Noteworthy Collections - Minnesota and WisconsinSkip other details (including permanent urls, DOI, citation information)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 3.0 License. Please contact email@example.com to use this work in a way not covered by the license. :
For more information, read Michigan Publishing's access and usage policy.
Page 90 ï~~90 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 42 NOTEWORTHY COLLECTIONS: MINNESOTA AND WISCONSIN Veronica prostrata L. (Scrophulariaceae). Prostrate Speedwell. Previous knowledge. Veronica prostrata is a herbaceous perennial native to most of Europe (Tutin et al. 1972). It has procumbent vegetative stems that bear congested racemes ascending from the axils, showy enough that the species is cultivated for ornament. Veronica prostrata has long been grown in North America, but seems not to have been reported as an escape from gardens. Significance. Collections were made from a lawn in Minnesota, apparently the first report of escape for North America; no cultivation of the species was evident in this vicinity and all plants were at least 1 m from the edge of the turf. Some plants had deep blue corollas and others had pale blue corollas; both of the phenotypes were restricted to the same area, of less than 1 m2, so long-term persistence of the species in this location seems tenuous. The plants reported here later had the erect stems mowed off before they matured fruits. These specimens from the lawn are shorter than specimens at MIN that were collected from the wild in Europe. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: corollas pale blue, SW-facing bank of lawn of church building, 19th Ave. E above 4th St., Duluth, S-C Sec. 14, T50N R14W, 2 Jun 2001, Schimpf 302 (DUL); same location and date, corollas deep blue and slightly smaller than those of Schimpf 302, Schimpf 303 (DUL). Verbascum chaixii Vill. (Scrophulariaceae). Nettle-leaved Mullein. Previous knowledge. Verbascum chaixii is a herbaceous perennial native to much of Europe (Tutin et al. 1972). It is grown for ornament in North America, but seems not to have been reported as escaped from cultivation. Wild plants typically have yellow corollas (Cullen et al. 2000); some horticultural selections have white corollas (Everett 1982). Significance. A collection from Minnesota appears to be the first report from outside of cultivation in North America. The plants grew in lawn margins in a residential neighborhood where there was neither evidence of current cultivation nor recollection by the residents of recent cultivation. Several plants believed to be this species bolted, but all except the one listed below were mowed off before flowering. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: corollas white, filaments purple-hairy, first day in flower, lawn of 1100 block of Brainerd Ave., Duluth, NE 4 Sec. 15, T50N R14W, 22 Jul 2001, Schimpf 318 (DUL).
Page 91 ï~~2003 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 91 Camelina rumelica Velen. (Brassicaceae). Graceful False Flax. Previous knowledge. Camelina rumelica is a winter annual native from the Balkans to Afghanistan (Davis et al. 1965). Its presence in North America, in grain fields and open habitats, went unrecognized for decades until the 1980s (McGregor 1984). It has been reported from Kansas, Oklahoma, Texas, Colorado, Nevada, and Oregon (USDA 2001). Its pale petals and lack of stellate hairs distinguish it from Camelina microcarpa Andrz. (Rollins 1993). Significance. A collection from an active railyard in Duluth, Minnesota is apparently the first one for the northeastern floristic region. Individuals were scattered across and along many parallel tracks, which I read as a clue that that the seeds had arrived in several different shipments of grain. Camelina microcarpa had a similar local abundance, distribution and developmental stage at the time of collection, Schimpf245 (DUL). Most of the grain brought to this port is grown in the northern Great Plains, a fact that raises the likelihood that source populations of C. rumelica exist in states or provinces outside of the previously reported North American range for the species. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: in flower and fruit, petals yellowish white with green veins, not common but widely scattered in ballast among rail tracks, Rice's Point, Duluth, Sec. 3, T49N R14W, 12 Jun 1995, Schimpf 244 (DUL). Geranium pratense L. (Geraniaceae). Meadow Cranesbill. Previous knowledge. Geranium pratense is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia (Tutin et al. 1968), and is cultivated for ornament. Naturalization in a few northeastern states (USDA 2001) and adjacent Canada (Scoggan 1978) has been reported, with a disjunct range in southeastern Manitoba (Scoggan 1978). A single collection from lower Michigan is doubtfully an escape (Voss 1985). I am not aware of other collections from the upper Great Lakes region. Significance. These collections near the western tip of Lake Superior are apparently the first for Minnesota and Wisconsin. The two Duluth populations were several km apart, neither was near a likely site of cultivation, and each appeared to be spreading locally. Both were associated with shrubs, tall grasses and forbs on well-drained ground. Plants close to pavement did not fruit because of occasional mowing. Plants in fruit were up to 75 to 100 cm tall. The population in Sec. 5 (my #296) began flowering almost 2 weeks later than the one in Sec. 13 (my #285). The plants in Superior were in a large industrial district, very far from any likely site of cultivation; their petals were of a lighter shade and their herbage was less fragrant (but still densely glandular) than the Duluth plants, and they grew in moist ground. These plants were mowed before they matured fruit. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: seed dispersed, Fremont St. between Grand Ave. and railroad, extending 25 m NE along railroad, Duluth, NE 4 SW 4 Sec. 13, T49N R15W, 14 Aug 2000, Schimpf 285 (DUL, MIN); about 50 plants in flower over a 200 m2 area, petals deep blue, same location as Schimpf 285, 16 Jun 2001, Schimpf 308 (DUL, MIN); seed dispersed, locally common just S of creek above Michigan St., Duluth, SW 4 SE 4 Sec. 5, T49N R14W,
Page 92 ï~~92 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 42 23 Sept 2000, Schimpf296 (DUL); about 10 plants in flower, petals deep blue, same location as Schimpf 296, 1 Jul 2001, Schimpf 310 (DUL, MIN). WISCONSIN. DOUGLAS CO.: two plants, petals medium blue, in ditch on N side of Winter St. 150 m E of Susquehanna Ave., Superior, NE X SE % Sec. 16, T49N R14W, 2 Jul 2001, Schimpf 312 (DUL, WIS). Galium mollugo L. (Rubiaceae). White Bedstraw. Previous knowledge. Galium mollugo is a stoloniferous herbaceous perennial native to Eurasia (Tutin et al. 1976). In eastern North America, G. mollugo is widely naturalized (Gleason & Cronquist 1991), in grassy or disturbed places (Voss 1996). The collection site closest to Minnesota is in Iron Co., Wisconsin (Wisconsin Vascular Plants & Lichens, 2001). Significance. A population of G. mollugo was found in Duluth, Minnesota, apparently the first report of this species in the state. These plants were common among tall forbs and grasses, sometimes under light shade, in well-drained ground. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: between Lakewalk and railroad from 25th to 26th Aves. E, Duluth, SE X SW X Sec. 13, T50N R14W, 19 July 2000, Schimpf 284 (DUL, MIN). Polygonum sachalinense F. Schmidt (Polygonaceae). Giant Knotweed. Previous knowledge. Polygonum sachalinense is a giant rhizomatous herbaceous perennial native to northern Japan and islands north of there (Ohwi 1965). Many botanists, particularly those outside of North America, treat it in the genus Fallopia or Reynoutria. Plants have escaped from cultivation in most northeastern states, as well as California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, and adjoining Canadian provinces (USDA 2001, Scoggan 1978). The species is often confused with the similar P cuspidatum Sieb. & Zucc., and both have noxious weed status in California, Oregon, and Washington. The species is documented for La Crosse, Ashland (this the nearest site to Duluth), and Iron Counties, Wisconsin (Wisconsin Vascular Plants & Lichens 2001). Significance. P sachalinense has been found in Duluth, Minnesota, apparently the first collections for the state. There were several large colonies scattered over many kin, which probably existed for quite some time but were overlooked on the assumption that they represented P cuspidatum, previously known in the area. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: over 3 m tall, stem diameter up to 4 cm, just below Skyline Parkway, Duluth, SW X Sec. 6, T49N R14W, 27 Aug 2000, Schimpf 289 (DUL, MIN); up to 2.5 m tall, stem diameter up to 3.5 cm, SW of intersection Gold St. & Bayview Ave., Duluth, SE SW Sec. 11, T50N R14W, 2 Sept 2000, Schimpf 291 (DUL, MIN). Draba verna L. (Brassicaceae). Spring Whitlow-grass. Previous Knowledge. Draba verna is a diminutive winter annual native to Eurasia. It is widely naturalized in temperate North America, with the main gap in its known distribution being the central plains states (USDA 2001) and
Page 93 ï~~2003 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST 93 provinces (Scoggan 1978). The species has been collected from Douglas County, extreme northwestern Wisconsin (Wisconsin Vascular Plants & Lichens 2001). Significance. A collection in Duluth, Minnesota is apparently the first for the state. Although the plants were numerous, this population was extremely localized, so its continued existence is far from certain. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: in flower and fruit, common in gravel parking space of one campsite, but not found elsewhere in the campground, SW 4 SE 4 Sec. 13, T49N R15W, 16 May 2001, Schimpf 301 (DUL, MIN). Astragalus cicer L. (Fabacaeae). Chickpea Milkvetch. Previous Knowledge. Astragalus cicer is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial native to Europe (Tutin et al. 1968). It is planted for forage on the western Great Plains and westward in North America, growing best on moist, coarse soils and occasionally escaping (Stubbendieck & Conard 1989, Scoggan 1978). Isely (1998) felt that its occurrence outside of cultivation was greatly underreported. In the Great Lakes region, it has been reported outside of cultivation from Ingham County in lower Michigan (Voss 1985) and Taylor County in north-central Wisconsin (Wisconsin Vascular Plants & Lichens 2001). Significance. A. cicer was growing at a recently inactivated iron mine in northeastern Minnesota. This is apparently the first report for the state. I infer that the species was deliberately introduced for stabilizing the crushed waste rock, the surface of which has the texture of very coarse sand. The plants, robust and fruiting abundantly, were common flanking haul roads where they intersected the highway, but the species did not extend south along the highway. MINNESOTA. ST. LOUIS CO.: in flower and fruit, level ground on both sides of roads at south edge of mine site along highway 666, N of Hoyt Lakes, SE 4 SE 4 Sec. 20, T59N R14W, 31 Jul 2001, Schimpf 319 (DUL, MIN). Salsola collina Pallas (Chenopodiacaeae). Slender Russian-thistle. Previous Knowledge. Salsola collina is an annual, native from extreme southeastern Europe to central Asia (Mosyakin 1996). It can be distinguished from S. tragus L. by its dominant vertical main stem, denser infructescence with appressed imbricate bracts, and lack of prominent wings on the fruiting perianth (Mosyakin 1996). S. collina has been reported for all states that border Wisconsin (USDA 2001) and its occurrence in Wisconsin is not surprising. Significance. S. collina was found along a rail siding at the W edge of Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, apparently the first report for the state. Stiff dry fruiting plants were rooted in late September near pliable green flowering individuals, the bracts of which were somewhat less appressed. The species was highly localized along this stretch of railroad, in a year in which it was very difficult for me to find any Salsola in the region. WISCONSIN. CHIPPEWA CO.: a few dozen plants in sand, between asphalt parking lot of business cooperative and rail siding, NE 4 Sec. 12, T28N R9W, 23 Sept 2001, Schimpf 321 (DUL, WIS).
Page 94 ï~~94 THE MICHIGAN BOTANIST Vol. 42 LITERATURE CITED Cullen, J., et al., eds. 2000. The European Garden Flora, Vol. VI, Dicotyledons (Part IV). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. xv + 739 pp. Davis, P. H., J. Cullen, & M. J. E. Coode, eds. 1965. Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands, Vol. 1. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, Scotland. 567 pp. Everett, T. H. 1982. The New York Botanical Garden Illustrated Encyclopedia of Horticulture, Vol. 10, Ste-Zy. Garland Publishing, New York. xx + 377 pp. Gleason, H. A., & A. Cronquist. 1991. Manual of Vascular Plants of the Northeastern United States and Adjacent Canada, 2nd ed. New York Botanical Garden, New York. lxxv + 910 pp. Isely, D. 1998. Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States (Exclusive of Alaska and Hawaii). Monte L. Bean Museum Press, Provo, Utah. xi + 1007 pp. McGregor, R. L. 1984. Camelina rumelica, another weedy mustard established in North America. Phytologia 55: 227-228. Mosyakin, S. L. 1996. A taxonomic synopsis of the genus Salsola (Chenopodiaceae) in North America. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 83: 387-395. Ohwi, J. 1965. Flora of Japan. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. ix + 1067 pp. Rollins, R. C. 1993. The Cruciferae of Continental North America. Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA. xvi + 976 pp. Scoggan, H. J. 1978. The Flora of Canada, Part 3-Dicotyledoneae (Saururaceae to Violaceae). National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ottawa, Canada. 568 pp. Stubbendieck, J. L., & E. C. Conard. 1989. Common Legumes of the Great Plains: an Illustrated Guide. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE. xxi + 330 pp. Tutin, T. G., et al., eds. 1968. Flora Europaea, Vol. 2, Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. xxvii + 455 pp. Tutin, T. G., et al., eds. 1972. Flora Europaea, Vol. 3, Diapensiaceae to Myoporaceae. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. xxix + 370 pp. Tutin, T. G., et al., eds. 1976. Flora Europaea, Vol. 4, Plantaginaceae to Compositae (and Rubiaceae). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England. xxix + 505 pp. USDA, NRCS. 2001. The PLANTS database. http://plants.usda.gov/plants/, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA. Accessed 28 September 2001. Voss, E. G. 1985. Michigan Flora Part II (Saururaceae-Cornaceae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 59 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 724 pp. Voss, E. G. 1996. Michigan Flora Part III (Pyrolaceae-Compositae). Cranbrook Institute of Science Bulletin 61 and University of Michigan Herbarium. xix + 622 pp. Wisconsin Vascular Plants & Lichens. www.botany.wisc.edu/wisflora Accessed 28 September 2001. David J. Schimpf Olga Lakela Herbarium Department of Biology University of Minnesota Duluth, MN 55812-3003