE Polygala sanguinea L.-new report; blood milkwort, field milkwort, purple milkwort Polygala paucifolia Willd; flowering-wintergreen, fringed polygala, gay-wings POLYGONACEAE Polygonum amphibium L. var. stipulaceum N. Coleman; water heart's-ease, water smartweed Polygonum aviculare L.; common knotweed, prostrate knotweed Polygonum convolvulus L.; black-bindweed, false buckwheat Polygonum persicaria L.; heart's-ease, spotted lady's-thumb Polygonum sagittatum L.-new report; arrow-leaved tear-thumb
Page 372 ï~~372 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 Rumex acetosella L.; common sheep sorrel, field sorrel, red sorrel, sheep sorrel Rumex crispus L.; curly dock, sour dock Rumex orbiculatus A. Gray-new report; great water dock PORTULACACEAE Claytonia virginica L. var. virginica; spring-beauty, Virginia spring-beauty PRIMULACEAE Lysimachia thyrsiflora L.; swamp loosestrife, tufted loosestrife Trientalis borealis Raf. subsp. borealis; American starflower PYROLACEAE Orthilia secunda (L.) House; one-sided shin-leaf, one-sided wintergreen Pyrola asarifolia Michx. subsp. asarifolia; liver-leaf wintergreen, pink shin-leaf Pyrola elliptica Nutt.; elliptic shin-leaf, large-leaved shin-leaf, wax-flower shin-leaf Pyrola rotundifolia L. subsp. americana (Sweet) R. T. Clausen; round-leaved shin-leaf RANUNCULACEAE Actaea rubra (Aiton) Willd.; red baneberry Anemone quinquefolia L. var. quinquefolia; nightcaps, wood anemone Anemone canadensis L.; Canada anemone, Canadian anemone, meadow anemone Caltha palustris L.; cowslip, marsh-marigold, yellow marsh-marigold Clematis virginiana L.; devil's-darning-needle, virgin's-bower Coptis trifolia (L.) Salisb.; three-leaved gold-thread Ranunculus abortivus L.; little-leaf buttercup, small-flowered buttercup Ranunculus acris L.; common buttercup, blister plant, meadow buttercup, tall buttercup Ranunculus hispidus Michx; bristly buttercup, hispid buttercup, rough buttercup Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. var. recurvatus; blisterwort, hooked buttercup Thalictrum dasycarpum Fisch. & Av6-Lall; purple meadow-rue, tall meadow-rue ROSACEAE Agrimonia gryposepala Wallr.; common agrimony, tall hairy agrimony Amelanchier laevis Wiegand; Allegheny serviceberry, Allegheny shadblow, smooth serviceberry Amelanchier sanguinea (Pursh) DC. var. sanguinea; low shadblow, New England serviceberry, round-leaved serviceberry Argentina anserina (L.) Rydb.; silver-weed Fragaria virginiana Duchesne; thick-leaved wild strawberry, Virginia strawberry, wild strawberry Geum aleppicum Jacq.; yellow avens Geum canadense Jacq.; white avens Geum rivale L.; purple avens, water avens Potentilla norvegica L.; Norwegian cinquefoil, rough cinquefoil, strawberry-weed Potentilla simplex Michx.; common cinquefoil, old-field five-fingers, old-field cinquefoil Potentilla recta L.; rough-fruited cinquefoil, sulphur cinquefoil, sulphur five-fingers Prunus serotina Ehrh.; wild black cherry Prunus virginiana L. var. virginiana; chokecherry Rosa blanda Aiton; early wild rose, smooth rose, wild rose Rosa multiflora Thunb. ex Murray; multiflora rose Rubus allegheniensis Porter ex L. H. Bailey var. allegheniensis; Allegheny blackberry, common blackberry Rubus idaeus L. var. strigosus (Michx.) Maxim.; American red raspberry, red raspberry, wild red raspberry Rubus pubescens Raf.; dwarf red raspberry Sorbus aucuparia L.; Eurasian mountain-ash, European mountain-ash, rowan Spiraea alba Du Roi var. alba; white meadowsweet RUBIACEAE Galium aparine L.; annual bedstraw, cleavers, goose-grass, sticky-willy Galium tinctorium L.; southern three-lobed bedstraw, stiff bedstraw
Page 373 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 373 Galium trifidum L. subsp. trifidum; northern three-lobed bedstraw, small bedstraw Galium triflorum Michx.; fragrant bedstraw, sweet-scented bedstraw Mitchella repens L.; partridgeberry SALICACEAE Populus balsamifera L. subsp. balsamifera; balsam poplar, hackmatack Populus deltoides Bartram ex Marshall subsp. monilifera (Aiton) Eckenwald; plains cottonwood Populus grandidentata Michx.; big-tooth aspen, large-toothed aspen Populus tremuloides Michx.; aspen, quaking aspen Salix nigra Marshall-new report; black willow SAXIFRAGACEAE Mitella diphylla L.; bishop's-cap, two-leaf miterwort Mitella nuda L.; naked miterwort, small bishop's-cap Penthorum sedoides L.-new report; ditch stonecrop SCROPHULARIACEAE Agalinis tenuifolia (Vahl) Raf.; common agalinis, common false foxglove Chelone glabra L.; turtlehead, white turtlehead Chelone obliqua L.; purple turtlehead, red turtlehead Linaria vulgaris Miller; butter-and-eggs Mimulus ringens L. var. ringens; Allegheny monkey-flower, monkey-flower Verbascum thapsus L.; common mullein, flannel plant, giant mullein Veronica peregrina L.; neck-weed, purslane speedwell Veronica scutellata L.; marsh speedwell, narrow-leaved speedwell, skullcap speedwell SOLANACEAE Solanum dulcamara L.; bittersweet nightshade, climbing nightshade, deadly nightshade URTICACEAE Urtica dioica L. subsp. gracilis (Aiton) Solander; stinging nettle VALERIANACEAE Valeriana officinalis L.-new report; garden-heliotrope, garden valerian VERBENACEAE Verbena hastata L.; blue vervain, simpler's-joy, swamp verbena VIOLACEAE Viola blanda Willd. var. palustriformis A. Gray; sweet white violet Viola canadensis L. var. canadensis; Canadian white violet, tall white violet Viola cucullata Aiton; blue marsh violet, hooded violet, marsh blue violet Viola pubescens Aiton var. pubescens-new report; downy yellow violet, yellow forest violet, yellow violet VITACEAE Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch; Virginia creeper, woodbine Vitis riparia Michx.; frost grape, river bank grape ANGIOSPERMS: MONOCOTYLEDONS ALISMATACEAE Alisma subcordatum Raf.; American water-plantain, common water-plantain, southern waterplantain Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. latifolia; broad-leaved arrowhead, common arrowhead, wapato ARACEAE Arisaema triphyllum (L.) Schott subsp. triphyllum; Indian turnip, Jack-in-the-pulpit Calla palustris L.; water-arum, wild calla Symplocarpusfoetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W. P. C. Barton; skunk-cabbage
Page 374 ï~~374 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 43 CYPERACEAE Carex aurea Nutt.; elk sedge, golden sedge, golden-fruited sedge Carex arctata Boott ex Hooker; drooping woodland sedge Carex canescens L.; gray bog sedge, silvery sedge Carex communis L. H. Bailey var. communis; colonial oak sedge, fibrous-root sedge Carex emoryi Dewey ex Torr; Emory's sedge Carex gracillima Schwein.; graceful sedge, purple-sheathed graceful sedge Carex hirta L-new record; hammer sedge, sharp-toothed woolly sedge Carex intumescens Rudge; greater bladder sedge, shining bur sedge, swollen sedge Carex lacustris Willd.; common lake sedge, rip-gut sedge Eleocharis acicularis (L.) Roem. & Schult.-new record; needle spike-rush Eleocharis compressa Sull. var. compressa-new record; flat-stemmed spike-rush Eleocharis elliptica Kunth-new record; elliptic spike-rush IRIDACEAE Iris virginica L. var. shrevei (Small) E. S. Anderson; blue flag, Shreve's iris, southern blue flag, Virginia iris Sisyrinchium albidum Raf.-new record; common blue-eyed-grass, pale blue-eyed-grass, white blue-eyed-grass Sisyrinchium montanum Greene subsp. montanum; mountain blue-eyed-grass, strict blueeyed grass JUNCACEAE Juncus bufonius L.; toad rush Juncus dudleyi Wiegand; Dudley's rush Juncus filiformis L.-new record; thread rush Luzula acuminata Raf. var. acuminata; hairy wood rush LILIACEAE Allium tricoccum Aiton; wild leek Asparagus officinalis L.; asparagus, garden asparagus Clintonia borealis (Aiton) Raf.; yellow blue-bead-lily Erythronium americanum Ker-Gawl; American trout-lily, yellow dog-tooth violet, yellow trout-lily Lilium michiganense Farw.; Michigan lily, Turk's-cap lily Maianthemum canadense Desf.; Canada bead-ruby, Canada mayflower, wild lily-of-the-valley Polygonatum pubescens (Willd.) Pursh; downy Solomon's-seal, hairy Solomon's-seal Smilacina racemosa (L.) Desf. var. racemosa; false Solomon's-seal, false spikenard Streptopus amplexifolius (L.) DC. var. americanus Schult.; clasp-leaf twisted-stalk, twistedstalk, white mandarin Streptopus roseus Michx. var. longipes (Fernald) Fassett; rosy twisted-stalk Trillium cernuum L.; nodding trillium, whip-poor-will flower ORCHIDACEAE Corallorhiza trifida Chfitel; early coralroot, northern coralroot, yellow coralroot Corallorhiza maculata (Raf.) Raf.; spotted coralroot, summer coralroot Cypripedium acaule Aiton; moccasin-flower, pink lady's-slipper Cypripedium reginae Walter; showy lady's-slipper Epipactis helleborine (L.) Crantz; helleborine, helleborine orchid Liparis loeselii (L.) Rich.; fen orchid, green twayblade, Loesel's twayblade Malaxis unifolia Michx.; green adder's-mouth Platanthera huronensis (Nutt.) Lindl.; Huron green orchid, tall nothern bog orchid Platanthera hyperborea (L.) Lindl.-new record; northern green orchid, tall northern bog orchid Platanthera lacera (Michx.) G. Don-new record; green fringed orchid, ragged fringed orchid Platanthera obtusata (Banks ex Pursh) Lindl.; blunt bog orchid, blunt-leaved orchid Platanthera psycodes (L.) Lindl.; lesser purple fringed orchid
Page 375 ï~~2004 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 375 Spiranthes cernua (L.) Rich.; nodding lady's-tresses Spiranthes romanzoffiana Cham.-new record; hooded lady's-tresses POACEAE Agrostis stolonifera L.; creeping bent grass, creeping tickle grass Alopecurus pratensis L.-new record; meadow foxtail Elymus trachycaulus (Link) Gould ex Shinners; slender wheat grass Oryzopsis asperifolia Michx.; rough-leaved rice grass Poa compressa L.; Canada bluegrass, wiregrass TYPHACEAE Typha latifolia L.; broad-leaved cat-tail, common cat-tail ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I acknowledge and thank the UW Colleges Grants Committee and UW Manitowoc Professional Development Committee for awards that provided assistance for this project over the years. I especially thank other parties, UW-Manitowoc College faculty and staff, students, and my family for their efforts on my behalf. Finally, a special thanks to the staff and personnel at Woodland Dunes for their support LITERATURE CITED Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.) 1993., Flora of North America. Vol. 2. Pteridophytes and Gymnosperms. Oxford University Press. Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.) 1997. Flora of North America. Vol. 3. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliidae and Hamamelidae. Oxford University Press. Flora of North America Editorial Committee (eds.) 2000. Flora of North America. Vol. 22. Magnoliophyta: Alismatidae, Arecidae, Commelinidae (in part), and Zingiberidae. Oxford University Press. Gleason, H.A. and Cronquist, A. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada., 2nd edition. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y Holmgren, N. H. 1998. The Illustrated Companion to Gleason and Cronquist's Manual. The New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, N.Y. Kotar, J. & Burger, T. 1996. A Guide to Forest Communities and Habitat Types of Central and Southern Wisconsin. Department of Forestry, UW Madison. Ostrom, M. E. 1981. Bedrock Geology of Wisconsin, UW Extension, Geological and Natural History Survey. Otter, A. J. 1975. Soil Survey of Calumet and Manitowoc Counties, Wisconsin, Soil Conservation Service, USDA. Steffen, J. 1979. Woodland Dunes: Past, Present and Future, Woodland Dunes Nature Center, Manitowoc-Two Rivers, WI. UW Wisconsin Herbarium (http://www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora), Madison, WI Weather.com-Monthly Climatology, 2003 http://www.weather.com/weather/local/54220 Wetter, M. A. Cochrane, T. S, Black, M. R, Iltis, H. H., and Berry, P. E. 2001. Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Wisconsin., Technical Bulletin No. 192, Department of Natural Resources, Madison, WI in cooperation with UW Madison Herbarium and the UW Madison Department of Botany. Woodland Dunes Web Site, 2003, (http://www.woodlanddunes.com/)